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Sample records for zero-detuning resonant sideband

  1. Nanosecond-pulse-controlled higher-order sideband comb in a GaAs optomechanical disk resonator in the non-perturbative regime

    SciT

    Xiong, Hao, E-mail: haoxiong1217@gmail.com; Si, Liu-Gang, E-mail: siliugang@gmail.com; Lü, Xin-You

    2014-10-15

    We propose an interesting scheme for tunable high-order sideband comb generation by utilizing ultrastrong optomechanical interaction in a GaAs optomechanical disk resonator beyond the perturbative approximation. We analyze the nonlinear nature of the optomechanical interaction, and give a full description of the non-perturbative effects. It is shown, within the non-perturbative regime, that high-order sideband comb with large intensities can be realized and controlled in a GaAs optomechanical disk resonator with experimentally achievable system parameters, and the non-perturbative regime leads to rich and nontrivial behavior.

  2. Absolute-length determination of a long-baseline Fabry-Perot cavity by means of resonating modulation sidebands.

    PubMed

    Araya, A; Telada, S; Tochikubo, K; Taniguchi, S; Takahashi, R; Kawabe, K; Tatsumi, D; Yamazaki, T; Kawamura, S; Miyoki, S; Moriwaki, S; Musha, M; Nagano, S; Fujimoto, M K; Horikoshi, K; Mio, N; Naito, Y; Takamori, A; Yamamoto, K

    1999-05-01

    A new method has been demonstrated for absolute-length measurements of a long-baseline Fabry-Perot cavity by use of phase-modulated light. This method is based on determination of a free spectral range (FSR) of the cavity from the frequency difference between a carrier and phase-modulation sidebands, both of which resonate in the cavity. Sensitive response of the Fabry-Perot cavity near resonant frequencies ensures accurate determination of the FSR and thus of the absolute length of the cavity. This method was applied to a 300-m Fabry-Perot cavity of the TAMA gravitational wave detector that is being developed at the National Astronomical Observatory, Tokyo. With a modulation frequency of approximately 12 MHz, we successfully determined the absolute cavity length with resolution of 1 microm (3 x 10(-9) in strain) and observed local ground strain variations of 6 x 10(-8).

  3. Optical Sidebands Multiplier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Yu, Nan

    2010-01-01

    Optical sidebands have been generated with relative frequency tens to hundreds of GHz by using optical sidebands that are generated in a cascade process in high-quality optical resonators with Kerr nonlinearity, such as whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators. For this purpose, the WGM resonator needs to be optically pumped at two frequencies matching its resonances. These two optical components can be one or several free spectral ranges (FSRs), equal to approximately 12 GHz, in this example, apart from each other, and can be easily derived from a monochromatic pump with an ordinary EOM (electro-optic modulation) operating at half the FSR frequency. With sufficient nonlinearity, an optical cascade process will convert the two pump frequencies into a comb-like structure extending many FSRs around the carrier frequency. This has a demonstratively efficient frequency conversion of this type with only a few milliwatt optical pump power. The concept of using Kerr nonlinearity in a resonator for non-degenerate wave mixing has been discussed before, but it was a common belief that this was a weak process requiring very high peak powers to be observable. It was not thought possible for this approach to compete with electro-optical modulators in CW applications, especially those at lower optical powers. By using the high-Q WGM resonators, the effective Kerr nonlinearity can be made so high that, using even weak seeding bands available from a conventional EOM, one can effectively multiply the optical sidebands, extending them into an otherwise inaccessible frequency range.

  4. The Free Electron Laser Sideband Instability Reconsidered.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-12

    sidebands. The stability is determined by the sign of df /dtl i.e., the relative population of oscillation quanta Wwb, bounce frequency around resonance. The...wigglers. (e) The growth is proportional to [df(J)/d(b(J)], the relative population in oscillation quanta around resonance, in agreement with the quantum...signal and the sideband. The total vector potential is given by A eie )A weik ) z( eiey )Arei(krZ- t) (exiey)A sei(ksz-& st) + CC (2) where the subscripts w

  5. Non-Markovian optimal sideband cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triana, Johan F.; Pachon, Leonardo A.

    2018-04-01

    Optimal control theory is applied to sideband cooling of nano-mechanical resonators. The formulation described here makes use of exact results derived by means of the path-integral approach of quantum dynamics, so that no approximation is invoked. It is demonstrated that the intricate interplay between time-dependent fields and structured thermal bath may lead to improve results of the sideband cooling by an order of magnitude. Cooling is quantified by means of the mean number of phonons of the mechanical modes as well as by the von Neumann entropy. Potencial extension to non-linear systems, by means of semiclassical methods, is briefly discussed.

  6. Optical sideband generation up to room temperature with mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Houver, S; Cavalié, P; St-Jean, M Renaudat; Amanti, M I; Sirtori, C; Li, L H; Davies, A G; Linfield, E H; Pereira, T A S; Lebreton, A; Tignon, J; Dhillon, S S

    2015-02-23

    Mid-infrared (MIR) sideband generation on a near infrared (NIR) optical carrier is demonstrated within a quantum cascade laser (QCL). By employing an externally injected NIR beam, E(NIR), that is resonant with the interband transitions of the quantum wells in the QCL, the nonlinear susceptibility is enhanced, leading to both frequency mixing and sideband generation. A GaAs-based MIR QCL (E(QCL) = 135 meV) with an aluminum-reinforced waveguide was utilized to overlap the NIR and MIR modes with the optical nonlinearity of the active region. The resulting difference sideband (E(NIR) - E(QCL)) shows a resonant behavior as a function of NIR pump wavelength and a maximum second order nonlinear susceptibility, χ((2)), of ~1 nm/V was obtained. Further, the sideband intensity showed little dependence with the operating temperature of the QCL, allowing sideband generation to be realized at room temperature.

  7. Impact of resistive MHD plasma response on perturbation field sidebands

    DOE PAGES

    Orlov, D. M.; Evans, T. E.; Moyer, R. A.; ...

    2016-06-03

    Here, single fluid linear simulations of a KSTAR RMP ELM suppressed discharge with the M3D-C 1 resistive magnetohydrodynamic code have been performed for the first time. The simulations show that the application of the n = 1 perturbation using the KSTAR in-vessel control coils (IVCC), which apply modest levels of n = 3 sidebands (~20% of the n = 1), leads to levels of n = 3 sideband that are comparable to the n = 1 when plasma response is included. This is due to the reduced level of screening of the rational-surface-resonant n = 3 component relative to themore » rational-surface-resonant n = 1 component. The n = 3 sidebands could play a similar role in ELM suppression on KSTAR as the toroidal sidebands (n = 1, 2, 4) in DIII-D n = 3 ELM suppression with missing I-coil segments. This result may help to explain the uniqueness of ELM suppression with n = 1 perturbations in KSTAR since the effective perturbation is a mixed n = 1/n = 3 perturbation similar to n = 3 ELM suppression in DIII-D.« less

  8. Single-photon-driven high-order sideband transitions in an ultrastrongly coupled circuit-quantum-electrodynamics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen; Wang, Yimin; Li, Tiefu; Tian, Lin; Qiu, Yueyin; Inomata, Kunihiro; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Han, Siyuan; Nori, Franco; Tsai, J. S.; You, J. Q.

    2017-07-01

    We report the experimental observation of high-order sideband transitions at the single-photon level in a quantum circuit system of a flux qubit ultrastrongly coupled to a coplanar waveguide resonator. With the coupling strength reaching 10% of the resonator's fundamental frequency, we obtain clear signatures of higher order red-sideband and first-order blue-sideband transitions, which are mainly due to the ultrastrong Rabi coupling. Our observation advances the understanding of ultrastrongly coupled systems and paves the way to study high-order processes in the quantum Rabi model at the single-photon level.

  9. Optical pulse synthesis using brillouin selective sideband amplification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. Steve (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Techniques for producing optical pulses based on Brillouin selective sideband amplification by using a common modulation control signal to modulate both a signal beam to produce multiple sideband signals and a single pump beam to produce multiple pump beams.

  10. Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state.

    PubMed

    Teufel, J D; Donner, T; Li, Dale; Harlow, J W; Allman, M S; Cicak, K; Sirois, A J; Whittaker, J D; Lehnert, K W; Simmonds, R W

    2011-07-06

    The advent of laser cooling techniques revolutionized the study of many atomic-scale systems, fuelling progress towards quantum computing with trapped ions and generating new states of matter with Bose-Einstein condensates. Analogous cooling techniques can provide a general and flexible method of preparing macroscopic objects in their motional ground state. Cavity optomechanical or electromechanical systems achieve sideband cooling through the strong interaction between light and motion. However, entering the quantum regime--in which a system has less than a single quantum of motion--has been difficult because sideband cooling has not sufficiently overwhelmed the coupling of low-frequency mechanical systems to their hot environments. Here we demonstrate sideband cooling of an approximately 10-MHz micromechanical oscillator to the quantum ground state. This achievement required a large electromechanical interaction, which was obtained by embedding a micromechanical membrane into a superconducting microwave resonant circuit. To verify the cooling of the membrane motion to a phonon occupation of 0.34 ± 0.05 phonons, we perform a near-Heisenberg-limited position measurement within (5.1 ± 0.4)h/2π, where h is Planck's constant. Furthermore, our device exhibits strong coupling, allowing coherent exchange of microwave photons and mechanical phonons. Simultaneously achieving strong coupling, ground state preparation and efficient measurement sets the stage for rapid advances in the control and detection of non-classical states of motion, possibly even testing quantum theory itself in the unexplored region of larger size and mass. Because mechanical oscillators can couple to light of any frequency, they could also serve as a unique intermediary for transferring quantum information between microwave and optical domains.

  11. Mirror-assisted coherent backscattering from the Mollow sidebands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piovella, N.; Teixeira, R. Celistrino; Kaiser, R.; Courteille, Ph. W.; Bachelard, R.

    2017-11-01

    In front of a mirror, the radiation of weakly driven large disordered clouds presents an interference fringe in the backward direction, on top of an incoherent background. Although strongly driven atoms usually present little coherent scattering, we show here that the mirror-assisted version can produce high contrast fringes, for arbitrarily high saturation parameters. The contrast of the fringes oscillates with the Rabi frequency of the atomic transition and the distance between the mirror and the atoms, due to the coherent interference between the carrier and the Mollow sidebands of the saturated resonant fluorescence spectrum emitted by the atoms. The setup thus represents a powerful platform to study the spectral properties of ensembles of correlated scatterers.

  12. Si3N4 Optomechanical Crystals in the Resolved-sideband Regime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-27

    between cavity photons and phonons was used to demon- strate electromagnetically induced transparency ( EIT ) mediated by a mechanical resonance; radiation...wavelength range. The sideband resolution achieved was sufficient for observing, at room temperature and atmos- pheric pressure, EIT mediated by a 4 GHz...sufficient for the observation of optomechanical EIT at room tempera- ture and atmospheric pressure. This effect corresponds to the creation of a narrow

  13. Brillouin Selective Sideband Amplification of Microwave Photonic Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, S.

    1997-01-01

    We introduce a powerful Brillouin selective sideband amplification technique and demonstrate its application for achieving gain in photonix signal up- and down- conversions in microwave photonic systems.

  14. Side-band mutual interactions in the magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D. C. D.; Helliwell, R. A.; Bell, T. F.

    1980-01-01

    Sideband mutual interactions between VLF waves in the magnetosphere are investigated. Results of an experimental program involving the generation of sidebands by means of frequency shift keying are presented which indicate that the energetic electrons in the magnetosphere can interact only with sidebands generated by signals with short modulation periods. Using the value of the memory time during which electrons interact with the waves implied by the above result, it is estimated that the length of the electron interaction region in the magnetosphere is between 4000 and 2000 km. Sideband interactions are found to be similar to those between constant-frequency signals, exhibiting suppression and energy coupling. Results from a second sideband transmitting program show that for most cases the coherence bandwidth of sidebands is about 50 Hz. Sideband mutual interactions are then explained by the overlap of the ranges of the parallel velocity of the electrons which the sidebands organize, and the wave intensity in the interaction region is estimated to be 2.5-10 milli-gamma, in agreement with satellite measurements.

  15. Derivation of sideband gain ratio for Herschel/HIFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kester, Do; Higgins, Ronan; Teyssier, David

    2017-03-01

    Context. Heterodyne mixers are commonly used for high-resolution spectroscopy at radio telescopes. When used as a double sideband system, the accurate flux calibration of spectral lines acquired by those detectors is highly dependent on the system gains in the respective mixer sidebands via the so-called sideband gain ratio (SBR). As such, the SBR was one of the main contributors to the calibration uncertainty budget of the Herschel/HIFI instrument. Aims: We want to determine the HIFI instrument sideband gain ratio for all bands on a fine frequency grid and within an accuracy of a few percent. Methods: We introduce a novel technique involving in-orbit HIFI data that is bootstrapped onto standard methods involving laboratory data measurements of the SBR. We deconvolved the astronomical data to provide a proxy of the expected signal at every frequency channel, and extracted the sideband gain ratios from the residuals of that process. Results: We determine the HIFI sideband gain ratio to an accuracy varying between 1 and 4%, with degraded accuracy in higher frequency ranges, and at places where the reliability of the technique is lower. These figures were incorporated into the HIFI data processing pipeline and improved the overall flux uncertainty of the legacy data from this instrument. Conclusions: We demonstrate that a modified sideband deconvolution algorithm, using astronomical data in combination with gas cell measurements, can be used to generate an accurate and fine-granularity picture of the sideband gain ratio behaviour of a heterodyne receiver. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  16. Laser frequency stabilization and control through offset sideband locking to optical cavities.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, J I; Numata, K; Livas, J

    2008-09-29

    We describe a class of techniques whereby a laser frequency can be stabilized to a fixed optical cavity resonance with an adjustable offset, providing a wide tuning range for the central frequency. These techniques require only minor modifications to the standard Pound-Drever-Hall locking techniques and have the advantage of not altering the intrinsic stability of the frequency reference. We discuss the expected performance and limitations of these techniques and present a laboratory investigation in which both the sideband techniques and the standard, on-tunable Pound-Drever- Hall technique reached the 100Hz/square root(Hz) level.

  17. Single-photon driven high-order sideband transitions in an ultrastrongly coupled circuit quantum electrodynamics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tiefu; Chen, Zhen; Wang, Yimin; Tian, Lin; Qiu, Yueyin; Inomata, Kunihiro; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Han, Siyuan; Nori, Franco; Tsai, Jaw-Shen; You, J. Q.

    We report the experimental observation of high-order sideband transitions at the single-photon level in a quantum circuit system of a flux qubit ultrastrongly coupled to a coplanar waveguide resonator. With the coupling strength reaching 10 % of the resonator's fundamental frequency, we obtain clear signatures of higher-order red- and first-order blue-sideband transitions. These transitions are owing to the ultrastrong Rabi coupling, instead of the driving power. Our observation advances the understanding of ultrastrongly-coupled systems and paves the way to study high-order processes in the quantum Rabi model. This work is supported by the National Basic Research Program of China and the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  18. Methods and devices based on brillouin selective sideband amplification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. Steve (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Opto-electronic devices and techniques using Brillouin scattering to select a sideband in a modulated optical carrier signal for amplification. Two lasers respectively provide a carrier signal beam and a Brillouin pump beam which are fed into an Brillouin optical medium in opposite directions. The relative frequency separation between the lasers is adjusted to align the frequency of the backscattered Brillouin signal with a desired sideband in the carrier signal to effect a Brillouin gain on the sideband. This effect can be used to implement photonic RF signal mixing and conversion with gain, conversion from phase modulation to amplitude modulation, photonic RF frequency multiplication, optical and RF pulse generation and manipulation, and frequency-locking of lasers.

  19. Optical vector network analyzer based on double-sideband modulation.

    PubMed

    Jun, Wen; Wang, Ling; Yang, Chengwu; Li, Ming; Zhu, Ning Hua; Guo, Jinjin; Xiong, Liangming; Li, Wei

    2017-11-01

    We report an optical vector network analyzer (OVNA) based on double-sideband (DSB) modulation using a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator. The device under test (DUT) is measured twice with different modulation schemes. By post-processing the measurement results, the response of the DUT can be obtained accurately. Since DSB modulation is used in our approach, the measurement range is doubled compared with conventional single-sideband (SSB) modulation-based OVNA. Moreover, the measurement accuracy is improved by eliminating the even-order sidebands. The key advantage of the proposed scheme is that the measurement of a DUT with bandpass response can also be simply realized, which is a big challenge for the SSB-based OVNA. The proposed method is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated.

  20. Sideband analysis and seismic detection in a large ring laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedman, G. E.; Li, Z.; Bilger, H. R.

    1995-08-01

    A ring laser unlocked by the Earth's Sagnac effect has attained a frequency resolution of 1 part in 3 \\times 1021 and a rotational resolution of 300 prad. We discuss both theoretically and experimentally the sideband structure of the Earth rotation-induced spectral line induced in the microhertz-hertz region by frequency modulation associated with extra mechanical motion, such as seismic events. The relative sideband height is an absolute measure of the rotational amplitude of that Fourier component. An initial analysis is given of the ring laser record from the Arthur's Pass-Coleridge seismic event of 18 June 1994.

  1. Sideband Spectroscopy and Dispersion Measurement in Microcavities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-07

    high coherence, Brillouin microcavity laser on silicon ,” Opt. Express 20, 20170–20180, (2012). 12. T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y...ultrahigh-Q wedge- resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photon. 6, 369–373 (2012). 11. J. Li, H. Lee, T. Chen, and K. J. Vahala, “Characterization of a ...microresonators,” Nat. Photon. 6, 480–487 (2012). 13. I. Grudinin, A . Matsko, and L. Maleki, “ Brillouin lasing with a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys

  2. Understanding photon sideband statistics and correlation for determining phonon coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ding; Yin, Xiaobo; Li, Baowen

    2018-01-01

    Generating and detecting coherent high-frequency heat-carrying phonons have been topics of great interest in recent years. Although there have been successful attempts in generating and observing coherent phonons, rigorous techniques to characterize and detect phonon coherence in a crystalline material have been lagging compared to what has been achieved for photons. One main challenge is a lack of detailed understanding of how detection signals for phonons can be related to coherence. The quantum theory of photoelectric detection has greatly advanced the ability to characterize photon coherence in the past century, and a similar theory for phonon detection is necessary. Here, we reexamine the optical sideband fluorescence technique that has been used to detect high-frequency phonons in materials with optically active defects. We propose a quantum theory of phonon detection using the sideband technique and found that there are distinct differences in sideband counting statistics between thermal and coherent phonons. We further propose a second-order correlation function unique to sideband signals that allows for a rigorous distinction between thermal and coherent phonons. Our theory is relevant to a correlation measurement with nontrivial response functions at the quantum level and can potentially bridge the gap of experimentally determining phonon coherence to be on par with that of photons.

  3. Sideband characterization and atmospheric observations with various 340 GHz heterodyne receivers

    SciT

    Renker, Matthias, E-mail: renker@iap.unibe.ch; Murk, Axel; Rea, Simon P.

    2014-08-15

    This paper describes sideband response measurements and atmospheric observations with a double sideband and two Single Sideband (SSB) receiver prototypes developed for the multi-beam limb sounder instrument stratosphere-troposphere exchange and climate monitor radiometer. We first show an advanced Fourier-Transform Spectroscopy (FTS) method for sideband response and spurious signal characterization. We then present sideband response measurements of the different prototype receivers and we compare the results of the SSB receivers with sideband measurements by injecting a continuous wave signal into the upper and lower sidebands. The receivers were integrated into a total-power radiometer and atmospheric observations were carried out. The observedmore » spectra were compared to forward model spectra to conclude on the sideband characteristics of the different receivers. The two sideband characterization methods show a high degree of agreement for both SSB receivers with various local oscillator settings. The measured sideband response was used to correct the forward model simulations. This improves the agreement with the atmospheric observations and explains spectral features caused by an unbalanced sideband response. The FTS method also allows to quantify the influence of spurious harmonic responses of the receiver.« less

  4. Chaotic Electron Motion Caused by Sidebands in Free Electron Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-27

    sideband. The total vector potential is then, A (z,t) = (1) •w (e~ )ri(krZ-Wr t) l(ksZ-Wst)] -c’-[(ex-iey)AweZ% _+V-(ex+iey)Are ikrzwr _) (ex+iey)Ase... light c, ignoring the small correction of order w 2/W 2 from the dielectric contribution of the beam. Electrostatic contributions to the fields are...mass to me and the vector potentials according to ai=IeIAi/mec2 the dimensionless Hamiltonian describing the electron motion in the fields of Eq. (1

  5. Dynamic single sideband modulation for realizing parametric loudspeaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Shinichi; Kamakura, Tomoo

    2008-06-01

    A parametric loudspeaker, that presents remarkably narrow directivity compared with a conventional loudspeaker, is newly produced and examined. To work the loudspeaker optimally, we prototyped digitally a single sideband modulator based on the Weaver method and appropriate signal processing. The processing techniques are to change the carrier amplitude dynamically depending on the envelope of audio signals, and then to operate the square root or fourth root to the carrier amplitude for improving input-output acoustic linearity. The usefulness of the present modulation scheme has been verified experimentally.

  6. 76 FR 72885 - FM Asymmetric Sideband Operation and Associated Technical Studies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Sideband Operation and Associated Technical Studies AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... Asymmetric Sideband Operation and Associated Technical Studies, MM Docket No. 99-325, Public Notice, DA 11-1832 (MB rel. Nov. 1, 2011). The iBiquity and NPR request and the iBiquity and NPR technical studies...

  7. Investigation of Sideband Index Response to Prototype Gear Tooth Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the ability of gear condition indicators (CI) to detect contact fatigue damage on spiral bevel gear teeth. Tests were performed in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rig on eight prototype gear sets (pinion/gear). Damage was initiated and progressed on the gear and pinion teeth. Vibration data was measured during damage progression at varying torque values while varying damage modes to the gear teeth were observed and documented with inspection photos. Sideband indexes (SI) and root mean square (RMS) CIs were calculated from the time synchronous averaged vibration data. Results found that both CIs respond differently to varying torque levels, damage levels and damage modes

  8. Simultaneous Faraday filtering of the Mollow triplet sidebands with the Cs-D1 clock transition.

    PubMed

    Portalupi, Simone Luca; Widmann, Matthias; Nawrath, Cornelius; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2016-11-25

    Hybrid quantum systems integrating semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and atomic vapours become important building blocks for scalable quantum networks due to the complementary strengths of individual parts. QDs provide on-demand single-photon emission with near-unity indistinguishability comprising unprecedented brightness-while atomic vapour systems provide ultra-precise frequency standards and promise long coherence times for the storage of qubits. Spectral filtering is one of the key components for the successful link between QD photons and atoms. Here we present a tailored Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter based on the caesium-D 1 transition for interfacing it with a resonantly pumped QD. The presented Faraday filter enables a narrow-bandwidth (Δω=2π × 1 GHz) simultaneous filtering of both Mollow triplet sidebands. This result opens the way to use QDs as sources of single as well as cascaded photons in photonic quantum networks aligned to the primary frequency standard of the caesium clock transition.

  9. Large dynamic range optical vector analyzer based on optical single-sideband modulation and Hilbert transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Min; Pan, Shilong; Zhao, Yongjiu

    2016-07-01

    A large dynamic range optical vector analyzer (OVA) based on optical single-sideband modulation is proposed and demonstrated. By dividing the optical signal after optical device under test into two paths, reversing the phase of one swept sideband using a Hilbert transformer in one path, and detecting the two signals from the two paths with a balanced photodetector, the measurement errors induced by the residual -1st-order sideband and the high-order sidebands can be eliminated and the dynamic range of the measurement is increased. In a proof-of-concept experiment, the stimulated Brillouin scattering and a fiber Bragg grating are measured by OVAs with and without the Hilbert transform and balanced photodetection. Results show that about 40-dB improvement in the measurement dynamic range is realized by the proposed OVA.

  10. Efficient Raman sideband cooling of trapped ions to their motional ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, H.; Deng, K.; Xu, Z. T.; Yuan, W. H.; Zhang, J.; Lu, Z. H.

    2017-07-01

    Efficient cooling of trapped ions is a prerequisite for various applications of the ions in precision spectroscopy, quantum information, and coherence control. Raman sideband cooling is an effective method to cool the ions to their motional ground state. We investigate both numerically and experimentally the optimization of Raman sideband cooling strategies and propose an efficient one, which can simplify the experimental setup as well as reduce the number of cooling pulses. Several cooling schemes are tested and compared through numerical simulations. The simulation result shows that the fixed-width pulses and varied-width pulses have almost the same efficiency for both the first-order and the second-order Raman sideband cooling. The optimized strategy is verified experimentally. A single 25Mg+ ion is trapped in a linear Paul trap and Raman sideband cooled, and the achieved average vibrational quantum numbers under different cooling strategies are evaluated. A good agreement between the experimental result and the simulation result is obtained.

  11. Wideband tunable laser phase noise reduction using single sideband modulation in an electro-optical feed-forward scheme.

    PubMed

    Aflatouni, Firooz; Hashemi, Hossein

    2012-01-15

    A wideband laser phase noise reduction scheme is introduced where the optical field of a laser is single sideband modulated with an electrical signal containing the discriminated phase noise of the laser. The proof-of-concept experiments on a commercially available 1549 nm distributed feedback laser show linewidth reduction from 7.5 MHz to 1.8 kHz without using large optical cavity resonators. This feed-forward scheme performs wideband phase noise cancellation independent of the light source and, as such, it is compatible with the original laser source tunability without requiring tunable optical components. By placing the proposed phase noise reduction system after a commercial tunable laser, a tunable coherent light source with kilohertz linewidth over a tuning range of 1530-1570 nm is demonstrated.

  12. Performance Evaluation of Single Sideband Radio over Fiber System through Modulation Index Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaogang; Hu, Xizhen; Huang, Dexiu

    2014-09-01

    The transmission performance of single sideband (SSB) radio over fiber (RoF) system is evaluated through tuning the modulation index of Mach-Zehnder modulator, two different data modulation schemes and the influence of fiber dispersion are considered. The quantitative simulation results validate that there exist an optimum modulation index, and the system performance could be improved if the data signal is modulated on only optical carrier or sidebands.

  13. Compact transmission system using single-sideband modulation of light for quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Duraffourg, L; Merolla, J M; Goedgebuer, J P; Mazurenko, Y; Rhodes, W T

    2001-09-15

    We report a new transmission that can be used for quantum key distribution. The system uses single-sideband-modulated light in an implementation of the BB84 quantum cryptography protocol. The system is formed by two integrated unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers and is based on interference between phase-modulated sidebands in the spectral domain. Experiments show that high interference visibility can be obtained.

  14. Simultaneous transmission of wired and wireless signals based on double sideband carrier suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitew, Mekuanint Agegnehu; Shiu, Run-Kai; Peng, Peng-Chun; Wang, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Yan-Ming

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated simultaneous transmission of wired and wireless signals based on double sideband optical carrier suppression. By properly adjusting the bias point of the dual-output mach-zehnder modulator (MZM), a central carrier in one output port and a pair of first-order sidebands in another output port are generated. The pair of first-order sidebands are fed into a second MZM to generate second-order order sidebands. A wired signal is embedded on the central carrier while a wireless signal is embedded on the second-order sidebands. Unlike other schemes, we did not use optical filter to separate the carrier from the optical sidebands. The measured bit error rate (BER) and eye-diagrams after a 25 km single-mode-fiber (SMF) transmission proved that the proposed scheme is successful for both wired and wireless signals transmission. Moreover, the power penalty at the BER of 10-9 is 0.3 and 0.7 dB for wired and wireless signals, respectively.

  15. Accurate optical vector network analyzer based on optical single-sideband modulation and balanced photodetection.

    PubMed

    Xue, Min; Pan, Shilong; Zhao, Yongjiu

    2015-02-15

    A novel optical vector network analyzer (OVNA) based on optical single-sideband (OSSB) modulation and balanced photodetection is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, which can eliminate the measurement error induced by the high-order sidebands in the OSSB signal. According to the analytical model of the conventional OSSB-based OVNA, if the optical carrier in the OSSB signal is fully suppressed, the measurement result is exactly the high-order-sideband-induced measurement error. By splitting the OSSB signal after the optical device-under-test (ODUT) into two paths, removing the optical carrier in one path, and then detecting the two signals in the two paths using a balanced photodetector (BPD), high-order-sideband-induced measurement error can be ideally eliminated. As a result, accurate responses of the ODUT can be achieved without complex post-signal processing. A proof-of-concept experiment is carried out. The magnitude and phase responses of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) measured by the proposed OVNA with different modulation indices are superimposed, showing that the high-order-sideband-induced measurement error is effectively removed.

  16. Bidirectional fiber-IVLLC and fiber-wireless convergence system with two orthogonally polarized optical sidebands.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hai-Han; Wu, Hsiao-Wen; Li, Chung-Yi; Ho, Chun-Ming; Yang, Zih-Yi; Cheng, Ming-Te; Lu, Chang-Kai

    2017-05-01

    A bidirectional fiber-invisible laser light communication (IVLLC) and fiber-wireless convergence system with two orthogonally polarized optical sidebands for hybrid cable television (CATV)/millimeter-wave (MMW)/baseband (BB) signal transmission is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Two optical sidebands generated by a 60-GHz MMW signal are orthogonally polarized and separated into different polarizations. These orthogonally polarized optical sidebands are delivered over a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) transport to effectually reduce the fiber dispersion induced by a 40-km SMF transmission and the distortion caused by the parallel polarized optical sidebands. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to adopt two orthogonally polarized optical sidebands in a bidirectional fiber-IVLLC and fiber-wireless convergence system to reduce fiber dispersion and distortion effectually. Good carrier-to-noise ratio, composite second order, composite triple beat, and bit error rate (BER) are achieved for downlink transmission at a 40-km SMF operation and a 100-m free-space optical (FSO) link/3-m RF wireless transmission. For up-link transmission, good BER performance is acquired over a 40-km SMF transport and a 100-m FSO link. The approach presented in this work signifies the advancements in the convergence of SMF-based backbone and optical/RF wireless-based feeder.

  17. Temperature dependence of the LO phonon sidebands in free exciton emission of GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S. J.; Li, G. Q.; Xiong, S.-J.; Che, C. M.

    2006-04-01

    Temperature-dependent radiative recombination of free excitons involving one or two LO phonons in GaN is investigated in detail. It is found that both phonon sidebands possess asymmetric lineshapes and their energy spacings from the zero-phonon line strongly deviate from the characteristic energy of LO phonons as the temperature increases. Furthermore, the deviation rates of one- and two-phonon sidebands are significantly different. Segall-Mahan [Phys. Rev. 171, 935 (1968)] theory, taking the exciton-photon and exciton-phonon interactions into account, is employed to calculate the sidebands of one or two LO phonons for free excitons in a wide temperature range. Excellent agreement between the theory and experiment is achieved by using only one adjustable parameter, which leads to determination of the effective mass of heavy holes (~0.5m0).

  18. Optical single sideband millimeter-wave signal generation and transmission using 120° hybrid coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Peng, Miao; Zhou, Hui; Chen, Ming; Jiang, Leyong; Tan, Li; Dai, Xiaoyu; Xiang, Yuanjiang

    2018-03-01

    We propose a novel 60 GHz optical single sideband (OSSB) millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal generation scheme using 120° hybrid coupler based on external integrated Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM). The proposed scheme shows that the bit error ratio (BER) performance is improved by suppressing the +2nd-order sideband. Meanwhile, the transmission distance is extended as only the optical +1st-order sideband is modulated by using 5 Gbit/s baseband signal while the carrier is blank, owing to the elimination of walk-off effect suffered from fiber dispersion. The simulation results demonstrated that the eye diagrams of the generated 60 GHz OSSB signal keep open and clear after 100 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF). In addition, the proposed scheme can achieve 2 dB receiver sensitivity improvements than the conventional 90° hybrid coupler when transmitted over 100 km SSMF at a BER of 10-9.

  19. Coherent detection of THz-induced sideband emission from excitons in the nonperturbative regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, K.; Otobe, T.; Mochizuki, T.; Kim, C.; Yoshita, M.; Tanaka, K.; Akiyama, H.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Hirori, H.

    2018-04-01

    Strong interaction of a terahertz (THz) wave with excitons induces nonperturbative optical effects such as Rabi splitting and high-order sideband generation. Here, we investigated coherent properties of THz-induced sideband emissions from GaAs/AlGaAs multiquantum wells. With increasing THz electric field, optical susceptibility of the THz-dressed exciton shows a redshift with spectral broadening and extraordinary phase shift. This implies that the field ionization of the 1 s exciton modifies the THz-dressed exciton in the nonperturbative regime.

  20. Method and means for generation of tunable laser sidebands in the far-infrared region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Herbert M. (Inventor); Farhoomand, Jam (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A method for generating tunable far-infrared radiation is described. The apparatus includes a Schottky-barrier diode which has one side coupled through a conductor to a waveguide that carries a tunable microwave frequency; the diode has an opposite side which is coupled through a radiating whisker to a bias source. Infrared light is directed at the diode, and infrared light with tunable sidebands is radiated by the whisker through an open space to a reflector. The original infrared is separated from a tunable infrared sideband by a polarizing Michelson interferometer.

  1. 47 CFR 73.757 - System specifications for single-sideband (SSB) modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System specifications for single-sideband (SSB... Stations § 73.757 System specifications for single-sideband (SSB) modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service. (a) System parameters—(1) Channel spacing. In a mixed DSB, SSB and digital environment...

  2. 47 CFR 73.756 - System specifications for double-sideband (DBS) modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System specifications for double-sideband (DBS... Stations § 73.756 System specifications for double-sideband (DBS) modulated emissions in the HF... processing. If audio-frequency signal processing is used, the dynamic range of the modulating signal shall be...

  3. Saturation of a toroidal Alfvén eigenmode due to enhanced damping of nonlinear sidebands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todo, Y.; Berk, H. L.; Breizman, B. N.

    2012-09-01

    This paper examines nonlinear magneto-hydrodynamic effects on the energetic particle driven toroidal Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) for lower dissipation coefficients and with higher numerical resolution than in the previous simulations (Todo et al 2010 Nucl. Fusion 50 084016). The investigation is focused on a TAE mode with toroidal mode number n = 4. It is demonstrated that the mechanism of mode saturation involves generation of zonal (n = 0) and higher-n (n ⩾ 8) sidebands, and that the sidebands effectively increase the mode damping rate via continuum damping. The n = 0 sideband includes the zonal flow peaks at the TAE gap locations. It is also found that the n = 0 poloidal flow represents a balance between the nonlinear driving force from the n = 4 components and the equilibrium plasma response to the n = 0 fluctuations. The spatial profile of the n = 8 sideband peaks at the n = 8 Alfvén continuum, indicating enhanced dissipation due to continuum damping.

  4. High-accurate optical vector analysis based on optical single-sideband modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Min; Pan, Shilong

    2016-11-01

    Most of the efforts devoted to the area of optical communications were on the improvement of the optical spectral efficiency. Varies innovative optical devices are thus developed to finely manipulate the optical spectrum. Knowing the spectral responses of these devices, including the magnitude, phase and polarization responses, is of great importance for their fabrication and application. To achieve high-resolution characterization, optical vector analyzers (OVAs) based on optical single-sideband (OSSB) modulation have been proposed and developed. Benefiting from the mature and highresolution microwave technologies, the OSSB-based OVA can potentially achieve a resolution of sub-Hz. However, the accuracy is restricted by the measurement errors induced by the unwanted first-order sideband and the high-order sidebands in the OSSB signal, since electrical-to-optical conversion and optical-to-electrical conversion are essentially required to achieve high-resolution frequency sweeping and extract the magnitude and phase information in the electrical domain. Recently, great efforts have been devoted to improve the accuracy of the OSSB-based OVA. In this paper, the influence of the unwanted-sideband induced measurement errors and techniques for implementing high-accurate OSSB-based OVAs are discussed.

  5. Theory of low-power ultra-broadband terahertz sideband generation in bi-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Crosse, J A; Xu, Xiaodong; Sherwin, Mark S; Liu, R B

    2014-09-24

    In a semiconductor illuminated by a strong terahertz (THz) field, optically excited electron-hole pairs can recombine to emit light in a broad frequency comb evenly spaced by twice the THz frequency. Such high-order THz sideband generation is of interest both as an example of extreme nonlinear optics and also as a method for ultrafast electro-optical modulation. So far, this phenomenon has only been observed with large field strengths (~10 kV cm(-1)), an obstacle for technological applications. Here we predict that bi-layer graphene generates high-order sidebands at much weaker THz fields. We find that a THz field of strength 1 kV cm(-1) can produce a high-sideband spectrum of about 30 THz, 100 times broader than in GaAs. The sidebands are generated despite the absence of classical collisions, with the quantum coherence of the electron-hole pairs enabling recombination. These remarkable features lower the barrier to desktop electro-optical modulation at THz frequencies, facilitating ultrafast optical communications.

  6. Theory of low-power ultra-broadband terahertz sideband generation in bi-layer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Crosse, J. A.; Xu, Xiaodong; Sherwin, Mark S.; Liu, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    In a semiconductor illuminated by a strong terahertz (THz) field, optically excited electron–hole pairs can recombine to emit light in a broad frequency comb evenly spaced by twice the THz frequency. Such high-order THz sideband generation is of interest both as an example of extreme nonlinear optics and also as a method for ultrafast electro-optical modulation. So far, this phenomenon has only been observed with large field strengths (~10 kV cm−1), an obstacle for technological applications. Here we predict that bi-layer graphene generates high-order sidebands at much weaker THz fields. We find that a THz field of strength 1 kV cm−1 can produce a high-sideband spectrum of about 30 THz, 100 times broader than in GaAs. The sidebands are generated despite the absence of classical collisions, with the quantum coherence of the electron–hole pairs enabling recombination. These remarkable features lower the barrier to desktop electro-optical modulation at THz frequencies, facilitating ultrafast optical communications. PMID:25249245

  7. Sideband instability analysis based on a one-dimensional high-gain free electron laser model

    DOE PAGES

    Tsai, Cheng-Ying; Wu, Juhao; Yang, Chuan; ...

    2017-12-18

    When an untapered high-gain free electron laser (FEL) reaches saturation, the exponential growth ceases and the radiation power starts to oscillate about an equilibrium. The FEL radiation power or efficiency can be increased by undulator tapering. For a high-gain tapered FEL, although the power is enhanced after the first saturation, it is known that there is a so-called second saturation where the FEL power growth stops even with a tapered undulator system. The sideband instability is one of the primary reasons leading to this second saturation. In this paper, we provide a quantitative analysis on how the gradient of undulatormore » tapering can mitigate the sideband growth. The study is carried out semianalytically and compared with one-dimensional numerical simulations. The physical parameters are taken from Linac Coherent Light Source-like electron bunch and undulator systems. The sideband field gain and the evolution of the radiation spectra for different gradients of undulator tapering are examined. It is found that a strong undulator tapering (~10 % ) provides effective suppression of the sideband instability in the postsaturation regime.« less

  8. Sideband instability analysis based on a one-dimensional high-gain free electron laser model

    SciT

    Tsai, Cheng-Ying; Wu, Juhao; Yang, Chuan

    When an untapered high-gain free electron laser (FEL) reaches saturation, the exponential growth ceases and the radiation power starts to oscillate about an equilibrium. The FEL radiation power or efficiency can be increased by undulator tapering. For a high-gain tapered FEL, although the power is enhanced after the first saturation, it is known that there is a so-called second saturation where the FEL power growth stops even with a tapered undulator system. The sideband instability is one of the primary reasons leading to this second saturation. In this paper, we provide a quantitative analysis on how the gradient of undulatormore » tapering can mitigate the sideband growth. The study is carried out semianalytically and compared with one-dimensional numerical simulations. The physical parameters are taken from Linac Coherent Light Source-like electron bunch and undulator systems. The sideband field gain and the evolution of the radiation spectra for different gradients of undulator tapering are examined. It is found that a strong undulator tapering (~10 % ) provides effective suppression of the sideband instability in the postsaturation regime.« less

  9. Optical sideband spectroscopy of a single ion in a Penning trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavadia, S.; Stutter, G.; Goodwin, J. F.; Crick, D. R.; Thompson, R. C.; Segal, D. M.

    2014-03-01

    We perform resolved optical sideband spectroscopy on a single 40Ca+ ion in a Penning trap. We probe the electric quadrupole allowed S1/2↔D5/2 transition at 729 nm and observe equally spaced sidebands for the three motional modes. The axial mode, parallel to the trap axis, is a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator, whereas the radial cyclotron and magnetron modes are circular motions perpendicular to the magnetic field. The total energy associated with the magnetron motion is negative, but here we probe only the (positive) kinetic energy. From the equivalent Doppler widths of the sideband spectra corresponding to the three motions we find effective temperatures of 1.1±0.2 mK, 7±3 mK, and 42±8 μK for the axial, modified cyclotron, and magnetron modes, respectively. These should be compared to the cooling limits, estimated using optimal laser parameters, of 0.38 mK, 0.8 mK, and ˜10 μK. In future work we aim to perform resolved-sideband cooling of the ion on the 729-nm transition.

  10. Development of digital sideband separating down-conversion for Yuan-Tseh Lee Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao-Te; Kubo, Derek; Cheng, Jen-Chieh; Kuroda, John; Srinivasan, Ranjani; Ho, Solomon; Guzzino, Kim; Chen, Ming-Tang

    2016-07-01

    This report presents a down-conversion method involving digital sideband separation for the Yuan-Tseh Lee Array (YTLA) to double the processing bandwidth. The receiver consists of a MMIC HEMT LNA front end operating at a wavelength of 3 mm, and sub-harmonic mixers that output signals at intermediate frequencies (IFs) of 2-18 GHz. The sideband separation scheme involves an analog 90° hybrid followed by two mixers that provide down-conversion of the IF signal to a pair of in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signals in baseband. The I and Q baseband signals are digitized using 5 Giga sample per second (Gsps) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). A second hybrid is digitally implemented using field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to produce two sidebands, each with a bandwidth of 1.6 GHz. The 2 x 1.6 GHz band can be tuned to cover any 3.6 GHz window within the aforementioned IF range of the array. Sideband rejection ratios (SRRs) above 20 dB can be obtained across the 3.6 GHz bandwidth by equalizing the power and delay between the I and Q baseband signals. Furthermore, SRRs above 30 dB can be achieved when calibration is applied.

  11. Sideband instability analysis based on a one-dimensional high-gain free electron laser model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Cheng-Ying; Wu, Juhao; Yang, Chuan; Yoon, Moohyun; Zhou, Guanqun

    2017-12-01

    When an untapered high-gain free electron laser (FEL) reaches saturation, the exponential growth ceases and the radiation power starts to oscillate about an equilibrium. The FEL radiation power or efficiency can be increased by undulator tapering. For a high-gain tapered FEL, although the power is enhanced after the first saturation, it is known that there is a so-called second saturation where the FEL power growth stops even with a tapered undulator system. The sideband instability is one of the primary reasons leading to this second saturation. In this paper, we provide a quantitative analysis on how the gradient of undulator tapering can mitigate the sideband growth. The study is carried out semianalytically and compared with one-dimensional numerical simulations. The physical parameters are taken from Linac Coherent Light Source-like electron bunch and undulator systems. The sideband field gain and the evolution of the radiation spectra for different gradients of undulator tapering are examined. It is found that a strong undulator tapering (˜10 %) provides effective suppression of the sideband instability in the postsaturation regime.

  12. The Sidebands of the Equatorial Electrojet: General Characteristic of the Westward Currents, as Deduced From CHAMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yun-Liang; Lühr, Hermann; Alken, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Based on 5 years (2001-2005) of magnetic field measurements made by the CHAMP satellite, latitudinal profiles of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) have been derived. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the reverse current EEJ sidebands. These westward currents peak at ±5° quasi-dipole latitude with typical amplitudes of 35% of the main EEJ. The diurnal amplitude variation is quite comparable with that of the EEJ. Similarly to the EEJ, the intensity is increasing with solar EUV flux, but with a steeper slope, indicating that not only the conductivity plays a role. For the longitude distribution we find, in general, larger amplitudes in the Western than in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is presently a common understanding that the reverse current EEJ sidebands are generated by eastward zonal winds at altitudes above about 120 km. In particular, a positive vertical gradient of wind speed generates westward currents at magnetic latitudes outside of 2° dip latitude. Interesting information about these features can be deduced from the sidebands' tidal characteristics. The longitudinal variation of the amplitude is dominated by a wave-1 pattern, which can primarily be attributed to the tidal components SPW1 and SW3. In case of the hemispheric amplitude differences these same two wave-1 components dominate. The ratio between sideband amplitude and main EEJ is largely controlled by the tidal features of the EEJ. The longitudinal patterns of the latitude, where the sidebands peak, resemble to some extent those of the amplitude. Current densities become larger when the peaks move closer to the magnetic equator.

  13. Spectral negentropy based sidebands and demodulation analysis for planet bearing fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhipeng; Ma, Haoqun; Zuo, Ming J.

    2017-12-01

    Planet bearing vibration signals are highly complex due to intricate kinematics (involving both revolution and spinning) and strong multiple modulations (including not only the fault induced amplitude modulation and frequency modulation, but also additional amplitude modulations due to load zone passing, time-varying vibration transfer path, and time-varying angle between the gear pair mesh lines of action and fault impact force vector), leading to difficulty in fault feature extraction. Rolling element bearing fault diagnosis essentially relies on detection of fault induced repetitive impulses carried by resonance vibration, but they are usually contaminated by noise and therefor are hard to be detected. This further adds complexity to planet bearing diagnostics. Spectral negentropy is able to reveal the frequency distribution of repetitive transients, thus providing an approach to identify the optimal frequency band of a filter for separating repetitive impulses. In this paper, we find the informative frequency band (including the center frequency and bandwidth) of bearing fault induced repetitive impulses using the spectral negentropy based infogram. In Fourier spectrum, we identify planet bearing faults according to sideband characteristics around the center frequency. For demodulation analysis, we filter out the sensitive component based on the informative frequency band revealed by the infogram. In amplitude demodulated spectrum (squared envelope spectrum) of the sensitive component, we diagnose planet bearing faults by matching the present peaks with the theoretical fault characteristic frequencies. We further decompose the sensitive component into mono-component intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) to estimate their instantaneous frequencies, and select a sensitive IMF with an instantaneous frequency fluctuating around the center frequency for frequency demodulation analysis. In the frequency demodulated spectrum (Fourier spectrum of instantaneous frequency) of

  14. From quantum physics to digital communication: Single sideband continuous phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farès, Haïfa; Christian Glattli, D.; Louët, Yves; Palicot, Jacques; Moy, Christophe; Roulleau, Preden

    2018-01-01

    In the present paper, we propose a new frequency-shift keying continuous phase modulation (FSK-CPM) scheme having, by essence, the interesting feature of single-sideband (SSB) spectrum providing a very compact frequency occupation. First, the original principle, inspired from quantum physics (levitons), is presented. Besides, we address the problem of low-complexity coherent detection of this new waveform, based on orthonormal wave functions used to perform matched filtering for efficient demodulation. Consequently, this shows that the proposed modulation can operate using existing digital communication technology, since only well-known operations are performed (e.g., filtering, integration). This SSB property can be exploited to allow large bit rates transmissions at low carrier frequency without caring about image frequency degradation effects typical of ordinary double-sideband signals. xml:lang="fr"

  15. Ultra-wideband microwave photonic link based on single-sideband modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingnan; Wang, Yunxin; Wang, Dayong; Zhou, Tao; Zhong, Xin; Xu, Jiahao; Yang, Dengcai; Rong, Lu

    2017-10-01

    Comparing with the conventional double-sideband (DSB) modulation in communication system, single-sideband (SSB) modulation only demands half bandwidth of DSB in transmission. Two common ways are employed to implement SSB modulation by using optical filter (OF) or electrical 90° phase shift, respectively. However, the bandwidth of above methods is limited by characteristics of current OF and electrical phase shift. To overcome this problem, an ultra-wideband microwave photonic link based on SSB modulation is proposed and demonstrated. The radio frequency (RF) signal modulates a single-drive dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator, and the SSB modulation is realized by combining an electrical 90° hybrid coupler and an optical bandpass filter. The experimental results indicate that the system can achieve SSB modulation for RF signal from 2 to 40 GHz. The proposed microwave photonic link provides an ultra-wideband approach based on SSB modulation for radio-over-fiber system.

  16. Dual-Polarization, Sideband-Separating, Balanced Receiver for 1.5 THz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutman; Ward, John; Manohara, Harish; Siegel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A proposed heterodyne receiver would be capable of detecting electromagnetic radiation in both of two orthogonal linear polarizations, separating sidebands, and providing balanced outputs in a frequency band centered at 1.5 THz with a fractional bandwidth greater than 40 percent. Dual polarization, sideband-separating, and balanced-output receivers are well-known and have been used extensively at frequencies up to about 100 GHz; and there was an earlier proposal for such a receiver for frequencies up to 900 GHz. However, the present proposal represents the first realistic design concept for such a receiver capable of operating above 1 THz. The proposed receiver is intended to be a prototype of mass-producible receiver units, operating at frequencies up to 6 THz, that would be incorporated into highly sensitive heterodyne array instruments to be used in astronomical spectroscopic and imaging studies.

  17. Ar 3p photoelectron sideband spectra in two-color XUV + NIR laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minemoto, Shinichirou; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Komatsu, Kazma; Komatsubara, Wataru; Majima, Takuya; Mizuno, Tomoya; Owada, Shigeki; Sakai, Hirofumi; Togashi, Tadashi; Yoshida, Shintaro; Yabashi, Makina; Yagishita, Akira

    2018-04-01

    We performed photoelectron spectroscopy using femtosecond XUV pulses from a free-electron laser and femtosecond near-infrared pulses from a synchronized laser, and succeeded in measuring Ar 3p photoelectron sideband spectra due to the two-color above-threshold ionization. In our calculations of the first-order time-dependent perturbation theoretical model based on the strong field approximation, the photoelectron sideband spectra and their angular distributions are well reproduced by considering the timing jitter between the XUV and the NIR pulses, showing that the timing jitter in our experiments was distributed over the width of {1.0}+0.4-0.2 ps. The present approach can be used as a method to evaluate the timing jitter inevitable in FEL experiments.

  18. Effective combined water and sideband suppression for low-speed tissue and in vivo MAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Mobarhan, Yalda Liaghati; Struppe, Jochem; Fortier-McGill, Blythe; Simpson, André J

    2017-08-01

    High-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR is a powerful technique that can provide metabolic profiles and structural constraints on intact biological and environmental samples such as cells, tissues and living organisms. However, centripetal force from fast spinning can lead to a loss of sample integrity. In analyses focusing on structural organization, metabolite compartmentalization or in vivo studies, it is critical to keep the sample intact. As such, there is growing interest in slow spinning studies that preserve sample longevity. In this study, for example, reducing the spinning rate from 2500 to 500 Hz during the analysis of a living freshwater shrimp increased the 100% survivability threshold from ~14 to 40 h. Unfortunately, reducing spinning rate decreases the intensity of the isotropic signals and increases both the intensity and number of spinning sidebands, which mask spectral information. Interestingly, water suppression approaches such as excitation sculpting and W5 WATERGATE, which are effective at higher spinning rates, fail at lower spinning rates (<2500 Hz) while simpler approaches such as presaturation are not able to effectively suppress water when the ratio of water to biomass is very high, as is the case in vivo. As such there is a considerable gap in NMR approaches which can be used to suppress water signals and sidebands in biological samples at lower spinning rates. This research presents simple but practically important sequences that combine PURGE water suppression with both phase-adjusted spinning sidebands and an analogue of TOSS termed TOSS.243. The result is simple and effective water and sideband suppression even in extremely dilute samples in pure water down to ~100 Hz spinning rate. The approach is introduced, described and applied to a range of samples including, ex vivo worm tissue, Daphnia magna (water fleas), and in vivo Hyalella azteca (shrimp).

  19. Fiber-FSO/wireless convergent systems based on dual-polarization and one optical sideband transmission schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu-Hong; Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Wang, Yun-Chieh; Chang, Jen-Chieh; Jheng, Yu-Bo; Tsai, Wen-Shing

    2018-06-01

    A bidirectional fiber-free-space optical (FSO)/wireless convergent system that uses dual-polarization and one optical sideband transmission schemes for hybrid vestigial sideband (VSB)–four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4)/millimeter-wave signal transmission is proposed and demonstrated. Using a dual-polarization scheme, one optical sideband that is modulated by a 56 Gb s‑1 VSB–PAM4 signal (x-polarization) and another optical sideband that is modulated by a 10 Gbps data stream (y-polarization) are separated and polarized orthogonally. One optical sideband modulated by a 10 Gbps data stream (y-polarization) is delivered to efficaciously suppress the dispersion-induced limitation due to a span of 40 km single-mode fiber (SMF) and the distortion due to the beating among multiple sidebands. The proposed bidirectional fiber-FSO/wireless convergent system is a prominent one for providing broadband integrated services, such as the Internet, telecommunication, and 5G mobile networks.

  20. Theory of controlling band-width broadening in terahertz sideband generation in semiconductors by a direct current electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Houquan; Zhang, Xingchu

    2017-03-01

    In a semiconductor, optically excited electron-hole pairs, driven by a strong terahertz (THz) field, can recombine to create THz sidebands in the optical spectrum. The sideband spectrum exhibits a "plateau" up to a cutoff frequency of 3.17Up, where Up is the ponderomotive energy. In this letter, we predict that the bandwidth of this sideband spectrum plateau can be broadened by applying an additional direct-current (DC) electric field. We find that if applying a DC field of EDC=0.2ETHz (where EDC and ETHz are the amplitudes of the DC field and THz field, respectively), the sideband spectrum presents three plateaus with 5.8Up, 10.05Up and 16Up being the cutoff frequencies of the first, second and third plateaus, respectively. This bandwidth broadening occurs because the DC field can increase the kinetic energy that an electron-hole pair can gain from the THz field. This effect means that the bandwidth of the sideband spectrum can be controlled flexibly by changing the DC field, thereby facilitating the ultrafast electro-optical applications of THz sideband generation.

  1. Automatic characteristic frequency association and all-sideband demodulation for the detection of a bearing fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firla, Marcin; Li, Zhong-Yang; Martin, Nadine; Pachaud, Christian; Barszcz, Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes advanced signal-processing techniques to improve condition monitoring of operating machines. The proposed methods use the results of a blind spectrum interpretation that includes harmonic and sideband series detection. The first contribution of this study is an algorithm for automatic association of harmonic and sideband series to characteristic fault frequencies according to a kinematic configuration. The approach proposed has the advantage of taking into account a possible slip of the rolling-element bearings. In the second part, we propose a full-band demodulation process from all sidebands that are relevant to the spectral estimation. To do so, a multi-rate filtering process in an iterative schema provides satisfying precision and stability over the targeted demodulation band, even for unsymmetrical and extremely narrow bands. After synchronous averaging, the filtered signal is demodulated for calculation of the amplitude and frequency modulation functions, and then any features that indicate faults. Finally, the proposed algorithms are validated on vibration signals measured on a test rig that was designed as part of the European Innovation Project 'KAStrion'. This rig simulates a wind turbine drive train at a smaller scale. The data show the robustness of the method for localizing and extracting a fault on the main bearing. The evolution of the proposed features is a good indicator of the fault severity.

  2. Integrated narrowband optical filter based on embedded subwavelength resonant grating structures

    DOEpatents

    Grann, Eric B.; Sitter, Jr., David N.

    2000-01-01

    A resonant grating structure in a waveguide and methods of tuning the performance of the grating structure are described. An apparatus includes a waveguide; and a subwavelength resonant grating structure embedded in the waveguide. The systems and methods provide advantages including narrowband filtering capabilities, minimal sideband reflections, spatial control, high packing density, and tunability.

  3. Quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy without water suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, M. S.; DeDeene, Y.; Fieremans, E.; Lemahieu, I.

    2009-06-01

    The suppression of the abundant water signal has been traditionally employed to decrease the dynamic range of the NMR signal in proton MRS (1H MRS) in vivo. When using this approach, if the intent is to utilize the water signal as an internal reference for the absolute quantification of metabolites, additional measurements are required for the acquisition of the water signal. This can be prohibitively time-consuming and is not desired clinically. Additionally, traditional water suppression can lead to metabolite alterations. This can be overcome by performing quantitative 1H MRS without water suppression. However, the non-water-suppressed spectra suffer from gradient-induced frequency modulations, resulting in sidebands in the spectrum. Sidebands may overlap with the metabolites, which renders the spectral analysis and quantification problematic. In this paper, we performed absolute quantification of metabolites without water suppression. Sidebands were removed by utilizing the phase of an external reference signal of single resonance to observe the time-varying the static field fluctuations induced by gradient-vibration and deconvolving this phase contamination from the desired NMR signal. The quantification of metabolites was determined after sideband correction by calibrating the metabolite signal intensities against the recorded water signal. The method was evaluated by phantom and in vivo measurements in human brain. The maximum systematic error for the quantified metabolite concentrations was found to be 10.8%, showing the feasibility of the quantification after sideband correction.

  4. Single-sideband modulator for frequency domain multiplexing of superconducting qubit readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Benjamin J.; Rosenthal, Eric I.; Kerckhoff, Joseph; Vale, Leila R.; Hilton, Gene C.; Lehnert, K. W.

    2017-04-01

    We introduce and experimentally characterize a superconducting single-sideband modulator compatible with cryogenic microwave circuits and propose its use for frequency domain multiplexing of superconducting qubit readout. The monolithic double-balanced modulators that comprise the device are formed with purely reactive elements (capacitors and Josephson junction inductors) and require no microwave-frequency control tones. Microwave signals in the 4 to 8 GHz band, with power up to -85 dBm, are converted up or down in frequency by as much as 120 MHz. Spurious harmonics in the device can be suppressed by up to 25 dB for select probe and modulation frequencies.

  5. Configuration-constrained cranking Hartree-Fock pairing calculations for sidebands of nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, W. Y.; Jiao, C. F.; Wu, Q.; Fu, X. M.; Xu, F. R.

    2015-12-01

    Background: Nuclear collective rotations have been successfully described by the cranking Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) model. However, for rotational sidebands which are built on intrinsic excited configurations, it may not be easy to find converged cranking HFB solutions. The nonconservation of the particle number in the BCS pairing is another shortcoming. To improve the pairing treatment, a particle-number-conserving (PNC) pairing method was suggested. But the existing PNC calculations were performed within a phenomenological one-body potential (e.g., Nilsson or Woods-Saxon) in which one has to deal the double-counting problem. Purpose: The present work aims at an improved description of nuclear rotations, particularly for the rotations of excited configurations, i.e., sidebands. Methods: We developed a configuration-constrained cranking Skyrme Hartree-Fock (SHF) calculation with the pairing correlation treated by the PNC method. The PNC pairing takes the philosophy of the shell model which diagonalizes the Hamiltonian in a truncated model space. The cranked deformed SHF basis provides a small but efficient model space for the PNC diagonalization. Results: We have applied the present method to the calculations of collective rotations of hafnium isotopes for both ground-state bands and sidebands, reproducing well experimental observations. The first up-bendings observed in the yrast bands of the hafnium isotopes are reproduced, and the second up-bendings are predicted. Calculations for rotational bands built on broken-pair excited configurations agree well with experimental data. The band-mixing between two Kπ=6+ bands observed in 176Hf and the K purity of the 178Hf rotational state built on the famous 31 yr Kπ=16+ isomer are discussed. Conclusions: The developed configuration-constrained cranking calculation has been proved to be a powerful tool to describe both the yrast bands and sidebands of deformed nuclei. The analyses of rotational moments of inertia

  6. Cascade Raman sidebands generation and orbital angular momentum relations for paraxial beam modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohaber, James; Schuessler, Hans; Kolomenskii, Alexandre; Zhu, Feng

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the nonlinear parametric interaction of optical radiation in various transverse modes in a Raman-active medium is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Verification of the orbital angular momentum algebra (OAM-algebra) was performed for high-order Laguerre Gaussian modes. It was found that this same algebra also describes the coherent transfer of OAM when Ince-Gaussian modes were used. New theoretical considerations extend the OAM-algebra to even and odd Laguerre Gaussian, and Hermite Gaussian beam modes through a change of basis. The results of this work provide details in the spatiotemporal synthesis of custom broadband pulses of radiation from Raman sideband generation.

  7. Microbunching-instability-induced sidebands in a seeded free-electron laser

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Zhen; Lindberg, Ryan; Fawley, William M.; ...

    2016-05-02

    Measurements of the multishot-averaged, soft x-ray, self-seeding spectrum at the LCLS free-electron laser often have a pedestal-like distribution around the seeded wavelength, which limits the spectral purity and can negatively affect some user applications not employing a post-undulator monochromator. In this paper, we study the origins of such pedestals, focusing on longitudinal phase space modulations produced by the microbunching instability upstream of the free-electron laser (FEL) undulator. Furthermore, we show from theory and numerical simulation that both energy and density modulations can induce sidebands in a high-gain, seeded FEL whose fractional strength typically grows as the square of the undulatormore » length. The results place a tight constraint on the longitudinal phase space uniformity of the electron beam for a seeded FEL, possibly requiring the amplitude of long-wavelength modulations to be much smaller than the typical incoherent energy spread if the output sideband power is to remain only a couple percent or less of the amplified seed power.« less

  8. Sideband cooling of small ion Coulomb crystals in a Penning trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutter, G.; Hrmo, P.; Jarlaud, V.; Joshi, M. K.; Goodwin, J. F.; Thompson, R. C.

    2018-03-01

    We have recently demonstrated the laser cooling of a single ? ion to the motional ground state in a Penning trap using the resolved-sideband cooling technique on the electric quadrupole transition S? D?. Here we report on the extension of this technique to small ion Coulomb crystals made of two or three ? ions. Efficient cooling of the axial motion is achieved outside the Lamb-Dicke regime on a two-ion string along the magnetic field axis as well as on two- and three-ion planar crystals. Complex sideband cooling sequences are required in order to cool both axial degrees of freedom simultaneously. We measure a mean excitation after cooling of ? for the centre of mass (COM) mode and ? for the breathing mode of the two-ion string with corresponding heating rates of 11(2) ? and ? at a trap frequency of 162 kHz. The occupation of the ground state of the axial modes (?) is above 75% for the two-ion planar crystal and the associated heating rates 0.8(5) ? at a trap frequency of 355 kHz.

  9. An ultrawide-bandwidth single-sideband modulator for terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, A. S.; Berden, G.; Arslanov, D. D.; Ozerov, M.; Jongma, R. T.; van der Zande, W. J.

    2016-11-01

    Wireless high-speed data communication using terahertz (THz) carrier frequencies is becoming reality with data rates beyond 100 Gbit s-1. Many of the mobile applications use internet access and require that THz wireless base stations are connected to a global network, such as the radio-over-fibre network. We present the realization of an ultrawide bandwidth THz optical single-sideband (OSSB) modulator for converting (free-space) THz signals to THz optical modulations with an increased spectral efficiency. THz OSSB will mitigate chromatic dispersion-induced propagation losses in optical fibres and support digital modulation schemes. We demonstrate THz OSSB for free-space radiation between 0.3 and 1.0 THz using a specially designed dichroic beamsplitter for signal and carrier, and a planar light-wave circuit with multimode interference structures. This arrangement of optical elements mimics the Hartley single-sideband modulator for electronics signals and accomplishes the required Hilbert transform without any frequency-dependent tuning element over an ultrawide THz spectrum.

  10. Double-sideband frequency scanning interferometry for long-distance dynamic absolute measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Di; Wang, Ran; Li, Guang-zuo; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Ke-shu; Wu, Yi-rong

    2017-11-01

    Absolute distance measurements can be achieved by frequency scanning interferometry which uses a tunable laser. The main drawback of this method is that it is extremely sensitive to the movement of targets. In addition, since this method is limited to the linearity of frequency scanning, it is commonly used for close measurements within tens of meters. In order to solve these problems, a double-sideband frequency scanning interferometry system is presented in the paper. It generates two opposite frequency scanning signals through a fixed frequency laser and a Mach-Zehnder modulator. And the system distinguishes the two interference fringe patterns corresponding to the two signals by IQ demodulation (i.e., quadrature detection) of the echo. According to the principle of double-sideband modulation, the two signals have the same characteristics. Therefore, the error caused by the target movement can be effectively eliminated, which is similar to dual-laser frequency scanned interferometry. In addition, this method avoids the contradiction between laser frequency stability and swept performance. The system can be applied to measure the distance of the order of kilometers, which profits from the good linearity of frequency scanning. In the experiment, a precision about 3 μm was achieved for a kilometer-level distance.

  11. Imaginary geometric phases of quantum trajectories in high-order terahertz sideband generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2014-03-01

    Quantum evolution of particles under strong fields can be described by a small number of quantum trajectories that satisfy the stationary phase condition in the Dirac-Feynmann path integral. The quantum trajectories are the key concept to understand the high-order terahertz siedeband generation (HSG) in semiconductors. Due to the nontrivial ``vacuum'' states of band materials, the quantum trajectories of optically excited electron-hole pairs in semiconductors can accumulate geometric phases under the driving of an elliptically polarized THz field. We find that the geometric phase of the stationary trajectory is generally complex with both real and imaginary parts. In monolayer MoS2, the imaginary parts of the geometric phase leads to a changing of the polarization ellipticity of the sideband. We further show that the imaginary part originates from the quantum interference of many trajectories with different phases. Thus the observation of the polarization ellipticity of the sideband shall be a good indication of the quantum nature of the stationary trajectory. This work is supported by Hong Kong RGC/GRF 401512 and the CUHK Focused Investments Scheme.

  12. Relative sideband amplitudes versus modulation index for common functions using frequency and phase modulation. [for design and testing of communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocklin, F.

    1973-01-01

    The equations defining the amplitude of sidebands resulting from either frequency modulation or phase modulation by either square wave, sine wave, sawtooth or triangular modulating functions are presented. Spectral photographs and computer generated tables of modulation index vs. relative sideband amplitudes are also included.

  13. Four-amplitude shift keying-single sideband millimeter-wave signal generation with frequency sextupling based on optical phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peng; Ma, Jianxin

    2017-03-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a scheme to generate a frequency-sextupling amplitude shift keying (ASK)-single sideband optical millimeter (mm)-wave signal with high dispersion tolerance based on an optical phase modulator (PM) by ably using the-4th-order and +2nd-order sidebands of the optical modulation. The ASK radio frequency signal, superposed by a local oscillator with the same frequency, modulates the lightwave via an optical PM with proper voltage amplitudes, the +2nd-order sideband carries the ASK signal with a constant slope while the -4th-order sideband maintains constant amplitude. These two sidebands can be abstracted by a wavelength selective switch to form a dual-tone optical mm-wave with only one tone carrying the ASK signal. As only one tone bears the ASK signal while the other tone is unmodulated, the generated dual-tone optical mm-wave signal has high dispersion tolerance.

  14. Precision and broadband frequency swept laser source based on high-order modulation-sideband injection-locking.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang; Lu, Bin; Wang, Jian; Xu, Dan; Pan, Zhengqing; Chen, Dijun; Cai, Haiwen; Qu, Ronghui

    2015-02-23

    A precision and broadband laser frequency swept technique is experimentally demonstrated. Using synchronous current compensation, a slave diode laser is dynamically injection-locked to a specific high-order modulation-sideband of a narrow-linewidth master laser modulated by an electro-optic modulator (EOM), whose driven radio frequency (RF) signal can be agilely, precisely controlled by a frequency synthesizer, and the high-order modulation-sideband enables multiplied sweep range and tuning rate. By using 5th order sideband injection-locking, the original tuning range of 3 GHz and tuning rate of 0.5 THz/s is multiplied by 5 times to 15 GHz and 2.5 THz/s respectively. The slave laser has a 3 dB-linewidth of 2.5 kHz which is the same to the master laser. The settling time response of a 10 MHz frequency switching is 2.5 µs. By using higher-order modulation-sideband and optimized experiment parameters, an extended sweep range and rate could be expected.

  15. Ensemble of single quadrupolar nuclei in rotating solids: sidebands in NMR spectrum.

    PubMed

    Kundla, Enn

    2006-07-01

    A novel way is proposed to describe the evolution of nuclear magnetic polarization and the induced NMR spectrum. In this method, the effect of a high-intensity external static magnetic field and the effects of proper Hamiltonian left over interaction components, which commute with the first, are taken into account simultaneously and equivalently. The method suits any concrete NMR problem. This brings forth the really existing details in the registered spectra, evoked by Hamiltonian secular terms, which may be otherwise smoothed due to approximate treatment of the effects of the secular terms. Complete analytical expressions are obtained describing the NMR spectra including the rotational sideband sets of single quadrupolar nuclei in rotating solids.

  16. Kinetic simulations and reduced modeling of longitudinal sideband instabilities in non-linear electron plasma waves

    DOE PAGES

    Brunner, S.; Berger, R. L.; Cohen, B. I.; ...

    2014-10-01

    Kinetic Vlasov simulations of one-dimensional finite amplitude Electron Plasma Waves are performed in a multi-wavelength long system. A systematic study of the most unstable linear sideband mode, in particular its growth rate γ and quasi- wavenumber δk, is carried out by scanning the amplitude and wavenumber of the initial wave. Simulation results are successfully compared against numerical and analytical solutions to the reduced model by Kruer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 838 (1969)] for the Trapped Particle Instability (TPI). A model recently suggested by Dodin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 215006 (2013)], which in addition to the TPImore » accounts for the so-called Negative Mass Instability because of a more detailed representation of the trapped particle dynamics, is also studied and compared with simulations.« less

  17. Multimode four-wave mixing in an unresolved sideband optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zongyang; You, Xiang; Li, Yongmin; Liu, Yong-Chun; Peng, Kunchi

    2018-03-01

    We have studied multimode four-wave mixing (FWM) in an unresolved sideband cavity optomechanical system. The radiation pressure coupling between the cavity fields and multiple mechanical modes results in the formation of a series of tripod-type energy-level systems, which induce the multimode FWM phenomenon. The FWM mechanism enables remarkable amplification of a weak signal field accompanied by the generation of an FWM field when only a microwatt-level pump field is applied. For proper system parameters, the amplified signal and FWM fields have equal intensity with opposite phases. The gain and frequency response bandwidth of the signal field can be dynamically tuned by varying the pump intensity, optomechanical coupling strength, and additional feedback control. Under certain conditions, the frequency response bandwidth can be very narrow and reaches the level of hertz.

  18. Polarization singularities and orbital angular momentum sidebands from rotational symmetry broken by the Pockels effect

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiancong; Wu, Ziwen; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang

    2014-01-01

    The law of angular momentum conservation is naturally linked to the rotational symmetry of the involved system. Here we demonstrate theoretically how to break the rotational symmetry of a uniaxial crystal via the electro-optic Pockels effect. By numerical method based on asymptotic expansion, we discover the 3D structure of polarization singularities in terms of C lines and L surfaces embedded in the emerging light. We visualize the controllable dynamics evolution of polarization singularities when undergoing the Pockels effect, which behaves just like the binary fission of a prokaryotic cell, i.e., the splitting of C points and fission of L lines are animated in analogy with the cleavage of nucleus and division of cytoplasm. We reveal the connection of polarization singularity dynamics with the accompanying generation of orbital angular momentum sidebands. It is unexpected that although the total angular momentum of light is not conserved, the total topological index of C points is conserved. PMID:24784778

  19. Polarization singularities and orbital angular momentum sidebands from rotational symmetry broken by the Pockels effect.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiancong; Wu, Ziwen; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang

    2014-05-02

    The law of angular momentum conservation is naturally linked to the rotational symmetry of the involved system. Here we demonstrate theoretically how to break the rotational symmetry of a uniaxial crystal via the electro-optic Pockels effect. By numerical method based on asymptotic expansion, we discover the 3D structure of polarization singularities in terms of C lines and L surfaces embedded in the emerging light. We visualize the controllable dynamics evolution of polarization singularities when undergoing the Pockels effect, which behaves just like the binary fission of a prokaryotic cell, i.e., the splitting of C points and fission of L lines are animated in analogy with the cleavage of nucleus and division of cytoplasm. We reveal the connection of polarization singularity dynamics with the accompanying generation of orbital angular momentum sidebands. It is unexpected that although the total angular momentum of light is not conserved, the total topological index of C points is conserved.

  20. 80GHz waveform generator by optical Fourier synthesis of four spectral sidebands (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatome, Julien; Hammani, Kamal; Kibler, Bertrand; Finot, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Versatile and easy to implement methods to generate arbitrary optical waveforms at high repetition rates are of considerable interest with applications in optical communications, all-optical signal processing, instrumentation systems and microwave signal manipulation. While shaping sinusoidal, Gaussian or hyperbolic secant intensity profiles is commonly achieved by means of modulators or mode-locked lasers, other pulse profiles such as parabolic, triangular or flat-top shapes still remain challenging to synthesize. In this context, several strategies were already explored. First, the linear pulse shaping is a common method to carve an initial ultrashort pulse train into the desired shape. The line-by-line shaping of a coherent frequency comb made of tens of spectral components was also investigated to generate more complex structures whereas Fourier synthesis of a few discrete frequencies spectrum was exploited to efficiently generate high-fidelity ultrafast periodic intensity profiles. Besides linear shaping techniques, several nonlinear methods were implemented to benefit from the adiabatic evolution of the intensity pulse profile upon propagation in optical fibers. Other examples of efficient methods are based on the photonic generation involving specific Mach-Zehnder modulators, microwave photonic filters as well as frequency-to-time conversion. In this contribution, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate a new approach enabling the synthesis of periodic high-repetition rate pulses with various intensity profiles ranging from parabola to triangular and flat-top pulses. More precisely by linear phase and amplitude shaping of only four spectral lines is it possible to reach the targeted temporal profile. Indeed, tailoring the input symmetric spectrum only requires the determination of two physical parameters: the phase difference between the inner and outer spectral sidebands and the ratio between the amplitude of these sidebands. Therefore, a systematic

  1. Polarization singularities and orbital angular momentum sidebands from rotational symmetry broken by the Pockels effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiancong; Wu, Ziwen; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang

    2014-05-01

    The law of angular momentum conservation is naturally linked to the rotational symmetry of the involved system. Here we demonstrate theoretically how to break the rotational symmetry of a uniaxial crystal via the electro-optic Pockels effect. By numerical method based on asymptotic expansion, we discover the 3D structure of polarization singularities in terms of C lines and L surfaces embedded in the emerging light. We visualize the controllable dynamics evolution of polarization singularities when undergoing the Pockels effect, which behaves just like the binary fission of a prokaryotic cell, i.e., the splitting of C points and fission of L lines are animated in analogy with the cleavage of nucleus and division of cytoplasm. We reveal the connection of polarization singularity dynamics with the accompanying generation of orbital angular momentum sidebands. It is unexpected that although the total angular momentum of light is not conserved, the total topological index of C points is conserved.

  2. Project Echo: 961-Mc Lower - Sideband Up - Converter for Satellite-Tracking Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uenohara, M.; Seidel, H.

    1961-01-01

    A 961-Mc lower-sideband up-converter was specially designed to serve as preamplifier for the satellite-tracking radar used in Project Echo. The amplifier and its power supply are separately boxed and are installed directly behind the tracking antenna. The amplifier has been functioning most satisfactorily and has been used in routine manner to track the Echo satellite from horizon to horizon. This paper describes the design considerations, and details the special steps taken to ensure that the amplifier met the particular system needs of low noise, absolute stability, insensitivity to temperature fluctuations, and high input-power level before the onset of gain compression. The satisfactory operation of this amplifier confirms the great potentiality of parametric amplifiers as stable, low-noise, high-frequency receivers.

  3. Accuracy enhanced distance measurement system using double-sideband modulated frequency scanning interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xilun; Wang, Xiangchuan; Pan, Shilong

    2017-03-01

    An implementation of a distance measurement system using double-sideband with suppressed carrier modulation (DSB-SC) frequency scanning interferometry is proposed to reduce the variations in the optical path and improve the measurement accuracy. In this proposed system, the electro-optic DSB-SC is used to create dual-swept signals with opposite scanning directions. For each swept signal, the relative distance between the reference arm and the measuring arm is determined by the beat frequency of signals from two arms. By multiplying both beat signals, measurement errors caused by variations in the optical path can be greatly reduced. As an experimental demonstration, a vibration was introduced in the optical path length. The experimental results show that the variations can be suppressed for over 19.9 dB.

  4. A tone-aided dual vestigial sideband system for digital communications on fading channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hladik, Stephen M.; Saulnier, Gary J.; Rafferty, William

    1989-01-01

    A spectrally efficient tone-aided dual vestigial sideband (TA/DVSB) system for digital data communications on fading channels is presented and described analytically. This PSK (phase-shift-keying) system incorporates a feed-forward, tone-aided demodulation technique to compensate for Doppler frequency shift and channel- induced, multipath fading. In contrast to other tone-in-band-type systems, receiver synchronization is derived from the complete data VSBs. Simulation results for the Rician fading channel are presented. These results demonstrate the receiver's ability to mitigate performance degradation due to fading and to obtain proper data carrier synchronization, suggesting that the proposed TA/DVSB system has promise for this application. Simulated BER (bit-error rate) data indicate that the TA/DVSB system effectively alleviates the channel distortions of the land mobile satellite application.

  5. Broadband sidebands generated by parametric instability in lower hybrid current drive experiments on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amicucci, L.; Ding, B. J.; Castaldo, C.; Cesario, R.; Giovannozzi, E.; Li, M. H.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Modern research on nuclear fusion energy, based on the tokamak concept, has strong need of tools for actively driving non-inductive current especially at the periphery of plasma column, where tools available so far have poor efficiency. This is essential for solving one of the most critical problems for thermonuclear reactor, consisting in how to achieve the figure of fusion gain in the context of sufficient stability. The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) effect has the potential capability of driving current at large radii of reactor plasma with high efficiency [1]. Experiments recently carried out on EAST showed that a strong activity of LH sideband waves (from the RF probe spectra), accompanied by weak core penetration of the coupled LH power, is present when operating at relatively high plasma densities. Previous theoretical results, confirmed by experiments on FTU, showed that the LH sideband phenomenon is produced by parametric instability (PI), which are mitigated by higher plasma edge temperatures. This condition is thus useful for enabling the LH power propagation when operating with profiles having high plasma densities even at the edge. In the present work, we show new PI modeling of EAST plasmas data, obtained in condition of higher plasma edge temperature due to chamber lithisation. The obtained trend of the PI frequencies and growth rates is consistent with data of RF probe spectra, available in different regimes of lithisated and not lithisated vessel. Moreover, these spectra are interpreted as PI effect occurring at the periphery of plasma column, however in the low field side where the LH power is coupled.

  6. Effects of excitation frequency on high-order terahertz sideband generation in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiao-Tao; Zhu, Bang-Fen; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2013-10-01

    We theoretically investigate the effects of the excitation frequency on the plateau of high-order terahertz sideband generation (HSG) in semiconductors driven by intense terahertz (THz) fields. We find that the plateau of the sideband spectrum strongly depends on the detuning between the near-infrared laser field and the band gap. We use the quantum trajectory theory (three-step model) to understand the HSG. In the three-step model, an electron-hole pair is first excited by a weak laser, then driven by the strong THz field, and finally recombined to emit a photon with energy gain. When the laser is tuned below the band gap (negative detuning), the electron-hole generation is a virtual process that requires quantum tunneling to occur. When the energy gained by the electron-hole pair from the THz field is less than 3.17 times the ponderomotive energy (Up), the electron and the hole can be driven to the same position and recombined without quantum tunneling, so that the HSG will have large probability amplitude. This leads to a plateau feature of the HSG spectrum with a high-frequency cutoff at about 3.17Up above the band gap. Such a plateau feature is similar to the case of high-order harmonics generation in atoms where electrons have to overcome the binding energy to escape the atomic core. A particularly interesting excitation condition in HSG is that the laser can be tuned above the band gap (positive detuning), corresponding to the unphysical ‘negative’ binding energy in atoms for high-order harmonic generation. Now the electron-hole pair is generated by real excitation, but the recombination process can be real or virtual depending on the energy gained from the THz field, which determines the plateau feature in HSG. Both the numerical calculation and the quantum trajectory analysis reveal that for positive detuning, the HSG plateau cutoff depends on the frequency of the excitation laser. In particular, when the laser is tuned more than 3.17Up above the band

  7. Quantum Control of a Nitrogen-Vacancy Center using Surface Acoustic Waves in the Resolved Sideband Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golter, David; Oo, Thein; Amezcua, Maira; Wang, Hailin

    Micro-electromechanical systems research is producing increasingly sophisticated tools for nanophononic applications. Such technology is well-suited for achieving chip-based, integrated acoustic control of solid-state quantum systems. We demonstrate such acoustic control in an important solid-state qubit, the diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center. Using an interdigitated transducer to generate a surface acoustic wave (SAW) field in a bulk diamond, we observe phonon-assisted sidebands in the optical excitation spectrum of a single NV center. This exploits the strong strain sensitivity of the NV excited states. The mechanical frequencies far exceed the relevant optical linewidths, reaching the resolved-sideband regime. This enables us to use the SAW field for driving Rabi oscillations on the phonon-assisted optical transition. These results stimulate the further integration of SAW-based technologies with the NV center system.

  8. Effects of acoustic- and optical-phonon sidebands on the fundamental optical-absorption edge in crystals and disordered semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grein, C. H.; John, Sajeev

    1990-04-01

    We present the results of a parameter-free first-principles theory for the fine structure of the Urbach optical-absorption edge in crystalline and disordered semiconductors. The dominant features are recaptured by means of a simple physical argument based on the most probable potential-well analogy. At finite temperatures, the overall linear exponential Urbach behavior of the subgap optical-absorption coefficient is a consequence of multiple LA-phonon emission and absorption sidebands that accompany the electronic transition. The fine structure of subgap absorption spectra observed in some materials is accounted for by multiple TO-, LO-, and TA-phonon absorption and emission sidebands. Good agreement is found with experimental data on crystalline silicon. The effects of nonadiabaticity in the electron-phonon interaction are calculated.

  9. High-amplitude VLF transmitter signals and associated sidebands observed near the magnetic equatorial plane on the ISEE 1 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, T. F.

    1985-01-01

    New high-altitude ISEE 1 satellite observations of high-amplitude nonducted signals from the Omega navigation transmitter in North Dakota are reported. The amplitude of the signal was approximately 16-26 dB higher than that of similar signals observed at comparable locations on other days. Over the range L = 3.3-3.7, the transmitter pulses at 13.1 and 13.6 kHz were associated with sideband signals spaced in frequency roughly symmetrically about the carrier and generally reduced in amplitude by about 5 dB with respect to the carrier. The strongest sidebands were generally offset in frequency from the carrier by about + or - 55 Hz. Reasons are discussed for believing that the unusually high amplitude of the signals was due to wave amplification through the whistler-mode instability.

  10. Integer, Fractional, and Sideband Injection Locking of a Spintronic Feedback Nano-Oscillator to a Microwave Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hanuman; Konishi, K.; Bhuktare, S.; Bose, A.; Miwa, S.; Fukushima, A.; Yakushiji, K.; Yuasa, S.; Kubota, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Tulapurkar, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the injection locking of a recently demonstrated spintronic feedback nano-oscillator to microwave magnetic fields at integers (n =1 , 2, 3) as well as fractional multiples (f =1 /2 , 3 /2 , and 5 /2 ) of its auto-oscillation frequency. Feedback oscillators have delay as a new "degree of freedom" which is absent for spin-transfer torque-based oscillators, which gives rise to side peaks along with a main peak. We show that it is also possible to lock the oscillator on its sideband peaks, which opens an alternative avenue to phase-locked oscillators with large frequency differences. We observe that for low driving fields, sideband locking improves the quality factor of the main peak, whereas for higher driving fields the main peak is suppressed. Further, measurements at two field angles provide some insight into the role of the symmetry of oscillation orbit in determining the fractional locking.

  11. Auxiliary-cavity-assisted ground-state cooling of an optically levitated nanosphere in the unresolved-sideband regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jin-Shan; Tan, Lei; Gu, Huai-Qiang; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2017-12-01

    We theoretically analyze the ground-state cooling of an optically levitated nanosphere in the unresolved-sideband regime by introducing a coupled high-quality-factor cavity. On account of the quantum interference stemming from the presence of the coupled cavity, the spectral density of the optical force exerting on the nanosphere gets changed and then the symmetry between the heating and the cooling processes is broken. Through adjusting the detuning of a strong-dissipative cavity mode, one obtains an enhanced net cooling rate for the nanosphere. It is illustrated that the ground-state cooling can be realized in the unresolved sideband regime even if the effective optomechanical coupling is weaker than the frequency of the nanosphere, which can be understood by the picture that the effective interplay of the nanosphere and the auxiliary cavity mode brings the system back to an effective resolved regime. Besides, the coupled cavity refines the dynamical stability of the system.

  12. Ultra-wideband microwave photonic frequency downconverter based on carrier-suppressed single-sideband modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunxin; Li, Jingnan; Wang, Dayong; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Jiahao; Zhong, Xin; Yang, Dengcai; Rong, Lu

    2018-03-01

    An ultra-wideband microwave photonic frequency downconverter is proposed based on carrier-suppressed single-sideband (CS-SSB) modulation. A radio frequency (RF) signal and a local oscillator (LO) signal are combined to drive a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) through the electrical 90°hybrid coupler. To break through the bandwidth limit, an optical bandpass filter (OBPF) is applied simultaneously. Then a photodetector (PD) after OBPF is used to obtain intermediate frequency (IF) signal. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed frequency downconverter can generate the CS-SSB modulation signal from 2 to 40 GHz in optical spectrum. All the mixing spurs are completely suppressed under the noise floor in electrical spectrum, and the output IF signal possesses high purity with a suppression ratio of the undesired signals (≥40 dB). Furthermore, the multi-octave downconversion can also be implemented to satisfy the bandwidth requirement of multi-channel communication. The proposed frequency downconverter supplies an ultra-wideband and high-purity alternative for the signal processing in microwave photonic applications.

  13. Spectral features of LO phonon sidebands in luminescence of free excitons in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S. J.; Li, G. Q.; Xiong, S.-J.; Tong, S. Y.; Che, C. M.; Liu, W.; Li, M. F.

    2005-06-01

    In the paper a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the longitudinal optical phonon sidebands (PSBs) in the luminescence of free excitons in GaN at moderately high temperatures was reported. The spectral features, including line broadening, shift, and asymmetry of the one- and two-phonon PSBs, were revealed both experimentally and theoretically. It is found that the linewidth of the one-phonon PSB is surprisingly always larger than that of the two-phonon PSB in the interested temperature range. Moreover, the thermal broadening rates of the one- and two-phonon PSBs are considerably different. We adopted the Segall-Mahan theory [B. Segall and G. D. Mahan, Phys. Rev. 171, 935 (1968)] to compute the PSB spectra of the free excitons in GaN. Only one adjustable parameter, the effective mass of the holes, was used in the calculations. For the one-phonon PSB, an excellent agreement between theory and experiment is achieved when an adequate effective mass of the holes was used.

  14. Bearing fault diagnosis under unknown variable speed via gear noise cancellation and rotational order sideband identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianyang; Liang, Ming; Li, Jianyong; Cheng, Weidong; Li, Chuan

    2015-10-01

    The interfering vibration signals of a gearbox often represent a challenging issue in rolling bearing fault detection and diagnosis, particularly under unknown variable rotational speed conditions. Though some methods have been proposed to remove the gearbox interfering signals based on their discrete frequency nature, such methods may not work well under unknown variable speed conditions. As such, we propose a new approach to address this issue. The new approach consists of three main steps: (a) adaptive gear interference removal, (b) fault characteristic order (FCO) based fault detection, and (c) rotational-order-sideband (ROS) based fault type identification. For gear interference removal, an enhanced adaptive noise cancellation (ANC) algorithm has been developed in this study. The new ANC algorithm does not require an additional accelerometer to provide reference input. Instead, the reference signal is adaptively constructed from signal maxima and instantaneous dominant meshing multiple (IDMM) trend. Key ANC parameters such as filter length and step size have also been tailored to suit the variable speed conditions, The main advantage of using ROS for fault type diagnosis is that it is insusceptible to confusion caused by the co-existence of bearing and gear rotational frequency peaks in the identification of the bearing fault characteristic frequency in the FCO sub-order region. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been demonstrated using both simulation and experimental data. Our experimental study also indicates that the proposed method is applicable regardless whether the bearing and gear rotational speeds are proportional to each other or not.

  15. Wideband optical vector network analyzer based on optical single-sideband modulation and optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Xue, Min; Pan, Shilong; He, Chao; Guo, Ronghui; Zhao, Yongjiu

    2013-11-15

    A novel approach to increase the measurement range of the optical vector network analyzer (OVNA) based on optical single-sideband (OSSB) modulation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed system, each comb line in an optical frequency comb (OFC) is selected by an optical filter and used as the optical carrier for the OSSB-based OVNA. The frequency responses of an optical device-under-test (ODUT) are thus measured channel by channel. Because the comb lines in the OFC have fixed frequency spacing, by fitting the responses measured in all channels together, the magnitude and phase responses of the ODUT can be accurately achieved in a large range. A proof-of-concept experiment is performed. A measurement range of 105 GHz and a resolution of 1 MHz is achieved when a five-comb-line OFC with a frequency spacing of 20 GHz is applied to measure the magnitude and phase responses of a fiber Bragg grating.

  16. Joint CPT and N resonance in compact atomic time standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimanno, Michael; Hohensee, Michael; Xiao, Yanhong; Phillips, David; Walsworth, Ron

    2008-05-01

    Currently development efforts towards small, low power atomic time standards use current-modulated VCSELs to generate phase-coherent optical sidebands that interrogate the hyperfine structure of alkali atoms such as rubidium. We describe and use a modified four-level quantum optics model to study the optimal operating regime of the joint CPT- and N-resonance clock. Resonant and non-resonant light shifts as well as modulation comb detuning effects play a key role in determining the optimal operating point of such clocks. We further show that our model is in good agreement with experimental tests performed using Rb-87 vapor cells.

  17. Conversion from non-orthogonally to orthogonally polarized optical single-sideband modulation using optically injected semiconductor lasers.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Han; Tseng, Chin-Hao; Hwang, Sheng-Kwang

    2018-06-01

    This Letter investigates an optically injected semiconductor laser for conversion from non-orthogonally to orthogonally polarized optical single-sideband modulation. The underlying mechanism relies solely on nonlinear laser characteristics and, thus, only a typical semiconductor laser is required as the key conversion unit. This conversion can be achieved for a broadly tunable frequency range up to at least 65 GHz. After conversion, the microwave phase quality, including linewidth and phase noise, is mostly preserved, and simultaneous microwave amplification up to 23 dB is feasible.

  18. Carrier-envelope phase-dependent effect of high-order sideband generation in ultrafast driven optomechanical system.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Lü, Xin-You; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ying

    2013-02-01

    We analyze the features of the output field of a generic optomechanical system that is driven by a control field and a nanosecond driven pulse, and find a robust high-order sideband generation in optomechanical systems. The typical spectral structure, plateau and cutoff, confirms the nonperturbative nature of the effect, which is similar to high-order harmonic generation in atoms or molecules. Based on the phenomenon, we show that the carrier-envelope phase of laser pulses that contain huge numbers of cycles can cause profound effects.

  19. Squeezed cooling of mechanical motion beyond the resolved-sideband limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Cheng; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Weiping

    2018-04-01

    Cavity optomechanics provides a unique platform for controlling micromechanical systems by means of optical fields that cross the classical-quantum boundary to achieve solid foundations for quantum technologies. Currently, optomechanical resonators have become promising candidates for the development of precisely controlled nano-motors, ultrasensitive sensors and robust quantum information processors. For all these applications, a crucial requirement is to cool the mechanical resonators down to their quantum ground states. In this paper, we present a novel cooling scheme to further cool a micromechanical resonator via the noise squeezing effect. One quadrature in such a resonator can be squeezed to induce enhanced fluctuations in the other, “heated” quadrature, which can then be used to cool the mechanical motion via conventional optomechanical coupling. Our theoretical analysis and numerical calculations demonstrate that this squeeze-and-cool mechanism offers a quick technique for deeply cooling a macroscopic mechanical resonator to an unprecedented temperature region below the zero-point fluctuations.

  20. Time-alternating method based on single-sideband holography with half-zone-plate processing for the enlargement of viewing zones.

    PubMed

    Mishina, T; Okano, F; Yuyama, I

    1999-06-10

    The single-sideband method of holography, as is well known, cuts off beams that come from conjugate images for holograms produced in the Fraunhofer region and from objects with no phase components. The single-sideband method with half-zone-plate processing is also effective in the Fresnel region for beams from an object that has phase components. However, this method restricts the viewing zone to a narrow range. We propose a method to improve this restriction by time-alternating switching of hologram patterns and a spatial filter set on the focal plane of a reconstruction lens.

  1. Micromechanical Resonator Driven by Radiation Pressure Force.

    PubMed

    Boales, Joseph A; Mateen, Farrukh; Mohanty, Pritiraj

    2017-11-22

    Radiation pressure exerted by light on any surface is the pressure generated by the momentum of impinging photons. The associated force - fundamentally, a quantum mechanical aspect of light - is usually too small to be useful, except in large-scale problems in astronomy and astrodynamics. In atomic and molecular optics, radiation pressure can be used to trap or cool atoms and ions. Use of radiation pressure on larger objects such as micromechanical resonators has been so far limited to its coupling to an acoustic mode, sideband cooling, or levitation of microscopic objects. In this Letter, we demonstrate direct actuation of a radio-frequency micromechanical plate-type resonator by the radiation pressure force generated by a standard laser diode at room temperature. Using two independent methods, the magnitude of the resonator's response to forcing by radiation pressure is found to be proportional to the intensity of the incident light.

  2. Lineshape asymmetry for joint coherent population trapping and three-photon N resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancox, Cindy; Hohensee, Michael; Crescimanno, Michael; Phillips, David F.; Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2008-06-01

    We show that a characteristic two photon lineshape asymmetry arises in coherent population trapping (CPT) and three photon (N) resonances because both resonances are simultaneously induced by modulation sidebands in the interrogating laser light. The N resonance is a three-photon resonance in which a two-photon Raman excitation is combined with a resonant optical pumping field. This joint CPT and N resonance can be the dominant source of lineshape distortion, with direct relevance for the operation of miniaturized atomic frequency standards. We present the results of both an experimental study and theoretical treatment of the asymmetry of the joint CPT and N resonance under conditions typical to the operation of an N resonance clock.

  3. Full colorless transmission of millimeter-wave band gigabit data over WDM-PON using sideband routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Yong-Yuk; Kim, Hyun-Seung; Son, Yong-Hwan; Han, Sang-Kook

    2011-12-01

    A new wavelength division multiplexed-radio over fiber (WDM-RoF) access network scheme supporting the simultaneous transmission of a 1.25-Gb/s wired data as well as a 1.25-Gb/s wireless data is proposed in this paper. An optical carrier suppression effect and sideband routing using the multiplexing of arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) with 50-GHz channel spacing are utilized to generate a millimeter wave band carrier. These techniques make the proposed architecture transmit both a wired data and a wireless one at the same time. A reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) is employed at both central office and base station so that this architecture is operated colorlessly. Error free transmissions (BER of 10-9) of both downlink and uplink are achieved simultaneously.

  4. Electronic sideband locking of a broadly tunable 318.6 nm ultraviolet laser to an ultra-stable optical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jiandong; Wang, Jieying; He, Jun; Wang, Junmin

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate frequency stabilization of a tunable 318.6 nm ultraviolet (UV) laser system using electronic sideband locking. By indirectly changing the frequency of a broadband electro-optic phase modulator, the laser can be continuously tuned over 4 GHz, while a 637.2 nm laser is directly stabilized to a high-finesse ultra-stable optical cavity. The doubling cavity also remains locked to the 637.2 nm light. We show that the tuning range depends mainly on the gain-flattening region of the modulator and the piezo-tunable range of the seed laser. The frequency-stabilized tunable UV laser system is able to compensate for the offset between reference and target frequencies, and has potential applications in precision spectroscopy of cold atoms.

  5. TRACKING SIMULATIONS NEAR HALF-INTEGER RESONANCE AT PEP-II

    SciT

    Nosochkov, Yuri

    2003-05-13

    Beam-beam simulations predict that PEP-II luminosity can be increased by operating the horizontal betatron tune near and above a half-integer resonance. However, effects of the resonance and its synchrotron sidebands significantly enhance betatron and chromatic perturbations which tend to reduce dynamic aperture. In the study, chromatic variation of horizontal tune near the resonance was minimized by optimizing local sextupoles in the Interaction Region. Dynamic aperture was calculated using tracking simulations in LEGO code. Dependence of dynamic aperture on the residual orbit, dispersion and {beta} distortion after correction was investigated.

  6. Orbital State Manipulation of a Diamond Nitrogen-Vacancy Center Using a Mechanical Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. Y.; MacQuarrie, E. R.; Fuchs, G. D.

    2018-04-01

    We study the resonant optical transitions of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center that is coherently dressed by a strong mechanical drive. Using a gigahertz-frequency diamond mechanical resonator that is strain coupled to a NV center's orbital states, we demonstrate coherent Raman sidebands out to the ninth order and orbital-phonon interactions that mix the two excited-state orbital branches. These interactions are spectroscopically revealed through a multiphonon Rabi splitting of the orbital branches which scales as a function of resonator driving amplitude and is successfully reproduced in a quantum model. Finally, we discuss the application of mechanical driving to engineering NV-center orbital states.

  7. Temperature dependence of the Urbach optical absorption edge: A theory of multiple phonon absorption and emission sidebands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grein, C. H.; John, Sajeev

    1989-01-01

    The optical absorption coefficient for subgap electronic transitions in crystalline and disordered semiconductors is calculated by first-principles means with use of a variational principle based on the Feynman path-integral representation of the transition amplitude. This incorporates the synergetic interplay of static disorder and the nonadiabatic quantum dynamics of the coupled electron-phonon system. Over photon-energy ranges of experimental interest, this method predicts accurate linear exponential Urbach behavior of the absorption coefficient. At finite temperatures the nonlinear electron-phonon interaction gives rise to multiple phonon emission and absorption sidebands which accompany the optically induced electronic transition. These sidebands dominate the absorption in the Urbach regime and account for the temperature dependence of the Urbach slope and energy gap. The physical picture which emerges is that the phonons absorbed from the heat bath are then reemitted into a dynamical polaronlike potential well which localizes the electron. At zero temperature we recover the usual polaron theory. At high temperatures the calculated tail is qualitatively similar to that of a static Gaussian random potential. This leads to a linear relationship between the Urbach slope and the downshift of the extrapolated continuum band edge as well as a temperature-independent Urbach focus. At very low temperatures, deviations from these rules are predicted arising from the true quantum dynamics of the lattice. Excellent agreement is found with experimental data on c-Si, a-Si:H, a-As2Se3, and a-As2S3. Results are compared with a simple physical argument based on the most-probable-potential-well method.

  8. Frequency-tunable Pre-stabilized Lasers for LISA via Sideband-locking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.; Thorpe, James I.; Numata, Kenji; Mitryk, Shawn; Mueller, Guido; Wand, Vinzenz

    2008-01-01

    Laser frequency noise mitigation is one of the most challenging aspects of the LISA interferometric measurement system. The unstabilized frequency fluctuations must be suppressed by roughly twelve orders of magnitude in order to achieve stability sufficient for gravitational wave detection. This enormous suppression will be achieved through a combination of stabilization and common-mode rejection. The stabilization component will itself be achieved in two stages: pre-stabilization to a local optical cavity followed by arm-locking to some combination of the inter-spacecraft distances. In order for these two stabilization stages to work simultaneously, the lock-point of the pre-stabilization loop must be frequency tunable. The current baseline stabilization technique, locking to an optical cavity, does not provide tunability between cavity resonances, which are typically spaced by 100s of MHz. Here we present a modification to the traditional Pound-Drever-Hall cavity locking technique that allows the laser to be locked to a cavity resonance with an adjustable frequency offset. This technique requires no modifications to the optical cavity itself, thus preserving the stability of the frequency reference. We present measurements of the system performance and demonstrate that we can meet implement the first two stages of stabilization.

  9. Tunable high-order-sideband generation and carrier-envelope-phase-dependent effects via microwave fields in hybrid electro-optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Liu-Gang; Guo, Ling-Xia; Xiong, Hao; Wu, Ying

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the high-order-sideband generation (HSG) in a hybrid cavity electro-photomechanical system in which an optical cavity is driven by two optical fields (a monochromatic pump field and a nanosecond Gaussian probe pulse with huge numbers of wave cycles), and at the same time a microwave cavity is driven by a monochromatic ac voltage bias. We show that even if the input powers of two driven optical fields are comparatively low the HSG spectra can be induced and enhanced, and the sideband plateau is extended remarkably with the power of the ac voltage bias increasing. It is also shown that the driven ac voltage bias has profound effects on the carrier-envelope-phase-dependent effects of the HSG in the hybrid cavity electro-photomechanical system. Our research may provide an effective way to control the HSG of optical fields by using microwave fields in cavity optomechanics systems.

  10. Multi-tap complex-coefficient incoherent microwave photonic filters based on optical single-sideband modulation and narrow band optical filtering.

    PubMed

    Sagues, Mikel; García Olcina, Raimundo; Loayssa, Alayn; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José

    2008-01-07

    We propose a novel scheme to implement tunable multi-tap complex coefficient filters based on optical single sideband modulation and narrow band optical filtering. A four tap filter is experimentally demonstrated to highlight the enhanced tuning performance provided by complex coefficients. Optical processing is performed by the use of a cascade of four phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings specifically fabricated for this purpose.

  11. FPGA-based digital signal processing for the next generation radio astronomy instruments: ultra-pure sideband separation and polarization detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvear, Andrés.; Finger, Ricardo; Fuentes, Roberto; Sapunar, Raúl; Geelen, Tom; Curotto, Franco; Rodríguez, Rafael; Monasterio, David; Reyes, Nicolás.; Mena, Patricio; Bronfman, Leonardo

    2016-07-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) capacity and Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) speed have largely increased in the last decade. Nowadays we can find one million or more logic blocks (slices) as well as several thousand arithmetic units (ALUs/DSP) available on a single FPGA chip. We can also commercially procure ADC chips reaching 10 GSPS, with 8 bits resolution or more. This unprecedented power of computing hardware has allowed the digitalization of signal processes traditionally performed by analog components. In radio astronomy, the clearest example has been the development of digital sideband separating receivers which, by replacing the IF hybrid and calibrating the system imbalances, have exhibited a sideband rejection above 40dB; this is 20 to 30dB higher than traditional analog sideband separating (2SB) receivers. In Rodriguez et al.,1 and Finger et al.,2 we have demonstrated very high digital sideband separation at 3mm and 1mm wavelengths, using laboratory setups. We here show the first implementation of such technique with a 3mm receiver integrated into a telescope, where the calibration was performed by quasi-optical injection of the test tone in front of the Cassegrain antenna. We also reported progress in digital polarization synthesis, particularly in the implementation of a calibrated Digital Ortho-Mode Transducer (DOMT) based on the Morgan et al. proof of concept.3 They showed off- line synthesis of polarization with isolation higher than 40dB. We plan to implement a digital polarimeter in a real-time FPGA-based (ROACH-2) platform, to show ultra-pure polarization isolation in a non-stop integrating spectrometer.

  12. Broadband photonic single sideband frequency up-converter based on the cross polarization modulation effect in a semiconductor optical amplifier for radio-over-fiber systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Hyoung-Jun; Song, Jong-In

    2014-01-13

    A broadband photonic single sideband (SSB) frequency up-converter based on the cross polarization modulation (XPolM) effect in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. An optical radio frequency (RF) signal in the form of an optical single sideband (OSSB) is generated by the photonic SSB frequency up-converter to solve the power fading problem caused by fiber chromatic dispersion. The generated OSSB RF signal has almost identical optical carrier power and optical sideband power. This SSB frequency up-conversion scheme shows an almost flat electrical RF power response as a function of the RF frequency in a range from 31 GHz to 75 GHz after 40 km single mode fiber (SMF) transmission. The photonic SSB frequency up-conversion technique shows negligible phase noise degradation. The phase noise of the up-converted RF signal at 49 GHz for an offset of 10 kHz is -93.17 dBc/Hz. Linearity analysis shows that the photonic SSB frequency up-converter has a spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) value of 79.51 dB · Hz(2/3).

  13. Contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN)-based continuous monitoring of bolt loosening: Hybrid use of high-order harmonics and spectral sidebands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Menglong; Liao, Yaozhong; Su, Zhongqing; Xiao, Yi

    2018-03-01

    The significance of evaluating bolt tightness in engineering structures, preferably in a continuous manner, cannot be overemphasized. With hybrid use of high-order harmonics (HOH) and spectral sidebands, a contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN)-based monitoring framework is developed for detecting bolt loosening and subsequently evaluating the residual torque on a loose bolt. Low-frequency pumping vibration is introduced into the bolted joint to produce a "breathing" effect at the joining interface that modulates the propagation characteristics of a high-frequency probing wave when it traverses the bolt, leading to the generation of HOH and vibro-acoustic nonlinear distortions (manifested as sidebands in the signal spectrum). To gain insight into the mechanism of CAN generation and to correlate the acquired nonlinear responses of a loose joint with the residual torque remaining on the bolt, an analytical model based on micro-contact theory is established. Two types of nonlinear index, respectively exploiting the induced HOH and spectral sidebands, are defined without dependence on excitation intensity and are experimentally demonstrated to be effective in continuously monitoring bolt loosening in both aluminum-aluminum and composite-composite bolted joints. Taking a step further, variation of the index pair is quantitatively associated with the residual torque on a loose bolt. The approach developed provides a reliable method of continuous evaluation of bolt tightness in both composite and metallic joints, regardless of their working conditions, from early awareness of bolt loosening at an embryonic stage to quantitative estimation of residual torque.

  14. Optical single side-band Nyquist PAM-4 transmission using dual-drive MZM modulation and direct detection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingyue; Zhang, Jing; Yi, Xingwen; Ying, Hao; Li, Xiang; Luo, Ming; Song, Yingxiong; Huang, Xiatao; Qiu, Kun

    2018-03-19

    We present the design and optimization of the optical single side-band (SSB) Nyquist four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) transmission using dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DDMZM)modulation and direct detection (DD), aiming at the C-band cost-effective, high-speed and long-distance transmission. At the transmitter, the laser line width should be small to avoid the phase noise to amplitude noise conversion and equalization-enhanced phase noise due to the large chromatic dispersion (CD). The optical SSB signal is generated after optimizing the optical modulation index (OMI) and hence the minimum phase condition which is required by the Kramers-Kronig (KK) receiver can also be satisfied. At the receiver, a simple AC-coupled photodiode (PD) is used and a virtual carrier is added for the KK operation to alleviate the signal-to-signal beating interference (SSBI).A Volterra filter (VF) is cascaded for remaining nonlinearities mitigation. When the fiber nonlinearity becomes significant, we elect to use an optical band-pass filter with offset filtering. It can suppress the simulated Brillouin scattering and the conjugated distortion by filtering out the imaging frequency components. With our design and optimization, we achieve single-channel, single polarization 102.4-Gb/s Nyquist PAM-4 over 800-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF).

  15. All-optical single-sideband frequency upconversion utilizing the XPM effect in an SOA-MZI.

    PubMed

    Kim, Doo-Ho; Lee, Joo-Young; Choi, Hyung-June; Song, Jong-In

    2016-09-05

    An all-optical single sideband (OSSB) frequency upconverter based on the cross-phase modulation (XPM) effect is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to overcome the power fading problem caused by the chromatic dispersion of fiber in radio-over-fiber systems. The OSSB frequency upconverter consists of an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) and a semiconductor optical amplifier Mach-Zehnder interferometer (SOA-MZI) and does not require an extra delay line used for phase noise compensation. The generated OSSB radio frequency (RF) signal transmitted over single-mode fibers up to 20 km shows a flat electrical RF power response as a function of the fiber length. The upconverted electrical RF signal at 48 GHz shows negligible degradation of the phase noise even without an extra delay line. The measured phase noise of the upconverted RF signal (48 GHz) is -74.72 dBc/Hz at an offset frequency of 10 kHz. The spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) measured by a two-tone test to estimate the linearity of the OSSB frequency upconverter is 72.5 dB·Hz2/3.

  16. Modal analysis on resonant excitation of two-dimensional waveguide grating filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianyu; Sang, Tian; Li, Junlang; Wang, Rui; Wang, La; Wang, Benxin; Wang, Yueke

    2017-12-01

    Modal analysis on resonant excitation of two-dimensional (2-D) waveguide grating filters (WGFs) is proposed. It is shown that the 2-D WGFs can support the excitation of a resonant pair, and the locations of the resonant pair arising from the TE and TM guided-mode resonances (GMRs) can be estimated accurately based on the modal analysis. Multichannel filtering using the resonant pair is investigated, and the antireflection (AR) design of the 2-D WGFs is also studied. It is shown that the reflection sideband can be reduced by placing an AR layer on the bottom of the homogeneous layer, and the well-shaped reflection spectrum with near-zero sideband reflection can be achieved by using the double-faced AR design. By merely increasing the thickness of the homogeneous layer with other parameters maintained, the spectrally dense comb-like filters with good unpolarized filtering features can be achieved. The proposed modal analysis can be extended to study the resonant excitation of 2-D periodic nanoarrays with diverse surface profiles.

  17. Microwave bulk-acoustic-wave reflection-grating resonators.

    PubMed

    Oates, D E; Pan, J Y

    1988-01-01

    A technique for fabrication of bulk-acoustic-wave (BAW) resonators operating at fundamental frequencies between 1 and 10 GHz is presented. The resonators utilize a reflection grating made by optical holographic methods in iron-doped lithium niobate. Q factors of 30000 at 1 GHz have been demonstrated. Extension to Q of 10000 at 10 GHz appears feasible. Projected limitations to performance are discussed. The high Q at the high fundamental frequency directly results in low-phase noise. Phase-noise measurements of BAW resonator-stabilized oscillators operating at 1.14 GHz are presented. The single-sideband noise floor of <-140 dBc/Hz is shown to be in agreement with an analytical model. Projected improvements in the devices and circuits promise performance of <-160 dBc/Hz.

  18. Multi-photon transitions and Rabi resonance in continuous wave EPR.

    PubMed

    Saiko, Alexander P; Fedaruk, Ryhor; Markevich, Siarhei A

    2015-10-01

    The study of microwave-radiofrequency multi-photon transitions in continuous wave (CW) EPR spectroscopy is extended to a Rabi resonance condition, when the radio frequency of the magnetic-field modulation matches the Rabi frequency of a spin system in the microwave field. Using the non-secular perturbation theory based on the Bogoliubov averaging method, the analytical description of the response of the spin system is derived for all modulation frequency harmonics. When the modulation frequency exceeds the EPR linewidth, multi-photon transitions result in sidebands in absorption EPR spectra measured with phase-sensitive detection at any harmonic. The saturation of different-order multi-photon transitions is shown to be significantly different and to be sensitive to the Rabi resonance. The noticeable frequency shifts of sidebands are found to be the signatures of this resonance. The inversion of two-photon lines in some spectral intervals of the out-of-phase first-harmonic signal is predicted under passage through the Rabi resonance. The inversion indicates the transition from absorption to stimulated emission or vice versa, depending on the sideband. The manifestation of the primary and secondary Rabi resonance is also demonstrated in the time evolution of steady-state EPR signals formed by all harmonics of the modulation frequency. Our results provide a theoretical framework for future developments in multi-photon CW EPR spectroscopy, which can be useful for samples with long spin relaxation times and extremely narrow EPR lines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cluster-based single-sink wireless sensor networks and passive optical network converged network incorporating sideband modulation schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Love; Sharma, Vishal; Singh, Amarpal

    2018-02-01

    Wireless sensor networks have tremendous applications, such as civil, military, and environmental monitoring. In most of the applications, sensor data are required to be propagated over the internet/core networks, which result in backhaul setback. Subsequently, there is a necessity to backhaul the sensed information of such networks together with prolonging of the transmission link. Passive optical network (PON) is next-generation access technology emerging as a potential candidate for convergence of the sensed data to the core system. Earlier, the work with single-optical line terminal-PON was demonstrated and investigated merely analytically. This work is an attempt to demonstrate a practical model of a bidirectional single-sink wireless sensor network-PON converged network in which the collected data from cluster heads are transmitted over PON networks. Further, modeled converged structure has been investigated under the influence of double, single, and tandem sideband modulation schemes incorporating a corresponding phase-delay to the sensor data entities that have been overlooked in the past. The outcome illustrates the successful fusion of the sensor data entities over PON with acceptable bit error rate and signal to noise ratio serving as a potential development in the sphere of such converged networks. It has also been revealed that the data entities treated with tandem side band modulation scheme help in improving the performance of the converged structure. Additionally, analysis for uplink transmission reported with queue theory in terms of time cycle, average time delay, data packet generation, and bandwidth utilization. An analytical analysis of proposed converged network shows that average time delay for data packet transmission is less as compared with time cycle delay.

  20. Assessment of Fiber Chromatic Dispersion Based on Elimination of Second-Order Harmonics in Optical OFDM Single Sideband Modulation Using Mach Zehnder Modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Dhananjay; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Dalal, U. D.

    2016-07-01

    This work addresses the analytical and numerical investigations of the transmission performance of an optical Single Sideband (SSB) modulation technique generated by a Mach Zehnder Modulator (MZM) with a 90° and 120° hybrid coupler. It takes into account the problem of chromatic dispersion in single mode fibers in Passive Optical Networks (PON), which severely degrades the performance of the system. Considering the transmission length of the fiber, the SSB modulation generated by maintaining a phase shift of π/2 between the two electrodes of the MZM provides better receiver sensitivity. However, the power of higher-order harmonics generated due to the nonlinearity of the MZM is directly proportional to the modulation index, making the SSB look like a quasi-double sideband (DSB) and causing power fading due to chromatic dispersion. To eliminate one of the second-order harmonics, the SSB signal based on an MZM with a 120° hybrid coupler is simulated. An analytical model of conventional SSB using 90° and 120° hybrid couplers is established. The latter suppresses unwanted (upper/lower) first-order and second-order (lower/upper) sidebands. For the analysis, a varying quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) signal with a data rate of 5 Gb/s is upconverted using both of the SSB techniques and is transmitted over a distance of 75 km in Single Mode Fiber (SMF). The simulation results show that the SSB with 120° hybrid coupler proves to be more immune to chromatic dispersion as compared to the conventional SSB technique. This is in tandem with the theoretical analysis presented in the article.

  1. Tunable microwave photonic filter free from baseband and carrier suppression effect not requiring single sideband modulation using a Mach-Zenhder configuration.

    PubMed

    Mora, José; Ortigosa-Blanch, Arturo; Pastor, Daniel; Capmany, José

    2006-08-21

    We present a full theoretical and experimental analysis of a novel all-optical microwave photonic filter combining a mode-locked fiber laser and a Mach-Zenhder structure in cascade to a 2x1 electro-optic modulator. The filter is free from the carrier suppression effect and thus it does not require single sideband modulation. Positive and negative coefficients are obtained inherently in the system and the tunability is achieved by controlling the optical path difference of the Mach-Zenhder structure.

  2. A novel OCS millimeter-wave generation scheme with data carried only by one sideband and wavelength reuse for uplink connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zihang; Zhao, Shanghong; Yao, Zhoushi; Tan, Qinggui; Li, Yongjun; Chu, Xingchun; Shi, Lei; Hou, Rui

    2012-11-01

    We propose a novel optical carrier suppression (OCS) millimeter-wave generation scheme with data carried only by one sideband using a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) in radio-over-fiber system, and the transmission performance is also investigated. As the signal is transmitted along the fiber, there is no time shifting of the codes caused by chromatic dispersion. Simulation results show that the eye diagram keeps open and clear even when the optical millimeter-waves are transmitted over 110 km and the power penalty is about 1.9 dB after fiber transmission distance of 60 km. Furthermore, due to the +1 order sideband carrying no data, a full duplex radio-over-fiber link based on wavelength reuse is also built to simplify the base station. The bidirectional 2.5 Gbit/s data is successfully transmitted over a 40 km standard single mode fiber with less than 0.8 dB power penalty in the simulation. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results show that our scheme is feasible and we can obtain a simple cost-efficient configuration and good performance over long-distance transmission.

  3. Alternative laser system for cesium magneto-optical trap via optical injection locking to sideband of a 9-GHz current-modulated diode laser.

    PubMed

    Diao, Wenting; He, Jun; Liu, Zhi; Yang, Baodong; Wang, Junmin

    2012-03-26

    By optical injection of an 852-nm extended-cavity diode laser (master laser) to lock the + 1-order sideband of a ~9-GHz-current-modulated diode laser (slave laser), we generate a pair of phase-locked lasers with a frequency difference up to ~9-GHz for a cesium (Cs) magneto-optical trap (MOT) with convenient tuning capability. For a cesium MOT, the master laser acts as repumping laser, locked to the Cs 6S₁/₂ (F = 3) - 6P₃/₂ (F' = 4) transition. When the + 1-order sideband of the 8.9536-GHz-current-modulated slave laser is optically injection-locked, the carrier operates on the Cs 6S₁/₂ (F = 4) - 6P₃/₂ (F' = 5) cooling cycle transition with -12 MHz detuning and acts as cooling/trapping laser. When carrying a 9.1926-GHz modulation signal, this phase-locked laser system can be applied in the fields of coherent population trapping and coherent manipulation of Cs atomic ground states.

  4. Stabilized soliton self-frequency shift and 0.1- PHz sideband generation in a photonic-crystal fiber with an air-hole-modified core.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo-Wen; Hu, Ming-Lie; Fang, Xiao-Hui; Li, Yan-Feng; Chai, Lu; Wang, Ching-Yue; Tong, Weijun; Luo, Jie; Voronin, Aleksandr A; Zheltikov, Aleksei M

    2008-09-15

    Fiber dispersion and nonlinearity management strategy based on a modification of a photonic-crystal fiber (PCF) core with an air hole is shown to facilitate optimization of PCF components for a stable soliton frequency shift and subpetahertz sideband generation through four-wave mixing. Spectral recoil of an optical soliton by a red-shifted dispersive wave, generated through a soliton instability induced by high-order fiber dispersion, is shown to stabilize the soliton self-frequency shift in a highly nonlinear PCF with an air-hole-modified core relative to pump power variations. A fiber with a 2.3-microm-diameter core modified with a 0.9-microm-diameter air hole is used to demonstrate a robust soliton self-frequency shift of unamplified 50-fs Ti: sapphire laser pulses to a central wavelength of about 960 nm, which remains insensitive to variations in the pump pulse energy within the range from 60 to at least 100 pJ. In this regime of frequency shifting, intense high- and low-frequency branches of dispersive wave radiation are simultaneously observed in the spectrum of PCF output. An air-hole-modified-core PCF with appropriate dispersion and nonlinearity parameters is shown to provide efficient four-wave mixing, giving rise to Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands whose frequency shift relative to the pump wavelength falls within the subpetahertz range, thus offering an attractive source for nonlinear Raman microspectroscopy.

  5. Stamp transferred suspended graphene mechanical resonators for radio frequency electrical readout.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuefeng; Oksanen, Mika; Sillanpää, Mika A; Craighead, H G; Parpia, J M; Hakonen, Pertti J

    2012-01-11

    We present a simple micromanipulation technique to transfer suspended graphene flakes onto any substrate and to assemble them with small localized gates into mechanical resonators. The mechanical motion of the graphene is detected using an electrical, radio frequency (RF) reflection readout scheme where the time-varying graphene capacitor reflects a RF carrier at f = 5-6 GHz producing modulation sidebands at f ± f(m). A mechanical resonance frequency up to f(m) = 178 MHz is demonstrated. We find both hardening/softening Duffing effects on different samples and obtain a critical amplitude of ~40 pm for the onset of nonlinearity in graphene mechanical resonators. Measurements of the quality factor of the mechanical resonance as a function of dc bias voltage V(dc) indicates that dissipation due to motion-induced displacement currents in graphene electrode is important at high frequencies and large V(dc). © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Realizing a Circuit Analog of an Optomechanical System with Longitudinally Coupled Superconducting Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, C.; Petta, J. R.

    2018-06-01

    We realize a superconducting circuit analog of the generic cavity-optomechanical Hamiltonian by longitudinally coupling two superconducting resonators, which are an order of magnitude different in frequency. We achieve longitudinal coupling by embedding a superconducting quantum interference device into a high frequency resonator, making its resonance frequency depend on the zero point current fluctuations of a nearby low frequency L C resonator. By applying sideband drive fields we enhance the intrinsic coupling strength of about 15 kHz up to 280 kHz by controlling the amplitude of the drive field. Our results pave the way towards the exploration of optomechanical effects in a fully superconducting platform and could enable quantum optics experiments with photons in the yet unexplored radio frequency band.

  7. Realizing a Circuit Analog of an Optomechanical System with Longitudinally Coupled Superconducting Resonators.

    PubMed

    Eichler, C; Petta, J R

    2018-06-01

    We realize a superconducting circuit analog of the generic cavity-optomechanical Hamiltonian by longitudinally coupling two superconducting resonators, which are an order of magnitude different in frequency. We achieve longitudinal coupling by embedding a superconducting quantum interference device into a high frequency resonator, making its resonance frequency depend on the zero point current fluctuations of a nearby low frequency LC resonator. By applying sideband drive fields we enhance the intrinsic coupling strength of about 15 kHz up to 280 kHz by controlling the amplitude of the drive field. Our results pave the way towards the exploration of optomechanical effects in a fully superconducting platform and could enable quantum optics experiments with photons in the yet unexplored radio frequency band.

  8. Strong quantum squeezing of mechanical resonator via parametric amplification and coherent feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Xiang; Li, Zongyang; Li, Yongmin

    2017-12-01

    A scheme to achieve strong quantum squeezing of a mechanical resonator in a membrane-in-the-middle optomechanical system is developed. To this end, simultaneous linear and nonlinear coupling between the mechanical resonator and the cavity modes is applied. A two-tone driving light field, comprising unequal red-detuned and blue-detuned sidebands, helps in generating a coherent feedback force through the linear coupling with the membrane resonator. Another driving light field with its amplitude modulated at twice the mechanical frequency drives the mechanical parametric amplification through a second-order coupling with the resonator. The combined effect produces strong quantum squeezing of the mechanical state. The proposed scheme is quite robust to excess second-order coupling observed in coherent feedback operations and can suppress the fluctuations in the mechanical quadrature to far below the zero point and achieve strong squeezing (greater than 10 dB) for realistic parameters.

  9. Effects of counter-rotating-wave terms of the driving field on the spectrum of resonance fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yiying; Lü, Zhiguo; Zheng, Hang

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the fluorescence spectrum of a two-level system driven by a monochromatic classical field by the Born-Markovian master equation based on a unitary transformation. The main purpose is to understand the effects of counter-rotating-wave terms of the driving on spectral features of the fluorescence. We have derived an analytical expression for the fluorescence spectrum, which is different from Mollow's theory, while Mollow's result on resonance is the limiting case of ours in moderately weak driving regimes. Our results demonstrate precisely that the counter-rotating-wave terms of the driving play an important role in the fluorescence spectrum for intense driving: (i) the counter-rotating coupling suppresses the red sideband in the Mollow triplet and it enhances the blue one in explicitly contrast to the well-known equal intensity of the sideband in Mollow's theory, (ii) the higher-order Mollow triplets appear as a characteristic spectral feature arising from counter-rotating-wave terms of the driving, and (iii) a significant frequency shift of the sidebands is observed, which depends on both the detuning and driving strength.

  10. Electromagnetically induced reflectance and Fano resonance in one dimensional superconducting photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athe, Pratik; Srivastava, Sanjay; Thapa, Khem B.

    2018-04-01

    In the present work, we demonstrate the generation of optical Fano resonance and electromagnetically induced reflectance (EIR) in one-dimensional superconducting photonic crystal (1D SPC) by numerical simulation using transfer matrix method as analysis tool. We investigated the optical response of 1D SPC structure consisting of alternate layer of two different superconductors and observed that the optical spectra of this structure exhibit two narrow reflectance peaks with zero reflectivity of sidebands. Further, we added a dielectric cap layer to this 1D SPC structure and found that addition of dielectric cap layer transforms the line shape of sidebands around the narrow reflectance peaks which leads to the formation of Fano resonance and EIR line shape in reflectance spectra. We also studied the effects of the number of periods, refractive index and thickness of dielectric cap layer on the lineshape of EIR and Fano resonances. It was observed that the amplitude of peak reflectance of EIR achieves 100% reflectance by increasing the number of periods.

  11. Ultrahigh capacity 2 × 2 MIMO RoF system at 60  GHz employing single-sideband single-carrier modulation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Ting; Ho, Chun-Hung; Huang, Hou-Tzu; Cheng, Yu-Hsuan

    2014-03-15

    This article proposes and experimentally demonstrates a radio-over-fiber system employing single-sideband single-carrier (SSB-SC) modulation at 60 GHz. SSB-SC modulation has a lower peak-to-average-power ratio than orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM) modulation; therefore, the SSB-SC signals provide superior nonlinear tolerance, compared to OFDM signals. Moreover, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology was used extensively to enhance spectral efficiency. A least-mean-square-based equalizer was implemented, including MIMO channel estimation, frequency response equalization, and I/Q imbalance compensation to recover the MIMO signals. Thus, using 2×2 MIMO technology and 64-QAM SSB-SC signals, we achieved the highest data rate of 84 Gbps with 12  bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using the 7-GHz license-free band at 60 GHz.

  12. Full-duplex radio over fiber link with colorless source-free base station based on single sideband optical mm-wave signal with polarization rotated optical carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianxin

    2016-07-01

    A full-duplex radio-over fiber (RoF) link scheme based on single sideband (SSB) optical millimeter (mm)-wave signal with polarization-rotated optical carrier is proposed to realize the source-free colorless base station (BS), in which a polarization beam splitter (PBS) is used to abstract part of the optical carrier for conveying the uplink data. Since the optical carrier for the uplink does not bear the downlink signal, no cross-talk from the downlink contaminates the uplink signal. The simulation results demonstrate that both down- and up-links maintain good performance. The mm-wave signal distribution network based on the proposed full duplex fiber link scheme can use the uniform source-free colorless BSs, which makes the access system very simpler.

  13. Sidebands alongside the diurnal frequencies of radon time series in a simulation experiment -- an indication for a direct association with the earth-sun system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinitz, Gideon; Sturrock, Peter A.; Piatibratova, Oksana; Kotlarsky, Peter

    2015-04-01

    A radon simulation experiment using a confined mode is operating at GSI since 2007 at a time resolution of 15-minutes [1]. The nuclear radiation from radon in the confined air is measured using internal alpha and gamma sensors, and external gamma sensors. Detailed analysis [1, 2] demonstrated that the variation patterns cannot be ascribed to local environmental influences. On the other hand the specific features and relation led to the suggestion that a component in solar radiation is driving the signals. Prominent periodicities dominate the variation in the annual and diurnal frequency bands. The primary periodicity in the diurnal band has a frequency of 1 CPD (S1). Significant multiples occur at 2 CPD (S2), 3 CPD (S3) and also at 4 CPD (S4). The S2 and S3 constituents are clearly observed in the time domain in addition to the primary S1 periodicity. The measured signal is detrended by removing the large annual variation. Spectral analysis (FFT) of the residual time series reveals sidebands (Sb) alongside and on both sides of the S1 frequency in the time series of the alpha and gamma sensors. The lower sideband (LSb) occurs at a frequency close to the astronomical sidereal frequency (0.9972696 CPD). The upper sideband (USb) occurs at a symmetric frequency relative to S1. The four sensors (alpha and gamma)exhibit the LSb, S1, and USb at the following frequencies (CPD): Gamma-C: 0.99739; 0.99989; 1.00275 Gamma-W: 0.99717; 0.99986; 1.00257 Alpha-H: 0.99710; 0.99992; 1.00269 Alpha-L: 0.99719; 0.99991 Multiples of LSb and USb are observed around the S1 periodicity. Similar features of Sb and multiples occur also around S2, S3, and S4. The development of the specific Sb around the diurnal periodicities may be attributed to a driver composed of two waveforms having periodicities of 1 day and 365.25 days, which interacts in a non-linear mode with radon inside the confined volume. The pattern of the alpha and gamma emission of the decaying radon is reflecting this non

  14. Optical resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Yariv, Amnon (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention discloses a semi-ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) optical resonator structure comprising a medium including an edge forming a reflective facet and a waveguide within the medium, the waveguide having opposing ends formed by the reflective facet. The performance of the SRFP resonator can be further enhanced by including a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the waveguide on one side of the gain medium. The optical resonator can be employed in a variety of optical devices. Laser structures using at least one SRFP resonator are disclosed where the resonators are disposed on opposite sides of a gain medium. Other laser structures employing one or more resonators on one side of a gain region are also disclosed.

  15. Optical filter requirements in an EML-based single-sideband PAM4 intensity-modulation and direct-detection transmission system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Kaneda, Noriaki; Lee, Jeffrey; Chen, Jyehong; Chen, Young-Kai

    2017-03-20

    The feasibility of a single sideband (SSB) PAM4 intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IM/DD) transmission based on a CMOS ADC and DAC is experimentally demonstrated in this work. To cost effectively build a >50 Gb/s system as well as to extend the transmission distance, a low cost EML and a passive optical filter are utilized to generate the SSB signal. However, the EML-induced chirp and dispersion-induced power fading limit the requirements of the SSB filter. To separate the effect of signal-signal beating interference, filters with different roll-off factors are employed to demonstrate the performance tolerance at different transmission distance. Moreover, a high resolution spectrum analysis is proposed to depict the system limitation. Experimental results show that a minimum roll-off factor of 7 dB/10GHz is required to achieve a 51.84Gb/s 40-km transmission with only linear feed-forward equalization.

  16. Resonance fluorescence spectrum in a two-band photonic bandgap crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ray-Kuang; Lai, Yinchieh

    2003-05-01

    Steady state resonance fluorescence spectra from a two-level atom embedded in a photonic bandgap crystal and resonantly driven by a classical pump light are calculated. The photonic crystal is considered to be with a small bandgap which is in the order of magnitude of the Rabi frequency and is modeled by the anisotropic two-band dispersion relation. Non-Markovian noises caused by the non-uniform distribution of photon density states near the photonic bandgap are taken into account by a new approach which linearizes the optical Bloch equations by using the Liouville operator expansion. Fluorescence spectra that only exhibit sidebands of the Mollow triplet are found, indicating that there is no coherent Rayleigh scattering process.

  17. Ramsey scheme for coherent population resonance detection in the optically dense medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barantsev, Konstantin; Litvinov, Andrey; Popov, Evgeniy

    2018-04-01

    This work is devoted to a theoretical investigation of the Ramsey method of detection of the coherent population trapping resonance in cold atomic clouds taking into account collective effects caused by finite optical depth of the considered clouds. The interaction of atoms with pulsed laser radiation is described in the formalism of density matrix by means of Maxwell-Bloch set of equations. The Ramsey signal of coherent population trapping resonance was calculated for the radiation passed through the medium and analyzed for different length of the atomic cloud. Also the population of excited level was calculated in dependence on the two-photon detuning and coordinate along the main optical axis. The light shift of sidebands and appearance of additional harmonics were discovered.

  18. Manipulation of resonant Auger processes with strong optical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picón, Antonio; Buth, Christian; Doumy, Gilles; Krässig, Bertold; Young, Linda; Southworth, Stephen

    2013-05-01

    We recently reported on the optical control of core-excited states of a resonant Auger process in neon. We have focused on the resonant excitation 1 s --> 1s-1 3 p , while a strong optical field may resonantly couple two core-excited states (1s-1 3 p and 1s-1 3 s) in the Rydberg manifold as well as dressing the continuum. There is a clear signature in the Auger electron spectrum of the inner-shell dynamics induced by the strong optical field: i) the Auger electron spectrum is modified by the rapid optical-induced population transfer from the 1s-1 3 p state to the 1s-1 3 s state during their decay. ii) The angular anisotropy parameter, defining the angular distribution of the Auger electron, is manifested in the envelope of the (angle-integrated) sidebands. This work is funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  19. Resonance fluorescence spectrum of a p-doped quantum dot coupled to a metallic nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreño, F.; Antón, M. A.; Arrieta-Yáñez, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    The resonance fluorescence spectrum (RFS) of a hybrid system consisting of a p-doped semiconductor quantum dot (QD) coupled to a metallic nanoparticle (MNP) is analyzed. The quantum dot is described as a four-level atomlike system using the density matrix formalism. The lower levels are Zeeman-split hole spin states and the upper levels correspond to positively charged excitons containing a spin-up, spin-down hole pair and a spin electron. A linearly polarized laser field drives two of the optical transitions of the QD and produces localized surface plasmons in the nanoparticle, which act back upon the QD. The frequencies of these localized plasmons are very different along the two principal axes of the nanoparticle, thus producing an anisotropic modification of the spontaneous emission rates of the allowed optical transitions, which is accompanied by very minor local field corrections. This manifests into dramatic modifications in the RFS of the hybrid system in contrast to the one obtained for the isolated QD. The RFS is analyzed as a function of the nanoparticle's aspect ratio, the external magnetic field applied in the Voigt geometry, and the Rabi frequency of the driving field. It is shown that the spin of the QD is imprinted onto certain sidebands of the RFS, and that the signal at these sidebands can be optimized by engineering the shape of the MNP.

  20. Multiquark resonances

    DOE PAGES

    Esposito, A.; Pilloni, A.; Polosa, Antonio D.

    2016-12-02

    Multiquark resonances are undoubtedly experimentally observed. The number of states and the amount of details on their properties have been growing over the years. It is very recent the discovery of two pentaquarks and the confirmation of four tetraquarks, two of which had not been observed before. We mainly review the theoretical understanding of this sector of particle physics phenomenology and present some considerations attempting a coherent description of the so called X and Z resonances. The prominent problems plaguing theoretical models, like the absence of selection rules limiting the number of states predicted, motivate new directions in model building.more » Lastly, data are reviewed going through all of the observed resonances with particular attention to their common features and the purpose of providing a starting point to further research.« less

  1. Laser Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, L. L. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An optical resonator cavity configuration has a unitary mirror with oppositely directed convex and concave reflective surfaces disposed into one fold and concertedly reversing both ends of a beam propagating from a laser rod disposed between two total internal reflection prisms. The optical components are rigidly positioned with perpendicularly crossed virtual rooflines by a compact optical bed. The rooflines of the internal reflection prisms, are arranged perpendicularly to the axis of the laser beam and to the optical axes of the optical resonator components.

  2. Method for high resolution magnetic resonance analysis using magic angle technique

    DOEpatents

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2003-11-25

    A method of performing a magnetic resonance analysis of a biological object that includes placing the biological object in a main magnetic field and in a radio frequency field, the main magnetic field having a static field direction; rotating the biological object at a rotational frequency of less than about 100 Hz around an axis positioned at an angle of about 54.degree.44' relative to the main magnetic static field direction; pulsing the radio frequency to provide a sequence that includes a magic angle turning pulse segment; and collecting data generated by the pulsed radio frequency. According to another embodiment, the radio frequency is pulsed to provide a sequence capable of producing a spectrum that is substantially free of spinning sideband peaks.

  3. Parametric decay instability near the upper hybrid resonance in magnetically confined fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, S. K.; Nielsen, S. K.; Salewski, M.; Stejner, M.; Stober, J.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we investigate parametric decay of an electromagnetic pump wave into two electrostatic daughter waves, particularly an X-mode pump wave decaying into a warm upper hybrid wave (a limit of an electron Bernstein wave) and a warm lower hybrid wave. We describe the general theory of the above parametric decay instability (PDI), unifying earlier treatments, and show that it may occur in underdense and weakly overdense plasmas. The PDI theory is used to explain anomalous sidebands observed in collective Thomson scattering (CTS) spectra at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The theory may also account for similar observations during CTS experiments in stellarators, as well as in some 1st harmonic electron cyclotron resonance and O-X-B heating experiments.

  4. Guided-mode resonance reflection and transmission filters in the optical and microwave spectral ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibuleac, Sorin

    In this dissertation, new reflection and transmission filters are developed and characterized in the optical and microwave spectral regions. These guided-mode resonance (GMR) filters are implemented by integrating diffraction gratings into classical thin-film multilayers to produce high efficiency filter response and low sidebands extended over a large spectral range. Diffraction from phase-shifted gratings and gratings with different periods is analyzed using rigorous coupled-wave theory yielding a new approach to filter linewidth broadening, line-shaping, and multi-line filters at normal incidence. New single-grating transmission filters presented have narrow linewidth, high peak transmittance, and low sideband reflectance. A comparison with classical thin-film filters shows that GMR devices require significantly fewer layers to obtain narrow linewidth and high peak response. All-dielectric microwave frequency- selective surfaces operating in reflection or transmission are shown to be realizable with only a few layers using common microwave materials. Single-layer and multilayer waveguide gratings operating as reflection and transmission filters, respectively, were built and tested in the 4-20 GHz frequency range. The presence of GMR notches and peaks is clearly established by the experimental results, and their spectral location and lineshape found to be in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. A new computer program using genetic algorithms and rigorous coupled-wave analysis was developed for optimization of multilayer structures containing homogeneous and diffractive layers. This program was utilized to find GMR filters possessing features not previously known. Thus, numerous examples of transmission filters with peaks approaching 100%, narrow linewidths (~0.03%), and low sidebands have been found in structures containing only 1-3 layers. A new type of GMR device integrating a waveguide grating with subwavelength period on the endface of an

  5. Sympathetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgin, Lawrence N.

    2018-06-01

    This short paper describes a useful teaching tool, ideal for demonstration purposes within the classroom or lab setting. It is based on the simple dynamic response of flexible cantilevers and evolves naturally from the underlying principles of a vibrating reed tachometer. Utilizing a 3D-printer, these ideas conveniently encompass the phenomenon of resonance in which all the cantilevers of a similar length respond in harmony when just one of their number is plucked.

  6. If It's Resonance, What is Resonating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon under the name "resonance," which, is based on the mathematical analogy between mechanical resonance and the behavior of wave functions in quantum mechanical exchange phenomena was described. The resonating system does not have a structure intermediate between those involved in the resonance, but instead a structure which is further…

  7. Photonics-based microwave frequency measurement using a double-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation and an InP integrated ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer filter.

    PubMed

    Fandiño, Javier S; Muñoz, Pascual

    2013-11-01

    A photonic system capable of estimating the unknown frequency of a CW microwave tone is presented. The core of the system is a complementary optical filter monolithically integrated in InP, consisting of a ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a second-order elliptic response. By simultaneously measuring the different optical powers produced by a double-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation at the outputs of the photonic integrated circuit, an amplitude comparison function that depends on the input tone frequency is obtained. Using this technique, a frequency measurement range of 10 GHz (5-15 GHz) with a root mean square value of frequency error lower than 200 MHz is experimentally demonstrated. Moreover, simulations showing the impact of a residual optical carrier on system performance are also provided.

  8. Experiments with Helmholtz Resonators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments that use Helmholtz resonators and have been designed for a sophomore-level course in oscillations and waves. Discusses the theory of the Helmholtz resonator and resonance curves. (JRH)

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific information about your own examination. What is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)? What is MRI used for? How safe ... What is the MRI examination like? What is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)? MRI, or magnetic resonance imaging, is a ...

  10. Study of magnetic resonance with parametric modulation in a potassium vapor cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Wang, Zhiguo; Peng, Xiang; Li, Wenhao; Li, Songjian; Guo, Hong; Cream Team

    2017-04-01

    A typical magnetic-resonance scheme employs a static bias magnetic field and an orthogonal driving magnetic field oscillating at the Larmor frequency, at which the atomic polarization precesses around the static magnetic field. We demonstrate in a potassium vapor cell the variations of the resonance condition and the spin precession dynamics resulting from the parametric modulation of the bias field, which are in well agreement with theoretical predictions from the Bloch equation. We show that, the driving magnetic field with the frequency detuned by different harmonics of the parametric modulation frequency can lead to resonance as well. Also, a series of frequency sidebands centered at the driving frequency and spaced by the parametric modulation frequency can be observed in the precession of the atomic polarization. These effects could be used in different atomic magnetometry applications. This work is supported by the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars of China (Grant No. 61225003) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61531003 and 61571018).

  11. Optimally designed narrowband guided-mode resonance reflectance filters for mid-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jui-Nung; Schulmerich, Matthew V.; Bhargava, Rohit; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2011-01-01

    An alternative to the well-established Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, termed discrete frequency infrared (DFIR) spectrometry, has recently been proposed. This approach uses narrowband mid-infrared reflectance filters based on guided-mode resonance (GMR) in waveguide gratings, but filters designed and fabricated have not attained the spectral selectivity (≤ 32 cm−1) commonly employed for measurements of condensed matter using FT-IR spectroscopy. With the incorporation of dispersion and optical absorption of materials, we present here optimal design of double-layer surface-relief silicon nitride-based GMR filters in the mid-IR for various narrow bandwidths below 32 cm−1. Both shift of the filter resonance wavelengths arising from the dispersion effect and reduction of peak reflection efficiency and electric field enhancement due to the absorption effect show that the optical characteristics of materials must be taken into consideration rigorously for accurate design of narrowband GMR filters. By incorporating considerations for background reflections, the optimally designed GMR filters can have bandwidth narrower than the designed filter by the antireflection equivalence method based on the same index modulation magnitude, without sacrificing low sideband reflections near resonance. The reported work will enable use of GMR filters-based instrumentation for common measurements of condensed matter, including tissues and polymer samples. PMID:22109445

  12. Fano resonance in the nonadiabatically pumped shot noise of a time-dependent quantum well in a two-dimensional electron gas and graphene

    SciT

    Zhu, Rui, E-mail: rzhu@scut.edu.cn; Dai, Jiao-Hua; Guo, Yong

    Interference between different quantum paths can generate Fano resonance. One of the examples is transport through a quasibound state driven by a time-dependent scattering potential. Previously it is found that Fano resonance occurs as a result of energy matching in one-dimensional systems. In this work, we demonstrate that when transverse motion is present, Fano resonance occurs precisely at the wavevector matching situation. Using the Floquet scattering theory, we considered the transport properties of a nonadiabatic time-dependent well both in a two-dimensional electron gas and monolayer graphene structure. Dispersion of the quasibound state of a static quantum well is obtained withmore » transverse motion present. We found that Fano resonance occurs when the wavevector in the transport direction of one of the Floquet sidebands is exactly identical to that of the quasibound state in the well at equilibrium and follows the dispersion pattern of the latter. To observe the Fano resonance phenomenon in the transmission spectrum, we also considered the pumped shot noise properties when time and spatial symmetry secures vanishing current in the considered configuration. Prominent Fano resonance is found in the differential pumped shot noise with respect to the reservoir Fermi energy.« less

  13. Integral resonator gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean V. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention discloses an inertial sensor having an integral resonator. A typical sensor comprises a planar mechanical resonator for sensing motion of the inertial sensor and a case for housing the resonator. The resonator and a wall of the case are defined through an etching process. A typical method of producing the resonator includes etching a baseplate, bonding a wafer to the etched baseplate, through etching the wafer to form a planar mechanical resonator and the wall of the case and bonding an end cap wafer to the wall to complete the case.

  14. Partially orthogonal resonators for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Malzacher, Matthias; Schad, Lothar R.

    2017-02-01

    Resonators for signal reception in magnetic resonance are traditionally planar to restrict coil material and avoid coil losses. Here, we present a novel concept to model resonators partially in a plane with maximum sensitivity to the magnetic resonance signal and partially in an orthogonal plane with reduced signal sensitivity. Thus, properties of individual elements in coil arrays can be modified to optimize physical planar space and increase the sensitivity of the overall array. A particular case of the concept is implemented to decrease H-field destructive interferences in planar concentric in-phase arrays. An increase in signal to noise ratio of approximately 20% was achieved with two resonators placed over approximately the same planar area compared to common approaches at a target depth of 10 cm at 3 Tesla. Improved parallel imaging performance of this configuration is also demonstrated. The concept can be further used to increase coil density.

  15. Hyperparametric effects in a whispering-gallery mode rutile dielectric resonator at liquid helium temperatures

    SciT

    Nand, Nitin R.; Goryachev, Maxim; Floch, Jean-Michel le

    2014-10-07

    We report the first observation of low power drive level sensitivity, hyperparametric amplification, and single-mode hyperparametric oscillations in a dielectric rutile whispering-gallery mode resonator at 4.2 K. The latter gives rise to a comb of sidebands at 19.756 GHz. Whereas, most frequency combs in the literature have been observed in optical systems using an ensemble of equally spaced modes in microresonators or fibers, the present work represents generation of a frequency comb using only a single-mode. The experimental observations are explained by an additional 1/2 degree-of-freedom originating from an intrinsic material nonlinearity at optical frequencies, which affects the microwave propertiesmore » due to the extremely low loss of rutile. Using a model based on lumped circuits, we demonstrate that the resonance between the photonic and material 1/2 degree-of-freedom, is responsible for the hyperparametric energy transfer in the system.« less

  16. Nanomechanical resonance detector

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Jeffrey C; Zettl, Alexander K

    2013-10-29

    An embodiment of a nanomechanical frequency detector includes a support structure and a plurality of elongated nanostructures coupled to the support structure. Each of the elongated nanostructures has a particular resonant frequency. The plurality of elongated nanostructures has a range of resonant frequencies. An embodiment of a method of identifying an object includes introducing the object to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the object. An embodiment of a method of identifying a molecular species of the present invention includes introducing the molecular species to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the molecular species.

  17. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    MedlinePlus

    ... IV in the arm. MRI Research Programs at FDA Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Electromagnetic Modeling Related ... Resonance Imaging Equipment in Clinical Use (March 2015) FDA/CDER: Information on Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents Safety ...

  18. An Inexpensive Resonance Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of resonance is applicable to almost every branch of physics. Without resonance, there wouldn't be televisions or stereos, or even swings on the playground. However, resonance also has undesirable side effects such as irritating noises in the car and the catastrophic events such as helicopters flying apart. In this article, the…

  19. Atlas of Neutron Resonances

    Table Resonance Integrals & Thermal Cross Sections Book Review by J. Rowlands Nuclear Reaction Atlas of Neutron Resonances Preface: This book is the fifth edition of what was previously known as BNL extensive list of detailed individual resonance parameters for each nucleus, this book contains thermal

  20. Resonant fast dynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, H. R.

    1986-01-01

    A resonant fast dynamo is found in chaotic shear flows. The dynamo effect is produced by resonant perturbations of the velocity field, similar to resonant diffusion in plasma physics. The dynamo is called fast because the flow produces an electric field independent of the fluid resistivity.

  1. Ovenized microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kim, Bongsang

    2014-03-11

    An ovenized micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonator including: a substantially thermally isolated mechanical resonator cavity; a mechanical oscillator coupled to the mechanical resonator cavity; and a heating element formed on the mechanical resonator cavity.

  2. Secular resonances. [of asteroidal dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, H.; Froeschle, CH.; Kinoshita, H.; Yoshikawa, M.; Williams, J. G.

    1989-01-01

    Theories and numerical experiments regarding secular resonances are reviewed. The basic dynamics and the positions of secular resonances are discussed, and secular perturbation theories for the nu16 resonance case, the nu6 resonance, and the nu5 resonance are addressed. What numerical experiments have revealed about asteroids located in secular resonances, the stability of secular resonances, variations of eccentricities and inclinations, and chaotic orbits is considered. Resonant transport of meteorites is discussed.

  3. Microstrip resonators for electron paramagnetic resonance experiments.

    PubMed

    Torrezan, A C; Mayer Alegre, T P; Medeiros-Ribeiro, G

    2009-07-01

    In this article we evaluate the performance of an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) setup using a microstrip resonator (MR). The design and characterization of the resonator are described and parameters of importance to EPR and spin manipulation are examined, including cavity quality factor, filling factor, and microwave magnetic field in the sample region. Simulated microwave electric and magnetic field distributions in the resonator are also presented and compared with qualitative measurements of the field distribution obtained by a perturbation technique. Based on EPR experiments carried out with a standard marker at room temperature and a MR resonating at 8.17 GHz, the minimum detectable number of spins was found to be 5 x 10(10) spins/GHz(1/2) despite the low MR unloaded quality factor Q0=60. The functionality of the EPR setup was further evaluated at low temperature, where the spin resonance of Cr dopants present in a GaAs wafer was detected at 2.3 K. The design and characterization of a more versatile MR targeting an improved EPR sensitivity and featuring an integrated biasing circuit for the study of samples that require an electrical contact are also discussed.

  4. Microstrip resonators for electron paramagnetic resonance experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrezan, A. C.; Mayer Alegre, T. P.; Medeiros-Ribeiro, G.

    2009-07-01

    In this article we evaluate the performance of an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) setup using a microstrip resonator (MR). The design and characterization of the resonator are described and parameters of importance to EPR and spin manipulation are examined, including cavity quality factor, filling factor, and microwave magnetic field in the sample region. Simulated microwave electric and magnetic field distributions in the resonator are also presented and compared with qualitative measurements of the field distribution obtained by a perturbation technique. Based on EPR experiments carried out with a standard marker at room temperature and a MR resonating at 8.17 GHz, the minimum detectable number of spins was found to be 5×1010 spins/GHz1/2 despite the low MR unloaded quality factor Q0=60. The functionality of the EPR setup was further evaluated at low temperature, where the spin resonance of Cr dopants present in a GaAs wafer was detected at 2.3 K. The design and characterization of a more versatile MR targeting an improved EPR sensitivity and featuring an integrated biasing circuit for the study of samples that require an electrical contact are also discussed.

  5. The resonant body transistor.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Dana; Bhave, Sunil A

    2010-04-14

    This paper introduces the resonant body transistor (RBT), a silicon-based dielectrically transduced nanoelectromechanical (NEM) resonator embedding a sense transistor directly into the resonator body. Combining the benefits of FET sensing with the frequency scaling capabilities and high quality factors (Q) of internal dielectrically transduced bar resonators, the resonant body transistor achieves >10 GHz frequencies and can be integrated into a standard CMOS process for on-chip clock generation, high-Q microwave circuits, fundamental quantum-state preparation and observation, and high-sensitivity measurements. An 11.7 GHz bulk-mode RBT is demonstrated with a quality factor Q of 1830, marking the highest frequency acoustic resonance measured to date on a silicon wafer.

  6. Acoustic Levitator Maintains Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Gaspar, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    Transducer loading characteristics allow resonance tracked at high temperature. Acoustic-levitation chamber length automatically adjusted to maintain resonance at constant acoustic frequency as temperature changes. Developed for containerless processing of materials at high temperatures, system does not rely on microphones as resonance sensors, since microphones are difficult to fabricate for use at temperatures above 500 degrees C. Instead, system uses acoustic transducer itself as sensor.

  7. The Concept of Resonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truhlar, Donald G.

    2007-01-01

    A general example of a delocalization system associated with a higher energy than the localized one, which suggests that it is wrong to consider delocalization as equivalent to resonance stabilization, is presented. The meaning of resonance energy as it appears in valence bond theory is described as the lowering of the calculated ground-state…

  8. The resonator handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jerry D.; Zhou, Shiliang

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to extend resonator theory into the region in which the planar mirror is quite small. Results of the theoretical description are then extended to resonator design and experimental arrangements as discussed in further sections of this work. Finally, a discussion of dielectric measurements for small samples is included as a specific application of this work.

  9. A New Resonance Tube

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Alan

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of the speed of sound in air with the resonance tube is a popular experiment that often yields accurate results. One approach is to hold a vibrating tuning fork over an air column that is partially immersed in water. The column is raised and lowered in the water until the generated standing wave produces resonance: this occurs at…

  10. Narrowband resonant transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Hutchinson, Donald P.; Simpson, Marcus L.; Simpson, John T.

    2004-06-29

    A transverse-longitudinal integrated optical resonator (TLIR) is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide. The PBG is positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings. An electro-optic waveguide material may be used to permit tuning the TLIR and to permit the TLIR to perform signal modulation and switching. The TLIR may be positioned on a bulk substrate die with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a TLIR including fabricating a broadband reflective grating is disclosed. A method for tuning the TLIR's transmission resonance wavelength is also disclosed.

  11. Surface acoustic wave resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avitabile, Gianfranco; Roselli, Luca; Atzeni, Carlo; Manes, Gianfranco

    1991-10-01

    The development of surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators is reviewed with attention given to the design of a simulation package for CAD-assisted SAW resonator design. Basic design configurations and operation parameters are set forth for the SAW resonators including the phase of the reflection factor, evaluation of the stopband center frequency, stopband width, and the free propagation speed. The use of synchronous designs is shown to reduce device sensitivity to variations in the technological process but generate higher insertion losses. The existence of transverse modes and propagation losses is shown to affect the rejection of spurious modes and the achievement of low insertion losses. Several SAW resonators are designed and fabricated with the CAD process, and the resonators in the VHF-UHF bands perform in a manner predicted by simulated results.

  12. Resonant snubber inverter

    DOEpatents

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Young, Sr., Robert W.; Chen, Daoshen; Scudiere, Matthew B.; Ott, Jr., George W.; White, Clifford P.; McKeever, John W.

    1997-01-01

    A resonant, snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the main inverter switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter.

  13. Resonant snubber inverter

    DOEpatents

    Lai, J.S.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Chen, D.; Scudiere, M.B.; Ott, G.W. Jr.; White, C.P.; McKeever, J.W.

    1997-06-24

    A resonant, snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the main inverter switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter. 14 figs.

  14. Photonic Feshbach resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dazhi; Ian, Hou; Shi, Tao; Dong, Hui; Sun, Changpu

    2010-07-01

    Feshbach resonance is a resonance for two-atom scattering with two or more channels, in which a bound state is achieved in one channel. We show that this resonance phenomenon not only exists during the collisions of massive particles, but also emerges during the coherent transport of massless particles, that is, photons confined in the coupled resonator arrays linked by a separated cavity or a tunable two level system (TLS). When the TLS is coupled to one array to form a bound state in this setup, the vanishing transmission appears to display the photonic Feshbach resonance. This process can be realized through various experimentally feasible solid state systems, such as the couple defected cavities in photonic crystals and the superconducting qubit coupled to the transmission line. The numerical simulation based on the finite-different time-domain (FDTD) method confirms our assumption about the physical implementation.

  15. High-sensitive transmission type of gas sensor based on guided-mode resonance in coupled gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, La; Sang, Tian; Li, Junlang; Zhou, Jianyu; Wang, Benxin; Wang, Yueke

    2018-07-01

    A new type of high-sensitive transmission gas sensor based on the coupled gratings (CGs) and the corresponding Fabry-Pérot-like (FP-like) model for evaluating the resonance peaks are presented. The estimated locations of the FP-like resonance obtained by this theoretical model are well agreed with those of the exact results. It is shown that a narrow FP-like channel with high transmissivity occurs in the opaque background of the CGs, and its location is shifted linearly with the variation of the refractive index (RI) of the gaseous analyte. The transmission peak of the sideband can be selected as a reference, and it remains nearly fixed as the RI of the analyte is varied. Good sensing properties of the CGs sensor can be maintained, regardless of whether the two grating membranes are laterally aligned or not. The sensitivity of the CGs sensor is immune to the variation of the RI of the substrate. By selecting the higher order FP-like mode (m = 4), sensitivity as high as 748 nm/RIU with the figure of merit of 374 can be achieved.

  16. Resonant optical spectroscopy and coherent control of C r4 + spin ensembles in SiC and GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, William F.; Diler, Berk; Whiteley, Samuel J.; Bourassa, Alexandre; Son, N. T.; Janzén, Erik; Awschalom, David D.

    2017-01-01

    Spins bound to point defects are increasingly viewed as an important resource for solid-state implementations of quantum information and spintronic technologies. In particular, there is a growing interest in the identification of new classes of defect spin that can be controlled optically. Here, we demonstrate ensemble optical spin polarization and optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) of the S = 1 electronic ground state of chromium (C r4 + ) impurities in silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN). Spin polarization is made possible by the narrow optical linewidths of these ensembles (<8.5 GHz), which are similar in magnitude to the ground state zero-field spin splitting energies of the ions at liquid helium temperatures. This allows us to optically resolve individual spin sublevels within the ensembles at low magnetic fields using resonant excitation from a cavity-stabilized, narrow-linewidth laser. Additionally, these near-infrared emitters possess exceptionally weak phonon sidebands, ensuring that >73% of the overall optical emission is contained with the defects' zero-phonon lines. These characteristics make this semiconductor-based, transition metal impurity system a promising target for further study in the ongoing effort to integrate optically active quantum states within common optoelectronic materials.

  17. Robust Sub-harmonic Mixer at 340 GHz Using Intrinsic Resonances of Hammer-Head Filter and Improved Diode Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng; He, Yue; Lu, Bin; Jiang, Jun; Miao, Li; Deng, Xian-Jin; Xiong, Yong-zhong; Zhang, Jian

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a sub-harmonic mixer at 340 GHz based on anti-parallel Schottky diodes (SBDs). Intrinsic resonances in low-pass hammer-head filter have been adopted to enhance the isolation for different harmonic components, while greatly minimizing the transmission loss. The application of new DC grounding structure, impedance matching structure, and suspended micro-strip mitigates the negative influences of fabrication errors from metal cavity, quartz substrate, and micro-assembly. An improved lumped element equivalent circuit model of SBDs guarantees the accuracy of simulation, which takes current-voltage (I/V) behavior, capacitance-voltage (C/V) behavior, carrier velocity saturation, DC series resistor, plasma resonance, skin effect, and four kinds of noise generation mechanisms into consideration thoroughly. The measurement indicates that with local oscillating signal of 2 mW, the lowest double sideband conversion loss is 5.5 dB at 339 GHz; the corresponding DSB noise temperature is 757 K. The 3 dB bandwidth of conversion loss is 50 GHz from 317 to 367 GHz.

  18. Resonant optical spectroscopy and coherent control of C r 4 + spin ensembles in SiC and GaN

    DOE PAGES

    Koehl, William F.; Diler, Berk; Whiteley, Samuel J.; ...

    2017-01-15

    Spins bound to point defects are increasingly viewed as an important resource for solid-state implementations of quantum information technologies. In particular, there is a growing interest in the identification of new classes of defect spin that can be controlled optically. Here we demonstrate ensemble optical spin polarization and optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) of the S = 1 electronic ground state of chromium (Cr 4+) impurities in silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN). Polarization is made possible by the narrow optical linewidths of these ensembles (< 8.5 GHz), which are similar in magnitude to the ground state zero-field spinmore » splitting energies of the ions at liquid helium temperatures. We therefore are able to optically resolve individual spin sublevels within the ensembles at low magnetic fields using resonant excitation from a cavity-stabilized, narrow-linewidth laser. Additionally, these near-infrared emitters possess exceptionally weak phonon sidebands, ensuring that > 73% of the overall optical emission is contained with the defects’ zero-phonon lines. Lastly, these characteristics make this semiconductor-based, transition metal impurity system a promising target for further study in the ongoing effort to integrate optically active quantum states within common optoelectronic materials.« less

  19. Probing Electron-Phonon Interaction through Two-Photon Interference in Resonantly Driven Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reigue, Antoine; Iles-Smith, Jake; Lux, Fabian; Monniello, Léonard; Bernard, Mathieu; Margaillan, Florent; Lemaitre, Aristide; Martinez, Anthony; McCutcheon, Dara P. S.; Mørk, Jesper; Hostein, Richard; Voliotis, Valia

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the temperature dependence of photon coherence properties through two-photon interference (TPI) measurements from a single quantum dot (QD) under resonant excitation. We show that the loss of indistinguishability is related only to the electron-phonon coupling and is not affected by spectral diffusion. Through these measurements and a complementary microscopic theory, we identify two independent separate decoherence processes, both of which are associated with phonons. Below 10 K, we find that the relaxation of the vibrational lattice is the dominant contribution to the loss of TPI visibility. This process is non-Markovian in nature and corresponds to real phonon transitions resulting in a broad phonon sideband in the QD emission spectra. Above 10 K, virtual phonon transitions to higher lying excited states in the QD become the dominant dephasing mechanism, this leads to a broadening of the zero phonon line, and a corresponding rapid decay in the visibility. The microscopic theory we develop provides analytic expressions for the dephasing rates for both virtual phonon scattering and non-Markovian lattice relaxation.

  20. Device localization and dynamic scan plane selection using a wireless magnetic resonance imaging detector array.

    PubMed

    Riffe, Matthew J; Yutzy, Stephen R; Jiang, Yun; Twieg, Michael D; Blumenthal, Colin J; Hsu, Daniel P; Pan, Li; Gilson, Wesley D; Sunshine, Jeffrey L; Flask, Christopher A; Duerk, Jeffrey L; Nakamoto, Dean; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark A

    2014-06-01

    A prototype wireless guidance device using single sideband amplitude modulation (SSB) is presented for a 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging system. The device contained three fiducial markers each mounted to an independent receiver coil equipped with wireless SSB technology. Acquiring orthogonal projections of these markers determined the position and orientation of the device, which was used to define the scan plane for a subsequent image acquisition. Device localization and scan plane update required approximately 30 ms, so it could be interleaved with high temporal resolution imaging. Since the wireless device is used for localization and does not require full imaging capability, the design of the SSB wireless system was simplified by allowing an asynchronous clock between the transmitter and receiver. When coupled to a high readout bandwidth, the error caused by the lack of a shared frequency reference was quantified to be less than one pixel (0.78 mm) in the projection acquisitions. Image guidance with the prototype was demonstrated with a phantom where a needle was successfully guided to a target and contrast was delivered. The feasibility of active tracking with a wireless detector array is demonstrated. Wireless arrays could be incorporated into devices to assist in image-guided procedures. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Resonances from lattice QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Briceno, Raul A.

    2018-03-26

    The spectrum of hadron is mainly composed as shortly-lived states (resonance) that decay onto two or more hadrons. These resonances play an important role in a variety of phenomenologically significant processes. In this talk, I give an overview on the present status of a rigorous program for studying of resonances and their properties using lattice QCD. I explain the formalism needed for extracting resonant amplitudes from the finite-volume spectra. From these one can extract the masses and widths of resonances. I present some recent examples that illustrate the power of these ideas. I then explain similar formalism that allows formore » the determination of resonant electroweak amplitudes from finite-volume matrix elements. I use the recent calculation of the πγ* → ππ amplitude as an example illustrating the power of this formalism. From such amplitudes one can determine transition form factors of resonances. I close by reviewing on-going efforts to generalize these ideas to increasingly complex reactions and I then give a outlook of the field.« less

  2. Resonances from lattice QCD

    SciT

    Briceno, Raul A.

    The spectrum of hadron is mainly composed as shortly-lived states (resonance) that decay onto two or more hadrons. These resonances play an important role in a variety of phenomenologically significant processes. In this talk, I give an overview on the present status of a rigorous program for studying of resonances and their properties using lattice QCD. I explain the formalism needed for extracting resonant amplitudes from the finite-volume spectra. From these one can extract the masses and widths of resonances. I present some recent examples that illustrate the power of these ideas. I then explain similar formalism that allows formore » the determination of resonant electroweak amplitudes from finite-volume matrix elements. I use the recent calculation of the πγ* → ππ amplitude as an example illustrating the power of this formalism. From such amplitudes one can determine transition form factors of resonances. I close by reviewing on-going efforts to generalize these ideas to increasingly complex reactions and I then give a outlook of the field.« less

  3. Resonant halide perovskite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiguntseva, Ekaterina Y.; Ishteev, Arthur R.; Komissarenko, Filipp E.; Zuev, Dmitry A.; Ushakova, Elena V.; Milichko, Valentin A.; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander; Makarov, Sergey V.; Zakhidov, Anvar A.

    2017-09-01

    The hybrid halide perovskites is a prospective material for fabrication of cost-effective optical devices. Unique perovskites properties are used for solar cells and different photonic applications. Recently, perovskite-based nanophotonics has emerged. Here, we consider perovskite like a high-refractive index dielectric material, which can be considered to be a basis for nanoparticles fabrication with Mie resonances. As a result, we fabricate and study resonant perovskite nanoparticles with different sizes. We reveal, that spherical nanoparticles show enhanced photoluminescence signal. The achieved results lay a cornerstone in the field of novel types of organic-inorganic nanophotonics devices with optical properties improved by Mie resonances.

  4. Tunable multiwalled nanotube resonator

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Kenneth J; Girit, Caglar O; Mickelson, William E; Zettl, Alexander K; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2013-11-05

    A tunable nanoscale resonator has potential applications in precise mass, force, position, and frequency measurement. One embodiment of this device consists of a specially prepared multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) suspended between a metal electrode and a mobile, piezoelectrically controlled contact. By harnessing a unique telescoping ability of MWNTs, one may controllably slide an inner nanotube core from its outer nanotube casing, effectively changing its length and thereby changing the tuning of its resonance frequency. Resonant energy transfer may be used with a nanoresonator to detect molecules at a specific target oscillation frequency, without the use of a chemical label, to provide label-free chemical species detection.

  5. Tunable multiwalled nanotube resonator

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alex K [Kensington, CA; Jensen, Kenneth J [Berkeley, CA; Girit, Caglar [Albany, CA; Mickelson, William E [San Francisco, CA; Grossman, Jeffrey C [Berkeley, CA

    2011-03-29

    A tunable nanoscale resonator has potential applications in precise mass, force, position, and frequency measurement. One embodiment of this device consists of a specially prepared multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) suspended between a metal electrode and a mobile, piezoelectrically controlled contact. By harnessing a unique telescoping ability of MWNTs, one may controllably slide an inner nanotube core from its outer nanotube casing, effectively changing its length and thereby changing the tuning of its resonance frequency. Resonant energy transfer may be used with a nanoresonator to detect molecules at a specific target oscillation frequency, without the use of a chemical label, to provide label-free chemical species detection.

  6. Thin film resonator technology.

    PubMed

    Lakin, Kenneth M

    2005-05-01

    Advances in wireless systems have placed increased demands on high performance frequency control devices for operation into the microwave range. With spectrum crowding, high bandwidth requirements, miniaturization, and low cost requirements as a background, the thin film resonator technology has evolved into the mainstream of applications. This technology has been under development for over 40 years in one form or another, but it required significant advances in integrated circuit processing to reach microwave frequencies and practical manufacturing for high-volume applications. This paper will survey the development of the thin film resonator technology and describe the core elements that give rise to resonators and filters for today's high performance wireless applications.

  7. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert

    1991-01-01

    A resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method provides a unique characterization of an object for use in distinguishing similar objects having physical differences greater than a predetermined tolerance. A resonant response spectrum is obtained for a reference object by placing excitation and detection transducers at any accessible location on the object. The spectrum is analyzed to determine the number of resonant response peaks in a predetermined frequency interval. The distribution of the resonance frequencies is then characterized in a manner effective to form a unique signature of the object. In one characterization, a small frequency interval is defined and stepped though the spectrum frequency range. Subsequent objects are similarly characterized where the characterizations serve as signatures effective to distinguish objects that differ from the reference object by more than the predetermined tolerance.

  8. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, Ned A.; Koehler, Dale R.; Liang, Alan Y.; Smith, Bradley K.

    1993-01-01

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  9. Resonances in Positronium Hydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiRienzi, Joseph; Drachman, Richard J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We re-examine the problem of calculating the positions and widths of the lowest-lying resonances in the Ps + H scattering system which consists of two electrons, one positron and one proton. The first of these resonances, for L=0, was found by the methods of complex rotation and stabilization, and later described as a Feshbach resonance lying close to a bound state in the closed-channel e (+) + H (-) system. Recently, results for the L=1 and 2 scattering states were published, and it was found, surprisingly, that there is a larae shift in the positions of these resonances. In this work we repeat the analysis for L=1 and find an unexpected explanation for the shift.

  10. Argonne - Ring Resonators

    -- Link6 -- Integrated Photonic Spectrographs for Astronomy Optical Multi-Mode Interference Devices Dual Guiding, Modulating, and Emitting Light on Silicon Scope1 -- Scope 2 -- Lamp1 -- optical Ring Resonators

  11. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, N.A.; Koehler, D.R.; Liang, A.Y.; Smith, B.K.

    1993-03-30

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  12. Resonant dielectric metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Loui, Hung; Carroll, James; Clem, Paul G; Sinclair, Michael B

    2014-12-02

    A resonant dielectric metamaterial comprises a first and a second set of dielectric scattering particles (e.g., spheres) having different permittivities arranged in a cubic array. The array can be an ordered or randomized array of particles. The resonant dielectric metamaterials are low-loss 3D isotropic materials with negative permittivity and permeability. Such isotropic double negative materials offer polarization and direction independent electromagnetic wave propagation.

  13. Cylindrical laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Casperson, Lee W.

    1976-02-24

    The properties of an improved class of lasers is presented. In one configuration of these lasers the radiation propagates radially within the amplifying medium, resulting in high fields and symmetric illumination at the resonator axis. Thus there is a strong focusing of energy at the axis of the resonator. In a second configuration the radiation propagates back and forth in a tubular region of space.

  14. Hexagonal quartz resonator

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A generally flat, relatively thin AT-cut piezoelectric resonator element structured to minimize the force-frequency effect when mounted and energized in a housing. The resonator is in the form of an equilateral hexagon with the X crystallographic axis of the crystal passing through one set of opposing corners with mounting being effected at an adjacent set of corners respectively .+-.60.degree. away from the X axis which thereby results in a substantially zero frequency shift of the operating frequency.

  15. Injector with integrated resonator

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; York, William David; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2014-07-29

    The system may include a turbine engine. The turbine engine may include a fuel nozzle. The fuel nozzle may include an air path. The fuel nozzle may also include a fuel path such that the fuel nozzle is in communication with a combustion zone of the turbine engine. Furthermore, the fuel nozzle may include a resonator. The resonator may be disposed in the fuel nozzle directly adjacent to the combustion zone.

  16. Whispering gallery mode resonators for frequency metrology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartel, Lukas

    properties of another. Calculations show that a temperature coefficient zero-crossing can be achieved, and encouraging initial experimental results are presented. At shorter time scales, fundamental thermal and technical noise sources define stability limits. The relative strengths of thermorefractive, thermoelastic, and Brownian motion are outlined, along with the level at which they can expect to be observed and some approaches to minimize them. It is shown that variations in the coupling gap pull the frequency at about 10 Hz/nm. A method for calculating frequency noise density caused by laser amplitude fluctuations is presented. Frequency comb generation in WGM resonators is also discussed. It is shown that cavity dispersion can be engineered through geometric parameters, yielding a microcomb with initial sidebands at 1 FSR from the pump. Such combs are thought to be coherent. Also described is a microcomb generated by a PDH locked pump laser. The resulting microwave beatnote can be changed from noisy to quiet by changing the offset of this lock. An investigation of optical to microwave down-conversion is conducted.

  17. Resonant nonlinear ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Paul A.; TenCate, James A.; Guyer, Robert A.; Van Den Abeele, Koen E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Components with defects are identified from the response to strains applied at acoustic and ultrasound frequencies. The relative resonance frequency shift .vertline..DELTA..function./.function..sub.0.vertline., is determined as a function of applied strain amplitude for an acceptable component, where .function..sub.0 is the frequency of the resonance peak at the lowest amplitude of applied strain and .DELTA..function. is the frequency shift of the resonance peak of a selected mode to determine a reference relationship. Then, the relative resonance frequency shift .vertline..DELTA..function./.function..sub.0 is determined as a function of applied strain for a component under test, where fo .function..sub.0 the frequency of the resonance peak at the lowest amplitude of applied strain and .DELTA..function. is the frequency shift of the resonance peak to determine a quality test relationship. The reference relationship is compared with the quality test relationship to determine the presence of defects in the component under test.

  18. Alfven wave cyclotron resonance heating

    SciT

    White, R.B.; Yosikawa, S.; Oberman, C.

    1981-02-01

    The resonance absorption of fast Alfven waves at the proton ctclotron resonance of a predominately deuterium plasma is investigated. An approximate dispersion relation is derived, valid in the vicinity of the resonance, which permits an exact calculation of transmission and reflection coefficients. For reasonable plasma parameters significant linear resonance absorption is found.

  19. Optical and microwave control of resonance fluorescence and squeezing spectra in a polar molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, M. A.; Maede-Razavi, S.; Carreño, F.; Thanopulos, I.; Paspalakis, E.

    2017-12-01

    A two-level quantum emitter with broken inversion symmetry simultaneously driven by an optical field and a microwave field that couples to the permanent dipole's moment is presented. We focus to a situation where the angular frequency of the microwave field is chosen such that it closely matches the Rabi frequency of the optical field, the so-called Rabi resonance condition. Using a series of unitary transformations we obtain an effective Hamiltonian in the double-dressed basis which results in easily solvable Bloch equations which allow us to derive analytical expressions for the spectrum of the scattered photons. We analyze the steady-state population inversion of the system which shows a distinctive behavior at the Rabi resonance with regard to an ordinary two-level nonpolar system. We show that saturation can be produced even in the case that the optical field is far detuned from the transition frequency, and we demonstrate that this behavior can be controlled through the intensity and the angular frequency of the microwave field. The spectral properties of the scattered photons are analyzed and manifest the emergence of a series of Mollow-like triplets which may be spectrally broadened or narrowed for proper values of the amplitude and/or frequency of the low-frequency field. We also analyze the phase-dependent spectrum which reveals that a significant enhancement or suppression of the squeezing at certain sidebands can be produced. These quantum phenomena are illustrated in a recently synthesized molecular complex with high nonlinear optical response although they can also occur in other quantum systems with broken inversion symmetry.

  20. LABCOM resonator Phase 3

    SciT

    Keres, L.J.

    1990-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop quartz crystal resonator designs, production processes, and test capabilities for 5-MHz, 6.2-MHz, and 10-MHz resonators for Tactical Miniature Crystal Oscillator (TMXO) applications. GE Neutron Devices (GEND) established and demonstrated the capability to produce and test quartz crystal resonators for use in the TMXO developed by the US Army ERADCOM (now LABCOM). The goals in this project were based on the ERADCOM statement of work. The scope of work indicated that the resonator production facilities for this project would not be completely independent, but that they would be supported in part by equipmentmore » and processes in place at GEND used in US Department of Energy (DOE) work. In addition, provisions for production test equipment or or eventual technology transfer costs to a commercial supplier were clearly excluded from the scope of work. The demonstrated technical capability of the deep-etched blank design is feasible and practical. It can be manufactured in quantity with reasonable yield, and its performance is readily predictable. The ceramic flatpack is a very strong package with excellent hermeticity. The four-point mount supports the crystal to reasonable shock levels and does not perturb the resonator's natural frequency-temperature behavior. The package can be sealed with excellent yields. The high-temperature, high-vacuum processing developed for the TMXO resonator, including bonding the piezoid to its mount with conductive polyimide adhesive, is consistent with precision resonator fabrication. 1 fig., 6 tabs.« less

  1. Resonant enhancement in leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, P. S. B.; Garny, M.; Klaric, J.; Millington, P.; Teresi, D.

    2018-02-01

    Vanilla leptogenesis within the type I seesaw framework requires the mass scale of the right-handed neutrinos to be above 109 GeV. This lower bound can be avoided if at least two of the sterile states are almost mass degenerate, which leads to an enhancement of the decay asymmetry. Leptogenesis models that can be tested in current and upcoming experiments often rely on this resonant enhancement, and a systematic and consistent description is therefore necessary for phenomenological applications. In this paper, we give an overview of different methods that have been used to study the saturation of the resonant enhancement when the mass difference becomes comparable to the characteristic width of the Majorana neutrinos. In this limit, coherent flavor transitions start to play a decisive role, and off-diagonal correlations in flavor space have to be taken into account. We compare various formalisms that have been used to describe the resonant regime and discuss under which circumstances the resonant enhancement can be captured by simplified expressions for the CP asymmetry. Finally, we briefly review some of the phenomenological aspects of resonant leptogenesis.

  2. Resonant ultrasound spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert; Visscher, William M.; Fisk, Zachary

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasound resonant spectrometer determines the resonant frequency spectrum of a rectangular parallelepiped sample of a high dissipation material over an expected resonant response frequency range. A sample holder structure grips corners of the sample between piezoelectric drive and receive transducers. Each transducer is mounted on a membrane for only weakly coupling the transducer to the holder structure and operatively contacts a material effective to remove system resonant responses at the transducer from the expected response range. i.e., either a material such as diamond to move the response frequencies above the range or a damping powder to preclude response within the range. A square-law detector amplifier receives the response signal and retransmits the signal on an isolated shield of connecting cabling to remove cabling capacitive effects. The amplifier also provides a substantially frequency independently voltage divider with the receive transducer. The spectrometer is extremely sensitive to enable low amplitude resonance to be detected for use in calculating the elastic constants of the high dissipation sample.

  3. Spectroscopy of baryon resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Reinhard; Thoma, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Within project A.1 of the SFB/TR16 "Subnuclear Structure of Matter", a large amount of data on photoproduction reactions has been accumulated at the Bonn Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA with the CBELSA/TAPS detector and was analysed in detail. In particular, data have been taken with unpolarized or with linearly or circularly polarized photons and with unpolarized or with longitudinally or transversely polarized protons. Photoproduction off neutrons was studied to determine the helicity amplitudes for the excitation of resonances off neutrons. In a partial wave analysis of the data, new resonances have been found and the properties of new and of known resonances have been determined, including the measurement of partial widths of so far unmeasured decay modes.

  4. Quartz resonator processing system

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a single chamber ultra-high vacuum processing system for the oduction of hermetically sealed quartz resonators wherein electrode metallization and sealing are carried out along with cleaning and bake-out without any air exposure between the processing steps. The system includes a common vacuum chamber in which is located a rotatable wheel-like member which is adapted to move a plurality of individual component sets of a flat pack resonator unit past discretely located processing stations in said chamber whereupon electrode deposition takes place followed by the placement of ceramic covers over a frame containing a resonator element and then to a sealing stage where a pair of hydraulic rams including heating elements effect a metallized bonding of the covers to the frame.

  5. Fundamental properties of resonances

    PubMed Central

    Ceci, S.; Hadžimehmedović, M.; Osmanović, H.; Percan, A.; Zauner, B.

    2017-01-01

    All resonances, from hydrogen nuclei excited by the high-energy gamma rays in deep space to newly discovered particles produced in Large Hadron Collider, should be described by the same fundamental physical quantities. However, two distinct sets of properties are used to describe resonances: the pole parameters (complex pole position and residue) and the Breit-Wigner parameters (mass, width, and branching fractions). There is an ongoing decades-old debate on which one of them should be abandoned. In this study of nucleon resonances appearing in the elastic pion-nucleon scattering we discover an intricate interplay of the parameters from both sets, and realize that neither set is completely independent or fundamental on its own. PMID:28345595

  6. Magnetostrictive resonance excitation

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, Ricardo B.; Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani

    1992-01-01

    The resonance frequency spectrum of a magnetostrictive sample is remotely determined by exciting the magnetostrictive property with an oscillating magnetic field. The permeability of a magnetostrictive material and concomitant coupling with a detection coil varies with the strain in the material whereby resonance responses of the sample can be readily detected. A suitable sample may be a magnetostrictive material or some other material having at least one side coated with a magnetostrictive material. When the sample is a suitable shape, i.e., a cube, rectangular parallelepiped, solid sphere or spherical shell, the elastic moduli or the material can be analytically determined from the measured resonance frequency spectrum. No mechanical transducers are required and the sample excitation is obtained without contact with the sample, leading to highly reproducible results and a measurement capability over a wide temperature range, e.g. from liquid nitrogen temperature to the Curie temperature of the magnetostrictive material.

  7. Higgs–photon resonances

    SciT

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kearney, John

    We study models that produce a Higgs boson plus photon (more » $$h^0 \\gamma$$) resonance at the LHC. When the resonance is a $Z'$ boson, decays to $$h^0 \\gamma$$ occur at one loop. If the $Z'$ boson couples at tree-level to quarks, then the $$h^0 \\gamma$$ branching fraction is typically of order $$10^{-5}$$ or smaller. Nevertheless, there are models that would allow the observation of $$Z' \\to h^0 \\gamma$$ at $$\\sqrt{s} = 13$$ TeV with a cross section times branching fraction larger than 1 fb for a $Z'$ mass in the 200--450 GeV range, and larger than 0.1 fb for a mass up to 800 GeV. The 1-loop decay of the $Z'$ into lepton pairs competes with $$h^0 \\gamma$$, even if the $Z'$ couplings to leptons vanish at tree level. We also present a model in which a $Z'$ boson decays into a Higgs boson and a pair of collimated photons, mimicking an $$h^0 \\gamma$$ resonance. In this model, the $$h^0 \\gamma$$ resonance search would be the discovery mode for a $Z'$ as heavy as 2 TeV. When the resonance is a scalar, although decay to $$h^0 \\gamma$$ is forbidden by angular momentum conservation, the $h^0$ plus collimated photons channel is allowed. Here, we comment on prospects of observing an $$h^0 \\gamma$$ resonance through different Higgs decays, on constraints from related searches, and on models where $h^0$ is replaced by a nonstandard Higgs boson.« less

  8. Higgs–photon resonances

    DOE PAGES

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kearney, John

    2017-10-24

    We study models that produce a Higgs boson plus photon (more » $$h^0 \\gamma$$) resonance at the LHC. When the resonance is a $Z'$ boson, decays to $$h^0 \\gamma$$ occur at one loop. If the $Z'$ boson couples at tree-level to quarks, then the $$h^0 \\gamma$$ branching fraction is typically of order $$10^{-5}$$ or smaller. Nevertheless, there are models that would allow the observation of $$Z' \\to h^0 \\gamma$$ at $$\\sqrt{s} = 13$$ TeV with a cross section times branching fraction larger than 1 fb for a $Z'$ mass in the 200--450 GeV range, and larger than 0.1 fb for a mass up to 800 GeV. The 1-loop decay of the $Z'$ into lepton pairs competes with $$h^0 \\gamma$$, even if the $Z'$ couplings to leptons vanish at tree level. We also present a model in which a $Z'$ boson decays into a Higgs boson and a pair of collimated photons, mimicking an $$h^0 \\gamma$$ resonance. In this model, the $$h^0 \\gamma$$ resonance search would be the discovery mode for a $Z'$ as heavy as 2 TeV. When the resonance is a scalar, although decay to $$h^0 \\gamma$$ is forbidden by angular momentum conservation, the $h^0$ plus collimated photons channel is allowed. Here, we comment on prospects of observing an $$h^0 \\gamma$$ resonance through different Higgs decays, on constraints from related searches, and on models where $h^0$ is replaced by a nonstandard Higgs boson.« less

  9. Method for resonant measurement

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, George W.; Migliori, Albert; Dixon, Raymond D.

    1996-01-01

    A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson's ratio (.sigma.) and shear modulus (.mu.) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson's ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson's ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio.

  10. Locally resonant sonic materials

    PubMed

    Liu; Zhang; Mao; Zhu; Yang; Chan; Sheng

    2000-09-08

    We have fabricated sonic crystals, based on the idea of localized resonant structures, that exhibit spectral gaps with a lattice constant two orders of magnitude smaller than the relevant wavelength. Disordered composites made from such localized resonant structures behave as a material with effective negative elastic constants and a total wave reflector within certain tunable sonic frequency ranges. A 2-centimeter slab of this composite material is shown to break the conventional mass-density law of sound transmission by one or more orders of magnitude at 400 hertz.

  11. Field resonance propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion concept was developed based on a proposed resonance between coherent, pulsed electromagnetic wave forms, and gravitational wave forms (or space-time metrics). Using this concept a spacecraft propulsion system potentially capable of galactic and intergalactic travel without prohibitive travel times was designed. The propulsion system utilizes recent research associated with magnetic field line merging, hydromagnetic wave effects, free-electron lasers, laser generation of megagauss fields, and special structural and containment metals. The research required to determine potential, field resonance characteristics and to evaluate various aspects of the spacecraft propulsion design is described.

  12. Method for resonant measurement

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Dixon, R.D.

    1996-03-05

    A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson`s ratio ({sigma}) and shear modulus ({mu}) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson`s ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson`s ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson`s ratio. 1 fig.

  13. Hexagonal quartz resonator

    DOEpatents

    Peters, R.D.M.

    1982-11-02

    A generally flat, relatively thin AT-cut piezoelectric resonator element structured to minimize the force-frequency effect when mounted and energized in a housing. The resonator is in the form of an equilateral hexagon with the X crystallographic axis of the crystal passing through one set of opposing corners with mounting being effected at an adjacent set of corners respectively [+-]60[degree] away from the X axis which thereby results in a substantially zero frequency shift of the operating frequency. 3 figs.

  14. Physics of Sports: Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, David

    2000-04-01

    When force is applied by an athlete to sports equipment resonances can occur. Just a few examples are: the ringing of a spiked volleyball, the strumming of a golf club shaft during a swing, and multiple modes induced in an aluminum baseball bat when striking a ball. Resonances produce acoustic waves which, if conditions are favorable, can be detected off the playing field. This can provide a means to evaluate athletic performance during game conditions. Results are given from the use of a simple hand-held acoustic detector - by a spectator sitting in the stands - to determine how hard volleyballs were spiked during college and high school games.

  15. Coupled-Resonator-Induced Transparency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Chang, Hong-Rok; Fuller, Kirk A.; Rosenberger, A. T.; Boyd, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that a cancellation of absorption occurs on resonance for two (or any even number of) coupled optical resonators, due to mode splitting and classical destructive interference, particularly when the resonator finesse is large and the loss in the resonator furthest from the excitation waveguide is small. The linewidth and group velocity of a collection of such coupled-resonator structures may be decreased by using larger resonators of equal size, using larger resonators of unequal size where the optical path length of the larger resonator is an integer multiple of that of the smaller one, or by using a larger number of resonators per structure. We explore the analogy between these effects and electromagnetically induced transparency in an atomic system.

  16. Double resonator cantilever accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, Dale R.

    1984-01-01

    A digital quartz accelerometer includes a pair of spaced double-ended tuning forks fastened at one end to a base and at the other end through a spacer mass. Transverse movement of the resonator members stresses one and compresses the other, providing a differential frequency output which is indicative of acceleration.

  17. Magnetostatic wave tunable resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castera, J.-P.; Hartemann, P.

    1983-06-01

    Theoretical principles and techniques for the implementation of magnetostatic surface wave and volume wave resonators in high frequency oscillators are discussed. Magnetostatic waves are magnetic waves that propagate in materials exposed to a polarized magnetic field. The propagation speed ranges from 3-300 km/sec for wavelengths between 1 micron and 10 mm, in the presence of lags from 10-1000 nsec/ cm. Tunable resonators in the 1-20 GHz frequency range have been manufactured with YIG using liquid phase epitaxy for deposition on gadolinium and gallium substrates. Distributed-mirror Fabry-Perot cavity resonators are described and performance tests results are reported, including losses of 8 dB, a quality coefficient under voltage of 450, and frequency rejection outside of resonance better than 10 dB. However, saturation occurs at low power levels at frequencies lower than 4.2 GHz, a feature overcome with forward volume magnetostatic wave generators, which have a quality factor of 500, an insertion loss of 22 dB, and rejection around 15 dB.

  18. RESONANT CAVITY EXCITATION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-01

    A cavity excitation circuit is described for rapidly building up and maintaining high-level oscillations in a resonant cavity. The circuit overcomes oscillation buildup slowing effects such as ion locking in the cavity by providing for the selective application of an amplified accelerating drive signal to the main cavity exciting oscillator during oscillation buildup and a direct drive signal to the oscillator thereafter.

  19. Resonance Ionization, Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, J. P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is an analytical technique that uses photons from lasers to resonantly excite an electron from some initial state of a gaseous atom through various excited states of the atom or molecule. Described are the apparatus, some analytical applications, and the precision and accuracy of the technique. Lists 26 references. (CW)

  20. RESONATOR PARTICLE SEPARATOR

    DOEpatents

    Blewett, J.P.; Kiesling, J.D.

    1963-06-11

    A wave-guide resonator structure is designed for use in separating particles of equal momentum but differing in mass, having energies exceeding one billion eiectron volts. The particles referred to are those of sub-atomic size and are generally produced as a result of the bombardment of a target by a beam such as protons produced in a high energy accelerator. In the resonator a travelling electric wave is produced which travels at the same rate of speed as the unwanted particle which is thus deflected continuously over the length of the resonator. The wanted particle is slightly out of phase with the travelling wave so that over the whole length of the resonator it has a net deflection of substantially zero. The travelling wave is established in a wave guide of rectangular cross section in which stubs are provided to store magnetic wave energy leaving the electric wave energy in the main structure to obtain the desired travelling wave and deflection. The stubs are of such shape and spacing to establish a critical mathemitical relationship. (AEC)

  1. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

  2. Improved ultraviolet resonance lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, A. M.

    1970-01-01

    Removal of the seal area from the path of the lamp discharge eliminates the gradual deterioration of lithium fluoride window surfaces from condensation of products formed by interaction of a resonant rare-gas discharge with window sealing materials. The discharge is confined to the inner tube.

  3. Magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dan; Gulani, Vikas; Seiberlich, Nicole; Liu, Kecheng; Sunshine, Jeffrey L; Duerk, Jeffrey L; Griswold, Mark A

    2013-03-14

    Magnetic resonance is an exceptionally powerful and versatile measurement technique. The basic structure of a magnetic resonance experiment has remained largely unchanged for almost 50 years, being mainly restricted to the qualitative probing of only a limited set of the properties that can in principle be accessed by this technique. Here we introduce an approach to data acquisition, post-processing and visualization--which we term 'magnetic resonance fingerprinting' (MRF)--that permits the simultaneous non-invasive quantification of multiple important properties of a material or tissue. MRF thus provides an alternative way to quantitatively detect and analyse complex changes that can represent physical alterations of a substance or early indicators of disease. MRF can also be used to identify the presence of a specific target material or tissue, which will increase the sensitivity, specificity and speed of a magnetic resonance study, and potentially lead to new diagnostic testing methodologies. When paired with an appropriate pattern-recognition algorithm, MRF inherently suppresses measurement errors and can thus improve measurement accuracy.

  4. Multi-Frequency Signal Detection Based on Frequency Exchange and Re-Scaling Stochastic Resonance and Its Application to Weak Fault Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinjun; Leng, Yonggang; Lai, Zhihui; Fan, Shengbo

    2018-04-25

    Mechanical fault diagnosis usually requires not only identification of the fault characteristic frequency, but also detection of its second and/or higher harmonics. However, it is difficult to detect a multi-frequency fault signal through the existing Stochastic Resonance (SR) methods, because the characteristic frequency of the fault signal as well as its second and higher harmonics frequencies tend to be large parameters. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a multi-frequency signal detection method based on Frequency Exchange and Re-scaling Stochastic Resonance (FERSR). In the method, frequency exchange is implemented using filtering technique and Single SideBand (SSB) modulation. This new method can overcome the limitation of "sampling ratio" which is the ratio of the sampling frequency to the frequency of target signal. It also ensures that the multi-frequency target signals can be processed to meet the small-parameter conditions. Simulation results demonstrate that the method shows good performance for detecting a multi-frequency signal with low sampling ratio. Two practical cases are employed to further validate the effectiveness and applicability of this method.

  5. Multi-Frequency Signal Detection Based on Frequency Exchange and Re-Scaling Stochastic Resonance and Its Application to Weak Fault Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Yonggang; Fan, Shengbo

    2018-01-01

    Mechanical fault diagnosis usually requires not only identification of the fault characteristic frequency, but also detection of its second and/or higher harmonics. However, it is difficult to detect a multi-frequency fault signal through the existing Stochastic Resonance (SR) methods, because the characteristic frequency of the fault signal as well as its second and higher harmonics frequencies tend to be large parameters. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a multi-frequency signal detection method based on Frequency Exchange and Re-scaling Stochastic Resonance (FERSR). In the method, frequency exchange is implemented using filtering technique and Single SideBand (SSB) modulation. This new method can overcome the limitation of "sampling ratio" which is the ratio of the sampling frequency to the frequency of target signal. It also ensures that the multi-frequency target signals can be processed to meet the small-parameter conditions. Simulation results demonstrate that the method shows good performance for detecting a multi-frequency signal with low sampling ratio. Two practical cases are employed to further validate the effectiveness and applicability of this method. PMID:29693577

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety What is MRI and how does ... What is MRI and how does it work? Magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, is a way of obtaining detailed ...

  7. Resonant torus-assisted tunneling.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chang-Hwan; Yu, Hyeon-Hye; Kim, Chil-Min

    2016-01-01

    We report a new type of dynamical tunneling, which is mediated by a resonant torus, i.e., a nonisolated periodic orbit. To elucidate the phenomenon, we take an open elliptic cavity and show that a pair of resonances localized on two classically disconnected tori tunnel through a resonant torus when they interact with each other. This so-called resonant torus-assisted tunneling is verified by using Husimi functions, corresponding actions, Husimi function distributions, and the standard deviations of the actions.

  8. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  9. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.; Nunnally, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  10. Isolated post resonator mesogyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, Dorian; Peay, Chris; Wellman, Joanne; Shcheglov, Kirill; Hayworth, Ken; Wiberg, Dean; Yee, Karl; Sipppola, Clayton

    2004-01-01

    A new symmetric vibratory gyroscope principle has been devised in which a central post proof mass is counter-rocked against an outer sensing plate such that the motion is isolated from the gyroscope case. Prototype gyroscopes have been designed and fabricated with micromachined silicon at mesoscale (20-cm resonator width), vs. microscale (e.g., 2-mm resonator width) to achieve higher sensitivity and machined precision. This novel mesogyro design arose out of an ongoing technical cooperation between JPL and Boeing begun in 1997 to advance the design of micro-inertial sensors for low-cost space applications. This paper describes the theory of operation of the mesogyro and relationships with other vibratory gyroscopes, the mechanical design, closed loop electronics design, bulk silicon fabrication and packaged gyroscope assembly and test methods. The initial packaged prototype test results are reported for what is believed to be the first silicon mesogyroscope.

  11. A New Resonance Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Alan

    2017-12-01

    The measurement of the speed of sound in air with the resonance tube is a popular experiment that often yields accurate results. One approach is to hold a vibrating tuning fork over an air column that is partially immersed in water. The column is raised and lowered in the water until the generated standing wave produces resonance: this occurs at the point where sound is perceived to have maximum loudness, or at the point where the amplitude of the standing wave has maximum value, namely an antinode. An antinode coincides with the position of the tuning fork, beyond the end of the air column, which consequently introduces an end correction. One way to minimize this end correction is to measure the distance between consecutive antinodes.

  12. RESONANT CAVITY EXCITATION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.; Kerns, Q.A.; Riedel, J.

    1959-01-13

    An apparatus is presented for exciting a cavity resonator with a minimum of difficulty and, more specifically describes a sub-exciter and an amplifier type pre-exciter for the high-frequency cxcitation of large cavities. Instead of applying full voltage to the main oscillator, a sub-excitation voltage is initially used to establish a base level of oscillation in the cavity. A portion of the cavity encrgy is coupled to the input of the pre-exciter where it is amplified and fed back into the cavity when the pre-exciter is energized. After the voltage in the cavity resonator has reached maximum value under excitation by the pre-exciter, full voltage is applied to the oscillator and the pre-exciter is tunned off. The cavity is then excited to the maximum high voltage value of radio frequency by the oscillator.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dan; Gulani, Vikas; Seiberlich, Nicole; Liu, Kecheng; Sunshine, Jeffrey L.; Duerk, Jeffrey L.; Griswold, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Magnetic Resonance (MR) is an exceptionally powerful and versatile measurement technique. The basic structure of an MR experiment has remained nearly constant for almost 50 years. Here we introduce a novel paradigm, Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) that permits the non-invasive quantification of multiple important properties of a material or tissue simultaneously through a new approach to data acquisition, post-processing and visualization. MRF provides a new mechanism to quantitatively detect and analyze complex changes that can represent physical alterations of a substance or early indicators of disease. MRF can also be used to specifically identify the presence of a target material or tissue, which will increase the sensitivity, specificity, and speed of an MR study, and potentially lead to new diagnostic testing methodologies. When paired with an appropriate pattern recognition algorithm, MRF inherently suppresses measurement errors and thus can improve accuracy compared to previous approaches. PMID:23486058

  14. Optomechanical trampoline resonators.

    PubMed

    Kleckner, Dustin; Pepper, Brian; Jeffrey, Evan; Sonin, Petro; Thon, Susanna M; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2011-09-26

    We report on the development of optomechanical "trampoline" resonators composed of a tiny SiO(2)/Ta(2)O(5) dielectric mirror on a silicon nitride micro-resonator. We observe optical finesses of up to 4 × 10(4) and mechanical quality factors as high as 9 × 10(5) in relatively massive (~100 ng) and low frequency (10-200 kHz) devices. This results in a photon-phonon coupling efficiency considerably higher than previous Fabry-Perot-type optomechanical systems. These devices are well suited to ultra-sensitive force detection, ground-state optical cooling experiments, and demonstrations of quantum dynamics for such systems. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  15. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  16. Resonant Enhanced Modulators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    Lepore, M. H. Kwakernaak, H. Mohseni, G. A. Pajer, G. Griffel , D. Bechtle, A. F. Ulmer, Z. A. Shellenbarger, H. An, I. Adesida, S. Rommel, J-W...Advanced nanofabrication and advanced process development Giora Griffel – Ring resonator concept Daniel W. Bechtle – RF electrode design University of...conducted in glass microspheres by Giora Griffel (then at Polytechnic University) and other workers. Extremely high quality factors (Q’s) could be

  17. Off-resonance NOVEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Sheetal K.; Mathies, Guinevere; Griffin, Robert G.

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is theoretically able to enhance the signal in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments by a factor γe/γn, where γ 's are the gyromagnetic ratios of an electron and a nuclear spin. However, DNP enhancements currently achieved in high-field, high-resolution biomolecular magic-angle spinning NMR are well below this limit because the continuous-wave DNP mechanisms employed in these experiments scale as ω0-n where n ˜ 1-2. In pulsed DNP methods, such as nuclear orientation via electron spin-locking (NOVEL), the DNP efficiency is independent of the strength of the main magnetic field. Hence, these methods represent a viable alternative approach for enhancing nuclear signals. At 0.35 T, the NOVEL scheme was demonstrated to be efficient in samples doped with stable radicals, generating 1H NMR enhancements of ˜430. However, an impediment in the implementation of NOVEL at high fields is the requirement of sufficient microwave power to fulfill the on-resonance matching condition, ω0I = ω1S, where ω0I and ω1S are the nuclear Larmor and electron Rabi frequencies, respectively. Here, we exploit a generalized matching condition, which states that the effective Rabi frequency, ω1S e f f, matches ω0I. By using this generalized off-resonance matching condition, we generate 1H NMR signal enhancement factors of 266 (˜70% of the on-resonance NOVEL enhancement) with ω1S/2π = 5 MHz. We investigate experimentally the conditions for optimal transfer of polarization from electrons to 1H both for the NOVEL mechanism and the solid-effect mechanism and provide a unified theoretical description for these two historically distinct forms of DNP.

  18. Gravitational resonance: Saturn's rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Perhaps no one thought much more would need to be known about Saturn's rings 100 or so years ago, when Daniel Kirkwood explained the various features. The main rings, within the three so-called Cassini divisions, were due to gravitational resonance conditions between small orbiting particles and the satellite Mimas. Now, after several spacecraft—especially Voyager—have shown the rings' close-up characteristics, there has been a great deal of activity in the planetary geophysics community to try to explain the origin of the numerous features of the rings of solar system bodies that were far beyond the resolution of telescopes in Kirkwood s day. A pretty good sample of that activity was reported recently by R.A. Kerr (Science, Oct. 8, 1982), who stated ‘Resonance theory still stands after the onslaught of spacecraft observations, but its new applications have yielded a greater variety of ring features than Kirkwood ever dreamed.’ One has only to have an inkling of the levels of gravitational mechanics to appreciate the complexities of the theories that have yielded resonance variations such as spiral density waves and bending waves in the past few years. As theories unfold, however, and are tested against Voyager's results, it has become evident that most of the actually observed ring structure of the major planets remains unexplained.

  19. Relativistic Confinement Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, David; Manson, Steven; Deshmukh, Pranawa

    2017-04-01

    Photoionization of confined atoms in a C60 fullerene have been under intense investigation in the recent years, in particular the confinement induced resonances, termed confinement resonances. The effects of the C60 potential are modeled by a static spherical well, with (in atomic units) inner radius r0 = 5.8, width Δ = 1.9, and depth U0 = -0.302, which is reasonable in the energy region well above the C60 plasmons. At very high Z, relativistic interactions become important contributors to even the qualitative nature of atomic properties; this is true for confined atomic properties as well. To explore the extent of these interactions, a theoretical study of several heavy atoms has been performed using the relativistic random phase approximation (RRPA) methodology. In order to determine which features in the photoionization cross section are due to relativity, calculations using the (nonrelativistic) random phase approximation with exchange method (RPAE) are performed for comparison. The existence of the second subshell of the spin-orbit-split doublets can induce new confinement resonances in the total cross section, which is the sum of the spin-orbit-split doublets, due to the shift in the doublet's threshold. Several examples for confined high-Z atoms are presented. Work supported by DOE and NSF.

  20. Resonant Tunneling Spin Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  1. Quantum resonant activation.

    PubMed

    Magazzù, Luca; Hänggi, Peter; Spagnolo, Bernardo; Valenti, Davide

    2017-04-01

    Quantum resonant activation is investigated for the archetype setup of an externally driven two-state (spin-boson) system subjected to strong dissipation by means of both analytical and extensive numerical calculations. The phenomenon of resonant activation emerges in the presence of either randomly fluctuating or deterministic periodically varying driving fields. Addressing the incoherent regime, a characteristic minimum emerges in the mean first passage time to reach an absorbing neighboring state whenever the intrinsic time scale of the modulation matches the characteristic time scale of the system dynamics. For the case of deterministic periodic driving, the first passage time probability density function (pdf) displays a complex, multipeaked behavior, which depends crucially on the details of initial phase, frequency, and strength of the driving. As an interesting feature we find that the mean first passage time enters the resonant activation regime at a critical frequency ν^{*} which depends very weakly on the strength of the driving. Moreover, we provide the relation between the first passage time pdf and the statistics of residence times.

  2. Quantum resonant activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magazzó, Luca; Hänggi, Peter; Spagnolo, Bernardo; Valenti, Davide

    2017-04-01

    Quantum resonant activation is investigated for the archetype setup of an externally driven two-state (spin-boson) system subjected to strong dissipation by means of both analytical and extensive numerical calculations. The phenomenon of resonant activation emerges in the presence of either randomly fluctuating or deterministic periodically varying driving fields. Addressing the incoherent regime, a characteristic minimum emerges in the mean first passage time to reach an absorbing neighboring state whenever the intrinsic time scale of the modulation matches the characteristic time scale of the system dynamics. For the case of deterministic periodic driving, the first passage time probability density function (pdf) displays a complex, multipeaked behavior, which depends crucially on the details of initial phase, frequency, and strength of the driving. As an interesting feature we find that the mean first passage time enters the resonant activation regime at a critical frequency ν* which depends very weakly on the strength of the driving. Moreover, we provide the relation between the first passage time pdf and the statistics of residence times.

  3. RESONATOR PARTICLE SEPARATOR

    DOEpatents

    Blewett, J.P.

    1962-01-01

    A wave guide resonator structure is described for use in separating particles of equal momentum but differing in mass and having energies exceeding one billion electron volts. The particles are those of sub-atomic size and are generally produced as a result of the bombardment of a target by a beam such as protons produced in a high-energy accelerator. In this wave guide construction, the particles undergo preferential deflection as a result of the presence of an electric field. The boundary conditions established in the resonator are such as to eliminate an interfering magnetic component, and to otherwise phase the electric field to obtain a traveling wave such as one which moves at the same speed as the unwanted particle. The latter undergoes continuous deflection over the whole length of the device and is, therefore, eliminated while the wanted particle is deflected in opposite directions over the length of the resonator and is thus able to enter an exit aperture. (AEC)

  4. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  5. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality.

  6. Persistence, resistance, resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsadka, Maayan

    Sound cannot travel in a vacuum, physically or socially. The ways in which sound operates are a result of acoustic properties, and the ways by which it is considered to be music are a result of social constructions. Therefore, music is always political, regardless of its content: the way it is performed and composed; the choice of instrumentation, notation, tuning; the medium of its distribution; its inherent hierarchy and power dynamics, and more. My compositional praxis makes me less interested in defining a relationship between music and politics than I am in erasing---or at least blurring---the borders between them. In this paper I discuss the aesthetics of resonance and echo in their metaphorical, physical, social, and musical manifestations. Also discussed is a political aesthetic of resonance, manifested through protest chants. I transcribe and analyze common protest chants from around the world, categorizing and unifying them as universal crowd-mobilizing rhythms. These ideas are explored musically in three pieces. Sumud: Rhetoric of Resistance in Three Movements, for two pianos and two percussion players, is a musical interpretation of the political/social concept of sumud, an Arabic word that literally means "steadfastness" and represents Palestinian non-violent resistance. The piece is based on common protest rhythms and uses the acoustic properties inherent to the instruments. The second piece, Three Piano Studies, extends some of the musical ideas and techniques used in Sumud, and explores the acoustic properties and resonance of the piano. The final set of pieces is part of my Critical Mess Music Project. These are site-specific musical works that attempt to blur the boundaries between audience, performers and composer, in part by including people without traditional musical training in the process of music making. These pieces use the natural structure and resonance of an environment, in this case, locations on the UCSC campus, and offer an active

  7. Resonant tunneling IR detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodall, Jerry M.; Smith, T. P., III

    1990-01-01

    Researchers propose a novel semiconductor heterojunction photodetector which would have a very low dark current and would be voltage tunable. A schematic diagram of the device and its band structure are shown. The two crucial components of the device are a cathode (InGaAs) whose condition band edge is below the conduction band edge of the quantum wells and a resonant tunneling filter (GaAs-AlGaAs). In a standard resonant tunneling device the electrodes are made of the same material as the quantum wells, and this device becomes highly conducting when the quantum levels in the wells are aligned with the Fermi level in the negatively biased electrode. In contrast, the researchers device is essentially non-conducting under the same bias conditions. This is because the Fermi Level of the cathode (InGaAs) is still well below the quantum levels so that no resonant transport occurs and the barriers (AlGaAs) effectively block current flow through the device. However, if light with the same photon energy as the conduction-band discontinuity between the cathode and the quantum wells, E sub c3-E sub c1, is shone on the sample, free carriers will be excited to an energy corresponding to the lowest quantum level in the well closest to the cathode (hv plue E sub c1 = E sub o). These electrons will resonantly tunnel through the quantum wells and be collected as a photocurrent in the anode (GaAs). To improve the quantum efficiency, the cathode (InGaAs) should be very heavily doped and capped with a highly reflective metal ohmic contact. The thickness of the device should be tailored to optimize thin film interference effects and afford the maximum absorption of light. Because the device relies on resonant tunneling, its response should be very fast, and the small voltages needed to change the responsivity should allow for very high frequency modulation of the photocurrent. In addition, the device is tuned to a specific photon energy so that it can be designed to detect a fairly

  8. Tunable resonant and non-resonant interactions between a phase qubit and LC resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allman, Michael Shane; Whittaker, Jed D.; Castellanos-Beltran, Manuel; Cicak, Katarina; da Silva, Fabio; Defeo, Michael; Lecocq, Florent; Sirois, Adam; Teufel, John; Aumentado, Jose; Simmonds, Raymond W.

    2014-03-01

    We use a flux-biased radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device (rf SQUID) with an embedded flux-biased direct current (dc) SQUID to generate strong resonant and non-resonant tunable interactions between a phase qubit and a lumped-element resonator. The rf-SQUID creates a tunable magnetic susceptibility between the qubit and resonator providing resonant coupling rates from zero to near the ultra-strong coupling regime. By modulating the magnetic susceptibility, non-resonant parametric coupling achieves rates > 100 MHz . Nonlinearity of the magnetic susceptibility also leads to parametric coupling at subharmonics of the qubit-resonator detuning. Controllable coupling is generically important for constructing coupled-mode systems ubiquitous in physics, useful for both, quantum information architectures and quantum simulators. This work supported by NIST and NSA grant EAO140639.

  9. Electroexcitation of nucleon resonances

    SciT

    Inna Aznauryan, Volker D. Burkert

    2012-01-01

    We review recent progress in the investigation of the electroexcitation of nucleon resonances, both in experiment and in theory. The most accurate results have been obtained for the electroexcitation amplitudes of the four lowest excited states, which have been measured in a range of Q2 up to 8 and 4.5 GeV2 for the Delta(1232)P33, N(1535)S11 and N(1440)P11, N(1520)D13, respectively. These results have been confronted with calculations based on lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD (pQCD), and QCD-inspired models. The amplitudes for the Delta(1232) indicate large pion-cloud contributions at low Q2 and don't show any sign of approaching the pQCD regimemore » for Q2<7 GeV2. Measured for the first time, the electroexcitation amplitudes of the Roper resonance, N(1440)P11, provide strong evidence for this state as a predominantly radial excitation of a three-quark (3q) ground state, with additional non-3-quark contributions needed to describe the low Q2 behavior of the amplitudes. The longitudinal transition amplitude for the N(1535)S11 was determined and has become a challenge for quark models. Explanations may require large meson-cloud contributions or alternative representations of this state. The N(1520)D13 clearly shows the rapid changeover from helicity-3/2 dominance at the real photon point to helicity-1/2 dominance at Q2 > 0.5 GeV2, confirming a long-standing prediction of the constituent quark model. The interpretation of the moments of resonance transition form factors in terms of transition transverse charge distributions in infinite momentum frame is presented.« less

  10. Nanotube resonator devices

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Kenneth J; Zettl, Alexander K; Weldon, Jeffrey A

    2014-05-06

    A fully-functional radio receiver fabricated from a single nanotube is being disclosed. Simultaneously, a single nanotube can perform the functions of all major components of a radio: antenna, tunable band-pass filter, amplifier, and demodulator. A DC voltage source, as supplied by a battery, can power the radio. Using carrier waves in the commercially relevant 40-400 MHz range and both frequency and amplitude modulation techniques, successful music and voice reception has been demonstrated. Also disclosed are a radio transmitter and a mass sensor using a nanotube resonator device.

  11. Apodized coupled resonator waveguides.

    PubMed

    Capmany, J; Muñoz, P; Domenech, J D; Muriel, M A

    2007-08-06

    In this paper we propose analyse the apodisation or windowing of the coupling coefficients in the unit cells of coupled resonator waveguide devices (CROWs) as a means to reduce the level of secondary sidelobes in the bandpass characteristic of their transfer functions. This technique is regularly employed in the design of digital filters and has been applied as well in the design of other photonic devices such as corrugated waveguide filters and fiber Bragg gratings. The apodisation of both Type-I and Type-II structures is discussed for several windowing functions.

  12. Resonance test system

    DOEpatents

    Musial, Walter [Boulder, CO; White, Darris [Superior, CO

    2011-05-31

    An apparatus (10) for applying at least one load to a specimen (12) according to one embodiment of the invention may comprise a mass (18). An actuator (20) mounted to the specimen (12) and operatively associated with the mass (18) moves the mass (18) along a linear displacement path (22) that is perpendicular to a longitudinal axis of the specimen (12). A control system (26) operatively associated with the actuator (20) operates the actuator (20) to reciprocate the mass (18) along the linear displacement path (22) at a reciprocating frequency, the reciprocating frequency being about equal to a resonance frequency of the specimen (12) in a test configuration.

  13. Voigt spectral profiles in two-photon resonance fluorescence

    SciT

    Alexanian, Moorad; Bose, Subir K.; Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816

    2007-11-15

    A recent work on two-photon fluorescence is extended by considering the pump field to be a coherent state, which represents a laser field operating well above threshold. The dynamical conditions are investigated under which the two-photon spectrum gives rise, in addition to a Lorentzian line shape at the pump frequency, to two Voigt spectral sideband profiles. Additional conditions are found under which the Voigt profile behaves like either a Gaussian or a Lorentzian line shape.

  14. Applications of Non-linearities in RF MEMS Switches and Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vummidi Murali, Krishna Prasad

    force non-linearity is the major source of mixing that causes the up-conversion of 1/f frequency into signal sidebands. The resonator's periodic response (displacement) is defined by a set of two first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations that describe the modulation of amplitude and phase of the response. Frequency response curves of amplitude and frequency are determined from these modulation equations. The zero slope point on the amplitude resonance curve is the peak of the resonance curve where the phase (gammadc) of the response is +/-pi/2. For a strongly non-linear system, the resonance curves are skewed based on the amount of total non-linearity S. For systems that are strongly non-linear, the best region to operate the resonator is the fixed point that correspond to infinite slope (gammadc = +/-2pi/3) in the frequency response of the system. The best case phase noise response was analytically developed for such a fixed point. Theoretically at this fixed point, phase noise will have contributions only from 1/ fnoise and not from 1/f2 and 1/ f3. The resonators phase can be set by controlling the rest of the phase in the loop such that the total phase around the loop is zero or 2pi. In addition, this work has also developed an analytical model for a lateral MEMS switch fabricated in a commercial foundry that has the potential to be processed as MEMS on CMOS. This model accounts for trapezoidal cross sections of the electrodes and springs and also models electrostatic fringing as a function of the moving gap. The analytical model matches closely with the Finite Element (FEA) model.

  15. Optical resonator and laser applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Yariv, Amnon (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention discloses a semi-ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) optical resonator structure comprising a medium including an edge forming a reflective facet and a waveguide within the medium, the waveguide having opposing ends formed by the reflective facet. The performance of the SRFP resonator can be further enhanced by including a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the waveguide on one side of the gain medium. The optical resonator can be employed in a variety of optical devices. Laser structures using at least one SRFP resonator are disclosed where the resonators are disposed on opposite sides of a gain medium. Other laser structures employing one or more resonators on one side of a gain region are also disclosed.

  16. Ion cyclotron resonance cell

    DOEpatents

    Weller, R.R.

    1995-02-14

    An ion cyclotron resonance cell is disclosed having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions. 5 figs.

  17. Ion cyclotron resonance cell

    DOEpatents

    Weller, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    An ion cyclotron resonance cell having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Safety

    PubMed Central

    Sammet, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has a superior soft-tissue contrast compared to other radiological imaging modalities and its physiological and functional applications have led to a significant increase in MRI scans worldwide. A comprehensive MRI safety training to protect patients and other healthcare workers from potential bio-effects and risks of the magnetic fields in an MRI suite is therefore essential. The knowledge of the purpose of safety zones in an MRI suite as well as MRI appropriateness criteria is important for all healthcare professionals who will work in the MRI environment or refer patients for MRI scans. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of current magnetic resonance safety guidelines and discuss the safety risks of magnetic fields in an MRI suite including forces and torque of ferromagnetic objects, tissue heating, peripheral nerve stimulation and hearing damages. MRI safety and compatibility of implanted devices, MRI scans during pregnancy and the potential risks of MRI contrast agents will also be discussed and a comprehensive MRI safety training to avoid fatal accidents in an MRI suite will be presented. PMID:26940331

  19. Behavioral Stochastic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Jan A.; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz; Beisner, Beatrix; Neiman, Alexander; Russell, David F.; Yakusheva, Tatyana; Moss, Frank

    2001-03-01

    Zooplankton emit weak electric fields into the surrounding water that originate from their own muscular activities associated with swimming and feeding. Juvenile paddlefish prey upon single zooplankton by detecting and tracking these weak electric signatures. The passive electric sense in the fish is provided by an elaborate array of electroreceptors, Ampullae Lorenzini, spread over the surface of an elongated rostrum. We have previously shown that the fish use stochastic resonance to enhance prey capture near the detection threshold of their sensory system. But stochastic resonance requires an external source of electrical noise in order to function. The required noise can be provided by a swarm of plankton, for example Daphnia. Thus juvenile paddlefish can detect and attack single Daphnia as outliers in the vicinity of the swarm by making use of noise from the swarm itself. From the power spectral density of the noise plus the weak signal from a single Daphnia we calculate the signal-to-noise ratio and the Fisher information at the surface of the paddlefish's rostrum. The results predict a specific attack pattern for the paddlefish that appears to be experimentally testable.

  20. Tunable Superconducting Split Ring Resonators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-19

    microwave field-strength distortion and quality- factor dependence on tuning. Feedback for changes in design and fabrication, (4) design and fabrication...elements. For many applications tuning of the resonance frequency of the SRR is needed. Classically this is done by varactor diodes. Their capacitance ... capacitance of the gap to form a resonator circuit. The advantage of such a circuit is its quite low resonance frequency compared to other structures

  1. GAUSSIAN BEAM LASER RESONATOR PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    In designing a laser cavity, the laser engineer is frequently concerned with more than the stability of the resonator. Other considerations include the size of the beam at various optical surfaces within the resonator or the performance of intracavity line-narrowing or other optical elements. Laser resonators obey the laws of Gaussian beam propagation, not geometric optics. The Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators using Gaussian ray trace techniques. It can be used to determine the propagation of radiation through laser resonators. The algorithm used in the Gaussian Beam Resonator program has three major components. First, the ray transfer matrix for the laser resonator must be calculated. Next calculations of the initial beam parameters, specifically, the beam stability, the beam waist size and location for the resonator input element, and the wavefront curvature and beam radius at the input surface to the first resonator element are performed. Finally the propagation of the beam through the optical elements is computed. The optical elements can be modeled as parallel plates, lenses, mirrors, dummy surfaces, or Gradient Index (GRIN) lenses. A Gradient Index lens is a good approximation of a laser rod operating under a thermal load. The optical system may contain up to 50 elements. In addition to the internal beam elements the optical system may contain elements external to the resonator. The Gaussian Beam Resonator program was written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01). It was developed for the IBM PS/2 80-071 microcomputer and has been implemented on an IBM PC compatible under MS DOS 3.21. The program was developed in 1988 and requires approximately 95K bytes to operate.

  2. Interband Lateral Resonant Tunneling Transistor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-11-14

    INTERBAND LATERAL RESONANT TUNNELING TRANSISTOR 10 BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the Invention This invention pertains to a tunneling transistor...and in 15 particular to an interband lateral resonant tunneling transistor. Description of Related Art Conventional semiconductor technologies are... interband lateral resonant tunneling transistor along the cross-section B-B of Figure 2c. Figure 4 is another preferred embodiment cross-sectional 20

  3. Properties of resonance wave functions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    More, R. M.; Gerjuoy, E.

    1973-01-01

    Construction and study of resonance wave functions corresponding to poles of the Green's function for several illustrative models of theoretical interest. Resonance wave functions obtained from the Siegert and Kapur-Peierls definitions of the resonance energies are compared. The comparison especially clarifies the meaning of the normalization constant of the resonance wave functions. It is shown that the wave functions may be considered renormalized in a sense analogous to that of quantum field theory. However, this renormalization is entirely automatic, and the theory has neither ad hoc procedures nor infinite quantities.

  4. Strongly Coupled Nanotube Electromechanical Resonators.

    PubMed

    Deng, Guang-Wei; Zhu, Dong; Wang, Xin-He; Zou, Chang-Ling; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Liu, Di; Li, Yan; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Kai-Li; Dai, Xing-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2016-09-14

    Coupling an electromechanical resonator with carbon-nanotube quantum dots is a significant method to control both the electronic charge and the spin quantum states. By exploiting a novel microtransfer technique, we fabricate two separate strongly coupled and electrically tunable mechanical resonators for the first time. The frequency of the two resonators can be individually tuned by the bottom gates, and in each resonator, the electron transport through the quantum dot can be strongly affected by the phonon mode and vice versa. Furthermore, the conductance of either resonator can be nonlocally modulated by the other resonator through phonon-phonon interaction between the two resonators. Strong coupling is observed between the phonon modes of the two resonators, where the coupling strength larger than 200 kHz can be reached. This strongly coupled nanotube electromechanical resonator array provides an experimental platform for future studies of the coherent electron-phonon interaction, the phonon-mediated long-distance electron interaction, and entanglement state generation.

  5. Orbital resonances around black holes.

    PubMed

    Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja

    2015-02-27

    We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.

  6. Optical circulation in a multimode optomechanical resonator.

    PubMed

    Ruesink, Freek; Mathew, John P; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Alù, Andrea; Verhagen, Ewold

    2018-05-04

    Breaking the symmetry of electromagnetic wave propagation enables important technological functionality. In particular, circulators are nonreciprocal components that can route photons directionally in classical or quantum photonic circuits and offer prospects for fundamental research on electromagnetic transport. Developing highly efficient circulators thus presents an important challenge, especially to realise compact reconfigurable implementations that do not rely on magnetic fields to break reciprocity. We demonstrate optical circulation utilising radiation pressure interactions in an on-chip multimode optomechanical system. Mechanically mediated optical mode conversion in a silica microtoroid provides a synthetic gauge bias for light, enabling four-port circulation that exploits tailored interference between appropriate light paths. We identify two sideband conditions under which ideal circulation is approached. This allows to experimentally demonstrate ~10 dB isolation and <3 dB insertion loss in all relevant channels. We show the possibility of actively controlling the circulator properties, enabling ideal opportunities for reconfigurable integrated nanophotonic circuits.

  7. Laser cooling at resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudkin, Yaakov; Khaykovich, Lev

    2018-05-01

    We show experimentally that three-dimensional laser cooling of lithium atoms on the D2 line is possible when the laser light is tuned exactly to resonance with the dominant atomic transition. Qualitatively, it can be understood by applying simple Doppler cooling arguments to the specific hyperfine structure of the excited state of lithium atoms, which is both dense and inverted. However, to build a quantitative theory, we must resolve to a full model which takes into account both the entire atomic structure of all 24 Zeeman sublevels and the laser light polarization. Moreover, by means of Monte Carlo simulations, we show that coherent processes play an important role in showing consistency between the theory and the experimental results.

  8. Silicon microring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ying; Dai, Daoxin

    2018-05-01

    Silicon microring resonators (MRRs) are very popular for many applications because of the advantages of footprint compactness, easy scalability, and functional versatility. Ultra-compact silicon MRRs with box-like spectral responses are realized with a very large free-spectral range (FSR) by introducing bent directional couplers. The measured box-like spectral response has an FSR of >30 nm. The permanent wavelength-alignment techniques for MRRs are also presented, including the laser-induced local-oxidation technique as well as the local-etching technique. With these techniques, one can control finely the permanent wavelength shift, which is also large enough to compensate the random wavelength variation due to the random fabrication errors.

  9. Cascaded resonant bridge converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Thomas A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A converter for converting a low voltage direct current power source to a higher voltage, high frequency alternating current output for use in an electrical system where it is desired to use low weight cables and other circuit elements. The converter has a first stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which converts the direct current power source to an alternating current by means of switching elements that are operated by a variable frequency voltage regulator, a transformer to step up the voltage of the alternating current, and a rectifier bridge to convert the alternating current to a direct current first stage output. The converter further has a second stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which is connected in series to the first stage converter to receive its direct current output and convert it to a second stage high frequency alternating current output by means of switching elements that are operated by a fixed frequency oscillator. The voltage of the second stage output is controlled at a relatively constant value by controlling the first stage output voltage, which is accomplished by controlling the frequency of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller in response to second stage voltage. Fault tolerance in the event of a load short circuit is provided by making the operation of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller responsive to first and second stage current limiting devices. The second stage output is connected to a rectifier bridge whose output is connected to the input of the second stage to provide good regulation of output voltage wave form at low system loads.

  10. Whispering Gallery Mode Optomechanical Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aveline, David C.; Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Yu, Nan; Yee, Karl Y.

    2012-01-01

    Great progress has been made in both micromechanical resonators and micro-optical resonators over the past decade, and a new field has recently emerged combining these mechanical and optical systems. In such optomechanical systems, the two resonators are strongly coupled with one influencing the other, and their interaction can yield detectable optical signals that are highly sensitive to the mechanical motion. A particularly high-Q optical system is the whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator, which has many applications ranging from stable oscillators to inertial sensor devices. There is, however, limited coupling between the optical mode and the resonator s external environment. In order to overcome this limitation, a novel type of optomechanical sensor has been developed, offering great potential for measurements of displacement, acceleration, and mass sensitivity. The proposed hybrid device combines the advantages of all-solid optical WGM resonators with high-quality micro-machined cantilevers. For direct access to the WGM inside the resonator, the idea is to radially cut precise gaps into the perimeter, fabricating a mechanical resonator within the WGM. Also, a strategy to reduce losses has been developed with optimized design of the cantilever geometry and positions of gap surfaces.

  11. Resonant Two-Photon Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apanasevich, P. A.; Timofeeva, G. I.

    2018-05-01

    We have developed a theory for a two-photon transition when the frequencies of the absorbed or emitted radiation are in resonance with transitions to the same intermediate level in the medium. We have determined the conditions under which such resonant two-photon transitions can play an important role.

  12. The N+CPT resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimanno, Michael; Hohensee, Michael; Hancox, Cindy; Phillips, David; Walsworth, Ron

    2007-06-01

    Of relevance to compact atomic frequency standards, we investigate a model of the N+CPT joint optical resonance. We compare analytical solutions of a 4-state theory, as well as numerical solutions of the optical Bloch equations, to experimental investigations of N+CPT resonances in 87Rb. Our results inform the optimization of N+CPT based frequency standards.

  13. Simple and Inexpensive Classroom Demonstrations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joel A.; Nordell, Karen J.; Chesnik, Marla A.; Landis, Clark R.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Condren, S. Michael; Lisensky, George C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a set of simple, inexpensive, classical demonstrations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) principles that illustrate the resonance condition associated with magnetic dipoles and the dependence of the resonance frequency on environment. (WRM)

  14. Transverse-longitudinal integrated resonator

    DOEpatents

    Hutchinson, Donald P [Knoxville, TN; Simpson, Marcus L [Knoxville, TN; Simpson, John T [Knoxville, TN

    2003-03-11

    A transverse-longitudinal integrated optical resonator (TLIR) is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide. The PBG is positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings. An electro-optic waveguide material may be used to permit tuning the TLIR and to permit the TLIR to perform signal modulation and switching. The TLIR may be positioned on a bulk substrate die with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a TLIR including fabricating a broadband reflective grating is disclosed. A method for tuning the TLIR's transmission resonance wavelength is also disclosed.

  15. Hadronic Resonance production in ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markert, Christina; ALICE Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    In heavy ion collisions a fireball of hot and dense matter is created. Short lived hadronic resonances are sensitive to the medium properties, in particular to the temperature, density and system size. Resonance yields and momentum distributions are used to gain insight into the hadronic phase, its expansion velocity and time duration. The multiplicity dependent hadronic resonance production in p-p, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions will be discussed within the context of the possible extended hadronic and partonic phase. The experimental results will be compared to EPOS+UrQMD model calculations to discuss the system size dependent interactions of the hadronic medium on various resonances. Small systems such as p-p and p-Pb collisions will be discussed with respect to resonance and strange particle measurements.

  16. Integrated unaligned resonant modulator tuning

    SciT

    Zortman, William A.; Lentine, Anthony L.

    Methods and systems for tuning a resonant modulator are disclosed. One method includes receiving a carrier signal modulated by the resonant modulator with a stream of data having an approximately equal number of high and low bits, determining an average power of the modulated carrier signal, comparing the average power to a predetermined threshold, and operating a tuning device coupled to the resonant modulator based on the comparison of the average power and the predetermined threshold. One system includes an input structure, a plurality of processing elements, and a digital control element. The input structure is configured to receive, frommore » the resonant modulator, a modulated carrier signal. The plurality of processing elements are configured to determine an average power of the modulated carrier signal. The digital control element is configured to operate a tuning device coupled to the resonant modulator based on the average power of the modulated carrier signal.« less

  17. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lai, J.S.; Peng, F.Z.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Ott, G.W. Jr.

    1998-01-20

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter. 36 figs.

  18. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Peng, Fang Zheng; Young, Sr., Robert W.; Ott, Jr., George W.

    1998-01-01

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter.

  19. Nonlinear elasticity in resonance experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xun; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Snieder, Roel

    2018-04-01

    Resonant bar experiments have revealed that dynamic deformation induces nonlinearity in rocks. These experiments produce resonance curves that represent the response amplitude as a function of the driving frequency. We propose a model to reproduce the resonance curves with observed features that include (a) the log-time recovery of the resonant frequency after the deformation ends (slow dynamics), (b) the asymmetry in the direction of the driving frequency, (c) the difference between resonance curves with the driving frequency that is swept upward and downward, and (d) the presence of a "cliff" segment to the left of the resonant peak under the condition of strong nonlinearity. The model is based on a feedback cycle where the effect of softening (nonlinearity) feeds back to the deformation. This model provides a unified interpretation of both the nonlinearity and slow dynamics in resonance experiments. We further show that the asymmetry of the resonance curve is caused by the softening, which is documented by the decrease of the resonant frequency during the deformation; the cliff segment of the resonance curve is linked to a bifurcation that involves a steep change of the response amplitude when the driving frequency is changed. With weak nonlinearity, the difference between the upward- and downward-sweeping curves depends on slow dynamics; a sufficiently slow frequency sweep eliminates this up-down difference. With strong nonlinearity, the up-down difference results from both the slow dynamics and bifurcation; however, the presence of the bifurcation maintains the respective part of the up-down difference, regardless of the sweep rate.

  20. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  1. A nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer concept for hermetically sealed magic angle spinning investigations on highly toxic, radiotoxic, or air sensitive materials.

    PubMed

    Martel, L; Somers, J; Berkmann, C; Koepp, F; Rothermel, A; Pauvert, O; Selfslag, C; Farnan, I

    2013-05-01

    A concept to integrate a commercial high-resolution, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) probe capable of very rapid rotation rates (70 kHz) in a hermetically sealed enclosure for the study of highly radiotoxic materials has been developed and successfully demonstrated. The concept centres on a conventional wide bore (89 mm) solid-state NMR magnet operating with industry standard 54 mm diameter probes designed for narrow bore magnets. Rotor insertion and probe tuning take place within a hermetically enclosed glovebox, which extends into the bore of the magnet, in the space between the probe and the magnet shim system. Oxygen-17 MAS-NMR measurements demonstrate the possibility of obtaining high quality spectra from small sample masses (~10 mg) of highly radiotoxic material and the need for high spinning speeds to improve the spectral resolution when working with actinides. The large paramagnetic susceptibility arising from actinide paramagnetism in (Th(1-x)U(x))O2 solid solutions gives rise to extensive spinning sidebands and poor resolution at 15 kHz, which is dramatically improved at 55 kHz. The first (17)O MAS-NMR measurements on NpO(2+x) samples spinning at 55 kHz are also reported. The glovebox approach developed here for radiotoxic materials can be easily adapted to work with other hazardous or even air sensitive materials.

  2. Low Noise Frequency Comb Sources Based on Synchronously Pumped Doubly Resonant Optical Parametric Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chenchen

    Optical frequency combs are coherent light sources consist of thousands of equally spaced frequency lines. Frequency combs have achieved success in applications of metrology, spectroscopy and precise pulse manipulation and control. The most common way to generate frequency combs is based on mode-locked lasers which has the output spectrum of comb structures. To generate stable frequency combs, the output from mode-locked lasers need to be phase stabilized. The whole comb lines will be stabilized if the pulse train repetition rate corresponding to comb spacing and the pulse carrier envelope offset (CEO) frequency are both stabilized. The output from a laser always has fluctuations in parameters known as noise. In laser applications, noise is an important factor to limit the performance and often need to be well controlled. For example in precision measurement such as frequency metrology and precise spectroscopy, low laser intensity and phase noise is required. In mode-locked lasers there are different types of noise like intensity noise, pulse temporal position noise also known as timing jitter, optical phase noise. In term for frequency combs, these noise dynamics is more complex and often related. Understanding the noise behavior is not only of great interest in practical applications but also help understand fundamental laser physics. In this dissertation, the noise of frequency combs and mode-locked lasers will be studied in two projects. First, the CEO frequency phase noise of a synchronously pumped doubly resonant optical parametric oscillators (OPO) will be explored. This is very important for applications of the OPO as a coherent frequency comb source. Another project will focus on the intensity noise coupling in a soliton fiber oscillator, the finding of different noise coupling in soliton pulses and the dispersive waves generated from soliton perturbation can provide very practical guidance for low noise soliton laser design. OPOs are used to generate

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Dynamic Pelvic Floor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – Dynamic Pelvic Floor Dynamic pelvic floor magnetic resonance imaging ( ... the limitations of pelvic floor MRI? What is dynamic pelvic floor MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  4. Nonlinear optical whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonators comprising nonlinear optical materials, where the nonlinear optical material of a WGM resonator includes a plurality of sectors within the optical resonator and nonlinear coefficients of two adjacent sectors are oppositely poled.

  5. Quartz crystal and superconductive resonators and oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Besson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A general overview of piezoelectric resonators is given with emphasis on evolution of the resonator design. Superconducting cavities and crystals at low temperature and the use of resonant frequencies are also discussed.

  6. Wireless Actuation of Micromechanical Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateen, Farrukh; Maedler, Carsten; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Mohanty, Pritiraj

    Wireless transfer of power is of fundamental and technical interest with applications ranging from remote operation of electronics, biomedical implants, and device actuation where hard-wired power sources are neither desirable nor practical. In particular, biomedical implants in the body or the brain need small footprint power receiving elements for wireless charging, which can be accomplished by micromechanical resonators. In contrast for fundamental experiments, ultra low-power wireless operation of micromechanical resonators in the microwave range makes low-temperature studies of mechanical systems in the quantum regime possible, where heat carried by the electrical wires in standard actuation techniques is detrimental to maintaining the resonator in a quantum state. We demonstrate successful actuation of micron-sized silicon-based piezoelectric resonators with resonance frequencies from 36 MHz to 120 MHz, at power levels of nanowatts and distances of about 3 feet, including polarization, distance and power dependence measurements. Our demonstration of wireless actuation of micromechanical resonators via electric-field coupling down to nanowatt levels enables a multitude of applications based on micromechanical resonators, inaccessible until now.

  7. Tunable Micro- and Nanomechanical Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-Ming; Hu, Kai-Ming; Peng, Zhi-Ke; Meng, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Advances in micro- and nanofabrication technologies have enabled the development of novel micro- and nanomechanical resonators which have attracted significant attention due to their fascinating physical properties and growing potential applications. In this review, we have presented a brief overview of the resonance behavior and frequency tuning principles by varying either the mass or the stiffness of resonators. The progress in micro- and nanomechanical resonators using the tuning electrode, tuning fork, and suspended channel structures and made of graphene have been reviewed. We have also highlighted some major influencing factors such as large-amplitude effect, surface effect and fluid effect on the performances of resonators. More specifically, we have addressed the effects of axial stress/strain, residual surface stress and adsorption-induced surface stress on the sensing and detection applications and discussed the current challenges. We have significantly focused on the active and passive frequency tuning methods and techniques for micro- and nanomechanical resonator applications. On one hand, we have comprehensively evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of each strategy, including active methods such as electrothermal, electrostatic, piezoelectrical, dielectric, magnetomotive, photothermal, mode-coupling as well as tension-based tuning mechanisms, and passive techniques such as post-fabrication and post-packaging tuning processes. On the other hand, the tuning capability and challenges to integrate reliable and customizable frequency tuning methods have been addressed. We have additionally concluded with a discussion of important future directions for further tunable micro- and nanomechanical resonators. PMID:26501294

  8. Noncontrast Magnetic Resonance Lymphography.

    PubMed

    Arrivé, Lionel; Derhy, Sarah; El Mouhadi, Sanaâ; Monnier-Cholley, Laurence; Menu, Yves; Becker, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Different imaging techniques have been used for the investigation of the lymphatic channels and lymph glands. Noncontrast magnetic resonance (MR) lymphography has significant advantages in comparison with other imaging modalities. Noncontrast MR lymphography uses very heavily T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences which obtain a nearly complete signal loss in tissue background and specific display of lymphatic vessels with a long T2 relaxation time. The raw data can be processed with different algorithms such as maximum intensity projection algorithm to obtain an anatomic representation. Standard T2-weighted MR images easily demonstrate the location of edema. It appears as subcutaneous infiltration of soft tissue with a classical honeycomb pattern. True collection around the muscular area may be demonstrated in case of severe lymphedema. Lymph nodes may be normal in size, number, and signal intensity; in other cases, lymph nodes may be smaller in size or number of lymph nodes may be restricted. MR lymphography allows a classification of lymphedema in aplasia (no collecting vessels demonstrated); hypoplasia (a small number of lymphatic vessels), and numerical hyperplasia or hyperplasia (with an increased number of lymphatic vessels of greater and abnormal diameter). Noncontrast MR lymphography is a unique noninvasive imaging modality for the diagnosis of lymphedema. It can be used for positive diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and specific evaluation of lymphedema severity. It may also be used for follow-up evaluation after treatment. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Bradley R

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) maps the spatiotemporal distribution of neural activity in the brain under varying cognitive conditions. Since its inception in 1991, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has rapidly become a vital methodology in basic and applied neuroscience research. In the clinical realm, it has become an established tool for presurgical functional brain mapping. This chapter has three principal aims. First, we review key physiologic, biophysical, and methodologic principles that underlie BOLD fMRI, regardless of its particular area of application. These principles inform a nuanced interpretation of the BOLD fMRI signal, along with its neurophysiologic significance and pitfalls. Second, we illustrate the clinical application of task-based fMRI to presurgical motor, language, and memory mapping in patients with lesions near eloquent brain areas. Integration of BOLD fMRI and diffusion tensor white-matter tractography provides a road map for presurgical planning and intraoperative navigation that helps to maximize the extent of lesion resection while minimizing the risk of postoperative neurologic deficits. Finally, we highlight several basic principles of resting-state fMRI and its emerging translational clinical applications. Resting-state fMRI represents an important paradigm shift, focusing attention on functional connectivity within intrinsic cognitive networks. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Accessible magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, L; Arakawa, M; Hale, J; Rothschild, P; Carlson, J; Hake, K; Kramer, D; Lu, W; Van Heteren, J

    1989-10-01

    The cost of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is driven by magnetic field strength. Misperceptions as to the impact of field strength on performance have led to systems that are more expensive than they need to be. Careful analysis of all the factors that affect diagnostic quality lead to the conclusion that field strength per se is not a strong determinant of system performance. Freed from the constraints imposed by high-field operation, it is possible to exploit a varied set of opportunities afforded by low-field operation. In addition to lower costs and easier siting, we can take advantage of shortened T1 times, higher contrast, reduced sensitivity to motion, and reduced radiofrequency power deposition. These conceptual advantages can be made to coalesce onto practical imaging systems. We describe a low-cost MRI system that utilizes a permanent magnet of open design. Careful optimization of receiving antennas and acquisition sequences permit performance levels consistent with those needed for an effective diagnostic unit. Ancillary advantages include easy access to the patient, reduced claustrophobia, quiet and comfortable operation, and absence of a missile effect. The system can be sited in 350 sq ft and consumes a modest amount of electricity. MRI equipment of this kind can widen the population base than can access this powerful and beneficial diagnostic modality.

  11. Single-resonator double-negative metamaterial

    DOEpatents

    Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Langston, William L.; Johnson, William A.; Ihlefeld, Jon; Ginn, III, James C.; Clem, Paul G.; Sinclair, Michael B.

    2016-06-21

    Resonances can be tuned in dielectric resonators in order to construct single-resonator, negative-index metamaterials. For example, high-contrast inclusions in the form of metallic dipoles can be used to shift the first electric resonance down (in frequency) to the first magnetic resonance, or alternatively, air splits can be used to shift the first magnetic resonance up (in frequency) near the first electric resonance. Degenerate dielectric designs become especially useful in infrared- or visible-frequency applications where the resonator sizes associated with the lack of high-permittivity materials can become of sufficient size to enable propagation of higher-order lattice modes in the resulting medium.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Paul H.; Brainard, James R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1997-01-01

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

  14. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  15. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.; Nunnally, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  16. Calligraphic Poling for WGM Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohageg, Makan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Ilchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute

    2007-01-01

    By engineering the geometry of a nonlinear optical crystal, the effective efficiency of all nonlinear optical oscillations can be increased dramatically. Specifically, sphere and disk shaped crystal resonators have been used to demonstrate nonlinear optical oscillations at sub-milliwatt input power when cs light propagates in a Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) of such a resonant cavity. in terms of both device production and experimentation in quantum optics, some nonlinear optical effects with naturally high efficiency can occult the desired nonlinear scattering process. the structure to the crystal resonator. In this paper, I will discuss a new method for generating poling structures in ferroelectric crystal resonators called calligraphic poling. The details of the poling apparatus, experimental results and speculation on future applications will be discussed.

  17. Resonant Mode-hopping Micromixing

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ling-Sheng; Chao, Shih-Hui; Holl, Mark R.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2009-01-01

    A common micromixer design strategy is to generate interleaved flow topologies to enhance diffusion. However, problems with these designs include complicated structures and dead volumes within the flow fields. We present an active micromixer using a resonating piezoceramic/silicon composite diaphragm to generate acoustic streaming flow topologies. Circulation patterns are observed experimentally and correlate to the resonant mode shapes of the diaphragm. The dead volumes in the flow field are eliminated by rapidly switching from one discrete resonant mode to another (i.e., resonant mode-hop). Mixer performance is characterized by mixing buffer with a fluorescence tracer containing fluorescein. Movies of the mixing process are analyzed by converting fluorescent images to two-dimensional fluorescein concentration distributions. The results demonstrate that mode-hopping operation rapidly homogenized chamber contents, circumventing diffusion-isolated zones. PMID:19551159

  18. Resonance suppression from color reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acconcia, R.; Chinellato, D. D.; de Souza, R. Derradi; Takahashi, J.; Torrieri, G.; Markert, C.

    2018-02-01

    We present studies that show how multi-parton interaction and color reconnection affect the hadro-chemistry in proton-proton (pp) collisions with special focus on the production of resonances using the pythia8 event generator. We find that color reconnection suppresses the relative production of meson resonances such as ρ0 and K* , providing an alternative explanation for the K*/K decrease observed in proton-proton collisions as a function of multiplicity by the ALICE collaboration. Detailed studies of the underlying mechanism causing meson resonance suppression indicate that color reconnection leads to shorter, less energetic strings whose fragmentation is less likely to produce more massive hadrons for a given quark content, therefore reducing ratios such as K*/K and ρ0/π in high-multiplicity pp collisions. In addition, we have also studied the effects of allowing string junctions to form and found that these may also contribute to resonance suppression.

  19. Morphological resonances for multicomponent immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, W. B.; Shapiro, M. J.; Ramsey, J. M.; Bronk, B. V.

    1995-06-01

    An immunoassay technique capable of detecting and identifying a number of species of microorganisms in a single analysis is described. The method uses optical-resonance size discrimination of microspheres to identify antibodies to which stained microorganisms are bound.

  20. Dipole Resonances of 76Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva, R. S.; Cooper, N.; Werner, V.; Rusev, G.; Pietralla, N.; Kelly, J. H.; Tornow, W.; Yates, S. W.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E.

    2013-10-01

    Dipole resonances in 76Ge have been studied using the method of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF). The experiment was performed using the Free Electron Laser facility at HI γS/TUNL, which produced linearly polarised quasi-monoenergetic photons in the 4-9 MeV energy range. Photon strength, in particular dipole strength, is an important ingredient in nuclear reaction calculations, and recent interest in its study has been stimulated by observations of a pygmy dipole resonance near the neutron separation energy Sn of certain nuclei. Furthermore, 76Ge is a candidate for 0 ν 2 β -decay. The results are complimentary to a relevant experiment done at TU Darmstadt using Bremsstrahlung beams. Single-resonance parities and a preliminary estimate of the total photo-excitation cross section will be presented. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE under grant no. DE-FG02-91ER40609.

  1. Nested trampoline resonators for optomechanics

    SciT

    Weaver, M. J., E-mail: mweaver@physics.ucsb.edu; Pepper, B.; Luna, F.

    2016-01-18

    Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with a distributed Bragg reflector mirror. We design a nested double resonator structure with 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface at the inner resonator frequency, and we demonstrate up to 45 dB of isolation at lower frequencies in agreement with the design. We reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400 000 at room temperature. Inmore » addition, these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181 000 ± 1000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators.« less

  2. Nested trampoline resonators for optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, M. J.; Pepper, B.; Luna, F.; Buters, F. M.; Eerkens, H. J.; Welker, G.; Perock, B.; Heeck, K.; de Man, S.; Bouwmeester, D.

    2016-01-01

    Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si3N4 with a distributed Bragg reflector mirror. We design a nested double resonator structure with 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface at the inner resonator frequency, and we demonstrate up to 45 dB of isolation at lower frequencies in agreement with the design. We reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400 000 at room temperature. In addition, these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181 000 ± 1000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators.

  3. Electromagnetic properties of baryon resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiator, Lothar

    2013-10-01

    Longitudinal and transverse transition form factors for most of the four-star nucleon resonances have been obtained from high-quality cross section data and polarization observables measured at MAMI, ELSA, BATES, GRAAL and CEBAF. As an application, we further show how the transition form factors can be used to obtain empirical transverse charge densities. Contour plots of the thus derived densities are shown and compared for the Roper and S11 nucleon resonances.

  4. Injecting asteroid fragments into resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farinella, Paolo; Gonczi, R.; Froeschle, Christiane; Froeschle, Claude

    1992-01-01

    We have quantitatively modeled the chance insertion of asteroid collisional fragments into the 3:1 and g = g(sub 6) resonances, through which they can achieve Earth-approaching orbits. Although the results depend on some poorly known parameters, they indicate that most meteorites and near-earth asteroids probably come from a small and non-representative sample of asteroids, located in the neighborhood of the two resonances.

  5. Memory effects on stochastic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiman, Alexander; Sung, Wokyung

    1996-02-01

    We study the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) in a bistable system with internal colored noise. In this situation the system possesses time-dependent memory friction connected with noise via the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, so that in the absence of periodic driving the system approaches the thermodynamic equilibrium state. For this non-Markovian case we find that memory usually suppresses stochastic resonance. However, for a large memory time SR can be enhanced by the memory.

  6. Ring Laser Gyro Resonator Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-20

    vibration environment could cause errors in measured RLG rotation rates due to vibration (tilt) of the resonator mirrors . Vibration-induced mirror tilt...the RLG resonator design theoretically and calculated pertinent parameters such as the beam diameter at the aperture, cavity mirror alignment...sensitivities, and power loss due to aperture occlusion. The mirror vibration levels required to significantly affect the laser power were then calculated for

  7. Secular Resonances In Planetary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, T.; Marinho, E. P.

    1999-09-01

    Due to the tides the orbits of Phobos and Triton are spiralling in towards their host planets. On the contrary, our Moon is being driven away from the Earth. Most probably, in the past many other particles experienced similar variations. During this evolution, the semimajor axis assumes several values which can cause significant resonances, involving the node, pericenter and the longitude of the Sun. Recently Touma and Wisdom showed the decisive effect played by evection and iviction resonances in the Earth-Moon system. In this work we derive the averaged equations of a satellite disturbed by the Sun and the oblateness of the planet. Neglecting higher order (third) in the ratio of the distances, all possible resonances are studied. In general we are used to small values of the ecliptic. However in the past, the obliquity of the inner planets could have attained very high values (Laskar et all). Then taking into account large values of the obliquity we find some significant variations in the inclinations, besides others in the eccentricities. If some empirical law of the variation of the semimajor axis is assumed, then with the averaged equations we can easily see the jumps in these elements when the satellite crosses some resonance. Finally we show the possible variations in the Phobos' eccentricity since it will cross the evection resonance in the future. We also show some possible and significant resonances faced by Triton in the past. For partial financial support we thank FAPESP.

  8. Empathy in schizophrenia: impaired resonance.

    PubMed

    Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2009-09-01

    Resonance is the phenomenon of one person unconsciously mirroring the motor actions as basis of emotional expressions of another person. This shared representation serves as a basis for sharing physiological and emotional states of others and is an important component of empathy. Contagious laughing and contagious yawning are examples of resonance. In the interpersonal contact with individuals with schizophrenia we can often experience impaired empathic resonance. The aim of this study is to determine differences in empathic resonance-in terms of contagion by yawning and laughing-in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls in the context of psychopathology and social functioning. We presented video sequences of yawning, laughing or neutral faces to 43 schizophrenia outpatients and 45 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Participants were video-taped during the stimulation and rated regarding contagion by yawning and laughing. In addition, we assessed self-rated empathic abilities (Interpersonal Reactivity Index), psychopathology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in the schizophrenia group resp. Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire in the control group), social dysfunction (Social Dysfunction Index) and executive functions (Stroop, Fluency). Individuals with schizophrenia showed lower contagion rates for yawning and laughing. Self-rated empathic concern showed no group difference and did not correlate with contagion. Low rate of contagion by laughing correlated with the schizophrenia negative syndrome and with social dysfunction. We conclude that impaired resonance is a handicap for individuals with schizophrenia in social life. Blunted observable resonance does not necessarily reflect reduced subjective empathic concern.

  9. Micro-machined resonator oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, Dale R.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Bivens, Hugh M.; Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    1994-01-01

    A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a "telemetered sensor beacon" that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20-100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available.

  10. Micro-machined resonator oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, D.R.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Bivens, H.M.; Wessendorf, K.O.

    1994-08-16

    A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a telemetered sensor beacon'' that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20--100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available. 21 figs.

  11. Graded-index whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode optical resonators which have spatially-graded refractive indices. In one implementation, the refractive index spatially increases with a distance from an exterior surface of such a resonator towards an interior of the resonator to produce substantially equal spectral separations for different whispering gallery modes. An optical coupler may be used with such a resonator to provide proper optical coupling.

  12. Sound absorption by a Helmholtz resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komkin, A. I.; Mironov, M. A.; Bykov, A. I.

    2017-07-01

    Absorption characteristics of a Helmholtz resonator positioned at the end wall of a circular duct are considered. The absorption coefficient of the resonator is experimentally investigated as a function of the diameter and length of the resonator neck and the depth of the resonator cavity. Based on experimental data, the linear analytic model of a Helmholtz resonator is verified, and the results of verification are used to determine the dissipative attached length of the resonator neck so as to provide the agreement between experimental and calculated data. Dependences of sound absorption by a Helmholtz resonator on its geometric parameters are obtained.

  13. Microelectromechanical resonator and method for fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Wittwer, Jonathan W [Albuquerque, NM; Olsson, Roy H [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-10

    A method is disclosed for the robust fabrication of a microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator. In this method, a pattern of holes is formed in the resonator mass with the position, size and number of holes in the pattern being optimized to minimize an uncertainty .DELTA.f in the resonant frequency f.sub.0 of the MEM resonator due to manufacturing process variations (e.g. edge bias). A number of different types of MEM resonators are disclosed which can be formed using this method, including capacitively transduced Lame, wineglass and extensional resonators, and piezoelectric length-extensional resonators.

  14. Microelectromechanical resonator and method for fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Wittwer, Jonathan W [Albuquerque, NM; Olsson, Roy H [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-01-26

    A method is disclosed for the robust fabrication of a microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator. In this method, a pattern of holes is formed in the resonator mass with the position, size and number of holes in the pattern being optimized to minimize an uncertainty .DELTA.f in the resonant frequency f.sub.0 of the MEM resonator due to manufacturing process variations (e.g. edge bias). A number of different types of MEM resonators are disclosed which can be formed using this method, including capacitively transduced Lame, wineglass and extensional resonators, and piezoelectric length-extensional resonators.

  15. Nonlinear Dynamics of Nanomechanical Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Gulak, Yuiry; Sundaram, Bala; Benaroya, Haym

    2007-03-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) offer great promise for many applications including motion and mass sensing. Recent experimental results suggest the importance of nonlinear effects in NEMS, an issue which has not been addressed fully in theory. We report on a nonlinear extension of a recent analytical model by Armour et al [1] for the dynamics of a single-electron transistor (SET) coupled to a nanomechanical resonator. We consider the nonlinear resonator motion in both (a) the Duffing and (b) nonlinear pendulum regimes. The corresponding master equations are derived and solved numerically and we consider moment approximations as well. In the Duffing case with hardening stiffness, we observe that the resonator is damped by the SET at a significantly higher rate. In the cases of softening stiffness and the pendulum, there exist regimes where the SET adds energy to the resonator. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of a single model displaying both negative and positive resonator damping in different dynamical regimes. The implications of the results for SET sensitivity as well as for, as yet unexplained, experimental results will be discussed. 1. Armour et al. Phys.Rev.B (69) 125313 (2004).

  16. Space charge in nanostructure resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Peter J.

    1996-10-01

    In quantum ballistic propagation of electrons through a variety of nanostructures, resonance in the energy-dependent transmission and reflection probabilities generically is associated with (1) a quasi-level with a decay lifetime, and (2) a bulge in electron density within the structure. It can be shown that, to a good approximation, a simple formula in all cases connects the density of states for the latter to the energy dependence of the phase angles of the eigen values of the S-matrix governing the propagation. For both the Lorentzian resonances (normal or inverted) and for the Fano-type resonances, as a consequence of this eigen value formula, the space charge due to filled states over the energy range of a resonance is just equal (for each spin state) to one electron charge. The Coulomb interaction within this space charge is known to 'distort' the electrical characteristics of resonant nanostructures. In these systems, however, the exchange effect should effectively cancel the interaction between states with parallel spins, leaving only the anti-parallel spin contribution.

  17. Lasing from active optomechanical resonators

    PubMed Central

    Czerniuk, T.; Brüggemann, C.; Tepper, J.; Brodbeck, S.; Schneider, C.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Glavin, B. A.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Akimov, A. V.; Bayer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Planar microcavities with distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) host, besides confined optical modes, also mechanical resonances due to stop bands in the phonon dispersion relation of the DBRs. These resonances have frequencies in the 10- to 100-GHz range, depending on the resonator’s optical wavelength, with quality factors exceeding 1,000. The interaction of photons and phonons in such optomechanical systems can be drastically enhanced, opening a new route towards the manipulation of light. Here we implemented active semiconducting layers into the microcavity to obtain a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). Thereby, three resonant excitations—photons, phonons and electrons—can interact strongly with each other providing modulation of the VCSEL laser emission: a picosecond strain pulse injected into the VCSEL excites long-living mechanical resonances therein. As a result, modulation of the lasing intensity at frequencies up to 40 GHz is observed. From these findings, prospective applications of active optomechanical resonators integrated into nanophotonic circuits may emerge. PMID:25008784

  18. Viscoelastic coupling of nanoelectromechanical resonators.

    SciT

    Simonson, Robert Joseph; Staton, Alan W.

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes work to date on a new collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) to utilize nanoelectromechanical resonators designed at Caltech as platforms to measure the mechanical properties of polymeric materials at length scales on the order of 10-50 nm. Caltech has succeeded in reproducibly building cantilever resonators having major dimensions on the order of 2-5 microns. These devices are fabricated in pairs, with free ends separated by reproducible gaps having dimensions on the order of 10-50 nm. By controlled placement of materials that bridge the very small gap between resonators, the mechanicalmore » devices become coupled through the test material, and the transmission of energy between the devices can be monitored. This should allow for measurements of viscoelastic properties of polymeric materials at high frequency over short distances. Our work to date has been directed toward establishing this measurement capability at Sandia.« less

  19. Charmonium resonances on the lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bali, Gunnar; Collins, Sara; Mohler, Daniel; Padmanath, M.; Piemonte, Stefano; Prelovsek, Sasa; Weishäupl, Simon

    2018-03-01

    The nature of resonances and excited states near decay thresholds is encoded in scattering amplitudes, which can be extracted from single-particle and multiparticle correlators in finite volumes. Lattice calculations have only recently reached the precision required for a reliable study of such correlators. The distillation method represents a significant improvement insofar as it simplifies quark contractions and allows one to easily extend the operator basis used to construct interpolators. We present preliminary results on charmonium bound states and resonances on the Nf = 2+1 CLS ensembles. The long term goal of our investigation is to understand the properties of the X resonances that do not fit into conventional models of quark-antiquark mesons. We tune various parameters of the distillation method and the charm quark mass. As a first result, we present the masses of the ground and excited states in the 0++ and 1- channels

  20. Magnetic Resonance with Squeezed Microwaves

    SciT

    Bienfait, A.; Campagne-Ibarcq, P.; Kiilerich, A. H.

    2017-10-17

    Vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field set a fundamental limit to the sensitivity of a variety of measurements, including magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We report the use of squeezed microwave fields, which are engineered quantum states of light for which fluctuations in one field quadrature are reduced below the vacuum level, to enhance the detection sensitivity of an ensemble of electronic spins at millikelvin temperatures. By shining a squeezed vacuum state on the input port of a microwave resonator containing the spins, we obtain a 1.2-dB noise reduction at the spectrometer output compared to the case of a vacuum input. Thismore » result constitutes a proof of principle of the application of quantum metrology to magnetic resonance spectroscopy.« less

  1. Optical resonators and neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Dana Z.

    1986-08-01

    It may be possible to implement neural network models using continuous field optical architectures. These devices offer the inherent parallelism of propagating waves and an information density in principle dictated by the wavelength of light and the quality of the bulk optical elements. Few components are needed to construct a relatively large equivalent network. Various associative memories based on optical resonators have been demonstrated in the literature, a ring resonator design is discussed in detail here. Information is stored in a holographic medium and recalled through a competitive processes in the gain medium supplying energy to the ring rsonator. The resonator memory is the first realized example of a neural network function implemented with this kind of architecture.

  2. Magnetic resonance for laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Maroldi, Roberto; Ravanelli, Marco; Farina, Davide

    2014-04-01

    This review summarizes the most recent experiences on the integration of magnetic resonance in assessing the local extent of laryngeal cancer and detecting submucosal recurrences. Advances in magnetic resonance have been characterized by the development of technical solutions that shorten the acquisition time, thereby reducing motion artifacts, and increase the spatial resolution. Phased-array surface coils, directly applied to the neck, enable the use of parallel-imaging techniques, which greatly reduce the acquisition time, and amplify the signal intensity, being closer to the larynx. One of the most important drawbacks of this technique is the small field-of-view, restricting the imaged area to the larynx. Furthermore, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has increased the set of magnetic resonance sequences. Differently from computed tomography (CT), which has only two variables (precontrast/postcontrast), magnetic resonance is based on a multiparameter analysis (T2-weighting and T1-weighting, DWI, and postcontrast acquisition). This multiparameter approach amplifies the contrast resolution. It has, also, permitted to differentiate scar tissue (after laser resection) from submucosal recurrent disease. In addition, DWI sequences have the potential of a more precise discrimination of peritumoral edema from neoplastic tissue, which may lead to improve the assessment of paraglottic space invasion. Magnetic resonance of the larynx is technically challenging. The use of surface coils and motion-reducing techniques is critical to achieve adequate image quality. The intrinsic high-contrast resolution is further increased by the integration of information from different sequences. When CT has not been conclusive, magnetic resonance is indicated in the pretreatment local assessment and in the suspicion of submucosal recurrence.

  3. Resonance vibrations of aircraft propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebers, Fritz

    1932-01-01

    On the basis of the consideration of various possible kinds of propeller vibrations, the resonance vibrations caused by unequal impacts of the propeller blades appear to be the most important. Their theoretical investigation is made by separate analysis of torsional and bending vibrations. This method is justified by the very great difference in the two natural frequencies of aircraft propeller blades. The calculated data are illustrated by practical examples. Thereby the observed vibration phenomenon in the given examples is explained by a bending resonance, for which the bending frequency of the propeller is equal to twice the revolution speed.

  4. Electro-Mechanical Resonance Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2018-03-01

    Recently I have been investigating the frequency response of galvanometers. These are direct-current devices used to measure small currents. By using a low-frequency function generator to supply the alternating-current signal and a stopwatch smartphone app to measure the period, I was able to take data to allow a resonance curve to be drawn. This is the sort of project that should provide a fascinating research experience for the introductory physics student. In this article I will discuss the galvanometers that I used in this work, and will show a resonance curve for one of them.

  5. Resonator coiling in thermoacoustic engines

    SciT

    Olson, J.R.; Swift, G.W.

    1995-11-01

    Coiling the resonator of a thermoacoustic engine is one way to try to minimize the engine`s size. However, flow in bent pipes is known to alter the fluid flow pattern because of centrifugal forces. Theory and measurements will be presented on the energy dissipation caused by oscillating flow in curved pipes. Measurements have been taken using free oscillations of liquids in U-tubes, and using a thermoacoustic engine with straight and bent resonators. [Work supported by the TTI program of the US Department of Energy, and by the Tektronix Corporation.

  6. Algorithm of resonance orders for the objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, YongGang; Zhang, JianXue

    2018-03-01

    In mechanical engineering, the object resonance phenomena often occur when the external incident wave frequency is close to object of the natural frequency. Object resonance phenomena get the maximum value when the external incident frequency is equal to object the natural frequency. Experiments found that resonance intension of the object is changed, different objects resonance phenomena present different characteristics of ladders. Based on object orders resonance characteristics, the calculation method of object orders resonance is put forward in the paper, and the application for the light and sound waves on the seven order resonance characteristics by people feel, the result error is less than 1%.Visible in this paper, the method has high accuracy and usability. The calculation method reveals that some object resonance occur present order characteristic only four types, namely the first-orders resonance characteristics, third-orders characteristics, five orders characteristic, and seven orders characteristic.

  7. Miniature Sapphire Acoustic Resonator - MSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Rabi T.; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    A room temperature sapphire acoustics resonator incorporated into an oscillator represents a possible opportunity to improve on quartz ultrastable oscillator (USO) performance, which has been a staple for NASA missions since the inception of spaceflight. Where quartz technology is very mature and shows a performance improvement of perhaps 1 dB/decade, these sapphire acoustic resonators when integrated with matured quartz electronics could achieve a frequency stability improvement of 10 dB or more. As quartz oscillators are an essential element of nearly all types of frequency standards and reference systems, the success of MSAR would advance the development of frequency standards and systems for both groundbased and flight-based projects. Current quartz oscillator technology is limited by quartz mechanical Q. With a possible improvement of more than x 10 Q with sapphire acoustic modes, the stability limit of current quartz oscillators may be improved tenfold, to 10(exp -14) at 1 second. The electromagnetic modes of sapphire that were previously developed at JPL require cryogenic temperatures to achieve the high Q levels needed to achieve this stability level. However sapphire fs acoustic modes, which have not been used before in a high-stability oscillator, indicate the required Q values (as high as Q = 10(exp 8)) may be achieved at room temperature in the kHz range. Even though sapphire is not piezoelectric, such a high Q should allow electrostatic excitation of the acoustic modes with a combination of DC and AC voltages across a small sapphire disk (approximately equal to l mm thick). The first evaluations under this task will test predictions of an estimated input impedance of 10 kilohms at Q = 10(exp 8), and explore the Q values that can be realized in a smaller resonator, which has not been previously tested for acoustic modes. This initial Q measurement and excitation demonstration can be viewed similar to a transducer converting electrical energy to

  8. Linear excitation and detection in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosshans, Peter B.; Chen, Ruidan; Limbach, Patrick A.; Marshall, Alan G.

    1994-11-01

    We present the first Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) ion trap designed to produce both a linear spatial variation of the excitation electric potential field and a linear response of the detection circuit to the motion of the confined ions. With this trap, the magnitude of the detected signal at a given ion cyclotron frequency varies linearly with both the number of ions of given mass-to-charge ratio and also with the magnitude-mode excitation signal at the ion cyclotron orbital frequency; the proportionality constant is mass independent. Interestingly, this linearization may be achieved with any ion trap geometry. The excitation/detection design consists of an array of capacitively coupled electrodes which provide a voltage-divider network that produces a nearly spatially homogeneous excitation electric field throughout the linearized trap; resistive coupling to the electrodes isolates the a.c. excitation (or detection) circuit from the d.c. (trapping) potential. The design is based on analytical expressions for the potential associated with each electrode, from which we are able to compute the deviation from linearity for a trap with a finite number of elements. Based on direct experimental comparisons to an unmodified cubic trap, the linearized trap demonstrates the following performance advantages at the cost of some additional mechanical complexity: (a) signal response linearly proportional to excitation electric field amplitude; (b) vastly reduced axial excitation/ejection for significantly improved ion relative abundance accuracy; (c) elimination of harmonics and sidebands of the fundamental frequencies of ion motion. As a result, FT-ICR mass spectra are now more reproducible. Moreover, the linearized trap should facilitate the characterization of other fundamental aspects of ion behavior in an ICR ion trap, e.g. effects of space charge, non-quadrupolar electrostatic trapping field, etc. Furthermore, this novel design should improve

  9. Guided-mode resonant filters and reflectors: Principles, design, and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niraula, Manoj

    In this dissertation, we overview the operational principles of these resonant periodic structures, discuss the methods of their design and fabrication, and propose and demonstrate novel functionalities for spatial and spectral filtering, and unpolarized wideband reflection. Fashioned with materially sparse gratings, these optical devices are easy to fabricate and integration friendly compared to their traditional multi-layer counterparts making their research and development critical for practical applications. We study, theoretically, modal properties and parametric dependence of resonant periodic bandpass filters operating in the mid- and near-infrared spectral domains. We investigate three different device architectures consisting of single, double, and triple layers based on all-transparent dielectric and semiconductor thin films. We present three modal coupling configurations forming complex mixtures of two or three distinct leaky modes coupling at different evanescent diffraction orders. Our modal analysis demonstrates key attributes of subwavelength periodic thin-film structures in multiple-modal blending to achieve desired transmission spectra. We provide the first experimental demonstration of high-efficiency and narrow-linewidth resonant bandpass filter applying a single patterned silicon layer on a quartz substrate. Its performance corresponds to bandpass filters requiring 15 traditional Si/SiO2 thin-film layers. The feasibility of sparse narrowband, high-efficiency bandpass filters with extremely wide, flat, and low sidebands is thereby demonstrated. The proposed technology is integration-friendly and opens doors for further development in various disciplines and spectral regions where thin-film solutions are traditionally applied. We demonstrate concurrent spatial and spectral filtering as a new outstanding attribute of resonant periodic devices. This functionality is enabled by a unique, near-complete, reflection state that is discrete in both

  10. Geometrical optics model of Mie resonances

    PubMed

    Roll; Schweiger

    2000-07-01

    The geometrical optics model of Mie resonances is presented. The ray path geometry is given and the resonance condition is discussed with special emphasis on the phase shift that the rays undergo at the surface of the dielectric sphere. On the basis of this model, approximate expressions for the positions of first-order resonances are given. Formulas for the cavity mode spacing are rederived in a simple manner. It is shown that the resonance linewidth can be calculated regarding the cavity losses. Formulas for the mode density of Mie resonances are given that account for the different width of resonances and thus may be adapted to specific experimental situations.

  11. Wavelength-tunable optical ring resonators

    DOEpatents

    Watts, Michael R [Albuquerque, NM; Trotter, Douglas C [Albuquerque, NM; Young, Ralph W [Albuquerque, NM; Nielson, Gregory N [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-10

    Optical ring resonator devices are disclosed that can be used for optical filtering, modulation or switching, or for use as photodetectors or sensors. These devices can be formed as microdisk ring resonators, or as open-ring resonators with an optical waveguide having a width that varies adiabatically. Electrical and mechanical connections to the open-ring resonators are made near a maximum width of the optical waveguide to minimize losses and thereby provide a high resonator Q. The ring resonators can be tuned using an integral electrical heater, or an integral semiconductor junction.

  12. Wavelength-tunable optical ring resonators

    DOEpatents

    Watts, Michael R [Albuquerque, NM; Trotter, Douglas C [Albuquerque, NM; Young, Ralph W [Albuquerque, NM; Nielson, Gregory N [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-07-19

    Optical ring resonator devices are disclosed that can be used for optical filtering, modulation or switching, or for use as photodetectors or sensors. These devices can be formed as microdisk ring resonators, or as open-ring resonators with an optical waveguide having a width that varies adiabatically. Electrical and mechanical connections to the open-ring resonators are made near a maximum width of the optical waveguide to minimize losses and thereby provide a high resonator Q. The ring resonators can be tuned using an integral electrical heater, or an integral semiconductor junction.

  13. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Meriles, Carlos A.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  14. Electro-Mechanical Resonance Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    Recently I have been investigating the frequency response of galvanometers. These are direct-current devices used to measure small currents. By using a low-frequency function generator to supply the alternating-current signal and a stopwatch smartphone app to measure the period, I was able to take data to allow a resonance curve to be drawn. This…

  15. Microfabricated teeter-totter resonator

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, Douglas Ray; Heller, Edwin J.; Shul, Randy J.

    2004-11-23

    A microfabricated teeter-totter resonator comprises a frame, a paddle pivotably anchored to the frame by pivot arms that define an axis of rotation, a current conductor line on a surface of the paddle, means for applying a static magnetic field substantially perpendicular to the rotational axis and in the plane of the paddle, and means for energizing the current conductor line with an alternating current. A Lorentz force is generated by the interaction of the magnetic field with the current flowing in the conductor line, causing the paddle to oscillate about the axis of rotation. The teeter-totter resonator can be fabricated with micromachining techniques with materials used in the integrated circuits manufacturing industry. The microfabricated teeter-totter resonator has many varied applications, both as an actuation device and as a sensor. When used as a chemical sensor, a chemically sensitive coating can be disposed on one or both surfaces of the paddle to enhance the absorption of chemical analytes from a fluid stream. The resulting mass change can be detected as a change in the resonant frequency or phase of the oscillatory motion of the paddle.

  16. Duffing's Equation and Nonlinear Resonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of nonlinear resonance (sometimes called the "jump phenomenon") is examined and second-order van der Pol plane analysis is employed to indicate that this phenomenon is not a feature of the equation, but rather the result of accumulated round-off error, truncation error and algorithm error that distorts the true bounded solution onto…

  17. Q-Boosted Optomechanical Resonators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-18

    Devices ( ORCHID ) Lead Organization: University of California at Berkeley Project Title: Q-Boosted Optomechanical Resonators Technical...be a PDF. Please do not password protect or secure the PDF . The maximum file size for the Report Document is 50MB. 150915 UCB Nguyen ORCHID

  18. Biosensing by WGM Microspherical Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Righini, Giancarlo C.; Soria, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode (WGM) microresonators, thanks to their unique properties, have allowed researchers to achieve important results in both fundamental research and engineering applications. Among the various geometries, microspheres are the simplest 3D WGM resonators; the total optical loss in such resonators can be extremely low, and the resulting extraordinarily high Q values of 108–109 lead to high energy density, narrow resonant-wavelength lines and a lengthy cavity ringdown. They can also be coated in order to better control their properties or to increase their functionality. Their very high sensitivity to changes in the surrounding medium has been exploited for several sensing applications: protein adsorption, trace gas detection, impurity detection in liquids, structural health monitoring of composite materials, detection of electric fields, pressure sensing, and so on. In the present paper, after a general introduction to WGM resonators, attention is focused on spherical microresonators, either in bulk or in bubble format, to their fabrication, characterization and functionalization. The state of the art in the area of biosensing is presented, and the perspectives of further developments are discussed. PMID:27322282

  19. Resonant cavity enhanced photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünlü, M. Selim; Strite, Samuel

    1995-07-01

    We review the family of optoelectronic devices whose performance is enhanced by placing the active device structure inside a Fabry-Perot resonant microcavity. Such resonant cavity enhanced (RCE) devices benefit from the wavelength selectivity and the large increase of the resonant optical field introduced by the cavity. The increased optical field allows RCE photodetector structures to be thinner and therefore faster, while simultaneously increasing the quantum efficiency at the resonant wavelengths. Off-resonance wavelengths are rejected by the cavity making RCE photodetectors promising for low crosstalk wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) applications. RCE optical modulators require fewer quantum wells so are capable of reduced voltage operation. The spontaneous emission spectrum of RCE light emitting diodes (LED) is drastically altered, improving the spectral purity and directivity. RCE devices are also highly suitable for integrated detectors and emitters with applications as in optical logic and in communication networks. This review attempts an encyclopedic overview of RCE photonic devices and systems. Considerable attention is devoted to the theoretical formulation and calculation of important RCE device parameters. Materials criteria are outlined and the suitability of common heteroepitaxial systems for RCE devices is examined. Arguments for the improved bandwidth in RCE detectors are presented intuitively, and results from advanced numerical simulations confirming the simple model are provided. An overview of experimental results on discrete RCE photodiodes, phototransistors, modulators, and LEDs is given. Work aimed at integrated RCE devices, optical logic and WDM systems is also covered. We conclude by speculating what remains to be accomplished to implement a practical RCE WDM system.

  20. Parameters Design of Series Resonant Inverter Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xingkun; Peng, Yonglong; Li, Yabin

    This paper analyzes the main circuit structure of series resonant inverter, and designs the components parameters of the main circuit.That provides a theoretical method for the design of series resonant inverter.

  1. Gaussian-Beam Laser-Resonator Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Patricia L.; Bair, Clayton H.; Barnes, Norman

    1989-01-01

    Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators by use of Gaussian-beam-propagation techniques. Used to determine radii of beams as functions of position in laser resonators. Algorithm used in program has three major components. First, ray-transfer matrix for laser resonator must be calculated. Next, initial parameters of beam calculated. Finally, propagation of beam through optical elements computed. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01).

  2. Noise in nonlinear nanoelectromechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra Vidal, Diego N.

    Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS), due to their nanometer scale size, possess a number of desirable attributes: high sensitivity to applied forces, fast response times, high resonance frequencies and low power consumption. However, ultra small size and low power handling result in unwanted consequences: smaller signal size and higher dissipation, making the NEMS devices more susceptible to external and intrinsic noise. The simplest version of a NEMS, a suspended nanomechanical structure with two distinct excitation states, can be used as an archetypal two state system to study a plethora of fundamental phenomena such as Duffing nonlinearity, stochastic resonance, and macroscopic quantum tunneling at low temperatures. From a technical perspective, there are numerous applications such nanomechanical memory elements, microwave switches and nanomechanical computation. The control and manipulation of the mechanical response of these two state systems can be realized by exploiting a (seemingly) counterintuitive physical phenomenon, Stochastic Resonance: in a noisy nonlinear mechanical system, the presence of noise can enhance the system response to an external stimulus. This Thesis is mainly dedicated to study possible applications of Stochastic Resonance in two-state nanomechanical systems. First, on chip signal amplification by 1/falpha is observed. The effectiveness of the noise assisted amplification is observed to decrease with increasing a. Experimental evidence shows an increase in asymmetry between the two states with increasing noise color. Considering the prevalence of 1/f alpha noise in the materials in integrated circuits, the signal enhancement demonstrated here, suggests beneficial use of the otherwise detrimental noise. Finally, a nanomechanical device, operating as a reprogrammable logic gate, and performing fundamental logic functions such as AND/OR and NAND/NOR is presented. The logic function can be programmed (from AND to OR) dynamically, by

  3. The inverse resonance problem for CMV operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weikard, Rudi; Zinchenko, Maxim

    2010-05-01

    We consider the class of CMV operators with super-exponentially decaying Verblunsky coefficients. For these we define the concept of a resonance. Then we prove the existence of Jost solutions and a uniqueness theorem for the inverse resonance problem: given the location of all resonances, taking multiplicities into account, the Verblunsky coefficients are uniquely determined.

  4. Mean motion resonances. [of asteroid belt structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froeschle, CL.; Greenberg, R.

    1989-01-01

    Recent research on the resonant structure of the asteroid belt is reviewed. The resonant mechanism is discussed, and analytical models for the study of mean motion resonances are examined. Numerical averaging methods and mapping methods are considered. It is shown how fresh insight can be obtained by means of a new semianalytical approach.

  5. Multiple-Barrier Resonant Tunneling Structures for Application in a Microwave Generator Stabilized by Microstrip Resonator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-23

    conductivity ( NDC ) effects in double barrier resonant tunneling structures (DBRTS) prove the extremely fast frequency response of charge transport (less...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP013131 TITLE: Multiple-Barrier Resonant Tunneling Structures for...Institute Multiple-barrier resonant tunneling structures for application in a microwave generator stabilized by microstrip resonator S. V. Evstigneev, A. L

  6. Harmonic multiplication using resonant tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sollner, T. C. L. G.; Brown, E. R.; Goodhue, W. D.; Correa, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of resonant-tunneling diodes as varistors for harmonic multiplication. It is shown that efficient odd-harmonic conversion is possible and that even harmonics do not appear because of the antisymmetry of the current-voltage (I-V) curve. It is also shown that, with the proper choice of resonant-tunneling structure and pump amplitude, most of the harmonic output power can be confined to a single odd-harmonic frequency. Fifth-harmonic multiplication was demonstrated with an output at 21.75 GHz and a power conversion efficiency of 0.5 percent, and a fifth-harmonic efficiency of 2.7 percent was achieved in a circuit simulation using an improved I-V curve.

  7. Limits to magnetic resonance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Paul; Mansfield, Peter, Sir

    2002-10-01

    The last quarter of the twentieth century saw the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) grow from a laboratory demonstration to a multi-billion dollar worldwide industry. There is a clinical body scanner in almost every hospital of the developed nations. The field of magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), after mostly being abandoned by researchers in the first decade of MRI, has become an established branch of the science. This paper reviews the development of MRM over the last decade with an emphasis on the current state of the art. The fundamental principles of imaging and signal detection are examined to determine the physical principles which limit the available resolution. The limits are discussed with reference to liquid, solid and gas phase microscopy. In each area, the novel approaches employed by researchers to push back the limits of resolution are discussed. Although the limits to resolution are well known, the developments and applications of MRM have not reached their limit.

  8. Resonant activation of population extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalding, Christopher; Doering, Charles R.; Flierl, Glenn R.

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the mechanisms governing population extinctions is of key importance to many problems in ecology and evolution. Stochastic factors are known to play a central role in extinction, but the interactions between a population's demographic stochasticity and environmental noise remain poorly understood. Here we model environmental forcing as a stochastic fluctuation between two states, one with a higher death rate than the other. We find that, in general, there exists a rate of fluctuations that minimizes the mean time to extinction, a phenomenon previously dubbed "resonant activation." We develop a heuristic description of the phenomenon, together with a criterion for the existence of resonant activation. Specifically, the minimum extinction time arises as a result of the system approaching a scenario wherein the severity of rare events is balanced by the time interval between them. We discuss our findings within the context of more general forms of environmental noise and suggest potential applications to evolutionary models.

  9. AK-cut crystal resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahan, A.; Euler, F. K.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations have predicted the existence of crystallographically doubly rotated quartz orientations with turnover temperatures which are considerably less sensitive to angular misorientation then comparable AT- or BT-cuts. These crystals are arbitrarily designated as the AK-cut. Experimental data is given for seven orientations, phi-angle variations between 30-46 deg and theta-angle variations between 21-28 deg measured on 3.3-3.4 MHz fundamental mode resonators vibrating in the thickness shear c-mode. The experimental turnover temperatures of these resonators are between 80 C and 150 C, in general agreement with calculated values. The normalized frequency change as a function of temperature has been fitted with a cubic equation.

  10. Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrostowski, Lukas; Grist, Samantha; Flueckiger, Jonas; Shi, Wei; Wang, Xu; Ouellet, Eric; Yun, Han; Webb, Mitch; Nie, Ben; Liang, Zhen; Cheung, Karen C.; Schmidt, Shon A.; Ratner, Daniel M.; Jaeger, Nicolas A. F.

    2012-02-01

    Silicon photonic resonators, implemented using silicon-on-insulator substrates, are promising for numerous applications. The most commonly studied resonators are ring/racetrack resonators. We have fabricated these and other resonators including disk resonators, waveguide-grating resonators, ring resonator reflectors, contra-directional grating-coupler ring resonators, and racetrack-based multiplexer/demultiplexers. While numerous resonators have been demonstrated for sensing purposes, it remains unclear as to which structures provide the highest sensitivity and best limit of detection; for example, disc resonators and slot-waveguide-based ring resonators have been conjectured to provide an improved limit of detection. Here, we compare various resonators in terms of sensor metrics for label-free bio-sensing in a micro-fluidic environment. We have integrated resonator arrays with PDMS micro-fluidics for real-time detection of biomolecules in experiments such as antigen-antibody binding reaction experiments using Human Factor IX proteins. Numerous resonators are fabricated on the same wafer and experimentally compared. We identify that, while evanescent-field sensors all operate on the principle that the analyte's refractive index shifts the resonant frequency, there are important differences between implementations that lie in the relationship between the optical field overlap with the analyte and the relative contributions of the various loss mechanisms. The chips were fabricated in the context of the CMC-UBC Silicon Nanophotonics Fabrication course and workshop. This yearlong, design-based, graduate training program is offered to students from across Canada and, over the last four years, has attracted participants from nearly every Canadian university involved in photonics research. The course takes students through a full design cycle of a photonic circuit, including theory, modelling, design, and experimentation.

  11. Resonance ionization for analytical spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, George S.; Payne, Marvin G.; Wagner, Edward B.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for the sensitive and selective analysis of an atomic or molecular component of a gas. According to this method, the desired neutral component is ionized by one or more resonance photon absorptions, and the resultant ions are measured in a sensitive counter. Numerous energy pathways are described for accomplishing the ionization including the use of one or two tunable pulsed dye lasers.

  12. Ring resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, R.N.; Martin, J.; Paldus, B.A.; Xie, J.

    1999-06-15

    Ring-shaped resonant cavities for spectroscopy allow a reduction in optical feedback to the light source, and provide information on the interaction of both s- and p-polarized light with samples. A laser light source is locked to a single cavity mode. An intracavity acousto-optic modulator may be used to couple light into the cavity. The cavity geometry is particularly useful for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). 6 figs.

  13. Ring resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, Richard N.; Martin, Juergen; Paldus, Barbara A.; Xie, Jinchun

    1999-01-01

    Ring-shaped resonant cavities for spectroscopy allow a reduction in optical feedback to the light source, and provide information on the interaction of both s- and p-polarized light with samples. A laser light source is locked to a single cavity mode. An intracavity acousto-optic modulator may be used to couple light into the cavity. The cavity geometry is particularly useful for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS).

  14. Electromagnetic Resonances of Metallic Bodies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    complex objects. MOM creates a discrete model of the object by dividing the object into electrically small charge and current segments referred to as the...distribution is unlimited ELECROMAGNETIC RESONANCES OF METALLIC BODIES William A. Lintz Lieutenant, United States Navy B.E.E., Villanova University, 1992...Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL June

  15. Transient resonances in the inspirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinderer, Tanja; Flanagan, Eanna

    2009-05-01

    We show that the two body problem in general relativity in the highly relativistic regime has a qualitatively new feature: the occurence of transient resonances. The resonances occur when the ratio of polar and radial orbital frequencies, which is slowly evolving under the influence of gravitational radiation reaction, passes through a low order rational number. The resonances make the orbit more sensitive to changes in the initial data (though not quite chaotic), and are genuine non-perturbative effects that are not seen at any order in the standard post-Newtonian expansion used for two body systems at large separation. Our results directly apply to an important potential source of gravitational waves, namely the gradual inspiral of compact objects into much more massive black holes. Exploiting observations of these gravitational waves to map the spacetime geometry of black holes is contingent upon accurate theoretical models (templates) of the binary dynamics. At present, only the leading order in the mass ratio gravitational waveforms can be computed. Corrections to the waveform's phase due to resonance effects scale as the square root of the inverse of the mass ratio and are characterized by sudden jumps in the time derivatives of the phase. We numerically estimate the net size of these corrections and find indications that the phase error is of order a few cycles for mass ratios ˜10^- 3 but will be significant (of order tens of cycles) for mass ratios ˜10-6. Computations of these corrections will require the computation of pieces of the forcing terms in the equations of motion which are currently unknown.

  16. Nonlinear resonances in the ABC-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didov, A. A.; Uleysky, M. Yu.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we study resonances of the ABC-flow in the near integrable case ( C ≪1 ). This is an interesting example of a Hamiltonian system with 3/2 degrees of freedom in which simultaneous existence of two resonances of the same order is possible. Analytical conditions of the resonance existence are received. It is shown numerically that the largest n :1 (n = 1, 2, 3) resonances exist, and their energies are equal to theoretical energies in the near integrable case. We provide analytical and numerical evidences for existence of two branches of the two largest n :1 (n = 1, 2) resonances in the region of finite motion.

  17. Extraordinary acoustic transmission mediated by Helmholtz resonators

    SciT

    Koju, Vijay; Rowe, Ebony; Robertson, William M., E-mail: William.Robertson@mtsu.edu

    2014-07-15

    We demonstrate perfect transmission of sound through a rigid barrier embedded with Helmholtz resonators. The resonators are confined within a waveguide and they are oriented such that one neck protrudes onto each side of the barrier. Perfect sound transmission occurs even though the open area of the necks is less than 3% of the barrier area. Maximum transmission occurs at the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. Because the dimensions of the Helmholtz resonators are much smaller than the resonant wavelength, the transmission is independent of the direction of sound on the barrier and of the relative placement of themore » necks. Further, we show that the transmitted sound experiences a continuous phase transition of π radians as a function of frequency through resonance. In simulations of adjacent resonators with slightly offset resonance frequencies, the phase difference leads to destructive interference. By expanding the simulation to a linear array of tuned Helmholtz resonators we show that it is possible to create an acoustic lens. The ability of Helmholtz resonator arrays to manipulate the phase of a plane acoustic wave enables a new class of sonic beam-forming devices analogous to diffractive optics.« less

  18. Seismic resonances of acoustic cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, F. M.; Esterhazy, S.; Perugia, I.; Bokelmann, G.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of an On-Site Inspection (OSI) is to clarify at a possible testsite whether a member state of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)has violated its rules by conducting a underground nuclear test. Compared toatmospheric and underwater tests underground nuclear explosions are the mostdifficult to detect.One primary structural target for the field team during an OSI is the detectionof an underground cavity, created by underground nuclear explosions. Theapplication of seismic-resonances of the cavity for its detection has beenproposed in the CTBT by mentioning "resonance seismometry" as possibletechnique during OSIs. We modeled the interaction of a seismic wave-field withan underground cavity by a sphere filled with an acoustic medium surrounded byan elastic full space. For this setting the solution of the seismic wave-fieldcan be computed analytically. Using this approach the appearance of acousticresonances can be predicted in the theoretical calculations. Resonance peaksappear in the spectrum derived for the elastic domain surrounding the acousticcavity, which scale in width with the density of the acoustic medium. For lowdensities in the acoustic medium as for an gas-filled cavity, the spectralpeaks become very narrow and therefore hard to resolve. The resonancefrequencies, however can be correlated to the discrete set of eigenmodes of theacoustic cavity and can thus be predicted if the dimension of the cavity isknown. Origin of the resonance peaks are internal reverberations of wavescoupling in the acoustic domain and causing an echoing signal that couples outto the elastic domain again. In the gas-filled case the amplitudes in timedomain are very low.Beside theoretical considerations we seek to find real data examples fromsimilar settings. As example we analyze a 3D active seismic data set fromFelsőpetény, Hungary that has been conducted between 2012 and 2014 on behalf ofthe CTBTO. In the subsurface of this area a former clay mine is

  19. Broadband electron spin resonance at low frequency without resonant cavity

    SciT

    Jang, Z.; Suh, B.; Corti, M.

    2008-04-09

    We have developed a nonconventional broadband electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer operating continuously in the frequency range from 0.5 to 9 GHz. Dual antenna structure and the microwave absorbing environment differentiate the setup from the conventional one and enable broadband operation with any combination of frequency or magnetic field modulation and frequency or magnetic field sweeping. Its performance has been tested with the measurements on a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) sample and with the measurements on the single molecular magnet, V6, in solid state at low temperature.

  20. Chemical structures of coal lithotypes before and after CO2 adsorption as investigated by advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Cao, X.; Mastalerz, Maria; Chappell, M.A.; Miller, L.F.; Li, Y.; Mao, J.

    2011-01-01

    Four lithotypes (vitrain, bright clarain, clarain, and fusain) of a high volatile bituminous Springfield Coal from the Illinois Basin were characterized using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The NMR techniques included quantitative direct polarization/magic angle spinning (DP/MAS), cross polarization/total sideband suppression (CP/TOSS), dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, and recoupled C-H long-range dipolar dephasing techniques. The lithotypes that experienced high-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherm analysis were also analyzed to determine possible changes in coal structure as a result of CO2 saturation at high pressure and subsequent evacuation. The main carbon functionalities present in original vitrain, bright clarain, clarain and fusain were aromatic carbons (65.9%-86.1%), nonpolar alkyl groups (9.0%-28.9%), and aromatic C-O carbons (4.1%-9.5%). Among these lithotypes, aromaticity increased in the order of clarain, bright clarain, vitrain, and fusain, whereas the fraction of alkyl carbons decreased in the same order. Fusain was distinct from other three lithotypes in respect to its highest aromatic composition (86.1%) and remarkably small fraction of alkyl carbons (11.0%). The aromatic cluster size in fusain was larger than that in bright clarain. The lithotypes studied responded differently to high pressure CO2 saturation. After exposure to high pressure CO2, vitrain and fusain showed a decrease in aromaticity but an increase in the fraction of alkyl carbons, whereas bright clarain and clarain displayed an increase in aromaticity but a decrease in the fraction of alkyl carbons. Aromatic fused-rings were larger for bright clarain but smaller for fusain in the post-CO2 adsorption samples compared to the original lithotypes. These observations suggested chemical CO2-coal interactions at high pressure and the selectivity of lithotypes in response to CO2 adsorption. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Characterization of oil shale, isolated kerogen, and post-pyrolysis residues using advanced 13 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Birdwell, Justin E.; Chappell, Mark A.; Li, Yuan; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Mao, Jingdong

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of oil shale kerogen and organic residues remaining in postpyrolysis spent shale is critical to the understanding of the oil generation process and approaches to dealing with issues related to spent shale. The chemical structure of organic matter in raw oil shale and spent shale samples was examined in this study using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Oil shale was collected from Mahogany zone outcrops in the Piceance Basin. Five samples were analyzed: (1) raw oil shale, (2) isolated kerogen, (3) oil shale extracted with chloroform, (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C to mimic surface retorting, and (5) oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C to simulate in-situ retorting. The NMR methods applied included quantitative direct polarization with magic-angle spinning at 13 kHz, cross polarization with total sideband suppression, dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy filtering, and 1H-13C long-range recoupled dipolar dephasing. The NMR results showed that, relative to the raw oil shale, (1) bitumen extraction and kerogen isolation by demineralization removed some oxygen-containing and alkyl moieties; (2) unpyrolyzed samples had low aromatic condensation; (3) oil shale pyrolysis removed aliphatic moieties, leaving behind residues enriched in aromatic carbon; and (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C contained larger aromatic clusters and more protonated aromatic moieties than oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C, which contained more total aromatic carbon with a wide range of cluster sizes.

  2. Magnetic field detection using magnetorheological optical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubino, Edoardo; Ioppolo, Tindaro

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of a magnetic field sensor that is based on a magnetorheological micro-optical resonator. The optical resonator has a spherical shape and a diameter of a few hundred micrometers. The resonator is fabricated by using a polymeric matrix made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastisol with embedded magnetically polarizable micro-particles. When the optical resonator is subjected to an external magnetic field, the morphology (radius and refractive index) of the resonator is perturbed by the magnetic forces acting on it, leading to a shift of the optical resonances also known as whispering gallery modes (WGM). In this study, the effect of a static and harmonic magnetic field, as well as the concentration of the magnetic micro-particles on the optical mode shift is investigated. The optical resonances obtained with the PVC plastisol resonator showed a quality factor of 106 . The dynamical behavior of the optical resonator is investigated in the range between 0 and 200 Hz. The sensitivity of the optical resonator reaches a maximum value for a ratio between micro-particles and the polymeric matrix of 2:1 in weight. Experimental results indicate a sensitivity of 0.297 pm/mT leading to a resolution of 336 μT.

  3. Terahertz Sideband-tuned Quantum Cascade Laser Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-31

    resolution of 2 MHz in CW regime was observed. ©2008 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (140.5965) Semiconductor lasers , quantum cascade...diode,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1632 (2004). 6. A. Baryshev, et.al., “ Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser ,” Appl... optically pumped gas laser . With further improvements in power and spatial mode quality, it should be possible to lock a TQCL to the harmonic of an ultra

  4. Sideband-Separating, Millimeter-Wave Heterodyne Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, John S.; Bumble, Bruce; Lee, Karen A.; Kawamura, Jonathan H.; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Stek, paul; Stek, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have demonstrated a submillimeter-wave spectrometer that combines extremely broad bandwidth with extremely high sensitivity and spectral resolution to enable future spacecraft to measure the composition of the Earth s troposphere in three dimensions many times per day at spatial resolutions as high as a few kilometers. Microwave limb sounding is a proven remote-sensing technique that measures thermal emission spectra from molecular gases along limb views of the Earth s atmosphere against a cold space background.

  5. Resolved Sideband Spectroscopy for the Detection of Weak Optical Transitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Lett. 81, 317 (1998). [12] T. Baba and I. Waki , “Cooling and Mass-Analysis of Molecules Using Laser-Cooled Atoms,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 35, L1134 (1996...fermions,” Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 65, 043601 (2002). [26] T. Baba and I. Waki , “Spectral shape of in situ mass spectra of sympathetically cooled

  6. Electron Shell as a Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpeshin, F. F.

    2002-11-01

    Main principles of the resonance effect arising in the electron shells in interaction of the nuclei with electromagnetic radiation are analyzed and presented in the historical aspect. Principles of NEET are considered from a more general position, as compared to how this is usually presented. Characteristic features of NEET and its reverse, TEEN, as internal conversion processes are analyzed, and ways are offered of inducing them by laser radiation. The ambivalent role of the Pauli exclusion principles in NEET and TEEN processes is investigated.

  7. Modeling noisy resonant system response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Patrick Thomas; Walrath, David Edwin

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a theory-based model replicating empirical acoustic resonant signals is presented and studied to understand sources of noise present in acoustic signals. Statistical properties of empirical signals are quantified and a noise amplitude parameter, which models frequency and amplitude-based noise, is created, defined, and presented. This theory-driven model isolates each phenomenon and allows for parameters to be independently studied. Using seven independent degrees of freedom, this model will accurately reproduce qualitative and quantitative properties measured from laboratory data. Results are presented and demonstrate success in replicating qualitative and quantitative properties of experimental data.

  8. Pitch sensation involves stochastic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Martignoli, Stefan; Gomez, Florian; Stoop, Ruedi

    2013-01-01

    Pitch is a complex hearing phenomenon that results from elicited and self-generated cochlear vibrations. Read-off vibrational information is relayed higher up the auditory pathway, where it is then condensed into pitch sensation. How this can adequately be described in terms of physics has largely remained an open question. We have developed a peripheral hearing system (in hardware and software) that reproduces with great accuracy all salient pitch features known from biophysical and psychoacoustic experiments. At the level of the auditory nerve, the system exploits stochastic resonance to achieve this performance, which may explain the large amount of noise observed in the working auditory nerve. PMID:24045830

  9. Clar theory and resonance energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutman, Ivan; Gojak, Sabina; Furtula, Boris

    2005-09-01

    A mathematical model, referred here as the Zhang-Zhang polynomial ζ( x), that embraces all the main concepts encountered in the Clar aromatic sextet theory of benzenoid hydrocarbons, was recently put forward by Zhang and Zhang. We now show that ζ( x) is related to resonance energy, and that ln ζ( x) and RE are best correlated when x ≈ 1. This indicates that ζ(1) could be viewed as a (novel) structure-descriptor, playing a role analogous to the Kekulé structure count in Kekulé-structure-based theories. Some basic properties of ζ(1) are established.

  10. Pharmacological Stress Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Chotenimitkhun, Runyawan; Hundley, W. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has evolved into a cardiac stress testing modality that can be used to diagnose myocardial ischemia using intravenous dobutamine or vasodilator perfusion agents such as adenosine or dipyridamole. Because CMR produces high-resolution tomographic images of the human heart in multiple imaging planes, it has become a highly attractive noninvasive testing modality for those suspected of having myocardial ischemia. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical, diagnostic, and prognostic utility of stress CMR testing for patients with (or suspected of having) coronary artery disease. PMID:21566427

  11. Hadron scattering, resonances, and QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, R. A.

    2016-11-01

    The non-perturbative nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has historically left a gap in our understanding of the connection between the fundamental theory of the strong interactions and the rich structure of experimentally observed phenomena. For the simplest properties of stable hadrons, this is now circumvented with the use of lattice QCD (LQCD). In this talk I discuss a path towards a rigorous determination of few-hadron observables from LQCD. I illustrate the power of the methodology by presenting recently determined scattering amplitudes in the light-meson sector and their resonance content.

  12. Micro-optomechanical trampoline resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Brian; Kleckner, Dustin; Sonin, Petro; Jeffrey, Evan; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2011-03-01

    Recently, micro-optomechanical devices have been proposed for implementation of experiments ranging from non-demolition measurements of phonon number to creation of macroscopic quantum superpositions. All have strenuous requirements on optical finesse, mechanical quality factor, and temperature. We present a set of devices composed of dielectric mirrors on Si 3 N4 trampoline resonators. We describe the fabrication process and present data on finesse and quality factor. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from NSF PHY-0804177 and Marie Curie EXT-CT-2006-042580.

  13. Sphericity determination using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, Raymond D.; Migliori, Albert; Visscher, William M.

    1994-01-01

    A method is provided for grading production quantities of spherical objects, such as roller balls for bearings. A resonant ultrasound spectrum (RUS) is generated for each spherical object and a set of degenerate sphere-resonance frequencies is identified. From the degenerate sphere-resonance frequencies and known relationships between degenerate sphere-resonance frequencies and Poisson's ratio, a Poisson's ratio can be determined, along with a "best" spherical diameter, to form spherical parameters for the sphere. From the RUS, fine-structure resonant frequency spectra are identified for each degenerate sphere-resonance frequency previously selected. From each fine-structure spectrum and associated sphere parameter values an asphericity value is determined. The asphericity value can then be compared with predetermined values to provide a measure for accepting or rejecting the sphere.

  14. Secular resonances with Ceres and Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsirvoulis, Georgios; Novaković, Bojan

    2016-12-01

    In this work we explore dynamical perturbations induced by the massive asteroids Ceres and Vesta on main-belt asteroids through secular resonances. First we determine the location of the linear secular resonances with Ceres and Vesta in the main belt, using a purely numerical technique. Then we use a set of numerical simulations of fictitious asteroids to investigate the importance of these secular resonances in the orbital evolution of main-belt asteroids. We found, evaluating the magnitude of the perturbations in the proper elements of the test particles, that in some cases the strength of these secular resonances is comparable to that of known non-linear secular resonances with the giant planets. Finally we explore the asteroid families that are crossed by the secular resonances we studied, and identified several cases where the latter seem to play an important role in their post-impact evolution.

  15. A multimode electromechanical parametric resonator array

    PubMed Central

    Mahboob, I.; Mounaix, M.; Nishiguchi, K.; Fujiwara, A.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2014-01-01

    Electromechanical resonators have emerged as a versatile platform in which detectors with unprecedented sensitivities and quantum mechanics in a macroscopic context can be developed. These schemes invariably utilise a single resonator but increasingly the concept of an array of electromechanical resonators is promising a wealth of new possibilities. In spite of this, experimental realisations of such arrays have remained scarce due to the formidable challenges involved in their fabrication. In a variation to this approach, we identify 75 harmonic vibration modes in a single electromechanical resonator of which 7 can also be parametrically excited. The parametrically resonating modes exhibit vibrations with only 2 oscillation phases which are used to build a binary information array. We exploit this array to execute a mechanical byte memory, a shift-register and a controlled-NOT gate thus vividly illustrating the availability and functionality of an electromechanical resonator array by simply utilising higher order vibration modes. PMID:24658349

  16. Sphericity determination using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, R.D.; Migliori, A.; Visscher, W.M.

    1994-10-18

    A method is provided for grading production quantities of spherical objects, such as roller balls for bearings. A resonant ultrasound spectrum (RUS) is generated for each spherical object and a set of degenerate sphere-resonance frequencies is identified. From the degenerate sphere-resonance frequencies and known relationships between degenerate sphere-resonance frequencies and Poisson's ratio, a Poisson's ratio can be determined, along with a 'best' spherical diameter, to form spherical parameters for the sphere. From the RUS, fine-structure resonant frequency spectra are identified for each degenerate sphere-resonance frequency previously selected. From each fine-structure spectrum and associated sphere parameter values an asphericity value is determined. The asphericity value can then be compared with predetermined values to provide a measure for accepting or rejecting the sphere. 14 figs.

  17. All-metal superconducting planar microwave resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsley, Matt; Pereverzev, Sergey; Dubois, Jonathon; Friedrich, Stephan; Qu, Dongxia; Libby, Steve; Lordi, Vincenzo; Carosi, Gianpaolo; Stoeffl, Wolfgang; Chapline, George; Drury, Owen; Quantum Noise in Superconducting Devices Team

    There is common agreement that noise and resonance frequency jitter in superconducting microwave planar resonators are caused by presence of two-level systems, or fluctuators, in resonator materials- in dielectric substrate, in superconducting and dielectric layers and on the boundaries and interfaces. Scaling of noise with device dimensions indicate that fluctuators are likely concentrated around boundaries; physical nature of those fluctuators remains unclear. The presence of dielectrics is not necessary for the superconducting device functionality, and one can ask question about properties of all-metal device, where dielectric substrate and oxide films on metal are absent. Resonator made from of thin conducting layer with cuts in it is usually called slot line resonator. We report on the design, fabrication and initial testing of multiple split rings slot line resonator made out of thin molybdenum plate. This work is being funded as part of a three year strategic initiative (LDRD 16-SI-004) to better understand noise in superconducting devices.

  18. System and method for regulating resonant inverters

    DOEpatents

    Stevanovic, Ljubisa Dragoljub [Clifton Park, NY; Zane, Regan Andrew [Superior, CO

    2007-08-28

    A technique is provided for direct digital phase control of resonant inverters based on sensing of one or more parameters of the resonant inverter. The resonant inverter control system includes a switching circuit for applying power signals to the resonant inverter and a sensor for sensing one or more parameters of the resonant inverter. The one or more parameters are representative of a phase angle. The resonant inverter control system also includes a comparator for comparing the one or more parameters to a reference value and a digital controller for determining timing of the one or more parameters and for regulating operation of the switching circuit based upon the timing of the one or more parameters.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of chemistry.

    PubMed

    Britton, Melanie M

    2010-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has long been recognized as one of the most important tools in medical diagnosis and research. However, MRI is also well placed to image chemical reactions and processes, determine the concentration of chemical species, and look at how chemistry couples with environmental factors, such as flow and heterogeneous media. This tutorial review will explain how magnetic resonance imaging works, reviewing its application in chemistry and its ability to directly visualise chemical processes. It will give information on what resolution and contrast are possible, and what chemical and physical parameters can be measured. It will provide examples of the use of MRI to study chemical systems, its application in chemical engineering and the identification of contrast agents for non-clinical applications. A number of studies are presented including investigation of chemical conversion and selectivity in fixed-bed reactors, temperature probes for catalyst pellets, ion mobility during tablet dissolution, solvent dynamics and ion transport in Nafion polymers and the formation of chemical waves and patterns.

  20. Nonlinear THz Plamonic Disk Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seren, Huseyin; Zhang, Jingdi; Keiser, George; Maddox, Scott; Fan, Kebin; Cao, Lingyue; Bank, Seth; Zhang, Xin; Averitt, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Particle surface plasmons (PPSs) at visible wavelengths continue to be actively investigated with the goal of nanoscale control of light. In contrast, terahertz (THz) surface plasmon experiments are at a nascent stage of investigation. Doped semiconductors with proper carrier density and mobility support THz PSPs. One approach is to utilize thick doped films etched into subwavelength disks. Given the ease of tuning the semiconductor carrier density, THz PSPs are tunable and exhibit interesting nonlinear THz plasmonic effects. We created THz PSP structures using MBE grown 2um thick InAs films with a doping concentration of 1e17cm-3 on 500um thick semi-insulating GaAs substrate. We patterned 40um diameter disks with a 60um period by reactive ion etching. Our THz time-domain measurements reveal a resonance at 1.1THz which agrees well with simulation results using a Drude model. A nonlinear response occurs at high THz electric field strengths (>50kV/cm). In particular, we observed a redshift and quenching of the resonance due to impact ionization which resulted in changes in the carrier density and effective mass due to inter-valley scattering.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Mediated Radiofrequency Ablation.

    PubMed

    Hue, Yik-Kiong; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Cohen, Ouri; Nevo, Erez; Roth, Abraham; Ackerman, Jerome L

    2018-02-01

    To introduce magnetic resonance mediated radiofrequency ablation (MR-RFA), in which the MRI scanner uniquely serves both diagnostic and therapeutic roles. In MR-RFA scanner-induced RF heating is channeled to the ablation site via a Larmor frequency RF pickup device and needle system, and controlled via the pulse sequence. MR-RFA was evaluated with simulation of electric and magnetic fields to predict the increase in local specific-absorption-rate (SAR). Temperature-time profiles were measured for different configurations of the device in agar phantoms and ex vivo bovine liver in a 1.5 T scanner. Temperature rise in MR-RFA was imaged using the proton resonance frequency method validated with fiber-optic thermometry. MR-RFA was performed on the livers of two healthy live pigs. Simulations indicated a near tenfold increase in SAR at the RFA needle tip. Temperature-time profiles depended significantly on the physical parameters of the device although both configurations tested yielded temperature increases sufficient for ablation. Resected livers from live ablations exhibited clear thermal lesions. MR-RFA holds potential for integrating RF ablation tumor therapy with MRI scanning. MR-RFA may add value to MRI with the addition of a potentially disposable ablation device, while retaining MRI's ability to provide real time procedure guidance and measurement of tissue temperature, perfusion, and coagulation.

  2. Acoustic resonance frequency locked photoacoustic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Bomse, David S.; Silver, Joel A.

    2003-09-09

    A photoacoustic spectroscopy method and apparatus for maintaining an acoustic source frequency on a sample cell resonance frequency comprising: providing an acoustic source to the sample cell, the acoustic source having a source frequency; repeatedly and continuously sweeping the source frequency across the resonance frequency at a sweep rate; and employing an odd-harmonic of the source frequency sweep rate to maintain the source frequency sweep centered on the resonance frequency.

  3. Analysis of Alternative Ring Resonator Designs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    the ring strip of the antenna as in the case of the original design. Both the alternative dielectric laminate and the increased thickness laminate...adjustments to the geometry parameters. 2. Ring Resonator Antenna Design The ring resonator is a two port antenna consisting of a ring strip and two...for various soil sample depths indicates that most of the measureable response is from within 2 mm of the resonator antenna strip surface. For the

  4. Resonant power processors. I - State plane analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oruganti, R.; Lee, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    State-plane techniques in conjunction with piecewise-linear analysis is employed to study the steady-state and transient characteristics of a series resonant converter. With the direct viewing of the resonant tank energy and the device switching instants, the state portrayal provides unique insights into the complex behavior of the converter. Operation of the converter under both continuous and discontinuous current modes and at frequencies both below and above resonant frequency are discussed.

  5. Resonant power processors. II - Methods of control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oruganti, R.; Lee, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    The nature of resonant converter control is discussed. Employing the state-portrait, different control methods for series resonant converter are identified and their performance evaluated based on their stability, response to control and load changes and range of operation. A new control method, optimal-trajectory control, is proposed which, by utilizing the state trajectories as control laws, continuously monitors the energy level of the resonant tank. The method is shown to have superior control properties especially under transient operation.

  6. Radio frequency quadrupole resonator for linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Moretti, Alfred

    1985-01-01

    An RFQ resonator for a linear accelerator having a reduced level of interfering modes and producing a quadrupole mode for focusing, bunching and accelerating beams of heavy charged particles, with the construction being characterized by four elongated resonating rods within a cylinder with the rods being alternately shorted and open electrically to the shell at common ends of the rods to provide an LC parallel resonant circuit when activated by a magnetic field transverse to the longitudinal axis.

  7. Polarization effects in recoil-induced resonances

    SciT

    Lazebnyi, D. B., E-mail: becks.ddf@gmail.com; Brazhnikov, D. V.; Taichenachev, A. V.

    2017-01-15

    The effect of the field polarization on the amplitude of recoil-induced resonances (RIRs) is considered for laser-cooled free atoms and for atoms in a working magneto-optical trap (MOT). For all closed dipole transitions, explicit analytical expressions are obtained for the polarization dependence of the resonance amplitudes within a perturbation theory. Optimal polarization conditions are found for the observation of resonances.

  8. Ultrasonic signal enhancement by resonator techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    Ultrasonic resonators increase experimental sensitivity to acoustic dispersion and changes in attenuation. Experimental sensitivity enhancement line shapes are presented which were obtained by modulating the acoustic properties of a CdS resonator with a light beam. Small changes in light level are made to produce almost pure absorptive or dispersive changes in the resonator signal. This effect is due to the coupling of the ultrasonic wave to the CdS conductivity which is proportional to incident light intensity. The resonator conductivity is adjusted in this manner to obtain both dispersive and absorptive sensitivity enhancement line shapes. The data presented verify previous thoretical calculations based on a propagating wave model.

  9. Fano resonances in bilayer phosphorene nanoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Wu, Zhenhua; Li, X. J.; Li, L. L.; Chen, Qiao; Li, Yun-Mei; Peeters, F. M.

    2018-05-01

    Tunable transport properties and Fano resonances are predicted in a circular bilayer phosphorene nanoring. The conductance exhibits Fano resonances with varying incident energy and applied perpendicular magnetic field. These Fano resonance peaks can be accurately fitted with the well known Fano curves. When a magnetic field is applied to the nanoring, the conductance oscillates periodically with magnetic field which is reminiscent of the Aharonov–Bohm effect. Fano resonances are tightly related to the discrete states in the central nanoring, some of which are tunable by the magnetic field.

  10. A New Look at an Old Activity: Resonance Tubes Used to Teach Resonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Jane

    2017-01-01

    There are several variations of resonance laboratory activities used to determine the speed of sound. This is "not" one of them. This activity uses the resonance tube idea to teach "resonance," not to verify the speed of sound. Prior to this activity, the speed of sound has already been measured using computer sound-sensors and…

  11. The Stability of Resonant Chains of Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimlinger, Thomas; Hamilton, Douglas

    2018-04-01

    Unlike other giant planets, Saturn has a satellite system that is dominated by a single massive body, Titan, which features an unusually large inclination and eccentricity. Its origin has yet to be satisfactorily explained; neither in situ formation nor capture from heliocentric orbit can easily produce all of its measured properties. We argue that dynamical instability and subsequent mergers within a resonant chain of satellites analogous to the Galilean moons could be responsible for Titan’s unusual features.To explore this idea, we perform simulations in which we vary a wide range of parameters, including the number of satellites, their masses, their spacings, and their tidal migration and eccentricity damping rates. In our preliminary modeling, we initialize our simulations with three moons in the 1:2:4 mean-motion resonance (currently occupied by Io, Europa, and Ganymede at Jupiter) and study how varying each parameter affects the resonant stability. We find that in some cases, the satellites do indeed escape from this three-body resonance, while in others, the bodies’ period ratios remain locked. We study the evolution of these systems and seek a deeper understanding of the competing mechanisms responsible for resonant capture and escape.Accordingly, we investigate the role that specific two-body eccentricity and inclination resonances play in determining stability conditions. For three satellites in a 1:2:4 resonance, there exist four nearby first-order eccentricity resonances along with many other weaker eccentricity and inclination resonances. In our simulations, we track entrance into and exit from these resonances to provide a more cohesive picture of how the system evolves and find that this evolution depends sensitively on the masses and damping rates. We will report further details of our findings and will discuss their implications for the stability of resonant chains of moons.

  12. Magnetic Earth Ionosphere Resonant Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaniol, Craig

    1994-01-01

    The Community College Division is pleased to report progress of NASA funded research at West Virginia State College. During this reporting period, the project research group has continued with activities to develop instrumentation capability designed to monitor resonant cavity frequencies in the atmospheric region between the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. In addition, the project's principal investigator, Dr. Craig Spaniol, and NASA technical officer, Dr. John Sutton, have written and published technical papers intended to expand the scientific and technical framework needed for project research. This research continues to provide an excellent example of government and education working together to provide significant research in the college environment. This cooperative effort has provided many students with technical project work which compliments their education.

  13. Cyclotron resonance in bilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, E A; Jiang, Z; Tung, L-C; Schwartz, M E; Takita, M; Wang, Y-J; Kim, P; Stormer, H L

    2008-02-29

    We present the first measurements of cyclotron resonance of electrons and holes in bilayer graphene. In magnetic fields up to B=18 T, we observe four distinct intraband transitions in both the conduction and valence bands. The transition energies are roughly linear in B between the lowest Landau levels, whereas they follow square root[B] for the higher transitions. This highly unusual behavior represents a change from a parabolic to a linear energy dispersion. The density of states derived from our data generally agrees with the existing lowest order tight binding calculation for bilayer graphene. However, in comparing data to theory, a single set of fitting parameters fails to describe the experimental results.

  14. Piezoelectric Resonator with Two Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephanou, Philip J. (Inventor); Black, Justin P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A piezoelectric resonator device includes: a top electrode layer with a patterned structure, a top piezoelectric layer adjacent to the top layer, a middle metal layer adjacent to the top piezoelectric layer opposite the top layer, a bottom piezoelectric layer adjacent to the middle layer opposite the top piezoelectric layer, and a bottom electrode layer with a patterned structure and adjacent to the bottom piezoelectric layer opposite the middle layer. The top layer includes a first plurality of electrodes inter-digitated with a second plurality of electrodes. A first one of the electrodes in the top layer and a first one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a first contact, and a second one of the electrodes in the top layer and a second one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a second contact.

  15. Stochastic resonance in attention control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajo, K.; Yamanaka, K.; Ward, L. M.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2006-12-01

    We investigated the beneficial role of noise in a human higher brain function, namely visual attention control. We asked subjects to detect a weak gray-level target inside a marker box either in the left or the right visual field. Signal detection performance was optimized by presenting a low level of randomly flickering gray-level noise between and outside the two possible target locations. Further, we found that an increase in eye movement (saccade) rate helped to compensate for the usual deterioration in detection performance at higher noise levels. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence that noise can optimize a higher brain function which involves distinct brain regions above the level of primary sensory systems -- switching behavior between multi-stable attention states -- via the mechanism of stochastic resonance.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Arie; Hjouj, Mohammad; Rubinsky, Liel; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can image the process of electrolysis by detecting pH fronts. The study has relevance to real time control of cell ablation with electrolysis. To investigate the hypothesis we compare the following MR imaging sequences: T1 weighted, T2 weighted and Proton Density (PD), with optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar solution phantom treated with electrolysis and discrete measurements with a pH microprobe. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E. Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of MRI to image electrolysis produced pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E. Coli model grown on the phantom. The results are promising and invite further experimental research. PMID:25659942

  17. Lattice QCD and nucleon resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, R. G.; Fiebig, H. R.; Fleming, G.; Richards, D. G.; LHP Collaboration

    2004-06-01

    Lattice calculations provide an ab initio means for the study of QCD. Recent progress at understanding the spectrum and structure of nucleons from lattice QCD studies is reviewed. Measurements of the masses of the lightest particles for the lowest spin values are described and related to predictions of the quark model. Measurements of the mass of the first radial excitation of the nucleon, the so-called Roper resonance, obtained using Bayesian statistical analyses, are detailed. The need to perform calculations at realistically light values of the pion mass is emphasised, and the exciting progress at attaining such masses is outlined. The talk concludes with future prospects, emphasising the importance of constructing a basis of interpolating operators that is sensitive to three-quark states, to multi-quark states, and to excited glue.

  18. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingyuan E.; Glover, Gary H.

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in 1992, Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has become an indispensible tool for studying cognition in both the healthy and dysfunctional brain. FMRI monitors changes in the oxygenation of brain tissue resulting from altered metabolism consequent to a task-based evoked neural response or from spontaneous fluctuations in neural activity in the absence of conscious mentation (the “resting state”). Task-based studies have revealed neural correlates of a large number of important cognitive processes, while fMRI studies performed in the resting state have demonstrated brain-wide networks that result from brain regions with synchronized, apparently spontaneous activity. In this article, we review the methods used to acquire and analyze fMRI signals. PMID:26248581

  19. Trapped atoms along nanophotonic resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, Brian; Kim, May; Chang, Tzu-Han; Hung, Chen-Lung

    2017-04-01

    Many-body systems subject to long-range interactions have remained a very challenging topic experimentally. Ultracold atoms trapped in extreme proximity to the surface of nanophotonic structures provides a dynamic system combining the strong atom-atom interactions mediated by guided mode photons with the exquisite control implemented with trapped atom systems. The hybrid system promises pair-wise tunability of long-range interactions between atomic pseudo spins, allowing studies of quantum magnetism extending far beyond nearest neighbor interactions. In this talk, we will discuss our current status developing high quality nanophotonic ring resonators, engineered on CMOS compatible optical chips with integrated nanostructures that, in combination with a side illuminating beam, can realize stable atom traps approximately 100nm above the surface. We will report on our progress towards loading arrays of cold atoms near the surface of these structures and studying atom-atom interaction mediated by photons with high cooperativity.

  20. Regular Motions of Resonant Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz-Mello, S.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se revisan resultados analiticos relativos a soluciones regulares del problema asteroidal eliptico promediados en la vecindad de una resonancia con jupiten Mencionamos Ia ley de estructura para libradores de alta excentricidad, la estabilidad de los centros de liberaci6n, las perturbaciones forzadas por la excentricidad de jupiter y las 6rbitas de corotaci6n. ABSTRAC This paper reviews analytical results concerning the regular solutions of the elliptic asteroidal problem averaged in the neighbourhood of a resonance with jupiter. We mention the law of structure for high-eccentricity librators, the stability of the libration centers, the perturbations forced by the eccentricity ofjupiter and the corotation orbits. Key words: ASThROIDS

  1. Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manatt, Stanley L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try to give a short overview of what the status is on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It's a subject where one really has to spend some time to look at the physics in detail to develop a proper working understanding. I feel it's not appropriate to present to you density matrices, Hamiltonians of all sorts, and differential equations representing the motion of spins. I'm really going to present some history and status, and show a few very simple concepts involved in NMR. It is a form of radio frequency spectroscopy and there are a great number of nuclei that can be studied very usefully with the technique. NMR requires a magnet, a r.f. transmitter/receiver system, and a data acquisition system.

  2. Singular reduction of resonant Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Kenneth R.; Palacián, Jesús F.; Yanguas, Patricia

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the dynamics of resonant Hamiltonians with n degrees of freedom to which we attach a small perturbation. Our study is based on the geometric interpretation of singular reduction theory. The flow of the Hamiltonian vector field is reconstructed from the cross sections corresponding to an approximation of this vector field in an energy surface. This approximate system is also built using normal forms and applying reduction theory obtaining the reduced Hamiltonian that is defined on the orbit space. Generically, the reduction is of singular character and we classify the singularities in the orbit space, getting three different types of singular points. A critical point of the reduced Hamiltonian corresponds to a family of periodic solutions in the full system whose characteristic multipliers are approximated accordingly to the nature of the critical point.

  3. Coupling induced logical stochastic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravind, Manaoj; Murali, K.; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2018-06-01

    In this work we will demonstrate the following result: when we have two coupled bistable sub-systems, each driven separately by an external logic input signal, the coupled system yields outputs that can be mapped to specific logic gate operations in a robust manner, in an optimal window of noise. So, though the individual systems receive only one logic input each, due to the interplay of coupling, nonlinearity and noise, they cooperatively respond to give a logic output that is a function of both inputs. Thus the emergent collective response of the system, due to the inherent coupling, in the presence of a noise floor, maps consistently to that of logic outputs of the two inputs, a phenomenon we term coupling induced Logical Stochastic Resonance. Lastly, we demonstrate our idea in proof of principle circuit experiments.

  4. Investigations into the Structure and Dynamics of Chalcogenide Glasses using High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaseman, Derrick Charles

    Chalcogenide glasses constitute an important class of materials that are sulfides, selenides or tellurides of group IV and/or V elements, namely Ge, As, P and Si with minor concentrations of other elements such as Ga, Sb, In. Because of their infrared transparency that can be tuned by changing chemistry and can be actively altered by exposure to band gap irradiation, chalcogenide glasses find use in passive and active optical devices for applications in the areas of photonics, remote sensing and memory technology. Therefore, it is important to establish predictive models of structure-property relationships for these materials for optimization of their physical properties for various applications. Structural elucidation of chalcogenide glasses is experimentally challenging and in order to make predictive structural models, structural units at both short and intermediate -range length scales must be identified and quantified. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is an element-specific structural probe that is uniquely suited for this task, but resolution and sensitivity issues have severely limited the applications of such techniques in the past. The recent development of multi-dimensional solid-state NMR techniques, such as Phase Adjusted Spinning Sidebands (PASS) and Magic Angle Turning (MAT) can potentially alleviate such issues. In this study novel two-dimensional, high-resolution 77Se and 125Te MATPASS NMR spectroscopic techniques are utilized to elucidate quantitatively the compositional evolution of the short- and intermediate- range atomic structure in three binary chalcogenide glass-forming systems, namely: GexSe100-x, AsxSe100-x , and AsxTe100-x. The spectroscopic results provide unambiguous site speciation and quantification for short- and intermediate-range structural motifs present in these glasses. In turn, for all systems, robust structural models and the corresponding structure-property relationships are successfully established as a function

  5. Resonant optical spectroscopy and coherent control of Cr4+ spin ensembles in SiC and GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, William

    Spins bound to point defects have emerged as an important resource in quantum information and spintronic technologies, especially as new materials systems have been developed that enable robust and precise quantum state control via optical, electronic, or mechanical degrees of freedom. In an effort to broaden the range of materials platforms available to such defect-based quantum technologies, we have recently begun exploring optically active transition metal ion spins doped into common wide-bandgap semiconductors. The spins of such ions are derived in part from unpaired d orbital electron states, suggesting in some cases that they may be portable across multiple materials systems. This in contrast to many vacancy-related defect spins such as the diamond nitrogen vacancy center or silicon carbide divacancy, which are formed primarily from the dangling bond states of the host. Here we demonstrate ensemble optical spin polarization and time-resolved optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) of the S = 1 electronic ground state of chromium (Cr4+) impurities in silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN). We find that these impurities possess narrow optical linewidths (<8.5 GHz at cryogenic temperatures) that allow us to optically resolve the magnetic sublevels of the spins even when probing a large ensemble of many ions simultaneously. This enables us to directly polarize and probe the Cr4+ spins using straightforward optical techniques, which we then combine with coherent microwave excitation in order to characterize the dynamical properties of the ensemble. Significantly, these near-infrared emitters also possess exceptionally weak phonon sidebands, ensuring that >73% of the overall optical emission is contained within the defects' zero-phonon lines. These characteristics make the Cr4+ ion system a promising target for further study in the ongoing effort to integrate optically active quantum states within common optoelectronic materials. In collaboration with

  6. Isolated resonator gyroscope with isolation trimming using a secondary element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope including an isolated resonator. One or more flexures support the isolated resonator and a baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the flexures. Drive and sense elements are affixed to the baseplate and used to excite the resonator and sense movement of the gyroscope. In addition, at least one secondary element (e.g., another electrode) is affixed to the baseplate and used for trimming isolation of the resonator. The resonator operates such that it transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited. Typically, the isolated resonator comprises a proof mass and a counterbalancing plate.

  7. Aromatic Bagels: An Edible Resonance Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shirley

    2007-01-01

    Two Lewis structures, resonance contributors, are used to describe benzene (the Kekule structure) in order to explain resonance theory to chemistry students. The students could create two bagel halves representing the Kekule structures of benzene in which the numbered toothpicks corresponds to the carbon atoms in the two structures and the x…

  8. Resonances for Symmetric Two-Barrier Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method for the accurate calculation of bound-state and resonance energies for one-dimensional potentials. We calculate the shape resonances for symmetric two-barrier potentials and compare them with those coming from the Siegert approximation, the complex scaling method and the box-stabilization method. A comparison of the…

  9. Parametric nonfeedback resonance in period doubling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarchik, A. N.; Corbalán, R.

    1999-02-01

    Slow periodic modulation of a control parameter in a period doubling system leads to an interaction between stable and unstable periodic orbits. This causes a resonance in the system response at the modulation frequency. The conditions for this resonance are studied through numerical simulations of quadratic map and laser equations. The results are confirmed by experiments in a CO2 laser with modulated losses.

  10. Resonance scattering in quantum wave guides

    SciT

    Arsen'ev, A A

    2003-02-28

    The interaction of a quantum wave guide with a resonator is studied within the frame of the Birman-Kato scattering theory. The existence of poles of the scattering matrix is proved and the jump of the scattering amplitude near a resonance is calculated.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of glenohumeral joint instability.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Lynne S

    2005-03-01

    Shoulder instability is common, especially anterior subluxation and dislocation. The sequelae are well seen on magnetic resonance imaging and include tears of the labrum, glenohumeral ligaments, capsule, tendons, and muscles. This article seeks to discuss and illustrate common pitfalls and lesions associated with instability. Anatomic and technical considerations, including the use of magnetic resonance arthrography, are also addressed.

  12. Resonant tunneling in frustrated total internal reflection.

    PubMed

    Longhi, Stefano

    2005-10-15

    Anomalous light transmission and resonant tunneling in frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) are theoretically predicted to occur at periodically curved interfaces. For a low-contrast index and for grazing incidence, it is shown that FTIR resonant tunneling provides an optical realization of field-induced barrier transparency in quantum tunneling.

  13. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pediatric Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Peterson, Bradley S.; Gerber, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in investigating pediatric anxiety disorders is studied. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized in demonstrating parallels between the neural architecture of difference in anxiety of humans and the neural architecture of attention-orienting behavior in nonhuman primates or rodents.…

  14. Wide-range nuclear magnetic resonance detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.; Jirberg, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Compact and easy to use solid state nuclear magnetic resonance detector is designed for measuring field strength to 20 teslas in cryogenically cooled magnets. Extremely low noise and high sensitivity make detector applicable to nearly all types of analytical nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and can be used in high temperature and radiation environments.

  15. Method for fabricating a microelectromechanical resonator

    DOEpatents

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E; Olsson, III, Roy H

    2013-02-05

    A method is disclosed which calculates dimensions for a MEM resonator in terms of integer multiples of a grid width G for reticles used to fabricate the resonator, including an actual sub-width L.sub.a=NG and an effective electrode width W.sub.e=MG where N and M are integers which minimize a frequency error f.sub.e=f.sub.d-f.sub.a between a desired resonant frequency f.sub.d and an actual resonant frequency f.sub.a. The method can also be used to calculate an overall width W.sub.o for the MEM resonator, and an effective electrode length L.sub.e which provides a desired motional impedance for the MEM resonator. The MEM resonator can then be fabricated using these values for L.sub.a, W.sub.e, W.sub.o and L.sub.e. The method can also be applied to a number j of MEM resonators formed on a common substrate.

  16. 14 CFR 27.241 - Ground resonance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground resonance. 27.241 Section 27.241... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 27.241 Ground resonance. The rotorcraft may have no dangerous tendency to oscillate on the ground with the rotor turning...

  17. 14 CFR 29.241 - Ground resonance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground resonance. 29.241 Section 29.241... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 29.241 Ground resonance. The rotorcraft may have no dangerous tendency to oscillate on the ground with the rotor turning...

  18. 14 CFR 27.241 - Ground resonance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground resonance. 27.241 Section 27.241... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 27.241 Ground resonance. The rotorcraft may have no dangerous tendency to oscillate on the ground with the rotor turning...

  19. 14 CFR 29.241 - Ground resonance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground resonance. 29.241 Section 29.241... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 29.241 Ground resonance. The rotorcraft may have no dangerous tendency to oscillate on the ground with the rotor turning...

  20. Chemical Principles Revisited. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuarrie, Donald A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how to interpret nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and how to use them to determine molecular structures. This discussion is limited to spectra that are a result of observation of only the protons in a molecule. This type is called proton magnetic resonance (PMR) spectra. (CW)

  1. Thermally actuated resonant silicon crystal nanobalances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjam, Arash

    As the potential emerging technology for next generation integrated resonant sensors and frequency references as well as electronic filters, micro-electro-mechanical resonators have attracted a lot of attention over the past decade. As a result, a wide variety of high frequency micro/nanoscale electromechanical resonators have recently been presented. MEMS resonators, as low-cost highly integrated and ultra-sensitive mass sensors, can potentially provide new opportunities and unprecedented capabilities in the area of mass sensing. Such devices can provide orders of magnitude higher mass sensitivity and resolution compared to Film Bulk Acoustic resonators (FBAR) or the conventional quartz and Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) resonators due to their much smaller sizes and can be batch-fabricated and utilized in highly integrated large arrays at a very low cost. In this research, comprehensive experimental studies on the performance and durability of thermally actuated micromechanical resonant sensors with frequencies up to tens of MHz have been performed. The suitability and robustness of the devices have been demonstrated for mass sensing applications related to air-borne particles and organic gases. In addition, due to the internal thermo-electro-mechanical interactions, the active resonators can turn some of the consumed electronic power back into the mechanical structure and compensate for the mechanical losses. Therefore, such resonators can provide self-sustained-oscillation without the need for any electronic circuitry. This unique property has been deployed to demonstrate a prototype self-sustained sensor for air-borne particle monitoring. I have managed to overcome one of the obstacles for MEMS resonators, which is their relatively poor temperature stability. This is a major drawback when compared with the conventional quartz crystals. A significant decrease of the large negative TCF for the resonators has been attained by doping the devices with a high

  2. Resonance magnetoplasticity in ultralow magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshits, V. I.; Darinskaya, E. V.; Koldaeva, M. V.; Petrzhik, E. A.

    2016-09-01

    Resonance relaxation displacements of dislocations in NaCl crystals placed in crossed static and alternating ultralow magnetic fields in the electron paramagnetic resonance scheme are discussed. The Earth's magnetic field B Earth ≈ 50μT and other fields in the range of 26-261 μT are used as the static field. New strongly anisotropic properties of the effect have been revealed. Frequency spectra including numerous peaks of paths at low pump frequencies beginning with 10 kHz, as well as the quartet of equidistant peaks at high frequencies ( 1.4 MHz at B= B Earth), have been measured. The effect is also observed in the pulsed pump field with a resonance duration of 0.5 μs. Resonance changes have been detected in the microhardness of ZnO, triglycine sulfate, and potassium hydrogen phthalate crystals after their exposure in the Earth's magnetic field in the same electron paramagnetic resonance scheme.

  3. Stagnancy of the pygmy dipole resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xu-Wei; Chen, Jing; Lu, Ding-Hui

    2018-01-01

    The pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) of nickel isotopes is studied using the deformed random phase approximation method. The isoscalar character of the pygmy resonance is confirmed, and the correlation between the pygmy resonance and neutron skin thickness is discussed. Our investigation shows a linear correlation between PDR integral cross section and neutron skin thickness when the excess neutrons lie in pf orbits, with a correlation rate of about 0.27 fm-1. However, in more neutron-rich nickel isotopes, the growth of the pygmy dipole resonance is stagnant. Although the neutron skin thickness increases, the whole skin is not active. There is an inertial part in the nuclei 70-78Ni which does not participate in the pygmy resonance actively and as a result, contributes little to the photo-absorption cross section. Supported by National Science Foundation of China

  4. Linear spreading speeds from nonlinear resonant interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faye, Grégory; Holzer, Matt; Scheel, Arnd

    2017-06-01

    We identify a new mechanism for propagation into unstable states in spatially extended systems, that is based on resonant interaction in the leading edge of invasion fronts. Such resonant invasion speeds can be determined solely based on the complex linear dispersion relation at the unstable equilibrium, but rely on the presence of a nonlinear term that facilitates the resonant coupling. We prove that these resonant speeds give the correct invasion speed in a simple example, we show that fronts with speeds slower than the resonant speed are unstable, and corroborate our speed criterion numerically in a variety of model equations, including a nonlocal scalar neural field model. GF received support from the project NONLOCAL (ANR-14-CE25-0013) funded by the French National Research Agency. MH was partially supported by the National Science Foundation through grant NSF-DMS-1516155. AS was partially supported by the National Science Foundation through grant NSF-DMS-1311740 and through a DAAD Fellowship.

  5. Thermal response of chalcogenide microsphere resonators

    SciT

    Ahmad, H; Aryanfar, I; Lim, K S

    2012-05-31

    A chalcogenide microsphere resonator (CMR) used for temperature sensing is proposed and demonstrated. The CMR is fabricated using a simple technique of heating chalcogenide glass and allowing the molten glass to form a microsphere on the waist of a tapered silica fibre. The thermal responses of the CMR is investigated and compared to that of a single-mode-fibre (SMF) based microsphere resonator. It is observed that the CMR sensitivity to ambient temperature changes is 8 times higher than that of the SMF-based microsphere resonator. Heating the chalcogenide microsphere with a laser beam periodically turned on and off shows periodic shifts inmore » the transmission spectrum of the resonator. By injecting an intensity-modulated cw signal through the resonator a thermal relaxation time of 55 ms is estimated.« less

  6. Low noise cryogenic dielectric resonator oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A microwave oscillator is provided which can operate at a temperature of many degrees above absolute zero while providing very low phase noise that has heretofore generally required temperatures within a few degrees K. The oscillator includes a ring-shaped resonant element of ruby (sapphire plus chromium) or iron sapphire crystal, lying adjacent to a resonator element of sapphire, so that the regenerator element lies directly in the magnetic field of the resonator element. The resonator element is substantially devoid of contact with electrically conductive material. Microwave energy of a pump frequency (e.g., 31 GHz) is outputted from the regenerator element, while signal energy (e.g., 10 GHz) is outputted from the resonator element.

  7. Subphotospheric Resonator and Local Oscillations in Sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhugzhda, Yu. D.

    2018-05-01

    The conditions under which the subphotospheric slow-wave resonator can be responsible for the local oscillations in a sunspot have been determined. A rich spectrum of local 3-min oscillations can be produced by the subphotospheric resonator only if the magnetic field in the resonator magnetic flux tube is much weaker than the surrounding sunspot magnetic field. Convective upflows of hot plasma in the sunspot magnetic field satisfy this condition. Consequently, there must be a correlation between the local oscillations and umbral dots, because the latter are produced by convective flows. Various modes of operation of the subphotospheric resonator give rise to wave packets of 3-min oscillations and umbral flashes. It is shown that giant local umbral flashes can emerge under certain conditions for the excitation of oscillations in the subphotospheric resonator.

  8. Tunable Magnetic Resonance in Microwave Spintronics Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yunpeng; Fan, Xin; Xie, Yunsong; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Tao; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chui, Sui-Tat; Xiao, John Q.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance is one of the key properties of magnetic materials for the application of microwave spintronics devices. The conventional method for tuning magnetic resonance is to use an electromagnet, which provides very limited tuning range. Hence, the quest for enhancing the magnetic resonance tuning range without using an electromagnet has attracted tremendous attention. In this paper, we exploit the huge exchange coupling field between magnetic interlayers, which is on the order of 4000 Oe and also the high frequency modes of coupled oscillators to enhance the tuning range. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new scheme to control the magnetic resonance frequency. Moreover, we report a shift in the magnetic resonance frequency as high as 20 GHz in CoFe based tunable microwave spintronics devices, which is 10X higher than conventional methods.

  9. Contour mode resonators with acoustic reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H [Albuquerque, NM; Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM; Tuck, Melanie R [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-06-10

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator is disclosed which has a linear or ring-shaped acoustic resonator suspended above a substrate by an acoustic reflector. The acoustic resonator can be formed with a piezoelectric material (e.g. aluminum nitride, zinc oxide or PZT), or using an electrostatically-actuated material. The acoustic reflector (also termed an acoustic mirror) uses alternating sections of a relatively low acoustic impedance Z.sub.L material and a relatively high acoustic impedance Z.sub.H material to isolate the acoustic resonator from the substrate. The MEM resonator, which can be formed on a silicon substrate with conventional CMOS circuitry, has applications for forming oscillators, rf filters, and acoustic sensors.

  10. Tunable Magnetic Resonance in Microwave Spintronics Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yunpeng; Fan, Xin; Xie, Yungsong; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Tao; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chui, Sui-Tat; Xiao, John Q.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance is one of the key properties of magnetic materials for the application of microwave spintronics devices. The conventional method for tuning magnetic resonance is to use an electromagnet, which provides very limited tuning range. Hence, the quest for enhancing the magnetic resonance tuning range without using an electromagnet has attracted tremendous attention. In this paper, we exploit the huge exchange coupling field between magnetic interlayers, which is on the order of 4000 Oe and also the high frequency modes of coupled oscillators to enhance the tuning range. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new scheme to control the magnetic resonance frequency. Moreover, we report a shift in the magnetic resonance frequency as high as 20 GHz in CoFe-based tunable microwave spintronics devices, which is 10X higher than conventional methods.

  11. Electric-optic resonant phase modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chien-Chung (Inventor); Robinson, Deborah L. (Inventor); Hemmati, Hamid (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An electro-optic resonant cavity is used to achieve phase modulation with lower driving voltages. Laser damage thresholds are inherently higher than with previously used integrated optics due to the utilization of bulk optics. Phase modulation is achieved at higher speeds with lower driving voltages than previously obtained with non-resonant electro-optic phase modulators. The instant scheme uses a data locking dither approach as opposed to the conventional sinusoidal locking schemes. In accordance with a disclosed embodiment, a resonant cavity modulator has been designed to operate at a data rate in excess of 100 Mbps. By carefully choosing the cavity finesse and its dimension, it is possible to control the pulse switching time to within 4 ns and to limit the required switching voltage to within 10 V. Experimentally, the resonant cavity can be maintained on resonance with respect to the input laser signal by monitoring the fluctuation of output intensity as the cavity is switched. This cavity locking scheme can be applied by using only the random data sequence, and without the need of additional dithering of the cavity. Compared to waveguide modulators, the resonant cavity has a comparable modulating voltage requirement. Because of its bulk geometry, resonant cavity modulator has the potential of accommodating higher throughput power. Furthermore, mode matching into a bulk device is easier and typically can be achieved with higher efficiency. On the other hand, unlike waveguide modulators which are essentially traveling wave devices, the resonant cavity modulator requires that the cavity be maintained in resonance with respect to the incoming laser signal. An additional control loop is incorporated into the modulator to maintain the cavity on resonance.

  12. 3C-SiC microdisk mechanical resonators with multimode resonances at radio frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaesung; Zamani, Hamidrera; Rajgopal, Srihari; Zorman, Christian A.; X-L Feng, Philip

    2017-07-01

    We report on the design, modeling, fabrication and measurement of single-crystal 3C-silicon carbide (SiC) microdisk mechanical resonators with multimode resonances operating at radio frequencies (RF). These microdisk resonators (center-clamped on a vertical stem pedestal) offer multiple flexural-mode resonances with frequencies dependent on both disk and anchor dimensions. The resonators are made using a novel fabrication method comprised of focused ion beam nanomachining and hydroflouic : nitric : acetic (HNA) acid etching. Resonance peaks (in the frequency spectrum) are detected through laser-interferometry measurements. Resonators with different dimensions are tested, and multimode resonances, mode splitting, energy dissipation (in the form of quality factor measurement) are investigated. Further, we demonstrate a feedback oscillator based on a passive 3C-SiC resonator. This investigation provides important guidelines for microdisk resonator development, ranging from an analytical prediction of frequency scaling law to fabrication, suggesting RF microdisk resonators can be good candidates for future sensing applications in harsh environments.

  13. Theoretical investigation of resonant frequencies of unstrapped magnetron with arbitrary side resonators

    SciT

    Yue, Song, E-mail: yuessd@163.com; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049; Zhang, Zhao-chuan

    In this paper, a sector steps approximation method is proposed to investigate the resonant frequencies of magnetrons with arbitrary side resonators. The arbitrary side resonator is substituted with a series of sector steps, in which the spatial harmonics of electromagnetic field are also considered. By using the method of admittance matching between adjacent steps, as well as field continuity conditions between side resonators and interaction regions, the dispersion equation of magnetron with arbitrary side resonators is derived. Resonant frequencies of magnetrons with five common kinds of side resonators are calculated with sector steps approximation method and computer simulation softwares, inmore » which the results have a good agreement. The relative error is less than 2%, which verifies the validity of sector steps approximation method.« less

  14. Lateral acoustic wave resonator comprising a suspended membrane of low damping resonator material

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady; , Ihab F.; Ziaei-Moayyed, Maryam; Branch; , Darren W.; Su; Mehmet F.,; Reinke; Charles M.,

    2013-09-03

    A very high-Q, low insertion loss resonator can be achieved by storing many overtone cycles of a lateral acoustic wave (i.e., Lamb wave) in a lithographically defined suspended membrane comprising a low damping resonator material, such as silicon carbide. The high-Q resonator can sets up a Fabry-Perot cavity in a low-damping resonator material using high-reflectivity acoustic end mirrors, which can comprise phononic crystals. The lateral overtone acoustic wave resonator can be electrically transduced by piezoelectric couplers. The resonator Q can be increased without increasing the impedance or insertion loss by storing many cycles or wavelengths in the high-Q resonator material, with much lower damping than the piezoelectric transducer material.

  15. Erbium-doped fiber ring resonator for resonant fiber optical gyro applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunming; Zhao, Rui; Tang, Jun; Xia, Meijing; Guo, Huiting; Xie, Chengfeng; Wang, Lei; Liu, Jun

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports a fiber ring resonator with erbium-doped fiber (EDF) for resonant fiber optical gyro (RFOG). To analyze compensation mechanism of the EDF on resonator, a mathematical model of the erbium-doped fiber ring resonator (EDFRR) is established based on Jones matrix to be followed by the design and fabrication of a tunable EDFRR. The performances of the fabricated EDFRR were measured and the experimental Q-factor of 2 . 47 × 108 and resonant depth of 109% were acquired separately. Compared with the resonator without the EDF, the resonant depth and Q-factor of the proposed device are increased by 2.5 times and 14 times, respectively. A potential optimum shot noise limited resolution of 0 . 042∘ / h can be obtained for the RFOG, which is promising for low-cost and high precise detection.

  16. Electron Spin Resonance at the Level of 1 04 Spins Using Low Impedance Superconducting Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, C.; Sigillito, A. J.; Lyon, S. A.; Petta, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    We report on electron spin resonance measurements of phosphorus donors localized in a 200 μ m2 area below the inductive wire of a lumped element superconducting resonator. By combining quantum limited parametric amplification with a low impedance microwave resonator design, we are able to detect around 2 ×1 04 spins with a signal-to-noise ratio of 1 in a single shot. The 150 Hz coupling strength between the resonator field and individual spins is significantly larger than the 1-10 Hz coupling rates obtained with typical coplanar waveguide resonator designs. Because of the larger coupling rate, we find that spin relaxation is dominated by radiative decay into the resonator and dependent upon the spin-resonator detuning, as predicted by Purcell.

  17. Theory and Applications of Surface Plasmon Resonance, Resonant Mirror, Resonant Waveguide Grating, and Dual Polarization Interferometry Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Daghestani, Hikmat N.; Day, Billy W.

    2010-01-01

    Biosensors have been used extensively in the scientific community for several purposes, most notably to determine association and dissociation kinetics, protein-ligand, protein-protein, or nucleic acid hybridization interactions. A number of different types of biosensors are available in the field, each with real or perceived benefits over the others. This review discusses the basic theory and operational arrangements of four commercially available types of optical biosensors: surface plasmon resonance, resonant mirror, resonance waveguide grating, and dual polarization interferometry. The different applications these techniques offer are discussed from experiments and results reported in recently published literature. Additionally, recent advancements or modifications to the current techniques are also discussed. PMID:22163431

  18. Functional cardiac magnetic resonance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brau, Anja Christina Sophie

    2003-07-01

    The study of small animal models of human cardiovascular disease is critical to our understanding of the origin, progression, and treatment of this pervasive disease. Complete analysis of disease pathophysiology in these animal models requires measuring structural and functional changes at the level of the whole heart---a task for which an appropriate non-invasive imaging method is needed. The purpose of this work was thus to develop an imaging technique to support in vivo characterization of cardiac structure and function in rat and mouse models of cardiovascular disease. Whereas clinical cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides accurate assessment of the human heart, the extension of cardiac MRI from humans to rodents presents several formidable scaling challenges. Acquiring images of the mouse heart with organ definition and fluidity of contraction comparable to that achieved in humans requires an increase in spatial resolution by a factor of 3000 and an increase in temporal resolution by a factor of ten. No single technical innovation can meet the demanding imaging requirements imposed by the small animal. A functional cardiac magnetic resonance microscopy technique was developed by integrating improvements in physiological control, imaging hardware, biological synchronization of imaging, and pulse sequence design to achieve high-quality images of the murine heart with high spatial and temporal resolution. The specific methods and results from three different sets of imaging experiments are presented: (1) 2D functional imaging in the rat with spatial resolution of 175 mum2 x 1 mm and temporal resolution of 10 ms; (2) 3D functional imaging in the rat with spatial resolution of 100 mum 2 x 500 mum and temporal resolution of 30 ms; and (3) 2D functional imaging in the mouse with spatial resolution down to 100 mum2 x 1 mm and temporal resolution of 10 ms. The cardiac microscopy technique presented here represents a novel collection of technologies capable

  19. Coupling influence on the sensitivity of microfiber resonator sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Chen, Ye; Kou, Jun-long; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2011-12-01

    By modifying the resonant condition of microfiber resonator sensors while taking the coupling effect into account, we theoretically investigate coupling influence on the resonant wavelength and sensitivity. Numerical calculation shows significant difference in resonant wavelength and sensitivity with different coupling strength. Tuning the coupling can shift the resonant position as far as several nanometers and change the sensitivity as large as 30 nm/RIU in an all-coupling microfiber coil resonator.

  20. Scattering Resonances in the Simplest Chemical Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Alonso, Felix; Zare, Richard N.

    2002-10-01

    Recent studies of state-resolved angular distributions show the participation of reactive scattering resonances in the simplest chemical reaction. This review is intended for those who wish to learn about the state-of-the-art in the study of the H + H2 reaction family that has made this breakthrough possible. This review is also intended for those who wish to gain insight into the nature of reactive scattering resonances. Following a tour across several fields of physics and chemistry where the concept of resonance has been crucial for the understanding of new phenomena, we offer an operational definition and taxonomy of reactive scattering resonances. We introduce simple intuitive models to illustrate each resonance type. We focus next on the last decade of H + H2 reaction dynamics. Emphasis is placed on the various experimental approaches that have been applied to the search for resonance behavior in the H + H2 reaction family. We conclude by sketching the road ahead in the study of H + H2 reactive scattering resonances.

  1. Wave energy extraction by coupled resonant absorbers.

    PubMed

    Evans, D V; Porter, R

    2012-01-28

    In this article, a range of problems and theories will be introduced that will build towards a new wave energy converter (WEC) concept, with the acronym 'ROTA' standing for resonant over-topping absorber. First, classical results for wave power absorption for WECs constrained to operate in a single degree of freedom will be reviewed and the role of resonance in their operation highlighted. Emphasis will then be placed on how the introduction of further resonances can improve power take-off characteristics by extending the range of frequencies over which the efficiency is close to a theoretical maximum. Methods for doing this in different types of WECs will be demonstrated. Coupled resonant absorbers achieve this by connecting a WEC device equipped with its own resonance (determined from a hydrodynamic analysis) to a new system having separate mass/spring/damper characteristics. It is shown that a coupled resonant effect can be realized by inserting a water tank into a WEC, and this idea forms the basis of the ROTA device. In essence, the idea is to exploit the coupling between the natural sloshing frequencies of the water in the internal tank and the natural resonance of a submerged buoyant circular cylinder device that is tethered to the sea floor, allowing a rotary motion about its axis of attachment.

  2. Fano resonances in bilayer graphene superlattices.

    PubMed

    Briones-Torres, J A; Rodríguez-Vargas, I

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we address the ubiquitous phenomenon of Fano resonances in bilayer graphene. We consider that this phenomenon is as exotic as other phenomena in graphene because it can arise without an external extended states source or elaborate nano designs. However, there are not theoretical and/or experimental studies that report the impact of Fano resonances on the transport properties. Here, we carry out a systematic assessment of the contribution of the Fano resonances on the transport properties of bilayer graphene superlattices. Specifically, we find that by changing the number of periods, adjusting the barriers height as well as modifying the barriers and wells width it is possible to identify the contribution of Fano resonances on the conductance. Particularly, the coupling of Fano resonances with the intrinsic minibands of the superlattice gives rise to specific and identifiable changes in the conductance. Moreover, by reducing the angular range for the computation of the transport properties it is possible to obtain conductance curves with line-shapes quite similar to the Fano profile and the coupling profile between Fano resonance and miniband states. In fact, these conductance features could serve as unequivocal characteristic of the existence of Fano resonances in bilayer graphene.

  3. Biosensing Using Microring Resonator Interferograms

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Shih-Hsiang; Yang, Yung-Chia; Su, Yu-Hou; Wang, Sheng-Min; Huang, Shih-An; Lin, Ching-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Optical low-coherence interferometry (OLCI) takes advantage of the variation in refractive index in silicon-wire microring resonator (MRR) effective lengths to perform glucose biosensing using MRR interferograms. The MRR quality factor (Q), proportional to the effective length, could be improved using the silicon-wire propagation loss and coupling ratio from the MRR coupler. Our study showed that multimode interference (MMI) performed well in broad band response, but the splitting ratio drifted to 75/25 due to the stress issue. The glucose sensing sensitivity demonstrated 0.00279 meter per refractive-index-unit (RIU) with a Q factor of ∼30,000 under transverse electric polarization. The 1,310 nm DFB laser was built in the OLCI system as the optical ruler achieving 655 nm characterization accuracy. The lowest sensing limitation was therefore 2 × 10−4 RIU. Moreover, the MRR effective length from the glucose sensitivity could be utilized to experimentally demonstrate the silicon wire effective refractive index with a width of 0.45 μm and height of 0.26 μm. PMID:24434876

  4. Endometrial cancer: magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, R; Gui, B; Maresca, G; Fanfani, F; Bonomo, L

    2005-01-01

    Carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common invasive gynecologic malignancy of the female genital tract. Clinically, patients with endometrial carcinoma present with abnormal uterine bleeding. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in endometrial carcinoma is disease staging and treatment planning. MRI has been shown to be the most valuable imaging mod-ality in this task, compared with endovaginal ultrasound and computed tomography, because of its intrinsic contrast resolution and multiplanar capability. MRI protocol includes axial T1-weighted images; axial, sagittal, and coronal T2-weighted images; and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. MR examination is usually performed in the supine position with a phased array multicoil using a four-coil configuration. Endometrial carcinoma is isointense with the normal endometrium and myometrium on noncontrast T1-weighted images and has a variable appearance on T2-weighted images demonstrating heterogeneous signal intensity. The appearance of noninvasive endometrial carcinoma on MRI is characterized by a normal or thickened endometrium, with an intact junctional zone and a sharp tumor-myometrium interface. Invasive endometrial carcinoma is characterized disruption or irregularity of the junctional zone by intermediate signal intensity mass on T2-weighted images. Invasion of the cervical stroma is diagnosed when the low signal intensity cervical stroma is disrupted by the higher signal intensity endometrial carcinoma. MRI in endometrial carcinoma performs better than other imaging modalities in disease staging and treatment planning. Further, the accuracy and the cost of MRI are equivalent to those of surgical staging.

  5. Voltage control of ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ziyao; Peng, Bin; Zhu, Mingmin; Liu, Ming

    2016-05-01

    Voltage control of magnetism in multiferroics, where the ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity are simultaneously exhibiting, is of great importance to achieve compact, fast and energy efficient voltage controllable magnetic/microwave devices. Particularly, these devices are widely used in radar, aircraft, cell phones and satellites, where volume, response time and energy consumption is critical. Researchers realized electric field tuning of magnetic properties like magnetization, magnetic anisotropy and permeability in varied multiferroic heterostructures such as bulk, thin films and nanostructure by different magnetoelectric (ME) coupling mechanism: strain/stress, interfacial charge, spin-electromagnetic (EM) coupling and exchange coupling, etc. In this review, we focus on voltage control of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in multiferroics. ME coupling-induced FMR change is critical in microwave devices, where the electric field tuning of magnetic effective anisotropic field determines the tunability of the performance of microwave devices. Experimentally, FMR measurement technique is also an important method to determine the small effective magnetic field change in small amount of magnetic material precisely due to its high sensitivity and to reveal the deep science of multiferroics, especially, voltage control of magnetism in novel mechanisms like interfacial charge, spin-EM coupling and exchange coupling.

  6. Multidimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here, we propose the multidimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel radiofrequency coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Stochastic Resonance In Visual Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonotto, Enrico

    1996-03-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a well established physical phenomenon wherein some measure of the coherence of a weak signal can be optimized by random fluctuations, or "noise" (K. Wiesenfeld and F. Moss, Nature), 373, 33 (1995). In all experiments to date the coherence has been measured using numerical analysis of the data, for example, signal-to-noise ratios obtained from power spectra. But, can this analysis be replaced by a perceptive task? Previously we had demonstrated this possibility with a numerical model of perceptual bistability applied to the interpretation of ambiguous figures(M. Riani and E. Simonotto, Phys. Rev. Lett.), 72, 3120 (1994). Here I describe an experiment wherein SR is detected in visual perception. A recognizible grayscale photograph was digitized and presented. The picture was then placed beneath a threshold. Every pixel for which the grayscale exceeded the threshold was painted white, and all others black. For large enough threshold, the picture is unrecognizable, but the addition of a random number to every pixel renders it interpretable(C. Seife and M. Roberts, The Economist), 336, 59, July 29 (1995). However the addition of dynamical noise to the pixels much enhances an observer's ability to interpret the picture. Here I report the results of psychophysics experiments wherein the effects of both the intensity of the noise and its correlation time were studied.

  8. Low rank magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Mazor, Gal; Weizman, Lior; Tal, Assaf; Eldar, Yonina C

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) is a relatively new approach that provides quantitative MRI using randomized acquisition. Extraction of physical quantitative tissue values is preformed off-line, based on acquisition with varying parameters and a dictionary generated according to the Bloch equations. MRF uses hundreds of radio frequency (RF) excitation pulses for acquisition, and therefore high under-sampling ratio in the sampling domain (k-space) is required. This under-sampling causes spatial artifacts that hamper the ability to accurately estimate the quantitative tissue values. In this work, we introduce a new approach for quantitative MRI using MRF, called Low Rank MRF. We exploit the low rank property of the temporal domain, on top of the well-known sparsity of the MRF signal in the generated dictionary domain. We present an iterative scheme that consists of a gradient step followed by a low rank projection using the singular value decomposition. Experiments on real MRI data demonstrate superior results compared to conventional implementation of compressed sensing for MRF at 15% sampling ratio.

  9. Microwave amplification with nanomechanical resonators.

    PubMed

    Massel, F; Heikkilä, T T; Pirkkalainen, J-M; Cho, S U; Saloniemi, H; Hakonen, P J; Sillanpää, M A

    2011-12-14

    The sensitive measurement of electrical signals is at the heart of modern technology. According to the principles of quantum mechanics, any detector or amplifier necessarily adds a certain amount of noise to the signal, equal to at least the noise added by quantum fluctuations. This quantum limit of added noise has nearly been reached in superconducting devices that take advantage of nonlinearities in Josephson junctions. Here we introduce the concept of the amplification of microwave signals using mechanical oscillation, which seems likely to enable quantum-limited operation. We drive a nanomechanical resonator with a radiation pressure force, and provide an experimental demonstration and an analytical description of how a signal input to a microwave cavity induces coherent stimulated emission and, consequently, signal amplification. This generic scheme, which is based on two linear oscillators, has the advantage of being conceptually and practically simpler than the Josephson junction devices. In our device, we achieve signal amplification of 25 decibels with the addition of 20 quanta of noise, which is consistent with the expected amount of added noise. The generality of the model allows for realization in other physical systems as well, and we anticipate that near-quantum-limited mechanical microwave amplification will soon be feasible in various applications involving integrated electrical circuits.

  10. System and method for tuning adjusting the central frequency of a laser while maintaining frequency stabilization to an external reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey (Inventor); Thorpe, James I. (Inventor); Numata, Kenji (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and system for stabilizing a laser to a frequency reference with an adjustable offset. The method locks a sideband signal generated by passing an incoming laser beam through the phase modulator to a frequency reference, and adjusts a carrier frequency relative to the locked sideband signal by changing a phase modulation frequency input to the phase modulator. The sideband signal can be a single sideband (SSB), dual sideband (DSB), or an electronic sideband (ESB) signal. Two separate electro-optic modulators can produce the DSB signal. The two electro-optic modulators can be a broadband modulator and a resonant modulator. With a DSB signal, the method can introduce two sinusoidal phase modulations at the phase modulator. With ESB signals, the method can further drive the optical phase modulator with an electrical signal with nominal frequency OMEGA(sub 1) that is phase modulated at a frequency OMEGA(sub 2)

  11. Asteroid proper elements and secular resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knezevic, Zoran; Milani, Andrea

    1992-01-01

    In a series of papers (e.g., Knezevic, 1991; Milani and Knezevic, 1990; 1991) we reported on the progress we were making in computing asteroid proper elements, both as regards their accuracy and long-term stability. Additionally, we reported on the efficiency and 'intelligence' of our software. At the same time, we studied the associated problems of resonance effects, and we introduced the new class of 'nonlinear' secular resonances; we determined the locations of these secular resonances in proper-element phase space and analyzed their impact on the asteroid family classification. Here we would like to summarize the current status of our work and possible further developments.

  12. Acoustic resonator and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Kline, G.R.; Lakin, K.M.

    1983-10-13

    A method of fabricating an acoustic wave resonator wherein all processing steps are accomplished from a single side of said substrate. The method involves deposition of a multi-layered Al/AlN structure on a GaAs substrate followed by a series of fabrication steps to define a resonator from said composite. The resulting resonator comprises an AlN layer between two Al layers and another layer of AlN on an exterior of one of said Al layers.

  13. Opto-electronic oscillators having optical resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Xiaotian Steve (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Systems and techniques of incorporating an optical resonator in an optical part of a feedback loop in opto-electronic oscillators. This optical resonator provides a sufficiently long energy storage time and hence to produce an oscillation of a narrow linewidth and low phase noise. Certain mode matching conditions are required. For example, the mode spacing of the optical resonator is equal to one mode spacing, or a multiplicity of the mode spacing, of an opto-electronic feedback loop that receives a modulated optical signal and to produce an electrical oscillating signal.

  14. Chiral symmetry constraints on resonant amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, Peter C.; Mai, Maxim

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the impact of chiral symmetry constraints on the quark-mass dependence of meson resonance pole positions, which are encoded in non-perturbative parametrizations of meson scattering amplitudes. Model-independent conditions on such parametrizations are derived, which are shown to guarantee the correct functional form of the leading quark-mass corrections to the resonance pole positions. Some model amplitudes for ππ scattering, widely used for the determination of ρ and σ resonance properties from results of lattice simulations, are tested explicitly with respect to these conditions.

  15. Mie resonances to tailor random lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, P. D.; Ibisate, M.; Sapienza, R.; Wiersma, D. S.; López, C.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we present an optical characterization of photonic glass-based random lasers. We show how the resonant behavior of diffuse light transport through such systems can tailor the lasing emission when a gain medium is added to the glass. A DNA-based organic dye is used as gain medium. The resonances in the transport mean-free path influence the lasing wavelength of the random laser. The laser wavelength is therefore controlled by the sphere diameter. Furthermore, the existence of Mie resonances reduces the necessary pump energy to reach the lasing threshold.

  16. Acoustic resonator and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Kline, Gerald R.; Lakin, Kenneth M.

    1985-03-05

    A method of fabricating an acoustic wave resonator wherein all processing steps are accomplished from a single side of said substrate. The method involves deposition of a multi-layered Al/AlN structure on a GaAs substrate followed by a series of fabrication steps to define a resonator from said composite. The resulting resonator comprises an AlN layer between two Al layers and another layer of AlN on an exterior of one of said Al layers.

  17. Acoustic resonator and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Kline, G.R.; Lakin, K.M.

    1985-03-05

    A method is disclosed of fabricating an acoustic wave resonator wherein all processing steps are accomplished from a single side of said substrate. The method involves deposition of a multi-layered Al/AlN structure on a GaAs substrate followed by a series of fabrication steps to define a resonator from said composite. The resulting resonator comprises an AlN layer between two Al layers and another layer of AlN on an exterior of one of said Al layers. 4 figs.

  18. Neutron cross sections. Volume I. Resonance parameters

    SciT

    Mughabghab, S.F.; Garber, D.I.

    1973-06-01

    In contrast to earlier editions, which presented in compact form a summary of the complete store of the neutron data files, this edition aims to provide those portions of neutron data considered to be of prime importance and best suited for inclusion in ready reference form. This volume contains thermal cross sections, resonance properties, resonance parameters, and bibliography for nuclides from H to /sup 257/Fm. Notation and nomenclature, considerations involved in the recommendations, and a table of energyordered resonances are also included. (RWR)

  19. Development of optical WGM resonators for biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brice, I.; Pirktina, A.; Ubele, A.; Grundsteins, K.; Atvars, A.; Viter, R.; Alnis, J.

    2017-12-01

    Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) resonators are very sensitive to nanoparticles attaching to the surface. We simulate this process using COMSOL Wave Optics module. Our spherical WGM resonators are produced by melting a tip of an optical fiber and we measure optical Q factors in the 105 range. Molecular oxygen lines of the air in the 760 nm region are used as reference markers when looking for the shifts of the WGM resonance lines. We demonstrate WGM microresonator surface coating with a layer of ZnO nanorods as well as with polystyrene microspheres. Coatings produce increased contact surface. Additional layer of antigens/antibodies will be coated to make high-specificity biosensors.

  20. MSW-resonant fermion mixing during reheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Tsuneto; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2003-10-01

    We study the dynamics of reheating in which an inflaton field couples two flavor fermions through Yukawa-couplings. When two fermions have a mixing term with a constant coupling, we show that the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW)-type resonance emerges due to a time-dependent background in addition to the standard fermion creation via parametric resonance. This MSW resonance not only alters the number densities of fermions generated by a preheating process but also can lead to the larger energy transfer from the inflaton to fermions. Our mechanism can provide additional source terms for the creation of superheavy fermions which may be relevant for the leptogenesis scenario.

  1. Trampoline metamaterial: Local resonance enhancement by springboards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal, Osama R.; Hussein, Mahmoud I.

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the dispersion characteristics of locally resonant elastic metamaterials formed by the erection of pillars on the solid regions in a plate patterned by a periodic array of holes. We show that these solid regions effectively act as springboards leading to an enhanced resonance behavior by the pillars when compared to the nominal case of pillars with no holes. This local resonance amplification phenomenon, which we define as the trampoline effect, is shown to cause subwavelength bandgaps to increase in size by up to a factor of 4. This outcome facilitates the utilization of subwavelength metamaterial properties over exceedingly broad frequency ranges.

  2. Microwave Oscillators Based on Nonlinear WGM Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, Lute; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2006-01-01

    Optical oscillators that exploit resonantly enhanced four-wave mixing in nonlinear whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators are under investigation for potential utility as low-power, ultra-miniature sources of stable, spectrally pure microwave signals. There are numerous potential uses for such oscillators in radar systems, communication systems, and scientific instrumentation. The resonator in an oscillator of this type is made of a crystalline material that exhibits cubic Kerr nonlinearity, which supports the four-photon parametric process also known as four-wave mixing. The oscillator can be characterized as all-optical in the sense that the entire process of generation of the microwave signal takes place within the WGM resonator. The resonantly enhanced four-wave mixing yields coherent, phase-modulated optical signals at frequencies governed by the resonator structure. The frequency of the phase-modulation signal, which is in the microwave range, equals the difference between the frequencies of the optical signals; hence, this frequency is also governed by the resonator structure. Hence, further, the microwave signal is stable and can be used as a reference signal. The figure schematically depicts the apparatus used in a proof-of-principle experiment. Linearly polarized pump light was generated by an yttrium aluminum garnet laser at a wavelength of 1.32 microns. By use of a 90:10 fiber-optic splitter and optical fibers, some of the laser light was sent into a delay line and some was transmitted to one face of glass coupling prism, that, in turn, coupled the laser light into a crystalline CaF2 WGM disk resonator that had a resonance quality factor (Q) of 6x10(exp 9). The output light of the resonator was collected via another face of the coupling prism and a single-mode optical fiber, which transmitted the light to a 50:50 fiber-optic splitter. One output of this splitter was sent to a slow photodiode to obtain a DC signal for locking the laser to a particular

  3. Mitigating Thermoelastic Dissipation of Flexural Micromechanical Resonators by Decoupling Resonant Frequency from Thermal Relaxation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Xiao, Dingbang; Wu, Xuezhong; Li, Qingsong; Hou, Zhanqiang; He, Kaixuan; Wu, Yulie

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports an alternative design strategy to reduce thermoelastic dissipation (TED) for isothermal-mode micromechanical resonators. This involves hanging lumped masses on a frame structure to decouple the resonant frequency and the effective beamwidth of the resonators, which enables the separation of the thermal relaxation rate and frequency of vibration. This approach is validated using silicon-based micromechanical disklike resonators engineered to isolate TED. A threefold improvement in the quality factor and a tenfold improvement in the decay-time constant is demonstrated. This work proposes a solution for isothermal-mode (flexural) micromechanical resonators to effectively mitigate TED. Specifically, this approach is ideal for designing high-performance gyroscope resonators based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. It may pave the way for the next generation inertial-grade MEMS gyroscope, which remains a great challenge and is very appealing.

  4. Resonance coupling and polarization conversion in terahertz metasurfaces with twisted split-ring resonator pairs

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Chenyu; Chang, Chun-Chieh; Zhou, Qingli; ...

    2017-10-10

    Here, we investigate edge-coupling of twisted split-ring resonator (SRR) pairs in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. By using a simple coupled-resonator model we show that such a system exhibits resonance splitting and cross-polarization conversion. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements agree well with theoretical calculations, verifying the resonance splitting as a function of the coupling strength given by the SRR separation. We further show that a metal ground plane can be integrated to significantly enhance the resonance coupling, which enables the effective control of resonance splitting and the efficiency and bandwidth of the cross-polarization conversion. Our findings improve the fundamental understandingmore » of metamaterials with a view of accomplishing metamaterial functionalities with enhanced performance, which is of great interest in realizing THz functional devices required in a variety of applications.« less

  5. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    ... mild sedative prior to the examination. For more information about Magnetic Resonance Angiography of MRA or any ... Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking ...

  6. Superconducting Resonators with Parasitic Electromagnetic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornibrook, John; Mitchell, Emma; Reilly, David

    2012-02-01

    Microwave losses in niobium superconducting resonators are investigated at milli-Kelvin temperatures and with low drive power. In addition to the well-known suppression of Q-factor that arises from coupling between the resonator and two-level defects in the dielectric substrate [1-4], we report strong dependence of the loaded Q-factor and resonance line-shape on the electromagnetic environment. Methods to suppress parasitic coupling between the resonator and its environment are demonstrated.[4pt] [1] Day, P.K. et al., Nature 425, 817-821 (2003).[0pt] [2] Wallraff, A. et. al., Nature 451, 162-167 (2004).[0pt] [3] Macha, P. et. al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 96, 062503 (2010).[0pt] [4] O'Connell, A.D. et. al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 92, 112903 (2008).

  7. A silicon micromachined resonant pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhangyang; Fan, Shangchun; Cai, Chenguang

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and test of a silicon micromachined resonant pressure sensor. A square membrane and a doubly clamped resonant beam constitute a compound structure. The former senses the pressure directly, while the latter changes its resonant frequency according to deformation of the membrane. The final output relation between the resonant frequency and the applied pressure is deducted according to the structure mechanical properties. Sensors are fabricated by micromachining technology, and then sealed in vaccum. These sensors are tested by open-loop and close-loop system designed on purpose. The experiment results demonstrate that the sensor has a sensitivity of 49.8Hz/kPa and repeatability of 0.08%.

  8. Microcavity surface plasmon resonance bio-sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosavian, Nazanin

    This work discusses a miniature surface plasmon biosensor which uses a dielectric sub- micron diameter core with gold spherical shell. The shell has a subwavelength nanoaperture believed to excite stationary plasmon resonances at the biosensor's surface. The sub-micron cavity enhances the measurement sensitivity of molecules binding to the sensor surface. We used visible-range optical spectroscopy to study the wavelength shift as bio-molecules absorbed-desorbed at the shell surface. We also used Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) ablation to study the characteristics of microcavity surface plasmon resonance sensor (MSPRS) and the inner structure formed with metal deposition and its spectrum. We found that resonances at 580 nm and 670 nm responded to bound test agents and that Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor intensity could be used to differentiate between D-glucose and L-glucose. The responsiveness of the system depended upon the mechanical integrity of the metallic surface coating.

  9. Exploring Nurse Faculty Incivility and Resonant Leadership.

    PubMed

    Casale, Katherine R

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to explore the relationship between the frequency of interfaculty incivility among nurses in academia and observed levels of resonant leadership of immediate supervisors. Despite mandates to address incivility in health care, nurse faculty report high levels of horizontal incivility among their peers. No known quantitative research has measured the relationship between nurse faculty-to-faculty incivility and resonant leadership traits of leaders. Nursing faculty from 17 universities (n = 260) were emailed an anonymous link to answer survey questions about horizontal peer incivility and leaders' management styles. There was a significant inverse relationship (Pearson's r, -.560) between the frequency of experienced faculty-to-faculty incivility and the level of observed resonant leadership behaviors of participants' immediate supervisors. Resonant supervisory behaviors inversely correlated with nurse faculty peer incivility, with potential to impact satisfaction, recruitment, and retention.

  10. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence of U-235

    SciT

    Warren, Glen A.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Hensley, Walter K.

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence is a physical process that provides an isotopic-specific signature that could be used for the identification and characterization of materials. The technique involves the detection of prompt discrete-energy photons emitted from a sample which is exposed to photons in the MeV energy range. Potential applications of the technique range from detection of high explosives to characterization of special nuclear materials. One isotope of significant interest is 235U. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Passport Systems have collaborated to conduct measurements to search for a nuclear resonance fluorescence response of 235U below 3 MeV using a 200 g samplemore » of highly enriched uranium. Nine 235U resonances between 1650 and 2010 keV were identified in the preliminary analysis. Analysis of the measurement data to determine the integrated cross sections of the resonances is in progress.« less

  11. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Trackbed Moisture Sensor System

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-02-01

    In this initial phase, conducted from March 2015 through December 2016, Vista Clara and its subcontractor Zetica Rail successfully developed and tested a man-portable, non-invasive spot-check nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) moisture sensor that dire...

  12. Miniature Magnet for Electron Spin Resonance Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupp, L. W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Describes commercially available permanent magnets that have been incorporated in a compact and inexpensive structure providing both field sweep and modulation suitable for electron spin resonance at microwave frequencies. (MLH)

  13. Subwavelength total acoustic absorption with degenerate resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Min; Meng, Chong; Fu, Caixing; Li, Yong; Yang, Zhiyu; Sheng, Ping

    2015-09-01

    We report the experimental realization of perfect sound absorption by sub-wavelength monopole and dipole resonators that exhibit degenerate resonant frequencies. This is achieved through the destructive interference of two resonators' transmission responses, while the matching of their averaged impedances to that of air implies no backscattering, thereby leading to total absorption. Two examples, both using decorated membrane resonators (DMRs) as the basic units, are presented. The first is a flat panel comprising a DMR and a pair of coupled DMRs, while the second one is a ventilated short tube containing a DMR in conjunction with a sidewall DMR backed by a cavity. In both examples, near perfect absorption, up to 99.7%, has been observed with the airborne wavelength up to 1.2 m, which is at least an order of magnitude larger than the composite absorber. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is obtained.

  14. Dental materials and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Hubálková, Hana; Hora, Karel; Seidl, Zdenek; Krásenský, Jan

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the reaction of selected dental materials in the magnetic field of a magnetic resonance imaging device to determine a possible health risk. The following dental materials were tested in vitro during magnetic resonance imaging: 15 dental alloys, four dental implants, one surgical splint and two wires for fixation of maxillofacial fractures. Possible artefacts (corresponding with magnetic properties), heating and force effects were tested. Results concerning movement and heating were in agreement with the literature. The artefacts seen were significant: for the surgical splint, a spherical artefact with a diameter of 55 mm; for the wires, up to 22 mm; and for the dental blade implant, an artefact of 28 x 20 mm. The results of our tests of selected dental appliances indicate that their presence in the human organism is safe for patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging procedures. The presence of artefacts can substantially influence the magnetic resonance imaging results.

  15. Dust grain resonant capture: A statistical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzari, F.; Vanzani, V.; Weidenschilling, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    A statistical approach, based on a large number of simultaneous numerical integrations, is adopted to study the capture in external mean motion resonances with the Earth of micron size dust grains perturbed by solar radiation and wind forces. We explore the dependence of the resonant capture phenomenon on the initial eccentricity e(sub 0) and perihelion argument w(sub 0) of the dust particle orbit. The intensity of both the resonant and dissipative (Poynting-Robertson and wind drag) perturbations strongly depends on the eccentricity of the particle while the perihelion argument determines, for low inclination, the mutual geometrical configuration of the particle's orbit with respect to the Earth's orbit. We present results for three j:j+1 commensurabilities (2:3, 4:5 and 6:7) and also for particle sizes s = 15, 30 microns. This study extends our previous work on the long term orbital evolution of single dust particles trapped into resonances with the Earth.

  16. SS-HORSE method for studying resonances

    SciT

    Blokhintsev, L. D.; Mazur, A. I.; Mazur, I. A., E-mail: 008043@pnu.edu.ru

    A new method for analyzing resonance states based on the Harmonic-Oscillator Representation of Scattering Equations (HORSE) formalism and analytic properties of partial-wave scattering amplitudes is proposed. The method is tested by applying it to the model problem of neutral-particle scattering and can be used to study resonance states on the basis of microscopic calculations performed within various versions of the shell model.

  17. Dissipation in graphene and nanotube resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seoánez, C.; Guinea, F.; Castro Neto, A. H.

    2007-09-01

    Different damping mechanisms in graphene nanoresonators are studied: charges in the substrate, ohmic losses in the substrate and the graphene sheet, breaking and healing of surface bonds (Velcro effect), two level systems, attachment losses, and thermoelastic losses. We find that, for realistic structures and contrary to semiconductor resonators, dissipation is dominated by ohmic losses in the graphene layer and metallic gate. An extension of this study to carbon nanotube-based resonators is presented.

  18. Acoustic resonance phase locked photoacoustic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Bomse, David S.; Silver, Joel A.

    2003-08-19

    A photoacoustic spectroscopy method and apparatus for maintaining an acoustic source frequency on a sample cell resonance frequency comprising: providing an acoustic source to the sample cell to generate a photoacoustic signal, the acoustic source having a source frequency; continuously measuring detection phase of the photoacoustic signal with respect to source frequency or a harmonic thereof; and employing the measured detection phase to provide magnitude and direction for correcting the source frequency to the resonance frequency.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of appendicular musculoskeletal infection.

    PubMed

    Lalam, Radhesh K; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N; Tins, Bernhard J

    2007-06-01

    Appendicular skeletal infection includes osseous and extraosseous infections. Skeletal infection needs early diagnosis and appropriate management to prevent long-term morbidity. Magnetic resonance imaging is the best imaging modality to diagnose skeletal infection early in most circumstances. This article describes the role of magnetic resonance imaging in relation to the other available imaging modalities in the diagnosis of skeletal infection. Special circumstances such as diabetic foot, postoperative infection, and chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis are discussed separately.

  20. Ring-Resonator/Sol-Gel Interferometric Immunosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory; Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    A proposed biosensing system would be based on a combination of (1) a sensing volume containing antibodies immobilized in a sol-gel matrix and (2) an optical interferometer having a ring resonator configuration. The antibodies would be specific to an antigen species that one seeks to detect. In the ring resonator of the proposed system, light would make multiple passes through the sensing volume, affording greater interaction length and, hence, greater antibody- detection sensitivity.

  1. Parametric amplification in a resonant sensing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yie, Zi; Miller, Nicholas J.; Shaw, Steven W.; Turner, Kimberly L.

    2012-03-01

    We demonstrate parametric amplification of a multidegree of freedom resonant mass sensing array via an applied base motion containing the appropriate frequency content and phases. Applying parametric forcing in this manner is simple and aligns naturally with the vibrational properties of the sensing structure. Using this technique, we observe an increase in the quality factors of the coupled array resonances, which provides an effective means of improving device sensitivity.

  2. Resonant quantum transitions in trapped antihydrogen atoms.

    PubMed

    Amole, C; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Capra, A; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Donnan, P H; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Isaac, C A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Little, A; Madsen, N; McKenna, J T K; Menary, S; Napoli, S C; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Shields, C R; Silveira, D M; Stracka, S; So, C; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S

    2012-03-07

    The hydrogen atom is one of the most important and influential model systems in modern physics. Attempts to understand its spectrum are inextricably linked to the early history and development of quantum mechanics. The hydrogen atom's stature lies in its simplicity and in the accuracy with which its spectrum can be measured and compared to theory. Today its spectrum remains a valuable tool for determining the values of fundamental constants and for challenging the limits of modern physics, including the validity of quantum electrodynamics and--by comparison with measurements on its antimatter counterpart, antihydrogen--the validity of CPT (charge conjugation, parity and time reversal) symmetry. Here we report spectroscopy of a pure antimatter atom, demonstrating resonant quantum transitions in antihydrogen. We have manipulated the internal spin state of antihydrogen atoms so as to induce magnetic resonance transitions between hyperfine levels of the positronic ground state. We used resonant microwave radiation to flip the spin of the positron in antihydrogen atoms that were magnetically trapped in the ALPHA apparatus. The spin flip causes trapped anti-atoms to be ejected from the trap. We look for evidence of resonant interaction by comparing the survival rate of trapped atoms irradiated with microwaves on-resonance to that of atoms subjected to microwaves that are off-resonance. In one variant of the experiment, we detect 23 atoms that survive in 110 trapping attempts with microwaves off-resonance (0.21 per attempt), and only two atoms that survive in 103 attempts with microwaves on-resonance (0.02 per attempt). We also describe the direct detection of the annihilation of antihydrogen atoms ejected by the microwaves.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage repair.

    PubMed

    Potter, Hollis G; Chong, Le Roy; Sneag, Darryl B

    2008-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is an important noninvasive modality in characterizing cartilage morphology, biochemistry, and function. It serves as a valuable objective outcome measure in diagnosing pathology at the time of initial injury, guiding surgical planning, and evaluating postsurgical repair. This article reviews the current literature addressing the recent advances in qualitative and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques in the preoperative setting, and in patients who have undergone cartilage repair techniques such as microfracture, autologous cartilage transplantation, or osteochondral transplantation.

  4. Unstable Resonator Retrofitted Handheld Laser Designator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    retrofitted with a negative-branch unstable resona- tor laser and hybrid pump cavity in place of the conventional plane-mirror/ porro prism resonator and...directed by prism B to an expanding telescope, shared with the viewing system of the designator. The actual, unfolded resonator length is approxi...was performed based on using a plane- parallel cavity consisting of a 47% reflectivity output coupler, porro - prism reflector, and the same LiNb03

  5. The Geometric Theory of Roof Reflector Resonators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    reflector, if properly oriented, (The terms "roof-top prism ," "right-angle prism ," and - incorrectly - " Porro prism " are encountered in .the literature...Q-switch prisms ) in laser resonators have been infrequent compared to the attention given spherical mirrors. This chapter summarizes the relevant...designator (Refs 42 and 43). In one experiment, a 900 roof prism was tested in a resonator with a 70% reflecting filat mirror. Thus, in Fig. 2, the right roof

  6. Method of making a quartz resonator

    DOEpatents

    Vig, John R.; Filler, Raymond L.; Peters, R. Donald; Frank, James M.

    1981-01-01

    A quartz resonator is made from a chemically polished quartz plate. The plate is placed in an enclosure fitted with at least three mounting clips to receive the plate. The plate is secured to the clips with an electrically conductive adhesive capable of withstanding operation at 350 degrees C. The assembly is cleaned and a metallic electrode deposited onto the plate until the desired frequency is reached. The enclosure is then hermetically sealed. The resulting resonator can consistently withstand extremely high shocks.

  7. Resonant-cavity antenna for plasma heating

    DOEpatents

    Perkins, F.W. Jr.; Chiu, S.C.; Parks, P.; Rawls, J.M.

    1984-01-10

    This invention relates generally to a method and apparatus for transferring energy to a plasma immersed in a magnetic field, and relates particularly to an apparatus for heating a plasma of low atomic number ions to high temperatures by transfer of energy to plasma resonances, particularly the fundamental and harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency of the plasma ions. This invention transfers energy from an oscillating radio-frequency field to a plasma resonance of a plasma immersed in a magnetic field.

  8. Prediction for a Four-Neutron Resonance

    SciT

    Shirokov, A. M.; Papadimitriou, G.; Mazur, A. I.

    Here, we utilize various ab initio approaches to search for a low-lying resonance in the four-neutron (4n) system using the JISP16 realistic NN interaction. Our most accurate prediction is obtained using a J-matrix extension of the no-core shell model and suggests a 4n resonant state at an energy near E r = 0.8 MeV with a width of approximately Γ = 1.4 MeV.

  9. Resonance controlled transport in phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leoncini, Xavier; Vasiliev, Alexei; Artemyev, Anton

    2018-02-01

    We consider the mechanism of controlling particle transport in phase space by means of resonances in an adiabatic setting. Using a model problem describing nonlinear wave-particle interaction, we show that captures into resonances can be used to control transport in momentum space as well as in physical space. We design the model system to provide creation of a narrow peak in the distribution function, thus producing effective cooling of a sub-ensemble of the particles.

  10. Prediction for a Four-Neutron Resonance

    DOE PAGES

    Shirokov, A. M.; Papadimitriou, G.; Mazur, A. I.; ...

    2016-10-28

    Here, we utilize various ab initio approaches to search for a low-lying resonance in the four-neutron (4n) system using the JISP16 realistic NN interaction. Our most accurate prediction is obtained using a J-matrix extension of the no-core shell model and suggests a 4n resonant state at an energy near E r = 0.8 MeV with a width of approximately Γ = 1.4 MeV.

  11. Probing plasmon resonances of individual aluminum nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhongxia; Mao, Peng; Cao, Lu; Song, Fengqi

    2018-01-01

    The plasmon resonances of individual aluminum nanoparticles are investigated by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Surface plasmon mode and bulk plasmon mode of Al nanoparticles are clearly characterized in the EEL spectra. Discrete dipole approximation (DDA) calculations show that as the particle diameter increases from 20 nm to 100 nm, the plasmon resonance shifts to lower energy and higher mode of surface plasmon arises when the diameter reaches 60 nm and larger.

  12. Thermal Properties of Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-22

    in a vacuum chamber, to lower the noise floor and increase the SNR. To study the frequency response of the IR detector , we varied the modulation...performance at a fixed IR modulation (chopping) frequency. Finally, we estimated the noise equivalent power (NEP) of our IR detector . Note that the...the thennal relaxation time of the resonator to estimate the response time of the resonator based infrared (IR) detector . We found that, depending on

  13. Resonant-cavity antenna for plasma heating

    DOEpatents

    Perkins, Jr., Francis W.; Chiu, Shiu-Chu; Parks, Paul; Rawls, John M.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a resonant coil cavity wave launcher for energizing a plasma immersed in a magnetic field. Energization includes launching fast Alfven waves to excite ion cyclotron frequency resonances in the plasma. The cavity includes inductive and capacitive reactive members spaced no further than one-quarter wavelength from a first wall confinement chamber of the plasma. The cavity wave launcher is energized by connection to a waveguide or transmission line carrying forward power from a remote radio frequency energy source.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RESONANT CAUSTIC PERTURBATION

    SciT

    Chung, Sun-Ju, E-mail: sjchung@kasi.re.k

    Four of nine exoplanets found by microlensing were detected by the resonant caustic, which represents the merging of the planetary and central caustics at the position when the projected separation of a host star and a bounded planet is s approx 1. One of the resonant caustic lensing events, OGLE-2005-BLG-169, was a caustic-crossing high-magnification event with A {sub max}approx 800 and the source star was much smaller than the caustic, nevertheless the perturbation was not obviously apparent on the light curve of the event. In this paper, we investigate the perturbation pattern of the resonant caustic to understand why themore » perturbations induced by the caustic do not leave strong traces on the light curves of high-magnification events despite a small source/caustic size ratio. From this study, we find that the regions with small magnification excess around the center of the resonant caustic are rather widely formed, and the event passing the small-excess region produces a high-magnification event with a weak perturbation that is small relative to the amplification caused by the star and thus does not noticeably appear on the light curve of the event. We also find that the positive excess of the inside edge of the resonant caustic and the negative excess inside the caustic become stronger and wider as q increases, and thus the resonant caustic-crossing high-magnification events with the weak perturbation occur in the range of q <= 10{sup -4}. We determine the probability of the occurrence of events with the small excess |epsilon| <= 3% in high-magnification events induced by a resonant caustic. As a result, we find that for Earth-mass planets with a separation of approx2.5 AU the resonant caustic high-magnification events with the weak perturbation can occur with a significant frequency.« less

  15. Optimum resonance control knobs for sextupoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ögren, J.; Ziemann, V.

    2018-06-01

    We discuss the placement of extra sextupoles in a magnet lattice that allows to correct third-order geometric resonances, driven by the chromaticity-compensating sextupoles, in a way that requires the least excitation of the correction sextupoles. We consider a simplified case, without momentum-dependent effects or other imperfections, where suitably chosen phase advances between the correction sextupoles leads to orthogonal knobs with equal treatment of the different resonance driving terms.

  16. Electro-optic resonant phase modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chien-Chung (Inventor); Hemmati, Hamid (Inventor); Robinson, Deborah L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An electro-optic resonant cavity is used to achieve phase modulation with lower driving voltages. Laser damage thresholds are inherently higher than with previously used integrated optics due to the utilization of bulk optics. Phase modulation is achieved at higher speeds with lower driving voltages than previously obtained with non-resonant electro-optic phase modulators. The instant scheme uses a data locking dither approach as opposed to the conventional sinusoidal locking schemes. In accordance with a disclosed embodiment, a resonant cavity modulator has been designed to operate at a data rate in excess of 100 megabits per sec. By carefully choosing the cavity finesse and its dimension, it is possible to control the pulse switching time to within 4 nano-sec. and to limit the required switching voltage to within 10 V. This cavity locking scheme can be applied by using only the random data sequence, and without the need of dithering of the cavity. Compared to waveguide modulators, the resonant cavity has a comparable modulating voltage requirement. Because of its bulk geometry, the resonant cavity modulator has the potential of accommodating higher throughput power. Mode matching into the bulk device is easier and typically can be achieved with higher efficiency. An additional control loop is incorporated into the modulator to maintain the cavity on resonance.

  17. Resonator memories and optical novelty filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Dana Z.; Erle, Marie C.

    Optical resonators having holographic elements are potential candidates for storing information that can be accessed through content addressable or associative recall. Closely related to the resonator memory is the optical novelty filter, which can detect the differences between a test object and a set of reference objects. We discuss implementations of these devices using continuous optical media such as photorefractive materials. The discussion is framed in the context of neural network models. There are both formal and qualitative similarities between the resonator memory and optical novelty filter and network models. Mode competition arises in the theory of the resonator memory, much as it does in some network models. We show that the role of the phenomena of "daydreaming" in the real-time programmable optical resonator is very much akin to the role of "unlearning" in neural network memories. The theory of programming the real-time memory for a single mode is given in detail. This leads to a discussion of the optical novelty filter. Experimental results for the resonator memory, the real-time programmable memory, and the optical tracking novelty filter are reviewed. We also point to several issues that need to be addressed in order to implement more formal models of neural networks.

  18. Resonator Memories And Optical Novelty Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Dana Z.; Erie, Marie C.

    1987-05-01

    Optical resonators having holographic elements are potential candidates for storing information that can be accessed through content-addressable or associative recall. Closely related to the resonator memory is the optical novelty filter, which can detect the differences between a test object and a set of reference objects. We discuss implementations of these devices using continuous optical media such as photorefractive ma-terials. The discussion is framed in the context of neural network models. There are both formal and qualitative similarities between the resonator memory and optical novelty filter and network models. Mode competition arises in the theory of the resonator memory, much as it does in some network models. We show that the role of the phenomena of "daydream-ing" in the real-time programmable optical resonator is very much akin to the role of "unlearning" in neural network memories. The theory of programming the real-time memory for a single mode is given in detail. This leads to a discussion of the optical novelty filter. Experimental results for the resonator memory, the real-time programmable memory, and the optical tracking novelty filter are reviewed. We also point to several issues that need to be addressed in order to implement more formal models of neural networks.

  19. Invited Paper Optical Resonators For Associative Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Dana Z.

    1986-06-01

    One can construct a memory having associative characteristics using optical resonators with an internal gain medium. The device operates on the principle that an optical resonator employing a holographic grating can have user prescribed eigenmodes. Information that is to be recalled is contained in the hologram. Each information entity (e.g. an image of a cat) defines an eigenmode of the resonator. The stored information is accessed by injecting partial information (e.g. an image of the cat's ear) into the resonator. The appropriate eigenmode is selected through a competitive process in a gain medium placed inside the resonator. With a net gain greater than one, the gain amplifies the field belonging to the eigenmode that most resembles the injected field; the other eigenmodes are suppressed via the competition for the gain. One can expect this device to display several intriguing features such as recall transitions and creativity. I will discuss some of the general properties of this class of devices and present the results from a series of experiments with a simple holographic resonator employing photorefractive gain.

  20. Scattering processes and resonances from lattice QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Briceno, Raul A.; Dudek, Jozef J.; Young, Ross D.

    2018-04-18

    The vast majority of hadrons observed in nature are not stable under the strong interaction; rather they are resonances whose existence is deduced from enhancements in the energy dependence of scattering amplitudes. The study of hadron resonances offers a window into the workings of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in the low-energy nonperturbative region, and in addition many probes of the limits of the electroweak sector of the standard model consider processes which feature hadron resonances. From a theoretical standpoint, this is a challenging field: the same dynamics that binds quarks and gluons into hadron resonances also controls their decay into lightermore » hadrons, so a complete approach to QCD is required. Presently, lattice QCD is the only available tool that provides the required nonperturbative evaluation of hadron observables. This paper reviews progress in the study of few-hadron reactions in which resonances and bound states appear using lattice QCD techniques. The leading approach is described that takes advantage of the periodic finite spatial volume used in lattice QCD calculations to extract scattering amplitudes from the discrete spectrum of QCD eigenstates in a box. An explanation is given of how from explicit lattice QCD calculations one can rigorously garner information about a variety of resonance properties, including their masses, widths, decay couplings, and form factors. Finally, the challenges which currently limit the field are discussed along with the steps being taken to resolve them.« less