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Sample records for zero-order drug delivery

  1. Zero-order drug delivery system: theory and preliminary testing.

    PubMed

    Brooke, D; Washkuhn, R J

    1977-02-01

    A new approach to zero-order drug delivery that includes geometric factors is described. An experimental device based on the theory was tested by following the release of stearic acid into ethanol. Three separate trials indicated that the solid was released via a zero-order process in a reproducible manner.

  2. A robust nanofluidic membrane with tunable zero-order release for implantable dose specific drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Fine, Daniel; Grattoni, Alessandro; Hosali, Sharath; Ziemys, Arturas; De Rosa, Enrica; Gill, Jaskaran; Medema, Ryan; Hudson, Lee; Kojic, Milos; Milosevic, Miljan; Brousseau Iii, Louis; Goodall, Randy; Ferrari, Mauro; Liu, Xuewu

    2010-11-21

    This manuscript demonstrates a mechanically robust implantable nanofluidic membrane capable of tunable long-term zero-order release of therapeutic agents in ranges relevant for clinical applications. The membrane, with nanochannels as small as 5 nm, allows for the independent control of both dosage and mechanical strength through the integration of high-density short nanochannels parallel to the membrane surface with perpendicular micro- and macrochannels for interfacing with the ambient solutions. These nanofluidic membranes are created using precision silicon fabrication techniques on silicon-on-insulator substrates enabling exquisite control over the monodispersed nanochannel dimensions and surface roughness. Zero-order release of analytes is achieved by exploiting molecule to surface interactions which dominate diffusive transport when fluids are confined to the nanoscale. In this study we investigate the nanofluidic membrane performance using custom diffusion and gas testing apparatuses to quantify molecular release rate and process uniformity as well as mechanical strength using a gas based burst test. The kinetics of the constrained zero-order release is probed with molecules presenting a range of sizes, charge states, and structural conformations. Finally, an optimal ratio of the molecular hydrodynamic diameter to the nanochannel dimension is determined to assure zero-order release for each tested molecule.

  3. Zero-order delivery of a highly soluble, low dose drug alfuzosin hydrochloride via gastro-retentive system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; Fassihi, Reza

    2008-02-04

    A composite gastro-retentive matrix for zero-order delivery of highly soluble drug alfuzosin hydrochloride (10mg) has been designed and characterized. Two systems containing polyethylene oxide (PEO), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and polyvinyl pyrrolidone were dry blended and compressed into triple layer and bi-layer composite matrices. Dissolution studies using the USP 27 paddle method at 100 and 50rpm in pH 2.0 and 6.8 were performed using UV spectroscopy at 244nm, with automatic sampling over a 24h period using a marketed product as a reference to calculate the "f(2)" factor. Textural characteristics of each layer, the composite matrix as a whole, and floatation potential were determined under conditions similar to dissolution. Percent matrix swelling and erosion along with digital images were also obtained. Both systems proved to be effective in providing prolonged floatation, zero-order release, and complete disentanglement and erosion based on the analysis of data with "f(2)" of 68 and 71 for PEO and HPMC based systems, respectively. The kinetics of drug release, swelling and erosion, and dynamics of textural changes during dissolution for the designed composite systems offer a novel approach for developing gastro-retentive drug delivery system that has potential to enhance bioavailability and site-specific delivery to the proximal small intestine.

  4. Sustained Zero-Order Release of Intact Ultra-Stable Drug-Loaded Liposomes from an Implantable Nanochannel Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Celia, Christian; Ferrati, Silvia; Bansal, Shyam; van de Ven, Anne L.; Ruozi, Barbara; Zabre, Erika; Hosali, Sharath; Paolino, Donatella; Sarpietro, Maria Grazia; Fine, Daniel; Fresta, Massimo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Metronomic chemotherapy supports the idea that long-term, sustained, constant administration of chemotherapeutics, currently not achievable, could be effective against numerous cancers. Particularly appealing are liposomal formulations, used to solubilize hydrophobic therapeutics and minimize side effects, while extending drug circulation time and enabling passive targeting. As liposome alone cannot survive in circulation beyond 48 hrs, sustaining their constant plasma level for many days is a challenge. To address this, we developed, as a proof of concept, an implantable nanochannel delivery system and ultra-stable PEGylated lapatinib loaded-liposomes, and we demonstrate the release of intact vesicles for over 18 days. Further, we investigate intravasation kinetics of subcutaneously delivered liposomes and verify their biological activity post nanochannel release on BT474 breast cancer cells. The key innovation of this work is the combination of two nanotechnologies to exploit the synergistic effect of liposomes, demonstrated as passive-targeting vectors and nanofluidics to maintain therapeutic constant plasma levels. In principle, this approach could maximize efficacy of metronomic treatments. PMID:23881575

  5. Drug Delivery and Transport into the Central Circulation: An Example of Zero-Order In vivo Absorption of Rotigotine from a Transdermal Patch Formulation.

    PubMed

    Cawello, Willi; Braun, Marina; Andreas, Jens-Otto

    2018-01-13

    Pharmacokinetic studies using deconvolution methods and non-compartmental analysis to model clinical absorption of drugs are not well represented in the literature. The purpose of this research was (1) to define the system of equations for description of rotigotine (a dopamine receptor agonist delivered via a transdermal patch) absorption based on a pharmacokinetic model and (2) to describe the kinetics of rotigotine disposition after single and multiple dosing. The kinetics of drug disposition was evaluated based on rotigotine plasma concentration data from three phase 1 trials. In two trials, rotigotine was administered via a single patch over 24 h in healthy subjects. In a third trial, rotigotine was administered once daily over 1 month in subjects with early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD). A pharmacokinetic model utilizing deconvolution methods was developed to describe the relationship between drug release from the patch and plasma concentrations. Plasma-concentration over time profiles were modeled based on a one-compartment model with a time lag, a zero-order input (describing a constant absorption via skin into central circulation) and first-order elimination. Corresponding mathematical models for single- and multiple-dose administration were developed. After single-dose administration of rotigotine patches (using 2, 4 or 8 mg/day) in healthy subjects, a constant in vivo absorption was present after a minor time lag (2-3 h). On days 27 and 30 of the multiple-dose study in patients with PD, absorption was constant during patch-on periods and resembled zero-order kinetics. Deconvolution based on rotigotine pharmacokinetic profiles after single- or multiple-dose administration of the once-daily patch demonstrated that in vivo absorption of rotigotine showed constant input through the skin into the central circulation (resembling zero-order kinetics). Continuous absorption through the skin is a basis for stable drug exposure.

  6. Hydrophilic absorbable copolyester exhibiting zero-order drug release.

    PubMed

    Andjelić, Sasa; Yuan, Jenny; Jamiolkowski, Dennis D; Diluccio, Robert; Bezwada, Rao; Zhang, Hua; Mijović, Jovan

    2006-04-01

    A novel absorbable hydrophilic copolyester developed in our laboratory, amorphous 40/60 poly(ethylene diglycolate-co-glycolide), exhibits outstanding physical properties. Films made from this material appear fully transparent, colorless, soft and slightly elastic, but relatively strong and durable materials so that they can be potentially used as stand-alone devices in various in-vivo medical applications. In this study, in-vitro drug release characteristics of this copolyester were examined. High Performance Liquid Chromatography was used to generate release profiles on selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, NSAIDs. In addition, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, as well as mid- and near infrared spectroscopy, were used to study specific polymer chain interactions in water and buffer solution as a function of aging time at 37 degrees C. This copolyester, compression molded into a film, exhibited nearly constant in-vitro release of various hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. The release profile showed minimal or, in most cases, no burst effect. The effect was observed with the three NSAIDs that were tested as model compounds; however, this system may prove generally useful for other drug entities. In-vitro hydrolysis conducted at 37 degrees C on this hydrophilic copolyester revealed an unusually long induction period (no hydrolysis for up to 6 days), followed by the relatively rapid hydrolysis. Data from dipole relaxation spectroscopy indicated that the water molecules do not structurally associate with the polymer chains in phosphate buffer during initial hydrolysis period. The results suggest unique dynamics of water diffusion through the polymer matrix that may play a critical role in achieving controlled release properties. Furthermore, we suspect that the molecular interactions associated with this new synthetic absorbable material may find a critical utility in important medical applications.

  7. Zero-order release of poorly water-soluble drug from polymeric films made via aqueous slurry casting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Alfano, Joy; Race, Doran; Davé, Rajesh N

    2018-05-30

    In spite of significant recent interest in polymeric films containing poorly water-soluble drugs, dissolution mechanism of thicker films has not been investigated. Consequently, release mechanisms of poorly water-soluble drugs from thicker hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films are investigated, including assessing thickness above which they exhibit zero-order drug release. Micronized, surface modified particles of griseofulvin, a model drug of BSC class II, were incorporated into aqueous slurry-cast films of different thicknesses (100, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 μm). Films 1000 μm and thicker were formed by either stacking two or more layers of ~500 μm, or forming a monolithic thick film. Compared to monolithic thick films, stacked films required simpler manufacturing process (easier casting, short drying time) and resulted in better critical quality attributes (appearance, uniformity of thickness and drug per unit area). Both the film forming approaches exhibited similar release profiles and followed the semi-empirical power law. As thickness increased from 100 μm to 2000 μm, the release mechanism changed from Fickian diffusion to zero-order release for films ≥1000 μm. The diffusional power law exponent, n, achieved value of 1, confirming zero-order release, whereas the percentage drug release varied linearly with sample surface area, and sample thickness due to fixed sample diameter. Thus, multi-layer hydrophilic polymer aqueous slurry-cast thick films containing poorly water-soluble drug particles provide a convenient dosage form capable of zero-order drug release with release time modulated through number of layers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. In Vitro and In Vivo Sustained Zero-Order Delivery of Rapamycin (Sirolimus) From a Biodegradable Intraocular Device.

    PubMed

    Lance, Kevin D; Good, Samuel D; Mendes, Thaís S; Ishikiriyama, Mynna; Chew, Patrick; Estes, Laurel S; Yamada, Kazuhito; Mudumba, Sri; Bhisitkul, Robert B; Desai, Tejal A

    2015-11-01

    We created implantable intraocular devices capable of constant and continuous rapamycin release on the scale of months to years. Polycaprolactone (PCL) thin films were used to encapsulate rapamycin to create implantable and biodegradable intraocular devices. Different film devices were studied by modifying the size, thickness, and porosity of the PCL films. In vitro release of rapamycin was observed to be constant (zero-order) through 14 weeks of study. Release rates were tunable by altering PCL film porosity and thickness. In vivo release of rapamycin was observed out through 16 weeks with concentrations in the retina-choroid in the therapeutic range. Rapamycin concentration in the blood was below the lower limit of quantification. The drug remaining in the device was chemically stable in vitro and in vivo, and was sufficient to last for upwards of 2 years of total release. The mechanism of release is related to the dissolution kinetics of crystalline rapamycin. Microporous PCL thin film devices demonstrate good ocular compatibility and the ability to release rapamycin locally to the eye over the course of many weeks.

  9. In Vitro and In Vivo Sustained Zero-Order Delivery of Rapamycin (Sirolimus) From a Biodegradable Intraocular Device

    PubMed Central

    Lance, Kevin D.; Good, Samuel D.; Mendes, Thaís S.; Ishikiriyama, Mynna; Chew, Patrick; Estes, Laurel S.; Yamada, Kazuhito; Mudumba, Sri; Bhisitkul, Robert B.; Desai, Tejal A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We created implantable intraocular devices capable of constant and continuous rapamycin release on the scale of months to years. Methods Polycaprolactone (PCL) thin films were used to encapsulate rapamycin to create implantable and biodegradable intraocular devices. Different film devices were studied by modifying the size, thickness, and porosity of the PCL films. Results In vitro release of rapamycin was observed to be constant (zero-order) through 14 weeks of study. Release rates were tunable by altering PCL film porosity and thickness. In vivo release of rapamycin was observed out through 16 weeks with concentrations in the retina–choroid in the therapeutic range. Rapamycin concentration in the blood was below the lower limit of quantification. The drug remaining in the device was chemically stable in vitro and in vivo, and was sufficient to last for upwards of 2 years of total release. The mechanism of release is related to the dissolution kinetics of crystalline rapamycin. Conclusions Microporous PCL thin film devices demonstrate good ocular compatibility and the ability to release rapamycin locally to the eye over the course of many weeks. PMID:26559479

  10. Development and Characterization of a Scalable Microperforated Device Capable of Long-Term Zero Order Drug Release

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-29

    posterior segment of the eye and include posterior uveitis , age-related macular degeneration, and macular edema (Hsu 2007). Long term drug therapy may be...device for local and controlled delivery of drugs; as a protective carrier to transport labile drugs; and as an implant for treatment of various chronic

  11. Drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Le Souëf, Peter N

    2002-09-16

    What we know: In preschool children, small-volume spacers perform better than large-volume spacers. Detergent is the best antistatic agent for spacers, increasing lung delivery two- to threefold, but it must not be rinsed off. A mouthpiece should be used in children aged 2-3 years or older, as lung delivery is two- to threefold higher for oral inhalation than nasal inhalation (ie, by mask). Inhaled drug doses do not generally need to be reduced in infants and young children owing to inefficiencies of delivery in younger patients. Nebulisers are "dinosaurs" and not needed for most children with asthma. What we need to know: What is the best inhalation technique for spacers? How long should children breathe, how many breaths should they take, and at what age should they breath-hold? How should children, parents and doctors be instructed to achieve optimal levels of electrostatic charge reduction for spacers? How much should inhaled steroid dose be reduced when a spacer is used optimally? What dosing instructions should be given for beta(2)-agonists delivered by spacer?

  12. Transdermal drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Prausnitz, Mark R.; Langer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. First-generation transdermal delivery systems have continued their steady increase in clinical use for delivery of small, lipophilic, low-dose drugs. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, non-cavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted in clinical products; the ability of iontophoresis to control delivery rates in real time provides added functionality. Third-generation delivery systems target their effects to skin’s barrier layer of stratum corneum using microneedles, thermal ablation, microdermabrasion, electroporation and cavitational ultrasound. Microneedles and thermal ablation are currently progressing through clinical trials for delivery of macromolecules and vaccines, such as insulin, parathyroid hormone and influenza vaccine. Using these novel second- and third-generation enhancement strategies, transdermal delivery is poised to significantly increase impact on medicine. PMID:18997767

  13. Buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Smart, John D

    2005-05-01

    Buccal formulations have been developed to allow prolonged localised therapy and enhanced systemic delivery. The buccal mucosa, however, while avoiding first-pass effects, is a formidable barrier to drug absorption, especially for biopharmaceutical products (proteins and oligonucleotides) arising from the recent advances in genomics and proteomics. The buccal route is typically used for extended drug delivery, so formulations that can be attached to the buccal mucosa are favoured. The bioadhesive polymers used in buccal drug delivery to retain a formulation are typically hydrophilic macro-molecules containing numerous hydrogen bonding groups. Newer second-generation bioadhesives have been developed and these include modified or new polymers that allow enhanced adhesion and/or drug delivery, in addition to site-specific ligands such as lectins. Over the last 20 years a wide range of formulations has been developed for buccal drug delivery (tablet, patch, liquids and semisolids) but comparatively few have found their way onto the market. Currently, this route is restricted to the delivery of a limited number of small lipophilic molecules that readily cross the buccal mucosa. However, this route could become a significant means for the delivery of a range of active agents in the coming years, if the barriers to buccal drug delivery are overcome. In particular, patient acceptability and the successful systemic delivery of large molecules (proteins, oligonucleotides and polysaccharides) via this route remains both a significant opportunity and challenge, and new/improved technologies may be required to address these.

  14. Oral Drug Delivery Systems Comprising Altered Geometric Configurations for Controlled Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Moodley, Kovanya; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E.; du Toit, Lisa C.; Ndesendo, Valence M. K.; Kumar, Pradeep; Cooppan, Shivaan; Bawa, Priya

    2012-01-01

    Recent pharmaceutical research has focused on controlled drug delivery having an advantage over conventional methods. Adequate controlled plasma drug levels, reduced side effects as well as improved patient compliance are some of the benefits that these systems may offer. Controlled delivery systems that can provide zero-order drug delivery have the potential for maximizing efficacy while minimizing dose frequency and toxicity. Thus, zero-order drug release is ideal in a large area of drug delivery which has therefore led to the development of various technologies with such drug release patterns. Systems such as multilayered tablets and other geometrically altered devices have been created to perform this function. One of the principles of multilayered tablets involves creating a constant surface area for release. Polymeric materials play an important role in the functioning of these systems. Technologies developed to date include among others: Geomatrix® multilayered tablets, which utilizes specific polymers that may act as barriers to control drug release; Procise®, which has a core with an aperture that can be modified to achieve various types of drug release; core-in-cup tablets, where the core matrix is coated on one surface while the circumference forms a cup around it; donut-shaped devices, which possess a centrally-placed aperture hole and Dome Matrix® as well as “release modules assemblage”, which can offer alternating drug release patterns. This review discusses the novel altered geometric system technologies that have been developed to provide controlled drug release, also focusing on polymers that have been employed in such developments. PMID:22312236

  15. Intracochlear Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Borenstein, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Advances in molecular biology and in the basic understanding of the mechanisms associated with sensorineural hearing loss and other diseases of the inner ear, are paving the way towards new approaches for treatments for millions of patients. However, the cochlea is a particularly challenging target for drug therapy, and new technologies will be required to provide safe and efficacious delivery of these compounds. Emerging delivery systems based on microfluidic technologies are showing promise as a means for direct intracochlear delivery. Ultimately, these systems may serve as a means for extended delivery of regenerative compounds to restore hearing in patients suffering from a host of auditory diseases. Areas covered in this review Recent progress in the development of drug delivery systems capable of direct intracochlear delivery is reviewed, including passive systems such as osmotic pumps, active microfluidic devices, and systems combined with currently available devices such as cochlear implants. The aim of this article is to provide a concise review of intracochlear drug delivery systems currently under development, and ultimately capable of being combined with emerging therapeutic compounds for the treatment of inner ear diseases. Expert Opinion Safe and efficacious treatment of auditory diseases will require the development of microscale delivery devices, capable of extended operation and direct application to the inner ear. These advances will require miniaturization and integration of multiple functions, including drug storage, delivery, power management and sensing, ultimately enabling closed-loop control and timed-sequence delivery devices for treatment of these diseases. PMID:21615213

  16. Microfabrication for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Brendan; Rubino, Ilaria; Quan, Fu-Shi; Yoo, Bongyoung; Choi, Hyo-Jick

    2016-01-01

    This review is devoted to discussing the application of microfabrication technologies to target challenges encountered in life processes by the development of drug delivery systems. Recently, microfabrication has been largely applied to solve health and pharmaceutical science issues. In particular, fabrication methods along with compatible materials have been successfully designed to produce multifunctional, highly effective drug delivery systems. Microfabrication offers unique tools that can tackle problems in this field, such as ease of mass production with high quality control and low cost, complexity of architecture design and a broad range of materials. Presented is an overview of silicon- and polymer-based fabrication methods that are key in the production of microfabricated drug delivery systems. Moreover, the efforts focused on studying the biocompatibility of materials used in microfabrication are analyzed. Finally, this review discusses representative ways microfabrication has been employed to develop systems delivering drugs through the transdermal and oral route, and to improve drug eluting implants. Additionally, microfabricated vaccine delivery systems are presented due to the great impact they can have in obtaining a cold chain-free vaccine, with long-term stability. Microfabrication will continue to offer new, alternative solutions for the development of smart, advanced drug delivery systems. PMID:28773770

  17. Reservoir-Based Drug Delivery Systems Utilizing Microtechnology

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Cynthia L.; Santini, John T.; Langer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This review covers reservoir-based drug delivery systems that incorporate microtechnology, with an emphasis on oral, dermal, and implantable systems. Key features of each technology are highlighted such as working principles, fabrication methods, dimensional constraints, and performance criteria. Reservoir-based systems include a subset of microfabricated drug delivery systems and provide unique advantages. Reservoirs, whether external to the body or implanted, provide a well-controlled environment for a drug formulation, allowing increased drug stability and prolonged delivery times. Reservoir systems have the flexibility to accommodate various delivery schemes, including zero order, pulsatile, and on demand dosing, as opposed to a standard sustained release profile. Furthermore, the development of reservoir-based systems for targeted delivery for difficult to treat applications (e.g., ocular) has resulted in potential platforms for patient therapy. PMID:22465783

  18. Controlled drug delivery systems: past forward and future back.

    PubMed

    Park, Kinam

    2014-09-28

    Controlled drug delivery technology has progressed over the last six decades. This progression began in 1952 with the introduction of the first sustained release formulation. The 1st generation of drug delivery (1950-1980) focused on developing oral and transdermal sustained release systems and establishing controlled drug release mechanisms. The 2nd generation (1980-2010) was dedicated to the development of zero-order release systems, self-regulated drug delivery systems, long-term depot formulations, and nanotechnology-based delivery systems. The latter part of the 2nd generation was largely focused on studying nanoparticle formulations. The Journal of Controlled Release (JCR) has played a pivotal role in the 2nd generation of drug delivery technologies, and it will continue playing a leading role in the next generation. The best path towards a productive 3rd generation of drug delivery technology requires an honest, open dialog without any preconceived ideas of the past. The drug delivery field needs to take a bold approach to designing future drug delivery formulations primarily based on today's necessities, to produce the necessary innovations. The JCR provides a forum for sharing the new ideas that will shape the 3rd generation of drug delivery technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Rahamatullah; Raj Singh, Thakur Raghu; Garland, Martin James; Woolfson, A David; Donnelly, Ryan F.

    2011-01-01

    Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Over the past few decades, mucosal drug delivery has received a great deal of attention. Mucoadhesive dosage forms may be designed to enable prolonged retention at the site of application, providing a controlled rate of drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Application of dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various aspects of mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive materials, factors affecting mucoadhesion, evaluating methods, and finally various mucoadhesive drug delivery systems (buccal, nasal, ocular, gastro, vaginal, and rectal). PMID:21430958

  20. Dendrimers for Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Abhay Singh

    2018-04-18

    Dendrimers have come a long way in the last 25 years since their inception. Originally created as a wonder molecule of chemistry, dendrimer is now in the fourth class of polymers. Dr. Donald Tomalia first published his seminal work on Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers in 1985. Application of dendrimers as a drug delivery system started in late 1990s. Dendrimers for drug delivery are employed using two approaches: (i) formulation and (ii) nanoconstruct. In the formulation approach, drugs are physically entrapped in a dendrimer using non-covalent interactions, whereas drugs are covalently coupled on dendrimers in the nanoconstruct approach. We have demonstrated the utility of PAMAM dendrimers for enhancing solubility, stability and oral bioavailability of various drugs. Drug entrapment and drug release from dendrimers can be controlled by modifying dendrimer surfaces and generations. PAMAM dendrimers are also shown to increase transdermal permeation and specific drug targeting. Dendrimer platforms can be engineered to attach targeting ligands and imaging molecules to create a nanodevice. Dendrimer nanotechnology, due to its multifunctional ability, has the potential to create next generation nanodevices.

  1. Photomechanical drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doukas, Apostolos G.; Lee, Shun

    2000-05-01

    Photomechanical waves (PW) are generated by Q-switched or mode-locked lasers. Ablation is a reliable method for generating PWs with consistent characteristics. Depending on the laser wavelength and target material, PWs with different parameters can be generated which allows the investigation of PWs with cells and tissue. PWs have been shown to permeabilize the stratum corneum (SC) in vivo and facilitate the transport of drugs into the skin. Once a drug has diffused into the dermis it can enter the vasculature, thus producing a systemic effect. Fluorescence microscopy of biopsies show that 40-kDa molecules can be delivered to a depth of > 300 micrometers into the viable skin of rats. Many important drugs such as insulin, and erythropoietin are smaller or comparable in size, making the PWs attractive for transdermal drug delivery. There are three possible pathways through the SC: Transappendageal via hair follicles or other appendages, transcellular through the corneocytes, and intercellular via the extracellular matrix. The intracellular route appears to be the most likely pathway of drug delivery through the SC.

  2. Silk-Based Biomaterials for Sustained Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yucel, Tuna; Lovett, Michael L.; Kaplan, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Silk presents a rare combination of desirable properties for sustained drug delivery, including aqueous-based purification and processing options without chemical cross-linkers, compatibility with common sterilization methods, controllable and surface-mediated biodegradation into non-inflammatory by-products, biocompatibility, utility in drug stabilization, and robust mechanical properties. A versatile silk-based toolkit is currently available for sustained drug delivery formulations of small molecule through macromolecular drugs, with a promise to mitigate several drawbacks associated with other degradable sustained delivery technologies in the market. Silk-based formulations utilize silk’s well-defined nano- through microscale structural hierarchy, stimuli-responsive self-assembly pathways and crystal polymorphism, as well as sequence and genetic modification options towards targeted pharmaceutical outcomes. Furthermore, by manipulating the interactions between silk and drug molecules, near-zero order sustained release may be achieved through diffusion- and degradation-based release mechanisms. Because of these desirable properties, there has been increasing industrial interest in silk-based drug delivery systems currently at various stages of the developmental pipeline from pre-clinical to FDA-approved products. Here, we discuss the unique aspects of silk technology as a sustained drug delivery platform and highlight the current state of the art in silk-based drug delivery. We also offer a potential early development pathway for silk-based sustained delivery products. PMID:24910193

  3. Nanomaterials for Drugs Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Márquez, Francisco; Morant, Carmen

    Nanotechnology has revolutionized engineering, biology, chemistry, physics and medicine of today. These disciplines are evolving thanks to the ongoing development of new materials and applications. Nanomedicine, as application of nanotechnology in the field of health care, has undergone unprecedented development. Some of these changes have real applications as, for example, the use of nanoparticles in MRI imaging, in hyperthermia, in immunotherapy, or to improve the bioavailability of drugs, among others. Furthermore, when a drug is administered to a patient, the blood distributes it throughout the body. In the case of very localized diseases (i.e. tumors), only a small fraction ofmore » the drug reaches the target. Chemotherapy is one of the most aggressive treatment options used in some types of cancer, and is usually administered intravenously. The drug circulates throughout the body, reaching and destroying healthy and cancerous tissues, producing side effects throughout the body, sometimes with serious consequences for the health of the patient (nephrotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, peripheral neuropathy, anemia, etc.) in this type of therapy. Among the many applications of nanotechnology, the fabrication of nanostructures capable of safely transporting these drugs is seen as a strategy for reducing these side effects. Nanoparticles are able to carry and release the drug in the right place and with the required dose, greatly reducing the problems associated with direct treatment with these drugs. In recent years, there have been continuous improvements in the design and development of new tailor-made drug delivery systems, including hollow magnetic nanoparticles, liposomal structures, dendrimers, nanoporous silicon, etc. These structures can be obtained with different molecular weights (in the case of polymers), structures, shapes, and even with the appropriate functional groups for interaction at the desired positions. But, a great effort is still required to

  4. Nanomaterials for Drugs Delivery

    DOE PAGES

    Márquez, Francisco; Morant, Carmen

    2014-07-01

    Nanotechnology has revolutionized engineering, biology, chemistry, physics and medicine of today. These disciplines are evolving thanks to the ongoing development of new materials and applications. Nanomedicine, as application of nanotechnology in the field of health care, has undergone unprecedented development. Some of these changes have real applications as, for example, the use of nanoparticles in MRI imaging, in hyperthermia, in immunotherapy, or to improve the bioavailability of drugs, among others. Furthermore, when a drug is administered to a patient, the blood distributes it throughout the body. In the case of very localized diseases (i.e. tumors), only a small fraction ofmore » the drug reaches the target. Chemotherapy is one of the most aggressive treatment options used in some types of cancer, and is usually administered intravenously. The drug circulates throughout the body, reaching and destroying healthy and cancerous tissues, producing side effects throughout the body, sometimes with serious consequences for the health of the patient (nephrotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, peripheral neuropathy, anemia, etc.) in this type of therapy. Among the many applications of nanotechnology, the fabrication of nanostructures capable of safely transporting these drugs is seen as a strategy for reducing these side effects. Nanoparticles are able to carry and release the drug in the right place and with the required dose, greatly reducing the problems associated with direct treatment with these drugs. In recent years, there have been continuous improvements in the design and development of new tailor-made drug delivery systems, including hollow magnetic nanoparticles, liposomal structures, dendrimers, nanoporous silicon, etc. These structures can be obtained with different molecular weights (in the case of polymers), structures, shapes, and even with the appropriate functional groups for interaction at the desired positions. But, a great effort is still required to

  5. Polymers for Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liechty, William B.; Kryscio, David R.; Slaughter, Brandon V.; Peppas, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    Polymers have played an integral role in the advancement of drug delivery technology by providing controlled release of therapeutic agents in constant doses over long periods, cyclic dosage, and tunable release of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. From early beginnings using off-the-shelf materials, the field has grown tremendously, driven in part by the innovations of chemical engineers. Modern advances in drug delivery are now predicated upon the rational design of polymers tailored for specific cargo and engineered to exert distinct biological functions. In this review, we highlight the fundamental drug delivery systems and their mathematical foundations and discuss the physiological barriers to drug delivery. We review the origins and applications of stimuli-responsive polymer systems and polymer therapeutics such as polymer-protein and polymer-drug conjugates. The latest developments in polymers capable of molecular recognition or directing intracellular delivery are surveyed to illustrate areas of research advancing the frontiers of drug delivery. PMID:22432577

  6. Controlled Drug Delivery Using Microdevices

    PubMed Central

    Sanjay, Sharma T.; Dou, Maowei; Fu, Guanglei; Xu, Feng; Li, XiuJun

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic drugs administered systematically are evenly distributed to the whole body through blood circulation and have to cross many biological barriers before reaching the pathological site. Conventional drug delivery may make drugs inactive or reduce their potency as they may be hydrolyzed or degraded enzymatically and are rapidly excreted through the urinary system resulting in suboptimal concentration of drugs at the desired site. Controlled drug delivery aims to localize the pharmacological activity of the drug to the desired site at desired release rates. The advances made by micro/nanofluidic technologies have provided new opportunities for better-controlled drug delivery. Various components of a drug delivery system can be integrated within a single tiny micro/nanofluidic chip. This article reviews recent advances of controlled drug delivery made by microfluidic/nanofluidic technologies. We first discuss microreservoir-based drug delivery systems. Then we highlight different kinds of microneedles used for controlled drug delivery, followed with a brief discussion about the current limitations and the future prospects of controlled drug delivery systems. PMID:26813304

  7. Controlled Drug Delivery Using Microdevices.

    PubMed

    Sanjay, Sharma T; Dou, Maowei; Fu, Guanglei; Xu, Feng; Li, XiuJun

    Therapeutic drugs administered systematically are evenly distributed to the whole body through blood circulation and have to cross many biological barriers before reaching the pathological site. Conventional drug delivery may make drugs inactive or reduce their potency as they may be hydrolyzed or degraded enzymatically and are rapidly excreted through the urinary system resulting in suboptimal concentration of drugs at the desired site. Controlled drug delivery aims to localize the pharmacological activity of the drug to the desired site at desired release rates. The advances made by micro/nanofluidic technologies have provided new opportunities for better-controlled drug delivery. Various components of a drug delivery system can be integrated within a single tiny micro/nanofluidic chip. This article reviews recent advances of controlled drug delivery made by microfluidic/nanofluidic technologies. We first discuss microreservoir-based drug delivery systems. Then we highlight different kinds of microneedles used for controlled drug delivery, followed with a brief discussion about the current limitations and the future prospects of controlled drug delivery systems.

  8. Microprocessor controlled transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Subramony, J Anand; Sharma, Ashutosh; Phipps, J B

    2006-07-06

    Transdermal drug delivery via iontophoresis is reviewed with special focus on the delivery of lidocaine for local anesthesia and fentanyl for patient controlled acute therapy such as postoperative pain. The role of the microprocessor controller in achieving dosimetry, alternating/reverse polarity, pre-programmed, and sensor-based delivery is highlighted. Unique features such as the use of tactile signaling, telemetry control, and pulsatile waveforms in iontophoretic drug delivery are described briefly.

  9. MRI in ocular drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Li, S. Kevin; Lizak, Martin J.; Jeong, Eun-Kee

    2008-01-01

    Conventional pharmacokinetic methods for studying ocular drug delivery are invasive and cannot be conveniently applied to humans. The advancement of MRI technology has provided new opportunities in ocular drug-delivery research. MRI provides a means to non-invasively and continuously monitor ocular drug-delivery systems with a contrast agent or compound labeled with a contrast agent. It is a useful technique in pharmacokinetic studies, evaluation of drug-delivery methods, and drug-delivery device testing. Although the current status of the technology presents some major challenges to pharmaceutical research using MRI, it has a lot of potential. In the past decade, MRI has been used to examine ocular drug delivery via the subconjunctival route, intravitreal injection, intrascleral injection to the suprachoroidal space, episcleral and intravitreal implants, periocular injections, and ocular iontophoresis. In this review, the advantages and limitations of MRI in the study of ocular drug delivery are discussed. Different MR contrast agents and MRI techniques for ocular drug-delivery research are compared. Ocular drug-delivery studies using MRI are reviewed. PMID:18186077

  10. Cell-Mediated Drugs Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Batrakova, Elena V.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Drug targeting to sites of tissue injury, tumor or infection with limited toxicity is the goal for successful pharmaceutics. Immunocytes (including mononuclear phagocytes (dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages), neutrophils, and lymphocytes) are highly mobile; they can migrate across impermeable barriers and release their drug cargo at sites of infection or tissue injury. Thus immune cells can be exploited as trojan horses for drug delivery. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW This paper reviews how immunocytes laden with drugs can cross the blood brain or blood tumor barriers, to facilitate treatments for infectious diseases, injury, cancer, or inflammatory diseases. The promises and perils of cell-mediated drug delivery are reviewed, with examples of how immunocytes can be harnessed to improve therapeutic end points. EXPERT OPINION Using cells as delivery vehicles enables targeted drug transport, and prolonged circulation times, along with reductions in cell and tissue toxicities. Such systems for drug carriage and targeted release represent a novel disease combating strategy being applied to a spectrum of human disorders. The design of nanocarriers for cell-mediated drug delivery may differ from those used for conventional drug delivery systems; nevertheless, engaging different defense mechanisms into drug delivery may open new perspectives for the active delivery of drugs. PMID:21348773

  11. Nanostructure-mediated drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Gareth A

    2005-03-01

    Nanotechnology is expected to have an impact on all industries including semiconductors, manufacturing, and biotechnology. Tools that provide the capability to characterize and manipulate materials at the nanoscale level further elucidate nanoscale phenomena and equip researchers and developers with the ability to fabricate novel materials and structures. One of the most promising societal impacts of nanotechnology is in the area of nanomedicine. Personalized health care, rational drug design, and targeted drug delivery are some of the benefits of a nanomedicine-based approach to therapy. This review will focus on the development of nanoscale drug delivery mechanisms. Nanostructured drug carriers allow for the delivery of not only small-molecule drugs but also the delivery of nucleic acids and proteins. Delivery of these molecules to specific areas within the body can be achieved, which will reduce systemic side effects and allow for more efficient use of the drug.

  12. MEMS: Enabled Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Angelica; Sheybani, Roya; Meng, Ellis

    2015-05-01

    Drug delivery systems play a crucial role in the treatment and management of medical conditions. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies have allowed the development of advanced miniaturized devices for medical and biological applications. This Review presents the use of MEMS technologies to produce drug delivery devices detailing the delivery mechanisms, device formats employed, and various biomedical applications. The integration of dosing control systems, examples of commercially available microtechnology-enabled drug delivery devices, remaining challenges, and future outlook are also discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Biomaterials for drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Buckles, R G

    1983-01-01

    Drug delivery systems have unusual materials requirements which derive mainly from their therapeutic role: to administer drugs over prolonged periods of time at rates that are independent of patient-to-patient variables. The chemical nature of the surfaces of such devices may stimulate biorejection processes which can be enhanced or suppressed by the simultaneous presence of the drug that is being administered. Selection of materials for such systems is further complicated by the need for compatibility with the drug contained within the system. A review of selected drug delivery systems is presented. This leads to a definition of the technologies required to develop successfully such systems as well as to categorize the classes of drug delivery systems available to the therapist. A summary of the applications of drug delivery systems will also be presented. There are five major challenges to the biomaterials scientist: (1) how to minimize the influence on delivery rate of the transient biological response that accompanies implantation of any object; (2) how to select a composition, size, shape, and flexibility that optimizes biocompatibility; (3) how to make an intravascular delivery system that will retain long-term functionality; (4) how to make a percutaneous lead for those delivery systems that cannot be implanted but which must retain functionality for extended periods; and (5) how to make biosensors of adequate compatibility and stability to use with the ultimate drug delivery system-a system that operates with feedback control.

  14. Drug delivery across length scales.

    PubMed

    Delcassian, Derfogail; Patel, Asha K; Cortinas, Abel B; Langer, Robert

    2018-02-20

    Over the last century, there has been a dramatic change in the nature of therapeutic, biologically active molecules available to treat disease. Therapies have evolved from extracted natural products towards rationally designed biomolecules, including small molecules, engineered proteins and nucleic acids. The use of potent drugs which target specific organs, cells or biochemical pathways, necessitates new tools which can enable controlled delivery and dosing of these therapeutics to their biological targets. Here, we review the miniaturisation of drug delivery systems from the macro to nano-scale, focussing on controlled dosing and controlled targeting as two key parameters in drug delivery device design. We describe how the miniaturisation of these devices enables the move from repeated, systemic dosing, to on-demand, targeted delivery of therapeutic drugs and highlight areas of focus for the future.

  15. Ultrasound mediated transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Azagury, Aharon; Khoury, Luai; Enden, Giora; Kost, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Transdermal drug delivery offers an attractive alternative to the conventional drug delivery methods of oral administration and injections. However, the stratum corneum serves as a barrier that limits the penetration of substances to the skin. Application of ultrasound (US) irradiation to the skin increases its permeability (sonophoresis) and enables the delivery of various substances into and through the skin. This review presents the main findings in the field of sonophoresis in transdermal drug delivery as well as transdermal monitoring and the mathematical models associated with this field. Particular attention is paid to the proposed enhancement mechanisms and future trends in the fields of cutaneous vaccination and gene therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Advancements in ocular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Alan L; Gilger, Brian C

    2010-11-01

    This review covers both noninvasive and invasive ophthalmic drug delivery systems that can have application to therapy of veterinary ophthalmic diseases. Noninvasive approaches include gel technologies, permeation enhancement via pro-drug development, solubilization agents and nanoparticle technologies, iontophoresis, microneedles, drug-eluting contact lenses and eye misters, and microdroplets. More invasive systems include both eroding implants and noneroding technologies that encompass diffusion based systems, active pumps, intraocular lenses, suprachoroidal drug delivery, and episcleral reservoirs. In addition to addressing the physiologic challenges of achieving the necessary duration of delivery, tissue targeting and patient compliance, the commercial development factors of biocompatibility, sterilization, manufacturability and long-term stability will be discussed. © 2010 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  17. Abuse-resistant drug delivery.

    PubMed

    DuPont, Robert L; Bensinger, Peter B

    2006-08-01

    In attempting to reduce the nonmedical use of controlled substances, a reasonable step is to educate the physicians prescribing controlled substances, including the prescription stimulants used to treat ADHD, as well as patients and family members, about the risks of nonmedical use and the dangers of giving or selling these medicines to persons for whom they were not prescribed. Patients who find benefits in the use of such medicines have a significant interest in protecting their continued access to them. Such access is potentially threatened by concerns about widespread nonmedical use. Physicians can help protect the appropriate medical use of prescription stimulants by considering the abuse potential of various medicines used to treat patients with ADHD, especially when these patients also have a history of nonmedical substance use. In addition, we suggest that today there is an opportunity to add a new and perhaps more hopeful paradigm: the wider use of drug delivery systems that make products less attractive to drug abusers. This new drug abuse prevention paradigm holds great promise for efforts to reduce the nonmedical use of prescription controlled substances, including the prescription stimulants used to treat ADHD. To achieve the full potential of this new paradigm to reduce prescription drug abuse, it will be necessary to develop standards to assess the relative abuse resistance of various drug formulations and delivery systems, as well as meaningful incentives to foster the development of these abuse-resistant delivery systems for controlled substances.

  18. Nanostructures for protein drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Pachioni-Vasconcelos, Juliana de Almeida; Lopes, André Moreni; Apolinário, Alexsandra Conceição; Valenzuela-Oses, Johanna Karina; Costa, Juliana Souza Ribeiro; Nascimento, Laura de Oliveira; Pessoa, Adalberto; Barbosa, Leandro Ramos Souza; Rangel-Yagui, Carlota de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Use of nanoscale devices as carriers for drugs and imaging agents has been extensively investigated and successful examples can already be found in therapy. In parallel, recombinant DNA technology together with molecular biology has opened up numerous possibilities for the large-scale production of many proteins of pharmaceutical interest, reflecting in the exponentially growing number of drugs of biotechnological origin. When we consider protein drugs, however, there are specific criteria to take into account to select adequate nanostructured systems as drug carriers. In this review, we highlight the main features, advantages, drawbacks and recent developments of nanostructures for protein encapsulation, such as nanoemulsions, liposomes, polymersomes, single-protein nanocapsules and hydrogel nanoparticles. We also discuss the importance of nanoparticle stabilization, as well as future opportunities and challenges in nanostructures for protein drug delivery.

  19. Microfabricated injectable drug delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Wang, Amy W.

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated, fully integrated drug delivery system capable of secreting controlled dosages of multiple drugs over long periods of time (up to a year). The device includes a long and narrow shaped implant with a sharp leading edge for implantation under the skin of a human in a manner analogous to a sliver. The implant includes: 1) one or more micromachined, integrated, zero power, high and constant pressure generating osmotic engine; 2) low power addressable one-shot shape memory polymer (SMP) valves for switching on the osmotic engine, and for opening drug outlet ports; 3) microfabricated polymer pistons for isolating the pressure source from drug-filled microchannels; 4) multiple drug/multiple dosage capacity, and 5) anisotropically-etched, atomically-sharp silicon leading edge for penetrating the skin during implantation. The device includes an externally mounted controller for controlling on-board electronics which activates the SMP microvalves, etc. of the implant.

  20. Fundamentals of pulmonary drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Groneberg, D A; Witt, C; Wagner, U; Chung, K F; Fischer, A

    2003-04-01

    Aerosol administration of peptide-based drugs plays an important role in the treatment of pulmonary and systemic diseases and the unique cellular properties of airway epithelium offers a great potential to deliver new compounds. As the relative contributions from the large airways to the alveolar space are important to the local and systemic availability, the sites and mechanism of uptake and transport of different target compounds have to be characterized. Among the different respiratory cells, the ciliated epithelial cells of the larger and smaller airways and the type I and type II pneumocytes are the key players in pulmonary drug transport. With their diverse cellular characteristics, each of these cell types displays a unique uptake possibility. Next to the knowledge of these cellular aspects, the nature of aerosolized drugs, characteristics of delivery systems and the depositional and pulmonary clearance mechanisms display major targets to optimize pulmonary drug delivery. Based on the growing knowledge on pulmonary cell biology and pathophysiology due to modern methods of molecular biology, the future characterization of pulmonary drug transport pathways can lead to new strategies in aerosol drug therapy.

  1. Protease-mediated drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Eva F.; Goyan, Rebecca L.; Kennedy, James C.; Mackay, M.; Mendes, M. A. K.; Pottier, Roy H.

    2003-12-01

    Drugs used in disease treatment can cause damage to both malignant and normal tissue. This toxicity limits the maximum therapeutic dose. Drug targeting is of high interest to increase the therapeutic efficacy of the drug without increasing systemic toxicity. Certain tissue abnormalities, disease processes, cancers, and infections are characterized by high levels of activity of specific extracellular and/or intracellular proteases. Abnormally high activity levels of specific proteases are present at sites of physical or chemical trauma, blood clots, malignant tumors, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, gingival disease, glomerulonerphritis, and acute pancreatitis. Abnormal protease activity is suspected in development of liver thrombosis, pulmonary emphysema, atherosclerosis, and muscular dystrophy. Inactiviating disease-associated proteases by the administration of appropriate protease inhibitors has had limited success. Instead, one could use such proteases to target drugs to treat the condition. Protease mediated drug delivery offers such a possibility. Solubilizing groups are attached to insoluble drugs via a polypeptide chain which is specifically cleavable by certian proteases. When the solubilized drug enounters the protease, the solubilizing moieties are cleaved, and the drug precipitates at the disease location. Thus, a smaller systemic dosage could result in a therapeutic drug concentration at the treatment site with less systemic toxicity.

  2. Ultrasound mediated nanoparticle drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullin, Lee B.

    Ultrasound is not only a powerful diagnostic tool, but also a promising therapeutic technology that can be used to improve localized drug delivery. Microbubble contrast agents are micron sized encapsulated gas filled bubbles that are administered intravenously. Originally developed to enhance ultrasound images, microbubbles are highly echogenic due to the gas core that provides a detectable impedance difference from the surrounding medium. The core also allows for controlled response of the microbubbles to ultrasound pulses. Microbubbles can be pushed using acoustic radiation force and ruptured using high pressures. Destruction of microbubbles can increase permeability at the cellular and vascular level, which can be advantageous for drug delivery. Advances in drug delivery methods have been seen with the introduction of nanoparticles, nanometer sized objects often carrying a drug payload. In chemotherapy, nanoparticles can deliver drugs to tumors while limiting systemic exposure due to abnormalities in tumor vasculature such large gaps between endothelial cells that allow nanoparticles to enter into the interstitial space; this is referred to as the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. However, this effect may be overestimated in many tumors. Additionally, only a small percentage of the injected dose accumulates in the tumor, which most the nanoparticles accumulating in the liver and spleen. It is hypothesized that combining the acoustic activity of an ultrasound contrast agent with the high payload and extravasation ability of a nanoparticle, localized delivery to the tumor with reduced systemic toxicity can be achieved. This method can be accomplished by either loading nanoparticles onto the shell of the microbubble or through a coadministration method of both nanoparticles and microbubbles. The work presented in this dissertation utilizes novel and commercial nanoparticle formulations, combined with microbubbles and a variety of ultrasound systems

  3. Peptide and protein delivery using new drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ashish; Jain, Aviral; Gulbake, Arvind; Shilpi, Satish; Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Sanjay K

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and biotechnological research sorts protein drug delivery systems by importance based on their various therapeutic applications. The effective and potent action of the proteins/peptides makes them the drugs of choice for the treatment of numerous diseases. Major research issues in protein delivery include the stabilization of proteins in delivery devices and the design of appropriate target-specific protein carriers. Many efforts have been made for effective delivery of proteins/peptidal drugs through various routes of administrations for successful therapeutic effects. Nanoparticles made of biodegradable polymers such as poly lactic acid, polycaprolactone, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), the poly(fumaric-co-sebacic) anhydride chitosan, and modified chitosan, as well as solid lipids, have shown great potential in the delivery of proteins/peptidal drugs. Moreover, scientists also have used liposomes, PEGylated liposomes, niosomes, and aquasomes, among others, for peptidal drug delivery. They also have developed hydrogels and transdermal drug delivery systems for peptidal drug delivery. A receptor-mediated delivery system is another attractive strategy to overcome the limitation in drug absorption that enables the transcytosis of the protein across the epithelial barrier. Modification such as PEGnology is applied to various proteins and peptides of the desired protein and peptides also increases the circulating life, solubility and stability, pharmacokinetic properties, and antigenicity of protein. This review focuses on various approaches for effective protein/peptidal drug delivery, with special emphasis on insulin delivery.

  4. Superhydrophobic materials for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohe, Stefan Thomas

    Superhydrophobicity is a property of material surfaces reflecting the ability to maintain air at the solid-liquid interface when in contact with water. These surfaces have characteristically high apparent contact angles, by definition exceeding 150°, as a result of the composite material-air surface formed under an applied water droplet. Superhydrophobic surfaces were first discovered on naturally occurring substrates, and have subsequently been fabricated in the last several decades to harness these favorable surface properties for a number of emerging applications, including their use in biomedical settings. This work describes fabrication and characterization of superhydrophobic 3D materials, as well as their use as drug delivery devices. Superhydrophobic 3D materials are distinct from 2D superhydrophobic surfaces in that air is maintained not just at the surface of the material, but also within the bulk. When the superhydrophobic 3D materials are submerged in water, water infiltrates slowly and continuously as a new water-air-material interface is formed with controlled displacement of air. Electrospinning and electrospraying are used to fabricate superhydrophobic 3D materials utilizing blends of the biocompatible polymers poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and poly(caprolactone-co-glycerol monostearate) (PGC-C18). PGC-C18 is significantly more hydrophobic than PCL (contact angle of 116° versus 83° for flat materials), and further additions of PGC-C18 into electrospun meshes and electrosprayed coatings affords increased stability of the entrapped air layer. For example, PCL meshes alone (500 mum thick) take 10 days to fully wet, and with 10% or 30% PGC-C18 addition wetting rates are dramatically slowed to 60% wetted by 77 days and 4% by 75 days, respectively. Stability of the superhydrophobic materials can be further probed with a variety of physio-chemical techniques, including pressure, surfactant containing solutions, and solvents of varying surface tension

  5. Ionic liquids in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Shamshina, Julia L; Barber, Patrick S; Rogers, Robin D

    2013-10-01

    To overcome potential problems with solid-state APIs, such as polymorphism, solubility and bioavailability, pure liquid salt (ionic liquid) forms of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API-ILs) are considered here as a design strategy. After a critical review of the current literature, the recent development of the API-ILs strategy is presented, with a particular focus on the liquefaction of drugs. A variety of IL tools for control over the liquid salt state of matter are discussed including choice of counterion to produce an IL from a given API; the concept of oligomeric ions that enables liquefaction of solid ILs by changing the stoichiometry or complexity of the ions; formation of 'liquid co-crystals' where hydrogen bonding is the driving force in the liquefaction of a neutral acid-base complex; combining an IL strategy with the prodrug strategy to improve the delivery of solid APIs; using ILs as delivery agents via trapping a drug in a micelle and finally ILs designed with tunable hydrophilic-lipophilic balance that matches the structural requirements needed to solubilize poorly water-soluble APIs. The authors believe that API-IL approaches may save failed lead candidates, extend the patent life of current APIs, lead to new delivery options or even new pharmaceutical action. They encourage the pharmaceutical industry to invest more research into the API-IL platform as it could lead to fast-tracked approval based on similarities to the APIs already approved.

  6. Ultrasound-guided drug delivery in cancer

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Recent advancements in ultrasound and microbubble (USMB) mediated drug delivery technology has shown that this approach can improve spatially confined delivery of drugs and genes to target tissues while reducing systemic dose and toxicity. The mechanism behind enhanced delivery of therapeutics is sonoporation, the formation of openings in the vasculature, induced by ultrasound-triggered oscillations and destruction of microbubbles. In this review, progress and challenges of USMB mediated drug delivery are summarized, with special focus on cancer therapy. PMID:28607323

  7. Microspheres and Nanotechnology for Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Jóhannesson, Gauti; Stefánsson, Einar; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2016-01-01

    Ocular drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye can be accomplished by invasive drug injections into different tissues of the eye and noninvasive topical treatment. Invasive treatment involves the risks of surgical trauma and infection, and conventional topical treatments are ineffective in delivering drugs to the posterior segment of the eye. In recent years, nanotechnology has become an ever-increasing part of ocular drug delivery. In the following, we briefly review microspheres and nanotechnology for drug delivery to the eye, including different forms of nanotechnology such as nanoparticles, microparticles, liposomes, microemulsions and micromachines. The permeation barriers and anatomical considerations linked to ocular drug delivery are discussed and a theoretical overview on drug delivery through biological membranes is given. Finally, in vitro, in vivo and human studies of x03B3;-cyclodextrin nanoparticle eyedrop suspensions are discussed as an example of nanotechnology used for drug delivery to the eye. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Ocular drug delivery systems: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ashaben; Cholkar, Kishore; Agrahari, Vibhuti; Mitra, Ashim K

    2014-01-01

    The major challenge faced by today’s pharmacologist and formulation scientist is ocular drug delivery. Topical eye drop is the most convenient and patient compliant route of drug administration, especially for the treatment of anterior segment diseases. Delivery of drugs to the targeted ocular tissues is restricted by various precorneal, dynamic and static ocular barriers. Also, therapeutic drug levels are not maintained for longer duration in target tissues. In the past two decades, ocular drug delivery research acceleratedly advanced towards developing a novel, safe and patient compliant formulation and drug delivery devices/techniques, which may surpass these barriers and maintain drug levels in tissues. Anterior segment drug delivery advances are witnessed by modulation of conventional topical solutions with permeation and viscosity enhancers. Also, it includes development of conventional topical formulations such as suspensions, emulsions and ointments. Various nanoformulations have also been introduced for anterior segment ocular drug delivery. On the other hand, for posterior ocular delivery, research has been immensely focused towards development of drug releasing devices and nanoformulations for treating chronic vitreoretinal diseases. These novel devices and/or formulations may help to surpass ocular barriers and associated side effects with conventional topical drops. Also, these novel devices and/or formulations are easy to formulate, no/negligibly irritating, possess high precorneal residence time, sustain the drug release, and enhance ocular bioavailability of therapeutics. An update of current research advancement in ocular drug delivery necessitates and helps drug delivery scientists to modulate their think process and develop novel and safe drug delivery strategies. Current review intends to summarize the existing conventional formulations for ocular delivery and their advancements followed by current nanotechnology based formulation developments

  9. Ocular drug delivery systems: An overview.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashaben; Cholkar, Kishore; Agrahari, Vibhuti; Mitra, Ashim K

    The major challenge faced by today's pharmacologist and formulation scientist is ocular drug delivery. Topical eye drop is the most convenient and patient compliant route of drug administration, especially for the treatment of anterior segment diseases. Delivery of drugs to the targeted ocular tissues is restricted by various precorneal, dynamic and static ocular barriers. Also, therapeutic drug levels are not maintained for longer duration in target tissues. In the past two decades, ocular drug delivery research acceleratedly advanced towards developing a novel, safe and patient compliant formulation and drug delivery devices/techniques, which may surpass these barriers and maintain drug levels in tissues. Anterior segment drug delivery advances are witnessed by modulation of conventional topical solutions with permeation and viscosity enhancers. Also, it includes development of conventional topical formulations such as suspensions, emulsions and ointments. Various nanoformulations have also been introduced for anterior segment ocular drug delivery. On the other hand, for posterior ocular delivery, research has been immensely focused towards development of drug releasing devices and nanoformulations for treating chronic vitreoretinal diseases. These novel devices and/or formulations may help to surpass ocular barriers and associated side effects with conventional topical drops. Also, these novel devices and/or formulations are easy to formulate, no/negligibly irritating, possess high precorneal residence time, sustain the drug release, and enhance ocular bioavailability of therapeutics. An update of current research advancement in ocular drug delivery necessitates and helps drug delivery scientists to modulate their think process and develop novel and safe drug delivery strategies. Current review intends to summarize the existing conventional formulations for ocular delivery and their advancements followed by current nanotechnology based formulation developments

  10. PLGA: a unique polymer for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Deepak N; Bhatia, Amit; Kaur, Ripandeep; Sharma, Ruchi; Kaur, Gurvinder; Dhawan, Sanju

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable polymers have played an important role in the delivery of drugs in a controlled and targeted manner. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) is one of the extensively researched synthetic biodegradable polymers due to its favorable properties. It is also known as a 'Smart Polymer' due to its stimuli sensitive behavior. A wide range of PLGA-based drug delivery systems have been reported for the treatment or diagnosis of various diseases and disorders. The present review provides an overview of the chemistry, physicochemical properties, biodegradation behavior, evaluation parameters and applications of PLGA in drug delivery. Different drug-polymer combinations developed into drug delivery or carrier systems are enumerated and discussed.

  11. Drug Delivery in Cancer Therapy, Quo Vadis?

    PubMed

    Lu, Zheng-Rong; Qiao, Peter

    2018-03-22

    The treatment of malignancies has undergone dramatic changes in the past few decades. Advances in drug delivery techniques and nanotechnology have allowed for new formulations of old drugs, so as to improve the pharmacokinetics, to enhance accumulation in solid tumors, and to reduce the significant toxic effects of these important therapeutic agents. Here, we review the published clinical data in cancer therapy of several major drug delivery systems, including targeted radionuclide therapy, antibody-drug conjugates, liposomes, polymer-drug conjugates, polymer implants, micelles, and nanoparticles. The clinical outcomes of these delivery systems from various phases of clinical trials are summarized. The success and limitations of the drug delivery strategies are discussed based on the clinical observations. In addition, the challenges in applying drug delivery for efficacious cancer therapy, including physical barriers, tumor heterogeneity, drug resistance, and metastasis, are discussed along with future perspectives of drug delivery in cancer therapy. In doing so, we intend to underscore that efficient delivery of cancer therapeutics to solid malignancies remains a major challenge in cancer therapy, and requires a multidisciplinary approach that integrates knowledge from the diverse fields of chemistry, biology, engineering, and medicine. The overall objective of this review is to improve our understanding of the clinical fate of commonly investigated drug delivery strategies, and to identify the limitations that must be addressed in future drug delivery strategies, toward the pursuit of curative therapies for cancer.

  12. Calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying-Jie; Guo, Xiao-Xuan; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2017-02-01

    Compared with other inorganic materials such as silica, metal oxides, noble metals and carbon, calcium silicate-based materials, especially nanostructured calcium silicate materials, have high biocompatibility, bioactivity and biodegradability, high specific surface area, nanoporous/hollow structure, high drug-loading capacity, pH-responsive drug release behavior and desirable drug release properties, and thus they are promising for the application in drug delivery. Calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems have a long drug-release time, which can significantly prolong the therapeutic effect of drugs. Another advantage of calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems is their pH-responsive drug release property, which can act as an ideal platform for targeted drug delivery. Areas covered: In recent years, studies have been carried out on calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems, and important results and insights have been documented. This article is not intended to offer a comprehensive review on the research on calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems, but presents some examples reported in the literature, and includes new insights obtained by tracking the interactions between drug molecules and calcium silicate carriers on the molecular level using the synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopy. Expert opinion: Finally, our opinions on calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems are provided, and several research directions for the future studies are proposed.

  13. Physically facilitating drug-delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Devora, Jorge I; Ambure, Sunny; Shi, Zhi-Dong; Yuan, Yuyu; Sun, Wei; Xu, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Facilitated/modulated drug-delivery systems have emerged as a possible solution for delivery of drugs of interest to pre-allocated sites at predetermined doses for predefined periods of time. Over the past decade, the use of different physical methods and mechanisms to mediate drug release and delivery has grown significantly. This emerging area of research has important implications for development of new therapeutic drugs for efficient treatments. This review aims to introduce and describe different modalities of physically facilitating drug-delivery systems that are currently in use for cancer and other diseases therapy. In particular, delivery methods based on ultrasound, electrical, magnetic and photo modulations are highlighted. Current uses and areas of improvement for these different physically facilitating drug-delivery systems are discussed. Furthermore, the main advantages and drawbacks of these technologies reviewed are compared. The review ends with a speculative viewpoint of how research is expected to evolve in the upcoming years. PMID:22485192

  14. Recent advances in oral pulsatile drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kalantzi, Lida E; Karavas, Evangelos; Koutris, Efthimios X; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N

    2009-01-01

    Pulsatile drug delivery aims to release drugs on a programmed pattern i.e.: at appropriate time and/or at appropriate site of action. Currently, it is gaining increasing attention as it offers a more sophisticated approach to the traditional sustained drug delivery i.e: a constant amount of drug released per unit time or constant blood levels. Technically, pulsatile drug delivery systems administered via the oral route could be divided into two distinct types, the time controlled delivery systems and the site-specific delivery systems. The simplest pulsatile formulation is a two layer press coated tablet consisted of polymers with different dissolution rates. Homogenicity of the coated barrier is mandatory in order to assure the predictability of the lag time. The disadvantage of such formulation is that the rupture time cannot be always adequately manipulated as it is strongly correlated with the physicochemical properties of the polymer. Gastric retentive systems, systems where the drug is released following a programmed lag phase, chronopharmaceutical drug delivery systems matching human circadian rhythms, multiunit or multilayer systems with various combinations of immediate and sustained-release preparation, are all classified under pulsatile drug delivery systems. On the other hand, site-controlled release is usually controlled by factors such as the pH of the target site, the enzymes present in the intestinal tract and the transit time/pressure of various parts of the intestine. In this review, recent patents on pulsatile drug delivery of oral dosage forms are summarized and discussed.

  15. Solid lipid nanoparticles for ocular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Seyfoddin, Ali; Shaw, John; Al-Kassas, Raida

    2010-01-01

    Ocular drug delivery remains challenging because of the complex nature and structure of the eye. Conventional systems, such as eye drops and ointments, are inefficient, whereas systemic administration requires high doses resulting in significant toxicity. There is a need to develop novel drug delivery carriers capable of increasing ocular bioavailability and decreasing both local and systemic cytotoxicity. Nanotechnology is expected to revolutionize ocular drug delivery. Many nano-structured systems have been employed for ocular drug delivery and yielded some promising results. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have been looked at as a potential drug carrier system since the 1990s. SLNs do not show biotoxicity as they are prepared from physiological lipids. SLNs are especially useful in ocular drug delivery as they can enhance the corneal absorption of drugs and improve the ocular bioavailability of both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs. SLNs have another advantage of allowing autoclave sterilization, a necessary step towards formulation of ocular preparations. This review outlines in detail the various production, characterization, sterilization, and stabilization techniques for SLNs. In-vitro and in-vivo methods to study the drug release profile of SLNs have been explained. Special attention has been given to the nature of lipids and surfactants commonly used for SLN production. A summary of previous studies involving the use of SLNs in ocular drug delivery is provided, along with a critical evaluation of SLNs as a potential ocular delivery system.

  16. Permeation enhancer strategies in transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Marwah, Harneet; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Today, ∼74% of drugs are taken orally and are not found to be as effective as desired. To improve such characteristics, transdermal drug delivery was brought to existence. This delivery system is capable of transporting the drug or macromolecules painlessly through skin into the blood circulation at fixed rate. Topical administration of therapeutic agents offers many advantages over conventional oral and invasive techniques of drug delivery. Several important advantages of transdermal drug delivery are prevention from hepatic first pass metabolism, enhancement of therapeutic efficiency and maintenance of steady plasma level of the drug. Human skin surface, as a site of drug application for both local and systemic effects, is the most eligible candidate available. New controlled transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) technologies (electrically-based, structure-based and velocity-based) have been developed and commercialized for the transdermal delivery of troublesome drugs. This review article covers most of the new active transport technologies involved in enhancing the transdermal permeation via effective drug delivery system.

  17. Nanocarriers for cancer-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Preeti; Ghosh, Balaram; Biswas, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles as drug delivery system have received much attention in recent years, especially for cancer treatment. In addition to improving the pharmacokinetics of the loaded poorly soluble hydrophobic drugs by solubilizing them in the hydrophobic compartments, nanoparticles allowed cancer specific drug delivery by inherent passive targeting phenomena and adopted active targeting strategies. For this reason, nanoparticles-drug formulations are capable of enhancing the safety, pharmacokinetic profiles and bioavailability of the administered drugs leading to improved therapeutic efficacy compared to conventional therapy. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of various nanoparticle formulations in both research and clinical applications with a focus on various chemotherapeutic drug delivery systems for the treatment of cancer. The use of various nanoparticles, including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, magnetic and other inorganic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in cancer is detailed.

  18. Conductive polymer nanotube patch for fast and controlled in vivo transdermal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thao M.

    Transdermal drug delivery has created new applications for existing therapies and offered an alternative to the traditional oral route where drugs can prematurely metabolize in the liver causing adverse side effects. Opening the transdermal delivery route to large hydrophilic drugs is one of the greatest challenges due to the hydrophobicity of the skin. However, the ability to deliver hydrophilic drugs using a transdermal patch would provide a solution to problems of other delivery methods for hydrophilic drugs. The switching of conductive polymers (CP) between redox states cause simultaneous changes in the polymer charge, conductivity, and volume—properties that can all be exploited in the biomedical field of controlled drug delivery. Using the template synthesis method, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) nanotubes were synthesized electrochemically and a transdermal drug delivery patch was successfully designed and developed. In vitro and in vivo uptake and release of hydrophilic drugs were investigated. The relationship between the strength of the applied potential and rate of drug release were also investigated. Results revealed that the strength of the applied potential is proportional to the rate of drug release; therefore one can control the rate of drug release by controlling the applied potential. The in vitro studies focused on the kinetics of the drug delivery system. It was determined that the drug released mainly followed zero-order kinetics. In addition, it was determined that applying a releasing potential to the transdermal drug delivery system lead to a higher release rate constant (up to 7 times greater) over an extended period of time (˜24h). In addition, over 24 hours, an average of 80% more model drug molecules were released with an applied potential than without. The in vivo study showed that the drug delivery system was capable of delivering model hydrophilic drugs molecules through the dermis layer of the skin within 30 minutes

  19. Osmotically driven drug delivery through remote-controlled magnetic nanocomposite membranes.

    PubMed

    Zaher, A; Li, S; Wolf, K T; Pirmoradi, F N; Yassine, O; Lin, L; Khashab, N M; Kosel, J

    2015-09-01

    Implantable drug delivery systems can provide long-term reliability, controllability, and biocompatibility, and have been used in many applications, including cancer pain and non-malignant pain treatment. However, many of the available systems are limited to zero-order, inconsistent, or single burst event drug release. To address these limitations, we demonstrate prototypes of a remotely operated drug delivery device that offers controllability of drug release profiles, using osmotic pumping as a pressure source and magnetically triggered membranes as switchable on-demand valves. The membranes are made of either ethyl cellulose, or the proposed stronger cellulose acetate polymer, mixed with thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel and superparamagnetic iron oxide particles. The prototype devices' drug diffusion rates are on the order of 0.5-2 μg/h for higher release rate designs, and 12-40 ng/h for lower release rates, with maximum release ratios of 4.2 and 3.2, respectively. The devices exhibit increased drug delivery rates with higher osmotic pumping rates or with magnetically increased membrane porosity. Furthermore, by vapor deposition of a cyanoacrylate layer, a drastic reduction of the drug delivery rate from micrograms down to tens of nanograms per hour is achieved. By utilizing magnetic membranes as the valve-control mechanism, triggered remotely by means of induction heating, the demonstrated drug delivery devices benefit from having the power source external to the system, eliminating the need for a battery. These designs multiply the potential approaches towards increasing the on-demand controllability and customizability of drug delivery profiles in the expanding field of implantable drug delivery systems, with the future possibility of remotely controlling the pressure source.

  20. Osmotically driven drug delivery through remote-controlled magnetic nanocomposite membranes

    PubMed Central

    Zaher, A.; Li, S.; Wolf, K. T.; Pirmoradi, F. N.; Yassine, O.; Lin, L.; Khashab, N. M.; Kosel, J.

    2015-01-01

    Implantable drug delivery systems can provide long-term reliability, controllability, and biocompatibility, and have been used in many applications, including cancer pain and non-malignant pain treatment. However, many of the available systems are limited to zero-order, inconsistent, or single burst event drug release. To address these limitations, we demonstrate prototypes of a remotely operated drug delivery device that offers controllability of drug release profiles, using osmotic pumping as a pressure source and magnetically triggered membranes as switchable on-demand valves. The membranes are made of either ethyl cellulose, or the proposed stronger cellulose acetate polymer, mixed with thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel and superparamagnetic iron oxide particles. The prototype devices' drug diffusion rates are on the order of 0.5–2 μg/h for higher release rate designs, and 12–40 ng/h for lower release rates, with maximum release ratios of 4.2 and 3.2, respectively. The devices exhibit increased drug delivery rates with higher osmotic pumping rates or with magnetically increased membrane porosity. Furthermore, by vapor deposition of a cyanoacrylate layer, a drastic reduction of the drug delivery rate from micrograms down to tens of nanograms per hour is achieved. By utilizing magnetic membranes as the valve-control mechanism, triggered remotely by means of induction heating, the demonstrated drug delivery devices benefit from having the power source external to the system, eliminating the need for a battery. These designs multiply the potential approaches towards increasing the on-demand controllability and customizability of drug delivery profiles in the expanding field of implantable drug delivery systems, with the future possibility of remotely controlling the pressure source. PMID:26487899

  1. Colloidal microgels in drug delivery applications

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Serguei V.

    2005-01-01

    Colloidal microgels have recently received attention as environmentally responsive systems and now are increasingly used in applications as carriers for therapeutic drugs and diagnostic agents. Synthetic microgels consist of a crosslinked polymer network that provides a depot for loaded drugs, protection against environmental hazards and template for post-synthetic modification or vectorization of the drug carriers. The aim of this manuscript is to review recent attempts to develop new microgel formulations for oral drug delivery, to design metal-containing microgels for diagnostic and therapeutic applications, and to advance approaches including the systemic administration of microgels. Novel nanogel drug delivery systems developed in the authors’ laboratory are discussed in details including aspects of their synthesis, vectorization and recent applications for encapsulation of low molecular weight drugs or formulation of biological macromolecules. The findings reviewed here are encouraging for further development of the nanogels as intelligent drug carriers with such features as targeted delivery and triggered drug release. PMID:17168773

  2. THz computed tomography system with zero-order Bessel beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Liting; Wu, Qiao; Wang, Kejia; Liu, Jinsong; Yang, Zhengang

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) waves can penetrate many optically opaque dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics and colorants. It is effective to reveal the internal structures of these materials. We have built a THz Computed Tomography (CT) system with 0.3 THz zero-order Bessel beam to improve the depth of focus of this imaging system for the non-diffraction property of Bessel beam. The THz CT system has been used to detect a paper cup with a metal rod inside. Finally, the acquired projection data have been processed by the filtered back-projection algorithm and the reconstructed image of the sample has been obtained.

  3. Smart Polymers in Nasal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chonkar, Ankita; Nayak, Usha; Udupa, N.

    2015-01-01

    Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. Though nasal mucosa offers improved bioavailability and quick onset of action of the drug, main disadvantage associated with nasal drug delivery is mucocilliary clearance due to which drug particles get cleared from the nose before complete absorption through nasal mucosa. Therefore, mucoadhesive polymeric approach can be successfully used to enhance the retention of the drug on nasal mucosal surface. Here, some of the aspects of the stimuli responsive polymers have been discussed which possess liquid state at the room temperature and in response to nasal temperature, pH and ions present in mucous, can undergo in situ gelation in nasal cavity. In this review, several temperature responsive, pH responsive and ion responsive polymers used in nasal delivery, their gelling mechanisms have been discussed. Smart polymers not only able to enhance the retention of the drug in nasal cavity but also provide controlled release, ease of administration, enhanced permeation of the drug and protection of the drug from mucosal enzymes. Thus smart polymeric approach can be effectively used for nasal delivery of peptide drugs, central nervous system dugs and hormones. PMID:26664051

  4. Ultrasound-enhanced drug delivery for cancer.

    PubMed

    Mo, Steven; Coussios, Constantin-C; Seymour, Len; Carlisle, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Ultrasound, which has traditionally been used as a diagnostic tool, is increasingly being used in non-invasive therapy and drug delivery. Of particular interest to this review is the rapidly accumulating evidence that ultrasound may have a key role to play both in improving the targeting and the efficacy of drug delivery for cancer. Currently available ultrasound-triggerable vehicles are first described, with particular reference to the ultrasonic mechanism that can activate release and the suitability of the size range of the vehicle used for drug delivery. Further mechanical and thermal effects of ultrasound that can enhance extravasation and drug distribution following release are then critically reviewed. Acoustic cavitation is found to play a potentially key role both in achieving targeted drug release and enhanced extravasation at modest pressure amplitudes and acoustic energies, whilst simultaneously enabling real-time monitoring of the drug delivery process. The next challenge in ultrasound-enhanced drug delivery will thus be to develop a new generation of drug-carrying nanoparticles which are of the right size range for delivery to tumours, yet still capable of achieving initiation of cavitation activity and drug release at modest acoustic pressures and energies that have no safety implications for the patient.

  5. Inorganic Nanomaterials as Carriers for Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shizhu; Hao, Xiaohong; Liang, Xingjie; Zhang, Qun; Zhang, Cuimiao; Zhou, Guoqiang; Shen, Shigang; Jia, Guang; Zhang, Jinchao

    2016-01-01

    For safe and effective therapy, drugs must be delivered efficiently and with minimal systemic side effects. Nanostructured drug carriers enable the delivery of small-molecule drugs as well as nucleic acids and proteins. Inorganic nanomaterials are ideal for drug delivery platforms due to their unique physicochemical properties, such as facile preparation, good storage stability and biocompatibility. Many inorganic nanostructure-based drug delivery platforms have been prepared. Although there are still many obstacles to overcome, significant advances have been made in recent years. This review focuses on the status and development of inorganic nanostructures, including silica, quantum dots, gold, carbon-based and magnetic iron oxide-based nanostructures, as carriers for chemical and biological drugs. We specifically highlight the extensive use of these inorganic drug carriers for cancer therapy. Finally, we discuss the most important areas in the field that urgently require further study.

  6. Thiolated polymers as mucoadhesive drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Sarah; Cummins, Wayne; O' Donovan, Orla; Hughes, Helen; Owens, Eleanor

    2017-03-30

    Mucoadhesion is the process of binding a material to the mucosal layer of the body. Utilising both natural and synthetic polymers, mucoadhesive drug delivery is a method of controlled drug release which allows for intimate contact between the polymer and a target tissue. It has the potential to increase bioavailability, decrease potential side effects and offer protection to more sensitive drugs such as proteins and peptide based drugs. The thiolation of polymers has, in the last number of years, come to the fore of mucoadhesive drug delivery, markedly improving mucoadhesion due to the introduction of free thiol groups onto the polymer backbone while also offering a more cohesive polymeric matrix for the slower and more controlled release of drug. This review explores the concept of mucoadhesion and the recent advances in both the polymers and the methods of thiolation used in the synthesis of mucoadhesive drug delivery devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nanocomposite thin films for triggerable drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Vannozzi, Lorenzo; Iacovacci, Veronica; Menciassi, Arianna; Ricotti, Leonardo

    2018-05-01

    Traditional drug release systems normally rely on a passive delivery of therapeutic compounds, which can be partially programmed, prior to injection or implantation, through variations in the material composition. With this strategy, the drug release kinetics cannot be remotely modified and thus adapted to changing therapeutic needs. To overcome this issue, drug delivery systems able to respond to external stimuli are highly desirable, as they allow a high level of temporal and spatial control over drug release kinetics, in an operator-dependent fashion. Areas covered: On-demand drug delivery systems actually represent a frontier in this field and are attracting an increasing interest at both research and industrial level. Stimuli-responsive thin films, enabled by nanofillers, hold a tremendous potential in the field of triggerable drug delivery systems. The inclusion of responsive elements in homogeneous or heterogeneous thin film-shaped polymeric matrices strengthens and/or adds intriguing properties to conventional (bare) materials in film shape. Expert opinion: This Expert Opinion review aims to discuss the approaches currently pursued to achieve an effective on-demand drug delivery, through nanocomposite thin films. Different triggering mechanisms allowing a fine control on drug delivery are described, together with current challenges and possible future applications in therapy and surgery.

  8. Polycaprolactone thin films for retinal tissue engineering and drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steedman, Mark Rory

    This dissertation focuses on the development of polycaprolactone thin films for retinal tissue engineering and drug delivery. We combined these thin films with techniques such as micro and nanofabrication to develop treatments for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a disease that leads to the death of rod and cone photoreceptors. Current treatments are only able to slow or limit the progression of the disease, and photoreceptors cannot be regenerated or replaced by the body once lost. The first experiments presented focus on a potential treatment for AMD after photoreceptor death has occurred. We developed a polymer thin film scaffold technology to deliver retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) to the affected area of the eye. Earlier research showed that RPCs destined to become photoreceptors are capable of incorporating into a degenerated retina. In our experiments, we showed that RPC attachment to a micro-welled polycaprolactone (PCL) thin film surface enhanced the differentiation of these cells toward a photoreceptor fate. We then used our PCL thin films to develop a drug delivery device capable of sustained therapeutic release over a multi-month period that would maintain an effective concentration of the drug in the eye and eliminate the need for repeated intraocular injections. We first investigated the biocompatibility of PCL in the rabbit eye. We injected PCL thin films into the anterior chamber or vitreous cavity of rabbit eyes and monitored the animals for up to 6 months. We found that PCL thin films were well tolerated in the rabbit eye, showing no signs of chronic inflammation due to the implant. We then developed a multilayered thin film device containing a microporous membrane. We loaded these devices with lyophilized proteins and quantified drug elution for 10 weeks, finding that both bovine serum albumin and immunoglobulin G elute from these devices with zero order release kinetics. These experiments demonstrate that PCL is an extremely useful

  9. Polypeptides and polyaminoacids in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    González-Aramundiz, José Vicente; Lozano, María Victoria; Sousa-Herves, Ana; Fernandez-Megia, Eduardo; Csaba, Noemi

    2012-02-01

    Advances achieved over the last few years in drug delivery have provided novel and versatile possibilities for the treatment of various diseases. Among the biomaterials applied in this field, it is worth highlighting the increasing importance of polyaminoacids and polypeptides. The appealing properties of these polymers are very promising for the design of novel compositions in a variety of drug delivery applications. This review provides an overview on the general characteristics of polyaminoacids and polypeptides and briefly discusses different synthetic pathways for their production. This is followed by a detailed description of different drug delivery applications of these polymers, emphasizing those examples that already reached advanced preclinical development or have entered clinical trials. Polyaminoacids and polypeptides are gaining much attention in drug delivery due to their exceptional properties. Their application as polymers for drug delivery purposes has been sped up by the significant achievements related to their synthesis. Certainly, cancer therapy has benefited the most from these advances, although other fields such as vaccine delivery and alternative administration routes are also being successfully explored. The design of new entities based on polyaminoacids and polypeptides and the improved insight gained in drug delivery guarantee exciting findings in the near future.

  10. Protein-Based Drug-Delivery Materials

    PubMed Central

    Jao, Dave; Xue, Ye; Medina, Jethro; Hu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    There is a pressing need for long-term, controlled drug release for sustained treatment of chronic or persistent medical conditions and diseases. Guided drug delivery is difficult because therapeutic compounds need to survive numerous transport barriers and binding targets throughout the body. Nanoscale protein-based polymers are increasingly used for drug and vaccine delivery to cross these biological barriers and through blood circulation to their molecular site of action. Protein-based polymers compared to synthetic polymers have the advantages of good biocompatibility, biodegradability, environmental sustainability, cost effectiveness and availability. This review addresses the sources of protein-based polymers, compares the similarity and differences, and highlights characteristic properties and functionality of these protein materials for sustained and controlled drug release. Targeted drug delivery using highly functional multicomponent protein composites to guide active drugs to the site of interest will also be discussed. A systematical elucidation of drug-delivery efficiency in the case of molecular weight, particle size, shape, morphology, and porosity of materials will then be demonstrated to achieve increased drug absorption. Finally, several important biomedical applications of protein-based materials with drug-delivery function—including bone healing, antibiotic release, wound healing, and corneal regeneration, as well as diabetes, neuroinflammation and cancer treatments—are summarized at the end of this review. PMID:28772877

  11. Protein-Based Drug-Delivery Materials.

    PubMed

    Jao, Dave; Xue, Ye; Medina, Jethro; Hu, Xiao

    2017-05-09

    There is a pressing need for long-term, controlled drug release for sustained treatment of chronic or persistent medical conditions and diseases. Guided drug delivery is difficult because therapeutic compounds need to survive numerous transport barriers and binding targets throughout the body. Nanoscale protein-based polymers are increasingly used for drug and vaccine delivery to cross these biological barriers and through blood circulation to their molecular site of action. Protein-based polymers compared to synthetic polymers have the advantages of good biocompatibility, biodegradability, environmental sustainability, cost effectiveness and availability. This review addresses the sources of protein-based polymers, compares the similarity and differences, and highlights characteristic properties and functionality of these protein materials for sustained and controlled drug release. Targeted drug delivery using highly functional multicomponent protein composites to guide active drugs to the site of interest will also be discussed. A systematical elucidation of drug-delivery efficiency in the case of molecular weight, particle size, shape, morphology, and porosity of materials will then be demonstrated to achieve increased drug absorption. Finally, several important biomedical applications of protein-based materials with drug-delivery function-including bone healing, antibiotic release, wound healing, and corneal regeneration, as well as diabetes, neuroinflammation and cancer treatments-are summarized at the end of this review.

  12. Advancements in the delivery of epigenetic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Samantha A.; Adjei, Isaac M.; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Advancements in epigenetic treatments are not only coming from new drugs but from modifications or encapsulation of the existing drugs into different formulations leading to greater stability and enhanced delivery to the target site. The epigenome is highly regulated and complex; therefore it is important that off-target effects of epigenetic drugs be minimized. The step from in vitro to in vivo treatment of these drugs often requires development of a method of effective delivery for clinical translation. Areas covered This review covers epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling and small RNA mediated gene regulation. There is a section in the review with examples of diseases where epigenetic alterations lead to impaired pathways, with an emphasis on cancer. Epigenetic drugs, their targets and clinical status are presented. Advantages of using a delivery method for epigenetic drugs as well as examples of current advancements and challenges are also discussed. Expert opinion Epigenetic drugs have the potential to be very effective therapy against a number of diseases, especially cancers and neurological disorders. As with many chemotherapeutics, undesired side effects need to be minimized. Finding a suitable delivery method means reducing side effects and achieving a higher therapeutic index. Each drug may require a unique delivery method exploiting the drug's chemistry or other physical characteristic requiring interdisciplinary participation and would benefit from a better understanding of the mechanisms of action. PMID:25739728

  13. Smart Drug Delivery Systems in Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Unsoy, Gozde; Gunduz, Ufuk

    2018-02-08

    Smart nanocarriers have been designed for tissue-specific targeted drug delivery, sustained or triggered drug release and co-delivery of synergistic drug combinations to develop safer and more efficient therapeutics. Advances in drug delivery systems provide reduced side effects, longer circulation half-life and improved pharmacokinetics. Smart drug delivery systems have been achieved successfully in the case of cancer. These nanocarriers can serve as an intelligent system by considering the differences of tumor microenvironment from healthy tissue, such as low pH, low oxygen level, or high enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinases. The performance of anti-cancer agents used in cancer diagnosis and therapy is improved by enhanced cellular internalization of smart nanocarriers and controlled drug release. Here, we review targeting, cellular internalization; controlled drug release and toxicity of smart drug delivery systems. We are also emphasizing the stimulus responsive controlled drug release from smart nanocarriers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Colloidal drug delivery system: amplify the ocular delivery.

    PubMed

    Ali, Javed; Fazil, Mohd; Qumbar, Mohd; Khan, Nazia; Ali, Asgar

    2016-01-01

    The ocular perceivers are the most voluntarily accessible organs in terms of location in the body, yet drug distribution to these tissues is one of the most intriguing and challenging endeavors and problematic to the pharmaceutical scientist. The most of ocular diseases are treated with topical application of conventional formulation, i.e. solutions, suspensions and ointment. Typically on installation of these conventional formulations, only <5% of the applied dose penetrates the cornea and reaches intraocular tissues, while a major fraction of the instilled dose is wastage due to the presence of many ocular barriers like external barriers, rapid loss of the instilled solution from the precorneal area and nasolacrimal drainage system. Systemic absorption caused systemic side effects varying from mild to life-threatening events. The main objective of this review is to explore the role of colloidal delivery of drug to minimize the drawbacks associated with them. This review provides an insight into the various constraints associated with ocular drug delivery, summarizes recent findings and applications of colloidal delivery systems, i.e. nanoparticles, nanosuspensions, liposomes, niosomes, dendrimers and contact lenses containing nanoparticles have the capacity to distribute ocular drugs to categorical target sites and hold promise to revolutionize the therapy of many ocular perceiver diseases and minimized the circumscription of conventional delivery. Form the basis of literature review, it has been found that the novel delivery system have greater impact to maximize ocular drug absorption, and minimize systemic absorption and side effects.

  15. Targeted Vascular Drug Delivery in Cerebral Cancer.

    PubMed

    Humle, Nanna; Johnsen, Kasper Bendix; Arendt, Gitte Abildgaard; Nielsen, Rikke Paludan; Moos, Torben; Thomsen, Louiza Bohn

    2016-01-01

    This review presents the present-day literature on the anatomy and physiological mechanisms of the blood-brain barrier and the problematic of cerebral drug delivery in relation to malignant brain tumors. First step in treatment of malignant brain tumors is resection, but there is a high risk of single remnant infiltrative tumor cells in the outer zone of the brain tumor. These infiltrative single-cells will be supplied by capillaries with an intact BBB as opposed to the partly leaky BBB found in the tumor tissue before resection. Even though BBB penetrance of a chemotherapeutic agent is considered irrelevant though the limited success rate for chemotherapeutic treatability of GBM tumors indicate otherwise. Therefore drug delivery strategies to cerebral cancer after resection should be tailored to being able to both penetrate the intact BBB and target the cancer cells. In this review the intact bloodbrain barrier and cerebral cancer with main focus on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is introduced. The GBM induced formation of a blood-tumor barrier and the consequences hereof is described and discussed with emphasis on the impact these changes of the BBB has on drug delivery to GBM. The most commonly used drug carriers for drug delivery to GBM is described and the current drug delivery strategies for glioblastoma multiforme including possible routes through the BBB and epitopes, which can be targeted on the GBM cells is outlined. Overall, this review aims to address targeted drug delivery in GBM treatment when taking the differing permeability of the BBB into consideration.

  16. Recent advances in ophthalmic drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kompella, Uday B; Kadam, Rajendra S; Lee, Vincent HL

    2011-01-01

    Topical ocular drug bioavailability is notoriously poor, in the order of 5% or less. This is a consequence of effective multiple barriers to drug entry, comprising nasolacrimal drainage, epithelial drug transport barriers and clearance from the vasculature in the conjunctiva. While sustained drug delivery to the back of the eye is now feasible with intravitreal implants such as Vitrasert™ (~6 months), Retisert™ (~3 years) and Iluvien™ (~3 years), currently there are no marketed delivery systems for long-term drug delivery to the anterior segment of the eye. The purpose of this article is to summarize the resurgence in interest to prolong and improve drug entry from topical administration. These approaches include mucoadhesives, viscous polymer vehicles, transporter-targeted prodrug design, receptor-targeted functionalized nanoparticles, iontophoresis, punctal plug and contact lens delivery systems. A few of these delivery systems might be useful in treating diseases affecting the back of the eye. Their effectiveness will be compared against intravitreal implants (upper bound of effectiveness) and trans-scleral systems (lower bound of effectiveness). Refining the animal model by incorporating the latest advances in microdialysis and imaging technology is key to expanding the knowledge central to the design, testing and evaluation of the next generation of innovative ocular drug delivery systems. PMID:21399724

  17. Liquid crystalline systems for transdermal delivery of celecoxib: in vitro drug release and skin permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Estracanholli, Eder André; Praça, Fabíola Silva Garcia; Cintra, Ana Beatriz; Pierre, Maria Bernadete Riemma; Lara, Marilisa Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Liquid crystalline systems of monoolein/water could be a promising approach for the delivery of celecoxib (CXB) to the skin because these systems can sustain drug release, improve drug penetration into the skin layers and minimize side effects. This study evaluated the potential of these systems for the delivery of CXB into the skin based on in vitro drug release and skin permeation studies. The amount of CXB that permeated into and/or was retained in the skin was assayed using an HPLC method. Polarizing light microscopy studies showed that liquid crystalline systems of monoolein/water were formed in the presence of CXB, without any changes in the mesophases. The liquid crystalline systems decreased drug release when compared to control solution. Drug release was independent of the initial water content of the systems and CXB was released from cubic phase systems, irrespective of the initial water content. The systems released the CXB following zero-order release kinetics. In vitro drug permeation studies showed that cubic phase systems allowed drug permeation and retention in the skin layers. Cubic phase systems of monoolein/water may be promising vehicles for the delivery of CXB in/through the skin because it improved CXB skin permeation compared with the control solution.

  18. Chitosan Microspheres in Novel Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Analava; Dey, Baishakhi

    2011-01-01

    The main aim in the drug therapy of any disease is to attain the desired therapeutic concentration of the drug in plasma or at the site of action and maintain it for the entire duration of treatment. A drug on being used in conventional dosage forms leads to unavoidable fluctuations in the drug concentration leading to under medication or overmedication and increased frequency of dose administration as well as poor patient compliance. To minimize drug degradation and loss, to prevent harmful side effects and to increase drug bioavailability various drug delivery and drug targeting systems are currently under development. Handling the treatment of severe disease conditions has necessitated the development of innovative ideas to modify drug delivery techniques. Drug targeting means delivery of the drug-loaded system to the site of interest. Drug carrier systems include polymers, micelles, microcapsules, liposomes and lipoproteins to name some. Different polymer carriers exert different effects on drug delivery. Synthetic polymers are usually non-biocompatible, non-biodegradable and expensive. Natural polymers such as chitin and chitosan are devoid of such problems. Chitosan comes from the deacetylation of chitin, a natural biopolymer originating from crustacean shells. Chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic natural polymer with excellent film-forming ability. Being of cationic character, chitosan is able to react with polyanions giving rise to polyelectrolyte complexes. Hence chitosan has become a promising natural polymer for the preparation of microspheres/nanospheres and microcapsules. The techniques employed to microencapsulate with chitosan include ionotropic gelation, spray drying, emulsion phase separation, simple and complex coacervation. This review focuses on the preparation, characterization of chitosan microspheres and their role in novel drug delivery systems. PMID:22707817

  19. Inner Ear Drug Delivery for Auditory Applications

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Erin E. Leary; Mescher, Mark J.; Sewell, William F.; Tao, Sarah L.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.

    2008-01-01

    Many inner ear disorders cannot be adequately treated by systemic drug delivery. A blood-cochlear barrier exists, similar physiologically to the blood-brain barrier, which limits the concentration and size of molecules able to leave the circulation and gain access to the cells of the inner ear. However, research in novel therapeutics and delivery systems has led to significant progress in the development of local methods of drug delivery to the inner ear. Intratympanic approaches, which deliver therapeutics to the middle ear, rely on permeation through tissue for access to the structures of the inner ear, whereas intracochlear methods are able to directly insert drugs into the inner ear. Innovative drug delivery systems to treat various inner ear ailments such as ototoxicity, sudden sensorineural hearing loss, autoimmune inner ear disease, and for preserving neurons and regenerating sensory cells are being explored. PMID:18848590

  20. Drug delivery technologies for autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Brett E; Giannoukakis, Nick

    2010-11-01

    Targeting autoimmune disease poses two main challenges. The first is to identify unique targets to suppress directly or indirectly autoreactive cells exclusively. The second is to penetrate target tissues to deliver specifically drugs to desired cells that can achieve a therapeutic outcome. Herein, the range of drug delivery methods available and under development and how they can be useful to treat autoimmune diseases are discussed. Polymer delivery methods, as well as biological methods that include fusion proteins, targeted antibodies, recombinant viruses and cell products are compared. Readers will gain insight into the progression of clinical trials for different technologies and drug delivery methods useful for targeting and modulating the function of autoreactive immune cells. Several tissue-specific polymer-based and biologic drug delivery systems are now in Phase II/III clinical trials. Although these trials are focused mainly on cancer treatment, lessons from these trials can guide the use of the same agents for autoimmunity therapeutics.

  1. Fast-dissolve drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Habib, W; Khankari, R; Hontz, J

    2000-01-01

    Fast-dissolve drug delivery is a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. This paper defines the technology, discusses its benefits, and reviews and compares various fast-dissolve technologies currently available on the market.

  2. Porous silicon for drug delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramova, E. N.; Khort, A. M.; Yakovenko, A. G.; Kornilova, D. S.; Slipchenko, E. A.; Prokhorov, D. I.; Shvets, V. I.

    2018-01-01

    The article deals with main principles of the formation of porous silicon (por-Si) to produce containers for drug delivery systems. Most important por-Si characteristics to produce nanocontainers with required parameters are determined.

  3. Ion-Responsive Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takayuki; Shakushiro, Kohsuke; Sako, Kazuhiro

    2018-02-08

    Some kinds of cations and anions are contained in body fluids such as blood, interstitial fluid, gastrointestinal juice, and tears at relatively high concentration. Ionresponsive drug delivery is available to design the unique dosage formulations which provide optimized drug therapy with effective, safe and convenient dosing of drugs. The objective of the present review was to collect, summarize, and categorize recent research findings on ion-responsive drug delivery systems. Ions in body fluid/formulations caused structural changes of polymers/molecules contained in the formulations, allow formulations exhibit functions. The polymers/molecules responding to ions were ion-exchange resins/fibers, anionic or cationic polymers, polymers exhibiting transition at lower critical solution temperature, self-assemble supramolecular systems, peptides, and metalorganic frameworks. The functions of ion-responsive drug delivery systems were categorized to controlled drug release, site-specific drug release, in situ gelation, prolonged retention at the target sites, and enhancement of drug permeation. Administration of the formulations via oral, ophthalmic, transdermal, and nasal routes has showed significant advantages in the recent literatures. Many kinds of drug delivery systems responding to ions have been reported recently for several administration routes. Improvement and advancement of these systems can maximize drugs potential and contribute to patients in the world. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Soluble polymer conjugates for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Minko, Tamara

    2005-01-01

    The use of water-soluble polymeric conjugates as drug carriers offers several possible advantages. These advantages include: (1) improved drug pharmacokinetics; (2) decreased toxicity to healthy organs; (3) possible facilitation of accumulation and preferential uptake by targeted cells; (4) programmed profile of drug release. In this review, we will consider the main types of useful polymeric conjugates and their role and effectiveness as carriers in drug delivery systems.: © 2005 Elsevier Ltd . All rights reserved.

  5. Photomedicine with laser drug delivery technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Latyshev, Alexei S.; Leviev, Dmitry O.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a new technology, which consists in utilizing laser drug delivery methods for the purposes of photodrug therapy. According to this technology, photosensitizer is applied onto the treated surface and then the solution is either impregnated or injected into the medium, with it being suggested to employ laser drug delivery techniques for the impregnation and injection of the photosensitizer. After introducing the photosensitizer, the area is illuminated by a matrix of light-emission diodes.

  6. Heterocyclic Drug-polymer Conjugates for Cancer Targeted Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harmeet; Desai, Sapna D; Kumar, Virender; Rathi, Pooja; Singh, Jasbir

    2016-01-01

    New polymer therapeutics like polymer-drug conjugates (PDCs) are developing day by day. Heterocyclic drugs with excellent cytotoxic properties are available, but lack of their specificity makes them available to the normal cells also, which is the main cause of their toxicity. Drugs in the form of PDCs make delivery possible to the specific sites. Most of the PDCs are designed with the aim to either target and/or to get activated in specific cancer microenvironments. Therefore, the most exploited targets for cancer drug delivery are; cancer cell enzymes, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), multi-drug resistance (MDR) proteins, angiogenesis, apoptosis and cell membrane receptors (e.g., folates, transferrin, etc.). In this review, we will summarize PDCs of heterocyclic drugs, like doxorubicin (DOX), daunorubicin, paclitaxel (PTX), docetaxel (DTX), cisplatin, camptothecin (CPT), geldanamycin (GDM), etc., and some of their analogs for efficient delivery of drugs to cancer cells.

  7. Nanomedicine Drug Delivery across Mucous Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancina, Michael George, III

    Control over the distribution of therapeutic compounds is a complex and somewhat overlooked field of pharmaceutical research. When swallowing a pill or receiving an injection, it is commonly assumed that drug will spread throughout the body in a more or less uniform concentration and find its way to wherever it is needed. In truth, drug biodistribuition is highly non-uniform and dependent on a large number of factors. The development of advanced drug delivery systems to control biodistribution can produce significant advances in clinical treatments without the need to discover new therapeutic compounds. This work focuses on a number of nanostructured materials designed to improve drug delivery by direct and efficient transfer of drugs across one of the body's external mucous membranes. Chapter 1 outlines the central concept that unites these studies: nanomaterials and cationic particles can be used to delivery therapeutic compounds across mucous membranes. Special attention is given to dendritic nanoparticles. In chapter 2, uses for dendrimers in ocular drug delivery are presented. The studies are divided into two main groups: topical and injectable formulations. Chapter 3 does not involve dendrimers but instead another cationic particle used in transmembrane drug delivery, chitosan. Next, a dendrimer based nanofiber mat was used to deliver anti-glaucoma drugs in chapter 4. A three week in vivo efficacy trial showed dendrimer nanofiber mats outperformed traditional eye drops in terms of intra-ocular pressure decrease in a normotensive rat model. Finally, we have developed a new dendrimer based anti-glaucoma drug in chapter 5. Collectively, these studies demonstrate some of the potential applications for nanotechnology to improve transmembrane drug delivery. These particles and fibers are able to readily adhere and penetrate across epithelial cell lays. Utilizing these materials to improve drug absorption through these portals has the potential to improve the

  8. Topical drug delivery systems: a patent review.

    PubMed

    Singh Malik, Deepinder; Mital, Neeraj; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2016-01-01

    Topical administration is the favored route for local delivery of therapeutic agents due to its convenience and affordability. The specific challenge of designing a therapeutic system is to achieve an optimal concentration of a certain drug at its site of action for an appropriate duration. This review summarizes innovations from the past 3 years (2012-2015) in the field of topical drug delivery for the treatment of local infections of the vagina, nose, eye and skin. The review also throws some light on the anatomy and physiology of these organs and their various defensive barriers which affect the delivery of drugs administered topically. Topical administration has been gaining attention over the last few years. However, conventional topical drug delivery systems suffer from drawbacks such as poor retention and low bioavailability. The successful formulation of topical delivery products requires the careful manipulation of defensive barriers and selection of a soluble drug carrier. Extensive research is required to develop newer topical drug delivery systems aiming either to improve the efficacy or to reduce side effects compared to current patented systems.

  9. Microfluidic device for drug delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDonald, Michael J. (Inventor); Eddington, David T. (Inventor); Beebe, David J. (Inventor); Mensing, Glennys A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A microfluidic device is provided for delivering a drug to an individual. The microfluidic device includes a body that defines a reservoir for receiving the drug therein. A valve interconnects the reservoir to an output needle that is insertable into the skin of an individual. A pressure source urges the drug from the reservoir toward the needle. The valve is movable between a closed position preventing the flow of the drug from the reservoir to the output needle and an open position allowing for the flow of the drug from the reservoir to the output needle in response to a predetermined condition in the physiological fluids of the individual.

  10. Microneedles for drug and vaccine delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeu-Chun; Park, Jung-Hwan; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Microneedles were first conceptualized for drug delivery many decades ago, but only became the subject of significant research starting in the mid-1990’s when microfabrication technology enabled their manufacture as (i) solid microneedles for skin pretreatment to increase skin permeability, (ii) microneedles coated with drug that dissolves off in the skin, (iii) polymer microneedles that encapsulate drug and fully dissolve in the skin and (iv) hollow microneedles for drug infusion into the skin. As shown in more than 350 papers now published in the field, microneedles have been used to deliver a broad range of different low molecular weight drugs, biotherapeutics and vaccines, including published human studies with a number of small-molecule and protein drugs and vaccines. Influenza vaccination using a hollow microneedle is in widespread clinical use and a number of solid microneedle products are sold for cosmetic purposes. In addition to applications in the skin, microneedles have also been adapted for delivery of bioactives into the eye and into cells. Successful application of microneedles depends on device function that facilitates microneedle insertion and possible infusion into skin, skin recovery after microneedle removal, and drug stability during manufacturing, storage and delivery, and on patient outcomes, including lack of pain, skin irritation and skin infection, in addition to drug efficacy and safety. Building off a strong technology base and multiple demonstrations of successful drug delivery, microneedles are poised to advance further into clinical practice to enable better pharmaceutical therapies, vaccination and other applications. PMID:22575858

  11. Rapidly separating microneedles for transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan Dan; Wang, Qi Lei; Liu, Xu Bo; Guo, Xin Dong

    2016-09-01

    The applications of polymer microneedles (MNs) into human skin emerged as an alternative of the conventional hypodermic needles. However, dissolving MNs require many minutes to be dissolved in the skin and typically have difficulty being fully inserted into the skin, which may lead to the low drug delivery efficiency. To address these issues, we introduce rapidly separating MNs that can rapidly deliver drugs into the skin in a minimally invasive way. For the rapidly separating MNs, drug loaded dissolving MNs are mounted on the top of solid MNs, which are made of biodegradable polylactic acid which eliminate the biohazardous waste. These MNs have sufficient mechanical strength to be inserted into the skin with the drug loaded tips fully embedded for subsequent dissolution. Compared with the traditional MNs, rapidly separating MNs achieve over 90% of drug delivery efficiency in 30s while the traditional MNs needs 2min to achieve the same efficiency. With the in vivo test in mice, the micro-holes caused by rapidly separating MNs can heal in 1h, indicating that the rapidly separating MNs are safe for future applications. These results indicate that the design of rapidly separating dissolvable MNs can offer a quick, high efficient, convenient, safe and potentially self-administered method of drug delivery. Polymer microneedles offer an attractive, painless and minimally invasive approach for transdermal drug delivery. However, dissolving microneedles require many minutes to be dissolved in the skin and typically have difficulty being fully inserted into the skin due to the skin deformation, which may lead to the low drug delivery efficiency. In this work we proposed rapidly separating microneedles which can deliver over 90% of drug into the skin in 30s. The in vitro and in vivo results indicate that the new design of these microneedles can offer a quick, high efficient, convenient and safe method for transdermal drug delivery. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc

  12. Calcium phosphate ceramics in drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman; Edgington, Joe; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-04-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) particulates, cements and scaffolds have attracted significant interest as drug delivery vehicles. CaP systems, including both hydroxyapaptite and tricalcium phosphates, possess variable stoichiometry, functionality and dissolution properties which make them suitable for cellular delivery. Their chemical similarity to bone and thus biocompatibility, as well as variable surface charge density contribute to their controlled release properties. Among specific research areas, nanoparticle size, morphology, surface area due to porosity, and chemistry controlled release kinetics are the most active. This article discusses CaP systems in their particulate, cements, and scaffold forms for drug, protein, and growth factor delivery toward orthopedic and dental applications.

  13. Spray-on transdermal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sarah A

    2015-02-01

    Transdermal drug delivery possesses superior advantages over other routes of administration, particularly minimizing first-pass metabolism. Transdermal drug delivery is challenged by the barrier nature of skin. Numerous technologies have been developed to overcome the relatively low skin permeability, including spray-on transdermal systems. A transdermal spray-on system (TSS) usually consists of a solution containing the drug, a volatile solvent and in many cases a chemical penetration enhancer. TSS promotes drug delivery via the complex interplay between solvent evaporation and drug-solvent drag into skin. The volatile solvent carries the drug into the upper layers of the stratum corneum, and as the volatile solvent evaporates, an increase in the thermodynamic activity of the drug occurs resulting in an increased drug loading in skin. TSS is easily applied, delivering flexible drug dosage and associated with lower incidence of skin irritation. TSS provides a fast-drying product where the volatile solvent enables uniform drug distribution with minimal vehicle deposition on skin. TSS ensures precise dose administration that is aesthetically appealing and eliminates concerns of residual drug associated with transdermal patches. Furthermore, it provides a better alternative to traditional transdermal products due to ease of product development and manufacturing.

  14. Photoacoustic microscopy imaging for microneedle drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moothanchery, Mohesh; Seeni, Razina Z.; Xu, Chenjie; Pramanik, Manojit

    2018-02-01

    The recent development of novel transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) using microneedle technology allows micron-sized conduits to be formed within the outermost skin layers attracting keen interest in skin as an interface for localized and systemic delivery of therapeutics. In light of this, researchers are using microneedles as tools to deliver nanoparticle formulations to targeted sites for effective therapy. However, in such studies the use of traditional histological methods are employed for characterization and do not allow for the in vivo visualization of drug delivery mechanism. Hence, this study presents a novel imaging technology to characterize microneedle based nanoparticle delivery systems using optical resolution-photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM). In this study in vivo transdermal delivery of gold nanoparticles using microneedles in mice ear and the spatial distribution of the nanoparticles in the tissue was successfully illustrated. Characterization of parameters that are relevant in drug delivery studies such as penetration depth, efficiency of delivered gold nanoparticles were monitored using the system. Photoacoustic microscopy proves an ideal tool for the characterization studies of microneedle properties and the studies shows microneedles as an ideal tool for precise and controlled drug delivery.

  15. Novel drug delivery systems for glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lavik, E; Kuehn, M H; Kwon, Y H

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) by pharmaceutical or surgical means has long been the standard treatment for glaucoma. A number of excellent drugs are available that are effective in reducing IOP. These drugs are typically applied as eye drops. However, patient adherence can be poor, thus reducing the clinical efficacy of the drugs. Several novel delivery systems designed to address the issue of adherence and to ensure consistent reduction of IOP are currently under development. These delivery systems include contact lenses-releasing glaucoma medications, injectables such as biodegradable micro- and nanoparticles, and surgically implanted systems. These new technologies are aimed at increasing clinical efficacy by offering multiple delivery options and are capable of managing IOP for several months. There is also a desire to have complementary neuroprotective approaches for those who continue to show progression, despite IOP reduction. Many potential neuroprotective agents are not suitable for traditional oral or drop formulations. Their potential is dependent on developing suitable delivery systems that can provide the drugs in a sustained, local manner to the retina and optic nerve. Drug delivery systems have the potential to improve patient adherence, reduce side effects, increase efficacy, and ultimately, preserve sight for glaucoma patients. In this review, we discuss benefits and limitations of the current systems of delivery and application, as well as those on the horizon. PMID:21475311

  16. Cellulose based polymeric systems in drug delivery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pharmaceutical industry requires the development of biodegradable, biocompatible, non toxic, site specific drug delivery polymers, which can be easily coupled with drugs to be delivered orally, topically, locally, or parenterally. The use of the most abundant biopolymer, cellulose along with its...

  17. A pulsed mode electrolytic drug delivery device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Ying; Buttner, Ulrich; Carreno, Armando A. A.; Conchouso, David; Foulds, Ian G.

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the design of a proof-of-concept drug delivery device that is actuated using the bubbles formed during electrolysis. The device uses a platinum (Pt) coated nickel (Ni) metal foam and a solid drug in reservoir (SDR) approach to improve the device’s performance. This electrochemically-driven pump has many features that are unlike conventional drug delivery devices: it is capable of pumping periodically and being refilled automatically; it features drug release control; and it enables targeted delivery. Pt-coated metal foam is used as a catalytic reforming element, which reduces the period of each delivery cycle. Two methods were used for fabricating the Pt-coated metal: sputtering and electroplating. Of these two methods, the sputtered Pt-coated metal foam has a higher pumping rate; it also has a comparable recombination rate when compared to the electroplated Pt-coated metal foam. The only drawback of this catalytic reformer is that it consumes nickel scaffold. Considering long-term applications, the electroplated Pt metal foam was selected for drug delivery, where a controlled drug release rate of 2.2 μg  ±  0.3 μg per actuation pulse was achieved using 4 mW of power.

  18. Sustained Release Drug Delivery Applications of Polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Lowinger, Michael B; Barrett, Stephanie E; Zhang, Feng; Williams, Robert O

    2018-05-09

    Since their introduction over 50 years ago, polyurethanes have been applied to nearly every industry. This review describes applications of polyurethanes to the development of modified release drug delivery. Although drug delivery research leveraging polyurethanes has been ongoing for decades, there has been renewed and substantial interest in the field in recent years. The chemistry of polyurethanes and the mechanisms of drug release from sustained release dosage forms are briefly reviewed. Studies to assess the impact of intrinsic drug properties on release from polyurethane-based formulations are considered. The impact of hydrophilic water swelling polyurethanes on drug diffusivity and release rate is discussed. The role of pore formers in modulating drug release rate is examined. Finally, the value of assessing mechanical properties of the dosage form and approaches taken in the literature are described.

  19. Microparticulate drug delivery system containing tramadol hydrochloride for pain treatment.

    PubMed

    Ciurba, Adriana; Todoran, Nicoleta; Vari, C E; Lazăr, Luminita; Al Hussein, Stela; Hancu, G

    2014-01-01

    The current trend of replacing conventional pharmaceutical forms is justified because most substances administered in this form give fluctuations of therapeutic concentrations and often outside the therapeutic range. In addition, these formulations offer a reduction in the dose or the number of administrations, thus increasing patient compliance. In the experiment, we developed an appropriate technology for the preparation of gelatin microspheres containing tramadol hydrochloride by emulsification/cross-linking method. The formulated microspheres were characterized by product yield, size distribution, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release of tramadol hydrochloride. Data obtained from in vitro release studies were fitted to various mathematical models to elucidate the transport mechanisms. The kinetic models used were zero-order, first-order, Higuchi Korsmeyer-Peppas and Hopfenberg. Spherical microspheres were obtained, with free-flowing properties. The entrapment efficiency of tramadol hydrochloride in microparticles was 79.91% and product yield -94.92%. As the microsphere size was increased, the entrapment efficiency increased. This was 67.56, 70.03, 79.91% for formulations MT80-250, MT8-500 and, MT250-500. High entrapment efficiency was observed for MT250-500 formulation. The gelatin microspheres had particle sizes ranging from 80 to 500 microm. The drug was released for a period of 12 hours with a maximum release of 96.02%. Of the three proposed formulations, MT250-500 presented desirable properties and optimal characteristics for the therapy of pain. Release of tramadol hydrochloridi was best fitted to Korsmeyer-Peppas equation because the Akaike Information Criterion had the lowest values for this kinetic model. These results suggest the opportunity to influence the therapeutic characteristics of gelatin microspheres to obtain a suitable drug delivery system for the oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride.

  20. Drug delivery strategies for Alzheimer's disease treatment.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Antonio; Iannitelli, Antonio; Laserra, Sara; Sozio, Piera

    2011-05-01

    Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy is based on the administration of the drugs donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine and memantine. Until disease-modifying therapies become available, further research is needed to develop new drug delivery strategies to ensure ease of administration and treatment persistence. In addition to the conventional oral formulations, a variety of drug delivery strategies applied to the treatment of AD are reviewed in this paper, with a focus on strategies leading to simplified dosage regimens and to providing new pharmacological tools. Alternatives include extended release, orally disintegrating or sublingual formulations, intranasal or short- and long-acting intramuscular or transdermal forms, and nanotechnology-based delivery systems. The advent of new research on molecular mechanisms of AD pathogenesis has outlined new strategies for therapeutic intervention; these include the stimulation of α-secretase cleavage, the inhibition of γ-secretase activity, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, neuroprotection based on antioxidant therapy, the use of estrogens, NO synthetase inhibitors, and natural agents such as polyphenols. Unfortunately, these compounds might not help patients with end stage AD, but might hopefully slow or stop the disease process in its early stage. Nanotechnologies may prove to be a promising contribution in future AD drug delivery strategies, in particular drug carrier nano- or microsystems, which can limit the side effects of anti-Alzheimer drugs.

  1. Inhaled nano- and microparticles for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M.; El-Baz, Nancy M.; Yacoub, Magdi H.

    2015-01-01

    The 21st century has seen a paradigm shift to inhaled therapy, for both systemic and local drug delivery, due to the lung's favourable properties of a large surface area and high permeability. Pulmonary drug delivery possesses many advantages, including non-invasive route of administration, low metabolic activity, control environment for systemic absorption and avoids first bypass metabolism. However, because the lung is one of the major ports of entry, it has multiple clearance mechanisms, which prevent foreign particles from entering the body. Although these clearance mechanisms maintain the sterility of the lung, clearance mechanisms can also act as barriers to the therapeutic effectiveness of inhaled drugs. This effectiveness is also influenced by the deposition site and delivered dose. Particulate-based drug delivery systems have emerged as an innovative and promising alternative to conventional inhaled drugs to circumvent pulmonary clearance mechanisms and provide enhanced therapeutic efficiency and controlled drug release. The principle of multiple pulmonary clearance mechanisms is reviewed, including mucociliary, alveolar macrophages, absorptive, and metabolic degradation. This review also discusses the current approaches and formulations developed to achieve optimal pulmonary drug delivery systems. PMID:26779496

  2. Current Strategies for Brain Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaowei

    2018-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been a great hurdle for brain drug delivery. The BBB in healthy brain is a diffusion barrier essential for protecting normal brain function by impeding most compounds from transiting from the blood to the brain; only small molecules can cross the BBB. Under certain pathological conditions of diseases such as stroke, diabetes, seizures, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer disease, the BBB is disrupted. The objective of this review is to provide a broad overview on current strategies for brain drug delivery and related subjects from the past five years. It is hoped that this review could inspire readers to discover possible approaches to deliver drugs into the brain. After an initial overview of the BBB structure and function in both healthy and pathological conditions, this review re-visits, according to recent publications, some questions that are controversial, such as whether nanoparticles by themselves could cross the BBB and whether drugs are specifically transferred to the brain by actively targeted nanoparticles. Current non-nanoparticle strategies are also reviewed, such as delivery of drugs through the permeable BBB under pathological conditions and using non-invasive techniques to enhance brain drug uptake. Finally, one particular area that is often neglected in brain drug delivery is the influence of aging on the BBB, which is captured in this review based on the limited studies in the literature. PMID:29556336

  3. Ultrasonic Drug Delivery – A General Review

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, William G.; Husseini, Ghaleb A.; Staples, Bryant J.

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has an ever-increasing role in the delivery of therapeutic agents including genetic material, proteins, and chemotherapeutic agents. Cavitating gas bodies such as microbubbles are the mediators through which the energy of relatively non-interactive pressure waves is concentrated to produce forces that permeabilize cell membranes and disrupt the vesicles that carry drugs. Thus the presence of microbubbles enormously enhances delivery of genetic material, proteins and smaller chemical agents. Delivery of genetic material is greatly enhanced by ultrasound in the presence of microbubbles. Attaching the DNA directly to the microbubbles or to gas-containing liposomes enhances gene uptake even further. US-enhanced gene delivery has been studied in various tissues including cardiac, vascular, skeletal muscle, tumor and even fetal tissue. US-enhanced delivery of proteins has found most application in transdermal delivery of insulin. Cavitation events reversibly disrupt the structure of the stratus corneum to allow transport of these large molecules. Other hormones and small proteins could also be delivered transdermally. Small chemotherapeutic molecules are delivered in research settings from micelles and liposomes exposed to ultrasound. Cavitation appears to play two roles: it disrupts the structure of the carrier vesicle and releases the drug; it also makes the cell membranes and capillaries more permeable to drugs. There remains a need to better understand the physics of cavitation of microbubbles and the impact that such cavitation has upon cells and drug-carrying vesicles. PMID:16296719

  4. Drug Delivery Research: The Invention Cycle.

    PubMed

    Park, Kinam

    2016-07-05

    Controlled drug delivery systems have been successful in introducing improved formulations for better use of existing drugs and novel delivery of biologicals. The initial success of producing many oral products and some injectable depot formulations, however, reached a plateau, and the progress over the past three decades has been slow. This is likely due to the difficulties of formulating hydrophilic, high molecular weight drugs, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for targeting specific cells, month-long sustained delivery, and pulsatile release. Since the approaches that have served well for delivery of small molecules are not applicable to large molecules, it is time to develop new methods for biologicals. The process of developing future drug delivery systems, termed as the invention cycle, is proposed, and it starts with clearly defining the problems for developing certain formulations. Once the problems are well-defined, creative imagination examines all potential options and selects the best answer and alternatives. Then, innovation takes over to generate unique solutions for developing new formulations that resolve the previously identified problems. Ultimately, the new delivery systems will have to go through a translational process to produce the final formulations for clinical use. The invention cycle also emphasizes examining the reasons for success of certain formulations, not just the reasons for failure of many systems. Implementation of the new invention cycle requires new mechanisms of funding the younger generation of scientists and a new way of identifying their achievements, thereby releasing them from the burden of short-termism.

  5. Characterization of particulate drug delivery systems for oral delivery of Peptide and protein drugs.

    PubMed

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten; Fano, Mathias; Saaby, Lasse; Yang, Mingshi; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Mu, Huiling

    2015-01-01

    Oral drug delivery is a preferred route because of good patient compliance. However, most peptide/ protein drugs are delivered via parenteral routes because of the absorption barriers in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract such as enzymatic degradation by proteases and low permeability acrossthe biological membranes. To overcome these barriers, different formulation strategies for oral delivery of biomacromolecules have been proposed, including lipid based formulations and polymer-based particulate drug delivery systems (DDS). The aim of this review is to summarize the existing knowledge about oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs and to provide an overview of formulationand characterization strategies. For a better understanding of the challenges in oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs, the composition of GI fluids and the digestion processes of different kinds of excipients in the GI tract are summarized. Additionally, the paper provides an overview of recent studies on characterization of solid drug carriers for peptide/protein drugs, drug distribution in particles, drug release and stability in simulated GI fluids, as well as the absorption of peptide/protein drugs in cell-based models. The use of biorelevant media when applicable can increase the knowledge about the quality of DDS for oral protein delivery. Hopefully, the knowledge provided in this review will aid the establishment of improved biorelevant models capable of forecasting the performance of particulate DDS for oral peptide/protein delivery.

  6. Advanced Analgesic Drug Delivery and Nanobiotechnology.

    PubMed

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Fiorda-Diaz, Juan; Joseph, Nicholas; Shabsigh, Muhammad; Arias-Morales, Carlos; Gonzalez-Zacarias, Alicia A; Mavarez-Martinez, Ana; Marjoribanks, Stephen; Bergese, Sergio D

    2017-07-01

    Transdermal administration of analgesic medications offers several benefits over alternative routes of administration, including a decreased systemic drug load with fewer side effects, and avoidance of drug degradation by the gastrointestinal tract. Transdermal administration also offers a convenient mode of drug administration over an extended period of time, particularly desirable in pain medicine. A transdermal administration route may also offer increased safety for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window. The primary barrier to transdermal drug absorption is the skin itself. Transdermal nanotechnology offers a novel method of achieving enhanced dermal penetration with an extended delivery profile for analgesic drugs, due to their small size and relatively large surface area. Several materials have been used to enhance drug duration and transdermal penetration. The application of nanotechnology in transdermal delivery of analgesics has raised new questions regarding safety and ethical issues. The small molecular size of nanoparticles enables drug delivery to previously inaccessible body sites. To ensure safety, the interaction of nanoparticles with the human body requires further investigation on an individual drug basis, since different formulations have unique properties and side effects.

  7. Micro-porous surfaces in controlled drug delivery systems: design and evaluation of diltiazem hydrochloride controlled porosity osmotic pump using non-ionic surfactants as pore-former.

    PubMed

    Adibkia, Khosro; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Shokri, Mohammad Hosein; Arami, Zahra; Arash, Zeinab; Shokri, Javad

    2014-06-01

    The major problem associated with conventional drug delivery systems is unpredictable plasma concentrations. The aim of this study was to design a controlled porosity osmotic pump (CPOP) of diltiazem hydrochloride to deliver the drug in a controlled manner. CPOP tablets were prepared by incorporation of drug in the core and subsequent coating with cellulose acetate as semi-permeable membrane. Non-ionic surfactants were applied as pore-formers as well. The effect of pore-formers concentration on the in vitro release of diltiazem was also studied. The formulations were compared based on four comparative parameters, namely, total drug released after 24 h (D24 h), lag-time (tL), squared correlation coefficient of zero order equation (RSQzero) and mean percent deviation from zero order kinetic (MPDzero). Results of scanning electron microscopy studies exhibited formation of pores in the membrane from where the drug release occurred. It was revealed that drug release rate was directly proportional to the concentration of the pore-formers. The value of D24 h in the formulations containing Tween 80 (10%) and Brij 35 (5%) were found to be more than 94.9%, and drug release followed zero order kinetic (RSQzero > 0.99 and MPDzero < 8%) with acceptable tL (lower than 1 h).

  8. Engineered Polymers for Advanced Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungwon; Kim, Jong-Ho; Jeon, Oju; Kwon, Ick Chan; Park, Kinam

    2009-01-01

    Engineered polymers have been utilized for developing advanced drug delivery systems. The development of such polymers has caused advances in polymer chemistry, which, in turn, has resulted in smart polymers that can respond to changes in environmental condition, such as temperature, pH, and biomolecules. The responses vary widely from swelling/deswelling to degradation. Drug-polymer conjugates and drug-containing nano/micro-particles have been used for drug targeting. Engineered polymers and polymeric systems have also been used in new areas, such as molecular imaging as well as in nanotechnology. This review examines the engineered polymers that have been used as traditional drug delivery and as more recent applications in nanotechnology. PMID:18977434

  9. Nanoparticles and nanofibers for topical drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Ritu; Macri, Lauren K.; Kaplan, Hilton M.; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    This review provides the first comprehensive overview of the use of both nanoparticles and nanofibers for topical drug delivery. Researchers have explored the use of nanotechnology, specifically nanoparticles and nanofibers, as drug delivery systems for topical and transdermal applications. This approach employs increased drug concentration in the carrier, in order to increase drug flux into and through the skin. Both nanoparticles and nanofibers can be used to deliver hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs and are capable of controlled release for a prolonged period of time. The examples presented provide significant evidence that this area of research has—and will continue to have — a profound impact on both clinical outcomes and the development of new products. PMID:26518723

  10. Nanoparticles in the ocular drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hong-Yan; Hao, Ji-Long; Wang, Shuang; Zheng, Yu; Zhang, Wen-Song

    2013-01-01

    Ocular drug transport barriers pose a challenge for drug delivery comprising the ocular surface epithelium, the tear film and internal barriers of the blood-aqueous and blood-retina barriers. Ocular drug delivery efficiency depends on the barriers and the clearance from the choroidal, conjunctival vessels and lymphatic. Traditional drug administration reduces the clinical efficacy especially for poor water soluble molecules and for the posterior segment of the eye. Nanoparticles (NPs) have been designed to overcome the barriers, increase the drug penetration at the target site and prolong the drug levels by few internals of drug administrations in lower doses without any toxicity compared to the conventional eye drops. With the aid of high specificity and multifunctionality, DNA NPs can be resulted in higher transfection efficiency for gene therapy. NPs could target at cornea, retina and choroid by surficial applications and intravitreal injection. This review is concerned with recent findings and applications of NPs drug delivery systems for the treatment of different eye diseases. PMID:23826539

  11. Genetically engineered nanocarriers for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Shi, Pu; Gustafson, Joshua A; MacKay, J Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Cytotoxicity, low water solubility, rapid clearance from circulation, and off-target side-effects are common drawbacks of conventional small-molecule drugs. To overcome these shortcomings, many multifunctional nanocarriers have been proposed to enhance drug delivery. In concept, multifunctional nanoparticles might carry multiple agents, control release rate, biodegrade, and utilize target-mediated drug delivery; however, the design of these particles presents many challenges at the stage of pharmaceutical development. An emerging solution to improve control over these particles is to turn to genetic engineering. Genetically engineered nanocarriers are precisely controlled in size and structure and can provide specific control over sites for chemical attachment of drugs. Genetically engineered drug carriers that assemble nanostructures including nanoparticles and nanofibers can be polymeric or non-polymeric. This review summarizes the recent development of applications in drug and gene delivery utilizing nanostructures of polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as elastin-like polypeptides, silk-like polypeptides, and silk-elastin-like protein polymers, and non-polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as vault proteins and viral proteins.

  12. Genetically engineered nanocarriers for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Pu; Gustafson, Joshua A; MacKay, J Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Cytotoxicity, low water solubility, rapid clearance from circulation, and off-target side-effects are common drawbacks of conventional small-molecule drugs. To overcome these shortcomings, many multifunctional nanocarriers have been proposed to enhance drug delivery. In concept, multifunctional nanoparticles might carry multiple agents, control release rate, biodegrade, and utilize target-mediated drug delivery; however, the design of these particles presents many challenges at the stage of pharmaceutical development. An emerging solution to improve control over these particles is to turn to genetic engineering. Genetically engineered nanocarriers are precisely controlled in size and structure and can provide specific control over sites for chemical attachment of drugs. Genetically engineered drug carriers that assemble nanostructures including nanoparticles and nanofibers can be polymeric or non-polymeric. This review summarizes the recent development of applications in drug and gene delivery utilizing nanostructures of polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as elastin-like polypeptides, silk-like polypeptides, and silk-elastin-like protein polymers, and non-polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as vault proteins and viral proteins. PMID:24741309

  13. Sonoporation, drug delivery, and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Liang, H-D; Tang, J; Halliwell, M

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound is a very effective modality for drug delivery and gene therapy because energy that is non-invasively transmitted through the skin can be focused deeply into the human body in a specific location and employed to release drugs at that site. Ultrasound cavitation, enhanced by injected microbubbles, perturbs cell membrane structures to cause sonoporation and increases the permeability to bioactive materials. Cavitation events also increase the rate of drug transport in general by augmenting the slow diffusion process with convective transport processes. Drugs and genes can be incorporated into microbubbles, which in turn can target a specific disease site using ligands such as the antibody. Drugs can be released ultrasonically from microbubbles that are sufficiently robust to circulate in the blood and retain their cargo of drugs until they enter an insonated volume of tissue. Local drug delivery ensures sufficient drug concentration at the diseased region while limiting toxicity for healthy tissues. Ultrasound-mediated gene delivery has been applied to heart, blood vessel, lung, kidney, muscle, brain, and tumour with enhanced gene transfection efficiency, which depends on the ultrasonic parameters such as acoustic pressure, pulse length, duty cycle, repetition rate, and exposure duration, as well as microbubble properties such as size, gas species, shell material, interfacial tension, and surface rigidity. Microbubble-augmented sonothrombolysis can be enhanced further by using targeting microbubbles.

  14. Review: nanoparticles in delivery of cardiovascular drugs.

    PubMed

    Arayne, M Saeed; Sultana, Najma; Qureshi, Faiza

    2007-10-01

    Everything in nature is built upward from the atomic level to define limits and structures to everything. Nanomedicines marked the field of medicine from nanobiotechnology, biological micro-electromechanical systems, microfluidics, biosensors, drug delivery, microarrays to tissue microengineering. Since then nanoparticles has overcome many challenges from blood brain barrier to targeting tumors. Where solid biodegradable nanoparticles were a step up liposome, targeting nanoparticles opened a whole new field for drug delivery. In this article, we attempt to discuss how the pioneered technique is serving in the drug delivery to cardiovascular system and how with the manipulation of their properties, nanoparticles can be made to fulfill desired function. Also how nanocarriers are improving molecular imaging to help improve diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease is focused in this article.

  15. Local Drug Delivery to Prevent Restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Seedial, Stephen M.; Ghosh, Soumojit; Saunders, R. Scott; Suwanabol, Pasithorn A.; Shi, Xudong; Liu, Bo; Kent, K. Craig

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Despite significant advances in vascular biology, bioengineering and pharmacology, restenosis remains a limitation to the overall efficacy of vascular reconstructions, both percutaneous and open. Although the pathophysiology of intimal hyperplasia is complex, a number of drugs and/or molecular tools have been identified that can prevent restenosis. Moreover, the focal nature of this process lends itself to treatment with local drug administration. In this article we provide a broad overview of current and future techniques for local drug delivery that have been developed to prevent restenosis following vascular intervention. Methods A systematic electronic literature search using PubMed was performed for all accessible published articles through September 2012. In an effort to remain current, additional searches were performed for abstracts presented at relevant societal meetings, filed patents, clinical trials and funded NIH awards. Results The efficacy of local drug delivery has been demonstrated in the coronary circulation with the current clinical use of drug-eluting stents (DES). Until recently, however, DES were not found to be efficacious in the peripheral circulation. Further pursuit of intraluminal devices has led to the development of balloon-based technologies with a recent surge in trials involving drug-eluting balloons. Early data appears encouraging, particularly for treatment of lesions in the superficial femoral artery, with several devices having recently received the CE mark in Europe. Investigators have also explored periadventitial application of biomaterials containing anti-restenotic drugs, an approach that could be particularly useful for surgical bypass or endarterectomy. In the past systemic drug delivery has been unsuccessful, however, there has been recent exploration of intravenous delivery of drugs designed specifically to target injured or reconstructed arteries. Our review revealed a multitude of additional interesting

  16. Water-based preparation of spider silk films as drug delivery matrices.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Elisa; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia

    2015-09-10

    The main focus of this work was to obtain a drug delivery matrix characterized by biocompatibility, water insolubility and good mechanical properties. Moreover the preparation process has to be compatible with protein encapsulation and the obtained matrix should be able to sustain release a model protein. Spider silk proteins represent exceptional natural polymers due to their mechanical properties in combination with biocompatibility. As both hydrophobic and slowly biodegrading biopolymers, recombinant spider silk proteins fulfill the required properties for a drug delivery system. In this work, we present the preparation of eADF4(C16) films as drug delivery matrices without the use of any organic solvent. Water-based spider silk films were characterized in terms of protein secondary structure, thermal stability, zeta-potential, solubility, mechanical properties, and water absorption and desorption. Additionally, this study includes an evaluation of their application as a drug delivery system for both small molecular weight drugs and high molecular weight molecules such as proteins. Our investigation focused on possible improvements in the film's mechanical properties including plasticizers in the film matrix. Furthermore, different film designs were prepared, such as: monolayer, coated monolayer, multilayer (sandwich), and coated multilayer. The release of the model protein BSA from these new systems was studied. Results indicated that spider silk films are a promising protein drug delivery matrix, capable of releasing the model protein over 90 days with a release profile close to zero order kinetic. Such films could be used for several pharmaceutical and medical purposes, especially when mechanical strength of a drug eluting matrix is of high importance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation and characterization of metoprolol tartrate containing matrix type transdermal drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Malipeddi, Venkata Ramana; Awasthi, Rajendra; Ghisleni, Daniela Dal Molim; de Souza Braga, Marina; Kikuchi, Irene Satiko; de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha; Dua, Kamal

    2017-02-01

    The present study aimed to develop matrix-type transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) of metoprolol tartrate using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The transdermal films were evaluated for physical parameters, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), in vitro drug release, in vitro skin permeability, skin irritation test and stability studies. The films were found to be tough, non-sticky, easily moldable and possess good tensile strength. As the concentration of PVA was increased, the tensile strength of the films was also increased. Results of FTIR spectroscopy and DSC revealed the absence of any drug-polymer interactions. In vitro release of metoprolol followed zero-order kinetics and the mechanism of release was found to be diffusion rate controlled. In vitro release studies of metoprolol using Keshary-Chein (vertical diffusion cell) indicated 65.5 % drug was released in 24 h. In vitro skin permeation of metoprolol transdermal films showed 58.13 % of the drug was released after 24 h. In vitro skin permeation of metoprolol followed zero-order kinetics in selected formulations. The mechanism of release was found to be diffusion rate controlled. In a 22-day skin irritation test, tested formulation of transdermal films did not exhibit any allergic reactions, inflammation, or contact dermatitis. The transdermal films showed good stability in the 180-day stability study. It can be concluded that the TDDS of MPT can help in bypassing the first-pass effect and will provide patient improved compliance, without sacrificing the therapeutic advantages of the drugs.

  18. Novel drug delivery systems in pain therapy.

    PubMed

    Al Malyan, M; Becchi, C; Boncinelli, S; Ashammakhi, N

    2007-03-01

    Pain is an unpleasant sensory experience resulting from damage to bodily tissues. It is considered a significant public health problem because it affects 1/5 of the world population and causes loss of great amounts of money. Pain reflects a mixture of pathological, psychological and genetic conditions that need deep understanding to be efficiently treated. If under-treated, pain results in serious immune and metabolic problems. Pain management faces many problems that limit its control. For instance, efficiency of pain killers is limited, pain killers give rise to serious side effects and inability of drug administration methods to help in pain control. Technology can overcome some of these problems and the introduction of implantable controlled drug delivery systems (CDDS), manufactured from biodegradable materials, offers a solution. Implantable CDDS provide good level of pain control, as they continuously provide drug, reduce side effects and improve patients' compliance. Biodegradable type of implantable CDDS are polymer based devices that are fabricated to locally deliver drugs in a pre-designed manner. They are currently a focus of research in the field of pain therapy in order to explore their chance to offer an alternative to the conventional methods for drug delivery. This paper aims to highlight the dimensions of pain issue and to overview the basics of drug release from polymers used for CDDS in pain management. In addition, it discusses the recent advances in the technologically designed drug delivery systems in the field of pain medicine and their clinical applications. Future perspectives are also presented.

  19. Drug delivery system and breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colone, Marisa; Kaliappan, Subramanian; Calcabrini, Annarica; Tortora, Mariarosaria; Cavalieri, Francesca; Stringaro, Annarita

    2016-06-01

    Recently, nanomedicine has received increasing attention for its ability to improve the efficacy of cancer therapeutics. Nanosized polymer therapeutic agents offer the advantage of prolonged circulation in the blood stream, targeting to specific sites, improved efficacy and reduced side effects. In this way, local, controlled delivery of the drug will be achieved with the advantage of a high concentration of drug release at the target site while keeping the systemic concentration of the drug low, thus reducing side effects due to bioaccumulation. Various drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, liposomes, microparticles and implants have been demonstrated to significantly enhance the preventive/therapeutic efficacy of many drugs by increasing their bioavailability and targetability. As these carriers significantly increase the therapeutic effect of drugs, their administration would become less cost effective in the near future. The purpose of our research work is to develop a delivery system for breast cancer cells using a microvector of drugs. These results highlight the potential uses of these responsive platforms suited for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. At the request of all authors of the paper an updated version was published on 12 July 2016. The manuscript was prepared and submitted without Dr. Francesca Cavalieri's contribution and her name was added without her consent. Her name has been removed in the updated and re-published article.

  20. Plasmon resonant liposomes for controlled drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knights-Mitchell, Shellie S.; Romanowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Nanotechnology use in drug delivery promotes a reduction in systemic toxicity, improved pharmacokinetics, and better drug bioavailability. Liposomes continue to be extensively researched as drug delivery systems (DDS) with formulations such as Doxil® and Ambisome® approved by FDA and successfully marketed in the United States. However, the limited ability to precisely control release of active ingredients from these vesicles continues to challenge the broad implementation of this technology. Moreover, the full potential of the carrier to sequester drugs until it can reach its intended target has yet to be realized. Here, we describe a liposomal DDS that releases therapeutic doses of an anticancer drug in response to external stimulus. Earlier, we introduced degradable plasmon resonant liposomes. These constructs, obtained by reducing gold on the liposome surface, facilitate spatial and temporal release of drugs upon laser light illumination that ultimately induces an increase in temperature. In this work, plasmon resonant liposomes have been developed to stably encapsulate and retain doxorubicin at physiological conditions represented by isotonic saline at 37o C and pH 7.4. Subsequently, they are stimulated to release contents either by a 5o C increase in temperature or by laser illumination (760 nm and 88 mW/cm2 power density). Successful development of degradable plasmon resonant liposomes responsive to near-infrared light or moderate hyperthermia can provide a new delivery method for multiple lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs with pharmacokinetic profiles that limit clinical utility.

  1. Recent technologies in pulsatile drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Deepika; Raturi, Richa; Jain, Vikas; Bansal, Praveen; Singh, Ranjit

    2011-01-01

    Pulsatile drug delivery systems (PDDS) have attracted attraction because of their multiple benefits over conventional dosage forms. They deliver the drug at the right time, at the right site of action and in the right amount, which provides more benefit than conventional dosages and increased patient compliance. These systems are designed according to the circadian rhythm of the body, and the drug is released rapidly and completely as a pulse after a lag time. These products follow the sigmoid release profile characterized by a time period. These systems are beneficial for drugs with chronopharmacological behavior, where nocturnal dosing is required, and for drugs that show the first-pass effect. This review covers methods and marketed technologies that have been developed to achieve pulsatile delivery. Marketed technologies, such as PulsincapTM, Diffucaps®, CODAS®, OROS® and PULSYSTM, follow the above mechanism to render a sigmoidal drug release profile. Diseases wherein PDDS are promising include asthma, peptic ulcers, cardiovascular ailments, arthritis and attention deficit syndrome in children and hypercholesterolemia. Pulsatile drug delivery systems have the potential to bring new developments in the therapy of many diseases. PMID:23507727

  2. Nanoparticulate delivery systems for antiviral drugs.

    PubMed

    Lembo, David; Cavalli, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    Nanomedicine opens new therapeutic avenues for attacking viral diseases and for improving treatment success rates. Nanoparticulate-based systems might change the release kinetics of antivirals, increase their bioavailability, improve their efficacy, restrict adverse drug side effects and reduce treatment costs. Moreover, they could permit the delivery of antiviral drugs to specific target sites and viral reservoirs in the body. These features are particularly relevant in viral diseases where high drug doses are needed, drugs are expensive and the success of a therapy is associated with a patient's adherence to the administration protocol. This review presents the current status in the emerging area of nanoparticulate delivery systems in antiviral therapy, providing their definition and description, and highlighting some peculiar features. The paper closes with a discussion on the future challenges that must be addressed before the potential of nanotechnology can be translated into safe and effective antiviral formulations for clinical use.

  3. Biodegradable Hybrid Stomatocyte Nanomotors for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We report the self-assembly of a biodegradable platinum nanoparticle-loaded stomatocyte nanomotor containing both PEG-b-PCL and PEG-b-PS as a potential candidate for anticancer drug delivery. Well-defined stomatocyte structures could be formed even after incorporation of 50% PEG-b-PCL polymer. Demixing of the two polymers was expected at high percentage of semicrystalline poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), resulting in PCL domain formation onto the membrane due to different properties of two polymers. The biodegradable motor system was further shown to move directionally with speeds up to 39 μm/s by converting chemical fuel, hydrogen peroxide, into mechanical motion as well as rapidly delivering the drug to the targeted cancer cell. Uptake by cancer cells and fast doxorubicin drug release was demonstrated during the degradation of the motor system. Such biodegradable nanomotors provide a convenient and efficient platform for the delivery and controlled release of therapeutic drugs. PMID:28187254

  4. Intracranial drug delivery for subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Robert Loch; Leung, Ming; Tice, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Tice and colleagues pioneered site-specific, sustained-release drug delivery to the brain almost 30 years ago. Currently there is one drug approved for use in this manner. Clinical trials in subarachnoid hemorrhage have led to approval of nimodipine for oral and intravenous use, but other drugs, such as clazosentan, hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and magnesium, have not shown consistent clinical efficacy. We propose that intracranial delivery of drugs such as nimodipine, formulated in sustained-release preparations, are good candidates for improving outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage because they can be administered to patients that are already undergoing surgery and who have a self-limited condition from which full recovery is possible.

  5. Drug delivery strategies for poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Fahr, Alfred; Liu, Xiangli

    2007-07-01

    The drug candidates coming from combinatorial chemistry research and/or the drugs selected from biologically based high-throughput screening are quite often very lipophilic, as these drug candidates exert their pharmacological action at or in biological membranes or membrane-associated proteins. This challenges drug delivery institutions in industry or academia to develop carrier systems for the optimal oral and parenteral administration of these drugs. To mention only a few of the challenges for this class of drugs: their oral bioavailability is poor and highly variable, and carrier development for parenteral administration is faced with problems, including the massive use of surface-active excipients for solubilisation. Formulation specialists are confronted with an even higher level of difficulties when these drugs have to be delivered site specifically. This article addresses the emerging formulation designs for delivering of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  6. Development of near zero-order release PLGA-based microspheres of a novel antipsychotic.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinlong; Wang, Lexi; Fan, Chunyu; Yu, Kongtong; Liu, Ximing; Zhao, Xiaolei; Wang, Dan; Liu, Wenhua; Su, Zhengxing; Sun, Fengying; Li, Youxin

    2017-01-10

    The novel antipsychotic isoperidone, a prodrug of paliperidone, was designed to improve liposolubility for the development of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based microspheres to achieve near zero-order release behaviour in vivo. Microspheres with a smooth surface were obtained using the oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method and yielded a high encapsulation efficiency of 92%. Pharmacokinetic studies in beagle dogs showed a one-week plateau phase followed by a two-week quasi-zero-order release with no burst release. The in vitro release method with a good in vitro-in vivo correlation was also established. Pharmacodynamic evaluation was performed using the MK-801-induced schizophrenic behavioural mouse model, and the sustained suppressive effect lasted two weeks. The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) relationship of isoperidone microspheres was compared to that of oral administration of free drug. The results revealed a strong correlation between the plasma drug level and the antipsychotic effect. A stable drug plasma concentration was detected in mice both intraday and interday from 8 to 22 d after a single injection of isoperidone microspheres, and a sustained suppressive effect on the schizophrenic model was also observed. In comparison, the mouse group receiving oral daily administration exhibited more dose-dependent effects, and the pharmacological effect diminished rapidly in conjunction with a reduction of the plasma drug levels 8h after the last administration of isoperidone on day 3. The above results confirm the superiority of long-acting release over oral administration and indicate a valuable alternative for the clinical treatment of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Recent Perspectives in Ocular Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gaudana, Ripal; Jwala, J.; Boddu, Sai H. S.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy and physiology of the eye makes it a highly protected organ. Designing an effective therapy for ocular diseases, especially for the posterior segment, has been considered as a formidable task. Limitations of topical and intravitreal route of administration have challenged scientists to find alternative mode of administration like periocular routes. Transporter targeted drug delivery has generated a great deal of interest in the field because of its potential to overcome many barriers associated with current therapy. Application of nanotechnology has been very promising in the treatment of a gamut of diseases. In this review, we have briefly discussed several ocular drug delivery systems such as microemulsions, nanosuspensions, nanoparticles, liposomes, niosomes, dendrimers, implants, and hydrogels. Potential for ocular gene therapy has also been described in this article. In near future, a great deal of attention will be paid to develop non-invasive sustained drug release for both anterior and posterior segment eye disorders. A better understanding of nature of ocular diseases, barriers and factors affecting in vivo performance, would greatly drive the development of new delivery systems. Current momentum in the invention of new drug delivery systems hold a promise towards much improved therapies for the treatment of vision threatening disorders. PMID:18758924

  8. Carbon Nanotubes in Drug and Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Mahdi; Ghasemi, Amir; Mirkiani, Soroush; Moosavi Basri, Seyed Masoud; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2017-10-01

    Recent important discoveries and developments in nanotechnology have had a remarkable and ever-increasing impact on many industries, especially materials science, pharmaceuticals, and biotechnology. Within this book, the authors describe different features of carbon nanotubes, survey the properties of both the multi-walled and single-walled varieties, and cover their applications in drug and gene delivery.

  9. Optically generated ultrasound for enhanced drug delivery

    DOEpatents

    Visuri, Steven R.; Campbell, Heather L.; Da Silva, Luiz

    2002-01-01

    High frequency acoustic waves, analogous to ultrasound, can enhance the delivery of therapeutic compounds into cells. The compounds delivered may be chemotherapeutic drugs, antibiotics, photodynamic drugs or gene therapies. The therapeutic compounds are administered systemically, or preferably locally to the targeted site. Local delivery can be accomplished through a needle, cannula, or through a variety of vascular catheters, depending on the location of routes of access. To enhance the systemic or local delivery of the therapeutic compounds, high frequency acoustic waves are generated locally near the target site, and preferably near the site of compound administration. The acoustic waves are produced via laser radiation interaction with an absorbing media and can be produced via thermoelastic expansion, thermodynamic vaporization, material ablation, or plasma formation. Acoustic waves have the effect of temporarily permeabilizing the membranes of local cells, increasing the diffusion of the therapeutic compound into the cells, allowing for decreased total body dosages, decreased side effects, and enabling new therapies.

  10. Autonomous Rhythmic Drug Delivery Systems Based on Chemical and Biochemomechanical Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Ronald A.

    While many drug delivery systems target constant, or zero-order drug release, certain drugs and hormones must be delivered in rhythmic pulses in order to achieve their optimal effect. Here we describe studies with two model autonomous rhythmic delivery systems. The first system is driven by a pH oscillator that modulates the ionization state of a model drug, benzoic acid, which can permeate through a lipophilic membrane when the drug is uncharged. The second system is based on a nonlinear negative feedback instability that arises from coupling of swelling of a hydrogel membrane to an enzymatic reaction, with the hydrogel controlling access of substrate to the enzyme, and the enzyme's product controlling the hydrogel's swelling state. The latter system, whose autonomous oscillations are driven by glucose at constant external activity, is shown to deliver gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in rhythmic pulses, with periodicity of the same order as observed in sexually mature adult humans. Relevant experimental results and some mathematical models are reviewed.

  11. Nuclear Drug Delivery for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    similar results were obtained. 10.;)UI:SJI:IJI Il:l1lVl;) Polymer -drug conjugate, nuclear drug delivery, drug resistance, breast cancer 10...conjugates (5 Months): a. Synthesize linear polyethyleneimine (pEl, Mn ~5-10kDa) by ring-opening polymerization . b. React the PEl with proper 5-membered...functionalized CR-PEI. Milestone 1: Obtaining the FA- or LHRH-functionalized TCRC with optimal charge-reversal kinetics. TASK 2. To in vitro and in vivo evaluate

  12. Structural DNA nanotechnology for intelligent drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jie; Liu, Huajie; Su, Shao; Wang, Lianhui; Huang, Wei; Fan, Chunhai

    2014-11-01

    Drug delivery carriers have been popularly employed to improve solubility, stability, and efficacy of chemical and biomolecular drugs. Despite the rapid progress in this field, it remains a great challenge to develop an ideal carrier with minimal cytotoxicity, high biocompatibility and intelligence for targeted controlled release. The emergence of DNA nanotechnology offers unprecedented opportunities in this regard. Due to the unparalleled self-recognition properties of DNA molecules, it is possible to create numerous artificial DNA nanostructures with well-defined structures and DNA nanodevices with precisely controlled motions. More importantly, recent studies have proven that DNA nanostructures possess greater permeability to the membrane barrier of cells, which pave the way to developing new drug delivery carriers with nucleic acids, are summarized. In this Concept, recent advances on the design and fabrication of both static and dynamic DNA nanostructures, and the use of these nanostructures for the delivery of various types of drugs, are highlighted. It is also demonstrated that dynamic DNA nanostructures provide the required intelligence to realize logically controlled drug release. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Chitosan magnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Assa, Farnaz; Jafarizadeh-Malmiri, Hoda; Ajamein, Hossein; Vaghari, Hamideh; Anarjan, Navideh; Ahmadi, Omid; Berenjian, Aydin

    2017-06-01

    The potential of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in drug delivery systems (DDSs) is mainly related to its magnetic core and surface coating. These coatings can eliminate or minimize their aggregation under physiological conditions. Also, they can provide functional groups for bioconjugation to anticancer drugs and/or targeted ligands. Chitosan, as a derivative of chitin, is an attractive natural biopolymer from renewable resources with the presence of reactive amino and hydroxyl functional groups in its structure. Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs), due to their huge surface to volume ratio as compared to the chitosan in its bulk form, have outstanding physico-chemical, antimicrobial and biological properties. These unique properties make chitosan NPs a promising biopolymer for the application of DDSs. In this review, the current state and challenges for the application magnetic chitosan NPs in drug delivery systems were investigated. The present review also revisits the limitations and commercial impediments to provide insight for future works.

  14. Multifunctional High Drug Loading Nanocarriers for Cancer Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Erlei

    2011-12-01

    Most anticancer drugs have poor water-solubility, rapid blood clearance, low tumor-selectivity and severe systemic toxicity to healthy tissues. Thus, polymeric nanocarriers have been widely explored for anticancer drugs to solve these problems. However, polymer nanocarriers developed to date still suffer drawbacks including low drug loading contents, premature drug release, slow cellular internalization, slow intracellular drug release and thereby low therapeutic efficiency in cancer thermotherapy. Accordingly, in this dissertation, functional nanocapsules and nanoparticles including high drug loading liposome-like nanocapsules, high drug loading phospholipid-mimic nanocapsules with fast intracellular drug release, high drug loading charge-reversal nanocapsules, TAT based long blood circulation nanoparticles and charge-reversal nuclear targeted nanoparticles are designed and synthesized. These functional carriers have advantages such as high drug loading contents without premature drug release, fast cellular internalization and intracellular drug release, nuclear targeted delivery and long blood circulation. As a result, all these drug carriers show much higher in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activities.

  15. Recent advances in small molecule drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kidane, Argaw; Bhatt, Padmanabh P

    2005-08-01

    The majority of new drugs, and new drug products, being developed and marketed by the pharmaceutical industry are small molecules. Oral administration remains the most common route of delivering such drugs, typically in the form of immediate-release tablets or capsules. While the immediate-release dosage forms dominate the market today, more specialized and rationalized products incorporating the concepts of drug delivery are being developed to overcome the physicochemical, physiological and pharmacological challenges inherent with the drugs, and to improve the treatment regimens for the patients. Today, these specialized concepts are increasingly being applied to first-generation products and not just products intended for the life cycle management of the franchise.

  16. Multiscale modeling of transdermal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rim, Jee Eun

    2006-04-01

    This study addresses the modeling of transdermal diffusion of drugs, to better understand the permeation of molecules through the skin, and especially the stratum corneum, which forms the main permeation barrier of the skin. In transdermal delivery of systemic drugs, the drugs diffuse from a patch placed on the skin through the epidermis to the underlying blood vessels. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin and can be further divided into the stratum corneum (SC) and the viable epidermis layers. The SC consists of keratinous cells (corneocytes) embedded in the lipid multi-bilayers of the intercellular space. It is widely accepted that the barrier properties of the skin mostly arises from the ordered structure of the lipid bilayers. The diffusion path, at least for lipophilic molecules, seems to be mainly through the lipid bilayers. Despite the advantages of transdermal drug delivery compared to other drug delivery routes such as oral dosing and injections, the low percutaneous permeability of most compounds is a major difficulty in the wide application of transdermal drug delivery. In fact, many transdermal drug formulations include one or more permeation enhancers that increase the permeation of the drug significantly. During the last two decades, many researchers have studied percutaneous absorption of drugs both experimentally and theoretically. However, many are based on pharmacokinetic compartmental models, in which steady or pseudo-steady state conditions are assumed, with constant diffusivity and partitioning for single component systems. This study presents a framework for studying the multi-component diffusion of drugs coupled with enhancers through the skin by considering the microstructure of the stratum corneum (SC). A multiscale framework of modeling the transdermal diffusion of molecules is presented, by first calculating the microscopic diffusion coefficient in the lipid bilayers of the SC using molecular dynamics (MD). Then a

  17. Drug delivery optimization through Bayesian networks.

    PubMed Central

    Bellazzi, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes how Bayesian Networks can be used in combination with compartmental models to plan Recombinant Human Erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) delivery in the treatment of anemia of chronic uremic patients. Past measurements of hematocrit or hemoglobin concentration in a patient during the therapy can be exploited to adjust the parameters of a compartmental model of the erythropoiesis. This adaptive process allows more accurate patient-specific predictions, and hence a more rational dosage planning. We describe a drug delivery optimization protocol, based on our approach. Some results obtained on real data are presented. PMID:1482938

  18. DNA Nanotechnology-Enabled Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinqin; Li, Hua; Wang, Lihua; Gu, Hongzhou; Fan, Chunhai

    2018-02-21

    Over the past decade, we have seen rapid advances in applying nanotechnology in biomedical areas including bioimaging, biodetection, and drug delivery. As an emerging field, DNA nanotechnology offers simple yet powerful design techniques for self-assembly of nanostructures with unique advantages and high potential in enhancing drug targeting and reducing drug toxicity. Various sequence programming and optimization approaches have been developed to design DNA nanostructures with precisely engineered, controllable size, shape, surface chemistry, and function. Potent anticancer drug molecules, including Doxorubicin and CpG oligonucleotides, have been successfully loaded on DNA nanostructures to increase their cell uptake efficiency. These advances have implicated the bright future of DNA nanotechnology-enabled nanomedicine. In this review, we begin with the origin of DNA nanotechnology, followed by summarizing state-of-the-art strategies for the construction of DNA nanostructures and drug payloads delivered by DNA nanovehicles. Further, we discuss the cellular fates of DNA nanostructures as well as challenges and opportunities for DNA nanostructure-based drug delivery.

  19. Limited Efficiency of Drug Delivery to Specific Intracellular Organelles Using Subcellularly "Targeted" Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Maity, Amit Ranjan; Stepensky, David

    2016-01-04

    Many drugs have been designed to act on intracellular targets and to affect intracellular processes inside target cells. For the desired effects to be exerted, these drugs should permeate target cells and reach specific intracellular organelles. This subcellular drug targeting approach has been proposed for enhancement of accumulation of these drugs in target organelles and improved efficiency. This approach is based on drug encapsulation in drug delivery systems (DDSs) and/or their decoration with specific targeting moieties that are intended to enhance the drug/DDS accumulation in the intracellular organelle of interest. During recent years, there has been a constant increase in interest in DDSs targeted to specific intracellular organelles, and many different approaches have been proposed for attaining efficient drug delivery to specific organelles of interest. However, it appears that in many studies insufficient efforts have been devoted to quantitative analysis of the major formulation parameters of the DDSs disposition (efficiency of DDS endocytosis and endosomal escape, intracellular trafficking, and efficiency of DDS delivery to the target organelle) and of the resulting pharmacological effects. Thus, in many cases, claims regarding efficient delivery of drug/DDS to a specific organelle and efficient subcellular targeting appear to be exaggerated. On the basis of the available experimental data, it appears that drugs/DDS decoration with specific targeting residues can affect their intracellular fate and result in preferential drug accumulation within an organelle of interest. However, it is not clear whether these approaches will be efficient in in vivo settings and be translated into preclinical and clinical applications. Studies that quantitatively assess the mechanisms, barriers, and efficiencies of subcellular drug delivery and of the associated toxic effects are required to determine the therapeutic potential of subcellular DDS targeting.

  20. Transdermal drug delivery: from micro to nano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegoraro, Carla; MacNeil, Sheila; Battaglia, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    Delivery across skin offers many advantages compared to oral or intravenous routes of drug administration. Skin however is highly impermeable to most molecules on the basis of size, hydrophilicity, lipophilicity and charge. For this reason it is often necessary to temporarily alter the barrier properties of skin for effective administration. This can be done by applying chemical enhancers, which alter the lipid structure of the top layer of skin (the stratum corneum, SC), by applying external forces such as electric currents and ultrasounds, by bypassing the stratum corneum via minimally invasive microneedles or by using nano-delivery vehicles that can cross and deliver their payload to the deeper layers of skin. Here we present a critical summary of the latest technologies used to increase transdermal delivery.

  1. Microneedle Coating Techniques for Transdermal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Haj-Ahmad, Rita; Khan, Hashim; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Rasekh, Manoochehr; Hussain, Amjad; Walsh, Susannah; Li, Xiang; Chang, Ming-Wei; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    Drug administration via the transdermal route is an evolving field that provides an alternative to oral and parenteral routes of therapy. Several microneedle (MN) based approaches have been developed. Among these, coated MNs (typically where drug is deposited on MN tips) are a minimally invasive method to deliver drugs and vaccines through the skin. In this review, we describe several processes to coat MNs. These include dip coating, gas jet drying, spray coating, electrohydrodynamic atomisation (EHDA) based processes and piezoelectric inkjet printing. Examples of process mechanisms, conditions and tested formulations are provided. As these processes are independent techniques, modifications to facilitate MN coatings are elucidated. In summary, the outcomes and potential value for each technique provides opportunities to overcome formulation or dosage form limitations. While there are significant developments in solid degradable MNs, coated MNs (through the various techniques described) have potential to be utilized in personalized drug delivery via controlled deposition onto MN templates. PMID:26556364

  2. Nanogel Carrier Design for Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Eckmann, D. M.; Composto, R. J.; Tsourkas, A.; Muzykantov, V. R.

    2014-01-01

    Polymer-based nanogel formulations offer features attractive for drug delivery, including ease of synthesis, controllable swelling and viscoelasticity as well as drug loading and release characteristics, passive and active targeting, and the ability to formulate nanogel carriers that can respond to biological stimuli. These unique features and low toxicity make the nanogels a favorable option for vascular drug targeting. In this review, we address key chemical and biological aspects of nanogel drug carrier design. In particular, we highlight published studies of nanogel design, descriptions of nanogel functional characteristics and their behavior in biological models. These studies form a compendium of information that supports the scientific and clinical rationale for development of this carrier for targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:25485112

  3. Nanotechnology Approaches for Ocular Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingguo; Kambhampati, Siva P.; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M.

    2013-01-01

    Blindness is a major health concern worldwide that has a powerful impact on afflicted individuals and their families, and is associated with enormous socio-economical consequences. The Middle East is heavily impacted by blindness, and the problem there is augmented by an increasing incidence of diabetes in the population. An appropriate drug/gene delivery system that can sustain and deliver therapeutics to the target tissues and cells is a key need for ocular therapies. The application of nanotechnology in medicine is undergoing rapid progress, and the recent developments in nanomedicine-based therapeutic approaches may bring significant benefits to address the leading causes of blindness associated with cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and retinal degeneration. In this brief review, we highlight some promising nanomedicine-based therapeutic approaches for drug and gene delivery to the anterior and posterior segments. PMID:23580849

  4. Diatomite silica nanoparticles for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, Immacolata; Terracciano, Monica; Martucci, Nicola M.; De Stefano, Luca; Migliaccio, Nunzia; Tatè, Rosarita; Rendina, Ivo; Arcari, Paolo; Lamberti, Annalisa; Rea, Ilaria

    2014-07-01

    Diatomite is a natural fossil material of sedimentary origin, constituted by fragments of diatom siliceous skeletons. In this preliminary work, the properties of diatomite nanoparticles as potential system for the delivery of drugs in cancer cells were exploited. A purification procedure, based on thermal treatments in strong acid solutions, was used to remove inorganic and organic impurities from diatomite and to make them a safe material for medical applications. The micrometric diatomite powder was reduced in nanoparticles by mechanical crushing, sonication, and filtering. Morphological analysis performed by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy reveals a particles size included between 100 and 300 nm. Diatomite nanoparticles were functionalized by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and labeled by tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate. Different concentrations of chemically modified nanoparticles were incubated with cancer cells and confocal microscopy was performed. Imaging analysis showed an efficient cellular uptake and homogeneous distribution of nanoparticles in cytoplasm and nucleus, thus suggesting their potentiality as nanocarriers for drug delivery.

  5. Polysaccharide-Based Micelles for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Wardwell, Patricia R.; Bader, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Delivery of hydrophobic molecules and proteins has been an issue due to poor bioavailability following administration. Thus, micelle carrier systems are being investigated to improve drug solubility and stability. Due to problems with toxicity and immunogenicity, natural polysaccharides are being explored as substitutes for synthetic polymers in the development of new micelle systems. By grafting hydrophobic moieties to the polysaccharide backbone, self-assembled micelles can be readily formed in aqueous solution. Many polysaccharides also possess inherent bioactivity that can facilitate mucoadhesion, enhanced targeting of specific tissues, and a reduction in the inflammatory response. Furthermore, the hydrophilic nature of some polysaccharides can be exploited to enhance circulatory stability. This review will highlight the advantages of polysaccharide use in the development of drug delivery systems and will provide an overview of the polysaccharide-based micelles that have been developed to date. PMID:24300453

  6. Biomimetics in drug delivery systems: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Sheikhpour, Mojgan; Barani, Leila; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh

    2017-05-10

    Today, the advanced drug delivery systems have been focused on targeted drug delivery fields. The novel drug delivery is involved with the improvement of the capacity of drug loading in drug carriers, cellular uptake of drug carriers, and the sustained release of drugs within target cells. In this review, six groups of therapeutic drug carriers including biomimetic hydrogels, biomimetic micelles, biomimetic liposomes, biomimetic dendrimers, biomimetic polymeric carriers and biomimetic nanostructures, are studied. The subject takes advantage of the biomimetic methods of productions or the biomimetic techniques for the surface modifications, similar to what accrues in natural cells. Moreover, the effects of these biomimetic approaches for promoting the drug efficiency in targeted drug delivery are visible. The study demonstrates that the fabrication of biomimetic nanocomposite drug carriers could noticeably promote the efficiency of drugs in targeted drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Minimally invasive microneedles for ocular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Thakur Singh, Raghu Raj; Tekko, Ismaiel; McAvoy, Kathryn; McMillan, Hannah; Jones, David; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2017-04-01

    Anterior and posterior segment eye diseases are highly challenging to treat, due to the barrier properties and relative inaccessibility of the ocular tissues. Topical eye drops and systemically delivered treatments result in low bioavailability. Alternatively, direct injection of medication into the ocular tissues is clinically employed to overcome the barrier properties, but injections cause significant tissue damage and are associated with a number of untoward side effects and poor patient compliance. Microneedles (MNs) has been recently introduced as a minimally invasive means for localizing drug formulation within the target ocular tissues with greater precision and accuracy than the hypodermic needles. Areas covered: This review article seeks to provide an overview of a range of challenges that are often faced to achieve efficient ocular drug levels within targeted tissue(s) of the eye. It also describes the problems encountered using conventional hypodermic needle-based ocular injections for anterior and posterior segment drug delivery. It discusses research carried out in the field of MNs, to date. Expert opinion: MNs can aid in localization of drug delivery systems within the selected ocular tissue. And, hold the potential to revolutionize the way drug formulations are administered to the eye. However, the current limitations and challenges of MNs application warrant further research in this field to enable its widespread clinical application.

  8. PEGylated Silk Nanoparticles for Anticancer Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Wongpinyochit, Thidarat; Uhlmann, Petra; Urquhart, Andrew J; Seib, F Philipp

    2015-11-09

    Silk has a robust clinical track record and is emerging as a promising biopolymer for drug delivery, including its use as nanomedicine. However, silk-based nanomedicines still require further refinements for full exploitation of their potential; the application of "stealth" design principals is especially necessary to support their evolution. The aim of this study was to develop and examine the potential of PEGylated silk nanoparticles as an anticancer drug delivery system. We first generated B. mori derived silk nanoparticles by driving β-sheet assembly (size 104 ± 1.7 nm, zeta potential -56 ± 5.6 mV) using nanoprecipitation. We then surface grafted polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the fabricated silk nanoparticles and verified the aqueous stability and morphology of the resulting PEGylated silk nanoparticles. We assessed the drug loading and release behavior of these nanoparticles using clinically established and emerging anticancer drugs. Overall, PEGylated silk nanoparticles showed high encapsulation efficiency (>93%) and a pH-dependent release over 14 days. Finally, we demonstrated significant cytotoxicity of drug loaded silk nanoparticles applied as single and combination nanomedicines to human breast cancer cells. In conclusion, these results, taken together with prior silk nanoparticle data, support a viable future for silk-based nanomedicines.

  9. Drug Delivery for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    1. Introduction 4 2. Keywords 4 3. Accomplishments 4 4. Impact 15 5. Changes/Problems 16 6. Products 17 7. Participants & Other... enzymatically and under adverse pH levels • Diffusion dropped dramatically after 6 days Figure 8 shows that the diffusion rate is independent of loaded...efficacy of the device using in-vitro and DRG studies. This data will help researchers/ industry to further develop drug delivery efforts in other areas

  10. Intracarotid Delivery of Drugs: The Potential and the Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shailendra; Meyers, Phillip M.; Ornstein, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    The major efforts to selectively deliver drugs to the brain in the last decade have relied on smart molecular techniques to penetrate the blood brain barrier while intraarterial drug delivery has drawn relatively little attention. In the last decade there have been rapid advances in endovascular techniques. Modern endovascular procedures can permit highly targeted drug delivery by intracarotid route. Intracarotid drug delivery can be the primary route of drug delivery or it could be used to facilitate the delivery of smart-neuropharmaceuticals. There have been few attempts to systematically understand the kinetics of intracarotid drugs. Anecdotal data suggests that intracarotid drug delivery is effective in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm, thromboembolic strokes, and neoplasms. Neuroanesthesiologists are frequently involved in the care of such high-risk patients. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the applications of intracarotid drug delivery and the unusual kinetics of intracarotid drugs. PMID:18719453

  11. A model of axonal transport drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey V.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper a model of targeted drug delivery by means of active (motor-driven) axonal transport is developed. The model is motivated by recent experimental research by Filler et al. (A.G. Filler, G.T. Whiteside, M. Bacon, M. Frederickson, F.A. Howe, M.D. Rabinowitz, A.J. Sokoloff, T.W. Deacon, C. Abell, R. Munglani, J.R. Griffiths, B.A. Bell, A.M.L. Lever, Tri-partite complex for axonal transport drug delivery achieves pharmacological effect, Bmc Neuroscience 11 (2010) 8) that reported synthesis and pharmacological efficiency tests of a tri-partite complex designed for axonal transport drug delivery. The developed model accounts for two populations of pharmaceutical agent complexes (PACs): PACs that are transported retrogradely by dynein motors and PACs that are accumulated in the axon at the Nodes of Ranvier. The transitions between these two populations of PACs are described by first-order reactions. An analytical solution of the coupled system of transient equations describing conservations of these two populations of PACs is obtained by using Laplace transform. Numerical results for various combinations of parameter values are presented and their physical significance is discussed.

  12. Surface Modifications of Titanium Implants by Multilayer Bioactive Coatings with Drug Delivery Potential: Antimicrobial, Biological, and Drug Release Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordikhani, Farideh; Zustiak, Silviya Petrova; Simchi, Abdolreza

    2016-04-01

    Recent strategies to locally deliver antimicrobial agents to combat implant-associated infections—one of the most common complications in orthopedic surgery—are gaining interest. However, achieving a controlled release profile over a desired time frame remains a challenge. In this study, we present an innovative multifactorial approach to combat infections which comprises a multilayer chitosan/bioactive glass/vancomycin nanocomposite coating with an osteoblastic potential and a drug delivery capacity. The bioactive drug-eluting coating was prepared on the surface of titanium foils by a multistep electrophoretic deposition technique. The adopted deposition strategy allowed for a high antibiotic loading of 1038.4 ± 40.2 µg/cm2. The nanocomposite coating exhibited a suppressed burst release with a prolonged sustained vancomycin release for up to 6 weeks. Importantly, the drug release profile was linear with respect to time, indicating a zero-order release kinetics. An in vitro bactericidal assay against Staphylococcus aureus confirmed that releasing the drug reduced the risk of bacterial infection. Excellent biocompatibility of the developed coating was also demonstrated by in vitro cell studies with a model MG-63 osteoblast cell line.

  13. Drug Delivery to the Ischemic Brain

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Brandon J.; Ronaldson, Patrick T.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia occurs when blood flow to the brain is insufficient to meet metabolic demand. This can result from cerebral artery occlusion that interrupts blood flow, limits CNS supply of oxygen and glucose, and causes an infarction/ischemic stroke. Ischemia initiates a cascade of molecular events inneurons and cerebrovascular endothelial cells including energy depletion, dissipation of ion gradients, calcium overload, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and accumulation of ions and fluid. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is associated with cerebral ischemia and leads to vasogenic edema, a primary cause of stroke-associated mortality. To date, only a single drug has received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for acute ischemic stroke treatment, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). While rt-PA therapy restores perfusion to ischemic brain, considerable tissue damage occurs when cerebral blood flow is re-established. Therefore, there is a critical need for novel therapeutic approaches that can “rescue” salvageable brain tissue and/or protect BBB integrity during ischemic stroke. One class of drugs that may enable neural cell rescue following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury is the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (i.e., statins). Understanding potential CNS drug delivery pathways for statins is critical to their utility in ischemic stroke. Here, we review molecular pathways associated with cerebral ischemia and novel approaches for delivering drugs to treat ischemic disease. Specifically, we discuss utility of endogenous BBB drug uptake transporters such as organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs/Oatps) and nanotechnology-based carriers for optimization of CNS drug delivery. Overall, this chapter highlights state-of-the-art technologies that may improve pharmacotherapy of cerebral ischemia. PMID:25307217

  14. Drug Delivery to CNS: Challenges and Opportunities with Emphasis on Biomaterials Based Drug Delivery Strategies.

    PubMed

    Khambhla, Ekta; Shah, Viral; Baviskar, Kalpesh

    2016-01-01

    The current epoch has witnessed a lifestyle impregnated with stress, which is a major cause of several neurological disorders. High morbidity and mortality rate due to neurological diseases and disorders have generated a huge social impact. Despite voluminous research, patients suffering from fatal and/or debilitating CNS diseases such as brain tumors, HIV, encephalopathy, Alzheimer's, epilepsy, Parkinson's, migraine and multiple sclerosis outnumbered those suffering from systemic cancer or heart diseases. The brain being a highly sensitive neuronal organ, has evolved with vasculature barriers, which regulates the efflux and influx of substances to CNS. Treatment of CNS diseases/disorders is challenging because of physiologic, metabolic and biochemical obstacles created by these barriers which comprise mainly of BBB and BCFB. The inability of achieving therapeutically active concentration has become the bottleneck level difficulty, hampering the therapeutic efficiency of several promising drug candidates for CNS related disorders. Parallel maturation of an effective CNS drug delivery strategy with CNS drug discovery is the need of the hour. Recently, the focus of the pharmaceutical community has aggravated in the direction of developing novel and more efficient drug delivery systems, giving the potential of more effective and safer CNS therapies. The present review outlines several hurdles in drug delivery to the CNS along with ideal physicochemical properties desired in drug substance/formulation for CNS delivery. The review also focuses on different conventional and novel strategies for drug delivery to the CNS. The article also assesses and emphasizes on possible benefits of biomaterial based formulations for drug delivery to the CNS.

  15. Magnetic nanoparticles and thermally responsive polymer for targeted hyperthermia and sustained anti-cancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sarah Y; Liu, Michelle C; Kang, Kyung A

    2013-01-01

    A novel cancer treatment method is being designed using a combination of iron oxide (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles (IONPs) and Pluronic F-127 (PF127). IONPs have been used for heating tumors via an alternating electromagnetic (AEM) field. PF127 is a polymer possessing thermo-reversible and concentration-dependent gelation properties in aqueous solutions. PF127, as a gel, is an attractive drug delivery vehicle due to its zero-order drug release property. The combination of IONPs and PF127 would allow both short-term, tumor-specific, hyperthermic treatment, and long-term sustained drug delivery. As a preliminary study, the gelling and heating properties of IONPs/PF127 mixtures were investigated: 18% (w/w) PF127 was found to be ideal for our purpose because it gels at 28.0°C, i.e., it would be injectable at room temperature (20-25°C) and forms gel upon injection into the body (37°C). IONPs in PF127 showed little effect on gelation temperatures. The heating performance of IONPs in PF127 slightly, but linearly decreased with PF127. In the IONP concentration range of 0.01-0.05% (w/v) mixed with PF127 at 18% (w/w), the heating performance increased linearly with the increase in IONP concentration.

  16. Microemulsions based transdermal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Vadlamudi, Harini C; Narendran, Hyndavi; Nagaswaram, Tejeswari; Yaga, Gowri; Thanniru, Jyotsna; Yalavarthi, Prasanna R

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of microemulsions by Jack H Schulman, there has been huge progress made in applying microemulsion systems in plethora of research and industrial process. Microemulsions are optically isotropic systems consisting of water, oil and amphiphile. These systems are beneficial due to their thermodynamic stability, optical clarity, ease of preparation, higher diffusion and absorption rates. Moreover, it has been reported that the ingredients of microemulsion can effectively overcome the diffusion barrier and penetrate through the stratum corneum of the skin. Hence it becomes promising for both transdermal and dermal drug delivery. However, low viscosity of microemulsion restrains its applicability in pharmaceutical industry. To overcome the above drawback, the low viscous microemulsions were added to viscous gel bases to potentiate its applications as topical drug delivery systems so that various drug related toxic effects and erratic drug absorption can be avoided. The present review deals with the microemulsions, various techniques involved in the development of organic nanoparticles. The review emphasized on microemulsion based systems such as hydrogels and organogels. The physicochemical characteristics, mechanical properties, rheological and stability principles involved in microemulsion based viscous gels were also explored.

  17. Silk Electrogel Based Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qianrui

    Gastric cancer has become a global pandemic and there is imperative to develop efficient therapies. Oral dosing strategy is the preferred route to deliver drugs for treating the disease. Recent studies suggested silk electro hydrogel, which is pH sensitive and reversible, has potential as a vehicle to deliver the drug in the stomach environment. The aim of this study is to establish in vitro electrogelation e-gel based silk gel as a gastroretentive drug delivery system. We successfully extended the duration of silk e-gel in artificial gastric juice by mixing silk solution with glycerol at different ratios before the electrogelation. Structural analysis indicated the extended duration was due to the change of beta sheet content. The glycerol mixed silk e-gel had good doxorubicin loading capability and could release doxorubicin in a sustained-release profile. Doxorubicin loaded silk e-gels were applied to human gastric cancer cells. Significant cell viability decrease was observed. We believe that with further characterization as well as functional analysis, the silk e-gel system has the potential to become an effective vehicle for gastric drug delivery applications.

  18. Liposomal temozolomide drug delivery using convection enhanced delivery.

    PubMed

    Nordling-David, Mirjam M; Yaffe, Roni; Guez, David; Meirow, Hadar; Last, David; Grad, Etty; Salomon, Sharona; Sharabi, Shirley; Levi-Kalisman, Yael; Golomb, Gershon; Mardor, Yael

    2017-09-10

    Even though some progress in diagnosis and treatment has been made over the years, there is still no definitive treatment available for Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Convection-enhanced delivery (CED), a continuous infusion-mediated pressure gradient via intracranial catheters, studied in clinical trials, enables in situ drug concentrations several orders of magnitude greater than those achieved by systemic administration. We hypothesized that the currently limited efficacy of CED could be enhanced by a liposomal formulation, thus achieving enhanced drug localization to the tumor site with minimal toxicity. We hereby describe a novel approach for treating GBM by CED of liposomes containing the known chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide (TMZ). A new technique for encapsulating TMZ in hydrophilic (PEGylated) liposomes, characterized by nano-size (121nm), low polydispersity index (<0.13) and with near-neutral charge (-ʒ,0.2mV), has been developed. Co-infusion of PEGylated Gd-DTPA liposomes and TMZ-liposomes by CED in GBM bearing rats, resulted in enhanced tumor detection with longer residence time than free Gd-DTPA. Treatment of GBM-bearing rats with either TMZ solution or TMZ-liposomes resulted in greater tumor inhibition and significantly higher survival. However, the longer survival and smaller tumor volumes exhibited by TMZ liposomal treatment in comparison to TMZ in solution were insignificant (p<0.053); and only significantly lower edema volumes were observed. Thus, there are no clear-cut advantages to use a liposomal delivery system of TMZ via CED over a drug solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Advanced drug delivery systems for antithrombotic agents

    PubMed Central

    Greineder, Colin F.; Howard, Melissa D.; Carnemolla, Ronald; Cines, Douglas B.

    2013-01-01

    Despite continued achievements in antithrombotic pharmacotherapy, difficulties remain in managing patients at high risk for both thrombosis and hemorrhage. Utility of antithrombotic agents (ATAs) in these settings is restricted by inadequate pharmacokinetics and narrow therapeutic indices. Use of advanced drug delivery systems (ADDSs) may help to circumvent these problems. Various nanocarriers, affinity ligands, and polymer coatings provide ADDSs that have the potential to help optimize ATA pharmacokinetics, target drug delivery to sites of thrombosis, and sense pathologic changes in the vascular microenvironment, such as altered hemodynamic forces, expression of inflammatory markers, and structural differences between mature hemostatic and growing pathological clots. Delivery of ATAs using biomimetic synthetic carriers, host blood cells, and recombinant fusion proteins that are activated preferentially at sites of thrombus development has shown promising outcomes in preclinical models. Further development and translation of ADDSs that spare hemostatic fibrin clots hold promise for extending the utility of ATAs in the management of acute thrombotic disorders through rapid, transient, and targeted thromboprophylaxis. If the potential benefit of this technology is to be realized, a systematic and concerted effort is required to develop clinical trials and translate the use of ADDSs to the clinical arena. PMID:23798715

  20. Targeted delivery of drugs for liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Wang, Ji-yao

    2009-05-01

    Liver fibrosis and its end stage disease cirrhosis are a major cause of mortality and morbidity around the world. There is no effective pharmaceutical intervention for liver fibrosis at present. Many drugs that show potent antifibrotic activities in vitro often show only minor effects in vivo because of insufficient concentrations of drugs accumulating around the target cell and their adverse effects as a result of affecting other non-target cells. Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play a critical role in the fibrogenesis of liver, so they are the target cells of antifibrotic therapy. Several kinds of targeted delivery system that could target the receptors expressed on HSC have been designed, and have shown an attractive targeted potential in vivo. After being carried by these delivery systems, many agents showed a powerful antifibrotic effect in animal models of liver fibrosis. These targeted delivery systems provide a new pathway for the therapy of liver fibrosis. The characteristics of theses targeted carriers are reviewed in this paper.

  1. Protein-Based Nanomedicine Platforms for Drug Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Ham, Aihui; Tang, Zhiwen; Wu, Hong

    2009-08-03

    Drug delivery systems have been developed for many years, however some limitations still hurdle the pace of going to clinical phase, for example, poor biodistribution, drug molecule cytotoxicity, tissue damage, quick clearance from the circulation system, solubility and stability of drug molecules. To overcome the limitations of drug delivery, biomaterials have to be developed and applied to drug delivery to protect the drug molecules and to enhance the drug’s efficacy. Protein-based nanomedicine platforms for drug delivery are platforms comprised of naturally self-assembled protein subunits of the same protein or a combination of proteins making up a complete system. They aremore » ideal for drug delivery platforms due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability coupled with low toxicity. A variety of proteins have been used and characterized for drug delivery systems including the ferritin/apoferritin protein cage, plant derived viral capsids, the small Heat shock protein (sHsp) cage, albumin, soy and whey protein, collagen, and gelatin. There are many different types and shapes that have been prepared to deliver drug molecules using protein-based platforms including the various protein cages, microspheres, nanoparticles, hydrogels, films, minirods and minipellets. There are over 30 therapeutic compounds that have been investigated with protein-based drug delivery platforms for the potential treatment of various cancers, infectious diseases, chronic diseases, autoimmune diseases. In protein-based drug delivery platforms, protein cage is the most newly developed biomaterials for drug delivery and therapeutic applications. Their uniform sizes, multifunctions, and biodegradability push them to the frontier for drug delivery. In this review, the recent strategic development of drug delivery has been discussed with a special emphasis upon the polymer based, especially protein-based nanomedicine platforms for drug delivery. The advantages and disadvantages are

  2. Topical Drug Delivery for Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jonathan; Lane, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis is a multifactorial disorder that may be heterogeneous in presentation and clinical course. While the introduction of endoscopic sinus surgery revolutionized surgical management and has led to significantly improved patient outcomes, medical therapy remains the foundation of long-term care of chronic rhinosinusitis, particularly in surgically recalcitrant cases. A variety of devices and pharmaceutical agents have been developed to apply topical medical therapy to the sinuses, taking advantage of the access provided by endoscopic surgery. The goal of topical therapy is to address the inflammation, infection, and mucociliary dysfunction that underlies the disease. Major factors that impact success include the patient’s sinus anatomy and the dynamics of the delivery device. Despite a growing number of topical treatment options, the evidence-based literature to support their use is limited. In this article, we comprehensively review current delivery methods and the available topical agents. We also discuss biotechnological advances that promise enhanced delivery in the future, and evolving pharmacotherapeutical compounds that may be added to rhinologist’s armamentarium. A complete understand of topical drug delivery is increasingly essential to the management of chronic rhinosinusitis when traditional forms of medical therapy and surgery have failed. PMID:23525506

  3. Multiscale benchmarking of drug delivery vectors.

    PubMed

    Summers, Huw D; Ware, Matthew J; Majithia, Ravish; Meissner, Kenith E; Godin, Biana; Rees, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Cross-system comparisons of drug delivery vectors are essential to ensure optimal design. An in-vitro experimental protocol is presented that separates the role of the delivery vector from that of its cargo in determining the cell response, thus allowing quantitative comparison of different systems. The technique is validated through benchmarking of the dose-response of human fibroblast cells exposed to the cationic molecule, polyethylene imine (PEI); delivered as a free molecule and as a cargo on the surface of CdSe nanoparticles and Silica microparticles. The exposure metrics are converted to a delivered dose with the transport properties of the different scale systems characterized by a delivery time, τ. The benchmarking highlights an agglomeration of the free PEI molecules into micron sized clusters and identifies the metric determining cell death as the total number of PEI molecules presented to cells, determined by the delivery vector dose and the surface density of the cargo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Osmotic pellet system comprising osmotic core and in-process amorphized drug in polymer-surfactant layer for controlled delivery of poorly water-soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Saindane, Nilesh; Vavia, Pradeep

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to develop controlled porosity osmotic system for poorly water-soluble drug based on drug in polymer-surfactant layer technology. A poorly water-soluble drug, glipizide (GZ), was selected as the model drug. The technology involved core of the pellets containing osmotic agent coated with drug dispersed in polymer and surfactant layer, finally coated with release-retardant layer with pore former. The optimized drug-layer-coated pellets were evaluated for solubility of GZ at different pH conditions and characterized for amorphous nature of the drug by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry. The optimized release-retardant layer pellets were evaluated for in vitro drug release at different pH, hydrodynamic, and osmolality conditions. The optimized drug layer showed improvement in solubility (10 times in pH 1.2, 11 times in pH 4.5, and 21 times in pH 6.8), whereas pellets coated with cellulose acetate (15.0%, w/w, weight gain) with pore former triethyl citrate (10.0%, w/w, of polymer) demonstrated zero-order drug release for 24 h at different pH conditions; moreover, retardation of drug release was observed with increment of osmolality. This system could be a platform technology for controlled delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Drug accumulation by means of noninvasive magnetic drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuzawa, M.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2011-11-01

    The medication is one of the most general treatment methods, but drugs diffuse in the normal tissues other than the target part by the blood circulation. Therefore, side effect in the medication, particularly for a drug with strong effect such as anti-cancer drug, are a serious issue. Drug Delivery System (DDS) which accumulates the drug locally in the human body is one of the techniques to solve the side-effects. Magnetic Drug Delivery System (MDDS) is one of the active DDSs, which uses the magnetic force. The objective of this study is to accumulate the ferromagnetic drugs noninvasively in the deep part of the body by using MDDS. It is necessary to generate high magnetic field and magnetic gradient at the target part to reduce the side-effects to the tissues with no diseases. The biomimetic model was composed, which consists of multiple model organs connected with diverged blood vessel model. The arrangement of magnetic field was examined to accumulate ferromagnetic drug particles in the target model organ by using a superconducting bulk magnet which can generate high magnetic fields. The arrangement of magnet was designed to generate high and stable magnetic field at the target model organ. The accumulation experiment of ferromagnetic particles has been conducted. In this study, rotating HTS bulk magnet around the axis of blood vessels by centering on the target part was suggested, and the model experiment for magnet rotation was conducted. As a result, the accumulation of the ferromagnetic particles to the target model organ in the deep part was confirmed.

  6. Recent advances in chitosan-based nanoparticulate pulmonary drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Nazrul; Ferro, Vito

    2016-07-01

    The advent of biodegradable polymer-encapsulated drug nanoparticles has made the pulmonary route of administration an exciting area of drug delivery research. Chitosan, a natural biodegradable and biocompatible polysaccharide has received enormous attention as a carrier for drug delivery. Recently, nanoparticles of chitosan (CS) and its synthetic derivatives have been investigated for the encapsulation and delivery of many drugs with improved targeting and controlled release. Herein, recent advances in the preparation and use of micro-/nanoparticles of chitosan and its derivatives for pulmonary delivery of various therapeutic agents (drugs, genes, vaccines) are reviewed. Although chitosan has wide applications in terms of formulations and routes of drug delivery, this review is focused on pulmonary delivery of drug-encapsulated nanoparticles of chitosan and its derivatives. In addition, the controversial toxicological effects of chitosan nanoparticles for lung delivery will also be discussed.

  7. Formulation of Poloxamers for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bodratti, Andrew M.; Alexandridis, Paschalis

    2018-01-01

    Poloxamers, also known as Pluronics®, are block copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), which have an amphiphilic character and useful association and adsorption properties emanating from this. Poloxamers find use in many applications that require solubilization or stabilization of compounds and also have notable physiological properties, including low toxicity. Accordingly, poloxamers serve well as excipients for pharmaceuticals. Current challenges facing nanomedicine revolve around the transport of typically water-insoluble drugs throughout the body, followed by targeted delivery. Judicious design of drug delivery systems leads to improved bioavailability, patient compliance and therapeutic outcomes. The rich phase behavior (micelles, hydrogels, lyotropic liquid crystals, etc.) of poloxamers makes them amenable to multiple types of processing and various product forms. In this review, we first present the general solution behavior of poloxamers, focusing on their self-assembly properties. This is followed by a discussion of how the self-assembly properties of poloxamers can be leveraged to encapsulate drugs using an array of processing techniques including direct solubilization, solvent displacement methods, emulsification and preparation of kinetically-frozen nanoparticles. Finally, we conclude with a summary and perspective. PMID:29346330

  8. In Situ Forming Polymeric Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Madan, M.; Bajaj, A.; Lewis, S.; Udupa, N.; Baig, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    In situ forming polymeric formulations are drug delivery systems that are in sol form before administration in the body, but once administered, undergo gelation in situ, to form a gel. The formation of gels depends on factors like temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultra violet irradiation, from which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner. Various polymers that are used for the formulation of in situ gels include gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin, chitosan, poly(DL-lactic acid), poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and poly-caprolactone. The choice of solvents like water, dimethylsulphoxide, N-methyl pyrrolidone, triacetin and 2-pyrrolidone for these formulations depends on the solubility of polymer used. Mainly in situ gels are administered by oral, ocular, rectal, vaginal, injectable and intraperitoneal routes. The in situ gel forming polymeric formulations offer several advantages like sustained and prolonged action in comparison to conventional drug delivery systems. The article presents a detailed review of these types of polymeric systems, their evaluation, advancements and their commercial formulations. From a manufacturing point of view, the production of such devices is less complex and thus lowers the investment and manufacturing cost. PMID:20490289

  9. Fluorescence optical imaging in anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Etrych, Tomáš; Lucas, Henrike; Janoušková, Olga; Chytil, Petr; Mueller, Thomas; Mäder, Karsten

    2016-03-28

    In the past several decades, nanosized drug delivery systems with various targeting functions and controlled drug release capabilities inside targeted tissues or cells have been intensively studied. Understanding their pharmacokinetic properties is crucial for the successful transition of this research into clinical practice. Among others, fluorescence imaging has become one of the most commonly used imaging tools in pre-clinical research. The development of increasing numbers of suitable fluorescent dyes excitable in the visible to near-infrared wavelengths of the spectrum has significantly expanded the applicability of fluorescence imaging. This paper focuses on the potential applications and limitations of non-invasive imaging techniques in the field of drug delivery, especially in anticancer therapy. Fluorescent imaging at both the cellular and systemic levels is discussed in detail. Additionally, we explore the possibility for simultaneous treatment and imaging using theranostics and combinations of different imaging techniques, e.g., fluorescence imaging with computed tomography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Advancement in integrin facilitated drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Arosio, Daniela; Casagrande, Cesare

    2016-02-01

    The research of integrin-targeted anticancer agents has recorded important advancements in ingenious design of delivery systems, based either on the prodrug approach, or on nanoparticle carriers, but for now, none of these has reached a clinical stage of development. Past work in this area has been extensively reviewed by us and others. Thus, the purpose and scope of the present review is to survey the advancement reported in the last 3years, with focus on innovative delivery systems that appear to afford openings for future developments. These systems exploit the labelling with conventional and novel integrin ligands for targeting the interface of cancer cells and of endothelial cells involved in cancer angiogenesis, with the proteins of the extracellular matrix, in the circulation, in tissues, and in tumour stroma, as the site of progression and metastatic evolution of the disease. Furthermore, these systems implement the expertise in the development of nanomedicines to the purpose of achieving preferential biodistribution and uptake in cancer tissues, internalisation in cancer cells, and release of the transported drugs at intracellular sites. The assessment of the value of controlling these factors, and their combination, for future developments requires support of biological testing in appropriate mechanistic models, but also imperatively demand confirmation in therapeutically relevant in vivo models for biodistribution, efficacy, and lack of off-target effects. Thus, among many studies, we have tried to point out the results supported by relevant in vivo studies, and we have emphasised in specific sections those addressing the medical needs of drug delivery to brain tumours, as well as the delivery of oligonucleotides modulating gene-dependent pathological mechanism. The latter could constitute the basis of a promising third branch in the therapeutic armamentarium against cancer, in addition to antibody-based agents and to cytotoxic agents. Copyright © 2015

  11. Biomedical Imaging in Implantable Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haoyan; Hernandez, Christopher; Goss, Monika; Gawlik, Anna; Exner, Agata A.

    2015-01-01

    Implantable drug delivery systems (DDS) provide a platform for sustained release of therapeutic agents over a period of weeks to months and sometimes years. Such strategies are typically used clinically to increase patient compliance by replacing frequent administration of drugs such as contraceptives and hormones to maintain plasma concentration within the therapeutic window. Implantable or injectable systems have also been investigated as a means of local drug administration which favors high drug concentration at a site of interest, such as a tumor, while reducing systemic drug exposure to minimize unwanted side effects. Significant advances in the field of local DDS have led to increasingly sophisticated technology with new challenges including quantification of local and systemic pharmacokinetics and implant-body interactions. Because many of these sought-after parameters are highly dependent on the tissue properties at the implantation site, and rarely represented adequately with in vitro models, new nondestructive techniques that can be used to study implants in situ are highly desirable. Versatile imaging tools can meet this need and provide quantitative data on morphological and functional aspects of implantable systems. The focus of this review article is an overview of current biomedical imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound imaging, optical imaging, X-ray and computed tomography (CT), and their application in evaluation of implantable DDS. PMID:25418857

  12. Impact of nanotechnology on drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Farokhzad, Omid C; Langer, Robert

    2009-01-27

    Nanotechnology is the engineering and manufacturing of materials at the atomic and molecular scale. In its strictest definition from the National Nanotechnology Initiative, nanotechnology refers to structures roughly in the 1-100 nm size regime in at least one dimension. Despite this size restriction, nanotechnology commonly refers to structures that are up to several hundred nanometers in size and that are developed by top-down or bottom-up engineering of individual components. Herein, we focus on the application of nanotechnology to drug delivery and highlight several areas of opportunity where current and emerging nanotechnologies could enable entirely novel classes of therapeutics.

  13. Floating drug delivery systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Arora, Shweta; Ali, Javed; Ahuja, Alka; Khar, Roop K; Baboota, Sanjula

    2005-10-19

    The purpose of writing this review on floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) was to compile the recent literature with special focus on the principal mechanism of floatation to achieve gastric retention. The recent developments of FDDS including the physiological and formulation variables affecting gastric retention, approaches to design single-unit and multiple-unit floating systems, and their classification and formulation aspects are covered in detail. This review also summarizes the in vitro techniques, in vivo studies to evaluate the performance and application of floating systems, and applications of these systems. These systems are useful to several problems encountered during the development of a pharmaceutical dosage form.

  14. Recent advances of controlled drug delivery using microfluidic platforms.

    PubMed

    Sanjay, Sharma T; Zhou, Wan; Dou, Maowei; Tavakoli, Hamed; Ma, Lei; Xu, Feng; Li, XiuJun

    2018-03-15

    Conventional systematically-administered drugs distribute evenly throughout the body, get degraded and excreted rapidly while crossing many biological barriers, leaving minimum amounts of the drugs at pathological sites. Controlled drug delivery aims to deliver drugs to the target sites at desired rates and time, thus enhancing the drug efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and bioavailability while maintaining minimal side effects. Due to a number of unique advantages of the recent microfluidic lab-on-a-chip technology, microfluidic lab-on-a-chip has provided unprecedented opportunities for controlled drug delivery. Drugs can be efficiently delivered to the target sites at desired rates in a well-controlled manner by microfluidic platforms via integration, implantation, localization, automation, and precise control of various microdevice parameters. These features accordingly make reproducible, on-demand, and tunable drug delivery become feasible. On-demand self-tuning dynamic drug delivery systems have shown great potential for personalized drug delivery. This review presents an overview of recent advances in controlled drug delivery using microfluidic platforms. The review first briefly introduces microfabrication techniques of microfluidic platforms, followed by detailed descriptions of numerous microfluidic drug delivery systems that have significantly advanced the field of controlled drug delivery. Those microfluidic systems can be separated into four major categories, namely drug carrier-free micro-reservoir-based drug delivery systems, highly integrated carrier-free microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems, drug carrier-integrated microfluidic systems, and microneedles. Microneedles can be further categorized into five different types, i.e. solid, porous, hollow, coated, and biodegradable microneedles, for controlled transdermal drug delivery. At the end, we discuss current limitations and future prospects of microfluidic platforms for controlled drug delivery. Copyright

  15. Novel swellable polymer of orchidaceae family for gastroretentive drug delivery of famotidine

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Mahboubeh; Nyamathulla, Shaik; Karimian, Hamed; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop hydrophilic, gastroretentive matrix tablets of famotidine with good floating and swelling properties. A novel gastroretentive drug delivery formulation was designed using salep, also known as salepi, a flour obtained from grinding dried palmate tubers of Orchis morio var mascula (Orchidaceae family). The main polysaccharide content of salep is glucomannan, highly soluble in cold and hot water, which forms a viscous solution. Salep was characterized for physicochemical properties, thermal stability, chemical interaction, and surface morphology using X-ray diffraction analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Ten different formulations (S1–S10) were prepared using famotidine to salep ratios from 1:0.5 to 1:5. Results demonstrated that all formulations were able to sustain the drug release for more than 24 hours. The S5 formulation, with a famotidine to salep ratio of 1:2.5, had the shortest floating lag time of 35 seconds and 100% drug release within 24 hours. The dissolution data were fitted into popular mathematical models to assess the mechanism of drug release. S5 showed Zero order release (R=0.9746) with Higuchi diffusion (R=0.9428). We conclude that salep, a novel polymer, can be used in controlled release formulations to sustain release for 24 hours, due to inherent swelling and gelling properties. PMID:25246773

  16. Biopolymers as transdermal drug delivery systems in dermatology therapy.

    PubMed

    Basavaraj, K H; Johnsy, George; Navya, M A; Rashmi, R; Siddaramaiah

    2010-01-01

    The skin is considered a complex organ for drug delivery because of its structure. Drug delivery systems are designed for the controlled release of drugs through the skin into the systemic circulation, maintaining consistent efficacy and reducing the dose of the drugs and their related side effects. Transdermal drug delivery represents one of the most rapidly advancing areas of novel drug delivery. The excellent impervious nature of the skin is the greatest challenge that must be overcome for successful drug delivery. Today, polymers have been proven to be successful for long-term drug delivery applications as no single polymer can satisfy all of the requirements. Biopolymers in the field of dermal application are rare and the mechanisms that affect skin absorption are almost unknown. Biopolymers are widely used as drug delivery systems, but as such the use of biopolymers as drug delivery systems in dermatologic therapy is still in progress. Commonly used biopolymers include hydrocolloids, alginates, hydrogels, polyurethane, collagen, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), chitosan, proteins and peptides, pectin, siRNAs, and hyaluronic acid. These new and exciting methods for drug delivery are already increasing the number and quality of dermal and transdermal therapies. This article reviews current research on biopolymers and focuses on their potential as drug carriers, particularly in relation to the dermatologic aspects of their use.

  17. The Research Progress of Targeted Drug Delivery Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Jiayin; Ting, Xizi Liang; Zhu, Junjie

    2017-06-01

    Targeted drug delivery system (DDS) means to selectively transport drugs to targeted tissues, organs, and cells through a variety of drugs carrier. It is usually designed to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of conventional drugs and to overcome problems such as limited solubility, drug aggregation, poor bio distribution and lack of selectivity, controlling drug release carrier and to reduce normal tissue damage. With the characteristics of nontoxic and biodegradable, it can increase the retention of drug in lesion site and the permeability, improve the concentration of the drug in lesion site. at present, there are some kinds of DDS using at test phase, such as slow controlled release drug delivery system, targeted drug delivery systems, transdermal drug delivery system, adhesion dosing system and so on. This paper makes a review for DDS.

  18. Smart particles for noble drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Park, Cheolyoung; Kim, Jihoon; Jang, Seunghyun; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Ko, Young Chun; Sohn, Honglae

    2010-05-01

    Optically encoded smart particles were prepared for noble drug delivery materials. Distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) porous silicon (PSi) was generated by applying a computer-generated pseudo-square wave current waveform. This DBR PSi film was lifted off from the Si substrate and thermally oxidized to convert PSi to porous silicon dioxide (PSD). DBR PSD film was derivatized with 20(S)-Camptothecin (CPT) and fractured by ultrasono-method to give smart particles. DBR PSD smart particles exhibited a sharp photonic band gap in the optical reflectivity spectrum. Optical characteristic of PSD smart particles retained DBR photonic property in aqueous buffer solution. The release of CPT and change of reflection wavelength were measured by UV-vis and reflectance spectrometer, respectively. The intensity of differential peak from reflection resonances of the smart particles was increased with a drug release. The blue shift of reflection peak resulted in the decrease of refractive index of PSD smart particles during the drug release. The concentration of released drug exhibited an linear relationship with a release time.

  19. Polymeric micelles for multi-drug delivery in cancer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyunah; Lai, Tsz Chung; Tomoda, Keishiro; Kwon, Glen S

    2015-02-01

    Drug combinations are common in cancer treatment and are rapidly evolving, moving beyond chemotherapy combinations to combinations of signal transduction inhibitors. For the delivery of drug combinations, i.e., multi-drug delivery, major considerations are synergy, dose regimen (concurrent versus sequential), pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and safety. In this contribution, we review recent research on polymeric micelles for multi-drug delivery in cancer. In concurrent drug delivery, polymeric micelles deliver multi-poorly water-soluble anticancer agents, satisfying strict requirements in solubility, stability, and safety. In sequential drug delivery, polymeric micelles participate in pretreatment strategies that "prime" solid tumors and enhance the penetration of secondarily administered anticancer agent or nanocarrier. The improved delivery of multiple poorly water-soluble anticancer agents by polymeric micelles via concurrent or sequential regimens offers novel and interesting strategies for drug combinations in cancer treatment.

  20. Diatomite silica nanoparticles for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Diatomite is a natural fossil material of sedimentary origin, constituted by fragments of diatom siliceous skeletons. In this preliminary work, the properties of diatomite nanoparticles as potential system for the delivery of drugs in cancer cells were exploited. A purification procedure, based on thermal treatments in strong acid solutions, was used to remove inorganic and organic impurities from diatomite and to make them a safe material for medical applications. The micrometric diatomite powder was reduced in nanoparticles by mechanical crushing, sonication, and filtering. Morphological analysis performed by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy reveals a particles size included between 100 and 300 nm. Diatomite nanoparticles were functionalized by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and labeled by tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate. Different concentrations of chemically modified nanoparticles were incubated with cancer cells and confocal microscopy was performed. Imaging analysis showed an efficient cellular uptake and homogeneous distribution of nanoparticles in cytoplasm and nucleus, thus suggesting their potentiality as nanocarriers for drug delivery. PACS 87.85.J81.05.Rm; 61.46. + w PMID:25024689

  1. Diatomite silica nanoparticles for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Immacolata; Terracciano, Monica; Martucci, Nicola M; De Stefano, Luca; Migliaccio, Nunzia; Tatè, Rosarita; Rendina, Ivo; Arcari, Paolo; Lamberti, Annalisa; Rea, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Diatomite is a natural fossil material of sedimentary origin, constituted by fragments of diatom siliceous skeletons. In this preliminary work, the properties of diatomite nanoparticles as potential system for the delivery of drugs in cancer cells were exploited. A purification procedure, based on thermal treatments in strong acid solutions, was used to remove inorganic and organic impurities from diatomite and to make them a safe material for medical applications. The micrometric diatomite powder was reduced in nanoparticles by mechanical crushing, sonication, and filtering. Morphological analysis performed by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy reveals a particles size included between 100 and 300 nm. Diatomite nanoparticles were functionalized by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and labeled by tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate. Different concentrations of chemically modified nanoparticles were incubated with cancer cells and confocal microscopy was performed. Imaging analysis showed an efficient cellular uptake and homogeneous distribution of nanoparticles in cytoplasm and nucleus, thus suggesting their potentiality as nanocarriers for drug delivery. 87.85.J81.05.Rm; 61.46. + w.

  2. Vaults Engineered for Hydrophobic Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Buehler, Daniel C.; Toso, Daniel B.; Kickhoefer, Valerie A.; Zhou, Z. Hong

    2013-01-01

    The vault nanoparticle is one of the largest known ribonucleoprotein complexes in the sub-100 nm range. Highly conserved and almost ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes, vaults form a large nanocapsule with a barrel-shaped morphology surrounding a large hollow interior. These properties make vaults an ideal candidate for development into a drug delivery vehicle. In this study, we report the first example of using vaults towards this goal. We engineered recombinant vaults to encapsulate the highly insoluble and toxic hydrophobic compound All-trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA) using a vault binding lipoprotein complex that forms a lipid bilayer nanodisk. These recombinant vaults offer protection to the encapsulated ATRA from external elements. Furthermore, a cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) reconstruction shows the vault binding lipoprotein complex sequestered within the vault lumen. Finally, these ATRA loaded vaults have enhanced cytotoxicity against the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. The ability to package therapeutic compounds into the vault is an important achievement toward their development into a viable and versatile platform for drug delivery. PMID:21506266

  3. Adapalene microemulsion for transfollicular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Gaurav; Zhou, Yingcong; Banga, Ajay K

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a microemulsion formulation of adapalene for transfollicular delivery. A pseudoternary phase diagram was developed for microemulsion consisting of oleic acid as oil phase, tween 20 as surfactant, Transcutol® as cosurfactant, and deionized water. Differential tape stripping and confocal laser scanning microscopy were performed to determine the penetration of microemulsion through hair follicles. Transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, polarizing light microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to characterize the microstructures of microemulsion. The pH and viscosity of the microemulsions were also determined. Permeation studies were carried out in vitro on porcine ear skin over a period of 24 h using Franz diffusion cells. The drug penetration in the hair follicles increased from 0.109 ± 0.03 to 0.292 ± 0.094 μg, as the microstructure of microemulsion shifted from oil-in-water to bi-continuous, with increase in water content of microemulsion. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images suggested that hair follicles provided the path for transfollicular permeation of adapalene microemulsion. These results suggest that microemulsion penetrated through hair follicles and are promising for transfollicular drug delivery. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Nanoscale coordination polymers for anticancer drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Rachel Huxford

    This dissertation reports the synthesis and characterization of nanoscale coordination polymers (NCPs) for anticancer drug delivery. Nanoparticles have been explored in order to address the limitations of small molecule chemotherapeutics. NCPs have been investigated as drug delivery vehicles as they can exhibit the same beneficial properties as the bulk metal-organic frameworks as well as interesting characteristics that are unique to nanomaterials. Gd-MTX (MTX = methotrexate) NCPs with a MTX loading of 71.6 wt% were synthesized and stabilized by encapsulation within a lipid bilayer containing anisamide (AA), a small molecule that targets sigma receptors which are overexpressed in many cancer tissues. Functionalization with AA allows for targeted delivery and controlled release to cancer cells, as shown by enhanced efficacy against leukemia cells. The NCPs were doped with Ru(bpy)32+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), and this formulation was utilized as an optical imaging agent by confocal microscopy. NCPs containing the chemotherapeutic pemetrexed (PMX) were synthesized using different binding metals. Zr-based materials could not be stabilized by encapsulation with a lipid bilayer, and Gd-based materials showed that PMX had degraded during synthesis. However, Hf-based NCPs containing 19.7 wt% PMX were stabilized by a lipid coating and showed in vitro efficacy against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Enhanced efficacy was observed for formulations containing AA. Additionally, NCP formulations containing the cisplatin prodrug disuccinatocisplatin were prepared; one of these formulations could be stabilized by encapsulation within a lipid layer. Coating with a lipid layer doped with AA rendered this formulation an active targeting agent. The resulting formulation proved more potent than free cisplatin in NSCLC cell lines. Improved NCP uptake was demonstrated by confocal microscopy and competitive binding assays. Finally, a Pt(IV) oxaliplatin prodrug was

  5. Environmentally Responsive Systems for Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Marcos L; Borghi-Pangoni, Fernanda B; Junqueira, Mariana V; de Souza Ferreira, Sabrina B; da Silva, Jessica B

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, the development of the environmentally responsive systems for drug delivery has been well regarded, with enormous potential in different applications. <P><P> Methods: These environmentally sensitive, smart, intelligent formulations have the ability to alter their physical properties in response to small changes in physical or chemical conditions, such as temperature, glucose, pH, ultrasound, light, electric field and redox potential with a huge potential in drug delivery systems. The use of formulations containing smart materials enables to carry the drug to the target tissue, cells and release in a triggered way. Consequently, they have demonstrated several advantages like decreased dose frequency, ease of preparation and administration, prolonged release with reduced side effects, as well as, reduced costs when compared to conventional processes for industrial applications. In this sense, many patents have deposited, displaying different pharmaceutical devices using responsive systems. <P><P> Results: There are more than twenty-five patents deposited about thermoresponsive systems. Furthermore, a few number of patents within glucose responsive, ultrasound responsive and light responsive deposited. There also are about eight patents that are pH-responsive, four as electric-field responsive. Most of them cover more than one type of stimuli. <P><P> Conclusion: Therefore, in this review, since 1975 to 2016, we have categorized, reviewed and discussed the patents, applications, pharmaceutical dosage forms, the importance and perspectives of this environmentally responsive approach as potentially useful therapeutic modality. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Engineering bioceramic microstructure for customized drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco Gomez, Hernando Jose

    One of the most efficient approaches to treat cancer and infection is to use biomaterials as a drug delivery system (DDS). The goal is for the material to provide a sustained release of therapeutic drug dose locally to target the ill tissue without affecting other organs. Silica Calcium Phosphate nano composite (SCPC) is a drug delivery platform that successfully demonstrated the ability to bind and release several therapeutics including antibiotics, anticancer drugs, and growth factors. The aim of the present work is to analyze the role of SCPC microstructure on drug binding and release kinetics. The main crystalline phases of SCPC are alpha-cristobalite (SiO2, Cris) and beta-rhenanite (NaCaPO4, Rhe); therefore, these two phases were prepared and characterized separately. Structural and compositional features of Cris, Rhe and SCPC bioceramics demonstrated a significant influence on the loading capacity and release kinetics profile of Vancomycin (Vanc) and Cisplatin (Cis). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses demonstrated that the P-O functional group in Rhe and SCPC has high affinity to the (C=O and N-H) of Vanc and (N-H and O-H) of Cis. By contrast, a weak chemical interaction between the Si-O functional group in Cris and SCPC and the two drugs was observed. Vanc loading per unit surface area increased in the order 8.00 microg Vanc/m2 for Rhe > 4.49 microg Vanc /m2 for SCPC>3.01 microg Vanc /m2 for Cris (p<0.05). Cis loading capacity increased in the order 8.59 microg Vanc /m2 for Cris, 17.8 microg Vanc/m2 for Rhe and 6.03 microg Vanc /m2 for SCPC (p<0.05). Drug release kinetics was dependent on the carrier as well as on the kind of drug. Different burst release and sustained release rates were measured for Vanc and Cis from the same carrier. The percentages of drug amount released from Cris, Rhe and SCPC during the burst stage (the first 2h) were: 50%, 50%, and 46% of Vanc; and 53.4%, 36.6%, and 30.6 % of Cis, respectively. Burst release was

  7. Drug delivery with microsecond laser pulses into gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, Hanqun; Casperson, Lee W.; Shearin, Alan; Gregory, Kenton W.; Prahl, Scott A.

    1996-07-01

    Photoacoustic drug delivery is a technique for localized drug delivery by laser-induced hydrodynamic pressure following cavitation bubble expansion and collapse. Photoacoustic drug delivery was investigated on gelatin-based thrombus models with planar and cylindrical geometries by use of one microsecond laser pulses. Solutions of a hydrophobic dye in mineral oil permitted monitoring of delivered colored oil into clear gelatin-based thrombus models. Cavitation bubble development and photoacoustic drug delivery were visualized with flash photography. This study demonstrated that cavitation is the governing mechanism for photoacoustic drug delivery, and the deepest penetration of colored oil in gels followed the bubble collapse. Spatial distribution measurements revealed that colored oil could be driven a few millimeters into the gels in both axial and radial directions, and the penetration was less than 500 mu m when the gelatin structure was not fractured. localized drug delivery, cavitation bubble, laser thrombolysis.

  8. Advances in Lymphatic Imaging and Drug Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Nune, Satish K.; Gunda, Padmaja; Majeti, Bharat K.

    2011-09-10

    Cancer remains the second leading cause of death after heart disease in the US. While metastasized cancers such as breast, prostate, and colon are incurable, before their distant spread, these diseases will have invaded the lymphatic system as a first step in their progression. Hence, proper evaluation of the disease state of the lymphatics which drain a tumor site is crucial to staging and the formation of a treatment plan. Current lymphatic imaging modalities with visible dyes and radionucleotide tracers offer limited sensitivity and poor resolution; however, newer tools using nanocarriers, quantum dots, and magnetic resonance imaging promise to vastlymore » improve the staging of lymphatic spread without needless biopsies. Concurrent with the improvement of lymphatic imaging agents, has been the development of drug carriers that can localize chemotherapy to the lymphatic system, thus improving the treatment of localized disease while minimizing the exposure of healthy organs to cytotoxic drugs. This review will focus on polymeric systems that have been developed for imaging and drug delivery to the lymph system, how these new devices improve upon current technologies, and where further improvement is needed.« less

  9. Albumin nanostructures as advanced drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Mahdi; Bahrami, Sajad; Ravari, Soodeh Baghaee; Zangabad, Parham Sahandi; Mirshekari, Hamed; Bozorgomid, Mahnaz; Shahreza, Somayeh; Sori, Masume; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the biggest impacts that the nanotechnology has made on medicine and biology, has been in the area of drug delivery systems (DDSs). Many drugs suffer from serious problems concerning insolubility, instability in biological environments, poor uptake into cells and tissues, suboptimal selectivity for targets and unwanted side effects. Nanocarriers can be designed as DDSs to overcome many of these drawbacks. One of the most versatile building blocks to prepare these nanocarriers is the ubiquitous, readily available and inexpensive protein, serum albumin. Areas covered This review covers the use of different types of albumin (human, bovine, rat, and chicken egg) to prepare nanoparticle and microparticle-based structures to bind drugs. Various methods have been used to modify the albumin structure. A range of targeting ligands can be attached to the albumin that can be recognized by specific cell receptors that are expressed on target cells or tissues. Expert opinion The particular advantages of albumin used in DDSs include ready availability, ease of chemical modification, good biocompatibility, and low immunogenicity. The regulatory approvals that have been received for several albumin-based therapeutic agents suggest that this approach will continue to be successfully explored. PMID:27216915

  10. Optimization studies on compression coated floating-pulsatile drug delivery of bisoprolol.

    PubMed

    Jagdale, Swati C; Bari, Nilesh A; Kuchekar, Bhanudas S; Chabukswar, Aniruddha R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to design and optimize compression coated floating pulsatile drug delivery systems of bisoprolol. Floating pulsatile concept was applied to increase the gastric residence of the dosage form having lag phase followed by a burst release. The prepared system consisted of two parts: a core tablet containing the active ingredient and an erodible outer shell with gas generating agent. The rapid release core tablet (RRCT) was prepared by using superdisintegrants with active ingredient. Press coating of optimized RRCT was done by polymer. A 3² full factorial design was used for optimization. The amount of Polyox WSR205 and Polyox WSR N12K was selected as independent variables. Lag period, drug release, and swelling index were selected as dependent variables. Floating pulsatile release formulation (FPRT) F13 at level 0 (55 mg) for Polyox WSR205 and level +1 (65 mg) for Polyox WSR N12K showed lag time of 4 h with >90% drug release. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, and P < 0.05 was statistically significant. Release kinetics of the optimized formulation best fitted the zero order model. In vivo study confirms burst effect at 4 h in indicating the optimization of the dosage form.

  11. Optimization Studies on Compression Coated Floating-Pulsatile Drug Delivery of Bisoprolol

    PubMed Central

    Jagdale, Swati C.; Bari, Nilesh A.; Kuchekar, Bhanudas S.; Chabukswar, Aniruddha R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to design and optimize compression coated floating pulsatile drug delivery systems of bisoprolol. Floating pulsatile concept was applied to increase the gastric residence of the dosage form having lag phase followed by a burst release. The prepared system consisted of two parts: a core tablet containing the active ingredient and an erodible outer shell with gas generating agent. The rapid release core tablet (RRCT) was prepared by using superdisintegrants with active ingredient. Press coating of optimized RRCT was done by polymer. A 32 full factorial design was used for optimization. The amount of Polyox WSR205 and Polyox WSR N12K was selected as independent variables. Lag period, drug release, and swelling index were selected as dependent variables. Floating pulsatile release formulation (FPRT) F13 at level 0 (55 mg) for Polyox WSR205 and level +1 (65 mg) for Polyox WSR N12K showed lag time of 4 h with >90% drug release. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, and P < 0.05 was statistically significant. Release kinetics of the optimized formulation best fitted the zero order model. In vivo study confirms burst effect at 4 h in indicating the optimization of the dosage form. PMID:24367788

  12. Design, Development, and Optimization of Dexibuprofen Microemulsion Based Transdermal Reservoir Patches for Controlled Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Fatima Ramzan; Yousuf, Rabia Ismail; Ali, Syed Abid; Imtiaz, Muhammad Suleman; Bashir, Lubna; Naz, Shazia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a reservoir-type transdermal patch for a controlled delivery of dexibuprofen and to evaluate its in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in Albino Wistar rats. In order to develop these patches, six formulations of dexibuprofen microemulsion comprising ethyl oleate, Tween 80: PG (2 : 1), and water were prepared by simplex lattice design and characterized. The reservoir compartment was filled with these microemulsions and in vitro release and skin permeation were assessed. The optimized patch was obtained on the basis of the responses: Q24 and flux. The impact of drug loading, surface area, membrane thickness, adhesive, and agitation speed on drug release and permeation was also studied. The skin sensitivity reaction and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of optimized patch were evaluated. Stability study at three different temperatures for three months was carried out. The result suggests that a membrane based patch with zero-order release rate, Q24 of 79.13 ± 3.08%, and maximum flux of 331.17 µg/cm2h can be obtained exhibiting suitable anti-inflammatory activity with no visible skin sensitivity reaction. The outcomes of stability study recommend storage of patches at 4°C having shelf-life of 6.14 months. The study demonstrates that the reservoir-type transdermal patch of dexibuprofen microemulsion has a potential of delivering drug across skin in controlled manner with required anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:29090219

  13. Laser Printing of PCL/Progesterone Tablets for Drug Delivery Applications in Hormone Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmoria, G. V.; Klauss, P.; Kanis, L. A.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) and progesterone (PG) tablets were produced by selective laser sintering (SLS) using different particle sizes and laser energy. The sintered PCL/PG tablets presented uniform morphology, coalescence of particles and interconnected pores distributed in the polymeric matrix. The EDS analysis confirmed the presence of progesterone recrystallized on the surface of the porous PCL matrix. The crystallinity values for the PCL/PG tablets were lower than that for the pure PCL, suggesting the interaction of components at the molecular level. The PCL/PG tablets fabricated with small particles and high laser energy presented a higher value for the flexural modulus compared with the other specimens. The glass transition temperature (Tg) was -37 °C for the PCL/PG tablet with a high degree of sintering. The fatigue test showed that the PCL/PG blend tablets have high fatigue strength. The drug release mechanism of all tablets studied followed a zero-order kinetics, and drug release rates were dependent on sintering degree and, consequently, on matrix erosion, showing a potential application to controlled drug delivery in hormone cancer therapy.

  14. Functionalization of protein-based nanocages for drug delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Schoonen, Lise; van Hest, Jan C M

    2014-07-07

    Traditional drug delivery strategies involve drugs which are not targeted towards the desired tissue. This can lead to undesired side effects, as normal cells are affected by the drugs as well. Therefore, new systems are now being developed which combine targeting functionalities with encapsulation of drug cargo. Protein nanocages are highly promising drug delivery platforms due to their perfectly defined structures, biocompatibility, biodegradability and low toxicity. A variety of protein nanocages have been modified and functionalized for these types of applications. In this review, we aim to give an overview of different types of modifications of protein-based nanocontainers for drug delivery applications.

  15. Nanothermite-Based Microsystem for Drug Delivery and Cell Transfection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    micropyrotechnic-based system in which a nanothermite energy source is coupled to a biological target for gene transfer and drug delivery ... delivery of particulate vaccines and drugs to human skin with a practical, hand-held shock tube-based system . Shock Waves, 12, 23-30. Kodama, T., M...1 NANOTHERMITE-BASED MICROSYSTEM FOR DRUG DELIVERY AND CELL TRANSFECTION S. Apperson, R. Thiruvengadathan, A. Bezmelnitsyn, K. Gangopadhyay, S

  16. [Smart drug delivery systems based on nanoscale ZnO].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Chen, Chun; Yi, Caixia; Zheng, Xi

    2018-04-01

    In view of the excellent biocompatibility as well as the low cost, nanoscale ZnO shows great potential for drug delivery application. Moreover, The charming character enable nanoscale ZnO some excellent features (e.g. dissolution in acid, ultrasonic permeability, microwave absorbing, hydrophobic/hydrophilic transition). All of that make nanoscale ZnO reasonable choices for smart drug delivery. In the recent decade, more and more studies have focused on controlling the drug release behavior via smart drug delivery systems based on nanoscale ZnO responsive to some certain stimuli. Herein, we review the recent exciting progress on the pH-responsive, ultrasound-responsive, microwave-responsive and UV-responsive nanoscale ZnO-based drug delivery systems. A brief introduction of the drug controlled release behavior and its effect of the drug delivery systems is presented. The biocompatibility of nanoscale ZnO is also discussed. Moreover, its development prospect is looked forward.

  17. Gold nanoparticles to improve HIV drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Carolina; Simpson, Carrie A; Dahl, Noelle P; Bresee, Jamee; Whitehead, Daniel C; Lindsey, Erick A; Harris, Tyler L; Smith, Candice A; Carter, Carly J; Feldheim, Daniel L; Melander, Christian; Margolis, David M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved lifespan and quality of life of patients infected with the HIV-1. However, ART has several potential limitations, including the development of drug resistance and suboptimal penetration to selected anatomic compartments. Improving the delivery of antiretroviral molecules could overcome several of the limitations of current ART. Results & Conclusion: Two to ten nanometer diameter inorganic gold crystals serve as a base scaffold to combine molecules with an array of properties in its surface. We show entry into different cell types, antiviral activity of an HIV integrase inhibitor conjugated in a gold nanoparticle and penetration into the brain in vivo without toxicity. Herein, gold nanoparticles prove to be a promising tool to use in HIV therapy. PMID:26132521

  18. Gold nanoparticles to improve HIV drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Carolina; Simpson, Carrie A; Dahl, Noelle P; Bresee, Jamee; Whitehead, Daniel C; Lindsey, Erick A; Harris, Tyler L; Smith, Candice A; Carter, Carly J; Feldheim, Daniel L; Melander, Christian; Margolis, David M

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved lifespan and quality of life of patients infected with the HIV-1. However, ART has several potential limitations, including the development of drug resistance and suboptimal penetration to selected anatomic compartments. Improving the delivery of antiretroviral molecules could overcome several of the limitations of current ART. Two to ten nanometer diameter inorganic gold crystals serve as a base scaffold to combine molecules with an array of properties in its surface. We show entry into different cell types, antiviral activity of an HIV integrase inhibitor conjugated in a gold nanoparticle and penetration into the brain in vivo without toxicity. Herein, gold nanoparticles prove to be a promising tool to use in HIV therapy.

  19. Microneedle arrays for biosensing and drug delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Joseph; Windmiller, Joshua Ray; Narayan, Roger

    Methods, structures, and systems are disclosed for biosensing and drug delivery techniques. In one aspect, a^ device for detecting an analyte and/or releasing a biochemical into a biological fluid can include an array of hollowed needles, in which each needle includes a protruded needle structure including an exterior wall forming a hollow interior and an opening at a terminal end of the protruded needle structure that exposes the hollow interior, and a probe inside the exterior wall to interact with one or more chemical or biological substances that come in contact with the probe via the opening to produce amore » probe sensing signal, and an array of wires that are coupled to probes of the array of hollowed needles, respectively, each wire being electrically conductive to transmit the probe sensing signal produced by a respective probe.« less

  20. Microneedle arrays for biosensing and drug delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Joseph; Windmiller, Joshua Ray; Narayan, Roger

    Methods, structures, and systems are disclosed for biosensing and drug delivery techniques. In one aspect, a device for detecting an analyte and/or releasing a biochemical into a biological fluid can include an array of hollowed needles, in which each needle includes a protruded needle structure including an exterior wall forming a hollow interior and an opening at a terminal end of the protruded needle structure that exposes the hollow interior, and a probe inside the exterior wall to interact with one or more chemical or biological substances that come in contact with the probe via the opening to produce amore » probe sensing signal, and an array of wires that are coupled to probes of the array of hollowed needles, respectively, each wire being electrically conductive to transmit the probe sensing signal produced by a respective probe.« less

  1. Ultrasonic nebulization platforms for pulmonary drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R; McIntosh, Michelle P; Meeusen, Els N T; Morton, David A V

    2010-06-01

    Since the 1950s, ultrasonic nebulizers have played an important role in pulmonary drug delivery. As the process in which aerosol droplets are generated is independent and does not require breath-actuation, ultrasonic nebulizers, in principle, offer the potential for instantaneously fine-tuning the dose administered to the specific requirements of a patient, taking into account the patient's breathing pattern, physiological profile and disease state. Nevertheless, owing to the difficulties and limitations associated with conventional designs and technologies, ultrasonic nebulizers have never been widely adopted, and have in recent years been in a state of decline. An overview is provided on the advances in new miniature ultrasonic nebulization platforms in which large increases in lung dose efficiency have been reported. In addition to a discussion of the underlying mechanisms governing ultrasonic nebulization, in which there appears to be widely differing views, the advantages and shortcomings of conventional ultrasonic nebulization technology are reviewed and advanced state-of-the-art technologies that have been developed recently are discussed. Recent advances in ultrasonic nebulization technology demonstrate significant potential for the development of smart, portable inhalation therapy platforms for the future. Nevertheless, there remain considerable challenges that need to be addressed before such personalized delivery systems can be realized. These have to be addressed across the spectrum from fundamental physics through to in vivo device testing and dealing with the relevant regulatory framework.

  2. Microencapsulation: A promising technique for controlled drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Singh, M N; Hemant, K S Y; Ram, M; Shivakumar, H G

    2010-07-01

    MICROPARTICLES OFFER VARIOUS SIGNIFICANT ADVANTAGES AS DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS, INCLUDING: (i) an effective protection of the encapsulated active agent against (e.g. enzymatic) degradation, (ii) the possibility to accurately control the release rate of the incorporated drug over periods of hours to months, (iii) an easy administration (compared to alternative parenteral controlled release dosage forms, such as macro-sized implants), and (iv) Desired, pre-programmed drug release profiles can be provided which match the therapeutic needs of the patient. This article gives an overview on the general aspects and recent advances in drug-loaded microparticles to improve the efficiency of various medical treatments. An appropriately designed controlled release drug delivery system can be a foot ahead towards solving problems concerning to the targeting of drug to a specific organ or tissue, and controlling the rate of drug delivery to the target site. The development of oral controlled release systems has been a challenge to formulation scientist due to their inability to restrain and localize the system at targeted areas of gastrointestinal tract. Microparticulate drug delivery systems are an interesting and promising option when developing an oral controlled release system. The objective of this paper is to take a closer look at microparticles as drug delivery devices for increasing efficiency of drug delivery, improving the release profile and drug targeting. In order to appreciate the application possibilities of microcapsules in drug delivery, some fundamental aspects are briefly reviewed.

  3. Microencapsulation: A promising technique for controlled drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M.N.; Hemant, K.S.Y.; Ram, M.; Shivakumar, H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Microparticles offer various significant advantages as drug delivery systems, including: (i) an effective protection of the encapsulated active agent against (e.g. enzymatic) degradation, (ii) the possibility to accurately control the release rate of the incorporated drug over periods of hours to months, (iii) an easy administration (compared to alternative parenteral controlled release dosage forms, such as macro-sized implants), and (iv) Desired, pre-programmed drug release profiles can be provided which match the therapeutic needs of the patient. This article gives an overview on the general aspects and recent advances in drug-loaded microparticles to improve the efficiency of various medical treatments. An appropriately designed controlled release drug delivery system can be a foot ahead towards solving problems concerning to the targeting of drug to a specific organ or tissue, and controlling the rate of drug delivery to the target site. The development of oral controlled release systems has been a challenge to formulation scientist due to their inability to restrain and localize the system at targeted areas of gastrointestinal tract. Microparticulate drug delivery systems are an interesting and promising option when developing an oral controlled release system. The objective of this paper is to take a closer look at microparticles as drug delivery devices for increasing efficiency of drug delivery, improving the release profile and drug targeting. In order to appreciate the application possibilities of microcapsules in drug delivery, some fundamental aspects are briefly reviewed. PMID:21589795

  4. Biomimetic transport and rational drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ranney, D F

    2000-01-15

    Medicine and pharmaceutics are encountering critical needs and opportunities for transvascular drug delivery that improves site targeting and tissue permeation by mimicking natural tissue addressing and transport mechanisms. This is driven by the accelerated development of genomic agents requiring targeted controlled release. Although rationally designed for in vitro activity, such agents are not highly effective in vivo, due to opsonization and degradation by plasma constituents, and failure to transport across the local vascular endothelium and tissue matrix. A growing knowledge of the addresses of the body can be applied to engineer "Bio-Logically" staged delivery systems with sequential bioaddressins complementary to the discontinuous compartments encountered--termed discontinuum pharmaceutics. Effective tissue targeting is accomplished by leukocytes, bacteria, and viruses. We are increasingly able to mimic their bioaddressins by genomic means. Approaches described in this commentary include: (a) endothelial-directed adhesion mediated by oligosaccharides and carbohydrates (e.g. dermatan sulfate as a mimic of sulfated CD44) and peptidomimetics interacting with adhesins, selectins, integrins, hyaluronans, and locally induced growth factors (e.g. vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF) and coagulation factors (e.g. factor VIII antigen); (b) improved tissue permeation conferred by hydrophilically "cloaked" carrier systems; (c) "uncloaking" by matrix dilution or selective triggering near the target cells; and (d) target binding-internalization by terminally exposed hydrophobic moieties, cationic polymers, and receptor-binding lectins, peptides, or carbohydrates. This commentary also describes intermediate technology solutions (e.g. "hybrid drugs"), and highlights the high-resolution, dynamic magnetic resonance imaging and radiopharmaceutical imaging technologies plus the groups and organizations capable of accelerating these important initiatives.

  5. Approaches to Neural Tissue Engineering Using Scaffolds for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Willerth, Stephanie M.; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E.

    2007-01-01

    This review seeks to give an overview of the current approaches to drug delivery from scaffolds for neural tissue engineering applications. The challenges presented by attempting to replicate the three types of nervous tissue (brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerve) are summarized. Potential scaffold materials (both synthetic and natural) and target drugs are discussed with the benefits and drawbacks given. Finally, common methods of drug delivery, including degradable/diffusion-based delivery systems, affinity-based delivery systems, immobilized drug delivery systems, and electrically controlled drug delivery systems, are examined and critiqued. Based on the current body of work, suggestions for future directions of research in the field of neural tissue engineering are presented. PMID:17482308

  6. Introduction for Design of Nanoparticle Based Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Jun Yan Chan; Wang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Conventional drug delivery systems contain numerous limitations such as limited targeting, low therapeutic indices, poor water solubility, and the induction of drug resistances. In order to overcome the drawbacks of conventional pathway of drug delivery, nanoparticle delivery systems are therefore designed and used as the drug carriers. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems have been rapidly growing and are being applied to various sections of biomedicine. Drug nanocarriers based on dendrimers, liposomes, self-assembling peptides, watersoluble polymers, and block copolymer micelles are the most extensively studied types of drug delivery systems and some of them are being used in clinical therapy. In particular for cancer therapy, antineoplastic drugs are taking advantage of nanoparticulate drug carriers to improve the cure efficacy. Nanoparticle based drug carriers are capable of improving the therapeutic effectiveness of the drugs by using active targeting for the site-specific delivery, passive targeting mechanisms such as enhanced permeability and retention (EPR), de novo synthesis and uptake of low density liposome in cancer cells or by being water-soluble to improve the suboptimal pharmacokinetics in limited water-soluble delivery methods. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Light-switchable systems for remotely controlled drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Shim, Gayong; Ko, Seungbeom; Kim, Dongyoon; Le, Quoc-Viet; Park, Gyu Thae; Lee, Jaiwoo; Kwon, Taekhyun; Choi, Han-Gon; Kim, Young Bong; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2017-12-10

    Light-switchable systems have recently received attention as a new mode of remotely controlled drug delivery. In the past, a multitude of nanomedicine studies have sought to enhance the specificity of drug delivery to target sites by focusing on receptors overexpressed on malignant cells or environmental features of diseases sites. Despite these immense efforts, however, there are few clinically available nanomedicines. We need a paradigm shift in drug delivery. One strategy that may overcome the limitations of pathophysiology-based drug delivery is the use of remotely controlled delivery technology. Unlike pathophysiology-based active drug targeting strategies, light-switchable systems are not affected by the heterogeneity of cells, tissue types, and/or microenvironments. Instead, they are triggered by remote light (i.e., near-infrared) stimuli, which are absorbed by photoresponsive molecules or three-dimensional nanostructures. The sequential conversion of light to heat or reactive oxygen species can activate drug release and allow it to be spatio-temporally controlled. Light-switchable systems have been used to activate endosomal drug escape, modulate the release of chemical and biological drugs, and alter nanoparticle structures to control the release rates of drugs. This review will address the limitations of pathophysiology-based drug delivery systems, the current status of light-based remote-switch systems, and future directions in the application of light-switchable systems for remotely controlled drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanostructured porous silicon-mediated drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Martín-Palma, Raúl J; Hernández-Montelongo, Jacobo; Torres-Costa, Vicente; Manso-Silván, Miguel; Muñoz-Noval, Álvaro

    2014-08-01

    The particular properties of nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS) make it an attractive material for controlled and localized release of therapeutics within the body, aiming at increased efficacy and reduced risks of potential side effects. Since this is a rapidly evolving field as a consequence of the number of research groups involved, a critical review of the state of the art is necessary. In this work, the most promising and successful applications of nanoPS in the field of drug delivery are reviewed and discussed. Two key issues such as drug loading and release are also analyzed in detail. The development of multifunctional (hybrid) systems, aiming at imparting additional functionalities to the nanoPS particles such as luminescence, magnetic response and/or plasmonic effects (allowing simultaneous tracking and guiding), is also examined. Nanostructured materials based on silicon are promising platforms for pharmaceutical applications given their ability to degrade and low toxicity. However, a very limited number of clinical applications have been demonstrated so far.

  9. The vesosome-- a multicompartment drug delivery vehicle.

    PubMed

    Kisak, E T; Coldren, B; Evans, C A; Boyer, C; Zasadzinski, J A

    2004-01-01

    Assembling structures to divide space controllably and spontaneously into subunits at the nanometer scale is a significant challenge, although one that biology has solved in two distinct ways: prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Prokaryotes have a single compartment delimited by one or more lipid-protein membranes. Eukaryotes have nested-membrane structures that provide internal compartments--such as the cell nucleus and cell organelles in which specialized functions are carried out. We have developed a simple method of creating nested bilayer compartments in vitro via the "interdigitated" bilayer phase formed by adding ethanol to a variety of saturated phospholipids. At temperatures below the gel-liquid crystalline transition, T(m), the interdigitated lipid-ethanol sheets are rigid and flat; when the temperature is raised above T(m), the sheets become flexible and close on themselves and the surrounding solution to form closed compartments. During this closure, the sheets can entrap other vesicles, biological macromolecules, or colloidal particles. The result is efficient and spontaneous encapsulation without disruption of even fragile materials to form biomimetic nano-environments for possible use in drug delivery, colloidal stabilization, or as microreactors. The vesosome structure can take full advantage of the 40 years of progress in liposome development including steric stabilization, pH loading of drugs, and intrinsic biocompatibility. However, the multiple compartments of the vesosome give better protection to the interior contents in serum, leading to extended release of model compounds in comparison to unilamellar liposomes.

  10. Detection and drug delivery from superhydrophobic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falde, Eric John

    The wetting of a rough material is controlled by surface chemistry and morphology, the liquid phase, solutes, and surfactants that affect the surface tension with the gas phase, and environmental conditions such as temperature and pressure. Materials with high (>150°) apparent contact angles are known as superhydrophobic and are very resistant to wetting. However, in complex biological mixtures eventually protein adsorbs, fouling the surface and facilitating wetting on time scales from seconds to months. The work here uses the partially-wetted (Cassie-Baxter) to fully-wetted (Wenzel) state transition to control drug delivery and to perform surfactant detection via surface tension using hydrophobic and superhydrophobic materials. First there is an overview of the physics of the non-wetting state and the transition to wetting. Then there is a review of how wetting can be controlled by outside stimuli and applications of these materials. Next there is work presented on controlling drug release using superhydrophobic materials with controlled wetting rates, with both in vitro and in vivo results. Then there is work on developing a sensor based on this wetting state transition and its applications toward detecting solute levels in biological fluids for point-of-care diagnosis. Finally, there is work presented on using these sensors for detecting the alcohol content in wine and spirits.

  11. Enzyme-Responsive Nanomaterials for Controlled Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Quanyin; Katti, Prateek S.; Gu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes underpin physiological function and exhibit dysregulation in many disease-associated microenvironments and aberrant cell processes. Exploiting altered enzyme activity and expression for diagnostics, drug targeting, and drug release is tremendously promising. When combined with booming research in nanobiotechnology, enzyme-responsive nanomaterials for controlled drug release have achieved significant development and been studied as an important class of drug delivery devices in nanomedicine. In this review, we describe enzymes such as proteases, phospholipase and oxidoreductases that serve as delivery triggers. Subsequently, we explore recently developed enzyme-responsive nanomaterials with versatile applications for extracellular and intracellular drug delivery. We conclude by discussing future opportunities and challenges in this area. PMID:25251024

  12. Enzyme-responsive nanomaterials for controlled drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Quanyin; Katti, Prateek S.; Gu, Zhen

    2014-10-01

    Enzymes underpin physiological function and exhibit dysregulation in many disease-associated microenvironments and aberrant cell processes. Exploiting altered enzyme activity and expression for diagnostics, drug targeting, and drug release is tremendously promising. When combined with booming research in nanobiotechnology, enzyme-responsive nanomaterials used for controlled drug release have achieved significant development and have been studied as an important class of drug delivery strategies in nanomedicine. In this review, we describe enzymes such as proteases, phospholipases and oxidoreductases that serve as delivery triggers. Subsequently, we explore recently developed enzyme-responsive nanomaterials with versatile applications for extracellular and intracellular drug delivery. We conclude by discussing future opportunities and challenges in this area.

  13. Development of a multilayered association polymer system for sequential drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnakavanam Sundararaj, Sharath kumar

    As all the physiological processes in our body are controlled by multiple biomolecules, comprehensive treatment of certain disease conditions may be more effectively achieved by administration of more than one type of drug. Thus, the primary objective of this research was to develop a multilayered, polymer-based system for sequential delivery of multiple drugs. This particular device was designed aimed at the treatment of periodontitis, a highly prevalent oral inflammatory disease that affects 90% of the world population. This condition is caused by bacterial biofilm on the teeth, resulting in a chronic inflammatory response that leads to loss of alveolar bone and, ultimately, the tooth. Current treatment methods for periodontitis address specific parts of the disease, with no individual treatment serving as a complete therapy. The polymers used for the fabrication of this multilayered device consists of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) complexed with Pluronic F-127 (P). After evaluating morphology of the resulting CAPP system, in vitro release of small molecule drugs and a model protein was studied from both single and multilayered devices. Drug release from single-layered CAPP films followed zero-order kinetics related to surface erosion property of the association polymer. Release studies from multilayered CAPP devices showed the possibility of achieving intermittent release of one type of drug as well as sequential release of more than one type of drug. Mathematical modeling accurately predicted the release profiles for both single layer and multilayered devices. After the initial characterization of the CAPP system, the device was specifically modified to achieve sequential release of drugs aimed at the treatment of periodontitis. The four types of drugs used were metronidazole, ketoprofen, doxycycline, and simvastatin to eliminate infection, inhibit inflammation, prevent tissue destruction, and aid bone regeneration, respectively. To obtain different erosion

  14. Nanocarriers in ocular drug delivery: an update review.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Sheetu; Paliwal, Rishi; Paliwal, Shivani Rai; Vyas, S P

    2009-01-01

    Controlled drug delivery to eye is one of the most challenging fields of pharmaceutical research. Low drug-contact time and poor ocular bioavailability due to drainage of solution, tear turnover and its dilution or lacrimation are the problems associated with conventional systems. In addition, anatomical barriers and physiological conditions of eye are also important parameters which control designing of drug delivery systems. Nanosized carriers like micro/nano-suspensions, liposome, niosome, dendrimer, nanoparticles, ocular inserts, implants, hydrogels and prodrug approaches have been developed for this purpose. These novel systems offer manifold advantages over conventional systems as they increase the efficiency of drug delivery by improving the release profile and also reduce drug toxicity. Conventional delivery systems get diluted with tear, washed away through the lacrimal gland and usually require administering at regular time intervals whereas nanocarriers release drug at constant rate for a prolonged period of time and thus enhance its absorption and site specific delivery. This review presents an overview of the various aspects of the ocular drug delivery, with special emphasis on nanocarrier based strategies, including structure of eye, its barriers, delivery routes and the challenges/limitations associated with development of novel nanocarriers. The recent progresses in therapy of ocular disease like gene therapy have also been included so that future options should also be considered from the delivery point of view. Recent progress in the delivery of proteins and peptides via ocular route has also been incorporated for reader benefit.

  15. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery to the vagina: a review

    PubMed Central

    Ensign, Laura M.; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal drug administration can improve prophylaxis and treatment of many conditions affecting the female reproductive tract, including sexually transmitted diseases, fungal and bacterial infections, and cancer. However, achieving sustained local drug concentrations in the vagina can be challenging, due to the high permeability of the vaginal epithelium and expulsion of conventional soluble drug dosage forms. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery platforms have received considerable attention for vaginal drug delivery, as nanoparticles can provide sustained release, cellular targeting, and even intrinsic antimicrobial or adjuvant properties that can improve the potency and/or efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic modalities. Here, we review the use of polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, and inorganic nanoparticles for vaginal drug delivery. Although most of the work toward nanoparticle-based drug delivery in the vagina has been focused on HIV prevention, strategies for treatment and prevention of other sexually transmitted infections, treatment for reproductive tract cancer, and treatment of fungal and bacterial infections are also highlighted. PMID:24830303

  16. Non-invasive systemic drug delivery through mucosal routes.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Amit K; Singh, Ranjit; Chauhan, Gaurav; Rath, Goutam

    2018-04-24

    Science of drug delivery has achieved tremendous milestones in the last few decades. Emergence of novel drug delivery techniques and the most popular nanotechnology directed the drug delivery to another level. Without any doubt, present technology holds the proficiency to approach even the intercellular targets. Between all these success auras, there lies wads of giant challenges. One such challenge is delivering the molecule directly to the blood stream. Parenteral route is considered as the most effective route for delivering active pharmaceutical substances, but is associated with major disadvantages of painful drug delivery. Modern drug delivery suggests several approaches to outstrip this painful phenomenon. In the present article, we represent a new systematic vision to understand the ability and desirability of mucosal sites to achieve painless drug delivery. Human mucosa presents supreme proximity to the blood circulation that one can even observe with naked eye. Advances in drug delivery provide numerous approaches to exploit the mucosa for systemic reach. However, the revolutionary success is still unapproachable, with an understandable reason of associated complexities and challenges. This manuscript summarizes the significance of each mucosal site, on the basis of anatomical-physiological grounds. Particular attention is given to rationalize the selection of disease and a suitable drug delivery approach for its treatment.

  17. Recent advancements in nanoparticle based drug delivery for gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Rahul; Patel, Amit P; Jhaveri, Vasanti M; Kay, Sae-In S; Debs, Luca H; Parrish, James M; Pan, Debbie R; Nguyen, Desiree; Mittal, Jeenu; Jayant, Rahul Dev

    2018-03-01

    The emergent field of nanoparticles has presented a wealth of opportunities for improving the treatment of human diseases. Recent advances have allowed for promising developments in drug delivery, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Modified delivery systems allow improved drug delivery over traditional pH, microbe, or receptor dependent models, while antibody association allows for more advanced imaging modalities. Nanoparticles have potential clinical application in the field of gastroenterology as they offer several advantages compared to the conventional treatment systems including target drug delivery, enhanced treatment efficacy, and reduced side effects. Areas covered: The aim of this review article is to summarize the recent advancements in developing nanoparticle technologies to treat gastrointestinal diseases. We have covered the application of nanoparticles in various gastrointestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. We also have discussed how the gut microbiota affects the nanoparticle based drug delivery in the gastrointestinal tract. Expert opinion: Nanoparticles based drug delivery offers a great platform for targeted drug delivery for gastrointestinal disorders. However, it is influenced by the presence of microbiota, drug interaction with nanoparticles, and cytotoxicity of nanoparticles. With the advancements in nanoparticle technology, it may be possible to overcome these barriers leading to efficient drug delivery for gastrointestinal disorders based on nanoparticle platform.

  18. Synthetic Tumor Networks for Screening Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar; Shen, Ming-Che; Nichols, Joseph B.; Garson, Charles J.; Mills, Ivy R.; Matar, Majed M.; Fewell, Jason G.; Pant, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    Tumor drug delivery is a complex phenomenon affected by several elements in addition to drug or delivery vehicle’s physico-chemical properties. A key factor is tumor microvasculature with complex effects including convective transport, high interstitial pressure and enhanced vascular permeability due to the presence of “leaky vessels”. Current in vitro models of the tumor microenvironment for evaluating drug delivery are oversimplified and, as a result, show poor correlation with in vivo performance. In this study, we report on the development of a novel microfluidic platform that models the tumor microenvironment more accurately, with physiologically and morphologically realistic microvasculature including endothelial cell lined leaky capillary vessels along with 3D solid tumors. Endothelial cells and 3D spheroids of cervical tumor cells were co-cultured in the networks. Drug vehicle screening was demonstrated using GFP gene delivery by different formulations of nanopolymers. The synthetic tumor network was successful in predicting in vivo delivery efficiencies of the drug vehicles. The developed assay will have critical applications both in basic research, where it can be used to develop next generation delivery vehicles, and in drug discovery where it can be used to study drug transport and delivery efficacy in realistic tumor microenvironment, thereby enabling drug compound and/or delivery vehicle screening. PMID:25599856

  19. Role of Nanodiamonds in Drug Delivery and Stem Cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Shakeel Ahmed; Satar, Rukhsana; Jafri, Mohammad Alam; Rasool, Mahmood; Ahmad, Waseem; Kashif Zaidi, Syed

    2016-09-01

    The use of nanotechnology in medicine and more specifically drug delivery is set to spread rapidly. Currently many substances are under investigation for drug delivery and more specifically for cancer therapy. Nanodiamonds (NDs) have contributed significantly in the development of highly efficient and successful drug delivery systems, and in stem cell therapy. Drug delivery through NDs is an intricate and complex process that deserves special attention to unravel underlying molecular mechanisms in order to overcome certain bottlenecks associated with it. It has already been established that NDs based drug delivery systems have excellent biocompatibility, nontoxicity, photostability and facile surface functionalization properties. There is mounting evidence that suggests that such conjugated delivery systems well retain the properties of nanoparticles like small size, large surface area to volume ratio that provide greater biocatalytic activity to the attached drug in terms of selectivity, loading and stability. NDs based drug delivery systems may form the basis for the development of effective novel drug delivery vehicles with salient features that may facilitate their utility in fluorescence imaging, target specificity and sustainedrelease.

  20. Hypoxia Responsive Drug Delivery Systems in Tumor Therapy.

    PubMed

    Alimoradi, Houman; Matikonda, Siddharth S; Gamble, Allan B; Giles, Gregory I; Greish, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common characteristic of solid tumors. It is mainly determined by low levels of oxygen resulting from imperfect vascular networks supplying most tumors. In an attempt to improve the present chemotherapeutic treatment and reduce associated side effects, several prodrug strategies have been introduced to achieve hypoxia-specific delivery of cytotoxic anticancer agents. With the advances in nanotechnology, novel delivery systems activated by the consequent outcomes of hypoxia have been developed. However, developing hypoxia responsive drug delivery systems (which only depend on low oxygen levels) is currently naïve. This review discusses four main hypoxia responsive delivery systems: polymeric based drug delivery systems, oxygen delivery systems combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, anaerobic bacteria which are used for delivery of genes to express anticancer proteins such as tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α) and hypoxia-inducible transcription factors 1 alpha (HIF1α) responsive gene delivery systems.

  1. Drug delivery with microsecond laser pulses into gelatin.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, H; Casperson, L W; Shearin, A; Gregory, K W; Prahl, S A

    1996-07-01

    Photo acoustic drug delivery is a technique for localized drug delivery by laser-induced hydrodynamic pressure following cavitation bubble expansion and collapse. Photoacoustic drug delivery was investigated on gelatin-based thrombus models with planar and cylindrical geometries by use of one microsecond laser pulses. Solutions of a hydrophobic dye in mineral oil permitted monitoring of delivered colored oil into clear gelatin-based thrombus models. Cavitation bubble development and photoacoustic drug delivery were visualized with flash photography. This study demonstrated that cavitation is the governing mechanism for photoacoustic drug delivery, and the deepest penetration of colored oil in gels followed the bubble collapse. Spatial distribution measurements revealed that colored oil could be driven a few millimeters into the gels in both axial and radial directions, and the penetration was less than 500 µm when the gelatin structure was not fractured.

  2. Otic drug delivery systems: formulation principles and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Li, Mingshuang; Smyth, Hugh; Zhang, Feng

    2018-04-25

    Disorders of the ear severely impact the quality of life of millions of people, but the treatment of these disorders is an ongoing, but often overlooked challenge particularly in terms of formulation design and product development. The prevalence of ear disorders has spurred significant efforts to develop new therapeutic agents, but perhaps less innovation has been applied to new drug delivery systems to improve the efficacy of ear disease treatments. This review provides a brief overview of physiology, major diseases, and current therapies used via the otic route of administration. The primary focuses are on the various administration routes and their formulation principles. The article also presents recent advances in otic drug deliveries as well as potential limitations. Otic drug delivery technology will likely evolve in the next decade and more efficient or specific treatments for ear disease will arise from the development of less invasive drug delivery methods, safe and highly controlled drug delivery systems, and biotechnology targeting therapies.

  3. Nanocrystal for ocular drug delivery: hope or hype.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Om Prakash; Patel, Viral; Mehta, Tejal

    2016-08-01

    The complexity of the structure and nature of the eye emanates a challenge for drug delivery to formulation scientists. Lower bioavailability concern of conventional ocular formulation provokes the interest of researchers in the development of novel drug delivery system. Nanotechnology-based formulations have been extensively investigated and found propitious in improving bioavailability of drugs by overcoming ocular barriers prevailing in the eye. The advent of nanocrystals helped in combating the problem of poorly soluble drugs specifically for oral and parenteral drug delivery and led to development of various marketed products. Nanocrystal-based formulations explored for ocular drug delivery have been found successful in achieving increase in retention time, bioavailability, and permeability of drugs across the corneal and conjunctival epithelium. In this review, we have highlighted the ocular physiology and barriers in drug delivery. A comparative analysis of various nanotechnology-based ocular formulations is done with their pros and cons. Consideration is also given to various methods of preparation of nanocrystals with their patented technology. This article highlights the success achieved in conquering various challenges of ocular delivery by the use of nanocrystals while emphasizing on its advantages and application for ocular formulation. The perspectives of nanocrystals as an emerging flipside to explore the frontiers of ocular drug delivery are discussed.

  4. Pharmacosomes: An Emerging Novel Vesicular Drug Delivery System for Poorly Soluble Synthetic and Herbal Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the arena of solubility enhancement, several problems are encountered. A novel approach based on lipid drug delivery system has evolved, pharmacosomes. Pharmacosomes are colloidal, nanometric size micelles, vesicles or may be in the form of hexagonal assembly of colloidal drug dispersions attached covalently to the phospholipid. They act as befitting carrier for delivery of drugs quite precisely owing to their unique properties like small size, amphiphilicity, active drug loading, high entrapment efficiency, and stability. They help in controlled release of drug at the site of action as well as in reduction in cost of therapy, drug leakage and toxicity, increased bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs, and restorative effects. There has been advancement in the scope of this delivery system for a number of drugs used for inflammation, heart diseases, cancer, and protein delivery along with a large number of herbal drugs. Hence, pharmacosomes open new challenges and opportunities for improved novel vesicular drug delivery system. PMID:24106615

  5. Nanobiotechnology-based drug delivery in brain targeting.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Subas C; Pattnaik, Gurudutta

    2013-01-01

    Blood brain barrier (BBB) found to act as rate limiting factor in drug delivery to brain in combating the central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Such limiting physiological factors include the reticuloendothelial system and protein opsonization, which present across BBB, play major role in reducing the passage of drug. Several approaches employed to improve the drug delivery across the BBB. Nanoparticles (NP) are the solid colloidal particle ranges from 1 to 1000 nm in size utilized as career for drug delivery. At present NPs are found to play a significant advantage over the other methods of available drug delivery systems to deliver the drug across the BBB. Nanoparticles may be because of its size and functionalization characteristics able to penetrate and facilitate the drug delivery through the barrier. There are number of mechanisms and strategies found to be involved in this process, which are based on the type of nanomaterials used and its combination with therapeutic agents, such materials include liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles and non-viral vectors of nano-sizes for CNS gene therapy, etc. Nanotechnology is expected to reduce the need for invasive procedures for delivery of therapeutics to the CNS. Some devices such as implanted catheters and reservoirs however will still be needed to overcome the problems in effective drug delivery to the CNS. Nanomaterials are found to improve the safety and efficacy level of drug delivery devices in brain targeting. Nanoegineered devices are found to be delivering the drugs at cellular levels through nono-fluidic channels. Different drug delivery systems such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, nonogels and nonobiocapsules have been used to improve the bioavailability of the drug in the brain, but microchips and biodegradable polymeric nanoparticulate careers are found to be more effective therapeutically in treating brain tumor. The physiological approaches also utilized to improve the transcytosis capacity

  6. Drug Delivery Systems and Combination Therapy by Using Vinca Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun-Ting; Huang, Yen-Wei; Yang, Chih-Hui; Huang, Keng-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Developing new methods for chemotherapy drug delivery has become a topic of great concern. Vinca alkaloids are among the most widely used chemotherapy reagents for tumor therapy; however, their side effects are particularly problematic for many medical doctors. To reduce the toxicity and enhance the therapeutic efficiency of vinca alkaloids, many researchers have developed strategies such as using liposome-entrapped drugs, chemical- or peptide-modified drugs, polymeric packaging drugs, and chemotherapy drug combinations. This review mainly focuses on the development of a vinca alkaloid drug delivery system and the combination therapy. Five vinca alkaloids (eg, vincristine, vinblastine, vinorelbine, vindesine, and vinflunine) are reviewed. PMID:25877096

  7. Nanobiotechnology and its applications in drug delivery system: a review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Khan, Momin; Umar, Muhammad Naveed; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-12-01

    Nanobiotechnology holds great potential in various regimes of life sciences. In this review, the potential applications of nanobiotechnology in various sectors of nanotechnologies, including nanomedicine and nanobiopharmaceuticals, are highlighted. To overcome the problems associated with drug delivery, nanotechnology has gained increasing interest in recent years. Nanosystems with different biological properties and compositions have been extensively investigated for drug delivery applications. Nanoparticles fabricated through various techniques have elevated therapeutic efficacy, provided stability to the drugs and proved capable of targeting the cells and controlled release inside the cell. Polymeric nanoparticles have shown increased development and usage in drug delivery as well as in diagnostics in recent decades.

  8. Heat: A Highly Efficient Skin Enhancer for Transdermal Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2018-01-01

    Advances in materials science and bionanotechnology have allowed the refinements of current drug delivery systems, expected to facilitate the development of personalized medicine. While dermatological topical pharmaceutical formulations such as foams, creams, lotions, gels, etc., have been proposed for decades, these systems target mainly skin-based diseases. To treat systemic medical conditions as well as localized problems such as joint or muscle concerns, transdermal delivery systems (TDDSs), which use the skin as the main route of drug delivery, are very appealing. Over the years, these systems have shown to offer important advantages over oral as well as intravenous drug delivery routes. Besides being non-invasive and painless, TDDSs are able to deliver drugs with a short-half-life time more easily and are well adapted to eliminate frequent administrations to maintain constant drug delivery. The possibility of self-administration of a predetermined drug dose at defined time intervals makes it also the most convenient personalized point-of-care approach. The transdermal market still remains limited to a narrow range of drugs. While small and lipophilic drugs have been successfully delivered using TDDSs, this approach fails to deliver therapeutic macromolecules due to size-limited transport across the stratum corneum , the outermost layer of the epidermis. The low permeability of the stratum corneum to water-soluble drugs as well as macromolecules poses important challenges to transdermal administration. To widen the scope of drugs for transdermal delivery, new procedures to enhance skin permeation to hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules are under development. Next to iontophoresis and microneedle-based concepts, thermal-based approaches have shown great promise to enhance transdermal drug delivery of different therapeutics. In this inaugural article for the section "Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology," the advances in this field and the handful of

  9. Heat: A Highly Efficient Skin Enhancer for Transdermal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2018-01-01

    Advances in materials science and bionanotechnology have allowed the refinements of current drug delivery systems, expected to facilitate the development of personalized medicine. While dermatological topical pharmaceutical formulations such as foams, creams, lotions, gels, etc., have been proposed for decades, these systems target mainly skin-based diseases. To treat systemic medical conditions as well as localized problems such as joint or muscle concerns, transdermal delivery systems (TDDSs), which use the skin as the main route of drug delivery, are very appealing. Over the years, these systems have shown to offer important advantages over oral as well as intravenous drug delivery routes. Besides being non-invasive and painless, TDDSs are able to deliver drugs with a short-half-life time more easily and are well adapted to eliminate frequent administrations to maintain constant drug delivery. The possibility of self-administration of a predetermined drug dose at defined time intervals makes it also the most convenient personalized point-of-care approach. The transdermal market still remains limited to a narrow range of drugs. While small and lipophilic drugs have been successfully delivered using TDDSs, this approach fails to deliver therapeutic macromolecules due to size-limited transport across the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the epidermis. The low permeability of the stratum corneum to water-soluble drugs as well as macromolecules poses important challenges to transdermal administration. To widen the scope of drugs for transdermal delivery, new procedures to enhance skin permeation to hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules are under development. Next to iontophoresis and microneedle-based concepts, thermal-based approaches have shown great promise to enhance transdermal drug delivery of different therapeutics. In this inaugural article for the section “Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology,” the advances in this field and the handful of

  10. Drug delivery and nanodetection in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Badrzadeh, Fariba; Rahmati-Yamchi, Mohammad; Badrzadeh, Kazem; Valizadeh, Alireza; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Farkhani, Samad Mussa; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Lung carcinoma is the most widespread type of cancer worldwide, and is responsible for more deaths than other types of cancer. Lung cancer remains the chief cause of cancer-related deaths in both men and women worldwide, and is increasingly common in women. Each year, the number of deaths from lung cancer is greater than the number due to breast and colorectal cancer combined. Lung cancer accounted for 13% (1.6 million) of the total cases and 18% (1.4 million) of the deaths in 2008. In Iran, lung cancer is one of the five leading tumors. Among females, it was the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer, and the second leading cause of cancer death. Nanotechnology can be defined as the science and engineering involved in the design, characterization, and application of materials and devices whose smallest functional organization in at least one dimension is on the nanometer scale, i.e. one billionth of a meter. It is an exciting multidisciplinary field that involves the design and engineering of nano objects or nanotools with diameters less than 500 nanometers (nm), and it is one of the most interesting fields of the 21st century. Nanotechnology also offers the ability to detect diseases, such as tumors, much earlier than ever imaginable. This article presents nano devices for lung cancer detection and drug delivery systems.

  11. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Matias J.; Costa, Rui R.; Mano, João F.

    2016-01-01

    Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine. PMID:26861358

  12. Hollow Pollen Shells to Enhance Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Diego-Taboada, Alberto; Beckett, Stephen T.; Atkin, Stephen L.; Mackenzie, Grahame

    2014-01-01

    Pollen grain and spore shells are natural microcapsules designed to protect the genetic material of the plant from external damage. The shell is made up of two layers, the inner layer (intine), made largely of cellulose, and the outer layer (exine), composed mainly of sporopollenin. The relative proportion of each varies according to the plant species. The structure of sporopollenin has not been fully characterised but different studies suggest the presence of conjugated phenols, which provide antioxidant properties to the microcapsule and UV (ultraviolet) protection to the material inside it. These microcapsule shells have many advantageous properties, such as homogeneity in size, resilience to both alkalis and acids, and the ability to withstand temperatures up to 250 °C. These hollow microcapsules have the ability to encapsulate and release actives in a controlled manner. Their mucoadhesion to intestinal tissues may contribute to the extended contact of the sporopollenin with the intestinal mucosa leading to an increased efficiency of delivery of nutraceuticals and drugs. The hollow microcapsules can be filled with a solution of the active or active in a liquid form by simply mixing both together, and in some cases operating a vacuum. The active payload can be released in the human body depending on pressure on the microcapsule, solubility and/or pH factors. Active release can be controlled by adding a coating on the shell, or co-encapsulation with the active inside the shell. PMID:24638098

  13. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Matias J; Costa, Rui R; Mano, João F

    2016-02-05

    Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine.

  14. Zero-order bows in radially inhomogeneous spheres: direct and inverse problems.

    PubMed

    Adam, John A

    2011-10-01

    Zero-order ray paths are examined in radially inhomogeneous spheres with differentiable refractive index profiles. It is demonstrated that zero-order and sometimes twin zero-order bows can exist when the gradient of refractive index is sufficiently negative. Abel inversion is used to "recover" the refractive index profiles; it is therefore possible in principle to specify the nature and type of bows and determine the refractive index profile that induces them. This may be of interest in the field of rainbow refractometry and optical fiber studies. This ray-theoretic analysis has direct similarities with the phenomenon of "orbiting" and other phenomena in scattering theory and also in seismological, surface gravity wave, and gravitational "lensing" studies. For completeness these topics are briefly discussed in the appendixes; they may also be of pedagogic interest.

  15. Unidimensional factor models imply weaker partial correlations than zero-order correlations.

    PubMed

    van Bork, Riet; Grasman, Raoul P P P; Waldorp, Lourens J

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we present a new implication of the unidimensional factor model. We prove that the partial correlation between two observed variables that load on one factor given any subset of other observed variables that load on this factor lies between zero and the zero-order correlation between these two observed variables. We implement this result in an empirical bootstrap test that rejects the unidimensional factor model when partial correlations are identified that are either stronger than the zero-order correlation or have a different sign than the zero-order correlation. We demonstrate the use of the test in an empirical data example with data consisting of fourteen items that measure extraversion.

  16. Opportunities and Challenges for Niosomes as Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Miloni; Brijesh, S

    2016-01-01

    With the increase in drug resistance observed in most infectious diseases as well as some forms of cancer, and with the chances of development of new drug molecules to address this issue looking bleak, one of the most plausible ways to disease treatment is combination therapy. Combination therapy would ensure delay in drug resistance, if utilized rationally. However, the biggest difficulty in employing combination therapy are adverse effects due to potential drug-drug interactions and patient compliance due to multiple routes of administration or multiple dosing that may be required. To overcome these issues, researchers have utilized nanoparticle-based systems that can hold multiple drugs in a single carrier. There are several nanocarrier systems available for such purposes. However, the focus of this review will be non-ionic surfactant-based systems (niosomes) for delivery of multiple therapeutic agents. Niosomes are artificially prepared drug delivery carriers. They are structurally similar to liposomes albeit more stable than them. Literature pertaining to combination drug delivery and various drug delivery systems was reviewed. It was conceptualized that many of the methods used to prepare various types of carriers for combination delivery of drugs may be used for niosomal systems as well. We envisage that niosomes may effectively be utilized to package older drugs in newer ways. The review will thus focus on techniques that may be used for the formulation of niosomes, ways to encapsulate multiple-drug moieties, and challenges associated in preparing and optimizing such systems.

  17. Nanomaterials in cancer-therapy drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; Zeng, Xin; Li, Ping

    2013-05-01

    Nanomaterials can enhance the delivery and treatment efficiency of anti-cancer drugs, and the mechanisms of the tumor-reducing activity of nanomaterials with cancer drug have been investigated. The task for drug to reach pathological areas has facilitated rapid advances in nanomedicine. Herein, we summarize promising findings with respect to cancer therapeutics based on nano-drug delivery vectors. Relatively high toxicity of uncoated nanoparticles restricts the use of these materials in humans. In order to reduce toxicity, many approaches have focused on the encapsulation of nanoparticles with biocompatible materials. Efficient delivery systems have been developed that utilized nanoparticles loaded with high dose of cancer drug in the presence of bilayer molecules. Well-established nanotechnologies have been designed for drug delivery with specific bonding. Surface-modified nanoparticles as vehicles for drug delivery system that contains multiple nano-components, each specially designed to achieve aimed task for the emerging application delivery of therapeutics. Drug-coated polymer nanoparticles could efficiently increase the intracellular accumulation of anti-cancer drugs. This review also introduces the nanomaterials with drug on the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Direct interactions between the particles and cellular molecules to cause adverse biological responses are also discussed.

  18. Novel Approaches in Formulation and Drug Delivery using Contact Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kishan; Nair, Anroop B; Kumar, Ashok; Kumria, Rachna

    2011-01-01

    The success of ocular delivery relies on the potential to enhance the drug bioavailability by controlled and extended release of drug on the eye surface. Several new approaches have been attempted to augment the competence and diminish the intrinsic side effects of existing ocular drug delivery systems. In this contest, progress has been made to develop drug-eluting contact lens using different techniques, which have the potential to control and sustain the delivery of drug. Further, the availability of novel polymers have facilitated and promoted the utility of contact lenses in ocular drug delivery. Several research groups have already explored the feasibility and potential of contact lens using conventional drugs for the treatment of periocular and intraocular diseases. Contact lenses formulated using modern technology exhibits high loading, controlled drug release, apposite thickness, water content, superior mechanical and optical properties as compared to commercial lenses. In general, this review discus various factors and approaches designed and explored for the successful delivery of ophthalmic drugs using contact lenses as drug delivery device PMID:24826007

  19. Elastic liposomes as novel carriers: recent advances in drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Afzal; Singh, Sima; Sharma, Dinesh; Webster, Thomas J; Shafaat, Kausar; Faruk, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Elastic liposomes (EL) are some of the most versatile deformable vesicular carriers that comprise physiologically biocompatible lipids and surfactants for the delivery of numerous challenging molecules and have marked advantages over other colloidal systems. They have been investigated for a wide range of applications in pharmaceutical technology through topical, transdermal, nasal, and oral routes for efficient and effective drug delivery. Increased drug encapsulation efficiency, enhanced drug permeation and penetration into or across the skin, and ultradeformability have led to widespread interest in ELs to modulate drug release, permeation, and drug action more efficiently than conventional drug-release vehicles. This review provides insights into the versatile role that ELs play in the delivery of numerous drugs and biomolecules by improving drug release, permeation, and penetration across the skin as well as stability. Furthermore, it provides future directions that should ensure the widespread use of ELs across all medical fields. PMID:28761343

  20. Elastic liposomes as novel carriers: recent advances in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Afzal; Singh, Sima; Sharma, Dinesh; Webster, Thomas J; Shafaat, Kausar; Faruk, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Elastic liposomes (EL) are some of the most versatile deformable vesicular carriers that comprise physiologically biocompatible lipids and surfactants for the delivery of numerous challenging molecules and have marked advantages over other colloidal systems. They have been investigated for a wide range of applications in pharmaceutical technology through topical, transdermal, nasal, and oral routes for efficient and effective drug delivery. Increased drug encapsulation efficiency, enhanced drug permeation and penetration into or across the skin, and ultradeformability have led to widespread interest in ELs to modulate drug release, permeation, and drug action more efficiently than conventional drug-release vehicles. This review provides insights into the versatile role that ELs play in the delivery of numerous drugs and biomolecules by improving drug release, permeation, and penetration across the skin as well as stability. Furthermore, it provides future directions that should ensure the widespread use of ELs across all medical fields.

  1. APPLICATIONS OF HOT-MELT EXTRUSION FOR DRUG DELIVERY

    PubMed Central

    Repka, Michael A.; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Battu, Sunil Kumar; Srirangam, Ramesh; Upadhye, Sampada B.

    2018-01-01

    In today’s pharmaceutical arena, it is estimated that more than 40% of new chemical entities produced during drug discovery efforts exhibit poor solubility characteristics. However, over the last decade hot-melt extrusion (HME) has emerged as a powerful processing technology for drug delivery and has opened the door to a host of such molecules previously considered unviable as drugs. HME is considered to be an efficient technique in developing solid molecular dispersions and has been demonstrated to provide sustained, modified and targeted drug delivery resulting in improved bioavailability. This article reviews the myriad of HME applications for pharmaceutical dosage forms such as tablets, capsules, films and implants for drug delivery through oral, transdermal, transmucosal, transungual, as well as other routes of administration. Interest in HME as a pharmaceutical process continues to grow and the potential of automation and reduction of capital investment and labor costs have made this technique worthy of consideration as a drug delivery solution. PMID:19040397

  2. Noninvasive ocular drug delivery: potential transcorneal and other alternative delivery routes for therapeutic molecules in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Foldvari, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    Drug delivery to the eye is made difficult by multiple barriers (such as the tear film, cornea, and vitreous) between the surface of the eye and the treatment site. These barriers are difficult to surmount for the purposes of drug delivery without causing toxicity. Using nanotechnology tools to control, manipulate, and study delivery systems, new approaches to delivering drugs, genes, and antigens that are effective and safe can be developed. Topical administration to the ocular surface would be the safest method for delivery, as it is noninvasive and painless compared with other delivery methods. However, there is only limited success using topical delivery methods, especially for gene therapy. Current thinking on treatments of the future enabled by nanodelivery systems and the identification of target specificity parameters that require deeper understanding to develop successful topical delivery systems for glaucoma is highlighted.

  3. Drug Delivery of the Future: Chasing the Invisible Gorilla

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kinam

    2015-01-01

    For more than 60 years drug delivery systems have produced numerous controlled release formulations helping patients improve compliance and maximize the drug efficacy. Development of new controlled drug delivery systems was very productive during the period 1950-1980. The productivity, as measured by the number of clinically used formulations, dropped significantly during 1980-2010. This reduced productivity needs to be understood so that the future development of drug delivery systems can be accelerated and prolific again. This requires critical evaluation of the current drug delivery field, so that the factors inhibiting rapid progress can be identified and resolved. The current drug delivery field is faced with an invisible gorilla syndrome, i.e., seeing a gorilla when it is not present and missing a gorilla when it actually exists. Overcoming this syndrome requires a new way of thinking, questioning the status quo. Advances in drug delivery technologies occur by an evolutionary process, and thus, the more trials and errors lead to faster advances. The drug delivery area needs to nurture the environment where vastly different ideas can be tested, and all data, positive or negative, need to be exchanged freely as they have equal importance. PMID:26519857

  4. Synthesis of amphiphilic alternating polyesters with oligo(ethylene glycol) side chains and potential use for sustained release drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Jianxun; Xiao, Chunsheng; Tang, Zhaohui; Li, Di; Chen, Jie; Zhuang, Xiuli; Chen, Xuesi

    2011-07-11

    Novel amphiphilic alternating polyesters, poly((N-phthaloyl-l-glutamic anhydride)-co-(2-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)methyl)oxirane) (P(PGA-co-ME(2)MO)), were synthesized by alternating copolymerization of PGA and ME(2)MO. The structures of the synthesized polyesters were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, FT-IR, and GPC analyses. Because of the presence of oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) side chains, the polyesters could self-assemble into thermosensitive micelles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that these micelles underwent thermoinduced size decrease without intermicellar aggregation. In vitro methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay demonstrated that the polyesters were biocompatible to Henrietta Lacks (HeLa) cells, rendering their potential for drug delivery applications. Two hydrophobic drugs, rifampin and doxorubicin (DOX), were loaded into the polyester micelles and observed to be released in a zero-order sustained manner. The sustained release could be accelerated in lower pH or in the presence of proteinase K, due to the degradation of the polyester under these conditions. Remarkably, in vitro cell experiments showed that the polyester micelles accomplished fast release of DOX inside cells and higher anticancer efficacy as compared with the free DOX. With enhanced stability during circulation condition and accelerated drug release at the target sites (e.g., low pH or enzyme presence), these novel polyesters with amphiphilic structures are promising to be used in sustained release drug delivery systems.

  5. Prodrugs for transdermal drug delivery - trends and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ita, Kevin B

    2016-09-01

    Prodrugs continue to attract significant interest in the transdermal drug delivery field. These moieties can confer favorable physicochemical properties on transdermal drug delivery candidates. Alkyl chain lengthening, pegylation are some of the strategies used for prodrug synthesis. It is usually important to optimize partition coefficient, water and oil solubilities of drugs. In this review, progress made in the field of prodrugs for percutaneous penetration is highlighted and the challenges discussed.

  6. Cavitation-enhanced extravasation for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, Costas D; Bazan-Peregrino, Miriam; Rifai, Bassel; Seymour, Leonard W; Coussios, Constantin C

    2011-11-01

    A flow-through tissue-mimicking phantom composed of a biocompatible hydro-gel with embedded tumour cells was used to assess and optimize the role of ultrasound-induced cavitation on the extravasation of a macromolecular compound from a channel mimicking vessel in the gel, namely a non-replicating luciferase-expressing adenovirus (Ad-Luc). Using a 500 KHz therapeutic ultrasound transducer confocally aligned with a focussed passive cavitation detector, different exposure conditions and burst mode timings were selected by performing time and frequency domain analysis of passively recorded acoustic emissions, in the absence and in the presence of ultrasound contrast agents acting as cavitation nuclei. In the presence of Sonovue, maximum ultraharmonic emissions were detected for peak rarefactional pressures of 360 kPa, and maximum broadband emissions occurred at 1250 kPa. The energy of the recorded acoustic emissions was used to optimise the pulse repetition frequency and duty cycle in order to maximize either ultraharmonic or broadband emissions while keeping the acoustic energy delivered to the focus constant. Cell viability measurements indicated that none of the insonation conditions investigated induces cell death in the absence of a therapeutic agent (i.e. virus). Phase contrast images of the tissue-mimicking phantom showed that short range vessel disruption can occur when ultra-harmonic emissions (nf0/2) are maximised whereas formation of a micro-channel perpendicular to the flow can be obtained in the presence of broadband acoustic emissions. Following Ad-Luc delivery, luciferase expression measurements showed that a 60-fold increase in its bioavailability can be achieved when broadband noise emissions are present during insonation, even for modest contrast agent concentrations. The findings of the present study suggest that drug delivery systems based on acoustic cavitation may help enhance the extravasation of anticancer agents, thus increasing their

  7. Controlled release of cyclosporine A self-nanoemulsifying systems from osmotic pump tablets: near zero-order release and pharmacokinetics in dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Yi, Yueneng; Qi, Jianping; Lu, Yi; Tian, Zhiqiang; Xie, Yunchang; Yuan, Hailong; Wu, Wei

    2013-08-16

    It is very important to enhance the absorption simultaneously while designing controlled release delivery systems for poorly water-soluble and poorly permeable drugs (BCS IV). In this study, controlled release of cyclosporine (CyA) was achieved by the osmotic release strategy taking advantage of the absorption-enhancing capacity of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDSs). The liquid SNEDDS consisting of Labrafil M 1944CS, Transcutol P and Cremophor EL was absorbed by the osmotic tablet core excipients (sucrose, lactose monohydrate, polyethylene oxide, and partly pregelatinized starch) and then transformed into osmotic tablets. Near zero-order release could be achieved for CyA-loaded nanoemulsions reconstituted from the SNEDDS. In general, the influencing factor study indicated that the release rate increased with increase of inner osmotic pressure, ratio of osmotic agent to suspending agent, content of pore-forming agent, and size of release orifice, whereas the thickness of the membrane impeded the release of CyA nanoemulsion. Pharmacokinetic study showed steady blood CyA profiles with prolonged Tmax and MRT, and significantly reduced Cmax for self-nanoemulsifying osmotic pump tablet (SNEOPT) in comparison with highly fluctuating profiles of the core tablet and Sandimmune Neoral(®). However, similar oral bioavailability was observed for either controlled release or non-controlled release formulations. It was concluded that simultaneous controlling on CyA release and absorption-enhancing had been achieved by a combination of osmotic tablet and SNEDDS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Polymer nanogels: a versatile nanoscopic drug delivery platform

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Reuben T.; Ventura, Judy; Zhuang, Jiaming; Thayumanavan, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this review we put the spotlight on crosslinked polymer nanogels, a promising platform that has the characteristics of an “ideal” drug delivery vehicle. Some of the key aspects of drug delivery vehicle design like stability, response to biologically relevant stimuli, passive targeting, active targeting, toxicity and ease of synthesis are discussed. We discuss several delivery systems in this light and highlight some examples of systems, which satisfy some or all of these design requirements. In particular, we point to the advantages that crosslinked polymeric systems bring to drug delivery. We review some of the synthetic methods of nanogel synthesis and conclude with the diverse applications in drug delivery where nanogels have been fruitfully employed. PMID:22342438

  9. Design, Characterization, and Optimization of Controlled Drug Delivery System Containing Antibiotic Drug/s

    PubMed Central

    Shelate, Pragna; Dave, Divyang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was design, characterization, and optimization of controlled drug delivery system containing antibiotic drug/s. Osmotic drug delivery system was chosen as controlled drug delivery system. The porous osmotic pump tablets were designed using Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken factorial design to find out the best formulation. For screening of three categories of polymers, six independent variables were chosen for Plackett-Burman design. Osmotic agent sodium chloride and microcrystalline cellulose, pore forming agent sodium lauryl sulphate and sucrose, and coating agent ethyl cellulose and cellulose acetate were chosen as independent variables. Optimization of osmotic tablets was done by Box-Behnken design by selecting three independent variables. Osmotic agent sodium chloride, pore forming agent sodium lauryl sulphate, and coating agent cellulose acetate were chosen as independent variables. The result of Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken design and ANOVA studies revealed that osmotic agent and pore former had significant effect on the drug release up to 12 hr. The observed independent variables were found to be very close to predicted values of most satisfactory formulation which demonstrates the feasibility of the optimization procedure in successful development of porous osmotic pump tablets containing antibiotic drug/s by using sodium chloride, sodium lauryl sulphate, and cellulose acetate as key excipients. PMID:27610247

  10. Novel engineered systems for oral, mucosal and transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Hairui; Yu, Yuan; Faraji Dana, Sara; Li, Bo; Lee, Chi-Ying; Kang, Lifeng

    2013-08-01

    Technological advances in drug discovery have resulted in increasing number of molecules including proteins and peptides as drug candidates. However, how to deliver drugs with satisfactory therapeutic effect, minimal side effects and increased patient compliance is a question posted before researchers, especially for those drugs with poor solubility, large molecular weight or instability. Microfabrication technology, polymer science and bioconjugate chemistry combine to address these problems and generate a number of novel engineered drug delivery systems. Injection routes usually have poor patient compliance due to their invasive nature and potential safety concerns over needle reuse. The alternative non-invasive routes, such as oral, mucosal (pulmonary, nasal, ocular, buccal, rectal, vaginal), and transdermal drug delivery have thus attracted many attentions. Here, we review the applications of the novel engineered systems for oral, mucosal and transdermal drug delivery.

  11. A commentary on transdermal drug delivery systems in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Watkinson, Adam C

    2013-09-01

    The number of drugs available as marketed transdermal products is limited to those that exhibit the correct physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties that enable their effective delivery across the skin. In this respect, there are less than 20 drugs that are currently marketed in the US and EU as products that deliver systemic levels of their active ingredients. An analysis of clinical trials conducted in the transdermal sector shows a similar picture with only nine drugs accounting for approximately 80% of all transdermal clinical trials listed on ClinicalTrials.gov. Those drugs for which there are very few transdermal trials listed consist mostly of molecules that are inherently unsuitable for transdermal delivery and serve as a clear warning to drug developers that the science that governs transdermal drug delivery is well reflected by the successes and failures of drugs in development as well as those that make it to the market. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Colloidal drug delivery systems: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview an extensive range of colloidal drug delivery systems with special focus on vesicular and particulates systems that are being used in research or might be potentially useful as carriers systems for drug or active biomolecules or as cell carriers with application in the therapeutic field. We present some important examples of commercially available drug delivery systems with applications in research or in clinical fields. This class of systems is widely used due to excellent drug targeting, sustained and controlled release behavior, higher entrapment efficiency of drug molecules, prevention of drug hydrolysis or enzymatic degradation, and improvement of therapeutic efficacy. These characteristics help in the selection of suitable carrier systems for drug, cell, and gene delivery in different fields.

  13. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  14. Hydrogels for Hydrophobic Drug Delivery. Classification, Synthesis and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sarah; Ervine, Michael; Al-Kasasbeh, Rehan; Donnelly, Ryan F.

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogels have been shown to be very useful in the field of drug delivery due to their high biocompatibility and ability to sustain delivery. Therefore, the tuning of their properties should be the focus of study to optimise their potential. Hydrogels have been generally limited to the delivery of hydrophilic drugs. However, as many of the new drugs coming to market are hydrophobic in nature, new approaches for integrating hydrophobic drugs into hydrogels should be developed. This article discusses the possible new ways to incorporate hydrophobic drugs within hydrogel structures that have been developed through research. This review describes hydrogel-based systems for hydrophobic compound delivery included in the literature. The section covers all the main types of hydrogels, including physical hydrogels and chemical hydrogels. Additionally, reported applications of these hydrogels are described in the subsequent sections. PMID:29364833

  15. Recent Advances of Cocktail Chemotherapy by Combination Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Quanyin; Sun, Wujin; Wang, Chao; Gu, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Combination chemotherapy is widely exploited for enhanced cancer treatment in clinic. However, the traditional cocktail administration of combination regimens often suffers from varying pharmacokinetics among different drugs. The emergence of nanotechnology offers an unparalleled opportunity for developing advanced combination drug delivery strategies with the ability to encapsulate various drugs simultaneously and unify the pharmacokinetics of each drug. This review surveys the most recent advances in combination delivery of multiple small molecule chemotherapeutics using nanocarriers. The mechanisms underlying combination chemotherapy, including the synergistic, additive and potentiation effects, are also discussed with typical examples. We further highlight the sequential and site-specific co-delivery strategies, which provide new guidelines for development of programmable combination drug delivery systems. Clinical outlook and challenges are also discussed in the end. PMID:26546751

  16. 3D printing applications for transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Economidou, Sophia N; Lamprou, Dimitrios A; Douroumis, Dennis

    2018-06-15

    The role of two and three-dimensional printing as a fabrication technology for sophisticated transdermal drug delivery systems is explored in literature. 3D printing encompasses a family of distinct technologies that employ a virtual model to produce a physical object through numerically controlled apparatuses. The applicability of several printing technologies has been researched for the direct or indirect printing of microneedle arrays or for the modification of their surface through drug-containing coatings. The findings of the respective studies are presented. The range of printable materials that are currently used or potentially can be employed for 3D printing of transdermal drug delivery (TDD) systems is also reviewed. Moreover, the expected impact and challenges of the adoption of 3D printing as a manufacturing technique for transdermal drug delivery systems, are assessed. Finally, this paper outlines the current regulatory framework associated with 3D printed transdermal drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. DNA nanostructure-based drug delivery nanosystems in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dandan; Wang, Lei; Li, Wei; Xu, Xiaowen; Jiang, Wei

    2017-11-25

    DNA as a novel biomaterial can be used to fabricate different kinds of DNA nanostructures based on its principle of GC/AT complementary base pairing. Studies have shown that DNA nanostructure is a nice drug carrier to overcome big obstacles existing in cancer therapy such as systemic toxicity and unsatisfied drug efficacy. Thus, different types of DNA nanostructure-based drug delivery nanosystems have been designed in cancer therapy. To improve treating efficacy, they are also developed into more functional drug delivery nanosystems. In recent years, some important progresses have been made. The objective of this review is to make a retrospect and summary about these different kinds of DNA nanostructure-based drug delivery nanosystems and their latest progresses: (1) active targeting; (2) mutidrug co-delivery; (3) construction of stimuli-responsive/intelligent nanosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Recent trends in drug delivery system using protein nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sripriyalakshmi, S; Jose, Pinkybel; Ravindran, Aswathy; Anjali, C H

    2014-09-01

    Engineered nanoparticles that can facilitate drug formulation and passively target tumours have been under extensive research in recent years. These successes have driven a new wave of significant innovation in the generation of advanced particles. The fate and transport of diagnostic nanoparticles would significantly depend on nonselective drug delivery, and hence the use of high drug dosage is implemented. In this perspective, nanocarrier-based drug targeting strategies can be used which improve the selective delivery of drugs to the site of action, i.e. drug targeting. Pharmaceutical industries majorly focus on reducing the toxicity and side effects of drugs but only recently it has been realised that carrier systems themselves may pose risks to the patient. Proteins are compatible with biological systems and they are biodegradable. They offer a multitude of moieties for modifications to tailor drug binding, imaging or targeting entities. Thus, protein nanoparticles provide outstanding contributions as a carrier for drug delivery systems. This review summarises recent progress in particle-based therapeutic delivery and discusses important concepts in particle design and biological barriers for developing the next generation of particles drug delivery systems.

  19. Zero-order release of aspirin, theophylline and atenolol in water from novel methylcellulose glutarate matrix tablets.

    PubMed

    Khairuzzaman, A; Ahmed, S U; Savva, M; Patel, N K

    2006-08-02

    A novel hydrocolloidal polymer, methylcellulose glutarate (MC-GA), was prepared by esterifying methylcellulose with glutaric anhydride. The formation of ester was confirmed by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, DSC and elemental analysis. The physicochemical properties such as, rate of swelling in water, viscosity and hygroscopicity of MC-GA were determined and compared with those of methycellulose A (MC). Aspirin, theophylline and atenolol tablets were compacted on a Carver press using the wet granulation method. Each tablet contained: 200 mg active, 80 mg anhydrous lactose, 8 mg povidone, 4 mg magnesium stearate, 4 mg talc, 50mg MC or MC-GA (drug-to-polymer ratio, 4:1). Contrary to the first-order release profile of all the drugs from the MC matrix tablets, a zero-order release was obtained from the MC-GA matrix tablets in water.

  20. Elastin-Like Recombinamers As Smart Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Arias, F Javier; Santos, Mercedes; Ibanez-Fonseca, Arturo; Pina, Maria Jesus; Serrano, Sofía

    2018-02-19

    Drug delivery systems that are able to control the release of bioactive molecules and designed to carry drugs to target sites are of particular interest for tissue therapy. Moreover, systems comprising materials that can respond to environmental stimuli and promote self-assembly and higher order supramolecular organization are especially useful in the biomedical field. Objetive: This review focuses on biomaterials suitable for this purpose and that include elastin-like recombinamers (ELRs), a class of proteinaceous polymers bioinspired by natural elastin, designed using recombinant technologies. The self-assembly and thermoresponsive behaviour of these systems, along with their biodegradability, biocompatibility and well-defined composition as a result of their tailormade design, make them particularly attractive for controlled drug delivery. ELR-based delivery systems that allow targeted delivery are reviewed, especially ELR-drug recombinant fusion constructs, ELR-drug systems chemically bioconjugated in their monomeric and soluble forms, and drug encapsulation by nanoparticle-forming ELRs. Subsequently, the review focuses on those drug carriers in which smart release is triggered by pH or temperature with a particular focus on cancer treatments. Systems for controlled drug release based on depots and hydrogels that act as both a support and reservoir in which drugs can be stored will be described, and their applications in drug delivery discussed. Finally, smart drug-delivery systems not based on ELRs, including those comprising proteins, synthetic polymers and non-polymeric systems, will also be briefly discussed. Several different constructions based on ELRs are potential candidates for controlled drug delivery to be applied in advanced biomedical treatments. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. A Controlled Drug-Delivery Experiment Using Alginate Beads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Stephanie; Vernengo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, cost-effective experiment which introduces students to drug delivery and modeling using alginate beads. Students produce calcium alginate beads loaded with drug and measure the rate of release from the beads for systems having different stir rates, geometries, extents of cross-linking, and drug molecular weight.…

  2. Dendrimeric Systems and Their Applications in Ocular Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Burçin; Bozdağ Pehlivan, Sibel; Ünlü, Nurşen

    2013-01-01

    Ophthalmic drug delivery is one of the most attractive and challenging research area for pharmaceutical scientists and ophthalmologists. Absorption of an ophthalmic drug in conventional dosage forms is seriously limited by physiological conditions. The use of nonionic or ionic biodegradable polymers in aqueous solutions and colloidal dosage forms such as liposomes, nanoparticles, nanocapsules, microspheres, microcapsules, microemulsions, and dendrimers has been studied to overcome the problems mentioned above. Dendrimers are a new class of polymeric materials. The unique nanostructured architecture of dendrimers has been studied to examine their role in delivery of therapeutics and imaging agents. Dendrimers can enhance drug's water solubility, bioavailability, and biocompatibility and can be applied for different routes of drug administration successfully. Permeability enhancer properties of dendrimers were also reported. The use of dendrimers can also reduce toxicity versus activity and following an appropriate application route they allow the delivery of the drug to the targeted site and provide desired pharmacokinetic parameters. Therefore, dendrimeric drug delivery systems are of interest in ocular drug delivery. In this review, the limitations related to eye's unique structure, the advantages of dendrimers, and the potential applications of dendrimeric systems to ophthalmology including imaging, drug, peptide, and gene delivery will be discussed. PMID:24396306

  3. Development In Drug Targeting And Delivery In Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Urvashi; Goyal, Amit Kumar; Rath, Goutam

    2017-10-09

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women. Standard treatment options available for cervical cancer including chemotherapy, surgery and radiation therapy associated with their own side effects and toxicities. Tumor-targeted delivery of anticancer drugs is perhaps one of the most appropriate strategies to achieve optimal outcomes from treatment and improve quality of life. Recently nanocarriers based drug delivery systems owing to their unique properties have been extensively investigated for anticancer drug delivery. In addition to that addressing the anatomical significance of cervical cancer, various local drug delivery strategies for the cancer treatment are introduced like: gels, nanoparticles, polymeric films, rods and wafers, lipid based nanocarrier. Localized drug delivery systems allows passive drug targeting results in high drug concentration at the target site. Further they can be tailor made to achieve both sustained and controlled release behavior, substantially improving therapeutic outcomes and minimizing side effects. This review summarizes the meaningful advances in drug delivery strategies to treat cervical cancer. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Development of a gastroretentive pulsatile drug delivery platform.

    PubMed

    Thitinan, Sumalee; McConville, Jason T

    2012-04-01

    To develop a novel gastroretentive pulsatile drug delivery platform by combining the advantages of floating dosage forms for the stomach and pulsatile drug delivery systems. A gastric fluid impermeable capsule body was used as a vessel to contain one or more drug layer(s) as well as one or more lag-time controlling layer(s). A controlled amount of air was sealed in the innermost portion of the capsule body to reduce the overall density of the drug delivery platform, enabling gastric floatation. An optimal mass fill inside the gastric fluid impermeable capsule body enabled buoyancy in a vertical orientation to provide a constant surface area for controlled erosion of the lag-time controlling layer. The lag-time controlling layer consisted of a swellable polymer, which rapidly formed a gel to seal the mouth of capsule body and act as a barrier to gastric fluid ingress. By varying the composition of the lag-time controlling layer, it was possible to selectively program the onset of the pulsatile delivery of a drug. This new delivery platform offers a new method of delivery for a variety of suitable drugs targeted in chronopharmaceutical therapy. This strategy could ultimately improve drug efficacy and patient compliance, and reduce harmful side effects by scaling back doses of drug administered. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. Breast Cancer-Targeted Nuclear Drug Delivery Overcoming Drug Resistance for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    breast-cancer-targeted nuclear drug delivery carriers , but we found that the ability of the PEI to disrupt the endosome/lysosome membrane was not...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-1-0502 TITLE: Breast Cancer-Targeted Nuclear Drug ...Delivery Overcoming Drug Resistance for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Youqing Shen, Ph.D

  6. Porous silicon advances in drug delivery and immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Savage, D; Liu, X; Curley, S; Ferrari, M; Serda, RE

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical applications of porous silicon include drug delivery, imaging, diagnostics and immunotherapy. This review summarizes new silicon particle fabrication techniques, dynamics of cellular transport, advances in the multistage vector approach to drug delivery, and the use of porous silicon as immune adjuvants. Recent findings support superior therapeutic efficacy of the multistage vector approach over single particle drug delivery systems in mouse models of ovarian and breast cancer. With respect to vaccine development, multivalent presentation of pathogen-associated molecular patterns on the particle surface creates powerful platforms for immunotherapy, with the porous matrix able to carry both antigens and immune modulators. PMID:23845260

  7. Inorganic Nanoporous Membranes for Immunoisolated Cell-Based Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, Adam; Desai, Tejal

    2014-01-01

    Materials advances enabled by nanotechnology have brought about promising approaches to improve the encapsulation mechanism for immunoisolated cell-based drug delivery. Cell-based drug delivery is a promising treatment for many diseases but has thus far achieved only limited clinical success. Treatment of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) by transplantation of pancreatic β-cells represents the most anticipated application of cell-based drug delivery technology. This review outlines the challenges involved with maintaining transplanted cell viability and discusses how inorganic nanoporous membranes may be useful in achieving clinical success. PMID:20384222

  8. Multifunctional quantum dots and liposome complexes in drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Chao, Yimin

    2018-01-01

    Incorporating both diagnostic and therapeutic functions into a single nanoscale system is an effective modern drug delivery strategy. Combining liposomes with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) has great potential to achieve such dual functions, referred to in this review as a liposomal QD hybrid system (L-QD). Here we review the recent literature dealing with the design and application of L-QD for advances in bio-imaging and drug delivery. After a summary of L-QD synthesis processes and evaluation of their properties, we will focus on their multifunctional applications, ranging from in vitro cell imaging to theranostic drug delivery approaches. PMID:28866655

  9. Multifunctional quantum dots and liposome complexes in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Chao, Yi-Min

    2017-09-03

    Incorporating both diagnostic and therapeutic functions into a single nanoscale system is an effective modern drug delivery strategy. Combining liposomes with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) has great potential to achieve such dual functions, referred to in this review as a liposomal QD hybrid system (L-QD). Here we review the recent literature dealing with the design and application of L-QD for advances in bio-imaging and drug delivery. After a summary of L-QD synthesis processes and evaluation of their properties, we will focus on their multifunctional applications, ranging from in vitro cell imaging to theranostic drug delivery approaches.

  10. Porous silicon advances in drug delivery and immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Savage, David J; Liu, Xuewu; Curley, Steven A; Ferrari, Mauro; Serda, Rita E

    2013-10-01

    Biomedical applications of porous silicon include drug delivery, imaging, diagnostics and immunotherapy. This review summarizes new silicon particle fabrication techniques, dynamics of cellular transport, advances in the multistage vector approach to drug delivery, and the use of porous silicon as immune adjuvants. Recent findings support superior therapeutic efficacy of the multistage vector approach over single particle drug delivery systems in mouse models of ovarian and breast cancer. With respect to vaccine development, multivalent presentation of pathogen-associated molecular patterns on the particle surface creates powerful platforms for immunotherapy, with the porous matrix able to carry both antigens and immune modulators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nanotechnology controlled drug delivery for treating bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Webster, Thomas J

    2009-08-01

    Rapid developments at the intersection of nanotechnology and controlled drug delivery have triggered exceptional growth in treating various bone diseases. As a result, over the past decade, nanotechnology has contributed tremendously to controlling drug delivery for treating various bone diseases, and in many cases, has led to increased bone regeneration. In this review paper, the recent experimental progress towards using nanotechnology to treat bone-specific diseases is reviewed. Novel applications of different types of nanomaterials (from nanoparticles to 3D nanostructured scaffolds) for treating bone diseases are summarized. In addition, fundamental principles for utilizing nanomaterials to create better drug delivery systems, especially for treating bone diseases and regenerating bone, are emphasized.

  12. Cartilage-targeting drug delivery: can electrostatic interactions help?

    PubMed

    Bajpayee, Ambika G; Grodzinsky, Alan J

    2017-03-01

    Current intra-articular drug delivery methods do not guarantee sufficient drug penetration into cartilage tissue to reach cell and matrix targets at the concentrations necessary to elicit the desired biological response. Here, we provide our perspective on the utilization of charge-charge (electrostatic) interactions to enhance drug penetration and transport into cartilage, and to enable sustained binding of drugs within the tissue's highly negatively charged extracellular matrix. By coupling drugs to positively charged nanocarriers that have optimal size and charge, cartilage can be converted from a drug barrier into a drug reservoir for sustained intra-tissue delivery. Alternatively, a wide variety of drugs themselves can be made cartilage-penetrating by functionalizing them with specialized positively charged protein domains. Finally, we emphasize that appropriate animal models, with cartilage thickness similar to that of humans, must be used for the study of drug transport and retention in cartilage.

  13. Vegetation-environment relationships in zero-order basins in coastal Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Chris D. Sheridan; Thomas A. Spies

    2005-01-01

    Zero-order basins, where hillslope topography converges to form drainages, are common in steep, forested landscapes but we know little about their ecological structure. We used indirect gradient analysis to characterize gradients in plant species composition and cluster analysis to characterize groups of plant species associated with specific geomorphic areas. We...

  14. Microneedles for enhanced transdermal and intraocular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, Kurtis; Wang, Yujing; Raj Singh, Thakur Raghu; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2017-10-01

    Microneedle mediated delivery based research has garnered great interest in recent years. In the past, the initial focus was delivery of macromolecules of biological origin, however the field has now broadened its scope to include transdermal delivery of conventional low molecular weight drug molecules. Great success has been demonstrated utilising this approach, particularly in the field of vaccine delivery. Current technological advances have permitted an enhancement in design formulation, allowing delivery of therapeutic doses of small molecule drugs and biomolecules, aided by larger patch sizes and scalable manufacture. In addition, it has been recently shown that microneedles are beneficial in localisation of drug delivery systems within targeted ocular tissues. Microneedles have the capacity to modify the means in which therapeutics and formulations are delivered to the eye. However, further research is still required due to potential drawbacks and challenges. Indeed, no true microneedle-based transdermal or ocular drug delivery system has yet been marketed. Some concerns have been raised regarding regulatory issues and manufacturing processes of such systems, and those in the field are now actively working to address them. Microneedle-based transdermal and ocular drug delivery systems have the potential to greatly impact not only patient benefits, but also industry, and through diligence, innovation and collaboration, their true potential will begin to be realised within the next 3-5 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microneedle-based drug delivery systems: Microfabrication, drug delivery, and safety

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Ryan F.; Raj Singh, Thakur Raghu; Woolfson, A. David

    2010-01-01

    Many promising therapeutic agents are limited by their inability to reach the systemic circulation, due to the excellent barrier properties of biological membranes, such as the stratum corneum (SC) of the skin or the sclera/cornea of the eye and others. The outermost layer of the skin, the SC, is the principal barrier to topically-applied medications. The intact SC thus provides the main barrier to exogenous substances, including drugs. Only drugs with very specific physicochemical properties (molecular weight < 500 Da, adequate lipophilicity, and low melting point) can be successfully administered transdermally. Transdermal delivery of hydrophilic drugs and macromolecular agents of interest, including peptides, DNA, and small interfering RNA is problematic. Therefore, facilitation of drug penetration through the SC may involve by-pass or reversible disruption of SC molecular architecture. Microneedles (MNs), when used to puncture skin, will by-pass the SC and create transient aqueous transport pathways of micron dimensions and enhance the transdermal permeability. These micropores are orders of magnitude larger than molecular dimensions, and, therefore, should readily permit the transport of hydrophilic macromolecules. Various strategies have been employed by many research groups and pharmaceutical companies worldwide, for the fabrication of MNs. This review details various types of MNs, fabrication methods and, importantly, investigations of clinical safety of MN. PMID:20297904

  16. Polyamidoamine dendrimer hydrogel for enhanced delivery of antiglaucoma drugs.

    PubMed

    Holden, Christopher A; Tyagi, Puneet; Thakur, Ashish; Kadam, Rajendra; Jadhav, Gajanan; Kompella, Uday B; Yang, Hu

    2012-07-01

    Dendrimer hydrogel (DH), made from ultraviolet-cured polyamidoamine dendrimer G3.0 tethered with three polyethylene glycol (PEG, 12,000 Da)-acrylate chains (8.1% w/v) in pH 7.4 phosphate buffered saline (PBS), was studied for the delivery of brimonidine (0.1% w/v) and timolol maleate (0.5% w/v), two antiglaucoma drugs. DH was found to be mucoadhesive to mucin particles and nontoxic to human corneal epithelial cells. DH increased the PBS solubility of brimonidine by 77.6% and sustained the in vitro release of both drugs over 56-72 hours. As compared to eye drop formulations (PBS-drug solutions), DH brought about substantially higher human corneal epithelial cells uptake and significantly increased bovine corneal transport for both drugs. DH increased timolol maleate uptake in bovine corneal epithelium, stroma, and endothelium by 0.4- to 4.6-fold. This work demonstrated that DH can enhance the delivery of antiglaucoma drugs in multiple aspects and represents a novel platform for ocular drug delivery. Dendrimer hydrogel was studied as agent for simultaneous delivery of two anti-glaucoma drugs, one hydrophobic and one hydrophilic. Superiority over standard PBS-based formulation was clearly demonstrated for both drugs. The work may be a novel platform for ocular drug delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhaled Micro/Nanoparticulate Anticancer Drug Formulations: An Emerging Targeted Drug Delivery Strategy for Lung Cancers.

    PubMed

    Islam, Nazrul; Richard, Derek

    2018-05-24

    Local delivery of drug to the target organ via inhalation offers enormous benefits in the management of many diseases. Lung cancer is the most common of all cancers and it is the leading cause of death worldwide. Currently available treatment systems (intravenous or oral drug delivery) are not efficient in accumulating the delivered drug into the target tumor cells and are usually associated with various systemic and dose-related adverse effects. The pulmonary drug delivery technology would enable preferential accumulation of drug within the cancer cell and thus be superior to intravenous and oral delivery in reducing cancer cell proliferation and minimising the systemic adverse effects. Site-specific drug delivery via inhalation for the treatment of lung cancer is both feasible and efficient. The inhaled drug delivery system is non-invasive, produces high bioavailability at low dose and avoids first pass metabolism of the delivered drug. Various anticancer drugs including chemotherapeutics, proteins and genes have been investigated for inhalation in lung cancers with significant outcomes. Pulmonary delivery of drugs from dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation is stable and has high patient compliance. Herein, we report the potential of pulmonary drug delivery from dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations inhibiting lung cancer cell proliferation at very low dose with reduced unwanted adverse effects. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Malaria treatment using novel nano-based drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Baruah, Uday Krishna; Gowthamarajan, Kuppusamy; Vanka, Ravisankar; Karri, Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy; Selvaraj, Kousalya; Jojo, Gifty M

    2017-08-01

    We reside in an era of technological innovation and advancement despite which infectious diseases like malaria remain to be one of the greatest threats to the humans. Mortality rate caused by malaria disease is a huge concern in the twenty-first century. Multiple drug resistance and nonspecific drug targeting of the most widely used drugs are the main reasons/drawbacks behind the failure in malarial therapy. Dose-related toxicity because of high doses is also a major concern. Therefore, to overcome these problems nano-based drug delivery systems are being developed to facilitate site-specific or target-based drug delivery and hence minimizing the development of resistance progress and dose-dependent toxicity issues. In this review, we discuss about the shortcomings in treating malaria and how nano-based drug delivery systems can help in curtailing the infectious disease malaria.

  19. Targeted drug delivery and penetration into solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Corti, Angelo; Pastorino, Fabio; Curnis, Flavio; Arap, Wadih; Ponzoni, Mirco; Pasqualini, Renata

    2012-09-01

    Delivery and penetration of chemotherapeutic drugs into tumors are limited by a number of factors related to abnormal vasculature and altered stroma composition in neoplastic tissues. Coupling of chemotherapeutic drugs with tumor vasculature-homing peptides or administration of drugs in combination with biological agents that affect the integrity of the endothelial lining of tumor vasculature is an appealing strategy to improve drug delivery to tumor cells. Promising approaches to achieve this goal are based on the use of Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR)-containing peptides as ligands for drug delivery and of NGR-TNF, a peptide-tumor necrosis factor-α fusion protein that selectively alters drug penetration barriers and that is currently tested in a randomized Phase III trial in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Kinetics of reciprocating drug delivery to the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Pararas, Erin E Leary; Chen, Zhiqiang; Fiering, Jason; Mescher, Mark J; Kim, Ernest S; McKenna, Michael J; Kujawa, Sharon G; Borenstein, Jeffrey T; Sewell, William F

    2011-06-10

    Reciprocating drug delivery is a means of delivering soluble drugs directly to closed fluid spaces in the body via a single cannula without an accompanying fluid volume change. It is ideally suited for drug delivery into small, sensitive and unique fluid spaces such as the cochlea. We characterized the pharmacokinetics of reciprocating drug delivery to the scala tympani within the cochlea by measuring the effects of changes in flow parameters on the distribution of drug throughout the length of the cochlea. Distribution was assessed by monitoring the effects of DNQX, a reversible glutamate receptor blocker, delivered directly to the inner ear of guinea pigs using reciprocating flow profiles. We then modeled the effects of those parameters on distribution using both an iterative curve-fitting approach and a computational fluid dynamic model. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that reciprocating delivery distributes the drug into a volume in the base of the cochlea, and suggest that the primary determinant of distribution throughout more distal regions of the cochlea is diffusion. Increases in flow rate distributed the drug into a larger volume that extended more apically. Over short time courses (less than 2h), the apical extension, though small, significantly enhanced apically directed delivery of drug. Over longer time courses (>5h) or greater distances (>3mm), maintenance of drug concentration in the basal scala tympani may prove more advantageous for extending apical delivery than increases in flow rate. These observations demonstrate that this reciprocating technology is capable of providing controlled delivery kinetics to the closed fluid space in the cochlea, and may be suitable for other applications such as localized brain and retinal delivery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Kinetics of Reciprocating Drug Delivery to the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Leary Pararas, Erin E.; Chen, Zhiqiang; Fiering, Jason; Mescher, Mark J.; Kim, Ernest S.; McKenna, Michael J.; Kujawa, Sharon G.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.; Sewell, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Reciprocating drug delivery is a means of delivering soluble drugs directly to closed fluid spaces in the body via a single cannula without an accompanying fluid volume change. It is ideally suited for drug delivery into small, sensitive and unique fluid spaces such as the cochlea. We characterized the pharmacokinetics of reciprocating drug delivery to the scala tympani within the cochlea by measuring the effects of changes in flow parameters on the distribution of drug throughout the length of the cochlea. Distribution was assessed by monitoring the effects of DNQX, a reversible glutamate receptor blocker, delivered directly to the inner ear of guinea pigs using reciprocating flow profiles. We then modeled the effects of those parameters on distribution using both an iterative curve-fitting approach and a computational fluid dynamic model. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that reciprocating delivery distributes the drug into a volume in the base of the cochlea, and suggest that the primary determinant of distribution throughout more distal regions of the cochlea is diffusion. Increases in flow rate distributed the drug into a larger volume that extended more apically. Over short time courses (less than 2 h), the apical extension, though small, significantly enhanced apically directed delivery of drug. Over longer time courses (>5 h) or greater distances (>3 mm), maintenance of drug concentration in the basal scala tympani may prove more advantageous for extending apical delivery than increases in flow rate. These observations demonstrate that this reciprocating technology is capable of providing controlled delivery kinetics to the closed fluid space in the cochlea, and may be suitable for other applications such as localized brain and retinal delivery. PMID:21385596

  2. Advances of blood cell-based drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanan; Su, Jing; Liu, Geyi; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Xiumei; Zhang, Ran; Jiang, Minhan; Qiu, Mingfeng

    2017-01-01

    Blood cells, including erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets are used as drug carriers in a wide range of applications. They have many unique advantages such as long life-span in circulation (especially erythrocytes), target release capacities (especially platelets), and natural adhesive properties (leukocytes and platelets). These properties make blood cell based delivery systems, as well as their membrane-derived carriers, far superior to other drug delivery systems. Despite the advantages, the further development of blood cell-based delivery systems was hindered by limitations in the source, storage, and mass production. To overcome these problems, synthetic biomaterials that mimic blood cell and nanocrystallization of blood cells have been developed and may represent the future direction for blood cell membrane-based delivery systems. In this paper, we review recent progress of the rising blood cell-based drug delivery systems, and also discuss their challenges and future tendency of development. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Ultrasound-mediated drug delivery for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Jonathan T; Haworth, Kevin J; Pyne-Geithman, Gail; Holland, Christy K

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ultrasound (US) has been developed as both a valuable diagnostic tool and a potent promoter of beneficial tissue bioeffects for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. These effects can be mediated by mechanical oscillations of circulating microbubbles, or US contrast agents, which may also encapsulate and shield a therapeutic agent in the bloodstream. Oscillating microbubbles can create stresses directly on nearby tissue or induce fluid effects that effect drug penetration into vascular tissue, lyse thrombi or direct drugs to optimal locations for delivery. Areas covered The present review summarizes investigations that have provided evidence for US-mediated drug delivery as a potent method to deliver therapeutics to diseased tissue for cardiovascular treatment. In particular, the focus will be on investigations of specific aspects relating to US-mediated drug delivery, such as delivery vehicles, drug transport routes, biochemical mechanisms and molecular targeting strategies. Expert opinion These investigations have spurred continued research into alternative therapeutic applications, such as bioactive gas delivery and new US technologies. Successful implementation of US-mediated drug delivery has the potential to change the way many drugs are administered systemically, resulting in more effective and economical therapeutics, and less-invasive treatments. PMID:23448121

  4. Biodegradable polymers for targeted delivery of anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Doppalapudi, Sindhu; Jain, Anjali; Domb, Abraham J; Khan, Wahid

    2016-06-01

    Biodegradable polymers have been used for more than three decades in cancer treatment and have received increased interest in recent years. A range of biodegradable polymeric drug delivery systems designed for localized and systemic administration of therapeutic agents as well as tumor-targeting macromolecules has entered into the clinical phase of development, indicating the significance of biodegradable polymers in cancer therapy. This review elaborates upon applications of biodegradable polymers in the delivery and targeting of anti-cancer agents. Design of various drug delivery systems based on biodegradable polymers has been described. Moreover, the indication of polymers in the targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs via passive, active targeting, and localized drug delivery are also covered. Biodegradable polymer-based drug delivery systems have the potential to deliver the payload to the target and can enhance drug availability at desired sites. Systemic toxicity and serious side effects observed with conventional cancer therapeutics can be significantly reduced with targeted polymeric systems. Still, there are many challenges that need to be met with respect to the degradation kinetics of the system, diffusion of drug payload within solid tumors, targeting tumoral tissue and tumor heterogeneity.

  5. Recent advancement of gelatin nanoparticles in drug and vaccine delivery.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Nityananda; Sahoo, Ranjan Ku; Biswas, Nikhil; Guha, Arijit; Kuotsu, Ketousetuo

    2015-11-01

    Novel drug delivery system using nanoscale materials with a broad spectrum of applications provides a new therapeutic foundation for technological integration and innovation. Nanoparticles are suitable drug carrier for various routes of administration as well as rapid recognition by the immune system. Gelatin, the biological macromolecule is a versatile drug/vaccine delivery carrier in pharmaceutical field due to its biodegradable, biocompatible, non-antigenicity and low cost with easy availability. The surface of gelatin nanoparticles can be modified with site-specific ligands, cationized with amine derivatives or, coated with polyethyl glycols to achieve targeted and sustained release drug delivery. Compared to other colloidal carriers, gelatin nanoparticles are better stable in biological fluids to provide the desired controlled and sustained release of entrapped drug molecules. The current review highlights the different formulation aspects of gelatin nanoparticles which affect the particle characteristics like zeta potential, polydispersity index, entrapment efficacy and drug release properties. It has also given emphasis on the major applications of gelatin nanoparticles in drug and vaccine delivery, gene delivery to target tissues and nutraceutical delivery for improving the poor bioavailabity of bioactive phytonutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Buccoadhesive drug delivery systems--extensive review on recent patents.

    PubMed

    Pathan, Shadab A; Iqbal, Zeenat; Sahani, Jasjeet K; Talegaonkar, Sushma; Khar, Roop K; Ahmad, Farhan J

    2008-01-01

    Peroral administration of drugs, although most preferred by both clinicians and patients has several disadvantages such as hepatic first pass metabolism and enzymatic degradation within the GI tract, that prohibit oral administration of certain classes of drugs especially peptides and proteins. Consequently, other absorptive mucosae are considered as potential sites for administration of these drugs. Among the various transmucosal routes studied the buccal mucosa offers several advantages for controlled drug delivery for extended period of time. The mucosa is well supplied with both vascular and lymphatic drainage and first-pass metabolism in the liver and pre-systemic elimination in the gastrointestinal tract is avoided. The area is well suited for a retentive device and appears to be acceptable to the patient. With the right dosage form, design and formulation, the permeability and the local environment of the mucosa can be controlled and manipulated in order to accommodate drug permeation. Buccal drug delivery is thus a promising area for continued research with the aim of systemic and local delivery of orally inefficient drugs as well as feasible and attractive alternative for non-invasive delivery of potent protein and peptide drug molecules. Extensive review pertaining specifically to the patents relating to buccal drug delivery is currently available. However, many patents e.g. US patents 6, 585,997; US20030059376A1 etc. have been mentioned in few articles. It is the objective of this article to extensively review buccal drug delivery by discussing the recent patents available. Buccal dosage forms will also be reviewed with an emphasis on bioadhesive polymeric based delivery systems.

  7. Diatoms: a biotemplating approach to fabricating drug delivery reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Chao, Joshua T; Biggs, Manus J P; Pandit, Abhay S

    2014-11-01

    Biotemplating is a rapidly expanding subfield that utilizes nature-inspired systems and structures to create novel functional materials, and it is through these methods that the limitations of current engineering practices may be advanced. The diatom is an exceptional template for drug delivery applications, owing largely to its highly-ordered pores, large surface area, species-specific architecture, and flexibility for surface modifications. Diatoms have been studied in a wide range of biomedical applications and their potential as the next frontier of drug delivery has yet to be fully exploited. In this editorial, the authors aim to review the use of diatoms in the delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs as reported in the literature, discuss the progress and advancements that have been made thus far, identify the shortcomings and limitations in the field, and, lastly, present their expert opinion and convey the future outlook on biotemplating approaches for drug delivery.

  8. Micelles and Nanoparticles for Ultrasonic Drug and Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Husseini, Ghaleb A.; Pitt, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Drug delivery research employing micelles and nanoparticles has expanded in recent years. Of particular interest is the use of these nanovehicles that deliver high concentrations of cytotoxic drugs to diseased tissues selectively, thus reducing the agent’s side effects on the rest of the body. Ultrasound, traditionally used in diagnostic medicine, is finding a place in drug delivery in connection with these nanoparticles. In addition to their non-invasive nature and the fact that they can be focused on targeted tissues, acoustic waves have been credited with releasing pharmacological agents from nanocarriers, as well as rendering cell membranes more permeable. In this article, we summarize new technologies that combine the use of nanoparticles with acoustic power both in drug and gene delivery. Ultrasonic drug delivery from micelles usually employs polyether block copolymers, and has been found effective in vivo for treating tumors. Ultrasound releases drug from micelles, most probably via shear stress and shock waves from collapse of cavitation bubbles. Liquid emulsions and solid nanoparticles are used with ultrasound to deliver genes in vitro and in vivo. The small packaging allows nanoparticles to extravasate into tumor tissues. Ultrasonic drug and gene delivery from nano-carriers has tremendous potential because of the wide variety of drugs and genes that could be delivered to targeted tissues by fairly non-invasive means. PMID:18486269

  9. Porous Inorganic Drug Delivery Systems-a Review.

    PubMed

    Sayed, E; Haj-Ahmad, R; Ruparelia, K; Arshad, M S; Chang, M-W; Ahmad, Z

    2017-07-01

    Innovative methods and materials have been developed to overcome limitations associated with current drug delivery systems. Significant developments have led to the use of a variety of materials (as excipients) such as inorganic and metallic structures, marking a transition from conventional polymers. Inorganic materials, especially those possessing significant porosity, are emerging as good candidates for the delivery of a range of drugs (antibiotics, anticancer and anti-inflammatories), providing several advantages in formulation and engineering (encapsulation of drug in amorphous form, controlled delivery and improved targeting). This review focuses on key selected developments in porous drug delivery systems. The review provides a short broad overview of porous polymeric materials for drug delivery before focusing on porous inorganic materials (e.g. Santa Barbara Amorphous (SBA) and Mobil Composition of Matter (MCM)) and their utilisation in drug dosage form development. Methods for their preparation and drug loading thereafter are detailed. Several examples of porous inorganic materials, drugs used and outcomes are discussed providing the reader with an understanding of advances in the field and realistic opportunities.

  10. Nanoparticle hardness controls the internalization pathway for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ye; Zhang, Xianren; Cao, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle (NP)-based drug delivery systems offer fundamental advantages over current therapeutic agents that commonly display a longer circulation time, lower toxicity, specific targeted release, and greater bioavailability. For successful NP-based drug delivery it is essential that the drug-carrying nanocarriers can be internalized by the target cells and transported to specific sites, and the inefficient internalization of nanocarriers is often one of the major sources for drug resistance. In this work, we use the dissipative particle dynamics simulation to investigate the effect of NP hardness on their internalization efficiency. Three simplified models of NP platforms for drug delivery, including polymeric NP, liposome and solid NP, are designed here to represent increasing nanocarrier hardness. Simulation results indicate that NP hardness controls the internalization pathway for drug delivery. Rigid NPs can enter the cell by a pathway of endocytosis, whereas for soft NPs the endocytosis process can be inhibited or frustrated due to wrapping-induced shape deformation and non-uniform ligand distribution. Instead, soft NPs tend to find one of three penetration pathways to enter the cell membrane via rearranging their hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. Finally, we show that the interaction between nanocarriers and drug molecules is also essential for effective drug delivery.

  11. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shan; Lv, Yan; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Wang, Bing; Lv, Guo-Jun; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common pathogenic bacterial infections and is found in the stomachs of approximately half of the world’s population. It is the primary known cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer disease and gastric cancer. However, combined drug therapy as the general treatment in the clinic, the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, adverse reactions and poor patient compliance are major obstacles to the eradication of H. pylori. Oral site-specific drug delivery systems that could increase the longevity of the treatment agent at the target site might improve the therapeutic effect and avoid side effects. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems potentially prolong the gastric retention time and controlled/sustained release of a drug, thereby increasing the concentration of the drug at the application site, potentially improving its bioavailability and reducing the necessary dosage. Recommended gastroretentive drug delivery systems for enhancing local drug delivery include floating systems, bioadhesive systems and expandable systems. In this review, we summarize the important physiological parameters of the gastrointestinal tract that affect the gastric residence time. We then focus on various aspects useful in the development of gastroretentive drug delivery systems, including current trends and the progress of novel forms, especially with respect to their application for the treatment of H. pylori infections. PMID:25071326

  12. Mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensign-Hodges, Laura

    A method that could provide more uniform and longer-lasting drug delivery to mucosal surfaces holds the potential to greatly improve the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for numerous diseases and conditions, including sexually transmitted infections and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the body's natural defenses, including adhesive, rapidly cleared mucus linings coating nearly all entry points to the body not covered by skin, has limited the effectiveness of drug and gene delivery by nanoscale delivery systems. Here, we investigate the use of muco-inert mucus-penetrating nanoparticles (MPP) for improving vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery. Conventional hydrophobic nanoparticles strongly adhere to mucus, facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that mucoadhesive polystyrene nanoparticles (conventional nanoparticles, CP) become mucus-penetrating in human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) after pretreatment with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large MPP did not change in F127 pretreated CVM, implying there is no affect on the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for one week. Importantly, HSV virus remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM. Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that hypotonically-induced fluid uptake could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We evaluated hypotonic formulations for delivering water-soluble drugs and for drug delivery with MPP. Hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which drugs and MPP reached the epithelial surface. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that isotonic formulations

  13. Recent Advances and Perspectives in Liposomes for Cutaneous Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Carita, Amanda C; Eloy, Josimar O; Chorilli, Marlus; Lee, Robert J; Leonardi, Gislaine Ricci

    2018-02-13

    The cutaneous route is attractive for the delivery of drugs in the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. However the stratum corneum (SC) is an effective barrier that hampers skin penetration. Within this context, liposomes emerge as a potential carrier for improving topical delivery of therapeutic agents. In this review, we aimed to discuss key aspects for the topical delivery by drug-loaded liposomes. Phospholipid type and phase transition temperature have been shown to affect liposomal topical delivery. The effect of surface charge is subject to considerable variation depending on drug and composition. In addition, modified vesicles with the presence of components for permeation enhancement, such as surfactants and solvents, have been shown to have a considerable effect. These liposomes include: Transfersomes, Niosomes, Ethosomes, Transethosomes, Invasomes, coated liposomes, penetration enhancer containing vesicles (PEVs), fatty acids vesicles, Archaeosomes and Marinosomes. Furthermore, adding polymeric coating onto liposome surface could influence cutaneous delivery. Mechanisms of delivery include intact vesicular skin penetration, free drug diffusion, permeation enhancement, vesicle adsorption to and/or fusion with the SC, trans-appendageal penetration, among others. Finally, several skin conditions, including acne, melasma, skin aging, fungal infections and skin cancer, have benefited from liposomal topical delivery of drugs, with promising in vitro and in vivo results. However, despite the existence of some clinical trials, more studies are needed to be conducted in order to explore the potential of liposomes in the dermatological field. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. The importance of nanoparticle shape in cancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Truong, Nghia P; Whittaker, Michael R; Mak, Catherine W; Davis, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have been successfully used for cancer drug delivery since 1995. In the design of commercial nanoparticles, size and surface characteristics have been exploited to achieve efficacious delivery. However, the design of optimized drug delivery platforms for efficient delivery to disease sites with minimal off-target effects remains a major research goal. One crucial element of nanoparticle design influencing both pharmacokinetics and cell uptake is nanoparticle morphology (both size and shape). In this succinct review, the authors collate the recent literature to assess the current state of understanding of the influence of nanoparticle shape on the effectiveness of drug delivery with a special emphasis on cancer therapy. This review draws on studies that have focused on the role of nonspherical nanoparticles used for cancer drug delivery. In particular, the authors summarize the influence of nanoparticle shape on biocirculation, biodistribution, cellular uptake and overall drug efficacy. By comparing spherical and nonspherical nanoparticles, they establish some general design principles to serve as guidelines for developing the next generation of nanocarriers for drug delivery. Pioneering studies on nanoparticles show that nonspherical shapes show great promise as cancer drug delivery vectors. Filamentous or worm-like micelles together with other rare morphologies such as needles or disks may become the norm for next-generation drug carriers, though at present, traditional spherical micelles remain the dominant shape of nanocarriers described in the literature due to synthesis and testing difficulties. The few reports that do exist describing nonspherical nanoparticles show a number of favorable properties that should encourage more efforts to develop facile and versatile nanoparticle synthesis methodologies with the flexibility to create different shapes, tunable sizes and adaptable surface chemistries. In addition, the authors note that there is a

  15. Ophthalmic Drug Delivery Systems for Antibiotherapy—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Dubald, Marion; Bourgeois, Sandrine; Andrieu, Véronique; Fessi, Hatem

    2018-01-01

    The last fifty years, ophthalmic drug delivery research has made much progress, challenging scientists about the advantages and limitations of this drug delivery approach. Topical eye drops are the most commonly used formulation in ocular drug delivery. Despite the good tolerance for patients, this topical administration is only focus on the anterior ocular diseases and had a high precorneal loss of drugs due to the tears production and ocular barriers. Antibiotics are popularly used in solution or in ointment for the ophthalmic route. However, their local bioavailability needs to be improved in order to decrease the frequency of administrations and the side effects and to increase their therapeutic efficiency. For this purpose, sustained release forms for ophthalmic delivery of antibiotics were developed. This review briefly describes the ocular administration with the ocular barriers and the currently topical forms. It focuses on experimental results to bypass the limitations of ocular antibiotic delivery with new ocular technology as colloidal and in situ gelling systems or with the improvement of existing forms as implants and contact lenses. Nanotechnology is presently a promising drug delivery way to provide protection of antibiotics and improve pathway through ocular barriers and deliver drugs to specific target sites. PMID:29342879

  16. Iontophoresis: A Potential Emergence of a Transdermal Drug Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Dhote, Vinod; Bhatnagar, Punit; Mishra, Pradyumna K.; Mahajan, Suresh C.; Mishra, Dinesh K.

    2012-01-01

    The delivery of drugs into systemic circulation via skin has generated much attention during the last decade. Transdermal therapeutic systems propound controlled release of active ingredients through the skin and into the systemic circulation in a predictive manner. Drugs administered through these systems escape first-pass metabolism and maintain a steady state scenario similar to a continuous intravenous infusion for up to several days. However, the excellent impervious nature of the skin offers the greatest challenge for successful delivery of drug molecules by utilizing the concepts of iontophoresis. The present review deals with the principles and the recent innovations in the field of iontophoretic drug delivery system together with factors affecting the system. This delivery system utilizes electric current as a driving force for permeation of ionic and non-ionic medications. The rationale behind using this technique is to reversibly alter the barrier properties of skin, which could possibly improve the penetration of drugs such as proteins, peptides and other macromolecules to increase the systemic delivery of high molecular weight compounds with controlled input kinetics and minimum inter-subject variability. Although iontophoresis seems to be an ideal candidate to overcome the limitations associated with the delivery of ionic drugs, further extrapolation of this technique is imperative for translational utility and mass human application. PMID:22396901

  17. Micro-Fluidic Device for Drug Delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beebe, David J. (Inventor); Eddington, David T. (Inventor); MacDonald, Michael J. (Inventor); Mensing, Glennys A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A microfluidic device is provided for delivering a drug to an individual. The microfluidic device includes a body that defines a reservoir for receiving the drug therein. A valve interconnects the reservoir to an output needle that is insertable into the skin of an individual. A pressure source urges the drug from the reservoir toward the needle. The valve is movable between a closed position preventing the flow of the drug from the reservoir to the output needle and an open position allowing for the flow of the drug from the reservoir to the output needle in response to a predetermined condition in the physiological fluids of the individual.

  18. A comparison of zero-order, first-order, and monod biotransformation models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bekins, B.A.; Warren, E.; Godsy, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    Under some conditions, a first-order kinetic model is a poor representation of biodegradation in contaminated aquifers. Although it is well known that the assumption of first-order kinetics is valid only when substrate concentration, S, is much less than the half-saturation constant, K(s), this assumption is often made without verification of this condition. We present a formal error analysis showing that the relative error in the first-order approximation is S/K(S) and in the zero-order approximation the error is K(s)/S. We then examine the problems that arise when the first-order approximation is used outside the range for which it is valid. A series of numerical simulations comparing results of first- and zero-order rate approximations to Monod kinetics for a real data set illustrates that if concentrations observed in the field are higher than K(s), it may better to model degradation using a zero-order rate expression. Compared with Monod kinetics, extrapolation of a first-order rate to lower concentrations under-predicts the biotransformation potential, while extrapolation to higher concentrations may grossly over-predict the transformation rate. A summary of solubilities and Monod parameters for aerobic benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) degradation shows that the a priori assumption of first-order degradation kinetics at sites contaminated with these compounds is not valid. In particular, out of six published values of KS for toluene, only one is greater than 2 mg/L, indicating that when toluene is present in concentrations greater than about a part per million, the assumption of first-order kinetics may be invalid. Finally, we apply an existing analytical solution for steady-state one-dimensional advective transport with Monod degradation kinetics to a field data set.A formal error analysis is presented showing that the relative error in the first-order approximation is S/KS and in the zero-order approximation the error is KS/S where S is the substrate

  19. Using exosomes, naturally-equipped nanocarriers, for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Batrakova, Elena V; Kim, Myung Soo

    2015-12-10

    Exosomes offer distinct advantages that uniquely position them as highly effective drug carriers. Comprised of cellular membranes with multiple adhesive proteins on their surface, exosomes are known to specialize in cell-cell communications and provide an exclusive approach for the delivery of various therapeutic agents to target cells. In addition, exosomes can be amended through their parental cells to express a targeting moiety on their surface, or supplemented with desired biological activity. Development and validation of exosome-based drug delivery systems are the focus of this review. Different techniques of exosome isolation, characterization, drug loading, and applications in experimental disease models and clinic are discussed. Exosome-based drug formulations may be applied to a wide variety of disorders such as cancer, various infectious, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative disorders. Overall, exosomes combine benefits of both synthetic nanocarriers and cell-mediated drug delivery systems while avoiding their limitations. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Preparation of nanobubbles for ultrasound imaging and intracelluar drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Li, Xiang; Zhou, Yan; Huang, Pengyu; Xu, Yuhong

    2010-01-15

    Echogenic bubble formulations have wide applications in both disease diagnosis and therapy. In the current study, nanobubbles were prepared and the contrast agent function was evaluated in order to study the nanosized bubble's property for ultrasonic imaging. Coumarin-6 as a model drug was loaded into nanobubbles to investigate the drug delivery potential to cells. The results showed that the nanobubbles composed of 1% of Tween 80, and 3 mg/ml of lipid worked well as an ultrasonic contrast agent by presenting a contrast effect in the liver region in vivo. The drug-loaded nanobubbles could enhance drug delivery to cells significantly, and the process was analyzed by sigmoidally fitting the pharmacokinetic curve. It can be concluded that the nanobubble formulation is a promising approach for both ultrasound imaging and drug delivery enhancing.

  1. Liposomal Drug Delivery System for Cancer Therapy: Advancement and Patents.

    PubMed

    Jha, Sheetal; Sharma, Pramod K; Malviya, Rishabha

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, authors reviewed about the liposomes which are amongst various drug delivering systems for the delivery of the therapeutic agents at the target site. Advances in liposomal drug delivery systems for the cancer therapy have enhanced the therapeutic levels of the anticancer moieties. Liposomes show promising action on the tumor by incorporating less amount of drug at the target site, with minimum toxic effect and maximum therapeutic effect and thereby enhancing the bioavailability. Liposome-based drug delivery systems provide the potential to elevate the effect of drug concentration in tumor cells. Manuscript briefly describes the role of liposomes in cancer therapy and various patents based on the same. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Polysaccharides based nanomaterials for targeted anti-cancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Dheer, Divya; Arora, Divya; Jaglan, Sundeep; Rawal, Ravindra K; Shankar, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    Polysaccharides, an important class of biological polymers, are effectively bioactive, nontoxic, hydrophilic, biodegradable and offer a wide diversity in structure and properties. These can be easily modified chemically and biochemically to enhance the bioadhesion with biological tissues, better stability and can improve bioavailability of drugs. Most of the chemotherapeutic drugs have a narrow therapeutic index, slow drug delivery systems and poor water solubility that usually proves toxic to human bodies. The inherent biocompatibility of these biopolymers have shown enhancement of solubility of some chemotherapeutic drugs which also leads to the preparation of nanomaterials for the delivery of antibiotics, anticancer, proteins, peptides and nucleic acids using several routes of administration. Recently, synthesis and research on polysaccharides based nanomaterials have gained enormous attention as one of the most applicable resources in nanomedicine area. This review article will provide a specific emphasis on polysaccharides as natural biomaterials for targeted anticancer drug delivery system.

  3. Intracellular Delivery System for Antibody–Peptide Drug Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Berguig, Geoffrey Y; Convertine, Anthony J; Frayo, Shani; Kern, Hanna B; Procko, Erik; Roy, Debashish; Srinivasan, Selvi; Margineantu, Daciana H; Booth, Garrett; Palanca-Wessels, Maria Corinna; Baker, David; Hockenbery, David; Press, Oliver W; Stayton, Patrick S

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies armed with biologic drugs could greatly expand the therapeutic potential of antibody–drug conjugates for cancer therapy, broadening their application to disease targets currently limited by intracellular delivery barriers. Additional selectivity and new therapeutic approaches could be realized with intracellular protein drugs that more specifically target dysregulated pathways in hematologic cancers and other malignancies. A multifunctional polymeric delivery system for enhanced cytosolic delivery of protein drugs has been developed that incorporates endosomal-releasing activity, antibody targeting, and a biocompatible long-chain ethylene glycol component for optimized safety, pharmacokinetics, and tumor biodistribution. The pH-responsive polymeric micelle carrier, with an internalizing anti-CD22 monoclonal targeting antibody, effectively delivered a proapoptotic Bcl-2 interacting mediator (BIM) peptide drug that suppressed tumor growth for the duration of treatment and prolonged survival in a xenograft mouse model of human B-cell lymphoma. Antitumor drug activity was correlated with a mechanistic induction of the Bcl-2 pathway biomarker cleaved caspase-3 and a marked decrease in the Ki-67 proliferation biomarker. Broadening the intracellular target space by more effective delivery of protein/peptide drugs could expand the repertoire of antibody–drug conjugates to currently undruggable disease-specific targets and permit tailored drug strategies to stratified subpopulations and personalized medicines. PMID:25669432

  4. Current HPLC Methods for Assay of Nano Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Tekkeli, Serife Evrim Kepekci; Kiziltas, Mustafa Volkan

    2017-01-01

    In nano drug formulations the mechanism of release is a critical process to recognize controlled and targeted drug delivery systems. In order to gain high bioavailability and specificity from the drug to reach its therapeutic goal, the active substance must be loaded into the nanoparticles efficiently. Therefore, the amount in biological fluids or tissues and the remaining amount in nano carriers are very important parameters to understand the potential of the nano drug delivery systems. For this aim, suitable and validated quantitation methods are required to determine released drug concentrations from nano pharmaceutical formulations. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) is one of the most common techniques used for determination of released drug content out of nano drug formulations, in different physical conditions, over different periods of time. Since there are many types of HPLC methods depending on detector and column types, it is a challenge for the researchers to choose a suitable method that is simple, fast and validated HPLC techniques for their nano drug delivery systems. This review's goal is to compare HPLC methods that are currently used in different nano drug delivery systems in order to provide detailed and useful information for researchers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Patenting of nanopharmaceuticals in drug delivery: no small issue.

    PubMed

    du Toit, Lisa Claire; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E; Pillay, Samantha; Harilall, Sheri-lee

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly evolving interdisciplinary field based on the manipulation of matter on a submicron scale, encompassing matter between 1 and 100 nanometers (nm). The currently registered nanotechnology patents comprise 35 countries being involved in the global distribution of these patents. Close to 3000 patents were issued in the USA since 1996 with the term 'nano' in the patents, with a considerable number having application in nanomedicine. The large majority of therapeutic patents are focused on drug delivery systems, highlighting an important application globally. Nanopharmaceutical patents are centered mainly on non-communicable diseases, with cancer receiving the greatest focus, followed by hepatitis. Drug delivery systems employing nanotechnology have the ability to allow superior drug absorption, controlled drug release and reduced side-effects, enhancing the effectiveness of existing drug delivery systems. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems may be among the first types of products to generate serious nanotechnology patent disputes as the multi-billion dollar pharmaceutical industry begins to adopt them. This review article aimed to locate patented nanopharmaceuticals in drug delivery online, employing pertinent key terms while searching the patent databases. Awarded and pending patents in the past 20 years pertaining to nanopharmaceutical or nano-enabled systems such as micelles, nanoemulsions, nanogels, liposomes, nanofibres, dendrimer technology and polymer therapeutics are presented in the review article, providing an overview of the diversity of the patent applications.

  6. Drug Delivery Systems, CNS Protection, and the Blood Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ravi Kant

    2014-01-01

    Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB) for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained. In addition, therapeutic applications of various types of nanoparticles such as chitosan based nanomers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, niosomes, beta cyclodextrin carriers, cholesterol mediated cationic solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug carriers, liposomes, and micelles have been discussed with their recent advancements. Emphasis has been given on the need of physiological and therapeutic optimization of existing drug delivery methods and their carriers to deliver therapeutic amount of drug into the brain for treatment of various neurological diseases and disorders. Further, strong recommendations are being made to develop nanosized drug carriers/vehicles and noninvasive therapeutic alternatives of conventional methods for better therapeutics of CNS related diseases. Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods. PMID:25136634

  7. Filled carbon nanotubes in biomedical imaging and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Martincic, Markus; Tobias, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been advocated as promising candidates in the biomedical field in the areas of diagnosis and therapy. In terms of drug delivery, the use of carbon nanotubes can overcome some limitations of 'free' drugs by improving the formulation of poorly water-soluble drugs, allowing targeted delivery and even enabling the co-delivery of two or more drugs for combination therapy. Two different approaches are currently being explored for the delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents by carbon nanotubes, namely attachment of the payload to the external sidewalls or encapsulation into the inner cavities. Although less explored, the latter confers additional stability to the chosen diagnostic or therapeutic agents, and leaves the backbone structure of the nanotubes available for its functionalization with dispersing and targeting moieties. Several drug delivery systems and diagnostic agents have been developed in the last years employing the inner tubular cavities of carbon nanotubes. The research discussed in this review focuses on the use of carbon nanotubes that contain in their interior drug molecules and diagnosis-related compounds. The approaches employed for the development of such nanoscale vehicles along with targeting and releasing strategies are discussed. The encapsulation of both biomedical contrast agents and drugs inside carbon nanotubes is further expanding the possibilities to allow an early diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

  8. Computational and experimental model of transdermal iontophorethic drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Filipovic, Nenad; Saveljic, Igor; Rac, Vladislav; Graells, Beatriz Olalde; Bijelic, Goran

    2017-11-30

    The concept of iontophoresis is often applied to increase the transdermal transport of drugs and other bioactive agents into the skin or other tissues. It is a non-invasive drug delivery method which involves electromigration and electroosmosis in addition to diffusion and is shown to be a viable alternative to conventional administration routs such as oral, hypodermic and intravenous injection. In this study we investigated, experimentally and numerically, in vitro drug delivery of dexamethasone sodium phosphate to porcine skin. Different current densities, delivery durations and drug loads were investigated experimentally and introduced as boundary conditions for numerical simulations. Nernst-Planck equation was used for calculation of active substance flux through equivalent model of homogeneous hydrogel and skin layers. The obtained numerical results were in good agreement with experimental observations. A comprehensive in-silico platform, which includes appropriate numerical tools for fitting, could contribute to iontophoretic drug-delivery devices design and correct dosage and drug clearance profiles as well as to perform much faster in-silico experiments to better determine parameters and performance criteria of iontophoretic drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nano drug delivery systems and gamma radiation sterilization.

    PubMed

    Sakar, F; Özer, A Y; Erdogan, S; Ekizoglu, M; Kart, D; Özalp, M; Colak, S; Zencir, Y

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, drug delivery systems such as liposomes and microparticles have been used in clinic for the treatment of different diseases and from a regulatory point of view, a parenterally applied drug and drug delivery systems must be sterile and pyrogen free. Radiation sterilization is a method recognized by pharmacopoeias to achieve sterility criteria of parenterals. It has the ability to kill microorganisms in therapeutic products. The ability of, however, irradiation might also affect the performance of drug delivery systems. One of the most critical points is irradiation dose, because certain undesirable chemical and physical changes may accompany with the irradiation, especially with the traditionally applied dose of 25 kGy. Its ionizing property may cause fragmentation of covalent bond. The care must be paid to the applied dose. In this research, the effects of gamma irradiation on different drug delivery systems such as chitosan microparticles, liposomes, niosomes and sphingosomes were investigated. According to the experimental data, it can be concluded that gamma irradiation can be a suitable sterilization technique for liposome, niosome and sphingosome dispersions. When all irradiated drug carrier systems were taken into consideration, chitosan glutamate microparticles were found as the most radioresistant drug delivery system among the others.

  10. Carbon nanotubes: a potential concept for drug delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Dhanawat, Meenakshi; Kumar, Sudhir; Singh, Brahma N; Pandit, Jayant K; Sinha, Vivek R

    2014-04-01

    The unique properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) make them a highly interesting and demandable nanocarrier in the field of nanoscience. CNTs facilitate efficient delivery of therapeutics like drugs, proteins, genes, nucleic acids, vitamins and lot more. Even though highly beneficial, the biocompatibility of CNTs is a major issue in their questioning their potential application in targeting drug delivery. Studies confirmed subdued toxicity of CNTs following slight modifications like functionalization, controlled dimensions, purification etc. A well-established mechanism for cellular internalization is an insistent need to attain a more efficient and targeted delivery. Recent patents have been thoroughly discussed in the text below.

  11. Polymeric Micro- and Nanofabricatced Devices for Oral Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Cade Brylee

    While oral drug administration is by far the most preferred route, it is accompanied by many barriers that limit drug uptake such as the low pH of the stomach, metabolic and proteolytic enzymes, and limited permeability of the intestinal epithelium. As a result, many drugs ranging from small molecules to biological therapeutics have limited oral bioavailability, precluding them from oral administration. To address this issue, microfabrication has been applied to create planar, asymmetric devices capable of binding to the lining of the gastrointestinal tract and releasing drug at high concentrations, thereby increasing oral drug uptake. While the efficacy of these devices has been validated in vitro and in vivo, modifying their surfaces with nanoscale features has potential to refine their properties for enhanced drug delivery. This dissertation first presents an approach to fabricate polymeric microdevices coated with nanowires in a rapid, high throughput manner. The nanowires demonstrate rapid drug localization onto the surface of these devices via capillary action and increased adhesion to epithelial tissue, suggesting that this fabrication technique can be used to create devices with enhanced properties for oral drug delivery. Also presented are microdevices sealed with nanostraw membranes. The nanostraw membranes provide sustained drug release by limiting drug efflux from the devices, prevent drug degradation by limiting influx of outside biomolecules, and enhance device bioadhesion by penetrating into the mucus layer of the intestinal lining. Finally, an approach that dramatically increases the capacity and efficiency of drug loading into microdevices over previous methods is presented. A picoliter-volume printer is used to print drug directly into device reservoirs in an automated fashion. The technologies presented here expand the capabilities of microdevices for oral drug delivery by incorporating nanoscale structures that enhance device bioadhesion

  12. Discovery and Delivery of Synergistic Chemotherapy Drug Combinations to Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Kathryn Militar

    Chemotherapy combinations for cancer treatments harbor immense therapeutic potentials which have largely been untapped. Of all diseases, clinical studies of drug combinations are the most prevalent in oncology, yet their effectiveness is disputable, as complete tumor regressions are rare. Our research has been devoted towards developing delivery vehicles for combinations of chemotherapy drugs which elicit significant tumor reduction yet limit toxicity in healthy tissue. Current administration methods assume that chemotherapy combinations at maximum tolerable doses will provide the greatest therapeutic effect -- a presumption which often leads to unprecedented side effects. Contrary to traditional administration, we have found that drug ratios rather than total cumulative doses govern combination therapeutic efficacy. In this thesis, we have developed nanoparticles to incorporate synergistic ratios of chemotherapy combinations which significantly inhibit cancer cell growth at lower doses than would be required for their single drug counterparts. The advantages of multi-drug incorporation in nano-vehicles are many: improved accumulation in tumor tissue via the enhanced permeation and retention effect, limited uptake in healthy tissue, and controlled exposure of tumor tissue to optimal synergistic drug ratios. To exploit these advantages for polychemotherapy delivery, two prominent nanoparticles were investigated: liposomes and polymer-drug conjugates. Liposomes represent the oldest class of nanoparticles, with high drug loading capacities and excellent biocompatibility. Polymer-drug conjugates offer controlled drug incorporations through reaction stoichiometry, and potentially allow for delivery of precise ratios. Here, we show that both vehicles, when armed with synergistic ratios of chemotherapy drugs, significantly inhibit tumor growth in an aggressive mouse breast carcinoma model. Furthermore, versatile drug incorporation methods investigated here can be broadly

  13. Development of near zero-order release dosage forms using three-dimensional printing (3-DP) technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen-Chao; Tejwani Motwani, Monica R; Roach, Willie J; Kay, Jennifer L; Yoo, Jaedeok; Surprenant, Henry L; Monkhouse, Donald C; Pryor, Timothy J

    2006-03-01

    Three near zero-order controlled-release pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PEH) formulations demonstrating proportional release rates were developed using 3-Dimensional Printing (3-DP) technology. Mixtures of Kollidon SR and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) were used as drug carriers. The release rates were adjusted by varying the Kollidon SR-HPMC ratio while keeping fabrication parameters constant. The dosage forms were composed of an immediate release core and a release rate regulating shell, fabricated with an aqueous PEH and an ethanolic triethyl citrate (TEC) binder, respectively. The dosage form design called for the drug to be released via diffusional pathways formed by HPMC in the shell matrix. The release rate was shown to increase correspondingly with the fraction of HPMC contained in the polymer blend. The designed formulations resulted in dosage forms that were insensitive to changes in pH of the dissolution medium, paddle stirring rate, and the presence/absence of a sinker. The near zero-order release properties were unchanged regardless of the dissolution test being performed on either single cubes or on a group of eight cubes encased within a gelatin capsule shell. The chemical and dissolution properties of the three formulations remained unchanged following 1 month's exposure to 25 degrees C/60% RH or 40 degrees C/75% RH environment under open container condition. The in vivo performance of the three formulations was evaluated using a single-dose, randomized, open-label, four-way crossover clinical study composed of 10 fasted healthy volunteers. The pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed using a noncompartmental model. Qualitative rank order linear correlations between in vivo absorption profiles and in vitro dissolution parameters (with slope and intercept close to unity and origin, respectively) were obtained for all three formulations, indicating good support for a Level A in vivo/in vitro correlation.

  14. Micro-scale Devices for Transdermal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Anubhav; Prausnitz, Mark; Mitragotri, Samir

    2009-01-01

    Skin makes an excellent site for drug and vaccine delivery due to easy accessibility, immuno-surveillance functions, avoidance of macromolecular degradation in the gastrointestinal tract and possibility of self-administration. However, macromolecular drug delivery across the skin is primarily accomplished using hypodermic needles, which have several disadvantages including accidental needle-sticks, pain and needle phobia. These limitations have led to extensive research and development of alternative methods for drug and vaccine delivery across the skin. This review focuses on the recent trends and developments in this field of micro-scale devices for transdermal macromolecular delivery. These include liquid jet injectors, powder injectors, microneedles and thermal microablation. The historical perspective, mechanisms of action, important design parameters, applications and challenges are discussed for each method. PMID:18805472

  15. Mucoadhesive and thermogelling systems for vaginal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Caramella, Carla M; Rossi, Silvia; Ferrari, Franca; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Sandri, Giuseppina

    2015-09-15

    This review focuses on two formulation approaches, mucoadhesion and thermogelling, intended for prolonging residence time on vaginal mucosa of medical devices or drug delivery systems, thus improving their efficacy. The review, after a brief description of the vaginal environment and, in particular, of the vaginal secretions that strongly affect in vivo performance of vaginal formulations, deals with the above delivery systems. As for mucoadhesive systems, conventional formulations (gels, tablets, suppositories and emulsions) and novel drug delivery systems (micro-, nano-particles) intended for vaginal administration to achieve either local or systemic effect are reviewed. As for thermogelling systems, poly(ethylene oxide-propylene oxide-ethylene oxide) copolymer-based and chitosan-based formulations are discussed as thermogelling systems. The methods employed for functional characterization of both mucoadhesive and thermogelling drug delivery systems are also briefly described. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Membrane-targeting liquid crystal nanoparticles (LCNPs) for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Okhil K.; Naciri, Jawad; Spillmann, Christopher M.; Delehanty, James B.

    2016-03-01

    In addition to maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, the plasma membrane regulates multiple important cellular processes, such as endocytosis and trafficking, apoptotic pathways and drug transport. The modulation or tracking of such cellular processes by means of controlled delivery of drugs or imaging agents via nanoscale delivery systems is very attractive. Nanoparticle-mediated delivery systems that mediate long-term residence (e.g., days) and controlled release of the cargoes in the plasma membrane while simultaneously not interfering with regular cellular physiology would be ideal for this purpose. Our laboratory has developed a plasma membrane-targeted liquid crystal nanoparticle (LCNP) formulation that can be loaded with dyes or drugs which can be slowly released from the particle over time. Here we highlight the utility of these nanopreparations for membrane delivery and imaging.

  17. Self assembled materials: design strategies and drug delivery perspectives.

    PubMed

    Verma, Gunjan; Hassan, P A

    2013-10-28

    Self assembly of small molecules in complex supramolecular structures provides a new avenue in the development of materials for drug delivery applications. Owing to the low aqueous solubility of various drugs, an effective delivery system is often required to reach sufficient drug bioavailability and/or to facilitate clinical use. Micelles, amphiphilic gels, vesicles (liposomes), nanodisks, cubosomes, colloidosomes, tubules, microemulsions, lipid particles, polyelectrolyte capsules etc. are some of the intriguing structures formed via self assembly. As well as enabling improved solubilization, such materials can be tuned to offer a range of other advantages, including controlled or stimuli sensitive drug release, protection from drug hydrolysis and chemical or enzymatic degradation, a reduction in toxicity, improvement of drug availability, prevention of RES uptake or selective targeting to organelles etc. Such multiple functionalities can be brought together by self assembly of different functional molecules. This route offers a cost effective means of developing drug delivery carriers tailored to specific needs. Our current understanding of the microstructure evolution of self assembled materials will go a long way towards designing/selecting molecules to create well defined structures. We believe that most of the potential resources mentioned above are untapped and that there is a need to further strengthen research in this area to fully exploit their potential. Selective cross linking of core or shell, stimuli sensitive amphiphiles, prodrug amphiphiles, antibody coupled amphiphiles etc. are only some of the new approaches for the development of effective drug delivery systems via self assembly.

  18. Porous Carriers for Controlled/Modulated Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, G.; Pathak, K.

    2009-01-01

    Considerable research efforts have been directed in recent years towards the development of porous carriers as controlled drug delivery matrices because of possessing several features such as stable uniform porous structure, high surface area, tunable pore size and well-defined surface properties. Owing to wide range of useful properties porous carriers have been used in pharmaceuticals for many purposes including development of floating drug delivery systems, sustained drug delivery systems. Various types of pores like open, closed, transport and blind pores in the porous solid allow them to adsorb drugs and release them in a more reproducible and predictable manner. Pharmaceutically exploited porous adsorbents includes, silica (mesoporous), ethylene vinyl acetate (macroporous), polypropylene foam powder (microporous), titanium dioxide (nanoporous). When porous polymeric drug delivery system is placed in contact with appropriate dissolution medium, release of drug to medium must be preceded by the drug dissolution in the water filled pores or from surface and by diffusion through the water filled channels. The porous carriers are used to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs, to increase the dissolution of relatively insoluble powders and conversion of crystalline state to amorphous state. PMID:20376211

  19. The potential of magneto-electric nanocarriers for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Ajeet; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Sagar, Vidya; Nair, Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The development and design of personalized nanomedicine for better health quality is receiving great attention. In order to deliver and release a therapeutic concentration at the target site, novel nanocarriers (NCs) were designed, for example, magneto-electric (ME) which possess ideal properties of high drug loading, site-specificity and precise on-demand controlled drug delivery. Areas covered This review explores the potential of ME-NCs for on-demand and site-specific drug delivery and release for personalized therapeutics. The main features including effect of magnetism, improvement in drug loading, drug transport across blood-brain barriers and on-demand controlled release are also discussed. The future directions and possible impacts on upcoming nanomedicine are highlighted. Expert opinion Numerous reports suggest that there is an urgent need to explore novel NC formulations for safe and targeted drug delivery and release at specific disease sites. The challenges of formulation lie in the development of NCs that improve biocompatibility and surface modifications for optimum drug loading/preservation/transmigration and tailoring of electrical–magnetic properties for on-demand drug release. Thus, the development of novel NCs is anticipated to overcome the problems of targeted delivery of therapeutic agents with desired precision that may lead to better patient compliance. PMID:24986772

  20. The potential of magneto-electric nanocarriers for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Ajeet; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Sagar, Vidya; Nair, Madhavan

    2014-10-01

    The development and design of personalized nanomedicine for better health quality is receiving great attention. In order to deliver and release a therapeutic concentration at the target site, novel nanocarriers (NCs) were designed, for example, magneto-electric (ME) which possess ideal properties of high drug loading, site-specificity and precise on-demand controlled drug delivery. This review explores the potential of ME-NCs for on-demand and site-specific drug delivery and release for personalized therapeutics. The main features including effect of magnetism, improvement in drug loading, drug transport across blood-brain barriers and on-demand controlled release are also discussed. The future directions and possible impacts on upcoming nanomedicine are highlighted. Numerous reports suggest that there is an urgent need to explore novel NC formulations for safe and targeted drug delivery and release at specific disease sites. The challenges of formulation lie in the development of NCs that improve biocompatibility and surface modifications for optimum drug loading/preservation/transmigration and tailoring of electrical-magnetic properties for on-demand drug release. Thus, the development of novel NCs is anticipated to overcome the problems of targeted delivery of therapeutic agents with desired precision that may lead to better patient compliance.

  1. Influence of polymer network parameters of tragacanth gum-based pH responsive hydrogels on drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljit; Sharma, Vikrant

    2014-01-30

    The present article deals with design of tragacanth gum-based pH responsive hydrogel drug delivery systems. The characterization of hydrogels has been carried out by SEMs, EDAX, FTIR, (13)C NMR, XRD, TGA/DTA/DTG and swelling studies. The correlation between reaction conditions and structural parameters of polymer networks such as polymer volume fraction in the swollen state (ϕ), Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ), molecular weight of the polymer chain between two neighboring cross links (M¯c), crosslink density (ρ) and mesh size (ξ) has been determined. The different kinetic models such as zero order, first order, Higuchi square root law, Korsmeyer-Peppas model and Hixson-Crowell cube root model were applied and it has been observed that release profile of amoxicillin best followed the first order model for the release of drug from the polymer matrix. The swelling of the hydrogels and release of drug from the drug loaded hydrogels occurred through non-Fickian diffusion mechanism in pH 7.4 solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel drug delivery system: an immense hope for diabetics.

    PubMed

    Rai, Vineet Kumar; Mishra, Nidhi; Agrawal, Ashish Kumar; Jain, Sanyog; Yadav, Narayan Prasad

    2016-09-01

    Existing medication systems for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) are inconvenient and troublesome for effective and safe delivery of drugs to the specific site. Therefore, investigations are desired to deliver antidiabetics using novel delivery approaches followed by their commercialization. The present review aims to provide a compilation on the latest development in the field of novel drug delivery systems (NDDSs) for antidiabetics with special emphasis on particulate, vesicular and miscellaneous systems. Review of literature (restricted to English language only) was done using electronic databases like Pubmed® and Scirus, i.e. published during 2005-2013. The CIMS/MIMS India Medical Drug Information eBook was used regarding available marketed formulation of antidiabetic drugs. Keywords used were "nanoparticle", "microparticle", "liposomes", "niosomes", "transdermal systems", "insulin", "antidiabetic drugs" and "novel drug delivery systems". Single inclusion was made for one article. If in vivo study was not done then article was seldom included in the manuscript. The curiosity to develop NDDSs of antidiabetic drugs with special attention to the nanoparticulate system followed by microparticulate and lipid-based system is found to emerge gradually to overcome the problems associated with the conventional dosage forms and to win the confidence of end users towards the higher acceptability. In the current scientific panorama when the area of novel drug delivery system has been recognized for its palpable benefits, unique potential of providing physical stability, sustained and site-specific drug delivery for a scheduled period of time can open new vistas for precise, safe and quality treatment of DM.

  3. Balancing specificity, sensitivity, and speed of ligand discrimination by zero-order ultraspecificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajita, Masashi K.; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.

    2017-07-01

    Specific interactions between receptors and their target ligands in the presence of nontarget ligands are crucial for biological processes such as T cell ligand discrimination. To discriminate between the target and nontarget ligands, cells have to increase specificity to the target ligands by amplifying the small differences in affinity among ligands. In addition, sensitivity to the ligand concentration and quick discrimination are also important to detect low amounts of target ligands and facilitate fast cellular decision making after ligand recognition. In this work we propose a mechanism for nonlinear specificity amplification (ultraspecificity) based on zero-order saturating reactions, which was originally proposed to explain nonlinear sensitivity amplification (ultrasensitivity) to the ligand concentration. In contrast to the previously proposed proofreading mechanisms that amplify the specificity by a multistep reaction, our model can produce an optimal balance of specificity, sensitivity, and quick discrimination. Furthermore, we show that a model for insensitivity to a large number of nontarget ligands can be naturally derived from a model with the zero-order ultraspecificity. The zero-order ultraspecificity, therefore, may provide an alternative way to understand ligand discrimination from the viewpoint of nonlinear properties in biochemical reactions.

  4. Drug Delivery Systems for Imaging and Therapy of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Gunay, Mine Silindir; Ozer, A Yekta; Chalon, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Although a variety of therapeutic approaches are available for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, challenges limit effective therapy. Among these challenges are delivery of drugs through the blood brain barier to the target brain tissue and the side effects observed during long term administration of antiparkinsonian drugs. The use of drug delivery systems such as liposomes, niosomes, micelles, nanoparticles, nanocapsules, gold nanoparticles, microspheres, microcapsules, nanobubbles, microbubbles and dendrimers is being investigated for diagnosis and therapy. This review focuses on formulation, development and advantages of nanosized drug delivery systems which can penetrate the central nervous system for the therapy and/or diagnosis of PD, and highlights future nanotechnological approaches. It is esential to deliver a sufficient amount of either therapeutic or radiocontrast agents to the brain in order to provide the best possible efficacy or imaging without undesired degradation of the agent. Current treatments focus on motor symptoms, but these treatments generally do not deal with modifying the course of Parkinson's disease. Beyond pharmacological therapy, the identification of abnormal proteins such as α -synuclein, parkin or leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine protein kinase 2 could represent promising alternative targets for molecular imaging and therapy of Parkinson's disease. Nanotechnology and nanosized drug delivery systems are being investigated intensely and could have potential effect for Parkinson's disease. The improvement of drug delivery systems could dramatically enhance the effectiveness of Parkinson's Disease therapy and reduce its side effects.

  5. Hydrazone linkages in pH responsive drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, Sandeep J; Kalhapure, Rahul S; Govender, Thirumala

    2017-03-01

    Stimuli-responsive polymeric drug delivery systems using various triggers to release the drug at the sites have become a major focus area. Among various stimuli-responsive materials, pH-responsiveness has been studied extensively. The materials used for fabricating pH-responsive drug delivery systems include a specific chemical functionality in their structure that can respond to changes in the pH of the surrounding environment. Various chemical functionalities, for example, acetal, amine, ortho ester, amine and hydrazone, have been used to design materials that are capable of releasing their payload at the acidic pH conditions of the tumor or infection sites. Hydrazone linkages are significant synthons for numerous transformations and have gained importance in pharmaceutical sciences due to their various biological and clinical applications. These linkages have been employed in various drug delivery vehicles, such as linear polymers, star shaped polymers, dendrimers, micelles, liposomes and inorganic nanoparticles, for pH-responsive drug delivery. This review paper focuses on the synthesis and characterization methods of hydrazone bond containing materials and their applications in pH-responsive drug delivery systems. It provides detailed suggestions as guidelines to materials and formulation scientists for designing biocompatible pH-responsive materials with hydrazone linkages and identifying future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Laser assisted drug delivery: a review of an evolving technology.

    PubMed

    Sklar, Lindsay R; Burnett, Christopher T; Waibel, Jill S; Moy, Ronald L; Ozog, David M

    2014-04-01

    Topically applied drugs have a relatively low cutaneous bioavailability. This article reviews the existing applications of laser assisted drug delivery, a means by which the permeation of topically applied agents can be enhanced into the skin. The existing literature suggests that lasers are a safe and effective means of enhancing the delivery of topically applied agents through the skin. The types of lasers most commonly studied in regards to drug delivery are the carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) lasers. Both conventional ablative and fractional ablative modalities have been utilized and are summarized herein. The majority of the existing studies on laser assisted drug delivery have been performed on animal models and additional human studies are needed. Laser assisted drug delivery is an evolving technology with potentially broad clinical applications. Multiple studies demonstrate that laser pretreatment of the skin can increase the permeability and depth of penetration of topically applied drug molecules for both local cutaneous and systemic applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Microemulsion utility in pharmaceuticals: Implications for multi-drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Callender, Shannon P; Mathews, Jessica A; Kobernyk, Katherine; Wettig, Shawn D

    2017-06-30

    Emulsion technology has been utilized extensively in the pharmaceutical industry. This article presents a comprehensive review of the literature on an important subcategory of emulsions, microemulsions. Microemulsions are optically transparent, thermodynamically stable colloidal systems, 10-100nm diameter, that form spontaneously upon mixing of oil, water and emulsifier. This review is the first to address advantages and disadvantages, as well as considerations and challenges in multi-drug delivery. For the period 1 January 2011-30 April 2016, 431 publications related to microemulsion drug delivery were identified and screened according to microemulsion, drug classification, and surfactant types. Results indicate the use of microemulsions predominantly in lipophilic drug delivery (79.4%) via oil-in-water microemulsions and non-ionic surfactants (90%) for oral or topical administration. Cancer is the disease state most targeted followed by inflammatory diseases, microbial infections and cardiovascular disease. Key generalizations from this analysis include: 1) microemulsion formulation is largely based on trial-and-error despite over 1200 publications related to microemulsion drug delivery since their discovery in 1943; 2) characterization using methods including interfacial tension, droplet size, electrical conductivity, turbidity and viscosity may provide additional information for greater predictability; 3) microemulsion drug delivery publications arise primarily from China (27%) and India (21%) suggesting additional research opportunities elsewhere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Drug Delivery Systems for Imaging and Therapy of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gunay, Mine Silindir; Ozer, A. Yekta; Chalon, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although a variety of therapeutic approaches are available for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, challenges limit effective therapy. Among these challenges are delivery of drugs through the blood brain barier to the target brain tissue and the side effects observed during long term administration of antiparkinsonian drugs. The use of drug delivery systems such as liposomes, niosomes, micelles, nanoparticles, nanocapsules, gold nanoparticles, microspheres, microcapsules, nanobubbles, microbubbles and dendrimers is being investigated for diagnosis and therapy. Methods: This review focuses on formulation, development and advantages of nanosized drug delivery systems which can penetrate the central nervous system for the therapy and/or diagnosis of PD, and highlights future nanotechnological approaches. Results: It is esential to deliver a sufficient amount of either therapeutic or radiocontrast agents to the brain in order to provide the best possible efficacy or imaging without undesired degradation of the agent. Current treatments focus on motor symptoms, but these treatments generally do not deal with modifying the course of Parkinson’s disease. Beyond pharmacological therapy, the identification of abnormal proteins such as α-synuclein, parkin or leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine protein kinase 2 could represent promising alternative targets for molecular imaging and therapy of Parkinson's disease. Conclusion: Nanotechnology and nanosized drug delivery systems are being investigated intensely and could have potential effect for Parkinson’s disease. The improvement of drug delivery systems could dramatically enhance the effectiveness of Parkinson’s Disease therapy and reduce its side effects. PMID:26714584

  9. Recent advances in aliphatic polyesters for drug delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Washington, Katherine E; Kularatne, Ruvanthi N; Karmegam, Vasanthy; Biewer, Michael C; Stefan, Mihaela C

    2017-07-01

    The use of aliphatic polyesters in drug delivery applications has been a field of significant interest spanning decades. Drug delivery strategies have made abundant use of polyesters in their structures owing to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The properties afforded from these materials provide many avenues for the tunability of drug delivery systems to suit individual needs of diverse applications. Polyesters can be formed in several different ways, but the most prevalent is the ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters. When used to form amphiphilic block copolymers, these materials can be utilized to form various drug carriers such as nanoparticles, micelles, and polymersomes. These drug delivery systems can be tailored through the addition of targeting moieties and the addition of stimuli-responsive groups into the polymer chains. There are also different types of polyesters that can be used to modify the degradation rates or mechanical properties. Here, we discuss the reasons that polyesters have become so popular, the current research focuses, and what the future holds for these materials in drug delivery applications. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2017, 9:e1446. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1446 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Application of Various Types of Liposomes in Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Mehran; Karimi, Naser; Safaei, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Liposomes, due to their various forms, require further exploration. These structures can deliver both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs for cancer, antibacterial, antifungal, immunomodulation, diagnostics, ophtalmica, vaccines, enzymes and genetic elements. Preparation of liposomes results in different properties for these systems. In addition, based on preparation methods, liposomes types can be unilamellar, multilamellar and giant unilamellar; however, there are many factors and difficulties that affect the development of liposome drug delivery structure. In the present review, we discuss some problems that impact drug delivery by liposomes. In addition, we discuss a new generation of liposomes, which is utilized for decreasing the limitation of the conventional liposomes. PMID:28507932

  11. External triggering and triggered targeting strategies for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanfei; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2017-06-01

    Drug delivery systems that are externally triggered to release drugs and/or target tissues hold considerable promise for improving the treatment of many diseases by minimizing nonspecific toxicity and enhancing the efficacy of therapy. These drug delivery systems are constructed from materials that are sensitive to a wide range of external stimuli, including light, ultrasound, electrical and magnetic fields, and specific molecules. The responsiveness conferred by these materials allows the release of therapeutics to be triggered on demand and remotely by a physician or patient. In this Review, we describe the rationales for such systems and the types of stimuli that can be deployed, and provide an outlook for the field.

  12. Strategies for Enhanced Drug Delivery to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Dwibhashyam, V. S. N. M.; Nagappa, A. N.

    2008-01-01

    Treating central nervous system diseases is very challenging because of the presence of a variety of formidable obstacles that impede drug delivery. Physiological barriers like the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier as well as various efflux transporter proteins make the entry of drugs into the central nervous system very difficult. The present review provides a brief account of the blood brain barrier, the P-glycoprotein efflux and various strategies for enhancing drug delivery to the central nervous system. PMID:20046703

  13. Chemistry, manufacturing and controls in passive transdermal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Tarun; Audett, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are used for the delivery of the drugs through the skin into the systemic circulation by applying them to the intact skin. The development of TDDS is a complex and multidisciplinary affair which involves identification of suitable drug, excipients and various other components. There have been numerous problems reported with respect to TDDS quality and performance. These problems can be reduced by appropriately addressing chemistry, manufacturing and controls requirements, which would thereby result in development of robust TDDS product and processes. This article provides recommendations on the chemistry, manufacturing and controls focusing on the unique technical aspects of TDDS.

  14. Basics and recent advances in peptide and protein drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Benjamin J; Miller, Geoffrey D; Lim, Carol S

    2014-01-01

    While the peptide and protein therapeutic market has developed significantly in the past decades, delivery has limited their use. Although oral delivery is preferred, most are currently delivered intravenously or subcutaneously due to degradation and limited absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, absorption enhancers, enzyme inhibitors, carrier systems and stability enhancers are being studied to facilitate oral peptide delivery. Additionally, transdermal peptide delivery avoids the issues of the gastrointestinal tract, but also faces absorption limitations. Due to proteases, opsonization and agglutination, free peptides are not systemically stable without modifications. This review discusses oral and transdermal peptide drug delivery, focusing on barriers and solutions to absorption and stability issues. Methods to increase systemic stability and site-specific delivery are also discussed. PMID:24228993

  15. Albumin-based drug delivery: harnessing nature to cure disease.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Maja Thim; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Hvam, Michael Lykke; Howard, Kenneth A

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of a drug is dependent on accumulation at the site of action at therapeutic levels, however, challenges such as rapid renal clearance, degradation or non-specific accumulation requires drug delivery enabling technologies. Albumin is a natural transport protein with multiple ligand binding sites, cellular receptor engagement, and a long circulatory half-life due to interaction with the recycling neonatal Fc receptor. Exploitation of these properties promotes albumin as an attractive candidate for half-life extension and targeted intracellular delivery of drugs attached by covalent conjugation, genetic fusions, association or ligand-mediated association. This review will give an overview of albumin-based products with focus on the natural biological properties and molecular interactions that can be harnessed for the design of a next-generation drug delivery platform.

  16. A high-density lipoprotein-mediated drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Mo, Zhong-Cheng; Ren, Kun; Liu, Xing; Tang, Zhen-Li; Yi, Guang-Hui

    2016-11-15

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a comparatively dense and small lipoprotein that can carry lipids as a multifunctional aggregate in plasma. Several studies have shown that increasing the levels or improving the functionality of HDL is a promising target for treating a wide variety of diseases. Among lipoproteins, HDL particles possess unique physicochemical properties, including naturally synthesized physiological components, amphipathic apolipoproteins, lipid-loading and hydrophobic agent-incorporating characteristics, specific protein-protein interactions, heterogeneity, nanoparticles, and smaller size. Recently, the feasibility and superiority of using HDL particles as drug delivery vehicles have been of great interest. In this review, we summarize the structure, constituents, biogenesis, remodeling, and reconstitution of HDL drug delivery systems, focusing on their delivery capability, characteristics, applications, manufacturing, and drug-loading and drug-targeting characteristics. Finally, the future prospects are presented regarding the clinical application and challenges of using HDL as a pharmacodelivery carrier. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In situ-forming hydrogels for sustained ophthalmic drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Nanjawade, Basavaraj K; Manvi, F V; Manjappa, A S

    2007-09-26

    Ophthalmic drug delivery is one of the most interesting and challenging endeavors facing the pharmaceutical scientist. The conventional ocular drug delivery systems like solutions, suspensions, and ointments show drawbacks such as increased precorneal elimination, high variability in efficiency, and blurred vision respectively. In situ-forming hydrogels are liquid upon instillation and undergo phase transition in the ocular cul-de-sac to form visco-elastic gel and this provides a response to environmental changes. In the past few years, an impressive number of novel temperature, pH, and ion induced in situ-forming systems have been reported for sustain ophthalmic drug delivery. Each system has its own advantages and drawbacks. The choice of a particular hydrogel depends on its intrinsic properties and envisaged therapeutic use. This review includes various temperature, pH, and ion induced in situ-forming polymeric systems used to achieve prolonged contact time of drugs with the cornea and increase their bioavailability.

  18. Tissue Bioeffects during Ultrasound-mediated Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Jonathan

    Ultrasound has been developed as both a valuable diagnostic tool and a potent promoter of beneficial tissue bioeffects for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Vascular effects can be mediated by mechanical oscillations of circulating microbubbles, or ultrasound contrast agents, which may also encapsulate and shield a therapeutic agent in the bloodstream. Oscillating microbubbles can create stresses directly on nearby tissue or induce fluid effects that effect drug penetration into vascular tissue, lyse thrombi, or direct drugs to optimal locations for delivery. These investigations have spurred continued research into alternative therapeutic applications, such as bioactive gas delivery. This dissertation addresses a fundamental hypothesis in biomedical ultrasound: ultrasound-mediated drug delivery is capable of increasing the penetration of drugs across different physiologic barriers within the cardiovascular system, such as the vascular endothelium, blood clots, and smooth muscle cells.

  19. Hydrogel-Forming Microneedle Arrays for Enhanced Transdermal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Ryan F; Singh, Thakur Raghu Raj; Garland, Martin J; Migalska, Katarzyna; Majithiya, Rita; McCrudden, Cian M; Kole, Prashant Laxman; Mahmood, Tuan Mazlelaa Tuan; McCarthy, Helen O; Woolfson, A David

    2012-01-01

    Unique microneedle arrays prepared from crosslinked polymers, which contain no drug themselves, are described. They rapidly take up skin interstitial fluid upon skin insertion to form continuous, unblockable, hydrogel conduits from attached patch-type drug reservoirs to the dermal microcirculation. Importantly, such microneedles, which can be fabricated in a wide range of patch sizes and microneedle geometries, can be easily sterilized, resist hole closure while in place, and are removed completely intact from the skin. Delivery of macromolecules is no longer limited to what can be loaded into the microneedles themselves and transdermal drug delivery is now controlled by the crosslink density of the hydrogel system rather than the stratum corneum, while electrically modulated delivery is also a unique feature. This technology has the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional microneedle designs and greatly increase the range of the type of drug that is deliverable transdermally, with ensuing benefits for industry, healthcare providers and, ultimately, patients. PMID:23606824

  20. Crystallization Methods for Preparation of Nanocrystals for Drug Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Wang, Jingkang; Wang, Yongli; Yin, Qiuxiang; Glennon, Brian; Zhong, Jian; Ouyang, Jinbo; Huang, Xin; Hao, Hongxun

    2015-01-01

    Low water solubility of drug products causes delivery problems such as low bioavailability. The reduced particle size and increased surface area of nanocrystals lead to the increasing of the dissolution rate. The formulation of drug nanocrystals is a robust approach and has been widely applied to drug delivery system (DDS) due to the significant development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. It can be used to improve drug efficacy, provide targeted delivery and minimize side-effects. Crystallization is the main and efficient unit operation to produce nanocrystals. Both traditional crystallization methods such as reactive crystallization, anti-solvent crystallization and new crystallization methods such as supercritical fluid crystallization, high-gravity controlled precipitation can be used to produce nanocrystals. The current mini-review outlines the main crystallization methods addressed in literature. The advantages and disadvantages of each method were summarized and compared.

  1. Silk Fibroin-Based Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zheng; Li, Yi; Xie, Mao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) is a protein-based biomacromolecule with excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and low immunogenicity. The development of SF-based nanoparticles for drug delivery have received considerable attention due to high binding capacity for various drugs, controlled drug release properties and mild preparation conditions. By adjusting the particle size, the chemical structure and properties, the modified or recombinant SF-based nanoparticles can be designed to improve the therapeutic efficiency of drugs encapsulated into these nanoparticles. Therefore, they can be used to deliver small molecule drugs (e.g., anti-cancer drugs), protein and growth factor drugs, gene drugs, etc. This paper reviews recent progress on SF-based nanoparticles, including chemical structure, properties, and preparation methods. In addition, the applications of SF-based nanoparticles as carriers for therapeutic drugs are also reviewed. PMID:25749470

  2. Recent advances in inorganic nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tatsuya; Tsuchida, Kunihiro

    2008-02-01

    Drug delivery systems, designed to enhance drug efficacy and reduce their adverse effects, have evolved accompanied by the development of novel materials. Nanotechnology is an emerging scientific area that has created a variety of intriguing inorganic nanoparticles. In this review, we focus on the feasibility of inorganic nanoparticles, including iron oxide nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, fullerenes and carbon nanohorns, as drug carriers, and summarize recent advances in this field.

  3. Polymeric micelles: nanocarriers for cancer-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifei; Huang, Yixian; Li, Song

    2014-08-01

    Polymeric micelles represent an effective delivery system for poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs. With small size (10-100 nm) and hydrophilic shell of PEG, polymeric micelles exhibit prolonged circulation time in the blood and enhanced tumor accumulation. In this review, the importance of rational design was highlighted by summarizing the recent progress on the development of micellar formulations. Emphasis is placed on the new strategies to enhance the drug/carrier interaction for improved drug-loading capacity. In addition, the micelle-forming drug-polymer conjugates are also discussed which have both drug-loading function and antitumor activity.

  4. Calcium carbonate nanoparticles as cancer drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Maleki Dizaj, Solmaz; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Zarrintan, Mohammad Hossein; Adibkia, Khosro; Lotfipour, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) has broad biomedical utilizations owing to its availability, low cost, safety, biocompatibility, pH-sensitivity and slow biodegradability. Recently, there has been widespread interest in their application as drug delivery systems for different groups of drugs. Among them, CaCO3 nanoparticles have exhibited promising potential as drug carriers targeting cancer tissues and cells. The pH-dependent properties, alongside the potential to be functionalized with targeting agents give them the unique property that can be used in targeted delivery systems for anticancer drugs. Also, due to the slow degradation of CaCO3 matrices, these nanoparticles can be used as sustained release systems to retain drugs in cancer tissues for longer times after administration. Development of drug delivery carriers using CaCO3 nanoparticles has been reviewed. The current state of CaCO3 nanoparticles as cancer drug delivery systems with focus on their special properties like pH-sensitivity and biodegradability has also been evaluated. According to our review, CaCO3 nanoparticles, owing to their special characteristics, will have a potential role in safe and efficient cancer treatment in future.

  5. An emerging platform for drug delivery: aerogel based systems.

    PubMed

    Ulker, Zeynep; Erkey, Can

    2014-03-10

    Over the past few decades, advances in "aerogel science" have provoked an increasing interest for these materials in pharmaceutical sciences for drug delivery applications. Because of their high surface areas, high porosities and open pore structures which can be tuned and controlled by manipulation of synthesis conditions, nanostructured aerogels represent a promising class of materials for delivery of various drugs as well as enzymes and proteins. Along with biocompatible inorganic aerogels and biodegradable organic aerogels, more complex systems such as surface functionalized aerogels, composite aerogels and layered aerogels have also been under development and possess huge potential. Emphasis is given to the details of the aerogel synthesis and drug loading methods as well as the influence of synthesis parameters and loading methods on the adsorption and release of the drugs. Owing to their ability to increase the bioavailability of low solubility drugs, to improve both their stability and their release kinetics, there are an increasing number of research articles concerning aerogels in different drug delivery applications. This review presents an up to date overview of the advances in all kinds of aerogel based drug delivery systems which are currently under investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Using DNA nanotechnology to produce a drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huyen La, Thi; Thu Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Phuc Pham, Van; Huyen Nguyen, Thi Minh; Huan Le, Quang

    2013-03-01

    Drug delivery to cancer cells in chemotherapy is one of the most advanced research topics. The effectiveness of the current cancer treatment drugs is limited because they are not capable of distinguishing between cancer cells and normal cells so that they kill not only cancer cells but also normal ones. To overcome this disadvantage by profiting from the differences in physical and chemical properties between cancer and normal cells, nanoparticles (NPs) delivering a drug are designed in a specific manner such that they can distinguish the cancer cells from the normal ones and are targeted only to the cancer cells. Currently, there are various drug delivery systems with many advantages, but sharing some common disadvantages such as difficulty with controlling the size, low encapsulation capacity and low stability. With the development and success of DNA nanotechnology, DNA strands are used to create effective drug delivery NPs with precisely controlled size and structure, safety and high stability. This article presents our study on drug encapsulation in DNA nanostructure which loaded docetaxel and curcumin in a desire to create a new and effective drug delivery system with high biological compatibility. Invited talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 30 October-2 November, 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  7. Towards soft robotic devices for site-specific drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Alici, Gursel

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research efforts have recently been dedicated to the establishment of various drug delivery systems (DDS) that are mechanical/physical, chemical and biological/molecular DDS. In this paper, we report on the recent advances in site-specific drug delivery (site-specific, controlled, targeted or smart drug delivery are terms used interchangeably in the literature, to mean to transport a drug or a therapeutic agent to a desired location within the body and release it as desired with negligibly small toxicity and side effect compared to classical drug administration means such as peroral, parenteral, transmucosal, topical and inhalation) based on mechanical/physical systems consisting of implantable and robotic drug delivery systems. While we specifically focus on the robotic or autonomous DDS, which can be reprogrammable and provide multiple doses of a drug at a required time and rate, we briefly cover the implanted DDS, which are well-developed relative to the robotic DDS, to highlight the design and performance requirements, and investigate issues associated with the robotic DDS. Critical research issues associated with both DDSs are presented to describe the research challenges ahead of us in order to establish soft robotic devices for clinical and biomedical applications.

  8. Drug delivery through soft contact lenses.

    PubMed Central

    Jain, M. R.

    1988-01-01

    Clinical studies were conducted on 466 patients waiting for senile cataract surgery and receiving chloromycetin, gentamicin, or carbenicillin subconjunctivally and through New Sauflon 70 and New Sauflon 85 lenses. The aqueous drug levels were biologically estimated at various time intervals. Soft contact lenses provided significantly higher drug penetration than subconjunctival therapy. Both modes of treatment provided therapeutically effective levels against most of the common ocular pathogens for varying intervals of 2 to 12 hours. PMID:3349016

  9. Development of a Microfluidics-Based Intracochlear Drug Delivery Device

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, William F.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.; Chen, Zhiqiang; Fiering, Jason; Handzel, Ophir; Holmboe, Maria; Kim, Ernest S.; Kujawa, Sharon G.; McKenna, Michael J.; Mescher, Mark M.; Murphy, Brian; Leary Swan, Erin E.; Peppi, Marcello; Tao, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Background Direct delivery of drugs and other agents into the inner ear will be important for many emerging therapies, including the treatment of degenerative disorders and guiding regeneration. Methods We have taken a microfluidics/MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) technology approach to develop a fully implantable reciprocating inner-ear drug-delivery system capable of timed and sequenced delivery of agents directly into perilymph of the cochlea. Iterations of the device were tested in guinea pigs to determine the flow characteristics required for safe and effective delivery. For these tests, we used the glutamate receptor blocker DNQX, which alters auditory nerve responses but not cochlear distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Results We have demonstrated safe and effective delivery of agents into the scala tympani. Equilibration of the drug in the basal turn occurs rapidly (within tens of minutes) and is dependent on reciprocating flow parameters. Conclusion We have described a prototype system for the direct delivery of drugs to the inner ear that has the potential to be a fully implantable means for safe and effective treatment of hearing loss and other diseases. PMID:19923811

  10. Targeted Cellular Drug Delivery using Tailored Dendritic Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kolhe, Parag; Kannan, Sujatha; Lieh-Lai, Mary

    2002-03-01

    Dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers possess highly branched architectures, with a large number of controllable, tailorble, ‘peripheral’ functionalities. Since the surface chemistry of these materials can be modified with relative ease, these materials have tremendous potential in targeted drug and gene delivery. The large number of end groups can also be tailored to create special affinity to targeted cells, and can also encapsulate drugs and deliver them in a controlled manner. We are developing tailor-modified dendritic systems for drug delivery. Synthesis, in-vitro drug loading, in-vitro drug delivery, and the targeting efficiency to the cell are being studied systematically using a wide variety of experimental tools. Polyamidoamine and Polyol dendrimers, with different generations and end-groups are studied, with drugs such as Ibuprofen and Methotrexate. Our results indicate that a large number of drug molecules can be encapsulated/attached to the dendrimers, depending on the end groups. The drug-encapsulated dendrimer is able to enter the cells rapidly and deliver the drug. Targeting strategies being explored

  11. Retinal Drug Delivery System, Phase I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    retinal lesions, need an antibiotic, an anti-inflammatory agent, and an analgesic, and, recent research suggests that it might be advantageous to treat...predetermined) manner, that is, control over time, amount and sequence, either continuously or pulsed. This system would have all of the advantages of...delivery would produce the same therapeutic benefits while reducing side effects and toxic exposure. Recent studies have shown the advantages of pulse

  12. Nature engineered diatom biosilica as drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Uthappa, U T; Brahmkhatri, Varsha; Sriram, G; Jung, Ho-Young; Yu, Jingxian; Kurkuri, Nikita; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M; Altalhi, Tariq; Neelgund, Gururaj M; Kurkuri, Mahaveer D

    2018-05-14

    Diatoms, unicellular photosynthetic algae covered with siliceous cell wall, are also called frustule. These are the most potential naturally available materials for the development of cost-effective drug delivery systems because of their excellent biocompatibility, high surface area, low cost and ease of surface modification. Mesoporous silica materials such as MCM-41 and SBA-15 have been extensively used in drug delivery area. Their synthesis is challenging, time consuming, requires toxic chemicals and are energy intensive, making the entire process expensive and non-viable. Therefore, it is necessary to explore alternative materials. Surprisingly, nature has provided some exciting materials called diatoms; biosilica is one such a material that can be potentially used as a drug delivery vehicle. The present review focuses on different types of diatom species used in drug delivery with respect to their structural properties, morphology, purification process and surface functionalization. In this review, recent advances along with their limitations as well as the future scope to develop them as potential drug delivery vehicles are discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Drug delivery systems and materials for wound healing applications.

    PubMed

    Saghazadeh, Saghi; Rinoldi, Chiara; Schot, Maik; Kashaf, Sara Saheb; Sharifi, Fatemeh; Jalilian, Elmira; Nuutila, Kristo; Giatsidis, Giorgio; Mostafalu, Pooria; Derakhshandeh, Hossein; Yue, Kan; Swieszkowski, Wojciech; Memic, Adnan; Tamayol, Ali; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2018-04-05

    Chronic, non-healing wounds place a significant burden on patients and healthcare systems, resulting in impaired mobility, limb amputation, or even death. Chronic wounds result from a disruption in the highly orchestrated cascade of events involved in wound closure. Significant advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic wounds have resulted in the development of drugs designed to target different aspects of the impaired processes. However, the hostility of the wound environment rich in degradative enzymes and its elevated pH, combined with differences in the time scales of different physiological processes involved in tissue regeneration require the use of effective drug delivery systems. In this review, we will first discuss the pathophysiology of chronic wounds and then the materials used for engineering drug delivery systems. Different passive and active drug delivery systems used in wound care will be reviewed. In addition, the architecture of the delivery platform and its ability to modulate drug delivery are discussed. Emerging technologies and the opportunities for engineering more effective wound care devices are also highlighted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel Strategies for Anterior Segment Ocular Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cholkar, Kishore; Patel, Sulabh P.; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Research advancements in pharmaceutical sciences have led to the development of new strategies in drug delivery to anterior segment. Designing a new delivery system that can efficiently target the diseased anterior ocular tissue, generate high drug levels, and maintain prolonged and effective concentrations with no or minimal side effects is the major focus of current research. Drug delivery by traditional method of administration via topical dosing is impeded by ocular static and dynamic barriers. Various products have been introduced into the market that prolong drug retention in the precorneal pocket and to improve bioavailability. However, there is a need of a delivery system that can provide controlled release to treat chronic ocular diseases with a reduced dosing frequency without causing any visual disturbances. This review provides an overview of anterior ocular barriers along with strategies to overcome these ocular barriers and deliver therapeutic agents to the affected anterior ocular tissue with a special emphasis on nanotechnology-based drug delivery approaches. PMID:23215539

  15. Clinical Considerations of Focal Drug Delivery in Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jamie; Klonoski, Samuel C; Chiu, Bill

    2017-01-01

    According to the US Center for Disease Control, cancer deaths are the second most common cause of mortality in both adults and children. Definitive treatment of solid tumors involves surgical resection with or without systemic chemotherapy and radiation. The advent of local drug delivery presents a unique treatment modality that can offer substantial benefits in cancer management. Three main phases in solid tumor management exist for the treating physician: initial diagnosis with tissue biopsy, surgical resection with or without chemotherapy, and management of metastatic disease. A literature review of both basic science as well as clinical trials using local drug delivery strategies in the management of solid tumors was done on PubMed. These were then further divided into the categories of initial tissue biopsy intervention, surgical resection, and management of metastatic disease. A total of 27 articles were review that included both pre-clinical as well as clinical investigation of local drug delivery therapies in the treatment of solid tumors. Treatments such as MRI guided therapies, FDA approved local therapies for intracranial gliomas as well as local therapy for single site metastatic disease were identified. This review focuses the current state of local drug delivery in the treatment of solid tumors in both the pre-clinical as well as clinical investigation settings. Local drug delivery therapy offers an exciting new treatment modality for solid malignancies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Oromucosal multilayer films for tailor-made, controlled drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Lindert, Sandra; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    The oral mucosa has recently become increasingly important as an alternative administration route for tailor-made, controlled drug delivery. Oromucosal multilayer films, assigned to the monograph oromucosal preparations in the Ph.Eur. may be a promising dosage form to overcome the requirements related to this drug delivery site. Areas covered: We provide an overview of multilayer films as drug delivery tools, and discuss manufacturing processes and characterization methods. We focus on the suitability of characterization methods for particular requirements of multilayer films. A classification was performed covering indication areas and APIs incorporated in multilayer film systems for oromucosal use in order to provide a summary of data published in this field. Expert opinion: The shift in drug development to high molecular weight drugs will influence the field of pharmaceutical development and delivery technologies. For a high number of indication areas, such as hormonal disorders, cardiovascular diseases or local treatment of infections, the flexible layer design of oromucosal multilayer films provides a promising option for tailor-made, controlled delivery of APIs to or through defined surfaces in the oral cavity. However, there is a lack of discriminating or standardized testing methods to assess the quality of multilayer films in a reliable way.

  17. Infrared free electron laser enhanced transdermal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awazu, Kunio; Uchizono, Takeyuki; Suzuki, Sachiko; Yoshikawa, Kazushi

    2005-08-01

    It is necessary to control enhancement of transdermal drug delivery with non-invasive. The present study was investigated to assess the effectivity of enhancing the drug delivery by irradiating 6-μm region mid infrared free electron laser (MIR-FEL). The enhancement of transdermal drug (lidocaine) delivery of the samples (hairless mouse skin) irradiated with lasers was examined for flux (μg/cm2/h) and total penetration amount (μg/cm2) of lidocaine by High performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The flux and total amount penatration date was enhanced 200-300 fold faster than the control date by the laser irradiation. FEL irradiating had the stratum corneum, and had the less thermal damage in epidermis. The effect of 6-μm region MIR-FEL has the enhancement of transdermal drug delivery without removing the stratum corneum because it has the less thermal damage. It leads to enhancement drug delivery system with non-invasive laser treatment.

  18. Polymeric Micelles: Recent Advancements in the Delivery of Anticancer Drugs.

    PubMed

    Gothwal, Avinash; Khan, Iliyas; Gupta, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology, in health and medicine, extensively improves the safety and efficacy of different therapeutic agents, particularly the aspects related to drug delivery and targeting. Among various nano-carriers, polymer based macromolecular approaches have resulted in improved drug delivery for the diseases like cancers, diabetes, autoimmune disorders and many more. Polymeric micelles consisting of hydrophilic exterior and hydrophobic core have established a record of anticancer drug delivery from the laboratory to commercial reality. The nanometric size, tailor made functionality, multiple choices of polymeric micelle synthesis and stability are the unique properties, which have attracted scientists and researchers around the world to work upon in this opportunistic drug carrier. The capability of polymeric micelles as nano-carriers are nowhere less significant than nanoparticles, liposomes and other nanocarriers, as per as the commercial feasibility and presence is concerned. In fact polymeric micelles are among the most extensively studied delivery platforms for the effective treatment of different cancers as well as non-cancerous disorders. The present review highlights the sequential and recent developments in the design, synthesis, characterization and evaluation of polymeric micelles to achieve the effective anticancer drug delivery. The future possibilities and clinical outcome have also been discussed, briefly.

  19. EMERGING MICROTECHNOLOGIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORAL DRUG DELIVERY DEVICES

    PubMed Central

    Chirra, Hariharasudhan D.; Desai, Tejal A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of oral drug delivery platforms for administering therapeutics in a safe and effective manner across the gastrointestinal epithelium is of much importance. A variety of delivery systems such as enterically coated tablets, capsules, particles, and liposomes have been developed to improve oral bioavailability of drugs. However, orally administered drugs suffer from poor localization and therapeutic efficacy due to various physiological conditions such as low pH, and high shear intestinal fluid flow. Novel platforms combining controlled release, improved adhesion, tissue penetration, and selective intestinal targeting may overcome these issues and potentially diminish the toxicity and high frequency of administration associated with conventional oral delivery. Microfabrication along with appropriate surface chemistry, provide a means to fabricate these platforms en masse with flexibility in tailoring the shape, size, reservoir volume, and surface characteristics of microdevices. Moreover, the same technology can be used to include integrated circuit technology and sensors for designing sophisticated autonomous drug delivery devices that promise to significantly improve point of care diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications. This review sheds light on some of the fabrication techniques and addresses a few of the microfabricated devices that can be effectively used for controlled oral drug delivery applications. PMID:22981755

  20. A smart multifunctional drug delivery nanoplatform for targeting cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoop, M.; Mushtaq, F.; Hurter, C.; Chen, X.-Z.; Nelson, B. J.; Pané, S.

    2016-06-01

    Wirelessly guided magnetic nanomachines are promising vectors for targeted drug delivery, which have the potential to minimize the interaction between anticancer agents and healthy tissues. In this work, we propose a smart multifunctional drug delivery nanomachine for targeted drug delivery that incorporates a stimuli-responsive building block. The nanomachine consists of a magnetic nickel (Ni) nanotube that contains a pH-responsive chitosan hydrogel in its inner cavity. The chitosan inside the nanotube serves as a matrix that can selectively release drugs in acidic environments, such as the extracellular space of most tumors. Approximately a 2.5 times higher drug release from Ni nanotubes at pH = 6 is achieved compared to that at pH = 7.4. The outside of the Ni tube is coated with gold. A fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled thiol-ssDNA, a biological marker, was conjugated on its surface by thiol-gold click chemistry, which enables traceability. The Ni nanotube allows the propulsion of the device by means of external magnetic fields. As the proposed nanoarchitecture integrates different functional building blocks, our drug delivery nanoplatform can be employed for carrying molecular drug conjugates and for performing targeted combinatorial therapies, which can provide an alternative and supplementary solution to current drug delivery technologies.Wirelessly guided magnetic nanomachines are promising vectors for targeted drug delivery, which have the potential to minimize the interaction between anticancer agents and healthy tissues. In this work, we propose a smart multifunctional drug delivery nanomachine for targeted drug delivery that incorporates a stimuli-responsive building block. The nanomachine consists of a magnetic nickel (Ni) nanotube that contains a pH-responsive chitosan hydrogel in its inner cavity. The chitosan inside the nanotube serves as a matrix that can selectively release drugs in acidic environments, such as the extracellular space of

  1. Untethered magnetic millirobot for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Iacovacci, Veronica; Lucarini, Gioia; Ricotti, Leonardo; Dario, Paolo; Dupont, Pierre E; Menciassi, Arianna

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the design and development of a novel millimeter-sized robotic system for targeted therapy. The proposed medical robot is conceived to perform therapy in relatively small diameter body canals (spine, urinary system, ovary, etc.), and to release several kinds of therapeutics, depending on the pathology to be treated. The robot is a nearly-buoyant bi-component system consisting of a carrier, in which the therapeutic agent is embedded, and a piston. The piston, by exploiting magnetic effects, docks with the carrier and compresses a drug-loaded hydrogel, thus activating the release mechanism. External magnetic fields are exploited to propel the robot towards the target region, while intermagnetic forces are exploited to trigger drug release. After designing and fabricating the robot, the system has been tested in vitro with an anticancer drug (doxorubicin) embedded in the carrier. The efficiency of the drug release mechanism has been demonstrated by both quantifying the amount of drug released and by assessing the efficacy of this therapeutic procedure on human bladder cancer cells.

  2. Electrospun materials for affinity-based engineering and drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sill, T. J.; von Recum, H. A.

    2015-10-01

    Electrospinning is a process which can quickly and cheaply create materials of high surface to volume and aspect ratios from many materials, however in application toward drug delivery this can be a strong disadvantage as well. Diffusion of drug is proportional to the thickness of that device. In moving from macro to micro to nano-sized electrospun materials drug release rates change to profiles that are too fast to be therapeutically beneficial. In this work we use molecular interactions to further control the rate of release beyond that capable of diffusion alone. To do this we create materials with molecular pockets, which can "hold" therapeutic drugs through a reversible interaction such as a host/guest complexation. Through these complexes we show we are able to impact delivery of drug from electrospun materials, and also apply them in tissue engineering for the reversible presentation of biomolecules on a fiber surface.

  3. Status of surfactants as penetration enhancers in transdermal drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Som, Iti; Bhatia, Kashish; Yasir, Mohd.

    2012-01-01

    Surfactants are found in many existing therapeutic, cosmetic, and agro-chemical preparations. In recent years, surfactants have been employed to enhance the permeation rates of several drugs via transdermal route. The application of transdermal route to a wider range of drugs is limited due to significant barrier to penetration across the skin which is associated with the outermost stratum corneum layer. Surfactants have effects on the permeability characteristics of several biological membranes including skin. They have the potential to solubilize lipids within the stratum corneum. The penetration of the surfactant molecule into the lipid lamellae of the stratum corneum is strongly dependent on the partitioning behavior and solubility of surfactant. Surfactants ranging from hydrophobic agents such as oleic acid to hydrophilic sodium lauryl sulfate have been tested as permeation enhancer to improve drug delivery. This article reviews the status of surfactants as permeation enhancer in transdermal drug delivery of various drugs. PMID:22368393

  4. Supramolecular "Trojan Horse" for Nuclear Delivery of Dual Anticancer Drugs.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yanbin; Shen, Haosheng; Zhan, Jie; Lin, Mingliang; Dai, Liuhan; Ren, Chunhua; Shi, Yang; Liu, Jianfeng; Gao, Jie; Yang, Zhimou

    2017-03-01

    Nuclear delivery and accumulation are very important for many anticancer drugs that interact with DNA or its associated enzymes in the nucleus. However, it is very difficult for neutrally and negatively charged anticancer drugs such as 10-hydroxycamptothecine (HCPT). Here we report a simple strategy to construct supramolecular nanomedicines for nuclear delivery of dual synergistic anticancer drugs. Our strategy utilizes the coassembly of a negatively charged HCPT-peptide amphiphile and the positively charged cisplatin. The resulting nanomaterials behave as the "Trojan Horse" that transported soldiers (anticancer drugs) across the walls of the castle (cell and nucleus membranes). Therefore, they show improved inhibition capacity to cancer cells including the drug resistant cancer cell and promote the synergistic tumor suppression property in vivo. We envision that our strategy of constructing nanomaterials by metal chelation would offer new opportunities to develop nanomedicines for combination chemotherapy.

  5. Delivery of aerosolized drugs encapsulated in liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Lyons, C.R.; Schmid, M.H.

    1995-12-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an infectious disease that resides in the human lung. Due to the difficulty in completely killing off the disease in infected individuals, Mtb has developed drug-resistant forms and is on the rise in the human population. Therefore, ITRI and the University of New Mexico are collaborating to explore the treatment of Mtb by an aerosolized drug delivered directly to the lungs. In conclusion, it is feasible to obtain an appropriate size and concentration of the liposomes before and after aerosolization.

  6. Self-Assembled Smart Nanocarriers for Targeted Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; Li, Junbai; Decher, Gero

    2016-02-10

    Nanostructured drug-carrier systems promise numerous benefits for drug delivery. They can be engineered to precisely control drug-release rates or to target specific sites within the body with a specific amount of therapeutic agent. However, to achieve the best therapeutic effects, the systems should be designed for carrying the optimum amount of a drug to the desired target where it should be released at the optimum rate for a specified time. Despite numerous attempts, fulfilling all of these requirements in a synergistic way remains a huge challenge. The trend in drug delivery is consequently directed toward integrated multifunctional carrier systems, providing selective recognition in combination with sustained or triggered release. Capsules as vesicular systems enable drugs to be confined for controlled release. Furthermore, carriers modified with recognition groups can enhance the capability of encapsulated drug efficacy. Here, recent advances are reviewed regarding designing and preparing assembled capsules with targeting ligands or size controllable for selective recognition in drug delivery. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Designer lipids for drug delivery: from heads to tails

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Aditya G.; Kierstead, Paul H.; Venditto, Vincent J.; Walsh, Colin L.; Szoka, Francis C.

    2014-01-01

    For four decades, liposomes composed of both naturally occurring and synthetic lipids have been investigated as delivery vehicles for low molecular weight and macromolecular drugs. These studies paved the way for the clinical and commercial success of a number of liposomal drugs, each of which required a tailored formulation; one liposome size does not fit all drugs! Instead, the physicochemical properties of the liposome must be matched to the pharmacology of the drug. An extensive biophysical literature demonstrates that varying lipid composition can influence the size, membrane stability, in vivo interactions, and drug release properties of a liposome. In this review we focus on recently described synthetic lipid headgroups, linkers and hydrophobic domains that can provide control over the intermolecular forces, phase preference, and macroscopic behavior of liposomes. These synthetic lipids further our understanding of lipid biophysics, promote targeted drug delivery, and improve liposome stability. We further highlight the immune reactivity of novel synthetic headgroups as a key design consideration. For instance it was originally thought that synthetic PEGylated lipids were immunologically inert; however, it’s been observed that under certain conditions PEGylated lipids induce humoral immunity. Such immune activation may be a limitation to the use of other engineered lipid headgroups for drug delivery. In addition to the potential immunogenicity of engineered lipids, future investigations on liposome drugs in vivo should pay particular attention to the location and dynamics of payload release. PMID:24816069

  8. Thiomers for oral delivery of hydrophilic macromolecular drugs.

    PubMed

    Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas; Hoffer, Martin H; Kafedjiiski, Krum

    2004-11-01

    In recent years thiolated polymers (thiomers) have appeared as a promising new tool in oral drug delivery. Thiomers are obtained by the immobilisation of thio-bearing ligands to mucoadhesive polymeric excipients. By the formation of disulfide bonds with mucus glycoproteins, the mucoadhesive properties of thiomers are up to 130-fold improved compared with the corresponding unmodified polymers. Owing to the formation of inter- and intramolecular disulfide bonds within the thiomer itself, matrix tablets and particulate delivery systems show strong cohesive properties, resulting in comparatively higher stability, prolonged disintegration times and a more controlled drug release. The permeation of hydrophilic macromolecular drugs through the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa can be improved by the use of thiomers. Furthermore, some thiomers exhibit improved inhibitory properties towards GI peptidases. The efficacy of thiomers in oral drug delivery has been demonstrated by various in vivo studies. A pharmacological efficacy of 1%, for example, was achieved in rats by oral administration of calcitonin tablets comprising a thiomer. Furthermore, tablets comprising a thiomer and pegylated insulin resulted in a pharmacological efficacy of 7% after oral application to diabetic mice. Low-molecular-weight heparin embedded in thiolated polycarbophil led to an absolute bioavailability of > or = 20% after oral administration to rats. In these studies, formulations comprising the corresponding unmodified polymer had only a marginal or no effect. These results indicate drug carrier systems based on thiomers appear to be a promising tool for oral delivery of hydrophilic macromolecular drugs.

  9. Macrophages as drug delivery vehicles for photochemical internalization (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Steen J.; Gonzalez, Jonathan; Molina, Stephanie; Kumar Nair, Rohit; Hirschberg, Henry

    2017-02-01

    Targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to tumor sites is a major challenge in cancer chemotherapy. Cell-based vectorization of therapeutic agents has great potential for cancer therapy in that it can target and maintain an elevated concentration of therapeutic agents at the tumor site and prevent their spread into healthy tissue. The use of circulating cells such as monocytes/macrophages (Ma) offers several advantages compared to nanoparticles as targeted drug delivery vehicles. Ma can be easily obtained from the patient, loaded in vitro with drugs and reinjected into the blood stream. Ma can selectively cross the partially compromised blood-brain barrier surrounding brain tumors and are known to actively migrate to tumors, drawn by chemotactic factors, including hypoxic regions where conventional chemo and radiation therapy are least effective. The utility of Ma as targeted drug delivery vehicles for photochemical internalization (PCI) of tumors was investigated in this study. In vitro studies were conducted using a mixture of F98 rat glioma cells and rat macrophages loaded with a variety of chemotherapeutic agents including bleomycin and 5-fluorouracil. Preliminary data show that macrophages are resistant to both chemotherapeutics while significant toxicity is observed for F98 cells exposed to both drugs. Co-incubation of F98 cells with loaded Ma results in significant F98 toxicity suggesting that Ma are releasing the drugs and, hence providing the rationale for their use as delivery vectors for cancer therapies such as PCI.

  10. Protein nanoparticles as drug delivery carriers for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Lohcharoenkal, Warangkana; Wang, Liying; Chen, Yi Charlie; Rojanasakul, Yon

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles have increasingly been used for a variety of applications, most notably for the delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. A large number of nanoparticle drug delivery systems have been developed for cancer treatment and various materials have been explored as drug delivery agents to improve the therapeutic efficacy and safety of anticancer drugs. Natural biomolecules such as proteins are an attractive alternative to synthetic polymers which are commonly used in drug formulations because of their safety. In general, protein nanoparticles offer a number of advantages including biocompatibility and biodegradability. They can be prepared under mild conditions without the use of toxic chemicals or organic solvents. Moreover, due to their defined primary structure, protein-based nanoparticles offer various possibilities for surface modifications including covalent attachment of drugs and targeting ligands. In this paper, we review the most significant advancements in protein nanoparticle technology and their use in drug delivery arena. We then examine the various sources of protein materials that have been used successfully for the construction of protein nanoparticles as well as their methods of preparation. Finally, we discuss the applications of protein nanoparticles in cancer therapy.

  11. Advanced Drug Delivery Systems for Transdermal Delivery of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lalit; Verma, Shivani; Singh, Mehakjot; Tamanna, Tamanna; Utreja, Puneet

    2018-06-04

    Transdermal route of delivery of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) has several advantages over other routes like reduced adverse effects, less systemic absorption, and avoidance of first pass effect and degradation in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Transdermal route is also beneficial for drugs having a narrow therapeutic index. The skin acts as the primary barrier for transdermal delivery of various therapeutic molecules. Various advanced nanocarrier systems offer several advantages like improved dermal penetration along with an extended drug release profile due to their smaller size and high surface area. Various nanocarrier explored for transdermal delivery of NSAIDs are liposomes, niosomes, ethosomes, polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), dendrimers, nanosuspensions/nanoemulsion, and nanofibers Objectives: In the present review, our major aim was to explore the therapeutic potential of advanced nanocarrier systems enlisted above for transdermal delivery of NSAIDs. All literature search regarding advanced nanocarrier systems for transdermal delivery of NSAIDs was done using Google Scholar and Pubmed. Advanced nanocarrier have shown various advantages like reduced side effect, low dosing frequency, high skin permeation, and ease of application over conventional transdermal delivery systems of NSAIDs in various preclinical studies. However, clinical exploration of advanced nanocarrier systems for transdermal delivery of NSAIDs is still a challenge. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. NanoClusters Enhance Drug Delivery in Mechanical Ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pornputtapitak, Warangkana

    The overall goal of this thesis was to develop a dry powder delivery system for patients on mechanical ventilation. The studies were divided into two parts: the formulation development and the device design. The pulmonary system is an attractive route for drug delivery since the lungs have a large accessible surface area for treatment or drug absorption. For ventilated patients, inhaled drugs have to successfully navigate ventilator tubing and an endotracheal tube. Agglomerates of drug nanoparticles (also known as 'NanoClusters') are fine dry powder aerosols that were hypothesized to enable drug delivery through ventilator circuits. This Thesis systematically investigated formulations of NanoClusters and their aerosol performance in a conventional inhaler and a device designed for use during mechanical ventilation. These engineered powders of budesonide (NC-Bud) were delivered via a MonodoseRTM inhaler or a novel device through commercial endotracheal tubes, and analyzed by cascade impaction. NC-Bud had a higher efficiency of aerosol delivery compared to micronized stock budesonide. The delivery efficiency was independent of ventilator parameters such as inspiration patterns, inspiration volumes, and inspiration flow rates. A novel device designed to fit directly to the ventilator and endotracheal tubing connections and the MonodoseRTM inhaler showed the same efficiency of drug delivery. The new device combined with NanoCluster formulation technology, therefore, allowed convenient and efficient drug delivery through endotracheal tubes. Furthermore, itraconazole (ITZ), a triazole antifungal agent, was formulated as a NanoCluster powder via milling (top-down process) or precipitation (bottom-up process) without using any excipients. ITZ NanoClusters prepared by wet milling showed better aerosol performance compared to micronized stock ITZ and ITZ NanoClusters prepared by precipitation. ITZ NanoClusters prepared by precipitation methods also showed an amorphous state

  13. Nanoscale drug delivery systems and the blood–brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Alyautdin, Renad; Khalin, Igor; Nafeeza, Mohd Ismail; Haron, Muhammad Huzaimi; Kuznetsov, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    The protective properties of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) are conferred by the intricate architecture of its endothelium coupled with multiple specific transport systems expressed on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs) in the brain’s vasculature. When the stringent control of the BBB is disrupted, such as following EC damage, substances that are safe for peripheral tissues but toxic to neurons have easier access to the central nervous system (CNS). As a consequence, CNS disorders, including degenerative diseases, can occur independently of an individual’s age. Although the BBB is crucial in regulating the biochemical environment that is essential for maintaining neuronal integrity, it limits drug delivery to the CNS. This makes it difficult to deliver beneficial drugs across the BBB while preventing the passage of potential neurotoxins. Available options include transport of drugs across the ECs through traversing occludins and claudins in the tight junctions or by attaching drugs to one of the existing transport systems. Either way, access must specifically allow only the passage of a particular drug. In general, the BBB allows small molecules to enter the CNS; however, most drugs with the potential to treat neurological disorders other than infections have large structures. Several mechanisms, such as modifications of the built-in pumping-out system of drugs and utilization of nanocarriers and liposomes, are among the drug-delivery systems that have been tested; however, each has its limitations and constraints. This review comprehensively discusses the functional morphology of the BBB and the challenges that must be overcome by drug-delivery systems and elaborates on the potential targets, mechanisms, and formulations to improve drug delivery to the CNS. PMID:24550672

  14. Nanoscale drug delivery systems and the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Alyautdin, Renad; Khalin, Igor; Nafeeza, Mohd Ismail; Haron, Muhammad Huzaimi; Kuznetsov, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    The protective properties of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are conferred by the intricate architecture of its endothelium coupled with multiple specific transport systems expressed on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs) in the brain's vasculature. When the stringent control of the BBB is disrupted, such as following EC damage, substances that are safe for peripheral tissues but toxic to neurons have easier access to the central nervous system (CNS). As a consequence, CNS disorders, including degenerative diseases, can occur independently of an individual's age. Although the BBB is crucial in regulating the biochemical environment that is essential for maintaining neuronal integrity, it limits drug delivery to the CNS. This makes it difficult to deliver beneficial drugs across the BBB while preventing the passage of potential neurotoxins. Available options include transport of drugs across the ECs through traversing occludins and claudins in the tight junctions or by attaching drugs to one of the existing transport systems. Either way, access must specifically allow only the passage of a particular drug. In general, the BBB allows small molecules to enter the CNS; however, most drugs with the potential to treat neurological disorders other than infections have large structures. Several mechanisms, such as modifications of the built-in pumping-out system of drugs and utilization of nanocarriers and liposomes, are among the drug-delivery systems that have been tested; however, each has its limitations and constraints. This review comprehensively discusses the functional morphology of the BBB and the challenges that must be overcome by drug-delivery systems and elaborates on the potential targets, mechanisms, and formulations to improve drug delivery to the CNS.

  15. Multifaceted Applications of Chitosan in Cancer Drug Delivery and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Babu, Anish; Ramesh, Rajagopal

    2017-03-27

    Chitosan is a versatile polysaccharide of biological origin. Due to the biocompatible and biodegradable nature of chitosan, it is intensively utilized in biomedical applications in scaffold engineering as an absorption enhancer, and for bioactive and controlled drug release. In cancer therapy, chitosan has multifaceted applications, such as assisting in gene delivery and chemotherapeutic delivery, and as an immunoadjuvant for vaccines. The present review highlights the recent applications of chitosan and chitosan derivatives in cancer therapy.

  16. Multifaceted Applications of Chitosan in Cancer Drug Delivery and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Anish; Ramesh, Rajagopal

    2017-01-01

    Chitosan is a versatile polysaccharide of biological origin. Due to the biocompatible and biodegradable nature of chitosan, it is intensively utilized in biomedical applications in scaffold engineering as an absorption enhancer, and for bioactive and controlled drug release. In cancer therapy, chitosan has multifaceted applications, such as assisting in gene delivery and chemotherapeutic delivery, and as an immunoadjuvant for vaccines. The present review highlights the recent applications of chitosan and chitosan derivatives in cancer therapy. PMID:28346381

  17. Targeting homeostasis in drug delivery using bioresponsive hydrogel microforms.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A Nolan; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony

    2014-01-30

    A drug delivery platform comprising a biocompatible, bioresponsive hydrogel and possessing a covalently tethered peptide-drug conjugate was engineered to achieve stasis, via a closed control loop, of the external biochemical activity of the actuating protease. The delivery platform contains a peptide-drug conjugate covalently tethered to the hydrogel matrix, which in the presence of the appropriate protease, was cleaved and the drug released into the bathing environment. This platform was developed and investigated in silico using a finite element modeling (FEM) approach. Firstly, the primary governing phenomena guiding drug release profiles were investigated, and it was confirmed that under transport-limited conditions, the diffusion of the enzyme within the hydrogel and the coupled enzyme kinetics accurately model the system and are in agreement with published results. Secondly, the FEM model was used to investigate the release of a competitive protease inhibitor, MAG283, via cleavage of Acetyl-Pro-Leu-Gly|Leu-MAG-283 by MMP9 in order to achieve targeted homeostasis of MMP-9 activity, such as in the pathophysiology of chronic wounds, via closed-loop feedback control. The key engineering parameters for the delivery device are the radii of the hydrogel microspheres and the concentration of the peptide-inhibitor conjugate. Homeostatic drug delivery, where the focus turns away from the drug release rate and turns toward achieving targeted control of biochemical activity within a biochemical pathway, is an emerging approach in drug delivery methodologies for which the potential has not yet been fully realized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Multimodality imaging and mathematical modelling of drug delivery to glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Boujelben, Ahmed; Watson, Michael; McDougall, Steven; Yen, Yi-Fen; Gerstner, Elizabeth R; Catana, Ciprian; Deisboeck, Thomas; Batchelor, Tracy T; Boas, David; Rosen, Bruce; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Chaplain, Mark A J

    2016-10-06

    Patients diagnosed with glioblastoma, an aggressive brain tumour, have a poor prognosis, with a median overall survival of less than 15 months. Vasculature within these tumours is typically abnormal, with increased tortuosity, dilation and disorganization, and they typically exhibit a disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although it has been hypothesized that the 'normalization' of the vasculature resulting from anti-angiogenic therapies could improve drug delivery through improved blood flow, there is also evidence that suggests that the restoration of BBB integrity might limit the delivery of therapeutic agents and hence their effectiveness. In this paper, we apply mathematical models of blood flow, vascular permeability and diffusion within the tumour microenvironment to investigate the effect of these competing factors on drug delivery. Preliminary results from the modelling indicate that all three physiological parameters investigated-flow rate, vessel permeability and tissue diffusion coefficient-interact nonlinearly to produce the observed average drug concentration in the microenvironment.

  19. Alginate microparticles as oral colon drug delivery device: A review.

    PubMed

    Agüero, Lissette; Zaldivar-Silva, Dionisio; Peña, Luis; Dias, Marcos L

    2017-07-15

    The increase in the research interest on alginate microparticles in pharmaceutical and biomedical areas confirms its potential use as an effective matrix for drug and cell delivery. Among the well known alginate properties, pH sensitivity remains as an attractive option for targeting of drug in the colon region. This essential aspect is advantageous to enhance therapeutic efficacy of treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, which require multi-drug administration frequently in a long period. As consequence, severe side effect appears leading to discontinuation of therapy and affecting quality of patient life. This review gives an overview of relevant properties of alginate as oral colon delivery systems and the recent innovative strategies of using alginate with other polymers as well as microencapsulation techniques. At the same time, it describes the several advantages of coating processes involving alginate over microparticles in order to design better material with sustained release characteristic for colon-targeted delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thiolated chitosans: useful excipients for oral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Werle, Martin; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2008-03-01

    To improve the bioavailability of orally administered drugs, formulations based on polymers are of great interest for pharmaceutical technologists. Thiolated chitosans are multifunctional polymers that exhibit improved mucoadhesive, cohesive and permeation-enhancing as well as efflux-pump-inhibitory properties. They can be synthesized by derivatization of the primary amino groups of chitosan with coupling reagents bearing thiol functions. Various data gained in-vitro as well as in-vivo studies clearly demonstrate the potential of thiolated chitosans for oral drug delivery. Within the current review, the synthesis and characterization of thiolated chitosans so far developed is summarized. Features of thiolated chitosans important for oral drug delivery are discussed as well. Moreover, different formulation approaches, such as matrix tablets and micro-/nanoparticles, as well as the applicability of thiolated chitosans for the oral delivery of various substance classes including peptides and efflux pump substrates, are highlighted.

  1. Medicated chewing gum, a novel drug delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Rostami, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    New formulations and technologies have been developed through oral drug delivery systems’ researches. Such researches display significance of oral route amongst patients. We’ve reviewed all the features associated with medicated chewing gum as a modern drug delivery by introducing the history, advantages and disadvantages, methods of manufacturing, composition differences, evaluation tests and examples of varieties of medicated chewing gums. Acceptance of medicated chewing gum has been augmented through years. The advantages and therapeutic benefits of chewing gum support its development as we can see new formulations with new drugs contained have been produced from past and are going to find a place in market by formulation of new medicated chewing gums. Potential applications of medicated chewing gums are highly widespread as they will be recognized in future. Nowadays standards for qualifying chewing gums are the same as tablets. Patient-centered studies include medicated chewing gums as a delivery system too which creates compliance for patients. PMID:26109999

  2. Microbubbles in Ultrasound-Triggered Drug and Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hernot, Sophie; Klibanov, Alexander L.

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents, in the form of gas-filled microbubbles, are becoming popular in perfusion monitoring; they are employed as molecular imaging agents. Microbubbles are manufactured from biocompatible materials, they can be injected intravenously, and some are approved for clinical use. Microbubbles can be destroyed by ultrasound irradiation. This destruction phenomenon can be applied to targeted drug delivery and enhancement of drug action. The ultrasonic field can be focused at the target tissues and organs; thus, selectivity of the treatment can be improved, reducing undesirable side effects. Microbubbles enhance ultrasound energy deposition in the tissues and serve as cavitation nuclei, increasing intracellular drug delivery. DNA delivery and successful tissue transfection is observed in the areas of the body where ultrasound is applied after intravascular administration of microbubbles and plasmid DNA. Accelerated blood clot dissolution in the areas of insonation by cooperative action of thrombolytic agents and microbubbles is demonstrated in several clinical trials. PMID:18486268

  3. A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Gilhotra, Ritu M; Ikram, Mohd; Srivastava, Sunny; Gilhotra, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin, are held together for extended periods of time by the help of interfacial forces. Among the various transmucosal routes, buccal mucosa has excellent accessibility and relatively immobile mucosa, hence suitable for administration of retentive dosage form. The objective of this paper is to review the works done so far in the field of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems (MBDDS), with a clinical perspective. Starting with a brief introduction of the mucoadhesive drug delivery systems, oral mucosa, and the theories of mucoadhesion, this article then proceeds to cover the works done so far in the field of MBDDS, categorizing them on the basis of ailments they are meant to cure. Additionally, we focus on the various patents, recent advancements, and challenges as well as the future prospects for mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems. PMID:24683406

  4. Connecting drug delivery reality to smart materials design.

    PubMed

    Grainger, David W

    2013-09-15

    Inflated claims to both design and mechanistic novelty in drug delivery and imaging systems, including most nanotechnologies, are not supported by the generally poor translation of these systems to clinical efficacy. The "form begets function" design paradigm is seductive but perhaps over-simplistic in translation to pharmaceutical efficacy. Most innovations show few clinically important distinctions in their therapeutic benefits in relevant preclinical disease and delivery models, despite frequent claims to the contrary. Long-standing challenges in drug delivery issues must enlist more realistic, back-to-basics approaches to address fundamental materials properties in complex biological systems, preclinical test beds, and analytical methods to more reliably determine fundamental pharmaceutical figures of merit, including drug carrier purity and batch-batch variability, agent biodistribution, therapeutic index (safety), and efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Enzyme-activated intracellular drug delivery with tubule clay nanoformulation

    PubMed Central

    Dzamukova, Maria R.; Naumenko, Ekaterina A.; Lvov, Yuri M.; Fakhrullin, Rawil F.

    2015-01-01

    Fabrication of stimuli-triggered drug delivery vehicle s is an important milestone in treating cancer. Here we demonstrate the selective anticancer drug delivery into human cells with biocompatible 50-nm diameter halloysite nanotube carriers. Physically-adsorbed dextrin end stoppers secure the intercellular release of brilliant green. Drug-loaded nanotubes penetrate through the cellular membranes and their uptake efficiency depends on the cells growth rate. Intercellular glycosyl hydrolases-mediated decomposition of the dextrin tube-end stoppers triggers the release of the lumen-loaded brilliant green, which allowed for preferable elimination of human lung carcinoma cells (А549) as compared with hepatoma cells (Hep3b). The enzyme-activated intracellular delivery of brilliant green using dextrin-coated halloysite nanotubes is a promising platform for anticancer treatment. PMID:25976444

  6. Exosomes: Nanoparticulate tools for RNA interference and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Shahabipour, Fahimeh; Barati, Nastaran; Johnston, Thomas P; Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-07-01

    Exosomes are naturally occurring extracellular vesicles released by most mammalian cells in all body fluids. Exosomes are known as key mediators in cell-cell communication and facilitate the transfer of genetic and biochemical information between distant cells. Structurally, exosomes are composed of lipids, proteins, and also several types of RNAs which enable these vesicles to serve as important disease biomarkers. Moreover, exosomes have emerged as novel drug and gene delivery tools owing to their multiple advantages over conventional delivery systems. Recently, increasing attention has been focused on exosomes for the delivery of drugs, including therapeutic recombinant proteins, to various target tissues. Exosomes are also promising vehicles for the delivery of microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, which is usually hampered by rapid degradation of these RNAs, as well as inefficient tissue specificity of currently available delivery strategies. This review highlights the most recent accomplishments and trends in the use of exosomes for the delivery of drugs and therapeutic RNA molecules. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Personalized Medicine and Customized Drug Delivery Systems: The New Trend of Drug Delivery and Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Soni, Abhishek; Gowthamarajan, Kuppusamy; Radhakrishnan, Arun

    2018-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the concept of personalized medicine has proved to play an important role in the healthcare sector. Personalized medicine modifies the current dosage forms according to the needs of the patient. Based on this improved concept, we are now able to bring out best treatment options for a particular individual leading to better therapeutic outcomes and decreased adverse effects. It also has the potential to identify the disease at an earlier stage. It links the diseased condition of a person to the basic genetic and molecular profile causing better understanding of the condition of the patient and to pick out better treatment options. This review is to enlighten the past, present, and future perspective of personalized medicine and how the personalized-medicine approach is used as customized drug delivery, as well as the regulatory aspects towards it. Personalized medicine has the potential to modify the way we recognize and manage our health problems and has already proven to have a huge impact on patient care and on clinical research. The impact of personalized medicine is expected to increase with an increased knowledge about the term and related technologies. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  8. Materials to clinical devices: technologies for remotely triggered drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Timko, Brian P; Kohane, Daniel S

    2012-11-01

    Technologies in which a remote trigger is used to release drug from an implanted or injected device could enable on-demand release profiles that enhance therapeutic effectiveness or reduce systemic toxicity. A number of new materials have been developed that exhibit sensitivity to light, ultrasound, or electrical or magnetic fields. Delivery systems that incorporate these materials might be triggered externally by the patient, parent or physician to provide flexible control of dose magnitude and timing. To review injectable or implantable systems that are candidates for translation to the clinic, or ones that have already undergone clinical trials. Also considered are applicability in pediatrics and prospects for the future of drug delivery systems. We performed literature searches of the PubMed and Science Citation Index databases for articles in English that reported triggerable drug delivery devices, and for articles reporting related materials and concepts. Approaches to remotely-triggered systems that have clinical potential were identified. Ideally, these systems have been engineered to exhibit controlled on-state release kinetics, low baseline leak rates, and reproducible dosing across multiple cycles. Advances in remotely-triggered drug delivery have been brought about by the convergence of numerous scientific and engineering disciplines, and this convergence is likely to play an important part in the current trend to develop systems that provide more than one therapeutic modality. Preclinical systems must be carefully assessed for biocompatibility, and engineered to ensure pharmacokinetics within the therapeutic window. Future drug delivery systems may incorporate additional modalities, such as closed-loop sensing or onboard power generation, enabling more sophisticated drug delivery regimens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mesoporous carbon nanomaterials in drug delivery and biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qinfu; Lin, Yuanzhe; Han, Ning; Li, Xian; Geng, Hongjian; Wang, Xiudan; Cui, Yu; Wang, Siling

    2017-01-01

    Recent development of nano-technology provides highly efficient and versatile treatment methods to achieve better therapeutic efficacy and lower side effects of malignant cancer. The exploration of drug delivery systems (DDSs) based on nano-material shows great promise in translating nano-technology to clinical use to benefit patients. As an emerging inorganic nanomaterial, mesoporous carbon nanomaterials (MCNs) possess both the mesoporous structure and the carbonaceous composition, endowing them with superior nature compared with mesoporous silica nanomaterials and other carbon-based materials, such as carbon nanotube, graphene and fullerene. In this review, we highlighted the cutting-edge progress of carbon nanomaterials as drug delivery systems (DDSs), including immediate/sustained drug delivery systems and controlled/targeted drug delivery systems. In addition, several representative biomedical applications of mesoporous carbon such as (1) photo-chemo synergistic therapy; (2) delivery of therapeutic biomolecule and (3) in vivo bioimaging are discussed and integrated. Finally, potential challenges and outlook for future development of mesoporous carbon in biomedical fields have been discussed in detail.

  10. Nanofibers: New Insights for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Haidar, Mohammad Karim; Eroglu, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    Nanofibers became one of the major research areas for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications in the last decade. Depending on the simplicity of the preparation method and high drug loading capacity, nanofibers provide many advantages for therapeutic perspectives. In addition, combined systems such as embedding nanoparticles into the nanofiber structures provide a second option for delivery of dual active ingredients in the same formulation. The release rate of the active ingredients can also be modified easily by the formulation parameters depending on the desired release time for treatment. Nanofibers systems are used for the delivery of antibiotics, anticancer drugs, analgesics, hemostatic agents and various proteins for tissue engineering purposes. In addition, various applications such as medical device coating also provide new insights for the clinical use of nanofibers. The most commonly used technique for preparation of nanofibers is the electrospinning, which provides feasibility background for scale up process from laboratory to the industrial applications. The main boundary for nanofibers is the limitations for systemic route. Nanofibers are mainly designed for the delivery of active ingredients for local purposes. Regardless of the therapeutic aim, nanofibers are also perfect 3 dimensional structures that are suitable for tissue regeneration. They provide matrix structure for cell regeneration especially in applications for wound healing. This review is mainly focused on the recent advances on the preparation of nanofibers, applications for drug delivery, tissue engineering and wound healing purposes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Localized Cell and Drug Delivery for Auditory Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Jeffrey L.; Chikar, Jennifer A.; Crumling, Mark A.; Raphael, Yehoash; Martin, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Localized cell and drug delivery to the cochlea and central auditory pathway can improve the safety and performance of implanted auditory prostheses (APs). While generally successful, these devices have a number of limitations and adverse effects including limited tonal and dynamic ranges, channel interactions, unwanted stimulation of non-auditory nerves, immune rejection, and infections including meningitis. Many of these limitations are associated with the tissue reactions to implanted auditory prosthetic devices and the gradual degeneration of the auditory system following deafness. Strategies to reduce the insertion trauma, degeneration of target neurons, fibrous and bony tissue encapsulation, and immune activation can improve the viability of tissue required for AP function as well as improve the resolution of stimulation for reduced channel interaction and improved place-pitch and level discrimination. Many pharmaceutical compounds have been identified that promote the viability of auditory tissue and prevent inflammation and infection. Cell delivery and gene therapy have provided promising results for treating hearing loss and reversing degeneration. Currently, many clinical and experimental methods can produce extremely localized and sustained drug delivery to address AP limitations. These methods provide better control over drug concentrations while eliminating the adverse effects of systemic delivery. Many of these drug delivery techniques can be integrated into modern auditory prosthetic devices to optimize the tissue response to the implanted device and reduce the risk of infection or rejection. Together, these methods and pharmaceutical agents can be used to optimize the tissue-device interface for improved AP safety and effectiveness. PMID:18573323

  12. Transdermal Drug Delivery: Opportunities and Challenges for Controlled Delivery of Therapeutic Agents Using Nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Kurmi, Balak Das; Tekchandani, Pawan; Paliwal, Rishi; Paliwal, Shivani Rai

    2017-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery represents an extremely attractive and innovative route across the skin owing to the possibility for achieving systemic effect of drugs. The present scenario demands a special focus on developing safe medicine with minimized toxic adverse effects related to most of the pharmacologically active agents. Transdermal drug delivery would be a focal paradigm which provides patient convenience, first-pass hepatic metabolism avoidance, local targeting and reduction in toxic effect related to various categories of drugs like, analgesics, antiinflammatory, antibiotics, antiviral, anaesthetic, anticancer etc. Even this route has challenges due to highly organized structure of skin which acts as a main barrier to penetration of drug via the skin. Several alternative possible strategies are available which overcome these barriers, including use of penetration enhancer, eletroporation, iontophoresis and various nanotechnologically developed nanocarrier systems. The latest one includes employing liposome, dendrimers, nanoparticles, ethosome, carbon nanotube and many more to avoid associated limitations of conventional formulations. Numerous transdermal products such as Estrasorb, Diractin, VivaGel®, Daytrana®, Aczone, Sileryst® are available in the market having a novel strategy to achieve higher penetration of drugs. This encourages formulation fraternity to develop structurally deformable and stable nanocarriers as an alternative approach for controlled and reliable drug delivery across the skin barrier. In this review, we will discuss nanocarriers mediated approaches that come-up with the solutions to the different challenges towards transdermal drug delivery, its clinical importance and latest insight to research in it. The reports presented in this review confirm the wide application of nanocarriers for transdermal delivery of drug/gene. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Selenium nanoparticles: potential in cancer gene and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Maiyo, Fiona; Singh, Moganavelli

    2017-05-01

    In recent decades, colloidal selenium nanoparticles have emerged as exceptional selenium species with reported chemopreventative and therapeutic properties. This has sparked widespread interest in their use as a carrier of therapeutic agents with results displaying synergistic effects of selenium with its therapeutic cargo and improved anticancer activity. Functionalization remains a critical step in selenium nanoparticles' development for application in gene or drug delivery. In this review, we highlight recent developments in the synthesis and functionalization strategies of selenium nanoparticles used in cancer drug and gene delivery systems. We also provide an update of recent preclinical studies utilizing selenium nanoparticles in cancer therapeutics.

  14. Carbon Nanotubes Hybrid Hydrogels in Drug Delivery: A Perspective Review

    PubMed Central

    Hampel, Silke; Spizzirri, Umile Gianfranco; Parisi, Ortensia Ilaria; Picci, Nevio; Iemma, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The use of biologics, polymers, silicon materials, carbon materials, and metals has been proposed for the preparation of innovative drug delivery devices. One of the most promising materials in this field are the carbon-nanotubes composites and hybrid materials coupling the advantages of polymers (biocompatibility and biodegradability) with those of carbon nanotubes (cellular uptake, stability, electromagnatic, and magnetic behavior). The applicability of polymer-carbon nanotubes composites in drug delivery, with particular attention to the controlled release by composites hydrogel, is being extensively investigated in the present review. PMID:24587993

  15. Drug delivery via porous silicon: a focused patent review.

    PubMed

    Kulyavtsev, Paulina A; Spencer, Roxanne P

    2017-03-01

    Although silicon is more commonly associated with computer chips than with drug delivery, with the discovery that porous silicon is a viable biocompatible material, mesoporous silicon with pores between 2 and 50 nm has been loaded with small molecule and biomolecule therapeutics and safely implanted for controlled release. As porous silicon is readily oxidized, porous silica must also be considered for drug delivery applications. Since 2010, only a limited number of US patents have been granted, primarily for ophthalmologic and immunotherapy applications, in contrast to the growing body of technical literature in this area.

  16. Adamantane in Drug Delivery Systems and Surface Recognition.

    PubMed

    Štimac, Adela; Šekutor, Marina; Mlinarić-Majerski, Kata; Frkanec, Leo; Frkanec, Ruža

    2017-02-16

    The adamantane moiety is widely applied in design and synthesis of new drug delivery systems and in surface recognition studies. This review focuses on liposomes, cyclodextrins, and dendrimers based on or incorporating adamantane derivatives. Our recent concept of adamantane as an anchor in the lipid bilayer of liposomes has promising applications in the field of targeted drug delivery and surface recognition. The results reported here encourage the development of novel adamantane-based structures and self-assembled supramolecular systems for basic chemical investigations as well as for biomedical application.

  17. A theorem regarding roots of the zero-order Bessel function of the first kind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, X.-A.; Agrawal, O. P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper investigates a problem on the steady-state, conduction-convection heat transfer process in cylindrical porous heat exchangers. The governing partial differential equations for the system are obtained using the energy conservation law. Solution of these equations and the concept of enthalpy lead to a new approach to prove a theorem that the sum of inverse squares of all the positive roots of the zero order Bessel function of the first kind equals to one-forth. As a corollary, it is shown that the sum of one over pth power (p greater than or equal to 2) of the roots converges to some constant.

  18. Optical phase distribution evaluation by using zero order Generalized Morse Wavelet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocahan, Özlem; Elmas, Merve Naz; Durmuş, ćaǧla; Coşkun, Emre; Tiryaki, Erhan; Özder, Serhat

    2017-02-01

    When determining the phase from the projected fringes by using continuous wavelet transform (CWT), selection of wavelet is an important step. A new wavelet for phase retrieval from the fringe pattern with the spatial carrier frequency in the x direction is presented. As a mother wavelet, zero order generalized Morse wavelet (GMW) is chosen because of the flexible spatial and frequency localization property, and it is exactly analytic. In this study, GMW method is explained and numerical simulations are carried out to show the validity of this technique for finding the phase distributions. Results for the Morlet and Paul wavelets are compared with the results of GMW analysis.

  19. Drug Delivery to the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Andrew K; Gillespie, Lisa N

    2012-01-01

    Bionic devices electrically activate neural populations to partially restore lost function. Of fundamental importance is the functional integrity of the targeted neurons. However, in many conditions the ongoing pathology can lead to continued neural degeneration and death that may compromise the effectiveness of the device and limit future strategies to improve performance. The use of drugs that can prevent nerve cell degeneration and promote their regeneration may improve clinical outcomes. In this paper we focus on strategies of delivering neuroprotective drugs to the auditory system in a way that is safe and clinically relevant for use in combination with a cochlear implant. The aim of this approach is to prevent neural degeneration and promote nerve regrowth in order to improve outcomes for cochlear implant recipients using techniques that can be translated to the clinic. PMID:23186937

  20. Nanotechnology inspired advanced engineering fundamentals for optimizing drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Ahmed Alaa

    2018-02-06

    Drug toxicity and inefficacy are commonly experienced problems with drug therapy failure. To face these problems, extensive research work took place aiming to design new dosage forms for drug delivery especially nanoparticulate systems. These systems are designed to increase the quantity of the therapeutic molecule delivered to the desired site concurrently with reduced side effects. In order to achieve this objective, nanocarriers must principally display suitable drug vehiculization abilities and a controlled biological destiny of drug molecules. Only the intelligent design of the nanomedicine will accomplish these fundamentals. The present review article is dedicated to the discussion of the important fundamentals to be considered in the fabrication of nanomedicines. These include the therapeutic agent, the nanocarrier and the functionalization moieties. Special consideration is devoted to the explanation and compilation of highly potential fabrication approaches assisting how to control the in vivo destiny of the nanomedicine. Finally, some nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, for the development of nanomedicine, are also discussed. The nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems showed remarkable outcomes based on passive and active targeting as well as improvement of the drug pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles. Multifunctional nanocarrier concept affords a revolutionary drug delivery approach for maximizing the efficacy, safety and monitoring the biological fate of the therapeutic molecule. Nanomedicines may enhance the efficacy of therapeutic molecules and reduce their toxic effects. Meanwhile, further research works are required to rightly optimize (and define) the effectiveness, nanotoxicity, in vivo destiny and feasibility of these nanomedicines which, from a preclinical standpoint, are actually promising. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. A comprehensive review on contact lens for ophthalmic drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiawen; Xue, Yingyan; Hu, Gaoyong; Lin, Tianyu; Gou, Jingxin; Yin, Tian; He, Haibing; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Xing

    2018-07-10

    With the prevalence of electronic devices and an aging population, the number of people affected with eye disease is increasing year by year. In spite of a large number of eye drops on the market, most of them do not perform sufficiently, due to rapid clearance mechanisms and ocular barriers. To enhance drug delivery to the eye, a number of novel formulations for ocular diseases have been investigated over recent decades, aiming to increase drug retention and permeation while also allowing for sustained drug release over prolonged periods. The contact lens, initially used to correct visual acuity and beautify female eyes, is one such novel formulation with outstanding potential. Recently, contact lenses have been extensively used for ocular drug delivery to enhance ocular bioavailability and reduce side effects, and are particularly suitable for the treatment of chronic diseases, and thus are of interest to ophthalmic scientists. This review summarizes contact lens classification, methods of preparation, strategies for integrating drugs into lenses, in vitro and in vivo studies, and clinical applications. This review also discusses the current state of ocular drug therapy and provides an outlook for future therapeutic opportunities in the field of ocular drug delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multilayered materials based on biopolymers as drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Carla; Figueiredo, Ana R P; Silvestre, Armando J D; Freire, Carmen S R

    2017-02-01

    The design of efficient therapeutic delivery devices has become a tremendously active area of research with a strong contribution from the layer-by-layer (LbL) technology. The application of this simple yet firmly established technique for the design of drug reservoirs originates a multitude of multilayered systems of tailored architecture and with a high level of control of drug administration. Areas covered: This review will focus on the most recent and original research on LbL assemblies based on biopolymers including polysaccharides, polypeptides and proteins, with potential use in drug delivery. Herein, drug reservoirs consisting of multilayered planar films and capsules will be examined with emphasis on the ones benefiting from the non-cytotoxic and biocompatible nature of biopolymers, which are suitable to load, protect and release a high payload of toxic and fragile drugs. Expert opinion: The combination of biopolymers with LbL technology has undergone extensive research, still, there is a multitude of R&D opportunities for the design of smart drug delivery systems with distinct multilayered morphologies, low immunological response, non-invasive drug release devices, as well as the design of theranostic systems combining diagnostics and therapeutic features. Further developments in terms of scaling towards mass production in the pharmaceutical industry are expected in the long-term.

  3. Drug delivery with topically applied nanoparticles: science fiction or reality.

    PubMed

    Lademann, J; Richter, H; Meinke, M C; Lange-Asschenfeldt, B; Antoniou, C; Mak, W C; Renneberg, R; Sterry, W; Patzelt, A

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of topically applied drugs is determined by their action mechanism and their potential capacity of passing the skin barrier. Nanoparticles are assumed to be efficient carrier systems for drug delivery through the skin barrier. For flexible nanoparticles like liposomes, this effect has been well demonstrated. The penetration properties of solid nanoparticles are currently under intensive investigation. The crucial advantage of nanoparticles over non-particulate substances is their capability to penetrate deeply into the hair follicles where they can be stored for several days. There is no evidence, yet, that solid particles ≥40 nm are capable of passing through the healthy skin barrier. Therefore and in spite of the long-standing research efforts in this field, commercially available solid nanoparticle-based products for drug delivery through the healthy skin are still missing. Nevertheless, the prospects for the clinical use of nanoparticles in drug delivery are tremendous. They can be designed as transport systems delivering drugs efficiently into the hair follicles in the vicinity of specific target structures. Once deposited at these structures, specific signals might trigger the release of the drugs and exert their effects on the target cells. In this article, examples of such triggered drug release are presented. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Nanoprecipitation process: From encapsulation to drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Martínez Rivas, Claudia Janeth; Tarhini, Mohamad; Badri, Waisudin; Miladi, Karim; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Nazari, Qand Agha; Galindo Rodríguez, Sergio Arturo; Román, Rocío Álvarez; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2017-10-30

    Drugs encapsulation is a suitable strategy in order to cope with the limitations of conventional dosage forms such as unsuitable bioavailability, stability, taste, and odor. Nanoprecipitation technique has been used in the pharmaceutical and agricultural research as clean alternative for other drug carrier formulations. This technique is based on precipitation mechanism. Polymer precipitation occurs after the addition of a non-solvent to a polymer solution in four steps mechanism: supersaturation, nucleation, growth by condensation, and growth by coagulation that leads to the formation of polymer nanoparticles or aggregates. The scale-up of laboratory-based nanoprecipitation method shows a good reproducibility. In addition, flash nanoprecipitation is a good strategy for industrial scale production of nanoparticles. Nanoprecipitation is usually used for encapsulation of hydrophobic or hydrophilic compounds. Nanoprecipitation was also shown to be a good alternative for the encapsulation of natural compounds. As a whole, process and formulation related parameters in nanoprecipitation technique have critical effect on nanoparticles characteristics. Biodegradable or non-biodegradable polymers have been used for the preparation of nanoparticles intended to in vivo studies. Literature studies have demonstrated the biodistribution of the active loaded nanoparticles in different organs after administration via various routes. In general, in vitro drug release from nanoparticles prepared by nanoprecipitation includes two phases: a first phase of "burst release" which is followed by a second phase of prolonged release. Moreover, many encapsulated active molecules have been commercialized in the pharmaceutical market. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pulmonary drug delivery. Part II: The role of inhalant delivery devices and drug formulations in therapeutic effectiveness of aerosolized medications

    PubMed Central

    Labiris, N R; Dolovich, M B

    2003-01-01

    Research in the area of pulmonary drug delivery has gathered momentum in the last several years, with increased interest in using the lung as a means of delivering drugs systemically. Advances in device technology have led to the development of more efficient delivery systems capable of delivering larger doses and finer particles into the lung. As more efficient pulmonary delivery devices and sophisticated formulations become available, physicians and health professionals will have a choice of a wide variety of device and formulation combinations that will target specific cells or regions of the lung, avoid the lung's clearance mechanisms and be retained within the lung for longer periods. It is now recognized that it is not enough just to have inhalation therapy available for prescribing; physicians and other healthcare providers need a basic understanding of aerosol science, inhaled formulations, delivery devices, and bioequivalence of products to prescribe these therapies optimally. PMID:14616419

  6. Delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in tumour cell-derived microparticles.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ke; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Huafeng; Xu, Pingwei; Liu, Jing; Ma, Jingwei; Lv, Meng; Li, Dapeng; Katirai, Foad; Shen, Guan-Xin; Zhang, Guimei; Feng, Zuo-Hua; Ye, Duyun; Huang, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Cellular microparticles are vesicular plasma membrane fragments with a diameter of 100-1,000 nanometres that are shed by cells in response to various physiological and artificial stimuli. Here we demonstrate that tumour cell-derived microparticles can be used as vectors to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs. We show that tumour cells incubated with chemotherapeutic drugs package these drugs into microparticles, which can be collected and used to effectively kill tumour cells in murine tumour models without typical side effects. We describe several mechanisms involved in this process, including uptake of drug-containing microparticles by tumour cells, synthesis of additional drug-packaging microparticles by these cells that contribute to the cytotoxic effect and the inhibition of drug efflux from tumour cells. This study highlights a novel drug delivery strategy with potential clinical application.

  7. Magnetic nanoparticle-based drug delivery for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tietze, Rainer; Zaloga, Jan; Unterweger, Harald; Lyer, Stefan; Friedrich, Ralf P; Janko, Christina; Pöttler, Marina; Dürr, Stephan; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-12-18

    Nanoparticles have belonged to various fields of biomedical research for quite some time. A promising site-directed application in the field of nanomedicine is drug targeting using magnetic nanoparticles which are directed at the target tissue by means of an external magnetic field. Materials most commonly used for magnetic drug delivery contain metal or metal oxide nanoparticles, such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). SPIONs consist of an iron oxide core, often coated with organic materials such as fatty acids, polysaccharides or polymers to improve colloidal stability and to prevent separation into particles and carrier medium [1]. In general, magnetite and maghemite particles are those most commonly used in medicine and are, as a rule, well-tolerated. The magnetic properties of SPIONs allow the remote control of their accumulation by means of an external magnetic field. Conjugation of SPIONs with drugs, in combination with an external magnetic field to target the nanoparticles (so-called "magnetic drug targeting", MDT), has additionally emerged as a promising strategy of drug delivery. Magnetic nanoparticle-based drug delivery is a sophisticated overall concept and a multitude of magnetic delivery vehicles have been developed. Targeting mechanism-exploiting, tumor-specific attributes are becoming more and more sophisticated. The same is true for controlled-release strategies for the diseased site. As it is nearly impossible to record every magnetic nanoparticle system developed so far, this review summarizes interesting approaches which have recently emerged in the field of targeted drug delivery for cancer therapy based on magnetic nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dissolving polymeric microneedle arrays for electrically assisted transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Garland, Martin J; Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Migalska, Katarzyna; Woolfson, A David; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2012-04-10

    It has recently been proposed that the combination of skin barrier impairment using microneedles (MNs) coupled with iontophoresis (ITP) may broaden the range of drugs suitable for transdermal delivery, as well as enabling the rate of delivery to be achieved with precise electronic control. However, no reports exist on the combination of ITP with in situ drug loaded polymeric MN delivery systems. Furthermore, although a number of studies have highlighted the importance of MN design for transdermal drug delivery enhancement, to date, there has been no systematic investigation of the influence of MN geometry on the performance of polymeric MN arrays which are designed to remain in contact with the skin during the period of drug delivery. As such, for the first time, this study reports on the effect of MN heigth and MN density upon the transdermal delivery of small hydrophilic compounds (theophylline, methylene blue, and fluorescein sodium) across neonatal porcine skin in vitro, with the optimised MN array design evaluated for its potential in the electrically faciliatated delivery of peptide (bovine insulin) and protein (fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled bovine serum albumin (FTIC-BSA)) macromolecules. The results of the in vitro drug release investigations revealed that the extent of transdermal delivery was dependent upon the design of the MN array employed, whereby an increase in MN height and an increase in MN density led to an increase in the extent of transdermal drug delivery achieved 6h after MN application. Overall, the in vitro permeation studies revealed that the MN design containing 361 MNs/cm(2) of 600 μm height resulted in the greatest extent of transdermal drug delivery. As such, this design was evaluated for its potential in the MN mediated iontophoretic transdermal delivery. Whilst the combination of MN and ITP did not further enhance the extent of small molecular weight solute delivery, the extent of peptide/protein release was significantly

  9. Contact-facilitated drug delivery with Sn2 lipase labile prodrugs optimize targeted lipid nanoparticle drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dipanjan; Pham, Christine T N; Weilbaecher, Katherine N; Tomasson, Michael H; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    Sn2 lipase labile phospholipid prodrugs in conjunction with contact-facilitated drug delivery offer an important advancement in Nanomedicine. Many drugs incorporated into nanosystems, targeted or not, are substantially lost during circulation to the target. However, favorably altering the pharmacokinetics and volume of distribution of systemic drug delivery can offer greater efficacy with lower toxicity, leading to new prolonged-release nanoexcipients. However, the concept of achieving Paul Erhlich's inspired vision of a 'magic bullet' to treat disease has been largely unrealized due to unstable nanomedicines, nanosystems achieving low drug delivery to target cells, poor intracellular bioavailability of endocytosed nanoparticle payloads, and the substantial biological barriers of extravascular particle penetration into pathological sites. As shown here, Sn2 phospholipid prodrugs in conjunction with contact-facilitated drug delivery prevent premature drug diffusional loss during circulation and increase target cell bioavailability. The Sn2 phospholipid prodrug approach applies equally well for vascular constrained lipid-encapsulated particles and micelles the size of proteins that penetrate through naturally fenestrated endothelium in the bone marrow or thin-walled venules of an inflamed microcirculation. At one time Nanomedicine was considered a 'Grail Quest' by its loyal opposition and even many in the field adsorbing the pains of a long-learning curve about human biology and particles. However, Nanomedicine with innovations like Sn2 phospholipid prodrugs has finally made 'made the turn' toward meaningful translational success. © 2015 The Authors. WIREs Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Contact-facilitated drug delivery with Sn2 lipase labile prodrugs optimize targeted lipid nanoparticle drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Dipanjan; Pham, Christine TN; Weilbaecher, Katherine N; Tomasson, Michael H; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    Sn2 lipase labile phospholipid prodrugs in conjunction with contact-facilitated drug delivery offer an important advancement in Nanomedicine. Many drugs incorporated into nanosystems, targeted or not, are substantially lost during circulation to the target. However, favorably altering the pharmacokinetics and volume of distribution of systemic drug delivery can offer greater efficacy with lower toxicity, leading to new prolonged-release nanoexcipients. However, the concept of achieving Paul Erhlich's inspired vision of a ‘magic bullet’ to treat disease has been largely unrealized due to unstable nanomedicines, nanosystems achieving low drug delivery to target cells, poor intracellular bioavailability of endocytosed nanoparticle payloads, and the substantial biological barriers of extravascular particle penetration into pathological sites. As shown here, Sn2 phospholipid prodrugs in conjunction with contact-facilitated drug delivery prevent premature drug diffusional loss during circulation and increase target cell bioavailability. The Sn2 phospholipid prodrug approach applies equally well for vascular constrained lipid-encapsulated particles and micelles the size of proteins that penetrate through naturally fenestrated endothelium in the bone marrow or thin-walled venules of an inflamed microcirculation. At one time Nanomedicine was considered a ‘Grail Quest’ by its loyal opposition and even many in the field adsorbing the pains of a long-learning curve about human biology and particles. However, Nanomedicine with innovations like Sn2 phospholipid prodrugs has finally made ‘made the turn’ toward meaningful translational success. PMID:26296541

  11. Interpenetrating Polymer Networks as Innovative Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lohani, Alka; Singh, Garima; Bhattacharya, Shiv Sankar; Verma, Anurag

    2014-01-01

    Polymers have always been valuable excipients in conventional dosage forms, also have shown excellent performance into the parenteral arena, and are now capable of offering advanced and sophisticated functions such as controlled drug release and drug targeting. Advances in polymer science have led to the development of several novel drug delivery systems. Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) have shown superior performances over the conventional individual polymers and, consequently, the ranges of applications have grown rapidly for such class of materials. The advanced properties of IPNs like swelling capacity, stability, biocompatibility, nontoxicity and biodegradability have attracted considerable attention in pharmaceutical field especially in delivering bioactive molecules to the target site. In the past few years various research reports on the IPN based delivery systems showed that these carriers have emerged as a novel carrier in controlled drug delivery. The present review encompasses IPNs, their types, method of synthesis, factors which affects the morphology of IPNs, extensively studied IPN based drug delivery systems, and some natural polymers widely used for IPNs. PMID:24949205

  12. Medicated chewing gum--a potential drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Shivang A; Shahiwala, Aliasgar F

    2010-07-01

    Over the years, patient convenience and patient compliance-orientated research in the field of drug delivery has resulted in bringing out potential innovative drug delivery options. Out of which, medicated chewing gum (MCG) offers a highly convenient patient-compliant way of dosing medications, not only for special population groups with swallowing difficulties such as children and the elderly, but also for the general population, including the young generation. In this review, various formulation ingredients, different manufacturing processes, and assessment of in vivo and in vitro drug release from MCG are thoroughly discussed along with the therapeutic potential and limitations of MCG. Readers will gain knowledge about the rationale and prominent formulation and performance evaluation strategies behind chewing gum as a drug delivery system. The availability of directly compressible co-processed gum material enables rapid, safe and low-cost development of MCG as a drug delivery option. By MCG formulation, revitalization of old products and reformulation of new patented products is possible, to differentiate them from upcoming generics competition in the market.

  13. Drug self-delivery systems for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Qin, Si-Yong; Zhang, Ai-Qing; Cheng, Si-Xue; Rong, Lei; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Carrier-assistant drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been rapidly established for cancer therapy and great strides have been made in recent years. However, further development of DDSs is retarded by the aspects such as the low drug carrying capacity, carrier-induced toxicity and immunogenicity, complex synthesis manipulation. Drug self-delivery systems (DSDSs), in which active drugs exhibit nanoscale characteristic to realize intracellular delivery by themselves without the help of nanocarriers, have been rapidly developed to address these issues. In this review, we present a comprehensive summary of the recent advances in DSDSs for cancer therapy. After a brief introduction to the major types of DSDSs and their fabrication strategies, we emphatically discuss some representative achievements of these DSDSs for passive or/and positive targeting therapy, combinational therapy as well as theranostics. The design principle is explained and justified, which can cast a new light on developing drug delivery systems for cancer treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasound-Mediated Local Drug and Gene Delivery Using Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiu-Lan; Chen, Zhi-Yi; Yang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    With the development of nanotechnology, nanocarriers have been increasingly used for curative drug/gene delivery. Various nanocarriers are being introduced and assessed, such as polymer nanoparticles, liposomes, and micelles. As a novel theranostic system, nanocarriers hold great promise for ultrasound molecular imaging, targeted drug/gene delivery, and therapy. Nanocarriers, with the properties of smaller particle size, and long circulation time, would be advantageous in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Nanocarriers can pass through blood capillary walls and cell membrane walls to deliver drugs. The mechanisms of interaction between ultrasound and nanocarriers are not clearly understood, which may be related to cavitation, mechanical effects, thermal effects, and so forth. These effects may induce transient membrane permeabilization (sonoporation) on a single cell level, cell death, and disruption of tissue structure, ensuring noninvasive, targeted, and efficient drug/gene delivery and therapy. The system has been used in various tissues and organs (in vitro or in vivo), including tumor tissues, kidney, cardiac, skeletal muscle, and vascular smooth muscle. In this review, we explore the research progress and application of ultrasound-mediated local drug/gene delivery with nanocarriers. PMID:25202710

  15. Orally disintegrating films: A modern expansion in drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Muhammad; Rabel, Sumeira; Bukhtar, Quratulain; Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Jabeen, Farhat; Khan, Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Over the past few decades, tendency toward innovative drug delivery systems has majorly increased attempts to ensure efficacy, safety and patient acceptability. As discovery and development of new chemical agents is a complex, expensive and time consuming process, so recent trends are shifting toward designing and developing innovative drug delivery systems for existing drugs. Out of those, drug delivery system being very eminent among pediatrics and geriatrics is orally disintegrating films (ODFs). These fast disintegrating films have superiority over fast disintegrating tablets as the latter are associated with the risks of choking and friability. This drug delivery system has numerous advantages over conventional fast disintegrating tablets as they can be used for dysphasic and schizophrenic patients and are taken without water due to their ability to disintegrate within a few seconds releasing medication in mouth. Various approaches are employed for formulating ODFs and among which solvent casting and spraying methods are frequently used. Generally, hydrophilic polymers along with other excipients are used for preparing ODFs which allow films to disintegrate quickly releasing incorporated active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) within seconds. Orally disintegrating films have potential for business and market exploitation because of their myriad of benefits over orally disintegrating tablets. This present review attempts to focus on benefits, composition, approaches for formulation and evaluation of ODFs. Additionally, the market prospect of this innovative dosage form is also targeted.

  16. Biocompatibility of Chitosan Carriers with Application in Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Susana; Dionísio, Marita; Remuñán López, Carmen; Grenha, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan is one of the most used polysaccharides in the design of drug delivery strategies for administration of either biomacromolecules or low molecular weight drugs. For these purposes, it is frequently used as matrix forming material in both nano and micron-sized particles. In addition to its interesting physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties, which include high mucoadhesion and a great capacity to produce drug delivery systems, ensuring the biocompatibility of the drug delivery vehicles is a highly relevant issue. Nevertheless, this subject is not addressed as frequently as desired and even though the application of chitosan carriers has been widely explored, the demonstration of systems biocompatibility is still in its infancy. In this review, addressing the biocompatibility of chitosan carriers with application in drug delivery is discussed and the methods used in vitro and in vivo, exploring the effect of different variables, are described. We further provide a discussion on the pros and cons of used methodologies, as well as on the difficulties arising from the absence of standardization of procedures. PMID:24955636

  17. Lasers as an approach for promoting drug delivery via skin.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-04-01

    Using lasers can be an effective drug permeation-enhancement approach for facilitating drug delivery into or across the skin. The controlled disruption and ablation of the stratum corneum (SC), the predominant barrier for drug delivery, is achieved by the use of lasers. The possible mechanisms of laser-assisted drug permeation are the direct ablation of the skin barrier, optical breakdown by a photomechanical wave and a photothermal effect. It has been demonstrated that ablative approaches for enhancing drug transport provide some advantages, including increased bioavailability, fast treatment time, quick recovery of SC integrity and the fact that skin surface contact is not needed. In recent years, the concept of using laser techniques to treat the skin has attracted increasing attention. This review describes recent developments in using nonablative and ablative lasers for drug absorption enhancement. This review systematically introduces the concepts and enhancement mechanisms of lasers, highlighting the potential of this technique for greatly increasing drug absorption via the skin. Lasers with different wavelengths and types are employed to increase drug permeation. These include the ruby laser, the erbium:yttrium-gallium-garnet laser, the neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser and the CO2 laser. Fractional modality is a novel concept for promoting topical/transdermal drug delivery. The laser is useful in enhancing the permeation of a wide variety of permeants, such as small-molecule drugs, macromolecules and nanoparticles. This potential use of the laser affords a new treatment for topical/transdermal application with significant efficacy. Further studies using a large group of humans or patients are needed to confirm and clarify the findings in animal studies. Although the laser fluence or output energy used for enhancing drug absorption is much lower than for treatment of skin disorders and rejuvenation, the safety of using lasers is still an issue

  18. [Drug delivery systems using nano-sized drug carriers].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Masamichi; Okano, Teruo

    2005-07-01

    Nanotechnology has attracted great attention all over the world in recent several years and has led to the establishment of the novel technical field of "nanomedicine" through collaboration with advanced medical technology. Particularly, site-specific drug targeting using particle drug carrier systems has made substantial progress and been actively developed. This review explains the essential factors (size and chemical character) of drug carriers to allow long circulation in the bloodstream avoiding the reticuloendothelial system, and shows the present status and future perspective of several types of nano-carrier systems (water-soluble polymer, liposome and polymeric micelle). We also introduce the novel concept of multi-targeting system (combination of two or more targeting methodologies) for ideal drug therapies.

  19. Microfluidic Devices for Drug Delivery Systems and Drug Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kompella, Uday B.; Damiati, Safa A.

    2018-01-01

    Microfluidic devices present unique advantages for the development of efficient drug carrier particles, cell-free protein synthesis systems, and rapid techniques for direct drug screening. Compared to bulk methods, by efficiently controlling the geometries of the fabricated chip and the flow rates of multiphase fluids, microfluidic technology enables the generation of highly stable, uniform, monodispersed particles with higher encapsulation efficiency. Since the existing preclinical models are inefficient drug screens for predicting clinical outcomes, microfluidic platforms might offer a more rapid and cost-effective alternative. Compared to 2D cell culture systems and in vivo animal models, microfluidic 3D platforms mimic the in vivo cell systems in a simple, inexpensive manner, which allows high throughput and multiplexed drug screening at the cell, organ, and whole-body levels. In this review, the generation of appropriate drug or gene carriers including different particle types using different configurations of microfluidic devices is highlighted. Additionally, this paper discusses the emergence of fabricated microfluidic cell-free protein synthesis systems for potential use at point of care as well as cell-, organ-, and human-on-a-chip models as smart, sensitive, and reproducible platforms, allowing the investigation of the effects of drugs under conditions imitating the biological system. PMID:29462948

  20. Dendritic polymer-based nanodevices for targeted drug delivery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, R. M.; Kolhe, Parag; Gurdag, Sezen; Khandare, Jayant; Lieh-Lai, Mary

    2004-03-01

    Dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers are unimolecular micellar nanostructures, characterized by globular shape ( ˜ 20 nm) and large density of functional groups at periphery. The tailorable end groups make them ideal for conjugation with drugs, ligands, and imagining agents, making them an attractive molecular nanodevices for drug delivery. Compared to linear polymers and nanoparticles, these nanodevices enter cells rapidly, carrying drugs and delivering them inside cells. Performance of nanodevices prepared for asthma and cancer drug delivery will be discussed. Our conjugation procedure produced very high drug payloads. Dendritic polymer-drug conjugates were very effective in transporting methotrexate (a chemotherapy drug) into both sensitive (CCRF-CEM cell line) and resistant cell line (CEM-MTX). The conjugate nanodevice was 3 times more effective than free drug in the sensitive line, and 9 times more effective in the resistant cell line (based on IC50). The physics of cell entry and drug release from these nanodevices are being investigated. The conjugates appear to enter cells through endocytosis, with the rate of entry dependent on end-group, molecular weight, the pH of the medium, and the cancerous nature of the cells.

  1. Potential and problems in ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Du, Li-Na; Lu, Cui-Tao; Jin, Yi-Guang; Ge, Shu-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound is an important local stimulus for triggering drug release at the target tissue. Ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems (URDDS) have become an important research focus in targeted therapy. URDDS include many different formulations, such as microbubbles, nanobubbles, nanodroplets, liposomes, emulsions, and micelles. Drugs that can be loaded into URDDS include small molecules, biomacromolecules, and inorganic substances. Fields of clinical application include anticancer therapy, treatment of ischemic myocardium, induction of an immune response, cartilage tissue engineering, transdermal drug delivery, treatment of Huntington’s disease, thrombolysis, and disruption of the blood–brain barrier. This review focuses on recent advances in URDDS, and discusses their formulations, clinical application, and problems, as well as a perspective on their potential use in the future. PMID:23637531

  2. Receptor-Mediated Drug Delivery Systems Targeting to Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanshan; Meng, Ying; Li, Chengyi; Qian, Min; Huang, Rongqin

    2015-01-01

    Glioma has been considered to be the most frequent primary tumor within the central nervous system (CNS). The complexity of glioma, especially the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), makes the survival and prognosis of glioma remain poor even after a standard treatment based on surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. This provides a rationale for the development of some novel therapeutic strategies. Among them, receptor-mediated drug delivery is a specific pattern taking advantage of differential expression of receptors between tumors and normal tissues. The strategy can actively transport drugs, such as small molecular drugs, gene medicines, and therapeutic proteins to glioma while minimizing adverse reactions. This review will summarize recent progress on receptor-mediated drug delivery systems targeting to glioma, and conclude the challenges and prospects of receptor-mediated glioma-targeted therapy for future applications. PMID:28344260

  3. Targeted drug delivery using genetically engineered diatom biosilica.

    PubMed

    Delalat, Bahman; Sheppard, Vonda C; Rasi Ghaemi, Soraya; Rao, Shasha; Prestidge, Clive A; McPhee, Gordon; Rogers, Mary-Louise; Donoghue, Jacqueline F; Pillay, Vinochani; Johns, Terrance G; Kröger, Nils; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-11-10

    The ability to selectively kill cancerous cell populations while leaving healthy cells unaffected is a key goal in anticancer therapeutics. The use of nanoporous silica-based materials as drug-delivery vehicles has recently proven successful, yet production of these materials requires costly and toxic chemicals. Here we use diatom microalgae-derived nanoporous biosilica to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs to cancer cells. The diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana is genetically engineered to display an IgG-binding domain of protein G on the biosilica surface, enabling attachment of cell-targeting antibodies. Neuroblastoma and B-lymphoma cells are selectively targeted and killed by biosilica displaying specific antibodies sorbed with drug-loaded nanoparticles. Treatment with the same biosilica leads to tumour growth regression in a subcutaneous mouse xenograft model of neuroblastoma. These data indicate that genetically engineered biosilica frustules may be used as versatile 'backpacks' for the targeted delivery of poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs to tumour sites.

  4. [Targeted drug delivery system: potential application to resveratrol].

    PubMed

    Farghali, Hassan; Kameníková, Ludmila

    2017-01-01

    Drug delivery system (DDS) is intended to increasing effectiveness of drugs through targeted distribution and to reducing of unwanted effects. In this mini-review, the basic principles of nanotechnology that were developed for DDS were reported including sections on the present research in key areas that are important for future investigations. Attention is paid on resveratrol as a model phytochemical with interesting pharmacologic profile which was demonstrated in great numbers of studies and for its wide use as supplemental therapy. Due to complicated pharmacokinetic profile of resveratrol that is characterized by very low bioavailability in spite of high oral absorption, the effects of resveratrol is being studied in new nanotechnology preparations of pharmaceutical formulation. Herein we report on results of present in vitro and in vivo investigations with resveratrol in new types of drug formulations using different nanoparticles as liposomes, solid lipid particles, cyclodextrins and micelles.Key words: targeted drug delivery nanotechnology resveratrol.

  5. Osmolarity as a contributing factor in topical drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funke, Claire; Szeri, Andrew J.

    2017-11-01

    Gels and dissolvable solids are drug delivery platforms being evaluated for application of active pharmaceutical ingredients, termed microbicides, which act topically against infection by sexually transmitted HIV. In previous work, we have investigated how dilution by naturally produced fluid from the vaginal mucosa affects drug transport into the vaginal wall. We expand on this work by no longer assuming a constant flux and instead developing a relation for fluid transport based on osmolarity - thus allowing fluid to pass both into and out of epithelial cells. This relation shows that varying the osmolarity of the applied solution can have a significant effect on the amount of drug delivered to its target while holding the applied amount constant. This effect is modulated by a dimensionless group that relates the rates of solute and solvent transport. Ultimately, our goal is to develop a tool to understand better how to manipulate solution osmolarity in order to improve drug delivery within safety parameters for mucosal tissue.

  6. System-based approach for an advanced drug delivery platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulinsky, Lawrence; Xu, Han; Tsai, Han-Kuan A.; Madou, Marc

    2006-03-01

    Present study is looking at the problem of integrating drug delivery microcapsule, a bio-sensor, and a control mechanism into a biomedical drug delivery system. A wide range of medical practices from cancer therapy to gastroenterological treatments can benefit from such novel bio-system. Drug release in our drug delivery system is achieved by electrochemically actuating an array of polymeric valves on a set of drug reservoirs. The valves are bi-layer structures, made in the shape of a flap hinged on one side to a valve seat, and consisting of thin films of evaporated gold and electrochemically deposited polypyrrole (PPy). These thin PPy(DBS) bi-layer flaps cover access holes of underlying chambers micromachined in a silicon substrate. Chromium and polyimide layers are applied to implement "differential adhesion" to obtain a voltage induced deflection of the bilayer away from the drug reservoir. The Cr is an adhesion-promoting layer, which is used to strongly bind the gold layer down to the substrate, whereas the gold adheres weakly to polyimide. Drug actives (dry or wet) were pre-stored in the chambers and their release is achieved upon the application of a small bias (~ 1V). Negative voltage causes cation adsorption and volume change in PPy film. This translates into the bending of the PPy/Au bi-layer actuator and release of the drug from reservoirs. This design of the drug delivery module is miniaturized to the dimensions of 200μm valve diameter. Galvanostatic and potentiostatic PPy deposition methods were compared, and potentiostatic deposition method yields film of more uniform thickness. PPy deposition experiments with various pyrrole and NaDBS concentrations were also performed. Glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase (GOx) embedded in the PPy matrix during elechtrochemical deposition was manufactured and successfully tested. Multiple-drug pulsatile release and continuous linear release patterns can be implemented by controlling the operation of an array

  7. Ultrasound-triggered drug delivery using acoustic droplet vaporization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabiilli, Mario Leonardo

    The goal of targeted drug delivery is the spatial and temporal localization of a therapeutic agent and its associated bioeffects. One method of drug localization is acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), whereby drug-laden perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions are vaporized into gas bubbles using ultrasound, thereby releasing drug locally. Transpulmonary droplets are converted into bubbles that occlude capillaries, sequestering the released drug within an organ or tumor. This research investigates the relationship between the ADV and inertial cavitation (IC) thresholds---relevant for drug delivery due to the bioffects generated by IC---and explores the delivery of lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds using PFC double emulsions. IC can positively and negatively affect ultrasound mediated drug delivery. The ADV and IC thresholds were determined for various bulk fluid, droplet, and acoustic parameters. At 3.5 MHz, the ADV threshold occurred at a lower rarefactional pressure than the IC threshold. The results suggest that ADV is a distinct phenomenon from IC, the ADV nucleus is internal to the droplet, and the IC nucleus is the bubble generated by ADV. The ADV triggered release of a lipophilic chemotherapeutic agent, chlorambucil (CHL), from a PFC-in-oil-in-water emulsion was explored using plated cells. Cells exposed to a CHL-loaded emulsion, without ADV, displayed 44% less growth inhibition than cells exposed to an equal concentration of CHL in solution. Upon ADV of the CHL-loaded emulsion, the growth inhibition increased to the same level as cells exposed to CHL in solution. A triblock copolymer was synthesized which enabled the formulation of stable water-in-PFC-in-water (W1/PFC/W2) emulsions. The encapsulation of fluorescein in the W1 phase significantly decreased the mass flux of fluorescein; ADV was shown to completely release the fluorescein from the emulsions. ADV was also shown to release thrombin, dissolved in the W1 phase, which could be used in vivo to extend

  8. Biophysical interactions with model lipid membranes: applications in drug discovery and drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Peetla, Chiranjeevi; Stine, Andrew; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2009-01-01

    The transport of drugs or drug delivery systems across the cell membrane is a complex biological process, often difficult to understand because of its dynamic nature. In this regard, model lipid membranes, which mimic many aspects of cell-membrane lipids, have been very useful in helping investigators to discern the roles of lipids in cellular interactions. One can use drug-lipid interactions to predict pharmacokinetic properties of drugs, such as their transport, biodistribution, accumulation, and hence efficacy. These interactions can also be used to study the mechanisms of transport, based on the structure and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of drug molecules. In recent years, model lipid membranes have also been explored to understand their mechanisms of interactions with peptides, polymers, and nanocarriers. These interaction studies can be used to design and develop efficient drug delivery systems. Changes in the lipid composition of cells and tissue in certain disease conditions may alter biophysical interactions, which could be explored to develop target-specific drugs and drug delivery systems. In this review, we discuss different model membranes, drug-lipid interactions and their significance, studies of model membrane interactions with nanocarriers, and how biophysical interaction studies with lipid model membranes could play an important role in drug discovery and drug delivery. PMID:19432455

  9. Use of liposomes as injectable-drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Ostro, M J; Cullis, P R

    1989-08-01

    The formation of liposomes and their application as delivery systems for injectable drugs are described. Liposomes are microscopic vesicles composed of one or more lipid membranes surrounding discrete aqueous compartments. These vesicles can encapsulate water-soluble drugs in their aqueous spaces and lipid-soluble drugs within the membrane itself. Liposomes release their contents by interacting with cells in one of four ways: adsorption, endocytosis, lipid exchange, or fusion. Liposome-entrapped drugs are distributed within the body much differently than free drugs; when administered intravenously to healthy animals and humans, most of the injected vesicles accumulate in the liver, spleen, lungs, bone marrow, and lymph nodes. Liposomes also accumulate preferentially at the sites of inflammation and infection and in some solid tumors; however, the reason for this accumulation is not clear. Four major factors influence liposomes' in vivo behavior and biodistribution: (1) liposomes tend to leak if cholesterol is not included in the vesicle membrane, (2) small liposomes are cleared more slowly than large liposomes, (3) the half-life of a liposome increases as the lipid dose increases, and (4) charged liposomal systems are cleared more rapidly than uncharged systems. The most advanced application of liposome-based therapy is in the treatment of systemic fungal infections, especially with amphotericin B. Liposomes are also under investigation for treatment of neoplastic disorders. Liposomes' uses in cancer therapy include encapsulation of known antineoplastic agents such as doxorubicin and methotrexate, delivery of immune modulators such as N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine-D-isoglutamine, and encapsulation of new chemical entities that are synthesized with lipophilic segments tailored for insertion into lipid bilayers. Liposomal formulations of injectable antimicrobial agents and antineoplastic agents already are undergoing clinical testing, and most probably will receive

  10. Modeling of transdermal drug delivery with a microneedle array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Y.-G.; Liu, J.; Gao, Y.-H.; Xu, B.

    2006-11-01

    Transdermal drug delivery is generally limited by the extraordinary barrier properties of the stratum corneum, the outer 10-15 µm layer of skin. A conventional needle inserted across this barrier and into deeper tissues could effectively deliver drugs. However, it would lead to infection and cause pain, thereby reducing patient compliance. In order to administer a frequent injection of insulin and other therapeutic agents more efficiently, integrated arrays with very short microneedles were recently proposed as very good candidates for painless injection or extraction. A variety of microneedle designs have thus been made available by employing the fabrication tools of the microelectronics industry and using materials such as silicon, metals, polymers and glass with feature sizes ranging from sub-micron to nanometers. At the same time, experiments were also made to test the capability of the microneedles to inject drugs into tissues. However, due to the difficulty encountered in measurement, a detailed understanding of the spatial and transient drug delivery process still remains unclear up to now. To better grasp the mechanisms involved, quantitative theoretical models were developed in this paper to simultaneously characterize the flow and drug transport, and numerical solutions were performed to predict the kinetics of dispersed drugs injected into the skin from a microneedle array. Calculations indicated that increasing the initial injection velocity and accelerating the blood circulation in skin tissue with high porosity are helpful to enhance the transdermal drug delivery. This study provides the first quantitative simulation of fluid injection through a microneedle array and drug species transport inside the skin. The modeling strategy can also possibly be extended to deal with a wider range of clinical issues such as targeted nanoparticle delivery for therapeutics or molecular imaging.

  11. Novel Approaches for Retinal Drug and Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    The ARVO 2014 minisymposium on “Novel Approaches for Retinal Drug and Gene Delivery” was held on May 6, 2014 in Orlando, FL. The main intent of the symposium was to review recent advances in retinal drug and gene delivery with specific emphasis on novel approaches that address current limitations and have the potential to translate into clinical practice. The symposium was sponsored by Translational Vision Science and Technology. PMID:25346872

  12. Substituted amylose matrices for oral drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, S. H.; Wang, H. W.; Saddar El-Leithy, E.; Chebli, C.; Cartilier, L.

    2007-03-01

    High amylose corn starch was used to obtain substituted amylose (SA) polymers by chemically modifying hydroxyl groups by an etherification process using 1,2-epoxypropanol. Tablets for drug-controlled release were prepared by direct compression and their release properties assessed by an in vitro dissolution test (USP XXIII no 2). The polymer swelling was characterized by measuring gravimetrically the water uptake ability of polymer tablets. SA hydrophilic matrix tablets present sequentially a burst effect, typical of hydrophilic matrices, and a near constant release, typical of reservoir systems. After the burst effect, surface pores disappear progressively by molecular association of amylose chains; this allows the creation of a polymer layer acting as a diffusion barrier and explains the peculiar behaviour of SA polymers. Several formulation parameters such as compression force, drug loading, tablet weight and insoluble diluent concentration were investigated. On the other hand, tablet thickness, scanning electron microscope analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry showed that the high crushing strength values observed for SA tablets were due to an unusual melting process occurring during tabletting although the tablet external layer went only through densification, deformation and partial melting. In contrast, HPMC tablets did not show any traces of a melting process.

  13. New approach for identifying the zero-order fringe in variable wavelength interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galas, Jacek; Litwin, Dariusz; Daszkiewicz, Marek

    2016-12-01

    The family of VAWI techniques (for transmitted and reflected light) is especially efficient for characterizing objects, when in the interference system the optical path difference exceeds a few wavelengths. The classical approach that consists in measuring the deflection of interference fringes fails because of strong edge effects. Broken continuity of interference fringes prevents from correct identification of the zero order fringe, which leads to significant errors. The family of these methods has been proposed originally by Professor Pluta in the 1980s but that time image processing facilities and computers were hardly available. Automated devices unfold a completely new approach to the classical measurement procedures. The Institute team has taken that new opportunity and transformed the technique into fully automated measurement devices offering commercial readiness of industry-grade quality. The method itself has been modified and new solutions and algorithms simultaneously have extended the field of application. This has concerned both construction aspects of the systems and software development in context of creating computerized instruments. The VAWI collection of instruments constitutes now the core of the Institute commercial offer. It is now practically applicable in industrial environment for measuring textile and optical fibers, strips of thin films, testing of wave plates and nonlinear affects in different materials. This paper describes new algorithms for identifying the zero order fringe, which increases the performance of the system as a whole and presents some examples of measurements of optical elements.

  14. Silica-based mesoporous nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Sooyeon; Singh, Rajendra K; Perez, Roman A; Abou Neel, Ensanya A

    2013-01-01

    Drug molecules with lack of specificity and solubility lead patients to take high doses of the drug to achieve sufficient therapeutic effects. This is a leading cause of adverse drug reactions, particularly for drugs with narrow therapeutic window or cytotoxic chemotherapeutics. To address these problems, there are various functional biocompatible drug carriers available in the market, which can deliver therapeutic agents to the target site in a controlled manner. Among the carriers developed thus far, mesoporous materials emerged as a promising candidate that can deliver a variety of drug molecules in a controllable and sustainable manner. In particular, mesoporous silica nanoparticles are widely used as a delivery reagent because silica possesses favourable chemical properties, thermal stability and biocompatibility. Currently, sol-gel-derived mesoporous silica nanoparticles in soft conditions are of main interest due to simplicity in production and modification and the capacity to maintain function of bioactive agents. The unique mesoporous structure of silica facilitates effective loading of drugs and their subsequent controlled release. The properties of mesopores, including pore size and porosity as well as the surface properties, can be altered depending on additives used to fabricate mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Active surface enables functionalisation to modify surface properties and link therapeutic molecules. The tuneable mesopore structure and modifiable surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticle allow incorporation of various classes of drug molecules and controlled delivery to the target sites. This review aims to present the state of knowledge of currently available drug delivery system and identify properties of an ideal drug carrier for specific application, focusing on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. PMID:24020012

  15. Nanoengineered drug delivery systems for enhancing antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kalhapure, Rahul S; Suleman, Nadia; Mocktar, Chunderika; Seedat, Nasreen; Govender, Thirumala

    2015-03-01

    Formulation scientists are recognizing nanoengineered drug delivery systems as an effective strategy to overcome limitations associated with antibiotic drug therapy. Antibiotics encapsulated into nanodelivery systems will contribute to improved management of patients with various infectious diseases and to overcoming the serious global burden of antibiotic resistance. An extensive review of several antibiotic-loaded nanocarriers that have been formulated to target drugs to infectious sites, achieve controlled drug release profiles, and address formulation challenges, such as low-drug entrapment efficiencies, poor solubility and stability is presented in this paper. The physicochemical properties and the in vitro/in vivo performances of various antibiotic-loaded delivery systems, such as polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, dendrimers, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles, nanohybirds, nanofibers/scaffolds, nanosheets, nanoplexes, and nanotubes/horn/rods and nanoemulsions, are highlighted and evaluated. Future studies that will be essential to optimize formulation and commercialization of these antibiotic-loaded nanosystems are also identified. The review presented emphasizes the significant formulation progress achieved and potential that novel nanoengineered antibiotic drug delivery systems have for enhancing the treatment of patients with a range of infections. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Therapeutic applications of hydrogels in oral drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Lindsey A; Daily, Adam M; Horava, Sarena D; Peppas, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oral delivery of therapeutics, particularly protein-based pharmaceutics, is of great interest for safe and controlled drug delivery for patients. Hydrogels offer excellent potential as oral therapeutic systems due to inherent biocompatibility, diversity of both natural and synthetic material options and tunable properties. In particular, stimuli-responsive hydrogels exploit physiological changes along the intestinal tract to achieve site-specific, controlled release of protein, peptide and chemotherapeutic molecules for both local and systemic treatment applications. Areas covered This review provides a wide perspective on the therapeutic use of hydrogels in oral delivery systems. General features and advantages of hydrogels are addressed, with more considerable focus on stimuli-responsive systems that respond to pH or enzymatic changes in the gastrointestinal environment to achieve controlled drug release. Specific examples of therapeutics are given. Last, in vitro and in vivo methods to evaluate hydrogel performance are discussed. Expert opinion Hydrogels are excellent candidates for oral drug delivery, due to the number of adaptable parameters that enable controlled delivery of diverse therapeutic molecules. However, further work is required to more accurately simulate physiological conditions and enhance performance, which is important to achieve improved bioavailability and increase commercial interest. PMID:24848309

  17. Advances in bioresponsive closed-loop drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yuqi; Yan, Junjie; Kahkoska, Anna R; Gu, Zhen

    2017-11-27

    Controlled drug delivery systems are able to improve efficacy and safety of therapeutics by optimizing the duration and kinetics of release. Among them, closed-loop delivery strategies, also known as self-regulated administration, have proven to be a practical tool for homeostatic regulation, by tuning drug release as a function of biosignals relevant to physiological and pathological processes. A typical example is glucose-responsive insulin delivery system, which can mimic the pancreatic beta cells to release insulin with a proper dose at a proper time point by responding to plasma glucose levels. Similar self-regulated systems are also important in the treatment of other diseases including thrombosis and bacterial infection. In this review, we survey the recent advances in bioresponsive closed-loop drug delivery systems, including glucose-responsive, enzyme-activated, and other biosignal-mediated delivery systems. We also discuss the future opportunities and challenges in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Topical drug delivery to the eye: dorzolamide.

    PubMed

    Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Jansook, Phatsawee; Stefánsson, Einar

    2012-11-01

    Topically applied carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) in eye drop solutions are commonly used to treat glaucoma. However, local eye irritation and multiple daily administrations may hamper their clinical usefulness. Aqueous eye drop formulations that improve their topical bioavailability and reduce their eye irritation can improve their clinical efficacy. Earlier studies showed that dorzolamide and closely related CAIs are more effectively delivered into the eye from acidic eye drop solutions than from comparable neutral solutions. Consequently, dorzolamide was marketed as an aqueous pH 5.6 eye drop solution (Trusopt(®) , Merck). Later, it was shown that increasing the pH of the eye drops from pH 5.6 to physiologic pH significantly reduced their local irritation. Earlier attempts to use cyclodextrins (CDs) as ocular penetration enhancers in dorzolamide eye drop solutions failed since; although the CDs were able to enhance the aqueous solubility of dorzolamide, increasing the pH from 5.6 to physiologic pH reduced the ability of the drug to permeate into the eye. Later, it was discovered that formulating the drug as aqueous dorzolamide/γCD eye drop microparticle suspension resulted in significant bioavailability enhancement. The solid dorzolamide/γCD microparticles are mucoadhesive and release dorzolamide into the aqueous tear fluid for extended time period. Consequently, sustained high dorzolamide concentrations in aqueous humour and various eye tissues were observed after single administration of the aqueous dorzolamide/γCD eye drop microsuspension. The microsuspension has a potential of being developed into a once-a-day eye drop product. This article reviews the physicochemical properties of dorzolamide, its permeation characteristics and topical bioavailability. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  19. Materials and methods for delivery of biological drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelikin, Alexander N.; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Healy, Anne Marie

    2016-11-01

    Biological drugs generated via recombinant techniques are uniquely positioned due to their high potency and high selectivity of action. The major drawback of this class of therapeutics, however, is their poor stability upon oral administration and during subsequent circulation. As a result, biological drugs have very low bioavailability and short therapeutic half-lives. Fortunately, tools of chemistry and biotechnology have been developed into an elaborate arsenal, which can be applied to improve the pharmacokinetics of biological drugs. Depot-type release systems are available to achieve sustained release of drugs over time. Conjugation to synthetic or biological polymers affords long circulating formulations. Administration of biological drugs through non-parenteral routes shows excellent performance and the first products have reached the market. This Review presents the main accomplishments in this field and illustrates the materials and methods behind existing and upcoming successful formulations and delivery strategies for biological drugs.

  20. Sperm-Hybrid Micromotor for Targeted Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haifeng; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Magdanz, Veronika; Schwarz, Lukas; Hebenstreit, Franziska; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2018-01-23

    A sperm-driven micromotor is presented as a targeted drug delivery system, which is appealing to potentially treat diseases in the female reproductive tract. This system is demonstrated to be an efficient drug delivery vehicle by first loading a motile sperm cell with an anticancer drug (doxorubicin hydrochloride), guiding it magnetically, to an in vitro cultured tumor spheroid, and finally freeing the sperm cell to deliver the drug locally. The sperm release mechanism is designed to liberate the sperm when the biohybrid micromotor hits the tumor walls, allowing it to swim into the tumor and deliver the drug through the sperm-cancer cell membrane fusion. In our experiments, the sperm cells exhibited a high drug encapsulation capability and drug carrying stability, conveniently minimizing  toxic side effects and unwanted drug accumulation in healthy tissues. Overall, sperm cells are excellent candidates to operate in physiological environments, as they neither express pathogenic proteins nor proliferate to form undesirable colonies, unlike other cells or microorganisms. This sperm-hybrid micromotor is a biocompatible platform with potential application in gynecological healthcare, treating or detecting cancer or other diseases in the female reproductive system.

  1. Heat effects on drug delivery across human skin

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jinsong; Ghosh, Priyanka; Li, S. Kevin; Newman, Bryan; Kasting, Gerald B.; Raney, Sam G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to heat can impact the clinical efficacy and/or safety of transdermal and topical drug products. Understanding these heat effects and designing meaningful in vitro and in vivo methods to study them are of significant value to the development and evaluation of drug products dosed to the skin. Areas covered This review provides an overview of the underlying mechanisms and the observed effects of heat on the skin and on transdermal/topical drug delivery, thermoregulation and heat tolerability. The designs of several in vitro and in vivo heat effect studies and their results are reviewed. Expert opinion There is substantial evidence that elevated temperature can increase transdermal/topical drug delivery. However, in vitro and in vivo methods reported in the literature to study heat effects of transdermal/topical drug products have utilized inconsistent study conditions, and in vitro models require better characterization. Appropriate study designs and controls remain to be identified, and further research is warranted to evaluate in vitro-in vivo correlations and the ability of in vitro models to predict in vivo effects. The physicochemical and pharmacological properties of the drug(s) and the drug product, as well as dermal clearance and heat gradients may require careful consideration. PMID:26808472

  2. Targeted cancer drug delivery with aptamer-functionalized polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Fathi, Nazanin; Samiei, Mohammad; Maleki Dizaj, Solmaz; Sharifi, Simin

    2018-06-21

    Based on exceptional advantages of aptamers, increasing attention has been presented in the utilize of them as targeted ligands for cancer drug delivery. Recently, the progress of aptamer- targeted nanoparticles has presented new therapeutic systems for several types of cancer with decreased toxicity and improved efficacy. We highlight some of the promising formulations of aptamer-conjugated polymeric nanoparticles for specific targeted drug delivery to cancer cells. This review paper focuses on the current progresses in the use of the novel strategies to aptamer-targeted drug delivery for chemotherapy. An extensive literature review was performed using internet database, mainly PubMed based on MeSH keywords. The searches included full-text publications written in English without any limitation in date. The abstracts, reviews, books as well as studies without obvious relating of aptamers as targeted ligands for cancer drug delivery were excluded from the study. The reviewed literature revealed that aptamers with ability to modify and conjugate to various molecules can be used as targeted cancer therapy agents. However, development of aptamers unique to each individual's tumor to the development of personalized medicine seems to be needed.

  3. Sulfated Seaweed Polysaccharides as Multifunctional Materials in Drug Delivery Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Ludmylla; Grenha, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, the discovery of metabolites from marine resources showing biological activity has increased significantly. Among marine resources, seaweed is a valuable source of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. The cell walls of marine algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides, including carrageenan in red algae, ulvan in green algae and fucoidan in brown algae. Sulfated polysaccharides have been increasingly studied over the years in the pharmaceutical field, given their potential usefulness in applications such as the design of drug delivery systems. The purpose of this review is to discuss potential applications of these polymers in drug delivery systems, with a focus on carrageenan, ulvan and fucoidan. General information regarding structure, extraction process and physicochemical properties is presented, along with a brief reference to reported biological activities. For each material, specific applications under the scope of drug delivery are described, addressing in privileged manner particulate carriers, as well as hydrogels and beads. A final section approaches the application of sulfated polysaccharides in targeted drug delivery, focusing with particular interest the capacity for macrophage targeting. PMID:26927134

  4. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers: Novel Discovery for Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Dhanashree, Surve; Priyanka, Mohite; Manisha, Karpe; Vilasrao, Kadam

    2016-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) are novel carriers synthesized by imprinting of a template over a polymer. This paper presents the recent application of MIP for diagnostic and therapeutic drug delivery. MIP owing to their 3D polymeric structures and due to bond formation with the template serves as a reservoir of active causing stimuli sensitive, enantioselective, targetted and/or controlled release. The review elaborates about key factors for optimization of MIP, controlled release by MIP for various administration routes various forms like patches, contact lenses, nanowires along with illustrations. To overcome the limitation of organic solvent usage causing increased cost, water compatible MIP and use of supercritical fluid technology for molecular imprinting were developed. Novel methods for developing water compatible MIP like pickering emulsion polymerization, co-precipitation method, cyclodextrin imprinting, surface grafting, controlled/living radical chain polymerization methods are described with illustration in this review. Various protein imprinting methods like bulk, epitope and surface imprinting are described along with illustrations. Further, application of MIP in microdevices as biomimetic sensing element for personalized therapy is elaborated. Although development and application of MIP in drug delivery is still at its infancy, constant efforts of researchers will lead to a novel intelligent drug delivery with commercial value. Efforts should be directed in developing solid oral dosage forms consisting of MIP for therapeutic protein and peptide delivery and targeted release of potent drugs addressing life threatening disease like cancer. Amalgamation of bio-engineering and pharmaceutical techniques can make these future prospects into reality.

  5. Current Multistage Drug Delivery Systems Based on the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Binlong; Dai, Wenbing; He, Bing; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Yiguang; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The development of traditional tumor-targeted drug delivery systems based on EPR effect and receptor-mediated endocytosis is very challenging probably because of the biological complexity of tumors as well as the limitations in the design of the functional nano-sized delivery systems. Recently, multistage drug delivery systems (Ms-DDS) triggered by various specific tumor microenvironment stimuli have emerged for tumor therapy and imaging. In response to the differences in the physiological blood circulation, tumor microenvironment, and intracellular environment, Ms-DDS can change their physicochemical properties (such as size, hydrophobicity, or zeta potential) to achieve deeper tumor penetration, enhanced cellular uptake, timely drug release, as well as effective endosomal escape. Based on these mechanisms, Ms-DDS could deliver maximum quantity of drugs to the therapeutic targets including tumor tissues, cells, and subcellular organelles and eventually exhibit the highest therapeutic efficacy. In this review, we expatiate on various responsive modes triggered by the tumor microenvironment stimuli, introduce recent advances in multistage nanoparticle systems, especially the multi-stimuli responsive delivery systems, and discuss their functions, effects, and prospects. PMID:28255348

  6. Microneedle-based drug delivery systems for transdermal route.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Maria Bernadete Riemma; Rossetti, Fabia Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Transdermal delivery offers an attractive, noninvasive administration route but it is limited by the skin's barrier to penetration. Minimally invasive techniques, such as the use of microneedles (MNs), bypass the stratum corneum (SC) barrier to permit the drug's direct access to the viable epidermis. These novel micro devices have been developed to puncture the skin for the transdermal delivery of hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules, including peptides, DNA and other molecules, that would otherwise have difficulty passing the outermost layer of the skin, the SC. Using the tools of the microelectronics industry, MNs have been fabricated with a range of sizes, shapes and materials. MNs have been shown to be robust enough to penetrate the skin and dramatically increase the skin permeability of several drugs. Moreover, MNs have reduced needle insertion pain and tissue trauma and provided controlled delivery across the skin. This review focuses on the current state of the art in the transdermal delivery of drugs using various types of MNs and developments in the field of microscale devices, as well as examples of their uses and clinical safety.

  7. Drug Design, Development, and Delivery: An Interdisciplinary Course on Pharmaceuticals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prausnitz, Mark R.; Bommarius, Andreas S.

    2011-01-01

    We developed a new interdisciplinary course on pharmaceuticals to address needs of undergraduate and graduate students in chemical engineering and other departments. This course introduces drug design, development, and delivery in an integrated fashion that provides scientific depth in context with broader impacts in business, policy, and ethics.…

  8. Current Multistage Drug Delivery Systems Based on the Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Binlong; Dai, Wenbing; He, Bing; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Yiguang; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The development of traditional tumor-targeted drug delivery systems based on EPR effect and receptor-mediated endocytosis is very challenging probably because of the biological complexity of tumors as well as the limitations in the design of the functional nano-sized delivery systems. Recently, multistage drug delivery systems (Ms-DDS) triggered by various specific tumor microenvironment stimuli have emerged for tumor therapy and imaging. In response to the differences in the physiological blood circulation, tumor microenvironment, and intracellular environment, Ms-DDS can change their physicochemical properties (such as size, hydrophobicity, or zeta potential) to achieve deeper tumor penetration, enhanced cellular uptake, timely drug release, as well as effective endosomal escape. Based on these mechanisms, Ms-DDS could deliver maximum quantity of drugs to the therapeutic targets including tumor tissues, cells, and subcellular organelles and eventually exhibit the highest therapeutic efficacy. In this review, we expatiate on various responsive modes triggered by the tumor microenvironment stimuli, introduce recent advances in multistage nanoparticle systems, especially the multi-stimuli responsive delivery systems, and discuss their functions, effects, and prospects.

  9. Brian Barry: innovative contributions to transdermal and topical drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Williams, A C

    2013-01-01

    Brian Barry published over 300 research articles across topics ranging from colloid science, vasoconstriction and the importance of thermodynamics in dermal drug delivery to exploring the structure and organisation of the stratum corneum barrier lipids and numerous strategies for improving topical and transdermal drug delivery, including penetration enhancers, supersaturation, coacervation, eutectic formation and the use of varied liposomes. As research in the area blossomed in the early 1980s, Brian wrote the book that became essential reading for both new and established dermal delivery scientists, explaining the background mathematics and principles through to formulation design. Brian also worked with numerous scientists, as collaborators and students, who have themselves taken his rigorous approach to scientific investigation into their own research groups. This paper can only describe a small fraction of the many significant contributions that Brian made to the field during his 40-year academic career.

  10. Leukocytes as carriers for targeted cancer drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Metastasis contributes to over 90% of cancer-related deaths. Numerous nanoparticle platforms have been developed to target and treat cancer, yet efficient delivery of these systems to the appropriate site remains challenging. Leukocytes, which share similarities to tumor cells in terms of their transport and migration through the body, are well suited to serve as carriers of drug delivery systems to target cancer sites. Areas covered This review focuses on the use and functionalization of leukocytes for therapeutic targeting of metastatic cancer. Tumor cell and leukocyte extravasation, margination in the bloodstream, and migration into soft tissue are discussed, along with the potential to exploit these functional similarities to effectively deliver drugs. Current nanoparticle-based drug formulations for the treatment of cancer are reviewed, along with methods to functionalize delivery vehicles to leukocytes, either on the surface and/or within the cell. Recent progress in this area, both in vitro and in vivo, is also discussed, with a particular emphasis on targeting cancer cells in the bloodstream as a means to interrupt the metastatic process. Expert opinion Leukocytes interact with cancer cells both in the bloodstream and at the site of solid tumors. These interactions can be utilized to effectively deliver drugs to targeted areas, which can reduce both the amount of drug required and various nonspecific cytotoxic effects within the body. If drug delivery vehicle functionalization does not interfere with leukocyte function, this approach may be utilized to neutralize tumor cells in the bloodstream to prevent the formation of new metastases, and also to deliver drugs to metastatic sites within tissues. PMID:25270379

  11. Leukocytes as carriers for targeted cancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael J; King, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    Metastasis contributes to over 90% of cancer-related deaths. Numerous nanoparticle platforms have been developed to target and treat cancer, yet efficient delivery of these systems to the appropriate site remains challenging. Leukocytes, which share similarities to tumor cells in terms of their transport and migration through the body, are well suited to serve as carriers of drug delivery systems to target cancer sites. This review focuses on the use and functionalization of leukocytes for therapeutic targeting of metastatic cancer. Tumor cell and leukocyte extravasation, margination in the bloodstream, and migration into soft tissue are discussed, along with the potential to exploit these functional similarities to effectively deliver drugs. Current nanoparticle-based drug formulations for the treatment of cancer are reviewed, along with methods to functionalize delivery vehicles to leukocytes, either on the surface and/or within the cell. Recent progress in this area, both in vitro and in vivo, is also discussed, with a particular emphasis on targeting cancer cells in the bloodstream as a means to interrupt the metastatic process. Leukocytes interact with cancer cells both in the bloodstream and at the site of solid tumors. These interactions can be utilized to effectively deliver drugs to targeted areas, which can reduce both the amount of drug required and various nonspecific cytotoxic effects within the body. If drug delivery vehicle functionalization does not interfere with leukocyte function, this approach may be utilized to neutralize tumor cells in the bloodstream to prevent the formation of new metastases, and also to deliver drugs to metastatic sites within tissues.

  12. Cancer nanomedicine: a review of recent success in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Tran, Stephanie; DeGiovanni, Peter-Joseph; Piel, Brandon; Rai, Prakash

    2017-12-11

    Cancer continues to be one of the most difficult global healthcare problems. Although there is a large library of drugs that can be used in cancer treatment, the problem is selectively killing all the cancer cells while reducing collateral toxicity to healthy cells. There are several biological barriers to effective drug delivery in cancer such as renal, hepatic, or immune clearance. Nanoparticles loaded with drugs can be designed to overcome these biological barriers to improve efficacy while reducing morbidity. Nanomedicine has ushered in a new era for drug delivery by improving the therapeutic indices of the active pharmaceutical ingredients engineered within nanoparticles. First generation nanomedicines have received widespread clinical approval over the past two decades, from Doxil ® (liposomal doxorubicin) in 1995 to Onivyde ® (liposomal irinotecan) in 2015. This review highlights the biological barriers to effective drug delivery in cancer, emphasizing the need for nanoparticles for improving therapeutic outcomes. A summary of different nanoparticles used for drug delivery applications in cancer are presented. The review summarizes recent successes in cancer nanomedicine in the clinic. The clinical trials of Onivyde leading to its approval in 2015 by the Food and Drug Adminstration are highlighted as a case study in the recent clinical success of nanomedicine against cancer. Next generation nanomedicines need to be better targeted to specifically destroy cancerous tissue, but face several obstacles in their clinical development, including identification of appropriate biomarkers to target, scale-up of synthesis, and reproducible characterization. These hurdles need to be overcome through multidisciplinary collaborations across academia, pharmaceutical industry, and regulatory agencies in order to achieve the goal of eradicating cancer. This review discusses the current use of clinically approved nanomedicines, the investigation of nanomedicines in clinical

  13. Archaeosomes: an excellent carrier for drug and cell delivery.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2016-09-01

    Archaeosomes as liposomes made with one or more ether lipids that are unique to the domain of Archaeobacteria, found in Archaea constitute a novel family of liposome. Achaean-type lipids consist of archaeol (diether) and/or caldarchaeol (tetraether) core structures. Archaeosomes can be produced using standard procedures (hydrated film submitted to sonication, extrusion and detergent dialysis) at any temperature in the physiological range or lower, therefore making it possible to encapsulate thermally stable compounds. Various physiological as well as environmental factors affect its stability. Archaeosomes are widely used as drug delivery systems for cancer vaccines, Chagas disease, proteins and peptides, gene delivery, antigen delivery and delivery of natural antioxidant compounds. In this review article, our major aim was to explore the applications of this new carrier system in pharmaceutical field.

  14. Crystallization processes in pharmaceutical technology and drug delivery design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekunov, B. Yu; York, P.

    2000-04-01

    Crystallization is a major technological process for particle formation in pharmaceutical industry and, in addition, plays an important role in defining the stability and drug release properties of the final dosage forms. Industrial and regulatory aspects of crystallization are briefly reviewed with reference to solid-state properties of pharmaceuticals. Crystallization, incorporating wider definition to include precipitation and solid-state transitions, is considered in terms of preparation of materials for direct compression, formation of amorphous, solvated and polymorphic forms, chiral separation of drugs, production of materials for inhalation drug delivery and injections. Finally, recent developments in supercritical fluid particle technology is considered in relationship to the areas discussed.

  15. A laser based reusable microjet injector for transdermal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tae-hee; Yoh, Jack J.

    2010-05-01

    A laser based needle-free liquid drug injection device has been developed. A laser beam is focused inside the liquid contained in the rubber chamber of microscale. The focused laser beam causes explosive bubble growth, and the sudden volume increase in a sealed chamber drives a microjet of liquid drug through the micronozzle. The exit diameter of a nozzle is 125 μm and the injected microjet reaches an average velocity of 264 m/s. This device adds the time-varying feature of microjet to the current state of liquid injection for drug delivery.

  16. Nanotopographical Cues for Modulating Fibrosis and Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Laura Aiko Michelle

    Nanotopography in the cellular microenvironment provides biological cues and therefore has potential to be a useful tool for directing cellular behavior. Fibrotic encapsulation of implanted devices and materials can wall off and eventually cause functional failure of the implant. Drug delivery requires penetrating the epithelium, which encapsulates the body and provides a barrier to separate the body from its external environment. Both of these challenges could be elegantly surmounted using nanotopography, which would harness innate cellular responses to topographic cues to elicit desired cellular behavior. To this end, we fabricated high and low aspect ratio nanotopographically patterned thin films. Using scanning electron microscopy, real time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence microscopy, in vitro drug delivery assays, transmission electron microscopy, inhibitor studies, and rabbit and rat in vivo drug delivery studies, we investigated cellular response to our nanotopographic thin films. We determined that high aspect ratio topography altered fibroblast morphology and decreased proliferation, possibly due to decreased protein adsorption. The fibroblasts also down regulated expression of mRNA of key factors associated with fibrosis, such as collagens 1 and 3. Low aspect ratio nanotopography increased drug delivery in vitro across an intestinal epithelial model monolayer by increasing paracellular permeability and remodeling the tight junction. This increase in drug delivery required integrin engagement and MLCK activity, and is consistent with the increased focal adhesion formation. Tight junction remodeling was also observed in a multilayered keratinocyte model, showing this mechanism can be generalized to multiple epithelium types. By facilitating direct contact of nanotopography with the viable epidermis using microneedles to pierce the stratum corneum, we are able to transdermally deliver a 150 kiloDalton, IgG-based therapeutic in vivo..

  17. Prostate Cancer Relevant Antigens and Enzymes for Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Barve, Ashutosh; Jin, Wei; Cheng, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used approaches in combating advanced prostate cancer, but its therapeutic efficacy is usually insufficient due to lack of specificity and associated toxicity. Lack of targeted delivery to prostate cancer cells is also the primary obstacles in achieving feasible therapeutic effect of other promising agents including peptide, protein, and nucleic acid. Consequently, there remains a critical need for strategies to increase the selectivity of anti-prostate cancer agents. This review will focus on various prostate cancer-specific antigens and enzymes that could be exploited for prostate cancer targeted drug delivery. Among various targeting strategies, active targeting is the most advanced approach to specifically deliver drugs to their designated cancer cells. In this approach, drug carriers are modified with targeting ligands that can specifically bind to prostate cancer-specific antigens. Moreover, there are several specific enzymes in the tumor microenvironment of prostate cancer that can be exploited for stimulus-responsive drug delivery systems. These systems can specifically release the active drug in the tumor microenvironment of prostate cancer, leading to enhanced tumor penetration efficiency. PMID:24878184

  18. Cellulose Nanocrystal Membranes as Excipients for Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Ananda M.; Robles, Eduardo; Ribeiro, Juliana S.; Lund, Rafael G.; Carreño, Neftali L. V.; Labidi, Jalel

    2016-01-01

    In this work, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were obtained from flax fibers by an acid hydrolysis assisted by sonochemistry in order to reduce reaction times. The cavitation inducted during hydrolysis resulted in CNC with uniform shapes, and thus further pretreatments into the cellulose are not required. The obtained CNC exhibited a homogeneous morphology and high crystallinity, as well as typical values for surface charge. Additionally, CNC membranes were developed from CNC solution to evaluation as a drug delivery system by the incorporation of a model drug. The drug delivery studies were carried out using chlorhexidine (CHX) as a drug and the antimicrobial efficiency of the CNC membrane loaded with CHX was examined against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. Aureus). The release of CHX from the CNC membranes is determined by UV-Vis. The obtaining methodology of the membranes proved to be simple, and these early studies showed a potential use in antibiotic drug delivery systems due to the release kinetics and the satisfactory antimicrobial activity. PMID:28774122

  19. Soft-Template-Synthesized Mesoporous Carbon for Oral Drug Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Dipendu; Warren, Kaitlyn E; Naskar, Amit K

    Template-synthesized mesoporous carbons were successfully used in in vitro investigations of controlled delivery of three model drugs, captopril, furosemide, and ranitidine hydrochloride. Captopril and furosemide exhibited desorption kinetics over 30 40 h, and ranitidine HCl had a complete release time of 5 10 h. As evident from the slow release kinetics, we contend that our mesoporous carbon is an improved drug-delivery medium compared to state-of-the-art porous silica-based substrates. The mesoporous carbons, synthesized from phloroglucinol and lignin, a synthetic and a sustainable precursor, respectively, exhibit BET surface area of 200 400 m2 g-1 and pore volume of 0.2 0.6 cm3 g-1.more » The phloroglucinol-based carbon has narrower pore widths and higher pore volume than the lignin-derived counterpart and maintains a longer release time. Numerical modeling of the release kinetics data reveals that the diffusivities of all the drugs from lignin-based carbon media are of equivalent magnitude (10-22 to 10-24 m2 s-1). However, a tailored reduction of pore width in the sorbent reduces the diffusivity of smaller drug molecules (captopril) by an order of magnitude. Thus, engin