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Sample records for zessar watershed tunisia

  1. Modeling and sediment study in the watershed Medjerda, Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotti, Fatma; Mahé, Gil; Habaieb, Hamadi; Dieulin, Claudine; Hermassi, Taoufik

    2015-04-01

    Water projects have experienced a major expansion in the late 1980s, and we now have sufficient perspective to assess their actual performance and their socio-environmental impacts (Payan, 2007). This study focuses on the great watershed of Tunisia namely Medjerda which has an area of about 23,600 km2. In the main river of Medjerda some dams have been created for water retention: Sidi Salem Dam (the largest in the country), El Aroussia dam, and others on tributaries Mellegue Bouhertma, Siliana, Beni Mtir, Lakhemess and Kasseb. Since the construction of dams, essentially Sidi Salem and Siliana, the Medjerda river has undergone significant changes in morphology. The monitoring of the flow of the major hydrological stations in the pre-estuarine zone downstream from Sidi Salem dam is used to measure the impact of the constructions on hydrological regimes: reduction in average rates, reduction in volumes sold, altered seasonal pattern, and most of all reduction of the sediment transport, which the highest values are related to extreme events. In this context, the balance of sediment monitoring appears indispensable for the quantification of sediment transport at the outlet. Our approach is to calculate a specific flow rate relative to the area of the basin for every structure built in the Medjerda watershed, from the information available on transport and sedimentation rates known, combined with contours of each sub watershed. There are about ten dams spread throughout Medjerda watershed. The methodology is primarily developed for the Mellegue dam because we have at this station a long data set from 1955 until 2005. Other stations will be studied later on. The main objective of this study is to provide a series of annual variation of theoretical contributions. These calculated values will be compared with the actual measured sedimentary series. Two cores in the sediments of the pre-estuarine area are performed to determine past variability in sediment inputs over a time

  2. Tunisia.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    In 1986, Tunisia's population was 7,424,000, with an annual growth rate of 2.5%. The infant mortality rate was 90/1000 and life expectancy averages 58 years. The work force of 1,810,000 is distributed as follows: agriculture, 30.5%; manufacturing, 16.5%; services, 15.0%; construction and mining, 11.4%; and other, 26.6%. The gross domestic product was US$8.35 billion in 1985, with a per capita income (1986) of $1163. The Destourian Socialist Party has been the governing party in Tunisia since independence. Tunisia is a leader in the Arab world in the promotion of equal status for women under the law and the government supports an active family planning program. Tunisia's economy depends on oil, agriculture, phosphates, worker remittances, and tourism for economic growth. In response to an economic crisis in 1985-86, measures to restructure the economy were instituted, including basic commodity price increases, limits on wage increases, import liberalization, and price control modifications. Unemployment, aggravated by a rapidly growing work force, is a major problem in Tunisia. An estimated 50% of the potential work force is unemployed or underemployed.

  3. Groundwater recharge estimation under semi arid climate: Case of Northern Gafsa watershed, Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melki, Achraf; Abdollahi, Khodayar; Fatahi, Rouhallah; Abida, Habib

    2017-08-01

    Natural groundwater recharge under semi arid climate, like rainfall, is subjected to large variations in both time and space and is therefore very difficult to predict. Nevertheless, in order to set up any strategy for water resources management in such regions, understanding the groundwater recharge variability is essential. This work is interested in examining the impact of rainfall on the aquifer system recharge in the Northern Gafsa Plain in Tunisia. The study is composed of two main parts. The first is interested in the analysis of rainfall spatial and temporal variability in the study basin while the second is devoted to the simulation of groundwater recharge. Rainfall analysis was performed based on annual precipitation data recorded in 6 rainfall stations over a period of 56 years (1960-2015). Potential evapotranspiration data were also collected from 1960 to 2011 (52 years). The hydrologic distributed model WetSpass was used for the estimation of groundwater recharge. Model calibration was performed based on an assessment of the agreement between the sum of recharge and runoff values estimated by the WetSpass hydrological model and those obtained by the climatic method. This latter is based on the difference calculated between rainfall and potential evapotranspiration recorded at each rainy day. Groundwater recharge estimation, on monthly scale, showed that average annual precipitation (183.3 mm/year) was partitioned to 5, 15.3, 36.8, and 42.8% for interception, runoff, actual evapotranspiration and recharge respectively.

  4. Analysis of the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of best management practices for controlling sediment yield: A case study of the Joumine watershed, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Mtibaa, Slim; Hotta, Norifumi; Irie, Mitsuteru

    2018-03-01

    Soil erosion can be reduced through the strategic selection and placement of best management practices (BMPs) in critical source areas (CSAs). In the present study, the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to identify CSAs and investigate the effectiveness of different BMPs in reducing sediment yield in the Joumine watershed, an agricultural river catchment located in northern Tunisia. A cost-benefit analysis (CBA) was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different BMP scenarios. The objective of the present study was to determine the most cost-effective management scenario for controlling sediment yield. The model performance for the simulation of streamflow and sediment yield at the outlet of the Joumine watershed was good and satisfactory, respectively. The model indicated that most of the sediment was originated from the cultivated upland area. About 34% of the catchment area consisted of CSAs that were affected by high to very high soil erosion risk (sediment yield >10t/ha/year). Contour ridges were found to be the most effective individual BMP in terms of sediment yield reduction. At the watershed level, implementing contour ridges in the CSAs reduced sediment yield by 59%. Combinations of BMP scenarios were more cost-effective than the contour ridges alone. Combining buffer strips (5-m width) with other BMPs depending on land slope (> 20% slope: conversion to olive orchards; 10-20% slope: contour ridges; 5-10% slope: grass strip cropping) was the most effective approach in terms of sediment yield reduction and economic benefits. This approach reduced sediment yield by 61.84% with a benefit/cost ratio of 1.61. Compared with the cost of dredging, BMPs were more cost-effective for reducing sediment loads to the Joumine reservoir, located downstream of the catchment. Our findings may contribute to ensure the sustainability of future conservation programs in Tunisian regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pesticides in Ichkeul Lake-Bizerta Lagoon Watershed in Tunisia: use, occurrence, and effects on bacteria and free-living marine nematodes.

    PubMed

    Salem, Fida Ben; Said, Olfa Ben; Aissa, Patricia; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Monperrus, Mathilde; Grunberger, Olivier; Duran, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the most commonly used agricultural pesticides around Ichkeul Lake-Bizerta Lagoon watershed. First survey of pesticide use on agricultural watershed was performed with farmers, Regional Commissioner for Agricultural Development, and pesticide dealers. Then, sediment contamination by pesticides and response of benthic communities (bacteria and free-living marine nematode) were investigated. The analysis of 22 active organochlorine pesticides in sediments was performed according to quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method, biodiversity of indigenous bacterial community sediment was determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and free-living marine nematodes were counted. The results of the field survey showed that iodosulfuron, mesosulfuron, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D), glyphosate, and fenoxaprops were the most used herbicides, tebuconazole and epoxiconazole the most used fungicides, and deltamethrin the most used insecticide. Sixteen organochlorine pesticide compounds among the 22 examined were detected in sediments up to 2 ppm in Ichkeul Lake, endrin, dieldrin, and hexachlorocyclohexane being the most detected molecules. The most pesticide-contaminated site in the lake presented the higher density of nematode, but when considering all sites, no clear correlation with organochlorine pesticide (OCP) content could be established. The bacterial community structure in the most contaminated site in the lake was characterized by the terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) 97, 146, 258, 285, and 335 while the most contaminated site in the lagoon was characterized by the T-RFs 54, 263, 315, 403, and 428. Interestingly, T-RFs 38 and 143 were found in the most contaminated sites of both lake and lagoon ecosystems, indicating that they were resistant to OCPs and able to cope with environmental fluctuation of salinity. In contrast, the T-RFs 63, 100, 118, and 381 in the lake and the T

  6. Tunisia Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Tunisia is a relatively small hydrocarbon producer. Production of petroleum and other liquids has been steadily declining from its peak of 120,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) in the mid-1980s to 60,000 bbl/d in 2013. Tunisia produced 66 billion cubic feet of dry natural gas in 2012.

  7. Tunisia cours complementaire (Tunisia Complementary Course).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps (Thailand).

    The instructional materials in French are designed for use by language trainers of Peace Corps volunteers serving in francophone Tunisia, to supplement situational language and grammar instruction. A brief introductory section offers strategies for teaching verb tenses. The diverse materials that follow include lists of situational questions in…

  8. The Educational System of Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    An overview of the basic system of education in Tunisia is presented in this booklet. Since Tunisia's independence in 1956, the government has emphasized the role of education as a major factor in building a modern nation. The educational system in Tunisia is based on both the nation's own rich cultural background and also on the linguistic and…

  9. Organ transplantation in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    El Matri, Aziz; Ben Abdallah, Taieb

    2015-04-01

    Kidney transplants were first performed in Tunisia in 1986, and transplants soon extended to other organs including the heart, liver, and pancreas. Live-related donor and deceased-donor kidney transplants were both began in the summer of 1986. An organ procurement and transplant law was passed in March 1991, and the National Centre for Advancement of Organ Transplantation was created in 1995. The number of transplantation units has increased to 7 throughout the country, and the yearly transplant number has progressively increased to 139 in 2010, including 20% from deceased kidney donors. Despite these gains, the need continues to grow. Heart transplants began in January 1993, and Tunisia and Jordan are currently the only Arab countries where it is practiced. However, only 16 patients have received a heart transplant as of 2004, and the number of recipients has decreased in the past 10 years. Liver transplants are rare in other Arab countries, but began in Tunisia in January 1998. Over 10 years, 38 patients benefited from this procedure. After a few years of stagnation, the number of liver transplants is increasing. While all types of transplantation are needed, kidney transplantation is a priority in Tunisia. The target is to perform 400 transplants annually, which would require a long-term strategy to provide full financial coverage using the National Health Insurance Funds in both the public and private sectors.

  10. English Language Development in Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoud, Mohamed

    1996-01-01

    Describes English language policy decisions and implementation strategies in Tunisia and highlights the problems accompanying them. The article emphasizes that Tunisia has entered a critical stage in the promotion of English as the language of economic, scientific, and technological development and that the educational system must develop programs…

  11. Dust Streams from Tunisia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On October 6, 2001, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image of a large dust storm blowing northeastward across the Mediterranean Sea from Tunisia. According to Joseph Prospero, professor of atmospheric science at the University of Miami, there is an unusual arc-shaped 'front' to the dust cloud. The storm's shape suggests that the source of the dust is rather small and that the meteorology driving it rather unusual. The dust seems to be coming out of the wadis, dry lakebeds and riverbeds, at the base of the Tell Atlas Mountains in northern Tunisia and eastern Algeria. The dust appears to be blowing toward the island of Sicily, Italy (toward the upper righthand corner). Also notice there is a relatively thin plume of smoke emanating eastward from the top of Mount Etna on Sicily. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  12. The Language Situation in Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoud, Mohamed

    2001-01-01

    Describes the current language situation in Tunisia while maintaining a historical perspective that is helpful in understanding how language-related changes have come about, and a prospective view that may illuminate future developments. (Author/VWL)

  13. Bringing Community Colleges to Tunisia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Mezghani, Wafa Thabet

    2013-01-01

    The country of Tunisia experienced intense uprisings and massive civil resistance that were termed the Arab Spring of 2010. The riots stemmed from a desire to topple government rulers who were blamed for the high unemployment, poverty, regional inequalities, and general political unrest within the country. In a quest for relief and prosperity,…

  14. Tunisia: Islam as a Political Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-18

    Program Element Number Project No. Task Work Unit Accession No. II Title (Include Security Classification) Tunisia : Islam as a Political Force 12...necessary and identify by block number) Tunisia , Islam, Habib Bourguiba, Colonial France, Zine ben Ali, Rachid Ghannouchi, North Africa, L;.S./Tunisian...vernments o•l these countries. In Tunisia , the government has virtually halted its promised democratic reforms claimig that the Islamists will use

  15. Watershed analysis

    Alan Gallegos

    2002-01-01

    Watershed analyses and assessments for the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project were done on about 33,000 acres of the 45,500-acre Big Creek watershed and 32,000 acres of the 85,100-acre Dinkey Creek watershed. Following procedures developed for analysis of cumulative watershed effects (CWE) in the Pacific Northwest Region of the USDA Forest Service, the...

  16. Reproductive Health Policy in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Goicolea, Isabel; Hernandez, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although Tunisia is regarded as a pioneer in the Middle East and North Africa in terms of women’s status and rights, including sexual and reproductive health and rights, evidence points to a number of persisting challenges. This article uses the Health Rights of Women Assessment Instrument (HeRWAI) to analyze Tunisia’s reproductive health policy between 1994 and 2014. It explores the extent to which reproductive rights have been incorporated into the country’s reproductive health policy, the gaps in the implementation of this policy, and the influence of this policy on gender empowerment. Our results reveal that progress has been slow in terms of incorporating reproductive rights into the national reproductive health policy. Furthermore, the implementation of this policy has fallen short, as demonstrated by regional inequities in the accessibility and availability of reproductive health services, the low quality of maternal health care services, and discriminatory practices. Finally, the government’s lack of meaningful engagement in advancing gender empowerment stands in the way as the main challenge to gender equality in Tunisia. PMID:28559685

  17. Watershed Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endreny, Anna

    2007-01-01

    All schools are located in "watersheds," land that drains into bodies of water. Some watersheds, like the one which encompasses the school discussed in this article, include bodies of water that are walking distance from the school. The watershed cited in this article has a brook and wetland within a several-block walk from the school. This…

  18. WATERSHED INFORMATION - SURF YOUR WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surf Your Watershed is both a database of urls to world wide web pages associated with the watershed approach of environmental management and also data sets of relevant environmental information that can be queried. It is designed for citizens and decision makers across the count...

  19. Watershed Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Investigating local watersheds presents middle school students with authentic opportunities to engage in inquiry and address questions about their immediate environment. Investigation activities promote learning in an investigations interdisciplinary context as students explore relationships among chemical, biological, physical, geological, and…

  20. Educational Television and Educational Development in Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Educational Broadcasters, Washington, DC.

    The National Association of Educational Broadcasters attempted to determine how educational television and related technologies could strengthen the educational system of Tunisia. An overview of the Tunisian society is presented, followed by a brief history of the development of its educational system. The tremendous educational needs of the…

  1. English versus French: Language Rivalry in Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battenburg, John

    1997-01-01

    Examines the competition between English and French in Tunisian educational institutions and programs. Scrutinizes two periods in postprotectorate Tunisia: the introduction of English and the spread of English. Findings indicate that the decline in French linguistic influence may be accompanied by a future decrease in French political and economic…

  2. Seroprevalence of Toscana virus infection in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Fezaa, Ons; Bahri, Olfa; Alaya Bouafif, Nissaf Ben; Triki, Henda; Bouattour, Ali

    2013-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of IgG antibodies against Toscana virus (TOSV) by an ELISA test and to determine the extent of its circulation in Tunisia. An indirect ELISA test was performed to detect anti-TOSV IgG. The results were compared to those of an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test. The survey tested 494 healthy people from various regions of Tunisia by ELISA for anti-TOSV IgG; 47 people (9.5%) were found to be positive. Seroprevalence varied by bioclimatic region and gender. Two hundred and twelve samples, randomly chosen from the same selected population and tested with ELISA, were retested using an IFA for IgG antibodies. An 85% concordance between the IFA and ELISA was obtained (kappa=0.650). These serological data confirm the circulation of TOSV in different bioclimatic zones in Tunisia where the vector sand flies are found. The detection of IgG against TOSV suggests that the diagnosis of TOSV infection is often neglected, as this virus often causes asymptomatic infections, with only a few patients developing severe illnesses involving neurological manifestations. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic Diversity of HIV-1 in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    El Moussi, Awatef; Thomson, Michael M; Delgado, Elena; Cuevas, María Teresa; Nasr, Majda; Abid, Salma; Ben Hadj Kacem, Mohamed Ali; Benaissa Tiouiri, Hanene; Letaief, Amel; Chakroun, Mohamed; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Hamdouni, Hayet; Tej Dellagi, Rafla; Kheireddine, Khaled; Boutiba, Ilhem; Pérez-Álvarez, Lucía; Slim, Amine

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the genetic diversity of HIV-1 in Tunisia was analyzed. For this, 193 samples were collected in different regions of Tunisia between 2012 and 2015. A protease and reverse transcriptase fragment were amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses were performed through maximum likelihood and recombination was analyzed by bootscanning. Six HIV-1 subtypes (B, A1, G, D, C, and F2), 5 circulating recombinant forms (CRF02_AG, CRF25_cpx, CRF43_02G, CRF06_cpx, and CRF19_cpx), and 11 unique recombinant forms were identified. Subtype B (46.4%) and CRF02_AG (39.4%) were the predominant genetic forms. A group of 44 CRF02_AG sequences formed a distinct Tunisian cluster, which also included four viruses from western Europe. Nine viruses were closely related to isolates collected in other African or in European countries. In conclusion, a high HIV-1 genetic diversity is observed in Tunisia and the local spread of CRF02_AG is first documented in this country.

  4. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000–2012) and Tunisia (2011–2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs. PMID:26709514

  5. [Social determinants of contraceptive use in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Dimassi, K; Douik, F; Douzi, M A; Saidi, O; Ben Romdhane, H

    2017-02-01

    In Tunisia, the "Revolution" of January 2011 highlighted significant regional disparities and social inequalities in access to health care, including reproductive health services. The purpose of this study was to analyze the social determinants of the use of contraception in Tunisia. A cross-sectional national study conducted in 2012; on a sample of 15 to 49-year married women (n=4374) drawn by a two levels random sampling. Prevalence of contraception and its association factors were assessed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the variation of contraception prevalence with area of residence, age, level of education, number of children and household income. The prevalence of contraception was 66.4 %. Eighty-two percent of women used a modern contraceptive method. The use of contraceptive methods was significantly dependent on the age (P<0.001), area of residence (P=0.008), education (P<0.001). The prevalence of contraception was higher in North West (OR=1.1 [0.81-1.5]; P<0.001), among multiparous women (OR=4.49 [3.57-5.66]; P<0.001), among the youngest women (OR=1.4 [0.9-2,19]; P<0.001) and among those with higher levels of education (OR=1.62 [1.19-2.21]; P=0.008). Tunisia, precursor Arab country in family planning, is recording a slowdown in the use of contraception in comparison with other countries of North Africa. Social determinants, such as, age, living conditions, area of residence and level of education are indicators to consider when targeting interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000-2012) and Tunisia (2011-2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs.

  7. Coastal tourism and climate change in Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henia, Latifa; Hlaoui, Zouhaier; Alouane, Tahar

    2014-05-01

    Tunisia is a major tourist destination on the southern shore of the Mediterranean. The tourism sector occupies an important place in the Tunisian economy with 816 hotels, 229,873 beds and a more than six million tourists at the end of the first decade of the 21th century, i.e. , more than half of the population. It offers a large number of direct and indirect jobs: One out of five people work in the tourism sector. The 1960s tourism boom was caused by a number of factors including long days of sunshine, 1,300 km of sandy coast, and a location close to Europe. Tunisian tourism is fundamentally based on two natural determinants: the sun and the sea. The coastline accounts for 95% of tourism investments and functional beds. The high season extends from April to October and it records 73% of nonresident tourists. This results in a homogenous growth of the "product" and its "consumers". This standardization is an important factor in the vulnerability of the Tunisian tourism to climate change. Global warming may affect the comfort level of the swimming season as well as its structure. An estimation of air and water temperature evolution near the Tunisian coasts was conducted under the CLIM-RUN project "Climate Local Information in the Mediterranean Region: Responding to User Needs" funded by the European Union's Seventh Framework Program (FP7). The University of Tunis research unit "GREVACHOT", project partner in charge of the case study of Tunisian tourism, has made the study of comfort indices of the present climate. This paper presents: - The climate comfort indices for seaside tourism in Tunisia, - The approach and results of the future evolution of air and water temperatures by the Tunisian coasts, - The future evolution of climate seaside comfort indices of Tunisia as well as the evolution of the swimming season in relation to global warming.

  8. Tunisia Renewable Energy Project systems description report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, L. R.; Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    In 1979, the Agency for International Development (AID) initiated a renewable energy project with the Government of Tunisia to develop an institutional capability to plan and institute renewable energy technologies in a rural area. The specific objective of the district energy applications subproject was to demonstrate solar and wind energy systems in a rural village setting. The NASA Lewis Research Center was asked by the AID Near East Bureau to manage and implement this subproject. This report describes the project and gives detailed desciptions of the various systems.

  9. Virtual water balance estimation in Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambouli, Talel; Benalaya, Abdallah; Ghezal, Lamia; Ali, Chebil; Hammami, Rifka; Souissi, Asma

    2015-04-01

    The water in Tunisia is limited and unevenly distributed in the different regions, especially in arid zones. In fact, the annual rainfall average varies from less than 100 mm in the extreme South to over 1500 mm in the extreme North of the country. Currently, the conventional potential of water resources of the country is estimated about 4.84 billion m³ / year of which 2.7 billion cubic meters / year of surface water and 2.14 billion cubic meters / year of groundwater, characterizing a structural shortage for water safety in Tunisia (under 500m3/inhabitant/year). With over than 80% of water volumes have been mobilized for agriculture. The virtual water concept, defined by Allan (1997), as the amount of water needed to generate a product of both natural and artificial origin, this concept establish a similarity between product marketing and water trade. Given the influence of water in food production, virtual water studies focus generally on food products. At a global scale, the influence of these product's markets with water management was not seen. Influence has appreciated only by analyzing water-scarce countries, but at the detail level, should be increased, as most studies consider a country as a single geographical point, leading to considerable inaccuracies. The main objective of this work is the virtual water balance estimation of strategic crops in Tunisia (both irrigated and dry crops) to determine their influence on the water resources management and to establish patterns for improving it. The virtual water balance was performed basing on farmer's surveys, crop and meteorological data, irrigation management and regional statistics. Results show that the majority of farmers realize a waste of the irrigation water especially at the vegetable crops and fruit trees. Thus, a good control of the cultural package may result in lower quantities of water used by crops while ensuring good production with a suitable economic profitability. Then, the virtual water

  10. Ambivalence, Modernisation and Language Attitudes: French and Arabic in Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Paul B.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the ambivalent attitude toward the major speech varieties used in Tunisia (French, Classical Arabic, and Tunisian Arabic) and seeks to show the effects of that ambivalence on language policy, especially with regard to Arabization and bilingualism. (EKN)

  11. Distribution of organic contamination of sediments from Ichkeul Lake and Bizerte Lagoon, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Fida; Ben Said, Olfa; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Duran, Robert; Monperrus, Mathilde

    2017-10-15

    Analyses of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and butyl tins (BuSn) were conducted on sediments from Ichkeul Lake-Bizerte Lagoon watershed (Tunisia). A total of 59 compounds (16 PAHs, 12 PCBs, 22 OCPs and 9 BuSn) were measured in 40 surface sediment samples collected during two campaigns. High concentrations of total PAHs were identified in the lagoon ranging from 122 to 19600ng·g -1 . Several OCPs, including endrin, dieldrin, and lindane (Hexachlorocyclohexane or HCH or BHC) were found in high concentrations in Ichkeul Lake, ranging from 28 to 2012ngg -1 . PAHs and OCPs varied seasonally, in response to the complex hydrology of the watershed. The concentrations of total PCBs ranged between 0.04 and 10.653ngg -1 and suggests low total PCBs sediment contamination, when compared to most international criteria. Total BuSn concentrations range between 67 and 526ng·g -1 , which are relatively low when compared to most international criteria and ecological risk assessments. This is the first study of organic contamination in Ichkeul Lake (RAMSAR and UNESCO World Heritage site). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [The limnology of Tunisia: physicochemical study].

    PubMed

    Boumaiza, M

    1984-01-01

    Several chemical and physical parameters are measured in forty seven stations, distributed on the most part of the hydrographic systems of Tunisia. Some parameters: temperature of the water (T), salinity (S, electric conductivity (CE), chloride (Cl-), total hardness (DT) and turbidity (TUR) show great variations in the Northern hydrographic systems. In these systems, the parameters (S, CE, Cl-, DT) are generally elevated in the tributaries of the south bank of the Medjerda, the North-East streams, Melah and Tine Streams which flow in the Ichkeul lake. The waters in these septentrional systems are sometimes very turbid. The waters of the meridional hydrological system are very clear. The resurgence thermal waters are characterized by the small amplitude of variations of the studied parameters. The waters are alkaline, generally very mineralized they are well oxygenized in the no-polluted stations.

  13. Modeling olive-crop forecasting in Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Dhiab, Ali; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Oteros, Jose; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio; Galán, Carmen; Abichou, Mounir; Msallem, Monji

    2017-05-01

    Tunisia is the world's second largest olive oil-producing region after the European Union. This paper reports on the use of models to forecast local olive crops, using data for Tunisia's five main olive-producing areas: Mornag, Jemmel, Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis. Airborne pollen counts were monitored over the period 1993-2011 using a Cour trap. Forecasting models were constructed using agricultural data (harvest size in tonnes of fruit/year) and data for several weather-related and phenoclimatic variables (rainfall, humidity, temperature, Growing Degree Days, and Chilling). Analysis of these data revealed that the amount of airborne pollen emitted over the pollen season as a whole (i.e., the Pollen Index) was the variable most influencing harvest size. Findings for all local models also indicated that the amount, timing, and distribution of rainfall (except during blooming) had a positive impact on final olive harvests. Air temperature also influenced final crop yield in three study provinces (Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis), but with varying consequences: in the model constructed for Chaal, cumulative maximum temperature from budbreak to start of flowering contributed positively to yield; in the Menzel Mhiri model, cumulative average temperatures during fruit development had a positive impact on output; in Zarzis, by contrast, cumulative maximum temperature during the period prior to flowering negatively influenced final crop yield. Data for agricultural and phenoclimatic variables can be used to construct valid models to predict annual variability in local olive-crop yields; here, models displayed an accuracy of 98, 93, 92, 91, and 88 % for Zarzis, Mornag, Jemmel, Chaal, and Menzel Mhiri, respectively.

  14. West Nile virus in Tunisia, 2014: First isolation from mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Wasfi, F; Dachraoui, K; Cherni, S; Bosworth, A; Barhoumi, W; Dowall, S; Chelbi, I; Derbali, M; Zoghlami, Z; Beier, J C; Zhioua, E

    2016-07-01

    Several outbreaks of human West Nile virus (WNV) infections were reported in Tunisia during the last two decades. Serological studies on humans as well as on equine showed intensive circulation of WNV in Tunisia. However, no virus screening of mosquitoes for WNV has been performed in Tunisia. In the present study, we collected mosquito samples from Central Tunisia to be examined for the presence of flaviviruses. A total of 102 Culex pipiens mosquitoes were collected in September 2014 from Central Tunisia. Mosquitoes were pooled according to the collection site, date and sex with a maximum of 5 specimens per pool and tested for the presence of flaviviruses by conventional reverse transcription heminested PCR and by a specific West Nile virus real time reverse transcription PCR. Of a total of 21 pools tested, 7 were positive for WNV and no other flavivirus could be evidenced in mosquito pools. In addition, WNV was isolated on Vero cells. Phylogenetic analysis showed that recent Tunisian WNV strains belong to lineage 1 WNV and are closely related to the Tunisian strain 1997 (PAH 001). This is the first detection and isolation of WNV from mosquitoes in Tunisia. Some areas of Tunisia are at high risk for human WNV infections. WNV is likely to cause future sporadic and foreseeable outbreaks. Therefore, it is of major epidemiological importance to set up an entomological surveillance as an early alert system. Timely detection of WNV should prompt vector control to prevent future outbreaks. In addition, education of people to protect themselves from mosquito bites is of major epidemiological importance as preventive measure against WNV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. ECOLOGICAL FORECASTING FOR WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To effectively manage watersheds, the assessment of watershed ecological response to physicochemical stressors such as nutrients, sediments, pathogens, and toxics over broad spatial and temporal scales is needed. Assessments at this level of complexity requires the development of...

  16. Managing Watersheds with WMOST

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) allows water-resource managers and planners to screen a wide range of practices for cost-effectiveness in achieving watershed or water utilities management goals.

  17. Guam Pago Watershed Conservation

    Maria Lynn Cruz; Laura F. Biggs

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore water science methodologies in determining the source of sedimentation in the Guam Pago Watershed. Watersheds provide drinking water, an agricultural water source, and forms of recreation.

  18. Watershed Management Partnership Agreement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On November 19, 2004, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers signed the Watershed Management Partnership Agreement to promote watershed health, economic sustainability and community vitality through effective manageme

  19. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  20. Season of birth and multiple sclerosis in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Sidhom, Youssef; Kacem, Imen; Bayoudh, Lamia; Ben Djebara, Mouna; Hizem, Yosr; Ben Abdelfettah, Sami; Gargouri, Amina; Gouider, Riadh

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies on date of birth of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients showed an association between month of birth and the risk of developing MS. This association has not been investigated in an African country. We aimed to determine if the risk of MS is associated with month of birth in Tunisia. Data concerning date of birth for MS patients in Tunisia (n = 1912) was obtained. Birth rates of MS patients were compared with all births in Tunisia matched by year of birth (n = 11,615,912). We used a chi-squared analysis and the Hewitt's non-parametric test for seasonality. The distribution of births among MS patients compared with the control population was not different when tested by the chi-squared test. The Hewitt's test for seasonality showed an excess of births between May and October among MS patients (p = 0.03). The peak of Births of MS patients in Tunisia was in July and the nadir in December. Our data does support the seasonality hypothesis of month of birth as risk factor for MS in Tunisia. Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy could be a possible explanation that needs further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. How Terrorism Affects Attitudes toward Democracy: Tunisia in 2015.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Robert; Brym, Robert

    2017-11-01

    Tunisia is the only country that emerged from the Arab Spring as a democracy. However, Tunisian democracy is threatened by political divisions, economic problems, and the threat of terrorist attacks. We shed light on Tunisia's democratic prospects by examining (1) the degree to which major terrorist attacks in 2015 influenced Tunisian public opinion on democracy and (2) the extent to which preference for a democratic system affected opinions on the prospects for democracy in Tunisia. We use data from three waves of a nationwide survey conducted just before and just after Tunisia's first major terrorist attack, and just after the country's second major terrorist attack. We demonstrate that after the attacks the Tunisian public became less favourable toward democracy and less optimistic that Tunisia would soon be ready for it. Such scepticism was widespread, affecting people who preferred democracy as much as those who did not. We conclude that the prospects for Tunisian democracy are more precarious than is sometimes assumed. © 2017 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  2. Tertiary oil discoveries whet explorer interest off Tunisia

    SciT

    Long, M.

    Prospects for increased Tertiary oil production in the S. Mediterranean have brightened with discoveries off Tunisia, but more evaluation is needed before commercial potential is known. Several groups of U.S. and European companies have tested oil in the relatively unexplored Miocene in the Gulf of Hannamet. These include groups operated by Buttes Resources Tunisia, Elf-Aquitaine Tunisia, and Shell Tunirex. Oil test rates of 1,790 to 1,800 bpd have been reported by the Buttes group in 2 Gulf of Hammamet wells. The initial discovery probably was the first Tertiary oil ever tested in that part of the Mediterranean. The discoveries havemore » helped boost exploratory interest in the northern waters of Tunisia and northeast toward Sicily. There are reports more U.S. and European companies are requesting exploration permits from the government of Tunisia. Companies with permits are planning new exploration for 1978. Probably the most significant discovery to date has been the Buttes group's 1 Jasmine (2 BGH). The group tested high-quality 39.5'-gravity oil at a rate of 1,790 bpd. Test flow was from the Sabri Sand at 6,490 to 6,590 ft. The well was drilled in 458 ft of water.« less

  3. Natural infection of Ctenodactylus gundi by Leishmania major in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ghawar, Wissem; Bettaieb, Jihène; Salem, Sadok; Snoussi, Mohammed-Ali; Jaouadi, Kaouther; Yazidi, Rihab; Ben-Salah, Afif

    2018-01-01

    Incriminating new rodent species, as reservoir hosts of Leishmania parasites is crucial for understanding the transmission cycle of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia. Ctenodactylus (C.) gundi was previously described as extremely abundant in all Tunisian Leishmania (L.) tropica foci in south Tunisia besides its presence in L. major endemic area. The aim of this study was to detect Leishmania species parasites among C. gundi in two endemic regions in Tunisia: Sidi Bouzid and Tataouine. Total DNA was isolated from the spleens and the livers of 92C. gundi. Leishmaniasis clinical manifestations were detected among 11 rodents (12%). Leishmania parasites were detected in 30 (32.6%) rodents using direct exam method. Leishmania DNA was detected in 40 (43.5%) C. gundi by combining results among spleens and livers using ITS1-PCR. Positive samples were confirmed to be L. major except for only one specimen which was L. tropica. These results demonstrated, for the first time, the high natural infection rate of C. gundi with L. major parasites in Tunisia. Hence, C. gundi should be considered as potential reservoir host of Leishmania parasites causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. [Norwegian scabies, a rare diagnosis in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Mebazaa, Amel; Bedday, Bouraoui; Trabelsi, Sabiha; Denguezli, Mohamed; Ben Said, Moncef; Belajouza, Colandane; Nouira, Rafiaa

    2006-10-01

    Norwegian scabies is a particular form of scabies, rarely reported in Tunisia. It habitually occurs in immunocompromised hosts, with prolonged immunosuppressive therapy, congenital immune disease, HIV-1 infection or neoplasm. We report an observation of norwegian scabies, occuring in a woman with prolounged systemic corticosteroid therapy. A 65-year-old woman, with a long history of obstructive bronchoneumopathy and bronchiectasis, treated with systemic corticosteroids for 5 years, was referred with a mild pruriginous and scaly erythroderma. This dermatosis developed within 5 months, with fever and impairing of health. Skin parasitological exams showed a massive infestation by sarcoptes. Histologic findings revealed multiple sarcoptes scabiei and eggs in the stratum corneum. The patient was treated with benzyl benzoate during 48 hours. She died rapidly with acute respiratory distress. basing on this observation of norwegian scabies occuring in an old immunocompromised woman, we put the accent on this particular form of scabies, often misappreciated, and incite to practice skin and nail parasitological exams in case of mild pruriginous, chronic scaly erythroderma. developing in immunocompromised patients.

  5. Health system challenges of NCDs in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Tlili, Faten; Skhiri, Afef; Zaman, Shahaduz; Phillimore, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to present a qualitative 'situation analysis' of the healthcare system in Tunisia, as it applies to management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. A primary concern was the institutional capacity to manage non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Research took place during 2010 (analysis of official documents, semi-structured interviews with key informants, and case studies in four clinics). Walt and Gilson's framework (1994) for policy analysis was used: content, actors, context, and process. Problems of integration and coordination have compounded funding pressures. Despite its importance in Tunisian healthcare, primary health is ill-equipped to manage NCDs. With limited funds, and no referral or health information system, staff morale in the public sector was low. Private healthcare has been the main development filling the void. This study highlights major gaps in the implementation of a comprehensive approach to NCDs, which is an urgent task across the region. In strategic planning, research on the health system is vital; but the capacity within Ministries of Health to use research has first to be built, with a commitment to grounding policy change in evidence.

  6. Rehabilitation of El Yahoudia dumping site, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Zaïri, M; Ferchichi, M; Ismaïl, A; Jenayeh, M; Hammami, H

    2004-01-01

    As in all developing countries, cities in Tunisia face serious problems of environmental pollution caused mainly by the inadequate and inefficient final disposal of their generated solid wastes. The Tunisian government launched a development program including the construction of landfills in the main cities and the closure of the contaminated sites issued from solid wastes landrising practice. The project of the Henchir El Yahoudia landfill restoration is the first experience in this programme. It has been suggested to convert the site to a green park and to implement an ornamental plant nursery. The whole surface of the landfill is approximately 100 ha from which 30 ha have been already transformed to an urban recreational area and the remaining 70 ha have to be characterized for the project extension. A field investigation by boring was conducted in order to define the geological and the hydrogeological conditions, the vertical and horizontal wastes layer extension, content and degree of decomposition and the composition and quantities of leachate and landfill gas. Representative samples of waste, soil, groundwater and leachate were collected for laboratory analyses. Several of these borings were converted to piezometers to define the flow regime in the site. The results showed that the biogas (CH4, H2S, and CO2), leachate and waste, distribution in the site is mainly affected by the temporal variation of the site operating method. The underlying fissured clay layer facilitated leachate infiltration into the groundwater where high BOD, COD and nitrogen concentrations were registered.

  7. First genotype identification of Trichosporon asahii in Sfax, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Sellami, Hayet; Trabelsi, Houaida; Neji, Sourour; Amouri, Imen; Cheikhrouhou, Fatma; Makni, Fattouma; Ayadi, Ali

    2017-04-01

    The objectives of our study were species identification and genotyping of Trichosporon isolates collected at the Parasitology and Mycology Laboratory in Sfax, Tunisia. Molecular identification was carried out by analysing the IGS1 regions of the rDNA of 30 Trichosporon isolates. Trichosporon asahii was the most frequent species detected. Furthermore, four genotypes were identified in Tunisia: 1 (46.4 %), 4 (35.7 %), 7 (14.3 %) and 3 (3.6 %). In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of the isolates showed that voriconazole exhibited the highest activity. This is the first reported study of genotype identification of T. asahii in Tunisia and even in the African continent.

  8. Application of WATERSHED ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT Methods to Watershed Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds are frequently used to study and manage environmental resources because hydrologic boundaries define the flow of contaminants and other stressors. Ecological assessments of watersheds are complex because watersheds typically overlap multiple jurisdictional boundaries,...

  9. Application of Watershed Ecological Risk Assessment Methods to Watershed Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds are frequently used to study and manage environmental resources because hydrologic boundaries define the flow of contaminants and other stressors. Ecological assessments of watersheds are complex because watersheds typically overlap multiple jurisdictional boundaries,...

  10. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1970 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with: (1) educational philosophy, administration, statistics, and…

  11. Educational Assessment of Students in Primary School in Tunisia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalifa, Wiem Ben; Souilem, Dalila; Neji, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Regardless of the study level, the assessments applied in the different educational institutions in Tunisia raise many questions. Do these practices indicate the learners' cognitive metamorphoses? Do formative and summative evaluations intend to access knowledge acquisition at the expense of understanding? Is the content of the evaluation…

  12. Blood meal analysis of culicoides (Diptera: ceratopogonidae) in central Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females' midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia.

  13. Library Education in Tunisia and Jordan: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouazza, A.; Nimer, R.

    1986-01-01

    This article examines the state of development of library education in Jordan and Tunisia and pinpoints problems affecting this development in order to verify if library education in countries with similar cultures and type of economy evolves similarly and faces same problems. A brief introduction to the countries is provided. (EJS)

  14. Literacy in Tunisia: Educational Radio and Television for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tahar, El Arbi

    1971-01-01

    The national campaign for literacy in Tunisia provides television broadcasts completed by radio programs. Adults listening to the broadcasts belong to organized centers, with qualified instructors, to semi-organized centers in the hands of national organizations, or to family centers providing instructional materials. (EB)

  15. Morphological characterization of a Daucus L. germplasm collection in Tunisia

    The genus Daucus includes about 25 recognized species worldwide. Northern Africa represents a major center of diversity of Daucus, with Tunisia containing at least 12 species and six subspecies. We assessed morphological diversity from a Daucus L. germplasm collection of 103 accessions at the Nation...

  16. Blood Meal Analysis of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females’ midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia. PMID:25793285

  17. Introduction of Sex Education: An American School in Tunisia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Elisabeth E.

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes the introduction of a sex education course into a private American school in Tunisia. The steps involved in the development of the project and curriculum are recorded. The impact of the project on receptive Tunisian authorities and its influence on change are discussed. (Author)

  18. Watersheds: where we live

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    We all live in a watershed. Animals and plants all live there with us. Everyone affects what happens in a watershed by how we treat the natural resources. So what is a watershed? It is the land area that drains water to a stream, river, lake, or ocean. Water travels over the Earth's surface across forest land, farm fields, pastures, suburban lawns, and city streets, or it seeps into the soil and makes its way to a stream as local ground water. Watersheds come in many different shapes and sizes. Some contain mountains and hills, and others are nearly flat. A watershed can be affected by many different activities and events. Construction of cities and towns, farming, logging, and the application and disposal of many garden and household chemicals can affect the quantity and quality of water flowing from a watershed.

  19. Neotectonic deformation in Tunisia (North of the African plate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumaya, Abdelkader; Ben Ayed, Noureddine; Kadri, Ali; Delvaux, Damien; Khayati Ammar, Hayet; Braham, Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    In Tunisia, at the extreme North of the African plate, the neotectonic context is largely influenced by the Eurasia-Africa convergence. The aim of this work is to characterize the neotectonic regime that affected this region during Quaternary. Field work investigations integrated with published data allowed to evidence a spatial-temporal variation of the tectonic stress regime during this period. The spatial repartition of the different types of Quaternary to historical deformation shows a North-South neotectonic zoning in Tunisia. After lower Pleistocene, the Tellian domain (Maghrebides) in the North and its Atlassic foreland in central Tunisia are affected by NNW-SSE compression. It generated E-W to NE-SW folds and reverse faults, well developed in the Plio-Quaternary molassic basins of Kechabta and Jendouba (Northern Tunisia). In the Atlas, the major E-W and N-S pre-existing faults have been reactivated with dextral and sinistral strike-slip kinematic respectively, associated to en-echelon folds (Kasserine, N-S Axis, Northern Chott belt...). After the Tyrrhenian, a submeridian compressional regime affected Northern Tunisia (e.g., Bizerte region) and was responsible for the E-W folding of marine strata. More to the South, in the Tunisian Sahel, transtensional tectonics with a NW-SE horizontal maximal compression (SHmax) deformed the Tyrrhenian marine series (Khénis, Skanès, Monastir…). During the Holocene and up to present-day times, N-S compressional tectonics reactivated the E-W pre-existing faults with a reverse movement in Northern Tunisia (Bulla Regia, Utica …), generating historical earthquakes. In Central Tunisia, the Aqueduct of Cherichira (built around AD 850) is displaced by a N-S normal fault. Similarly, a mosaic of a roman house is shifted by 10 cm, along a N-S sinistral normal fault. These deformations evidence a transtensional tectonic regime. During the Quaternary, all the NW-SE oriented grabens are subsiding (e.g., Bizerte Lake, Grombalia

  20. Estimation of sediment deposits in the Ghézala reservoir in northern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathlouthi, Majid; Lebdi, Fethi

    2018-04-01

    The control of sedimentation in a reservoir provides a global evaluation of the process of erosion and transportation of sediment. Knowledge of sedimentation is useful for reservoir management. Bathymetric surveys can be used to assess the silting volume of dams. The results of two surveys of the Ghézala dam reservoir in northern Tunisia are available. The measurements provide initial information about the quantity and variability of silting and the mechanism of sediment deposition. According to the results of measurements, the average annual specific sediment yield of the Ghézala dam watershed is estimated at 1851 t km-2 yr-1. The annual average sediment volume trapped varies from 23 000 m3 in 1993 to 66 692 m3 in 2011. The sedimentation rates increases from 0.20 to 0.57 % overtime. The results indicate interdependence between the specific erosion rates and the occurrence of soils on steep slopes. The pressure exerted on the soil by plowing as well as overgrazing to meet the needs of the population of this area has exposed the soil to continued deterioration manifested by increased erosion endangering the only source of revenue for the area.

  1. Clinical surveillance for human astrovirus in Monastir region, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Monastiri, Abir; Aouni, Mahjoub; Guix, Susana; Mechri, Badereddine; Lopez-Roig, Marc; Abid, Nabil Ben Salem; Gueddiche, Neji; Hamami, Sabeur; Boughzala, Lamjed; Serra-Cobo, Jordi

    2016-01-21

    Astroviruses (AstVs) are enteric viruses that can cause gastroenteritis in children. This study is part of monitoring the circulation of astroviruses in children hospitalized and/or outpatients for acute gastroenteritis at the primary care center of Ouerdanine or at the Pediatric Department of the University Hospital Fattouma-Bourguiba (Monastir, Tunisia). The aims of our study were to know the prevalence of human astrovirus in clinical samples of children, characterize the strains and evaluate the infectivity of isolated strains on cell culture. Fifty stool samples were collected from children under five years old in the region of Monastir (Tunisia) from October 2010 to June 2011. All specimens were subjected to RT-PCR amplification followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The study shows a low prevalence of astrovirus (4 %) in children. The two positive samples obtained were HAstV type 3. Samples that were RT-PCR positive were cultured in CaCO-2 cells and the presence of infectious viral particles was confirmed. The phylogenetic analysis shows that the different HAstV-3 strains isolated in Tunisia are grouped into two clusters. The first cluster includes strains obtained in 2004, which belong to lineage HAstV-3a, while strains isolated in 2010 belong to lineage HAstV-3c. This study is part of monitoring the circulation of astroviruses in children younger than five years old from Monastir region, Tunisia. The results show low prevalence (4 %). All genotyped samples belonged to lineage HAstV-3c, which could be presently emerging. Two different lineages have been isolated in Tunisia: HAstV-3a in 2004 and HAstV-3c in 2010.

  2. Vulvar cancer in Tunisia: Epidemiological and clinicopathological features multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Kehila, Mehdi; Harabi, Souad; Mhiri, Raoudha; Touhami, Omar; Abouda, Hassine Saber; Khlifi, Abdeljalil; Hsairi, Mohamed; Chelli, Dalenda; Derbel, Mohamed; Kebaili, Sahbi; Boujelbane, Nadia; Chaabene, Kais; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis

    2017-06-01

    To describe for the first time the epidemiologic and clinico-pathologic characteristics of vulvar cancer in Tunisia. Two parts are distinguished in this study: Part1: Multicentric retrospective study about the characteristics of all cancer cases diagnosed during a 17-years period (January 1998-December 2014) in three departments of Gynecology and Obstetrics: one in south Tunisia and two in the capital. Part 2: To determine the Incidence trend of invasive vulvar cancer in North Tunisia 1994-2009, on the basis of North Cancer Registry of Tunisia. A total of 76 cases of vulvar cancer were recorded. The median age at diagnosis was 65.4years and 86.9% of patients were more than 55years old. The symptomatology was dominated by vulvar pruritus in 48.7%. The average size of the tumor was 3.96cm. Stage III was the most frequent (53.7%) followed by stage II (28.3%). Only 10.4% of tumors were at stage I. The most common histologic type of vulvar malignancy was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (94.7%). Standardized incidence varied from 1.2/100 000 (1994) to 0.5/100 000 (2009). There was significant decrease of Standardized incidence (APC of -8.8% per year, 95% CI: -5.5%, -9.0%-p<0.001). Vulvar cancer in Tunisia is a rare disease, occurs mostly in elderly women, and is diagnosed at advanced stages. Our findings emphasize that a greater effort should be made to facilitate early diagnosis, as treatment in earlier stages is less extensive and potentially curative. Copyright © 2017 National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Challenges of Globalization: Morocco and Tunisia. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2001 (Morocco and Tunisia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This publication contains a collection of curriculum projects developed by educators who were participants in the 2001 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program in Morocco and Tunisia. The 13 curriculum projects in the publication are entitled: "Women in Morocco, Artists and Artisans" (Virginia da Costa); "Cultures of…

  4. The Watershed Report Card.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Allyson

    1996-01-01

    Outlines the history and development of the Watershed Report Card, an integrated program that educates Ontario participants about the holistic nature of a watershed and fosters community stewardship of the local ecosystem. The program consists of the inventory level, assessment and monitoring level, and remediation level. Emphasizes partnerships…

  5. Master Watershed Stewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Gary L.

    The Master Watershed Stewards (MWS) Program is a pilot project (developed through the cooperation of the Ohio State University Extension Logan and Hardin County Offices and the Indian Lake Watershed Project) offering the opportunity for communities to get involved at the local level to protect their water quality. The program grew out of the…

  6. Developing a Watershed Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a watershed challenge that gives students an opportunity to investigate the challenge of using a watershed area as a site for development, examining the many aspects of this multifaceted problem. This design challenge could work well in a team-based format, with students taking on specific aspects of the challenges and…

  7. Watershed condition [Chapter 4

    Daniel G. Neary; Jonathan W. Long; Malchus B. Baker

    2012-01-01

    Managers of the Prescott National Forest are obliged to evaluate the conditions of watersheds under their jurisdiction in order to guide informed decisions concerning grazing allotments, forest and woodland management, restoration treatments, and other management initiatives. Watershed condition has been delineated by contrasts between “good” and “poor” conditions (...

  8. WATERSHED INFORMATION NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The Watershed Information Network is a set of about 30 web pages that are organized by topic. These pages access existing databases like the American Heritage Rivers Services database and Surf Your Watershed. WIN in itself has no data or data sets.
    L...

  9. Discover a Watershed: The Watershed Manager Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This guide contains 19 science-based, multidisciplinary activities that teach what a watershed is, how it works and why we must all consider ourselves watershed managers. An extensive background section introduces readers to fundamental watershed concepts. Each activity adapts to local watersheds, contains e-links for further Internet research and…

  10. Checklist, distribution, and a new record of Nepomorphan water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in northern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Slimani, Noura; Moulet, Pierre; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Boumaïza, Moncef; Guilbert, Eric

    2015-07-03

    We report on the results of a survey of the Nepomorpha of northern Tunisia, and list twenty-three species belonging to twelve genera and seven families: Nepidae, Ochteridae, Corixidae, Micronectidae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and Pleidae. These records are based on intensive field surveys during the year 2013 and examination of the entomological collections of the National Museum Natural History of Paris. Ranatra linearis (Linnaeus, 1758) is recorded for the first time from Tunisia. The occurrence of Sigara (Halicorixa) stagnalis stagnalis (Leach, 1817) in Tunisia is confirmed. A preliminary checklist of the Nepomorpha of Northern Tunisia and updated distribution maps for all species treated are provided for further studies.

  11. [Epidemiological transition and cardiovascular risk factors in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Ghannem, H; Fredj, A H

    1997-09-01

    In Tunisia a growing extension of chronic diseases has resulted from the environmental and behavioral changes such as the adoption of new dietary habits, sedentarity habitat, stress of urbanization and work conditions. To illustrate this trend, we undertook a household epidemiologic survey of a representative sample of the adult urban population of Soussa (n = 957) to assess the main cardiovascular risk factors except the lipid profile distribution. This study showed a high prevalence of hypertension (> 160/95 mm Hg): 18.8% with an adjusted rate of 15.6%. History of diabetes 10.2%, obesity (BMI > 30) 27.7% significantly higher in women (34.4%), android obesity 36%, smoking habits 21.5% significantly higher in men (61.4%). With this risk factor profile, Tunisia has to implement a national strategy of primary prevention and heart health promotion in addition to the efforts recently made in secondary prevention of some chronic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes.

  12. Airport malaria: report of four cases in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Siala, Emna; Gamara, Dhikrayet; Kallel, Kalthoum; Daaboub, Jabeur; Zouiten, Faiçal; Houzé, Sandrine; Bouratbine, Aïda; Aoun, Karim

    2015-01-28

    Four cases of airport malaria were notified for the first time in Tunisia during the summer of 2013. All patients were neighbours living within 2 km of Tunis International Airport. They had no history of travel to malarious countries, of blood transfusion or of intravenous drug use. Although malaria transmission had ceased in Tunisia since 1980, autochthonous infection by local Anopheles mosquitoes was initially considered. However, this diagnostic hypothesis was ruled out due to negative entomological survey and the absence of additional cases.All cases were caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Clinical presentation was severe (important thrombocytopaenia and parasitaemia), because of relatively important delay in diagnosis (average of seven days). This indicates the need to consider malaria while examining airport employees or people living near international airports presenting with fever of unknown origin. It also stresses the need for effective spraying of aircrafts coming from malarious areas.

  13. Cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered domestic ruminants from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Lahmar, S; Trifi, M; Ben Naceur, S; Bouchhima, T; Lahouar, N; Lamouchi, I; Maâmouri, N; Selmi, R; Dhibi, M; Torgerson, P R

    2013-09-01

    A total of 10,818 domestic ruminants (3913 cattle, 2722 sheep, 3779 goats, 404 dromedaries) slaughtered in various abattoirs in Tunisia between 2003 and 2010 were examined for the presence of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts. The prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) was 16.42% in sheep, 8.56% in cattle, 5.94% in dromedaries and 2.88% in goats. CE prevalence increased with age according to an asymptotic model and there was evidence of variation in infection pressure depending on the region of Tunisia where the animals were slaughtered. Cattle appeared to have the highest infection pressure of the species examined. The mean intensity of hepatic cysts was higher than that of pulmonary cysts in all species. The highest mean intensity of infection with E. granulosus larvae was observed in cattle (18.14) followed by sheep (9.58), goats (2.31) and dromedaries (2.12). The abundance of infection increased in a linear fashion with age in all animal species. Cyst abundance varied with species of animal and district of Tunisia. Cysts from dromedaries were more fertile (44.44%) than those from sheep (30.25%), goats (30.32%) and cattle (0.95%). The viability of the protoscoleces from fertile cysts from cattle (78.45%) was higher than those from sheep (70.71%) and camels (69.57%). The lowest protoscolex viability was recorded for hydatid cysts from goats (20.21%). This epidemiological study confirms the importance of CE in all domestic ruminant species, particularly in sheep, throughout Tunisia and emphasizes the need to interrupt parasite transmission by preventive integrated approaches in a CE control programme.

  14. The United States and Tunisia: A Foreign Policy Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    headquarters to Tunis from Cairo following the signing of the Egypt- Israel peace treaty, and when the Palestine Liberation Organization .- set up its... Israel [Ref. 201. Such a message serves only to reinforce the appeal of Populist Islam. It is probable that the Islamic movement will, if well...THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT~ Tunisia has been a consistent supporter of the rights of Palestina * Arabs, but the Bourguibist idea of how Palestinians

  15. Quantitative morphometric analysis for the tectonic characterisation of northern Tunisia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camafort, Miquel; Pérez-Peña, José Vicente; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, César R.; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Azañón, José Miguel; Melki, Fetheddine; Ouadday, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Northern Tunisia is characterized by low deformation rates and low to moderate seismicity. Although instrumental seismicity reaches maximum magnitudes of Mw 5.5, some historical earthquakes have occurred with catastrophic consequences in this region. Aiming to improve our knowledge of active tectonics in Tunisia, we carried out both a quantitative morphometric analysis and field study in the north-western region. We applied different morphometric tools, like river profiles, knickpoint analysis, hypsometric curves and integrals and drainage pattern anomalies in order to differentiate between zones with high or low recent tectonic activity. This analysis helps identifying uplift and subsidence zones, which we relate to fault activity. Several active faults in a sparse distribution were identified. A selected sector was studied with a field campaign to test the results obtained with the quantitative analysis. During the fieldwork we identified geological evidence of recent activity and a considerable seismogenic potential along El Alia-Teboursouk (ETF) and Dkhila (DF) faults. The ETF fault could be responsible of one of the most devastating historical earthquakes in northern Tunisia that destroyed Utique in 412 A.D. Geological evidence include fluvial terraces folded by faults, striated and cracked pebbles, clastic dikes, sand volcanoes, coseismic cracks, etc. Although not reflected in the instrumental seismicity, our results support an important seismic hazard, evidenced by the several active tectonic structures identified and the two seismogenic faults described. After obtaining the current active tectonic framework of Tunisia we discuss our results within the western Mediterranean trying to contribute to the understanding of the western Mediterranean tectonic context. With our results, we suggest that the main reason explaining the sparse and scarce seismicity of the area in contrast with the adjacent parts of the Nubia-Eurasia boundary is due to its extended

  16. Watersheds in disordered media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Joséi, Jr.; Araújo, Nuno; Herrmann, Hans; Schrenk, Julian

    2015-02-01

    What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watersheds separating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have been used to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes between countries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance, slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in a watershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arises naturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide, and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields such as image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scaling properties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a more profound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed and statistical physics of disordered systems. This review initially surveys the origin and definition of a watershed line in a geomorphological framework to subsequently introduce its basic geometrical and physical properties. Results on statistical properties of watersheds obtained from artificial model landscapes generated with long-range correlations are presented and shown to be in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with real landscapes.

  17. Ground observations and remote sensing data for integrated modelisation of water budget in the Merguellil catchment, Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mougenot, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is affected by water scarcity. Some countries as Tunisia reached the limit of 550 m3/year/capita due overexploitation of low water resources for irrigation, domestic uses and industry. A lot of programs aim to evaluate strategies to improve water consumption at regional level. In central Tunisia, on the Merguellil catchment, we develop integrated water resources modelisations based on social investigations, ground observations and remote sensing data. The main objective is to close the water budget at regional level and to estimate irrigation and water pumping to test scenarios with endusers. Our works benefit from French, bilateral and European projects (ANR, MISTRALS/SICMed, FP6, FP7…), GMES/GEOLAND-ESA) and also network projects as JECAM and AERONET, where the Merguellil site is a reference. This site has specific characteristics associating irrigated and rainfed crops mixing cereals, market gardening and orchards and will be proposed as a new environmental observing system connected to the OMERE, TENSIFT and OSR systems respectively in Tunisia, Morocco and France. We show here an original and large set of ground and remote sensing data mainly acquired from 2008 to present to be used for calibration/validation of water budget processes and integrated models for present and scenarios: - Ground data: meteorological stations, water budget at local scale: fluxes tower, soil fluxes, soil and surface temperature, soil moisture, drainage, flow, water level in lakes, aquifer, vegetation parameters on selected fieds/month (LAI, height, biomass, yield), land cover: 3 times/year, bare soil roughness, irrigation and pumping estimations, soil texture. - Remote sensing data: remote sensing products from multi-platform (MODIS, SPOT, LANDSAT, ASTER, PLEIADES, ASAR, COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR X…), multi-wavelength (solar, micro-wave and thermal) and multi-resolution (0.5 meters to 1 km). Ground observations are used (1) to calibrate soil

  18. An adaptive watershed management assessment based on watershed investigation data.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  19. 77 FR 40790 - Republic of Tunisia Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT 22 CFR Part 232 Republic of Tunisia Loan Guarantees Issued... benefit of the Republic of Tunisia pursuant to the State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs... applicable to sums borrowed by Banque Centrale de Tunisie, acting on behalf of the Republic of Tunisia (the...

  20. Clean Watersheds Needs Survey

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Watershed Needs Survey is a national assessment of the future capital cost for publicly owned wastewater collection and treatment facilities to meet the Clean Water Act's water quality goals.

  1. Mystic River Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Mystic River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Mystic River.

  2. Merrimack River Watershed Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Listing of all communities included in each of the hydrologic unit code (HUC) 8, 10, and 12 boundaries for the Merrimack River Watershed and city locations for the EPA water quality monitoring stations.

  3. L'enseignement superieur tunisien: Enjeux et avenir (Higher Education in Tunisia: Challenges and Opportunities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report presents findings of a study of higher education in Tunisia. It finds that higher education in Tunisia is a largely effective and well-performing system. However, it notes an expected doubling of enrollment over the next 10 years which will create obstacles that prevent it from playing the role expected of it by a society and economy…

  4. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative AGENCY...: Notice of availability of program funds for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative. SUMMARY: The... through the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative for agricultural producers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  5. Helium-carbon isotopic composition of thermal waters from Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourré, E.; Aiuppa, A.; di Napoli, R.; Parello, F.; Gaubi, E.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Allard, P.; Calabrese, S.; Ben Mammou, A.

    2010-12-01

    Tunisia has numerous thermo-mineral springs. Previous studies have shown that their chemical composition and occurrence are strongly influenced by the regional geology, however little work has been conducted to date to investigate the isotopic composition of volatiles associated with these geothermal manifestations. Here, we report the results of an extensive survey of both natural hot springs and production wells across Tunisia aimed at investigating the spatial distribution of the 3He/4He ratio and associated carbon isotopic compositions. With respect to helium isotopes, not unexpectedly, the lowest 3He/4He values (0.01-0.02 Ra) are associated with the old groundwaters of the “Continental Intercalaire” aquifer of the stable Saharan Platform. The 3He/4He values are equal to the crustal production ratio, with no detectable amount of mantle-derived 3He, in agreement with previous studies of helium isotopes in sedimentary basin, which conclude that tectonically-stable regions are essentially impermeable to mantle volatiles. The low 3He/4He domain extends to the entire Atlasic domain of central Tunisia. This Atlasic domain also displays the highest helium concentrations : along the Gafsa Fault, helium concentrations of 1777 and 4723 x 10-8 cm3STP/g (the highest value of our data set) are observed in the production wells of Sidi Ahmed Zarrouk. This emphasizes the role of deep tectonic features in channelling and transporting deep crustal volatiles to shallow levels. The eastern margin of Tunisia displays higher 3He/4He values indicative of a substantial mantle volatile input. The highest value is recorded in the carbo-gaseous mineral water of Ain Garci (2.4 Ra). This northeastern part of the African plate commonly referred to as the Pelagian block extends from Tunisia to Sicily and is characterized by strong extensional tectonics (Pantelleria rift zone) and present-day magmatic activity. This lithospheric stretching and decompressional mantle melts production in

  6. Mapping Croplands in Morocco and Tunisia using MAGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaughey, K.; Purcell, B.; Tetrault, R. L.; Wasko, C.

    2017-12-01

    Morocco and Tunisia are both net-wheat importing countries, which experience fluctuations in production due to drought. Knowledge of food supply is critical for the local governments' understanding of food security and to re-assure the population regarding food availability. Tunisia was the epicenter for the event known as the "Arab Spring." Although the Arab Spring had several societal components, chronic uncertainty in the governments' reliability raised concerns about food supply and food availability despite the government's policy responses. Due to its importance for geopolitical as well as market opportunity reasons, in March and April of 2017, analysts from the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) traveled to Morocco and Tunisia to conduct crop assessment. Fieldwork data collection is necessary for us as crop analysts to use our convergence of evidence approach, which includes ground information, satellite imagery, meteorological information and reports from our offices abroad. During this trip, analysts used the new mobile application from the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) called MAGE to collect fieldwork data for crop classification. Using the several thousand training data collected through the mobile application and by leveraging satellite data within Google Earth Engine, an in-season crop mask was created. The final product was delivered to the team just a few days after returning to USDA Washington and was used in the first wheat production estimate of the season released May 10, 2017. The final product helps analysts determine an experimental in-season area estimation and to focus our other remote sensing tools and products on our areas of interest. The US Department of Agriculture's International Production Assessment Division is responsible for publishing monthly production, area and yield estimates for 17 commodities in over 150 countries.

  7. The spectrum of presumed tubercular uveitis in Tunisia, North Africa.

    PubMed

    Khochtali, Sana; Gargouri, Salma; Abroug, Nesrine; Ksiaa, Imen; Attia, Sonia; Sellami, Dorra; Feki, Jamel; Khairallah, Moncef

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the spectrum of presumed tubercular uveitis in Tunisia, North Africa. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 38 patients (65 eyes) diagnosed with presumed tubercular uveitis at two referral centers in Tunisia, between January 2009 and December 2011. Mean age at presentation was 42.7 years. Twenty-four patients were women (63.2%) and 14 (36.8%) were men. Twenty-three eyes (35.4%) had posterior uveitis, 21 eyes (32.3%) had intermediate uveitis, 13 eyes (20%) had panuveitis, and 8 eyes (12.3%) had anterior uveitis. Ocular findings included vitritis in 67.7% of eyes, posterior synechiae in 47.7%, multifocal non-serpiginoid choroiditis in 23.1%, multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis in 21.5%, periphlebitis in 21.5%, and mutton-fat keratic precipitates in 20%. Anti-tubercular treatment was prescribed in 33 patients (86.8%) and was associated with systemic corticosteroids in 20 patients (52.6%) and periocular injections of corticosteroids in four patients (10.5%). After a mean follow-up of 14.2 months (range, 10-58), inflammation was controlled, with a significant improvement in visual acuity (VA) (p = 0.028). However, recurrences developed in two patients (5.3%). Final VA was better than 20/40 in 27 eyes (41.5%) and less than 20/200 in five eyes (7.7%). In Tunisia, all anatomic types are possible in tuberculosis-associated uveitis, but posterior and intermediate uveitis are more frequent. Vitritis, posterior synechiae, multifocal serpiginoid or non-serpiginoid choroiditis, and periphlebitis are the most common manifestations.

  8. Southern Tunisia: A still high endemicity area for hepatitis A.

    PubMed

    Neffatti, Houcine; Lebraud, Patricia; Hottelet, Corinne; Gharbi, Jawher; Challouf, Taieb; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) viruses are responsible for enterically transmitted hepatitis. Tunisia is reported to be of intermediate endemicity for HAV and of low seroprevalence for HEV; however, data from rural areas of South Tunisia are lacking. Sera from 216 asymptomatic pregnant women and from 92 patients with acute hepatitis were collected between October 2014 and November 2015. Total and IgM anti-HAV immunoglobulins and anti-HEV IgG and IgM were investigated. Anti-HAV IgM-positive samples were subjected to RT-PCR targeting the VP1/2A region and sequenced. HEV IgM positive samples and all samples from acute hepatitis patients were assessed for HEV RNA. Among pregnant women (mean age 32+/-8), HAV seroprevalence was 98.6%, none presented anti-HAV IgM; HEV seroprevalence was 5.1% and three presented weakly reactive anti-HEV IgM without detectable RNA. Among acute hepatitis patients (mean age 18.5 +/- 14), HEV seroprevalence was 19,5%, none presented anti-HEV IgM, nor HEV RNA. HAV seroprevalence exceeded 90% by age 5 and acute HAV infection was detected in 20 patients (21,7%), younger than patients with other hepatitis causes (9,8 years vs. 20,4 years, p = 0,004); 65% were male. Most acute HAV infections were observed in a coastal area where HAV infections represented 52% of hepatitis etiology. Phylogenetic analysis identified genotype IA strains, clustering close to previously published Tunisian sequences. The present study confirmed a low HEV endemicity and evidenced a still high level of HAV circulation in Southern Tunisia, suggesting distinct dissemination patterns for these viruses.

  9. Southern Tunisia: A still high endemicity area for hepatitis A

    PubMed Central

    Neffatti, Houcine; Lebraud, Patricia; Hottelet, Corinne; Gharbi, Jawher; Challouf, Taieb

    2017-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) viruses are responsible for enterically transmitted hepatitis. Tunisia is reported to be of intermediate endemicity for HAV and of low seroprevalence for HEV; however, data from rural areas of South Tunisia are lacking. Methods Sera from 216 asymptomatic pregnant women and from 92 patients with acute hepatitis were collected between October 2014 and November 2015. Total and IgM anti-HAV immunoglobulins and anti-HEV IgG and IgM were investigated. Anti-HAV IgM-positive samples were subjected to RT-PCR targeting the VP1/2A region and sequenced. HEV IgM positive samples and all samples from acute hepatitis patients were assessed for HEV RNA. Results Among pregnant women (mean age 32+/-8), HAV seroprevalence was 98.6%, none presented anti-HAV IgM; HEV seroprevalence was 5.1% and three presented weakly reactive anti-HEV IgM without detectable RNA. Among acute hepatitis patients (mean age 18.5 +/- 14), HEV seroprevalence was 19,5%, none presented anti-HEV IgM, nor HEV RNA. HAV seroprevalence exceeded 90% by age 5 and acute HAV infection was detected in 20 patients (21,7%), younger than patients with other hepatitis causes (9,8 years vs. 20,4 years, p = 0,004); 65% were male. Most acute HAV infections were observed in a coastal area where HAV infections represented 52% of hepatitis etiology. Phylogenetic analysis identified genotype IA strains, clustering close to previously published Tunisian sequences. Conclusion The present study confirmed a low HEV endemicity and evidenced a still high level of HAV circulation in Southern Tunisia, suggesting distinct dissemination patterns for these viruses. PMID:28426700

  10. Evolutionary dynamics of HBV-D7 subgenotype in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ciccozzi, Massimo; Chaouch, Houda; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Taffon, Stefania; Villano, Umbertina; Equestre, Michele; Bruni, Roberto; Marcantonio, Cinzia; Tritarelli, Elena; Cella, Eleonora; Blasi, Aletheia; Aouni, Mahjoub; Letaief, Amel; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the main cause of diseases liver related infecting more than 200 milion persons worldwide. HBV infection shows high level of prevalence in South-East Europe and in Mediterranean basin. In Tunisia, a country with an intermediate level endemicity, HbsAg prevalence ranges from 2 to 5%. Most of the HBV isolates from Tunisia were classified as subgenotype D7 whose circulation is restricted to a specific area of North Africa including Maghreb region. In this paper, the phylogeny of HBV-D7 isolated from 38 Tunisian patients was investigated by analyzing the S gene region of HBV. A Bayesian coalescent-based framework was used to estimate the origin of the HBV-D7 in the country. The Tunisian D7 isolates were found to share a common ancestor whose origin was traced back to 1958. Population dynamics indicated that HBV-D7 epidemic in Tunisia grew exponentially from 1960s to 1990s. After that, the curve reached a plateau around the years 2000 likely due to the implementation of the infant vaccination program in 1996. Epidemiological data suggested that the exponential growth phase was likely sustained by intra-familial transmission events occurring during infancy. Further characterization of HBV-D7 isolates should be performed to evaluate, in the post-vaccination era, the emergence of new transmission routes, and to monitor the efficacy of the vaccination program. J. Med. Virol. 89:469-475, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Watershed Central: A New Gateway to Watershed Information

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many communities across the country struggle to find the right approaches, tools and data to in their watershed plans. EPA recently posted a new Web site called "Watershed Central, a “onestop" tool, to help watershed organizations and others find key resources to protect their ...

  12. Watershed Central: Dynamic Collaboration for Improving Watershed Management (Philadelphia)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Central web and wiki pages will be presented and demonstrated real-time as part of the overview of Web 2.0 collaboration tools for watershed management. The presentation portion will discuss how EPA worked with watershed practitioners and within the Agency to deter...

  13. Arizona watershed framework in the Verde River watershed

    Ren Northrup

    2000-01-01

    The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, Water Quality Division drafted a six-step approach to guide its staff and local participants in developing and implementing watershed management plans. From January 1999 through June 2000, the draft Arizona Statewide Watershed Framework will be tested in Arizona's Verde River watershed. This concept proofing...

  14. Scaling relations for watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehr, E.; Kadau, D.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Andrade, J. S., Jr.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2011-09-01

    We study the morphology of watersheds in two and three dimensional systems subjected to different degrees of spatial correlations. The response of these objects to small, local perturbations is also investigated with extensive numerical simulations. We find the fractal dimension of the watersheds to generally decrease with the Hurst exponent, which quantifies the degree of spatial correlations. Moreover, in two dimensions, our results match the range of fractal dimensions 1.10≤df≤1.15 observed for natural landscapes. We report that the watershed is strongly affected by local perturbations. For perturbed two and three dimensional systems, we observe a power-law scaling behavior for the distribution of areas (volumes) enclosed by the original and the displaced watershed and for the distribution of distances between outlets. Finite-size effects are analyzed and the resulting scaling exponents are shown to depend significantly on the Hurst exponent. The intrinsic relation between watershed and invasion percolation, as well as relations between exponents conjectured in previous studies with two dimensional systems, are now confirmed by our results in three dimensions.

  15. [Compulsory admission to hospital in Tunisia: a necessary evolution].

    PubMed

    Ellouze, Faten; Lahmar, Aymen; Beji, Rami; Dridi, Anis; Fadhel M'rad, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the legislation governing compulsory admission to hospital in Tunisia is interesting for two reasons. The country's 2011 revolution notably brought about major changes to the legislative framework, from constitutional through to ordinary laws. At the same time, the current trend for globalisation is also affecting legislation: international laws, treaties and UN charters are imposed on the laws of individual countries. This article looks at how Tunisian law governing compulsory admission to hospital has had to evolve. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. MANAGING URBAN WATERSHED PATHOGEN CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is written as a resource for state and local watershed managers who have the responsibility of managing pathogen contamination in urban watersheds. In addition it can be an information source for members of the public interested in watershed mitigation efforts aime...

  17. Watershed geomorphological characteristics

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes commonly used geomorphological characteristics that are useful for analyzing watershed-scale hydrology and sediment dynamics. It includes calculations and measurements for stream network features and areal basin characteristics that cover a range of spatial and temporal scales and dimensions of watersheds. Construction and application of longitudinal profiles are described in terms of understanding the three-dimensional development of stream networks. A brief discussion of outstanding problems and directions for future work, particularly as they relate to water-resources management, is provided. Notations with preferred units are given.

  18. Watershed assessment-watershed analysis: What are the limits and what must be considered

    Robert R. Ziemer

    2000-01-01

    Watershed assessment or watershed analysis describes processes and interactions that influence ecosystems and resources in a watershed. Objectives and methods differ because issues and opportunities differ.

  19. [Epidemiological, clinical and parasitological data about canine leishmaniasis in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Bouratbine, A; Aoun, K; Gharbi, M; Haouas, N; Zaroui, J; Harrat, Z; Baba, H; Darghouth, M A

    2005-12-01

    Epidemiological, clinical and parasitological data concerning canine leishmaniasis were collected in two Tunisian populations of dogs, different in breed and life style: 23 rural dogs and 26 dogs of European breeds. All were symptomatic and lived in the north of Tunisia where human visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum are endemic. Leishmaniasis has been confirmed in all dogs by serology or/and by parasitic identification. Significant differences concerning age and symptoms suggest a higher susceptibility to infection in European imported breeds. In fact individuals of this population were significantly younger; 81% were less than 5 years old whereas 57% of the autochthonous rural dogs were more than 5 years old with 31% of them being older than 9 (p = 0.014). In spite of their young age, 75% of imported breeds presented an affection of their general state with more frequent cutaneous symptoms than the rural dogs (96% versus 69%, p = 0.02). Isoenzyme typing of 31 strains, obtained from the two populations, from different sites (blood, lymph nodes, spleen) has only identified the zymodeme Leishmania infantum MON-1. This stresses the need of more investigations to determine reservoirs of the other enzymatic variants identified in humans in Tunisia and Mediterranean basin.

  20. Sheep pox in Tunisia: Current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ben Chehida, F; Ayari-Fakhfakh, E; Caufour, P; Amdouni, J; Nasr, J; Messaoudi, L; Haj Ammar, H; Sghaier, S; Bernard, C; Ghram, A; Cêtre-Sossah, C

    2018-02-01

    Sheep pox, a well-known endemic capripox infection, has significant impacts on small ruminant populations in Tunisia. It is responsible for high economic losses throughout North Africa due to its enzootic nature and to the active animal transhumance existing in some governorates in Tunisia. The aim of this review was to analyse data gathered on annual vaccination campaigns designed to control its spread by reducing the level of endemicity and to describe diagnostic and management tools adapted to the Tunisian situation. Seasonal, temporal and spatial distributions of sheep pox outbreaks, as well as related clinical features, were found. It was concluded from this review that establishing strong herd immunization through individual animal immunization, creating adequate infrastructure, increasing awareness among breeders, setting up a field-based surveillance network and improving routine diagnostic methods need to be the major components of a programme to eradicate the disease. It was also felt that cost-benefit analyses of the surveillance and control strategies used would help in controlling its persistence. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Spatial and temporal variability of the atmospheric turbidity in Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Mohamed; Trabelsi, Amel; Masmoudi, Mohamed; Alfaro, Stephane C.

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric turbidity is an important parameter in meteorology, climatology and for providing hindsight on particulate air pollution in local areas. In this work we exploit 1260 direct solar radiation measurements performed in Sfax (Center Tunisia), from March 2015 to February 2016. These measurements were made with a pyrheliometer only when clouds did not obstruct the solar disk. The atmospheric turbidity is quantified by the means of both the Linke's turbidity factor (TLI) and Angström's coefficient (β). Over the year, values of TLI and β are found to vary in the ranges 1-15 and 0-0.7, with the most probable values around 3.5 and 0.05, respectively. However, a marked seasonal pattern is observed for the two turbidity parameters. They achieve their maximum in the spring and summer months, their minimum in winter and autumn appears as a transitional period. The comparison of the results obtained in Sfax with those of three AERONET stations located in north (Carthage), central-north (Ben Salem), and south (Medenine) Tunisia, reveals that this seasonal pattern of the atmospheric turbidity is valid for all the Tunisian territory, and probably beyond. At shorter (hourly) time scales, the diurnal behavior of the turbidity in Sfax is different in the summer months from the one observed during the rest of the year. Indeed, an enhancement of TLI is observed during the day. This is assumedly attributed to the production of secondary aerosols by atmospheric photochemistry.

  2. Molecular diagnosis of Rickettsia infection in patients from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Khrouf, Fatma; Sellami, Hanene; Elleuch, Emna; Hattab, Zouhour; Ammari, Lamia; Khalfaoui, Moncef; Souissi, Jihed; Harrabi, Hejer; M'ghirbi, Youmna; Tiouiri, Hanene; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Hammami, Adnene; Letaief, Amel; Bouattour, Ali; Znazen, Abir

    2016-07-01

    Diagnosis of rickettsioses had largely benefited from the development of molecular techniques. Unfortunately, in Tunisia, despite the large number of rickettsial cases registered every year, the Rickettsia species remain unidentified. In this study, we aimed to detect the Rickettsia species in clinical samples using molecular tests. A study was established to analyze skin biopsies, cutaneous swabs, and cerebrospinal fluid samples taken from clinically suspected patients to have rickettsial infection. Two molecular techniques were used to detect Rickettsia DNA: quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) and reverse line blot test (RLB). An analysis of the RLB hybridization assay results revealed the presence of Rickettsia DNA in skin biopsies (40.6%) and swabs (46.7%). Rickettsia conorii was the most prevalent identified species among tested samples. Other species of interest include Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia massiliae. Using qPCR positivity rates in skin biopsies was 63.7% against 80% in swabs. R. conorii was the most frequently detected species, followed by R. typhi. The agreement between the two techniques was 68.6% (kappa=0.33). Molecular tests, especially using specific probes qPCR, allow for a rapid, better and confident diagnosis in clinical practice. They improve the survey of Mediterranean spotted fever which is considered to be the most important rickettsial infection in humans in Tunisia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. LANDSAT M. S. S. IMAGE MOSAIC OF TUNISIA.

    Boswell-Thomas, J. C.; ,

    1984-01-01

    The Landsat mosaic of Tunisia funded by USAID for the Remote Sensing Laboratory, Soils Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Tunisia, was completed by the USGS in September 1983. It is a mixed mosaic associating digital corrections and enhancements to manual mosaicking and corresponding to the Tunisian request for high resolution and the limited available funds. The scenes were processed by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, resampling the data geodesically corrected to fit the Universal Transverse Mercator projection using control points from topographic maps at 1:50,000 and 1:100,000 scales available in the U. S. The mosaicking was done in the Eastern Mapping Center under the supervision of the Graphic Arts System Section. The three black and white mosaics were made at the 1:1,000,000 scale and various products generated. They included color film positives at 1:2,000,000 and 1:4,000,000 scales reproducible in the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Tunis and corresponding color prints as well as tricolor prints at various scales from 1:500,000 to 1:2,000,000.

  4. [Role of Toscana virus in meningo-encephalitis in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Bahri, O; Fazaa, O; Ben Alaya-Bouafif, N; Bouloy, M; Triki, H; Bouattour, A

    2011-12-01

    To detect the presence of Toscana virus (TOSV) circulation in Tunisia and to study its role in viral meningo-encephalitis. A total of 315 (167 sera and 178 cerobrospinal fluid [CSF]) samples was investigated. These samples are colleted from Tunisian patients with neurological diseases during the period between January 2003 and December 2009. All samples were tested negative for enterovirus, Herpes Simplex virus and West Nile virus. Detection for IgM and IgG specific to TOSV was done by ELISA tests. Specific IgM for TOSV were detected in 10 % of patients with neurological diseases (31 cases). These recent infections were distributed throughout the study period and predominated during summer and automn. Patients were originated, in the majority from the coastal region. IgG were isolated in 22 cases (7 %) corresponding to previous infection. This is the first report of TOSV circulating in Tunisia and its frequent implication in neurological diseases. These results incited to include TOSV as one of the viral etiologies to target in the diagnosis of viral meningitis and encephalitis in the country. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Prevalence Among Farmers in Central Tunisia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Bellali, Hedia; Chemak, Fraj; Nouiri, Issam; Ben Mansour, Dorra; Ghrab, Jamila; Chahed, Mohamed Kouni

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is endemic in central Tunisia and is more prevalent in rural agricultural areas. The aim of this work was to determine ZCL prevalence among farmers and to test their availability to take ownership of the problem and participate actively to fight and address the disease. A sample of farmers from Sidi Bouzid, central Tunisia, was selected randomly. Farmers were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire about ZCL lesion occurrence, its date of onset among family members, and the farmers' availability to contribute to fighting this disease. ZCL occurred in at least one of the family members of 38.5% interviewed farmers. The disease was endemic with recurrent epidemics every 4 or 5 years. ZCL among farmers was associated with irrigation management. With regard to ZCL preventive measures, the majority of farmers agreed and expressed willingness to collaborate (93.1%), to follow health care facilities instructions (73.1%), and to join the nongovernmental organization (NGO) (56.9%). However, they did not agree to reduce irrigation activities mainly at night, to live far from their irrigated fields, or to sleep out of their houses at night. ZCL is more prevalent in farmers engaged in irrigation activities. Farmers are not agreeable to reducing their activity to avoid exposure to the sand fly bites. Thus, population involvement and commitment is required to implement effective control measures to fight and address ZCL.

  6. Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum in cattle in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    M'ghirbi, Youmna; Bèji, Marwa; Oporto, Beatriz; Khrouf, Fatma; Hurtado, Ana; Bouattour, Ali

    2016-10-20

    Tick-borne diseases caused by Anaplasma species put serious constraints on the health and production of domestic cattle in tropical and sub-tropical regions. After recovering from a primary infection, cattle typically become persistent carriers of pathogens and play a critical role in the epidemiology of the disease, acting as reservoirs of the Anaplasma spp. In this study a duplex PCR assay was used for the simultaneous detection of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cattle using two primer pairs targeting msp4 and msp2 genes, respectively. We used this method to analyze DNA preparations derived from 328 blood cattle samples that were collected from 80 farms distributed among Tunisia's four bioclimatic zones. The prevalence of the A. marginale infection (24.7 %) was significantly higher and more widespread (in all bioclimatic areas) than that of A. phagocytophilum (0.6 %), which was found in a mixed infection with A. marginale. The duplex PCR assay used proved to be a rapid, specific and inexpensive mean for the simultaneous detection of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cattle blood. It allowed us to report the identification of A. phagocytophilum for the first time in cattle in Tunisia and confirm the presence of A. marginale in cattle from several geographical areas of the country. Further epidemiological studies undertaken using this assay will help improve the surveillance of the associated diseases in the regions where they are endemic.

  7. [Urbanization and its consequences for socio-demographic structures in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Taamallah, M

    1986-01-01

    Comparisons are made between rural and urban populations in Tunisia in terms of selected demographic and social factors using official and other published data for the late 1970s and early 1980s. The focus is on the consequences of imbalances created by Tunisia's urbanization for population composition, health, economic development, and certain social structures. The history of urbanization in Tunisia since the end of the nineteenth century is outlined. Urban and rural populations are compared on the basis of sex distribution, age distribution, mortality, and fertility. The relationships among urbanization and economic development, public health, and family structure are considered.

  8. Water and watershed

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen dominates several million acres on mountainous watersheds in the West. The sites occupied receive enough precipitation to yield water to lower elevations. Most aspen areas receive 16 inches (40 cm) or more precipitation annually; many receive more than 39 inches (100 cm) (see the CLIMATES chapter), well in excess of on-site loss from evapotranspiration....

  9. Aquatic systems and watersheds

    Rick Kattelmann; Fraser Shilling

    2004-01-01

    Water is often at the heart of contentious debates over natural resource policy in the Sierra Nevada. Besides the obvious issues of dams, diversions, fish, wetlands, and pollution, connections abound with other resources within the waterways and their watersheds. Whether an argument is over logging, roads, wildfire, endangered species, wilderness, sprawl of foothill...

  10. AUTOMATED GEOSPATIAL WATERSHED ASSESSMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University of Wyoming to automate the parameterization and execution of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and KINEmatic Runoff and EROSion (KINEROS2) hydrologic models. The application of these two models allows AGWA to conduct hydrologic modeling and watershed assessments at multiple temporal and spatial scales. AGWA’s current outputs are runoff (volumes and peaks) and sediment yield, plus nitrogen and phosphorus with the SWAT model. AGWA uses commonly available GIS data layers to fully parameterize, execute, and visualize results from both models. Through an intuitive interface the user selects an outlet from which AGWA delineates and discretizes the watershed using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) based on the individual model requirements. The watershed model elements are then intersected with soils and land cover data layers to derive the requisite model input parameters. The chosen model is then executed, and the results are imported back into AGWA for visualization. This allows managers to identify potential problem areas where additional monitoring can be undertaken or mitigation activities can be focused. AGWA also has tools to apply an array of best management practices. There are currently two versions of AGWA available; AGWA 1.5 for

  11. WATERSHED BASED SURVEY DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of watershed-based design and assessment tools will help to serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional condition to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or wate...

  12. Fundamentals of watershed hydrology

    Pamela J. Edwards; Karl W.J. Williard; Jon E. Schoonover

    2015-01-01

    This is a primer about hydrology, the science of water. Watersheds are the basic land unit for water resource management and their delineation, importance, and variation are explained and illustrated. The hydrologic cycle and its components (precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, soil water, groundwater, and streamflow) which collectively provide a foundation for...

  13. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool is a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) interface jointly developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service, and the University of Arizona to a...

  14. Watershed Restoration Project

    SciT

    Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

    2007-09-27

    In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve themore » watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.« less

  15. Watershed hydrology. Chapter 7.

    Elons S. Verry; Kenneth N. Brooks; Dale S. Nichols; Dawn R. Ferris; Stephen D. Sebestyen

    2011-01-01

    Watershed hydrology is determined by the local climate, land use, and pathways of water flow. At the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF), streamflow is dominated by spring runoff events driven by snowmelt and spring rains common to the strongly continental climate of northern Minnesota. Snowmelt and rainfall in early spring saturate both mineral and organic soils and...

  16. Retrofitting for watershed drainage

    SciT

    Bennett, D.B.; Heaney, J.P.

    1991-09-01

    Over the past 8 years, degradation in Florida's Indian River Lagoon has taken the form of fish kills, reduced viable recreational and commercial fisheries, and loss of seagrass beds. Stormwater drainage practices in the watershed have been identified as the primary culprit in the slow demise of the lagoon. Specific drainage problems include an increased volume of freshwater runoff to the estuarine receiving water and deposition of organic sediments, reduced water clarity because of increased discharge of suspended solids and tea colored' groundwater - a result of drainage-canal-induced land dewatering, and eutrophication caused by nutrient loadings. In addition, poor flushingmore » in lagoon segments makes runoff impacts even more damaging to the ecosystem. Recently, the lagoon has received national, regional, state, and local attention over its degradation and citizens' action and multi-agency efforts to restore it. To mitigate damage to the Indian River lagoon, agencies are considering alternatives such as retrofitting to reduce pollutant loads and implementing a more comprehensive watershed approach to stormwater management instead of individual controls on new development currently widely practiced. A comprehensive, long-term watershed control approach avoids unnecessary construction expenses, encourages cost-effective tradeoffs based on specific objectives, facilities performance monitoring, and accounts for cumulative impacts of continued growth in the watershed.« less

  17. First report of naturally infected Sergentomyia minuta with Leishmania major in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Jaouadi, Kaouther; Ghawar, Wissem; Salem, Sadok; Gharbi, Mohamed; Bettaieb, Jihene; Yazidi, Rihab; Harrabi, Mariem; Hamarsheh, Omar; Ben Salah, Afif

    2015-12-21

    Many sand fly species are implicated in the transmission cycle of Leishmania parasites around the world. Incriminating new sand flies species, as vectors of Leishmania is crucial to understanding the parasite-vector transmission cycle in different areas in Tunisia and surrounding countries. Seventy-four unfed females belonging to the genera Sergentomyia and Phlebotomus were collected in South Tunisia between June and November 2014, using sticky papers. PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was used for Leishmania parasites detection and identification. Leishmania (L.) major (Yakimoff & Shokkor, 1914) was identified within two Sergentomyia (S.) minuta (Rondani, 1843) and one Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli, 1786). This is the first report of L. major identified from S. minuta in Tunisia. This novel finding enhances the understanding of the transmission cycle of L. major parasites of cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic area in South Tunisia.

  18. Watershed analysis of the Salmon River watershed, Washington : hydrology

    Bidlake, William R.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey analyzed selected hydrologic conditions as part of a watershed analysis of the Salmon River watershed, Washington, conducted by the Quinault Indian Nation. The selected hydrologic conditions were analyzed according to a framework of hydrologic key questions that were identified for the watershed. The key questions were posed to better understand the natural, physical, and biological features of the watershed that control hydrologic responses; to better understand current streamflow characteristics, including peak and low flows; to describe any evidence that forest harvesting and road construction have altered frequency and magnitude of peak and low flows within the watershed; to describe what is currently known about the distribution and extent of wetlands and any impacts of land management activities on wetlands; and to describe how hydrologic monitoring within the watershed might help to detect future hydrologic change, to preserve critical ecosystem functions, and to protect public and private property.

  19. Preliminary study of plants used in ethnoveterinary medicine in Tunisia and in Italy.

    PubMed

    Viegi, Lucia; Ghedira, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    A survey relative to the use of plants for the cure of animals in Tunisia was conducted in order to make a comparison with the same species (or similar ones) in central and southern Italy. available bibliographical data both for Italy and for Tunisia were consulted. Thirty-nine plants, representing 22 families, used in Tunisia in ethnoveterinary medicine were reported, and comparisons made with close species used in Central and Southern Italy. Seven of the 39 species (about the 18% of the total) are not present in Italian flora. Fourteen of the 39 species (35% of the total) are also used in Italy. Camelidae (dromedaries and camels) are the most valuable types of domestic animals cured in Tunisia, but ovines, horses, bulls, dogs are also treated. Some uses coincide with those existing in different Italian regions. The plants used are the most common and most easily found in these areas. The present study confirms the convergence in ethnoveterinary medicine between Tunisia and Italy, even if it appears less significant than in human ethnobotany. Further studies are required in areas of Tunisia that have not yet been studied, in order to get the possibility of an evaluation of active compounds.

  20. [Fanconi disease: study of 43 cases in southern Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Frikha, M; Mseddi, S; Elloumi, M; Bouaziz, M; Khanfir, A; Mnif, J; Saad, A; Souissi, T

    1998-11-01

    To report the epidemiologic, clinical, biological features and course of Fanconi's anemia in southern Tunisia. During a period of 12 years we observed 43 cases. For each patient, careful clinical, biological (hemogram, myelogram, bone marrow biopsy, hemoglobin electrophoresis, karyotype) and radiological (skeleton X-rays, abdominal echography and intravenous urography) examinations were performed. All the patients who were at a pancytopenia stage were given androgens. None had a bone marrow allograft. There were 24 girls and 19 boys. The mean age at diagnosis was 10 years and 9 months. The familial character was present in 53% of the cases. The most frequent initial complaint was anemic syndrome (69%). In ten cases (24%), the diagnosis has been established during a familial investigation. Malformations were present in all cases (abnormal pigmentation: 86%; skeletal maturation retardation: 83%; facial dysmorphy: 76%; statural hypotrophy: 65%; bone abnormalities: 53%; renal malformations: 44%). Anemia was present in 88% of the cases, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia in all cases. Bone marrow was hypoplastic or aplastic in all cases on biopsies. Spontaneous chromosomal breaks were found in 79% of the studied cases. Fetal hemoglobin was increased in 80% of the studied cases with a mean level of 20.5%. Actuarial survival rate at 5 years was 48%, but long survival durations were rare (eight out of 43 patients). This disease, rare in the world, seems to be frequent in southern Tunisia. A normal karyotype (with classical techniques), found in five patients, could not discard the diagnosis; for this reason, the use of sensitizing agents should improve the sensitivity of the test. Besides, an increased level of fetal hemoglobin enabled us to suggest the diagnosis in some cases. Androgenotherapy increased the survival duration to more than 5 years in eight patients. However, bone marrow allograft remains the only possibility of cure.

  1. Celestial Navigation in the USA, Fiji, and Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2015-05-01

    Today there are many coastal communities that are home to navigators who use stars for position finding at night; I was, however, unaware of this fact when I began researching celestial navigation practices in 1997. My project focused on three communities: the Moce Islanders of Fiji, the Kerkennah Islanders in Tunisia, and the U.S. Navy officers and students at the United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland. My goal was to answer the question of why people continue to navigate by the stars, but also to understand the role of technology in their navigation practices. Using anthropology techniques of ethnography including participant observation, formal and informal interviews, audio and videotaping, I gathered data over five years at the three communities. I began by learning the details of how they use the stars for navigation. Next, I learned about who did the navigation and where they learned to navigate. I gathered opinions on various navigation aids and instruments, and opinions about the future of using the stars for navigation. I listened to the stories that they told about navigating. In the United States I worked in English, in Fiji, in Fijian and English, and in Tunisia, French and English. For the formal interviews I worked with translators. The navigators use stars for navigating today but the future of their techniques is not certain. Though practiced today, these celestial navigation traditions have undergone and continue to undergo changes. New navigational technologies are part of the stimulation for change, thus 'a meeting of different worlds' is symbolized by peoples encounters with these technologies.

  2. Coniacian-Turonian Carbonates of the Miskar Field, offshore Tunisia

    SciT

    Knott, I.; Moody, R.; Sandman, R.

    1995-08-01

    The R1 and R1 Superior Carbonates of the Miskar Field, offshore Tunisia are of Coniacian-Turonian age. These ages are constrained by several biostratigraphic events including a rapid increase in ostracod diversity at the base of the overlying Aleg Formation and the occurrence of several diagnostic benthonic foraminifera including Rotalia algeriana. The indication is that the R1 and R1 Superior Carbonates are the lateral equivalents, in part, of the Douleb Formation which is a known reservoir, onshore Tunisia. During the Coniacian-Turonian the area of the Miskar Field was subject to regional extension with the opening of several major North-South trending fractures.more » These culminate in the contemporaneous outpouring of submarine serpentinized volcanics during deposition of the R1 Superior/Aleg Formation. The R1 lithologies are deposited in a shallow water regime and consist of rudist buildup and debraic carbonates overlain by lagoonal facies in the North with an increase in beach/sabkha facies to the South. The indication is for a shallowing upward sequence and a general progradation of lithofacies northwards across a tilted block. In contrast the R1 Superior is indicative of a flooding event with relative sea-level changes reflected in variations of both lithofacies and biofacies. Overall the lithofacies are dominated by calcispheric/bioclastic wackestone-packstones probably deposited in a mid-platform setting. The diagenetic history of the R1 is the more complex of the two carbonate sequences reflecting several phases of fluid movement through the constituent lithologies. Original depositional characteristics and subsequent diagenetic meditation result in the development of highly variable reservoir properties.« less

  3. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fairness in healthcare finance and delivery: what about Tunisia?

    PubMed

    Abu-Zaineh, Mohammad; Arfa, Chokri; Ventelou, Bruno; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2014-07-01

    Anecdotal evidence on hidden inequity in health care in North African countries abounds. Yet firm empirical evidence has been harder to come by. This article fills the gap. It presents the first analysis of equity in the healthcare system using the particular case of Tunisia. Analyses are based on an unusually rich source of data taken from the Tunisian HealthCare Utilization and Morbidity Survey. Payments for health care are derived from the total amount of healthcare spending which was incurred by households over the last year. Utilization of health care is measured by the number of physical units of two types of services: outpatient and inpatient. The measurement of need for health care is apprehended through a rich set of ill-health indicators and demographics. Findings are presented and compared at both the aggregate level, using the general summary index approach, and the disaggregate level, using the distribution-free stochastic dominance approach. The overall picture is that direct out-of-pocket payments, which constitute a sizeable share in the current financing mix, emerge to be a progressive means of financing health care overall. Interestingly, however, when statistical testing is applied at the disaggregate level progressivity is retained over the top half of the distribution. Further analyses of the distributions of need for--and utilization of--two types of health care--outpatient and inpatient--reveal that the observed progressivity is rather an outcome of the heavy use, but not need, for health care at the higher income levels. Several policy relevant factors are discussed, and some recommendations are advanced for future reforms of the health care in Tunisia. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  5. Ghana watershed prototype products

    ,

    2007-01-01

    A number of satellite data sets are available through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for monitoring land surface features. Representative data sets include Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The Ghana Watershed Prototype Products cover an area within southern Ghana, Africa, and include examples of the aforementioned data sets along with sample SRTM derivative data sets.

  6. RESEARCH NEEDS FOR EFFECTIVE WATERSHED PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed research has historically focused on physical and biological processes, stressor-response, and effects research, providing valuable understanding of the effects of human activity and natural disturbances on watershed ecosystems. Continued research to support watershed ...

  7. EPA'S WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND MODELING RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed management presumes that community groups can best solve many water quality and ecosystem problems at the watershed level rather than at the individual site, receiving waterbody, or discharger level. After assessing and ranking watershed problems, and setting environ...

  8. Watershed councils: it takes a community to restore a watershed

    Marie Oliver; Rebecca Flitcroft

    2011-01-01

    Regulation alone cannot solve complex ecological problems on private lands that are managed for diverse uses. Executing coordinated restoration projects at the watershed scale is only possible with the cooperation and commitment of all stakeholders. Locally organized, nonregulatory watershed councils have proven to be a powerful method of engaging citizens from all...

  9. Performance of National Maps of Watershed Integrity at Watershed Scales

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed integrity, the capacity of a watershed to support and maintain ecological processes essential to the sustainability of services provided to society, can be influenced by a range of landscape and in-stream factors. Ecological response data from four intensively monitored...

  10. Alaska Index of Watershed Integrity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Index of Watershed Integrity (IWI) is used to calculate and visualize the status of natural watershed infrastructure that supports ecological processes (e.g., nutrient cycling) and services provided to society (e.g., subsistenc...

  11. Global perspective of watershed management

    Kenneth N. Brooks; Karlyn Eckman

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of watershed management in moving towards sustainable natural resource and agricultural development. Examples from 30 field projects and six training projects involving over 25 countries are presented to illustrate watershed management initiatives that have been implemented over the last half of the 20th century. The level of success has...

  12. The Caspar Creek Experimental Watershed

    T. E. Lisle

    1979-01-01

    The Caspar Creek Experimental Watershed was set up as a traditional paired watershed to investigate the effects of logging and road construction on erosion and sedimentation. Research participants have come from the California Division of Forestry, the Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, the California Department of Water Resources, the California...

  13. Research and cumulative watershed effects

    L. M. Reid

    1993-01-01

    The mandate for land managers to address cumulative watershed effects (CWEs) requires that planners evaluate the potential impacts of their activities on multiple beneficial uses within the context of other coexisting activities in a watershed. Types of CWEs vary with the types of land-use activities and their modes of interaction, but published studies illustrate...

  14. INTEGRATIVE CONSIDERATIONS IN WATERSHED PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the filters through which society views the values produced by watersheds is key to developing effective and adaptable watershed plans, and ultimately a measure of how well policy makers are likely to meet a sustainability, or any other, intent. Many natural resour...

  15. Watershed Education for Sustainable Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapp, William B.

    2000-01-01

    Presents information on the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN), which is a global communication system for analyzing watershed usage and monitoring the quality and quantity of river water. Describes GREEN's watershed educational model and strategies and international development. (Contains 67 references.) (Author/YDS)

  16. Estimating uncertainties in watershed studies

    John Campbell; Ruth Yanai; Mark Green

    2011-01-01

    Small watersheds have been used widely to quantify chemical fluxes and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems for about the past half century. The small watershed approach has been valuable in characterizing hydrologic and nutrient budgets, for instance, in estimating the net gain or loss of solutes in response to disturbance. However, the uncertainty in these ecosystem...

  17. Soil stabilization by biological soil crusts in arid Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidez, Sabine; Couté, Alain; Bardat, Jacques

    2015-04-01

    As part of the fight against desertification (LCD) in arid Tunisia, we have been able to highlight the important role played by biological soil crusts (BSC) in soil stabilization. The identification of the major species of cyanobacteria, lichens and bryophytes, their adaptation and terrestrial colonization strategies in this high climatic constraints area through their morpho-anatomical criteria have been set. In addition to their biological composition, their internal arrangement (i.e. texture and microstructure) reflects the structural stability of BSC against erosion. Precisely, the aggregative power of cyanobacteria and their ways of moving inside a soil, the capacity of mosses to grow through the sediments and lichens ability to bind at particles on surface, thus stabilizing the substrate have been demonstrated. Then, the three biological components ability to capture soil particles has been widely illustrated, proving the major environmental contribution of BSC in arid areas biological crusts formation, providing that soils will experience an increase of organic matter and fine particles rates subsequently gaining faster and better stability. Although the thickness and the morphology of crusts are related to the cover rates of these different biological components, the water properties of the latter, studied at the environmental SEM, illustrate their important role in altering the water cycle. Thus, the mixed crusts, i.e. with good presence of three biological components, cause the highest runoff rates by their ability to retain the water and spread on the surface. In spite of a swelling coefficient in presence of water higher than cryptogams, the cyanobacterial crusts located in newly stabilized areas of our studied region, remain finally insufficiently dense to impact surface hydrology. But, we showed after all that the cyanobacteria, pioneer species, have a certain environmental role. The lichen crusts cause a increased runoff because the lichens have a

  18. Urban Watershed Forestry Manual Part 1: Methods for Increasing Forest Cover in a Watershed

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Tiffany Wright

    2005-01-01

    This manual is one in a three-part series on using trees to protect and restore urban watersheds. A brief description of each part follows. Part 1: Methods for Increasing Forest Cover in a Watershed introduces the emerging topic of urban watershed forestry. This part also presents new methods for the watershed planner or forester to systematically measure watershed...

  19. Epidemiologic and Clinical Features of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Bousslimi, Nadia; Aoun, Karim; Ben-Abda, Imène; Ben-Alaya-Bouafif, Nissaf; Raouane, Mohamed; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2010-01-01

    Species-specific diagnosis was performed in 66 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) living in Tataouine focus in southeastern Tunisia. Leishmania DNA was extracted directly from dermal scrapings (n = 66) and from parasites obtained in culture (n = 12). Species were identified by using polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for internal transcribed spacer region 1 and isoenzyme analysis. Leishmania tropica and L. major were identified in 31 (47%) and 35 (53%) cases respectively. Leishmania tropica CL cases were geographically scattered, and L. major CL cases were clustered. Lesions caused by L. tropica were mostly single (83.8%) and face-localized (55.8%), and lesions caused by L. major were multiple (57.1%; P < 0.001) and situated on limbs (83.7%; P < 0.001). For both species, most lesion onsets were reported during June–January. However, lesions that emerged during February–May were mainly caused by L. tropica (83.3%; P < 0.01). Moreover, the delay before seeking medical advice was higher for L. tropica infections than for L. major infections (P < 0.05). PMID:21036833

  20. Molecular characterization of faba bean necrotic yellows viruses in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Kraberger, Simona; Kumari, Safaa G; Najar, Asma; Stainton, Daisy; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind

    2018-03-01

    Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV) (genus Nanovirus; family Nanoviridae) has a genome comprising eight individually encapsidated circular single-stranded DNA components. It has frequently been found infecting faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in association with satellite molecules (alphasatellites). Genome sequences of FBNYV from Azerbaijan, Egypt, Iran, Morocco, Spain and Syria have been determined previously and we now report the first five genome sequences of FBNYV and associated alphasatellites from faba bean sampled in Tunisia. In addition, we have determined the genome sequences of two additional FBNYV isolates from chickpea plants sampled in Syria and Iran. All individual FBNYV genome component sequences that were determined here share > 84% nucleotide sequence identity with FBNYV sequences available in public databases, with the DNA-M component displaying the highest degree of diversity. As with other studied nanoviruses, recombination and genome component reassortment occurs frequently both between FBNYV genomes and between genomes of nanoviruses belonging to other species.

  1. Risk assessment of fluoride exposure in drinking water of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Guissouma, Wiem; Hakami, Othman; Al-Rajab, Abdul Jabbar; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2017-06-01

    The presence of fluoride in drinking water is known to reduce dental cavities among consumers, but an excessive intake of this anion might leads to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This study reports a complete survey of the fluoridated tap water taken from 100 water consumption points in Tunisia. The fluoride concentrations in tap water were between 0 and 2.4 mg L -1 . Risk assessment of Fluoride exposure was assessed depending on the age of consumers using a four-step method: hazard identification, toxicity reference values selection (TRVs), daily exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Our findings suggest that approximately 75% of the Tunisian population is at risk for dental decay, 25% have a potential dental fluorosis risk, and 20% might have a skeletal fluorosis risk according to the limits of fluoride in drinking water recommended by WHO. More investigations are recommended to assess the exposure risk of fluoride in other sources of drinking water such as bottled water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Assessment of cancer incidence in Tunisia 1993-1997].

    PubMed

    Hsairi, Mohamed; Fakhfakh, Radhouane; Ben Abdallah, Mansour; Jlidi, Rachid; Sellami, Ahmed; Zheni, Seifallah; Hmissa, Sihem; Achour, Noureddine; Nacef, Taoufik

    2002-02-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate in Tunisia on a national scale the incidence of the main cancerous localizations for the period 1993-1997 while taking results of registers of the cancer of the region of the North, Sousse and Sfax as a basis. After having verified the relation of exponential type between the incidence of cancers and the life expectancy at the birth (Evo) in a certain number of country we extrapolated levels of governorates incidence included in registers of the North, Sousse and Sfax to the other governorates while taking the similarity of the Evo level as a basis. The incidence rate of in all localizations are 100.11/100.000 for male and 86.4/100.000 for female. The main cancerous localizations for male are the lung (20.8/100.000) the bladder (10.7/100.000), the cutaneous cancers (7.2/100.000) and the prostate (6.1/100.000). For female the main localization are the breast (19.7/100.000), skin (5.8/100.000) and the cervix uteri (4.8,100.000). These results illustrate the interest of tobacco control, screening of the breast cancer of and cervix uteri cancer, as components fundamental of the cancer control.

  3. Reuse of reclaimed wastewater for golf course irrigation in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Bahri, A; Basset, C; Oueslati, F; Brissaud, F

    2001-01-01

    In Tunisia, golf courses are irrigated with secondary treated effluent stored in landscape impoundments. The impact of the conveyance and storage steps on the physical-chemical and biological quality of irrigation water was evaluated on three golf courses over two years. It was found that the water quality varies all along the water route, from the wastewater treatment plant up to the irrigation site: nutrient and bacteria contents decreased along the route in the three cases. This variation depends on the wastewater quality, the length of the pipes conveying water, the number of regulation reservoirs and ponds, the water residence time in pipes, reservoirs and ponds, and the operation of the ponds. The bacteriological quality of irrigation water deteriorates during the irrigation period in the three golf courses as the ponds are operated as continuous flow reactors. The results obtained in this study indicate the inability of golf water supplies, as currently managed, to properly sanitize reclaimed wastewater and meet target quality criteria recommended by WHO (1989) for water intended for recreational use. For a safe reuse of reclaimed wastewater for golf course irrigation, changes in the design and operation of the ponds should be planned or additional treatment steps provided.

  4. Antiproliferative and Antibacterial Activities of Cirsium scabrum from Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Sahli, Ramla; Dufloer, Cédric; Beaufay, Claire; Bero, Joanne; Ksouri, Riadh; Quetin-Leclercq, Joelle; Sahpaz, Sevser

    2017-01-01

    Several Cirsium species are known for their uses in traditional medicine and consequently are studied for their phytochemical content and their biological activities. In the framework of a previous study conducted on eight extremophile plants from Tunisia, we highlighted that the crude methanolic extract of C. scabrum, a not investigated thistle, showed moderate but quite selective cytotoxic activity against the cancerous cell line J774 compared to the noncancerous cell line WI38 (IC50 = 11.53 μg/ml on J774, IC50 = 29.89 µg/ml on WI38, and selectivity index = 2.6). In the current study, the partitions of the leaves of C. scabrum were analyzed for their antiproliferative activity on the same cell lines. From the most active petroleum ether partition, we isolated four triterpenoids including lupeol, taraxasterol acetate, and a (1 : 1) mixture of 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3β-ol and 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25-en-3β-ol. These two cycloartane-type triterpenoids are mostly responsible for this cytotoxic activity. On the other hand, the antimicrobial potential of this plant was also evaluated against 36 microorganisms. The moderate antibacterial activity against 6 Staphylococcus aureus and 2 Dermabacter hominis strains is mainly attributed to the butanol partition whose major compounds are glycosides of flavones. PMID:28785293

  5. Antiproliferative and Antibacterial Activities of Cirsium scabrum from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Sahli, Ramla; Rivière, Céline; Dufloer, Cédric; Beaufay, Claire; Neut, Christel; Bero, Joanne; Hennebelle, Thierry; Roumy, Vincent; Ksouri, Riadh; Quetin-Leclercq, Joelle; Sahpaz, Sevser

    2017-01-01

    Several Cirsium species are known for their uses in traditional medicine and consequently are studied for their phytochemical content and their biological activities. In the framework of a previous study conducted on eight extremophile plants from Tunisia, we highlighted that the crude methanolic extract of C. scabrum , a not investigated thistle, showed moderate but quite selective cytotoxic activity against the cancerous cell line J774 compared to the noncancerous cell line WI38 (IC 50 = 11.53  μ g/ml on J774, IC 50 = 29.89  µ g/ml on WI38, and selectivity index = 2.6). In the current study, the partitions of the leaves of C. scabrum were analyzed for their antiproliferative activity on the same cell lines. From the most active petroleum ether partition, we isolated four triterpenoids including lupeol, taraxasterol acetate, and a (1 : 1) mixture of 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3 β -ol and 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25-en-3 β -ol. These two cycloartane-type triterpenoids are mostly responsible for this cytotoxic activity. On the other hand, the antimicrobial potential of this plant was also evaluated against 36 microorganisms. The moderate antibacterial activity against 6 Staphylococcus aureus and 2 Dermabacter hominis strains is mainly attributed to the butanol partition whose major compounds are glycosides of flavones.

  6. Part 1: Principles of Urban Watershed Forestry

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Tiffany Wright

    2005-01-01

    Conserving forests in a watershed? This manual introduces the emerging topic of urban watershed forestry and presents new methods for systematically measuring watershed forest cover and techniques for maintaining or increasing this cover. The audience for this manual includes the local watershed planner or forester.

  7. 36 CFR 251.35 - Petersburg watershed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petersburg watershed. 251.35... Miscellaneous Land Uses Petersburg Watershed § 251.35 Petersburg watershed. (a) Except as authorized in paragraphs (b) and (c), access to lands within the Petersburg watershed, Tongass National Forest, as...

  8. 36 CFR 251.35 - Petersburg watershed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Petersburg watershed. 251.35... Miscellaneous Land Uses Petersburg Watershed § 251.35 Petersburg watershed. (a) Except as authorized in paragraphs (b) and (c), access to lands within the Petersburg watershed, Tongass National Forest, as...

  9. 36 CFR 251.35 - Petersburg watershed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petersburg watershed. 251.35... Miscellaneous Land Uses Petersburg Watershed § 251.35 Petersburg watershed. (a) Except as authorized in paragraphs (b) and (c), access to lands within the Petersburg watershed, Tongass National Forest, as...

  10. 36 CFR 251.35 - Petersburg watershed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Petersburg watershed. 251.35... Miscellaneous Land Uses Petersburg Watershed § 251.35 Petersburg watershed. (a) Except as authorized in paragraphs (b) and (c), access to lands within the Petersburg watershed, Tongass National Forest, as...

  11. 36 CFR 251.35 - Petersburg watershed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Petersburg watershed. 251.35... Miscellaneous Land Uses Petersburg Watershed § 251.35 Petersburg watershed. (a) Except as authorized in paragraphs (b) and (c), access to lands within the Petersburg watershed, Tongass National Forest, as...

  12. Watershed-based survey designs

    Detenbeck, N.E.; Cincotta, D.; Denver, J.M.; Greenlee, S.K.; Olsen, A.R.; Pitchford, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Watershed-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Section 303(d), and development of empirical relationships between causes or sources of impairment and biological responses. Creation of GIS databases for hydrography, hydrologically corrected digital elevation models, and hydrologic derivatives such as watershed boundaries and upstream–downstream topology of subcatchments would provide a consistent seamless nationwide framework for these designs. The elements of a watershed-based sample framework can be represented either as a continuous infinite set defined by points along a linear stream network, or as a discrete set of watershed polygons. Watershed-based designs can be developed with existing probabilistic survey methods, including the use of unequal probability weighting, stratification, and two-stage frames for sampling. Case studies for monitoring of Atlantic Coastal Plain streams, West Virginia wadeable streams, and coastal Oregon streams illustrate three different approaches for selecting sites for watershed-based survey designs.

  13. Digenean species diversity in teleost fishes from the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia (Western Mediterranean)

    PubMed Central

    Derbel, H.; Châari, M.; Neifar, L.

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish digeneans in the Gulf of Gabes (southern coast of Tunisia). A total of 779 fishes belonging to 32 species were sampled. 53 species of Digenea belonging to 15 families were recorded. Among these species, 24 are reported for the first time from the coast of Tunisia. We report one new host record, Lecithochirium sp. from Sardinella aurita. The Hemiuridae is the dominant family. A host-parasite list is presented with the information on the prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of each species collected. The diversity of Digenea is compared with other localities in the Mediterranean Sea and the northern east of Tunisia. The Gulf of Gabes shows the lowest diversity linked to the anthropogenic activities and impact of exotic species. The use of Digenea as indicators of the state of the ecosystem is discussed. PMID:22550623

  14. Monitoring land degradation in southern Tunisia: A test of LANDSAT imagery and digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellden, U.; Stern, M.

    1980-01-01

    The possible use of LANDSAT imagery and digital data for monitoring desertification indicators in Tunisia was studied. Field data were sampled in Tunisia for estimation of mapping accuracy in maps generated through interpretation of LANDSAT false color composites and processing of LANDSAT computer compatible tapes respectively. Temporal change studies were carried out through geometric registration of computer classified windows from 1972 to classified data from 1979. Indications on land degradation were noted in some areas. No important differences, concerning results, between the interpretation approach and the computer processing approach were found.

  15. [Preliminary investigation of four anopheles larvae samples susceptibility to chlorpyrifos in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Krida, G; Bouattour, A; Rhaim, A; el Kebir, A; Jlidi, R

    1998-01-01

    Larvae susceptibility to chlorpyrifos is studied on four Tunisian Anopheles larvas samples: Anopheles labranchiae from Rades (South of Tunis) and Menchar (region of Beja), in the North of Tunisia, A. sergentii from Meknassy and A. multicolor from Sidi Bouzid, both in the Centre of Tunisia. The test results of larvae susceplibility indicate that the LC50 and the LC95 values are less than 0.002 and 0.02 mg l-1 respectively and their 95% confidence limits overlap. We also notice that the studied samples show the same susceptibility to chlorpyrifos. The results can be used as a base data further studies on the susceptibility of Anopheles to chemical insecticides.

  16. Teaching Practical Watershed Science to non-Watershed Science Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassnacht, S. R.; Laituri, M.; Layden, P.; Coleman, R.

    2008-12-01

    The Warner College of Natural Resources (WCNR) at Colorado State University (CSU) has had a long tradition of integrating field measurements into the classroom, dating back to the first forestry summer camp held in 1917 at the CSU Pingree Park mountain campus. In the early 1960s, the Cooperative Watershed Management Unit coordinated efforts to understand and analyse the basic resources of the area, with an emphasis on the geology, hydrology, and climate. Much of this understand is now used as the Abiotic (Geology and Watershed) component of a five-credit, four-week course offered twice each summer at Pingree Park. With the exception of Geology students who have their own field course, this Natural Resources Ecology and Measurements course (NR 220) is required for all WCNR undergraduate students. These majors include Watershed Science, Forestry, Rangeland Ecology, Fisheries, Wildlife Biology, Conservation Biology, and Recreation and Tourism. Since most of these are students are much better trained in biological and/or social sciences rather than physical sciences, a challenge for the Watershed professor is to teaching practical Watershed Science to non-Watershed Science majors. This presentation describes how this challenge is met and how this course helps broaden the knowledge base of Natural Resources students.

  17. Working at a Watershed Level

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A short course that provides a basic, but very broad foundation for the use of ecological, social and organizational management principles to guide activities to restore and sustain watershed conditions.

  18. COMPLEMENTARY APPROACHES TO WATERSHED ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic activities in watersheds affect aquatic organisms, riparian vegetation, and their ability to support avian populations. Our objective was to compare indicators of stream and riparian condition with the composition of breeding bird populations in six Rhode Island s...

  19. Accomplishments of South Platte Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Accomplishments of the South Platte Watershed of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  20. Watershed models for instructional films

    Peter E. Black; Raymond E. Leonard

    1970-01-01

    Watershed models, with a special sponge material that simulates soil drainage, were used to make an instructional film on subsurface flow and stream flow. Construction of the models and filming techniques are described.

  1. Watershed Simulation of Nutrient Processes

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this presentation, nitrogen processes simulated in watershed models were reviewed and compared. Furthermore, current researches on nitrogen losses from agricultural fields were also reviewed. Finally, applications with those models were reviewed and selected successful and u...

  2. Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resour

  3. Anaplasma platys-like strains in ruminants from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; El Mabrouk, Narjesse; Saidani, Mariem; Alberti, Alberto; Zobba, Rosanna; Cherif, Amal; Mahjoub, Tarek; Bouattour, Ali; Messadi, Lilia

    2017-04-01

    Molecular diagnosis of Anaplasma platys and related strains (A. platys-like) in carnivores and ruminants is challenging due to co-infections with cross-reacting strains, and require post-amplification sequencing of the hemi-nested PCR products traditionally generated by targeting the groEL gene. In this study, a Restriction Enzyme Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) assay coupled to hemi-nested groEL PCR was developed to discriminate among A. platys and genetically related strains. This novel approach was used for investigating A. platys-like infection in 963 domesticated ruminants (241 goats, 355 sheep, and 367 cattle) from 22 delegations located in North Tunisia. Overall prevalence rates of A. platys-like were 22.8, 11, and 3.5% in goats, sheep, and cattle, respectively. Alignment, identity comparison, and phylogenetic analysis of the groEL sequence variants obtained in this study confirmed RFLP data suggesting that Tunisian ruminants are infected by novel unclassified Anaplasma strains genetically related to A. platys. Compared to sequencing, RFLP assay allows fast detection of A. platys and A. platys-like pathogens in the same sample and has a potential value especially when screening ticks, cats and ruminants, which can be a common host for these two bacteria. This newly developed molecular technique would provide valuable molecular tool for epidemiological studies related to A. platys as well as remove concern over specificity of serological and molecular methods routinely used to identify diverse Anaplasma strains and species in wild and domestic ruminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic variability and haplotypes of Echinococcus isolates from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Boufana, Belgees; Lahmar, Samia; Rebaï, Waël; Ben Safta, Zoubeir; Jebabli, Leïla; Ammar, Adel; Kachti, Mahmoud; Aouadi, Soufia; Craig, Philip S

    2014-11-01

    The species/genotypes of Echinococcus infecting a range of intermediate, canid and human hosts were examined as well as the intraspecific variation and population structure of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) within these hosts. A total of 174 Echinococcus isolates from humans and ungulate intermediate hosts and adult tapeworms from dogs and jackals were used. Genomic DNA was used to amplify a fragment within a mitochondrial gene and a nuclear gene, coding for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1; 828 bp) and elongation factor 1-alpha (ef1a; 656 bp), respectively. E. granulosus sensu stricto was identified from all host species examined, E. canadensis (G6) in a camel and, for the first time, fertile cysts of E. granulosus (s.s.) and E. equinus in equids (donkeys) and E. granulosus (s.s.) from wild boars and goats. Considerable genetic variation was seen only for the cox1 sequences of E. granulosus (s.s.). The pairwise fixation index (Fst) for cox1 E. granulosus (s.s.) sequences from donkeys was high and was statistically significant compared with that of E. granulosus populations from other intermediate hosts. A single haplotype (EqTu01) was identified for the cox1 nucleotide sequences of E. equinus. The role of donkeys in the epidemiology of echinococcosis in Tunisia requires further investigation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi

    Wilson, K. Van; Clair, Michael G.; Turnipseed, D. Phil; Rebich, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Mississippi Department of Transportation, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, and the Mississippi Automated Resource Information System developed a 1:24,000-scale Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi including watershed and subwatershed boundaries, codes, names, and areas. The Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi provides a standard geographical framework for water-resources and selected land-resources planning. The original 8-digit subbasins (Hydrologic Unit Codes) were further subdivided into 10-digit watersheds (62.5 to 391 square miles (mi2)) and 12-digit subwatersheds (15.6 to 62.5 mi2) - the exceptions being the Delta part of Mississippi and the Mississippi River inside levees, which were subdivided into 10-digit watersheds only. Also, large water bodies in the Mississippi Sound along the coast were not delineated as small as a typical 12-digit subwatershed. All of the data - including watershed and subwatershed boundaries, subdivision codes and names, and drainage-area data - are stored in a Geographic Information System database, which are available at: http://ms.water.usgs.gov/. This map shows information on drainage and hydrography in the form of U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic unit boundaries for water-resource 2-digit regions, 4-digit subregions, 6-digit basins (formerly called accounting units), 8-digit subbasins (formerly called cataloging units), 10-digit watershed, and 12-digit subwatersheds in Mississippi. A description of the project study area, methods used in the development of watershed and subwatershed boundaries for Mississippi, and results are presented in Wilson and others (2008). The data presented in this map and by Wilson and others (2008) supersede the data presented for Mississippi by Seaber and others (1987) and U.S. Geological Survey (1977).

  6. Watershed and longitudinal monitoring events

    Harold Harbert; Steven Blackburn

    2016-01-01

    Georgia Adopt-A-Stream partners annually with many organizations, universities and watershed groups to conduct sampling events with volunteers at a watershed level. These monitoring events range from one-day snapshots to week-long paddle trips. One-day sampling events, also called “Blitzs,” River Adventures and River Rendezvous, generally target 20-50 sites within a...

  7. Automated watershed subdivision for simulations using multi-objective optimization

    The development of watershed management plans to evaluate placement of conservation practices typically involves application of watershed models. Incorporating spatially variable watershed characteristics into a model often requires subdividing the watershed into small areas to accurately account f...

  8. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 4, Number 1, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1969 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and…

  9. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Number 1, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 130-item bibliography with abstracts of books and articles in English and French provides information on various aspects of education (many of them language-related) in the Maghreb countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Each entry identifies the country with which it is concerned, and French titles are translated into English.…

  10. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 6, Number 1, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Annotations of articles, written in English, provide the content for a bibliography of educational materials written in French useful to those with an interest in North Africa. Sections on Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia are preceded by a section on the Maghreb which deals with the special problems of illiteracy, multilingualism, and rapid…

  11. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Numbers 2, 3, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A two volume, 200-item bibliography with English abstracts of books and articles in English and French dating from 1957 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and higher education; and…

  12. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 2, Numbers 1, 2, 3, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Three volumes comprise a 375-item bibliography with abstracts of books and articles in English, French, Italian, and Arabic that provides information on various aspects of education in the Maghreb countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Each entry identifies the country with which it is concerned, and foreign language titles are…

  13. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Number 4, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French dating from 1953 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational and higher education;…

  14. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 1 No. 3 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This annotated compilation of 108 educational publications in Arabic, French, and English includes texts and data on elementary and secondary school curricula in the Maghreb countries (Tunisia, Morroco, Algeria, and Libya). Categories in this bibliography include--(1) Philosophy and Theory of Education, (2) Administration of the Educational…

  15. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 10, No. 4, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Ninety-one English language annotations are presented of newspaper articles and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Most of the entries were published during the period October-December 1976. Organized by country, the references cover topics of philosophy and theory of education, teacher training,…

  16. Selected Bibliography of Materials; Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 1, Number 2, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A bibliography with abstracts of 106 items from books and articles covers materials on education in the Maghreb countries of Tunisia, Libya, Algeria, and Morocco. Special emphasis is given to the two problems besetting the area's educational system: illiteracy and multilingualism. The entries cover philosophy and theory of education,…

  17. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 9, No. 3, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    The bibliography presents 91 English language annotations of newspaper articles, journals, and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Although the title also includes Maghreb, this issue does not contain any annotations for that country. All articles were published during the period July-September 1975.…

  18. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 8, Number 1, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This annotated bibliography contains 100 English-language annotations of newspapers and government publications covering educational topics of interest to North Africans. The majority of the items cited were published in 1974. Citations are categorized by country: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Within these major categories are subtopics…

  19. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 4, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1970 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and…

  20. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 6, Number 2, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Annotations of articles, written in English, provide the content for an annotated bibliography of educational materials written in French useful to those with an interest in North Africa. Sections on Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia cover topics such as the philosophy and theory of education, educational organization, adult education, teacher…

  1. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 4 No. 3, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    This report, part of a series of educational bibliographies from the Maghreb countries (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) and Libya, consists of excerpts from periodicals published in those countries. Each entry is marked to indicate the particular country. The articles are organized under 13 major subjects that include: the structure of educational…

  2. Situation Report--Laos, Malawi, Pakistan, Republic of Korea, Somali Democratic Republic, and Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Laos, Malawi, Pakistan, Republic of Korea, Somali Democratic Republic, and Tunisia. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is…

  3. Physical Education in Tunisia: Teachers' Practical Epistemology, Students' Positioning and Gender Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amade-Escot, Chantal; Elandoulsi, Souha; Verscheure, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores gendered student learning in physical education (PE) viewed as a situated emerging process involving a triadic relationship between teacher, student(s) and forms of knowledge that are socioculturally bounded. It concerns gymnastic teaching and learning in Tunisia. It was conducted against the background of the Joint Action…

  4. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2015-12-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A.nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Urban Street Signs in the Linguistic Landscape of Tunisia: Tensions in Policy, Representation, and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Said, Slim Ben Slimane

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic study of linguistic landscape (LL) (Landry & Bourhis, 1997), describes the urban multilingual practices of Tunisia as evidenced by its policy statements, street signage, and local perceptions. Data for this investigation were collected primarily from publicly visible signage in both the capital city (Tunis), and in the suburb…

  6. Situation Reports--Ceylon, Costa Rica, Ghana, Haiti, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Ceylon, Costa Rica, Ghana, Haiti, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and the United States of America. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is…

  7. Effects of Fusarium culmorum and water stress on durum wheat in Tunisia

    The effects of water stress on Fusarium foot and root rot in durum wheat were investigated in growth chamber, greenhouse and field tests in Tunisia. In the seedling stage, emergence of six durum wheat cultivars in the growth chamber was significantly reduced by inoculation with Fusarium culmorum and...

  8. Scope, Relevance and Challenges of Financing Higher Education: The Case of Tunisia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdessalem, Tahar

    2011-01-01

    Like other developing countries, Tunisia has allocated increasing levels of resources to education, particularly higher education, over the past few decades, mainly through public funding. From 2005 to 2008, public expenditure on education amounted to around 7.4% of GDP, with 2% allocated to higher education. Recently, however, budgetary…

  9. Phylogenetic Analysis and Epidemic History of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 2 in Tunisia, North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rajhi, Mouna; Ghedira, Kais; Chouikha, Anissa; Djebbi, Ahlem; Cheikh, Imed; Ben Yahia, Ahlem; Sadraoui, Amel; Hammami, Walid; Azouz, Msaddek; Ben Mami, Nabil; Triki, Henda

    2016-01-01

    HCV genotype 2 (HCV-2) has a worldwide distribution with prevalence rates that vary from country to country. High genetic diversity and long-term endemicity were suggested in West African countries. A global dispersal of HCV-2 would have occurred during the 20th century, especially in European countries. In Tunisia, genotype 2 was the second prevalent genotype after genotype 1 and most isolates belong to subtypes 2c and 2k. In this study, phylogenetic analyses based on the NS5B genomic sequences of 113 Tunisian HCV isolates from subtypes 2c and 2k were carried out. A Bayesian coalescent-based framework was used to estimate the origin and the spread of these subtypes circulating in Tunisia. Phylogenetic analyses of HCV-2c sequences suggest the absence of country-specific or time-specific variants. In contrast, the phylogenetic grouping of HCV-2k sequences shows the existence of two major genetic clusters that may represent two distinct circulating variants. Coalescent analysis indicated a most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of Tunisian HCV-2c around 1886 (1869–1902) before the introduction of HCV-2k in 1901 (1867–1931). Our findings suggest that the introduction of HCV-2c in Tunisia is possibly a result of population movements between Tunisia and European population following the French colonization. PMID:27100294

  10. Hepatitis E virus genotypes 1 and 3 in wastewater samples in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Béji-Hamza, A; Hassine-Zaafrane, M; Khélifi-Gharbi, H; Della Libera, S; Iaconelli, M; Muscillo, M; Petricca, S; Ciccaglione, A R; Bruni, R; Taffon, S; Aouni, M; La Rosa, G

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E represents an important public-health concern throughout the world. It is one of the leading causes of hepatitis in North Africa, Asia and the Middle East. In Tunisia, the true burden of HEV infection is still unknown. The objectives of the present study were to assess the occurrence of hepatitis E virus in Tunisia through the monitoring of urban sewage and to characterize the strains identified using molecular assays. A total of 150 sewage samples (raw and treated) were collected from three wastewater treatment plants located in the regions of Monastir and Mahdia and analyzed by nested RT-PCR using a qualitative assay targeting the methyltransferase gene in ORF1. Of these, only three samples (2 %) were found to be positive for HEV, one belonging to genotype 1 and two to genotype 3. The results of the present study indicate a low level of virus excretion among the Tunisian population. Both genotypes 1 and 3 are circulating in this country, however, possibly causing sporadic infections. The presence of the zoonotic genotype 3, known to be transmitted to humans mainly by swine and demonstrated in Tunisia for the first time in this work, raises the question of possible reservoir species, since pork products are not consumed in this country, pigs are not bred, and wild boar is not endemic. Further studies will be needed to gather information on the occurrence and diversity of HEV strains circulating among humans and animals in Tunisia, and on possible animal reservoirs.

  11. Characterization of a Colletotrichum population causing anthracnose disease on Olive in northern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Chattaoui, M; Raya, M C; Bouri, M; Moral, J; Perez-Rodriguez, M; Trapero, A; Msallem, M; Rhouma, A

    2016-05-01

    To phenotypically, physiologically and molecularly characterize the causal agent of olive anthracnose in the northern Tunisia and to study its genetic variability and pathogenicity. A total of 43 isolates were obtained from symptomatic olives collected from four regions in northern Tunisia. A range of morphological and physiological characteristics was recorded; and a phylogenetic study, based on the sequence analysis of both internal transcribed spacers and TUB2 gene regions, was performed. Of the 43 isolates, 41 were identified as Colletotrichum acutatum s.s, and only two were affiliated to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.s. Two more representative Spanish isolates, included for comparison, were identified as Colletotrichum godetiae. Using six inter-simple-sequence-repeat markers, homogeneity between isolates from different locations and within the same species was recorded. In pathogenicity and virulence studies, C. gloeosporioides s.s was found to be less virulent, while the Spanish C. godetiae isolate was significantly more virulent than the Tunisian C. acutatum s.s. Olive anthracnose in the North of Tunisia is mainly caused by C. acutatum s.s species. This is the first study of olive anthracnose in Tunisia, which combines both phenotypic and molecular approaches. Colletotrichum acutatum s.s group was recorded for the first time in the country as the causal agent of olive anthracnose. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Evaluation of Puccinia carduorum for biological control of Carduus pycnocephalus in Tunisia

    The rust fungus Puccinia carduorum is a candidate for biological control of Carduus pycnocephalus in the USA. In Tunisia, rusted C. pycnocephalus has been found in many fields during surveys conducted in the north of the country. The pathogenicity of Puccinia carduorum was evaluated under greenhou...

  13. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program 1992: Morocco and Tunisia. Final Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AMIDEAST, Washington, DC.

    The projects described in this document were submitted by U.S. teachers who spent time in Morocco and Tunisia as part of the 1992 Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program. The following are among the titles of the projects included: "Formal Education in Rural Morocco: Problems and Constraints" (Victoria Baker); "Continuity and Change…

  14. Phylogenetic Analysis and Epidemic History of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 2 in Tunisia, North Africa.

    PubMed

    Rajhi, Mouna; Ghedira, Kais; Chouikha, Anissa; Djebbi, Ahlem; Cheikh, Imed; Ben Yahia, Ahlem; Sadraoui, Amel; Hammami, Walid; Azouz, Msaddek; Ben Mami, Nabil; Triki, Henda

    2016-01-01

    HCV genotype 2 (HCV-2) has a worldwide distribution with prevalence rates that vary from country to country. High genetic diversity and long-term endemicity were suggested in West African countries. A global dispersal of HCV-2 would have occurred during the 20th century, especially in European countries. In Tunisia, genotype 2 was the second prevalent genotype after genotype 1 and most isolates belong to subtypes 2c and 2k. In this study, phylogenetic analyses based on the NS5B genomic sequences of 113 Tunisian HCV isolates from subtypes 2c and 2k were carried out. A Bayesian coalescent-based framework was used to estimate the origin and the spread of these subtypes circulating in Tunisia. Phylogenetic analyses of HCV-2c sequences suggest the absence of country-specific or time-specific variants. In contrast, the phylogenetic grouping of HCV-2k sequences shows the existence of two major genetic clusters that may represent two distinct circulating variants. Coalescent analysis indicated a most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of Tunisian HCV-2c around 1886 (1869-1902) before the introduction of HCV-2k in 1901 (1867-1931). Our findings suggest that the introduction of HCV-2c in Tunisia is possibly a result of population movements between Tunisia and European population following the French colonization.

  15. Multivariate analysis of morphological diversity among closely related Daucus species and subspecies in Tunisia

    The genus Daucus includes about 20-25 species worldwide. Northern Africa represents a major center of diversity of Daucus, with Tunisia thought to contain 11 species and seven subspecies. We assessed morphological diversity from a Daucus germplasm collection of 103 accessions at the National Gene Ba...

  16. First report of Fusarium redolens causing Fusarium yellowing and wilt of chickpea in Tunisia

    Chickpea plants showing wilt symptoms in Tunisia have been attributed solely to race 0 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc) in the past. However, chickpea cultivars known to be resistant to race 0 of Foc recently also showed the wilting symptoms. To ascertain the race or species identities re...

  17. Gastrointestinal parasites of canids, a latent risk to human health in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; M'rad, Selim; Trifa, Fatma; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2017-06-05

    Although data on the parasite environmental contamination are crucial to implement strategies for control and treatment, information about zoonotic helminths is very limited in Tunisia. Contamination of areas with canid faeces harboring infective parasite elements represents a relevant health-risk impact for humans. The aim of this study was to assess the environmental contamination with eggs and oocysts of gastrointestinal parasites of dogs and wild canids in Tunisia with special attention to those that can be transmitted to humans. One thousand two hundred and seventy faecal samples from stray dogs and 104 from wild canids (red foxes and golden jackals) were collected from different geographical regions throughout Tunisia. The helminth eggs and protozoan oocysts were concentrated by sucrose flotation and identified by microscopic examination. The most frequently observed parasites in dog samples were Toxocara spp. (27.2%), E. granulosus (25.8%), and Coccidia (13.1%). For wild canid faeces, the most commonly encountered parasites were Toxocara spp. (16.3%) followed by Capillaria spp. (9.6%). The parasite contamination of dog faeces varied significantly from one region to another in function of the climate. To our knowledge, the study highlights for the first time in Tunisia a serious environmental contamination by numerous parasitic stages infective to humans. Efforts should be made to increase the awareness of the contamination risk of such parasites in the environment and implement a targeted educational program.

  18. Family planning in Tunisia and Morocco: a summary and evaluation of the recent record.

    PubMed

    Lapham, R

    1971-05-01

    Family planning activity during 1969-1970 in Morocco and Tunisia is discussed in terms of 12 criteria (such as leadership, educational services, availability) used to evaluate the programs in the 2 countries. Significant differences between family planning activity in the 2 countries can be seen in the nature of involvement of their governments through the open and public endorsement of family planning by Tunisia's president compared to the reserve of Morocco's king. Although family planning programs in both countries are organized within the Ministries of Health, the Tunisian program is conducted by a separate division, the Department of Family Planning and Maternal and Child Health, while Morocco's program is completely integrated within existing health services, a fusion which seems to create financial problems for the Moroccan family planning efforts. The Tunisian program, when compared to that of Morocco, is also characterized by a greater availability of contraceptives, more postpartum education and information activity, available induced-abortion and sterilization services, more widespread use of mass media and communication techniques and greater success in program evaluation. On a population basis, Tunisia (population of 5.2 million in 1970) has about 3 times the number of acceptors as Morocco (population of 15.4 million). Both programs have record-keeping systems which improved considerably during 1969 and 1970, but neither program has an effective field worker network. While Tunisia's program has demonstrated more success in meeting the criteria than Morocco's program and a slight decline has occurred in the crude birth rate in Tunisia in recent years, much of this decline can be attributed to a rising age at marriage resulting from the government's policies of social development. Evaluation indicated that both countries will have to increase availability of contraceptives and encourage effective use if substantial decreases in the crude birth rate are

  19. Migration pattern of hepatitis A virus genotype IA in North-Central Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Beji-Hamza, Abir; Taffon, Stefania; Mhalla, Salma; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Equestre, Michele; Chionne, Paola; Madonna, Elisabetta; Cella, Eleonora; Bruni, Roberto; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Aouni, Mahjoub; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita

    2015-02-08

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) epidemiology in Tunisia has changed from high to intermediate endemicity in the last decades. However, several outbreaks continue to occur. The last reported sequences from Tunisian HAV strains date back to 2006. In order to provide an updated overview of the strains currently circulating in Tunisia, a large-scale molecular analysis of samples from hepatitis A cases was performed, the first in Tunisia. Biological samples were collected from patients with laboratory confirmed hepatitis A: 145 sera samples in Tunis, Monastir, Sousse and Kairouan from 2008 to 2013 and 45 stool samples in Mahdia in 2009. HAV isolates were characterised by nested RT-PCR (VP1/2A region) and sequencing. The sequences finally obtained from 81 samples showed 78 genotype IA and 3 genotype IB isolates. A Tunisian genotype IA sequence dataset, including both the 78 newly obtained IA sequences and 51 sequences retrieved from GenBank, was used for phylogenetic investigation, including analysis of migration pattern among six towns. Virus gene flow from Sfax and Monastir was directed to all other towns; in contrast, the gene flows from Sousse, Tunis, Mahdia and Kairouan were directed to three, two, one and no towns, respectively. Several different HAV strains co-circulate in Tunisia, but the predominant genotype still continues to be IA (78/81, 96% isolates). A complex gene flow (migration) of HAV genotype IA was observed, with Sfax and Monastir showing gene flows to all other investigated towns. This approach coupled to a wider sampling can prove useful to investigate the factors underlying the spread of HAV in Tunisia and, thus, to implement appropriate preventing measures.

  20. HPV Types and Variants Among Cervical Cancer Tumors in Three Regions of Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    KrennHrubec, Keris; Mrad, Karima; Sriha, Badreddine; Ben Ayed, Farhat; Bottalico, Danielle M.; Ostolaza, Janae; Smith, Benjamin; Tchaikovska, Tatyana; Soliman, Amr S.; Burk, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among Tunisian women, and the incidence rates vary by region. Three Tunisian registries report age-standardized rates of 6.3/105 in the central region, 5.4/105 in the north, and 2.7/105 in the south. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types and their variants differ in carcinogenic potential and geographic distribution. The HPV type and variant distribution could be a factor in the differing rates between regions of Tunisia. Tumor tissue was collected from 142 Tunisian cervical cancer patients. Demographic and reproductive characteristics of the patients were abstracted from cancer registry and hospital records. HPV type and variant analyses were performed using PCR-based Luminex and dot-blot hybridization assays. Eighty-three percent of tumors were infected with at least one HPV type. European variants of HPV16/18 were the most prevalent in tumors from all three regions, with all HPV18 infections and 64% of HPV16 infections being of European lineage. A higher frequency of HPV16 was present in Northern Tunisia (80%) than in Central (68%) or Southern Tunisia (50%) (P = 0.02). HPV18/45 was significantly more common in adenocarcinomas (50%) than in squamous cell carcinomas (11%) (P = 0.004). Frequent infection with European HPV variants most likely reflects the history of European migration to Tunisia. In addition to the importance of understanding the variants of HPV in Tunisia, behavioral and cultural attitudes towards screening and age-specific infection rates should be investigated to aid the development of future vaccination and HPV screening programs and policies. PMID:21328380

  1. Evaluation of the Performance of Multiple Drought Indices for Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geli, H. M. E.; Jedd, T.; Svoboda, M.; Wardlow, B.; Hayes, M. J.; Neale, C. M. U.; Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    The recent and frequent drought events in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) create an urgent need for scientists, stakeholders, and decision makers to improve the understanding of drought in order to mitigate its effects. It is well documented that drought is not caused by meteorological or hydrological conditions alone; social, economic, and political governance factors play a large part in whether the components in a water supply system are balanced. In the MENA region, for example, agricultural production can place a significant burden on water supply systems. Understanding the connection between drought and agricultural production is an important first step in developing a sound drought monitoring and mitigation system that links physical indicators with on-the-ground impacts. Drought affect crop yield, livestock health, and water resources availability, among others. A clear depiction of drought onset, duration and severity is essential to provide valuable information to adapt and mitigate drought impact. Therefore, it is important that to be able to connect and evaluate scientific drought data and informational products with societal impact data to more effectively initiate mitigation actions. This approach will further the development of drought maps that are tailored and responsive to immediate and specific societal needs for a region or country. Within the context of developing and evaluating drought impacts maps for the MENA region, this analysis investigates the use of different drought indices and indicators including the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) anomaly, land surface temperature (LST), and Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) for their ability to characterize historic drought events in Tunisia. Evaluation of a "drought map" product is conducted using data at the county level including crop yield, precipitation, in-country interviews with drought monitoring experts and agricultural

  2. Groundwater chemistry and radon-222 distribution in Jerba Island, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Telahigue, Faten; Agoubi, Belgacem; Souid, Fayza; Kharroubi, Adel

    2018-02-01

    The present study integrates hydrogeological, hydrochemical and radiogenic data of groundwater samples taken from the Plio-Quaternary unconfined aquifer of Jerba Island, southeastern Tunisia, in order to interpret the spatial variations of the groundwater quality and identify the main hydrogeochemical factors responsible for the high ion concentrations and radon-222 content in the groundwater analysed. Thirty-nine groundwater samples were collected from open wells widespread on the island. Physical parameters (EC, pH, TDS and T °) were measured, major ions (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , K + , Cl - , SO 4 2- , NO 3 - and HCO 3 - ) were analysed and 222 Rn concentrations were determined using a RAD7-H 2 O. Hydrogeochemical characterisation revealed that groundwater from the Jerba aquifer has several origins. Basically, two water types exist in the island. The first one, characterized by a low to moderate salinity with a chemical facies CaMgClSO 4 , characterizes the central part of Jerba (a recharge area) due to carbonate and gypsum dissolution. The second water type with high salinities, dominated by NaKCl type, was observed in coastal areas and some parts having low topographic and piezometric levels. These areas seem to be affected by the seawater intrusion process. The 222 Rn concentrations in groundwater samples in Jerba varied from 0 Bq.L -1 to 2860 Bq.L -1 with an average of 867 Bq.L -1 . The highest values were registered in the western coastal wells and near the fault of Guellala. However, the central and eastern wells showed low radon levels. Compared to 222 Rn activity in some countries with the same lithology, radon concentrations in the Jerba unconfined aquifer have higher values influenced by the structure of the aquifer and by seawater inflow enriched with 222 Rn resulting from the decay of uranium derived from phosphogypsum deposits in the gulf of Gabes. The EC and 222 Rn spatial variability in the study area were mapped using ARC Map 10.3 software

  3. Application of Watershed Scale Models to Predict Nitrogen Loading From Coastal Plain Watersheds

    George M. Chescheir; Glenn P Fernandez; R. Wayne Skaggs; Devendra M. Amatya

    2004-01-01

    DRAINMOD-based watershed models have been developed and tested using data collected from an intensively instrumented research site on Kendricks Creek watershed near Plymouth. NC. These models were applied to simulate the hydrology and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) loading from two other watersheds in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, the 11600 ha Chicod Creek watershed...

  4. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) Workshop.

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) version 2 is a decision support tool designed to facilitate integrated water management by communities at the small watershed scale. WMOST allows users to look across management options in stormwater (including green i...

  5. GROUND WATER AND WATERSHEDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective watershed management has the potential to achieve both drinking water and ecological protection goals. However, it is important that the watershed perspective be three- dimensional and include the hidden subsurface. The subsurface catchment, or groundwatershed, is geohy...

  6. Watershed Management in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    A watershed approach provides an effective framework for dealing with water resources challenges. Watersheds provide drinking water, recreation, and ecological habitat, as well as a place for waste disposal, a source of industrial cooling water, and navigable inland water transpo...

  7. ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous sources of infectious disease causing microorganisms exist in watersheds and can impact recreational and drinking water quality. Organisms of concern include bacteria, viruses, and parasites. The watershed manager is challenged to limit human contact with pathogens, limi...

  8. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) Webinar

    EPA Science Inventory

    This webinar will highlight version 3 of EPA’s Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST). WMOST facilitates implementation of integrated water management by communities, utilities, watershed management organizations, consultants, and others. There can be many o...

  9. An Example of European-North African Collaboration: The Implementation of an Electrical Engineering Postgraduate Programme in Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annabi, Mohammed; Poloujadoff, Michel

    1989-01-01

    Describes the recent historical development, main features, and results of an engineering graduate program in Tunisia. A description of the civil service program for young university graduates and the hierarchy of university staff is provided. (YP)

  10. Cloud GIS Based Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bediroğlu, G.; Colak, H. E.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we generated a Cloud GIS based watershed management system with using Cloud Computing architecture. Cloud GIS is used as SAAS (Software as a Service) and DAAS (Data as a Service). We applied GIS analysis on cloud in terms of testing SAAS and deployed GIS datasets on cloud in terms of DAAS. We used Hybrid cloud computing model in manner of using ready web based mapping services hosted on cloud (World Topology, Satellite Imageries). We uploaded to system after creating geodatabases including Hydrology (Rivers, Lakes), Soil Maps, Climate Maps, Rain Maps, Geology and Land Use. Watershed of study area has been determined on cloud using ready-hosted topology maps. After uploading all the datasets to systems, we have applied various GIS analysis and queries. Results shown that Cloud GIS technology brings velocity and efficiency for watershed management studies. Besides this, system can be easily implemented for similar land analysis and management studies.

  11. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool v3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a decision support tool that facilitates integrated water management at the local or small watershed scale. WMOST models the environmental effects and costs of management decisions in a watershed context that is, accou...

  12. Rural watershed partnerships: lessons from West Virginia

    Steve W. Selin; Alan Collins; Susan Hunter

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the efforts by one state government (West Virginia) to facilitate collaborative, watershed-based planning. This paper provides an overview of the state watershed planning process and includes a summary of a baseline study of rural watershed partnerships operating within West Virginia. Implication of the study for state policies and...

  13. Detecting temporal change in watershed nutrient yields

    James D. Wickham; Timothy G. Wade; Kurt H. Riitters

    2008-01-01

    Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increases in watershed nutrient yields. Yet, the same meta-analyses also reveal that, absent land-...

  14. Detecting Temporal Change in Watershed Nutrient Yields

    James D. Wickham; Timothy G. Wade; Kurt H. Riitters

    2008-01-01

    Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increases in watershed nutrient yields. Yet, the same meta-analyses also reveal that, absent land-...

  15. Emerging tools and technologies in watershed management

    D. Phillip Guertin; Scott N. Miller; David C. Goodrich

    2000-01-01

    The field of watershed management is highly dependent on spatially distributed data. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made toward the capture, storage, and use of spatial data. Emerging tools and technologies hold great promise for improving the scientific understanding of watershed processes and are already revolutionizing watershed research....

  16. First Report on Natural Infection of Phlebotomus sergenti with Leishmania Promastigotes in the Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Focus in Southeastern Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Tabbabi, Ahmed; Bousslimi, Nadia; Rhim, Adel; Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2011-01-01

    During September 2010, 133 female sand flies were caught inside houses of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the focus for this disease in southeastern Tunisia and subsequently dissected. One specimen was positive for Leishmania protozoa. This sand fly species was identified as Phlebotomus sergenti, and the parasite was identified as L. tropica. This is the first report of P. sergenti involvement in transmission of L. tropica in Tunisia. PMID:21976566

  17. First report of natural infection of least weasel (Mustela nivalis Linnaeus, 1776) with Leishmania major in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ghawar, Wissem; Snoussi, Mohamed Ali; Hamida, Nabil Bel Haj; Boukthir, Aïcha; Yazidi, Rihab; Chaâbane, Sana; Chemkhi, Jomâa; Zâatour, Amor; Salah, Afif Ben

    2011-11-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania major (L. major), is endemic in Tunisia. Several rodents have been identified as reservoir hosts of parasites. This study reports, for the first time, the natural infection with L. major zymodeme MON-25 in a specimen of least weasel: Mustela nivalis Linnaeus, 1776 (M. nivalis) collected in Sidi Bouzid. This finding justifies further research on larger samples of this animal to verify its role as a potential reservoir host for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia.

  18. Watershed Education for Broadcast Meteorologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamos, J. P.; Sliter, D.; Espinoza, S.; Spangler, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    The National Environmental Education and Training Organization (NEETF) published a report in 2005 that summarized the findings of ten years of NEETF and Roper Research. The report stated, "Our years of data from Roper surveys show a persistent pattern of environmental ignorance even among the most educated and influential members of society." Market research has also shown that 80% of television viewers list the weather as the primary reason for watching the local news. Broadcast meteorologists, with a broader understanding of environmental and related sciences have an opportunity to use their weathercasts to inform the public about the environment and the factors that influence environmental health. As "station scientists," broadcast meteorologists can use the weather, and people's connection to it, to broaden their understanding of the environment they live in. Weather and watershed conditions associated with flooding and drought have major human and environmental impacts. Increasing the awareness of the general public about basic aspects of the hydrologic landscape can be an important part of mitigating the adverse effects of too much or too little precipitation, and of protecting the environment as well. The concept of a watershed as a person's natural neighborhood is a very important one for understanding hydrologic and environmental issues. Everyone lives in a watershed, and the health of a watershed is the result of the interplay between weather and human activity. This paper describes an online course to give broadcast meteorologists a basic understanding of watersheds and how watersheds are impacted by weather. It discusses how to convey watershed science to a media- savvy audience as well as how to model the communication of watershed and hydrologic concepts to the public. The course uses a narrative, story-like style to present its content. It is organized into six short units of instruction, each approximately 20 minutes in duration. Each unit is

  19. Chapter 19. Cumulative watershed effects and watershed analysis

    Leslie M. Reid

    1998-01-01

    Cumulative watershed effects are environmental changes that are affected by more than.one land-use activity and that are influenced by.processes involving the generation or transport.of water. Almost all environmental changes are.cumulative effects, and almost all land-use.activities contribute to cumulative effects

  20. Multiagent distributed watershed management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Amigoni, F.; Cai, X.

    2012-04-01

    Deregulation and democratization of water along with increasing environmental awareness are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional centralized approach to water management, as described in much of water resources literature, is often unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts. Thus it should be reconsidered from a more realistic and distributed perspective, in order to account for the presence of multiple and often independent Decision Makers (DMs) and many conflicting stakeholders. Game theory based approaches are often used to study these situations of conflict (Madani, 2010), but they are limited to a descriptive perspective. Multiagent systems (see Wooldridge, 2009), instead, seem to be a more suitable paradigm because they naturally allow to represent a set of self-interested agents (DMs and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision process at the agent level, resulting in a promising compromise alternative between the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. Casting a water management problem in a multiagent framework allows to exploit the techniques and methods that are already available in this field for solving distributed optimization problems. In particular, in Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems (DCSP, see Yokoo et al., 2000), each agent controls some variables according to his own utility function but has to satisfy inter-agent constraints; while in Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOP, see Modi et al., 2005), the problem is generalized by introducing a global objective function to be optimized that requires a coordination mechanism between the agents. In this work, we apply a DCSP-DCOP based approach to model a steady state hypothetical watershed management problem (Yang et al., 2009), involving several active human agents (i.e. agents who make decisions) and reactive ecological agents (i.e. agents representing

  1. DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN WATERSHEDS AND ECOREGIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an effort to adopt more holistic ecosystem approaches to resource assessment and management, many state and federal agencies have begun using watershed or ecoregion frameworks. Although few would question the need to make this move from dealing with problems and issues on a ca...

  2. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    SciT

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-03-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1,200 usingmore » a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed.« less

  3. URBAN/SUBURBAN WATERSHED CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to characterize the land surface and related pollutant source loadings is critical for reliable watershed modeling. Urban/suburban land uses are the most rapidly growing land use class, generating non-point source pollutant loadings likely to seriously impair streams...

  4. Discover a Watershed: The Everglades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, George B.; And Others

    This publication is designed for both classroom teachers and nonformal educators of young people in grades 6 through 12. It can provide a 6- to 8-week course of study on the watershed with students participating in activities as they are ordered in the guide, or activities may be used in any order with educators selecting those appropriate for the…

  5. Evapotranspiration from two peatland watersheds

    Roger R. Bay

    1968-01-01

    Measurements of precipitation, runoff, and bog water table levels have provided data for the calculation of evapotranspiration from two forested peatland watersheds near Grand Rapids, Minnesota (ca. 47? 32'N, 93? 28'W). Continuous hydrologie records were collected on one experimental bog for 6 years (1961-1966) and on the other for the past 2 years (1965-1966...

  6. MANAGING URBAN WATERSHED PATHOGEN CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is a summary of the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) publication entitled Managing Urban Watershed Pathogen Contamination, EPA/600/R-03/111 (September 2003). It is available on the internet at http://www.epa.gov/ednnrmrl/repository/water...

  7. WATERSHED-BASED SURVEY DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification if impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Sectio...

  8. Some references on watershed management.

    W.E. Bullard

    1950-01-01

    Several of you in the field administrative jobs have asked for a summary of available information from forest influences studies relating to watershed management practices. This paper hits some of the high spots, giving a brief survey of European and American studies and recommendations that may be applicable within our region. Further, it contains a few pertinent...

  9. Runoff from small peatland watersheds

    Roger R. Bay

    1969-01-01

    Runoff was measured on four forested bog watersheds in northern Minnesota for 5 years. The experimental basins ranged in size from 24 to 130 acres and included both organic and mineral soils. Annual runoff was not evenly distributed. Spring runoff, from the beginning of flow in late March to the 1 st of June, accounted for 66 % of total annual water yield. Summer and...

  10. MARYLAND AGRICULTURE AND YOUR WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory



    Using primarily 1995 State of Maryland agricultural statistics data, a new methodology was demonstrated with which State natural resource managers can analyze the areal extent of agricultural lands and production data on a watershed basis. The report organized major crop ...

  11. "First aid" for burned watersheds

    J. S. Krammes; L. W. Hill

    1963-01-01

    Most of the vegetative cover on the San Dimas Experimental Forest was destroyed by a wildfire in 1960. Following the fire an emergency research program was initiated to test several "first -aid" treatments aimed at reducing flood and erosion damage from burned watersheds. This paper summarizes first - and second-year results of the research program.

  12. International financial institutions and health in Egypt and Tunisia: change or continuity?

    PubMed

    Ismail, Sharif

    2013-01-01

    The revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia appeared to herald a re-casting of International Monetary Fund and World Bank policy across the region. Public pronouncements by the heads of both institutions in the months following February 2011 acknowledged flaws in their approach to macroeconomic advice, against a background of worsening socioeconomic indicators, widespread youth unemployment, and widening health inequalities. Evidence on the ground, however, suggests continuity rather than change in international financial institution policies in Egypt and Tunisia, notwithstanding the emergence of a powerful new player-the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In the long term, new electoral realities and hardening public opposition in both countries seem likely to force a fundamentally different relationship between regional governments and the major international financial institutions than existed before 2011.

  13. Design and installation of 3 photovoltaic village power systems in Tunisia

    SciT

    Darkazalli, G.; Rangaraian, A.; Scudder, L.

    1982-09-01

    A joint program sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (U.S.A.I.D.) and the government of Tunisia was initiated to study the feasibility of using photovoltaics to supply electricity to remote villages in Tunisia. U.S.A.I.D. selected the NASA Lewis Research Center to implement the installation of three photovoltaic systems in the Tunisian village of Hammam Biadha Sud. In a competitive procurement, NASA selected a team proposed by the Solar Power Corporation, TriSolar Corporation, Esso Standard Tunisie and Development Sciences, Inc. to design and install the systems and train the villagers in the use of photovoltaics. The Tunisian Government counterpartmore » to NASA, is STEG, the Tunisian electrical generation authority. An overview of the systems designs is presented in this paper.« less

  14. Albian salt-tectonics in Central Tunisia: Evidences for an Atlantic-type passive margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaillard, Etienne; Bouillin, Jean-Pierre; Ouali, Jamel; Dumont, Thierry; Latil, Jean-Louis; Chihaoui, Abir

    2017-11-01

    Tunisia is part of the south-Tethyan margin, which comprises Triassic evaporites and a thick series of Jurassic and Cretaceous, mainly marine deposits, related to the Tethyan rifting evolution. A survey of various Cretaceous outcrops of central Tunisia (Kasserine-El Kef area), combined with literature descriptions, shows that the style of Albian deformation changes from the proximal (South) to the distal part (North) of the margin. The southern part is dominated by tilted blocks and growth faults, which evolve to the north to turtle-back and roll-over structures. Farther North, deformation is dominated by the extrusion of diapirs and salt walls. Such a distribution of deformation strongly suggests that the whole sedimentary cover glided northward on the Triassic evaporites during Albian times, as described for the Atlantic passive margin or for the Gulf of Mexico. Subsequently, these halokinetic structures have been folded during Alpine compressional tectonics.

  15. The geothermal gradient map of Central Tunisia: Comparison with structural, gravimetric and petroleum data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhia, Hamed Ben

    1987-10-01

    Five hundred and fifty temperature values, initially measured as either bottom-hole temperatures (BHT) or drill-stem tests (DST), from 98 selected petroleum exploration wells form the basis of a geothermal gradient map of central Tunisia. A "global-statistical" method was employed to correct the BHT measurements, using the DST as references. The geothermal gradient ranges from 23° to 49°C/km. Comparison of the geothermal gradient with structural, gravimetric and petroleum data indicates that: (1) the general trend of the geothermal gradient curves reflects the main structural directions of the region, (2) zones of low and high geothermal gradient are correlated with zones of negative and positive Bouguer anomalies and (3) the five most important oil fields of central Tunisia are located near the geothermal gradient curve of 40° C/km. Such associations could have practical importance in petroleum exploration, but their significance must first be established through further investigation and additional data.

  16. Tectonic evolution of the northern African margin in Tunisia from paleostress data and sedimentary record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouaziz, Samir; Barrier, Eric; Soussi, Mohamed; Turki, Mohamed M.; Zouari, Hédi

    2002-11-01

    A reconstruction of the tectonic evolution of the northern African margin in Tunisia since the Late Permian combining paleostress, tectonic stratigraphic and sedimentary approaches allows the characterization of several major periods corresponding to consistent stress patterns. The extension lasting from the Late Permian to the Middle Triassic is contemporaneous of the rifting related to the break up of Pangea. During Liassic times, regional extensional tectonics originated the dislocation of the initial continental platform. In northern Tunisia, the evolution of the Liassic NE-SW rifting led during Dogger times to the North African passive continental margin, whereas in southern Tunisia, a N-S extension, associated with E-W trending subsiding basins, lasted from the Jurassic until the Early Cretaceous. After an Upper Aptian-Early Albian transpressional event, NE-SW to ENE-WSW trending extensions prevailed during Late Cretaceous in relationship with the general tectonic evolution of the northeastern African plate. The inversions started in the Late Maastrichtian-Paleocene in northern Tunisia, probably as a consequence of the Africa-Eurasia convergence. Two major NW-SE trending compressions occurred in the Late Eocene and in the Middle-Late Miocene alternating with extensional periods in the Eocene, Oligocene, Early-Middle Miocene and Pliocene. The latter compressional event led to the complete inversion of the basins of the northwestern African plate, originating the Maghrebide chain. Such a study, supported by a high density of paleostress data and including complementary structural and stratigraphic approaches, provides a reliable way of determining the regional tectonic evolution.

  17. Middle-Upper Triassic and Middle Jurassic tetrapod track assemblages of southern Tunisia, Sahara Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz; Soussi, Mohamed; Boukhalfa, Kamel; Gierliński, Gerard D.

    2017-05-01

    Three tetrapod track assemblages from the early-middle Mesozoic of southern Tunisia are reported. The strata exposed at the Tejra 2 clay-pit near the Medenine and Rehach site, located in the vicinity of Kirchaou, contain the first tetrapod tracks found in the Triassic of Tunisia. The Middle Jurassic (early Aalenian) dinosaur tracks are reported from the Mestaoua plain near Tataouine. In the Middle Triassic outcrop of the Tejra 2 clay-pit, tridactyl tracks of small and medium-sized dinosauromorphs, were discovered. These tracks represent the oldest evidence of dinosaur-lineage elements in the Triassic deposits of Tunisia. Similar tracks have been described from the Middle Triassic of Argentina, France and Morocco. An isolated set of the manus and pes of a quadrupedal tetrapod discovered in Late Triassic Rehach tracksite is referred to a therapsid tracemaker. The Middle Jurassic deposits of the Mestaoua plain reveal small and large tridactyl theropod dinosaur tracks (Theropoda track indet. A-C). Based on comparison with the abundant record of Triassic tetrapod ichnofossils from Europe and North America, the ichnofauna described here indicates the presence of a therapsid-dinosauromorph ichnoassociation (without typical Chirotheriidae tracks) in the Middle and Late Triassic, which sheds light on the dispersal of the Middle-Upper Triassic tetrapod ichnofaunas in this part of Gondwana. The reported Middle Jurassic ichnofauna show close similarities to dinosaur track assemblages from the Lower and Middle Jurassic of northwestern Africa, North America, Europe and also southeastern Asia. Sedimentological and lithostratigraphic data of each new tracksite have been defined on published data and new observations. Taken together, these discoveries present a tantalizing window into the evolutionary history of tetrapods from the Triassic and Jurassic of southern Tunisia. Given the limited early Mesozoic tetrapod record from the region, these discoveries are of both temporal and

  18. Political Culture and Risk Analysis: An Outline of Somalia, Tunisia, and Libya

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-21

    analysis, risk assessment, national maturity, independence move- ments, extremists, national violence , Africa, Somalia, Somaliland, Puntland, Tunisia...changed in terms of actors, but not in any appreciable reduction of violence . In the north, any episodes of conflict were negligible in scale and...duration, never approaching that of the south. The continuous violence in the south, in fact, is unprecedented in Somali history.21 Despite any

  19. Type-Specific Human Papillomavirus Distribution in Invasive Squamous Cervical Carcinomas in Tunisia and Vaccine Impact.

    PubMed

    Ennaifer, Emna; Salhi, Faten; Laassili, Thalja; Fehri, Emna; Ben Alaya, Nissaf; Guizani, Ikram; Boubaker, Samir

    2015-01-01

    High risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the leading cause of cervical cancer (CC) and Pap smear screening has not been successful in preventing CC in Tunisia. HPV vaccination that targets HPV16 and 18 offers a new efficient prevention tool. Identification of HPV types in CC is thus essential to determine the impact of HPV vaccine implementation. The aim of this study is to provide specific data from Tunisia. A total of 89 histological confirmed paraffin embedded samples isolated from patients with CC diagnosed between 2001 and 2011 were collected from five medical centres from Northern and Southern Tunisia. HPV DNA was detected using a nested PCR (MY09/MY11-GP5+/GP6+) and genotyping was assessed using a reverse blot line hybridisation assay that enables the detection of 32 HPV types. HPV DNA was detected in all samples. Twelve high risk types were detected; HPV16 and/or 18 were predominant, accounting together for 92.1% of all the CC cases (HPV16: 83.1%). Single infections accounted for 48.8% of the cases and were mostly linked to HPV 16 (32.6%) and less frequently to HPV 18 (2.4%). The other high risk HPV single infections were linked to HPV 35 (4.6%), 45 (4.6%), 58 (2.3%) and 59 (2.3%). Multiple infections with mixing of 2 to 4 genotypes predominately featrued HPV16 and/or 18 with HPV 35 and 45 (96.6 %) and less frequently with HPV 59, 40, 66, 73 and 58. There was no statistically significant variation in the relative distribution of HPV types with age. These results strongly indicate that prophylactic HPV vaccines can have a major impact in preventing CC in Tunisia.

  20. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma incidence in North Tunisia: negative trends in adults but not adolescents, 1994-2006.

    PubMed

    Wided, Ben Ayoub Hizem; Hamouda, Boussen; Hamadi, Hsairi; Mansour, Ben Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the second most common neoplasm of head and neck in Tunisia. The distribution is bimodal with a first period occurrence between 15 and 20 years old and a second peak at around 50 years of age. Undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharynx type III (UCNT) is the predominant histological type (93.4%). Data of cancer registry of North Tunisia confirmed that it is an intermediate risk area for NPC with overall ASRs of 3.6 and 1.6/100,000 respectively in males and females. This study aimed to present the evolution of incidence rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma over a period of 12 years (1994-2006). Data of cancer registry of North Tunisia (NTCR), covering half of the Tunisian population, were used to determine evolution of NPC incidence, calculated by 5 year periods. The estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) was used as an estimate of the trend. To best summarize the behavior or the data trend across years, we used a join-point regression program. Between 1994 and 2006, we observed negative annual average change of standardized incidence in men and women (-3.3% and -2.7%) also for the standardized incidences which showed a rather important decline (26.4% in males and 22.3% in females). The truncated age standardized incidence rate of NPC in adults aged of 30 years old and more (N=1209) decreased by -0.4% per year from 1994 to 2006 over time in north Tunisia dropping from 6.09 to 4.14 person-years. However, the rate was relatively stable during this period among youths aged 0-29 years (N=233) in both sexes. NPC demonstrated a favorable evolution from 1994-2006 probably due to a improvement in socioeconomic conditions.

  1. Suicide by self-immolation in Tunisia: A 10 year study (2005-2014).

    PubMed

    Ben Khelil, Mehdi; Zgarni, Amine; Zaafrane, Malek; Chkribane, Youssef; Gharbaoui, Meriem; Harzallah, Hana; Banasr, Ahmed; Hamdoun, Moncef

    2016-11-01

    In Tunisia, few data are available about self-immolation epidemiology especially in the absence of official statistics on suicides. The aim of our study was to analyze the trends of suicide by self-immolation over a period of ten years (2005-2014). We conducted a descriptive, retrospective study including all the cases of self-immolation suicides that occurred over a period of 10 years (2005-2014) and autopsied in the Department of Legal Medicine of the Charles Nicolle Hospital of Tunis, including self-immolation occurring in Northern Tunisia as well as those committed in remaining governorates and transferred before death to the central intensive care unit of burnt in Tunis receiving patients from all over Tunisia (about 80% of cases occurring in Tunisia). 235 cases of self-immolation were collected. The average age at death was 34.1±12.43 years (range 14-83 years). Gender ratio was of 3.27. Psychiatric history was mentioned in 32.8% of cases, represented by schizophrenia in 17.9% and depression in 12.3% of cases. 12.3% had a history of suicide attempts, and 7.3% presented a history of suicidal threats. The number of casualties of suicide by self-immolation tripled after 2011 with a rising trend during the next three years and slight drop in 2014. The most reported reason in our study was decompensation of a psychiatric illness (24.7%). Self-immolation occurred most frequently in a private home (34.5%) or a public place (30.2). Our study showed that self-immolation affects essentially, young men, who are unemployed and mostly having mental diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Cervical cancer screening: women's knowledge, attitudes, and practices in the region of Monastir (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    El Mhamdi, S; Bouanene, I; Mhirsi, A; Bouden, W; Soussi Soltani, M

    2012-12-01

    In Tunisia, cervical cancer is considered the second leading cancer in women and causes high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate women's knowledge, attitudes, and practices of cervical cancer screening in the region of Monastir (Tunisia). We conducted a cross-sectional study exploring the cervical cancer screening knowledge, attitudes, and practices of women in the region of Monastir. The study was conducted in health centers in this region from 1st March to 30th June 2009. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire containing 15 items on demographic status, knowledge of risk factors and screening methods, and attitudes toward the relevance and effectiveness of cervical cancer screening. A total of 900 women agreed to take part in the study. Their mean age was 41.6±12.4 years and 64% did not exceed the primary level of education. According to the constructed scores, 22.8% of the participants had good knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and 38.2% had good knowledge of screening methods. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that women aged 45 and older, married, with good knowledge of risk factors and screening methods were more likely to undergo cervical cancer screening (P-value<0.01). This study provides useful information that could be utilized by both researchers and those involved in public health programs. The results show the need for educational programs to enhance women's adherence to cervical cancer screening programs in Tunisia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. [Clandestine slaughtering in Tunisia: investigation on the knowledge and practices of butchers concerning hydatidosis].

    PubMed

    Besbes, M; Sellami, H; Cheikhrouhou, F; Makni, F; Ayadi, A

    2003-11-01

    Echinococcosis is one of the major parasitic diseases in Tunisia, accounting for a considerable public health problem. We propose in this work to analyse the behaviour of butchers and to evaluate its impact on the hydatic cyst transmission. We carried out a national transversal descriptive survey that included 97 butcher shops using illegal practice, located in 18 regions (governorats) of Tunisia. The sampling procedure was implemented according to the level of disease endemicity. 60.8% of butcher shops were located along main roads and therefore supplying travellers. Among the animals slaughtered sheep come in first position (97.9%). More than 80% of the butchers kept aside a place around the butcher shop to sacrifice their animals. We noted the presence of dogs near butcher shop in 52.6% of cases and stray dogs in 43.3% of cases. Only 13.4% of the butchers knew the disease mode of transmission. Parasitized viscera were thrown into dustbins or further in the riverbed in 56.7%. More than 50% of butchers, having an inadequate behaviour in front of parasitized viscera or ignoring the disease cycle, were originating from an hyper or holoendemic area. Illegal slaughtering practices have an important impact on transmission of cystic echinococcosis in Tunisia.

  4. ANALYSIS OF BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE OCCURRENCE OF WEST NILE VIRUS INFECTION IN TUNISIA.

    PubMed

    Ben Hassine, Th; Calistri, P; Ippoliti, C; Conte, A; Danzetta, M L; Bruno, R; Lelli, R; Bejaoui, M; Hammami, S

    2014-01-01

    Eco-climatic conditions are often associated with the occurrence of West Nile Disease (WND) cases. Among the complex set of biotic and abiotic factors influencing the emergence and spread of this vector-borne disease, two main variables have been considered to have a great influence on the probability of West Nile Virus (WNV) introduction and circulation in Tunisia: the presence of susceptible bird populations and the existence of geographical areas where the environmental and climatic conditions are more favourable to mosquito multiplications. The aim of this study was to identify and classify the climatic and environmental variables possibly associated with the occurrence of WNVhuman cases in Tunisia. The following environmental and climatic variables have been considered: wetlands and humid areas, Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), temperatures and elevation. A preliminary analysis for the characterization of main variables associated with areas with a history of WNV human cases in Tunisia between 1997 and 2011 has been made. This preliminary analysis clearly indicates the closeness to marshes ecosystem, where migratory bird populations are located, as an important risk factor for WNV infection. On the contrary the temperature absolute seems to be not a significant factor in Tunisian epidemiological situation. In relation to NDVI values, more complex considerations should be made.

  5. Reproductive Health Policy in Tunisia: Women's Right to Reproductive Health and Gender Empowerment.

    PubMed

    Amroussia, Nada; Goicolea, Isabel; Hernandez, Alison

    2016-12-01

    Although Tunisia is regarded as a pioneer in the Middle East and North Africa in terms of women's status and rights, including sexual and reproductive health and rights, evidence points to a number of persisting challenges. This article uses the Health Rights of Women Assessment Instrument (HeRWAI) to analyze Tunisia's reproductive health policy between 1994 and 2014. It explores the extent to which reproductive rights have been incorporated into the country's reproductive health policy, the gaps in the implementation of this policy, and the influence of this policy on gender empowerment. Our results reveal that progress has been slow in terms of incorporating reproductive rights into the national reproductive health policy. Furthermore, the implementation of this policy has fallen short, as demonstrated by regional inequities in the accessibility and availability of reproductive health services, the low quality of maternal health care services, and discriminatory practices. Finally, the government's lack of meaningful engagement in advancing gender empowerment stands in the way as the main challenge to gender equality in Tunisia.

  6. Spatio-temporal evolution of shoreline changes along the coast between sousse- Monastir (Eastearn of Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathallah, S.; Ben Amor, R.; Gueddari, M.

    2009-04-01

    Spatio-temporal evolution of shoreline Changes along the coast between Sousse-Monastir (Eastern of Tunisia). Safa Fathallah*, Rim Ben Amor and Moncef Gueddari Unit of Research of Geochemistry and Environmental Geology. Faculty of Science of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, 2092. (*) Corresponding author: safa_fathallah@yahoo.fr The coast of Sousse-Monastir in eastern of Tunisia, has undergone great changes, due to natural and anthropic factors. Increasing human use, the construction of two ports and coastal urbanization (hotels and industries) has accelerated the erosion process. The coastal defense structures (breakwaters and enrockment), built to protect the most eroded zone are efficient, but eroded zones appeared in the southern part of breakwaters. Recent and historic aerial photography was used to estimate, observe, and analyze past shoreline and bathymetric positions and trends involving shore evolution for Sousse-Monastir coast. All of the photographs were calibrated and mosaicked by Arc Map Gis 9.1, the years used are 1925, 1962, 1988, 1996, and 2001 for shoreline change analysis and 1884 and 2001 for bathymetric changes. The analyze of this photographs show that the zone located at the south of breakwater are mostly eroded with high speed process (2m/year). Another zone appears as eroded at the south part of Hamdoun River, with 1,5m/year erosion speed . Keywords: Shoreline evolution, defense structures, Sousse-Monastir coast, Tunisia.

  7. Sero-epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Wasfi, Fares; Dowall, Stuart; Ghabbari, Tayssir; Bosworth, Andrew; Chakroun, Mohamed; Varghese, Anitha; Tiouiri, Hanene; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Znazen, Abir; Hewson, Roger; Zhioua, Elyes; Letaief, Amel

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease associated with a high case fatality rate and transmitted mainly by Hyalomma marginatum. The geographical distribution of H. marginatum covers most of the Western Mediterranean basin. We aimed to investigate whether CCHF virus (CCHFv) is circulating in Tunisia. Samples from unexplained acute febrile patients (n = 181) and a high risk group of humans, mainly slaughter workers (n = 38), were collected in the summer of 2014 and analyzed for exposure to CCHFv using serological tests and real-time RT-PCR. Ticks were collected from Northern and Southern Tunisia during May–June 2014 and examined for the presence of CCHFv by real-time RT-PCR. Of the 181 febrile patients, 5 showed only high titers of IgM suggesting a recent exposure to CCHFv. Among 38 slaughter workers, 2 had IgG anti-CCHFv responses yielding a seroprevalence of 5.2%. No CCHFv was detected in ticks and sera. Our results provide evidence of human exposure to CCHFv in Tunisia. PMID:26956221

  8. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the urban population of Soussa in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ghannem, H; Hadj Fredj, A

    1997-12-01

    With the epidemiological transition phenomenon, Tunisia is now facing the growing prevalence of chronic diseases. Environmental and behavioural changes such as the adoption of new dietary habits and a sedentary lifestyle, and the stress of urbanization and of working conditions all lead to the rise in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of the main CVD risk factors in an urban context. For this, we have undertaken a household epidemiological survey of a representative sample of the adult urban population of Soussa, Tunisia (n = 957). This study shows high prevalences of hypertension (blood pressure >160/95 mmHg) of 18.8 per cent with an adjusted rate of 15.6 per cent, history of diabetes of 10.2 per cent, and obesity (body mass index > 30) of 27.7 per cent [significantly higher in women (34.4 per cent)], android obesity 36 per cent, smoking habits 21.5 per cent [significantly higher in men (61.4 per cent)]. With this profile of CVD risk factors, Tunisia must implement a national strategy of primary prevention and heart health promotion in addition to the efforts recently made in secondary prevention of some chronic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes.

  9. Export of health services from developing countries: the case of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Lautier, Marc

    2008-07-01

    Although the subject of health services exports by developing countries has been much discussed, the phenomenon is still in its early stage, and its real implications are not yet clear. Given the rapid development in this area, little empirical data are available. This paper aims to fill this gap by providing reliable data on consumption of health services abroad (GATS mode 2 of international service supply). It starts by assessing the magnitude of the volume of international trade in health services. This is followed by an in-depth analysis of the case of Tunisia based on an original field research. Because of the high quality of its health sector and its proximity with Europe, Tunisia has the highest export potential for health services in the Middle-East and North Africa (MENA) Region. Health services exports may represent a quarter of Tunisia's private health sector output and generate jobs for 5000 employees. If one takes into account tourism expenses by the incoming patient (and their relatives), these exports contribute to nearly 1% of the country's total exports. Finally, this case study highlights the regional dimension of external demand for health services and the predominance of South-South trade.

  10. Refugees in and out North Africa: a study of the Choucha refugee camp in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Dourgnon, Paul; Kassar, Hassène

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, North African (NA) countries ceased to be emigration-only countries and are now on the verge of becoming immigration as well as transit countries for economic migrants and refugees. Contextual as well as structural long-term factors are driving these changes. The ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are prompting strong outflows of refugees, which are likely to induce NA countries to share some common public policy and public health concerns with European countries in a near future. This article highlights some aspects of these changes, from the study of the consequences of the 2011 Libyan crisis in Tunisia. It addresses individual trajectories and health concerns of refugees in and out North Africa from a study of the Choucha camp in Tunisia. The camp opened to immigrants from Libya during the 2011 crisis and accommodated the bulk of the refugees flow to Tunisia until July 2012. The study includes a monographic approach and a qualitative survey in the Choucha camp refugees. We describe the crisis history and the health response with a focus on the camp. We then address refugees' trajectories, and health needs and concerns from the interviews we collected in the camp in April 2012. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Tunisia-Japan Symposium: R&D of Energy and Material Sciences for Sustainable Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Katsuhiro; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Monirul Islam, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    This volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers presented at the Tunisia-Japan Symposium: R&D of Energy and Material Sciences for Sustainable Society (TJS 2014) held at Gammarth, Republic of Tunisia on November 28-30, 2014. The TJS 2014 is based on the network of the Tunisia-Japan Symposium on Science, Society and Technology (TJASSST) which has been regularly organized since 2000. The symposium was focused on the technological developments of energy and materials for the realization of sustainable society. To generate technological breakthrough and innovation, it seems to be effective to discuss with various fields of researchers such as solid-state physicists, chemists, surface scientists, process engineers and so on. In this symposium, there were as many as 109 attendees from a wide variety of research fields. The technical session consisted of 106 contributed presentations including 3 plenary talks and 7 key-note talks. We hope the Conference Series and publications like this volume will contribute to the progress in research and development in the field of energy and material sciences for sustainable society and in its turn contribute to the creation of cultural life and peaceful society.

  12. [Mycological and epidemiological aspects of tinea capitis in the Sousse region of Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Saghrouni, F; Bougmiza, I; Gheith, S; Yaakoub, A; Gaïed-Meksi, S; Fathallah, A; Mtiraoui, A; Ben Saïd, M

    2011-01-01

    Tinea capitis continues to be considered a public health problem in Tunisia. The purpose of our study was to investigate trends in the incidence and the mycological and epidemiological aspects of tinea capitis in the Sousse region (Central Tunisia). Our work is a retrospective study concerning all scalp samples taken by the parasitology laboratory of the Farhat Hached Hospital in Sousse, Tunisia, over a 26-year period (1983-2008). A total of 10,505 specimens were examined. Of these, 5593 were positive with positive direct examination and/or positive culture. The average incidence was 215 cases per year. Patients were aged under 12 years in 89.3% of cases. A total of 175 cases of tinea capitis in adults were diagnosed. Ten dermatophyte species were isolated: Trichophyton (T.) violaceum (66.7%), Microsporum (M.) canis (29.3%), T. schoenleinii (1.6%), T. mentagrophytes (1.1%), T. verrucosum (0.6%), T. tonsurans (0.2%), T. rubrum (0.2%), M. gypseum (0.1%), M. audouinii (0.03%) and M. nanum (0.01%). Our study showed a decrease in the annual incidence of tinea capitis over the study period with an evident decrease in trichophytic tinea and disappearance of favus giving way to microsporic and inflammatory tinea. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution of Keratinophilic Fungi in Soil Across Tunisia: A Descriptive Study and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Anane, Sonia; Al-Yasiri, Mohammed Hashim Yasir; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Ranque, Stéphane

    2015-08-01

    Data on the frequency and distribution of keratinophilic fungi in soil of Tunisia are scanty. The present survey aimed to describe the distribution of keratinophilic fungi in soils collected in Tunisia. Keratinophilic fungi were isolated using Vanbreuseghem's hair-baiting technique from 354 soil samples collected in 15 governorates of Tunisia and identified according to their morphology with further DNA and MALDI-TOF analysis when necessary. Keratinophilic fungi were isolated from 46.3 % of the samples from 14 governorates. Chrysosporium keratinophilum was the predominant species (30.5 %) followed by Microsporum gypseum (27.4 %). Other isolated species included C. tropicum (14.0 %), C. indicum (11.0 %), Chaetomium sp. (4.9 %), Arthroderma curreyi, Arthroderma cuniculi (3.7 % each), C. merdarium (3.1 %), Anixiopsis stercoraria, C. parvum, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Auxarthron zuffianum (2.4 % each), Fusarium oxysporum, Aphanoascus verrucosus, Gymnascella dankaliensis (1.2 % each) and 12 other species (0.6 % each). Two to five distinct fungal species were associated with 11.5 % of the positive samples. Keratinophilic fungi were more frequently isolated in rural (54.8 %) than in urban (41.1 %) areas (p = 0.012). The highest (100 %) positive culture rate was noted in soil collected in stables. Keratinophilic fungi are frequent throughout Tunisian territory, particularly in soils with a high organic matter content that should be regarded as humans and animals mycoses reservoir.

  14. Serological and molecular detection of Toscana and other Phleboviruses in patients and sandflies in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Fezaa, Ons; M'ghirbi, Youmna; Savellini, Gianni Gori; Ammari, Lamia; Hogga, Nahed; Triki, Henda; Cusi, Maria Grazia; Bouattour, Ali

    2014-11-15

    Our aim is to detect the infection by Toscana virus (TOSV) and other Phleboviruses in the sera and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) of patients with meningitis in Tunisia. We examined various species of phlebotomus present in Tunisia to determine whether or not a direct relationship exists between cases of meningitis and the viruses circulating in the insect vectors. Patients with the meningeal syndrome were tested for anti-TOSV IgM and IgG using an indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and for the presence of TOSV and other Phleboviruses using a RT-PCR test. Of 263 patients were tested using ELISA of which 12.16% (n = 32/263) were IgM positive for anti TOSV. Of these 32 patients, 78% (n = 25/32) were IgG positive. 12.86% (n = 18/140) of the CSF samples tested by RT-PCR were positive for the Toscana virus. This study confirms, for the first time, that TOSV is involved in a neurological disorder in North Africa. The incidence of this involvement in Tunisia conforms with observations made in other Mediterranean countries. Moreover, for the first time, a molecular approach was used to detect SFSV in a Tunisian patient displaying neurological symptoms.

  15. River capture and sediment redistribution in northern Tunisia: The doom of Utica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Camafort, Miquel; Pérez-Peña, J. Vicente; Melki, Fetheddine; Ranero, César; Azañón, José Miguel; Gracia, Eulalia; Ouadday, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Utica was a flourishing port city in northern Tunisia since the Phoenician times, 12-9th century B.C., until the 4th century A.D.. However, at present it is located 10 km from the coastline after very fast late Holocene progradation of the Mejerda River delta into the bay of Utica. This fast delta progradation occurred after Mejerda River captured Tine River increasing 140 % the river catchment area. Charcoal fragments present in the youngest Tine river terrace at the wind gap give a conventional radiocarbon age of 3240 +/- 30yr BP, indicating that the capture occurred after this date. Quaternary fluvial terraces located in the Tine River paleovalley have been folded and uplifted above a fold related to the active El Alia Tebousouk reverse fault (ETF). Continued uplift of the Tine River valley above the ETF favoured headward erosion of the Medjerda river tributaries creating a transverse drainage that captured Tine River. This capture produced an important change in sediment discharge along the northern Tunisia coast driving sediments to the Gulf of Tunis instead of feeding the Tyrrhenian Sea through the Ichkeul and Bizerte lakes. Although anthropogenic derived degradation of northern Tunisia land for agricultural purposes probably influenced the increase in sediment into the Utica bay, the main cause of rapid progradation of the Medjerda River delta during the late Holocene is related to its increase in drainage area after capturing the Tine River. This process was mostly driven by local contractive tectonics linked to the seismogenic Alia Tebousouk reverse fault.

  16. Sero-epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Wasfi, Fares; Dowall, Stuart; Ghabbari, Tayssir; Bosworth, Andrew; Chakroun, Mohamed; Varghese, Anitha; Tiouiri, Hanene; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Znazen, Abir; Hewson, Roger; Zhioua, Elyes; Letaief, Amel

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease associated with a high case fatality rate and transmitted mainly by Hyalomma marginatum. The geographical distribution of H. marginatum covers most of the Western Mediterranean basin. We aimed to investigate whether CCHF virus (CCHFv) is circulating in Tunisia. Samples from unexplained acute febrile patients (n = 181) and a high risk group of humans, mainly slaughter workers (n = 38), were collected in the summer of 2014 and analyzed for exposure to CCHFv using serological tests and real-time RT-PCR. Ticks were collected from Northern and Southern Tunisia during May-June 2014 and examined for the presence of CCHFv by real-time RT-PCR. Of the 181 febrile patients, 5 showed only high titers of IgM suggesting a recent exposure to CCHFv. Among 38 slaughter workers, 2 had IgG anti-CCHFv responses yielding a seroprevalence of 5.2%. No CCHFv was detected in ticks and sera. Our results provide evidence of human exposure to CCHFv in Tunisia. © F. Wasfi et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  17. Aptian-Albian boundary in Central Southern Atlas of Tunisia: New tectono-sedimentary facts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanmi, Mohamed Abdelhamid; Barhoumi, Amine; Ghanmi, Mohamed; Zargouni, Fouad

    2017-08-01

    The Aptian-Albian boundary preserves one of the most important events in Central-Southern Atlas of Tunisia, which belongs to the Southern Tethyan margin. A major sedimentary break was recorded between Early Aptian and Albian series in Bouhedma-Boudouaou Mountains. This major hiatus probably linked to the ''Austrian phase'' and to the Aptian and Albian ''Crisis'' testify a period of major tectonic events. In this paper, field observations on the Mid-Cretaceous stratigraphy combined with seismic profile interpretation were used for the first time to characterize the Aptian-Albian boundary in Central-Southern Atlas of Tunisia. Our new results reveal that Aptian-Albian boundary marks a critical interval not only in Maknassy-Mezzouna orogenic system but also in the Tunisian Atlas. Furthermore, Aptian-Albian series outcrop is marked by the important sedimentary gaps as well as a dramatic thickness change from West to East and predominately from North to South. This is linked to the extensional tectonic features which characterize all the Central-Southern Atlas of Tunisia.

  18. Suicide and Fire: A 20-Year Study of Self-Immolation Death in Sousse, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Jedidi, Maher; El Khal, Mohamed Cherif; Mlayeh, Souheil; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Mahjoub, Mohamed; Brahem, Mohamed Yassine; Ben Dhiab, Mohamed; Zemni, Majed; Souguir, Mohamed Kamel

    Self-immolation is a self-destructive conduct described since antiquity. Its frequency is variable from one country to another and it is a real public health problem in parts of the world. In Tunisia, after the 2011 revolution the problem of self-immolation protest has been highly publicized giving the impression of an increase in this phenomenon. This is a retrospective analysis of all fatal self-immolation cases, collected over a 20-year period (1996-2015) at the Forensic Medicine Department of the Farhat Hached University Hospital, Sousse, Tunisia. A total of 41 cases were collected, of which 23 were men (56%). The mean age was 36.1 years. Prior to 2011, 78.9% of the victims of self-immolation were women and after 2011, 86.4% were men. The rural origin of the victims was found in 56.25% of the cases. History of psychiatric illness was found in four individuals. The self-immolation took place in the victims' homes in 19 cases (46.3%). It came after a conjugal or family conflict in 14 cases (34.1%) and it is of protest character in 8 cases (19.5%). This study confirmed the increasing frequency of self-immolation in Tunisia after the 2011 revolution and noted a change in the victims' profiles.

  19. Exposure of resident sparrows to West Nile virus evidenced in South Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Hammouda, A; Lecollinet, S; Hamza, F; Nasri, I; Neb, A; Selmi, S

    2015-12-01

    During the last few years, several cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in humans have been reported in Tunisia. However, detailed information on WNV infection in wild birds, the primary amplifying host of WNV, are lacking. In this work, we investigated the exposure of wild sparrows (hybrid Passer domesticus × hispaniolensis) living in two oases in southern Tunisia (Gabès and Kébili oases) to WNV, through the detection of WNV-specific antibodies by using ELISA and microneutralization tests. In total, 208 birds were sampled (54 from Kébili, 154 from Gabès). Anti-WNV antibodies were detected in two birds, corresponding to an overall seroprevalence of 1%. There was no significant difference between the two sampled populations [1·85% (1/54) in Kébili, 0·65% (1/154) in Gabès]. These data provide indirect evidence of the exposure of resident sparrows in southern Tunisia to WNV.

  20. Spatio-temporal Genetic Structuring of Leishmania major in Tunisia by Microsatellite Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Harrabi, Myriam; Bettaieb, Jihène; Ghawar, Wissem; Toumi, Amine; Zaâtour, Amor; Yazidi, Rihab; Chaâbane, Sana; Chalghaf, Bilel; Hide, Mallorie; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Ben Salah, Afif

    2015-01-01

    In Tunisia, cases of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major are increasing and spreading from the south-west to new areas in the center. To improve the current knowledge on L. major evolution and population dynamics, we performed multi-locus microsatellite typing of human isolates from Tunisian governorates where the disease is endemic (Gafsa, Kairouan and Sidi Bouzid governorates) and collected during two periods: 1991–1992 and 2008–2012. Analysis (F-statistics and Bayesian model-based approach) of the genotyping results of isolates collected in Sidi Bouzid in 1991–1992 and 2008–2012 shows that, over two decades, in the same area, Leishmania parasites evolved by generating genetically differentiated populations. The genetic patterns of 2008–2012 isolates from the three governorates indicate that L. major populations did not spread gradually from the south to the center of Tunisia, according to a geographical gradient, suggesting that human activities might be the source of the disease expansion. The genotype analysis also suggests previous (Bayesian model-based approach) and current (F-statistics) flows of genotypes between governorates and districts. Human activities as well as reservoir dynamics and the effects of environmental changes could explain how the disease progresses. This study provides new insights into the evolution and spread of L. major in Tunisia that might improve our understanding of the parasite flow between geographically and temporally distinct populations. PMID:26302440

  1. Phleboviruses associated with sand flies in arid bio-geographical areas of Central Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Dachraoui, K; Fares, W; Bichaud, L; Barhoumi, W; Beier, J C; Derbali, M; Cherni, S; Lamballerie, X de; Chelbi, I; Charrel, R N; Zhioua, E

    2016-06-01

    An entomological investigation was carried out in 2014 at two sites located in Central Tunisia, one irrigated and another non-irrigated situated in arid bio-geographical areas. Sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius namely Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis are the most abundant sand fly species in the irrigated site. However, in the non-irrigated site, Phlebotomus papatasi of the Phlebotomus genus is the most abundant species. A total of 3191 sand flies were collected and pooled with up to 30 specimens per pool based on sex, trapping location and collection date, were tested for the presence of phleboviruses by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in the polymerase gene and sequenced. Of a total of 117 pools, 4 were positive, yielding a minimum infection rate of sand flies with phleboviruses of 0.12%. Phylogenetic analysis performed using partial nucleotide and amino acid sequence in the polymerase gene showed that these phleboviruses belonged to four different clusters corresponding to Toscana virus (TOSV), Saddaguia virus (SADV), Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus (SFSV) and Utique virus (UTIV). This study provides more evidence that the abundance of P. perfiliewi is associated with the development of irrigation in arid bio-geographical areas of Central Tunisia which may have led to the emergence of phleboviruses. We report the first detection of TOSV from sand flies collected from Central Tunisia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular prevalence and genetic characterization of piroplasms in dogs from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Rjeibi, Mohamed R; Amairia, Safa; Rouatbi, Mariem; Ben Salem, Fatma; Mabrouk, Moez; Gharbi, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the prevalence of piroplasms in dogs was assessed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify Babesia and Theileria species in 200 dogs from Northern and Central Tunisia between spring and autumn 2014. The overall molecular prevalence for piroplasms was 14·5% ± 0·05 (29/200); PCR detected 2 species, namely Babesia vogeli and Theileria annulata with an overall prevalence of 12·5 ± 0·04 and 2% ± 0·02, respectively. No differences in the molecular prevalences of B. vogeli were revealed for age and sex (P > 0·05). The molecular prevalence of B. vogeli was significantly higher in central Tunisia (26·5% ± 0·01) compared with the North (9·6% ± 0·04) (P 0·05). Comparison of the partial sequences of 18S rRNA and Tams 1 genes confirmed the presence of 2 novel B. vogeli and T. annulata genotypes. This is the first molecular detection of T. annulata and genetic characterization of dogs' piroplasms in Tunisia. Further studies are needed to better assess the epidemiological feature of piroplasms infection in North Africa.

  3. Biological, serological and molecular typing of potato virus Y (PVY) isolates from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Tayahi, M; Gharsallah, C; Khamassy, N; Fakhfakh, H; Djilani-Khouadja, F

    2016-10-17

    In Tunisia, potato virus Y (PVY) currently presents a significant threat to potato production, reducing tuber yield and quality. Three hundred and eighty-five potato samples (six different cultivars) collected in autumn 2007 from nine regions in Tunisia were tested for PVY infection by DAS-ELISA. The virus was detected in all regions surveyed, with an average incidence of 80.26%. Subsequently, a panel of 82 Tunisian PVY isolates (PVY-TN) was subjected to systematic biological, serological and molecular typing using immunocapture reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and a series of PVY OC - and PVY N -specific monoclonal antibodies. Combined analyses revealed ~67% of PVY NTN variants of which 17 were sequenced in the 5'NTR-P1 region to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of PVY-TN against other worldwide PVY isolates. To investigate whether selective constraints could act on viral genomic RNA, synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates and their ratio were analyzed. Averages of all pairwise comparisons obtained in the 5'NTR-P1 region allowed more synonymous changes, suggesting selective constraint acting in this region. Selective neutrality test was significantly negative, suggesting a rapid expansion of PVY isolates. Pairwise mismatch distribution gave a bimodal pattern and pointed to an eventually early evolution characterizing these sequences. Genetic haplotype network topology provided evidence of the existence of a distinct geographical structure. This is the first report of such genetic analyses conducted on PVY isolates from Tunisia.

  4. The environment of south-central Tunisia as observed on Landsat scene 206/036

    Grolier, M.J.; Schultejann, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    One Landsat image in south-central Tunisia was analyzed to demonstrate the application of remote-sensing technology to regional development. A preliminary analysis included I) major landscape features; 2) gypsum-encrusted soils; and 3) phosphate-bearing beds exposed in the Gafsa mining district. The products specifically used for this report include: 1) A false-color composite (FCC), which had been linearly stretched to enhance contrast, and to which a modulation transfer function correction (a high-pass filter 3 pixels by 3 pixels wide) had been applied to enhance fine topographic relief. 2) A sinusoidally stretched false-color composite, on which mappable gypsum-encrusted soils and saline soils are detectable in greater detail than on the existing soil map of Tunisia at 1:500,000 scale. 3) A sinusoidally stretched band-ratio false-color composite, from which a thematic map of most phosphate-bearing beds in the Gafsa mining district was prepared. Recommendations for future Landsat image interpretation in Tunisia are offered.

  5. A Watershed Integrity Definition and Assessment Approach to Support Strategic Management of Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although defined hydrologically as a drainage basin, watersheds are systems that physically link the individual social and ecological attributes that comprise them. Hence the structure, function, and feedback systems of watersheds are dependent on interactions between these soci...

  6. Restore McComas Watershed; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciT

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During years 2000-2003, trees were planted in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughoutmore » the watershed. Designs for replacement are being coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. Twenty miles of road were contracted for decommissioning. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.« less

  7. Application of four watershed acidification models to Batchawana Watershed, Canada.

    PubMed

    Booty, W G; Bobba, A G; Lam, D C; Jeffries, D S

    1992-01-01

    Four watershed acidification models (TMWAM, ETD, ILWAS, and RAINS) are reviewed and a comparison of model performance is presented for a common watershed. The models have been used to simulate the dynamics of water quantity and quality at Batchawana Watershed, Canada, a sub-basin of the Turkey Lakes Watershed. The computed results are compared with observed data for a four-year period (Jan. 1981-Dec. 1984). The models exhibit a significant range in the ability to simulate the daily, monthly and seasonal changes present in the observed data. Monthly watershed outflows and lake chemistry predictions are compared to observed data. pH and ANC are the only two chemical parameters common to all four models. Coefficient of efficiency (E), linear (r) and rank (R) correlation coefficients, and regression slope (s) are used to compare the goodness of fit of the simulated with the observed data. The ILWAS, TMWAM and RAINS models performed very well in predicting the monthly flows, with values of r and R of approximately 0.98. The ETD model also showed strong correlations with linear (r) and rank (R) correlation coefficients of 0.896 and 0.892, respectively. The results of the analyses showed that TMWAM provided the best simulation of pH (E=0.264, r=0.648), which is slightly better than ETD (E=0.240, r=0.549), and much better than ILWAS (E=-2.965, r=0.293), and RAINS (E=-4.004, r=0.473). ETD was found to be superior in predicting ANC (E=0.608, r=0.781) as compared to TMWAM (E=0.340, r=0.598), ILWAS (E=0.275, r=0.442), and RAINS (E=-1.048, r=0.356). The TMWAM model adequately simulated SO4 over the four-year period (E=0.423, r=0.682) but the ETD (E=-0.904, r=0.274), ILWAS (E=-4.314, r=0.488), and RAINS (E=-6.479, r=0.126) models all performed poorer than the benchmark model (mean observed value).

  8. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    SciT

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 usingmore » a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly devoid of coarse fragments. Recent research

  9. Channel processes and watershed function

    Tom Lisle

    1999-01-01

    Purpose of this presentation is to put channel monitoring in context of channel processes and dispel the myth of the learned sage walking up the stream channel observing changes in the channel and extrapolating how these changes came about without looking at the rest of the watershed. The message I want to convey is it is not only O.K.to peek at the rest of the...

  10. Larval habitats characterization and species composition of Anopheles mosquitoes in Tunisia, with particular attention to Anopheles maculipennis complex.

    PubMed

    Tabbabi, Ahmed; Boussès, Philippe; Rhim, Adel; Brengues, Cécile; Daaboub, Jabeur; Ben-Alaya-Bouafif, Nissaf; Fontenille, Didier; Bouratbine, Aïda; Simard, Frédéric; Aoun, Karim

    2015-03-01

    In Tunisia, malaria transmission has been interrupted since 1980. However, the growing number of imported cases and the persistence of putative vectors stress the need for additional studies to assess the risk of malaria resurgence in the country. In this context, our aim was to update entomological data concerning Anopheles mosquitoes in Tunisia. From May to October of 2012, mosquito larval specimens were captured in 60 breeding sites throughout the country and identified at the species level using morphological keys. Environmental parameters of the larval habitats were recorded. Specimens belonging to the An. maculipennis complex were further identified to sibling species by the ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA)-internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In total, 647 Anopheles larvae were collected from 25 habitats. Four species, including An. labranchiae, An. multicolor, An. sergentii, and An. algeriensis, were morphologically identified. rDNA-ITS2 PCR confirmed that An. labranchiae is the sole member of the An. maculipennis complex in Tunisia. An. labranchiae was collected throughout northern and central Tunisia, and it was highly associated with rural habitat, clear water, and sunlight areas. Larvae of An. multicolor and An. sergentii existed separately or together and were collected in southern Tunisia in similar types of breeding places. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Larval Habitats Characterization and Species Composition of Anopheles Mosquitoes in Tunisia, with Particular Attention to Anopheles maculipennis Complex

    PubMed Central

    Tabbabi, Ahmed; Boussès, Philippe; Rhim, Adel; Brengues, Cécile; Daaboub, Jabeur; Ben-Alaya-Bouafif, Nissaf; Fontenille, Didier; Bouratbine, Aïda; Simard, Frédéric; Aoun, Karim

    2015-01-01

    In Tunisia, malaria transmission has been interrupted since 1980. However, the growing number of imported cases and the persistence of putative vectors stress the need for additional studies to assess the risk of malaria resurgence in the country. In this context, our aim was to update entomological data concerning Anopheles mosquitoes in Tunisia. From May to October of 2012, mosquito larval specimens were captured in 60 breeding sites throughout the country and identified at the species level using morphological keys. Environmental parameters of the larval habitats were recorded. Specimens belonging to the An. maculipennis complex were further identified to sibling species by the ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA)–internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In total, 647 Anopheles larvae were collected from 25 habitats. Four species, including An. labranchiae, An. multicolor, An. sergentii, and An. algeriensis, were morphologically identified. rDNA-ITS2 PCR confirmed that An. labranchiae is the sole member of the An. maculipennis complex in Tunisia. An. labranchiae was collected throughout northern and central Tunisia, and it was highly associated with rural habitat, clear water, and sunlight areas. Larvae of An. multicolor and An. sergentii existed separately or together and were collected in southern Tunisia in similar types of breeding places. PMID:25561567

  12. AN INTEGRATED COASTAL-WATERSHED MONITORING FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An approach for watershed classification in support of assessments, disgnosis of biological impairment, and prioritization of watershed restorations has been tested in coastal watersheds surrounding the western arm of Lake Superior and is currently being assessed for a series of ...

  13. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v3: Theoretical Documentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a decision support tool that facilitates integrated water management at the local or small watershed scale. WMOST models the environmental effects and costs of management decisions in a watershed context, accounting fo...

  14. A TEST OF WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To facilitate extrapolation among watersheds, ecological risk assessments should be based on a model of underlying factors influencing watershed response, particularly vulnerability. We propose a conceptual model of landscape vulnerability to serve as a basis for watershed classi...

  15. Watershed Stewardship Education Program--A Multidisciplinary Extension Education Program for Oregon's Watershed Councils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Flaxen D. L.; Godwin, Derek; Cloughesy, Mike; Nierenberg, Tara

    2003-01-01

    The Watershed Stewardship Education Program (WSEP) is a multidisciplinary Oregon Extension designed to help watershed councils, landowners, and others work effectively together on water management. Components include practical, easy-to-use educational materials, training in effective collaboration, a Master Watershed Stewards program, and advanced…

  16. Volunteer Watershed Health Monitoring by Local Stakeholders: New Mexico Watershed Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, William

    2003-01-01

    Volunteers monitor watershed health in more than 700 programs in the US, involving over 400,000 local stakeholders. New Mexico Watershed Watch is a student-based watershed monitoring program sponsored by the state's Department of Game and Fish which provides high school teachers and students with instruction on methods for water quality…

  17. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development…

  18. WATERSHED SCALE RAINFALL INTERCEPTION ON TWO FORESTED WATERSHEDS IN THE LUQUILLO MOUNTAINS OF PUERTO RICO

    F.N. SCATENA

    1990-01-01

    Interception losses were monitored for one year and related to vegetation characteristics in two forested watersheds in the Luquillo Experimental Forest of Puerto Rico. Total watershed interception was then modeled by weighting values of throughfall measured in representative areas of different vegetation types by the total watershed area of that vegetation group....

  19. Introduction to the Watershed Central Web Site and Watershed Wiki Mini-Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many communities across the country struggle to find the right approaches, tools and data to include in their watershed plans. EPA recently posted a new web site called "Watershed Central,” a “one-stop" tool, to help watershed organizations and others find key resources to protec...

  20. Applications of remote sensing to watershed management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing systems which are capable of contributing to watershed management are described and include: the multispectral scanner subsystem on LANDSAT and the basic multispectral camera array flown on high altitude aircraft such as the U-2. Various aspects of watershed management investigated by remote sensing systems are discussed. Major areas included are: snow mapping, surface water inventories, flood management, hydrologic land use monitoring, and watershed modeling. It is indicated that technological advances in remote sensing of hydrological data must be coupled with an expansion of awareness and training in remote sensing techniques of the watershed management community.

  1. Emerging vector-borne diseases in dromedaries in Tunisia: West Nile, bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease and Rift Valley fever.

    PubMed

    Hassine, Thameur B; Amdouni, Jihane; Monaco, Federica; Savini, Giovanni; Sghaier, Soufien; Selimen, Imed B; Chandoul, Walid; Hamida, Khaled B; Hammami, Salah

    2017-03-31

    A total of 118 sera were collected during 2016 from two groups of dromedaries from Kebili and Medenine governorates in the south of Tunisia. The aim of this study was to provide the first serological investigation of four emerging vector-borne diseases in two groups of dromedaries in Tunisia. Sera were tested by ELISA and serum neutralisation test to identify West Nile virus (WNV), bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). In the first group, the seroprevalence for BTV was 4.6%, while in the second group, it was 25.8% for WNV and 9.7% for BTV. Only serotype 1 was detected for BTV in the two groups. No evidence for circulation of RVF and EHD viruses was revealed. Results indicated that dromedaries can be infected with BTV and WNV, suggesting that this species might play a significant role in the epizootiology of these viral diseases in Tunisia and neighbouring countries.

  2. Late Miocene extensional systems in northern Tunisia and their relation with SE directed delamination of the African subcontinental mantle lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Gaidi, Seif; Melki, Fetheddine; Pérez-Peña, Vicente; Marzougui, Wissem; Azañón, Jose Miguel; Galve, Jorge Pedro

    2017-04-01

    Recent work has proposed the delamination of the subcontinental mantle lithosphere under northern Tunisia during the late Miocene. This process is required to explain the present location of the Tunisian segment of the African slab, imaged by seismic tomography, hanging under the Gulf of Gabes to the south of Tunisia. Thus, having retreated towards the SE several hundred km from its original position under the Tellian-Atlas nappe contact that crops out along the north of Tunisia. However, no tectonic structures have been described which could be related to this mechanism of lithospheric mantle peeling. Here we describe for the first time extensional fault systems in northern Tunisia that strongly thinned the Tellian nappes, exhuming rocks from the Tunisian Atlas in the core of folded extensional detachments. Two normal fault systems with sub-orthogonal extensional transport occur. These were active during the late Miocene associated to the extrusion of 13 Ma granodiorite and 9 Ma rhyodacite in the footwall of the Nefza detachment. We have differentiated an extensional system formed by low-angle normal faults with NE- and SW-directed transport cutting through the Early to Middle Miocene Tellian nappen stack and a later system of low and high-angle normal faults that cuts down into the underlying Tunisian Atlas units with SE-directed transport, which root in the Nefza detachment. Both normal fault systems have been later folded and cut by thrusts during Plio-Quaternary NW-SE directed compression. These findings change the interpretation of the tectonic evolution of Tunisia that has always been framed in a transpressive to compressive setting, manifesting the extensional effects of Late Miocene lithospheric mantle delamination under northern Tunisia.

  3. Detection of Rickettsia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus Ticks and Ctenocephalides felis Fleas from Southeastern Tunisia by Reverse Line Blot Assay

    PubMed Central

    Khrouf, Fatma; M'Ghirbi, Youmna; Znazen, Abir; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Hammami, Adnene

    2014-01-01

    Ticks (n = 663) and fleas (n = 470) collected from domestic animals from southeastern Tunisia were screened for Rickettsia infection using reverse line blot assay. Evidence of spotted fever group Rickettsia was obtained. We detected Rickettsia felis in fleas, Rickettsia massiliae Bar 29 and the Rickettsia conorii Israeli spotted fever strain in ticks, and Rickettsia conorii subsp. conorii and Rickettsia spp. in both arthropods. The sensitivity of the adopted technique allowed the identification of a new association between fleas and R. conorii subsp. conorii species. The presence of these vector-borne Rickettsia infections should be considered when diagnosing this disease in humans in Tunisia. PMID:24226919

  4. Women's knowledge, attitudes and practice about breast cancer screening in the region of Monastir (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    El Mhamdi, Sana; Bouanene, Ines; Mhirsi, Amel; Sriha, Asma; Ben Salem, Kamel; Soltani, Mohamed Soussi

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health problem. In Tunisia, it is considered to be the primary women's cancer and causes high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate female knowledge, attitudes and practice of breast cancer screening in the region of Monastir (Tunisia). We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional design exploring knowledge, attitudes and practices of women in the region of Monastir on breast cancer screening. The study was conducted in health centres of this region from 1 March 2009 to 30 June 2009. Data were collected via a structured questionnaire containing 15 items on demographic status, knowledge of risk factors and screening methods and attitudes towards the relevance and effectiveness of breast cancer screening. A scoring scheme was used to score women's responses. A total of 900 women agreed to take part in the study. Their mean age was 41.6±12.4 years and 64% did not exceed the primary level of education. According to the constructed scores, 92% of participants had poor knowledge of the specific risk factors for breast cancer and 63.2% had poor knowledge of the screening methods. Proper practice of breast cancer screening was observed in 14.3% of cases. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that good knowledge of risk factors and screening methods, higher level of education and positive family history of breast cancer were independently correlated with breast cancer screening practice. This study revealed poor knowledge of breast cancer and the screening methods as well as low levels of practice of breast cancer screening among women in the region of Monastir. Results justify educational programs to raise women's adherence to breast cancer screening programs in Tunisia.

  5. Plate tectonics and offshore boundary delimitation: Tunisia-Libya case at the International Court of Justice

    SciT

    Stanley, D.J.

    1983-03-01

    Advances in the technology for exploiting resources of the oceans, particularly recovery of hydrocarbons and minerals in deep water, is benefiting a growing number of nations. At the same time, however, economic and political pressures have induced concern and there is now a much increased emphasis on jurisdiction to divide the offshore areas between the 132 coastal nations. Negotiations affect research operations at sea and, in consequence, marine scientists have been made aware of offshore problems as highlighted by the Law of the Sea Treaty (UNCLOS III) and complications arising from the legal versus scientific definitions of continental shelves andmore » margins. The first major offshore boundary case of international scope where plate tectonics has constituted a significant argument is the one recently brought before the International Court of Justice by Libya and Tunisia concerning the delimitation of their continental shelves. Of the two parties, Libya placed the greatest emphasis on this concept as a means to determine natural prolongation of its land territory into and under the sea. Tunisia contested Libya's use of the whole of the African continental landmass as a reference unit; in Tunisia's view, considerations of geography, geomorphology, and bathymetry are at least as relevant as are those of geology. In its landmark judgment (February 1982) - which almost certainly will have far-reaching consequences in future such boundary delimitation cases - the court pronounced that It is the outcome, not the evolution in the long-distant past, which is of importance, and that it is the present-day configuration of the coasts and sea bed which are the main factors to be considered, not geology.« less

  6. Update on the Epidemiology of Scorpion Envenomation in the South of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Chakroun-Walha, Olfa; Karray, Rim; Jerbi, Mouna; Nasri, Abdennour; Issaoui, Fadhila; Amine, Ben Rebeh; Bahloul, Mabrouk; Bouaziz, Mounir; Ksibi, Hichem; Rekik, Noureddine

    2018-03-01

    Scorpion envenomation is still a frequent occurance in tropical and subtropical regions. In Tunisia, multiple studies on scorpion envenoming have contributed to an improved understanding of cardiac dysfunction and factors predictive of poor prognosis. These previous studies have contributed to the current standardized management of envenomed patients. However, the epidemiology of scorpion envenoming in Tunisia has not been updated for more than 10 years. The aim of this study was to report an update of the epidemiological features of scorpion envenomation in the southern region of Tunisia. This is a retrospective monocentric study including all patients admitted in the emergency room for scorpion envenomation. Cases were collected from emergency medical files during a 3-year period (2013-2015). The diagnosis of scorpion envenomation was made by history of a scorpion sting. All files in which scorpion envenomation was not certain were excluded. Data are presented as mean±SD with range or percentages, as appropriate. We enrolled 282 patients aged 27.4±22.8 years with a 1:1 sex ratio. During surveillance in the emergency room, 39 patients developed cardiac dysfunction. Overall, 42 patients (14.9%) were at stage 3 of severity, and 240 patients (85.1%) had moderate scorpion envenomation (stage 2). Only 1 patient died a few hours after admission. In the remaining cases, the outcome was good. Our results show the improvement in mortality rates even in severe presentations. This study found that the outcome of scorpion-stung patients has clearly improved. This enhancement can be explained by early medical consultation and standardized management of patients with predictive factors for cardiac dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidemiological aspects of child abuse and neglect in Sousse, Tunisia: A 10-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Braham, Mohamed Yassine; Jedidi, Maher; Hmila, Imene; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Souguir, Mohamed Kamel; Ben Dhiab, Mohamed

    2018-02-01

    The aim of our study was to examine epidemiological aspects of child abuse and neglect in Tunisia. We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study over a period of 10 years (January 2006-December 2015), based on the files handled by the Child Protective Services (CPS) agency in the city of Sousse, Tunisia. During the study period, 3736 referrals were received by the CPS agency of Sousse. Of the total, 2212 (59.2%) were screened in and investigated. Of the investigated cases, 317 (14,3%) were substantiated as abuse or neglect. The reports of maltreatment came mostly from parents (37.8%). Neglect was the major type of maltreatment (51.4%) and an association of 2 types of maltreatment was found in 76 cases (24%). Parents were the perpetrators in 221 cases (69.7%). The average age of the victims was 10 years and boys accounted for 56%. In the 257 cases where the marital status of the parents was noted in the files, the parents were divorced in 62 cases (24.1%) and the child lived with a single mother in 35 cases (13.6%). Alcohol addiction was found in 21 parents (6.6%) and one of the parents was incarcerated in 39 cases (12.3%). As for the socio-economic status, it was evaluated in 188 families and was low in 123 cases (65.4%). In the absence of studies related to this scourge in Tunisia, we hope to raise awareness of the abuse and alert those who come into contact with the child on the importance of detecting and reporting early maltreatment and thus to introduce more appropriate care. A comprehensive prevention strategy needs to be established by addressing risk factors, cultural norms conducive to abuse and unwanted pregnancies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating the robustness of conceptual rainfall-runoff models under climate variability in northern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dakhlaoui, H.; Ruelland, D.; Tramblay, Y.; Bargaoui, Z.

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of climate change on water resources at the catchment scale, not only future projections of climate are necessary but also robust rainfall-runoff models that must be fairly reliable under changing climate conditions. The aim of this study was thus to assess the robustness of three conceptual rainfall-runoff models (GR4j, HBV and IHACRES) on five basins in northern Tunisia under long-term climate variability, in the light of available future climate scenarios for this region. The robustness of the models was evaluated using a differential split sample test based on a climate classification of the observation period that simultaneously accounted for precipitation and temperature conditions. The study catchments include the main hydrographical basins in northern Tunisia, which produce most of the surface water resources in the country. A 30-year period (1970-2000) was used to capture a wide range of hydro-climatic conditions. The calibration was based on the Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE) criterion, while model transferability was evaluated based on the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency criterion and volume error. The three hydrological models were shown to behave similarly under climate variability. The models simulated the runoff pattern better when transferred to wetter and colder conditions than to drier and warmer ones. It was shown that their robustness became unacceptable when climate conditions involved a decrease of more than 25% in annual precipitation and an increase of more than +1.75 °C in annual mean temperatures. The reduction in model robustness may be partly due to the climate dependence of some parameters. When compared to precipitation and temperature projections in the region, the limits of transferability obtained in this study are generally respected for short and middle term. For long term projections under the most pessimistic emission gas scenarios, the limits of transferability are generally not respected, which may hamper the

  9. [Epidemiological, clinical and biological features of infantile visceral leishmaniasis at Kairouan hospital (Tunisia): about 240 cases].

    PubMed

    Aissi, W; Ben Hellel, K; Habboul, Z; Ben Sghaier, I; Harrat, Z; Bouratbine, A; Aoun, K

    2015-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important health problem in Tunisia. It is most common in children under five years of age. The governorate of Kairouan (central Tunisia) is one of the most affected foci. The aim of this study was to update the epidemiological, clinical and biological features of the disease. The study concerned all VL cases admitted in the pediatric department of Kairouan hospital during 10 years (from 2004 to 2013). For every patient included in this study and when available, data such as sex, age, geographical origin and the condition of the patient at admission (clinical and biological findings) were collected. The myelogram results were also exploited as well as results of serology, culture, Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and isoenzymatic typing of Leishmania isolates. Two hundred and forty cases were recorded. Rural cases (87.1%) were more prevalent than urban ones (12.9%). Age ranged from 2 months to 13 years (median, 18 months). The female/male sex ratio was 1.03. The diagnosis delays ranged from 1 day to 8 months (median, 15 days). The most common clinical symptoms at admission were splenomegaly (97.9%), fever (79.9%) and hepatomegaly (47.3%). The principal biological disturbances were anemia (91.7%), thrombocytopenia (83.9%) and leucopenia (56.1%). Among the different biological tools used for diagnosis confirmation, PCR was the most sensitive (100%). All 43 typed stocks corresponded to Leishmania (L.) infantum species. Although zymodeme MON-1 was predictably the most frequent (27 cases), L. infantum MON-24 and MON-80 were responsible of no negligible numbers of cases (11 and 5 cases respectively). The present study gave an updated epidemiological, clinical and biological profile of infantile VL in Tunisia. The diagnosis delays were considerably shortened compared to previous reports. However, an even earlier diagnosis of cases is needed to improve the disease prognosis. Real-Time PCR showed to be helpful in VL management.

  10. Rheumatic heart disease in a developing country: Incidence and trend (Monastir; Tunisia: 2000-2013).

    PubMed

    Sriha Belguith, Asma; Koubaa Abdelkafi, Afifa; El Mhamdi, Sana; Ben Fredj, Manel; Abroug, Hela; Ben Salah, Arwa; Bouanene, Inès; Hassine, Fahima; Amara, Amal; Bhiri, Sana; Derbel, Abdelkarim; Gamra, Habib; Maatouk, Faouzi; Soltani, Mohamed Soussi

    2017-02-01

    The penicillin therapy of β hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis has aided in the decrease of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in developing countries. Tunisia is an endemic area, however, and incidence of RHD is weakly documented. We aimed at establishing the standardized incidence rate (SIR) of RHD in Monastir governorate and at determining RHD prevalence among hospitalized patients in two cardiology departments. From the regional register of Monastir Hospital morbidity, we have selected newly diagnosed patients with RHD, residents of Monastir, and hospitalized to the 2 cardiology departments between 2000 and 2013 (2001 not included). We studied 676 newly admitted patients. We estimate 1060 to be the number of new annual RHD cases in Tunisia. The SIR per 10 5 person-years was 10.97, being 9.3 in men and 19.1 in women, respectively. We have notified a negative trend of crude incidence rate/10 5 Inhabitants (Inh) (CIR) (r=-0.23, p<10 -3 ), and a strong positive correlation between age and CIR/10 5 Inh (r=0.989, p<10 -4 ). RHD lethality was 1%. We have registered 728 hospitalizations for RHD, representing 2.5% of all cardiology hospitalizations [95% CI: 2.3-2.7%], with a prevalence for 13.3% for women aged 15-29years. The median hospital stay was 9days (IQR: 5-15). Our results confirm the RHD incidence decrease, consistent with epidemiological transition in Tunisia. We have also emphasized on the close trend of RHD with age and the predominance of RHD among women especially at the procreation age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ecological Niche Modeling for the Prediction of the Geographic Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Chalghaf, Bilel; Chlif, Sadok; Mayala, Benjamin; Ghawar, Wissem; Bettaieb, Jihène; Harrabi, Myriam; Benie, Goze Bertin; Michael, Edwin; Salah, Afif Ben

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a very complex disease involving multiple factors that limit its emergence and spatial distribution. Prediction of cutaneous leishmaniasis epidemics in Tunisia remains difficult because most of the epidemiological tools used so far are descriptive in nature and mainly focus on a time dimension. The purpose of this work is to predict the potential geographic distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in Tunisia using Grinnellian ecological niche modeling. We attempted to assess the importance of environmental factors influencing the potential distribution of P. papatasi and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major. Vectors were trapped in central Tunisia during the transmission season using CDC light traps (John W. Hock Co., Gainesville, FL). A global positioning system was used to record the geographical coordinates of vector occurrence points and households tested positive for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major. Nine environmental layers were used as predictor variables to model the P. papatasi geographical distribution and five variables were used to model the L. major potential distribution. Ecological niche modeling was used to relate known species' occurrence points to values of environmental factors for these same points to predict the presence of the species in unsampled regions based on the value of the predictor variables. Rainfall and temperature contributed the most as predictors for sand flies and human case distributions. Ecological niche modeling anticipated the current distribution of P. papatasi with the highest suitability for species occurrence in the central and southeastern part of Tunisian. Furthermore, our study demonstrated that governorates of Gafsa, Sidi Bouzid, and Kairouan are at highest epidemic risk. PMID:26856914

  12. Mapping the serological prevalence rate of West Nile fever in equids, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Bargaoui, R; Lecollinet, S; Lancelot, R

    2015-02-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral disease of wild birds transmitted by mosquitoes. Humans and equids can also be affected and suffer from meningoencephalitis. In Tunisia, two outbreaks of WNF occurred in humans in 1997 and 2003; sporadic cases were reported on several other years. Small-scale serological surveys revealed the presence of antibodies against WN virus (WNV) in equid sera. However, clinical cases were never reported in equids, although their population is abundant in Tunisia. This study was achieved to characterize the nationwide serological status of WNV in Tunisian equids. In total, 1189 sera were collected in 2009 during a cross-sectional survey. Sera were tested for IgG antibodies, using ELISA and microneutralization tests. The estimated overall seroprevalence rate was 28%, 95% confidence interval [22; 34]. The highest rates were observed (i) in the north-eastern governorates (Jendouba, 74%), (ii) on the eastern coast (Monastir, 64%) and (iii) in the lowlands of Chott El Jerid and Chott el Gharsa (Kebili, 58%; Tozeur, 52%). Environmental risk factors were assessed, including various indicators of wetlands, wild avifauna, night temperature and chlorophyllous activity (normalized difference vegetation index: NDVI). Multimodel inference showed that lower distance to ornithological sites and wetlands, lower night-time temperature, and higher NDVI in late spring and late fall were associated with higher serological prevalence rate. The model-predicted nationwide map of WNF seroprevalence rate in Tunisian equids highlighted different areas with high seroprevalence probability. These findings are discussed in the perspective of implementing a better WNF surveillance system in Tunisia. This system might rely on (i) a longitudinal survey of sentinel birds in high-risk areas and time periods for WNV transmission, (ii) investigations of bird die-offs and (iii) syndromic surveillance of equine meningoencephalitis. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. [Device-vigilance at University Hospital in Central Eastern Tunisia: a survey conducted among physicians].

    PubMed

    Mahjoub, Mohamed; Jedidi, Maher; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Bouafia, Nabiha; Njah, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    The University Hospital Farhat Hached Sousse (Tunisia), has implemented a device-vigilance (DV) system, according to ANCSEP (National Agency of the Sanitary and Environmental Control of Products) guidelines, in order to manage the risk more effectively in hospital and to improve the quality and safety of patient care. In Tunisia the lack of regulation regarding device vigilance is the major obstacle to caregiver vigilance. The objective of this study is to establish the knowledge, attitudes, and clinical practice of University Hospital physicians regarding the implementation of the DV system. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of KAP (knowledge, attitudes and practices) among all the physicians working at the University Hospital Farhat Hached Sousse (Tunisia) who were users of medical devices (MDs) in the practice of their profession. A self-administered, pre-established and pre-testing questionnaire was developed. Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS20.0 software. The response rate was 51.9 % (183/95). A lack of knowledge about DV has been reported. More than half of the respondents didn't know the local correspondent of health establishment and the existence of a standardized vigilance reporting form. Regarding the attitudes, 89,5% express their interest in setting up a DV system and 37,5% acknowledged that the vigilance reporting form should be filled by the caregiver notifying the incident. Regarding the procedures, the majority of physicians confirmed the absence of an organized maintenance management of the MDs in the practice of their services. 90.5% express their wishes to receive information but few of them express their wishes to receive proper training (57.9%). A lack of information and training in a sensitive field which need to be heavily regulated has been a topic of discussion. The promulgation of regulatory texts is necessary in order to promote MD sector and guarantee the safety of patient and their users.

  14. Ecological Niche Modeling for the Prediction of the Geographic Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Chalghaf, Bilel; Chlif, Sadok; Mayala, Benjamin; Ghawar, Wissem; Bettaieb, Jihène; Harrabi, Myriam; Benie, Goze Bertin; Michael, Edwin; Salah, Afif Ben

    2016-04-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a very complex disease involving multiple factors that limit its emergence and spatial distribution. Prediction of cutaneous leishmaniasis epidemics in Tunisia remains difficult because most of the epidemiological tools used so far are descriptive in nature and mainly focus on a time dimension. The purpose of this work is to predict the potential geographic distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in Tunisia using Grinnellian ecological niche modeling. We attempted to assess the importance of environmental factors influencing the potential distribution of P. papatasi and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major. Vectors were trapped in central Tunisia during the transmission season using CDC light traps (John W. Hock Co., Gainesville, FL). A global positioning system was used to record the geographical coordinates of vector occurrence points and households tested positive for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major. Nine environmental layers were used as predictor variables to model the P. papatasi geographical distribution and five variables were used to model the L. major potential distribution. Ecological niche modeling was used to relate known species' occurrence points to values of environmental factors for these same points to predict the presence of the species in unsampled regions based on the value of the predictor variables. Rainfall and temperature contributed the most as predictors for sand flies and human case distributions. Ecological niche modeling anticipated the current distribution of P. papatasi with the highest suitability for species occurrence in the central and southeastern part of Tunisian. Furthermore, our study demonstrated that governorates of Gafsa, Sidi Bouzid, and Kairouan are at highest epidemic risk. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Genetic variation in Tunisia in the context of human diversity worldwide.

    PubMed

    Cherni, Lotfi; Pakstis, Andrew J; Boussetta, Sami; Elkamel, Sarra; Frigi, Sabeh; Khodjet-El-Khil, Houssein; Barton, Alison; Haigh, Eva; Speed, William C; Ben Ammar Elgaaied, Amel; Kidd, Judith R; Kidd, Kenneth K

    2016-09-01

    North Africa has a complex demographic history of migrations from within Africa, Europe, and the Middle East. However, population genetic studies, especially for autosomal genetic markers, are few relative to other world regions. We examined autosomal markers for eight Tunisian and Libyan populations in order to place them in a global context. Data were collected by TaqMan on 399 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms on 331 individuals from Tunisia and Libya. These data were combined with data on the same SNPs previously typed on 2585 individuals from 57 populations from around the world. Where meaningful, close by SNPs were combined into multiallelic haplotypes. Data were evaluated by clustering, principal components, and population tree analyses. For a subset of 102 SNPs, data from the literature on seven additional North African populations were included in analyses. Average heterozygosity of the North African populations is high relative to our global samples, consistent with a complex demographic history. The Tunisian and Libyan samples form a discrete cluster in the global and regional views and can be separated from sub-Sahara, Middle East, and Europe. Within Tunisia the Nebeur and Smar are outlier groups. Across North Africa, pervasive East-West geographical patterns were not found. Known historical migrations and invasions did not displace or homogenize the genetic variation in the region but rather enriched it. Even a small region like Tunisia contains considerable genetic diversity. Future studies across North Africa have the potential to increase our understanding of the historical demographic factors influencing the region. Am J Phys Anthropol 161:62-71, 2016. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [The virological and epidemiological aspects of human adenoviral conjunctivitis in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Fedaoui, N; Ben Ayed, N; Ben Yahia, A; Matri, L; Nacef, L; Triki, H

    2017-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are the main cause of viral conjunctivitis. In Tunisia and North Africa more generally, there is no regular nationwide surveillance program that monitors viruses causing conjunctivitis and keratoconjunctivitis. In this study, we report the results of HAdV screening in conjunctival samples collected for over 14 years in Tunisia. A total of 282 conjunctival samples received between 2000 and 2013 were investigated. Detection and identification of genotype were performed by PCR-sequencing at the hexon gene; 64.5% of samples (n=182) revealed positive by PCR detection without correlation noted between infection, age, sex, social class or clinical manifestations of viral conjunctivitis. HAdV-D8 was the largely predominant genotype in Tunisia, representing 81.3% of all isolates, and was detected continuously from 2000 to 2013. Minor co-circulating genotypes were also identified - HAdV-E4, HAdV-B3, B55 and HAdV-B7 - accounting for 10.7%, 4.9%, 1.9% and 0.9% of isolates, respectively. In conclusion, this work reports epidemiological data on adenoviral conjunctivitis from a region where such information is very scarce and contributes to a better knowledge of the worldwide distribution of causative genotypes. It also presents an approach for the identification of circulating HAdV in the country and demonstrates the importance of molecular tools for both detection and identification of genotypes, which allow rapid virological investigation, especially during epidemics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  18. Healthy Watersheds Integrated Assessments Workshop Synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in partnership with others, is embarking on the new Healthy Watersheds Initiative to protect our remaining healthy watersheds, prevent them from becoming impaired, and accelerate our restoration successes. In November 2010, a Healthy Wate...

  19. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Watershed management... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.9 Watershed management. (a) The character, extent, and quality of water resources... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation, erosion...

  20. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Watershed management... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.9 Watershed management. (a) The character, extent, and quality of water resources... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation, erosion...

  1. Overview of the Caspar Creek watershed study

    Norm Henry

    1998-01-01

    The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CDF) and the Pacific Southwest Research Station, Redwood Sciences Laboratory (PSW) have been conducting watershed research within the Caspar Creek watershed on the Jackson Demonstration State Forest, in northern California, since 1962. A concrete broad-crested weir with a 120 degree low-flow V-notch was...

  2. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Watershed management... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.9 Watershed management. (a) The character, extent, and quality of water resources... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation, erosion...

  3. DETECTING TEMPORAL CHANGE IN WATERSHED NUTRIENT YIELDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increase...

  4. Upper Washita River experimental watersheds: Sediment Database

    Improving the scientific understanding of the effectiveness of watershed conservation practices and floodwater-retardation structures to control floods and soil erosion is one of the primary objectives for sediment studies in the upper Washita River Experimental Watersheds. This paper summarizes se...

  5. Applying soil property information for watershed assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, V.; Mayn, C.; Brown, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Forest Service uses a priority watershed scheme to guide where to direct watershed restoration work. Initial assessment was done across the nation following the watershed condition framework process. This assessment method uses soils information for a three step ranking across each 12 code hydrologic unit; however, the soil information used in the assessment may not provide adequate detail to guide work on the ground. Modern remote sensing information and terrain derivatives that model the environmental gradients hold promise of showing the influence of soil forming factors on watershed processes. These small scale data products enable the disaggregation of coarse scale soils mapping to show continuous soil property information across a watershed. When this information is coupled with the geomorphic and geologic information, watershed specialists can more aptly understand the controlling influences of drainage within watersheds and focus on where watershed restoration projects can have the most success. A case study on the application of this work shows where road restoration may be most effective.

  6. ANALYZING CORRELATIONS BETWEEN STREAM AND WATERSHED ATTRIBUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bivariate correlation analysis has been widely used to explore relationships between stream and watershed attributes that have all been measured on the same set of watersheds or sampling locations. Researchers routinely test H0: =0 for each correlation in a large table and then ...

  7. Watershed Deposition Tool for air quality impacts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The WDT is a software tool for mapping deposition estimates from the CMAQ model to watersheds. It provides users with the linkage of air and water needed for the total maximum daily load (TMDL) and related nonpoint-source watershed analyses.

  8. Watershed Scale Impacts of Stormwater Green Infrastructure ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Despite the increasing use of urban stormwater green infrastructure (SGI), including detention ponds and rain gardens, few studies have quantified the cumulative effects of multiple SGI projects on hydrology and water quality at the watershed scale. To assess the effects of SGI, Baltimore County, MD, Montgomery County, MD, and Washington, DC, were selected based on the availability of data on SGI, water quality, and stream flow. The watershed scale impact of SGI was evaluated by assessing how increased spatial density of SGI correlates with stream hydrology and nitrogen exports over space and time. The most common SGI types were detention ponds (58%), followed by marshes (12%), sand filters (9%), wet ponds (7%), infiltration trenches (4%), and rain gardens (2%). When controlling for watersheds size and percent impervious surface cover, watersheds with greater amounts of SGI (>10% SGI) have 44% lower peak runoff, 26% less frequent runoff events, and 26% less variable runoff than watersheds with lower SGI. Watersheds with more SGI also show 44% less NO3− and 48% less total nitrogen exports compared to watersheds with minimal SGI. There was no significant reduction in combined sewer overflows in watersheds with greater SGI. Based on specific SGI types, infiltration trenches (R2 = 0.35) showed the strongest correlation with hydrologic metrics, likely due to their ability to attenuate flow, while bioretention (R2 = 0.19) and wet ponds (R2 = 0.12) showed stronger

  9. Improving watershed management practices in humid regions

    Understanding the basic hydrology and erosion is vital for effective management and utilization of water resources and soil conservation planning. To improve the understanding we used watershed studies on three continents. The results show that in well vegetated (sub) humid and temperate watersheds ...

  10. Turbidity Threshold sampling in watershed research

    Rand Eads; Jack Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Abstract - When monitoring suspended sediment for watershed research, reliable and accurate results may be a higher priority than in other settings. Timing and frequency of data collection are the most important factors influencing the accuracy of suspended sediment load estimates, and, in most watersheds, suspended sediment transport is dominated by a few, large...

  11. Draft Maumee River Watershed Restoration Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A draft of the Maumee River AOC Watershed Restoration Plan was completed in January 2006. The plan was created to meet requirements for the stage II RAP as well as Ohio EPA’s and ODNR’s Watershed Coordinator Program.

  12. Tree response to experimental watershed acidification

    N.K. Jensen; E.J. Holzmueller; P.J. Edwards; M. Thomas-Van Gundy; D.R. DeWalle; K.W.J. Williard

    2014-01-01

    Forest ecosystems in the Eastern USA are threatened by acid deposition rates that have increased dramatically since industrialization. We utilized two watersheds at the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia to examine long-term effects of acidification on ecological processes. One watershed has been treated with ammonium sulfate (approximately twice the ambient...

  13. COMPREHENSIVE PLAN FOR A SUSTAINABLE URBAN WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technical Challenge. This proposal deals with the urban watershed. The urban watershed is important to the quality of life in the city. For many urban dwellers, the urban stream represents a unique opportunity for recreation and the experience of the ...

  14. Watershed modeling applications in south Texas

    Pedraza, Diana E.; Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2012-01-01

    This fact sheet presents an overview of six selected watershed modeling studies by the USGS and partners that address a variety of water-resource issues in south Texas. These studies provide examples of modeling applications and demonstrate the usefulness and versatility of watershed models in aiding the understanding of hydrologic systems.

  15. EFFECTS OF WATERSHED DISTURBANCE ON SMALL STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents the effects of watershed disturbance on small streams. The South Fork Broad River Watershed was studied to evaluate the use of landscape indicators to predict pollutant loading at small spatial scales and to develop indicators of pollutants. Also studie...

  16. Subdivision of Texas watersheds for hydrologic modeling.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a set of findings and examples for subdivision of watersheds for hydrologic modeling. Three approaches were used to examine the impact of watershed subdivision on modeled hydrologic response: (1) An equal-area...

  17. Comparison of Drainmod Based Watershed Scale Models

    Glenn P. Fernandez; George M. Chescheir; R. Wayne Skaggs; Devendra M. Amatya

    2004-01-01

    Watershed scale hydrology and water quality models (DRAINMOD-DUFLOW, DRAINMOD-W, DRAINMOD-GIS and WATGIS) that describe the nitrogen loadings at the outlet of poorly drained watersheds were examined with respect to their accuracy and uncertainty in model predictions. Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) was applied to determine the impact of uncertainty in estimating field...

  18. Cumulative watershed effects: a research perspective

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer

    1989-01-01

    A cumulative watershed effect (CWE) is any response to multiple land-use activities that is caused by, or results in, altered watershed function. The CWE issue is politically defined, as is the significance of particular impacts. But the processes generating CWEs are the traditional focus of geomorphology and ecology, and have thus been studied for decades. The CWE...

  19. 5. Basin assessment and watershed analysis

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer

    1994-01-01

    Abstract - Basin assessment is an important component of the President's Forest Plan, yet it has received little attention. Basin assessments are intended both to guide watershed analyses by specifying types of issues and interactions that need to be understood, and, eventually, to integrate the results of watershed analyses occurring within a river basin....

  20. WATERSHED LANDSCAPE INDICATORS OF ESTUARINE BENTHIC CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Do land use/cover characteristics of watersheds associated with small estuaries exhibit a strong enough signal to make landscape metrics useful for identifying degraded bottom communities? We tested this idea with 58 pairs of small estuaries (<260 km2) and watersheds in the U.S. ...

  1. Sustaining flows of crucial watershed resources

    J. E. de Steiguer

    2000-01-01

    Watersheds are the source of a number of resources which are of benefit to society. These resources include water, timber, grazing, recreation, wildlife and others, often described as multiple-use resources. In addition, however, watersheds also produce a number of less tangible resources and uses, which are also socially important. These include amenity, option values...

  2. Geology of the Teakettle Creek watersheds

    Robert S. LaMotte

    1937-01-01

    The Teakettle Creek Experimental Watersheds lie for the most part on quartzites of probable Triassic age. However one of the triplicate drainages has a considerable acreage developed on weathered granodiorite. Topography is relatively uniform and lends itself to triplicate watershed studies. Locations for dams are suitable if certain engineering precautions...

  3. Catastrophic event recorded among Holocene eolianites (Sidi Salem Formation, SE Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frébourg, Gregory; Hasler, Claude-Alain; Davaud, Eric

    2010-03-01

    A high-energy deposit cuts through the early Holocene eolianites of the Sidi Salem Formation which forms a ridge along the southeastern coast of Tunisia. The sedimentary structures as well as the paleo-altitude and paleo-location of the outcrop state for a subaqueous deposition by an unusually large catastrophic event. Regarding its age and the related uncertainties, it could be either an exceptional storm, or a landslide or impact triggered tsunami. The mega-tsunami of the 8000 BP collapse of the Valle del Bove valley (Etna Volcano) could be this event, for its matching age and calculated run-up height.

  4. Natural infection of Algerian hedgehog, Atelerix algirus (Lereboullet 1842) with Leishmania parasites in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Chemkhi, Jomaa; Souguir, Hejer; Ali, Insaf Bel Hadj; Driss, Mehdi; Guizani, Ikram; Guerbouj, Souheila

    2015-10-01

    In Tunisia, Leishmania parasites are responsible of visceral leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania infantum species while three cutaneous disease forms are documented: chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania killicki, sporadic cutaneous form (SCL) caused by L. infantum and the predominant zoonotic cutaneous leishmanaisis (ZCL) due to Leishmania major. ZCL reservoirs are rodents of the Psammomys and Meriones genera, while for SCL the dog is supposed to be a reservoir. Ctenodactylus gundii is involved in the transmission of L. killicki. However, other mammals could constitute potential reservoir hosts in Tunisia and other North African countries. In order to explore the role of hedgehogs as potential reservoirs of leishmaniasis, specimens (N=6) were captured during July-November period in 2011-2013 in an SCL endemic area in El Kef region, North-Western Tunisia. Using morphological characteristics, all specimens were described and measured. Biopsies from liver, heart, kidney and spleen of each animal were used to extract genomic DNA, which was further used in PCR assays to assess the presence of Leishmania parasites. Different PCRs targeting kinetoplast minicircles, ITS1, mini-exon genes and a repetitive Leishmania- specific sequence, were applied. To further identify Leishmania species involved, RFLP analysis of amplified fragments was performed with appropriate restriction enzymes. Using morphological characters, animals were identified as North African hedgehogs, also called Algerian hedgehogs, that belong to the Erinaceidae family, genus Atelerix Pomel 1848, and species algirus (Lereboullet, 1842). PCR results showed in total that all specimens were Leishmania infected, with different organs incriminated, mainly liver and spleen. Results were confirmed by direct sequencing of amplified fragments. Species identification showed that all specimens were infected with L. major, three of which were additionally co-infected with L. infantum. The present study

  5. Paleozoic oil/gas shale reservoirs in southern Tunisia: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soua, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    During these last years, considerable attention has been given to unconventional oil and gas shale in northern Africa where the most productive Paleozoic basins are located (e.g. Berkine, Illizi, Kufra, Murzuk, Tindouf, Ahnet, Oued Mya, Mouydir, etc.). In most petroleum systems, which characterize these basins, the Silurian played the main role in hydrocarbon generation with two main 'hot' shale levels distributed in different locations (basins) and their deposition was restricted to the Rhuddanian (Lllandovery: early Silurian) and the Ludlow-Pridoli (late Silurian). A third major hot shale level had been identified in the Frasnian (Upper Devonian). Southern Tunisia is characterized by three main Paleozoic sedimentary basins, which are from North to South, the southern Chotts, Jeffara and Berkine Basin. They are separated by a major roughly E-W trending lower Paleozoic structural high, which encompass the Mehrez-Oued Hamous uplift to the West (Algeria) and the Nefusa uplift to the East (Libya), passing by the Touggourt-Talemzane-PGA-Bou Namcha (TTPB) structure close to southern Tunisia. The forementioned major source rocks in southern Tunisia are defined by hot shales with elevated Gamma ray values often exceeding 1400 API (in Hayatt-1 well), deposited in deep water environments during short lived (c. 2 Ma) periods of anoxia. In the course of this review, thickness, distribution and maturity maps have been established for each hot shale level using data for more than 70 wells located in both Tunisia and Algeria. Mineralogical modeling was achieved using Spectral Gamma Ray data (U, Th, K), SopectroLith logs (to acquire data for Fe, Si and Ti) and Elemental Capture Spectroscopy (ECS). The latter technique provided data for quartz, pyrite, carbonate, clay and Sulfur. In addition to this, the Gamma Ray (GR), Neutron Porosity (ΦN), deep Resistivity (Rt) and Bulk Density (ρb) logs were used to model bulk mineralogy and lithology. Biostratigraphic and complete

  6. Good practices to promote gender equality in science and physics in Tunisia

    SciT

    Jaziri, Sihem

    Women represent 47% of researchers in Tunisia but only 12% of senior faculty in scientific fields. This paper describes three areas of activity to promote greater participation of women. The Women in Science group at the University of Tunis has, among other activities, organized an annual conference on women in science since 2005. The COACh project is a multinational effort across northern Africa to promote professional networking and mentoring through partnerships with women in the United States. Finally, an immersive summer school was organized to introduce master’s level women to projects and careers in optics and photonics.

  7. Reproductive choice in Islam: gender and state in Iran and Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, C M

    1994-01-01

    This report examines the extent to which reproductive choice is compatible with Islamic principles. It presents the argument that the impact of Islam on reproductive choice is largely a function of the political context in which gender issues are defined. Indicators of reproductive health in countries of the Middle East are reviewed and the way these relate to constraints on reproductive choice is assessed. The examples of Tunisia and Iran are used to illustrate the way in which Islam is invoked to legitimate conflicting positions concerning women and their reproductive options.

  8. Lessons From a Comparison of Tunisia and Algeria: The Path to Democracy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-14

    6 OFF Daniel Uribe, Col,£Mar 20 12 2 USAFA/ approve f~/,.~J /ii !J/f_ ZJ,, J.-- tJ 7 OFER 1- )’-{ /•1/VJ �.. 3 USAF A / action 8 DFF 4 9...at Tab I prior to release to the public. 2. BACKGROUND. Authors: Cadet Amanda M Johnson Title: Lessons From a Comparison of Tunisia and Algeria...importance of education, women’s rights, and nation-supporting mili taries to the success, and even initiation, of a democratic revolution. Release

  9. Good practices to promote gender equality in science and physics in Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaziri, Sihem

    2015-12-01

    Women represent 47% of researchers in Tunisia but only 12% of senior faculty in scientific fields. This paper describes three areas of activity to promote greater participation of women. The Women in Science group at the University of Tunis has, among other activities, organized an annual conference on women in science since 2005. The COACh project is a multinational effort across northern Africa to promote professional networking and mentoring through partnerships with women in the United States. Finally, an immersive summer school was organized to introduce master's level women to projects and careers in optics and photonics.

  10. Sweeter E and P terms, Cretaceous Abiod chalk oil play lead to busier exploration in Tunisia

    SciT

    Davies, W.C.; Haiza, A.B.

    1990-12-10

    This paper reports that Tunisia's oil exploration and production industry is experiencing a boom of almost unprecedented proportions. The catalysts are changes in the fiscal and legislative regime and a high success ratio in an exciting new exploration play, Upper Cretaceous Abiod chalk. The foundation of this renewed phase of activity was laid in 1985. The Tunisian government decided to liberalize the terms and conditions that apply to the hydrocarbon exploration industry, in order to encourage the search for reserves to replace those being rapidly depleted through increased industrial, commercial, and transport consumption.

  11. First molecular detection and characterization of zoonotic Bartonella species in fleas infesting domestic animals in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Zouari, Saba; Khrouf, Fatma; M'ghirbi, Youmna; Bouattour, Ali

    2017-09-19

    Bartonellosis is an emerging vector-borne disease caused by different intracellular bacteria of the genus Bartonella (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) that is transmitted primarily by blood-sucking arthropods such as sandflies, ticks and fleas. In Tunisia, there are no data available identifying the vectors of Bartonella spp. In our research, we used molecular methods to detect and characterize Bartonella species circulating in fleas collected from domestic animals in several of the country's bioclimatic areas. A total of 2178 fleas were collected from 5 cats, 27 dogs, 34 sheep, and 41 goats at 22 sites located in Tunisia's five bioclimatic zones. The fleas were identified as: 1803 Ctenocephalides felis (83%) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), 266 C. canis (12%) and 109 Pulex irritans (5%) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Using conventional PCR, we screened the fleas for the presence of Bartonella spp., targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Bartonella DNA was detected in 14% (121/866) of the tested flea pools [estimated infection rate (EIR) per 2 specimens: 0.072, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.060-0.086]. The Bartonella infection rate per pool was broken down as follows: 55% (65/118; EIR per 2 specimens: 0.329, 95% CI: 0.262-0.402) in C. canis; 23.5% (8/34; EIR per 2 specimens: 0.125, 95% CI: 0.055-0.233) in P. irritans and 6.7% (48/714; EIR per 2 specimens: 0.032, 95% CI: 0.025-0.045) in C. felis. Infection rates, which varied significantly by bioclimatic zone (P < 0.0001), were highest in the humid areas. By sequencing, targeting the gltA gene and the 16S-23S rRNA Intergenic Spacer Regions (ITS), we identified three Bartonella zoonotic species: B. elizabethae, B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, as well as uncharacterized Bartonella genotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that fleas in Tunisia have been shown to carry zoonotic species of Bartonella. The dog flea, Ctenocephalides canis, should be considered the main potential vector of Bartonella. Our

  12. Lateral extrusion of Tunisia : Contribution of Jeffara Fault (southern branch) and Petroleum Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghedhoui, R.; Deffontaines, B.; Rabia, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    Contrasting to the northward African plate motion toward Eurasia and due to its geographic position in the North African margin, since early cretaceous, Tunisia seems to be submitted to an eastward migration. The aim of this work is to study the southern branch of this inferred tectonic splay that may guide the Tunisian extrusion characterised to the east by the Mediterranean sea as a free eastern boundary. The Jeffara Fault zone (southern Tunisia), represent a case example of such deformation faced by Tunisia. Helped by the results of previous researchers (Bouaziz, 1995 ; Rabiaa, 1998 ; Touati et Rodgers, 1998 ; Sokoutis D. et al., 2000 ; Bouaziz et al., 2002 ; Jallouli et al., 2005 ; Deffontaines et al., 2008…), and new evidences developed in this study, we propose a geodynamic Tunisian east extrusion model, due to such the northern African plate migration to the Eurasian one. In this subject, structural geomorphology is undertaken herein based on both geomorphometric drainage network analysis (Deffontaines et al., 1990), the Digital Terrain Model photo-interpretation (SRTM) combined with photo-interpretation of detailed optical images (Landsat ETM+), and confirmed by field work and numerous seismic profiles at depth. All these informations were then integrated within a GIS (Geodatabase) (Deffontaines 1990 ; Deffontaines et al. 1994 ; Deffontaines, 2000 ; Slama, 2008 ; Deffontaines, 2008) and are coherent with the eastern extrusion of the Sahel block. We infer that the NW-SE Gafsa-Tozeur, which continue to the Jeffara major fault zone acting as a transtensive right lateral motion since early cretaceous is the southern branch of the Sahel block extrusion. Our structural analyses prove the presence of NW-SE right lateral en-echelon tension gashes, NW-SE aligned salt diapirs, numerous folds offsets, en-echelon folds, and so on that parallel this major NW-SE transtensive extrusion fault zone.These evidences confirm the fact that the NW-SE Jeffara faults correspond

  13. Can conservation agriculture reduce the impact of soil erosion in northern Tunisia ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahri, Haithem; Annabi, Mohamed; Chibani, Roukaya; Cheick M'Hamed, Hatem; Hermessi, Taoufik

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean countries are prone to soil erosion, therefore Tunisia, with Mediterranean climate, is threatened by water erosion phenomena. In fact, 3 million ha of land is threatened by erosion, and 50% is seriously affected. Soils under conservation agriculture (CA) have high water infiltration capacities reducing significantly surface runoff and thus soil erosion. This improves the quality of surface water, reduces pollution from soil erosion, and enhances groundwater resources. CA is characterized by three interlinked principles, namely continuous minimum mechanical soil disturbance, permanent organic soil cover and diversification of crop species grown in sequence or associations. Soil aggregate stability was used as an indicator of soil susceptibility to water erosion. Since 1999, In Tunisia CA has been introduced in rainfed cereal areas in order to move towards more sustainable agricultural systems. CA areas increased from 52 ha in 1999 to 15000 ha in 2015. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of CA on soil erosion in northern Tunisia. Soil samples were collected at 10 cm of depth from 6 farmers' fields in northern Tunisia. Conventional tillage (CT), CA during less than 5 years (CA<5 years) and CA during more than 5 years (CA>5 years) have been practiced in each farmers field experiment of wheat crop. Soil aggregate stability was evaluated according to the method described by Le Bissonnais (1996), results were expressed as a mean weight diameter (MWD); higher values of MWD indicate higher aggregate stability. Total organic carbon (TOC) was determined using the wet oxidation method of Walkley-Black. A significant increase in SOC content was observed in CA>5years (1.64 %) compared to CT (0.97 %). This result highlights the importance of CA to improve soil fertility. For aggregate stability, a net increase was observed in CA compared to CT. After 5 years of CA the MWD was increased by 16% (MWD=1.8 mm for CT and MWD=2.1 mm for CA<5years). No

  14. Protecting water quality in the watershed

    SciT

    James, C.R.; Johnson, K.E.; Stewart, E.H.

    1994-08-01

    This article highlights the water quality component of a watershed management plan being developed for the San Francisco (CA) Water Department. The physical characteristics of the 63,000-acre watersheds were analyzed for source and transport vulnerability for five groups of water quality parameters--particulates, THM precursors, microorganisms (Giardia and cryptosporidium), nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), and synthetic organic chemicals--and vulnerability zones were mapped. Mapping was achieved through the use of an extensive geographic information system (GIS) database. Each water quality vulnerability zone map was developed based on five watershed physical characteristics--soils, slope, vegetation, wildlife concentration, and proximity to water bodies--and their relationships tomore » each of the five groups of water quality parameters. An approach to incorporate the watershed physical characteristics information into the five water quality vulnerability zone maps was defined and verified. The composite approach was based in part on information gathered from existing watershed management plans.« less

  15. Mercury cycling in terrestrial watersheds

    Shanley, James B.; Bishop, Kevin; Banks, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses mercury cycling in the terrestrial landscape, including inputs from the atmosphere, accumulation in soils and vegetation, outputs in streamflow and volatilization, and effects of land disturbance. Mercury mobility in the terrestrial landscape is strongly controlled by organic matter. About 90% of the atmospheric mercury input is retained in vegetation and organic matter in soils, causing a buildup of legacy mercury. Some mercury is volatilized back to the atmosphere, but most export of mercury from watersheds occurs by streamflow. Stream mercury export is episodic, in association with dissolved and particulate organic carbon, as stormflow and snowmelt flush organic-rich shallow soil horizons. The terrestrial landscape is thus a major source of mercury to downstream aquatic environments, where mercury is methylated and enters the aquatic food web. With ample organic matter and sulfur, methylmercury forms in uplands as well—in wetlands, riparian zones, and other anoxic sites. Watershed features (topography, land cover type, and soil drainage class) are often more important than atmospheric mercury deposition in controlling the amount of stream mercury and methylmercury export. While reductions in atmospheric mercury deposition may rapidly benefit lakes, the terrestrial landscape will respond only over decades, because of the large stock and slow turnover of legacy mercury. We conclude with a discussion of future scenarios and the challenge of managing terrestrial mercury.

  16. Hydrologic research on instrumented watersheds

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1970-01-01

    The successful research man is the one who asks himself the right question. Research must go on primarily in the mind and only secondarily in the physical and biological world. It is only too easy to confuse the choice of a proper tool and the choice of a proper question. Some tools are quite unsuited to certain questions and some questions cannot be answered without the appropriate tool.There has been in recent years a large amount of discussion about whether the high costs and the extensive time period required for experimental watershed* research is really worth the investment. Recent discussions of this matter have cited as major criticisms of the instrumented basin that they are expensive, they leak water, they are unrepresentative, they produce changes too small for detection, and it is difficult to transfer the results. (See Hewlett, Lull, and Reinhart, 1969.) These are all questions worth talking about, but in one sense they tend to obscure the main issue. The main issue is what do we want to learn? If we can decide what it is we want to know, then we can logically ask ourselves what is the best way of going about obtaining that knowledge. It is in this context that we are most likely to place the experimental watershed in a useful and logical position in a classification of research methods.

  17. Model Calibration in Watershed Hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yilmaz, Koray K.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2009-01-01

    Hydrologic models use relatively simple mathematical equations to conceptualize and aggregate the complex, spatially distributed, and highly interrelated water, energy, and vegetation processes in a watershed. A consequence of process aggregation is that the model parameters often do not represent directly measurable entities and must, therefore, be estimated using measurements of the system inputs and outputs. During this process, known as model calibration, the parameters are adjusted so that the behavior of the model approximates, as closely and consistently as possible, the observed response of the hydrologic system over some historical period of time. This Chapter reviews the current state-of-the-art of model calibration in watershed hydrology with special emphasis on our own contributions in the last few decades. We discuss the historical background that has led to current perspectives, and review different approaches for manual and automatic single- and multi-objective parameter estimation. In particular, we highlight the recent developments in the calibration of distributed hydrologic models using parameter dimensionality reduction sampling, parameter regularization and parallel computing.

  18. Delphi Research Methodology Applied to Place-Based Watershed Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallor, Rosanna R.; Yates, Kimberly A.; Brody, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the results of the Flathead Watershed Delphi survey, a consensus-building methodology used to establish foundational knowledge, skills and dispositions for the Flathead Watershed Educators Guide, a place-based watershed curriculum for middle school grades based on the Flathead Watershed Sourcebook. Survey participants (n =…

  19. Studying Watersheds: A Confluence of Important Ideas. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haury, David L.

    This digest explains how the study of watersheds can serve to connect concept and skill development across subject areas and grade levels for curriculum reform and standards-based assessment. Specific resources are organized into watersheds in the curriculum, connections to National Standards, watershed concepts and activities, watershed education…

  20. 7 CFR 622.11 - Eligible watershed projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible watershed projects. 622.11 Section 622.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Qualifications § 622.11 Eligible watershed projects. (a) To be eligible for Federal assistance, a watershed project must: (1) Meet the definition of a...

  1. Mapping watershed integrity for the conterminous United States..

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed integrity is the capacity of a watershed to support and maintain the full range of ecological processes and functions essential to sustainability. We evaluated and mapped an Index of Watershed Integrity (IWI) for 2.6 million watersheds in the conterminous US using firs...

  2. MAPPING WATERSHED INTEGRITY FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds provide a variety of ecosystem services valued by society. Production of these services is sensitive to watershed alteration by human activities. Flotemersch and others (2015), defined watershed integrity (WI) as the “capacity of a watershed to support and maint...

  3. Molecular identification of parasitic nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylida) in feces of wild ruminants from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Said, Yousra; Gharbi, Mohamed; Mhadhbi, Moez; Dhibi, Moktar; Lahmar, Samia

    2017-11-08

    In Tunisia and other North African countries, there is a lack of knowledge about parasite biodiversity within threatened wild ruminants and there are not any studies on their gastrointestinal nematodes. Thus the aim of this study was to identify gastrointestinal fauna in the faecal samples of Tunisian wild ruminants. A total of 262 faecal samples were collected from domestic sheep and goat, and wild ruminants (Addax, Barbary sheep, Barbary red deer, Dorcas gazelle, Slender-horned gazelle and Scimitar-horned Oryx) living in protected areas. Samples were examined with floatation (saturated sodium chloride solution), polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA. Microscopic analysis allowed the identification of only Nematodirus genus or molecular tools allowed a first identification of five gastrointestinal nematode species in North African wild ruminants: Chabertia ovina (1.6%), Camelostrongylus mentulatus (1.6%), Marshallagia marshalli (4.7%), Nematodirus helvetianus (62.5%) and Nematodirus spathiger (29.7%). This study reported the first records of C. mentulatus and M. marshalli in Addax and of M. marshalli in Dorcas gazelle and it was the first reported record of N. helvetianus and M. marshalli in Tunisia.

  4. Presence of parasitic protozoa and helminth in sewage and efficiency of sewage treatment in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Ayed, L; Schijven, J; Alouini, Z; Jemli, M; Sabbahi, S

    2009-08-01

    Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts were enumerated in raw and treated wastewater in Tunisia in order to determine their removal by wastewater treatment and to provide quantitative data for developing regulations for wastewater quality that are currently lacking. Raw and treated wastewater samples were collected from 17 plants in Tunisia during 2006-2007 and analyzed for parasites using the modified Bailenger method. Two groups of parasites, namely, Ascaris sp., Entamoeba coli, Enterobius vermicularis, and Taenia sp. (group 1) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp., and Taenia sp. (group 2) could statistically be distinguished according to their removal by wastewater treatment. Group 1 parasites were removed by 1.1 log(10) (92.4%) and group 2 parasites by 0.61 log(10) (76%). The ubiquitous presence of parasitic protozoa in Tunisian wastewater and ineffective wastewater treatment lead to their proliferation in surface waters with a high probability of exposure of human and animals to these parasites and consequent adverse health effects, as is apparent from epidemiologic data as well. This study provides a quantitative basis for risk assessment studies and development of mitigation strategies, such as improving wastewater treatment efficiency.

  5. Epidemiology of infective endocarditis in Tunisia: a 10-year multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Letaief, Amel; Boughzala, Essia; Kaabia, Naoufel; Ernez, Samia; Abid, Fekria; Ben Chaabane, Taoufik; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Boujnah, Rachid; Chakroun, Mohamed; Daoud, Moncef; Gaha, Rafika; Kafsi, Naceur; Khalfallah, Ali; Slimane, Lotfi; Zaouali, Mohamed

    2007-09-01

    Since the first description of infective endocarditis, the profile of the disease has evolved continuously with stable incidence. However, epidemiological features are different in developing countries compared with western countries. To describe epidemiological, microbiological and outcome characteristics of infective endocarditis in Tunisia. This was a descriptive multicenter retrospective study of inpatients treated for infective endocarditis from 1991 to 2000. Charts of patients with possible or definite infective endocarditis according to the Duke criteria were included in the study. Four hundred and forty episodes of infective endocarditis among 435 patients (242 males, 193 females; mean (SD) age=32.4 (16.8) years, range 1-78 years) were reviewed. The most common predisposing heart disease was rheumatic valvular disease (45.2%). Infective endocarditis occurred on prosthetic valves in 17.3% of cases. Causative microorganisms were identified in 50.2% of cases: streptococci (17.3%), enterococci (3.9%), staphylococci (17.9%), and other pathogens (11.1%). Blood cultures were negative in 53.6% and no microorganism was identified in 49.8%. Early valve surgery was performed in 51.2% of patients. The in-hospital mortality was 20.6%. Infective endocarditis is still frequently associated with rheumatic disease among young adults in Tunisia, with a high frequency of negative blood cultures and high in-hospital mortality, given that the population affected is relatively young.

  6. [H1N1 influenza vaccines in Tunisia: efficiency and safety].

    PubMed

    Chaabane, Amel; Aouam, Karim; Ben Fredj, Nadia; Toumi, Adnen; Braham, Dorra; A Boughattas, Naceur; Chakroun, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    We carried out this study in order to evaluate the effectiveness and the safety of the two H1N1 vaccines available in Tunisia: Focetria(®) and Panenza(®). It's a prospective epidemiological study including 601 vaccinated subjects. The vaccine effectiveness was based on the occurrence of flu clinical symptoms after vaccination. The safety was based on the occurrence of unexpected events after vaccines administration. The vaccines imputability was established according to Begaud et al. method. The number of subjects vaccinated by Focetria(®) is more important than Panenza(®). The efficiency of vaccines would be 93.6%. Neither the medical statue nor the type of the vaccine used influence the occurrence of a flu episode after vaccination. We recorded 406 adverse effects (32.4%) with a high score of imputability (I3). Focetria(®) adverse effects were more frequent than Panenza(®) ones (p = 0.009). Almost all adverse events disappeared within few days. The two vaccines used in Tunisia remain enough efficient to face the influenza (H1N1) pandemia and are well tolerated independently of the demographic and pathological statue of the vaccinated person as well as nature of the vaccine used. © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  7. Clinical and laboratory features of murine typhus in central Tunisia: a report of seven cases.

    PubMed

    Letaïef, A Omezzine; Kaabia, N; Chakroun, M; Khalifa, M; Bouzouaia, N; Jemni, L

    2005-11-01

    Murine or endemic typhus, caused by Rickettsia typhi, has been reported in all continents. In the 1970s, no cases of murine typhus were diagnosed in Tunisia. The clinico-epidemiological characteristics of seven cases of murine typhus diagnosed at our hospitals since 1993 are reported. Diagnosis was confirmed by indirect fluorescence assay detecting specific R. typhi antibodies. Murine typhus occurred in all ages from 18-80 years during the hot season in rural areas. Clinical features were: sudden onset of fever and absence of eschar in all cases, with maculo-papular rash (five cases), prostration (four cases), meningism (three cases) and pneumonia (four cases). Frequent laboratory findings were moderate thrombopenia (four cases) and elevated transaminases (four cases). Before the results of serology, clinical diagnoses were Mediterranean Spotted Fever (four cases), Q fever (one case), pneumonia (one case), and lymphocytic meningitis (one case). Serology confirmed all diagnoses with cross-reactivity with Rickettsia conorii. Murine typhus exists in Tunisia and its prevalence is underestimated. Further, more specific studies are needed to evaluate the true prevalence.

  8. Rights of people with mental disorders: Realities in healthcare facilities in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Rekhis, Mayssa; Ben Hamouda, Abir; Ouanes, Sami; Rafrafi, Rym

    2017-08-01

    Mental disorders have been associated worldwide with human rights' violations. Controversially, many occur in mental health facilities. This work aimed to assess the rights of people with mental disorders in healthcare facilities in Tunisia. A cross-sectional study, using the World Health Organization (WHO) quality-rights toolkit, assessed the human rights levels of achievement in Elrazi Hospital, the only psychiatric hospital in Tunisia, in comparison with the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN). The framework was the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The assessment was carried through observation, documentation review, and interviews with service users, staff, and family members. The sample was composed of 113 interviewees. In Elrazi Hospital, three out of the five evaluated rights were assessed as only initiated: the right to an adequate standard of living, to exercise legal capacity and to be free from inhuman treatment. By comparison, these rights were partially achieved in the NIN. The right to enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health was partially achieved and the right to live independently and to be included in the community was not even initiated. These last two rights were at the same level of achievement in the NIN. Significant improvements are needed to adapt the practice in Elrazi Hospital to comply with human rights, especially since the achievement level of these rights is lower than in a non-psychiatric hospital. Our study emphasizes the importance of spreading the CRPD as a standardized framework.

  9. Clustering of risk factors with smoking habits among adults, Sousse, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Maatoug, Jihene; Harrabi, Imed; Hmad, Sonia; Belkacem, Mylene; Al'absi, Mustafa; Lando, Harry; Ghannem, Hassen

    2013-12-19

    In Tunisia, few studies have assessed the association between tobacco use and other lifestyle risk factors for chronic disease (eg, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity). We studied 1,880 adults to determine the association between tobacco use and other lifestyle risk factors in Tunisia. This study was part of an assessment of the prevalence of chronic disease risk factors in a community-based trial conducted in 2009 to implement a chronic disease prevention program. The study population was randomly selected from 3 districts of the region of Sousse. The questionnaires were administered by personal interview and included the assessment of tobacco use and other chronic disease risk factors such as unhealthful diet habits and physical inactivity. Of the 1,880 study participants, 64% were women. The mean age of the participants was 37.9 (standard deviation, 13.5 y). The prevalence of tobacco use in our population was 50.4% for men and 3.1% for women. Among men, the proportion of alcohol consumption was significantly higher among smokers (25.3% vs 5.7% [P <.001]). Smokers consumed fewer fruits and vegetables and more high-fat, high-salt, and high-sugar foods than did nonsmokers. There was no significant difference between male smokers and nonsmokers regarding physical activity (P = .36). Physical activity and dietary characteristics may be important areas for physicians to assess during smoking-cessation interventions.

  10. Impact of the Tunisian Revolution on homicide and suicide rates in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Khelil, Mehdi; Gharbaoui, Meriem; Farhani, Fethia; Zaafrane, Malek; Harzallah, Hana; Allouche, Mohamed; Zhioua, Mongi; Hamdoun, Moncef

    2016-12-01

    To analyze the impact of the Tunisian Revolution on suicide and homicide patterns in Tunisia. It is a retrospective, cross-sectional study, including all the cases of homicides and suicides that occurred during an 8-year period (2007-2014) in Northern Tunisia. We compared data before and after the revolution. After the revolution, the number of suicides rose 1.7 times, with a prevalence rising from 1.8 to 3.12 suicides per 100,000 persons per year. Homicides rose 1.3 times after the revolution. For both manner of death, victims were mostly males, aged between 20 and 39 years, living in urban areas. Hanging and self-immolation rose, respectively, 1.8 and 3 times after 2011. We observed suicide cases most frequently occurred in public places and in front of public administration after 2011. Homicide victims' profile and circumstances showed a single variation which is an increase in number of cases happening in rural areas. Our results proved a short-term impact of the transition period on homicides and suicides. Urgent preventive measures are needed especially to decrease the suicide rates.

  11. Particularities of COPD exacerbations in different phenotypes of the disease in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Zendah, Ines; Ayed, Khadija; Kwas, Hamida; Khattab, Amel; Ghédira, Habib

    2016-03-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is defined by a limitation of airflow. This disease is characterized by exacerbations that threaten the patient's life and worsens his prognosis. Moreover, COPD patients are different according to many parameters that define different phenotypes. Characteristics of exacerbations may depend on these phenotypes according to few recent studies. To determine the characteristics and the prognosis of the exacerbations in each phenotype of COPD patients phenotype in Tunisia. Retrospective study including 153 male patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbation from January 2009 to June 2012. Patients were classified into 4 phenotypes according to Burgel's classification. Patients were divided into four phenotypes: phenotype (PH)1: (n=68), PH2: (n=33), PH3: (n=25) and PH4: (n=27). Mean age for PH1, 2, 3 and 4 was: 61, 74, 56 and 72 years. The number of exacerbations per year was higher in PH1. Dyspnea was more important in PH1 and 4. Hypercapnia on admission was higher in PH4. Non invasive ventilation and transfer to resuscitation unit were more frequently mandatory in PH3 and 4.   Death occurred 2% of PH1 and 5% of PH4. Hospitalization duration was more important in PH4. COPD patients are heterogenous and belong to different phenotypes. The characteristics of the exacerbations and their prognosis widely differ according to these different groups. In Tunisia, it seems that patients who had moderate respiratory functional tests impairment are the lowest responders to treatment with a higher frequency of resuscitation unit transfer.

  12. Bacteriophages as indicators of human and animal faecal contamination in raw and treated wastewaters from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Yahya, M; Hmaied, F; Jebri, S; Jofre, J; Hamdi, M

    2015-05-01

    We aimed at quantifying bacteriophages in raw and treated wastewaters of human and animal origin in Tunisia to assess their usefulness for tracking the origin of faecal pollution and in the follow-up of effectiveness of water treatments process. The concentrations of bacteriophages in wastewater samples were determined by double layer agar technique. Somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA bacteriophages were present in all types of samples in high concentrations. The values of Escherichia coli were variable depending on geographical location. On the other hand, bacteriophages infecting strain GA17 were detected preferably when human faecal contamination was occurred. Bacteriophages appear as a feasible and widely applicable manner to detect faecal contamination in Tunisia. On the other hand, phages infecting GA17 could be good markers for tracking the origin of faecal pollution in the area studied. The reuse of treated wastewaters can be a solution to meet the needs of water in the geographical area of study. Bacteriophages seem to predict differently the presence of faecal contamination in water than bacterial indicators. Consequently, they can be a valuable additional tool to improve water resources management for minimizing health risks. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Hospital environment fungal contamination and aspergillosis risk in acute leukaemia patients in Sousse (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Gheith, Soukeina; Ranque, Stéphane; Bannour, Wadiaa; Ben Youssef, Yosra; Khelif, Abderrahim; Ben Said, Moncef; Njah, Mansour; Saghrouni, Fatma

    2015-06-01

    Hospital environment is considered the main source of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in leukemic patients. This study aimed to describe Aspergillus colonisation in leukemic patients and their hospital environment and to test whether Aspergillus environmental contamination was associated with IA. For a 2-year period including 14-month renovation work, 91 acute leukaemia inpatients at the hematology department of University hospital in Sousse (Tunisia) were prospectively included. The incidence of probable IA (EORTC/MSG criteria) was 9.9%. Fifty-six Aspergillus were isolated from 53 (6.5%) of 811 sputa collected from 35 (38.5%) patients. Aspergillus spp. were isolated in 59.7% of 494 air samples and in 52.8% of 1579 surface samples taken in the patients' room. Aspergillus section Nigri (72.7%) was the most frequent. Aspergillus contamination peaked in autumn and winter on surface and in summer and autumn in air samples and was higher (P = 0.03) during the renovation work period. Multivariate analysis showed that for each Aspergillus section Nigri CFU airborne contamination IA risk increased by 1.05 (P = 0.04). In Tunisia, Aspergillus section Nigri and Flavi, but not Fumigati, are chiefly involved in IA. Our findings support swift implementation of airborne fungal contamination control measures in areas where immunocompromised patient are hospitalised. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Diet, living conditions and nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Tunisia--a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jeannel, D; Hubert, A; de Vathaire, F; Ellouz, R; Camoun, M; Ben Salem, M; Sancho-Garnier, H; de-Thé, G

    1990-09-15

    We conducted a case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Tunisia, on diet, dietary patterns and life style, the characteristics of which had been defined by an anthropological study. Eighty incident cases, diagnosed in Tunisia between November 1986 and November 1987, were each matched for sex, age and place of residence to 2 controls. The subjects were asked for dietary data referring to the year preceding the diagnosis of NPC and, with help of their families, during childhood and after weaning. After adjustment for an empirical living conditions score, the following food items were found to be associated with an increased risk for NPC: preserved spiced meat (quaddid), basic stewing preparation (mixture of red and black pepper, garlic, oil, caraway and coriander), and harissa (red pepper, olive oil, garlic, caraway, salt) taken with bread as a snack during childhood and youth. Moreover, subjects who had been directly weaned from mother's milk on to an adult diet were found to be at higher risk for NPC.

  15. Comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Italy and Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Ghedira, Kamel

    2009-01-01

    Background Italy and Tunisia (Africa for the Romans), facing each other on the opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea, have been historically linked since the ancient times. Over the centuries both countries were mutually dominated so the vestiges and traces of a mutual influence are still present. The aim of the present study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the medicinal species present in the respective Floras in order to explore potential analogies and differences in popular phytotherapy that have come out from those reciprocal exchanges having taken place over the centuries Methods The comparative analysis based on the respective floras of both countries takes into consideration the bulk of medicinal species mutually present in Italy and Tunisia, but it focuses on the species growing in areas which are similar in climate. The medicinal uses of these species are considered in accordance with the ethnobotanical literature. Results A list of 153 medicinal species belonging to 60 families, present in both floras and used in traditional medicine, was drawn. A considerable convergence in therapeutic uses of many species emerged from these data. Conclusion This comparative analysis strengthens the firm belief that ethno-botanical findings represent not only an important shared heritage, developed over the centuries, but also a considerable mass of data that should be exploited in order to provide new and useful knowledge. PMID:19857257

  16. ‘This Is Real Misery’: Experiences of Women Denied Legal Abortion in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Hajri, Selma; Raifman, Sarah; Gerdts, Caitlin; Baum, Sarah; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to accessing legal abortion services in Tunisia are increasing, despite a liberal abortion law, and women are often denied wanted legal abortion services. In this paper, we seek to explore the reasons for abortion denial and whether these reasons had a legal or medical basis. We also identify barriers women faced in accessing abortion and make recommendations for improved access to quality abortion care. We recruited women immediately after they had been turned away from legal abortion services at two facilities in Tunis, Tunisia. Thirteen women consented to participate in qualitative interviews two months after they were turned away from the facility. Women were denied abortion care on the day they were recruited due to three main reasons: gestational age, health conditions, and logistical barriers. Nine women ultimately terminated their pregnancies at another facility, and four women carried to term. None of the women attempted illegal abortion services or self-induction. Further research is needed in order to assess abortion denial from the perspective of providers and medical staff. PMID:26684189

  17. Identification of Suitable Areas for West Nile Virus Circulation in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Hassine, T; Conte, A; Calistri, P; Candeloro, L; Ippoliti, C; De Massis, F; Danzetta, M L; Bejaoui, M; Hammami, S

    2017-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. It is transmitted primarily by the bite of infected mosquitoes, particularly Culex spp. and Aedes/Ochlerotatus spp., which acquire the virus by feeding on viraemic birds. Humans, horses and other mammals are regarded as incidental or dead-end hosts. In the last decades, an increasing number of cases of WNV infection in horses and humans have been notified in the Mediterranean basin. In Tunisia, human cases of WNV-related meningoencephalitis were detected in 1997, 2003, 2007, 2010, 2011 and 2012. Based on the analysis of climatic and environmental conditions found in the locations where human cases have been reported in 2012, the aim of this study was to identify similar areas in Tunisia potentially at risk of disease occurrence. Data related to 85 neuroinvasive West Nile fever (WNF) human cases were georeferenced and a set of environmental and climatic variables (wetlands and humid areas, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), temperatures and elevation, migratory bird settlements) were used in the analysis. Areas, ecologically similar to those where human cases were detected, were identified using the Mahalanobis distance statistic. A leave-one-out cross-validation was performed to validate the sensitivity of the model, and 78 of 85 points were correctly classified. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. First molecular survey of Anaplasma bovis in small ruminants from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Karaoud, Maroua; Bousrih, Maha; Yahiaoui, Mouna; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Messadi, Lilia

    2015-09-30

    To date, no information is available regarding the presence of Anaplasma bovis in the South Mediterranean area. In this study, prevalence, risk factors, and genetic diversity of A. bovis were assessed in small ruminants. A total of 563 healthy small ruminants (260 sheep and 303 goats), from 25 randomly selected flocks located in 5 localities from two bioclimatic areas in Tunisia, were investigated for the detection of A. bovis in blood by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assay. The overall infection rates of A. bovis were 42.7 and 23.8% in sheep and goats, respectively. Goats located in a sub-humid area were statistically more infected than those located in a humid area. A. bovis prevalence rate varied significantly according to sheep and goat flocks, and to the sheep breed. Infection with A. bovis was validated by sequencing. Sequence analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that A. bovis from Tunisian goats and sheep clustered with other strain sequences detected from wild and domestic animals and published in GenBank. This study gives the first insight of presence of A. bovis DNA in small ruminants in Tunisia and suggests that these animal species may be playing an important role in the bovine anaplasmosis natural cycle caused by A. bovis in the South Mediterranean ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Infestation of the spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) by Hyalomma aegyptium in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Rjeibi, Mohamed Ridha; Rouatbi, Mariem; Mabrouk, Moez; Mhadhbi, Moez; Amairia, Safa; Amdouni, Yosra; Boussaadoun, Mohamed Anis

    2015-04-01

    We examined 210 spur-thighed tortoises (Testudo graeca) for the presence of ticks in Tunisia during May 2014. A total number of 602 adult ticks were collected and identified leading to the estimation of parasitological indicators. All the ticks belonged to a single species: Hyalomma aegyptium. The mean infestation prevalence was 66.2%, mean overall infestation intensity and abundance were 4.33 and 2.86 ticks/tortoise respectively. Our survey showed that tortoises were significantly more infested by male ticks than females (p<0.001). The ticks were mainly present in the posterior limbs compared to other body regions (p<0.05). There was no significance variation of length and weight of tortoises according to sex (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation between the tortoises' size (length and weight) and tick infestation. This study showed high tick burdens of spur-thighed tortoises in Tunisia; further investigations are needed to determine exactly the role of this tick species in the transmission of different zoonotic pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from wastewater treatment plants in Tunisia: occurrence of human and animal associated lineages.

    PubMed

    Ben Said, Meriam; Abbassi, Mohamed Salah; Gómez, Paula; Ruiz-Ripa, Laura; Sghaier, Senda; Ibrahim, Chourouk; Torres, Carmen; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2017-08-01

    The objective was to characterize Staphylococcus aureus isolated from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in Tunis City (Tunisia), during the period 2014-2015. Genetic lineages, antibiotic resistance mechanisms and virulence factors were determined for the recovered isolates. S. aureus isolates were recovered from 12 of the 62 wastewater samples tested (19.35%), and one isolate/sample was characterized, all of them being methicillin-susceptible (MSSA). Six spa types (t587, t674, t224, t127, t701 and t1534) were found among the 12 isolates, and the spa-t587, associated with the new sequence type ST3245, was the most predominant one (7 isolates). The remaining isolates were assigned to five clonal complexes (CC5, CC97, CC1, CC6 and CC522) according to the sequence-type determined and/or the spa-type detected. S. aureus isolates were ascribed to agrI (n = 3), agrII (n = 7) and agrIII (n = 1); however, one isolate was non-typeable. S. aureus showed resistance to (number of isolates): penicillin (12), erythromycin (7), tetracycline (one) and clindamycin (one). Among the virulence factors investigated, only one isolate harboured the tst gene, encoding the TSST-1 (toxic shock syndrome toxin 1). Despite the low number of studied isolates, the present study reports the occurrence of both human- and animal-associated S. aureus clonal complexes in WWTPs in Tunisia.

  1. Assessment of global solar radiation to examine the best locations to install a PV system in Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkilani, Kaouther; Ben Othman, Afef; Besbes, Mongi

    2018-02-01

    The study of the solar radiation is the starting point of any investigation for a new energy, to study and search the best location to install a PV system. A very important factor in the assessment of solar potential is the availability of data for global solar radiation that must be coherent and of high quality. In this paper, we analyze the estimation result of the monthly global solar radiation for three different locations, Bizerte in Northern Tunisia, Kairouan in Middle Eastern Tunisia, and Tozeur in Southern Tunisia, measured on the surface by the National Institute of Meteorology and the meteorological year irradiation based on satellite imagery result PVGIS radiation databases. To get the right measurements with minimum error, we propose a numerical model used to calculate the global solar radiation in the indicated three sites. The results show that the model can estimate the global solar radiation (kWh/m²) at a specific station and over most area of Tunisia. The model gives a good estimation for solar radiation where error between the measured values and those calculated are negligible.

  2. Reprint of "Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia".

    PubMed

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A. nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Vocational Education Manual. Peace Corps/Tunisia. A Handbook for Volunteers. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opper, Howard

    This manual was developed to train Peace Corps volunteers to teach vocational education in Tunisia, although it also has applications to the training of volunteers in other countries. The book is organized into four sections. The first section is an introduction that provides background information on the school system and the Peace Corps…

  4. Code Switching in the Classroom: A Case Study of Economics and Management Students at the University of Sfax, Tunisia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach Baoueb, Sallouha Lamia; Toumi, Naouel

    2012-01-01

    This case study explores the motivations for code switching (CS) in the interactions of Tunisian students at the faculty of Economics and Management in Sfax, Tunisia. The study focuses on students' (EMSs) classroom conversations and out-of-classroom peer interactions. The analysis of the social motivations of EMSs' CS behaviour shows that…

  5. Evaluation of soil and water conservation measures in a semi-arid river basin in Tunisia using SWAT

    The Merguellil catchment (Central Tunisia) is a typical Mediterranean semi-arid basin which suffers from regular water shortage aggravated by current droughts. During the recent decades the continuous construction of small and large dams and Soil and Water Conservation Works (i.e. Contour ridges) ha...

  6. A proposed international watershed research network

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Gray, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    An “International Watershed Research Network” is to be an initial project of the Sino-U. S. Centers for Soil and Water Conservation and Environmental Protection. The Network will provide a fundamental database for research personnel of the Centers, as well as of the global research community, and is viewed as an important resource for their successful operation. Efforts are under way to (a) identify and select candidate watersheds, (b) develop standards and protocols for data collection and dissemination, and (c) specify other data sources on erosion, sediment transport, hydrology, and ancillary information of probable interest and use to participants of the Centers. The initial focus of the Network will be on water-deficient areas. Candidate watersheds for the Network are yet to be determined although likely selections include the Ansai Research Station, northern China, and the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, USA. The Network is to be patterned after the Vigil Network, an open-ended group of global sites and small drainage basins for which Internet-accessible geomorphic, hydrologic, and biological data are periodically collected or updated. Some types of data, using similar instruments and observation methods, will be collected at all watersheds selected for the Network. Other data from the watersheds that may reflect individual watershed characteristics and research objectives will be collected as well.

  7. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) version 2 is a decision support tool designed to facilitate integrated water management by communities at the small watershed scale. WMOST allows users to look across management options in stormwater (including green infrastructure), wastewater, drinking water, and land conservation programs to find the least cost solutions. The pdf version of these presentations accompany the recorded webinar with closed captions to be posted on the WMOST web page. The webinar was recorded at the time a training workshop took place for EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST, v2).

  8. Clinical epidemiological and molecular aspects of rubella outbreak with high number of neurological cases, Tunisia 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Messedi, Emna; Fki-Berrajah, Lamia; Gargouri, Saba; Chouikha, Anissa; Chaari, Anis; Bouaziz, Mounir; Jallouli, Hajer; Yahia, Ahlem Ben; Hammami, Adnene; Triki, Henda; Karray-Hakim, Héla

    2014-10-01

    A large and unusually prolonged rubella outbreak occurred in Tunisia from April 2011 to July 2012 and was characterized by a high number of neurological cases. To describe the outbreak and to perform virus genotyping of isolated virus strains. From January 2011 to December 2012, 5000 sera for serological diagnosis of acute rubella and 31 cerebrospinal fluid from patients with neurological symptoms were tested for the presence of rubella immunoglobulins G and M. Real-time PCR was performed on 49 throat swabs, 21 cerebrospinal fluid and 27 serum samples. Positive samples were assessed for virus genotyping by sequencing and the obtained sequences were compared to those previously isolated in the country. Acute rubella was confirmed in 280 patients including 15 neonates, 217 children and adults with mild rash and 48 patients with severe rubella (mainly encephalitis, n = 39). Most of acquired rubella cases (60.7%) were aged over 12 years with a male predominance observed in the age group 12-25 years (79%). Females belonged essentially to the unvaccinated age groups under 12 and over 25 years. Among the 23 samples tested positive by real-time PCR, six could be genotyped and clustered with either the 1E genotype, previously detected in Tunisia, or the 2B genotype which has never been isolated in Tunisia before. Gender and age distributions of the patients reflect the impact of the selective rubella vaccination program adopted in Tunisia since 2005. Genotype 1E continues to circulate and genotype 2B was probably recently introduced in Tunisia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. National Interest Shown in Watershed Mapping Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The State of Maryland is able to identify prime locations for watershed restoration and preservation using an interactive mapping tool developed by a partnership of agencies led by EPA’s Mid-Atlantic Water Protection Division.

  10. Educating the Community: A Watershed Model Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perryess, C. S.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the construction and use of a schoolyard model of the Morrow Bay watershed in California. Describes the design and use of materials that include styrofoam insulation, crushed granite, cement, and stucco. (DDR)

  11. Photo Gallery for South Platte Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating

  12. Meetings and Events about South Platte Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating.

  13. Links from South Platte Watershed Partners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating.

  14. Monitoring and Evaluating Nonpoint Source Watershed Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide is written primarily for those who develop and implement monitoring plans for watershed management projects. it can also be used evaluate the technical merits of monitoring proposals they might sponsor. It is an update to the 1997 Guide.

  15. Update on the Caspar Creek watershed study

    Peter Cafferata

    1987-01-01

    Readers of this Newsletter are aware that CDF and the USFS, through its Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Stationa at Arcata (PSW), are carrying out a long term cooperative watershed experiment in JDSF's Caspar Creek drainage.

  16. Preserving Flow Variability in Watershed Model Calibrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Although watershed modeling flow calibration techniques often emphasize a specific flow mode, ecological conditions that depend on flow-ecology relationships often emphasize a range of flow conditions. We used informal likelihood methods to investig...

  17. Chesapeake Bay Watershed Implementation Plans (WIPs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides an overview of Watershed Implementation Plans (WIP) and how they play an important role in restoring the Chesapeake Bay. The page also provides links to each jurisdiction's Phase I, II, and III WIP.

  18. MANAGING MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION IN URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents different approaches for controlling pathogen contamination in urban watersheds for contamination resulting from point and diffuse sources. Point sources of pathogens can be treated by a disinfection technology of known effectiveness, and a desired reduction ...

  19. MANAGING MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION IN URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents different approaches for controlling pathogen contamination in urban watersheds for contamination resulting from point and diffuses sources. Point sources of pathogens can be treated by a disinfection technology of known effectiveness, and a desired reduction ...

  20. Watersheds: Connecting Weather to the Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This course provides broadcast meteorologists with information to help them understand watersheds as our environmental home and to help their viewers understand the relationship between the weather and the environment.

  1. Stream Tables and Watershed Geomorphology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillquist, Karl D.; Kinner, Patricia W.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews copious stream tables and provides a watershed approach to stream table exercises. Results suggest that this approach to learning the concepts of fluvial geomorphology is effective. (Contains 39 references.) (DDR)

  2. A WATERSHED APPROACH TO DRINKING WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe emerging technologies and strategies managing watersheds with the goal of protecting drinking water sources. Included are discussions on decentralized wastewater treatment, whole organism biomonitor detection systems, treatment of...

  3. Draft framework for watershed-based trading

    SciT

    NONE

    1996-05-30

    Effluent trading is an innovative way for water quality agencies and community stakeholders to develop common-sense, cost-effective solutions for water quality problems in their watersheds. Trading can allow communities to grow and prosper while retaining their commitment to water quality. The bulk of this framework discusses effluent trading in watersheds. Remaining sections discuss transactions that, while not technically fulfilling the definition of `effluent` trade, do involve the exchange of valued water quality or other ecological improvements between partners responding to market initiatives. This document therefore includes activities such as trades within a facility (intra-plant trading) and wetland mitigation banking, effluentmore » trading/watersheds/watershed management/water quality protection/water quality management.« less

  4. APPLICATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISOTOPES FOR WATERSHED INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental isotopes include naturally-occurring nuclides that can be applied as tracers within watersheds (Sidle, 1998). Recent advances in mass spectroscopy may supplant many traditional and costly hydrometric techniques. It is now possible, for example, to utilize isotopes a...

  5. Epidemiology and medical cost of hospitalization due to rotavirus gastroenteritis among children under 5 years of age in the central-east of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Soltani, M S; Salah, A Ben; Bouanene, I; Trabelsi, A; Sfar, M T; Harbi, A; Gueddiche, M N; Farhat, E Ben

    2015-09-28

    Data on the economic burden of rotavirus infection in Tunisia are needed to inform the decision to include rotavirus in routine childhood immunizations. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological profile of rotavirus disease in central-east Tunisia and to estimate its hospital cost. In the first stage - the prospective collection of epidemiological data - we enrolled all patients < 5 years old who were hospitalized for acute diarrhoea at 5 university paediatric departments in central-east Tunisia during the period 2009-2011. Rotavirus was responsible for 65 (23.3%) of the 279 cases enrolled. In the second stage, cost data were collected retrospectively using an activity-based costing method from the medical records of the children who were positively diagnosed with rotavirus. The average cost of care per child was TD 433 (SD 134). This is a significant economic burden in Tunisia, where a safe and effective vaccine is available but not yet introduced to the immunization schedule.

  6. Sediment Management at the Watershed Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    al. 2005). Trimble examined ten river basins (1,000 to 7,500 mi2 ) and found that the sediment yield averaged about six percent. He attributed the...importance of storage and remobilization in controlling sediment yield from the 139 mi2 Coon Creek watershed in Wisconsin. Trimble prepared sediment...Federal government in 1984, DHP activities targeted sixteen watersheds comprising 2,625 mi2 within the Yazoo River Basin in the Lower Mississippi

  7. The role of interior watershed processes in improving parameter estimation and performance of watershed models.

    PubMed

    Yen, Haw; Bailey, Ryan T; Arabi, Mazdak; Ahmadi, Mehdi; White, Michael J; Arnold, Jeffrey G

    2014-09-01

    Watershed models typically are evaluated solely through comparison of in-stream water and nutrient fluxes with measured data using established performance criteria, whereas processes and responses within the interior of the watershed that govern these global fluxes often are neglected. Due to the large number of parameters at the disposal of these models, circumstances may arise in which excellent global results are achieved using inaccurate magnitudes of these "intra-watershed" responses. When used for scenario analysis, a given model hence may inaccurately predict the global, in-stream effect of implementing land-use practices at the interior of the watershed. In this study, data regarding internal watershed behavior are used to constrain parameter estimation to maintain realistic intra-watershed responses while also matching available in-stream monitoring data. The methodology is demonstrated for the Eagle Creek Watershed in central Indiana. Streamflow and nitrate (NO) loading are used as global in-stream comparisons, with two process responses, the annual mass of denitrification and the ratio of NO losses from subsurface and surface flow, used to constrain parameter estimation. Results show that imposing these constraints not only yields realistic internal watershed behavior but also provides good in-stream comparisons. Results further demonstrate that in the absence of incorporating intra-watershed constraints, evaluation of nutrient abatement strategies could be misleading, even though typical performance criteria are satisfied. Incorporating intra-watershed responses yields a watershed model that more accurately represents the observed behavior of the system and hence a tool that can be used with confidence in scenario evaluation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Using four capitals to assess watershed sustainability.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M Luisa; Vázquez, Gabriela; Equihua, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being.

  9. Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska

    Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.

  10. Using Four Capitals to Assess Watershed Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M. Luisa; Vázquez, Gabriela; Equihua, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being.

  11. Watershed Central: Harnessing a social media tool to organize local technical knowledge and find the right watershed resources for your watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed Central was developed to be a bridge between sharing and searching for information relating to watershed issues. This is dependent upon active user support through additions and updates to the Watershed Central Wiki. Since the wiki is user driven, the content and applic...

  12. [Cystic echinococcosis in children in Tunisia: fertility and case distribution of hydatid cysts].

    PubMed

    Oudni-M'Rad, M; M'Rad, S; Gorcii, M; Mekki, M; Belguith, M; Harrabi, I; Nouri, A; Azaiez, R; Mezhoud, H; Babba, H

    2007-02-01

    Cystic echinococcosis, which commonly starts during childhood or adolescence, is a serious problem of public health in Tunisia. For 121 children (161 cysts), the localization and fertility of cysts as well as viability of their protoscoleces were determined. Results indicated that the lung was the primary localization of cyst (59%) followed by the liver (35%). Children's infection is more frequent in male than in female (sex ratio 1.96) and the greatest number of cases is observed in the 4-9 year age groups (94 cases). The fertility of the cyst was independent of its site or its size and no incidence of age of children was detected. Nevertheless, the fertility rate is higher in females than in males for the liver localization.

  13. Ochratoxin A levels in spices and dried nuts consumed in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Zaied, Chiraz; Abid, Salwa; Bouaziz, Chayma; Chouchane, Salwa; Jomaa, Mohamed; Bacha, Hassen

    2010-01-01

    A total of 112 samples of spices (24 caraway, 20 coriander, 25 curcuma, 20 black pepper and 23 red pepper) and 110 samples of dried nuts (44 almonds, 42 peanuts and 24 pistachio) purchased from popular markets in 24 regions of Tunisia were analyzed for ochratoxin A (OTA) by fluorescence HPLC. The average levels of contamination of OTA found in spice samples were 244, 206, 290, 274 and 203 µg/kg, respectively, for caraway, coriander, curcuma, black pepper and red pepper. Concerning dried nut samples, the average levels were 61, 60 and 89 µg/kg, respectively, for almonds, peanuts and pistachio. Contamination levels were higher than the usual norms (10.0 OTA µg/kg) established by the European Commission in 2005 . This survey is the first to be carried out on the natural occurrence of OTA in the main spices and dried nuts consumed by the Tunisian population.

  14. Irrigation management strategies to improve Water Use Efficiency of potatoes crop in Central Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazouani, Hiba; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Rallo, Giovanni; Mguidiche, Amel; Douh, Boutheina; Boujelben, Abdelhamid

    2015-04-01

    In Tunisia, the expansion of irrigated area and the semiarid climate make it compulsory to adopt strategies of water management to increase water use efficiency. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), providing the application of high frequency small irrigation volumes below the soil surface have been increasingly used to enhance irrigation efficiency. At the same time, deficit irrigation (DI) has shown successful results with a large number of crop in various countries. However, for some crops like potatoes, DI is difficult to manage due to the rapid effect of water stress on tuber yield. Irrigation frequency is a key factor to schedule subsurface drip irrigation because, even maintaining the total seasonal volume, soil wetting patterns can result different during the growth period, with consequence on crop yield. Despite the need to enhance water use efficiency, only a few studies related to deficit irrigation of horticultural crops have been made in Tunisia. Objective of the paper was to assess the effects of different on-farm irrigation strategies on water use efficiency of potatoes crop irrigated with subsurface drip irrigation in a semiarid area of central Tunisia. After validation, Hydrus-2D model was used to simulate soil water status in the root zone, to evaluate actual crop evapotranspiration and then to estimate indirectly water use efficiency (IWUE), defined as the ratio between crop yield and total amount of water supplied with irrigation. Field experiments, were carried out in Central Tunisia (10° 33' 47.0" E, 35° 58' 8.1° N, 19 m a.s.l) on a potatoes crop planted in a sandy loam soil, during the growing season 2014, from January 15 (plantation of tubers) to May 6 (harvesting). Soil water status was monitored in two plots (T1 and T2) maintained under the same management, but different irrigation volumes, provided by a SDI system. In particular, irrigation was scheduled according to the average water content measured in the root zone, with a total of 8

  15. Measuring the Capacity Utilization of Public District Hospitals in Tunisia: Using Dual Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Arfa, Chokri; Leleu, Hervé; Goaïed, Mohamed; van Mosseveld, Cornelis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Public district hospitals (PDHs) in Tunisia are not operating at full plant capacity and underutilize their operating budget. Methods: Individual PDHs capacity utilization (CU) is measured for 2000 and 2010 using dual data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach with shadow prices input and output restrictions. The CU is estimated for 101 of 105 PDH in 2000 and 94 of 105 PDH in 2010. Results: In average, unused capacity is estimated at 18% in 2010 vs. 13% in 2000. Of PDHs 26% underutilize their operating budget in 2010 vs. 21% in 2000. Conclusion: Inadequate supply, health quality and the lack of operating budget should be tackled to reduce unmet user’s needs and the bypassing of the PDHs and, thus to increase their CU. Social health insurance should be turned into a direct purchaser of curative and preventive care for the PDHs. PMID:28005538

  16. [Career concerns among occupational physicians serving on the Institutes for Occupational Safety and Health in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Merchaoui, Irtyah; Chouchène, Asma; Bouanène, Ines; Chaari, Néila; Zrafi, Wassim; Henchi, Adnène; Akrout, Mohamed; Amri, Charfeddine

    2017-01-01

    Career dissatisfaction among occupational physicians (OP) may affect their performance and the quality of healthcare services provided. Our study aims to assess the job satisfaction of OP serving on the Institutes for Occupational Safety and Health(IOSH) in Tunisia and to identify the determinant factors. We conducted a national cross-sectional validated SAPHORA JOB survey among all the OP serving on 22 IOSH. 58% of OP serving on the IOSH were dissatisfied with their career. Career satisfaction was statistically influenced by the number of healthcare facilities for which they were responsible (p=0.016), the work organisation (p=0.010), the work impact (p=0.011), the salary (p‹10-3) and knowledge on current regulation (p=0.047). The standardisation of pay scale and career ladders for OP serving on the IOSH based on a revision of legislative texts is recommended. Improving organization and working conditions may allow success in the workplace and benefit enhancement.

  17. A novel Bluetongue virus serotype 3 strain in Tunisia, November 2016.

    PubMed

    Sghaier, S; Lorusso, A; Portanti, O; Marcacci, M; Orsini, M; Barbria, M E; Mahmoud, A S; Hammami, S; Petrini, A; Savini, G

    2017-06-01

    Since 1998, southern Europe has experienced multiple incursions of different serotypes and topotypes of Bluetongue virus, a vector-borne transmitted virus, the causative agent of Bluetongue (BT), a major disease of ruminants. Some of these incursions originated from northern Africa, likely because of wind-blown dissemination of infected midges. In this report, we describe the detection and whole genome characterization of a novel BTV-3 strain identified in a symptomatic sheep in Tunisia. Sequences were immediately deposited with the GenBank Database under Accession Nos KY432369-KY432378. Alert and preparedness are requested to face the next vector seasons in northern Africa and the potential incursion of this novel strain in southern Europe. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts of three Salvia species from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Salah, Karima Bel Hadj; Mahjoub, Mohamed Ali; Ammar, Samia; Michel, Laura; Millet-Clerc, Joelle; Chaumont, Jean Pierre; Mighri, Zine; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2006-10-01

    This study examines the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts of three Salvia species from Tunisia: Salvia aegyptiaca L., S. argentea L. and S. verbenaca Ssp. clandestina L. Pugsley. The extracts inhibited the growth of dermatophytes and of bacteria responsible for unpleasant odours to varying degrees; the pathogenic yeasts Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, the filamentous fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and selected dog otitis bacteria were all resistant to each of the extracts. The extracts were screened for their antioxidant activities using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) test systems, and gave positive results in both tests. The extracts of S. aegyptiaca were the most active in both tests, followed by those of S. verbenaca, then S. argentea. These results confirm the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the genus Salvia and underline the potential of these plants either as natural preservatives or in pharmaceutical applications.

  19. Anaerobic membrane bioreactor for the treatment of leachates from Jebel Chakir discharge in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Zayen, Amal; Mnif, Sami; Aloui, Fathi; Fki, Firas; Loukil, Slim; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Sayadi, Sami

    2010-05-15

    Landfill leachate (LFL) collected from the controlled discharge of Jebel Chakir in Tunisia was treated without any physical or chemical pretreatment in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). The organic loading rate (OLR) in the AnMBR was gradually increased from 1 g COD l(-1)d(-1) to an average of 6.27 g COD l(-1)d(-1). At the highest OLR, the biogas production was more than 3 volumes of biogas per volume of the bioreactor. The volatile suspended solids (VSSs) reached a value of approximately 3 g l(-1) in the bioreactor. At stable conditions, the treatment efficiency was high with an average COD reduction of 90% and biogas yield of 0.46 l biogas per g COD removed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of a DRAINMOD-based watershed model to a lower coastal plain watershed

    Glenn P. Fernandez; George M. Chescheir; R. Wayne Skaggs; Devendra M. Amatya

    2003-01-01

    This is a case study for applying DRAINMOD-GIS, a DRAINMOD based lumped parameter watershed model to Chicod Creek, a 11300 ha coastal plain watershed in North Carolina which is not intensively instrumented or documented. The study utilized the current database of land-use, topography, stream network, soil, and weather data available to the State and Federal agencies....

  1. East Fork Watershed Cooperative: Toward better system-scale watershed management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The East Fork Watershed Cooperative is a group intent on understanding how to best manage water quality in a large mixed-use Midwestern watershed system. The system contains a reservoir that serves as a source of drinking water and is popular for water recreation. The reservoir i...

  2. The role of interior watershed processes in improving parameter estimation and performance of watershed models

    Watershed models typically are evaluated solely through comparison of in-stream water and nutrient fluxes with measured data using established performance criteria, whereas processes and responses within the interior of the watershed that govern these global fluxes often are neglected. Due to the l...

  3. Integrated Watershed Management using the Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated watershed management is an effective planning strategy to balance tradeoffs between competing water uses within a watershed. WMOST is an Excel-based decision tool to aid planners in making cost effective decisions that meet water quantity and quality regulations. WMOST...

  4. Developing stressor-watershed function relationships to refine the national maps of watershed integrity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract ESA 2017Developing stressor-watershed function relationships to refine the national maps of watershed integrityJohnson, Z.C., S.G. Leibowitz, and R.A. Hill. To be submitted to the Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting, Portland, OR. August 2017.Human-induced ecolo...

  5. THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED MANIPULATION PROJECT: WATERSHED SCIENCE IN A POLICY PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bear Brook Watershed Manipulation in Maine is a paired watershed experiment. Monitoring of the paired catchments (East Bear Brook - reference; West Bear Brook - experimental) began in early 1987. Chemical manipulation of West Bear Brook catchment began in November 1989. Proce...

  6. The Watershed Deposition Tool: A Tool for Incorporating Atmospheric Deposition in Watershed Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The tool for providing the linkage between air and water quality modeling needed for determining the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) and for analyzing related nonpoint-source impacts on watersheds has been developed. The Watershed Deposition Tool (WDT) takes gridded output of at...

  7. Characterizing ponds in watershed simulations and evaluating their influence on streamflowin a Mississippi Watershed

    Small water bodies are common landscape features, but often are not simulated within a watershed modeling framework. The wetland modeling tool, AgWET, uses a GIS framework to characterize the features of ponds and wetlands so that they can be incorporated into watershed simulations using the Annuali...

  8. Climate change and watershed mercury export in a Coastal Plain watershed

    Heather Golden; Christopher D. Knightes; Paul A. Conrads; Toby D. Feaster; Gary M. Davis; Stephen T. Benedict; Paul M. Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Future changes in climatic conditions may affect variations in watershed processes (e.g., hydrological, biogeochemical) and surface water quality across a wide range of physiographic provinces, ecosystems, and spatial scales. How such climatic shifts will impact watershed mercury (Hg) dynamics and hydrologically-driven Hg transport is a significant concern.

  9. Prevalence, Genotype Distribution and Risk Factors for Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infection in the Grand Tunis Region, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ardhaoui, Monia; Ennaifer, Emna; Letaief, Hajer; Salsabil, Rejaibi; Lassili, Thalja; Chahed, Karim; Bougatef, Souha; Bahrini, Asma; El Fehri, Emna; Ouerhani, Kaouther; Paez Jimenez, Adela; Guizani, Ikram; Boubaker, Med Samir; Ben Alaya, Nissaf Bouafif Ép

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination should be considered a key cervical cancer prevention strategy in Tunisia, where Pap smear screening is not efficient. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with HPV infection among women from Grand Tunis, Tunisia. We conducted a cross-sectional study, between December 2012 and May 2013. Eligible women for this study were those aged 18-65 years, sexually active, who sought medical attention at their primary health care centre or clinic in Grand Tunis, Tunisia and who gave written consent. A liquid-based Pap smear sample was obtained from all women using a cervical brush. Only women with betaglobin positive test were further analysed for HPV detection and typing. A nested-PCR of the L1 region was performed followed by reverse line blot hybridization to facilitate the specific detection of 31 HPV genotypes. Multiple logistic regression modeling was used for the analysis of associations between variables with some considered possible confounders after checking for interactions. A total of 391 women were enrolled in this study and 325 out of the 391 cervical samples were positive for the betaglobin test. Overall HPV prevalence was 13.2% [9.8%-17.5%], with the following most prevalent HPV genotypes: HPV6 (40%), HPV40 (14%), HPV16 (12%), HPV52 (9%), HPV31 and HPV59 (7%), followed by HPV68 (4%). Mean age of HPV positive women was 40.7±0.92 years. Independently associated risk factors of HPV infection were smoking (OR:2.8 [0.8-9.6]), low income (OR:9.6 [1.4-63.4), bad housing type (OR:2.5 [1-6.8]), partner with multiple sexual relationship (OR:4.5 [0.9-22.9]) and single women (widowed, divorced, separated, never married) (OR:6.9 [1.1-42.2]). This study provides the first national-based estimate of HPV prevalence in Tunisia. Our findings contribute to the evidence on the current burden of HPV infection, the critical role of sexual behaviour and socioeconomic status and

  10. The dynamic interaction between combustible renewables and waste consumption and international tourism: the case of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim; Apergis, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    This paper employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds methodological approach to investigate the relationship between economic growth, combustible renewables and waste consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and international tourism for the case of Tunisia spanning the period 1990-2010. The results from the Fisher statistic of both the Wald test and the Johansen test confirm the presence of a long-run relationship among the variables under investigation. The stability of estimated parameters has been tested, while Granger causality tests recommend a short-run unidirectional causality running from economic growth and combustible renewables and waste consumption to CO2 emissions, a bidirectional causality between economic growth and combustible renewables and waste consumption and unidirectional causality running from economic growth and combustible renewables and waste consumption to international tourism. In the long-run, the error correction terms confirm the presence of bidirectional causality relationships between economic growth, CO2 emissions, combustible renewables and waste consumption, and international tourism. Our long-run estimates show that combustible renewables and waste consumption increases international tourism, and both renewables and waste consumption and international tourism increase CO2 emissions and output. We recommend that (i) Tunisia should use more combustible renewables and waste energy as this eliminates wastes from touristic zones and increases the number of tourist arrivals, leading to economic growth, and (ii) a fraction of this economic growth generated by the increase in combustible renewables and waste consumption should be invested in clean renewable energy production (i.e., solar, wind, geothermal) and energy efficiency projects.

  11. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Tunisia: molecular data and phenotype-genotype association.

    PubMed

    Laouini, N; Bibi, A; Ammar, H; Kazdaghli, K; Ouali, F; Othmani, R; Amdouni, S; Haloui, S; Sahli, C A; Jouini, L; Hadj Fredj, S; Siala, H; Ben Romdhane, N; Toumi, N E; Fattoum, S; Messsaoud, T

    2013-02-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect. In this study, we aimed to perform a molecular investigation of G6PD deficiency in Tunisia and to associate clinical manifestations and the degree of deficiency with the genotype. A total of 161 Tunisian subjects of both sexes were screened by spectrophotometric assay for enzyme activity. Out of these, 54 unrelated subjects were selected for screening of the most frequent mutations in Tunisia by PCR/RFLP, followed by size-based separation of double-stranded fragments under non-denaturing conditions on a denaturing high performance liquid chromatography system. Of the 56 altered chromosomes examined, 75 % had the GdA(-) mutation, 14.28 % showed the GdB(-) mutation and no mutations were identified in 10.72 % of cases. Hemizygous males with GdA(-) mutation were mostly of class III, while those with GdB(-) mutation were mainly of class II. The principal clinical manifestation encountered was favism. Acute hemolytic crises induced by drugs or infections and neonatal jaundice were also noted. Less severe clinical features such as low back pain were present in heterozygous females and in one homozygous female. Asymptomatic individuals were in majority heterozygote females and strangely one hemizygous male. The spectrum of mutations seems to be homogeneous and similar to that of Mediterranean countries; nevertheless 10.72 % of cases remain with undetermined mutation thus suggesting a potential heterogeneity of the deficiency at the molecular level. On the other hand, we note a better association of the molecular defects with the severity of the deficiency than with clinical manifestations.

  12. Virtual water trade patterns in relation to environmental and socioeconomic factors: a case study for Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouchane, Hatem; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    Water scarcity is among the main problems faced by many societies. Growing water demands put increasing pressure on local water resources, especially in water-short countries. Virtual water trade can play a key role in filling the gap between local demands and supply. This study aims to analyze the changes in virtual water trade of Tunisia in relation to environmental and socio-economic factors such as GDP, irrigated land, precipitation, population and water scarcity. The water footprint is estimated using Aquacrop for six crops over the period 1981-2010 at daily basis and a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minutes. Virtual water trade is quantified at yearly basis. Regression models are used to investigate changes in virtual water trade in relation to various environmental and socio-economic factors. The explaining variables are selected in order to help understanding the trend and the inter-annual variability of the net virtual water import; GDP, population and irrigated land are hypothesized to explain the trend, and precipitation and water scarcity to explain variability. The selected crops are divided into three baskets. The first basket includes the two most imported crops, which are mainly rain-fed (wheat and barley). The second basket contains the two most exported crops, which are both irrigated and rain-fed (olives and dates). In the last basket we find the two highest economic blue water productive crops, which are mainly irrigated (tomatoes and potatoes). The results show the impact of each factor on net virtual water import of the selected crops during the period 1981-2010. Keywords: Virtual water, trade patterns, Aquacrop, Tunisia, water scarcity, water footprint.

  13. Class, gender and culture in the experience of menopause. A comparative survey in Tunisia and France.

    PubMed

    Delanoë, Daniel; Hajri, Selma; Bachelot, Annie; Mahfoudh Draoui, Dorra; Hassoun, Danielle; Marsicano, Elise; Ringa, Virginie

    2012-07-01

    The experience of menopause can vary strongly from one society to another: frequency of hot flushes, other somatic and psychological symptoms, and changes in family and social relations. Several studies have shown that country of residence, country of birth, ethnicity, and social class all play roles in these variations. But few comparative anthropological studies have analysed the social processes that construct the experience of menopause or considered menopausal women's social and financial autonomy. To study the impact of the social status accorded to menopausal women and their social resources, during 2007 and 2008 we conducted a series of 75 in-depth interviews with women in different sociocultural settings: Tunisian women in Tunisia, Tunisian women in France, and French women in France, all aged from 45 to 70 years. Our methodological approach to the data included content analysis, typology development and socio-demographic analysis. Quite substantial differences appeared, as a function of social class and cultural environment. We identified three principal experiences of menopause. Tunisian working class women, in Tunisia and France, experience menopause with intense symptoms and strong feelings of social degradation. Among Tunisian middle-class women in both countries, menopause was most often accompanied by a severe decline in aesthetic and social value but few symptoms. For most of the French women, menopause involved few symptoms and little change in their social value. The distribution of types of experiences according to social but not geographic or national factors indicates that, in the populations studied here, the differences in symptoms are not biologically determined. Different experiences of menopause are linked to social class and to the degree of male domination. A given level of independence and emancipation allows women an identity beyond their reproductive function and a status unimpaired by menopause. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All

  14. Basin geodynamics and sequence stratigraphy of Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic deposits of Southern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentier, Cédric; Hadouth, Suhail; Bouaziz, Samir; Lathuilière, Bernard; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2016-05-01

    Aims of this paper are to propose a geodynamic and sequential framework for the late Triassic and early Jurassic of and south Tunisia and to evidence the impact of local tectonics on the stratigraphic architecture. Facies of the Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic of Southern Tunisia have been interpreted in terms of depositional environments. A sequential framework and correlation schemes are proposed for outcrops and subsurface transects. Nineteen middle frequency sequences inserted in three and a half low frequency transgression/regression cycles were evidenced. Despite some datation uncertainties and the unknown durations of Lower Jurassic cycles, middle frequency sequences appear to be controlled by eustasy. In contrast the tectonics acted as an important control on low frequency cycles. The Carnian flooding was certainly favored by the last stages of a rifting episode which started during the Permian. The regression accompanied by the formation of stacked angular unconformities and the deposition of lowstand deposits during the late Carnian and Norian occured during the uplift and tilting of the northern basin margins. The transpressional activity of the Jeffara fault system generated the uplift of the Tebaga of Medenine high from the late Carnian and led to the Rhaetian regional angular Sidi Stout Unconformity. Facies analysis and well-log correlations permitted to evidence that Rhaetian to Lower Jurassic Messaoudi dolomites correspond to brecciated dolomites present on the Sidi Stout unconformity in the North Dahar area. The Early-cimmerian compressional event is a possible origin for the global uplift of the northern African margin and Western Europe during the late Carnian and the Norian. During the Rhaetian and the early Jurassic a new episode of normal faulting occured during the third low frequency flooding. This tectonosedimentary evolution ranges within the general geodynamic framework of the north Gondwana margin controlled by the opening of both

  15. Characterisation of nasal Staphylococcus delphini and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from healthy donkeys in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Gharsa, H; Slama, K Ben; Gómez-Sanz, E; Gómez, P; Klibi, N; Zarazaga, M; Boudabous, A; Torres, C

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) bacteria can colonise the nares of some animals but are also emerging pathogens in humans and animals. To analyse SIG nasal carriage in healthy donkeys destined for food consumption in Tunisia and to characterise recovered isolates. Nasal swabs from 100 healthy donkeys were tested for SIG recovery, and isolates were identified by biochemical and molecular methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was tested and detection of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes was performed. Isolates were typed at the clonal level by multilocus sequence typing and SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Staphylococcus delphini and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (included in SIG) were obtained in 19% and 2% of the tested samples, respectively, and one isolate per sample was characterised. All isolates were meticillin susceptible and mecA negative. Most S. delphini and S. pseudintermedius isolates showed susceptibility to all antimicrobials tested, with the exception of 2 isolates resistant to tetracycline (tet(M) gene) or fusidic acid. The following toxin genes were identified (percentage of isolates): lukS-I (100%), lukF-I (9.5%), siet (100%), se-int (90%), seccanine (19%) and expA (9.5%). Thirteen different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles were identified among the 21 SIG isolates. Additionally, the following 9 different sequence types (STs) were detected by multilocus sequence typing, 6 of them new: ST219 (6 isolates), ST12 (5 isolates), ST220 (3 isolates), ST13, ST50, ST193, ST196, ST218 and ST221 (one isolate each). Staphylococcus delphini and S. pseudintermedius are common nasal colonisers of donkeys, generally susceptible to the antimicrobials tested; nevertheless, these SIG isolates contain virulence genes, including the recently described exfoliative gene (expA) and several enterotoxin genes, with potential implications for public health. This is the first description of S. delphini in Tunisia. The

  16. Epidemiology of hypertension among a population of school children in Sousse, Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Harrabi, Imed; Belarbia, Anis; Gaha, Rafika; Essoussi, Ahmed S; Ghannem, Hassen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pediatric hypertension is a field of increasing interest and importance. Early identification of children at risk for hypertension is important to prevent the serious, long-term complications associated with the condition. In Tunisia, there are no data available on the cardiovascular disease risk profile, such as hypertension, in the population of children. OBJECTIVE To establish the prevalence of hypertension, the percentile distribution of blood pressure and the inter-relationships between hypertension and other cardiovascular disease risk factors among school children. METHODS An epidemiological survey was conducted based on a representative sample of 1569 urban school children in Sousse, Tunisia. RESULTS The prevalence of arterial hypertension was 9.6%, with no significant difference between boys (9.2%) and girls (9.9%). The prevalence of systolic and diastolic hypertension was 6.4% and 4.5%, respectively. In both boys and girls, systolic pressure had a highly significant positive correlation with height (boys: r=0.33, P<0.001; girls: r=0.08, P=0.02), weight (boys: r=0.47, P≤0.001; girls: r=0.35, P<0.001) and triglyceride concentrations (boys: r=0.13, P<0.001; girls: r=0.10, P=0.006). Among boys, a positive correlation was found between systolic blood pressure and age (r=0.12, P=0.001) and, among girls, a negative correlation was found (r=−0.12, P=0.001). CONCLUSION This information will be used to help launch a regional program of heart health promotion in schools. PMID:16520851

  17. Analyzing Recent Coronary Heart Disease Mortality Trends in Tunisia between 1997 and 2009

    PubMed Central

    Saidi, Olfa; Ben Mansour, Nadia; O’Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Critchley, Julia A.; Romdhane, Habiba Ben

    2013-01-01

    Background In Tunisia, Cardiovascular Diseases are the leading causes of death (30%), 70% of those are coronary heart disease (CHD) deaths and population studies have demonstrated that major risk factor levels are increasing. Objective To explain recent CHD trends in Tunisia between 1997 and 2009. Methods Data Sources: Published and unpublished data were identified by extensive searches, complemented with specifically designed surveys. Analysis Data were integrated and analyzed using the previously validated IMPACT CHD policy model. Data items included: (i)number of CHD patients in specific groups (including acute coronary syndromes, congestive heart failure and chronic angina)(ii) uptake of specific medical and surgical treatments, and(iii) population trends in major cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure (SBP), body mass index (BMI), diabetes and physical inactivity). Results CHD mortality rates increased by 11.8% for men and 23.8% for women, resulting in 680 additional CHD deaths in 2009 compared with the 1997 baseline, after adjusting for population change. Almost all (98%) of this rise was explained by risk factor increases, though men and women differed. A large rise in total cholesterol level in men (0.73 mmol/L) generated 440 additional deaths. In women, a fall (−0.43 mmol/L), apparently avoided about 95 deaths. For SBP a rise in men (4 mmHg) generated 270 additional deaths. In women, a 2 mmHg fall avoided 65 deaths. BMI and diabetes increased substantially resulting respectively in 105 and 75 additional deaths. Increased treatment uptake prevented about 450 deaths in 2009. The most important contributions came from secondary prevention following Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) (95 fewer deaths), initial AMI treatments (90), antihypertensive medications (80) and unstable angina (75). Conclusions Recent trends in CHD mortality mainly reflected increases in major modifiable risk factors, notably SBP and

  18. Polymorphism study of Cryptosporidium hominis gp60 subtypes circulating in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Essid, Rym; Chelbi, Hanen; Siala, Emna; Bensghair, Ines; Menotti, Jean; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2017-09-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. are a major cause of gastrointestinal diseases in humans worldwide. While a single subtype of Cryptosporidium hominis has been shown to be responsible for several large outbreaks related to water contamination in developed countries, little is known about the epidemiology of C. hominis in developing countries. This study reports the first genetic characterization of C. hominis at the subtype level in several human populations in Tunisia using the gp60 gene. Eighteen isolates were identified as C. hominis by a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The prevalence of this species in different human populations ranges from 1.53% to 13.04% with a high prevalence being reported in immunocompromised children (13.04%) followed by patients with malignent myeloma (5.5%) and HIV-infected patients (4.59%). The gp60 analysis on C. hominis isolates, performed in 14 cases, showed the presence of a single subtype family: "Ia". Different subtypes were identified within this family (A11G1R1, A12R3, A23G1R1, A26G1R1, A27G1R1, A28G1R1). The IaA26G1R1 subtype was the most dominant subtype described in this area (50%). Despite the high genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp, a low heterogeneity at the subtype level was observed within C. hominis circulating in Tunisia. This distribution is an indicator for intensive and stable anthroponotic cryptosporidiosis in this region. Besides, the presence of a unique genotype in 5 HIV-infected patients attending the same hospital ward suggests the possible occurrence of hospital-acquired infection and underlines the need to implement preventive measures to avoid nosocomial transmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Variation of partial transferrin sequences and phylogenetic relationships among hares (Lepus capensis, Lagomorpha) from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Awadi, Asma; Suchentrunk, Franz; Makni, Mohamed; Ben Slimen, Hichem

    2016-10-01

    North African hares are currently included in cape hares, Lepus capensis sensu lato, a taxon that may be considered a superspecies or a complex of closely related species. The existing molecular data, however, are not unequivocal, with mtDNA control region sequences suggesting a separate species status and nuclear loci (allozymes, microsatellites) revealing conspecificity of L. capensis and L. europaeus. Here, we study sequence variation in the intron 6 (468 bp) of the transferrin nuclear gene, of 105 hares with different coat colour from different regions in Tunisia with respect to genetic diversity and differentiation, as well as their phylogenetic status. Forty-six haplotypes (alleles) were revealed and compared phylogenetically to all available TF haplotypes of various Lepus species retrieved from GenBank. Maximum Likelihood, neighbor joining and median joining network analyses concordantly grouped all currently obtained haplotypes together with haplotypes belonging to six different Chinese hare species and the African scrub hare L. saxatilis. Moreover, two Tunisian haploypes were shared with L. capensis, L timidus, L. sinensis, L. yarkandensis, and L. hainanus from China. These results indicated the evolutionary complexity of the genus Lepus with the mixing of nuclear gene haplotypes resulting from introgressive hybridization or/and shared ancestral polymorphism. We report the presence of shared ancestral polymorphism between North African and Chinese hares. This has not been detected earlier in the mtDNA sequences of the same individuals. Genetic diversity of the TF sequences from the Tunisian populations was relatively high compared to other hare populations. However, genetic differentiation and gene flow analyses (AMOVA, F ST , Nm) indicated little divergence with the absence of geographically meaningful phylogroups and lack of clustering with coat colour types. These results confirm the presence of a single hare species in Tunisia, but a sound inference

  20. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from Citharexylum spinosum L. Grown in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Flamini, Guido; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2017-04-01

    Citharexylum spinosum L. (Verbenaceae) also known as Citharexylum quadrangulare Jacq. or Citharexylum fruticosum L. is an exotic tree introduced many years ago in Tunisia, specially used as a street and park ornamental tree. Essential oils (EOs) were obtained by hydrodistillation of the different parts (roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits; drupes) collected from trees grown in the area of Monastir (Tunisia). In total, 84 compounds, representing 90.1 - 98.4% of the whole oil composition, were identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root EO was distinguished by its high content in monoterpene hydrocarbons (α-phellandrene; 30.8%) whereas that obtained from stems was dominated by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (cuparene; 16.4%). The leaf oil was rich in an apocarotenoid derivative (hexahydrofarnesylacetone; 26%) and an aliphatic hydrocarbon (nonadecane; 14.5%). Flowers oil was rich in esters (2-phenylethyl benzoate; 33.5%). Finally, drupes oil was rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes (β-eudesmol; 33.1%). Flowers oil showed a significant phytotoxic effect against lettuce seeds germination, it induces a total inhibition when tested at 1 mg/ml. Root and shoot elongation seemed to be more affected than germination. The inhibition of the shoot length varied from 3.6% to 100% and that of the root from 16.1% to 100%. The highest inhibition of 100% was detected for flower oil tested at 1 mg/ml. Our in vitro studies suggest a possible and new alternative use of C. spinosum EOs in herbicidal formulations, further experiments involving field conditions are necessary to confirm its herbicidal potential. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  1. Founder mutations in Tunisia: implications for diagnosis in North Africa and Middle East

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tunisia is a North African country of 10 million inhabitants. The native background population is Berber. However, throughout its history, Tunisia has been the site of invasions and migratory waves of allogenic populations and ethnic groups such as Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Ottomans and French. Like neighbouring and Middle Eastern countries, the Tunisian population shows a relatively high rate of consanguinity and endogamy that favor expression of recessive genetic disorders at relatively high rates. Many factors could contribute to the recurrence of monogenic morbid trait expression. Among them, founder mutations that arise in one ancestral individual and diffuse through generations in isolated communities. Method We report here on founder mutations in the Tunisian population by a systematic review of all available data from PubMed, other sources of the scientific literature as well as unpublished data from our research laboratory. Results We identified two different classes of founder mutations. The first includes founder mutations so far reported only among Tunisians that are responsible for 30 genetic diseases. The second group represents founder haplotypes described in 51 inherited conditions that occur among Tunisians and are also shared with other North African and Middle Eastern countries. Several heavily disabilitating diseases are caused by recessive founder mutations. They include, among others, neuromuscular diseases such as congenital muscular dystrophy and spastic paraglegia and also severe genodermatoses such as dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and xeroderma pigmentosa. Conclusion This report provides informations on founder mutations for 73 genetic diseases either specific to Tunisians or shared by other populations. Taking into account the relatively high number and frequency of genetic diseases in the region and the limited resources, screening for these founder mutations should provide a rapid and cost effective tool for

  2. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze Cultivated in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2016-03-01

    In Tunisia, Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is an exotic tree, which was introduced many years ago and planted as ornamental street, garden, and park tree. The present work reported, for the first time, the chemical composition and evaluates the allelopathic effect of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the different parts of this tree, viz., roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and pods gathered in the area of Sousse, a coastal region, in the East of Tunisia. In total, 86 compounds representing 89.9 - 94.9% of the whole oil composition, were identified in these oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was clearly distinguished for its high content in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (β-caryophyllene, 1 (44); 24.1% and germacrene D, 2 (53); 20.0%), while those obtained from pods, leaves, stems, and flowers were dominated by non-terpene hydrocarbons. The most important ones were n-tetradecane (41, 16.3%, pod oil), 1,7-dimethylnaphthalene (43, 15.6%, leaf oil), and n-octadecane (77, 13.1%, stem oil). The leaf oil was rich in the apocarotene (E)-β-ionone (4 (54); 33.8%), and the oil obtained from flowers was characterized by hexahydrofarnesylacetone (5 (81); 19.9%) and methyl hexadecanoate (83, 10.2%). Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into three groups and two subgroups, each characterized by the major oil constituents. Contact tests showed that the germination of lettuce seeds was totally inhibited by the root essential oil tested at 1 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect on the shoot and root elongation varied from -1.6% to -32.4%, and from -2.5% to -64.4%, respectively. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. Chemical composition and allelopathic potential of essential oils obtained from Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. Cultivated in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2015-04-01

    Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. (Fabaceae), synonym Acacia saligna (Labill.) H. L.Wendl., native to West Australia and naturalized in North Africa and South Europe, was introduced in Tunisia for rangeland rehabilitation, particularly in the semiarid zones. In addition, this evergreen tree represents a potential forage resource, particularly during periods of drought. A. cyanophylla is abundant in Tunisia and some other Mediterranean countries. The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from different plant parts, viz., roots, stems, phyllodes, flowers, and pods (fully mature fruits without seeds), was characterized for the first time here. According to GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, the principal compound in the phyllode and flower oils was dodecanoic acid (4), representing 22.8 and 66.5% of the total oil, respectively. Phenylethyl salicylate (8; 34.9%), heptyl valerate (3; 17.3%), and nonadecane (36%) were the main compounds in the root, stem, and pod oils, respectively. The phyllode and flower oils were very similar, containing almost the same compounds. Nevertheless, the phyllode oil differed from the flower oil for its higher contents of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (6), linalool (1), pentadecanal, α-terpineol, and benzyl benzoate (5) and its lower content of 4. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into four groups, each characterized by its main constituents. Furthermore, the allelopathic activity of each oil was evaluated using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) as a plant model. The phyllode, flower, and pod oils exhibited a strong allelopathic activity against lettuce. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. [Intestinal parasitosis among non-permanent resident students in Tunisia: a review of 23 years of monitoring in the department of Parasitology-Mycology at the Rabta Hospital of Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Dridi, Kalthoum; Fakhfakh, Najla; Belhadj, Sleh; Kaouech, Emira; Kallel, Kalthoum; Chaker, Emna

    2015-07-01

    In order to fight digestive parasitism in Tunisia, a national program of surveillance of non-permanent resident students in Tunisia has been found to detect these parasitosis in this target population. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among non-permanent resident students in Tunisia, to identify the different parasitic species founded and to show the interest of this screening. During a period of 23 years (1990-2012), 7386 parasitological examinations of stools has been made among students essentially from or had visited tropical Africa, Maghreb and Middle-East, at the laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology at the Rabta Hospital of Tunis. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism found was 34.45% (i.e. 2545 infested students). Among the protozoa that have been isolated in the majority of cases (78.75%), amoebae were most frequently found (86.4%) represented mainly by Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nanus in respectively, 25.62 and 23.33% of parasites isolated; while Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, only pathogenic Amoeba was found in 8.05% of the total of parasites isolated. Regarding helminths, found in 21.25% of parasites isolated, Ankylostome was predominant (34.5%) represented by the species of Necator americanus. A single case of Ancylostom duodenale has been isolated. Among the identified parasite species, 38.7% were known parasitic pathogens for humans. These results note the interest of the control of the non-permanent resident students in Tunisia. The precocious tracking and treatment of affected subjects permits to avoid the introduction and the dissemination of parasites already rare and virulent strains in our country.

  5. Natural Infection of North African Gundi (Ctenodactylus gundi) by Leishmania tropica in the Focus of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Southeast Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Bousslimi, Nadia; Ben-Ayed, Soumaya; Ben-Abda, Imène; Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2012-01-01

    North African gundis (Ctenodactylus gundi) were trapped in the Leishmania (L.) tropica focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, situated in southeast Tunisia and evaluated for Leishmania infection by real-time kinetoplast DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Species identification was performed by internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1)-PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis of the 7SL RNA gene. Real-time PCR on blood was positive in 6 of 13 (46.2%) tested gundis. Leishmania tropica was identified in five infected gundis and Leishmania major in one specimen. Alignments of the ITS-1 DNA sequences and 7S-HRM curves analysis indicated that similar genotypes were present in humans, a sandfly, and gundis from the same region suggesting a potential role of this rodent as reservoir host of L. tropica in southeast Tunisia. PMID:22665601

  6. The occurrence of two species of Entomophthorales (Entomophthoromycota), pathogens of Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Fekih, Ibtissem; Boukhris-Bouhachem, Sonia; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Allagui, Mohamed Bechir; Jensen, Annette Bruun

    2013-01-01

    The natural occurrence of entomophthoralean fungi pathogenic towards aphids on cereal and potato crops was investigated in the years 2009, 2010, and 2011. Infected aphids were sampled in three bioclimatic zones in Tunisia (Beja, Cap bon, and Kairouan) and fungal species were determined based on morphological characters such as shape, size, and number of nuclei in the primary conidia. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on the internal transcribed spacer 1 region (ITS1) was used to verify morphological determination. Both methods gave consistent results and we documented for the first time the natural occurrence of two fungal species from the order Entomophthorales (phylum Entomophthoromycota), Pandora neoaphidis and Entomophthora planchoniana. Both fungi were recorded on the aphid species Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae on barley ears and potato leaves, respectively. Moreover, natural mixed infections by both species (P. neoaphidis and E. planchoniana) were documented on the target aphids. This investigation provides basic information of entomopathogenic fungi infecting economically important aphids in Tunisia.

  7. Causal relationship between CO₂ emissions, real GDP, energy consumption, financial development, trade openness, and urbanization in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Farhani, Sahbi; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the causal relationship between CO2 emissions, real GDP, energy consumption, financial development, trade openness, and urbanization in Tunisia over the period of 1971-2012. The long-run relationship is investigated by the auto-regressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration and error correction method (ECM). The results of the analysis reveal a positive sign for the coefficient of financial development, suggesting that the financial development in Tunisia has taken place at the expense of environmental pollution. The Tunisian case also shows a positive monotonic relationship between real GDP and CO2 emissions. This means that the results do not support the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. In addition, the paper explores causal relationship between the variables by using Granger causality models and it concludes that financial development plays a vital role in the Tunisian economy.

  8. Dimensions of aberrant driving behaviours in Tunisia: identifying the relation between Driver Behaviour Questionnaire results and accident data.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Dhibi; Lotfi, Belkacem

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) was used to examine the self-reported driving behaviours of a group of Tunisian drivers (N = 900) and to collect socio-demographic data, driver behaviours and DBQ items. A sample of Tunisian drivers above 18 years was selected. The aim of the present study was to investigate the factorial structure of the DBQ in Tunisia. The principal component analysis identified three factor solutions: inattention errors, dangerous errors and dangerous violations. Logistic regression analysis showed that dangerous errors, dangerous violations and speeding preference factors predicted crash involvement in Tunisia. Speeding is the most common form of aberrant behaviour reported by drivers in the current sample. It remains one of the major road safety concerns.

  9. Building multi-country collaboration on watershed ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Community-based watershed resilience programs that bridge public health and environmental outcomes often require cross-boundary, multi-country collaboration. The CRESSIDA project, led by the Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC) and supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), forwards a resilience-focused approach for Western Balkan communities in the Drini and Drina river watersheds with the goal of safeguarding public health and the environment. The initial phases of this project give a contextualized example of how to advance resilience-driven environmental health goals in Western Balkan communities, and experience within the region has garnered several theme areas that require focus in order to promote a holistic watershed management program. In this paper, using CRESSIDA as a case study, we show (1) how watershed projects designed with resilience-driven environmental health goals can work in context, (2) provide data surrounding contextualized problems with resilience and suggest tools and strategies for the implementation of projects to address these problems, and (3) explore how cross-boundary foci are central to the success of these approaches in watersheds that comprise several countries. Published in the journal, Reviews on Environmental Health.

  10. Watershed processing of atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyl inputs.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Amy A; Totten, Lisa A; Cavallo, Gregory I; Yagecic, John R

    2007-04-01

    Indirect atmospheric deposition of PCBs was examined in subwatersheds of the Delaware River Estuary. Tributary PCB loads and atmospheric PCB concentrations were used to understand the pass-through efficiencies for nine rivers/ creeks for which PCB inputs appeared to be dominated by atmospheric deposition. The pass-through efficiency, E, was calculated from tributary loads and atmospheric deposition fluxes. Unfortunately, uncertainties in the gaseous and dry particle deposition velocities, vg and vd, respectively, render the calculated atmospheric deposition fluxes highly uncertain. In order to circumvent this problem, export of PCBs from the watershed was related directly to atmospheric PCB concentrations via a new mass transfer coefficient, the watershed delivery rate or vws, which describes the process by which the watershed transfers PCBs from the airto the River's main stem. vws increases with increasing chlorination and is significantly correlated with vapor pressure. This trend suggests that the transfer of PCBs from the atmosphere to the River via the watershed is more efficient for high molecular weight PCBs than for low molecular weight PCBs. This may indicate that the selected watersheds are at or close to equilibrium with respect to gaseous exchange of PCBs, such that lower molecular weight congeners undergo substantial revolatilization after deposition. The magnitude of the pass-through efficiency, E, depends on the deposition velocities used to calculate the atmospheric deposition flux, but when congener-specific deposition velocities are used, E is independent of vapor pressure and is relatively constant at about 3%.

  11. Biomonitoring of cadmium, chromium, nickel and arsenic in general population living near mining and active industrial areas in Southern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Khlifi, Rim; Olmedo, Pablo; Gil, Fernando; Feki-Tounsi, Molka; Hammami, Bouthaina; Rebai, Ahmed; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2014-02-01

    The human health impact of the historic and current mining and industrial activities in Tunisia is not known. This study assessed the exposure to metals in the population of Southern Tunisia, using biomonitoring. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate metal exposure on 350 participants living near mining and active industrial areas in the South of Tunisia. Blood specimens were analyzed for metals (Cd, Cr, As, and Ni) by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer equipped with Zeeman background correction and AS-800 auto sampler by graphite furnace and graphite tubes with integrated L'vov platform. The sample population was classified according to different age groups, sex, smoking habit, sea food and water drinking consumption, occupational exposure, amalgam fillings and place of residence. The blood As, Cd, Cr and Ni values expressed as mean ± SD were 1.56 ± 2.49, 0.74 ± 1.15, 35.04 ± 26.02 and 30.56 ± 29.96 μg/l, respectively. Blood Cd and Ni levels in smokers were 2 and 1.2 times, respectively, higher than in non-smokers. Blood Cd levels increase significantly with age (p = 0.002). As, Cd and Ni were significantly correlated with gender and age (p < 0.05). Cd level in blood samples of subjects occupationally exposed was 1.3 times higher than that of non-exposed. Blood metals were not significantly affected by amalgam fillings, place of living and sea food and drinking water consumption. This first biomonitoring study of metal exposure in the South of Tunisia reveals a substantial exposure to several metals. The pathways of exposure and health significance of these findings need to be further investigated.

  12. Genetic differentiation in Pyrenophora teres f. teres populations from Syria and Tunisia as assessed by AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Bouajila, A; Zoghlami, N; Murad, S; Baum, M; Ghorbel, A; Nazari, K

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the level of genetic differentiation and diversity among Pyrenophora teres isolate populations originating from different agro-ecological areas of Syria and Tunisia and to determine the potential of AFLP profiling in genotyping Pyrenophora teres f. teres. In this study, AFLP markers have been employed to identify patterns of population structure in 20 Pyrenophora teres f. teres populations from Syria and Tunisia. Ninety-four isolates were studied by the use of a protocol that involved stringent PCR amplification of fragments derived from digestion of genomic DNA with restriction enzymes EcoRI and MesI. Based on 401 amplified polymorphic DNA markers (AFLP), variance analyses indicated that most of the variation was partitioned within rather than between populations. Genotypic diversity (GD) was high for populations from Rihane, local landraces and different agro-ecological zones (GD = 0·75-0·86). There was high genetic differentiation among pathogen populations from different host populations in Syria (Gst  = 0·31, ht = 0·190) and Tunisia (Gst  = 0·39, ht = 0·263), which may be partly explained by the low gene flow around the areas sampled. A phenetic tree revealed three groups with high bootstrap values (55, 68, 76) and reflected the grouping of isolates based on host, or agro-ecological areas. AFLP profiling is an effective method for typing the genetically diverse pathogen Pyrenophora teres f. teres. The study represents a comparative analysis of the genetic diversity in P. teres isolates from two countries spanning two continents and also shows that several distinct P. teres genotypes may be found in a given environment. The implications of these findings for Pyrenophora teres f. teres evolutionary potential and net blotch-resistance breeding in Syria and Tunisia were also discussed. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Changes of Sand Fly Populations and Leishmania infantum Infection Rates in an Irrigated Village Located in Arid Central Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Barhoumi, Walid; Fares, Wasfi; Cherni, Saifedine; Derbali, Mohamed; Dachraoui, Khalil; Chelbi, Ifhem; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo; Beier, John C.; Zhioua, Elyes

    2016-01-01

    The current spread of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) throughout arid areas of Central Tunisia is a major public health concern. The main objective of this study is to investigate whether the development of irrigation in arid bio-geographical areas in Central Tunisia have led to the establishment of a stable cycle involving sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius and Leishmania infantum, and subsequently to the emergence of ZVL. Sand flies were collected from the village of Saddaguia, a highly irrigated zone located within an arid bio-geographical area of Central Tunisia by using modified Centers for Diseases Control (CDC) light traps. Morphological keys were used to identify sand flies. Collected sand flies were pooled with up to 30 specimens per pool according to date and tested by nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) DNA sequencing from positive pools was used to identify Leishmania spp. A total of 4915 sand flies (2422 females and 2493 males) were collected from Saddaguia in September and in October 2014. Morphological identification confirmed sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius to be predominant. PCR analysis followed by DNA sequencing indicated that 15 pools were infected with L. infantum yielding an overall infection rate of 0.6%. The majority of the infected pools were of sand fly species belonging to subgenus Larroussius. Intense irrigation applied to the arid bio-geographical areas in Central Tunisia is at the origin of the development of an environment capable of sustaining important populations of sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius. This has led to the establishment of stable transmission cycles of L. infantum and subsequently to the emergence of ZVL. PMID:26999176

  14. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B and Delta virus strains that spread in the Mediterranean North East Coast of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Yacoubi, Lamia; Brichler, Ségolène; Mansour, Wael; Le Gal, Frédéric; Hammami, Walid; Sadraoui, Amel; Ben Mami, Nabil; Msaddek, Azouz; Cheikh, Imed; Triki, Henda; Gordien, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Tunisia is classified as an area of middle endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, however little is known about hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) infection. This study aimed to address the prevalence of HDV infection, to identify possible risks factors, and to analyze the genetic diversity of HDV strains that are spreading in Tunisia. A retrospective large-scale study including 1615 HBsAg positive patients, native of the North East coast of Tunisia, recruited from Gastroenterology departments, was conducted. Demographic, epidemiological, ethnical, clinical and biological data were recorded. HBV and HDV serological analyses and DNA and RNA viral load quantification were performed. Genotyping of HBV and HDV strains was performed using nucleotide sequencing followed by phylogenetic analyses. The study population included 819 (50.7%) men and 796 (49.3%) women; aged 12-90 years (mean age 41±13 years). A very low prevalence of HDV infection, 2% was observed. No risk factor, except a history of hospitalization for surgery was found. All HDV strains belonged to genotype 1, with a wide distribution within the HDV-1 group. They all share the African amino acid marker, a serine at position 202 of the large Delta protein. HBV genotypes were distributed as follows: HBV/D1 (56.8%), HBV/D7 (40.9%), and HBV/A2 (2.3%). Tunisia is a low endemic region for HDV infection, due to an efficient policy of HBV infection control. HDV-1 is the sole genotype found, with a high diversity within this group. Further studies are ongoing in order to better characterize and manage the HBV/HDV-infected patients according to the genetic variability of the viral strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes of Sand Fly Populations and Leishmania infantum Infection Rates in an Irrigated Village Located in Arid Central Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Barhoumi, Walid; Fares, Wasfi; Cherni, Saifedine; Derbali, Mohamed; Dachraoui, Khalil; Chelbi, Ifhem; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo; Beier, John C; Zhioua, Elyes

    2016-03-16

    The current spread of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) throughout arid areas of Central Tunisia is a major public health concern. The main objective of this study is to investigate whether the development of irrigation in arid bio-geographical areas in Central Tunisia have led to the establishment of a stable cycle involving sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius and Leishmania infantum, and subsequently to the emergence of ZVL. Sand flies were collected from the village of Saddaguia, a highly irrigated zone located within an arid bio-geographical area of Central Tunisia by using modified Centers for Diseases Control (CDC) light traps. Morphological keys were used to identify sand flies. Collected sand flies were pooled with up to 30 specimens per pool according to date and tested by nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) DNA sequencing from positive pools was used to identify Leishmania spp. A total of 4915 sand flies (2422 females and 2493 males) were collected from Saddaguia in September and in October 2014. Morphological identification confirmed sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius to be predominant. PCR analysis followed by DNA sequencing indicated that 15 pools were infected with L. infantum yielding an overall infection rate of 0.6%. The majority of the infected pools were of sand fly species belonging to subgenus Larroussius. Intense irrigation applied to the arid bio-geographical areas in Central Tunisia is at the origin of the development of an environment capable of sustaining important populations of sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius. This has led to the establishment of stable transmission cycles of L. infantum and subsequently to the emergence of ZVL.

  16. An Environmental Assessment of United States Drinking Water Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography a...

  17. SFA 2.0- Watershed Structure and Controls

    SciT

    Williams, Ken

    2015-01-23

    Berkeley Lab Earth Scientist Ken Williams explains the watershed research within the Sustainable Systems SFA 2.0 project—including identification and monitoring of primary factors that control watershed biogeochemical functioning.

  18. RESTORING SUBURBAN WATERSHEDS USING A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In mixed-use, suburban watersheds, stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces on both public and private property impairs stream ecosystems. Decentralized stormwater management, which distributes stormwater infiltration and retention devices throughout watersheds, is more effect...

  19. Watershed characterization and analysis using the VELMA model

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a broadly applicable watershed simulator – VELMA (Visualizing Ecosystem and Land Management Assessments) – to characterize hydrological and ecological processes essential to the healthy functioning of watersheds, and to identify best management practices ...

  20. WATERSHED AND INSTREAM MODELING OF SEDIMENT FATE AND TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To effectively manage watersheds, the assessment of watershed ecological response to physicochemical stressors such as sediments over broad spatial and temporal scales is needed. Assessments at this level of complexity requires the development of sediment transport and fate model...

  1. Information Management for the Watershed Approach in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A collection of interviews with leaders and key participants in the statewide watershed approach activities in the State of Washington. Additionally, there are reviews of Washington’s statewide watershed activities in a case study fashion.

  2. SFA 2.0- Watershed Structure and Controls

    Williams, Ken

    2018-05-23

    Berkeley Lab Earth Scientist Ken Williams explains the watershed research within the Sustainable Systems SFA 2.0 project—including identification and monitoring of primary factors that control watershed biogeochemical functioning.

  3. USING WATERSHED COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE AS INDICATORS OF ESTUARINE CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many researchers examining relationships between water quality and the surrounding watershed have focused on landscape metrics associated with composition (e.g., % of the whole watershed in agriculture) often excluding measures of landscape structure. In addition, little work ha...

  4. The Mystic River Watershed Initiative Steering Committee Purpose and Structure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Mystic River Watershed Initiative (MRWI) works to improve water quality and public access to open spaces in the Mystic River watershed. The MRWI Steering Committee meets regularly to discuss key issues and priority actions related to this initiative.

  5. Watershed Modeling Recommendation Report for Lake Champlain TMDL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes the recommended modeling approach for watershed modeling component of the Lake Champlain TMDL project. The report was prepared by Tetra Tech, with input from the Lake Champlain watershed analysis workgroup. (TetraTech, 2012a)

  6. INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE. Book Review

    EPA Science Inventory

    Through a wide range of information and topics, Integrated Watershed Management Principles and Practice shows how involved the watershed management planning process can be. The book is informative, and the author obviously has researched the subject thoroughly. The book's case...

  7. Is there any change in the prevalence of intestinal and urinary parasitosis among "non-permanent resident" students in Tunisia ?

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Sonia; Bouchakoua, Myiram; Aouinet, Amira; Sellami, Amira; Khaled, Samira

    2012-07-01

    Intestinal parasitosis are cosmopolitan affections, often related to the fecal peril. However urinary bilharziosis is a disease eliminated in Tunisia. As part of monitoring the emergence and re-emergence of intestinal parasitosis and urinary bilharziasis, foreign students benefit from parasitological systematic monitoring stool and urine during their enrollment to the University. To study the prevalence of various intestinal parasitosis and urinary bilharziasis among non permanent resident students in Tunisia. A retrospective survey was carried at the Laboratory of Parasitology- Mycology of Charles Nicolle Hospital of Tunis during the inscription period of 6 university years 2005-2010. 328 students profited from a parasitological examination of stool and urine. 144 students (43.9%) harbored intestinal parasites. More than one parasite was detected in 69 students (47.9%). Intestinal protozoa were the majority of identified parasites (96.9%). 9.7% of identified parasites were pathogenic. Three cases (0.91%) of urinary bilharziasis were diagnosed. The prevalence of intestinal and urinary parasitism among the "non-permanent residents" students in Tunisia has not changed. This justifies a systematic parasitologic monitoring for students coming from areas of high endemicity of parasitosis in order to avoid the introduction of these.

  8. New evidence for the potential role of Culex pipiens mosquitoes in the transmission cycle of West Nile virus in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Krida, G; Rhim, A; Daaboub, J; Failloux, A-B; Bouattour, A

    2015-06-01

    Physiological and molecular characteristics of natural populations of Culex pipiens Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated to elucidate how this species is potentially involved in the transmission of West Nile virus in Tunisia. A total of 215 Cx. pipiens females from 11 breeding habitats were analysed in the laboratory to estimate autogeny and stenogamy rates. They were tested individually for the locus CQ11 to distinguish between the two Cx. pipiens forms, pipiens and molestus. All tested Cx. pipiens populations were stenogamous. Females from underground breeding sites were all autogeneous, whereas females from above-ground habitats were mostly anautogeneous. Of all the females tested, 59.7% were identified as pipiens, 22.4% as molestus, and 17.9% as hybrid pipiens/molestus. Furthermore, both Cx. pipiens forms and their hybrids were found to co-occur in sympatry in all sites. The results of this study represent the first evidence that both Cx. pipiens forms and their hybrids are present in Tunisia. Because hybrids able to act as bridge vectors are present in all studied habitats, Tunisia can be considered to have a high degree of receptivity for the establishment of West Nile virus zoonotic cycles. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  9. First molecular evidence of [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato in goats, sheep, cattle and camels in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Alberti, Alberto; Abdi, Khaoula; Zhioua, Manel; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Messadi, Lilia

    2016-09-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are tick-transmitted spirochaetes of veterinary and human importance. Molecular epidemiology data on ruminants are still lacking in most countries of the world. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the rate of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection in ruminants from Tunisia. A total of 1,021 ruminants (303 goats, 260 sheep, 232 cattle and 226 camels) from different bioclimatic areas in Tunisia were investigated for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in blood by real time PCR. Prevalence rates were 30.4% (92/303) in goats, 6.2% (16/260) in sheep, 1.3% (3/232) in cattle, and 1.8% (4/226) in camels. Only tick species belonging to Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma genera were found on the investigated animals. In small ruminants, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. varied significantly according to localities and farms. Goats located in humid areas were statistically more infected than those located in sub-humid areas. Prevalence rates varied significantly according to age and breed in sheep, and age and tick infestation in goats. This study provides the first insight into the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in ruminants in Tunisia, and demonstrates that host species such as goats and sheep may play an important role in natural Lyme disease cycles in this country.

  10. Identifying and Classifying Pollution Hotspots to Guide Watershed Management in a Large Multiuse Watershed.

    PubMed

    Su, Fangli; Kaplan, David; Li, Lifeng; Li, Haifu; Song, Fei; Liu, Haisheng

    2017-03-03

    In many locations around the globe, large reservoir sustainability is threatened by land use change and direct pollution loading from the upstream watershed. However, the size and complexity of upstream basins makes the planning and implementation of watershed-scale pollution management a challenge. In this study, we established an evaluation system based on 17 factors, representing the potential point and non-point source pollutants and the environmental carrying capacity which are likely to affect the water quality in the Dahuofang Reservoir and watershed in northeastern China. We used entropy methods to rank 118 subwatersheds by their potential pollution threat and clustered subwatersheds according to the potential pollution type. Combining ranking and clustering analyses allowed us to suggest specific areas for prioritized watershed management (in particular, two subwatersheds with the greatest pollution potential) and to recommend the conservation of current practices in other less vulnerable locations (91 small watersheds with low pollution potential). Finally, we identified the factors most likely to influence the water quality of each of the 118 subwatersheds and suggested adaptive control measures for each location. These results provide a scientific basis for improving the watershed management and sustainability of the Dahuofang reservoir and a framework for identifying threats and prioritizing the management of watersheds of large reservoirs around the world.

  11. Identifying and Classifying Pollution Hotspots to Guide Watershed Management in a Large Multiuse Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fangli; Kaplan, David; Li, Lifeng; Li, Haifu; Song, Fei; Liu, Haisheng

    2017-01-01

    In many locations around the globe, large reservoir sustainability is threatened by land use change and direct pollution loading from the upstream watershed. However, the size and complexity of upstream basins makes the planning and implementation of watershed-scale pollution management a challenge. In this study, we established an evaluation system based on 17 factors, representing the potential point and non-point source pollutants and the environmental carrying capacity which are likely to affect the water quality in the Dahuofang Reservoir and watershed in northeastern China. We used entropy methods to rank 118 subwatersheds by their potential pollution threat and clustered subwatersheds according to the potential pollution type. Combining ranking and clustering analyses allowed us to suggest specific areas for prioritized watershed management (in particular, two subwatersheds with the greatest pollution potential) and to recommend the conservation of current practices in other less vulnerable locations (91 small watersheds with low pollution potential). Finally, we identified the factors most likely to influence the water quality of each of the 118 subwatersheds and suggested adaptive control measures for each location. These results provide a scientific basis for improving the watershed management and sustainability of the Dahuofang reservoir and a framework for identifying threats and prioritizing the management of watersheds of large reservoirs around the world. PMID:28273834

  12. Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Li, Xiaowen; Li, Zengyuan; Ma, Mingguo; Wang, Jian; Xiao, Qing; Liu, Qiang; Che, Tao; Chen, Erxue; Yan, Guangjian; Hu, Zeyong; Zhang, Lixin; Chu, Rongzhong; Su, Peixi; Liu, Qinhuo; Liu, Shaomin; Wang, Jindi; Niu, Zheng; Chen, Yan; Jin, Rui; Wang, Weizhen; Ran, Youhua; Xin, Xiaozhou; Ren, Huazhong

    2009-11-01

    The Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) is a simultaneous airborne, satellite-borne, and ground-based remote sensing experiment aiming to improve the observability, understanding, and predictability of hydrological and related ecological processes at a catchment scale. WATER consists of the cold region, forest, and arid region hydrological experiments as well as a hydrometeorology experiment and took place in the Heihe River Basin, a typical inland river basin in the northwest of China. The field campaigns have been completed, with an intensive observation period lasting from 7 March to 12 April, from 15 May to 22 July, and from 23 August to 5 September 2008: in total, 120 days. Twenty-five airborne missions were flown. Airborne sensors including microwave radiometers at L, K, and Ka bands, imaging spectrometer, thermal imager, CCD, and lidar were used. Various satellite data were collected. Ground measurements were carried out at four scales, that is, key experimental area, foci experimental area, experiment site, and elementary sampling plot, using ground-based remote sensing instruments, densified network of automatic meteorological stations, flux towers, and hydrological stations. On the basis of these measurements, the remote sensing retrieval models and algorithms of water cycle variables are to be developed or improved, and a catchment-scale land/hydrological data assimilation system is being developed. This paper reviews the background, scientific objectives, experiment design, filed campaign implementation, and current status of WATER. The analysis of the data will continue over the next 2 years, and limited revisits to the field are anticipated.

  13. Watershed modeling and monitoring for assessing nutrient ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presentation for the American Water Works Association Water Sustainability Conference. The presentation highlights latest results from water quality trading research conducted by ORD using the East Fork Watershed in Southwestern Ohio as a case study. The watershed has a nutrient enrichment problem that is creating harmful algal blooms in a reservoir used for drinking water and recreation. Innovative modeling and monitoring is combined to understand how to best manage this water quality problem and costs associated with this endeavor. The presentation will provide an overview of the water quality trading feasibility research. The research includes the development and evaluation of innovative modeling and monitoring approaches to manage watersheds for nutrient pollution using a whole systems approach.

  14. NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12) GIS layer was derived from the 12-Digit National Watershed Boundary Database (WBD) at 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and Surrounding States. HUC 12 polygons were selected from the source based on interactively comparing these HUC 12s in our GIS with images of the New York City's Water Supply System Map found at http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/drinking_water/wsmaps_wide.shtml. The 12 digit Hydrologic Units (HUCs) for EPA Region 2 and surrounding states (Northeastern states, parts of the Great Lakes, Puerto Rico and the USVI) are a subset of the National Watershed Boundary Database (WBD), downloaded from the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Geospatial Gateway and imported into the EPA Region 2 Oracle/SDE database. This layer reflects 2009 updates to the WBD that included new boundary data for New York and New Jersey.

  15. Watershed-based Morphometric Analysis: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukristiyanti, S.; Maria, R.; Lestiana, H.

    2018-02-01

    Drainage basin/watershed analysis based on morphometric parameters is very important for watershed planning. Morphometric analysis of watershed is the best method to identify the relationship of various aspects in the area. Despite many technical papers were dealt with in this area of study, there is no particular standard classification and implication of each parameter. It is very confusing to evaluate a value of every morphometric parameter. This paper deals with the meaning of values of the various morphometric parameters, with adequate contextual information. A critical review is presented on each classification, the range of values, and their implications. Besides classification and its impact, the authors also concern about the quality of input data, either in data preparation or scale/the detail level of mapping. This review paper hopefully can give a comprehensive explanation to assist the upcoming research dealing with morphometric analysis.

  16. Watershed and Economic Data InterOperability (WEDO): Facilitating Discovery, Evaluation and Integration through the Sharing of Watershed Modeling Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed and Economic Data InterOperability (WEDO) is a system of information technologies designed to publish watershed modeling studies for reuse. WEDO facilitates three aspects of interoperability: discovery, evaluation and integration of data. This increased level of interop...

  17. 7 CFR 622.11 - Eligible watershed projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible watershed projects. 622.11 Section 622.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Qualifications § 622.11 Eligible watershed...

  18. 7 CFR 622.11 - Eligible watershed projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible watershed projects. 622.11 Section 622.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Qualifications § 622.11 Eligible watershed...

  19. 7 CFR 622.11 - Eligible watershed projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible watershed projects. 622.11 Section 622.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Qualifications § 622.11 Eligible watershed...

  20. Understanding human uses and values in watershed analysis.

    Roger D. Fight; Linda E. Kruger; Christopher Hansen-Murray; Arnold Holden; Dale Bays

    2000-01-01

    Watershed analysis is used as a tool to understand the functioning of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem processes at the landscape scale and to assess opportunities to restore or improve those processes and associated watershed conditions. Assessing those opportunities correctly requires an understanding of how humans have interacted with the watershed in the past and...

  1. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v3: User Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a decision support tool that facilitates integrated water management at the local or small watershed scale. WMOST models the environmental effects and costs of management decisions in a watershed context that is, accou...

  2. Guiding principles for management of forested, agricultural, and urban watersheds

    Pamela J. Edwards; Jon E. Schoonover; Karl W.J. Williard

    2015-01-01

    Human actions must be well planned and include consideration of their potential influences on water and aquatic ecosystems - such consideration is the foundation of watershed management. Watersheds are the ideal land unit for managing and protecting water resources and aquatic health because watersheds integrate the physical, biological and chemical processes within...

  3. Water balance of drained plantation watersheds in North Carolina

    Johnny M. Grace; R. W. Skaggs

    2006-01-01

    A 3-year study to evaluate the effect of thinning on the hydrology of a drained loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation was conducted in eastern North Carolina. The study utilized a paired watershed design with a 40-ha thinned watershed (WS5) and a 16-ha control watershed (WS2). Data from the field experiment conducted from 1999-2002 was used to...

  4. Watershed analysis on federal lands of the Pacific northwest

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer; Michael J. Furniss

    1994-01-01

    Abstract - Watershed analysis-the evaluation of processes that affect ecosystems and resources in a watershed-is now being carried out by Federal land-management and regulatory agencies on Federal lands of the Pacific Northwest. Methods used differ from those of other implementations of watershed analysis because objectives and opportunities differ. In particular,...

  5. 36 CFR 251.9 - Management of Municipal Watersheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Watersheds. 251.9 Section 251.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Miscellaneous Land Uses Natural Resources Control § 251.9 Management of Municipal Watersheds. (a) The Forest Service shall manage National Forest watersheds that supply municipal water under...

  6. 36 CFR 251.9 - Management of Municipal Watersheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Watersheds. 251.9 Section 251.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Miscellaneous Land Uses Natural Resources Control § 251.9 Management of Municipal Watersheds. (a) The Forest Service shall manage National Forest watersheds that supply municipal water under...

  7. 36 CFR 251.9 - Management of Municipal Watersheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Watersheds. 251.9 Section 251.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Miscellaneous Land Uses Natural Resources Control § 251.9 Management of Municipal Watersheds. (a) The Forest Service shall manage National Forest watersheds that supply municipal water under...

  8. 36 CFR 251.9 - Management of Municipal Watersheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Watersheds. 251.9 Section 251.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Miscellaneous Land Uses Natural Resources Control § 251.9 Management of Municipal Watersheds. (a) The Forest Service shall manage National Forest watersheds that supply municipal water under...

  9. 36 CFR 251.9 - Management of Municipal Watersheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Watersheds. 251.9 Section 251.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Miscellaneous Land Uses Natural Resources Control § 251.9 Management of Municipal Watersheds. (a) The Forest Service shall manage National Forest watersheds that supply municipal water under...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A WATERSHED-BASED MERCURY POLLUTION CHARACTERIZATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    To investigate total mercury loadings to streams in a watershed, we have developed a watershed-based source quantification model ? Watershed Mercury Characterization System. The system uses the grid-based GIS modeling technology to calculate total soil mercury concentrations and ...

  11. Understanding Human Impact: Second Graders Explore Watershed Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magruder, Robin; Rosenauer, Julia

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a second grade science enrichment unit with a focus on human impact, both positive and negative, on the living and nonliving components of the local watershed. Investigating the local watershed gave the unit a personal and pragmatic connection to students' lives because they depend on the local watershed for what they need…

  12. Mapping Watershed Integrity for the Conterminous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds provide a variety of ecosystem services valued by society. Production of these services is partially a function of the degree to which watersheds are altered by human activities. In a recent manuscript, Flotemersch and others (in preparation), defined watershed integr...

  13. Artificial watershed acidification on the Fernow Experimental Forest, USA

    M.B. Adams; P.J. Edwards; F. Wood; J.N. Kochenderfer

    1993-01-01

    A whole-watershed manipulation project was begun on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia, USA, in 1987, with the objective of increasing understanding of the effects of acidic deposition on forest ecosystems. Two treatment watersheds (WS9 and WS3) and one control watershed (WS4) were included. Treatments were twice-ambient N and S deposition, applied via NH...

  14. Upper South Platte Watershed Protection and Restoration Project

    Steve Culver; Cindy Dean; Fred Patten; Jim Thinnes

    2001-01-01

    The Upper South Platte Basin is a critical watershed in Colorado. Nearly 80 percent of the water used by the 1.5 million Denver metropolitan residents comes from or is transmitted through this river drainage. The Colorado Unified Watershed Assessment identified the Upper South Platte River as a Category 1 watershed in need of restoration. Most of the river basin is...

  15. Compatability of timber salvage operations with watershed values

    Roger J. Poff

    1989-01-01

    Timber salvage on the Indian Burn was carried out without compromising watershed values. In some cases watershed condition was actually improved by providing ground cover, by removing trees that were a source of erosive water droplets, and by breaking up hydrophobic soil layers. Negative impacts of timber salvage on watersheds were minimized by using an...

  16. My life in the watershed: then, now, and beyond

    "My Life in the Watershed" tells the first-hand account of a young girl growing up in southwestern Oklahoma, the impact growing up in a watershed had on her life, and the vision she sees for her children and her children's children, so they will continue to benefit from the USDA Small Watershed Prog...

  17. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v2: Theoretical Documentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a decision support tool that evaluates the relative cost-effectiveness of management practices at the local or watershed scale. WMOST models the environmental effects and costs of management decisions in a watershed c...

  18. WATERSHED AND OTHER PLACE-BASED RISK ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Place-based assessments include regional, watershed and other geographically focused assessments.

    Watershed Assessments and Methods

    The watershed ...

  19. 7 CFR 622.11 - Eligible watershed projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... benefits consistent with protecting the Nation's environment (for structural water resource projects... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible watershed projects. 622.11 Section 622.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Qualifications § 622.11 Eligible watershed...

  20. Chesapeake bay watershed land cover data series

    Irani, Frederick M.; Claggett, Peter

    2010-01-01

    To better understand how the land is changing and to relate those changes to water quality trends, the USGS EGSC funded the production of a Chesapeake Bay Watershed Land Cover Data Series (CBLCD) representing four dates: 1984, 1992, 2001, and 2006. EGSC will publish land change forecasts based on observed trends in the CBLCD over the coming year. They are in the process of interpreting and publishing statistics on the extent, type and patterns of land cover change for 1984-2006 in the Bay watershed, major tributaries and counties.

  1. Geographic information system/watershed model interface

    Fisher, Gary T.

    1989-01-01

    Geographic information systems allow for the interactive analysis of spatial data related to water-resources investigations. A conceptual design for an interface between a geographic information system and a watershed model includes functions for the estimation of model parameter values. Design criteria include ease of use, minimal equipment requirements, a generic data-base management system, and use of a macro language. An application is demonstrated for a 90.1-square-kilometer subbasin of the Patuxent River near Unity, Maryland, that performs automated derivation of watershed parameters for hydrologic modeling.

  2. Genetic characterization and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine milk in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Said, M; Abbassi, M S; Bianchini, V; Sghaier, S; Cremonesi, P; Romanò, A; Gualdi, V; Hassen, A; Luini, M V

    2016-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major agent of bovine mastitis in dairy herds, causing economic losses in dairy industry worldwide. In addition, milk and milk-products contaminated by Staph. aureus can cause harmful human diseases. The aim of this study was to characterize Staph. aureus strains isolated from dairy farms in Tunisia. Bulk tank milk (n = 32) and individual cow milk (n = 130) samples were collected during the period of 2013-2014. Forty-three Staph. aureus isolates were recovered and typed by spa typing, 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer (RS-PCR) and multiplex PCRs for 22 virulence genes. Antimicrobial resistance was also investigated with a disc diffusion test. A selected subsample of 22 strains was additionally genotyped by multilocus sequence typing. Seventeen spa types were recovered, and t2421 (n = 10), t521 (n = 6) and t2112 (n = 5) were the most common. Fourteen different RS-PCR genotypes grouped into 11 clusters were detected in our study, with predominance of the R VI genotype (n = 24). Eight sequence types were identified and Clonal Complex 97, corresponding to RS-PCR cluster R, was the most common (n = 10), followed by CC1 (n = 4), CC15 (n = 3) and other four accounting for one or two strains. Different combinations of virulence genes were reported, and enterotoxin genes were present in few strains (seh, n = 4; sea, n = 2; sea and seh, n = 2; sec and sel, n = 2). The majority of strains were resistant only to penicillin; only one strain was found to be multiresistant and no methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus was demonstrated. Our study reported the isolation of CC97 from bovine milk in Tunisia for the first time and confirmed the relevance of this lineage in intramammary infection in cows. This paper describes the characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bulk tank and individual cow milk in Tunisia. All strains were genotyped by spa typing and RS-PCR, a method based on the amplification of the 16S-23S r

  3. First case-control study of zoonotic brucellosis in Gafsa district, Southwest Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Khamassi Khbou, Médiha; Htira, Samaher; Harabech, Kaouther; Benzarti, M'hammed

    2018-06-01

    A case-control study was conducted, aimed to describe the clinical human brucellosis (CHB) pattern during 2015 in the Gafsa region (Southwest Tunisia) and to investigate the main risk factors involved in the disease occurrence. One hundred and four CHB cases were notified in 2015 in Gafsa district. All CHB cases that own ruminants were contacted, but only 32 accepted to participate in a matched case-control study. Thirty-two and thirty-one CHB cases and controls, respectively, were included in the study. The subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. A total of 662 domestic ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats) belonging to cases and controls, were screened using the Rose Bengal Test, as recommended by the World Organisation of Animal Health. During 2015, the incidence of CHB was estimated to 30.8 per 100,000 inhabitants affecting mainly males aged between 30 and 39 years. The overall animal seropositivity to Brucella , was 21 and 1.9% in case and control farms, respectively (p < 0.0001). Only five risk factors were found to be significant: overall animal seropositivity (OR = 65.2; 95%CI: 13.3-318.7); handling aborted females (OR = 43.1; 95%CI: 8.3-222.7); presence of male ruminants in the herds (OR = 18.5; 95%CI: 5.18-66); owning seropositive goats (OR = 18.3; 95%CI: 2.4-137.6), owning seropositive sheep (OR = 9.66; 95%CI: 2.9-31.5) and history of abortion during the previous year in the herd (OR = 4.6; 95%CI: 1.3-12.6). Vaccination of animals against brucellosis was associated with lower odds of human brucellosis (OR = 0.03; 95%CI: 0.004-0.2). Raw milk and derivatives consumption was not a risk factor of human brucellosis. Based on this study, ruminants' vaccination coverage should be increased by enhancing the number of vaccinated animals and systematically including male ruminants in Tunisia. Comprehensive education programmes targeting both farmers and general population should be implemented.

  4. Southern Tunisia as an example of international partnership in cultural and geological heritage conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contessi, M.; Cantelli, L.; Fanti, F.; Gabbianelli, G.; Mohsen, H.

    2012-04-01

    National Geoparks initiatives are essential strategies to enhance the value of Earth's heritage and to promote a regional sustainable socio-economic and cultural development. As an example for geological heritage development, an ongoing partnership between the Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences of the University of Bologna (Italy) and the Office Nationales des Mines (Tunisia) attempt to ensure divulgation and preservation of the geological, geomorphological and archeological values of the Tataouine region in South Tunisia, with the final goal to create a Geopark. In this region, different environmental and cultural heritages that comprehend paleontology, geomorphology, stratigraphy and archeology coexist. Mesozoic beds that crop out extensively in the Tataouine region known since the beginning of the 20th century as Continental Intercalaire, yield numerous dinosaur and other vertebrate remains as well as tracksites. Moreover these Mesozoic deposits have been intensively modified for centuries by the local populations who created complex systems of artificial terraces, called jessour, in order to retain rainwater in the arid Tunisian climate and to exploit the scarce farm soil. These human artifacts deeply modified the morphological and hydrogeological landscape and created a unique cultural value that need to be preserved. From the perspective of science and conservation, a well-documented geological inventory of the fossiliferous sites has been produced and will be available as an electronic database. In particular, the Beni Ghedir valley, near the Goumrassene village, has been chosen has the main Geopark location as it includes, in a restricted area, a perfect example of jessour artifacts together with some well-preserved Ksour (ancient storage structures) and nicely preserved fossil sites. An interactive map of the artificial terrances has been produced using the ArcGis technology, in order to highlight the connection between the valley

  5. [Epidemiologic study of refractive errors in schoolchildren in socioeconomically deprived regions in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Ayed, T; Sokkah, M; Charfi, O; El Matri, L

    2002-09-01

    This study's purpose was to estimate the prevalence of common refractive errors in schoolchildren in low socioeconomic regions in Tunisia and to assess their effect on school performance. This was a cross-sectional study done from November 1999 to January 2000 within the context of health care screening campaigns carried out by volunteer ophthalmologists and opticians in low-end socioeconomic regions in Tunisia. The concerned population was schoolchildren living in the cities of Tunis and Tabarka (North), Kerkena (Center), and Tozeur (South). We examined a total of 708 children with a mean age of 11.9 +/-3.21 years (from 6 to 20 years) and a sex ratio of 0.84. A cycloplegic refraction examination was performed on all the children. Statistical analyses with the chi squared test and the Fisher exact test allowed us to calculate the prevalence of the refractive errors totally and separately as well as the distribution according to age, sex, and region. We also searched for a possible relation between refractive errors and academic failure. Among the 708 children, 57.2% [CI(95)=53.4-60] had refractive errors, of which 31.6% [CI(95)=28.2-35.2] were hyperopic, whereas 9.1% [CI(95)=7.1-11.5] were myopic. Astigmatism was found in 16.4% [CI(95)=13.7-19.3]. The prevalence of myopia was significantly higher after the age of fourteen. It increased significantly with age (P=0.0003). The prevalence of hyperopia was significantly higher between the ages of 8 and 11 (P=0.0004). Hyperopic astigmatism was significantly more frequent between 6 and 9 years of age (P=0.001). There was no significant difference regarding sex. However, the distribution of the refractive errors by region showed a significantly high level of myopia in Tunis, Kerkena, and Tozeur. This difference disappeared with increasing age. The study of the effect of these refractive errors on school performance of these children from poor areas showed a significant association between all types of refractive errors and

  6. Isolation, Identification, Prevalence, and Genetic Diversity of Bacillus cereus Group Bacteria From Different Foodstuffs in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Gdoura-Ben Amor, Maroua; Siala, Mariam; Zayani, Mariem; Grosset, Noël; Smaoui, Salma; Messadi-Akrout, Feriele; Baron, Florence; Jan, Sophie; Gautier, Michel; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2018-01-01

    Bacillus cereus group is widespread in nature and foods. Several members of this group are recognized as causing food spoilage and/or health issues. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of the B. cereus group strains isolated in Tunisia from different foods (cereals, spices, cooked food, fresh-cut vegetables, raw and cooked poultry meats, seafood, canned, pastry, and dairy products). In total, 687 different samples were collected and searched for the presence of the B. cereus group after selective plating on MYP agar and enumeration of each sample. The typical pink-orange uniform colonies surrounded by a zone of precipitate were assumed to belong to the B. cereus group. One typical colony from each sample was subcultured and preserved as cryoculture. Overall, 191 (27.8%) food samples were found positive, giving rise to a collection of 191 B. cereus -like isolates. The concentration of B. cereus -like bacteria were below 10 3 cfu/g or ml in 77.5% of the tested samples. Higher counts (>10 4 cfu/g or ml) were found in 6.8% of samples including fresh-cut vegetables, cooked foods, cereals, and pastry products. To verify whether B. cereus -like isolates belonged to the B. cereus group, a PCR test targeting the sspE gene sequence specific of the group was carried out. Therefore, 174 isolates were found to be positive. Food samples were contaminated as follows: cereals (67.6%), pastry products (46.2%), cooked food (40.8%), cooked poultry meat (32.7%), seafood products (32.3%), spices (28.8%), canned products (16.7%), raw poultry meat (9.4%), fresh-cut vegetables (5.0%), and dairy products (4.8%). The 174 B. cereus isolates were characterized by partial sequencing of the panC gene, using a Sym'Previous software tool to assign them to different phylogenetic groups. Strains were distributed as follows: 61.3, 29.5, 7.5, and 1.7% in the group III, IV, II, and V, respectively. The genetic diversity was further assessed by ERIC-PCR and PFGE

  7. Isolation, Identification, Prevalence, and Genetic Diversity of Bacillus cereus Group Bacteria From Different Foodstuffs in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Gdoura-Ben Amor, Maroua; Siala, Mariam; Zayani, Mariem; Grosset, Noël; Smaoui, Salma; Messadi-Akrout, Feriele; Baron, Florence; Jan, Sophie; Gautier, Michel; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2018-01-01

    Bacillus cereus group is widespread in nature and foods. Several members of this group are recognized as causing food spoilage and/or health issues. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of the B. cereus group strains isolated in Tunisia from different foods (cereals, spices, cooked food, fresh-cut vegetables, raw and cooked poultry meats, seafood, canned, pastry, and dairy products). In total, 687 different samples were collected and searched for the presence of the B. cereus group after selective plating on MYP agar and enumeration of each sample. The typical pink-orange uniform colonies surrounded by a zone of precipitate were assumed to belong to the B. cereus group. One typical colony from each sample was subcultured and preserved as cryoculture. Overall, 191 (27.8%) food samples were found positive, giving rise to a collection of 191 B. cereus-like isolates. The concentration of B. cereus-like bacteria were below 103 cfu/g or ml in 77.5% of the tested samples. Higher counts (>104 cfu/g or ml) were found in 6.8% of samples including fresh-cut vegetables, cooked foods, cereals, and pastry products. To verify whether B. cereus-like isolates belonged to the B. cereus group, a PCR test targeting the sspE gene sequence specific of the group was carried out. Therefore, 174 isolates were found to be positive. Food samples were contaminated as follows: cereals (67.6%), pastry products (46.2%), cooked food (40.8%), cooked poultry meat (32.7%), seafood products (32.3%), spices (28.8%), canned products (16.7%), raw poultry meat (9.4%), fresh-cut vegetables (5.0%), and dairy products (4.8%). The 174 B. cereus isolates were characterized by partial sequencing of the panC gene, using a Sym'Previous software tool to assign them to different phylogenetic groups. Strains were distributed as follows: 61.3, 29.5, 7.5, and 1.7% in the group III, IV, II, and V, respectively. The genetic diversity was further assessed by ERIC-PCR and PFGE typing

  8. Effects of tractor loads and tyre pressures on soil compaction in Tunisia under different moisture conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khemis, Chiheb; Abrougui, Khaoula; Ren, Lidong; Mutuku, Eunice Ann; Chehaibi, Sayed; Cornelis, Wim

    2017-04-01

    Vegetables in Tunisia demand frequent tractor traffic for soil tillage, cultural operations and phytosanitary treatment, resulting in soil compaction. This study evaluates the effects of four levels of compaction by using different loads and tyre pressures of tractors, i.e., load 1 (C1) = 1460 kg, load 2 (C2) = 3100 kg, tyre pressure 1 (C3) = 800 kg cm-2, tyre pressure 2 (C4) = 1500 kg cm-2 on the hydraulic and physical properties of a sandy loam (10% clay, 20% silt, 68% sand) under three natural moisture conditions H0, H1 (15 days later), H2 (30 days later). At H0 average water content between 0 and 30 cm depth varied from 0.04 to 0.06 kg kg-1, at H1 between 0.13 and 0.07 kg kg-1, and at H2 between 0.10 and 0.09 kg kg-1. Each test run was limited to one pass. Undisturbed soil cores were collected in the topsoil (0-10 cm), at 10-20 cm and in the subsoil (20-30 cm) below the trace of the wheel at sites in the Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Mariam, Sousse, Tunisia. Soil compaction level was determined by penetration resistance using a penetrologger. Porosity, bulk density and permeability were then determined to evaluate the impact of the four load/tyre pressure combinations at the three moisture conditions on soil compaction. Prior to the experiment (C0), bulk density was 1.4 Mg m-3. After the tractor pass, the highest degree of compaction was observed with tractor load C2 and tyre pressure C4 which significantly changed soil bulk density resulting in values of up to 1.71 Mg m-3 in the topsoil and compacted subsoil under H2, which is significantly above the critical value of 1.6 Mg m-3 for soils with clay content below 17.5%. The high degree of compaction significantly affected penetration resistance and porosity of both topsoil and subsoil layers accordingly. Permeability was significantly reduced as a result of the induced compaction. The results demonstrate that different degrees of soil compaction under different moisture levels could greatly influence

  9. Epidemiology and clinical profile of pathogens responsible for the hospitalization of children in Sousse area, Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Aida; Hannachi, Naila; Bouguila, Jihene; Orth-Höller, Dorothea; Bouhlel, Amira; Boughamoura, Lamia; Hetzer, Benjamin; Borena, Wegene; Schiela, Britta; Von Laer, Dorothee; Boukadida, Jalel; Stoiber, Heribert

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify a broad spectrum of respiratory pathogens from hospitalized and not-preselected children with acute respiratory tract infections in the Farhat Hached University-hospital of Sousse, Tunisia. Between September 2013 and December 2014, samples from 372 children aged between 1 month and 5 years were collected, and tested using multiplex real-time RT-PCR by a commercial assay for 21 respiratory pathogens. In addition, samples were screened for the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae 16S rDNA using real-time PCR. The viral distribution and its association with clinical symptoms were statistically analyzed. Viral pathogens were detected in 342 (91.93%) of the samples of which 28.76% were single positive and 63.17% had multiple infections. The most frequent detected viruses were rhinovirus (55.64%), respiratory syncytial virus A/B (33.06%), adenovirus (25.00%), coronavirus NL63, HKU1, OC43, and 229E (21.50%), and metapneumovirus A/B (16.12%). Children in the youngest age group (1–3 months) exhibited the highest frequencies of infection. Related to their frequency of detection, RSV A/B was the most associated pathogen with patient’s demographic situation and clinical manifestations (p<0.05). Parainfluenza virus 1–4 and parechovirus were found to increase the risk of death (p<0.05). Adenovirus was statistically associated to the manifestation of gastroenteritis (p = 0.004). Rhinovirus infection increases the duration of oxygen support (p = 0.042). Coronavirus group was statistically associated with the manifestation of bronchiolitis (p = 0.009) and laryngitis (p = 0.017). Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA was detected in 143 (38.44%) of tested samples. However, only 53 samples had a concentration of C-reactive protein from equal to higher than 20 milligrams per liter, and 6 of them were single positive for Streptocuccus pneumoniae. This study confirms the high incidence of respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute respiratory tract

  10. Epidemiology and clinical profile of pathogens responsible for the hospitalization of children in Sousse area, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Brini, Ines; Guerrero, Aida; Hannachi, Naila; Bouguila, Jihene; Orth-Höller, Dorothea; Bouhlel, Amira; Boughamoura, Lamia; Hetzer, Benjamin; Borena, Wegene; Schiela, Britta; Von Laer, Dorothee; Boukadida, Jalel; Stoiber, Heribert

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify a broad spectrum of respiratory pathogens from hospitalized and not-preselected children with acute respiratory tract infections in the Farhat Hached University-hospital of Sousse, Tunisia. Between September 2013 and December 2014, samples from 372 children aged between 1 month and 5 years were collected, and tested using multiplex real-time RT-PCR by a commercial assay for 21 respiratory pathogens. In addition, samples were screened for the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae 16S rDNA using real-time PCR. The viral distribution and its association with clinical symptoms were statistically analyzed. Viral pathogens were detected in 342 (91.93%) of the samples of which 28.76% were single positive and 63.17% had multiple infections. The most frequent detected viruses were rhinovirus (55.64%), respiratory syncytial virus A/B (33.06%), adenovirus (25.00%), coronavirus NL63, HKU1, OC43, and 229E (21.50%), and metapneumovirus A/B (16.12%). Children in the youngest age group (1-3 months) exhibited the highest frequencies of infection. Related to their frequency of detection, RSV A/B was the most associated pathogen with patient's demographic situation and clinical manifestations (p<0.05). Parainfluenza virus 1-4 and parechovirus were found to increase the risk of death (p<0.05). Adenovirus was statistically associated to the manifestation of gastroenteritis (p = 0.004). Rhinovirus infection increases the duration of oxygen support (p = 0.042). Coronavirus group was statistically associated with the manifestation of bronchiolitis (p = 0.009) and laryngitis (p = 0.017). Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA was detected in 143 (38.44%) of tested samples. However, only 53 samples had a concentration of C-reactive protein from equal to higher than 20 milligrams per liter, and 6 of them were single positive for Streptocuccus pneumoniae. This study confirms the high incidence of respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute respiratory tract

  11. Reconstructing the Holocene depositional environments along the northern coast of Sfax (Tunisia): Mineralogical and sedimentological approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamourou, Ali; Touir, Jamel; Fagel, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    A sedimentological and mineralogical study of sedimentary cores allowed reconstructing the evolution of depositional environments along the Northern coast of Sfax (Tunisia). The aim of this research work is to identify the factors controlling the sedimentation from the Holocene to the Present time. Three 30-m sediment cores collected by drilling at 30 m water depth were analyzed for their color, magnetic susceptibility signal, grain size by laser diffraction, organic matter content by loss of ignition, carbonate content by calcimetry and mineralogy by X-ray diffraction on bulk powder and clay <2 μm. They broadly present the same sedimentological and mineralogical features. Microscopical observations of petrographic slides allowed identifying six main sedimentary facies. Bulk mineralogical assemblages comprised clay minerals, quartz, calcite, gypsum and K-feldspars were examined. Considerable change was observed in the carbonate content that mimicked the bioclaste abundance and diluted the detrital minerals (clay minerals, quartz and feldspars). The gypsum mainly occurred in the lower sedimentary columns (SC12 and SC9) and in the upper/middle of core SC6. The clay fraction was made of a mixture of kaolinite, illite, smectite and palygorskite with no clear variation through core depth. Both grain-size parameters and magnetic susceptibility profile showed a sharp transition in the upper 2-5 m of the sedimentological columns. Coarse, sandy to gravely sediments characterized by a low magnetic susceptibility signal were replaced by fine bioclastic-rich clayey sediments. The analysis of vertical succession of depositional facies revealed a fluvial depositional environment (coastal plain) basically marked by fluvial channels and inundation plains at the bottom of all cores. However, core-top sediments recorded a littoral marine environment with sand depositions rich in gastropods, lamellibranches and algæ. Depositional facies, sedimentological and mineralogical

  12. Urban watershed modeling in Seattle, Washington using VELMA – a spatially explicit ecohydrological watershed model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban watersheds are notoriously difficult to model due to their complex, small-scale combinations of landscape and land use characteristics including impervious surfaces that ultimately affect the hydrologic system. We utilized EPA’s Visualizing Ecosystem Land Management A...

  13. Watershed Effects on Streamflow Quantity and Quality in Six Watersheds of Gwinnett County, Georgia

    Landers, Mark N.; Ankcorn, Paul D.; McFadden, Keith W.

    2007-01-01

    Watershed management is critical for the protection and enhancement of streams that provide multiple benefits for Gwinnett County, Georgia, and downstream communities. Successful watershed management requires an understanding of how stream quality is affected by watershed characteristics. The influence of watershed characteristics on stream quality is complex, particularly for the nonpoint sources of pollutants that affect urban watersheds. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Gwinnett County Department of Water Resources (formerly known as Public Utilities), established a water-quality monitoring program during late 1996 to collect comprehensive, consistent, high-quality data for use by watershed managers. Between 1996 and 2003, more than 10,000 analyses were made for more than 430 water-quality samples. Continuous-flow and water-quality data have been collected since 1998. Loads have been computed for selected constituents from 1998 to 2003. Changing stream hydrology is a primary driver for many other water-quality and aquatic habitat effects. Primary factors affecting stream hydrology (after watershed size and climate) within Gwinnett County are watershed slope and land uses. For the six study watersheds in Gwinnett County, watershedwide imperviousness up to 12 percent does not have a well-defined influence on stream hydrology, whereas two watersheds with 21- and 35-percent impervious area are clearly impacted. In the stream corridor, however, imperviousness from 1.6 to 4.4 percent appears to affect baseflow and stormflow for all six watersheds. Relations of concentrations to discharge are used to develop regression models to compute constituent loads using the USGS LOAD ESTimator model. A unique method developed in this study is used to calibrate the model using separate baseflow and stormflow sample datasets. The method reduced model error and provided estimates of the load associated with the baseflow and stormflow parts of the hydrograph

  14. Watershed Characteristics and Land Management in the Nonpoint-Source Evaluation Monitoring Watersheds in Wisconsin

    Rappold, K.F.; Wierl, J.A.; Amerson, F.U.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, began a land-use inventory to identify sources of contaminants and track the land-management changes for eight evaluation monitoring watersheds in Wisconsin. An important component of the land-use inventory has been developing descriptions and preliminary assessments for the eight watersheds. These descriptions establish a baseline for future data analysis. The watershed descriptions include sections on location, reference watersheds, climate, land use, soils and topography, and surface-water resources. The land-management descriptions include sections on objectives, sources of nonpoint contamination and goals of contaminant reduction, and implementation of best-management practices. This information was compiled primarily from the nonpoint-source control plans, county soil surveys, farm conservation plans, Federal and State agency data reports, and data collected through the land-use inventory.

  15. Spectral Measurement of Watershed Coefficients in the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J. (Principal Investigator); Bausch, W.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was apparent that the spectra calibration of runoff curve numbers cannot be achieved on watersheds where significant areas of timber were within the drainage area. The absorption of light by wet soil conditions restricts differentiation of watersheds with regard to watershed runoff curve numbers. It appeared that the predominant factor influencing the classification of watershed runoff curve numbers was the difference in soil color and its associated reflectance when dry. In regions where vegetation grown throughout the year, where wet surface conditions prevail or where watersheds are timbered, there is little hope of classifying runoff potential with visible light alone.

  16. How will climate change affect watershed mercury export in a representative Coastal Plain watershed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, H. E.; Knightes, C. D.; Conrads, P. A.; Feaster, T.; Davis, G. M.; Benedict, S. T.; Bradley, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    Future climate change is expected to drive variations in watershed hydrological processes and water quality across a wide range of physiographic provinces, ecosystems, and spatial scales. How such shifts in climatic conditions will impact watershed mercury (Hg) dynamics and hydrologically-driven Hg transport is a significant concern. We simulate the responses of watershed hydrological and total Hg (HgT) fluxes and concentrations to a unified set of past and future climate change projections in a Coastal Plain basin using multiple watershed models. We use two statistically downscaled global precipitation and temperature models, ECHO, a hybrid of the ECHAM4 and HOPE-G models, and the Community Climate System Model (CCSM3) across two thirty-year simulations (1980 to 2010 and 2040 to 2070). We apply three watershed models to quantify and bracket potential changes in hydrologic and HgT fluxes, including the Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessment Model for Hg (VELMA-Hg), the Grid Based Mercury Model (GBMM), and TOPLOAD, a water quality constituent model linked to TOPMODEL hydrological simulations. We estimate a decrease in average annual HgT fluxes in response to climate change using the ECHO projections and an increase with the CCSM3 projections in the study watershed. Average monthly HgT fluxes increase using both climate change projections between in the late spring (March through May), when HgT concentrations and flow are high. Results suggest that hydrological transport associated with changes in precipitation and temperature is the primary mechanism driving HgT flux response to climate change. Our multiple model/multiple projection approach allows us to bracket the relative response of HgT fluxes to climate change, thereby illustrating the uncertainty associated with the projections. In addition, our approach allows us to examine potential variations in climate change-driven water and HgT export based on different conceptualizations of watershed Hg

  17. ORD’s Urban Watershed Management Branch

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a poster for the Edison Science Day, tentatively scheduled for June 10, 2009. This poster presentation summarizes key elements of the EPA Office of Research and Development’s (ORD) Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB). An overview of the national problems posed by w...

  18. LINKING WATERSHED MANAGEMENT WITH STREAM ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reducing the loading of ’stressors‚ (pollutants) from watershed lands to streams and lakes is the concern of a broad range of environmental stakeholders—including local and state governments, utilities, farm collectives, construction firms—and even homeowners. Their adoption of E...

  19. Improving southwestern riparian areas through watershed management

    Leonard F. DeBano; Larry J. Schmidt

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews opportunities and watershed restoration techniques available for rehabilitating and enhancing riparian ecosystems in southwest environments. As such, it is intended to serve as a state-of-the-art report on riparian hydrology and improvement in both naturally occurring and man-made riparian areas throughout the Southwest.

  20. Cumulative watershed effects: Caspar Creek and beyond

    Leslie M. Reid

    1998-01-01

    Cumulative effects are the combined effects of multiple activities, and watershed effects are those which involve processes of water transport. Almost all impacts are influenced by multiple activities, so almost all impacts must be evaluated as cumulative impacts rather than as individual impacts. Existing definitions suggest that to be significant, an impact must be...