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Sample records for zero-phonon line dephasing

  1. Tunable cavity coupling of the zero phonon line of a nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S.; Dolan, P. R.; Grange, T.; Trichet, A. A. P.; Hornecker, G.; Chen, Y. C.; Weng, L.; Hughes, G. M.; Watt, A. A. R.; Auffèves, A.; Smith, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate the tunable enhancement of the zero phonon line of a single nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond at cryogenic temperature. An open cavity fabricated using focused ion beam milling provides mode volumes as small as 1.24 μm3 (4.7 {λ }3) and quality factor Q≃ 3000. In situ tuning of the cavity resonance is achieved with piezoelectric actuators. At optimal coupling to a TEM00 cavity mode, the signal from individual zero phonon line transitions is enhanced by a factor of 6.25 and the overall emission rate of the NV- centre is increased by 40% compared with that measured from the same centre in the absence of cavity field confinement. This result represents a step forward in the realisation of efficient spin-photon interfaces and scalable quantum computing using optically addressable solid state spin qubits.

  2. Zero-phonon-line emission of single molecules for applications in quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiraz, Alper; Ehrl, M.; Mustecaplioglu, O. E.; Hellerer, T.; Brauchle, C.; Zumbusch, A.

    2005-07-01

    A single photon source which generates transform limited single photons is highly desirable for applications in quantum optics. Transform limited emission guarantees the indistinguishability of the emitted single photons. This, in turn brings groundbreaking applications in linear optics quantum information processing within an experimental reach. Recently, self-assembled InAs quantum dots and trapped atoms have successfully been demonstrated as such sources for highly indistinguishable single photons. Here, we demonstrate that nearly transform limited zero-phonon-line (ZPL) emission from single molecules can be obtained by using vibronic excitation. Furthermore we report the results of coincidence detection experiments at the output of a Michelson-type interferometer. These experiments reveal Hong-Ou-Mandel correlations as a proof of the indistinguishability of the single photons emitted consecutively from a single molecule. Therefore, single molecules constitute an attractive alternative to single InAs quantum dots and trapped atoms for applications in linear optics quantum information processing. Experiments were performed with a home-built confocal microscope keeping the sample in a superfluid liquid Helium bath at 1.4K. We investigated terrylenediimide (TDI) molecules highly diluted in hexadecane (Shpol'skii matrix). A continuous wave single mode dye laser was used for excitation of vibronic transitions of individual molecules. From the integral fluorescence, the ZPL of single molecules was selected with a spectrally narrow interference filter. The ZPL emission was then sent to a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer for linewidth measurements or a Michelson-type interferometer for coincidence detection.

  3. Zero-phonon line and fine structure of the yellow luminescence band in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshchikov, M. A.; McNamara, J. D.; Zhang, F.; Monavarian, M.; Usikov, A.; Helava, H.; Makarov, Yu.; Morkoç, H.

    2016-07-01

    The yellow luminescence band was studied in undoped and Si-doped GaN samples by steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence. At low temperature (18 K), the zero-phonon line (ZPL) for the yellow band is observed at 2.57 eV and attributed to electron transitions from a shallow donor to a deep-level defect. At higher temperatures, the ZPL at 2.59 eV emerges, which is attributed to electron transitions from the conduction band to the same defect. In addition to the ZPL, a set of phonon replicas is observed, which is caused by the emission of phonons with energies of 39.5 meV and 91.5 meV. The defect is called the YL1 center. The possible identity of the YL1 center is discussed. The results indicate that the same defect is responsible for the strong YL1 band in undoped and Si-doped GaN samples.

  4. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Analysis of the absorption spectra and spectral hole burning in zero-phonon lines of F+3 and N1 colour centres in LiF crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. V.; Martyshkin, D. V.; Fedorov, V. V.

    2010-09-01

    The temperature dependences and mechanisms of broadening of zero-phonon lines of F+3 (488 nm) and N1 (523 nm) colour centres in LiF crystals are investigated. The results obtained make it possible to determine the quadratic electronic—vibrational coupling constant for N1 colour centres. The experimental data on the spectral hole burning in zero-phonon lines of F+3 and N1 colour centres indicate that the latter are positively charged.

  5. Strain broadening of the 1042-nm zero phonon line of the NV- center in diamond: A promising spectroscopic tool for defect tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biktagirov, T. B.; Smirnov, A. N.; Davydov, V. Yu.; Doherty, M. W.; Alkauskas, A.; Gibson, B. C.; Soltamov, V. A.

    2017-08-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV-) center in diamond is a promising candidate for many quantum applications. Here, we examine the splitting and broadening of the center's infrared (IR) zero-phonon line (ZPL). We develop a model for these effects that accounts for the strain induced by photodependent microscopic distributions of defects. We apply this model to interpret observed variations of the IR ZPL shape with temperature and photoexcitation conditions. We identify an anomalous temperature-dependent broadening mechanism and that defects other than the substitutional nitrogen center significantly contribute to strain broadening. The former conclusion suggests the presence of a strong Jahn-Teller effect in the center's singlet levels and the latter indicates that major sources of broadening are yet to be identified. These conclusions have important implications for the understanding of the center and the engineering of diamond quantum devices. Finally, we propose that, once the major sources of broadening are identified, the IR ZPL has the potential to be a sensitive spectroscopic tool for probing microscopic strain fields and performing defect tomography.

  6. Circularly polarized zero-phonon transitions of vacancies in diamond at high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braukmann, D.; Glaser, E. R.; Kennedy, T. A.; Bayer, M.; Debus, J.

    2018-05-01

    We study the circularly polarized photoluminescence of negatively charged (NV-) and neutral (NV0) nitrogen-vacancy ensembles and neutral vacancies (V0) in diamond crystals exposed to magnetic fields of up to 10 T. We determine the orbital and spin Zeeman splitting as well as the energetic ordering of their ground and first-excited states. The spin-triplet and -singlet states of the NV- are described by an orbital Zeeman splitting of about 9 μ eV /T , which corresponds to a positive orbital g -factor of gL=0.164 under application of the magnetic field along the (001) and (111) crystallographic directions, respectively. The zero-phonon line (ZPL) of the NV- singlet is defined as a transition from the 1E' states, which are split by gLμBB , to the 1A1 state. The energies of the zero-phonon triplet transitions show a quadratic dependence on intermediate magnetic field strengths, which we attribute to a mixing of excited states with nonzero orbital angular momentum. Moreover, we identify slightly different spin Zeeman splittings in the ground (gs) and excited (es) triplet states, which can be expressed by a deviation between their spin g -factors: gS ,es=gS ,gs+Δ g with values of Δ g =0.014 and 0.029 in the (001) and (111) geometries, respectively. The degree of circular polarization of the NV- ZPLs depends significantly on the temperature, which is explained by an efficient spin-orbit coupling of the excited states mediated through acoustic phonons. We further demonstrate that the sign of the circular polarization degree is switched under rotation of the diamond crystal. A weak Zeeman splitting similar to Δ g μBB measured for the NV- ZPLs is also obtained for the NV0 zero-phonon lines, from which we conclude that the ground state is composed of two optically active states with compensated orbital contributions and opposite spin-1/2 momentum projections. The zero-phonon lines of the V0 show Zeeman splittings and degrees of the circular polarization with opposite

  7. Temperature Dependence of Wavelength Selectable Zero-Phonon Emission from Single Defects in Hexagonal Boron Nitride.

    PubMed

    Jungwirth, Nicholas R; Calderon, Brian; Ji, Yanxin; Spencer, Michael G; Flatté, Michael E; Fuchs, Gregory D

    2016-10-12

    We investigate the distribution and temperature-dependent optical properties of sharp, zero-phonon emission from defect-based single photon sources in multilayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) flakes. We observe sharp emission lines from optically active defects distributed across an energy range that exceeds 500 meV. Spectrally resolved photon-correlation measurements verify single photon emission, even when multiple emission lines are simultaneously excited within the same h-BN flake. We also present a detailed study of the temperature-dependent line width, spectral energy shift, and intensity for two different zero-phonon lines centered at 575 and 682 nm, which reveals a nearly identical temperature dependence despite a large difference in transition energy. Our temperature-dependent results are well described by a lattice vibration model that considers piezoelectric coupling to in-plane phonons. Finally, polarization spectroscopy measurements suggest that whereas the 575 nm emission line is directly excited by 532 nm excitation, the 682 nm line is excited indirectly.

  8. Blue diode-pumped solid-state-laser based on ytterbium doped laser crystals operating on the resonance zero-phonon transition

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, William F.; Payne, Stephen A.; Marshall, Christopher D.

    2001-01-01

    The invention provides an efficient, compact means of generating blue laser light at a wavelength near .about.493+/-3 nm, based on the use of a laser diode-pumped Yb-doped laser crystal emitting on its zero phonon line (ZPL) resonance transition at a wavelength near .about.986+/-6 nm, whose fundamental infrared output radiation is harmonically doubled into the blue spectral region. The invention is applied to the excitation of biofluorescent dyes (in the .about.490-496 nm spectral region) utilized in flow cytometry, immunoassay, DNA sequencing, and other biofluorescence instruments. The preferred host crystals have strong ZPL fluorecence (laser) transitions lying in the spectral range from .about.980 to .about.992 nm (so that when frequency-doubled, they produce output radiation in the spectral range from 490 to 496 nm). Alternate preferred Yb doped tungstate crystals, such as Yb:KY(WO.sub.4).sub.2, may be configured to lase on the resonant ZPL transition near 981 nm (in lieu of the normal 1025 nm transition). The laser light is then doubled in the blue at 490.5 nm.

  9. Vibrational dephasing in matter-wave interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rembold, A.; Schütz, G.; Röpke, R.; Chang, W. T.; Hwang, I. S.; Günther, A.; Stibor, A.

    2017-03-01

    Matter-wave interferometry is a highly sensitive tool to measure small perturbations in a quantum system. This property allows the creation of precision sensors for dephasing mechanisms such as mechanical vibrations. They are a challenge for phase measurements under perturbing conditions that cannot be perfectly decoupled from the interferometer, e.g. for mobile interferometric devices or vibrations with a broad frequency range. Here, we demonstrate a method based on second-order correlation theory in combination with Fourier analysis, to use an electron interferometer as a sensor that precisely characterizes the mechanical vibration spectrum of the interferometer. Using the high spatial and temporal single-particle resolution of a delay line detector, the data allows to reveal the original contrast and spatial periodicity of the interference pattern from ‘washed-out’ matter-wave interferograms that have been vibrationally disturbed in the frequency region between 100 and 1000 Hz. Other than with electromagnetic dephasing, due to excitations of higher harmonics and additional frequencies induced from the environment, the parts in the setup oscillate with frequencies that can be different to the applied ones. The developed numerical search algorithm is capable to determine those unknown oscillations and corresponding amplitudes. The technique can identify vibrational dephasing and decrease damping and shielding requirements in electron, ion, neutron, atom and molecule interferometers that generate a spatial fringe pattern on the detector plane.

  10. Statistical Fine Structure in Inhomogeneously Broadened Absorption Lines in Solids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-22

    the inhomogeneously broadened zero-phonon SijSo (0-0) absorption of pentacene molecules in crystals of p-terphenyl at liquid helium temperatures. SFS...structure (SFS) in the inhomogeneously broadened zero-phonon S, +- So (0-0) absorption of pentacene molecules in crystals of p-terphenyl at liquid helium...tile large multiplicity of local environments. Inhomogeneously broadened absorption lines are usually treated as smooth, Gaussian profiles. In recent

  11. Control of dephasing in rotationally hot molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bartram, David; Ivanov, Misha

    We consider a rotationally hot diatomic molecule as an example of an open quantum system, where molecular vibrational wave packets are subject to dephasing due to rovibrational coupling. We report analytical and numerical results addressing whether the dephasing rate can be controlled by adjustment of the initial wave packet phases. It appears that over long time scales, phase-only control is not possible, but for earlier time scales the possibility of phase-only control of dephasing remains. In addition, we point out that the time dependence of the dephasing process depends significantly upon the degeneracy of the rotational environment states.

  12. Spin dephasing in a magnetic dipole field.

    PubMed

    Ziener, C H; Kampf, T; Reents, G; Schlemmer, H-P; Bauer, W R

    2012-05-01

    Transverse relaxation by dephasing in an inhomogeneous field is a general mechanism in physics, for example, in semiconductor physics, muon spectroscopy, or nuclear magnetic resonance. In magnetic resonance imaging the transverse relaxation provides information on the properties of several biological tissues. Since the dipole field is the most important part of the multipole expansion of the local inhomogeneous field, dephasing in a dipole field is highly important in relaxation theory. However, there have been no analytical solutions which describe the dephasing in a magnetic dipole field. In this work we give a complete analytical solution for the dephasing in a magnetic dipole field which is valid over the whole dynamic range.

  13. Anharmonic quantum contribution to vibrational dephasing.

    PubMed

    Barik, Debashis; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2004-07-22

    Based on a quantum Langevin equation and its corresponding Hamiltonian within a c-number formalism we calculate the vibrational dephasing rate of a cubic oscillator. It is shown that leading order quantum correction due to anharmonicity of the potential makes a significant contribution to the rate and the frequency shift. We compare our theoretical estimates with those obtained from experiments for small diatomics N(2), O(2), and CO.

  14. Coherence-generating power of quantum dephasing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styliaris, Georgios; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    We provide a quantification of the capability of various quantum dephasing processes to generate coherence out of incoherent states. The measures defined, admitting computable expressions for any finite Hilbert-space dimension, are based on probabilistic averages and arise naturally from the viewpoint of coherence as a resource. We investigate how the capability of a dephasing process (e.g., a nonselective orthogonal measurement) to generate coherence depends on the relevant bases of the Hilbert space over which coherence is quantified and the dephasing process occurs, respectively. We extend our analysis to include those Lindblad time evolutions which, in the infinite-time limit, dephase the system under consideration and calculate their coherence-generating power as a function of time. We further identify specific families of such time evolutions that, although dephasing, have optimal (over all quantum processes) coherence-generating power for some intermediate time. Finally, we investigate the coherence-generating capability of random dephasing channels.

  15. Optimal dephasing for ballistic energy transfer in disordered linear chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Celardo, G. Luca; Borgonovi, Fausto; Kaplan, Lev

    2017-11-01

    We study the interplay between dephasing, disorder, and coupling to a sink on transport efficiency in a one-dimensional chain of finite length N , and in particular the beneficial or detrimental effect of dephasing on transport. The excitation moves along the chain by coherent nearest-neighbor hopping Ω , under the action of static disorder W and dephasing γ . The last site is coupled to an external acceptor system (sink), where the excitation can be trapped with a rate Γtrap. While it is known that dephasing can help transport in the localized regime, here we show that dephasing can enhance energy transfer even in the ballistic regime. Specifically, in the localized regime we recover previous results, where the optimal dephasing is independent of the chain length and proportional to W or W2/Ω . In the ballistic regime, the optimal dephasing decreases as 1 /N or 1 /√{N } , respectively, for weak and moderate static disorder. When focusing on the excitation starting at the beginning of the chain, dephasing can help excitation transfer only above a critical value of disorder Wcr, which strongly depends on the sink coupling strength Γtrap. Analytic solutions are obtained for short chains.

  16. Many-Particle Dephasing after a Quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiendl, Thomas; Marquardt, Florian

    2017-03-01

    After a quench in a quantum many-body system, expectation values tend to relax towards long-time averages. However, temporal fluctuations remain in the long-time limit, and it is crucial to study the suppression of these fluctuations with increasing system size. The particularly important case of nonintegrable models has been addressed so far only by numerics and conjectures based on analytical bounds. In this work, we are able to derive analytical predictions for the temporal fluctuations in a nonintegrable model (the transverse Ising chain with extra terms). Our results are based on identifying a dynamical regime of "many-particle dephasing," where quasiparticles do not yet relax but fluctuations are nonetheless suppressed exponentially by weak integrability breaking.

  17. Many-Particle Dephasing after a Quench.

    PubMed

    Kiendl, Thomas; Marquardt, Florian

    2017-03-31

    After a quench in a quantum many-body system, expectation values tend to relax towards long-time averages. However, temporal fluctuations remain in the long-time limit, and it is crucial to study the suppression of these fluctuations with increasing system size. The particularly important case of nonintegrable models has been addressed so far only by numerics and conjectures based on analytical bounds. In this work, we are able to derive analytical predictions for the temporal fluctuations in a nonintegrable model (the transverse Ising chain with extra terms). Our results are based on identifying a dynamical regime of "many-particle dephasing," where quasiparticles do not yet relax but fluctuations are nonetheless suppressed exponentially by weak integrability breaking.

  18. Tracing molecular dephasing in biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokim, M.; Carruba, C.; Ganikhanov, F.

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate the quantitative spectroscopic characterization and imaging of biological tissue using coherent time-domain microscopy with a femtosecond resolution. We identify tissue constituents and perform dephasing time (T2) measurements of characteristic Raman active vibrations. This was shown in subcutaneous mouse fat embedded within collagen rich areas of the dermis and the muscle connective tissue. The demonstrated equivalent spectral resolution (<0.3 cm-1) is an order of magnitude better compared to commonly used frequency-domain methods for characterization of biological media. This provides with the important dimensions and parameters in biological media characterization and can become an effective tool in detecting minute changes in the bio-molecular composition and environment that is critical for molecular level diagnosis.

  19. Dephasing Catastrophe in 4-ε Dimensions: A Possible Instability of the Ergodic (Many-Body-Delocalized) Phase.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yunxiang; Foster, Matthew S

    2018-06-08

    In two dimensions, dephasing by a bath cuts off Anderson localization that would otherwise occur at any energy density for fermions with disorder. For an isolated system with short-range interactions, the system can be its own bath, exhibiting diffusive (non-Markovian) thermal density fluctuations. We recast the dephasing of weak localization due to a diffusive bath as a self-interacting polymer loop. We investigate the critical behavior of the loop in d=4-ε dimensions, and find a nontrivial fixed point corresponding to a temperature T^{*}∼ε>0 where the dephasing time diverges. Assuming that this fixed point survives to ε=2, we associate it with a possible instability of the ergodic phase. Our approach may open a new line of attack against the problem of the ergodic to many-body-localized phase transition in d>1 spatial dimensions.

  20. Dephasing Catastrophe in 4 -ɛ Dimensions: A Possible Instability of the Ergodic (Many-Body-Delocalized) Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yunxiang; Foster, Matthew S.

    2018-06-01

    In two dimensions, dephasing by a bath cuts off Anderson localization that would otherwise occur at any energy density for fermions with disorder. For an isolated system with short-range interactions, the system can be its own bath, exhibiting diffusive (non-Markovian) thermal density fluctuations. We recast the dephasing of weak localization due to a diffusive bath as a self-interacting polymer loop. We investigate the critical behavior of the loop in d =4 -ɛ dimensions, and find a nontrivial fixed point corresponding to a temperature T*˜ɛ >0 where the dephasing time diverges. Assuming that this fixed point survives to ɛ =2 , we associate it with a possible instability of the ergodic phase. Our approach may open a new line of attack against the problem of the ergodic to many-body-localized phase transition in d >1 spatial dimensions.

  1. Cooperative Effects in Closely Packed Quantum Emitters with Collective Dephasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna Venkatesh, B.; Juan, M. L.; Romero-Isart, O.

    2018-01-01

    In a closely packed ensemble of quantum emitters, cooperative effects are typically suppressed due to the dephasing induced by the dipole-dipole interactions. Here, we show that by adding sufficiently strong collective dephasing, cooperative effects can be restored. Specifically, we show that the dipole force on a closely packed ensemble of strongly driven two-level quantum emitters, which collectively dephase, is enhanced in comparison to the dipole force on an independent noninteracting ensemble. Our results are relevant to solid-state systems with embedded quantum emitters such as color centers in diamond and superconducting qubits in microwave cavities and waveguides.

  2. Interference of qubits in pure dephasing and almost pure dephasing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łobejko, Marcin; Mierzejewski, Marcin; Dajka, Jerzy

    2015-07-01

    Two-path interference of quantum particles with internal spin (qubits) interacting on one arm of the interferometer with bosonic environment is studied. It is assumed that the energy exchange between the qubit and its environment is either absent, which is a pure dephasing (decoherence) model, or very weak. Both the amplitude and the position of maximum of an output intensity discussed as a function of a phase shift can serve as a quantifier of parameters describing coupling between qubit and its environment. The time evolution of the qubit-environment system is analyzed in the Schrödinger picture and the output intensity for qubit-environment interaction close to pure decoherence is analyzed by means of perturbation theory. Quality of the applied approximation is verified by comparison with numerical results.

  3. Control relaxation via dephasing: A quantum-state-diffusion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting; Lam, Chi-Hang; You, J. Q.; Wu, Lian-Ao

    2018-01-01

    Dynamical decoupling as a quantum control strategy aims at suppressing quantum decoherence adopting the popular philosophy that the disorder in the unitary evolution of the open quantum system caused by environmental noises should be neutralized by a sequence of ordered or well-designed external operations acting on the system. This work studies the solution of quantum-state-diffusion equations by mixing two channels of environmental noises, i.e., relaxation (dissipation) and dephasing. It is interesting to find in two-level and three-level atomic systems that a non-Markovian relaxation or dissipation process can be suppressed by a Markovian dephasing noise. The discovery results in an anomalous control strategy by coordinating relaxation and dephasing processes. Our approach opens an avenue of noise control strategy with no artificial manipulation over the open quantum systems.

  4. Qubit dephasing due to low-frequency noise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sverdlov, Victor; Rabenstein, Kristian; Averin, Dmitri

    2004-03-01

    We have numerically investigated the effects of the classical low-frequency noise on the qubit dynamics beyond the standard lowest-order perturbation theory in coupling. Noise is generated as a random process with a correlation function characterized by two parameters, the amplitude v0 and the cut-off frequency 2π/τ. Time evolution of the density matrix was averaged over up to 10^7 noise realizations. Contrary to the relaxation time T_1, which for v_0<ω, where ω is the qubit oscillation frequency, is always given correctly by the ``golden-rule'' expression, the dephasing time deviates from the perturbation-theory result, when (v_0/ω)^2(ωτ) ≥1. In this regime, even for unbiased qubit for which the pure dephasing vanishes in perturbation theory, the dephasing is much larger than it's perturbation-theory value 1/(2 T_1).

  5. Evidence of charged puddles and induced dephasing in topological insulator thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sourabh; Gopal, R. K.; Sarkar, Jit; Roy, Subhadip; Mitra, Chiranjib

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the dephasing mechanism in bulk insulating topological insulator thin films. The phase coherence length is extracted from magnetoresistance measurements at different temperatures. There is a crossover of the phase coherence length as a function of temperature signifying the role of more than one dephasing mechanism in the system. The dephasing rates have been studied systematically and explained.

  6. Dephasing effects on ac-driven triple quantum dot systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, I.; Villavicencio, J.; Contreras-Pulido, L. D.; Cota, E.; Maytorena, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    We analyze the effect of environmental dephasing on the electrical current in an ac-driven triple quantum dot system in a symmetric Λ configuration. The current is explored by solving the time evolution equation of the density matrix as a function of the frequency and amplitude of the driving field. Two characteristic spectra are observed depending on the field amplitude. At the resonance condition, when the frequency matches the interdot energy difference, one spectrum shows a distinctive Fano-type peak, while the other, occurring at larger values of the field amplitude, exhibits a strong current suppression due to dynamic localization. In the former case we observe that the current maximum is reduced due to dephasing, while in the latter it is shown that dephasing partially alleviates the localization. In both cases, away from resonance, we observe current oscillations which are dephasing-enhanced for a wide range of frequencies. These effects are also discussed using Floquet theory, and analytical expressions for the electrical current are obtained within the rotating wave approximation.

  7. Dephasing-covariant operations enable asymptotic reversibility of quantum resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, Eric

    2018-05-01

    We study the power of dephasing-covariant operations in the resource theories of coherence and entanglement. These are quantum operations whose actions commute with a projective measurement. In the resource theory of coherence, we find that any two states are asymptotically interconvertible under dephasing-covariant operations. This provides a rare example of a resource theory in which asymptotic reversibility can be attained without needing the maximal set of resource nongenerating operations. When extended to the resource theory of entanglement, the resultant operations share similarities with local operations and classical communication, such as prohibiting the increase of all Rényi α -entropies of entanglement under pure-state transformations. However, we show these operations are still strong enough to enable asymptotic reversibility between any two maximally correlated mixed states, even in the multipartite setting.

  8. Frequency-domain coherent multidimensional spectroscopy when dephasing rivals pulsewidth: Disentangling material and instrument response

    DOE PAGES

    Kohler, Daniel D.; Thompson, Blaise J.; Wright, John C.

    2017-08-31

    Ultrafast spectroscopy is often collected in the mixed frequency/time domain, where pulse durations are similar to system dephasing times. In these experiments, expectations derived from the familiar driven and impulsive limits are not valid. This work simulates the mixed-domain four-wave mixing response of a model system to develop expectations for this more complex field-matter interaction. We also explore frequency and delay axes. We show that these line shapes are exquisitely sensitive to excitation pulse widths and delays. Near pulse overlap, the excitation pulses induce correlations that resemble signatures of dynamic inhomogeneity. We describe these line shapes using an intuitive picturemore » that connects to familiar field-matter expressions. We develop strategies for distinguishing pulse-induced correlations from true system inhomogeneity. Our simulations provide a foundation for interpretation of ultrafast experiments in the mixed domain.« less

  9. 50W CW output power and 12mJ pulses from a quasi-2-level Yb:YAG ceramic rod laser end-pumped at the 969nm zero-phonon line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, Christian; Weitz, Marco; Theobald, Christian; v. Löwis of Menar, Patric; Bartschke, Jürgen; L'huillier, Johannes A.

    2015-02-01

    With the advent of high power and narrow bandwidth 969 nm pump diodes, direct pumping into the upper laser level of Yb:YAG and hence quasi-2-level lasers became possible. Pumping directly into the emitting level leads to higher quantum efficiency and reduction of non-radiative decay. Consequently, thermal load, thermal lensing and risk of fracture are reduced significantly. Moreover pump saturation and thermal population of uninvolved energy-levels in ground and excited states are benefical for a homogenous distribution of the pump beam as well as the reduction of reabsorption loss compared to 3-level systems, which allows for high-power DPSS lasers. Beside continuous-wave (cw) operation, nanosecond pulses with a repetition rate between 1 and 5 kHz are an attractive alternative to flashlamp-pumped systems (10-100 Hz) in various measurement applications that require higher data acquisition rates because of new faster detectors. Based on measurements of the absorption and a detailed numerical model for pump beam distribution, including beam propagation and saturation factors, power-scaling of a ceramic rod Yb:YAG oscillator was possible. Finally a cw output power of 50 W with 33 % pump efficiency at 1030 nm has been demonstrated (M2 < 1.2). Nanosecond pulses have been produced by cavity-dumping of this system. The cavity-dumped setup allowed for 3-10 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 12.5 mJ at 1 kHz (M2 < 1.1). In order to achieve these results a systematic experimental and numerical investigation on gain dynamics and the identification of different stable operating regimes has been carried out.

  10. Effect of hydrogen bonding on the vibrational dephasing time in glycerol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsinville, R.; Franklin, W. M.; Ockman, N.; Alfano, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The vibrational dephasing of the methyl CH2 symmetric stretch mode in glycerol was directly measured over an extended temperature range using picosecond coherent Raman pump and probe spectroscopy. The dephasing time was found to increase dramatically as the temperature of the supercooled liquid was lowered. This observation is attributed to the increased hydrogen bonding with decreasing temperature which hinders the dephasing of the CH2 vibration by reducing molecular motions.

  11. Quantum correlation of high dimensional system in a dephasing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yinghua; Ke, Qiang; Hu, Juju

    2018-05-01

    For a high dimensional spin-S system embedded in a dephasing environment, we theoretically analyze the time evolutions of quantum correlation and entanglement via Frobenius norm and negativity. The quantum correlation dynamics can be considered as a function of the decoherence parameters, including the ratio between the system oscillator frequency ω0 and the reservoir cutoff frequency ωc , and the different environment temperature. It is shown that the quantum correlation can not only measure nonclassical correlation of the considered system, but also perform a better robustness against the dissipation. In addition, the decoherence presents the non-Markovian features and the quantum correlation freeze phenomenon. The former is much weaker than that in the sub-Ohmic or Ohmic thermal reservoir environment.

  12. Undoing measurement-induced dephasing in circuit QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisk Kockum, A.; Tornberg, L.; Johansson, G.

    2012-05-01

    We analyze the backaction of homodyne detection and photodetection on superconducting qubits in circuit quantum electrodynamics. Although both measurement schemes give rise to backaction in the form of stochastic phase rotations, which leads to dephasing, we show that this can be perfectly undone provided that the measurement signal is fully accounted for. This result improves on an earlier one [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.012329 82, 012329 (2010)], showing that the method suggested can be made to realize a perfect two-qubit parity measurement. We propose a benchmarking experiment on a single qubit to demonstrate the method using homodyne detection. By analyzing the limited measurement efficiency of the detector and bandwidth of the amplifier, we show that the parameter values necessary to see the effect are within the limits of existing technology.

  13. Temporal fluctuations after a quantum quench: Many-particle dephasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, Florian; Kiendl, Thomas

    After a quantum quench, the expectation values of observables continue to fluctuate in time. In the thermodynamic limit, one expects such fluctuations to decrease to zero, in order for standard statistical physics to hold. However, it is a challenge to determine analytically how the fluctuations decay as a function of system size. So far, there have been analytical predictions for integrable models (which are, naturally, somewhat special), analytical bounds for arbitrary systems, and numerical results for moderate-size systems. We have discovered a dynamical regime where the decrease of fluctuations is driven by many-particle dephasing, instead of a redistribution of occupation numbers. On the basis of this insight, we are able to provide exact analytical expressions for a model with weak integrability breaking (transverse Ising chain with additional terms). These predictions explicitly show how fluctuations are exponentially suppressed with system size.

  14. General solution to inhomogeneous dephasing and smooth pulse dynamical decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Junkai; Deng, Xiu-Hao; Russo, Antonio; Barnes, Edwin

    2018-03-01

    In order to achieve the high-fidelity quantum control needed for a broad range of quantum information technologies, reducing the effects of noise and system inhomogeneities is an essential task. It is well known that a system can be decoupled from noise or made insensitive to inhomogeneous dephasing dynamically by using carefully designed pulse sequences based on square or delta-function waveforms such as Hahn spin echo or CPMG. However, such ideal pulses are often challenging to implement experimentally with high fidelity. Here, we uncover a new geometrical framework for visualizing all possible driving fields, which enables one to generate an unlimited number of smooth, experimentally feasible pulses that perform dynamical decoupling or dynamically corrected gates to arbitrarily high order. We demonstrate that this scheme can significantly enhance the fidelity of single-qubit operations in the presence of noise and when realistic limitations on pulse rise times and amplitudes are taken into account.

  15. Microscopic theory of multiple-phonon-mediated dephasing and relaxation of quantum dots near a photonic band gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Chiranjeeb; John, Sajeev

    2010-02-01

    We derive a quantum theory of the role of acoustic and optical phonons in modifying the optical absorption line shape, polarization dynamics, and population dynamics of a two-level atom (quantum dot) in the “colored” electromagnetic vacuum of a photonic band-gap (PBG) material. This is based on a microscopic Hamiltonian describing both radiative and vibrational processes quantum mechanically. We elucidate the extent to which phonon-assisted decay limits the lifetime of a single photon-atom bound state and derive the modified spontaneous emission dynamics due to coupling to various phonon baths. We demonstrate that coherent interaction with undamped phonons can lead to an enhanced lifetime of a photon-atom bound state in a PBG. This results in reduction of the steady-state atomic polarization but an increase in the fractionalized upper state population in the photon-atom bound state. We demonstrate, on the other hand, that the lifetime of the photon-atom bound state in a PBG is limited by the lifetime of phonons due to lattice anharmonicities (breakup of phonons into lower energy phonons) and purely nonradiative decay. We also derive the modified polarization decay and dephasing rates in the presence of such damping. This leads to a microscopic, quantum theory of the optical absorption line shapes. Our model and formalism provide a starting point for describing dephasing and relaxation in the presence of external coherent fields and multiple quantum dot interactions in electromagnetic reservoirs with radiative memory effects.

  16. Electron Spin Dephasing and Decoherence by Interaction with Nuclear Spins in Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon; vonAllmen, Paul; Oyafuso, Fabiano; Klimeck, Gerhard; Whale, K. Birgitta

    2004-01-01

    Electron spin dephasing and decoherence by its interaction with nuclear spins in self-assembled quantum dots are investigated in the framework of the empirical tight-binding model. Electron spin dephasing in an ensemble of dots is induced by the inhomogeneous precession frequencies of the electron among dots, while electron spin decoherence in a single dot arises from the inhomogeneous precession frequencies of nuclear spins in the dot. For In(x)Ga(1-x) As self-assembled dots containing 30000 nuclei, the dephasing and decoherence times are predicted to be on the order of 100 ps and 1 (micro)s.

  17. Distillability sudden death in qutrit-qutrit systems under global and multilocal dephasing

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Mazhar

    2010-04-15

    Recently Song et al. [Phys. Rev. A 80, 012331 (2009)] discovered that certain two-qutrit entangled states interacting with multilocal dephasing undergo distillability sudden death (DSD). We generalized their studies for quantum states under global, collective, and multilocal dephasing. We found that for a specific family of quantum states DSD and entanglement sudden death may happen under global dephasing as well as under multilocal dephasing. Moreover, for these states simple local unitary transformations may not avoid DSD under the current dynamics. As there is no definitive criterion for separability or entanglement of density matrices with dimensions greater than six, therefore wemore » believe that the results obtained in this article are restricted to the specific family of states considered here.« less

  18. Dyakonov-Perel Effect on Spin Dephasing in n-Type GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, C. Z.; Wu, M. W.

    2003-01-01

    A paper presents a study of the contribution of the Dyakonov-Perel (DP) effect to spin dephasing in electron-donor-doped bulk GaAs in the presence of an applied steady, moderate magnetic field perpendicular to the growth axis of the GaAs crystal. (The DP effect is an electron-wave-vector-dependent spin-state splitting of the conduction band, caused by a spin/orbit interaction in a crystal without an inversion center.) The applicable Bloch equations of kinetics were constructed to include terms accounting for longitudinal optical and acoustic phonon scattering as well as impurity scattering. The contributions of the aforementioned scattering mechanisms to spin-dephasing time in the presence of DP effect were examined by solving the equations numerically. Spin-dephasing time was obtained from the temporal evolution of the incoherently summed spin coherence. Effects of temperature, impurity level, magnetic field, and electron density on spin-dephasing time were investigated. Spin-dephasing time was found to increase with increasing magnetic field. Contrary to predictions of previous simplified treatments of the DP effect, spin-dephasing time was found to increase with temperature in the presence of impurity scattering. These results were found to agree qualitatively with results of recent experiments.

  19. Many-Body Effect in Spin Dephasing in n-Type GaAs Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Ming-Qi; Wu, Ming-Wei

    2005-03-01

    By constructing and numerically solving the kinetic Bloch equations we perform a many-body study of the spin dephasing due to the D'yakonov-Perel' effect in n-type GaAs (100) quantum wells for high temperatures. In our study, we include the spin-conserving scattering such as the electron-phonon, the electron-nonmagnetic impurity as well as the electron-electron Coulomb scattering into consideration. The dephasing obtained from our theory contains both the single-particle and the many-body contributions with the latter originating from the inhomogeneous broadening introduced by the DP term [J. Supercond.: Incorp. Novel Magn. 14 (2001) 245 Eur. Phys. J. B 18 (2000) 373]. Our result agrees very well with the experimental data [Phys. Rev. B 62 (2000) 13034] of Malinowski et al. We further show that in the case we study, the spin dephasing is dominated by the many-body effect.

  20. Indistinguishable near-infrared single photons from an individual organic molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Trebbia, Jean-Baptiste; Tamarat, Philippe; Lounis, Brahim

    2010-12-15

    By using the zero-phonon line emission of an individual organic molecule, we realized a source of indistinguishable single photons in the near infrared. A Hong-Ou-Mandel interference experiment is performed and a two-photon coalescence probability higher than 50% at 2 K is obtained. The contribution of the temperature-dependent dephasing processes to the two-photon interference contrast is studied. We show that the molecule delivers nearly ideal indistinguishable single photons at the lowest temperatures when the dephasing is nearly lifetime limited. This source is used to generate postselected polarization-entangled photon pairs as a test bench for applications in quantum information.

  1. Dissipation, dephasing and quantum Darwinism in qubit systems with random unitary interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaneskovic, Nenad; Mendler, Marc

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the influence of dissipation and decoherence on quantum Darwinism by generalizing Zurek's original qubit model of decoherence and the establishment of pointer states [W.H. Zurek, Nat. Phys. 5, 181 (2009); see also arXiv: quant-ph/0707.2832v1, pp. 14-19.]. Our model allows for repeated multiple qubit-qubit couplings between system and environment which are described by randomly applied two-qubit quantum operations inducing entanglement, dissipation and dephasing. The resulting stationary qubit states of system and environment are investigated. They exhibit the intricate influence of entanglement generation, dissipation and dephasing on this characteristic quantum phenomenon.

  2. Spatial correlation in matter-wave interference as a measure of decoherence, dephasing, and entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zilin; Beierle, Peter; Batelaan, Herman

    2018-04-01

    The loss of contrast in double-slit electron diffraction due to dephasing and decoherence processes is studied. It is shown that the spatial intensity correlation function of diffraction patterns can be used to distinguish between dephasing and decoherence. This establishes a measure of time reversibility that does not require the determination of coherence terms of the density matrix, while von Neumann entropy, another measure of time reversibility, does require coherence terms. This technique is exciting in view of the need to understand and control the detrimental experimental effect of contrast loss and for fundamental studies on the transition from the classical to the quantum regime.

  3. Quantum random walks on congested lattices and the effect of dephasing.

    PubMed

    Motes, Keith R; Gilchrist, Alexei; Rohde, Peter P

    2016-01-27

    We consider quantum random walks on congested lattices and contrast them to classical random walks. Congestion is modelled on lattices that contain static defects which reverse the walker's direction. We implement a dephasing process after each step which allows us to smoothly interpolate between classical and quantum random walks as well as study the effect of dephasing on the quantum walk. Our key results show that a quantum walker escapes a finite boundary dramatically faster than a classical walker and that this advantage remains in the presence of heavily congested lattices.

  4. Quantum random walks on congested lattices and the effect of dephasing

    PubMed Central

    Motes, Keith R.; Gilchrist, Alexei; Rohde, Peter P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider quantum random walks on congested lattices and contrast them to classical random walks. Congestion is modelled on lattices that contain static defects which reverse the walker’s direction. We implement a dephasing process after each step which allows us to smoothly interpolate between classical and quantum random walks as well as study the effect of dephasing on the quantum walk. Our key results show that a quantum walker escapes a finite boundary dramatically faster than a classical walker and that this advantage remains in the presence of heavily congested lattices. PMID:26812924

  5. Improvement in T2* via Cancellation of Spin Bath Induced Dephasing in Solid-State Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, Erik; Hart, Connor; Schloss, Jennifer; Turner, Matthew; Barry, John; Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2017-04-01

    In measurements using ensembles of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond, the magnetic field sensitivity can be improved by increasing the NV spin dephasing time, T2*. For NV ensembles, T2* is limited by dephasing arising from variations in the local environment sensed by individual NVs, such as applied magnetic fields, noise induced by other nearby spins, and strain. Here, we describe a systematic study of parameters influencing the NV ensemble T2*, and efforts to mitigate sources of inhomogeneity with demonstrated T2* improvements exceeding one order of magnitude.

  6. Mitigation of near-band balanced steady-state free precession through-plane flow artifacts using partial dephasing.

    PubMed

    Datta, Anjali; Cheng, Joseph Y; Hargreaves, Brian A; Baron, Corey A; Nishimura, Dwight G

    2018-06-01

    To mitigate artifacts from through-plane flow at the locations of steady-state stopbands in balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) using partial dephasing. A 60° range in the phase accrual during a TR was created over the voxel by slightly unbalancing the slice-select dephaser. The spectral profiles of SSFP with partial dephasing for various constant flow rates and during pulsatile flow were simulated to determine if partial dephasing decreases through-plane flow artifacts originating near SSFP dark bands while maintaining on-resonant signal. Simulations were then validated in a flow phantom. Lastly, phase-cycled SSFP cardiac cine images were acquired with and without partial dephasing in six subjects. Partial dephasing decreased the strength and non-linearity of the dependence of the signal at the stopbands on the through-plane flow rate. It thus mitigated hyper-enhancement from out-of-slice signal contributions and transient-related artifacts caused by variable flow both in the phantom and in vivo. In six volunteers, partial dephasing noticeably decreased artifacts in all of the phase-cycled cardiac cine datasets. Partial dephasing can mitigate the flow artifacts seen at the stopbands in balanced SSFP while maintaining the sequence's desired signal. By mitigating hyper-enhancement and transient-related artifacts originating from the stopbands, partial dephasing facilitates robust multiple-acquisition phase-cycled SSFP in the heart. Magn Reson Med 79:2944-2953, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. Copper plasmonics and catalysis: role of electron-phonon interactions in dephasing localized surface plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qi-C.; Ding, Yuchen; Goodman, Samuel M.; H. Funke, Hans; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-10-01

    Copper metal can provide an important alternative for the development of efficient, low-cost and low-loss plasmonic nanoparticles, and selective nanocatalysts. However, poor chemical stability and lack of insight into photophysics and plasmon decay mechanisms has impeded study. Here, we use smooth conformal ALD coating on copper nanoparticles to prevent surface oxidation, and study dephasing time for localized surface plasmons on different sized copper nanoparticles. Using dephasing time as a figure of merit, we elucidate the role of electron-electron, electron-phonon, impurity, surface and grain boundary scattering on the decay of localized surface plasmon waves. Using our quantitative analysis and different temperature dependent measurements, we show that electron-phonon interactions dominate over other scattering mechanisms in dephasing plasmon waves. While interband transitions in copper metal contributes substantially to plasmon losses, tuning surface plasmon modes to infrared frequencies leads to a five-fold enhancement in the quality factor. These findings demonstrate that conformal ALD coatings can improve the chemical stability for copper nanoparticles, even at high temperatures (>300 °C) in ambient atmosphere, and nanoscaled copper is a good alternative material for many potential applications in nanophotonics, plasmonics, catalysis and nanoscale electronics.Copper metal can provide an important alternative for the development of efficient, low-cost and low-loss plasmonic nanoparticles, and selective nanocatalysts. However, poor chemical stability and lack of insight into photophysics and plasmon decay mechanisms has impeded study. Here, we use smooth conformal ALD coating on copper nanoparticles to prevent surface oxidation, and study dephasing time for localized surface plasmons on different sized copper nanoparticles. Using dephasing time as a figure of merit, we elucidate the role of electron-electron, electron-phonon, impurity, surface and grain

  8. Thermal dephasing in second-harmonic generation of an amplified copper-vapor laser beam in beta barium borate.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Dixit, Sudhir Kumar; Bhatnagar, Rajiva

    2005-03-20

    The conversion efficiency in second-harmonic generation of an amplified beam in a master-oscillator power amplifier copper-vapor laser (CVL) is lower than that of the oscillator beam alone. This lower efficiency is often vaguely attributed to wave-front degradation in the amplifier. We investigate the role of wave-front degradation and thermal dephasing in the second-harmonic generation of a CVL from a beta-barium borate crystal. Choosing two beams with constant intrapulse divergence, one from a generalized diffraction filtered resonator master oscillator alone and other obtained by amplifying oscillator by use of a power amplifier, we show that at low flux levels the decrease in efficiency is due to wave-front degradation. At a fundamental power above the critical power for thermal dephasing, the decrease is due to increased UV absorption and consequent thermal dephasing. Thermal dephasing is higher for the beam with the lower coherence width.

  9. Spin coherence and dephasing of localized electrons in monolayer MoS 2

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Luyi; Chen, Weibing; McCreary, Kathleen M.; ...

    2015-11-10

    Here, we report a systematic study of coherent spin precession and spin dephasing in electron-doped monolayer MoS 2. Using time-resolved Kerr rotation spectroscopy and applied in-plane magnetic fields, a nanosecond time scale Larmor spin precession signal commensurate with g-factor |g 0| ≃ 1.86 is observed in several different MoS 2 samples grown by chemical vapor deposition. The dephasing rate of this oscillatory signal increases linearly with magnetic field, suggesting that the coherence arises from a subensemble of localized electron spins having an inhomogeneously broadened distribution of g-factors, g 0 + Δg. In contrast to g 0, Δg is sample-dependent andmore » ranges from 0.042 to 0.115.« less

  10. A novel dipolar dephasing method for the slow magic angle turning experiment.

    PubMed

    Hu, J Z; Taylor, C M; Pugmire, R J; Grant, D M

    2001-09-01

    Complete suppression of the resonances from protonated carbons in a slow magic angle spinning experiment can be achieved using five dipolar dephasing (Five-DD) periods distributed in one rotor period. This produces a spectrum containing only the spinning sidebands (SSB) from the nonprotonated carbons. It is shown that the SSB patterns corresponding to the nonprotonated carbons are not distorted over a wide range of dipolar dephasing times. Hence, this method can be used to obtain reliable principal values of the chemical shift tensors for each nonprotonated carbon. The Five-DD method can be readily incorporated into isotropic-anisotropic 2D experiments such as FIREMAT and 2D-PASS to facilitate the measurement of the (13)C chemical shift tensors in complex systems. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  11. Vibronic dephasing model for coherent-to-incoherent crossover in DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasch, Patrick; Ryndyk, Dmitry A.; Frauenheim, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the interplay between coherent and incoherent charge transport in cytosine-guanine (GC-) rich DNA molecules. Our objective is to introduce a physically grounded approach to dephasing in large molecules and to understand the length-dependent charge transport characteristics, and especially the crossover from the coherent tunneling to incoherent hopping regime at different temperatures. Therefore, we apply the vibronic dephasing model and compare the results to the Büttiker probe model which is commonly used to describe decoherence effects in charge transport. Using the full ladder model and simplified one-dimensional model of DNA, we consider molecular junctions with alternating and stacked GC sequences and compare our results to recent experimental measurements.

  12. Relaxometry and Dephasing Imaging of Superparamagnetic Magnetite Nanoparticles Using a Single Qubit.

    PubMed

    Schmid-Lorch, Dominik; Häberle, Thomas; Reinhard, Friedemann; Zappe, Andrea; Slota, Michael; Bogani, Lapo; Finkler, Amit; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2015-08-12

    To study the magnetic dynamics of superparamagnetic nanoparticles, we use scanning probe relaxometry and dephasing of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond, characterizing the spin noise of a single 10 nm magnetite particle. Additionally, we show the anisotropy of the NV sensitivity's dependence on the applied decoherence measurement method. By comparing the change in relaxation (T1) and dephasing (T2) time in the NV center when scanning a nanoparticle over it, we are able to extract the nanoparticle's diameter and distance from the NV center using an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model for the nanoparticle's fluctuations. This scanning probe technique can be used in the future to characterize different spin label substitutes for both medical applications and basic magnetic nanoparticle behavior.

  13. Relaxometry and Dephasing Imaging of Superparamagnetic Magnetite Nanoparticles Using a Single Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid-Lorch, Dominik; Häberle, Thomas; Reinhard, Friedemann; Zappe, Andrea; Slota, Michael; Bogani, Lapo; Finkler, Amit; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    To study the magnetic dynamics of superparamagnetic nanoparticles we use scanning probe relaxometry and dephasing of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond, characterizing the spin-noise of a single 10-nm magnetite particle. Additionally, we show the anisotropy of the NV sensitivity's dependence on the applied decoherence measurement method. By comparing the change in relaxation (T 1 ) and dephasing (T 2 ) time in the NV center when scanning a nanoparticle over it, we are able to extract the nanoparticle's diameter and distance from the NV center using an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model for the nanoparticle's fluctuations. This scanning-probe technique can be used in the future to characterize different spin label substitutes for both medical applications and basic magnetic nanoparticle behavior.

  14. Vibrational dephasing and frequency shifts of hydrogen-bonded pyridine-water complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalampounias, A. G.; Tsilomelekis, G.; Boghosian, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present the picosecond vibrational dynamics and Raman shifts of hydrogen-bonded pyridine-water complexes present in aqueous solutions in a wide concentration range from dense to extreme dilute solutions. We studied the vibrational dephasing and vibrational frequency modulation by calculating time correlation functions of vibrational relaxation by fits in the frequency domain. The concentration induced variations in bandwidths, band frequencies and characteristic dephasing times have been estimated and interpreted as effects due to solute-solvent interactions. The time-correlation functions of vibrational dephasing were obtained for the ring breathing mode of both "free" and hydrogen-bonded pyridine molecules and it was found that sufficiently deviate from the Kubo model. There is a general agreement in the whole concentration range with the modeling proposed by the Rothschild approach, which applies to complex liquids. The results have shown that the reorientation of pyridine aqueous solutions is very slow and hence in both scattering geometries only vibrational dephasing is probed. It is proposed that the spectral changes depend on the perturbations induced by the dynamics of the water molecules in the first hydration cell and water in bulk, while at extreme dilution conditions, the number of bulk water molecules increases and the interchange between molecules belonging to the first hydration cell may not be the predominant modulation mechanism. The evolution of several parameters, such as the characteristic times, the percentage of Gaussian character in the peak shape and the a parameter are indicative of drastic variations at extreme dilution revealing changes in the vibrational relaxation of the pyridine complexes in the aqueous environment. The higher dilution is correlated to diffusion of water molecules into the reference pyridine system in agreement with the jump diffusion model, while at extreme dilutions, almost all pyridine molecules are

  15. Quantum Metrology beyond the Classical Limit under the Effect of Dephasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Benjamin, Simon; Nakayama, Shojun; Saito, Shiro; Munro, William J.

    2018-04-01

    Quantum sensors have the potential to outperform their classical counterparts. For classical sensing, the uncertainty of the estimation of the target fields scales inversely with the square root of the measurement time T . On the other hand, by using quantum resources, we can reduce this scaling of the uncertainty with time to 1 /T . However, as quantum states are susceptible to dephasing, it has not been clear whether we can achieve sensitivities with a scaling of 1 /T for a measurement time longer than the coherence time. Here, we propose a scheme that estimates the amplitude of globally applied fields with the uncertainty of 1 /T for an arbitrary time scale under the effect of dephasing. We use one-way quantum-computing-based teleportation between qubits to prevent any increase in the correlation between the quantum state and its local environment from building up and have shown that such a teleportation protocol can suppress the local dephasing while the information from the target fields keeps growing. Our method has the potential to realize a quantum sensor with a sensitivity far beyond that of any classical sensor.

  16. Single-shot gas-phase thermometry by time-to-frequency mapping of coherence dephasing.

    PubMed

    Yue, Orin; Bremer, Marshall T; Pestov, Dmitry; Gord, James R; Roy, Sukesh; Dantus, Marcos

    2012-08-09

    We demonstrate a single-beam coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) technique for gas-phase thermometry that assesses the species-specific local gas temperature by single-shot time-to-frequency mapping of Raman-coherence dephasing. The proof-of-principle experiments are performed with air in a temperature-controlled gas cell. Impulsive excitation of molecular vibrations by an ultrashort pump/Stokes pulse is followed by multipulse probing of the 2330 cm(-1) Raman transition of N(2). This sequence of colored probe pulses, delayed in time with respect to each other and corresponding to three isolated spectral bands, imprints the coherence dephasing onto the measured CARS spectrum. For calibration purposes, the dephasing rates are recorded at various gas temperatures, and the relationship is fitted to a linear regression. The calibration data are then used to determine the gas temperature and are shown to provide better than 15 K accuracy. The described approach is insensitive to pulse energy fluctuations and can, in principle, gauge the temperature of multiple chemical species in a single laser shot, which is deemed particularly valuable for temperature profiling of reacting flows in gas-turbine combustors.

  17. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  18. Suppression of exciton dephasing in sidewall-functionalized carbon nanotubes embedded into metallo-dielectric antennas.

    PubMed

    Shayan, Kamran; He, Xiaowei; Luo, Yue; Rabut, Claire; Li, Xiangzhi; Hartmann, Nicolai F; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Doorn, Stephen K; Htoon, Han; Strauf, Stefan

    2018-06-26

    Covalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is a promising route to enhance the quantum yield of exciton emission and can lead to single-photon emission at room temperature. However, the spectral linewidth of the defect-related E11* emission remains rather broad. Here, we systematically investigate the low-temperature exciton emission of individual SWCNTs that have been dispersed with sodium-deoxycholate (DOC) and polyfluorene (PFO-BPy), are grown by laser vaporization (LV) or by CoMoCat techniques and are functionalized with oxygen as well as 3,5-dichlorobenzene groups. The E11 excitons in oxygen-functionalized SWCNTs remain rather broad with up to 10 meV linewidth while exciton emission from 3,5-dichlorobenzene functionalized SWCNTs is found to be about one order of magnitude narrower. In all cases, wrapping with PFO-BPy provides significantly better protection against pump induced dephasing compared to DOC. To further study the influence of exciton localization on pump-induced dephasing, we have embedded the functionalized SWCNTs into metallo-dielectric antenna cavities to maximize light collection. We show that 0D excitons attributed to the E11* emission of 3,5-dichlorobenzene quantum defects of LV-grown SWCNTs can display near resolution-limited linewidths down to 35 μeV. Interestingly, these 0D excitons give rise to a 3-fold suppressed pump-induced exciton dephasing compared to the E11 excitons in the same SWCNT. These findings provide a foundation to build a unified description of the emergence of novel optical behavior from the interplay of covalently introduced defects, dispersants, and exciton confinement in SWCNTs and might further lead to the realization of indistinguishable photons from carbon nanotubes.

  19. Effect of solvent polarity on the vibrational dephasing dynamics of the nitrosyl stretch in an Fe(II) complex revealed by 2D IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Jennifer F; Slenkamp, Karla M; Lynch, Michael S; Khalil, Munira

    2013-07-25

    The vibrational dephasing dynamics of the nitrosyl stretching vibration (ν(NO)) in sodium nitroprusside (SNP, Na2[Fe(CN)5NO]·2H2O) are investigated using two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy. The ν(NO) in SNP acts as a model system for the nitrosyl ligand found in metalloproteins which play an important role in the transportation and detection of nitric oxide (NO) in biological systems. We perform a 2D IR line shape study of the ν(NO) in the following solvents: water, deuterium oxide, methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol, formamide, and dimethyl sulfoxide. The frequency of the ν(NO) exhibits a large vibrational solvatochromic shift of 52 cm(-1), ranging from 1884 cm(-1) in dimethyl sulfoxide to 1936 cm(-1) in water. The vibrational anharmonicity of the ν(NO) varies from 21 to 28 cm(-1) in the solvents used in this study. The frequency-frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) of the ν(NO) in SNP in each of the seven solvents are obtained by fitting the experimentally obtained 2D IR spectra using nonlinear response theory. The fits to the 2D IR line shape reveal that the spectral diffusion time scale of the ν(NO) in SNP varies from 0.8 to 4 ps and is negatively correlated with the empirical solvent polarity scales. We compare our results with the experimentally determined FFCFs of other charged vibrational probes in polar solvents and in the active sites of heme proteins. Our results suggest that the vibrational dephasing dynamics of the ν(NO) in SNP reflect the fluctuations of the nonhomogeneous electric field created by the polar solvents around the nitrosyl and cyanide ligands. The solute solvent interactions occurring at the trans-CN ligand are sensed through the π-back-bonding network along the Fe-NO bond in SNP.

  20. Picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) study of vibrational dephasing of carbon disulfide and benzene in solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Joseph W.; Woodward, Anne M.; Stephenson, John C.

    1986-01-01

    The vibrational dephasing of the 656/cm mode (nu1, a1g) of CS2 and the 991/cm mode (nu2, a1g) of benzene have been studied as a function of concentration in mixtures with a number of solvents using a ps time-resolved CARS technique. This technique employs two tunable synchronously-pumped mode-locked dye lasers in a stimulated Raman pump, coherent anti-Stokes Raman probe time-resolved experiment. Results are obtained for CS2 in carbon tetrachloride, benzene, nitrobenzene, and ethanol and for benzene nu2 in CS2. The dephasing rates of CS2 nu1 increase on dilution with the polar solvents and decrease or remain constant on dilution with the nonpolar solvents. The CS2/benzene solutions show a contrasting behavior, with the CS2 nu1 dephasing rate being nearly independent of concentration whereas the benzene nu2 dephasing rate decreases on dilution. These results are compared to theoretical models for vibrational dephasing of polyatomic molecules in solution.

  1. Ultrafast Dephasing and Incoherent Light Photon Echoes in Organic Amorphous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Ryuzi; Matsumoto, Yoshinori; Tani, Toshiro; Nakatsuka, Hiroki

    1989-10-01

    Incoherent light photon echoes were observed in organic amorphous systems (cresyl violet in polyvinyl alcohol and 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone in polymethacrylic acid) by using temporally-incoherent nanosecond laser pulses. It was found that an echo decay curve of an organic amorphous system is composed of a sharp peak which decays very rapidly and a slowly decaying wing at the tail. We show that the persistent hole burning (PHB) spectra were reproduced by the Fourier-cosine transforms of the echo decay curves. We claim that in general, we must take into account the multi-level feature of the system in order to explain ultrafast dephasing at very low temperatures.

  2. Hole dephasing caused by hole-hole interaction in a multilayered black phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijun; Khan, Muhammad Atif; Lee, Yoontae; Lee, Inyeal; Yun, Sun Jin; Youn, Doo-Hyeb; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2017-11-01

    We study the magnetotransport of holes in a multilayered black phosphorus in a temperature range of 1.9 to 21.5 K. We observed a negative magnetoresistance at magnetic fields up to 1.5 T. This negative magetoresistance was analyzed by weak localization theory in diffusive regime. At the lowest temperature and the highest carrier density we found a phase coherence length of 48 nm. The linear temperature dependence of the dephasing rate shows that the hole-hole scattering processes with small energy transfer are the dominant contribution in breaking the carrier phase coherence.

  3. Diffusion-mediated dephasing in the dipole field around a single spherical magnetic object.

    PubMed

    Buschle, Lukas R; Kurz, Felix T; Kampf, Thomas; Triphan, Simon M F; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Ziener, Christian Herbert

    2015-11-01

    In this work, the time evolution of the free induction decay caused by the local dipole field of a spherical magnetic perturber is analyzed. The complicated treatment of the diffusion process is replaced by the strong-collision-approximation that allows a determination of the free induction decay in dependence of the underlying microscopic tissue parameters such as diffusion coefficient, sphere radius and susceptibility difference. The interplay between susceptibility- and diffusion-mediated effects yields several dephasing regimes of which, so far, only the classical regimes of motional narrowing and static dephasing for dominant and negligible diffusion, respectively, were extensively examined. Due to the asymmetric form of the dipole field for spherical objects, the free induction decay exhibits a complex component in contradiction to the cylindrical case, where the symmetric local dipole field only causes a purely real induction decay. Knowledge of the shape of the corresponding frequency distribution is necessary for the evaluation of more sophisticated pulse sequences and a detailed understanding of the off-resonance distribution allows improved quantification of transverse relaxation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dephasing due to Nuclear Spins in Large-Amplitude Electric Dipole Spin Resonance.

    PubMed

    Chesi, Stefano; Yang, Li-Ping; Loss, Daniel

    2016-02-12

    We analyze effects of the hyperfine interaction on electric dipole spin resonance when the amplitude of the quantum-dot motion becomes comparable or larger than the quantum dot's size. Away from the well-known small-drive regime, the important role played by transverse nuclear fluctuations leads to a Gaussian decay with characteristic dependence on drive strength and detuning. A characterization of spin-flip gate fidelity, in the presence of such additional drive-dependent dephasing, shows that vanishingly small errors can still be achieved at sufficiently large amplitudes. Based on our theory, we analyze recent electric dipole spin resonance experiments relying on spin-orbit interactions or the slanting field of a micromagnet. We find that such experiments are already in a regime with significant effects of transverse nuclear fluctuations and the form of decay of the Rabi oscillations can be reproduced well by our theory.

  5. Dephasing of LO-phonon-plasmon hybrid modes in n-type GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallée, F.; Ganikhanov, F.; Bogani, F.

    1997-11-01

    The relaxation dynamics of coherent phononlike LO-phonon-plasmon hybrid modes is investigated in n-doped GaAs using an infrared time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering technique. Measurements performed for different crystal temperatures in the range 10-300 K as a function of the electron density injected by doping show a large reduction of the hybrid mode dephasing time compared to the bare LO-phonon one for densities larger than 1016 cm-3. The results are interpreted in terms of coherent decay of the LO-phonon-plasmon mixed mode in the weak-coupling regime and yield information on the plasmon and electron relaxation. The estimated average electron momentum relaxation times are smaller than those deduced from Hall mobility measurements, as expected from our theoretical model.

  6. The effect of dephasing on the thermoelectric efficiency of molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A

    2014-07-09

    In this work we report the results of theoretical analysis of the effect of the thermal environment on the thermoelectric efficiency of molecular junctions. The environment is represented by two thermal phonon baths associated with the electrodes, which are kept at different temperatures. The analysis is carried out using the Buttiker model within the scattering matrix formalism to compute electron transmission through the system. This approach is further developed so that the dephasing parameters are expressed in terms of relevant energies, including the thermal energy, strengths of coupling between the molecular bridge and the electrodes and characteristic energies of electron-phonon interactions. It is shown that the latter significantly affect thermoelectric efficiency by destroying the coherency of electron transport through the considered system.

  7. Implementation and characterization of a controllable dephasing channel based on coupling polarization and spatial degrees of freedom of light.

    PubMed

    Urrego, Daniel F; Álvarez, Juan-Rafael; Calderón-Losada, Omar; Svozilík, Jiří; Nuñez, Mayerlin; Valencia, Alejandra

    2018-04-30

    We present the experimental implementation and theoretical model of a controllable dephasing quantum channel using photonic systems. The channel is implemented by coupling the polarization and the spatial distribution of light that play, in the perspective of open quantum systems, the role of quantum system and environment, respectively. The capability of controlling our channel allows us to visualize its effects in a quantum system. Different from standard dephasing channels, our channel presents an exotic behavior in the sense that the evolution of a state, from a pure to a mixed state, shows an oscillatory behavior if tracked in the Bloch sphere. Additionally, we report the evolution of the purity and perform a quantum process tomography to obtain the χ matrix associated to our channel.

  8. Improving the accuracy and efficiency of time-resolved electronic spectra calculations: cellular dephasing representation with a prefactor.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Eduardo; Šulc, Miroslav; Vaníček, Jiří

    2013-08-07

    Time-resolved electronic spectra can be obtained as the Fourier transform of a special type of time correlation function known as fidelity amplitude, which, in turn, can be evaluated approximately and efficiently with the dephasing representation. Here we improve both the accuracy of this approximation-with an amplitude correction derived from the phase-space propagator-and its efficiency-with an improved cellular scheme employing inverse Weierstrass transform and optimal scaling of the cell size. We demonstrate the advantages of the new methodology by computing dispersed time-resolved stimulated emission spectra in the harmonic potential, pyrazine, and the NCO molecule. In contrast, we show that in strongly chaotic systems such as the quartic oscillator the original dephasing representation is more appropriate than either the cellular or prefactor-corrected methods.

  9. Vibrational frequencies and dephasing times in excited electronic states by femtosecond time-resolved four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Taiha; Albrecht, A. C.

    1993-06-01

    Time-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing (TRDFWM) for an electronically resonant system in a phase-matching configuration that measures population decay is reported. Because the spectral width of input light exceeds the vibrational Bohr frequency of a strong Raman active mode, the vibrational coherence produces strong oscillations in the TRDFWM signal together with the usual population decay from the excited electronic state. The data are analyzed in terms of a four-level system: ground and excited electronic states each split by a vibrational quantum of a Raman active mode. Absolute frequencies and their dephasing times of the vibrational modes at ≈590 cm -1 are obtained for the excited as well as the ground electronic state. The vibrational dephasing rate in the excited electronic state is about an order of magnitude faster than that in the ground state, the origin of which is speculated upon.

  10. Acoustic phonon dephasing in shallow GaAs/Ga 1- xAl xAs single quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassabois, G.; Meccherini, S.; Roussignol, Ph.; Bogani, F.; Gurioli, M.; Colocci, M.; Planel, R.; Thierry-Mieg, V.

    1998-07-01

    The intermediate dimensionality regime is studied on a set of shallow GaAs/Ga 1- xAl xAs single quantum wells. Such heterostructures exhibit 2D strong excitonic electroabsorption together with near 3D fast transport properties. We report dephasing time measurements ( T2) of the heavy-hole exciton and we show that the acoustic phonon contribution decreases with x to a value in good agreement with theoretical predictions for GaAs bulk.

  11. Control quantum evolution speed of a single dephasing qubit for arbitrary initial states via periodic dynamical decoupling pulses.

    PubMed

    Song, Ya-Ju; Tan, Qing-Shou; Kuang, Le-Man

    2017-03-08

    We investigate the possibility to control quantum evolution speed of a single dephasing qubit for arbitrary initial states by the use of periodic dynamical decoupling (PDD) pulses. It is indicated that the quantum speed limit time (QSLT) is determined by initial and final quantum coherence of the qubit, as well as the non-Markovianity of the system under consideration during the evolution when the qubit is subjected to a zero-temperature Ohmic-like dephasing reservoir. It is shown that final quantum coherence of the qubit and the non-Markovianity of the system can be modulated by PDD pulses. Our results show that for arbitrary initial states of the dephasing qubit with non-vanishing quantum coherence, PDD pulses can be used to induce potential acceleration of the quantum evolution in the short-time regime, while PDD pulses can lead to potential speedup and slow down in the long-time regime. We demonstrate that the effect of PDD on the QSLT for the Ohmic or sub-Ohmic spectrum (Markovian reservoir) is much different from that for the super-Ohmic spectrum (non-Markovian reservoir).

  12. Characterization of alkyl carbon in forest soils by CPMAS 13C NMR spectroscopy and dipolar dephasing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kogel-Knabner, I.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1989-01-01

    Samples obtained from forest soils at different stages of decomposition were treated sequentially with chloroform/methanol (extraction of lipids), sulfuric acid (hydrolysis), and sodium chlorite (delignification) to enrich them in refractory alkyl carbon. As revealed by NMR spectroscopy, this treatment yielded residues with high contents of alkyl carbon. In the NMR spectra of residues obtained from litter samples, resonances for carbohydrates are also present, indicating that these carbohydrates are tightly bound to the alkyl carbon structures. During decomposition in the soils this resistant carbohydrate fraction is lost almost completely. In the litter samples the alkyl carbon shows a dipolar dephasing behavior indicative of two structural components, a rigid and a more mobile component. As depth and decomposition increase, only the rigid component is observed. This fact could be due to selective degradation of the mobile component or to changes in molecular mobility during decomposition, e.g., because of an increase in cross linking or contact with the mineral matter of the soil.

  13. Dynamics of tripartite quantum entanglement and discord under a classical dephasing random telegraph noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenfack, Lionel Tenemeza; Tchoffo, Martin; Fai, Lukong Cornelius

    2017-02-01

    We address the dynamics of quantum correlations, including entanglement and quantum discord of a three-qubit system interacting with a classical pure dephasing random telegraph noise (RTN) in three different physical environmental situations (independent, mixed and common environments). Two initial entangled states of the system are examined, namely the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)- and Werner (W)-type states. The classical noise is introduced as a stochastic process affecting the energy splitting of the qubits. With the help of suitable measures of tripartite entanglement (entanglement witnesses and lower bound of concurrence) and quantum discord (global quantum discord and quantum dissension), we show that the evolution of quantum correlations is not only affected by the type of the system-environment interaction but also by the input configuration of the qubits and the memory properties of the environmental noise. Indeed, depending on the memory properties of the environmental noise and the initial state considered, we find that independent, common and mixed environments can play opposite roles in preserving quantum correlations, and that the sudden death and revival phenomena or the survival of quantum correlations may occur. On the other hand, we also show that the W-type state has strong dynamics under this noise than the GHZ-type ones.

  14. Simulation of vibrational dephasing of I(2) in solid Kr using the semiclassical Liouville method.

    PubMed

    Riga, Jeanne M; Fredj, Erick; Martens, Craig C

    2006-02-14

    In this paper, we present simulations of the decay of quantum coherence between vibrational states of I(2) in its ground (X) electronic state embedded in a cryogenic Kr matrix. We employ a numerical method based on the semiclassical limit of the quantum Liouville equation, which allows the simulation of the evolution and decay of quantum vibrational coherence using classical trajectories and ensemble averaging. The vibrational level-dependent interaction of the I(2)(X) oscillator with the rare-gas environment is modeled using a recently developed method for constructing state-dependent many-body potentials for quantum vibrations in a many-body classical environment [J. M. Riga, E. Fredj, and C. C. Martens, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 174107 (2005)]. The vibrational dephasing rates gamma(0n) for coherences prepared between the ground vibrational state mid R:0 and excited vibrational state mid R:n are calculated as a function of n and lattice temperature T. Excellent agreement with recent experiments performed by Karavitis et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 7, 791 (2005)] is obtained.

  15. Excited-state structure and electronic dephasing time of Nile blue from absolute resonance Raman intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawless, Mary K.; Mathies, Richard A.

    1992-06-01

    Absolute resonance Raman cross sections are measured for Nile blue 690 perchlorate dissolved in ethylene glycol with excitation at 514, 531, and 568 nm. These values and the absorption spectrum are modeled using a time-dependent wave packet formalism. The excited-state equilibrium geometry changes are quantitated for 40 resonance Raman active modes, seven of which (590, 1141, 1351, 1429, 1492, 1544, and 1640 cm-1 ) carry 70% of the total resonance Raman intensity. This demonstrates that in addition to the prominent 590 and 1640 cm-1 modes, a large number of vibrational degrees of freedom are Franck-Condon coupled to the electronic transition. After exposure of the explicit vibrational progressions, the residual absorption linewidth is separated into its homogeneous [350 cm-1 half-width at half-maximum (HWHM)] and inhomogeneous (313 cm-1 HWHM) components through an analysis of the absolute Raman cross sections. The value of the electronic dephasing time derived from this study (25 fs) compares well to previously published results. These data should be valuable in multimode modeling of femtosecond experiments on Nile blue.

  16. Prolonged spontaneous emission and dephasing of localized excitons in air-bridged carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarpkaya, Ibrahim; Zhang, Zhengyi; Walden-Newman, William; Wang, Xuesi; Hone, James; Wong, Chee W.; Strauf, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    The bright exciton emission of carbon nanotubes is appealing for optoelectronic devices and fundamental studies of light-matter interaction in one-dimensional nanostructures. However, to date, the photophysics of excitons in carbon nanotubes is largely affected by extrinsic effects. Here we perform time-resolved photoluminescence measurements over 14 orders of magnitude for ultra-clean carbon nanotubes bridging an air gap over pillar posts. Our measurements demonstrate a new regime of intrinsic exciton photophysics with prolonged spontaneous emission times up to T1=18 ns, about two orders of magnitude better than prior measurements and in agreement with values hypothesized by theorists about a decade ago. Furthermore, we establish for the first time exciton decoherence times of individual nanotubes in the time domain and find fourfold prolonged values up to T2=2.1 ps compared with ensemble measurements. These first observations motivate new discussions about the magnitude of the intrinsic dephasing mechanism while the prolonged exciton dynamics is promising for applications.

  17. Effect of gauge-field interaction on fermion transport in two dimensions: Hartree conductivity correction and dephasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, T.; Gornyi, I. V.; Mirlin, A. D.; Wölfle, P.

    2008-06-01

    We consider the quantum corrections to the conductivity of fermions interacting via a Chern Simons gauge field and concentrate on the Hartree-type contributions. The first-order Hartree approximation is only valid in the limit of weak coupling λ≪g-1/2 to the gauge field ( g≫1 is the dimensionless conductance) and results in an antilocalizing conductivity correction ˜λ2gln2T . In the case of strong coupling, an infinite summation of higher-order terms is necessary, which includes both the virtual (renormalization of the frequency) and real (dephasing) processes. At intermediate temperatures, T0≪T≪gT0 , where T0˜1/g2τ and τ is the elastic scattering time, the T dependence of the conductivity is determined by the Hartree correction, δσH(T)-δσH(gT0)∝g1/2-(T/T0)1/2[1+ln(gT0/T)1/2] , so that σ(T) increases with lowering T . At low temperatures, T≪T0 , the temperature-dependent part of the Hartree correction assumes a logarithmic form with a coefficient of order unity, δσH∝ln(1/T) . As a result, the negative exchange contribution δσex∝-lngln(1/T) becomes dominant, which yields localization in the limit of T→0 . We further discuss dephasing at strong coupling and show that the dephasing rates are of the order of T , owing to the interplay of inelastic scattering and renormalization. On the other hand, the dephasing length is anomalously short, Lφ≪LT , where LT is the thermal length. For the case of composite fermions with long-range Coulomb interaction, the gauge-field propagator is less singular. The resulting Hartree correction has the usual sign and temperature dependence, δσH∝lngln(1/T) , and for realistic g is overcompensated by the negative exchange contribution due to the gauge-boson and scalar parts of the interaction. In this case, the dephasing length Lφ is of the order of LT for not too low temperatures and exceeds LT for T≲gT0 .

  18. Equivalence principle for quantum systems: dephasing and phase shift of free-falling particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastopoulos, C.; Hu, B. L.

    2018-02-01

    We ask the question of how the (weak) equivalence principle established in classical gravitational physics should be reformulated and interpreted for massive quantum objects that may also have internal degrees of freedom (dof). This inquiry is necessary because even elementary concepts like a classical trajectory are not well defined in quantum physics—trajectories originating from quantum histories become viable entities only under stringent decoherence conditions. From this investigation we posit two logically and operationally distinct statements of the equivalence principle for quantum systems. Version A: the probability distribution of position for a free-falling particle is the same as the probability distribution of a free particle, modulo a mass-independent shift of its mean. Version B: any two particles with the same velocity wave-function behave identically in free fall, irrespective of their masses. Both statements apply to all quantum states, including those without a classical correspondence, and also for composite particles with quantum internal dof. We also investigate the consequences of the interaction between internal and external dof induced by free fall. For a class of initial states, we find dephasing occurs for the translational dof, namely, the suppression of the off-diagonal terms of the density matrix, in the position basis. We also find a gravitational phase shift in the reduced density matrix of the internal dof that does not depend on the particle’s mass. For classical states, the phase shift has a natural classical interpretation in terms of gravitational red-shift and special relativistic time-dilation.

  19. Dependence of spin dephasing on initial spin polarization in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stich, D.; Zhou, J.; Korn, T.; Schulz, R.; Schuh, D.; Wegscheider, W.; Wu, M. W.; Schüller, C.

    2007-11-01

    We have studied the spin dynamics of a high-mobility two-dimensional electron system in a GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As single quantum well by time-resolved Faraday rotation and time-resolved Kerr rotation in dependence on the initial degree of spin polarization, P , of the electrons. By increasing the initial spin polarization from the low- P regime to a significant P of several percent, we find that the spin dephasing time, T2* , increases from about 20to200ps . Moreover, T2* increases with temperature at small spin polarization but decreases with temperature at large spin polarization. All these features are in good agreement with theoretical predictions by Weng and Wu [Phys. Rev. B 68, 075312 (2003)]. Measurements as a function of spin polarization at fixed electron density are performed to further confirm the theory. A fully microscopic calculation is performed by setting up and numerically solving the kinetic spin Bloch equations, including the D’yakonov-Perel’ and the Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanisms, with all the scattering explicitly included. We reproduce all principal features of the experiments, i.e., a dramatic decrease of spin dephasing with increasing P and the temperature dependences at different spin polarizations.

  20. The chemical structure of highly aromatic humic acids in three volcanic ash soils as determined by dipolar dephasing NMR studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; Schnitzer, M.; Vassallo, A.M.; Wilson, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Dipolar dephasing 13C NMR studies of three highly aromatic humic acids, one from a modern soil and two from paleosols, have permitted the determination of the degree of aromatic substitution. From these data and the normal solid-state 13C NMR data we have been able to develop a model for the average chemical structure of these humic acids that generally correlates well with permanganate oxidation data. The models depict these humic acids as benzene di- and tricarboxylic acids interconnected by biphenyl linkages. An increasing degree of substitution is observed with increasing geologic age. These structures may be characteristic of the resistant aromatic part of the "core" of humic substances that survives degradation. ?? 1989.

  1. Composite-pulse and partially dipolar dephased multiCP for improved quantitative solid-state 13C NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Pu; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2017-12-01

    Improved multiple cross polarization (multiCP) pulse sequences for quickly acquiring quantitative 13C NMR spectra of organic solids are presented. Loss of 13C magnetization due to imperfect read-out and storage pulses in multiCP has been identified as a significant mechanism limiting polarization enhancement for 13C sites with weak couplings to 1H. This problem can be greatly reduced by composite 90° pulses with non-orthogonal phases that flip the magnetization onto the spin-lock field and back to the longitudinal direction for the 1H repolarization period; the observed loss is <3% for over ±10 kHz resonance offset and up to 20% flip-angle error. This composite-pulse multiCP (ComPmultiCP) sequence consistently provides performance superior to that of conventional multiCP, without any trade-off. The longer total CP time enabled by the composite pulses allows for a wider amplitude ramp during CP, which decreases the sensitivity to Hartmann-Hahn mismatch by a factor of two, with a <7% root-mean-square deviation within a 1-dB range for Boc-alanine. In samples with very short T1ρ, under-polarization of non-protonated carbons can be compensated by slight dipolar dephasing of CHn signals resulting from relatively weak decoupling during the Hahn spin echo period before detection. Quantitative spectra have been obtained by ComPmultiCP for low-crystallinity branched polyethylene at 4.5 kHz MAS, and in combination with partial dipolar dephasing for soil organic matter at 14 kHz MAS.

  2. T-2 in Coherent Optics: Collision, Dephasing Time, or Reciprocal Linewidth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettel, Stephen J.; Lempicki, Alexander

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how the frequency domain (line widths) and time domain (coherent optical transients) are related to the concept of transverse relaxation time in the study of high resolution optical spectroscopy. (HM)

  3. Strong Coupling of Epsilon-Near-Zero Phonon Polaritons in Polar Dielectric Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Passler, Nikolai Christian; Gubbin, Christopher R; Folland, Thomas Graeme; Razdolski, Ilya; Katzer, D Scott; Storm, David F; Wolf, Martin; De Liberato, Simone; Caldwell, Joshua D; Paarmann, Alexander

    2018-06-18

    We report the first observation of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) phonon polaritons in an ultrathin AlN film fully hybridized with surface phonon polaritons (SPhP) supported by the adjacent SiC substrate. Employing a strong coupling model for the analysis of the dispersion and electric field distribution in these hybridized modes, we show that they share the most prominent features of the two precursor modes. The novel ENZ-SPhP coupled polaritons with a highly propagative character and deeply subwavelength light confinement can be utilized as building blocks for future infrared and terahertz nanophotonic integration and communication devices.

  4. Equivalence of qubit-environment entanglement and discord generation via pure dephasing interactions and the resulting consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszak, Katarzyna; Cywiński, Łukasz

    2018-01-01

    We find that when a qubit initialized in a pure state experiences pure dephasing due to interaction with an environment, separable qubit-environment states generated during the evolution also have zero quantum discord with respect to the environment. What follows is that the set of separable states which can be reached during the evolution has zero volume, and hence, such effects as sudden death of qubit-environment entanglement are very unlikely. In the case of the discord with respect to the qubit, a vast majority of qubit-environment separable states is discordant, but in specific situations zero-discord states are possible. This is conceptually important since there is a connection between the discordance with respect to a given subsystem and the possibility of describing the evolution of this subsystem using completely positive maps. Finally, we use the formalism to find an exemplary evolution of an entangled state of two qubits that is completely positive, and occurs solely due to interaction of only one of the qubits with its environment (so one could guess that it corresponds to a local operation, since it is local in a physical sense), but which nevertheless causes the enhancement of entanglement between the qubits. While this simply means that the considered evolution is completely positive, but does not belong to local operations and classical communication, it shows how much caution has to be exercised when identifying evolution channels that belong to that class.

  5. Dephasing in a 5/2 quantum Hall Mach-Zehnder interferometer due to the presence of neutral edge modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinaii, Yehuda; Goldstein, Moshe; Gefen, Yuval

    Non-Abelian statistics is an intriguing feature predicted to characterize quasiparticles in certain topological phases of matter. This property is both fascinating on the theoretical side and the key ingredient for the implementation of future topological quantum computers. A smoking gun manifestation of non-Abelian statistics consists of demonstrating that braiding of quasiparticles leads to transitions among different states in the relevant degenerate Hilbert manifold. This can be achieved utilizing a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, where Coulomb effects can be neglected, and the electric current is expected to carry clear signatures of non-Abelianity. Here we argue that attempts to measure non-Abelian statistics in the prominent quantum Hall fraction of 5/2 may fail; this can be understood by studying the corresponding edge theory at finite temperatures and bias. We find that the presence of neutral modes imposes stronger limitations on the experimental conditions as compared to quantum Hall states that do not support neutral edge modes. We discuss how to overcome this hindrance. Interestingly, neutral-mode-induced dephasing can be quite different in the Pfaffian state as compared to the anti-Pfaffian state, if the neutral and charge velocities are comparable.

  6. Relation of exact Gaussian basis methods to the dephasing representation: Theory and application to time-resolved electronic spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulc, Miroslav; Hernandez, Henar; Martinez, Todd J.; Vanicek, Jiri

    2014-03-01

    We recently showed that the Dephasing Representation (DR) provides an efficient tool for computing ultrafast electronic spectra and that cellularization yields further acceleration [M. Šulc and J. Vaníček, Mol. Phys. 110, 945 (2012)]. Here we focus on increasing its accuracy by first implementing an exact Gaussian basis method (GBM) combining the accuracy of quantum dynamics and efficiency of classical dynamics. The DR is then derived together with ten other methods for computing time-resolved spectra with intermediate accuracy and efficiency. These include the Gaussian DR (GDR), an exact generalization of the DR, in which trajectories are replaced by communicating frozen Gaussians evolving classically with an average Hamiltonian. The methods are tested numerically on time correlation functions and time-resolved stimulated emission spectra in the harmonic potential, pyrazine S0 /S1 model, and quartic oscillator. Both the GBM and the GDR are shown to increase the accuracy of the DR. Surprisingly, in chaotic systems the GDR can outperform the presumably more accurate GBM, in which the two bases evolve separately. This research was supported by the Swiss NSF Grant No. 200021_124936/1 and NCCR Molecular Ultrafast Science & Technology (MUST), and by the EPFL.

  7. Dephasing rates for weak localization and universal conductance fluctuations in two dimensional Si:P and Ge:P δ-layers.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Saquib; Mahapatra, S; Scappucci, G; Klesse, W M; Simmons, M Y; Ghosh, Arindam

    2017-05-04

    We report quantum transport measurements on two dimensional (2D) Si:P and Ge:P δ-layers and compare the inelastic scattering rates relevant for weak localization (WL) and universal conductance fluctuations (UCF) for devices of various doping densities (0.3-2.5 × 10 18 m -2 ) at low temperatures (0.3-4.2 K). The phase breaking rate extracted experimentally from measurements of WL correction to conductivity and UCF agree well with each other within the entire temperature range. This establishes that WL and UCF, being the outcome of quantum interference phenomena, are governed by the same dephasing rate.

  8. Determining the nature of excitonic dephasing in high-quality GaN/AlGaN quantum wells through time-resolved and spectrally resolved four-wave mixing spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallart, M.; Ziegler, M.; Crégut, O.; Feltin, E.; Carlin, J.-F.; Butté, R.; Grandjean, N.; Hönerlage, B.; Gilliot, P.

    2017-07-01

    Applying four-wave mixing spectroscopy to a high-quality GaN/AlGaN single quantum well, we report on the experimental determination of excitonic dephasing times at different temperatures and exciton densities in III-nitride heterostructures. By comparing the evolution with the temperature of the dephasing and the spin-relaxation rate, we conclude that both processes are related to the rate of excitonic collisions. When spin relaxation occurs in the motional-narrowing regime, it remains constant over a large temperature range as the spin-precession frequency increases linearly with temperature, hence compensating for the observed decrease in the dephasing time. From those measurements, a value of the electron-hole exchange interaction strength of 0.45 meV at T =10 K is inferred.

  9. Dipolar-dephasing 13C NMR studies of decomposed wood and coalified xylem tissue: Evidence for chemical structural changes associated with defunctionalization of lignin structural units during coalification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    A series of decomposed and coalified gymnosperm woods was examined by conventional solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and by dipolar-dephasing NMR techniques. The results of these NMR studies for a histologically related series of samples provide clues as to the nature of codification reactions that lead to the defunctionalization of lignin-derived aromatic structures. These reactions sequentially involve the following: (1) loss of methoxyl carbons from guaiacyl structural units with replacement by hydroxyls and increased condensation; (2) loss of hydroxyls or aryl ethers with replacement by hydrogen as rank increases from lignin to high-volatile bituminous coal; (3) loss of alkyl groups with continued replacement by hydrogen. The dipolar-dephasing data show that the early stages of coalification in samples examined (lignin to lignite) involve a decreasing degree of protonation on aromatic rings and suggest that condensation is significant during coalification at this early stage. An increasing degree of protonation on aromatic rings is observed as the rank of the sample increases from lignite to anthracite.

  10. Quench dynamics of one-dimensional interacting bosons in a disordered potential: elastic dephasing and critical speeding-up of thermalization.

    PubMed

    Tavora, Marco; Rosch, Achim; Mitra, Aditi

    2014-07-04

    The dynamics of interacting bosons in one dimension following the sudden switching on of a weak disordered potential is investigated. On time scales before quasiparticles scatter (prethermalized regime), the dephasing from random elastic forward scattering causes all correlations to decay exponentially fast, but the system remains far from thermal equilibrium. For longer times, the combined effect of disorder and interactions gives rise to inelastic scattering and to thermalization. A novel quantum kinetic equation accounting for both disorder and interactions is employed to study the dynamics. Thermalization turns out to be most effective close to the superfluid-Bose-glass critical point where nonlinearities become more and more important. The numerically obtained thermalization times are found to agree well with analytic estimates.

  11. Towards homonuclear J solid-state NMR correlation experiments for half-integer quadrupolar nuclei: experimental and simulated 11B MAS spin-echo dephasing and calculated 2J(BB) coupling constants for lithium diborate.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Nathan S; Yates, Jonathan R; Feller, Steven A; Holland, Diane; Ashbrook, Sharon E; Hodgkinson, Paul; Brown, Steven P

    2011-04-07

    Magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spin-echo dephasing is systematically investigated for the spin I = 3/2 (11)B nucleus in lithium diborate, Li(2)O·2B(2)O(3). A clear dependence on the quadrupolar frequency (ω(Q)(PAS)/2π = 3C(Q)/[4I(2I- 1)]) is observed: the B3 (larger C(Q)) site dephases more slowly than the B4 site at all investigated MAS frequencies (5 to 20 kHz) at 14.1 T. Increasing the MAS frequency leads to markedly slower dephasing for the B3 site, while there is a much less evident effect for the B4 site. Considering samples at 5, 25, 80 (natural abundance) and 100% (11)B isotopic abundance, dephasing becomes faster for both sites as the (11)B isotopic abundance increases. The experimental behaviour is rationalised using density matrix simulations for two and three dipolar-coupled (11)B nuclei. The experimentally observed slower dephasing for the larger C(Q) (B3) site is reproduced in all simulations and is explained by the reintroduction of the dipolar coupling by the so-called "spontaneous quadrupolar-driven recoupling mechanism" having a different dependence on the MAS frequency for different quadrupolar frequencies. Specifically, isolated spin-pair simulations show that the spontaneous quadrupolar-driven recoupling mechanism is most efficient when the quadrupolar frequency is equal to twice the MAS frequency. While for isolated spin-pair simulations, increasing the MAS frequency leads to faster dephasing, agreement with experiment is observed for three-spin simulations which additionally include the homogeneous nature of the homonuclear dipolar coupling network. First-principles calculations, using the GIPAW approach, of the (2)J(11B-11B) couplings in lithium diborate, metaborate and triborate are presented: a clear trend is revealed whereby the (2)J(11B-11B) couplings increase with increasing B-O-B bond angle and B-B distance. However, the calculated (2)J(11B-11B) couplings are small (0.95, 1.20 and 2.65 Hz in lithium diborate), thus explaining why no

  12. The effect of thermal de-phasing on the beam quality of a high-power single-pass second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat Hashemi, Somayeh; Ghavami Sabouri, Saeed; Khorsandi, Alireza

    2018-04-01

    We present a theoretical model in order to study the effect of a thermally loaded crystal on the quality of a second-harmonic (SH) beam generated in a high-power pumping regime. The model is provided based on using a particular structure of oven considered for MgO:PPsLT nonlinear crystal to compensate for the thermal de-phasing effect that as the pumping power reaches up to 50 W degrades the conversion efficiency and beam quality of the interacting beams. Hereupon, the quality of fundamental beam is involved in the modeling to investigate the final effect on the beam quality of generated SH beam. Beam quality evaluation is subsequently simulated using Hermite-Gaussian modal decomposition approach for a range of fundamental beam qualities varied from 1 to 3 and for different levels of input powers. To provide a meaningful comparison numerical simulation is correlated with real data deduced from a high-power SH generation (SHG) experimental device. It is found that when using the open-top oven scheme and fixing the fundamental M 2-factor at nearly 1, for a range of input powers changing from 15 to 30 W, the M 2-factor of SHG beam is degraded from 9% to 24%, respectively, confirming very good consistency with the reported experimental results.

  13. Probing Electron-Phonon Interaction through Two-Photon Interference in Resonantly Driven Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reigue, Antoine; Iles-Smith, Jake; Lux, Fabian; Monniello, Léonard; Bernard, Mathieu; Margaillan, Florent; Lemaitre, Aristide; Martinez, Anthony; McCutcheon, Dara P. S.; Mørk, Jesper; Hostein, Richard; Voliotis, Valia

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the temperature dependence of photon coherence properties through two-photon interference (TPI) measurements from a single quantum dot (QD) under resonant excitation. We show that the loss of indistinguishability is related only to the electron-phonon coupling and is not affected by spectral diffusion. Through these measurements and a complementary microscopic theory, we identify two independent separate decoherence processes, both of which are associated with phonons. Below 10 K, we find that the relaxation of the vibrational lattice is the dominant contribution to the loss of TPI visibility. This process is non-Markovian in nature and corresponds to real phonon transitions resulting in a broad phonon sideband in the QD emission spectra. Above 10 K, virtual phonon transitions to higher lying excited states in the QD become the dominant dephasing mechanism, this leads to a broadening of the zero phonon line, and a corresponding rapid decay in the visibility. The microscopic theory we develop provides analytic expressions for the dephasing rates for both virtual phonon scattering and non-Markovian lattice relaxation.

  14. Convergence of Ground and Excited State Properties of Divacancy Defects in 4H-SiC with Computational Cell Size

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-03-01

    computational parameters needs to be established. We used density functional theory to compute defect formation energies of the neutral and charged hh... energies for the 3A to 3E transition (absorption, zero phonon lines, and emission), which is essential for optical initialization and read-out. We...PBE, defect formation energy , charge transition levels, absorption, zero phonon lines, emission 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION

  15. Noncontrast magnetic resonance angiography of the hand: improved arterial conspicuity by multidirectional flow-sensitive dephasing magnetization preparation in 3D balanced steady-state free precession imaging.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhaoyang; Hodnett, Philip A; Davarpanah, Amir H; Scanlon, Timothy G; Sheehan, John J; Varga, John; Carr, James C; Li, Debiao

    2011-08-01

    : To develop a flow-sensitive dephasing (FSD) preparative scheme to facilitate multidirectional flow-signal suppression in 3-dimensional balanced steady-state free precession imaging and to validate the feasibility of the refined sequence for noncontrast magnetic resonance angiography (NC-MRA) of the hand. : A new FSD preparative scheme was developed that combines 2 conventional FSD modules. Studies using a flow phantom (gadolinium-doped water 15 cm/s) and the hands of 11 healthy volunteers (6 males and 5 females) were performed to compare the proposed FSD scheme with its conventional counterpart with respect to the signal suppression of multidirectional flow. In 9 of the 11 healthy subjects and 2 patients with suspected vasculitis and documented Raynaud phenomenon, respectively, 3-dimensional balanced steady-state free precession imaging coupled with the new FSD scheme was compared with spatial-resolution-matched (0.94 × 0.94 × 0.94 mm) contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (0.15 mmol/kg gadopentetate dimeglumine) in terms of overall image quality, venous contamination, motion degradation, and arterial conspicuity. : The proposed FSD scheme was able to suppress 2-dimensional flow signal in the flow phantom and hands and yielded significantly higher arterial conspicuity scores than the conventional scheme did on NC-MRA at the regions of common digitals and proper digitals. Compared with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography, the refined NC-MRA technique yielded comparable overall image quality and motion degradation, significantly less venous contamination, and significantly higher arterial conspicuity score at digital arteries. : The FSD-based NC-MRA technique is improved in the depiction of multidirectional flow by applying a 2-module FSD preparation, which enhances its potential to serve as an alternative magnetic resonance angiography technique for the assessment of hand vascular abnormalities.

  16. Carotid arterial wall MRI at 3T using 3D variable-flip-angle turbo spin-echo (TSE) with flow-sensitive dephasing (FSD).

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Zhuoli; Chung, Yiu-Cho; Weale, Peter; Zuehlsdorff, Sven; Carr, James; Li, Debiao

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of flow-sensitive dephasing (FSD) magnetization preparation in improving blood signal suppression of three-dimensional (3D) turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence (SPACE) for isotropic high-spatial-resolution carotid arterial wall imaging at 3T. The FSD-prepared SPACE sequence (FSD-SPACE) was implemented by adding two identical FSD gradient pulses right before and after the first refocusing 180 degrees -pulse of the SPACE sequence in all three orthogonal directions. Nine healthy volunteers were imaged at 3T with SPACE, FSD-SPACE, and multislice T2-weighted 2D TSE coupled with saturation band (SB-TSE). Apparent carotid wall-lumen contrast-to-noise ratio (aCNR(w-l)) and apparent lumen area (aLA) at the locations with residual-blood (rb) signal shown on SPACE images were compared between SPACE and FSD-SPACE. Carotid aCNR(w-l) and lumen (LA) and wall area (WA) measured from FSD-SPACE were compared to those measured from SB-TSE. Plaque-mimicking flow artifacts identified in seven carotids on SPACE images were eliminated on FSD-SPACE images. The FSD preparation resulted in slightly reduced aCNR(w-l) (P = 0.025), but significantly improved aCNR between the wall and rb regions (P < 0.001) and larger aLA (P < 0.001). Compared to SB-TSE, FSD-SPACE offered comparable aCNR(w-l) with much higher spatial resolution, shorter imaging time, and larger artery coverage. The LA and WA measurements from the two techniques were in good agreement based on intraclasss correlation coefficient (0.988 and 0.949, respectively; P < 0.001) and Bland-Altman analyses. FSD-SPACE is a time-efficient 3D imaging technique for carotid arterial wall with superior spatial resolution and blood signal suppression.

  17. Zone lines

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Zone lines are narrow, usually dark markings formed in decaying wood. Zone lines are found most frequently in advanced white rot of hardwoods, although they occasionally are associated both with brown rot and with softwoods.

  18. Dephasing dynamics in confined myoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goj, Anne; Loring, Roger F.

    2007-11-01

    Confinement of a solution can slow solvent dynamics and in turn influence the reactivity and structure of the solute. Encapsulating a protein in an aqueous pore affects its binding properties, stability to degradation, interconversion between conformational states, and energy relaxation. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of H64V-CO mutant myoglobin solvated by varying amounts of liquid water, and in turn enclosed by a matrix of immobilized solvent, to mimic differing degrees of confinement of H64V-CO in a glass. We calculate the three-pulse vibrational echo signal of the CO ligand from the autocorrelation function of fluctuations in the CO vibrational frequency. When the first solvation layer alone is free to relax, the correlation function displays only fast relaxation reminiscent of the case of a protein in a fixed, immobilized solvent matrix. However the vibrational echo signal in this case decays significantly more rapidly than for a static solvent. With two solvation layers mobile, the correlation function displays long time relaxation characteristic of the unconfined protein and the echo signal decays rapidly. The echo signal of the protein with two mobile solvation layers is nearly identical to that of the unconfined protein, despite the substantially constrained solvent dynamics in the confined case.

  19. Pigment spectra and intermolecular interaction potentials in glasses and proteins.

    PubMed

    Renge, I; van Grondelle, R; Dekker, J P

    2007-10-01

    A model is proposed for chromophore optical spectra in solids over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. Inhomogeneous band shapes and their pressure dependence, as well as baric shift coefficients of spectral lines, selected by the frequency, were derived using Lennard-Jones potentials of the ground and excited states. Quadratic electron-phonon coupling constants, describing the thermal shift and broadening of zero-phonon lines, were also calculated. Experimentally, thermal shift and broadening of spectral holes were studied between 5 and 40 K for a synthetic pigment, chlorin, embedded in polymer hosts. The baric effects on holes were determined by applying hydrostatic He gas pressure up to 200 bar, at 6 K. Absorption spectra of pheophytin a, chlorophyll a, and beta-carotene in polymers and plant photosystem II CP47 complex were measured between 5 (or 77) and 300 K, and subject to Voigtian deconvolution. A narrowing of inhomogeneous bandwidth with increasing temperature, predicted on the basis of hole behavior, was observed as the shrinking of Gaussian spectral component. The Lorentzian broadening was ascribed to optical dephasing up to 300 K in transitions with weak to moderate linear electron-phonon coupling strength. The thermal broadening is purely Gaussian in multiphonon transitions (S(2) band of beta-carotene, Soret bands of tetrapyrrolic pigments), and the Lorentz process appears to be suppressed, indicating a lack of exponential dephasing. Density, polarity, polarizability, compressibility, and other local parameters of the pigment binding sites in biologically relevant systems can be deduced from spectroscopic data, provided that sufficient background information is available.

  20. Pigment Spectra and Intermolecular Interaction Potentials in Glasses and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Renge, I.; van Grondelle, R.; Dekker, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    A model is proposed for chromophore optical spectra in solids over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. Inhomogeneous band shapes and their pressure dependence, as well as baric shift coefficients of spectral lines, selected by the frequency, were derived using Lennard-Jones potentials of the ground and excited states. Quadratic electron-phonon coupling constants, describing the thermal shift and broadening of zero-phonon lines, were also calculated. Experimentally, thermal shift and broadening of spectral holes were studied between 5 and 40 K for a synthetic pigment, chlorin, embedded in polymer hosts. The baric effects on holes were determined by applying hydrostatic He gas pressure up to 200 bar, at 6 K. Absorption spectra of pheophytin a, chlorophyll a, and β-carotene in polymers and plant photosystem II CP47 complex were measured between 5 (or 77) and 300 K, and subject to Voigtian deconvolution. A narrowing of inhomogeneous bandwidth with increasing temperature, predicted on the basis of hole behavior, was observed as the shrinking of Gaussian spectral component. The Lorentzian broadening was ascribed to optical dephasing up to 300 K in transitions with weak to moderate linear electron-phonon coupling strength. The thermal broadening is purely Gaussian in multiphonon transitions (S2 band of β-carotene, Soret bands of tetrapyrrolic pigments), and the Lorentz process appears to be suppressed, indicating a lack of exponential dephasing. Density, polarity, polarizability, compressibility, and other local parameters of the pigment binding sites in biologically relevant systems can be deduced from spectroscopic data, provided that sufficient background information is available. PMID:17557783

  1. Amide I SFG Spectral Line Width Probes the Lipid-Peptide and Peptide-Peptide Interactions at Cell Membrane In Situ and in Real Time.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baixiong; Tan, Junjun; Li, Chuanzhao; Zhang, Jiahui; Ye, Shuji

    2018-06-13

    The balance of lipid-peptide and peptide-peptide interactions at cell membrane is essential to a large variety of cellular processes. In this study, we have experimentally demonstrated for the first time that sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy can be used to probe the peptide-peptide and lipid-peptide interactions in cell membrane in situ and in real time by determination of the line width of amide I band of protein backbone. Using a "benchmark" model of α-helical WALP23, it is found that the dominated lipid-peptide interaction causes a narrow line width of the amide I band, whereas the peptide-peptide interaction can markedly broaden the line width. When WALP23 molecules insert into the lipid bilayer, a quite narrow line width of the amide I band is observed because of the lipid-peptide interaction. In contrast, when the peptide lies down on the bilayer surface, the line width of amide I band becomes very broad owing to the peptide-peptide interaction. In terms of the real-time change in the line width, the transition from peptide-peptide interaction to lipid-peptide interaction is monitored during the insertion of WALP23 into 1,2-dipalmitoyl- sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'- rac-glycerol) (DPPG) lipid bilayer. The dephasing time of a pure α-helical WALP23 in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl- sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'- rac-glycerol) and DPPG bilayer is determined to be 2.2 and 0.64 ps, respectively. The peptide-peptide interaction can largely accelerate the dephasing time.

  2. Robust time-shifted spoke pulse design in the presence of large B0 variations with simultaneous reduction of through-plane dephasing, B1+ effects, and the specific absorption rate using parallel transmission.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Bastien; Stockmann, Jason P; Baboli, Mehran; Torrado-Carvajal, Angel; Stenger, Andrew V; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-08-01

    To design parallel transmission spokes pulses with time-shifted profiles for joint mitigation of intensity variations due to B1+ effects, signal loss due to through-plane dephasing, and the specific absorption rate (SAR) at 7T. We derived a slice-averaged small tip angle (SA-STA) approximation of the magnetization signal at echo time that depends on the B1+ transmit profiles, the through-slice B0 gradient and the amplitude and time-shifts of the spoke waveforms. We minimize a magnitude least-squares objective based on this signal equation using a fast interior-point approach with analytical expressions of the Jacobian and Hessian. Our algorithm runs in less than three minutes for the design of two-spoke pulses subject to hundreds of local SAR constraints. On a B0/B1+ head phantom, joint optimization of the channel-dependent time-shifts and spoke amplitudes allowed signal recovery in high-B0 regions at no increase of SAR. Although the method creates uniform magnetization profiles (ie, uniform intensity), the flip angle varies across the image, which makes it ill-suited to T1-weighted applications. The SA-STA approach presented in this study is best suited to T2*-weighted applications with long echo times that require signal recovery around high B0 regions. Magn Reson Med 76:540-554, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  4. Numerical Evaluation of Parameter Correlation in the Hartmann-Tran Line Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, Erin M.; Reed, Zachary; Hodges, Joseph T.

    2017-06-01

    The partially correlated quadratic, speed-dependent hard-collision profile (pCqSDHCP), for simplicity referred to as the Hartmann-Tran profile (HTP), has been recommended as a generalized lineshape for high resolution spectroscopy. The HTP parameterizes complex collisional effects such as Dicke narrowing, speed dependent narrowing, and correlations between velocity-changing and dephasing collisions, while also simplifying to simpler profiles that are widely used, such as the Voigt profile. As advanced lineshape profiles are adopted by more researchers, it is important to understand the limitations that data quality has on the ability to retrieve physically meaningful parameters using sophisticated lineshapes that are fit to spectra of finite signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, spectra were simulated using the HITRAN Application Programming Interface (HAPI) across a full range of line parameters. Simulated spectra were evaluated to quantify the precision with which fitted lineshape parameters can be determined at a given signal-to-noise ratio, focusing on the numerical correlation between the retrieved Dicke narrowing frequency and the velocity-changing and dephasing collisions correlation parameter. Tran, H., N. Ngo, and J.-M. Hartmann, Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 2013. 129: p. 89-100. Tennyson, et al., Pure Appl. Chem. 2014, 86: p. 1931-1943. Kochanov, R.V., et al., Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 2016. 177: p. 15-30. Tran, H., N. Ngo, and J.-M. Hartmann, Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 2013. 129: p. 199-203.

  5. Noncontrast MR Angiography (MRA) of Infragenual Arteries Using Flow-Sensitive Dephasing (FSD)-Prepared Steady-State Free Precession (SSFP) at 3.0T: Comparison with Contrast-Enhanced MRA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Fan, Zhaoyang; Luo, Nan; Bi, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yike; An, Jing; Liu, Jiayi; Chen, Zhong; Fan, Zhanming; Li, Debiao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic performance of flow-sensitive dephasing (FSD)-prepared steady-state free precession (SSFP) MR angiography (MRA) for imaging infragenual arteries at 3.0T, with contrast enhanced MR angiography (CE MRA) as reference. Materials And Methods Twenty consecutive patients with suspicion of lower extremity arterial disease undergoing routine CE MRA were recruited. FSD MRA was performed at calf before CE MRA. Image quality and stenosis degree of infragenual arteries from both techniques were independently evaluated and compared. Six patients in this study underwent DSA examination. Results Three undiagnostic segments were excluded with severe venous contamination in CE MRA. A total of 197 calf arterial segments images were analyzed. No significant difference existed in the relative signal intensity (rSI) of arterial segments between FSD MRA and CE MRA techniques (0.92±0.09 vs. 0.93±0.05; P=0.207). However, the subjective image quality score was slightly higher in FSD MRA (3.66±0.81 vs. 3.49±0.87; P=0.050). With CE MRA images as reference standard, slight overestimation existed in FSD MRA (2.19±1.24 vs. 2.09±1.18; P=0.019), with total agreement of 84.3% on the basis of all arterial segments. The sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and PPV of FSD MRA was 96.4%, 93.0%, 98.5%, and 84.1%. No significant difference in the stenosis degree score was detected between MRA (FSD MRA and CE MRA) and DSA (P > 0.05). Conclusion FSD MRA performed on at 3.0Twithout the use of contrast medium provides diagnostic images allowing for arterial stenosis assessment of calf arteries that was highly comparable with CE MRA. Moreover, venous contamination was less problematic with FSD MRA. PMID:26185106

  6. Selective laser spectroscopy of molecules and ions in solids: a history, fundamentals and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapozhnikov, Michael

    2018-03-01

    A history of the development of selective laser spectroscopy is presented, beginning with a pioneering work by Yu. V. Denisov and V. A. Kizel in 1967, who were the first to demonstrate the possibility of removing the inhomogeneous broadening of luminescence spectra of impurity ions in glasses upon monochromatic resonance excitation. Selective excitation of optical centers can be achieved due to existence of zero-phonon transitions corresponding to narrow homogeneous zero-phonon lines in the spectra of impurity centers in solids, which are hidden in broad inhomogeneous optical bands upon usual nonselective excitation. The fundamentals of zero-phonon transition spectroscopy are considered and the mechanism of removing the inhomogeneous broadening of optical spectra of ions and molecules in crystals and amorphous solids under selective laser excitation of luminescence and persistent hole burning in absorption spectra is presented in detail. Various applications of selective laser spectroscopy for fundamental and applied studies are discussed.

  7. Non-Contrast Enhanced MR Angiography (NCE-MRA) of the Calf: A Direct Comparison between Flow-Sensitive Dephasing (FSD) Prepared Steady-State Free Precession (SSFP) and Quiescent-Interval Single-Shot (QISS) in Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi; Liu, Dexiang; Tang, Yukuan; Fan, Zhaoyang; Chen, Hanwei; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the image quality and diagnostic performance of two non-contrast enhanced MR angiography (NCE-MRA) techniques using flow-sensitive dephasing (FSD) prepared steady-state free precession (SSFP) and quiescent-interval single-shot (QISS) for the calf arteries in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods Twenty six patients underwent the two NCE-MRA techniques followed by contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) of lower extremity on a 1.5T MR system. Image quality scores, arterial stenosis scores, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), vessel sharpness, and diagnostic accuracy for detecting more than 50% arterial stenosis were evaluated and statistically compared using CE-MRA as the reference standard. Results All examinations were performed successfully. Of the total 153 calf arterial segments obtained in the 26 patients, FSD and QISS showed no significant difference in the number of diagnostic arterial segments (151 [98%] vs. 147 [96%], respectively, P>0.05). The image quality of FSD was higher than that of QISS in the peroneal artery and posterior tibial artery (P<0.05), but no significant difference in the anterior tibial artery (P>0.05). SNR and CNR of FSD were higher than those of QISS (P<0.01), while FSD showed comparable vessel sharpness compared with QISS (P>0.05). The time efficiency of SNR and CNR between FSD and QISS showed no significant difference when taking into account the times for FSD-related scout scans. There was no difference in sensitivity (95% vs. 93%, P>0.05) and negative predictive value (98% vs. 97%, P>0.05) between FSD and QISS for detecting stenosis greater than 50%. However, FSD showed higher specificities (99% vs. 92%, P<0.05) and diagnostic accuracy (98% vs. 92%, P<0.05) compared to QISS. Conclusion Both FSD and QISS had similar high sensitivity and negative predictive value for detecting calf arteries with over 50% stenosis, but FSD showed slightly higher diagnostic specificity and better depiction

  8. Noncontrast MR angiography (MRA) of infragenual arteries using flow-sensitive dephasing (FSD)-prepared steady-state free precession (SSFP) at 3.0 Tesla: Comparison with contrast-enhanced MRA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Fan, Zhaoyang; Luo, Nan; Bi, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yike; An, Jing; Liu, Jiayi; Chen, Zhong; Fan, Zhanming; Li, Debiao

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic performance of flow-sensitive dephasing (FSD)-prepared steady-state free precession (SSFP) MR angiography (MRA) for imaging infragenual arteries at 3.0T, with contrast enhanced MR angiography (CE MRA) as reference. Twenty consecutive patients with suspicion of lower extremity arterial disease undergoing routine CE MRA were recruited. FSD MRA was performed at calf before CE MRA. Image quality and stenosis degree of infragenual arteries from both techniques were independently evaluated and compared. Six patients in this study underwent DSA examination. Three undiagnostic segments were excluded with severe venous contamination in CE MRA. A total of 197 calf arterial segments images were analyzed. No significant difference existed in the relative signal intensity (rSI) of arterial segments between FSD MRA and CE MRA techniques (0.92 ± 0.09 versus 0.93 ± 0.05; P = 0.207). However, the subjective image quality score was slightly higher in FSD MRA (3.66 ± 0.81 versus 3.49 ± 0.87; P = 0.050). With CE MRA images as reference standard, slight overestimation existed in FSD MRA (2.19 ± 1.24 versus 2.09 ± 1.18; P = 0.019), with total agreement of 84.3% on the basis of all arterial segments. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of FSD MRA was 96.4%, 93.0%, 98.5%, and 84.1%. No significant difference in the stenosis degree score was detected between MRA (FSD MRA and CE MRA) and DSA (P > 0.05). FSD MRA performed on at 3.0T without the use of contrast medium provides diagnostic images allowing for arterial stenosis assessment of calf arteries that was highly comparable with CE MRA. Moreover, venous contamination was less problematic with FSD MRA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Community LINE Source Model (C-LINE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an introduction for the live demo and explains the purpose of C-LINE and its key features. C-LINE is a web-based model designed to inform the community user of local air quality impacts due to mobile-sources in their region of interest using a simplifie...

  10. Alleviating line overload by line switching

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    Traditionally, the method used by power system dispatchers to reduce or to eliminate line overload conditions has been to shift generation. Such shifts are generally in conflict with the carefully considered economic dispatch of generation. A proper generation schedule has taken into account many factors, such as generator limits, transmission penalties, incremental costs, var support, and system security. Any deviation from this schedule results in increased production cost. Recently, consideration has been given to alleviating line overloads by line switching. In many situations, line switching does not greatly change the transmission penalty factors and, therefore, can be undertaken without seriouslymore » affecting the economic dispatch. It would be convenient for system operators to have a fast, easy-to-operate computer and program available for the evaluation of the efficacy of a line removal (or addition) in dealing with an overload. It is imperative that the operator be properly advised, that a certain line switching reduces the overload and not aggravate the condition. After it has been determined that a line opening (or closing) produces the desired effect, the operator still must assess the consequence of such switching on system security before actually taking such action.« less

  11. Nuclear reactor overflow line

    DOEpatents

    Severson, Wayne J.

    1976-01-01

    The overflow line for the reactor vessel of a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor includes means for establishing and maintaining a continuous bleed flow of coolant amounting to 5 to 10% of the total coolant flow through the overflow line to prevent thermal shock to the overflow line when the reactor is restarted following a trip. Preferably a tube is disposed concentrically just inside the overflow line extending from a point just inside the reactor vessel to an overflow tank and a suction line is provided opening into the body of liquid metal in the reactor vessel and into the annulus between the overflow line and the inner tube.

  12. Dicke’s Superradiance in Astrophysics. I. The 21 cm Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, Fereshteh; Houde, Martin

    2016-08-01

    We have applied the concept of superradiance introduced by Dicke in 1954 to astrophysics by extending the corresponding analysis to the magnetic dipole interaction characterizing the atomic hydrogen 21 cm line. Although it is unlikely that superradiance could take place in thermally relaxed regions and that the lack of observational evidence of masers for this transition reduces the probability of detecting superradiance, in situations where the conditions necessary for superradiance are met (close atomic spacing, high velocity coherence, population inversion, and long dephasing timescales compared to those related to coherent behavior), our results suggest that relatively low levels of population inversion over short astronomical length-scales (e.g., as compared to those required for maser amplification) can lead to the cooperative behavior required for superradiance in the interstellar medium. Given the results of our analysis, we expect the observational properties of 21 cm superradiance to be characterized by the emission of high-intensity, spatially compact, burst-like features potentially taking place over short periods ranging from minutes to days.

  13. DICKE’S SUPERRADIANCE IN ASTROPHYSICS. I. THE 21 cm LINE

    SciTech Connect

    Rajabi, Fereshteh; Houde, Martin

    We have applied the concept of superradiance introduced by Dicke in 1954 to astrophysics by extending the corresponding analysis to the magnetic dipole interaction characterizing the atomic hydrogen 21 cm line. Although it is unlikely that superradiance could take place in thermally relaxed regions and that the lack of observational evidence of masers for this transition reduces the probability of detecting superradiance, in situations where the conditions necessary for superradiance are met (close atomic spacing, high velocity coherence, population inversion, and long dephasing timescales compared to those related to coherent behavior), our results suggest that relatively low levels of populationmore » inversion over short astronomical length-scales (e.g., as compared to those required for maser amplification) can lead to the cooperative behavior required for superradiance in the interstellar medium. Given the results of our analysis, we expect the observational properties of 21 cm superradiance to be characterized by the emission of high-intensity, spatially compact, burst-like features potentially taking place over short periods ranging from minutes to days.« less

  14. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  15. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  16. Database of emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.

    1998-11-01

    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  17. Tangent Lines without Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabin, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a problem that can help high school students develop the concept of instantaneous velocity and connect it with the slope of a tangent line to the graph of position versus time. It also gives a method for determining the tangent line to the graph of a polynomial function at any point without using calculus. (Contains 1 figure.)

  18. Line Intercept (LI)

    Treesearch

    John F. Caratti

    2006-01-01

    The FIREMON Line Intercept (LI) method is used to assess changes in plant species cover for a macroplot. This method uses multiple line transects to sample within plot variation and quantify statistically valid changes in plant species cover and height over time. This method is suited for most forest and rangeland communities, but is especially useful for sampling...

  19. Career Line Prototypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Luther B.; And Others

    This reference volume on career lines provides two sets of information for 384 different occupations or jobs. Two discussions preface the prototypes: (1) illustration of a career line and elaboration on the concepts and (2) discussion of job and worker characteristics that provide detailed information about each occupational grouping examined. The…

  20. Structuring a service line.

    PubMed

    Zablocki, E

    1997-05-01

    In 1993, Community Hospitals Indianapolis created 10 service lines--each unique to the needs of the patients it serves. Two service line leaders talk about the factors critical to successful restructuring, the working relationships established, and the importance of clear communication to ensure understanding and get buy-in to the process.

  1. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2017-12-09

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  2. PSR Injection Line Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blind, Barbara; Jason, Andrew J.

    1997-05-01

    We describe the new injection line to be implemented for the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring in the change from a two-step process to direct H- injection. While obeying all geometrical constraints imposed by the existing structures, the new line has properties not found in the present injection line. In particular, it features decoupled transverse phase spaces downstream of the skew bend and a high degree of tunability of the beam at the injection foil. A comprehensive set of error studies has dictated the component tolerances imposed and has indicated the expected performance of the system.

  3. Flow line sampler

    DOEpatents

    Nicholls, Colin I.

    1992-07-14

    An on-line product sampling apparatus and method for measuring product samples from a product stream (12) in a flow line (14) having a sampling aperture (11), includes a sampling tube (18) for containing product samples removed from flow line (14). A piston (22) removes product samples from the product stream (12) through the sampling aperture (11) and returns samples to product stream (12). A sensor (20) communicates with sample tube (18), and senses physical properties of samples while the samples are within sample tube (18). In one embodiment, sensor (20) comprises a hydrogen transient nuclear magnetic resonance sensor for measuring physical properties of hydrogen molecules.

  4. Assembly Line of Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-06

    This image from NASA Herschel, in the constellation of Vulpecula, shows an entire assembly line of newborn stars. The diffuse glow reveals the widespread cold reservoir of raw material that our Milky Way galaxy has in stock for building stars.

  5. Line, Shape, Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project used with beginning high school art students that teaches them about continuous line drawing. Explains that the students create portraits of themselves, or another student, using glue, black construction paper, and chalk. (CMK)

  6. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, Victor R.; Watwood, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  7. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  8. Capital Improvements Business Line

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-08

    NAVFAC Southwest Dan Waid Program & Business Mgmt NAVFAC SW Capital Improvements Business Line NAVFAC SW 8 August 2012 1 Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Capital Improvements Business Line 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the 2012 Navy Gold Coast Small Business

  9. Nasca Lines, Peru

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11097

  10. On-Line and Off-Line Assessment of Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraç, Seda; Karakelle, Sema

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates the interrelationships between different on-line and off-line measures for assessing metacognition. The participants were 47 fifth grade elementary students. Metacognition was assessed through two off-line and two on-line measures. The off-line measures consisted of a teacher rating scale and a self-report questionnaire. The…

  11. PORTION OF A LINE (AT LEFT) AND B LINE (AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PORTION OF A LINE (AT LEFT) AND B LINE (AT RIGHT) ON GENTLE TERRACE SLOPE. A LINE POLE 75A (LEFT FOREGROUND) HAS ORIGINAL GLASS PIN-TYPE INSULATORS AND INTACT COMMUNICATION LINE CROSS ARM. VIEW TO WEST-SOUTHWEST. - Mystic Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Electric Transmission A Line, Along West Rosebud Creek, Fishtail, Stillwater County, MT

  12. Line transients with corona

    SciTech Connect

    Saied, M.M.; Safar, Y.A.; Salama, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of corona on the electromagnetic transients along high voltage overhead lines. A method is presented to simulate the line by dividing it into a number of sections connected in cascade. For {ital n} line sections, the number of the unknown variables is 2{ital n} + 1. The method allows any waveform of the exciting voltage function, as well as any impedance loading condition. The corona is represented by voltage-dependent shunt current sources. A systematic way for writing a sufficient number of differential equations is shown. For their solution, a digital computer subroutine based on themore » Runge--Kutta--Verner method was used. An artificial frequency-dependent damping by means of linear resistors was used to suppress the Gibb's oscillations in the solution. The proposed method is applied to study the transients on a 40 km high voltage line with 30-ft flat phase spacing and a single 1.4 inch ACSR conductor per phase. The exciting voltage has a double-exponential impulse waveform. Solutions are given for three values of resistive loads Z{sub {ital c}}2Z{sub {ital c}} and Z{sub {ital c}}/2, where Z{sub {ital c}} is the line surge impedance. The results of two interesting cases of inductive and capacitive loads are also given. Physical interpretations for the different solutions are given. Also, the current-voltage duality between inductive and capacitive loads is recognized. The corona was found to attenuate and distort the travelling waves. For example, during one wave excursion, the reduction of the current wave peaks can reach values as high as 8.5%. The effect is more noticeable in the current than in the voltage waves. As expected, it increases also with the line corona losses. The effect of the increase of the line effective capacitance due to the corona discharge is also demonstrated.« less

  13. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  14. Nazca Lines, Peru

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Acquisition Date: November 10, 2002 In the desert of southwest Peru, between the Andes Mountains and the Peruvian coast, lies a plateau with huge geometric patterns and spirals, animal figures including a monkey, a spider, and an 'owl man,' and thousands of perfectly straight lines. The last of these was drawn about a thousand years ago. Known as the Nazca lines, the drawings have mystified scientists since they were first discovered in the 1920s. Pictured here is all that can be seen of these lines by Landsat 7's 15 meter pan band, which has been used to sharpen the 30 meter Bands 3, 2, and 1. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Landsat/USGS To learn more about Landsat and to see the orginal high res file go to: landsat.usgs.gov/gallery_view.php?category=greenflag&...

  15. Spectral Line Shapes. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Zoppi, M.; Ulivi, L.

    1997-02-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes which was held in Firenze,Italy from June 16-21, 1996. The topics covered a wide range of subjects emphasizing the physical processes associated with the formation of line profiles: high and low density plasma; atoms and molecules in strong laser fields, Dopple{minus}free and ultra{minus}fine spectroscopy; the line shapes generated by the interaction of neutrals, atoms and molecules, where the relavant quantities are single particle properties, and the interaction{minus}induced spectroscopy. There were 131 papers presented at the conference, out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energymore » Science and Technology database.(AIP)« less

  16. Circumstellar radio molecular lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    NGUYEN-QUANG-RIEU

    1987-01-01

    Radio molecular lines appear to be useful probes into the stellar environment. Silicon oxide masers provide information on the physical conditions in the immediate vicinity of the stellar photosphere. Valuable information on the physics operating in the envelope of IRC + 10216 was recently obtained by high sensitivity observations and detailed theoretical analyses. Infrared speckle interferometry in the molecular lines and in the continuum is helpful in the investigation of the inner region of the envelope. These techniques are discussed in terms of late-type star mass loss.

  17. Biosynthesis: Reprogramming assembly lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Binuraj R. K.; Jenner, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    Rational engineering of biosynthetic assembly lines for production of new compounds is an attractive prospect, yet it presents many challenges. Learning from biology, some of the rules for expanding the chemical diversity of non-ribosomal peptides have been uncovered in two recent studies.

  18. On-Line Cataloging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., Dublin, OH.

    The principal objective of the Ohio College Library Center is to lower the rate of rise of per-unit library costs while increasing the availability of library resources for use by patrons of participating libraries. A major procedural goal of the on-line cataloging system is to furnish cataloging personnel in individual libraries with…

  19. Thin Line, Broad Shadows

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-21

    Saturn rings appear as only a thin line seen edge-on in the middle of this view from NASA Cassini spacecraft, but the rings cast broad shadows on the southern hemisphere of the planet in the lower left of the image.

  20. Columnar lined Barrett's oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neel; Ho, Khek Yu

    2015-12-01

    Over the past few years, the definition of Barrett's oesophagus has altered with no real agreement on histological understanding. This article highlights the increasing confusion regarding Barrett's oesophagus with a focus on the all-too-frequently ignored aspect of the columnar lined oesophagus.

  1. Building with a Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbert, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Architecture is a versatile, multifaceted area to study in the artroom with multiple age levels. It can easily stimulate a study of basic line, shape, and various other art elements and principles. It can then be extended into a more extensive study of architectural elements, styles, specific architects, architecture of different cultures, and…

  2. The Front Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unks, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    The author draws an analogy between today's school system and an assembly line, deploring the notion that all children are taught the same thing at the same time, ending in humiliation, disgrace, and failure for some, and nonchallenging academic activities for others. (KC)

  3. Microwave spectral line listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The frequency, intensity, and identification of 9615 spectral lines belonging to 75 molecules are tabulated in order of increasing frequency. Measurements for all 75 molecules were made in the frequency range from 26500 to 40000 MHz by a computer controlled spectrometer. Measurements were also made in the 18000 to 26500 MHz range for some of the molecules.

  4. The Bicycle Assembly Line Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotz, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    "The Bicycle Assembly Line Game" is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7-10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the…

  5. A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

    1969-01-01

    Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

  6. Line Shapes and Intensities of Carbon Monoxide Transitions in the (3→0) and (4→1) Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Zachary; Polyansky, Oleg; Hodges, Joseph T.

    2017-06-01

    We have measured several carbon monoxide transitions in the (3→0) and (4→1) band using frequency stabilized cavity ringdown spectroscopy (FS-CRDS). The measured transitions are compared to the line strength values in HITRAN 2012 [1], those determined by Wojtewitz et al [2], and to theoretical calculations. The cavity length is actively locked to an iodine stabilized HeNe laser, providing long term frequency stability of 10 kHz and is linked to a self-referenced, octave-spanning frequency comb. The temperature of the optical cavity is actively regulated at the mK level, and the pressure measurements are SI-traceable. The sample is a NIST calibrated reference mixture of 11.98575(95)% CO in N_{2}. The absorption spectra are modeled using the Hartmann-Tran profile (HTP). The SNR in these spectra may exceed 10,000:1, which necessitates including the effects of speed dependence, collisional narrowing, and correlation between velocity-changing and dephasing collisions. The relative uncertainties of the line strengths calculated in this study are better than 0.1%. There are systematic differences on the 1% level for ^{12}CO against both HITRAN [1] and the previous work by Wojtewitz et al [2]. The measurement uncertainties are nearly an order of magnitude lower than previous results. Additionally, the relative uncertainties in the integrated areas of selected ^{12}CO and ^{13}CO transitions are less than 0.006% and 0.02%, respectively, providing an excellent test case for determination of isotope ratios by direct use of theoretical line intensity calculations. [1] Wojtewicz, S., et al., J Quant Spect and Rad Trans,2013. 130: p.191-200. [2]Rothman, L.S., et al., Journal of Quant Spect and Rad Trans, 2013. 130: p. 4-50.

  7. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  8. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; DeGrassie, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  9. CRUCIBLE LINING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Bone, W.H.; Schmidt, W.W.

    1958-11-01

    A method is presented for forming refractory liners in cylindrical reaction vessels used for the reductlon of uranium tetrafluoride to metallic uranium. A preliminary form, having positioning lugs attached thereto, is inserted into the reaction vessel and the refractory powder, usually CaO, is put in the annular space between the form and the inner wall of the reaction vessel. A jolting table is used to compact this charge of liner material ln place, and after thls has been done, the preliminary form is removed and the flnal form or plug is lnserted without disturbing the partially completed lining. The remainder of the lining charge is then introduced and compacted by jolting, after which the form is removed.

  10. Viscous grounding lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worster, Grae; Huppert, Herbert; Robison, Rosalyn; Nandkishore, Rahul; Rajah, Luke

    2008-11-01

    We have used simple laboratory experiments with viscous fluids to explore the dynamics of grounding lines between Antarctic marine ice sheets and the freely floating ice shelves into which they develop. Ice sheets are shear-dominated gravity currents, while ice shelves are extensional gravity currents with zero shear to leading order. Though ice sheets have non-Newtonian rheology, fundamental aspects of their flow can be explored using Newtonian fluid mechanics. We have derived a mathematical model of this flow that incorporates a new dynamic boundary condition for the position of the grounding line, where the gravity current loses contact with the solid base. Good agreement between our theoretical predictions and our experimental measurements, made using gravity currents of syrup flowing down a rigid slope into a deep, dense salt solution, gives confidence in the fundamental assumptions of our model, which can be incorporated into shallow-ice models to make important predictions regarding the dynamical stability of marine ice sheets.

  11. Drill string transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Bradford, Kline; Fox, Joe

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  12. Contact Line Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreiss, Gunilla; Holmgren, Hanna; Kronbichler, Martin; Ge, Anthony; Brant, Luca

    2017-11-01

    The conventional no-slip boundary condition leads to a non-integrable stress singularity at a moving contact line. This makes numerical simulations of two-phase flow challenging, especially when capillarity of the contact point is essential for the dynamics of the flow. We will describe a modeling methodology, which is suitable for numerical simulations, and present results from numerical computations. The methodology is based on combining a relation between the apparent contact angle and the contact line velocity, with the similarity solution for Stokes flow at a planar interface. The relation between angle and velocity can be determined by theoretical arguments, or from simulations using a more detailed model. In our approach we have used results from phase field simulations in a small domain, but using a molecular dynamics model should also be possible. In both cases more physics is included and the stress singularity is removed.

  13. Line managers as marketers.

    PubMed

    Rynne, T J

    1986-09-01

    Many hospital administrators and boards of directors, having overcome their initial opposition to advertising and hired a marketing professional, are wondering why their marketing programs have not accomplished all that they had hoped. The answer lies in their perception of who is responsible for marketing. Marketing is not a specialty separate from the disciplines of management--it is a basic management skill. Its goal is to satisfy the customer by providing products and services that meet the customer's needs, wants, and preferences. Line managers must understand the hospital's customers and make the critical day-to-day differences in satisfying them. They are the hospital's front-line marketers, and the marketing department's role is to support them in this function. The marketing department should develop the line managers' marketing skills by furnishing them with the appropriate tools: formats, models, examples, and instructions. In addition, the marketing staff should provide such specialized services as marketing research, ad agency management, and development of communications.

  14. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-chuan (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A new read gate design for the vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory is disclosed which offers larger operating margin than the existing read gate designs. In the existing read gate designs, a current is applied to all the stripes. The stripes that contain a VBL pair are chopped, while the stripes that do not contain a VBL pair are not chopped. The information is then detected by inspecting the presence or absence of the bubble. The margin of the chopping current amplitude is very small, and sometimes non-existent. A new method of reading Vertical Bloch Line memory is also disclosed. Instead of using the wall chirality to separate the two binary states, the spatial deflection of the stripe head is used. Also disclosed herein is a compact memory which uses vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement in the form of stacks of VBL memory layers is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. High data transfer rate is achieved by operating all the layers in parallel. Using Hall effect sensing, and optical sensing via the Faraday effect to access the data from within the three-dimensional packages, an even higher data transfer rate can be achieved due to parallel operation within each layer.

  15. PEARS Emission Line Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy; Hathi, Nimish P.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitless grism spectroscopic data obtained vl'ith the Advanced Camera for Surveys on HST. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random surveY of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations to support the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data we are able to identify star forming galaxies within the redshift volume 0 < z < 1.5. Star forming regions in the PEARS survey are pinpointed independently of the host galaxy. This method allOW8 us to detect the presence of multiple emission line regions (ELRs) within a single galaxy. 1162 [OII], [OIII] and/or H-alpha emission lines have been identified in the PEARS sample of approx 906 galaxies down to a limiting flux of approx 10 - 18 erg/s/sq cm . The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis we find three key results: 1) The computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; 2) The star forming systems show evidence of disturbed morphologies, with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass; and 3) The number density of star forming galaxies with M(*) >= 10(exp 9) Solar M decreases by an order of magnitude at z<=0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9 in support of the argument for galaxy downsizing.

  16. Line-associated bacteraemias.

    PubMed

    Elliott, T S

    1993-06-18

    Sepsis associated with intravascular catheters is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in England and Wales. Almost 4000 cases of line-associated bacteraemia were reported to the PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre in 1991. The clinical and laboratory criteria used to diagnose these infections are reviewed and several approaches to the prevention of catheter-related sepsis are described, including the use of smooth antimicrobial polymers and electrical charge. The strict application of appropriate aseptic techniques is still, however, the most important factor in reducing the incidence of sepsis.

  17. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, R.; Wu, J.; Stadler, H.

    1990-01-01

    Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) memory is a recently conceived, integrated, solid-state, block-access, VLSI memory which offers the potential of 1Gbit/sq cm real storage density, gigabit per second data rates, and sub-millisecond average access times simultaneously at relatively low mass, volume, and power values when compared to alternative technologies. VBL's are micromagnetic structures within magnetic domain walls which can be manipulated using magnetic fields from integrated conductors. The presence or absence of VBL pairs are used to store binary information. At present, efforts are being directed at developing a single-chip memory using 25Mbit/sq cm technology in magnetic garnet material which integrates, at a single operating point, the writing, storage, reading, and amplification functions needed in a memory. This paper describes the current design architecture, functional elements, and supercomputer simulation results which are used to assist the design process. The current design architecture uses three metal layers, two ion implantation steps for modulating the thickness of the magnetic layer, one ion implantation step for assisting propagation in the major line track, one NiFe soft magnetic layer, one CoPt hard magnetic layer, and one reflective Cr layer for facilitating magneto-optic observation of magnetic structure. Data are stored in a series of elongated magnetic domains, called stripes, which serve as storage sites for arrays of VBL pairs. The ends of these stripes are placed near conductors which serve as VBL read/write gates. A major line track is present to provide a source and propagation path for magnetic bubbles. Writing and reading, respectively, are achieved by converting magnetic bubbles to VBL's and vice versa. The output function is effected by stretching a magnetic bubble and detecting it magnetoresistively. Experimental results from the past design cycle created four design goals for the current design cycle. First, the bias field ranges

  18. Diatomic predissociation line widths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Predissociation by rotation and curve crossing in diatomic molecules is discussed. The pattern of predissociation line widths is seen as providing a highly sensitive yardstick for the determination of unknown potential curves. In addition, the computation of such a pattern for given potential curves is considered a matter of routine, unless the predissociation happens to occur from an adiabatic potential curve. Analytic formulas are used to provide physical insight into the details of the predissociation pattern, to the extent that a direct inversion procedure is developed for determination of the repulsive potential curves for Type 1 predissociations.

  19. 130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF THE HIGH LINE GATES, NORTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  20. 131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; INLET SIDE OF LOW LINE CANAL, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  1. 133. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    133. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; VIEW OF OUTLET SIDE OF LOW LINE GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  2. Beyond "Line by Line": Strategies for Performance and Learning Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musco, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    A variety of excellent method books aim to help student musicians develop skills in music reading and instrumental technique, but sometimes the best approach is not simply to move ahead line by line through the book. Rather, teachers will find it beneficial to consider apposite strategies to be used before, during, and after rehearsing a line so…

  3. Mjollnir Rotational Line Scan Diagnostics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-19

    using long cavity. M8 Removable Pellicle Beam Splitter for He-Ne Lineup Beam. Removed before HF or DF laser is turned on. 27 A 27 * A r of the chopper...three probe laser lines, however three lines were sequentially measured to verify the diagnostic equipment. Two of the three lines have been monitored

  4. On a front line.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, L.

    1995-01-01

    Like the patients, doctors in Sarajevo depend largely on humanitarian aid; everyone in the public sector has worked without pay for almost three years. The hospital is on a front line; yet the psychiatric department continues to function, even conducting large scale studies of psychosocial aspects of war in Bosnia-Hercegovina. The type of inpatient morbidity and treatment patterns have changed. A plethora of psychosocial rehabilitation programmes has emerged, including counselling, drop in centres, and attending to special needs of elderly people, schoolchildren, and women. The most prominent psychological symptoms were exhaustion at the prospect of a third winter of war and bewilderment at the Western stereotype of Bosnians as Muslim fundamentalists. Images p1052-a p1053-a PMID:7728062

  5. Topological Acoustic Delay Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiwang; Tian, Ye; Cheng, Ying; Wei, Qi; Liu, Xiaojun; Christensen, Johan

    2018-03-01

    Topological protected wave engineering in artificially structured media is at the frontier of ongoing metamaterials research that is inspired by quantum mechanics. Acoustic analogues of electronic topological insulators have recently led to a wealth of new opportunities in manipulating sound propagation with strikingly unconventional acoustic edge modes immune to backscattering. Earlier fabrications of topological insulators are characterized by an unreconfigurable geometry and a very narrow frequency response, which severely hinders the exploration and design of useful devices. Here we establish topologically protected sound in reconfigurable phononic crystals that can be switched on and off simply by rotating its three-legged "atoms" without altering the lattice structure. In particular, we engineer robust phase delay defects that take advantage of the ultrabroadband reflection-free sound propagation. Such topological delay lines serve as a paradigm in compact acoustic devices, interconnects, and electroacoustic integrated circuits.

  6. Similarity law for Widom lines and coexistence lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banuti, D. T.; Raju, M.; Ihme, M.

    2017-05-01

    The coexistence line of a fluid separates liquid and gaseous states at subcritical pressures, ending at the critical point. Only recently, it became clear that the supercritical state space can likewise be divided into regions with liquidlike and gaslike properties, separated by an extension to the coexistence line. This crossover line is commonly referred to as the Widom line, and is characterized by large changes in density or enthalpy, manifesting as maxima in the thermodynamic response functions. Thus, a reliable representation of the coexistence line and the Widom line is important for sub- and supercritical applications that depend on an accurate prediction of fluid properties. While it is known for subcritical pressures that nondimensionalization with the respective species critical pressures pcr and temperatures Tcr only collapses coexistence line data for simple fluids, this approach is used for Widom lines of all fluids. However, we show here that the Widom line does not adhere to the corresponding states principle, but instead to the extended corresponding states principle. We resolve this problem in two steps. First, we propose a Widom line functional based on the Clapeyron equation and derive an analytical, species specific expression for the only parameter from the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state. This parameter is a function of the acentric factor ω and compares well with experimental data. Second, we introduce the scaled reduced pressure pr* to replace the previously used reduced pressure pr=p /pcr . We show that pr* is a function of the acentric factor only and can thus be readily determined from fluid property tables. It collapses both subcritical coexistence line and supercritical Widom line data over a wide range of species with acentric factors ranging from -0.38 (helium) to 0.34 (water), including alkanes up to n-hexane. By using pr*, the extended corresponding states principle can be applied within corresponding states principle

  7. Orthopaedic service lines-revisited.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This article revisits the application of orthopaedic service lines from early introduction and growth of this organizational approach in the 1980s, through the 1990s, and into the current decade. The author has experienced and worked in various service-line structures through these three decades, as well as the preservice-line era of 1970s orthopaedics. Past lessons learned during earlier phases and then current trends and analysis by industry experts are summarized briefly, with indication given of the future for service lines. Variation versus consistency of certain elements in service-line definitions and in operational models is discussed. Main components of service-line structures and typical processes are described briefly, along with a more detailed section on the service-line director/manager role. Current knowledge contained here will help guide the reader to more "out-of-the-box" thinking toward comprehensive orthopaedic centers of excellence.

  8. Quantum Properties of Dichroic Silicon Vacancies in Silicon Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Roland; Widmann, Matthias; Niethammer, Matthias; Dasari, Durga B. R.; Gerhardt, Ilja; Soykal, Öney O.; Radulaski, Marina; Ohshima, Takeshi; Vučković, Jelena; Son, Nguyen Tien; Ivanov, Ivan G.; Economou, Sophia E.; Bonato, Cristian; Lee, Sang-Yun; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2018-03-01

    Although various defect centers have displayed promise as either quantum sensors, single photon emitters, or light-matter interfaces, the search for an ideal defect with multifunctional ability remains open. In this spirit, we study the dichroic silicon vacancies in silicon carbide that feature two well-distinguishable zero-phonon lines and analyze the quantum properties in their optical emission and spin control. We demonstrate that this center combines 40% optical emission into the zero-phonon lines showing the contrasting difference in optical properties with varying temperature and polarization, and a 100% increase in the fluorescence intensity upon the spin resonance, and long spin coherence time of their spin-3 /2 ground states up to 0.6 ms. These results single out this defect center as a promising system for spin-based quantum technologies.

  9. CLO: The cell line ontology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cell lines have been widely used in biomedical research. The community-based Cell Line Ontology (CLO) is a member of the OBO Foundry library that covers the domain of cell lines. Since its publication two years ago, significant updates have been made, including new groups joining the CLO consortium, new cell line cells, upper level alignment with the Cell Ontology (CL) and the Ontology for Biomedical Investigation, and logical extensions. Construction and content Collaboration among the CLO, CL, and OBI has established consensus definitions of cell line-specific terms such as ‘cell line’, ‘cell line cell’, ‘cell line culturing’, and ‘mortal’ vs. ‘immortal cell line cell’. A cell line is a genetically stable cultured cell population that contains individual cell line cells. The hierarchical structure of the CLO is built based on the hierarchy of the in vivo cell types defined in CL and tissue types (from which cell line cells are derived) defined in the UBERON cross-species anatomy ontology. The new hierarchical structure makes it easier to browse, query, and perform automated classification. We have recently added classes representing more than 2,000 cell line cells from the RIKEN BRC Cell Bank to CLO. Overall, the CLO now contains ~38,000 classes of specific cell line cells derived from over 200 in vivo cell types from various organisms. Utility and discussion The CLO has been applied to different biomedical research studies. Example case studies include annotation and analysis of EBI ArrayExpress data, bioassays, and host-vaccine/pathogen interaction. CLO’s utility goes beyond a catalogue of cell line types. The alignment of the CLO with related ontologies combined with the use of ontological reasoners will support sophisticated inferencing to advance translational informatics development. PMID:25852852

  10. Bipolar pulse forming line

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  11. Bottom-line empowerment: lessons from the firing line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. P.

    1993-03-01

    Empowering employees on the firing-line to actively participate in solving business problems can have a significant positive impact on bottom-line performance. Lessons from a number of companies and thousands of people from the firing-line have demonstrated this. Unfortunately, there is no simple, step-by-step method that can be guaranteed to succeed. Getting business results by successfully empowering the firing-line is as much art as science. Yet, as with any art, there are principles that, if rigorously followed, can go a long way to ensuring success. These principles are outlined in this paper as 18 critical success factors to empowerment.

  12. Mesoepitaxy: A Universal Route to Oriented Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-14

    naphthoic acid) (VecuaZ, Hoechst-Celanese], a perfluorinated copolymer of ethylene and propylene (FEP TI00, Du Pont], poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT...189 meV). In ferences are evident in the vibronic character of the ab- addition, the zero-phonon emission line, now at 2.09 eV, sorption and emission...the ab- sorption spectra is disorder-induced localization. To model the photoluminescence spectrum, we con- Qualitatively, the disordered -,r-electron

  13. System for line drawings interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boatto, L.; Consorti, Vincenzo; Del Buono, Monica; Eramo, Vincenzo; Esposito, Alessandra; Melcarne, F.; Meucci, Mario; Mosciatti, M.; Tucci, M.; Morelli, Arturo

    1992-08-01

    This paper describes an automatic system that extracts information from line drawings, in order to feed CAD or GIS systems. The line drawings that we analyze contain interconnected thin lines, dashed lines, text, and symbols. Characters and symbols may overlap with lines. Our approach is based on the properties of the run representation of a binary image that allow giving the image a graph structure. Using this graph structure, several algorithms have been designed to identify, directly in the raster image, straight segments, dashed lines, text, symbols, hatching lines, etc. Straight segments and dashed lines are converted into vectors, with high accuracy and good noise immunity. Characters and symbols are recognized by means of a recognizer, specifically developed for this application, designed to be insensitive to rotation and scaling. Subsequent processing steps include an `intelligent'' search through the graph in order to detect closed polygons, dashed lines, text strings, and other higher-level logical entities, followed by the identification of relationships (adjacency, inclusion, etc.) between them. Relationships are further translated into a formal description of the drawing. The output of the system can be used as input to a Geographic Information System package. The system is currently used by the Italian Land Register Authority to process cadastral maps.

  14. LINE-ABOVE-GROUND ATTENUATOR

    DOEpatents

    Wilds, R.B.; Ames, J.R.

    1957-09-24

    The line-above-ground attenuator provides a continuously variable microwave attenuator for a coaxial line that is capable of high attenuation and low insertion loss. The device consists of a short section of the line-above- ground plane type transmission lime, a pair of identical rectangular slabs of lossy material like polytron, whose longitudinal axes are parallel to and indentically spaced away from either side of the line, and a geared mechanism to adjust amd maintain this spaced relationship. This device permits optimum fineness and accuracy of attenuator control which heretofore has been difficult to achieve.

  15. Coherent optical transients observed in rubidium atomic line filtered Doppler velocimetry experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fajardo, Mario E., E-mail: mario.fajardo@eglin.af.mil; Molek, Christopher D.; Vesely, Annamaria L.

    2015-10-14

    We report the first successful results from our novel Rubidium Atomic Line Filtered (RALF) Doppler velocimetry apparatus, along with unanticipated oscillatory signals due to coherent optical transients generated within pure Rb vapor cells. RALF is a high-velocity and high-acceleration extension of the well-known Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV) technique for constructing multi-dimensional flow velocity vector maps in aerodynamics experiments [H. Komine, U.S. Patent No. 4,919,536 (24 April 1990)]. RALF exploits the frequency dependence of pressure-broadened Rb atom optical absorptions in a heated Rb/N{sub 2} gas cell to encode the Doppler shift of reflected near-resonant (λ{sub 0} ≈ 780.24 nm) laser light onto the intensitymore » transmitted by the cell. The present RALF apparatus combines fiber optic and free-space components and was built to determine suitable operating conditions and performance parameters for the Rb/N{sub 2} gas cells. It yields single-spot velocities of thin laser-driven-flyer test surfaces and incorporates a simultaneous Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) channel [Strand et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083108 (2006)] for validation of the RALF results, which we demonstrate here over the v = 0 to 1 km/s range. Both RALF and DGV presume the vapor cells to be simple Beer's Law optical absorbers, so we were quite surprised to observe oscillatory signals in experiments employing low pressure pure Rb vapor cells. We interpret these oscillations as interference between the Doppler shifted reflected light and the Free Induction Decay (FID) coherent optical transient produced within the pure Rb cells at the original laser frequency; this is confirmed by direct comparison of the PDV and FID signals. We attribute the different behaviors of the Rb/N{sub 2} vs. Rb gas cells to efficient dephasing of the atomic/optical coherences by Rb-N{sub 2} collisions. The minimum necessary N{sub 2} buffer gas density ≈0.3 amagat translates into a

  16. Helium induced fine structure in the electronic spectra of anthracene derivatives doped into superfluid helium nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Pentlehner, D.; Slenczka, A., E-mail: alkwin.slenczka@chemie.uni-regensburg.de

    2015-01-07

    Electronic spectra of organic molecules doped into superfluid helium nanodroplets show characteristic features induced by the helium environment. Besides a solvent induced shift of the electronic transition frequency, in many cases, a spectral fine structure can be resolved for electronic and vibronic transitions which goes beyond the expected feature of a zero phonon line accompanied by a phonon wing as known from matrix isolation spectroscopy. The spectral shape of the zero phonon line and the helium induced phonon wing depends strongly on the dopant species. Phonon wings, for example, are reported ranging from single or multiple sharp transitions to broadmore » (Δν > 100 cm{sup −1}) diffuse signals. Despite the large number of example spectra in the literature, a quantitative understanding of the helium induced fine structure of the zero phonon line and the phonon wing is missing. Our approach is a systematic investigation of related molecular compounds, which may help to shed light on this key feature of microsolvation in superfluid helium droplets. This paper is part of a comparative study of the helium induced fine structure observed in electronic spectra of anthracene derivatives with particular emphasis on a spectrally sharp multiplet splitting at the electronic origin. In addition to previously discussed species, 9-cyanoanthracene and 9-chloroanthracene will be presented in this study for the first time.« less

  17. Off-Line Catalog Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., Dublin, OH.

    The Ohio College Library Center's off-line catalog system is a limited technique for production of card catalogs. Unlike the on-line system, it cannotmake the resources of a region available to users in an individual institution, and it does not have the potential for significantly reducing rate of rise of library per-unit costs. In short, it is…

  18. Fractions, Number Lines, Third Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Kathleen; Ahrendt, Sue; Monson, Debra; Wyberg, Terry; Colum, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) outlines ambitious goals for fraction learning, starting in third grade, that include the use of the number line model. Understanding and constructing fractions on a number line are particularly complex tasks. The current work of the authors centers on ways to successfully…

  19. Traffic Line Manual; September,1996

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this manual is to establish a guide for uniformity of traffic line and pavement markings throughout the state highway system. The manual is intended to be used by highway maintenance traffic line crews to assist them in their daily wor...

  20. US line-ups outperform UK line-ups

    PubMed Central

    Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.

    2016-01-01

    In the USA and the UK, many thousands of police suspects are identified by eyewitnesses every year. Unfortunately, many of those suspects are innocent, which becomes evident when they are exonerated by DNA testing, often after having been imprisoned for years. It is, therefore, imperative to use identification procedures that best enable eyewitnesses to discriminate innocent from guilty suspects. Although police investigators in both countries often administer line-up procedures, the details of how line-ups are presented are quite different and an important direct comparison has yet to be conducted. We investigated whether these two line-up procedures differ in terms of (i) discriminability (using receiver operating characteristic analysis) and (ii) reliability (using confidence–accuracy characteristic analysis). A total of 2249 participants watched a video of a crime and were later tested using either a six-person simultaneous photo line-up procedure (USA) or a nine-person sequential video line-up procedure (UK). US line-up procedure yielded significantly higher discriminability and significantly higher reliability. The results do not pinpoint the reason for the observed difference between the two procedures, but they do suggest that there is much room for improvement with the UK line-up. PMID:27703695

  1. Kinematical line broadening and spatially resolved line profiles from AGN.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, H.; Muecke, A.; Boer, B.; Dresen, M.; Schmidt-Kaler, T.

    1995-03-01

    We study geometrical effects for emission-line broadening in the optically thin limit by integrating the projected line emissivity along prespecified lines of sight that intersect rotating or expanding disks or cone-like configurations. Analytical expressions are given for the case that emissivity and velocity follow power laws of the radial distance. The results help to interpret spatially resolved spectra and to check the reliability of numerical computations. In the second part we describe a numerical code applicable to any geometrical configuration. Turbulent motions, atmospheric seeing and effects induced by the size of the observing aperture are simulated with appropriate convolution procedures. An application to narrow-line Hα profiles from the central region of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 7469 is presented. The shapes and asymmetries as well as the relative strengths of the Hα lines from different spatial positions can be explained by emission from a nuclear rotating disk of ionized gas, for which the distribution of Hα line emissivity and the rotation curve are derived. Appreciable turbulent line broadening with a Gaussian σ of ~40% of the rotational velocity has to be included to obtain a satisfactory fit.

  2. Cyclotron Line Measurements with INTEGRAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pottschmidt, K.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Caballero, I.; Fritz, S.; Schoenherr, G.; Kretschmar, P.; Wilms, J.; McBride, V. A.; Suchy, S.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    Due to its broadband energy coverage, INTEGRAL has made important contributions to observing and interpreting cyclotron lines, which are present in the 10-100 keV range of a sample of accreting pulsars. In these systems photons with energies fulfilling the resonance condition inelastically Compton scatter off electrons quantized in the accretion column above the neutron star's magnetic pole(s). This process gives rise to the broad, absorption-like lines or 'cyclotron resonant scattering features' (CRSF). The observed lines allow to directly measure the B-fields of these sources, resulting in values of a few times 1E12G. In this overview I will present recent highlights regarding CRSF observations as well as discuss current ideas and models for the physical conditions in the accretion column. Among the former are the stability of the spectrum of Vela X-1 during giant flares in 2003, the observation of three cyclotron lines during the 2004 outburst of V0332+53, the confirmation of the fundamental line at approximately 45 keV during a 2005 normal outburst of A0535-26, and the simultaneous detection of the two lines in the dipping source 4U 1907+09 (for which also a torque reversal was detected for the first time). Through these and other observations it has become increasingly apparent that two types of observations can potentially be used to constrain the accretion column geometry: the determination of energy ratios for multiple harmonic lines (only two sources with greater than 2 lines are known), was well as the evolution of the fundamental line centroid, which, for different sources, may or may not be correlated with flux. Furthermore, first steps have been taken away from the usual phenomenological description of the lines, towards a physical approach based on self-consistent CRSF modeling. Initial applications are presented.

  3. Teaching Braille Line Tracking Using Stimulus Fading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Line tracking is a prerequisite skill for braille literacy that involves moving one's finger horizontally across a line of braille text and identifying when a line ends so the reader may reset his or her finger on the subsequent line. Current procedures for teaching line tracking are incomplete, because they focus on tracking lines with only…

  4. Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2004-12-14

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  5. Solving the "Hidden Line" Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    David Hedgley Jr., a mathematician at Dryden Flight Research Center, has developed an accurate computer program that considers whether a line in a graphic model of a three dimensional object should or should not be visible. The Hidden Line Computer Code, program automatically removes superfluous lines and permits the computer to display an object from specific viewpoints, just as the human eye would see it. Users include Rowland Institute for Science in Cambridge, MA, several departments of Lockheed Georgia Co., and Nebraska Public Power District (NPPD).

  6. Lightning protection of distribution lines

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, T.E.; Short, T.A.; Anderson, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports a study of distribution line lightning performance, using computer simulations of lightning overvoltages. The results of previous investigations are extended with a detailed model of induced voltages from nearby strokes, coupled into a realistic power system model. The paper also considers the energy duty of distribution-class surge arresters exposed to direct strokes. The principal result is that widely separated pole-top arresters can effectively protect a distribution line from induced-voltage flashovers. This means that nearby lightning strokes need not be a significant lightning performance problem for most distribution lines.

  7. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, R.B.

    1985-08-15

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  8. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, Russell B.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  9. Winslow Homer: "The Life Line."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Diane

    1986-01-01

    Using a color print of Winslow Homer's oil painting, "The Life Line," the goal of this senior high school art lesson is to have students debate the importance of dramatic effect in a work of art. (JDH)

  10. Microwave fiber optics delay line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slayman, C.; Yen, H. W.

    1980-01-01

    A microwave delay line is one of the devices used in EW systems for preserving the frequency and phase contents of RF signals. For such applications, delay lines are required to have large dynamic range, wide bandwidth, low insertion loss, and a linear response. The basic components of a fiber-optics delay line are: an optical source, a wideband optical modulator, a spool of single-mode fiber with appropriate length to provide a given microwave signal delay, and a high-speed photodetector with an RF amplifier. This contract program is to study the feasibility of such a fiber-optic delay line in the frequency range of 4.0 to 6.5 GHz. The modulation scheme studied is the direct modulation of injection lasers. The most important issue identified is the frequency response of the injection laser and the photodetector.

  11. Advanced optical delay line demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Dool, Teun; Kamphues, Fred; Fouss, B.; Henrioulle, K.; Hogenhuis, Harm

    2004-09-01

    TNO TPD, in cooperation with Micromega-Dynamics and Dutch Space, has designed an advanced Optical Delay Line (ODL) for use in future ground based and space interferometry missions. The work is performed under NIVR contract in preparation for GENIE and DARWIN. Using the ESO PRIMA DDL requirements as a baseline, the delay line can be used for PRIMA and GENIE without any modifications. The delay line design is modular and flexible, which makes scaling for other applications a relatively easy task. The ODL has a single linear motor actuator for Optical Path Difference (OPD) control, driving a two-mirror cat"s eye with SiC mirrors and CFRP structure. Magnetic bearings provide frictionless and wear free operation with zerohysteresis. The delay line is currently being assembled and will be subjected to a comprehensive test program in the second half of 2004.

  12. Diffusion from a line source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The problem with predicting pollutant diffusion from a line source of arbitrary geometry is treated. The concentration at the line source may be arbitrarily varied with time. Special attention is given to the meteorological inputs which act as boundary conditions for the problem, and a mixing layer of arbitrary depth is assumed. Numerical application of the derived theory indicates the combinations of meteorological parameters that may be expected to result in high pollution concentrations.

  13. Line-oriented flight training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, B. E.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the concepts related to a line-oriented flight training program are discussed. The need to shift from training in manipulative skills to something closer to management skills is emphasized. The program is evaluated in terms of its realistic approaches which include the simulator's optimized motion and visual capabilities. The value of standard operating procedures as they affect the line pilot in everyday operations are also illustrated.

  14. Fin-line horn antenna

    DOEpatents

    Reindel, John

    1990-01-01

    A fin line circuit card containing a fin line slot feeds a dipole antenna ich extends a quarterwave outside the waveguide and provides an energy beam focal point at or near the open end of the waveguide. The dipole antenna thus maintains a wide and nearly constant beamwidth, low VSWR and a circular symmetric radiation pattern for use in electronic warfare direction finding and surveillance applications.

  15. Antarctic grounding-line migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, T.; Konrad, H.; Shepherd, A.; Gilbert, L.; Hogg, A.; McMillan, M.; Muir, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge of grounding-line position is critical for quantifying ice discharge into the ocean, as a boundary condition for numerical models of ice flow, and as an indicator of ice sheet stability. Although geological investigations have documented extensive grounding-line retreat since the period of the Last Glacial Maximum, observations of grounding line migration during the satellite era are restricted to a handful of locations. We combine satellite altimeter observations of ice-elevation change and airborne measurements of ice geometry to track movement of the Antarctic Ice Sheet grounding line. Based on these data, we estimate that 22%, 3%, and 10% of the West Antarctic, East Antarctic, and Antarctic Peninsula ice sheet grounding lines are retreating at rates faster than the typical pace since the Last Glacial Maximum, and that the continent loses over 200 km2 of grounded-ice area per year. Although by far the fastest rates of retreat occurred in the Amundsen Sea Sector, the Pine Island Glacier grounding line has stabilized - likely as a consequence of abated ocean forcing during the survey period.

  16. Polarization of Coronal Forbidden Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hao; Qu, Zhongquan; Landi Degl’Innocenti, Egidio, E-mail: sayahoro@ynao.ac.cn

    Since the magnetic field is responsible for most manifestations of solar activity, one of the most challenging problems in solar physics is the diagnostics of solar magnetic fields, particularly in the outer atmosphere. To this end, it is important to develop rigorous diagnostic tools to interpret polarimetric observations in suitable spectral lines. This paper is devoted to analyzing the diagnostic content of linear polarization imaging observations in coronal forbidden lines. Although this technique is restricted to off-limb observations, it represents a significant tool to diagnose the magnetic field structure in the solar corona, where the magnetic field is intrinsically weakmore » and still poorly known. We adopt the quantum theory of polarized line formation developed in the framework of the density matrix formalism, and synthesize images of the emergent linear polarization signal in coronal forbidden lines using potential-field source-surface magnetic field models. The influence of electronic collisions, active regions, and Thomson scattering on the linear polarization of coronal forbidden lines is also examined. It is found that active regions and Thomson scattering are capable of conspicuously influencing the orientation of the linear polarization. These effects have to be carefully taken into account to increase the accuracy of the field diagnostics. We also found that linear polarization observation in suitable lines can give valuable information on the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the solar corona.« less

  17. 76 FR 51367 - China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION [Docket No. 11-12] China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A Joint Service Agreement; Hanjin Shipping Co., Ltd... Maritime Commission (Commission) by China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company...

  18. Line-by-line spectroscopic simulations on graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collange, Sylvain; Daumas, Marc; Defour, David

    2008-01-01

    We report here on software that performs line-by-line spectroscopic simulations on gases. Elaborate models (such as narrow band and correlated-K) are accurate and efficient for bands where various components are not simultaneously and significantly active. Line-by-line is probably the most accurate model in the infrared for blends of gases that contain high proportions of H 2O and CO 2 as this was the case for our prototype simulation. Our implementation on graphics processing units sustains a speedup close to 330 on computation-intensive tasks and 12 on memory intensive tasks compared to implementations on one core of high-end processors. This speedup is due to data parallelism, efficient memory access for specific patterns and some dedicated hardware operators only available in graphics processing units. It is obtained leaving most of processor resources available and it would scale linearly with the number of graphics processing units in parallel machines. Line-by-line simulation coupled with simulation of fluid dynamics was long believed to be economically intractable but our work shows that it could be done with some affordable additional resources compared to what is necessary to perform simulations on fluid dynamics alone. Program summaryProgram title: GPU4RE Catalogue identifier: ADZY_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZY_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 62 776 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 513 247 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: x86 PC Operating system: Linux, Microsoft Windows. Compilation requires either gcc/g++ under Linux or Visual C++ 2003/2005 and Cygwin under Windows. It has been tested using gcc 4.1.2 under Ubuntu Linux 7.04 and using Visual C

  19. 46 CFR 42.13-30 - Lines to be used with the load line mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) The following load lines shall be used: (1) The summer load line indicated by the upper edge of the... indicated by the upper edge of a line marked W. (3) The winter North Atlantic load line indicated by the upper edge of a line marked WNA. (4) The tropical load line indicated by the upper edge of a line marked...

  20. Building Bridges One Line at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigsby, Cathy Murray

    2012-01-01

    In this article, first-grade students were taught the different kinds of lines that were part of the construction of various bridges--the curved lines of the arches of stone bridges, straight lines connecting the cables of a suspension bridge, vertical lines, horizontal lines, and so on. They gained practice in drawing structures and in fine brush…

  1. Linear morphoea follows Blaschko's lines.

    PubMed

    Weibel, L; Harper, J I

    2008-07-01

    The aetiology of morphoea (or localized scleroderma) remains unknown. It has previously been suggested that lesions of linear morphoea may follow Blaschko's lines and thus reflect an embryological development. However, the distribution of linear morphoea has never been accurately evaluated. We aimed to identify common patterns of clinical presentation in children with linear morphoea and to establish whether linear morphoea follows the lines of Blaschko. A retrospective chart review of 65 children with linear morphoea was performed. According to clinical photographs the skin lesions of these patients were plotted on to standardized head and body charts. With the aid of Adobe Illustrator a final figure was produced including an overlay of all individual lesions which was used for comparison with the published lines of Blaschko. Thirty-four (53%) patients had the en coup de sabre subtype, 27 (41%) presented with linear morphoea on the trunk and/or limbs and four (6%) children had a combination of the two. In 55 (85%) children the skin lesions were confined to one side of the body, showing no preference for either left or right side. On comparing the overlays of all body and head lesions with the original lines of Blaschko there was an excellent correlation. Our data indicate that linear morphoea follows the lines of Blaschko. We hypothesize that in patients with linear morphoea susceptible cells are present in a mosaic state and that exposure to some trigger factor may result in the development of this condition.

  2. Line transport in turbulent atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoghossian, Artur

    We consider the spectral line transfer in turbulent atmospheres with a spatially correlated velocity field. Both the finite and semi-infinite media are treated. In finding the observed intensities we first deal with the problem for determining the mean intensity of radiation emerging from the medium for a fixed value of turbulent velocity at its boundary. New approach proposed in solving this problem is based on invariant imbedding technique which yields the solution of the proper problems for a family of media of different optical thicknesses and allows tackling different kinds of inhomogeneous problems. The dependence of the line profile, integral intensity and the line width on the mean correlation length and average value of the hydrodynamic velocity is studied. It is shown that the transition from a micro-turbulent regime to a macro-turbulent one occurs within a comparatively narrow range of variation in the correlation length. The diffuse reflection of the line radiation from a one-dimensional semi-infinite turbulent atmosphere is examined. In addition to the observed spectral line profile, statistical averages describing the diffusion process in the atmosphere (mean number of scattering events, average time spent by a diffusing photon in the medium) are determined. The dependence of these quantities on the average hydrodynamic velocity and correlation coefficient is studied.

  3. Line Transport in Turbulent Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoghossian, A. G.

    2017-07-01

    The spectral line transfer in turbulent atmospheres with a spatially correlated velocity field is examined. Both the finite and semi-infinite media are treated. In finding the observed intensities we first deal with the problem for determining the mean intensity of radiation emerging from the medium for a fixed value of turbulent velocity at its boundary. A new approach proposed for solving this problem is based on the invariant imbedding technique which yields the solution of the proper problems for a family of media of different optical thicknesses and allows tackling different kinds of inhomogeneous problems. The dependence of the line profile, integral intensity, and the line width on the mean correlation length and the average value of the hydrodynamic velocity is studied. It is shown that the transition from a micro-turbulent regime to a macro-turbulence occurs within a comparatively narrow range of variation in the correlation length . Ambartsumian's principle of invariance is used to solve the problem of diffuse reflection of the line radiation from a one-dimensional semi-infinite turbulent atmosphere. In addition to the observed spectral line profile, statistical averages describing the diffusion process in the atmosphere (mean number of scattering events, average time spent by a diffusing photon in the medium) are determined. The dependence of these quantities on the average hydrodynamic velocity and correlation coefficient is studied.

  4. Analysis of solar ultraviolet lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, E.

    1971-01-01

    The formation of the strongest ultra-violet emission lines of Mg II, O I, C II, and C III in the solar atmosphere is studied in detail. The equations of statistical equilibrium and radiative transfer for each ion are solved using a general computer program that is capable of solving non-LTE line-formation problems for arbitrary atmospheric and atomic models. Interpreting the results in terms of the structure of the solar atmosphere, it is concluded that the HSRA atmosphere has a temperature too low by about 500 K near h = 1100 km and that a temperature plateau with T sub e approximately = 18,000 K and width close to 60 km exists in the upper chromosphere. The structure of the solar atmosphere in the range 20,000 to 100,000 K and the effects of microturbulence on the formation of lines are also investigated. Approximate analytic line-formation problems are solved, and more exact solutions are derived later. An attempt is made to make the best possible fit to the Ca II K line center-to-limb profiles with a one-component atmosphere, with an assumed source function and microturbulent velocity.

  5. Spent Pot Lining Characterization Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospina, Gustavo; Hassan, Mohamed I.

    2017-09-01

    Spent pot lining (SPL) management represents a major concern for aluminum smelters. There are two key elements for spent pot lining management: recycling and safe storage. Spent pot lining waste can potentially have beneficial uses in co-firing in cement plants. Also, safe storage of SPL is of utmost importance. Gas generation of SPL reaction with water and ignition sensitivity must be studied. However, determining the feasibility of SPL co-firing and developing the required procedures for safe storage rely on determining experimentally all the necessary SPL properties along with the appropriate test methods, recognized by emissions standards and fire safety design codes. The applicable regulations and relevant SPL properties for this purpose are presented along with the corresponding test methods.

  6. Assembly line performance and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rane, Arun B.; Sunnapwar, Vivek K.

    2017-09-01

    Automobile sector forms the backbone of manufacturing sector. Vehicle assembly line is important section in automobile plant where repetitive tasks are performed one after another at different workstations. In this thesis, a methodology is proposed to reduce cycle time and time loss due to important factors like equipment failure, shortage of inventory, absenteeism, set-up, material handling, rejection and fatigue to improve output within given cost constraints. Various relationships between these factors, corresponding cost and output are established by scientific approach. This methodology is validated in three different vehicle assembly plants. Proposed methodology may help practitioners to optimize the assembly line using lean techniques.

  7. Assembly-line Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Robert G.; Zendejas, Silvino; Malhotra, Shan

    1987-01-01

    Costs and profits estimated for models based on user inputs. Standard Assembly-line Manufacturing Industry Simulation (SAMIS) program generalized so useful for production-line manufacturing companies. Provides accurate and reliable means of comparing alternative manufacturing processes. Used to assess impact of changes in financial parameters as cost of resources and services, inflation rates, interest rates, tax policies, and required rate of return of equity. Most important capability is ability to estimate prices manufacturer would have to receive for its products to recover all of costs of production and make specified profit. Written in TURBO PASCAL.

  8. Spin and Optical Characterization of Defects in Group IV Semiconductors for Quantum Memory Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Brendon Charles

    temperature. Additionally, we observe that the optical emission is highly coherent, predominately into a narrow zero phonon line that is stable in frequency. The combination of coherent optical and spin degrees of freedom has eluded all previous solid state defects.

  9. Teaching braille line tracking using stimulus fading.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, Mindy C; Tiger, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    Line tracking is a prerequisite skill for braille literacy that involves moving one's finger horizontally across a line of braille text and identifying when a line ends so the reader may reset his or her finger on the subsequent line. Current procedures for teaching line tracking are incomplete, because they focus on tracking lines with only small gaps between characters. The current study extended previous line-tracking instruction using stimulus fading to teach tracking across larger gaps. After instruction, all participants showed improvement in line tracking, and 2 of 3 participants met mastery criteria for tracking across extended spaces. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  10. Surface receptors on human haematopoietic cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Huber, C; Sundström, C; Nilsson, K; Wigzell, H

    1976-01-01

    The expression of complement receptors, of Fc receptors, of SRBC receptors and of S-Ig was investigated on human haematopoietic cell lines of proved malignant derivation. According to their origin and to a panel of phenotypic markers these lines have been classified into lymphoma lines, myeloma lines and leukemia lines. Results were compared with those obtained on non-malignant EBV carrying lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL). Among the lymphoid cell lines the LCL showed a pattern of B-lymphocyte surface markers, i.e. surface immunoglobulins, C3 receptors but low density of Fc receptors. The non-Burkitt lymphoma lines bore in varying degree these B-lymphocyte markers. The lines U-698 M and DG-75 were exceptional in having only surface immunoglobulin. The Burkitt lymphoma lines had all B-lymphocyte markers. The myeloma lines differed from the lymphoid lines in lacking C3 and Fc receptors and showed only trace amounts of surface immunoglobulins. In contrast to lymphoid and myeloma lines, the leukaemia lines were completely lacking surface immunoglobulins, but showed C3 and Fc receptors in variable densities. On line, the ALL derived line MOLT-3 showed the capacity to spontaneous rosette formation with SRBC. The findings that LCL presented a homogeneous pattern of B-lymphocyte surface markers may be of value in order to discriminate between these lines and lines derived from haematopoietic malignancies other than Burkitt lymphomas. PMID:963908

  11. Teachers' Conceptions of Tangent Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paez Murillo, Rosa Elvira; Vivier, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the conceptions, and their evolutions, of the tangent line to a curve an updating workshop which took place in Mexico was designed for upper secondary school teachers. This workshop was planned using the methodology of cooperative learning, scientific debate and auto reflection (ACODESA) and the conception-knowing-concept model…

  12. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  13. Reconnections of Wave Vortex Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, M. V.; Dennis, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    When wave vortices, that is nodal lines of a complex scalar wavefunction in space, approach transversely, their typical crossing and reconnection is a two-stage process incorporating two well-understood elementary events in which locally coplanar hyperbolas switch branches. The explicit description of this reconnection is a pedagogically useful…

  14. Juxta-clavicular beaded lines.

    PubMed

    Franco, Gennaro; Donati, Pietro; Muscardin, Luca; Maini, Antonio; Morrone, Aldo

    2006-08-01

    We present a case series of 63 patients diagnosed with juxta-clavicular beaded lines. This condition is more frequent in dark-skinned people and corresponds to an anatomical variant of simple sebaceous hyperplasia. In view of the strong reactivity of the melanocytes in dark-skinned people, and of the possible hypochromic results, no treatment is advised.

  15. Gamma-ray line astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, R. E.; Ramaty, R.

    1986-01-01

    Recent observations of gamma-ray line emission from solar flares, gamma-ray bursts, the galactic center, the interstellar medium and the jets of SS433 are reviewed. The implications of these observations on high energy processes in these sources are discussed.

  16. Noncommutative Line Bundles and Gerbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurčo, B.

    We introduce noncommutative line bundles and gerbes within the framework of deformation quantization. The Seiberg-Witten map is used to construct the corresponding noncommutative Čech cocycles. Morita equivalence of star products and quantization of twisted Poisson structures are discussed from this point of view.

  17. On-Line Retrieval II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Peter; And Others

    This report is concerned with the implementation of two interrelated computer systems: an automatic document analysis and classification package, and an on-line interactive information retrieval system which utilizes the information gathered during the automatic classification phase. Well-known techniques developed by Salton and Dennis have been…

  18. Dusting off the Lecher Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Experiments with Lecher Lines have always been important in the physics curriculum for demonstrating standing waves and the important concept that waves can be guided as well as being emitted into space. A system operating at low power (less than 10 mW) and in the frequency range 300 MHz to 800MHz is described and the wavelength of the radiation…

  19. The ribosomal subunit assembly line

    PubMed Central

    Dlakić, Mensur

    2005-01-01

    Recent proteomic studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified nearly 200 proteins, other than the structural ribosomal proteins, that participate in the assembly of ribosomal subunits and their transport from the nucleus. In a separate line of research, proteomic studies of mature plant ribosomes have revealed considerable variability in the protein composition of individual ribosomes. PMID:16207363

  20. 46 CFR 42.13-30 - Lines to be used with the load line mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) The following load lines shall be used: (1) The summer load line indicated by the upper edge of the... T. (5) The fresh water load line in summer indicated by the upper edge of a line marked F. The fresh water load line in summer is marked abaft the vertical line. The difference between the fresh water load...

  1. 46 CFR 42.13-30 - Lines to be used with the load line mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) The following load lines shall be used: (1) The summer load line indicated by the upper edge of the... T. (5) The fresh water load line in summer indicated by the upper edge of a line marked F. The fresh water load line in summer is marked abaft the vertical line. The difference between the fresh water load...

  2. Recombination Line versus Forbidden Line Abundances in Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson-Tessi, Mark; Garnett, Donald R.

    2005-04-01

    Recombination lines (RLs) of C II, N II, and O II in planetary nebulae (PNs) have been found to give abundances that are much larger in some cases than abundances from collisionally excited forbidden lines (CELs). The origins of this abundance discrepancy are highly debated. We present new spectroscopic observations of O II and C II recombination lines for six planetary nebulae. With these data we compare the abundances derived from the optical recombination lines with those determined from collisionally excited lines. Combining our new data with published results on RLs in other PNs, we examine the discrepancy in abundances derived from RLs and CELs. We find that there is a wide range in the measured abundance discrepancy Δ(O+2)=logO+2(RL)-logO+2(CEL), ranging from approximately 0.1 dex (within the 1 σ measurement errors) up to 1.4 dex. This tends to rule out errors in the recombination coefficients as a source of the discrepancy. Most RLs yield similar abundances, with the notable exception of O II multiplet V15, known to arise primarily from dielectronic recombination, which gives abundances averaging 0.6 dex higher than other O II RLs. We compare Δ(O+2) against a variety of physical properties of the PNs to look for clues as to the mechanism responsible for the abundance discrepancy. The strongest correlations are found with the nebula diameter and the Balmer surface brightness; high surface brightness, compact PNs show small values of Δ(O+2), while large low surface brightness PNs show the largest discrepancies. An inverse correlation of Δ(O+2) with nebular density is also seen. A marginal correlation of Δ(O+2) is found with expansion velocity. No correlations are seen with electron temperature, He+2/He+, central star effective temperature and luminosity, stellar mass-loss rate, or nebular morphology. Similar results are found for carbon in comparing C II RL abundances with ultraviolet measurements of C III].

  3. Vacuum-jacketed transfer line installation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, W. M.

    1968-01-01

    Rolling-type spacers in the form of steel balls retained in appropriate sleeves affixed at intervals to the exterior of the transfer line facilitate the installation of a vacuum-jacketed line. They act as standoffs to position the transfer line concentrically within the vacuum jacket line.

  4. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes.

  5. Calibrating the mental number line.

    PubMed

    Izard, Véronique; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2008-03-01

    Human adults are thought to possess two dissociable systems to represent numbers: an approximate quantity system akin to a mental number line, and a verbal system capable of representing numbers exactly. Here, we study the interface between these two systems using an estimation task. Observers were asked to estimate the approximate numerosity of dot arrays. We show that, in the absence of calibration, estimates are largely inaccurate: responses increase monotonically with numerosity, but underestimate the actual numerosity. However, insertion of a few inducer trials, in which participants are explicitly (and sometimes misleadingly) told that a given display contains 30 dots, is sufficient to calibrate their estimates on the whole range of stimuli. Based on these empirical results, we develop a model of the mapping between the numerical symbols and the representations of numerosity on the number line.

  6. Line integral on engineering mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiryanto, L. H.

    2018-01-01

    Definite integral is a basic material in studying mathematics. At the level of calculus, calculating of definite integral is based on fundamental theorem of calculus, related to anti-derivative, as the inverse operation of derivative. At the higher level such as engineering mathematics, the definite integral is used as one of the calculating tools of line integral. the purpose of this is to identify if there is a question related to line integral, we can use definite integral as one of the calculating experience. The conclusion of this research says that the teaching experience in introducing the relation between both integrals through the engineer way of thinking can motivate and improve students in understanding the material.

  7. Cohomology of line bundles: Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Jurke, Benjamin; Rahn, Thorsten; Roschy, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Massless modes of both heterotic and Type II string compactifications on compact manifolds are determined by vector bundle valued cohomology classes. Various applications of our recent algorithm for the computation of line bundle valued cohomology classes over toric varieties are presented. For the heterotic string, the prime examples are so-called monad constructions on Calabi-Yau manifolds. In the context of Type II orientifolds, one often needs to compute cohomology for line bundles on finite group action coset spaces, necessitating us to generalize our algorithm to this case. Moreover, we exemplify that the different terms in Batyrev's formula and its generalizations can be given a one-to-one cohomological interpretation. Furthermore, we derive a combinatorial closed form expression for two Hodge numbers of a codimension two Calabi-Yau fourfold.

  8. Cable and Line Inspection Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Terence J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An automated cable and line inspection mechanism visually scans the entire surface of a cable as the mechanism travels along the cable=s length. The mechanism includes a drive system, a video camera, a mirror assembly for providing the camera with a 360 degree view of the cable, and a laser micrometer for measuring the cable=s diameter. The drive system includes an electric motor and a plurality of drive wheels and tension wheels for engaging the cable or line to be inspected, and driving the mechanism along the cable. The mirror assembly includes mirrors that are positioned to project multiple images of the cable on the camera lens, each of which is of a different portion of the cable. A data transceiver and a video transmitter are preferably employed for transmission of video images, data and commands between the mechanism and a remote control station.

  9. Cable and line inspection mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Terence J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An automated cable and line inspection mechanism visually scans the entire surface of a cable as the mechanism travels along the cable=s length. The mechanism includes a drive system, a video camera, a mirror assembly for providing the camera with a 360 degree view of the cable, and a laser micrometer for measuring the cable=s diameter. The drive system includes an electric motor and a plurality of drive wheels and tension wheels for engaging the cable or line to be inspected, and driving the mechanism along the cable. The mirror assembly includes mirrors that are positioned to project multiple images of the cable on the camera lens, each of which is of a different portion of the cable. A data transceiver and a video transmitter are preferably employed for transmission of video images, data and commands between the mechanism and a remote control station.

  10. LINE-1 Cultured Cell Retrotransposition Assay

    PubMed Central

    Kopera, Huira C.; Larson, Peter A.; Moldovan, John B.; Richardson, Sandra R.; Liu, Ying; Moran, John V.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposition assay has facilitated the discovery and characterization of active (i.e., retrotransposition-competent) LINE-1 sequences from mammalian genomes. In this assay, an engineered LINE-1 containing a retrotransposition reporter cassette is transiently transfected into a cultured cell line. Expression of the reporter cassette, which occurs only after a successful round of retrotransposition, allows the detection and quantification of the LINE-1 retrotransposition efficiency. This assay has yielded insight into the mechanism of LINE-1 retrotransposition. It also has provided a greater understanding of how the cell regulates LINE-1 retrotransposition and how LINE-1 retrotransposition impacts the structure of mammalian genomes. Below, we provide a brief introduction to LINE-1 biology and then detail how the LINE-1 retrotransposition assay is performed in cultured mammalian cells. PMID:26895052

  11. About cosmic gamma ray lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, Roland

    2017-06-01

    Gamma ray lines from cosmic sources convey the action of nuclear reactions in cosmic sites and their impacts on astrophysical objects. Gamma rays at characteristic energies result from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. The gamma-ray line from the annihilation of positrons at 511 keV falls into the same energy window, although of different origin. We present here the concepts of cosmic gamma ray spectrometry and the corresponding instruments and missions, followed by a discussion of recent results and the challenges and open issues for the future. Among the lessons learned are the diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in 26Al and 60Fe gamma rays, which is now being exploited towards the cycle of matter driven by massive stars and their supernovae; large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be of key importance here. Also, constraints on the complex processes making stars explode as either thermonuclear or core-collapse supernovae are being illuminated by gamma-ray lines, in this case from shortlived radioactivities from 56Ni and 44Ti decays. In particular, the three-dimensionality and asphericities that have recently been recognised as important are enlightened in different ways through such gamma-ray line spectroscopy. Finally, the distribution of positron annihilation gamma ray emission with its puzzling bulge-dominated intensity disctribution is measured through spatially-resolved spectra, which indicate that annihilation conditions may differ in different parts of our Galaxy. But it is now understood that a variety of sources may feed positrons into the interstellar medium, and their characteristics largely get lost during slowing down and propagation of positrons before annihilation; a recent microquasar flare was caught as an opportunity to see positrons annihilate at a source.

  12. Line-Editor Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    ZED editing program for DEC VAX computer simple, powerful line editor for text, program source code, and nonbinary data. Excels in processing of text by use of procedure files. Also features versatile search qualifiers, global changes, conditionals, online help, hexadecimal mode, space compression, looping, logical combinations of search strings, journaling, visible control characters, and automatic detabbing. Users of Cambridge implementation devised such ZED procedures as chess games, calculators, and programs for evaluating pi. Written entirely in C.

  13. Company Command: The Bottom Line

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-20

    who engage in original research on national security issues. NDU Press publishes the best of this research . In addition, the Press publishes other...79 Stan dard Inslallation/Division Person-. nel Systems jSIDPERS)-SIDPEiIS Be- p orts- Non coinmmission ed Officer Evaluation fleports (NO-ERs--Offtcer... Non - combatant Evacuation Operation (NEO) xii and Prenaration for Overseas Moveizent (PO.MW-Finance The Bottom Line for Personnel and Administration

  14. Firing up the front line.

    PubMed

    Katzenbach, J R; Santamaria, J A

    1999-01-01

    For many organizations, achieving competitive advantage means eliciting superior performance from employees on the front line--the burger flippers, hotel room cleaners, and baggage handlers whose work has an enormous effect on customers. That's no easy task. Front line workers are paid low wages, have scant hope of advancement, and--not surprisingly--often care little about the company's performance. But then how do some companies succeed in engaging the emotional energy of rank-and-file workers? A team of researchers at McKinsey & Company and the Conference Board recently explored that question and discovered that one highly effective route is demonstrated by the U.S. Marine Corps. The Marines' approach to motivation follows the "mission, values, and pride" path, which researchers say is practical and relevant for the business world. More specifically, the authors say the Marines follow five practices: they over-invest in cultivating core value; prepare every person to lead, including front line supervisors; learn when to create teams and when to create single-leader work groups; attend to all employees, not just the top half; and encourage self-discipline as a way of building pride. The authors admit there are critical differences between the Marines and most businesses. But using vivid examples from companies such as KFC and Marriott International, the authors illustrate how the Marines' approach can be translated for corporate use. Sometimes, the authors maintain, minor changes in a company's standard operating procedure can have a powerful effect on front line pride and can result in substantial payoffs in company performance.

  15. Chalk Line Mill, Anniston, AL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Chalk Line Mill property was the site of a textile mill which operated from 1887 until 1994. Demolition activities in 2004 removed most of the structures on-site, but also left large, unsightly piles of debris scattered across this 14-acre property. The City applied for and received a $200,000 Brownfields cleanup grant in 2007 to address contamination on the property and the Appalachian Regional Commission provided an additional $150,000 in funding.

  16. In-line thermoelectric module

    DOEpatents

    Pento, Robert; Marks, James E.; Staffanson, Clifford D.

    2000-01-01

    A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions may be perpendicular to the direction of current flow through the module.

  17. A new mathematical formulation of the line-by-line method in case of weak line overlapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishov, Alexander G.; Krymova, Natalie V.

    1994-01-01

    A rigorous mathematical proof is presented for multiline representation on the equivalent width of a molecular band which consists in the general case of n overlapping spectral lines. The multiline representation includes a principal term and terms of minor significance. The principal term is the equivalent width of the molecular band consisting of the same n nonoverlapping spectral lines. The terms of minor significance take into consideration the overlapping of two, three and more spectral lines. They are small in case of the weak overlapping of spectral lines in the molecular band. The multiline representation can be easily generalized for optically inhomogeneous gas media and holds true for combinations of molecular bands. If the band lines overlap weakly the standard formulation of line-by-line method becomes too labor-consuming. In this case the multiline representation permits line-by-line calculations to be performed more effectively. Other useful properties of the multiline representation are pointed out.

  18. Automated solar panel assembly line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somberg, H.

    1981-01-01

    The initial stage of the automated solar panel assembly line program was devoted to concept development and proof of approach through simple experimental verification. In this phase, laboratory bench models were built to demonstrate and verify concepts. Following this phase was machine design and integration of the various machine elements. The third phase was machine assembly and debugging. In this phase, the various elements were operated as a unit and modifications were made as required. The final stage of development was the demonstration of the equipment in a pilot production operation.

  19. Radiative transfer in molecular lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Cernicharo, J.

    2001-07-01

    The highly convergent iterative methods developed by Trujillo Bueno and Fabiani Bendicho (1995) for radiative transfer (RT) applications are generalized to spherical symmetry with velocity fields. These RT methods are based on Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel (GS), and SOR iteration and they form the basis of a new NLTE multilevel transfer code for atomic and molecular lines. The benchmark tests carried out so far are presented and discussed. The main aim is to develop a number of powerful RT tools for the theoretical interpretation of molecular spectra.

  20. Off-line data reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutowski, Marek W.

    1992-12-01

    Presented is a novel, heuristic algorithm, based on fuzzy set theory, allowing for significant off-line data reduction. Given the equidistant data, the algorithm discards some points while retaining others with their original values. The fraction of original data points retained is typically {1}/{6} of the initial value. The reduced data set preserves all the essential features of the input curve. It is possible to reconstruct the original information to high degree of precision by means of natural cubic splines, rational cubic splines or even linear interpolation. Main fields of application should be non-linear data fitting (substantial savings in CPU time) and graphics (storage space savings).

  1. Modeling of SAW Delay Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles requires rugged sensors having reduced volume, mass, and power that can be used to measure a variety of phenomena. Wireless systems are preferred when retro-fitting sensors onto existing vehicles. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices are capable of sensing: temperature, pressure, strain, chemical species, mass loading, acceleration, and shear stress. SAW technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, and extremely low power. To aid in the development of SAW sensors for IVHM applications, a first order model of a SAW Delay line has been created.

  2. Coils of Magnetic Field Lines

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-27

    A smallish solar filament looks like it collapsed into the sun and set off a minor eruption that hurled plasma into space (June 20, 2017). Then, the disrupted magnetic field immediately began to reorganize itself, hence the bright series of spirals coiling up over that area. The magnetic field lines are made visible in extreme ultraviolet light as charged particles spin along them. Also of interest are the darker, cooler strands of plasma being pulled and twisted at the edge of the sun just below the active region. The activity here is in a 21-hour period. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21764

  3. Melting line of polymeric nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakub, L. N.

    2013-05-01

    We made an attempt to predict location of the melting line of polymeric nitrogen using two equations for Helmholtz free energy: proposed earlier for cubic gauche-structure and developed recently for liquid polymerized nitrogen. The P-T relation, orthobaric densities and latent heat of melting were determined using a standard double tangent construction. The estimated melting temperature decreases with increasing pressure, alike the temperature of molecular-nonmolecular transition in solid. We discuss the possibility of a triple point (solid-molecular fluid-polymeric fluid) at ˜80 GPa and observed maximum of melting temperature of nitrogen.

  4. Walking at the drip line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, Angela

    2015-02-01

    Among exotic nuclei those at the drip line which are unstable against neutron emission are particularly interesting because they convey information on the nuclear force in the most extreme situations. Strictly speaking they are not ''nuclei" but they exist thanks to long living resonances between a neutron and a bound ''core" nucleus. Adding one more neutron they become bound and are called "borromean". Being particularly exotic they have attracted much attention in past years, see for example Refs.[1, 2, 3]. One very challenging example is 13Be whose level ordering has been discussed in a large number of papers in which it has been studied by transfer [4] and fragmentation experiments [5]-[11], or it has been discussed theoretically[12]-[19]. Although projectile fragmentation spectra show evident similarities, the interpretations of data all differ from each other. In this paper we argue that a way trough the problem could be to try to establish first, or at the same time, the quite elusive "nature" of the second s-state in the Beryllium isotopes with A=9-14. On the other hand there are other recent neutron removal experiments leading to nuclei unstable by one or more proton emissions [20], and thus somewhat mirror to borromean nuclei, performed with nuclei close to the proton drip line. It has been shown that by taking in coincidence all (charged) particles but the removed neutron, reconstructing the invariant mass and gating on the ground state peak, it is possible to obtain the longitudinal momentum distribution of the unbound "core". One can link it to the original wave function of the bound orbital and thus determine the initial neutron angular momentum from the shape of the distribution and the initial occupation probability from the absolute removal cross section. Then it is clear that modern experiments and theories are able to study unstable nuclei with the same degree of accuracy as stable nuclei. Such a line of research offers a great potential for

  5. service line analytics in the new era.

    PubMed

    Spence, Jay; Seargeant, Dan

    2015-08-01

    To succeed under the value-based business model, hospitals and health systems require effective service line analytics that combine inpatient and outpatient data and that incorporate quality metrics for evaluating clinical operations. When developing a framework for collection, analysis, and dissemination of service line data, healthcare organizations should focus on five key aspects of effective service line analytics: Updated service line definitions. Ability to analyze and trend service line net patient revenues by payment source. Access to accurate service line cost information across multiple dimensions with drill-through capabilities. Ability to redesign key reports based on changing requirements. Clear assignment of accountability.

  6. Cross delay line sensor characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, Israel J; Remelius, Dennis K; Tiee, Joe J

    There exists a wealth of information in the scientific literature on the physical properties and device characterization procedures for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), charge coupled device (CCD) and avalanche photodiode (APD) format detectors. Numerous papers and books have also treated photocathode operation in the context of photomultiplier tube (PMT) operation for either non imaging applications or limited night vision capability. However, much less information has been reported in the literature about the characterization procedures and properties of photocathode detectors with novel cross delay line (XDL) anode structures. These allow one to detect single photons and create images by recordingmore » space and time coordinate (X, Y & T) information. In this paper, we report on the physical characteristics and performance of a cross delay line anode sensor with an enhanced near infrared wavelength response photocathode and high dynamic range micro channel plate (MCP) gain (> 10{sup 6}) multiplier stage. Measurement procedures and results including the device dark event rate (DER), pulse height distribution, quantum and electronic device efficiency (QE & DQE) and spatial resolution per effective pixel region in a 25 mm sensor array are presented. The overall knowledge and information obtained from XDL sensor characterization allow us to optimize device performance and assess capability. These device performance properties and capabilities make XDL detectors ideal for remote sensing field applications that require single photon detection, imaging, sub nano-second timing response, high spatial resolution (10's of microns) and large effective image format.« less

  7. Line-drawing algorithms for parallel machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Alex T.

    1990-01-01

    The fact that conventional line-drawing algorithms, when applied directly on parallel machines, can lead to very inefficient codes is addressed. It is suggested that instead of modifying an existing algorithm for a parallel machine, a more efficient implementation can be produced by going back to the invariants in the definition. Popular line-drawing algorithms are compared with two alternatives; distance to a line (a point is on the line if sufficiently close to it) and intersection with a line (a point on the line if an intersection point). For massively parallel single-instruction-multiple-data (SIMD) machines (with thousands of processors and up), the alternatives provide viable line-drawing algorithms. Because of the pixel-per-processor mapping, their performance is independent of the line length and orientation.

  8. Economic impact analysis of short line railroads.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-10-01

    This research project assesses the economic role and impact of short line railroads in the state of Louisiana. While relatively small in : scope, with 11 operators and approximately 500 miles of track, short line railroads play a significant role in ...

  9. NLO Hierarchy of Wilson Lines Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Balitsky, Ian

    2015-03-01

    The high-energy behavior of QCD amplitudes can be described in terms of the rapidity evolution of Wilson lines. I present the hierarchy of evolution equations for Wilson lines in the next-to-leading order.

  10. 32 CFR 644.7 - Acquisition lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.7 Acquisition lines. (a) Tentative acquisition lines. As..., in accordance with sound real estate practices. Accordingly, fringe tracts will not be acquired until...

  11. Microscale hydrodynamics near moving contact lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garoff, Stephen; Chen, Q.; Rame, Enrique; Willson, K. R.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrodynamics governing the fluid motions on a microscopic scale near moving contact lines are different from those governing motion far from the contact line. We explore these unique hydrodynamics by detailed measurement of the shape of a fluid meniscus very close to a moving contact line. The validity of present models of the hydrodynamics near moving contact lines as well as the dynamic wetting characteristics of a family of polymer liquids are discussed.

  12. Modular support blocks for fluid lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimino, J. M.; Deskin, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Modular line block comprises matched modular elements machined to accept fluid lines of different diameters. Modules can support different fluid-line configurations. Top and bottom surfaces are machined to accept dovetail strip used for holding modules together. End modules have holes drilled through to accept fastening screws.

  13. Diagrammatic exponentiation for products of Wilson lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitov, Alexander; Sterman, George; Sung, Ilmo

    2010-11-01

    We provide a recursive diagrammatic prescription for the exponentiation of gauge theory amplitudes involving products of Wilson lines and loops. This construction generalizes the concept of webs, originally developed for eikonal form factors and cross sections with two eikonal lines, to general soft functions in QCD and related gauge theories. Our coordinate space arguments apply to arbitrary paths for the lines.

  14. 30 CFR 56.4501 - Fuel lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel lines. 56.4501 Section 56.4501 Mineral... Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4501 Fuel lines. Fuel lines shall be equipped with valves capable of stopping the flow of fuel at the source and shall be located and maintained to minimize fire hazards. This...

  15. 30 CFR 56.4501 - Fuel lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel lines. 56.4501 Section 56.4501 Mineral... Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4501 Fuel lines. Fuel lines shall be equipped with valves capable of stopping the flow of fuel at the source and shall be located and maintained to minimize fire hazards. This...

  16. 30 CFR 56.4501 - Fuel lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel lines. 56.4501 Section 56.4501 Mineral... Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4501 Fuel lines. Fuel lines shall be equipped with valves capable of stopping the flow of fuel at the source and shall be located and maintained to minimize fire hazards. This...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4501 - Fuel lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel lines. 57.4501 Section 57.4501 Mineral... Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4501 Fuel lines. Fuel lines shall be equipped with valves capable of stopping the flow of fuel at the source and shall be located and maintained to minimize fire hazards. This...

  18. 30 CFR 56.4501 - Fuel lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel lines. 56.4501 Section 56.4501 Mineral... Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4501 Fuel lines. Fuel lines shall be equipped with valves capable of stopping the flow of fuel at the source and shall be located and maintained to minimize fire hazards. This...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4501 - Fuel lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel lines. 57.4501 Section 57.4501 Mineral... Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4501 Fuel lines. Fuel lines shall be equipped with valves capable of stopping the flow of fuel at the source and shall be located and maintained to minimize fire hazards. This...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4501 - Fuel lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel lines. 57.4501 Section 57.4501 Mineral... Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4501 Fuel lines. Fuel lines shall be equipped with valves capable of stopping the flow of fuel at the source and shall be located and maintained to minimize fire hazards. This...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4501 - Fuel lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel lines. 57.4501 Section 57.4501 Mineral... Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4501 Fuel lines. Fuel lines shall be equipped with valves capable of stopping the flow of fuel at the source and shall be located and maintained to minimize fire hazards. This...

  2. 46 CFR 153.266 - Tank linings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tank linings. 153.266 Section 153.266 Shipping COAST... LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.266 Tank linings. A tank lining must be: (a) At least as elastic as the tank material; and (b) Applied or...

  3. 46 CFR 153.266 - Tank linings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank linings. 153.266 Section 153.266 Shipping COAST... LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.266 Tank linings. A tank lining must be: (a) At least as elastic as the tank material; and (b) Applied or...

  4. 46 CFR 153.266 - Tank linings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tank linings. 153.266 Section 153.266 Shipping COAST... LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.266 Tank linings. A tank lining must be: (a) At least as elastic as the tank material; and (b) Applied or...

  5. 46 CFR 153.266 - Tank linings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tank linings. 153.266 Section 153.266 Shipping COAST... LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.266 Tank linings. A tank lining must be: (a) At least as elastic as the tank material; and (b) Applied or...

  6. 46 CFR 153.266 - Tank linings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tank linings. 153.266 Section 153.266 Shipping COAST... LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.266 Tank linings. A tank lining must be: (a) At least as elastic as the tank material; and (b) Applied or...

  7. 32 CFR 644.7 - Acquisition lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acquisition lines. 644.7 Section 644.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.7 Acquisition lines. (a) Tentative acquisition lines. As...

  8. How many spectral lines are statistically significant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, J.

    When experimental line spectra are fitted with least squares techniques one frequently does not know whether n or n + 1 lines may be fitted safely. This paper shows how an F-test can be applied in order to determine the statistical significance of including an extra line into the fitting routine.

  9. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, K.E.

    This paper describes a microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plusmore » the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N{sup 2} ambiguity of charged particle events.« less

  10. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, K.E.

    1988-07-28

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

  11. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Kenneth E.

    1989-01-01

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

  12. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, K.E.

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slowmore » electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.« less

  13. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, Larry D.; Ballard, William P.; Clark, M. Collins; Marder, Barry M.

    1988-01-01

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields arfe produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap.

  14. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, L.D.; Ballard, W.P.; Clark, M.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1987-05-19

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields are produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap. 11 figs.

  15. Automatic Line Calling Badminton System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affandi Saidi, Syahrul; Adawiyah Zulkiplee, Nurabeahtul; Muhammad, Nazmizan; Sarip, Mohd Sharizan Md

    2018-05-01

    A system and relevant method are described to detect whether a projectile impact occurs on one side of a boundary line or the other. The system employs the use of force sensing resistor-based sensors that may be designed in segments or assemblies and linked to a mechanism with a display. An impact classification system is provided for distinguishing between various events, including a footstep, ball impact and tennis racquet contact. A sensor monitoring system is provided for determining the condition of sensors and providing an error indication if sensor problems exist. A service detection system is provided when the system is used for tennis that permits activation of selected groups of sensors and deactivation of others.

  16. Integrated Glass Coating Manufacturing Line

    SciTech Connect

    Brophy, Brenor

    2015-09-30

    This project aims to enable US module manufacturers to coat glass with Enki’s state of the art tunable functionalized AR coatings at the lowest possible cost and highest possible performance by encapsulating Enki’s coating process in an integrated tool that facilitates effective process improvement through metrology and data analysis for greater quality and performance while reducing footprint, operating and capital costs. The Phase 1 objective was a fully designed manufacturing line, including fully specified equipment ready for issue of purchase requisitions; a detailed economic justification based on market prices at the end of Phase 1 and projected manufacturing costs andmore » a detailed deployment plan for the equipment.« less

  17. Loudspeaker line array educational demonstration.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian E; Moser, Brad; Gee, Kent L

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a physical demonstration of an audio-range line array used to teach interference of multiple sources in a classroom or laboratory exercise setting. Software has been developed that permits real-time control and steering of the array. The graphical interface permits a user to vary the frequency, the angular response by phase shading, and reduce sidelobes through amplitude shading. An inexpensive, eight-element loudspeaker array has been constructed to test the control program. Directivity measurements of this array in an anechoic chamber and in a large classroom are presented. These measurements have good agreement with theoretical directivity predictions, thereby allowing its use as a quantitative learning tool for advanced students as well as a qualitative demonstration of arrays in other settings. Portions of this paper are directed toward educators who may wish to implement a similar demonstration for their advanced undergraduate or graduate level course in acoustics. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  18. Low gravity transfer line chilldown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Collins, Frank G.; Kawaji, Masahiro

    1992-01-01

    The progress to date is presented in providing predictive capabilities for the transfer line chilldown problem in low gravity environment. A low gravity experimental set up was designed and flown onboard the NASA/KC-135 airplane. Some results of this experimental effort are presented. The cooling liquid for these experiments was liquid nitrogen. The boiling phenomenon was investigated in this case using flow visualization techniques as well as recording wall temperatures. The flow field was established by injecting cold liquid in a heated tube whose temperature was set above saturation values. The tubes were vertically supported with the liquid injected from the lower end of the tube. The results indicate substantial differences in the flow patterns established during boiling between the ground based, (1-g), experiments and the flight experiments, (low-g). These differences in the flow patterns will be discussed and some explanations will be offered.

  19. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Mark A [Pleasanton, CA

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  20. System for automatically switching transformer coupled lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwinell, W. S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system is presented for automatically controlling transformer coupled alternating current electric lines. The secondary winding of each transformer is provided with a center tap. A switching circuit is connected to the center taps of a pair of secondary windings and includes a switch controller. An impedance is connected between the center taps of the opposite pair of secondary windings. The switching circuit has continuity when the AC lines are continuous and discontinuity with any disconnect of the AC lines. Normally open switching means are provided in at least one AC line. The switch controller automatically opens the switching means when the AC lines become separated.

  1. Spinless hourglass nodal-line semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Ryo; Hirayama, Motoaki; Murakami, Shuichi

    2017-10-01

    Nodal-line semimetals, one of the topological semimetals, have degeneracy along nodal lines where the band gap is closed. In many cases, the nodal lines appear accidentally, and in such cases it is impossible to determine whether the nodal lines appear or not, only from the crystal symmetry and the electron filling. In this paper, for spinless systems, we show that in specific space groups at 4 N +2 fillings (8 N +4 fillings including the spin degree of freedom), presence of the nodal lines is required regardless of the details of the systems. Here, the spinless systems refer to crystals where the spin-orbit coupling is negligible and the spin degree of freedom can be omitted because of the SU(2) spin degeneracy. In this case the shape of the band structure around these nodal lines is like an hourglass, and we call this a spinless hourglass nodal-line semimetal. We construct a model Hamiltonian as an example and we show that it is always in the spinless hourglass nodal-line semimetal phase even when the model parameters are changed without changing the symmetries of the system. We also establish a list of all the centrosymmetric space groups, under which spinless systems always have hourglass nodal lines, and illustrate where the nodal lines are located. We propose that Al3FeSi2 , whose space-group symmetry is Pbcn (No. 60), is one of the nodal-line semimetals arising from this mechanism.

  2. Incentive-Compatible Robust Line Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessas, Apostolos; Kontogiannis, Spyros; Zaroliagis, Christos

    The problem of robust line planning requests for a set of origin-destination paths (lines) along with their frequencies in an underlying railway network infrastructure, which are robust to fluctuations of real-time parameters of the solution. In this work, we investigate a variant of robust line planning stemming from recent regulations in the railway sector that introduce competition and free railway markets, and set up a new application scenario: there is a (potentially large) number of line operators that have their lines fixed and operate as competing entities issuing frequency requests, while the management of the infrastructure itself remains the responsibility of a single entity, the network operator. The line operators are typically unwilling to reveal their true incentives, while the network operator strives to ensure a fair (or socially optimal) usage of the infrastructure, e.g., by maximizing the (unknown to him) aggregate incentives of the line operators.

  3. Equatorial Wave Line, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-01-19

    STS054-95-042 (13-19 Jan 1993) --- The Equatorial Pacific Ocean is represented in this 70mm view. The international oceanographic research community is presently conducting a program called Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) to study the global ocean carbon budget. A considerable amount of effort within this program is presently being focused on the Equatorial Pacific Ocean because of the high annual average biological productivity. The high productivity is the result of nearly constant easterly winds causing cool, nutrient-rich water to well up at the equator. In this view of the sun glint pattern was photographed at about 2 degrees north latitude, 103 degrees west longitude, as the Space Shuttle passed over the Equatorial Pacific. The long narrow line is the equatorial front, which defines the boundary between warm surface equatorial water and cool, recently upwelled water. Such features are of interest to the JGOFS researchers and it is anticipated that photographs such as this will benefit the JGOFS program.

  4. Cell line: 2004-2014.

    PubMed

    2014-11-20

    2014 marks Cell's 40th anniversary, and over the year we have looked back at how discoveries of the last four decades have molded our understanding of biology. The final decade of the Cell Line features a selection of the exceptional scientific work-both landmark papers and essential reviews. Select entries can be read as an "Annotated Classic," which includes the original paper and accompanying reflections of a leading scientist, considering the work from our current vantage point. Our last installment includes a harbinger of the interplay between microbiota and mammalian hosts in 2004, revolutionary papers in 2006 and 2007 unlocking cellular reprogramming, the discovery of beige adipocytes in 2012, and the first example of CRISPR-based genome editing in a nonhuman primate in 2014. In addition to landmark publications, there were innovative developments at the journal in this decade, with the complete redesign of the print journal and the creation of Leading Edge in late 2005 and the restructuring of the online display of the article in 2010. Keeping pace with the changing nature of biological research, over the decade Cell added new article types, introduced guidelines for the organization of supplementary material, and expanded the journal's web-based content to bring editors' and authors' excitement and perspective on individual papers to the readership. An interactive version of the timeline, with links to the papers, full author lists, and Annotated Classics, is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2014.11.004.

  5. GENETICS OF HUMAN CELL LINES

    PubMed Central

    Djordjevic, B.; Szybalski, Waclaw

    1960-01-01

    The human cell line D98S can be cultivated indefinitely in the presence of up to 3 x 10–5 M 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUDR), without loss of cell viability. During this time, BUDR is incorporated into both strands of the DNA molecules, replacing up to 45 per cent of the thymidine and thereby rendering the cells highly sensitive to UV light and to x-rays. Cells grown for a limited period of time in the presence of 5-iododeoxyuridine (IUDR) become UV-sensitized, while prolonged cultivation with IUDR results in the loss of cell viability. The properties of the BUDR label permitted the demonstration that: (a) human DNA replicates in a "semiconservative" manner; (b) the degree of radiosensitization of BUDR-treated cells depends on whether the DNA has been substituted in one strand only ("unifilarly") or in both strands ("bifilarly"); (c) functional human DNA is produced during partial inhibition of protein synthesis. The potential applicability of this new rational principle of radiosensitization to the radiotherapy of neoplastic diseases is discussed. PMID:13723177

  6. On-line data display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Sherman Y. T.; Brooks, Martin; Gauthier, Marc; Wein, Marceli

    1993-05-01

    A data display system for embedded realtime systems has been developed for use as an operator's user interface and debugging tool. The motivation for development of the On-Line Data Display (ODD) have come from several sources. In particular the design reflects the needs of researchers developing an experimental mobile robot within our laboratory. A proliferation of specialized user interfaces revealed a need for a flexible communications and graphical data display system. At the same time the system had to be readily extensible for arbitrary graphical display formats which would be required for data visualization needs of the researchers. The system defines a communication protocol transmitting 'datagrams' between tasks executing on the realtime system and virtual devices displaying the data in a meaningful way on a graphical workstation. The communication protocol multiplexes logical channels on a single data stream. The current implementation consists of a server for the Harmony realtime operating system and an application written for the Macintosh computer. Flexibility requirements resulted in a highly modular server design, and a layered modular object- oriented design for the Macintosh part of the system. Users assign data types to specific channels at run time. Then devices are instantiated by the user and connected to channels to receive datagrams. The current suite of device types do not provide enough functionality for most users' specialized needs. Instead the system design allows the creation of new device types with modest programming effort. The protocol, design and use of the system are discussed.

  7. Relativistic redshifts in quasar broad lines

    SciTech Connect

    Tremaine, Scott; Shen, Yue; Liu, Xin

    2014-10-10

    The broad emission lines commonly seen in quasar spectra have velocity widths of a few percent of the speed of light, so special- and general-relativistic effects have a significant influence on the line profile. We have determined the redshift of the broad Hβ line in the quasar rest frame (determined from the core component of the [O III] line) for over 20,000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 quasar catalog. The mean redshift as a function of line width is approximately consistent with the relativistic redshift that is expected if the line originates in a randomlymore » oriented Keplerian disk that is obscured when the inclination of the disk to the line of sight exceeds ∼30°-45°, consistent with simple active galactic nucleus unification schemes. This result also implies that the net line-of-sight inflow/outflow velocities in the broad-line region are much less than the Keplerian velocity when averaged over a large sample of quasars with a given line width.« less

  8. Evaluation of between-line variation for within-line selection against ascites in broilers.

    PubMed

    de Greef, K H; Kwakernaak, C; Ducro, B J; Pit, R; Gerritsen, C L

    2001-01-01

    Within-line opportunities for selection against ascites were studied in a data set comprising a 10-line comparison. The study attempted to reveal whether contrasts between lines provide reliable candidate traits for within-line selection. Mortality was chosen as the reference trait. As no pedigree information was available, a trait was required that related mortality to the nonmortality data. By principal component analysis, such a trait (ASC_INDIC = ascites indicator) was developed from pathology data. The composite trait ASC_INDIC ranked lines well for their mortality figures (r = 0.96), from which it was concluded that ASC_INDIC represents an underlying continuous ascites trait. Between lines, blood gas traits seemed to be the most promising traits. Within lines, performance traits appeared to be highly correlated to ascites. Comparison of within-line variation to between-line contrasts revealed considerable differences. The high correlation of the blood gas traits with mortality was not present within lines. However, although the magnitude was considerably reduced, the nature of the blood gas traits in their relationship to ascites was similar within and between lines. The study primarily demonstrates that contrasts between lines carry systematic but limited information for within-line coherence. Therefore, line contrasts must be interpreted with care when aiming to study genetic variation and coherence within lines.

  9. Laser line scan performance prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, Kevin L.; Schofield, Oscar; Kerfoot, John; Giddings, Tom; Shirron, Joe; Twardowski, Mike

    2007-09-01

    The effectiveness of sensors that use optical measurements for the laser detection and identification of subsurface mines is directly related to water clarity. The primary objective of the work presented here was to use the optical data collected by UUV (Slocum Glider) surveys of an operational areas to estimate the performance of an electro-optical identification (EOID) Laser Line Scan (LLS) system during RIMPAC 06, an international naval exercise off the coast of Hawaii. Measurements of optical backscattering and beam attenuation were made with a Wet Labs, Inc. Scattering Absorption Meter (SAM), mounted on a Rutgers University/Webb Research Slocum glider. The optical data universally indicated extremely clear water in the operational area, except very close to shore. The beam-c values from the SAM sensor were integrated to three attenuation lengths to provide an estimate of how well the LLS would perform in detecting and identifying mines in the operational areas. Additionally, the processed in situ optical data served as near-real-time input to the Electro-Optic Detection Simulator, ver. 3 (EODES-3; Metron, Inc.) model for EOID performance prediction. Both methods of predicting LLS performance suggested a high probability of detection and probability of identification. These predictions were validated by the actual performance of the LLS as the EOID system yielded imagery from which reliable mine identification could be made. Future plans include repeating this work in more optically challenging water types to demonstrate the utility of pre-mission UUV surveys of operational areas as a tactical decision aid for planning EOID missions.

  10. Single transmission line data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensors monitor specific process variables and transmit measurement values over the single transmission line to a master station when addressed by the master station. Power for all remote stations (up to 980) is provided by driving the line with constant voltage supplied from the master station and automatically maintained independent of the number of remote stations directly connected to the line. The transmission line can be an RG-62 coaxial cable with lengths up to about 10,000 feet with branches up to 500 feet. The remote stations can be attached randomly along the line. The remote stations can be scanned at rates up to 980 channels/second.

  11. Terrestrial Planet Finder cryogenic delay line development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, Robert F.; Swain, Mark R.; Alvarez-Salazar, Oscar; Moore, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Delay lines provide the path-length compensation that makes the measurement of interference fringes possible. When used for nulling interferometry, the delay line must control path-lengths so that the null is stable and controlled throughout the measurement. We report on a low noise, low disturbance, and high bandwidth optical delay line capable of meeting the TPF interferometer optical path length control requirements at cryogenic temperatures.

  12. Stark broadening of He I lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijevic, M. S.; Sahal-Brechot, S.

    1990-03-01

    Results are presented from calculations of the electron-, proton-, and ionized helium-impact line widths and shifts for 77 neutral helium multiplets in the UV, visible, and IR regions of the spectrum. The calculations are performed using a semiclassical perturbation formalism (Sahal-Brechot, 1969). Tables are given for the line widths and shift for He I resonance lines at a perturber density of 10 to the 13th/cu cm.

  13. Generating mammalian stable cell lines by electroporation.

    PubMed

    A Longo, Patti; Kavran, Jennifer M; Kim, Min-Sung; Leahy, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    Expression of functional, recombinant mammalian proteins often requires expression in mammalian cells (see Single Cell Cloning of a Stable Mammalian Cell Line). If the expressed protein needs to be made frequently, it can be best to generate a stable cell line instead of performing repeated transient transfections into mammalian cells. Here, we describe a method to generate stable cell lines via electroporation followed by selection steps. This protocol will be limited to the CHO dhfr-Urlaub et al. (1983) and LEC1 cell lines, which in our experience perform the best with this method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poynter, R. L.; Pickett, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer accessible catalogue of submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral lines in the frequency range between O and 3000 GHz (such as; wavelengths longer than 100 m) is discussed. The catalogue was used as a planning guide and as an aid in the identification and analysis of observed spectral lines. The information listed for each spectral line includes the frequency and its estimated error, the intensity, lower state energy, and quantum number assignment. The catalogue was constructed by using theoretical least squares fits of published spectral lines to accepted molecular models. The associated predictions and their estimated errors are based upon the resultant fitted parameters and their covariances.

  15. RF Transmission Lines on Silicon Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.

    1999-01-01

    A review of RF transmission lines on silicon substrates is presented. Through measurements and calculated results, it is shown that attenuation is dominated by conductor loss if silicon substrates with a resistivity greater than 2500 Ohm-cm are used. Si passivation layers affect the transmission line attenuation; however, measured results demonstrate that passivation layers do not necessarily increase attenuation. If standard, low resistivity Si wafers must be used, alternative transmission lines such as thin film microstrip and Co-Planar Waveguide (CPW) on thick polyimide layers must be used. Measured results presented here show that low loss per unit length is achievable with these transmission lines.

  16. Chemical Burn-Induced Stromal Demarcation Line.

    PubMed

    Brosh, Koby; Rozenman, Yaacov

    2016-02-01

    A stromal demarcation line is a well-known sign after collagen cross-linking. It has been proposed that this line is the transition zone between cellular and acellular stroma, and thus it might reveal the depth of photochemical changes in the corneal stroma. We report 2 cases of a similar demarcation line after chemical alkali burns. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a stromal demarcation line after a chemical burn. Two patients presented to the emergency department after an ocular alkali burn. At presentation, both had total corneal erosion, corneal edema, and limbal ischemia. After 12 to 15 days, a stromal line was apparent by both slit-lamp examination and anterior segment optical coherence tomography. The stromal demarcation lines disappeared approximately 3 months after the injury. A stromal demarcation line may appear not only after collagen cross-linking but also after a chemical burn. The line depth may be associated with the severity of the injury, and therefore, may have prognostic significance. Patients with chemical burns should be examined for evidence of a stromal line in the cornea.

  17. Handwritten text line segmentation by spectral clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xuecheng; Yao, Hui; Zhong, Guoqiang

    2017-02-01

    Since handwritten text lines are generally skewed and not obviously separated, text line segmentation of handwritten document images is still a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a novel text line segmentation algorithm based on the spectral clustering. Given a handwritten document image, we convert it to a binary image first, and then compute the adjacent matrix of the pixel points. We apply spectral clustering on this similarity metric and use the orthogonal kmeans clustering algorithm to group the text lines. Experiments on Chinese handwritten documents database (HIT-MW) demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Magnetization of topological line-node semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikitik, G. P.; Sharlai, Yu. V.

    2018-02-01

    Using an approximate expression for the Landau levels of the electrons located near a nodal line of a topological line-node semimetal, we obtain formulas for the magnetization of this semimetal at an arbitrary shape of its line. It is also shown that the dependence of the chemical potential on the magnetic field can be strong in these materials, and this dependence can essentially influence the de Haas-van Alphen oscillations. The obtained results are applied to the rhombohedral graphite, which is one of the line-node semimetals. For this material, we find temperature and magnetic field dependencies of its magnetic susceptibility.

  19. Observations of emission lines in M supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Copernicus observations of Mg 2 h and k emission lines from M giants and supergiants are described. Supergiants with extensive circumstellar gas shells show an asymmetric k line. The asymmetry is ascribed to superimposed lines of Fe 1 and Mn 1. The Mg 2 line width fit the Wilson-Bappu relation derived from observations of G and K Stars. Results of correlated ground-based observations include (1) the discovery of K 1 fluorescent emission from the Betelgeuse shell; (2) extimates of the mass-loss rates; and (3) the proposal that silicate dust grains must account for the major fraction of the Si atoms in the Betelgeuse shell.

  20. Displacement of location in illusory line motion.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L; Ruppel, Susan E

    2013-05-01

    Six experiments examined displacement in memory for the location of the line in illusory line motion (ILM; appearance or disappearance of a stationary cue is followed by appearance of a stationary line that is presented all at once, but the stationary line is perceived to "unfold" or "be drawn" from the end closest to the cue to the end most distant from the cue). If ILM was induced by having a single cue appear, then memory for the location of the line was displaced toward the cue, and displacement was larger if the line was closer to the cue. If ILM was induced by having one of two previously visible cues vanish, then memory for the location of the line was displaced away from the cue that vanished. In general, the magnitude of displacement increased and then decreased as retention interval increased from 50 to 250 ms and from 250 to 450 ms, respectively. Displacement of the line (a) is consistent with a combination of a spatial averaging of the locations of the cue and the line with a relatively weaker dynamic in the direction of illusory motion, (b) might be implemented in a spreading activation network similar to networks previously suggested to implement displacement resulting from implied or apparent motion, and (c) provides constraints and challenges for theories of ILM.

  1. Development of a Handheld Line Information Reader and Generator for Efficient Management of Optical Communication Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaeyul; Kwon, Hyungwoo; Song, Jaewon; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-01-01

    A handheld line information reader and a line information generator were developed for the efficient management of optical communication lines. The line information reader consists of a photo diode, trans-impedance amplifier, voltage amplifier, microcontroller unit, display panel, and communication modules. The line information generator consists of a laser diode, laser driving circuits, microcontroller unit, and communication modules. The line information reader can detect the optical radiation field of the test line by bending the optical fiber. To enhance the sensitivity of the line information reader, an additional lens was used with a focal length of 4.51 mm. Moreover, the simulation results obtained through BeamPROP® software from Synopsys, Inc. demonstrated a stronger optical radiation field of the fiber due to a longer transmission wavelength and larger bending angle of the fiber. Therefore, the developed devices can be considered as useful tools for the efficient management of optical communication lines. PMID:28837058

  2. Identifying Fractions on a Number Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Fractions are generally introduced to students using the part--whole model. Yet the number line is another important representation which can be used to build fraction concepts (Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2012). Number lines are recognised as key in students' number development not only of fractions, but…

  3. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated March 7, 1941, the...

  4. Line length dependencies in interconnect optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadoch, Daniel; Duane, Michael; Lee, Yohan

    1997-09-01

    Metal line delay has become increasingly important for ULSI devices. Numerous expressions and software tools have been developed to describe interconnect delay as a function of the geometry and layout. Although many of these formulas have line length effects, this has not been explored in depth. Most software tools are either geared towards circuit designers, or involve more complex and CPU-intensive 3D modeling. In this work, PISCES (a 2D device simulator) was used to extract metal capacitance per unit length. We extend this approach for various lengths by creating a ladder network of the RC components and simulating in SPICE, or using simple closed-form Elmore delay equations. A new key result is that there are optimum metal line width/space for a fixed pitch and height/space ratios that are metal length dependent. For metal lines shorter than about 1500 micrometers , it is better to have narrower metal lines, and for lengths less than 500 micrometers , shrinking metal height is desirable because the penalty in resistance is more than compensated by the decrease in capacitance. For longer lines, the time delay is dominated by resistance, and wider, taller lines are better. Increasing metal spacing or reducing dielectric constant were beneficial for both long and short metal lines.

  5. The Time-Limited Hot Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loring, Marti Tamm; Wimberley, Edward T.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that media have become involved in creating programs and addressing issues that have been historically exclusive purview of mental health and human services agencies. Explains how time-limited hot line has been used to address specific issues raised by these programs. Provides overview of this type of hot line, offering triangular model of…

  6. Do Atoms Really "Emit" Absorption Lines?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecher, Kenneth

    1991-01-01

    Presents three absorption line sources that enhance student understanding of the phenomena associated with the interaction of light with matter and help dispel the misconception that atoms "emit" absorption lines. Sources include neodymium, food coloring and other common household liquids, and fluorescent materials. (MDH)

  7. Many Ways to Make A Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrell, Holly

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a middle school introductory art lesson that encourages experimentation as an essential part of the creative process. In this lesson, students experiment with different types of media and tools to create an abstract piece that focuses on the most basic element of art--line. Students focus on line quality, focal points,…

  8. Carbon lines at limitedly low frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valtts, I. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Detection of several absorption recombination radio lines of carbon at 26 MHz in Cas A direction resulted in an attempt to select similar situations (a gas cloud projection on the intense source of the nonthermal radio emission) that are promising for detecting lines of such a kind. Recommendations are given for observations to be made.

  9. Radiofrequency recombination lines from the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.

    1971-01-01

    Observations of recombination lines form normal H II regions, extended H II regions, nonthermal sources, and the H I medium are discussed. Detection of recombination lines from elements other than hydrogen may provide a means of identifying fossil Stromgren spheres at high temperature.

  10. On-Line Assessment: What, Why, How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natal, Dottie

    Recent increases in the speed and accessibility of computers and networks have made it possible to administer tests on-line. On-line assessment can be conducted in a controlled setting, such as a testing center, or distributed over local area networks or the Internet to libraries and student homes, allowing students the flexibility to complete…

  11. Acoustic Wave Propagation in Pressure Sense Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitarius, Patrick; Gregory, Don A.; Wiley, John; Korman, Valentin

    2003-01-01

    Sense lines are used in pressure measurements to passively transmit information from hostile environments to areas where transducers can be used. The transfer function of a sense line can be used to obtain information about the measured environment from the protected sensor. Several properties of this transfer function are examined, including frequency dependence, Helmholtz resonance, and time of flight delay.

  12. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300 feet...

  13. On-line diagnosis of sequential systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundstrom, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A model for on-line diagnosis was investigated for discrete-time systems, and resettable sequential systems. Generalized notions of a realization are discussed along with fault tolerance and errors. Further investigation into the theory of on-line diagnosis is recommended for three levels: binary state-assigned level, logical circuit level, and the subsystem-network level.

  14. Locating Fractions on a Number Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Understanding fractions remains problematic for many students. The use of the number line aids in this understanding, but requires students to recognise that a fraction represents the distance from zero to a dot or arrow marked on a number line which is a linear scale. This article continues the discussion from "Identifying Fractions on a…

  15. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300 feet...

  16. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300 feet...

  17. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300 feet...

  18. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300 feet...

  19. Modeling operational behavior of a disassembly line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizilkaya, Elif A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-12-01

    In this paper we present a dynamic kanban (pull) system specifically developed for disassembly lines. This type of kanban system is much more complex than the traditional kanban system used in assembly lines. For instance, unlike the assembly line where the external demand occurs only at the last station, the demands in the disassembly case also occur at any of the intermittent stations. The reason is that as a product moves on the disassembly line, various parts are disassembled at every station and accumulated at that station. Therefore, there are as many demand sources as there are number of parts. We consider a case example involving the end-of-life products. Based on the precedence relationships and other criteria such as hazardous properties of the parts, we balance the disassembly line. The results of the disassembly line-balancing problem (DLBP) are used as input to the proposed dynamic kanban system for disassembly line (DKSDL). We compare the performance of the DKSDL to the modified kanban system for disassembly line (MKSDL), which was previously introduced by the authors. We show, via simulation, that the DKSDL is far superior to MKSDL considered.

  20. Lines of Force: Faraday's and Students' Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pocovi, M. Cecilia; Finley, Fred

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes how electric and magnetic lines of force were conceived by Faraday and how they are understood by a group of Argentine university students after receiving instruction. Results show that many students possess ideas similar to those of Faraday in that lines of force are conceived as real physical entities responsible for the transmission of…

  1. Low-noise cryogenic transmission line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, D.

    1987-01-01

    New low-noise cryogenic input transmission lines have been developed for the Deep Space Network (DSN) at 1.668 GHz for cryogenically cooled Field Effect Transistors (FET) and High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) amplifiers. These amplifiers exhibit very low noise temperatures of 5 K to 15 K, making the requirements for a low-noise input transmission line critical. Noise contribution to the total amplifier system from the low-noise line is less than 0.5 K for both the 1.668-GHz and 2.25-GHz FET systems. The 1.668-GHz input line was installed in six FET systems which were implemented in the DSN for the Venus Balloon Experiment. The 2.25-GHz input line has been implemented in three FET systems for the DSN 34-m HEF antennas, and the design is currently being considered for use at higher frequencies.

  2. Line Mixing in Water Vapor and Methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. A. H.; Brown, L. R.; Toth, R. A.; Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, Chris

    2006-01-01

    A multispectrum fitting algorithm has been used to identify line mixing and determine mixing parameters for infrared transitions of H2O and CH4 in the 5-9 micrometer region. Line mixing parameters at room temperature were determined for two pairs of transitions in the v2 fundamental band of H2O-16, for self-broadening and for broadening by H2, He, CO2, N2, O2 and air. Line mixing parameters have been determined from air-broadened CH4 spectra, recorded at temperatures between 210 K and 314 K, in selected R-branch manifolds of the v4 band. For both H2O and CH4, the inclusion of line mixing was seen to have a greater effect on the retrieved values of the line shifts than on the retrieved values of other parameters

  3. Infrared line intensities of chlorine monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, T.; Faris, J. L.; Mumma, M. J.; Deming, D.; Hillman, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute infrared line intensities of several ClO lines in the rotational-vibrational (1-0) band were measured using infrared heterodyne spectroscopy near 12 microns. A measurement technique using combined ultraviolet absorption and infrared line measurements near 9.5 microns and 12 microns permitted an accurate determination of the column densities of O3 and ClO in the absorption cell and thus improved ClO line intensities. Results indicate ClO line and band intensities approximately 2.4 times lower than previous experimental results. Effects of possible failure of local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions in the absorption cell and the implication of the results for stratospheric ClO measurements in the infrared are discussed.

  4. A specialized bioengineering ion beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L. D.; Sangyuenyongpipat, S.; Sriprom, C.; Thongleurm, C.; Suwanksum, R.; Tondee, N.; Prakrajang, K.; Vilaithong, T.; Brown, I. G.; Wiedemann, H.

    2007-04-01

    A specialized bioengineering ion beam line has recently been completed at Chiang Mai University to meet rapidly growing needs of research and application development in low-energy ion beam biotechnology. This beam line possesses special features: vertical main beam line, low-energy (30 keV) ion beams, double swerve of the beam, a fast pumped target chamber, and an in-situ atomic force microscope (AFM) system chamber. The whole beam line is situated in a bioclean environment, occupying two stories. The quality of the ion beam has been studied. It has proved that this beam line has significantly contributed to our research work on low-energy ion beam biotechnology.

  5. Soliton production with nonlinear homogeneous lines

    DOE PAGES

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.; Coleman, Phillip D.; Moorman, Matthew W.; ...

    2015-11-24

    Low- and high-voltage Soliton waves were produced and used to demonstrate collision and compression using diode-based nonlinear transmission lines. Experiments demonstrate soliton addition and compression using homogeneous nonlinear lines. We built the nonlinear lines using commercially available diodes. These diodes are chosen after their capacitance versus voltage dependence is used in a model and the line design characteristics are calculated and simulated. Nonlinear ceramic capacitors are then used to demonstrate high-voltage pulse amplification and compression. The line is designed such that a simple capacitor discharge, input signal, develops soliton trains in as few as 12 stages. We also demonstrated outputmore » voltages in excess of 40 kV using Y5V-based commercial capacitors. The results show some key features that determine efficient production of trains of solitons in the kilovolt range.« less

  6. A survey of ultraviolet interstellar absorption lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, R. C.; Jenkins, E. B.; Spitzer, L., Jr.; York, D. G.; Hill, J. K.; Savage, B. D.; Snow, T. P., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A telescope-spectrometer on the Copernicus spacecraft made possible the measurement of many ultraviolet absorption lines produced by the interstellar gas. The present survey provides data on ultraviolet absorption lines in the spectra of 88 early-type stars. The stars observed are divided into four classes, including reddened stars, unreddened bright stars, moderately reddened bright stars, and unreddened and moderately reddened faint stars. Data are presented for equivalent width, W, radial velocity V, and rms line width, D, taking into account some 10 to 20 lines of N I, O I, Si II, P II, S II, Cl I, Cl II, Mn II, Fe II, Ni II, Cu II, and H2. The data are based on multiple scans for each line. Attention is given to details of observations, the data reduction procedure, and the computation of equivalent width, mean velocity, and velocity dispersion.

  7. Response function of a moving contact line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, H.; Belardinelli, D.; Sbragaglia, M.; Andreotti, B.

    2018-04-01

    The hydrodynamics of a liquid-vapor interface in contact with a heterogeneous surface is largely impacted by the presence of defects at the smaller scales. Such defects introduce morphological disturbances on the contact line and ultimately determine the force exerted on the wedge of liquid in contact with the surface. From the mathematical point of view, defects introduce perturbation modes, whose space-time evolution is governed by the interfacial hydrodynamic equations of the contact line. In this paper we derive the response function of the contact line to such generic perturbations. The contact line response may be used to design simplified one-dimensional time-dependent models accounting for the complexity of interfacial flows coupled to nanoscale defects, yet offering a more tractable mathematical framework to explore contact line motion through a disordered energy landscape.

  8. BEAM TRANSPORT LINES FOR THE BSNS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    This paper presents the design of two beam transport lines at the BSNS: one is the injection line from the Linac to the RCS and the other is the target line from the RCS to the target station. In the injection beam line, space charge effects, transverse halo collimation, momentum tail collimation and debunching are the main concerned topics. A new method of using triplet cells and stripping foils is used to collimate transverse halo. A long straight section is reserved for the future upgrading linac and debuncher. In the target beam line, large halo emittance, beam stability at themore » target due to kicker failures and beam jitters, shielding of back-scattering neutrons from the target are main concerned topics. Special bi-gap magnets will be used to reduce beam losses in the collimators in front of the target.« less

  9. Text line extraction in free style document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiaolu; Liu, Changsong; Ding, Xiaoqing; Zou, Yanming

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses to text line extraction in free style document, such as business card, envelope, poster, etc. In free style document, global property such as character size, line direction can hardly be concluded, which reveals a grave limitation in traditional layout analysis. 'Line' is the most prominent and the highest structure in our bottom-up method. First, we apply a novel intensity function found on gradient information to locate text areas where gradient within a window have large magnitude and various directions, and split such areas into text pieces. We build a probability model of lines consist of text pieces via statistics on training data. For an input image, we group text pieces to lines using a simulated annealing algorithm with cost function based on the probability model.

  10. FLIGHT LINE, LOOKING TOWARD FLIGHT LINE FIRE STATION (BUILDING 2748)CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLIGHT LINE, LOOKING TOWARD FLIGHT LINE FIRE STATION (BUILDING 2748)CENTER AND AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE DOCKS (BUILDINGS 2741 AND 2766)LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  11. Cusps enable line attractors for neural computation

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Zhuocheng; Zhang, Jiwei; Sornborger, Andrew T.; ...

    2017-11-07

    Here, line attractors in neuronal networks have been suggested to be the basis of many brain functions, such as working memory, oculomotor control, head movement, locomotion, and sensory processing. In this paper, we make the connection between line attractors and pulse gating in feed-forward neuronal networks. In this context, because of their neutral stability along a one-dimensional manifold, line attractors are associated with a time-translational invariance that allows graded information to be propagated from one neuronal population to the next. To understand how pulse-gating manifests itself in a high-dimensional, nonlinear, feedforward integrate-and-fire network, we use a Fokker-Planck approach to analyzemore » system dynamics. We make a connection between pulse-gated propagation in the Fokker-Planck and population-averaged mean-field (firing rate) models, and then identify an approximate line attractor in state space as the essential structure underlying graded information propagation. An analysis of the line attractor shows that it consists of three fixed points: a central saddle with an unstable manifold along the line and stable manifolds orthogonal to the line, which is surrounded on either side by stable fixed points. Along the manifold defined by the fixed points, slow dynamics give rise to a ghost. We show that this line attractor arises at a cusp catastrophe, where a fold bifurcation develops as a function of synaptic noise; and that the ghost dynamics near the fold of the cusp underly the robustness of the line attractor. Understanding the dynamical aspects of this cusp catastrophe allows us to show how line attractors can persist in biologically realistic neuronal networks and how the interplay of pulse gating, synaptic coupling, and neuronal stochasticity can be used to enable attracting one-dimensional manifolds and, thus, dynamically control the processing of graded information.« less

  12. Cusps enable line attractors for neural computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhuocheng; Zhang, Jiwei; Sornborger, Andrew T.; Tao, Louis

    2017-11-01

    Line attractors in neuronal networks have been suggested to be the basis of many brain functions, such as working memory, oculomotor control, head movement, locomotion, and sensory processing. In this paper, we make the connection between line attractors and pulse gating in feed-forward neuronal networks. In this context, because of their neutral stability along a one-dimensional manifold, line attractors are associated with a time-translational invariance that allows graded information to be propagated from one neuronal population to the next. To understand how pulse-gating manifests itself in a high-dimensional, nonlinear, feedforward integrate-and-fire network, we use a Fokker-Planck approach to analyze system dynamics. We make a connection between pulse-gated propagation in the Fokker-Planck and population-averaged mean-field (firing rate) models, and then identify an approximate line attractor in state space as the essential structure underlying graded information propagation. An analysis of the line attractor shows that it consists of three fixed points: a central saddle with an unstable manifold along the line and stable manifolds orthogonal to the line, which is surrounded on either side by stable fixed points. Along the manifold defined by the fixed points, slow dynamics give rise to a ghost. We show that this line attractor arises at a cusp catastrophe, where a fold bifurcation develops as a function of synaptic noise; and that the ghost dynamics near the fold of the cusp underly the robustness of the line attractor. Understanding the dynamical aspects of this cusp catastrophe allows us to show how line attractors can persist in biologically realistic neuronal networks and how the interplay of pulse gating, synaptic coupling, and neuronal stochasticity can be used to enable attracting one-dimensional manifolds and, thus, dynamically control the processing of graded information.

  13. Cusps enable line attractors for neural computation

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Zhuocheng; Zhang, Jiwei; Sornborger, Andrew T.

    Here, line attractors in neuronal networks have been suggested to be the basis of many brain functions, such as working memory, oculomotor control, head movement, locomotion, and sensory processing. In this paper, we make the connection between line attractors and pulse gating in feed-forward neuronal networks. In this context, because of their neutral stability along a one-dimensional manifold, line attractors are associated with a time-translational invariance that allows graded information to be propagated from one neuronal population to the next. To understand how pulse-gating manifests itself in a high-dimensional, nonlinear, feedforward integrate-and-fire network, we use a Fokker-Planck approach to analyzemore » system dynamics. We make a connection between pulse-gated propagation in the Fokker-Planck and population-averaged mean-field (firing rate) models, and then identify an approximate line attractor in state space as the essential structure underlying graded information propagation. An analysis of the line attractor shows that it consists of three fixed points: a central saddle with an unstable manifold along the line and stable manifolds orthogonal to the line, which is surrounded on either side by stable fixed points. Along the manifold defined by the fixed points, slow dynamics give rise to a ghost. We show that this line attractor arises at a cusp catastrophe, where a fold bifurcation develops as a function of synaptic noise; and that the ghost dynamics near the fold of the cusp underly the robustness of the line attractor. Understanding the dynamical aspects of this cusp catastrophe allows us to show how line attractors can persist in biologically realistic neuronal networks and how the interplay of pulse gating, synaptic coupling, and neuronal stochasticity can be used to enable attracting one-dimensional manifolds and, thus, dynamically control the processing of graded information.« less

  14. Software Product Lines: Report of the 2010 US Army Software Product Line Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    requirements and statement of work ( SOW ) tasks can be in- cluded in the request for proposal (RFP) and the contract. 2.2.1 Basic Product Line Acquisition... SOW tasks in Figure 1. Two additional tasks (at the third tier level) ac- count for sustaining the production capability over the life cycle and...Acquisition Strategy RFP and SOW Initial Product Line Scope Product Line Business Case Capability Description Document Teaming Product Line

  15. The Rich and the Poor: The Construction of an Affluence Line from the Poverty Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros, Marcelo

    2006-01-01

    The paper proposes a simple methodology to estimate an affluence line that depends on the knowledge of the income distribution and the poverty line for a given population. The idea that poverty is morally unacceptable and can be eradicated through redistribution of wealth provides the grounds for the methodology. The line is defined as the value…

  16. 46 CFR 46.15-10 - Subdivision load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 and a “diamond” shall be substituted for the “disk”. No “fresh water” line will be marked. [CGFR... located in line with the highest subdivision load line. (f) One fresh water line shall be marked. When a subdivision and a normal load line are combined, the normal fresh water line only shall be used unless the...

  17. Laser spectroscopy of phonons and rotons in superfluid helium doped with Dy atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroshkin, P.; Borel, A.; Kono, K.

    2018-03-01

    We report the results of a high-resolution laser-spectroscopy study of dysprosium atoms injected into superfluid 4He. A special attention is paid to the transitions between the inner 4 f and 5 d electronic shells of Dy. The characteristic gap is observed between the zero-phonon line and the phonon wing in the experimental excitation spectrum that arises due to the peculiar structure of the phonon-roton spectrum of superfluid He. This observation resolves the longstanding discrepancy between the studies of bulk superfluid He and He nanodroplets.

  18. Theory of spin-conserving excitation of the N-V(-) center in diamond.

    PubMed

    Gali, Adam; Janzén, Erik; Deák, Péter; Kresse, Georg; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2009-10-30

    The negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond is an important atomic-scale structure that can be used as a qubit in quantum computing and as a marker in biomedical applications. Its usefulness relies on the ability to optically excite electrons between well-defined gap states, which requires a clear and detailed understanding of the relevant states and excitation processes. Here we show that by using hybrid density-functional-theory calculations in a large supercell we can reproduce the zero-phonon line and the Stokes and anti-Stokes shifts, yielding a complete picture of the spin-conserving excitation of this defect.

  19. Optical characterization of semi-insulating GaAs - Determination of the Fermi energy, the concentraion of the midgap EL2 level and its occupancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagowski, J.; Bugajski, M.; Matsui, M.; Gatos, H. C.

    1987-01-01

    The key electronic characteristics of semiinsulating GaAs, i.e., the Fermi energy, concentration, and occupancy of the midgap donor EL2, and the net concentration of ionized acceptors can all be determined from high-resolution measurements of the EL2 intracenter absorption. The procedure is based on the measurement of zero-phonon line intensity before and after the complete transfer of EL2 to its metastable state followed by thermal recovery. The procedure is quantitative, involves no fitting parameters, and unlike existing methods, is applicable even when a significant part of the EL2 is ionized.

  20. Nanodiamonds with photostable, sub-gigahertz linewidth quantum emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Toan Trong; Kianinia, Mehran; Bray, Kerem; Kim, Sejeong; Xu, Zai-Quan; Gentle, Angus; Sontheimer, Bernd; Bradac, Carlo; Aharonovich, Igor

    2017-11-01

    Single-photon emitters with narrow linewidths are highly sought after for applications in quantum information processing and quantum communications. In this letter, we report on a bright, highly polarized near infrared single photon emitter embedded in diamond nanocrystals with a narrow, sub-GHz optical linewidth at 10 K. The observed zero-phonon line at ˜780 nm is optically stable under low power excitation and blue shifts as the excitation power increases. Our results highlight the prospect for using new near infrared color centers in nanodiamonds for quantum applications.

  1. Lip line preference for variant face types.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Nabila; Fida, Mubassar

    2012-06-01

    To determine the effect of altered lip line on attractiveness and to find preferred lip line for vertical face types in both genders. Cross-sectional analytical study. The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from May to July 2009. Photographs of two selected subjects were altered to produce three face types for the same individual with the aim of keeping the frame of the smile constant. Lip line was then altered for both the subjects as: both dentitions visible, upper incisors visible, upper incisors and 2 mm gum and 4 mm gum visible. The pictures were rated by different professionals for attractiveness. Descriptive statistics for the raters and multiple factor ANOVA was used to find the most attractive lip line. The total number of raters was 100 with the mean age of 30.3 ± 8 years. The alterations in the smile parameters produced statistically significant difference in the attractiveness of faces, whereas the perception difference was found to be insignificant amongst raters of different professions. Preferred lip line was the one showing only the upper incisors in dolico and mesofacial male and female genders whereas 2 mm gum show was preferred in brachyfacial subjects. The variability in lip line showed significant difference in the perceived attractiveness. Preferred lip lines as the one showing only the upper incisors in dolico and mesofacial male and female genders whereas 2 mm gum show was preferred in brachyfacial subjects.

  2. [The smile line, a literature search].

    PubMed

    van der Geld, P A; van Waas, M A

    2003-09-01

    Beautiful teeth, visible when smiling, are in line with the present ideal of beauty. The display of teeth when smiling is determined by the smile line: the projection of the lower border of the upper lip on the maxillary teeth when smiling. On the basis of a literature search the determining methods of the smile line are discussed, demographic data of the position of the smile line are given, and factors of influence are examined. There is no unequivocal method for determining the position of the smile line. A rough distinction can be made between qualitative and (semi)-quantitative methods. The (semi)-quantitative methods have clear advantages for research purposes, but their reliability is unknown. It was demonstrated that among minimally 40% of subjects the maxillary gingiva was not visible when smiling. The mandibular gingiva was not visible when smiling among more than 90% of subjects. Furthermore, it appeared that among women the smile line was on average higher situated than among men and that it has not yet been proven that the smile line will be situated lower when growing older.

  3. Standards for Cell Line Authentication and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Kenneth D.; Plant, Anne L.

    2016-01-01

    Different genomic technologies have been applied to cell line authentication, but only one method (short tandem repeat [STR] profiling) has been the subject of a comprehensive and definitive standard (ASN-0002). Here we discuss the power of this document and why standards such as this are so critical for establishing the consensus technical criteria and practices that can enable progress in the fields of research that use cell lines. We also examine other methods that could be used for authentication and discuss how a combination of methods could be used in a holistic fashion to assess various critical aspects of the quality of cell lines. PMID:27300367

  4. Tropical squall lines of the Arizona monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Walter P.; Gall, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Three cases of squall lines composed of strong to severe thunderstorms that formed over Arizona, and Sonora (Mexico) on July, 16-17 and 17-18, 1984, and August 2-3, 1986, are examined. Data, which included satellite imagery, VISSR-derived fields, surface data, and records or cloud-to-ground lightning strikes, indicate that the initiation, growth, and dissipation of all three squall lines were very similar. Results indicate that these mesoscale convective systems developed in an environment of relatively strong low-level shear with very weak shear aloft and that they possessed almost all the properties of a typical tropical squall line.

  5. The flat bottomed lines of Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monier, R.; Gebran, M.; Royer, F.; Kılıcoǧlu, T.

    2017-12-01

    Using one high dispersion high quality spectrum of Vega (HR7001, A0V) obtained with the échelle spectrograph SOPHIE at Observatoire de Haute Provence, we have measured the centroids of 149 flat bottomed lines. The model atmosphere and spectrum synthesis modeling of the spectrum of Vega allows us to provide identifications for all these lines. Most of these lines are due to C I, O I, Mg I, Al I, Ca I, Sc II,Ti II, Cr I, Cr II, Mn I, Fe I, Fe II, Sr II, Ba II, the large majority being due to neutral species, in particular Fe I.

  6. Development of the PEFP's beam line BPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jin-Yeong; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Jang, Ji-Ho; Kim, Han-Sung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2013-01-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) has 20-MeV and 100-MeV beam lines to supply proton beams to users. A stripline-type Beam Position Monitor (BPM) was designed and fabricated in order to measure the beam's position in the beam line. The RF properties of the BPM were measured and compared with the simulation. After the sensitivity of the BPM at a test stand had been obtained, we performed a beam test in a test beam line of the PEFP 20-MeV proton linac.

  7. Cyclotron Lines in Accreting Neutron Star Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilms, Jörn; Schönherr, Gabriele; Schmid, Julia; Dauser, Thomas; Kreykenbohm, Ingo

    2009-05-01

    Cyclotron lines are formed through transitions of electrons between discrete Landau levels in the accretion columns of accreting neutron stars with strong (1012 G) magnetic fields. We summarize recent results on the formation of the spectral continuum of such systems, describe recent advances in the modeling of the lines based on a modification of the commonly used Monte Carlo approach, and discuss new results on the dependence of the measured cyclotron line energy from the luminosity of transient neutron star systems. Finally, we show that Simbol-X will be ideally suited to build and improve the observational database of accreting and strongly magnetized neutron stars.

  8. Filter line wiring designs in aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Richard M.

    1990-10-01

    The paper presents a harness design using a filter-line wire technology and appropriate termination methods to help meet high-energy radiated electromagnetic field (HERF) requirements for protection against the adverse effects of EMI on electrical and avionic systems. Filter-line interconnect harnessing systems discussed consist of high-performance wires and cables; when properly wired they suppress conducted and radiated EMI above 100 MHz. Filter-line termination devices include backshell adapters, braid splicers, and shield terminators providing 360-degree low-impedance terminations and enhancing maintainability of the system.

  9. Line-focus concentrating collector program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Line-Focus Concentrating Collector Program has emphasized the development and dissemination of concentrating solar technology in which the reflected sunlight is focused onto a linear or line receiver. Although a number of different types of line-focus concentrators were developed, the parabolic trough has gained the widest acceptance and utilization within the industrial and applications sectors. The trough is best applied for application scenarios which require temperatures between 140 and 600 F. Another concept, the bowl, is investigated for applications which may require temperatures in the range between 600 and 1200 F. Current technology emphases are upon the reduction of system installation cost and the implementation of production oriented engineering.

  10. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (Δq) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (ΔH). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of Δq higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% Δq and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area

  11. Significant contribution of the Cerenkov line-like radiation to the broad emission lines of quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D. B.; You, J. H.; Chen, W. P.

    2014-01-01

    The Cerenkov line-like radiation in a dense gas (N {sub H} > 10{sup 13} cm{sup –3}) is potentially important in the exploration of the optical broad emission lines of quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies. With this quasi-line emission mechanism, some long standing puzzles in the study of quasars could be resolved. In this paper, we calculate the power of the Cerenkov line-like radiation in dense gas and compare with the powers of other radiation mechanisms by a fast electron to confirm its importance. From the observed gamma-ray luminosity of 3C 279, we show that the total number of fast electronsmore » is sufficiently high to allow effective operation of the quasi-line emission. We present a model calculation for the luminosity of the Cerenkov Lyα line of 3C 279, which is high enough to compare with observations. We therefore conclude that the broad line of quasars may be a blend of the Cerenkov emission line with the real line produced by the bound-bound transition. A new approach to the absorption of the Cerenkov line is presented with the method of escape probability, which markedly simplifies the computation in the optically thick case. The revised set of formulae for the Cerenkov line-like radiation is more convenient in applications.« less

  12. Integration of On-Line and Off-Line Diagnostic Algorithms for Aircraft Engine Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.

  13. Ames Lab 101: Next Generation Power Lines

    ScienceCinema

    Russell, Alan

    2017-12-22

    Ames Laboratory scientist Alan Russell discusses the need to develop new power lines that are stronger and more conductive as a way to address the problem of the nation's aging and inadequate power grid.

  14. Quantum oscillations in nodal line systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Moessner, Roderich; Lim, Lih-King

    2018-04-01

    We study signatures of magnetic quantum oscillations in three-dimensional nodal line semimetals at zero temperature. The extended nature of the degenerate bands can result in a Fermi surface geometry with topological genus one, as well as a Fermi surface of electron and hole pockets encapsulating the nodal line. Moreover, the underlying two-band model to describe a nodal line is not unique, in that there are two classes of Hamiltonian with distinct band topology giving rise to the same Fermi-surface geometry. After identifying the extremal cyclotron orbits in various magnetic field directions, we study their concomitant Landau levels and resulting quantum oscillation signatures. By Landau-fan-diagram analyses, we extract the nontrivial π Berry phase signature for extremal orbits linking the nodal line.

  15. Inexpensive cryogenic insulation replaces vacuum jacketed line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, C. E.

    1967-01-01

    Commercially available aluminized Mylar, cork and fiber glass form a multilayered sealed system and provide rugged and economical field installed insulation for cryogenic /liquid nitrogen or oxygen/ pipe lines in an exposed environment.

  16. Development of an Extruded Tunnel Lining System

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1983-12-01

    The objective of this report was to design, develop, fabricate, test and demonstrate a system for placing a continuously extruded tunnel liner. The Extruded Tunnel Lining System (ETLS) is a process for continuous slipforming of a concrete tunnel lini...

  17. Voltage gain optimization of transmission line transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pécastaing, L.; Reess, T.; Paillol, J.; Gibert, A.; Domens, P.

    2003-06-01

    Transmission Line Transformers (TLT) based on the use of ferrite beads are presented. This work aims at optimising the performance of the voltage gain and the compactness of the TLT according to the position, the type and the number of ferrites used. The ferrites have been selected taking into account two main parameters: the maximum currents flowing through the outer conductor of the lines of a TLT without ferrite beads and the current frequencies. The function of these ferrites is to decrease the effect of parasitic short-circuit transmission lines between the outer conductors of the coaxial cables of the TLT. Voltages and secondary currents are measured on each cable. The voltage gain achieved reaches the optimum theoretical value thanks to the use of ferrites for a 2, 4 and 10-stage transmission line transformer. Each cable is shorter than 1.5 meter in length which provides an unquestionable advantage of compactness.

  18. Stitch and hem and line and flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorp, John Daniel

    Stitch and hem and line and flight appears in four formats. There is this present one, which adheres to the manuscript design requirements as outlined by The Graduate School at The University of Utah; there is another which is a book six inches high by nine inches wide, printed in three colors, with text aligned to its gutter; and there is a broadside printed from the same forms of standing metal type on a single twelve-inch-high by nineteen-inch-wide page, where all spreads are registered to the same points so that all lines of all sections overlap exactly, excluding the last lines of the longest section, which are left immediately readable. The second and the third formats were produced in editions of fifty each, and copies are available to the reader through the Special Collections Library at the J. Willard Marriott Library. The text in the book you're holding is built from scans taken from the original letterpress pages, and so honors typos not caught before production during proofreading, but does not honor the final runs of production which overprint eight typos and overprint one duplicated "no." The text here stands as an uncorrected and reformatted transcript of the letterpress-printed pages, since all "characters must be clear and sharp. Smudged, indistinct, or blurred letters are not acceptable." The present format cannot ask (at least not in the same way) if the techniques and repetitive labor of hand printing can be read just as one might read any of the other more familiar small crises in a work: the line break, the influence of a culture or history on that work, anagnorisis, exegesis, etc. The present format doesn't seem to ask questions like: what happens to a love song when you can't read it or hear it? How does a line or letter make itself mean when cast in metal, stood up and pressed onto paper? Still, the present format is concerned with how a line sits on a page and how a line is like love is like highs is like sand. The text all these formats

  19. Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poynter, R. L.; Pickett, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a computer accessible catalogue of submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral lines in the frequency range between 0 and 10000 GHz (i.e., wavelengths longer than 30 micrometers). The catalogue can be used as a planning guide or as an aid in the identification and analysis of observed spectral lines. The information listed for each spectral line includes the frequency and its estimated error, the intensity, lower state energy, and quantum number assignment. The catalogue has been constructed using theoretical least squares fits of published spectral lines to accepted molecular models. The associated predictions and their estimated errors are based upon the resultant fitted parameters and their covariances. Future versions of this catalogue will add more atoms and molecules and update the present listings (151 species) as new data appear. The catalogue is available from the authors as a magnetic tape recorded in card images and as a set of microfiche records.

  20. When All the Ducks Line Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henwood, Bart E.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the N2NA Pylon overheat mishap. The contents include: 1) Investigation Process; 2) Bottom Line; 3) Event Description / Damage; 4) Causal Tree Analysis; 5) Significant Observations; and 6) Major Recommendations.

  1. Observations of chromospheric lines from OSO-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossmann-Doerth, U.; Kneer, F.; Uexkuell, M.; Artzner, G. E.; Vial, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Results of OSO-8 measurements of the line profiles of the solar Lyman alpha, Ca II K and Mg II k lines are presented. Observations were obtained with the Laboratoire de Physique Stellaire et Planetaire spectrometer at spectral resolutions of 0.25 and 0.060 A for Lyman alpha and 0.025 A for the Mg II and Ca II lines. The Lyman alpha profiles are found to be highly variable according to spatial position with the intensities of the three lines well correlated, and confirm previous observations of the quiet solar chromosphere. Data suggest that the quiet chromosphere is a dynamical phenomenon whose description in terms of a static model atmosphere is only qualitatively valid at best.

  2. Rogue wave in coupled electric transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, J. K.; Bai, Y. L.

    2018-03-01

    Distributed electrical transmission lines that consist of a large number of identical sections have been theoretically studied in the present paper. The rogue wave is analyzed and predicted using the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE). The results indicate that, in the continuum limit, the voltage for the transmission line is described in some cases by the NLSE that is obtained using the traditional perturbation technique. The dependences of the characteristics of the rouge wave parameters on the coupled electric transmission line are shown in the paper. As is well known, rogue waves can be found for a large number of oceanic disasters, and such waves may be disastrous. However, the results of the present paper for coupled electric transmission lines may be useful.

  3. Computational theory of line drawing interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkin, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    The recovery of the three dimensional structure of visible surfaces depicted in an image by emphasizing the role of geometric cues present in line drawings, was studied. Three key components are line classification, line interpretation, and surface interpolation. A model for three dimensional line interpretation and surface orientation was refined and a theory for the recovery of surface shape from surface marking geometry was developed. A new approach to the classification of edges was developed and implemented signatures were deduced for each of several edge types, expressed in terms of correlational properties of the image intensities in the vicinity of the edge. A computer program was developed that evaluates image edges as compared with these prototype signatures.

  4. Vortex line topology during vortex tube reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGavin, P.; Pontin, D. I.

    2018-05-01

    This paper addresses reconnection of vortex tubes, with particular focus on the topology of the vortex lines (field lines of the vorticity). This analysis of vortex line topology reveals key features of the reconnection process, such as the generation of many small flux rings, formed when reconnection occurs in multiple locations in the vortex sheet between the tubes. Consideration of three-dimensional reconnection principles leads to a robust measurement of the reconnection rate, even once instabilities break the symmetry. It also allows us to identify internal reconnection of vortex lines within the individual vortex tubes. Finally, the introduction of a third vortex tube is shown to render the vortex reconnection process fully three-dimensional, leading to a fundamental change in the topological structure of the process. An additional interesting feature is the generation of vorticity null points.

  5. Metro orange line BRT project evaluation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-10-01

    In partnership with the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) and the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), the National Bus Rapid Transit Institute (NBRTI) conducted an evaluation of the Metro Orange Line BRT service, whic...

  6. HealthLines: Facts About Fat

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Health Lines Facts About Fat Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Writer, NLM Scientists are learning more about our fat cells, and their findings could explain why some ...

  7. The DARWIN breadboard cryogenic optical delay line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Dool, T. C.; Gielesen, W.; Kamphues, F.; Loix, N.; Kooijman, P. P.; de Vries, C.; van Weers, H.; Fleury, K.; Stockman, Y.; Velsink, G.; Benoit, J.; Poupinet, A.; Sève, F.

    2017-11-01

    TNO, in cooperation with Micromega-Dynamics, SRON, Dutch Space and CSL, has designed a compact breadboard cryogenic delay line (figure 1) for use in future space interferometry missions. The work is performed under ESA contract 17.747/03 in preparation for the DARWIN mission. The breadboard (BB) delay line is representative of a flight mechanism. The delay line has a single stage voice coil actuator for Optical Path Difference (OPD) control, driving a twomirror cat's eye. Magnetic bearings provide frictionless and wear free operation with zero-hysteresis. The design of the BB delay line has been completed. The development test program, including operation at 100 K has been completed. The verification test programme is currently being carried out and will include functional testing at 40 K.

  8. Electrical Transmission Line Diametrical Retention Mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2006-01-03

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within downhole components. The invention allows a transmission line to be attached to the internal diameter of drilling components that have a substantially uniform drilling diameter. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to withstand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  9. Characteristics of gamma-ray line flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, T.; Dennis, B.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of solar gamma rays by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) demonstrate that energetic protons and ions are rapidly accelerated during the impulsive phase. To understand the acceleration mechanisms for these particles, the characteristics of the gamma ray line flares observed by SMM were studied. Some very intense hard X-ray flares without detectable gamma ray lines were also investigated. Gamma ray line flares are distinguished from other flares by: (1) intense hard X-ray and microwave emissions; (2) delay of high energy hard X-rays; (3) emission of type 2 and/or type 4 radio bursts; and (4) flat hard X-ray spectra (average power law index: 3.1). The majority of the gamma ray line flares shared all these characteristics, and the remainder shared at least three of them. Positive correlations were found between durations of spike bursts and spatial sizes of flare loops as well as between delay times and durations of spike bursts.

  10. Polarization of submillimetre lines from interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Heshou; Yan, Huirong

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic fields play important roles in many astrophysical processes. However, there is no universal diagnostic for the magnetic fields in the interstellar medium (ISM) and each magnetic tracer has its limitation. Any new detection method is thus valuable. Theoretical studies have shown that submillimetre fine-structure lines are polarized due to atomic alignment by ultraviolet photon-excitation, which opens up a new avenue to probe interstellar magnetic fields. We will, for the first time, perform synthetic observations on the simulated three-dimensional ISM to demonstrate the measurability of the polarization of submillimetre atomic lines. The maximum polarization for different absorption and emission lines expected from various sources, including star-forming regions are provided. Our results demonstrate that the polarization of submillimetre atomic lines is a powerful magnetic tracer and add great value to the observational studies of the submilimetre astronomy.

  11. Classification of Palmprint Using Principal Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Munaga V. N. K.; Kumar, M. K. Pramod; Sharma, Kuldeep

    In this paper, a new classification scheme for palmprint is proposed. Palmprint is one of the reliable physiological characteristics that can be used to authenticate an individual. Palmprint classification provides an important indexing mechanism in a very large palmprint database. Here, the palmprint database is initially categorized into two groups, right hand group and left hand group. Then, each group is further classified based on the distance traveled by principal line i.e. Heart Line During pre processing, a rectangular Region of Interest (ROI) in which only heart line is present, is extracted. Further, ROI is divided into 6 regions and depending upon the regions in which the heart line traverses the palmprint is classified accordingly. Consequently, our scheme allows 64 categories for each group forming a total number of 128 possible categories. The technique proposed in this paper includes only 15 such categories and it classifies not more than 20.96% of the images into a single category.

  12. HealthLines for the Holidays

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Health Lines for the Holidays … quick tips for seasonal health, safety, and fun ... it's the carbohydrates in the rest of your holiday dinner that do. The average American consumes about ...

  13. DNA Assembly Line for Nano-Construction

    ScienceCinema

    Oleg Gang

    2017-12-09

    Building on the idea of using DNA to link up nanoparticles scientists at Brookhaven National Lab have designed a molecular assembly line for high-precision nano-construction. Nanofabrication is essential for exploiting the unique properties of nanoparticl

  14. Discovery of a narrow line quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, J.; Liebert, J.; Maccacaro, T.; Griffiths, R. E.; Steiner, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    A stellar object is reported which, while having X-ray and optical luminosities typical of quasars, has narrow permitted and forbidden emission lines over the observed spectral range. The narrow-line spectrum is high-excitation, the Balmer lines seem to be recombinational, and a redder optical spectrum than that of most quasars is exhibited, despite detection as a weak radio source. The object does not conform to the relationships between H-beta parameters and X-ray flux previously claimed for a large sample of the active galactic nuclei. Because reddish quasars with narrow lines, such as the object identified, may not be found by the standard techniques for the discovery of quasars, the object may be a prototype of a new class of quasars analogous to high-luminosity Seyfert type 2 galaxies. It is suggested that these objects cannot comprise more than 10% of all quasars.

  15. Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poynter, R. L.; Pickett, H. M.

    1981-01-01

    A computer accessible catalogue of submillimeter, millimeter and microwave spectral lines in the frequency range between 0 and 3000 GHZ (i.e., wavelengths longer than 100 mu m) is presented which can be used a planning guide or as an aid in the identification and analysis of observed spectral lines. The information listed for each spectral line includes the frequency and its estimated error, the intensity, lower state energy, and quantum number assignment. The catalogue was constructed by using theoretical least squares fits of published spectral lines to accepted molecular models. The associated predictions and their estimated errors are based upon the resultant fitted parameters and their covariances. Future versions of this catalogue will add more atoms and molecules and update the present listings (133 species) as new data appear. The catalogue is available as a magnetic tape recorded in card images and as a set of microfiche records.

  16. Coding for Single-Line Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madison, L. G.

    1983-01-01

    Digital transmission code combines data and clock signals into single waveform. MADCODE needs four standard integrated circuits in generator and converter plus five small discrete components. MADCODE allows simple coding and decoding for transmission of digital signals over single line.

  17. Design of the ILC RTML Extraction Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.

    2011-10-17

    The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distancemore » required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window. The RTML incorporates three extraction lines, which can be used for either an emergency beam abort or for a train-by-train extraction. The first EL is located downstream of the Damping Ring extraction arc. The other two extraction lines are located downstream of each stage of the two-stage bunch compressor. The first extraction line (EL1) receives 5GeV beam with an 0.15% energy spread. The extraction line located downstream of the first stage of bunch compressor (ELBC1) receives both compressed and uncompressed beam, and therefore must accept beam with both 5 and 4.88GeV energy, and 0.15% and 2.5% energy spread, respectively. The extraction line located after the second stage of the bunch compressor (ELBC2) receives 15GeV beam with either 0.15 or 1.8% energy spread. Each of the three extraction lines is equipped with the 220kW aluminum ball dump, which corresponds to the power of the continuously dumped beam with 5GeV energy, i.e., the beam trains must be delivered to the ELBC2 dump at reduced repetition rate.« less

  18. Neural network to diagnose lining condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yemelyanov, V. A.; Yemelyanova, N. Y.; Nedelkin, A. A.; Zarudnaya, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents data on the problem of diagnosing the lining condition at the iron and steel works. The authors describe the neural network structure and software that are designed and developed to determine the lining burnout zones. The simulation results of the proposed neural networks are presented. The authors note the low learning and classification errors of the proposed neural networks. To realize the proposed neural network, the specialized software has been developed.

  19. Digital Model of Railway Electric Traction Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Rachana; Mahajan, Priya; Kumar, Parmod

    2017-08-01

    The characteristic impedance and propagation constant define the behavior of signal propagation over the transmission lines. The digital model for railway traction lines which includes railway tracks is developed, using curve fitting technique in MATLAB. The sensitivity of this model has been computed with respect to frequency. The digital sensitivity values are compared with the values of analog sensitivity. The developed model is useful for digital protection, integrated operation, control and planning of the system.

  20. Quality plan for a product line.

    PubMed

    Lanza, M L; Binus, G K; McMillan, F J

    1997-12-01

    Continuous Quality improvement (CQI) has undergone radical change as health care facilities merge, expand, and modify their existing services. CQI has shifted from a centralized position in health care organizations, to unit based, to product lines. This paper describes one product line's endeavors to develop a Quality Plan to direct CQI activities. One particular strength of our innovation is that the Quality Plan was developed with attention to the important balance of interdisciplinary cooperation and maintenance of appropriate discipline boundaries.

  1. Sintered Lining for Heat-Pipe Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, D. M.; Eastman, G. Y.

    1985-01-01

    Hotspots eliminated by lining inner wall. Distribution of heat transfer liquid in heat-pipe evaporator improved by lining inner wall with layer of sintered metal. Sintered layer takes place of layer of screen wick formerly sintered or bonded to wall. Since sintered layer always full of liquid, no hotspot of type that previously arose where former screen wick did not fit properly against wall.

  2. Incoherent Scatter Plasma Lines: Observations and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Hassanali; Bhatt, Asti; La Hoz, Cesar; Semeter, Joshua L.

    2017-10-01

    Space plasmas are host to the electrostatic Langmuir waves and a rich range of processes associated with them. Many of such processes that are of interest in micro-scale plasma physics and magnetosphere-ionosphere physics are open to investigation via incoherent scatter plasma lines—i.e., a pair of resonant peaks in the incoherent scatter radar (ISR) spectrum, symmetrically displaced from the radar transmitting frequency by about the plasma frequency, as the signature of Langmuir waves in the ISR spectrum. There now exists a large body of literature devoted to the investigation of a number of topics in ionospheric physics via plasma line theory and observation. It is the goal of this work to provide a comprehensive review of this literature, from the early theoretical works on oscillations in magnetized plasma to the recent advances in plasma line measurements and applications. This review includes detailed theoretical discussions on the intensity and frequency displacement of plasma lines. It reviews the experimental observations of plasma lines enhanced by various sources of energy and discusses the implications of the observations in the context of ionospheric physics. The review also covers the practical aspects of plasma line measurements, from measurement techniques to the applications of plasma lines in estimating the bulk parameters of the ionosphere.

  3. Cold-induced retrotransposition of fish LINEs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shue; Yu, Mengchao; Chu, Xu; Li, Wenhao; Yin, Xiujuan; Chen, Liangbiao

    2017-08-20

    Classes of retrotransposons constitute a large portion of metazoan genome. There have been cases reported that genomic abundance of retrotransposons is correlated with the severity of low environmental temperatures. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such correlation are unknown. We show here by cell transfection assays that retrotransposition (RTP) of a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE) from an Antarctic notothenioid fish Dissostichus mawsoni (dmL1) could be activated by low temperature exposure, causing increased dmL1 copies in the host cell genome. The cold-induced dmL1 propagation was demonstrated to be mediated by the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/p38 signaling pathway, which is activated by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cold-stressed conditions. Surprisingly, dmL1 transfected cells showed an increase in the number of viable cells after prolonged cold exposures than non-transfected cells. Features of cold inducibility of dmL1 were recapitulated in LINEs of zebrafish origin both in cultured cell lines and tissues, suggesting existence of a common cold-induced LINE amplification in fishes. The findings reveal an important function of LINEs in temperature adaptation and provid insights into the MAPK/p38 stress responsive pathway that shapes LINE composition in fishes facing cold stresses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Analysis of the sweeped actuator line method

    DOE PAGES

    Nathan, Jörn; Masson, Christian; Dufresne, Louis; ...

    2015-10-16

    The actuator line method made it possible to describe the near wake of a wind turbine more accurately than with the actuator disk method. Whereas the actuator line generates the helicoidal vortex system shed from the tip blades, the actuator disk method sheds a vortex sheet from the edge of the rotor plane. But with the actuator line come also temporal and spatial constraints, such as the need for a much smaller time step than with actuator disk. While the latter one only has to obey the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition, the former one is also restricted by the grid resolution andmore » the rotor tip-speed. Additionally the spatial resolution has to be finer for the actuator line than with the actuator disk, for well resolving the tip vortices. Therefore this work is dedicated to examining a method in between of actuator line and actuator disk, which is able to model the transient behavior, such as the rotating blades, but which also relaxes the temporal constraint. Therefore a larger time-step is used and the blade forces are swept over a certain area. As a result, the main focus of this article is on the aspect of the blade tip vortex generation in comparison with the standard actuator line and actuator disk.« less

  5. A line transect model for aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quang, Pham Xuan; Lanctot, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    We employ a line transect method to estimate the density of the common and Pacific loon in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge from aerial survey data. Line transect methods have the advantage of automatically taking into account “visibility bias” due to detectability difference of animals at different distances from the transect line. However, line transect methods must overcome two difficulties when applied to inaccurate recording of sighting distances due to high travel speeds, so that in fact only a few reliable distance class counts are available. We propose a unimodal detection function that provides an estimate of the effective area lost due to the blind strip, under the assumption that a line of perfect detection exists parallel to the transect line. The unimodal detection function can also be applied when a blind strip is absent, and in certain instances when the maximum probability of detection is less than 100%. A simple bootstrap procedure to estimate standard error is illustrated. Finally, we present results from a small set of Monte Carlo experiments.

  6. History of leukemia-lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Hans G; Macleod, Roderick A F

    2010-08-01

    We outline the near 50-year history of leukemia-lymphoma (LL) cell lines - a key model system in biomedicine. Due to the detailed documentation of their oncogenomic and transcriptional alterations via recent advances in molecular medicine, LL cell lines may be fitted to parent tumors with a degree of precision unattainable in other cancers. We have surveyed the corpus of published LL cell lines and found 637 examples that meet minimum standards of authentication and characterization. Alarmingly, the rate of establishment of new LL cell lines has plummeted over the last decade. Although the main hematopoietic developmental cell types are represented by cell lines, some LL categories stubbornly resist establishment in vitro. The advent of engineering techniques for immortalizing primary human cells that maintain differentiation means the time is ripe for renewed search for in vitro models from un(der)represented hematologic entities. Given their manifold applications in biomedicine, there is little doubt that LL-derived cell lines will continue to play a vital part well into the next half-century as well. © 2010 The Authors. Human Cell © 2010 Japan Human Cell Society.

  7. Transmission line design for the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaustad, Krista L.; Gordon, Lloyd B.

    1990-01-01

    How the mass, operating temperature, and efficiency of a transmission line operating on the moon are affected by its operating parameters, the lunar environment, and the choice of materials is examined. The key transmission line parameters which have an effect on mass, operating temperature, and efficiency are voltage, power loss, and waveform. The choice of waveform for transmission will be influenced by the waveform of the source and load, and therefore an analysis of both DC and AC transmission is necessary for a complete understanding of lunar power transmission. The data presented are for the DC case only; however, the discussion of the environmental effects and of material selection is pertinent to both AC and DC transmission. The operating voltage is shown to be a key parameter in transmission line design. The role efficiency plays in transmission line design is also examined. The analyses include above- and below-the-surface operation for both a vacuum-insulated, two-wire, transmission line, and a solid-dielectric-insulated, coaxial, transmission line.

  8. Analysis of the sweeped actuator line method

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan, Jörn; Masson, Christian; Dufresne, Louis

    The actuator line method made it possible to describe the near wake of a wind turbine more accurately than with the actuator disk method. Whereas the actuator line generates the helicoidal vortex system shed from the tip blades, the actuator disk method sheds a vortex sheet from the edge of the rotor plane. But with the actuator line come also temporal and spatial constraints, such as the need for a much smaller time step than with actuator disk. While the latter one only has to obey the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition, the former one is also restricted by the grid resolution andmore » the rotor tip-speed. Additionally the spatial resolution has to be finer for the actuator line than with the actuator disk, for well resolving the tip vortices. Therefore this work is dedicated to examining a method in between of actuator line and actuator disk, which is able to model the transient behavior, such as the rotating blades, but which also relaxes the temporal constraint. Therefore a larger time-step is used and the blade forces are swept over a certain area. As a result, the main focus of this article is on the aspect of the blade tip vortex generation in comparison with the standard actuator line and actuator disk.« less

  9. Moving contact lines on vibrating surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomenko, Zlatko; Spelt, Peter; Scott, Julian

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale simulations of flows with moving contact lines for realistic conditions generally requires a subgrid scale model (analyses based on matched asymptotics) to account for the unresolved part of the flow, given the large range of length scales involved near contact lines. Existing models for the interface shape in the contact-line region are primarily for steady flows on homogeneous substrates, with encouraging results in 3D simulations. Introduction of complexities would require further investigation of the contact-line region, however. Here we study flows with moving contact lines on planar substrates subject to vibrations, with applications in controlling wetting/dewetting. The challenge here is to determine the change in interface shape near contact lines due to vibrations. To develop further insight, 2D direct numerical simulations (wherein the flow is resolved down to an imposed slip length) have been performed to enable comparison with asymptotic theory, which is also developed further. Perspectives will also be presented on the final objective of the work, which is to develop a subgrid scale model that can be utilized in large-scale simulations. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ANR for financial support (ANR-15-CE08-0031) and the meso-centre FLMSN for use of computational resources. This work was Granted access to the HPC resources of CINES under the allocation A0012B06893 made by GENCI.

  10. Chandipura virus growth kinetics in vertebrate cell lines, insect cell lines & embryonated eggs.

    PubMed

    Jadi, R S; Sudeep, A B; Kumar, Satyendra; Arankalle, V A; Mishra, A C

    2010-08-01

    Since not much information on Chandipura virus is available, an attempt was made to study the growth kinetics of the virus in certain vertebrate, invertebrate cell lines and embryonated chicken eggs. Comparative study of Chandipura virus (CHPV) growth kinetics in three vertebrate cell lines [Vero E6, Rhabdo myosarcoma (RD), Porcine stable kidney (PS) cell lines], two insect cell lines [Aedes aegypti (AA) and Phlebotomus papatasi (PP-9) cell lines] and embryonated pathogen free chicken eggs was conducted, by tissue culture infective dose 50 per cent (TCID(50)) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). All the cell lines and embryonated egg supported the growth of CHPV and yielded high virus titre. The vertebrate cell lines showed distinct cytopathic effect (CPE) within 4-6 h post infection (PI), while no CPE was observed in insect cell lines. PP-9 cell line was the most sensitive system to CHPV as viral antigen could be detected at 1 h PI by IFA. Our results demonstrated that all the systems were susceptible to CHPV and achieved high yield of virus. However, the PP-9 cell line had an edge over the others due to its high sensitivity to the virus which might be useful for detection and isolation of the virus during epidemics.

  11. Comparison of a modern broiler line and a heritage line unselected since the 1950s.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C J; Persia, M E; Feierstein, E; Kingham, B; Saylor, W W

    2009-12-01

    Selecting chicken for improved meat production has altered the relative growth of organs in modern broiler lines compared with heritage lines. In this study, we compared the growth and feed efficiency of a heritage line, UIUC, with a modern production line, Ross 708, for 5 wk posthatch. During this period, the BW and feed efficiency of the modern strain was higher than that of the heritage line, indicating that the Ross 708 birds were more efficient than the UIUC birds at converting feed to body mass. The relative growth of the breast, heart, liver, and intestine were also compared during these 5 wk. The breast muscle of the heritage line constituted 9% of the total body mass at 5 wk, whereas in the modern line, the breast muscle was 18% of the total mass of the bird. In contrast, the relative size of the heart decreased after d 14 in the modern line, suggesting that selection for increased breast muscle has translated into relatively less weight of the heart muscle. The liver matured earlier in modern lines, possibly improving nutrient utilization as the birds shift from lipid- to carbohydrate-rich feed. Finally, jejunal and ileal sections of the intestine were 20% longer in the modern line, perhaps allowing for increased nutrient absorption.

  12. Hot Gas Lines in T Tauri Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardila, David R.; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Gregory, Scott G.; Ingleby, Laura; France, Kevin; Brown, Alexander; Edwards, Suzan; Johns-Krull, Christopher; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Yang, Hao; Valenti, Jeff A.; Abgrall, Hervé; Alexander, Richard D.; Bergin, Edwin; Bethell, Thomas; Brown, Joanna M.; Calvet, Nuria; Espaillat, Catherine; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Hussain, Gaitee; Roueff, Evelyne; Schindhelm, Eric R.; Walter, Frederick M.

    2013-07-01

    For Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTSs), the resonance doublets of N V, Si IV, and C IV, as well as the He II 1640 Å line, trace hot gas flows and act as diagnostics of the accretion process. In this paper we assemble a large high-resolution, high-sensitivity data set of these lines in CTTSs and Weak T Tauri Stars (WTTSs). The sample comprises 35 stars: 1 Herbig Ae star, 28 CTTSs, and 6 WTTSs. We find that the C IV, Si IV, and N V lines in CTTSs all have similar shapes. We decompose the C IV and He II lines into broad and narrow Gaussian components (BC and NC). The most common (50%) C IV line morphology in CTTSs is that of a low-velocity NC together with a redshifted BC. For CTTSs, a strong BC is the result of the accretion process. The contribution fraction of the NC to the C IV line flux in CTTSs increases with accretion rate, from ~20% to up to ~80%. The velocity centroids of the BCs and NCs are such that V BC >~ 4 V NC, consistent with the predictions of the accretion shock model, in at most 12 out of 22 CTTSs. We do not find evidence of the post-shock becoming buried in the stellar photosphere due to the pressure of the accretion flow. The He II CTTSs lines are generally symmetric and narrow, with FWHM and redshifts comparable to those of WTTSs. They are less redshifted than the CTTSs C IV lines, by ~10 km s-1. The amount of flux in the BC of the He II line is small compared to that of the C IV line, and we show that this is consistent with models of the pre-shock column emission. Overall, the observations are consistent with the presence of multiple accretion columns with different densities or with accretion models that predict a slow-moving, low-density region in the periphery of the accretion column. For HN Tau A and RW Aur A, most of the C IV line is blueshifted suggesting that the C IV emission is produced by shocks within outflow jets. In our sample, the Herbig Ae star DX Cha is the only object for which we find a P-Cygni profile in the C IV line, which

  13. The Micromechanics of the Moving Contact Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Minsub; Lichter, Seth; Lin, Chih-Yu; Perng, Yeong-Yan

    1996-01-01

    The proposed research is divided into three components concerned with molecular structure, molecular orientation, and continuum averages of discrete systems. In the experimental program, we propose exploring how changes in interfacial molecular structure generate contact line motion. Rather than rely on the electrostatic and electrokinetic fields arising from the molecules themselves, we augment their interactions by an imposed field at the solid/liquid interface. By controling the field, we can manipulate the molecular structure at the solid/liquid interface. In response to controlled changes in molecular structure, we observe the resultant contact line motion. In the analytical portion of the proposed research we seek to formulate a system of equations governing fluid motion which accounts for the orientation of fluid molecules. In preliminary work, we have focused on describing how molecular orientation affects the forces generated at the moving contact line. Ideally, as assumed above, the discrete behavior of molecules can be averaged into a continuum theory. In the numerical portion of the proposed research, we inquire whether the contact line region is, in fact, large enough to possess a well-defined average. Additionally, we ask what types of behavior distinguish discrete systems from continuum systems. Might the smallness of the contact line region, in itself, lead to behavior different from that in the bulk? Taken together, our proposed research seeks to identify and accurately account for some of the molecular dynamics of the moving contact line, and attempts to formulate a description from which one can compute the forces at the moving contact line.

  14. Properties of Narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakshit, Suvendu; Stalin, Chelliah Subramonian; Chand, Hum; Zhang, Xue-Guang

    2018-04-01

    Narrow line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies constitute a class of active galactic nuclei characterized by the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the Hα broad emission line <2000 km s-1 and the flux ratio of [O III] to Hα <3. Their properties are not well understood since only a few NLSy1 galaxies were known earlier. We have studied various properties of NLSy1 galaxies using an enlarged sample and compared them with the conventional broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLSy1) galaxies. Both the sample of sources have z˜ 0.8 and their optical spectra from SDSS-DR12 that are used to derive various physical parameters have a median signal to noise (S/N) ratio >10 pixel-1. A strong correlation between the Hα and Hα emission lines is found both in the FWHM and flux. The nuclear continuum luminosity is found to be strongly correlated with the luminosity of Hα, Hα and [O III] emission lines. The black hole mass in NLSy1 galaxies is lower compared to their broad line counterparts. Compared to BLSy1 galaxies, NLSy1 galaxies have a stronger FeII emission and a higher Eddington ratio that place them in the extreme upper right corner of the R4570 - λEdd diagram. The distribution of the radio-loudness parameter (R) in NLSy1 galaxies drops rapidly at R>10 compared to the BLSy1 galaxies that have powerful radio jets. The soft X-ray photon index in NLSy1 galaxies is on average higher (2.9 ± 0.9) than BLSy1 galaxies (2.4 ± 0.8). It is anti-correlated with the Hα width but correlated with the FeII strength. NLSy1 galaxies on average have a lower amplitude of optical variability compared to their broad lines counterparts. These results suggest Eddington ratio as the main parameter that drives optical variability in these sources.

  15. Linear Polarization Measurements of Chromospheric Emission Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheeley, N. R., Jr.; Keller, C. U.

    2003-01-01

    We have used the Zurich Imaging Stokes Polarimeter (ZIMPOL I) with the McMath-Pierce 1.5 m main telescope on Kitt Peak to obtain linear polarization measurements of the off-limb chromosphere with a sensitivity better than 1 x 10(exp -5). We found that the off-disk observations require a combination of good seeing (to show the emission lines) and a clean heliostat (to avoid contamination by scattered light from the Sun's disk). When these conditions were met, we obtained the following principal results: 1. Sometimes self-reversed emission lines of neutral and singly ionized metals showed linear polarization caused by the transverse Zeeman effect or by instrumental cross talk from the longitudinal Zeeman effect in chromospheric magnetic fields. Otherwise, these lines tended to depolarize the scattered continuum radiation by amounts that ranged up to 0.2%. 2. Lines previously known to show scattering polarization just inside the limb (such as the Na I lambda5889 D2 and the He I lambda5876 D3 lines) showed even more polarization above the Sun's limb, with values approaching 0.7%. 3. The O I triplet at lambda7772, lambda7774, and lambda7775 showed a range of polarizations. The lambda7775 line, whose maximum intrinsic polarizability, P(sub max), is less than 1%, revealed mainly Zeeman contributions from chromospheric magnetic fields. However, the more sensitive lambda7772 (P(sub max) = 19%) and lambda7774 (P(sub max) = 29%) lines had relatively strong scattering polarizations of approximately 0.3% in addition to their Zeeman polarizations. At times of good seeing, the polarization spectra resolve into fine structures that seem to be chromospheric spicules.

  16. Ab Initio Calculations of Water Line Strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David W.; Partridge, Harry

    1998-01-01

    We report on the determination of a high quality ab initiu potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment function for water. This PES is empirically adjusted to improve the agreement between the computed line positions and those from the HITRAN 92 data base with J less than 6 for H2O. The changes in the PES are small, nonetheless including an estimate of core (oxygen 1s) electron correlation greatly improves the agreement with experiment. Using this adjusted PES, we can match 30,092 of the 30,117 transitions in the HITRAN 96 data base for H2O with theoretical lines. The 10,25,50,75, and 90 percentiles of the difference between the calculated and tabulated line positions are -0.11, -0.04, -0.01, 0.02, and 0.07 l/cm. Non-adiabatic effects are not explicitly included. About 3% of the tabulated line positions appear to be incorrect. Similar agreement using this adjusted PES is obtained for the oxygen 17 and oxygen 18 isotopes. For HDO, the agreement is not as good, with root-mean-square error of 0.25 l/cm for lines with J less than 6. This error is reduced to 0.02 l/cm by including a small asymmetric correction to the PES, which is parameterized by simultaneously fitting to HDO md D2O data. Scaling this correction by mass factors yields good results for T2O and HTO. The intensities summed over vibrational bands are usually in good agreement between the calculations and the tabulated results, but individual lines strengths can differ greatly. A high temperature list consisting of 307,721,352 lines is generated for H2O using our PES and dipole moment function.

  17. BHD Tumor Cell Line and Renal Cell Carcinoma Line | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the National Cancer Institute  have developed a novel renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell line designated UOK257, which was derived from the surgical kidney tissue of a patient with hereditary Birt-Hogg-Dube''''(BHD) syndrome and companion cell line UOK257-2 in which FLCN expression has been restored by lentivirus infection. The NCI Urologic Oncology Branch seeks parties interested in licensing or collaborative research to co-develop, evaluate, or commercialize kidney cancer tumor cell lines.

  18. 46 CFR 45.35 - Seasonal load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seasonal load lines. 45.35 Section 45.35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.35 Seasonal load lines. Each vessel must have the summer (S), midsummer (MS), intermediate (I...

  19. 46 CFR 45.35 - Seasonal load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seasonal load lines. 45.35 Section 45.35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Load Line Marks § 45.35 Seasonal load lines. Each vessel must have the summer (S), midsummer (MS), intermediate (I...

  20. Automatic 3D power line reconstruction of multi-angular imaging power line inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wuming; Yan, Guangjian; Wang, Ning; Li, Qiaozhi; Zhao, Wei

    2007-06-01

    We develop a multi-angular imaging power line inspection system. Its main objective is to monitor the relative distance between high voltage power line and around objects, and alert if the warning threshold is exceeded. Our multi-angular imaging power line inspection system generates DSM of the power line passage, which comprises ground surface and ground objects, for example trees and houses, etc. For the purpose of revealing the dangerous regions, where ground objects are too close to the power line, 3D power line information should be extracted at the same time. In order to improve the automation level of extraction, reduce labour costs and human errors, an automatic 3D power line reconstruction method is proposed and implemented. It can be achieved by using epipolar constraint and prior knowledge of pole tower's height. After that, the proper 3D power line information can be obtained by space intersection using found homologous projections. The flight experiment result shows that the proposed method can successfully reconstruct 3D power line, and the measurement accuracy of the relative distance satisfies the user requirement of 0.5m.

  1. Suspension-line wave motion during the lines-first parachute unfurling process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, L. R.; Whitesides, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    A new mathematical approach to modeling the lines-first parachute unfurling process is presented. The unfurling process is treated as two distinct phases: a suspension-line unfurling phase, during which a massless-spring model of the suspension-line elasticity may be employed; and a canopy unfurling phase, during which a formulation considering suspension-line wave mechanics is employed. Histories of unfurled length and tension at the vehicle obtained using the model are compared with flight test data, and generally good agreement is observed.

  2. High-resolution Laboratory Measurements of Coronal Lines near the Fe IX Line at 171 Å

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter; Träbert, Elmar

    2018-02-01

    We present high-resolution laboratory measurements in the spectral region between 165 and 175 Å that focus on the emission from various ions of C, O, F, Ne, S, Ar, Fe, and Ni. This wavelength region is centered on the λ171 Fe IX channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and we place special emphasis on the weaker emission lines of Fe IX predicted in this region. In general, our measurements show a multitude of weak lines missing in the current databases, where the emission lines of Ni are probably most in need of further identification and reclassification. We also find that the wavelengths of some of the known lines need updating. Using the multi-reference Møller–Plesset method for wavelength predictions and collisional-radiative modeling of the line intensities, we have made tentative assignments of more than a dozen lines to the spectrum of Fe IX, some of which have formerly been identified as Fe VII, Fe XIV, or Fe XVI lines. Several Fe features remain unassigned, although they appear to be either Fe VII or Fe X lines. Further work will be needed to complete and correct the spectral line lists in this wavelength region.

  3. Line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carucci, John A.; Stevenson, Mary; Gareau, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    We created a line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope as part of a new procedure: video assisted micrographic surgery (VAMS). The need for rapid pathological assessment of the tissue on the surface of skin excisions very large since there are 3.5 million new skin cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. The new design presented here is a confocal microscope without any scanning optics. Instead, a line is focused in space and the sample, which is flattened, is physically translated such that the line scans across its face in a direction perpendicular to the line its self. The line is 6mm long and the stage is capable of scanning 50 mm, hence the field of view is quite large. The theoretical diffraction-limited resolution is 0.7um lateral and 3.7um axial. However, in this preliminary report, we present initial results that are a factor of 5-7 poorer in resolution. The results are encouraging because they demonstrate that the linear array detector measures sufficient signal from fluorescently labeled tissue and also demonstrate the large field of view achievable with VAMS.

  4. Analysis of folded pulse forming line operation.

    PubMed

    Domonkos, M T; Watrous, J; Parker, J V; Cavazos, T; Slenes, K; Heidger, S; Brown, D; Wilson, D

    2014-09-01

    A compact pulse forming line (CPFL) concept based on a folded transmission line and high-breakdown strength dielectric was explored through an effort combining proof-of-principle experiments with electromagnetic modeling. A small-scale folded CPFL was fabricated using surface-mount ceramic multilayer capacitors. The line consisted of 150 capacitors close-packed in parallel and delivered a 300 ns flat-top pulse. The concept was carried to a 10 kV class device using a polymer-ceramic nanocomposite dielectric with a permittivity of 37.6. The line was designed for a 161 ns FWHM length pulse into a matched load. The line delivered a 110 ns FWHM pulse, and the pulse peak amplitude exceeded the matched load ideal. Transient electromagnetic analysis using the particle-in-cell code ICEPIC was conducted to examine the nature of the unexpected pulse shortening and distortion. Two-dimensional analysis failed to capture the anomalous behavior. Three-dimensional analysis replicated the pulse shape and revealed that the bends were largely responsible for the pulse shortening. The bends not only create the expected reflection of the incident TEM wave but also produce a non-zero component of the Poynting vector perpendicular to the propagation direction of the dominant electromagnetic wave, resulting in power flow largely external to the PFL. This analysis explains both the pulse shortening and the amplitude of the pulse.

  5. Analysis of folded pulse forming line operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domonkos, M. T.; Watrous, J.; Parker, J. V.; Cavazos, T.; Slenes, K.; Heidger, S.; Brown, D.; Wilson, D.

    2014-09-01

    A compact pulse forming line (CPFL) concept based on a folded transmission line and high-breakdown strength dielectric was explored through an effort combining proof-of-principle experiments with electromagnetic modeling. A small-scale folded CPFL was fabricated using surface-mount ceramic multilayer capacitors. The line consisted of 150 capacitors close-packed in parallel and delivered a 300 ns flat-top pulse. The concept was carried to a 10 kV class device using a polymer-ceramic nanocomposite dielectric with a permittivity of 37.6. The line was designed for a 161 ns FWHM length pulse into a matched load. The line delivered a 110 ns FWHM pulse, and the pulse peak amplitude exceeded the matched load ideal. Transient electromagnetic analysis using the particle-in-cell code ICEPIC was conducted to examine the nature of the unexpected pulse shortening and distortion. Two-dimensional analysis failed to capture the anomalous behavior. Three-dimensional analysis replicated the pulse shape and revealed that the bends were largely responsible for the pulse shortening. The bends not only create the expected reflection of the incident TEM wave but also produce a non-zero component of the Poynting vector perpendicular to the propagation direction of the dominant electromagnetic wave, resulting in power flow largely external to the PFL. This analysis explains both the pulse shortening and the amplitude of the pulse.

  6. Iron K Lines from Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, T. R.; Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    We present models for reprocessing of an intense flux of X-rays and gamma rays expected in the vicinity of gamma ray burst sources. We consider the transfer and reprocessing of the energetic photons into observable features in the X-ray band, notably the K lines of iron. Our models are based on the assumption that the gas is sufficiently dense to allow the microphysical processes to be in a steady state, thus allowing efficient line emission with modest reprocessing mass and elemental abundances ranging from solar to moderately enriched. We show that the reprocessing is enhanced by down-Comptonization of photons whose energy would otherwise be too high to absorb on iron, and that pair production can have an effect on enhancing the line production. Both "distant" reprocessors such as supernova or wind remnants and "nearby" reprocessors such as outer stellar envelopes can reproduce the observed line fluxes with Fe abundances 30-100 times above solar, depending on the incidence angle. The high incidence angles required arise naturally only in nearby models, which for plausible values can reach Fe line to continuum ratios close to the reported values.

  7. Net retreat of Antarctic glacier grounding lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, Hannes; Shepherd, Andrew; Gilbert, Lin; Hogg, Anna E.; McMillan, Malcolm; Muir, Alan; Slater, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Grounding lines are a key indicator of ice-sheet instability, because changes in their position reflect imbalance with the surrounding ocean and affect the flow of inland ice. Although the grounding lines of several Antarctic glaciers have retreated rapidly due to ocean-driven melting, records are too scarce to assess the scale of the imbalance. Here, we combine satellite altimeter observations of ice-elevation change and measurements of ice geometry to track grounding-line movement around the entire continent, tripling the coverage of previous surveys. Between 2010 and 2016, 22%, 3% and 10% of surveyed grounding lines in West Antarctica, East Antarctica and at the Antarctic Peninsula retreated at rates faster than 25 m yr-1 (the typical pace since the Last Glacial Maximum) and the continent has lost 1,463 km2 ± 791 km2 of grounded-ice area. Although by far the fastest rates of retreat occurred in the Amundsen Sea sector, we show that the Pine Island Glacier grounding line has stabilized, probably as a consequence of abated ocean forcing. On average, Antarctica's fast-flowing ice streams retreat by 110 metres per metre of ice thinning.

  8. Dynamics of the Molten Contact Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonin, Ain A.; Schiaffino, Stefano

    1996-01-01

    In contrast to the ordinary contact line problem, virtually no information is available on the similar problem associated with a molten material spreading on a solid which is below the melt's fusion point. The latter is a more complex problem which heat transfer and solidification take place simultaneously with spreading, and requires answers not only for the hot melt's advance speed over the cold solid as a function of contact angle, but also for how one is to predict the point of the molten contact line's arrest by freezing. This issues are of importance in evolving methods of materials processing. The purpose of our work is to develop, based on both experiments and theory, an understanding of the dynamic processes that occur when a molten droplet touches a subcooled solid, spreads partly over it by capillary action, and freezes. We seek answers to the following basic questions. First, what is the relationship between the melt's contact line speed and the apparent (dynamic) contact angle? Secondly, at what point will the contact line modon be arrested by freezing? The talk will describe three components of our work: (1) deposition experiments with small molten droplets; (2) investigation of the dynamics of the molten contact line by means of a novel forced spreading method; and (3) an attempt to provide a theoretical framework for answering the basic questions posed above.

  9. Electromigration in epitaxial Cu(001) lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanath, G.; Kim, H.; Goindi, H. S.; Frederick, M. J.; Shin, C.-S.; Goswami, R.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J. E.

    2002-04-01

    We report the electromigration (EM) response of single-domain epitaxial Cu(001) lines on layers of Ta, TaN, and TiN. Epitaxial Cu(001) lines on nitride layers exhibit nearly two orders of magnitude higher mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) values than those on Ta, indicating the strong influence of the underlayer. The activation energy of EM for Cu on the nitrides is ˜0.8-1.2 eV, and that of Cu on Ta is ˜0.2 eV, for 200-300 °C. Our results also indicate that the MTTF values correlate inversely to the crystal quality of the Cu layers measured by X-ray diffraction. The EM resistance of epitaxial Cu lines with different crystal quality on TaN were measured to separate the effects of interface chemistry and crystal quality. While higher quality epitaxial films reveal a higher EM resistance, the magnitude of the change is smaller than that obtained by changing the interface chemistry. Epitaxial lines exhibit more than 3-4 orders of magnitude higher MTTF than polycrystalline lines on the same underlayer. Based upon our results, we propose that the Cu/underlayer interface chemistry and presence of grain boundary diffusion play important roles in unpassivated Cu films.

  10. Coaxial tube array space transmission line characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switzer, Colleen A.; Bents, David J.

    1987-01-01

    The coaxial tube array tether/transmission line used to connect an SP-100 nuclear power system to the space station was characterized over the range of reactor-to-platform separation distances of 1 to 10 km. Characterization was done with respect to array performance, physical dimensions and masses. Using a fixed design procedure, a family of designs was generated for the same power level (300 kWe), power loss (1.5 percent), and meteoroid survival probability (99.5 percent over 10 yr). To differentiate between vacuum insulated and gas insulated lines, two different maximum values of the E field were considered: 20 kV/cm (appropriate to vacuum insulation) and 50 kV/cm (compressed SF6). Core conductor, tube, bumper, standoff, spacer and bumper support dimensions, and masses were also calculated. The results of the characterization show mainly how transmission line size and mass scale with reactor-to-platform separation distance.

  11. Coaxial tube array space transmission line characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switzer, Colleen A.; Bents, David J.

    The coaxial tube array tether/transmission line used to connect an SP-100 nuclear power system to the space station was characterized over the range of reactor-to-platform separation distances of 1 to 10 km. Characterization was done with respect to array performance, physical dimensions and masses. Using a fixed design procedure, a family of designs was generated for the same power level (300 kWe), power loss (1.5 percent), and meteoroid survival probability (99.5 percent over 10 yr). To differentiate between vacuum insulated and gas insulated lines, two different maximum values of the E field were considered: 20 kV/cm (appropriate to vacuum insulation) and 50 kV/cm (compressed SF6). Core conductor, tube, bumper, standoff, spacer and bumper support dimensions, and masses were also calculated. The results of the characterization show mainly how transmission line size and mass scale with reactor-to-platform separation distance.

  12. Electromagnetic ray tracing model for line structures.

    PubMed

    Tan, C B; Khoh, A; Yeo, S H

    2008-03-17

    In this paper, a model for electromagnetic scattering of line structures is established based on high frequency approximation approach - ray tracing. This electromagnetic ray tracing (ERT) model gives the advantage of identifying each physical field that contributes to the total solution of the scattering phenomenon. Besides the geometrical optics field, different diffracted fields associated with the line structures are also discussed and formulated. A step by step addition of each electromagnetic field is given to elucidate the causes of a disturbance in the amplitude profile. The accuracy of the ERT model is also discussed by comparing with the reference finite difference time domain (FDTD) solution, which shows a promising result for a single polysilicon line structure with width of as narrow as 0.4 wavelength.

  13. Graphical introduction to chromospheric line formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, Rob

    2012-03-01

    The basics of chromospheric line formation theory were laid out in the 1960s and 1970s by e.g., Thomas, Avrett, Hummer, Jefferies, Mihalas, Shine, Milkey. Since then there has been a long silence, without much progress in understanding the chromosphere or its diagnostics. At present, the situation changes thanks to better ground-based observing, space-based monitoring, and increasingly realistic numerical simulations. There is a now a strong need to revamp classical one-dimensional static modeling as basis for chromospheric line interpretation into 3D dynamic understanding of the major diagnostics, including IRIS's Mg II h&k. In this introduction I aim to explain the old wisdom in tutorial fashion, using cartoons and graphs as means towards an intuitive grasp of fads and fallacies of chromospheric line formation.

  14. Load-resistant coaxial transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2006-01-03

    A transmission line for downhole tools that make up all or part of a tool string for drilling and production of oil, gas, and geothermal wells that can withstand the dynamic gravitational forces and other accelerations associated with downhole excavations. The transmission line has a metal tube, or outer conductor, that houses a coaxial wire inner conductor. A non-metallic dielectric material is interposed between the inner and outer conductors. The outer and inner conductors and the dielectric are sufficiently compressed together so that independent motion between them is abated. Compression of the components of the transmission line may be achieved by drawing the transmission through one or more dies in order to draw down the outer conductor onto the dielectric, or by expanding the inner conductor against the dielectric using a mandrel or hydraulic pressure. Non-metallic bead segments may be used in aid of the compression necessary to resist the dynamic forces and accelerations of drilling.

  15. Spectrophotometry of six broad absorption line QSOs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Smith, Harding E.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of six broad absorption-line QSOs (BALQSOs) are presented. The continua and emission lines are compared with those in the spectra of QSOs without BALs. A statistically significant difference is found in the emission-line intensity ratio for (N V 1240-A)/(C IV 1549-A). The median value of (N V)/(C IV) for the BALQSOs is two to three times the median for QSOs without BALs. The absorption features of the BALQSOs are described, and the column densities and limits on the ionization structure of the BAL region are discussed. If the dominant ionization mechanism is photoionization, then it is likely that either the ionizing spectrum is steep or the abundances are considerably different from solar. Collisional ionization may be a significant factor, but it cannot totally dominate the ionization rate.

  16. CS Line Profiles in Hot Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayet, E.; Yates, J.; Viti, S.

    2011-02-01

    We present a theoretical study of CS line profiles in archetypal hot cores. We provide estimates of line fluxes from the CS(1-0) to the CS(15-14) transitions and present the temporal variation of these fluxes. We find that (1) the CS(1-0) transition is a better tracer of the Envelope of the hot core whereas the higher-J CS lines trace the ultracompact core (UCC); (2) the peak temperature of the CS transitions is a good indicator of the temperature inside the hot core; (3) in the Envelope, the older the hot core the stronger the self-absorption of CS; (4) the fractional abundance of CS is highest in the innermost parts of the UCC, confirming the CS molecule as one of the best tracers of very dense gas.

  17. Video on phone lines: technology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsing, T. Russell

    1996-03-01

    Recent advances in communications signal processing and VLSI technology are fostering tremendous interest in transmitting high-speed digital data over ordinary telephone lines at bit rates substantially above the ISDN Basic Access rate (144 Kbit/s). Two new technologies, high-bit-rate digital subscriber lines and asymmetric digital subscriber lines promise transmission over most of the embedded loop plant at 1.544 Mbit/s and beyond. Stimulated by these research promises and rapid advances on video coding techniques and the standards activity, information networks around the globe are now exploring possible business opportunities of offering quality video services (such as distant learning, telemedicine, and telecommuting etc.) through this high-speed digital transport capability in the copper loop plant. Visual communications for residential customers have become more feasible than ever both technically and economically.

  18. SO(32) heterotic line bundle models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Hajime

    2018-05-01

    We search for the three-generation standard-like and/or Pati-Salam models from the SO(32) heterotic string theory on smooth, quotient complete intersection Calabi-Yau threefolds with multiple line bundles, each with structure group U(1). These models are S- and T-dual to intersecting D-brane models in type IIA string theory. We find that the stable line bundles and Wilson lines lead to the standard model gauge group with an extra U(1) B-L via a Pati-Salam-like symmetry and the obtained spectrum consists of three chiral generations of quarks and leptons, and vector-like particles. Green-Schwarz anomalous U(1) symmetries control not only the Yukawa couplings of the quarks and leptons but also the higher-dimensional operators causing the proton decay.

  19. Motor run-up system. [power lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daeges, J. J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A starting system is described for bringing a large synchronous motor up to speed to prevent large power line disturbances at the moment the motor is connected to the power line. The system includes (1) a digital counter which generates a count determined by the difference in frequency between the power line and a small current generated by the synchronous motor; (2) a latch which stores the count; and (3) a comparator which compares the stored count with a newly generated count to determine whether the synchronous motor is accelerating or decelerating. Signals generated by the counter and comparator control the current to a clutch that couples a starting motor to the large synchronous motor.

  20. Novel technologies in doubled haploid line development.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiaojiao; Wu, Penghao; Trampe, Benjamin; Tian, Xiaolong; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Chen, Shaojiang

    2017-11-01

    haploid inducer line can be transferred (DH) technology can not only shorten the breeding process but also increase genetic gain. Haploid induction and subsequent genome doubling are the two main steps required for DH technology. Haploids have been generated through the culture of immature male and female gametophytes, and through inter- and intraspecific via chromosome elimination. Here, we focus on haploidization via chromosome elimination, especially the recent advances in centromere-mediated haploidization. Once haploids have been induced, genome doubling is needed to produce DH lines. This study has proposed a new strategy to improve haploid genome doubling by combing haploids and minichromosome technology. With the progress in haploid induction and genome doubling methods, DH technology can facilitate reverse breeding, cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line production, gene stacking and a variety of other genetic analysis. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Magnetic Field Lines on the Sun

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-28

    Scientists have developed a way to produce models of where the magnetic field lines are several times each day. Here we have created a time-lapse version of these models over four days (2-3 each day) to give you a peek at how these change over time. The spiraling arcs of magnetic field lines emerge from active regions and connect back to areas with the opposite polarity. The field lines are more concentrated where regions are more magnetically intense. And of course, they rotate with the rotation of the Sun. Credit: NASA/Solar Dynamics Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. A LINE POLE 20, STUBBED HISTORIC POLE WITH ORIGINAL GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A LINE POLE 20, STUBBED HISTORIC POLE WITH ORIGINAL GLASS PIN-TYPE INSULATORS AND INTACT COMMUNICATION LINE CROSS ARM. VIEW TO WEST. - Mystic Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Electric Transmission A Line, Along West Rosebud Creek, Fishtail, Stillwater County, MT

  3. U. H. F. Power Transistors and Lecher Line Oscillators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the use of transistors instead of valves for Lecher line and radiation demonstrations. Two oscillator circuits which provide power for Lecher line use are described. Impedance of Lecher line is also discussed. (HM)

  4. Effect of tornado loads on transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ishac, M.F.; White, H.B.

    Of all the populated areas in Canada, southwestern Ontario has experienced the highest tornado incidence and faces the greatest tornado damage. About 1 or 2 tornadoes per 10,000 km{sup 2} can be expected there annually. The probability of a tornado strike at a given point is very small but the probability of a transmission line being crossed by a tornado is significant. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to tornadoes in Ontario and to investigate the effect of tornado loads on transmission lines. Based on this investigation a design basis tornado loading for transmission towersmore » is proposed.« less

  5. On-line atomic data access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, David R.; Nash, Jeffrey K.

    1996-07-01

    The need for atomic data is one which continues to expand in a wide variety of applications including fusion energy, astrophysics, laser-produced plasma research, and plasma processing. Modern computer database and communications technology enables this data to be placed on-line and obtained by users over the INTERNET. Presented here is a summary of the observations and conclusions regarding such on-line atomic data access derived from a forum held at the Tenth APS Topical Conference on Atomic Processes in Plasmas.

  6. Effect of tornado loads on transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ishac, M.F.; White, H.B.

    1994-12-31

    Of all the populated areas in Canada, southwestern Ontario has experienced the highest tornado incidence and faces the greatest tornado damage. About 1 or 2 tornadoes per 10,000 km{sup 2} can be expected there annually. The probability of a tornado strike at a given point is very small but the probability of a transmission line being crossed by a tornado is significant. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to tornadoes in Ontario and to investigate the effect of tornado loads on transmission lines. Based on this investigation a design basis tornado loading for transmission towersmore » is proposed.« less

  7. Vortex line in the unitary Fermi gas

    DOE PAGES

    Madeira, Lucas; Vitiello, Silvio A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; ...

    2016-04-06

    Here, we report diffusion Monte Carlo results for the ground state of unpolarized spin-1/2 fermions in a cylindrical container and properties of the system with a vortex-line excitation. The density profile of the system with a vortex line presents a nonzero density at the core. We also calculate the ground-state energy per particle, the superfluid pairing gap, and the excitation energy per particle. Finally, these simulations can be extended to calculate the properties of vortex excitations in other strongly interacting systems such as superfluid neutron matter using realistic nuclear Hamiltonians.

  8. Epidermal cyst mimicking incision line metastasis.

    PubMed

    Gündoğdu, Ramazan; Ayhan, Erhan; Çolak, Tahsin

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal cysts are cystic tumors lined with keratinized squamous layer and filled with keratin debris. Epidermal cysts may develop by implantation of surface epidermal layer into the dermis or subcutaneous tissue after trauma or surgical procedures. Cervix cancer spreads either directly or via the vascular and lymphatic systems. Distant skin metastasis of endometrium or cervix cancer is very rare. In this case report, a patient who had a history of cervix cancer operation 11 years ago and presented with a mass that mimicked incision line metastasis and was histopathologically diagnosed with epidermal cyst is presented.

  9. Epidermal cyst mimicking incision line metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Gündoğdu, Ramazan; Ayhan, Erhan; Çolak, Tahsin

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal cysts are cystic tumors lined with keratinized squamous layer and filled with keratin debris. Epidermal cysts may develop by implantation of surface epidermal layer into the dermis or subcutaneous tissue after trauma or surgical procedures. Cervix cancer spreads either directly or via the vascular and lymphatic systems. Distant skin metastasis of endometrium or cervix cancer is very rare. In this case report, a patient who had a history of cervix cancer operation 11 years ago and presented with a mass that mimicked incision line metastasis and was histopathologically diagnosed with epidermal cyst is presented. PMID:28740968

  10. Disocclusion: a variational approach using level lines.

    PubMed

    Masnou, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Object recognition, robot vision, image and film restoration may require the ability to perform disocclusion. We call disocclusion the recovery of occluded areas in a digital image by interpolation from their vicinity. It is shown in this paper how disocclusion can be performed by means of the level-lines structure, which offers a reliable, complete and contrast-invariant representation of images. Level-lines based disocclusion yields a solution that may have strong discontinuities. The proposed method is compatible with Kanizsa's amodal completion theory.

  11. Inductive gas line for pulsed lasers

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Alger, Terry W.

    1985-01-01

    A gas laser having a metal inlet gas feed line assembly shaped as a coil, to function as an electrical inductance and therefore high impedance to pulses of electric current applied to electrodes at opposite ends of a discharge tube of a laser, for example. This eliminates a discharge path for the laser through the inlet gas feed line. A ferrite core extends through the coil to increase the inductance of the coil and provide better electric isolation. By elimination of any discharge breakdown through the gas supply, efficiency is increased and a significantly longer operating lifetime of the laser is provided.

  12. Inductive gas line for pulsed lasers

    DOEpatents

    Benett, W.J.; Alger, T.W.

    1982-09-29

    A gas laser having a metal inlet gas feed line assembly shaped as a coil, to function as an electrical inductance and therefore high impedance to pulses of electric current applied to electrodes at opposite ends of a discharge tube of a laser, for example. This eliminates a discharge path for the laser through the inlet gas feed line. A ferrite core extends through the coil to increase the inductance of the coil and provide better electric isolation. By elimination of any discharge breakdown through the gas supply, efficiency is increased and a significantly longer operating lifetime of the laser is provided.

  13. Water line positions in the 782-840 nm region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S.-M.; Chen, B.; Tan, Y.; Wang, J.; Cheng, C.-F.; Liu, A.-W.

    2015-10-01

    A set of water transitions in the 782-840 nm region, including 38 H216O lines, 12 HD16O lines, and 30 D216O lines, were recorded with a cavity ring-down spectrometer calibrated using precise atomic lines. Absolute frequencies of the lines were determined with an accuracy of about 5 MHz. Systematic shifts were found in the line positions given in the HITRAN database and the upper energy levels given in recent MARVEL studies.

  14. Lining seam elimination algorithm and surface crack detection in concrete tunnel lining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zhong; Bai, Ling; An, Shi-Quan; Ju, Fang-Rong; Liu, Ling

    2016-11-01

    Due to the particularity of the surface of concrete tunnel lining and the diversity of detection environments such as uneven illumination, smudges, localized rock falls, water leakage, and the inherent seams of the lining structure, existing crack detection algorithms cannot detect real cracks accurately. This paper proposed an algorithm that combines lining seam elimination with the improved percolation detection algorithm based on grid cell analysis for surface crack detection in concrete tunnel lining. First, check the characteristics of pixels within the overlapping grid to remove the background noise and generate the percolation seed map (PSM). Second, cracks are detected based on the PSM by the accelerated percolation algorithm so that the fracture unit areas can be scanned and connected. Finally, the real surface cracks in concrete tunnel lining can be obtained by removing the lining seam and performing percolation denoising. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately, quickly, and effectively detect the real surface cracks. Furthermore, it can fill the gap in the existing concrete tunnel lining surface crack detection by removing the lining seam.

  15. Cell Line Data Base: structure and recent improvements towards molecular authentication of human cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Paolo; Manniello, Assunta; Aresu, Ottavia; Armento, Massimiliano; Cesaro, Michela; Parodi, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The Cell Line Data Base (CLDB) is a well-known reference information source on human and animal cell lines including information on more than 6000 cell lines. Main biological features are coded according to controlled vocabularies derived from international lists and taxonomies. HyperCLDB (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/hypercldb/) is a hypertext version of CLDB that improves data accessibility by also allowing information retrieval through web spiders. Access to HyperCLDB is provided through indexes of biological characteristics and navigation in the hypertext is granted by many internal links. HyperCLDB also includes links to external resources. Recently, an interest was raised for a reference nomenclature for cell lines and CLDB was seen as an authoritative system. Furthermore, to overcome the cell line misidentification problem, molecular authentication methods, such as fingerprinting, single-locus short tandem repeat (STR) profile and single nucleotide polymorphisms validation, were proposed. Since this data is distributed, a reference portal on authentication of human cell lines is needed. We present here the architecture and contents of CLDB, its recent enhancements and perspectives. We also present a new related database, the Cell Line Integrated Molecular Authentication (CLIMA) database (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/clima/), that allows to link authentication data to actual cell lines. PMID:18927105

  16. Cell Line Data Base: structure and recent improvements towards molecular authentication of human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Romano, Paolo; Manniello, Assunta; Aresu, Ottavia; Armento, Massimiliano; Cesaro, Michela; Parodi, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The Cell Line Data Base (CLDB) is a well-known reference information source on human and animal cell lines including information on more than 6000 cell lines. Main biological features are coded according to controlled vocabularies derived from international lists and taxonomies. HyperCLDB (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/hypercldb/) is a hypertext version of CLDB that improves data accessibility by also allowing information retrieval through web spiders. Access to HyperCLDB is provided through indexes of biological characteristics and navigation in the hypertext is granted by many internal links. HyperCLDB also includes links to external resources. Recently, an interest was raised for a reference nomenclature for cell lines and CLDB was seen as an authoritative system. Furthermore, to overcome the cell line misidentification problem, molecular authentication methods, such as fingerprinting, single-locus short tandem repeat (STR) profile and single nucleotide polymorphisms validation, were proposed. Since this data is distributed, a reference portal on authentication of human cell lines is needed. We present here the architecture and contents of CLDB, its recent enhancements and perspectives. We also present a new related database, the Cell Line Integrated Molecular Authentication (CLIMA) database (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/clima/), that allows to link authentication data to actual cell lines.

  17. Mental Number Line, Number Line Estimation, and Mathematical Achievement: Their Interrelations in Grades 5 and 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Michael; Grabner, Roland H.; Paetsch, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    As indicated by the distance effect and the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect, natural numbers are mentally represented on a number line. Purportedly, this number line underlies children's number sense, which supports the acquisition of more advanced mathematical competencies. In 3 studies with a total of 429 fifth and…

  18. Assessment of Labor Behavior Factors and Selecting Line Managers' Lines of Development at Russian Industrial Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavyalova, Elena K.; Kosheleva, Sofia V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The paper investigates personal and environmental factors providing for the efficiency of line managers' activity and contributing to their professional and career advancement. The paper studies the prognostic value of the assessment of personal and environmental factors providing for the efficiency of line managers' activity according to…

  19. MICROLENSING OF QUASAR BROAD EMISSION LINES: CONSTRAINTS ON BROAD LINE REGION SIZE

    SciTech Connect

    Guerras, E.; Mediavilla, E.; Jimenez-Vicente, J.

    2013-02-20

    We measure the differential microlensing of the broad emission lines between 18 quasar image pairs in 16 gravitational lenses. We find that the broad emission lines are in general weakly microlensed. The results show, at a modest level of confidence (1.8{sigma}), that high ionization lines such as C IV are more strongly microlensed than low ionization lines such as H{beta}, indicating that the high ionization line emission regions are more compact. If we statistically model the distribution of microlensing magnifications, we obtain estimates for the broad line region size of r{sub s} = 24{sup +22} {sub -15} and r{sub s}more » = 55{sup +150} {sub -35} lt-day (90% confidence) for the high and low ionization lines, respectively. When the samples are divided into higher and lower luminosity quasars, we find that the line emission regions of more luminous quasars are larger, with a slope consistent with the expected scaling from photoionization models. Our estimates also agree well with the results from local reveberation mapping studies.« less

  20. Cell lines authentication and mycoplasma detection as minimun quality control of cell lines in biobanking.

    PubMed

    Corral-Vázquez, C; Aguilar-Quesada, R; Catalina, P; Lucena-Aguilar, G; Ligero, G; Miranda, B; Carrillo-Ávila, J A

    2017-06-01

    Establishment of continuous cell lines from human normal and tumor tissues is an extended and useful methodology for molecular characterization of cancer pathophysiology and drug development in research laboratories. The exchange of these cell lines between different labs is a common practice that can compromise assays reliability due to contamination with microorganism such as mycoplasma or cells from different flasks that compromise experiment reproducibility and reliability. Great proportions of cell lines are contaminated with mycoplasma and/or are replaced by cells derived for a different origin during processing or distribution process. The scientific community has underestimated this problem and thousand of research experiment has been done with cell lines that are incorrectly identified and wrong scientific conclusions have been published. Regular contamination and authentication tests are necessary in order to avoid negative consequences of widespread misidentified and contaminated cell lines. Cell banks generate, store and distribute cell lines for research, being mandatory a consistent and continuous quality program. Methods implementation for guaranteeing both, the absence of mycoplasma and authentication in the supplied cell lines, has been performed in the Andalusian Health System Biobank. Specifically, precise results were obtained using real time PCR detection for mycoplasma and 10 STRs identification by capillary electrophoresis for cell line authentication. Advantages and disadvantages of these protocols are discussed.

  1. Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Reading Line-by-Line, but Analyzing by Meaningful Qualitative Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    In the first of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail points out the challenges of determining units to analyze qualitatively when dealing with text. He acknowledges that although we may read a document word-by-word or line-by-line, we need to adjust our focus when processing the text for purposes of…

  2. Effects of distributions of energy of transfer rates on spectral hole burning in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmouda, Somaya

    To perform photosynthesis, plants, algae and bacteria possess well organized and closely coupled photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes. Information on energy transfer in photosynthetic complexes is important to understand their functioning and possibly to design new and improved photovoltaic devices. The information on energy transfer processes contained in the narrow zero-phonon lines at low temperatures is hidden under the inhomogeneous broadening. Thus, it has been proven difficult to analyze the spectroscopic properties of these complexes in sufficient detail by conventional spectroscopy methods. In this context the high resolution spectroscopy techniques such as Spectral Hole Burning are powerful tools designed to get around the inhomogeneous broadening. Spectral Hole Burning involves selective excitation by a laser which removes molecules with the zero-phonon transitions resonant with this laser. This thesis focuses on the effects of the distributions of the energy transfer rates (homogeneous line widths) on the evolution of spectral holes. These distributions are a consequence of the static disorder in the photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes. The qualitative effects of different types of the line width distributions on the evolution of spectral holes have been and explored by numerical simulations, an example of analysis of the original experimental data has been presented as well.

  3. Dynamics of the Molten Contact Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonin, Ain A.; Duthaler, Gregg; Liu, Michael; Torresola, Javier; Qiu, Taiqing

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a basic understanding of how a molten material front spreads over a solid that is below its melting point, arrests, and freezes. Our hope is that the work will contribute toward a scientific knowledge base for certain new applications involving molten droplet deposition, including the "printing" of arbitrary three-dimensional objects by precise deposition of individual molten microdrops that solidify after impact. Little information is available at this time on the capillarity-driven motion and arrest of molten contact line regions. Schiaffino and Sonin investigated the arrest of the contact line of a molten microcrystalline wax spreading over a subcooled solid "target" of the same material. They found that contact line arrest takes place at an apparent liquid contact angle that depends primarily on the Stefan number S=c(T(sub f) -T(sub t)/L based on the temperature difference between the fusion point and the target temperature, and proposed that contact line arrest occurs when the liquid's dynamic contact angle approaches the angle of attack of the solidification front just behind the contact line. They also showed, however, that the conventional continuum equations and boundary conditions have no meaningful solution for this angle. The solidification front angle is determined by the heat flux just behind the contact line, and the heat flux is singular at that point. By comparing experiments with numerical computations, Schiaffino and Sonin estimated that the conventional solidification model must break down within a distance of order 0.1 - 1 microns of the contact line. The physical mechanism for this breakdown is as yet undetermined, and no first-principles theory exists for the contact angle at arrest. Schiaffino and Sonin also presented a framework for understanding how to moderate Weber number molten droplet deposition in terms of similarity laws and experimentation. The study is based on experiments with three molten

  4. TLINES: A Computer Program for Circuits of Transmission Lines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    of various lengths are handled by stringing together many short lines, with the assumption that each of the longer lines has a length approximated as...expressed in terms of transmission lines numbered from 2 through CAPM , connected in numerical sequence as in figure 3. Line 1 is a dummy element disconnected...from line 2 and the rest of the circuit. Lines 2 through CAPM can each be set to any impedance the user desires. Line CAPM +1 is a zero-impedance line

  5. The AFRL Line-Imaging ORVIS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    1 3. Safety Considerations...Reduction Techniques,” Sandia Report, SAND82-2918, February 1983. 3. Safety Considerations Since the AFRL Line-Imaging ORVIS is an imaging interferometer...Standard for Safe Use of Lasers. • A thorough review of the optical setup by the facility/site laser safety program. • Continued use of the laser enclosure

  6. Where are the Fermi lines coming from?

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Kanishka; Whiteson, Daniel, E-mail: krao@uci.edu, E-mail: daniel@uci.edu

    2013-03-01

    We estimate the spatial locations of sources of the the observed features in the Fermi-LAT photon spectrum at E{sub γ} = 110 and E{sub γ} = 130 GeV. We determine whether they are consistent with emission from a single source, as would be expected in their interpretation as γγ and γZ lines from dark matter annhiliation, as well as whether they are consistent with a dark matter halo positioned at the center of the galaxy. We take advantage of the per-photon measured incident angle in reconstructing the line features. In addition, we use a data-driven background model rather than makingmore » the assumption of a feature-less background. We localize the sources of the features at 110 and 130 GeV. Assuming an Einasto (NFW) density model we find the 130 GeV line to be offset from the Galactic center by 285 (280) pc, the 110 GeV line by 60 (30) pc with a large relative separation of 220 (240) pc. However, we find this displacement of each source from the Galactic center, as well as their relative displacement to be statistically consistent with a single Einasto or NFW dark matter halo at the center of the galaxy.« less

  7. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground lines. 1926.956 Section 1926.956 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Power Transmission and Distribution § 1926.956...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground lines. 1926.956 Section 1926.956 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Power Transmission and Distribution § 1926.956...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground lines. 1926.956 Section 1926.956 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Power Transmission and Distribution § 1926.956...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground lines. 1926.956 Section 1926.956 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Power Transmission and Distribution § 1926.956...

  11. Line Designs Inspired by Paul Klee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchette, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    In this lesson, students learn about line, shape, color, mixed media and abstraction, while being introduced to Swiss artist, Paul Klee (1879-1940). This lesson works well with a variety of age levels and abilities and could also be used to teach analogous or triad color schemes.

  12. Passenger Flow Analysis, 1978. Riverside Line, MBTA.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-08-01

    In order to complete a set of passenger flow estimates for use in a simulation model of a light rail line, a count of passenger movement was made at randomly selected stations in the underground section. Above-ground stations had been studied a year ...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.955 - Overhead lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... unbalanced stresses to which they will be subjected. (3) Where poles or structures may be unsafe for climbing..., except in bare-hand live-line work, or where barriers or protective devices are used. (ii) Equipment and...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.955 - Overhead lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... unbalanced stresses to which they will be subjected. (3) Where poles or structures may be unsafe for climbing..., except in bare-hand live-line work, or where barriers or protective devices are used. (ii) Equipment and...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.955 - Overhead lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... unbalanced stresses to which they will be subjected. (3) Where poles or structures may be unsafe for climbing..., except in bare-hand live-line work, or where barriers or protective devices are used. (ii) Equipment and...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.955 - Overhead lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... unbalanced stresses to which they will be subjected. (3) Where poles or structures may be unsafe for climbing..., except in bare-hand live-line work, or where barriers or protective devices are used. (ii) Equipment and...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.955 - Overhead lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... unbalanced stresses to which they will be subjected. (3) Where poles or structures may be unsafe for climbing..., except in bare-hand live-line work, or where barriers or protective devices are used. (ii) Equipment and...

  18. Citizens, farmers fight huge transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Brummer, J.

    1982-02-01

    Opposition to high tension power lines with a 20-story towers is growing as coalitions of farmers and advocates of safe energy respond with legal intervention and sabotage, and sometimes with success. Examples of citizen action are the efforts opposing a 450 kilovolt direct current line connecting the US with Quebec Hydro and another opposing a 500 kilovolt alternating current line from Georgia Power Co.'s nuclear plants to Florida. The opposition derives partly from evidence of health hazards to humans and adverse effects on livestock. High voltage lines are felt to symbolize a utility and regulatory failure to assess the recentmore » decline in power demand. It is stated that administration efforts to outlaw organized resistence will not deter the opposition, which cites instances of ground shock, aborted and stillborn cattle, physical irritants, and other phenomena. The General Assembly to Stop the Powerline (GASP) objects to the guinea pig position forced upon residents by the utilities. 6 references. (DCK)« less

  19. Interactions between Brief Flashed Lines at Threshold.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-11

    ORAIAIN 6 OFC ’PO 4 4M FMNTRIGOGNZTO lol in AFI, C 203 2- 44 . NAME OF PFN IG PORAIION lbOFFICE SYMBOL 7il PRO4MEN MINTRUNT INCNIATON NM ,.. .oAFOSR...Cass, P. C. (1986) Facilitatory interactionE between flashed lines. Perceptinn. jj,443-460. omith, P.A. and Cass, P C. (1967) Aliasing in the

  20. Edge Effects in Line Intersect Sampling With

    Treesearch

    David L. R. Affleck; Timothy G. Gregoire; Harry T. Valentine

    2005-01-01

    Transects consisting of multiple, connected segments with a prescribed configuration are commonly used in ecological applications of line intersect sampling. The transect configuration has implications for the probability with which population elements are selected and for how the selection probabilities can be modified by the boundary of the tract being sampled. As...

  1. Elliptical varied line-space (EVLS) gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Roger J.

    2004-10-01

    Imaging spectroscopy at wavelengths below 2000 Å offers an especially powerful method for studying many extended high-temperature astronomical objects, like the Sun and its outer layers. But the technology to make such measurements is also especially challenging, because of the poor reflectance of all standard materials at these wavelengths, and because the observation must be made from above the absorbing effects of the Earth's atmosphere. To solve these problems, single-reflection stigmatic spectrographs for XUV wavelengths have bee flown on several space missions based on designs with toroidal uniform line-space (TULS) or spherical varied line-space (SVLS) gratings that operate at near normal-incidence. More recently, three solar EUV/UV instruments have been selected that use toroidal varied line-space (TVLS) gratings; these are SUMI and RAISE, both sounding rocket payloads, and NEXUS, a SMEX satellite-mission. The next logical extension to such designs is the use of elliptical surfaces for varied line-space (EVLS) rulings. In fact, EVLS designs are found to provide superior imaging even at very large spectrograph magnifications and beam-speeds, permitting extremely high-quality performance in remarkably compact instrument packages. In some cases, such designs may be optimized even further by using a hyperbolic surface for the feeding telescope. The optical characteristics of two solar EUV spectrometers based on these concepts are described: EUS and EUI, both being developed as possible instruments for ESA's Solar Orbiter mission by consortia led by RAL and by MSSL, respectively.

  2. GAME: GAlaxy Machine learning for Emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucci, G.; Ferrara, A.; Pallottini, A.; Gallerani, S.

    2018-06-01

    We present an updated, optimized version of GAME (GAlaxy Machine learning for Emission lines), a code designed to infer key interstellar medium physical properties from emission line intensities of ultraviolet /optical/far-infrared galaxy spectra. The improvements concern (a) an enlarged spectral library including Pop III stars, (b) the inclusion of spectral noise in the training procedure, and (c) an accurate evaluation of uncertainties. We extensively validate the optimized code and compare its performance against empirical methods and other available emission line codes (PYQZ and HII-CHI-MISTRY) on a sample of 62 SDSS stacked galaxy spectra and 75 observed HII regions. Very good agreement is found for metallicity. However, ionization parameters derived by GAME tend to be higher. We show that this is due to the use of too limited libraries in the other codes. The main advantages of GAME are the simultaneous use of all the measured spectral lines and the extremely short computational times. We finally discuss the code potential and limitations.

  3. University Autonomy: Two Fault-Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, G. R.

    2010-01-01

    The doctrine of university autonomy in the UK contains a least two major "fault-lines" where the structure is inherently weak and there is danger of functional breakdown. The first occurs at the junction between the institution and the state, the second within the institution, where the unity in policy-making between academic and…

  4. Visualisation of Lines of Best Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudziewicz, Michael; Bossé, Michael J.; Marland, Eric S.; Rhoads, Gregory S.

    2017-01-01

    Humans possess a remarkable ability to recognise both simple patterns such as shapes and handwriting and very complex patterns such as faces and landscapes. To investigate one small aspect of human pattern recognition, in this study participants position lines of "best fit" to two-dimensional scatter plots of data. The study investigates…

  5. High temperature lined conduits, elbows and tees

    DOEpatents

    De Feo, Angelo; Drewniany, Edward

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature lined conduit comprising, a liner, a flexible insulating refractory blanket around and in contact with the liner, a pipe member around the blanket and spaced therefrom, and castable rigid refractory material between the pipe member and the blanket. Anchors are connected to the inside diameter of the pipe and extend into the castable material. The liner includes male and female slip joint ends for permitting thermal expansion of the liner with respect to the castable material and the pipe member. Elbows and tees of the lined conduit comprise an elbow liner wrapped with insulating refractory blanket material around which is disposed a spaced elbow pipe member with castable refractory material between the blanket material and the elbow pipe member. A reinforcing band is connected to the elbow liner at an intermediate location thereon from which extend a plurality of hollow tubes or pins which extend into the castable material to anchor the lined elbow and permit thermal expansion. A method of fabricating the high temperature lined conduit, elbows and tees is also disclosed which utilizes a polyethylene layer over the refractory blanket after it has been compressed to maintain the refractory blanket in a compressed condition until the castable material is in place. Hot gases are then directed through the interior of the liner for evaporating the polyethylene and setting the castable material which permits the compressed blanket to come into close contact with the castable material.

  6. Easy Observation of Infrared Spectral Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortel, Adolf

    2012-01-01

    The spectra of some chemical elements display intense infrared (IR) lines that can be used more effectively than the ones in the visible region for identification purposes. A simple setup, based on the IR sensitivity of a handycam in nightshot mode, is described to record the visible as well as the IR spectra from decorative bulbs or salts on the…

  7. A Fe K Line in GRB 970508

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protassov, R.; van Dyk, D.; Connors, A.; Kashyap, V.; Siemiginowska, A.

    2000-12-01

    We examine the x-ray spectrum of the afterglow of GRB 970508, analyzed for Fe line emission by Piro et al (1999, ApJL, 514, L73). This is a difficult and extremely important measurement: the detection of x-ray afterglows from γ -ray bursts is at best a tricky business, relying on near-real satellite time response to unpredictable events; and a great deal of luck in catching a burst bright enough for a useful spectral analysis. Detecting a clear atomic (or cyclotron) line in the generally smooth and featureless afterglow (or burst) emission not only gives one of the few very specific keys to the physics local to the emission region, but also provides clues or confirmation of its distance (via redshift). Unfortunately, neither the likelihood ratio test or the related F-statistic commonly used to detect spectral lines adhere to their nominal Chi square and F-distributions. Thus we begin by calibrating the F-statistic used in Piro et al (1999, ApJL, 514, L73) via a simulation study. The simulation study relies on a completely specified source model, i.e. we do Monte Carlo simulations with all model parameters fixed (so--called ``parametric bootstrapping''). Second, we employ the method of posterior predictive p-values to calibrate a LRT statistic while accounting for the uncertainty in the parameters of the source model. Our analysis reveals evidence for the Fe K line.

  8. LUST ON-LINE CALCULATOR INTRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a suite of on-line calculators to assist in performing site assessment and modeling calculations for leaking underground storage tank sites (http://www.epa.gov/athens/onsite). The calculators are divided into four types: parameter estimation, models, scientific...

  9. Historical Objections against the Number Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heeffer, Albrecht

    2011-01-01

    Historical studies on the development of mathematical concepts will help mathematics teachers to relate their students' difficulties in understanding to conceptual problems in the history of mathematics. We argue that one popular tool for teaching about numbers, the number line, may not be fit for early teaching of operations involving negative…

  10. Dielectric image line groove antennas for millimeterwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solbach, K.; Wolff, I.

    Grooves in the ground plane of dielectric image lines are proposed as a new radiating structure. A figure is included showing the proposed groove structure as a discontinuity in a dielectric image line. A wave incident on the dielectric image line is partly reflected by the discontinuity, partly transmitted across the groove, and partly radiated into space above the line. In a travelling-wave antenna, a number of grooves are arranged below a dielectric guide, with spacings around one guide wavelength to produce a beam in the upper half space. A prescribed aperture distribution can be effected by tapering the series radiation resistance of the grooves. This can be done by adjusting the depths of the grooves with a constant width or by varying the widths of the grooves with a constant depth. Attention is also given to circular grooves. Here, the widths of the holes are chosen so that they can be considered as waveguides operating far below the cut-off frequency of the fundamental circular waveguide mode.

  11. UV lines in spectra of planetary nebulae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanova, Yu.; Kholtygin, A.

    2008-12-01

    The modern observations of planetary nebulae (PNe) are used to create a new catalogue of element abundances for galactic and extragalac- tic PNe. Some of these abundances, especially C ones, need to be refined. Using in the PNe's models the UV line intensities, planned to be obtained with a help of WSO-UV observatory let us to determine the precision element abundances.

  12. Prostaglandin Actions in Established Insect Cell Lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are oxygenated metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) and two other C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids that serve as biochemical signals that mediate a wide range of physiological functions in animal cells. For example, PGs influence protein expression in establish insect cell lines ...

  13. HOPI: on-line injection optimization program

    SciTech Connect

    LeMaire, J L

    1977-10-26

    A method of matching the beam from the 200 MeV linac to the AGS without the necessity of making emittance measurements is presented. An on-line computer program written on the PDP10 computer performs the matching by modifying independently the horizontal and vertical emittance. Experimental results show success with this method, which can be applied to any matching section.

  14. A bibliography of atomic line identification lists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, S. J.; Snijders, M. A. J.

    1974-01-01

    A bibliography of atomic-line-identification lists is presented to supplement the material contained in the Ultraviolet and Revised Multiplet Tables and in the finding list by Kelly and Palumbo (1973). The list covers the wavelength range from 911 A to 8205 A.

  15. Channel lining with fiber reinforced shotcrete

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-07-01

    The Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) has used four brands of discrete synthetic fibers in a drainage outfall channel lining as part of construction project ACI-10-3(270). The use of the fibers was intended to test the constructibility and ...

  16. The Teaching of Life-Line Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridger, James A.

    1977-01-01

    Outlines techniques used in teaching a course in "life-line" ethics, in which the events of conception, birth and death are related to ethical issues of abortion, suicide, euthanasia, etc. Several modes of actively involving students are described. Lists seven reference for information on bioethical issues. (CS)

  17. 49 CFR 195.410 - Line markers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Line markers. 195.410 Section 195.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY...

  18. Imaging crystal/spectral line search

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.A.

    1998-02-16

    The following table is a compilation of chance coincidences between x- ray line wavelengths and crystal planes which will reflect those wavelengths near normal incidence. The motivation is to explore the possibilities for expanding the range of choices for near normal incidence x-ray crystal imaging.

  19. [StraighterLine] Student Survey Results. Final

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hezel Associates (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The cost of college continues to outpace inflation, even as average household income has declined over the past decade. Since 2008, StraighterLine has offered a new way of reducing the cost of a college degree: self-paced, pay-as-you-go introductory level college courses. The underlying philosophy of the program is that students can get an…

  20. Introduction to Software Product Line Adoption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    plans • improvement suggestions • risks and mitigation strategies • progress reports • risks and mitigation strategies • adoption plan • funding ... model • organization chart • product line concept of operations (CONOPS) • marketing plan • product proposals • acquisition strategy • organization risk

  1. Number Sense on the Number Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Dawn Marie; Ketterlin Geller, Leanne; Basaraba, Deni

    2018-01-01

    A strong foundation in early number concepts is critical for students' future success in mathematics. Research suggests that visual representations, like a number line, support students' development of number sense by helping them create a mental representation of the order and magnitude of numbers. In addition, explicitly sequencing instruction…

  2. The Artist's View of Points and Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millman, Richard S.; Speranza, Ramona R.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is the idea that art can be used to present early concepts of geometry, including the notion of the infinite. Discussed is the symbiosis that exists between the artistic and mathematical views of points, lines, and planes. Geometric models in art and using art in the classroom are discussed. (KR)

  3. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations...

  4. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations...

  5. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations...

  6. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations...

  7. SunLine Test Drives Hydrogen Bus

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-08-01

    SunLine collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program on the evaluation of the 30-foot hybrid fuel cell bus that was developed by ThunderPower LLC, a joint venture by Tho...

  8. Student System, On-Line Admissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stephen R.

    This report provides technical information on an on-line admissions system developed by Montgomery College. Part I, Systems Development, describes the background, objectives and responsibilities, system design, and reports generated by the system. Part II, Operating Instructions, describes input forms and controls, admission system functions, file…

  9. Line-oriented flight training: Northwest Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunn, H. T.

    1981-01-01

    An exemption from certain FAA regulations which stereotype simulator flight training was obtained and pilots with current line experience were used to prepare and develop scenarios for a program in which each crew member would be trained to recognize and properly use all available resouces. The development of the scenarios for training to proficiency and pilot reaction to the training sessions are discussed.

  10. The Micromechanics of the Moving Contact Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichter, Seth

    1999-01-01

    A transient moving contact line is investigated experimentally. The dynamic interface shape between 20 and 800 microns from the contact line is compared with theory. A novel experiment is devised, in which the contact line is set into motion by electrically altering the solid-liquid surface tension gamma(sub SL). The contact line motion simulates that of spontaneous wetting along a vertical plate with a maximum capillary number Ca approx. = 4 x 10(exp -2). The images of the dynamic meniscus are analyzed as a funtion of Ca. For comparison, the steady-state hydrodynamic equation based on the creeping flow model in a wedge geometry and the three-region uniform perturbation expansion of Cox (1986) is adopted. The interface shape is well depicted by the uniform solutions for Ca <= 10(exp -3). However, for Ca > 10(exp -3), the uniform solution over-predicts the viscous bending. This over-prediction can be accounted for by modifying the slip coefficient within the intermediate solution. With this correction, the measured interface shape is seen to match the theoretical prediction for all capillary numbers. The amount of slip needed to fit the measurements does not scale with the capillary number.

  11. Circles and the Lines That Intersect Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Ellen L.; Rhee, Katherine L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Clay and Rhee use the mathematics topic of circles and the lines that intersect them to introduce the idea of looking at the single mathematical idea of relationships--in this case, between angles and arcs--across a group of problems. They introduce the mathematics that underlies these relationships, beginning with the questions…

  12. Anomalous Resistivity of Auroral Field Lines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-25

    Anomalous Resistivity on Auroral Field Lines H-. L. R0VNLAND AND K. PAPADOPOULOS Laboratory for Plasma and Fusion Energy Studies$ University of Maryland...d in Stock 20, It difitir.oI from Reprt) It.SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES * Laboratory for Plasma and Fusion Energy Studies, University of NMarland, College

  13. Photoionisation modelling of the broad line region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Anthea

    2016-08-01

    Two of the most fundamental questions regarding the broad line region (BLR) are "what is its structure?" and "how is it moving?" Baldwin et al. (1995) showed that by summing over an ensemble of clouds at differing densities and distances from the ionising source we can easily and naturally produce a spectrum similar to what is observed for AGN. This approach is called the `locally optimally emitting clouds' (LOC) model. This approach can also explain the well-observed stratification of emission lines in the BLR (e.g. Clavel et al. 1991, Peterson et al. 1991, Kollatschny et al. 2001) and `breathing' of BLR with changes in the continuum luminosity (Netzer & Mor 1990, Peterson et al. 2014) and is therefore a generally accepted model of the BLR. However, LOC predictions require some assumptions to be made about the distribution of the clouds within the BLR. By comparing photoionization predictions, for a distribution of cloud properties, with observed spectra we can infer something about the structure of the BLR and distribution of clouds. I use existing reverberation mapping data to constrain the structure of the BLR by observing how individual line strengths and ratios of different lines change in high and low luminosity states. I will present my initial constraints and discuss the challenges associated with the method.

  14. 49 CFR 178.255-10 - Lining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the tank proper. It shall be of substantially uniform thickness, not less than 1/32 inch thick if metallic, and not less than 1/16 inch thick if nonmetallic, and shall be directly bonded or attached by other equally satisfactory means. Rubber lining shall be not less than 3/16 inch thick. Joints and seams...

  15. In-line beam current monitor

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, Jr., Carl A.; Frost, Charles A.

    1986-01-01

    An intense relativistic electron beam current monitor for a gas neutralized beam transport line includes a first foil for conducting plasma current to the wall where it is measured as it traverses an inductive loop formed by a cavity in the wall. An insulator foil separates the first foil from a second conducting foil which returns the current to the plasma environment.

  16. In-line beam current monitor

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, C.A. Jr.; Frost, C.A.

    1984-11-13

    An intense relativistic electron beam current monitor for a gas neutralized beam transport line includes a first foil for conducting plasma current to the wall where it is measured as it traverses an inductive loop formed by a cavity in the wall. An insulator foil separates the first foil from a second conducting foil which returns the current to the plasma environment.

  17. Registration of maize inbred line GT603

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    GT603 (Reg. No. xxxx, PI xxxxxx) is a yellow dent maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line developed and released by the USDA-ARS Crop Protection and Management Research Unit in cooperation with the University of Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station in 2010. GT603 was developed through seven generations ...

  18. Deriving the Regression Line with Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintanilla, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Exploration with spreadsheets and reliance on previous skills can lead students to determine the line of best fit. To perform linear regression on a set of data, students in Algebra 2 (or, in principle, Algebra 1) do not have to settle for using the mysterious "black box" of their graphing calculators (or other classroom technologies).…

  19. Line Narrowing Parameter Measurement by Modulation Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharamsi, Amin N.

    1998-01-01

    Accurate Characterization of Oxygen A-Band Line Parameters by Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy with tunable diode lasers is an ongoing research at Old Dominion University, under sponsorship from NASA Langley research Center. The work proposed here will be undertaken under the guidance of Dr. William Chu and Dr. Lamont Poole of the Aerosol Research Branch at NASA Langley-Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The research was started about two years ago and utilizes wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with higher harmonic detection, a technique that we developed at Old Dominion University, to obtain the absorption line characteristics of the Oxygen A-band rovibronic lines. Accurate characterization of this absorption band is needed for processing of data that will be obtained in experiments such as the NASA Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) as part of the US Mission to Planet Earth. The research work for Summer Fellowship undertook a measurement of the Dicke line-narrowing parameters of the Oxygen A-Band lines by using wavelength modulation spectroscopy. Our previous theoretical results had indicated that such a measurement could be done sensitively and in a convenient fashion by using this type of spectroscopy. In particular, theoretical results had indicated that the signal magnitude would depend on pressure in a manner that was very sensitive to the narrowing parameter. One of the major tasks undertaken during the summer of 1998 was to establish experimentally that these theoretical predictions were correct. This was done successfully and the results of the work are being prepared for publication. Experimental Results were obtained in which the magnitude of the signal was measured as a function of pressure, for various harmonic detection orders (N = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). A comparison with theoretical results was made, and it was shown that the agreement between theory and experiment was very good. More importantly, however, it was shown

  20. Fingerprinting the type of line edge roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Herrero, A.; Pflüger, M.; Scholze, F.; Soltwisch, V.

    2017-06-01

    Lamellar gratings are widely used diffractive optical elements and are prototypes of structural elements in integrated electronic circuits. EUV scatterometry is very sensitive to structure details and imperfections, which makes it suitable for the characterization of nanostructured surfaces. As compared to X-ray methods, EUV scattering allows for steeper angles of incidence, which is highly preferable for the investigation of small measurement fields on semiconductor wafers. For the control of the lithographic manufacturing process, a rapid in-line characterization of nanostructures is indispensable. Numerous studies on the determination of regular geometry parameters of lamellar gratings from optical and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) scattering also investigated the impact of roughness on the respective results. The challenge is to appropriately model the influence of structure roughness on the diffraction intensities used for the reconstruction of the surface profile. The impact of roughness was already studied analytically but for gratings with a periodic pseudoroughness, because of practical restrictions of the computational domain. Our investigation aims at a better understanding of the scattering caused by line roughness. We designed a set of nine lamellar Si-gratings to be studied by EUV scatterometry. It includes one reference grating with no artificial roughness added, four gratings with a periodic roughness distribution, two with a prevailing line edge roughness (LER) and another two with line width roughness (LWR), and four gratings with a stochastic roughness distribution (two with LER and two with LWR). We show that the type of line roughness has a strong impact on the diffuse scatter angular distribution. Our experimental results are not described well by the present modelling approach based on small, periodically repeated domains.