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Sample records for zeste maintains repression

  1. A repressive role of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 in 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 expression in the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Rujuan; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Wangsheng; Li, Wenjiao; Ying, Hao; Sun, Kang

    2017-05-05

    The expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which acts as a placental glucocorticoid barrier, is silenced in cytotrophoblasts but substantially up-regulated during syncytialization. However, the repressive mechanism of 11β-HSD2 expression before syncytialization and how this repression is lifted during syncytialization remain mostly unresolved. Here we found that enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) accounts for the silence of 11β-HSD2 expression via trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 at the promoter of the 11β-HSD2 gene. Further studies revealed that, upon syncytialization, human chorionic gonadotropin reduced the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRB) via activation of the cAMP/PKA pathway, which sequesters E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1), the transcription factor for EZH2 expression. As a result of inactivation of the pRB-E2F1-EZH2 pathway, the repressive marker trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 at the 11β-HSD2 promoter is removed, which leads to the robust expression of 11β-HSD2 during syncytialization. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. PAX6 maintains β cell identity by repressing genes of alternative islet cell types.

    PubMed

    Swisa, Avital; Avrahami, Dana; Eden, Noa; Zhang, Jia; Feleke, Eseye; Dahan, Tehila; Cohen-Tayar, Yamit; Stolovich-Rain, Miri; Kaestner, Klaus H; Glaser, Benjamin; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Dor, Yuval

    2017-01-03

    Type 2 diabetes is thought to involve a compromised β cell differentiation state, but the mechanisms underlying this dysfunction remain unclear. Here, we report a key role for the TF PAX6 in the maintenance of adult β cell identity and function. PAX6 was downregulated in β cells of diabetic db/db mice and in WT mice treated with an insulin receptor antagonist, revealing metabolic control of expression. Deletion of Pax6 in β cells of adult mice led to lethal hyperglycemia and ketosis that were attributed to loss of β cell function and expansion of α cells. Lineage-tracing, transcriptome, and chromatin analyses showed that PAX6 is a direct activator of β cell genes, thus maintaining mature β cell function and identity. In parallel, we found that PAX6 binds promoters and enhancers to repress alternative islet cell genes including ghrelin, glucagon, and somatostatin. Chromatin analysis and shRNA-mediated gene suppression experiments indicated a similar function of PAX6 in human β cells. We conclude that reduced expression of PAX6 in metabolically stressed β cells may contribute to β cell failure and α cell dysfunction in diabetes.

  3. PAX6 maintains β cell identity by repressing genes of alternative islet cell types

    PubMed Central

    Swisa, Avital; Avrahami, Dana; Eden, Noa; Zhang, Jia; Feleke, Eseye; Dahan, Tehila; Cohen-Tayar, Yamit; Stolovich-Rain, Miri; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Glaser, Benjamin; Ashery-Padan, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is thought to involve a compromised β cell differentiation state, but the mechanisms underlying this dysfunction remain unclear. Here, we report a key role for the TF PAX6 in the maintenance of adult β cell identity and function. PAX6 was downregulated in β cells of diabetic db/db mice and in WT mice treated with an insulin receptor antagonist, revealing metabolic control of expression. Deletion of Pax6 in β cells of adult mice led to lethal hyperglycemia and ketosis that were attributed to loss of β cell function and expansion of α cells. Lineage-tracing, transcriptome, and chromatin analyses showed that PAX6 is a direct activator of β cell genes, thus maintaining mature β cell function and identity. In parallel, we found that PAX6 binds promoters and enhancers to repress alternative islet cell genes including ghrelin, glucagon, and somatostatin. Chromatin analysis and shRNA-mediated gene suppression experiments indicated a similar function of PAX6 in human β cells. We conclude that reduced expression of PAX6 in metabolically stressed β cells may contribute to β cell failure and α cell dysfunction in diabetes. PMID:27941241

  4. SUN2 Modulates HIV-1 Infection and Latency through Association with Lamin A/C To Maintain the Repressive Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-Wei; Jiao, Shi; Sun, Li; Zhou, Zhaocai; Jin, Xia; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2018-05-01

    The postintegrational latency of HIV-1 is characterized by reversible silencing of long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven transcription of the HIV genome. It is known that the formation of repressive chromatin at the 5'-LTR of HIV-1 proviral DNA impedes viral transcription by blocking the recruitment of positive transcription factors. How the repressive chromatin is formed and modulated during HIV-1 infection remains elusive. Elucidation of which chromatin reassembly factor mediates the reorganization of chromatin is likely to facilitate the understanding of the host's modulation of HIV-1 transcription and latency. Here we revealed that "Sad1 and UNC84 domain containing 2" (SUN2), an inner nuclear membrane protein, maintained the repressive chromatin and inhibited HIV LTR-driven transcription of proviral DNA through an association with lamin A/C. Specifically, lamin A/C tethered SUN2 to the nucleosomes 1 and 2 of the HIV-1 5'-LTR to block the initiation and elongation of HIV-1 transcription. SUN2 knockdown converted chromatin to an active form and thus enhanced the phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II and its recruitment to the 5'-LTR HIV-1 proviral DNA, leading to reactivation of HIV-1 from latency. Conversely, the exogenous factors such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) induced reactivation, and the replication of HIV-1 led to the disassociation between SUN2 and lamin A/C, suggesting that disruption of the association between SUN2 and lamin A/C to convert the repressive chromatin to the active form might be a prerequisite for the initiation of HIV-1 transcription and replication. Together, our findings indicate that SUN2 is a novel chromatin reassembly factor that helps to maintain chromatin in a repressive state and consequently inhibits HIV-1 transcription. IMPORTANCE Despite the successful use of scores of antiretroviral drugs, HIV latency poses a major impediment to virus eradication. Elucidation of the mechanism of latency facilitates the discovery of new

  5. Ski co-repressor complexes maintain the basal repressed state of the TGF-beta target gene, SMAD7, via HDAC3 and PRMT5.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Takanori; Kokura, Kenji; Ten Dijke, Peter; Ishii, Shunsuke

    2009-01-01

    The products encoded by ski and its related gene, sno, (Ski and Sno) act as transcriptional co-repressors and interact with other co-repressors such as N-CoR/SMRT and mSin3A. Ski and Sno mediate transcriptional repression by various repressors, including Mad, Rb and Gli3. Ski/Sno also suppress transcription induced by multiple activators, such as Smads and c-Myb. In particular, the inhibition of TGF-beta-induced transcription by binding to Smads is correlated with the oncogenic activity of Ski and Sno. However, the molecular mechanism by which Ski and Sno mediate transcriptional repression remains unknown. In this study, we report the purification and characterization of Ski complexes. The Ski complexes purified from HeLa cells contained histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) and protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), in addition to multiple Smad proteins (Smad2, Smad3 and Smad4). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that these components of the Ski complexes were localized on the SMAD7 gene promoter, which is the TGF-beta target gene, in TGF-beta-untreated HepG2 cells. Knockdown of these components using siRNA led to up-regulation of SMAD7 mRNA. These results indicate that Ski complexes serve to maintain a TGF-beta-responsive promoter at a repressed basal level via the activities of histone deacetylase and histone arginine methyltransferase.

  6. Persistent Pain Maintains Morphine-Seeking Behavior after Morphine Withdrawal through Reduced MeCP2 Repression of Glua1 in Rat Central Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yuan-Yuan; Cai, You-Qing

    2015-01-01

    As long-term opioids are increasingly used for control of chronic pain, how pain affects the rewarding effect of opioids and hence risk of prescription opioid misuse and abuse remains a healthcare concern and a challenging issue in current pain management. In this study, using a rat model of morphine self-administration, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the impact of pain on operant behavior of morphine intake and morphine seeking before and after morphine withdrawal. We found that rats with persistent pain consumed a similar amount of daily morphine to that in control rats without pain, but maintained their level-pressing behavior of morphine seeking after abstinence of morphine at 0.2 mg/kg, whereas this behavior was gradually diminished in control rats. In the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), a limbic structure critically involved in the affective dimension of pain, proteins of GluA1 subunits of glutamate AMPA receptors were upregulated during morphine withdrawal, and viral knockdown of CeA GluA1 eliminated the morphine-seeking behavior in withdrawn rats of the pain group. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that the methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) was enriched in the promoter region of Gria1 encoding GluA1 and this enrichment was significantly attenuated in withdrawn rats of the pain group. Furthermore, viral overexpression of CeA MeCP2 repressed the GluA1 level and eliminated the maintenance of morphine-seeking behavior after morphine withdrawal. These results suggest direct MeCp2 repression of GluA1 function as a likely mechanism for morphine-seeking behavior maintained by long-lasting affective pain after morphine withdrawal. PMID:25716866

  7. Protein arginine methyltransferase 7-mediated microRNA-221 repression maintains Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2 levels in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsai-Yu; Lee, Sung-Hun; Dhar, Shilpa S; Lee, Min Gyu

    2018-03-16

    The stemness maintenance of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) requires pluripotency transcription factors, including Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2. We have previously reported that protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7), an epigenetic modifier, is an essential pluripotency factor that maintains the stemness of mouse ESCs, at least in part, by down-regulating the expression of the anti-stemness microRNA (miRNA) miR-24-2. To gain greater insight into the molecular basis underlying PRMT7-mediated maintenance of mouse ESC stemness, we searched for new PRMT7-down-regulated anti-stemness miRNAs. Here, we show that miR-221 gene-encoded miR-221-3p and miR-221-5p are anti-stemness miRNAs whose expression levels in mouse ESCs are directly repressed by PRMT7. Notably, both miR-221-3p and miR-221-5p targeted the 3' untranslated regions of mRNA transcripts of the major pluripotency factors Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2 to antagonize mouse ESC stemness. Moreover, miR-221-5p silenced also the expression of its own transcriptional repressor PRMT7. Transfection of miR-221-3p and miR-221-5p mimics induced spontaneous differentiation of mouse ESCs. CRISPR-mediated deletion of the miR-221 gene, as well as specific antisense inhibitors of miR-221-3p and miR-221-5p, inhibited the spontaneous differentiation of PRMT7-depleted mouse ESCs. Taken together, these findings reveal that the PRMT7-mediated repression of miR-221-3p and miR-221-5p expression plays a critical role in maintaining mouse ESC stemness. Our results also establish miR-221-3p and miR-221-5p as anti-stemness miRNAs that target Oct4 , Nanog , and Sox2 mRNAs in mouse ESCs. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Spermine oxidase maintains basal skeletal muscle gene expression and fiber size and is strongly repressed by conditions that cause skeletal muscle atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Bongers, Kale S.; Fox, Daniel K.; Kunkel, Steven D.; Stebounova, Larissa V.; Murry, Daryl J.; Pufall, Miles A.; Ebert, Scott M.; Dyle, Michael C.; Bullard, Steven A.; Dierdorff, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that remains poorly understood at the molecular level. To better understand the mechanisms of muscle atrophy, we used mouse models to search for a skeletal muscle protein that helps to maintain muscle mass and is specifically lost during muscle atrophy. We discovered that diverse causes of muscle atrophy (limb immobilization, fasting, muscle denervation, and aging) strongly reduced expression of the enzyme spermine oxidase. Importantly, a reduction in spermine oxidase was sufficient to induce muscle fiber atrophy. Conversely, forced expression of spermine oxidase increased muscle fiber size in multiple models of muscle atrophy (immobilization, fasting, and denervation). Interestingly, the reduction of spermine oxidase during muscle atrophy was mediated by p21, a protein that is highly induced during muscle atrophy and actively promotes muscle atrophy. In addition, we found that spermine oxidase decreased skeletal muscle mRNAs that promote muscle atrophy (e.g., myogenin) and increased mRNAs that help to maintain muscle mass (e.g., mitofusin-2). Thus, in healthy skeletal muscle, a relatively low level of p21 permits expression of spermine oxidase, which helps to maintain basal muscle gene expression and fiber size; conversely, during conditions that cause muscle atrophy, p21 expression rises, leading to reduced spermine oxidase expression, disruption of basal muscle gene expression, and muscle fiber atrophy. Collectively, these results identify spermine oxidase as an important positive regulator of muscle gene expression and fiber size, and elucidate p21-mediated repression of spermine oxidase as a key step in the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:25406264

  9. The Reg1-interacting proteins, Bmh1, Bmh2, Ssb1, and Ssb2, have roles in maintaining glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Dombek, Kenneth M; Kacherovsky, Nataly; Young, Elton T

    2004-09-10

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a type 1 protein phosphatase complex composed of the Glc7 catalytic subunit and the Reg1 regulatory subunit represses expression of many glucose-regulated genes. Here we show that the Reg1-interacting proteins Bmh1, Bmh2, Ssb1, and Ssb2 have roles in glucose repression. Deleting both BMH genes causes partially constitutive ADH2 expression without significantly increasing the level of Adr1 protein, the major activator of ADH2 expression. Adr1 and Bcy1, the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, are both required for this effect indicating that constitutive expression in Deltabmh1Deltabmh2 cells uses the same activation pathway that operates in Deltareg1 cells. Deletion of both BMH genes and REG1 causes a synergistic relief from repression, suggesting that Bmh proteins also act independently of Reg1 during glucose repression. A two-hybrid interaction with the Bmh proteins was mapped to amino acids 187-232, a region of Reg1 that is conserved in different classes of fungi. Deleting this region partially releases SUC2 from glucose repression. This indicates a role for the Reg1-Bmh interaction in glucose repression and also suggests a broad role for Bmh proteins in this process. An in vivo Reg1-Bmh interaction was confirmed by copurification of Bmh proteins with HA(3)-TAP-tagged Reg1. The nonconventional heat shock proteins Ssb1 and Ssb2 are also copurified with HA(3)-TAP-tagged Reg1. Deletion of both SSB genes modestly decreases repression of ADH2 expression in the presence of glucose, suggesting that Ssb proteins, perhaps through their interaction with Reg1, play a minor role in glucose repression.

  10. Repression of Middle Sporulation Genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the Sum1-Rfm1-Hst1 Complex Is Maintained by Set1 and H3K4 Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Deepika; Jezek, Meagan; Quijote, Jeremiah; Lum, Joanna; Choi, Grace; Kulkarni, Rushmie; Park, DoHwan; Green, Erin M.

    2017-01-01

    The conserved yeast histone methyltransferase Set1 targets H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) for mono, di, and trimethylation and is linked to active transcription due to the euchromatic distribution of these methyl marks and the recruitment of Set1 during transcription. However, loss of Set1 results in increased expression of multiple classes of genes, including genes adjacent to telomeres and middle sporulation genes, which are repressed under normal growth conditions because they function in meiotic progression and spore formation. The mechanisms underlying Set1-mediated gene repression are varied, and still unclear in some cases, although repression has been linked to both direct and indirect action of Set1, associated with noncoding transcription, and is often dependent on the H3K4me2 mark. We show that Set1, and particularly the H3K4me2 mark, are implicated in repression of a subset of middle sporulation genes during vegetative growth. In the absence of Set1, there is loss of the DNA-binding transcriptional regulator Sum1 and the associated histone deacetylase Hst1 from chromatin in a locus-specific manner. This is linked to increased H4K5ac at these loci and aberrant middle gene expression. These data indicate that, in addition to DNA sequence, histone modification status also contributes to proper localization of Sum1. Our results also show that the role for Set1 in middle gene expression control diverges as cells receive signals to undergo meiosis. Overall, this work dissects an unexplored role for Set1 in gene-specific repression, and provides important insights into a new mechanism associated with the control of gene expression linked to meiotic differentiation. PMID:29066473

  11. The role of enhancer of zeste homolog 2: From viral epigenetics to the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Luca; Marchesi, Irene; Melone, Mariarosa A B; Bagella, Luigi

    2018-03-25

    Nowadays, epigenetics covers a crucial role in different fields of science. The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), the catalytic subunit of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), is a big proponent of how epigenetic changes can affect the initiation and progression of several diseases. Through its catalytic activity, responsible for the tri-methylation of lysine 27 of the histone H3 (H3K27me3), EZH2 is a good target for both diagnosis and therapy of different pathologies. A large number of studies have demonstrated its crucial role in cancer initiation and progression. Nevertheless, only recently its function in virus diseases has been uncovered; therefore, EZH2 can be an important promoter of viral carcinogenesis. This review explores the role of EZH2 in viral epigenetics based on recent progress that demonstrated the role of this protein in virus environment. In particular, the review focuses on EZH2 behavior in Hepatitis B Virus, analyzing its role in the rise of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Enhancer of zeste acts as a major developmental regulator of Ciona intestinalis embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Le Goff, Emilie; Martinand-Mari, Camille; Martin, Marianne; Feuillard, Jérôme; Boublik, Yvan; Godefroy, Nelly; Mangeat, Paul; Baghdiguian, Stephen; Cavalli, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The paradigm of developmental regulation by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins posits that they maintain silencing outside the spatial expression domains of their target genes, particularly of Hox genes, starting from mid embryogenesis. The Enhancer of zeste [E(z)] PcG protein is the catalytic subunit of the PRC2 complex, which silences its targets via deposition of the H3K27me3 mark. Here, we studied the ascidian Ciona intestinalis counterpart of E(z). Ci-E(z) is detected by immunohistochemistry as soon as the 2- and 4-cell stages as a cytoplasmic form and becomes exclusively nuclear thereafter, whereas the H3K27me3 mark is detected starting from the gastrula stage and later. Morpholino invalidation of Ci-E(z) leads to the total disappearance of both Ci-E(z) protein and its H3K27me3 mark. Ci-E(z) morphants display a severe phenotype. Strikingly, the earliest defects occur at the 4-cell stage with the dysregulation of cell positioning and mitotic impairment. At later stages, Ci-E(z)-deficient embryos are affected by terminal differentiation defects of neural, epidermal and muscle tissues, by the failure to form a notochord and by the absence of caudal nerve. These major phenotypic defects are specifically rescued by injection of a morpholino-resistant Ci-E(z) mRNA, which restores expression of Ci-E(z) protein and re-deposition of the H3K27me3 mark. As observed by qPCR analyses, Ci-E(z) invalidation leads to the early derepression of tissue-specific developmental genes, whereas late-acting developmental genes are generally down-regulated. Altogether, our results suggest that Ci-E(z) plays a major role during embryonic development in Ciona intestinalis by silencing early-acting developmental genes in a Hox-independent manner. PMID:26276097

  13. Enhancer of zeste homologue 2 plays an important role in neuroblastoma cell survival independent of its histone methyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Bate-Eya, Laurel T; Gierman, Hinco J; Ebus, Marli E; Koster, Jan; Caron, Huib N; Versteeg, Rogier; Dolman, M Emmy M; Molenaar, Jan J

    2017-04-01

    Neuroblastoma is predominantly characterised by chromosomal rearrangements. Next to V-Myc Avian Myelocytomatosis Viral Oncogene Neuroblastoma Derived Homolog (MYCN) amplification, chromosome 7 and 17q gains are frequently observed. We identified a neuroblastoma patient with a regional 7q36 gain, encompassing the enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) gene. EZH2 is the histone methyltransferase of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) that forms the catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2. H3K27me3 is commonly associated with the silencing of genes involved in cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation, cellular differentiation and cancer. High EZH2 expression correlated with poor prognosis and overall survival independent of MYCN amplification status. Unexpectedly, treatment of 3 EZH2-high expressing neuroblastoma cell lines (IMR32, CHP134 and NMB), with EZH2-specific inhibitors (GSK126 and EPZ6438) resulted in only a slight G1 arrest, despite maximum histone methyltransferase activity inhibition. Furthermore, colony formation in cell lines treated with the inhibitors was reduced only at concentrations much higher than necessary for complete inhibition of EZH2 histone methyltransferase activity. Knockdown of the complete protein with three independent shRNAs resulted in a strong apoptotic response and decreased cyclin D1 levels. This apoptotic response could be rescued by overexpressing EZH2ΔSET, a truncated form of wild-type EZH2 lacking the SET transactivation domain necessary for histone methyltransferase activity. Our findings suggest that high EZH2 expression, at least in neuroblastoma, has a survival function independent of its methyltransferase activity. This important finding highlights the need for studies on EZH2 beyond its methyltransferase function and the requirement for compounds that will target EZH2 as a complete protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mind full of life: Does mindfulness confer resilience to suicide by increasing zest for life?

    PubMed

    Collins, Khan R L; Stritzke, Werner G K; Page, Andrew C; Brown, Julia D; Wylde, Tricia J

    2018-01-15

    Mindfulness is a trainable skill that may enhance resilience to suicidality among vulnerable groups such as young people. The current study examined whether mindfulness protects against suicidal desire in the face of heightened risk and adversity by increasing zest for life in a sample of university students. In a prospective design, participants (N = 233) were assessed at two time points over eight weeks. Online surveys included the Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale, Zest for Life Scale, Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, and items assessing suicidal ideation and suicidal intent. Baseline mindfulness was associated with lower suicidal ideation and intent at follow-up. Moderated mediation analyses confirmed the effects of mindfulness on ideation and intent were mediated by zest for life and these indirect effects were stronger at higher versus lower levels of general (psychological distress) and suicide-specific (perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness) risk. Single item assessments of suicidal desire. Findings suggest that mindfulness protects against suicidal desire in conditions of heightened risk and adversity by enhancing one's orientation towards a life worth living. Theories of suicide should consider the dynamic interplay between risk and life-sustaining resilience, while clinicians treating suicidality could use mindfulness strategies to strengthen the desire to (re)engage with life, thereby complementing direct amelioration of suicide risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of the protein kinase activity of Shaggy(Zeste-white3) by components of the wingless pathway in Drosophila cells and embryos.

    PubMed

    Ruel, L; Stambolic, V; Ali, A; Manoukian, A S; Woodgett, J R

    1999-07-30

    The protein-serine kinase Shaggy(Zeste-white3) (Sgg(Zw3)) is the Drosophila homolog of mammalian glycogen synthase kinase-3 and has been genetically implicated in signal transduction pathways necessary for the establishment of patterning. Sgg(Zw3) is a putative component of the Wingless (Wg) pathway, and epistasis analyses suggest that Sgg(Zw3) function is repressed by Wg signaling. Here, we have investigated the biochemical consequences of Wg signaling with respect to the Sgg(Zw3) protein kinase in two types of Drosophila cell lines and in embryos. Our results demonstrate that Sgg(Zw3) activity is inhibited following exposure of cells to Wg protein and by expression of downstream components of Wg signaling, Drosophila frizzled 2 and dishevelled. Wg-dependent inactivation of Sgg(Zw3) is accompanied by serine phosphorylation. We also show that the level of Sgg(Zw3) activity regulates the stability of Armadillo protein and modulates the level of phosphorylation of D-Axin and Armadillo. Together, these results provide direct biochemical evidence in support of the genetic model of Wg signaling and provide a model for dissecting the molecular interactions between the signaling proteins.

  16. Additional sex combs interacts with enhancer of zeste and trithorax and modulates levels of trimethylation on histone H3K4 and H3K27 during transcription of hsp70.

    PubMed

    Li, Taosui; Hodgson, Jacob W; Petruk, Svetlana; Mazo, Alexander; Brock, Hugh W

    2017-09-19

    Maintenance of cell fate determination requires the Polycomb group for repression; the trithorax group for gene activation; and the enhancer of trithorax and Polycomb (ETP) group for both repression and activation. Additional sex combs (Asx) is a genetically identified ETP for the Hox loci, but the molecular basis of its dual function is unclear. We show that in vitro, Asx binds directly to the SET domains of the histone methyltransferases (HMT) enhancer of zeste [E(z)] (H3K27me3) and Trx (H3K4me3) through a bipartite interaction site separated by 846 amino acid residues. In Drosophila S2 cell nuclei, Asx interacts with E(z) and Trx in vivo. Drosophila Asx is required for repression of heat-shock gene hsp70 and is recruited downstream of the hsp70 promoter. Changes in the levels of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 downstream of the hsp70 promoter in Asx mutants relative to wild type show that Asx regulates H3K4 and H3K27 trimethylation. We propose that during transcription Asx modulates the ratio of H3K4me3 to H3K27me3 by selectively recruiting the antagonistic HMTs, E(z) and Trx or other nucleosome-modifying enzymes to hsp70.

  17. A Genetic Analysis of the Suppressor 2 of Zeste Complex of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C. T.; Howe, M.

    1995-01-01

    The zeste(1) (z(1)) mutation of Drosophila melanogaster produces a mutant yellow eye color instead of the wild-type red. Genetic and molecular data suggest that z(1) achieves this change by altering expression of the wild-type white gene in a manner that exhibits transvection effects. There exist suppressor and enhancer mutations that modify the z(1) eye color, and this paper summarizes our studies of those belonging to the Suppressor 2 of zeste complex [Su(z)2-C]. The Su(z)2-C consists of at least three subregions called Psc (Posterior sex combs), Su(z)2 and Su(z)2D (Distal). The products of these subregions are proposed to act at the level of chromatin. Complementation analyses predict that the products are functionally similar and interacting. The alleles of Psc define two overlapping phenotypic classes, the hopeful and hapless. The distinctions between these two classes and the intragenic complementation seen among some of the Psc alleles are consistent with a multidomain structure for the product of Psc. Psc is a member of the homeotic Polycomb group of genes. A general discussion of the Polycomb and trithorax group of genes, position-effect variegation, transvection, chromosome pairing and chromatin structure is presented. PMID:7635282

  18. Academic Optimism, Hope and Zest for Work as Predictors of Teacher Self-Efficacy and Perceived Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezgin, Ferudun; Erdogan, Onur

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the predictive influence of primary school teachers' academic optimism, hope and zest for work on perceptions of their self-efficacy and success. A total of 600 teachers were selected through stratified sampling from 27 primary schools in central districts of Ankara, Turkey, to form the research sample. Intervariable…

  19. NFIB-mediated repression of the epigenetic factor Ezh2 regulates cortical development.

    PubMed

    Piper, Michael; Barry, Guy; Harvey, Tracey J; McLeay, Robert; Smith, Aaron G; Harris, Lachlan; Mason, Sharon; Stringer, Brett W; Day, Bryan W; Wray, Naomi R; Gronostajski, Richard M; Bailey, Timothy L; Boyd, Andrew W; Richards, Linda J

    2014-02-19

    Epigenetic mechanisms are essential in regulating neural progenitor cell self-renewal, with the chromatin-modifying protein Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) emerging as a central player in promoting progenitor cell self-renewal during cortical development. Despite this, how Ezh2 is itself regulated remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the transcription factor nuclear factor IB (NFIB) plays a key role in this process. Nfib(-/-) mice exhibit an increased number of proliferative ventricular zone cells that express progenitor cell markers and upregulation of EZH2 expression within the neocortex and hippocampus. NFIB binds to the Ezh2 promoter and overexpression of NFIB represses Ezh2 transcription. Finally, key downstream targets of EZH2-mediated epigenetic repression are misregulated in Nfib(-/-) mice. Collectively, these results suggest that the downregulation of Ezh2 transcription by NFIB is an important component of the process of neural progenitor cell differentiation during cortical development.

  20. Age-related associations between work over-commitment and zest for work among Swedish employees from a cross-sectional and longitudinal perspective.

    PubMed

    Runeson-Broberg, Roma; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Westerholm, Peter; Nordin, Maria; Knutsson, Anders; Alfredsson, Lars; Fahlén, Göran; Peter, Richard

    2017-01-01

    In aging societies, zest for work may be pivotal when deciding to stay occupationally active longer. Psychosocial work stress is a prevalent public health problem and may have an impact on zest for work. Work over-commitment (WOC) is a personal coping strategy for work stress with excessive striving and a health risk. However, the long-term effect of WOC on zest for work is poorly understood. To investigate the age-related associations of work over-commitment with zest for work. During 1996-1998 and 2000-2003, predominantly industrial workers (n = 2940) participated in the WOLF-Norrland study and responded to a questionnaire referring to socio-demographics, WOC, zest for work, effort-reward imbalance proxies, and mental health. Age-adjusted multiple logistic regressions were performed with original and imputed datasets. Cross-sectionally, work overcommitted middle-aged employees had an increased prevalence of poor zest for work compared to their contemporaries without WOC (OR: 3.74 [95%-CI 2.19; 6.40]). However, in a longitudinal analysis associations between onset of 'poor zest for work' and the WOC subscales 'need for approval' (OR: 3.29 [95%-CI 1.04; 10.37]) and 'inability to withdraw from work' (OR: 5.14 [95%-CI 1.32; 20.03]) were observed. The longitudinal findings among older employees could be relevant regarding the expected need to remain occupationally active longer.

  1. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 blockade by RNA interference is implicated with inhibited proliferation, invasion and promoted apoptosis in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Ai, Zhihong; Chen, Jing; Teng, Yincheng; Zhu, Jieping

    2018-06-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecological malignancy of the female genital tract worldwide (2012). Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a critical component of the polycomb repressive complex 2, has been found to be associated with multiple biological processes and is overexpressed in multiple types of cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated that EZH2 is associated with endometrial carcinoma. The present study investigated the expression and biology function of EZH2 in endometrial cancer (EC). It was found that EZH2 levels were markedly increased in endometrial cancer tissues compared with that in adjacent normal tissues. EZH2 was significantly overexpressed in 3 separate endometrial cancer cell lines (Ishikawa, RL95-2 and HEC1-A) when compared with the normal endometrial cell line ESC. Additionally, small interfering RNA was used to investigate the role of EZH2 in endometrial carcinoma cell proliferation, and the results showed that EZH2 knockdown suppressed the proliferation of endometrial carcinoma cells in vitro . Furthermore, EZH2 knockdown induced apoptosis of human EC cells by promoting the expression of pro-apoptosis protein caspase 3, caspase 9, BCL2 associated X and decreasing the expression of anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2. Finally, the present study demonstrated that EZH2 knockdown suppressed the invasion of EC cells through downregulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Collectively, these data demonstrate that EZH2 is frequently overexpressed in EC cells and its overexpression is associated with promoting the proliferation and invasion and decreasing the apoptosis of EC cells, suggesting that EZH2 may provide potential therapeutic targets for treatment of endometrial carcinoma.

  2. Yeast carbon catabolite repression.

    PubMed

    Gancedo, J M

    1998-06-01

    Glucose and related sugars repress the transcription of genes encoding enzymes required for the utilization of alternative carbon sources; some of these genes are also repressed by other sugars such as galactose, and the process is known as catabolite repression. The different sugars produce signals which modify the conformation of certain proteins that, in turn, directly or through a regulatory cascade affect the expression of the genes subject to catabolite repression. These genes are not all controlled by a single set of regulatory proteins, but there are different circuits of repression for different groups of genes. However, the protein kinase Snf1/Cat1 is shared by the various circuits and is therefore a central element in the regulatory process. Snf1 is not operative in the presence of glucose, and preliminary evidence suggests that Snf1 is in a dephosphorylated state under these conditions. However, the enzymes that phosphorylate and dephosphorylate Snf1 have not been identified, and it is not known how the presence of glucose may affect their activity. What has been established is that Snf1 remains active in mutants lacking either the proteins Grr1/Cat80 or Hxk2 or the Glc7 complex, which functions as a protein phosphatase. One of the main roles of Snf1 is to relieve repression by the Mig1 complex, but it is also required for the operation of transcription factors such as Adr1 and possibly other factors that are still unidentified. Although our knowledge of catabolite repression is still very incomplete, it is possible in certain cases to propose a partial model of the way in which the different elements involved in catabolite repression may be integrated.

  3. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 depletion arrests the proliferation of hepatoblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Xiao, Yongtao; Chen, Kai; Chen, Sheng; Zhang, Min; Wu, Zhixiang; Wu, Yeming

    2016-03-01

    Hepatoblastoma is the most common type of malignant liver tumor in children. While outcomes have been greatly improved in the past decades, the treatment of advanced hepatoblastoma has remained challenging. Enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2), a member of the polycomb group regulators of gene activity, is amplified and overexpressed in a variety of cancers. However, the role of EZH2 in hepatoblastoma has remained to be fully elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the expression patterns of EZH2 in hepatoblastoma cells and to assess the anti‑cancer effects of EZH2 depletion. Western blot analysis revealed that EZH2 expression was significantly higher in hepatoblastoma specimens compared with that in peri‑tumor tissues, while p27 was reduced in hepatoblastoma. Suppression of EHZ2 using lentiviral small hairpin RNA inhibited hepatoblastoma cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and enhanced the expression of G1/S‑phase checkpoint protein p27. These results suggested that EZH2 may represent a potential diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for the treatment of hepatoblastoma.

  4. The Interaction of Two Complex Loci, Zeste and Bithorax in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, T. C.; Tasaka, S. E.; Suzuki, D. T.

    1973-01-01

    It has been found that certain alleles of the zeste locus (za 1-1.0) have no phenotype of their own, but interact with certain alleles at the bithorax locus (bx 3-58.8). This interaction takes the form of an enhancement of the homeotic bx phenotype to a more extreme form—i.e., the metathorax is transformed into mesothorax in varying degrees depending on the bx allele used. This enhancement is somewhat reminiscent of the transvection effect described by Lewis (1954). The characterization of the interaction thus far has shown that the enhancement only effects bx alleles which arise spontaneously, whereas the origin of the za allele is unimportant. The gene claret nondisjunctional was used for the production of gynandromorphs which showed that the enhancing ability of za, like the eye pigment change caused by z, is autonomous. The enhancement of one specific allele (bx34e), which is temperature-sensitive, has allowed a delineation of the temperature-sensitive period of the bithorax locus to a period extending from the middle of the second larval instar to the middle of the third larval instar. These results, as well as those of other enhancer and suppressor systems in Drosophila, have revealed the possibility of the involvement of heterocyclic compounds in the control of cell determination and fate in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:4203579

  5. Prevalence of Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 in Patients with Resected Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Toyokawa, Gouji; Takada, Kazuki; Tagawa, Tetsuzo; Kinoshita, Fumihiko; Kozuma, Yuka; Matsubara, Taichi; Haratake, Naoki; Takamori, Shinkichi; Akamine, Takaki; Hirai, Fumihiko; Yamada, Yuichi; Hamamoto, Ryuji; Oda, Yoshinao; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2018-06-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a histone methyltransferase that is deeply involved in cancer pathogenesis. Although clinicopathological significance of EZH2 in non-small cell lung cancer has been gradually elucidated, such significance in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has yet to be fully investigated. Forty patients with resected SCLC were analyzed for EZH2. EZH2 expression was evaluated using the Allred score (0-8) and was classified into negative (0-6) and positive (7 and 8). We evaluated the association between EZH2 and the clinicopathological characteristics and postoperative survivals. Among 40 patients, 15 (37.5%) and 25 (62.5%) were classified as being negative and positive for EZH2, respectively. Fisher's exact test demonstrated no significant associations between the positivity for EZH2 and clinicopathological characteristics. No significant differences were observed in recurrence-free and overall survivals between EZH2-negative/low and EZH2-high patients. EZH2 was frequently observed in patients with resected SCLC, but no significant associations were found between its expression and the clinicopathological characteristics and postoperative survivals. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  6. Structural insights into binding of small molecule inhibitors to Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinić, Marko; Zloh, Mire; Erić, Slavica

    2014-11-01

    Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) is a SET domain protein lysine methyltransferase (PKMT) which has recently emerged as a chemically tractable and therapeutically promising epigenetic target, evidenced by the discovery and characterization of potent and highly selective EZH2 inhibitors. However, no experimental structures of the inhibitors co-crystallized to EZH2 have been resolved, and the structural basis for their activity and selectivity remains unknown. Considering the need to minimize cross-reactivity between prospective PKMT inhibitors, much can be learned from understanding the molecular basis for selective inhibition of EZH2. Thus, to elucidate the binding of small-molecule inhibitors to EZH2, we have developed a model of its fully-formed cofactor binding site and used it to carry out molecular dynamics simulations of protein-ligand complexes, followed by molecular mechanics/generalized born surface area calculations. The obtained results are in good agreement with biochemical inhibition data and reflect the structure-activity relationships of known ligands. Our findings suggest that the variable and flexible post-SET domain plays an important role in inhibitor binding, allowing possibly distinct binding modes of inhibitors with only small variations in their structure. Insights from this study present a good basis for design of novel and optimization of existing compounds targeting the cofactor binding site of EZH2.

  7. Racism and Surplus Repression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Howard

    1983-01-01

    Explores the relationship between Herbert Marcuse's theory of "surplus repression" and Freud's theory of the "unconscious" with respect to latent, hidden, covert, or subliminal aspects of racism in the United States. Argues that unconscious racism, manifested in evasion/avoidance, acting out/projection, and attempted…

  8. Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Induces Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Aljubran, Salman A.; Rajanbabu, Venugopal; Bao, Huynh; Mohapatra, Shyam M.; Lockey, Richard; Kolliputi, Narasaiah

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is a progressively devastating disease characterized by excessive proliferation of the Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells (PASMCs). Studies suggest that PAH and cancers share an apoptosis-resistant state featuring excessive cell proliferation. The proliferation of cancer cells is mediated by increased expression of Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2), a mammalian histone methyltransferase that contributes to the epigenetic silencing of target genes. However, the role of EZH2 in PAH has not been studied. In this study, it is hypothesized that EZH2 could play a role in the proliferation of PASMCs. Methods In the present study, the expression patterns of EZH2 were investigated in normal and hypertensive mouse PASMCs. The effects of EZH2 overexpression on the proliferation of human PASMCs were tested. PASMCs were transfected with EZH2 or GFP using nucleofector system. After transfection, the cells were incubated for 48 hours at 37°C. Proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed using flow cytometry. Apoptosis of PASMCs was determined using annexin V staining and cell migration was tested by wound healing assay. Results EZH2 protein expression in mouse PASMCs were correlated with an increase in right ventricular systolic pressure and Right Ventricular Hypertrophy (RVH). The overexpression of EZH2 in human PASMCs enhances proliferation, migration, and decrease in the rate of apoptosis when compared to GFP-transfected cells. In the G2/M phase of the EZH2 transfected cells, there was a 3.5 fold increase in proliferation, while there was a significant decrease in the rate of apoptosis of PASMCs, when compared to control. Conclusion These findings suggest that EZH2 plays a role in the migration and proliferation of PASMCs, which is a major hallmark in PAH. It also suggests that EZH2 could play a role in the development of PAH and can serve as a potential target for new therapies for PAH. PMID:22662197

  9. Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 as an Independent Prognostic Marker for Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kaiyu; Wu, Dexi; Li, Minrui; Li, Manying; Zhong, Bihui; Chen, Minhu; Zhang, Shenghong

    2015-01-01

    Background Novel biomarkers are of particular interest for predicting cancer prognosis. This study aimed to explore the associations between enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and patient survival in various cancers. Methods Relevant literature was retrieved from PubMed and Web of Science databases. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results Forty-nine studies (8,050 patients) were included. High EZH2 expression was significantly associated with shorter overall (hazard ratio [HR] 1.74, 95% CI: 1.46–2.07), disease-free (HR 1.59, 95% CI: 1.27–1.99), metastasis-free (HR 2.19, 95% CI: 1.38–3.47), progression-free (HR 2.53, 95% CI: 1.52–4.21), cancer-specific (HR 3.13, 95% CI: 1.70–5.74), and disease-specific (HR 2.29, 95% CI: 1.56–3.35) survival, but not recurrence-free survival (HR 1.38, 95% CI: 0.93–2.06). Moreover, EZH2 expression significantly correlated with distant metastasis (OR 3.25, 95% CI: 1.07–9.87) in esophageal carcinoma; differentiation (OR 3.00, 95% CI: 1.37–6.55) in non-small cell lung cancer; TNM stage (OR 3.18, 95% CI: 2.49–4.08) in renal cell carcinoma; and histological grade (OR 4.50, 95% CI: 3.33–6.09), estrogen receptor status (OR 0.15, 95% CI: 0.11–0.20) and progesterone receptor status (OR 0.30, 95% CI: 0.23–0.39) in breast cancer. Conclusions Our results suggested that EZH2 might be an independent prognostic factor for multiple survival measures in different cancers. PMID:25974088

  10. Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Inhibition Stimulates Bone Formation and Mitigates Bone Loss Caused by Ovariectomy in Skeletally Mature Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Dudakovic, Amel; Camilleri, Emily T.; Riester, Scott M.; Paradise, Christopher R.; Gluscevic, Martina; O'Toole, Thomas M.; Thaler, Roman; Evans, Jared M.; Yan, Huihuang; Subramaniam, Malayannan; Hawse, John R.; Stein, Gary S.; Montecino, Martin A.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; van Wijnen, Andre J.

    2016-01-01

    Perturbations in skeletal development and bone degeneration may result in reduced bone mass and quality, leading to greater fracture risk. Bone loss is mitigated by bone protective therapies, but there is a clinical need for new bone-anabolic agents. Previous work has demonstrated that Ezh2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2), a histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27) methyltransferase, suppressed differentiation of osteogenic progenitors. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of Ezh2 can be leveraged for bone stimulatory applications. Pharmacologic inhibition and siRNA knockdown of Ezh2 enhanced osteogenic commitment of MC3T3 preosteoblasts. Next generation RNA sequencing of mRNAs and real time quantitative PCR profiling established that Ezh2 inactivation promotes expression of bone-related gene regulators and extracellular matrix proteins. Mechanistically, enhanced gene expression was linked to decreased H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) near transcriptional start sites in genome-wide sequencing of chromatin immunoprecipitations assays. Administration of an Ezh2 inhibitor modestly increases bone density parameters of adult mice. Furthermore, Ezh2 inhibition also alleviated bone loss in an estrogen-deficient mammalian model for osteoporosis. Ezh2 inhibition enhanced expression of Wnt10b and Pth1r and increased the BMP-dependent phosphorylation of Smad1/5. Thus, these data suggest that inhibition of Ezh2 promotes paracrine signaling in osteoblasts and has bone-anabolic and osteoprotective potential in adults. PMID:27758858

  11. Increased expression of enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) differentiates squamous cell carcinoma from normal skin and actinic keratosis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiang; Wang, Hongbei; Heilman, Edward R; Walsh, Michael G; Haseeb, M A; Gupta, Raavi

    2014-01-01

    Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) is a polycomb group protein that has been shown to be involved in the progression of multiple human cancers including melanoma. The expression of EZH2 in normal skin and in pre-malignant and malignant cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has not been studied. We examined the expression of EZH2 in normal skin, actinic keratosis (AK), SCC in situ, well-differentiated (SCC-WD), moderately-differentiated (SCC-MD) and poorly-differentiated SCC (SCC-PD) to ascertain whether EZH2 expression differentiates these conditions. Immunohistochemical staining for EZH2 was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies and a tissue microarray containing normal skin, AK, SCC in situ, and SCC of different grades. In comparison to the normal skin, EZH2 expression in actinic keratosis was increased (p=0.03). Similarly, EZH2 expression in all of the neoplastic conditions studied (SCC in situ, SCC-WD, SCC-MD and SCC-PD) was greatly increased in comparison to both the normal skin and actinic keratosis (p≤0.001). EZH2 expression increases incrementally from normal skin to AK and further to SCC, suggesting a role for EZH2 in the progression and differentiation of SCC. EZH2 expression may be used as a diagnostic marker for differentiating SCC from AK or normal skin.

  12. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kayikci, Ömur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-09-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression. © FEMS 2015.

  13. Intellectual Repression in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Matthew; Judd, Dennis R.

    1986-01-01

    Restrictions on intellectual freedom have existed in American colleges and universities from their founding in the mid-seventeenth century through the rise of the corporate and government dominated institutions of today, and intellectual repression is a principal factor in low faculty morale in the 1980s. (MSE)

  14. Rule of Repression in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This report on the current condition of the Mapuche Indians of Chile is edited from a document on the "Situation of Human Rights in Chile" and details the repressive and inhumane treatment of the largest indigenous ethnic minority in the country. (Author/RTS)

  15. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 expression is associated with tumor cell proliferation and metastasis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Hye; Song, Young Soo; Yoon, Jin Sun; Song, Kang Won; Lee, Young Yiul

    2010-03-01

    The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a member of the polycomb group of proteins, plays an important role in cell proliferation and cell cycle regulation. EZH2 is overexpressed in aggressive forms of prostate, breast, bladder, and endometrial cancers. However, the role of EZH2 expression in gastric cancer has not been fully determined. This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between EZH2 and cell cycle-related molecules, and the clinical value of EZH2 expression in gastric cancer. We analyzed EZH2 expression using Western blotting in AGS, MKN-28, SNU-16, SNU-484, SNU-601, and SNU-638 gastric cancer cell lines. After transfection of EZH2 siRNA into MKN-28 cells, the change in cell cycle-related molecules was assessed by Western blot analysis. Expression of EZH2, Ki-67, and p53 was determined by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays from specimens of 137 cases of resected gastric cancer. We found high expressions of EZH2 in all of the tested gastric cancer cell lines. RNA interference of EZH2 induced upregulation of p53 and HDAC1 and downregulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin E. High EZH2 expression was observed in 60.6% of gastric cancers and in 6.7% of non-neoplastic gastric tissues (p < 0.01); 40.1% were positive for p53 in gastric cancers. High EZH2 expression was correlated with Ki-67 and p53 expressions and was significantly associated with distant metastases and non-signet ring cells. Our results suggest that high EZH2 expression is associated with tumor cell proliferation and metastasis in gastric cancer.

  16. Uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC) Infection Induces Proliferation through Enhancer of Zeste Homologue 2 (EZH2)

    PubMed Central

    Penna, Frank; Samiei, Alaleh Najdi; Sidler, Martin; Jiang, Jia-Xin; Ibrahim, Fadi; Tolg, Cornelia; Delgado-Olguin, Paul; Rosenblum, Norman; Bägli, Darius J.

    2016-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions can induce epigenetic changes in the host directly, as well as indirectly through secreted factors. Previously, uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) was shown to increase DNA methyltransferase activity and expression, which was associated with methylation-dependent alterations in the urothelial expression of CDKN2A. Here, we showed that paracrine factors from infected cells alter expression of another epigenetic writer, EZH2, coordinate with proliferation. Urothelial cells were inoculated with UPEC, UPEC derivatives, or vehicle (mock infection) at low moi, washed, then maintained in media with Gentamycin. Urothelial conditioned media (CM) and extracellular vesicles (EV) were isolated after the inoculations and used to treat naïve urothelial cells. EZH2 increased with UPEC infection, inoculation-induced CM, and inoculation-induced EV vs. parallel stimulation derived from mock-inoculated urothelial cells. We found that infection also increased proliferation at one day post-infection, which was blocked by the EZH2 inhibitor UNC1999. Inhibition of demethylation at H3K27me3 had the opposite effect and augmented proliferation. CONCLUSION: Uropathogen-induced paracrine factors act epigenetically by altering expression of EZH2, which plays a key role in early host cell proliferative responses to infection. PMID:26964089

  17. The role of mitochondria in carbon catabolite repression in yeast.

    PubMed

    Haussmann, P; Zimmermann, F K

    1976-10-18

    antibiotics had about the same effect as growth in the presence of KCN. The results showed that mitochondria are involved in carbon catabolite repression and they cause an increase in the degree of repression. These effects cannot be due to mere metabolic activities nor to factors made on the mitochondrial protein synthesizing machinery. This regulatory role of mitochondria is observed as long as an intact mitochondrial genome is maintained.

  18. Mindfulness and zest for life buffer the negative effects of experimentally-induced perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness: Implications for theories of suicide.

    PubMed

    Collins, Khan R L; Best, Ida; Stritzke, Werner G K; Page, Andrew C

    2016-07-01

    Suicide research can be enhanced by an ability to safely manipulate putative causal variables. The present studies developed an experimental task to modify risk factors identified by the interpersonal theory of suicide (perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness) and examine their hypothesized suppressive effect on persistence in adversity in undergraduate university students. Variables that may moderate the impact of these risk factors on persistence (zest for life and mindful awareness) were incorporated as potential resilience factors. Study 1 (N = 92) found elevated burdensomeness and diminished belongingness significantly impaired persistence. Additionally, these predicted effects were moderated by individual differences in zest for life. In Study 2 (N = 52), individuals trained in mindfulness prior to the experimental task displayed greater persistence relative to controls. Findings provide experimental support for the role of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness in the manner predicted by the interpersonal theory, and demonstrate a way to experimentally test the effects of resilience factors that reduce the impact of these interpersonal factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Maintaining evolvability.

    PubMed

    Crow, James F

    2008-12-01

    Although molecular methods, such as QTL mapping, have revealed a number of loci with large effects, it is still likely that the bulk of quantitative variability is due to multiple factors, each with small effect. Typically, these have a large additive component. Conventional wisdom argues that selection, natural or artificial, uses up additive variance and thus depletes its supply. Over time, the variance should be reduced, and at equilibrium be near zero. This is especially expected for fitness and traits highly correlated with it. Yet, populations typically have a great deal of additive variance, and do not seem to run out of genetic variability even after many generations of directional selection. Long-term selection experiments show that populations continue to retain seemingly undiminished additive variance despite large changes in the mean value. I propose that there are several reasons for this. (i) The environment is continually changing so that what was formerly most fit no longer is. (ii) There is an input of genetic variance from mutation, and sometimes from migration. (iii) As intermediate-frequency alleles increase in frequency towards one, producing less variance (as p --> 1, p(1 - p) --> 0), others that were originally near zero become more common and increase the variance. Thus, a roughly constant variance is maintained. (iv) There is always selection for fitness and for characters closely related to it. To the extent that the trait is heritable, later generations inherit a disproportionate number of genes acting additively on the trait, thus increasing genetic variance. For these reasons a selected population retains its ability to evolve. Of course, genes with large effect are also important. Conspicuous examples are the small number of loci that changed teosinte to maize, and major phylogenetic changes in the animal kingdom. The relative importance of these along with duplications, chromosome rearrangements, horizontal transmission and polyploidy

  20. Interplay between EZH2 and G9a Regulates CXCL10 Gene Repression in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Coward, William R; Brand, Oliver J; Pasini, Alice; Jenkins, Gisli; Knox, Alan J; Pang, Linhua

    2018-04-01

    Selective repression of the antifibrotic gene CXCL10 contributes to tissue remodeling in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We have previously reported that histone deacetylation and histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation are involved in CXCL10 repression. In this study, we explored the role of H3K27 methylation and the interplay between the two histone lysine methyltransferases enhancer of zest homolog 2 (EZH2) and G9a in CXCL10 repression in IPF. By applying chromatin immunoprecipitation, Re-ChIP, and proximity ligation assays, we demonstrated that, like G9a-mediated H3K9 methylation, EZH2-mediated histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) was significantly enriched at the CXCL10 promoter in fibroblasts from IPF lungs (F-IPF) compared with fibroblasts from nonfibrotic lungs, and we also found that EZH2 and G9a physically interacted with each other. EZH2 knockdown reduced not only EZH2 and H3K27me3 but also G9a and H3K9me3, and G9a knockdown reduced not only G9 and H3K9me3 but also EZH2 and H3K27me3. Depletion and inhibition of EZH2 and G9a also reversed histone deacetylation and restored CXCL10 expression in F-IPF. Furthermore, treatment of fibroblasts from nonfibrotic lungs with the profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 increased EZH2, G9a, H3K27me3, H3K9me3, and histone deacetylation at the CXCL10 promoter, similar to that observed in F-IPF, which was correlated with CXCL10 repression and was prevented by EZH2 and G9a knockdown. These findings suggest that a novel and functionally interdependent interplay between EZH2 and G9a regulates histone methylation-mediated epigenetic repression of the antifibrotic CXCL10 gene in IPF. This interdependent interplay may prove to be a target for epigenetic intervention to restore the expression of CXCL10 and other antifibrotic genes in IPF.

  1. Catabolite Repression of Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Debra W.; Simecka, Jerry W.; Romeo, Tony

    2002-01-01

    Biofilm formation was repressed by glucose in several species of Enterobacteriaceae. In Escherichia coli, this effect was mediated at least in part by cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein. A temporal role for cAMP in biofilm development was indicated by the finding that glucose addition after ∼24 h failed to repress and generally activated biofilm formation. PMID:12029060

  2. Repression of endogenous Smad7 by Ski.

    PubMed

    Denissova, Natalia G; Liu, Fang

    2004-07-02

    The Ski protein has been proposed to serve as a corepressor for Smad4 to maintain a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-responsive promoter at a repressed, basal level. However, there have been no reports so far that it indeed acts on a natural promoter. We have previously cloned the human Smad7 promoter and shown that it contains the 8-base pair palindromic Smad-binding element (SBE) necessary for TGF-beta induction. In this report, we have characterized the negative regulation of Smad7 promoter basal activity by Ski. We show that Ski inhibits the Smad7 promoter basal activity in a SBE-dependent manner. Mutation of the SBE abrogates the inhibitory effect of Ski on the Smad7 promoter. Moreover, mutation of the SBE increases the Smad7 promoter basal activity. Using the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we further show that Ski together with Smad4 binds to the endogenous Smad7 promoter. Finally, we show that RNAi knockdown of Ski increases Smad7 reporter gene activity in transient transfection assays as well as elevating the endogenous level of Smad7 mRNA. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence that Ski is indeed a corepressor for Smad4, which can inhibit a natural TGF-beta responsive gene at the basal state.

  3. Cortical DNA methylation maintains remote memory.

    PubMed

    Miller, Courtney A; Gavin, Cristin F; White, Jason A; Parrish, R Ryley; Honasoge, Avinash; Yancey, Christopher R; Rivera, Ivonne M; Rubio, María D; Rumbaugh, Gavin; Sweatt, J David

    2010-06-01

    A behavioral memory's lifetime represents multiple molecular lifetimes, suggesting the necessity for a self-perpetuating signal. One candidate is DNA methylation, a transcriptional repression mechanism that maintains cellular memory throughout development. We found that persistent, gene-specific cortical hypermethylation was induced in rats by a single, hippocampus-dependent associative learning experience and pharmacologic inhibition of methylation 1 month after learning disrupted remote memory. We propose that the adult brain utilizes DNA methylation to preserve long-lasting memories.

  4. The base pairing RNA Spot 42 participates in a multi-output feedforward loop to help enact catabolite repression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Beisel, Chase L.; Storz, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacteria selectively consume some carbon sources over others through a regulatory mechanism termed catabolite repression. Here, we show that the base pairing RNA Spot 42 plays a broad role in catabolite repression in Escherichia coli by directly repressing genes involved in central and secondary metabolism, redox balancing, and the consumption of diverse non-preferred carbon sources. Many of the genes repressed by Spot 42 are transcriptionally activated by the global regulator CRP. Since CRP represses Spot 42, these regulators participate in a specific regulatory circuit called a multi-output feedforward loop. We found that this loop can reduce leaky expression of target genes in the presence of glucose and can maintain repression of target genes under changing nutrient conditions. Our results suggest that base pairing RNAs in feedforward loops can help shape the steady-state levels and dynamics of gene expression. PMID:21292161

  5. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) - enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) network regulates lipid metabolism and DNA damage responses in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Fahim; Patrick, Shruti; Sheikh, Touseef; Sharma, Vikas; Pathak, Pankaj; Malgulwar, Prit Benny; Kumar, Anupam; Joshi, Shanker Datt; Sarkar, Chitra; Sen, Ellora

    2017-12-01

    Elevated expression of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone H3K27 methyltransferase, was observed in gliomas harboring telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations. Given the known involvement of TERT and EZH2 in glioma progression, the correlation between the two and subsequently its involvement in metabolic programming was investigated. Inhibition of human telomerase reverse transcriptase either pharmacologically or through genetic manipulation not only decreased EZH2 expression, but also (i) abrogated FASN levels, (ii) decreased de novo fatty acid accumulation, and (iii) increased ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) phosphorylation levels. Conversely, diminished TERT and FASN levels upon siRNA-mediated EZH2 knockdown indicated a positive correlation between TERT and EZH2. Interestingly, ATM kinase inhibitor rescued TERT inhibition-mediated decrease in FASN and EZH2 levels. Importantly, TERT promoter mutant tumors exhibited greater microsatellite instability, heightened FASN levels and lipid accumulation. Coherent with in vitro findings, pharmacological inhibition of TERT by costunolide decreased lipid accumulation and elevated ATM expression in heterotypic xenograft glioma mouse model. By bringing TERT-EZH2 network at the forefront as driver of dysregulated metabolism, our findings highlight the non-canonical but distinct role of TERT in metabolic reprogramming and DNA damage responses in glioblastoma. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Catabolite Repression of Tryptophanase in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Botsford, James L.; DeMoss, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Catabolite repression of tryptophanase was studied in detail under various conditions in several strains of Escherichia coli and was compared with catabolite repression of β-glactosidase. Induction of tryptophanase and β-galactosidase in cultures grown with various carbon sources including succinate, glycerol, pyruvate, glucose, gluconate, and arabinose is affected differently by the various carbon sources. The extent of induction does not seem to be related to the growth rate of the culture permitted by the carbon source during the course of the experiment. In cultures grown with glycerol as carbon source, preinduced for β-galactosidase or tryptophanase and made permeable by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment, catabolite repression of tryptophanase was not affected markedly by the addition of cAMP (3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate). Catabolite repression by glucose was only partially relieved by the addition of cAMP. In contrast, under the same conditions, cAMP completely relieved catabolite repression of β-galactosidase by either pyruvate or glucose. Under conditions of limited oxygen, induction of tryptophanase is sensitive to catabolite repression; under the same conditions, β-galactosidase induction is not sensitive to catabolite repression. Induction of tryptophanase in cells grown with succinate as carbon source is sensitive to catabolite repression by glycerol and pyruvate as well as by glucose. Studies with a glycerol kinaseless mutant indicate that glycerol must be metabolized before it can cause catabolite repression. The EDTA treatment used to make the cells permeable to cAMP was found to affect subsequent growth and induction of either β-galactosidase or tryptophanase much more adversely in E. coli strain BB than in E. coli strain K-12. Inducation of tryptophanase was reduced by the EDTA treatment significantly more than induction of β-galactosidase in both strains. Addition of 2.5 × 10−3m cAMP appeared partially to

  7. RNAi and heterochromatin repress centromeric meiotic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Ellermeier, Chad; Higuchi, Emily C.; Phadnis, Naina; Holm, Laerke; Geelhood, Jennifer L.; Thon, Genevieve; Smith, Gerald R.

    2010-01-01

    During meiosis, the formation of viable haploid gametes from diploid precursors requires that each homologous chromosome pair be properly segregated to produce an exact haploid set of chromosomes. Genetic recombination, which provides a physical connection between homologous chromosomes, is essential in most species for proper homologue segregation. Nevertheless, recombination is repressed specifically in and around the centromeres of chromosomes, apparently because rare centromeric (or pericentromeric) recombination events, when they do occur, can disrupt proper segregation and lead to genetic disabilities, including birth defects. The basis by which centromeric meiotic recombination is repressed has been largely unknown. We report here that, in fission yeast, RNAi functions and Clr4-Rik1 (histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferase) are required for repression of centromeric recombination. Surprisingly, one mutant derepressed for recombination in the heterochromatic mating-type region during meiosis and several mutants derepressed for centromeric gene expression during mitotic growth are not derepressed for centromeric recombination during meiosis. These results reveal a complex relation between types of repression by heterochromatin. Our results also reveal a previously undemonstrated role for RNAi and heterochromatin in the repression of meiotic centromeric recombination and, potentially, in the prevention of birth defects by maintenance of proper chromosome segregation during meiosis. PMID:20421495

  8. Molecular architecture of polycomb repressive complexes

    PubMed Central

    Chittock, Emily C.; Latwiel, Sebastian; Miller, Thomas C.R.

    2017-01-01

    The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are a large and diverse family that epigenetically repress the transcription of key developmental genes. They form three broad groups of polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs) known as PRC1, PRC2 and Polycomb Repressive DeUBiquitinase, each of which modifies and/or remodels chromatin by distinct mechanisms that are tuned by having variable compositions of core and accessory subunits. Until recently, relatively little was known about how the various PcG proteins assemble to form the PRCs; however, studies by several groups have now allowed us to start piecing together the PcG puzzle. Here, we discuss some highlights of recent PcG structures and the insights they have given us into how these complexes regulate transcription through chromatin. PMID:28202673

  9. Mitosis-associated repression in development.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Emilia; Lim, Bomyi; Guessous, Ghita; Falahati, Hanieh; Levine, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Transcriptional repression is a pervasive feature of animal development. Here, we employ live-imaging methods to visualize the Snail repressor, which establishes the boundary between the presumptive mesoderm and neurogenic ectoderm of early Drosophila embryos. Snail target enhancers were attached to an MS2 reporter gene, permitting detection of nascent transcripts in living embryos. The transgenes exhibit initially broad patterns of transcription but are refined by repression in the mesoderm following mitosis. These observations reveal a correlation between mitotic silencing and Snail repression. We propose that mitosis and other inherent discontinuities in transcription boost the activities of sequence-specific repressors, such as Snail. © 2016 Esposito et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Epigenetic repression of the Igk locus by STAT5-mediated Ezh2 recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Malay; Powers, Sarah E.; Maienschein-Cline, Mark; Bartom, Elizabeth T.; Hamel, Keith M.; Kee, Barbara L.; Dinner, Aaron R.; Clark, Marcus R.

    2011-01-01

    During B lymphopoiesis, Igk recombination requires pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) expression and escape from interleukin 7 receptor (IL-7R) signaling. By activating the transcription factor STAT5, IL-7R signaling maintains proliferation and represses Igk germline transcription by unknown mechanisms. We demonstrate that STAT5 tetramer bound the Igk intronic enhancer (Eκi), leading to recruitment of the histone methyltransferase Ezh2. Ezh2 marked H3K27me3 throughout Jκ to Cκ. In the absence of Ezh2, IL-7 failed to repress Igk germline transcription. H3K27me3 modifications were lost after termination of IL-7R–STAT5 signaling and E2A bound Eκi, resulting in acquisition of H3K4me1 and H4Ac. Genome-wide analyses revealed a STAT5 tetrameric binding motif associated with transcriptional repression. These data demonstrate how IL-7R signaling represses Igk germline transcription and provide a general model for STAT5-mediated epigenetic transcriptional repression. PMID:22037603

  11. Repression-Sensitization and Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayton, William F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examined relationship between repression-sensitization (R-S) and visits to prison infirmary for males during a one-year period. Main effect for R-S dimension was significant for total number of visits, number of medically justified visits, and number of medically unjustified visits. Sensitizers had significantly more visits than repressors.…

  12. The association of educational attainment and SBP among older community-living adults: the Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect and Zest in the Elderly (MOBILIZE) Boston Study

    PubMed Central

    Kiely, Dan K.; Gross, Alden L.; Kim, Dae H.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Educational attainment is inversely associated with SBP level in young adulthood. This association has not been studied in an older cohort, and confounding and mediating factors are not well known. Methods The authors hypothesized that higher education is associated with lower levels of SBP independent of many risk factors for hypertension. This prospective observational study included a sample of 764 older community-living participants in the Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect and Zest in the Elderly (MOBILIZE) Boston Study. Results Compared to participants with more than college education, regression analyses showed those with a high school education or less had a SBP value 6.33 mmHg higher [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.55–10.10], and those who had a college education had a SBP value 4.01 mmHg higher (95% CI: 0.77–7.25) independent of many hypothesized confounders and mediators. Discussion Results of a path analysis confirmed that higher level of education was associated with lower SBP even after adjustment for hypothesized mediators. Although slightly attenuated by multivariable adjustment for hypertension risk factors, the significant inverse association between educational attainment and SBP was not entirely mediated by these risk factors. These findings indicate that education is inversely associated with SBP in a diverse cohort of community-living older adults, independent of many known or suspected risk factors. Conclusion This study is the first to report the association between education and SBP in an older sample, representing a population at the highest risk for hypertension-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:22688267

  13. The association of educational attainment and SBP among older community-living adults: the Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect and Zest in the Elderly (MOBILIZE) Boston Study.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Dan K; Gross, Alden L; Kim, Dae H; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2012-08-01

    Educational attainment is inversely associated with SBP level in young adulthood. This association has not been studied in an older cohort, and confounding and mediating factors are not well known. The authors hypothesized that higher education is associated with lower levels of SBP independent of many risk factors for hypertension. This prospective observational study included a sample of 764 older community-living participants in the Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect and Zest in the Elderly (MOBILIZE) Boston Study. Compared to participants with more than college education, regression analyses showed those with a high school education or less had a SBP value 6.33 mmHg higher [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.55-10.10], and those who had a college education had a SBP value 4.01 mmHg higher (95% CI: 0.77-7.25) independent of many hypothesized confounders and mediators. Results of a path analysis confirmed that higher level of education was associated with lower SBP even after adjustment for hypothesized mediators. Although slightly attenuated by multivariable adjustment for hypertension risk factors, the significant inverse association between educational attainment and SBP was not entirely mediated by these risk factors. These findings indicate that education is inversely associated with SBP in a diverse cohort of community-living older adults, independent of many known or suspected risk factors. This study is the first to report the association between education and SBP in an older sample, representing a population at the highest risk for hypertension-related morbidity and mortality.

  14. "Self-catabolite repression" of pectate lyase in Erwinia carotovora.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuyumu, S

    1979-01-01

    The induction of pectate lyase of Erwinia carotovora was repressed by a high concentration of its inducer. The concomitant addition of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate reversed this repression. PMID:217862

  15. Brain feminization requires active repression of masculinization via DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Bridget M.; Wright, Christopher L.; Shetty, Amol C.; Hodes, Georgia E.; Lenz, Kathryn M.; Mahurkar, Anup; Russo, Scott J.; Devine, Scott E.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    The developing mammalian brain is destined for a female phenotype unless exposed to gonadal hormones during a perinatal sensitive period. It has been assumed that the undifferentiated brain is masculinized by direct induction of transcription by ligand-activated nuclear steroid receptors. We found that a primary effect of gonadal steroids in the highly sexually-dimorphic preoptic area (POA) is to reduce activity of DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) enzymes, thereby decreasing DNA methylation and releasing masculinizing genes from epigenetic repression. Pharmacological inhibition of Dnmts mimicked gonadal steroids, resulting in masculinized neuronal markers and male sexual behavior in females. Conditional knockout of the de novo Dnmt isoform, Dnmt3a, also masculinized sexual behavior in female mice. RNA sequencing revealed gene and isoform variants modulated by methylation that may underlie the divergent reproductive behaviors of males versus females. Our data show that brain feminization is maintained by the active suppression of masculinization via DNA methylation. PMID:25821913

  16. Origin of the polycomb repressive complex 2 and gene silencing by an E(z) homolog in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Shaver, Scott; Casas-Mollano, J Armando; Cerny, Ronald L; Cerutti, Heriberto

    2010-05-16

    Polycomb group proteins play an essential role in the maintenance of cell identity and the regulation of development in both animals and plants. The Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is involved in the establishment of transcriptionally silent chromatin states, in part through its ability to methylate lysine 27 of histone H3 by the Enhancer of zeste [E(z)] subunit. The absence of PRC2 in unicellular model fungi and its function in the repression of genes vital for the development of higher eukaryotes led to the proposal that this complex may have evolved together with the emergence of multicellularity. However, we report here on the widespread presence of PRC2 core subunits in unicellular eukaryotes from the Opisthokonta, Chromalveolata and Archaeplastida supergroups. To gain insight on the role of PRC2 in single celled organisms, we characterized an E(z) homolog, EZH, in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. RNAi-mediated suppression of EZH led to defects in the silencing of transgenes and retrotransposons as well as to a global increase in histone post-translational modifications associated with transcriptional activity, such as trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 and acetylation of histone H4. On the basis of the parsimony principle, our findings suggest that PRC2 appeared early in eukaryotic evolution, even perhaps in the last unicellular common ancestor of eukaryotes. One of the ancestral roles of PCR2 may have been in defense responses against intragenomic parasites such as transposable elements, prior to being co-opted for lineage specific functions like developmental regulation in multicellular eukaryotes.

  17. Cancer, acute stress disorder, and repressive coping.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Zachariae, Robert

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between repressive coping style and Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) in a sample of cancer patients. A total of 112 cancer patients recently diagnosed with cancer participated in the study. ASD was assessed by the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire, and repressive coping was assessed by a combination of scores from the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and the Bendig version of the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. Significantly fewer patients classified as "repressors" were diagnosed with ASD compared to patients classified as "non-repressors". However, further investigations revealed that the lower incidence of ASD in repressors apparently was caused by a low score on anxiety and not by an interaction effect between anxiety and defensiveness. Future studies have to investigate whether different psychological mechanisms are responsible for the lower incidence of ASD in repressors and true low-anxious patients.

  18. Polycomb Group Repression Reduces DNA Accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Daniel P.; Bender, Welcome

    2001-01-01

    The Polycomb group proteins are responsible for long-term repression of a number of genes in Drosophila melanogaster, including the homeotic genes of the bithorax complex. The Polycomb protein is thought to alter the chromatin structure of its target genes, but there has been little direct evidence for this model. In this study, the chromatin structure of the bithorax complex was probed with three separate assays for DNA accessibility: (i) activation of polymerase II (Pol II) transcription by Gal4, (ii) transcription by the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (T7RNAP), and (iii) FLP-mediated site-specific recombination. All three processes are restricted or blocked in Polycomb-repressed segments. In contrast, control test sites outside of the bithorax complex permitted Gal4, T7RNAP, and FLP activities throughout the embryo. Several P insertions in the bithorax complex were tested, providing evidence that the Polycomb-induced effect is widespread over target genes. This accessibility effect is similar to that seen for SIR silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to SIR silencing, however, episomes excised from Polycomb-repressed chromosomal sites do not show an altered superhelix density. PMID:11533246

  19. Memory repression: brain mechanisms underlying dissociative amnesia.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Hirokazu; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Abe, Nobuhito; Suzuki, Maki; Takagi, Masahito; Mugikura, Shunji; Takahashi, Shoki; Mori, Etsuro

    2010-03-01

    Dissociative amnesia usually follows a stressful event and cannot be attributable to explicit brain damage. It is thought to reflect a reversible deficit in memory retrieval probably due to memory repression. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this condition are not clear. We used fMRI to investigate neural activity associated with memory retrieval in two patients with dissociative amnesia. For each patient, three categories of face photographs and three categories of people's names corresponding to the photographs were prepared: those of "recognizable" high school friends who were acquainted with and recognizable to the patients, those of "unrecognizable" colleagues who were actually acquainted with but unrecognizable to the patients due to their memory impairments, and "control" distracters who were unacquainted with the patients. During fMRI, the patients were visually presented with these stimuli and asked to indicate whether they were personally acquainted with them. In the comparison of the unrecognizable condition with the recognizable condition, we found increased activity in the pFC and decreased activity in the hippocampus in both patients. After treatment for retrograde amnesia, the altered pattern of brain activation disappeared in one patient whose retrograde memories were recovered, whereas it remained unchanged in the other patient whose retrograde memories were not recovered. Our findings provide direct evidence that memory repression in dissociative amnesia is associated with an altered pattern of neural activity, and they suggest the possibility that the pFC has an important role in inhibiting the activity of the hippocampus in memory repression.

  20. Multicenter Validation of Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Expression as an Independent Prognostic Marker in Localized Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Thai Huu; Kapur, Payal; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E.; Christie, Alana; Joseph, Richard W.; Serie, Daniel J.; Cheville, John C.; Thompson, R. Houston; Homayoun, Farrah; Panwar, Vandana; Brugarolas, James; Parker, Alexander S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a chromatin remodeler, is implicated in the pathogenesis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). However, the effect of EZH2 on outcomes in localized ccRCC is unclear, and molecular biomarkers are not currently integrated into prognostic models or adjuvant therapy trials. Methods We performed Cox regression to evaluate the association of tumor-based EZH2 gene and protein expression with survival in three independent cohorts: a cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 532), a cohort from University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (n = 122), and a cohort from Mayo Clinic (n = 1,338). Analyses were adjusted for the prognostic stage, size, grade, and necrosis (SSIGN) score as well as within low-, intermediate-, and high-risk SSIGN groups. Results Patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort with EZH2-high gene expression were 1.5 times more likely to experience overall death than patients with EZH2-low expression (95% CI, 1.1 to 2.3; P = .028). Patients in the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center cohort with EZH2-high protein expression were two times more likely to experience overall death than patients with EZH2-low expression (95% CI, 1.1 to 4.4; P = .034). Similarly, patients in the Mayo Clinic cohort with EZH2-high protein expression were 1.4 times more likely to experience overall death (95% CI, 1.2 to 1.7; P < .001). Patients in the Mayo Clinic cohort with EZH2-high protein expression were nearly two times more likely to experience RCC-specific death (95% CI, 1.5 to 2.6; P < .001); EZH2 protein expression was particularly prognostic among patients with low-risk SSIGN tumors (HR, 6.1; 95% CI, 3.4 to 11.1; P < .001). Conclusion EZH2 expression accurately predicts risk of RCC death beyond existing clinicopathologic models, particularly in low- and intermediate-risk SSIGN tumors. Further studies are required to incorporate molecular biomarkers into surveillance guidelines and adjuvant clinical trials

  1. Neural crest stem cell multipotency requires Foxd3 to maintain neural potential and repress mesenchymal fates.

    PubMed

    Mundell, Nathan A; Labosky, Patricia A

    2011-02-01

    Neural crest (NC) progenitors generate a wide array of cell types, yet molecules controlling NC multipotency and self-renewal and factors mediating cell-intrinsic distinctions between multipotent versus fate-restricted progenitors are poorly understood. Our earlier work demonstrated that Foxd3 is required for maintenance of NC progenitors in the embryo. Here, we show that Foxd3 mediates a fate restriction choice for multipotent NC progenitors with loss of Foxd3 biasing NC toward a mesenchymal fate. Neural derivatives of NC were lost in Foxd3 mutant mouse embryos, whereas abnormally fated NC-derived vascular smooth muscle cells were ectopically located in the aorta. Cranial NC defects were associated with precocious differentiation towards osteoblast and chondrocyte cell fates, and individual mutant NC from different anteroposterior regions underwent fate changes, losing neural and increasing myofibroblast potential. Our results demonstrate that neural potential can be separated from NC multipotency by the action of a single gene, and establish novel parallels between NC and other progenitor populations that depend on this functionally conserved stem cell protein to regulate self-renewal and multipotency.

  2. BEND3 mediates transcriptional repression and heterochromatin organization

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abid; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2015-01-01

    Transcription repression plays a central role in gene regulation. Transcription repressors utilize diverse strategies to mediate transcriptional repression. We have recently demonstrated that BEND3 (BANP, E5R and Nac1 domain) protein represses rDNA transcription by stabilizing a NoRC component. We discuss the role of BEND3 as a global regulator of gene expression and propose a model whereby BEND3 associates with chromatin remodeling complexes to modulate gene expression and heterochromatin organization. PMID:26507581

  3. BEND3 mediates transcriptional repression and heterochromatin organization.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abid; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2015-01-01

    Transcription repression plays a central role in gene regulation. Transcription repressors utilize diverse strategies to mediate transcriptional repression. We have recently demonstrated that BEND3 (BANP, E5R and Nac1 domain) protein represses rDNA transcription by stabilizing a NoRC component. We discuss the role of BEND3 as a global regulator of gene expression and propose a model whereby BEND3 associates with chromatin remodeling complexes to modulate gene expression and heterochromatin organization.

  4. Transient Tcf3 Gene Repression by TALE-Transcription Factor Targeting.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Junko; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Strober, Warren; Takayama, Eiji; Mizutani, Akifumi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Kitani, Atsushi; Maeno, Narumi; Shigehiro, Tsukasa; Satoh, Ayano; Seno, Akimasa; Arun, Vaidyanath; Kasai, Tomonari; Fuss, Ivan J; Katsura, Yoshimoto; Seno, Masaharu

    2016-12-01

    Transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSCs) i.e., self-renewing cells that retain multipotentiality, is now a widely performed therapy for many hematopoietic diseases. However, these cells are present in low number and are subject to replicative senescence after extraction; thus, the acquisition of sufficient numbers of cells for transplantation requires donors able to provide repetitive blood samples and/or methods of expanding cell numbers without disturbing cell multipotentiality. Previous studies have shown that HSCs maintain their multipotentiality and self-renewal activity if TCF3 transcription function is blocked under B cell differentiating conditions. Taking advantage of this finding to devise a new approach to HSC expansion in vitro, we constructed an episomal expression vector that specifically targets and transiently represses the TCF3 gene. This consisted of a vector encoding a transcription activator-like effector (TALE) fused to a Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) repressor. We showed that this TALE-KRAB vector repressed expression of an exogenous reporter gene in HEK293 and COS-7 cell lines and, more importantly, efficiently repressed endogenous TCF3 in a human B lymphoma cell line. These findings suggest that this vector can be used to maintain multipotentiality in HSC being subjected to a long-term expansion regimen prior to transplantation.

  5. A longitudinal investigation of repressive coping and ageing.

    PubMed

    Erskine, James; Kvavilashvili, Lia; Myers, Lynn; Leggett, Sarah; Davies, Steve; Hiskey, Syd; Hogg, Joanna; Yeo, Sophia; Georgiou, George

    2016-10-01

    Two studies investigated the possibility that repressive coping is more prevalent in older adults and that this represents a developmental progression rather than a cohort effect. Study 1 examined repressive coping and mental health cross-sectionally in young and old adults. Study 2 examined whether there was a developmental progression of repressive coping prevalence rates in a longitudinal sample of older adults. Study 1 compared younger adults (mean age 27.6 years) with older adults (mean age 74.2 years) on inventories of mental health and well-being and examined the prevalence of repressive coping in both samples. Study 2 re-tested a sample of older adults previously reported following an interval of 7 years. Study 1 - in line with previous research older adults demonstrated greater psychological well-being and had a higher prevalence of repressive coping than younger adults (at 30% vs. 12% respectively). Study 2 - the data indicated that the prevalence of repressive coping rose from 41% at the first time of testing (2002) to 56.4% at the second testing interval (2009). These results suggest that repressive coping may increase across the lifespan in certain individuals and continue to increase throughout older adulthood. Furthermore, this increase in repressive coping with age appears to result in better well-being in those older adults who become repressive copers.

  6. Differential repression of arylsulphatase synthesis in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Burns, G R; Wynn, C H

    1977-09-15

    1. The activities of the three arylsulphatases (arylsulphate sulphohydrolase, EC 3.1.6.1) of Aspergillus oryzae produced under a variety of repressing and non-repressing conditions were determined. 2. These enzymes exhibit different sensitivities to repression by inorganic sulphate. 3. Arylsulphatase I, but not arylsulphatases II and III, exhibits a transient de-repression in the early growth phase in sulphate media. 4. When the fungus is cultured in repressing media and subsequently transferred to non-repressing media, the synthesis of the three enzymes is non-co-ordinate. 5. Growth of the fungus in media containing choline O-sulphate or tyrosine O-sulphate as the sole source of sulphur results in complete de-repression of arylsulphatase I, But the synthesis of arylsulphatases II and III is essentially fully repressed. 6. The marked similarities between the repression characteristics of arylsulphatases II and III, contrasted with those of arylsulphatase I, indicate that the genetic locus of arylsulphatase I is distinct from that of arylsulphatases II and III, suggesting that there are distinct physiological roles for the enzyme.

  7. ATRX represses alternative lengthening of telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Napier, Christine E.; Huschtscha, Lily I.; Harvey, Adam; Bower, Kylie; Noble, Jane R.; Hendrickson, Eric A.; Reddel, Roger R.

    2015-01-01

    The unlimited proliferation of cancer cells requires a mechanism to prevent telomere shortening. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) is an homologous recombination-mediated mechanism of telomere elongation used in tumors, including osteosarcomas, soft tissue sarcoma subtypes, and glial brain tumors. Mutations in the ATRX/DAXX chromatin remodeling complex have been reported in tumors and cell lines that use the ALT mechanism, suggesting that ATRX may be an ALT repressor. We show here that knockout or knockdown of ATRX in mortal cells or immortal telomerase-positive cells is insufficient to activate ALT. Notably, however, in SV40-transformed mortal fibroblasts ATRX loss results in either a significant increase in the proportion of cell lines activating ALT (instead of telomerase) or in a significant decrease in the time prior to ALT activation. These data indicate that loss of ATRX function cooperates with one or more as-yet unidentified genetic or epigenetic alterations to activate ALT. Moreover, transient ATRX expression in ALT-positive/ATRX-negative cells represses ALT activity. These data provide the first direct, functional evidence that ATRX represses ALT. PMID:26001292

  8. Mechanism of repression of the inhibin alpha-subunit gene by inducible 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate early repressor.

    PubMed

    Burkart, Anna D; Mukherjee, Abir; Mayo, Kelly E

    2006-03-01

    The rodent ovary is regulated throughout the reproductive cycle to maintain normal cyclicity. Ovarian follicular development is controlled by changes in gene expression in response to the gonadotropins FSH and LH. The inhibin alpha-subunit gene belongs to a group of genes that is positively regulated by FSH and negatively regulated by LH. Previous studies established an important role for inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) in repression of alpha-inhibin. These current studies investigate the mechanisms of repression by ICER. It is not clear whether all four ICER isoforms expressed in the ovary can act as repressors of the inhibin alpha-subunit gene. EMSAs demonstrate binding of all isoforms to the inhibin alpha-subunit CRE (cAMP response element), and transfection studies demonstrate that all isoforms can repress the inhibin alpha-subunit gene. Repression by ICER is dependent on its binding to DNA as demonstrated by mutations to ICER's DNA-binding domain. These mutational studies also demonstrate that repression by ICER is not dependent on heterodimerization with CREB (CRE-binding protein). Competitive EMSAs show that ICER effectively competes with CREB for binding to the inhibin alpha CRE in vitro. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate a replacement of CREB dimers bound to the inhibin alpha CRE by ICER dimers in ovarian granulosa cells in response to LH signaling. Thus, there is a temporal association of transcription factors bound to the inhibin alpha-CRE controlling inhibin alpha-subunit gene expression.

  9. Adenovirus E1a prevents the retinoblastoma gene product from repressing the activity of a cellular transcription factor.

    PubMed Central

    Zamanian, M; La Thangue, N B

    1992-01-01

    The retinoblastoma (Rb) gene product forms a complex with the cellular transcription factor DRTF1, a property assumed to be important for mediating negative growth control because certain viral oncogenes, such as adenovirus E1a, prevent this interaction and mutant Rb alleles, which have lost the capacity to regulate growth, encode proteins that fail to associate with DRTF1. In this study, we show that the wild-type Rb protein can specifically repress transcription from promoters driven by DRTF1 whereas a naturally occurring mutant Rb protein cannot. Furthermore, Rb-mediated transcriptional repression can be overridden by adenovirus E1a; this requires regions in E1a necessary for cellular transformation. The Rb protein therefore acts in trans to repress the transcriptional activity of DRTF1 whereas adenovirus E1a prevents this interaction and thus maintains DRTF1 in a constitutively active state. The Rb protein and adenovirus E1a therefore have opposite effects on the activity of a common molecular target. Transcriptional repression mediated by the Rb protein and inactivation of repression by the E1a protein are likely to play an important role in mediating their biological effects. Images PMID:1385776

  10. Ergonomics Contribution in Maintainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teymourian, Kiumars; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe an ergonomics contribution in maintainability. The economical designs, inputs and training helps to increase the maintainability indicators for industrial devices. This analysis can be helpful, among other cases, to compare systems, to achieve a better design regarding maintainability requirements, to improve this maintainability under specific industrial environment and to foresee maintainability problems due to eventual changes in a device operation conditions. With this purpose, this work first introduces the notion of ergonomics and human factors, maintainability and the implementation of assessment of human postures, including some important postures to perform maintenance activities. A simulation approach is used to identify the critical posture of the maintenance personnel and implements the defined postures with minimal loads on the personnel who use the equipment in a practical scenario. The simulation inputs are given to the designers to improve the workplace/equipment in order to high level of maintainability. Finally, the work concludes summarizing the more significant aspects and suggesting future research.

  11. Maintaining granular surfaced roads.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-02-01

    Approximately 65% of Iowa's roads are surfaced with aggregates composed of crushed limestone and/or gravel. Rural Iowan's regard these roads as a very important part of their lives. Therefore, the slide-tape presentation, "Maintaining Granular Surfac...

  12. Glucose repression may involve processes with different sugar kinase requirements.

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, P; Nieto, A; Prieto, J A

    1996-01-01

    Adding glucose to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells growing among nonfermentable carbon sources leads to glucose repression. This process may be resolved into several steps. An early repression response requires any one of the three glucose kinases present in S. cerevisiae (HXK1, HXK2, or GLK1). A late response is only achieved when Hxk2p is present. PMID:8755906

  13. Kinetically-Defined Component Actions in Gene Repression

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Carson C.; Finn, Kelsey K.; Storchan, Geoffery B.; Lu, Xinping; Sheng, Xiaoyan; Simons, S. Stoney

    2015-01-01

    Gene repression by transcription factors, and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in particular, is a critical, but poorly understood, physiological response. Among the many unresolved questions is the difference between GR regulated induction and repression, and whether transcription cofactor action is the same in both. Because activity classifications based on changes in gene product level are mechanistically uninformative, we present a theory for gene repression in which the mechanisms of factor action are defined kinetically and are consistent for both gene repression and induction. The theory is generally applicable and amenable to predictions if the dose-response curve for gene repression is non-cooperative with a unit Hill coefficient, which is observed for GR-regulated repression of AP1LUC reporter induction by phorbol myristate acetate. The theory predicts the mechanism of GR and cofactors, and where they act with respect to each other, based on how each cofactor alters the plots of various kinetic parameters vs. cofactor. We show that the kinetically-defined mechanism of action of each of four factors (reporter gene, p160 coactivator TIF2, and two pharmaceuticals [NU6027 and phenanthroline]) is the same in GR-regulated repression and induction. What differs is the position of GR action. This insight should simplify clinical efforts to differentially modulate factor actions in gene induction vs. gene repression. PMID:25816223

  14. Hypnotizability as a Function of Repression, Adaptive Regression, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Maurice Joseph

    1974-01-01

    Forty male undergraduates were assessed in a personality assessment session and a hypnosis session. The personality traits studied were repressive style and adaptive regression, while the transitory variable was mood prior to hypnosis. Hypnotizability was a significant interactive function of repressive style and mood, but not of adaptive…

  15. Interpreting suffering from illness: The role of culture and repressive suffering construal.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Liu, Shi; Sullivan, Daniel; Pan, Shengdong

    2016-07-01

    Mental and physical illnesses are among the most prominent forms of suffering. Cultural worldviews provide tools for making sense of and coping with suffering. In this research, we examine how culture influences both experts' and laypeople's interpretation of suffering from illness. We focus on one type of interpretation of suffering- repressive suffering construal-an interpretation that frames suffering both as the result of immorality on the part of the sufferer and as having the function of maintaining social order by curtailing deviance. We sought to test whether this type of suffering interpretation is more common in cultural ecologies (e.g., urban vs. rural; higher vs. lower status) traditionally associated with collectivist values. Study 1 used data from the General Social Survey to examine variation in suffering interpretation in a representative sample of the U.S. Study 2 examined variation in suffering interpretation with a survey completed by a subsample of Chinese health-care professionals. Study 1 found that U.S. citizens living in a rural environment are more likely to interpret illnesses as being the fault of the sufferer. Study 2 found that those from a lower-SES background are more likely to interpret illnesses in a repressive fashion. In these studies, family size mediates the effect of ecological conditions on RSC. Our research highlights how ecological variables associated with collectivism may bias both laypeople and professionals to interpret suffering from illness in a more repressive way. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. H3K4 demethylase activities repress proliferative and postmitotic aging

    PubMed Central

    Alvares, Stacy M; Mayberry, Gaea A; Joyner, Ebony Y; Lakowski, Bernard; Ahmed, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis of postmitotic and proliferating cells is maintained by pathways that repress stress. We found that the Caenorhabditis elegans histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) demethylases RBR-2 and SPR-5 promoted postmitotic longevity of stress-resistant daf-2 adults, altered pools of methylated H3K4, and promoted silencing of some daf-2 target genes. In addition, RBR-2 and SPR-5 were required for germ cell immortality at a high temperature. Transgenerational proliferative aging was enhanced for spr-5; rbr-2 double mutants, suggesting that these histone demethylases may function sequentially to promote germ cell immortality by targeting distinct H3K4 methyl marks. RBR-2 did not play a comparable role in the maintenance of quiescent germ cells in dauer larvae, implying that it represses stress that occurs as a consequence of germ cell proliferation, rather than stress that accumulates in nondividing cells. We propose that H3K4 demethylase activities promote the maintenance of chromatin states during stressful growth conditions, thereby repressing postmitotic aging of somatic cells as well as proliferative aging of germ cells. PMID:24134677

  17. Lost in transcription: p21 repression, mechanisms, and consequences.

    PubMed

    Gartel, Andrei L; Radhakrishnan, Senthil K

    2005-05-15

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 is a major player in cell cycle control and it is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level. Whereas induction of p21 predominantly leads to cell cycle arrest, repression of p21 may have a variety of outcomes depending on the context. In this review, we concentrate on transcriptional repression of p21 by cellular and viral factors, and delve in detail into its possible biological implications and its role in cancer. It seems that the major mode of p21 transcriptional repression by negative regulators is the interference with positive transcription factors without direct binding to the p21 promoter. Specifically, the negative factors may either inhibit binding of positive regulators to the promoter or hinder their transcriptional activity. The ability of p21 to inhibit proliferation may contribute to its tumor suppressor function. Because of this, it is not surprising that a number of oncogenes repress p21 to promote cell growth and tumorigenesis. However, p21 is also an inhibitor of apoptosis and p21 repression may also have an anticancer effect. For example, c-Myc and chemical p21 inhibitors, which repress p21, sensitize tumor cells to apoptosis by anticancer drugs. Further identification of factors that repress p21 is likely to contribute to the better understanding of its role in cancer.

  18. Repressive Chromatin in Caenorhabditis elegans: Establishment, Composition, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Ahringer, Julie; Gasser, Susan M.

    2018-01-01

    Chromatin is organized and compacted in the nucleus through the association of histones and other proteins, which together control genomic activity. Two broad types of chromatin can be distinguished: euchromatin, which is generally transcriptionally active, and heterochromatin, which is repressed. Here we examine the current state of our understanding of repressed chromatin in Caenorhabditis elegans, focusing on roles of histone modifications associated with repression, such as methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2/3) or the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (MES-2/3/6)-deposited modification H3K27me3, and on proteins that recognize these modifications. Proteins involved in chromatin repression are important for development, and have demonstrated roles in nuclear organization, repetitive element silencing, genome integrity, and the regulation of euchromatin. Additionally, chromatin factors participate in repression with small RNA pathways. Recent findings shed light on heterochromatin function and regulation in C. elegans, and should inform our understanding of repressed chromatin in other animals. PMID:29378810

  19. EZH2-mediated repression of GSK-3β and TP53 promotes Wnt/β-catenin signaling-dependent cell expansion in cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Zheng, Peng-Sheng; Yang, Wen-Ting

    2016-06-14

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a catalytic core component of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), stimulates the silencing of target genes through histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). Recent findings have indicated EZH2 is involved in the development and progression of various human cancers. However, the exact mechanism of EZH2 in the promotion of cervical cancer is largely unknown. Here, we show that EZH2 expression gradually increases during the progression of cervical cancer. We identified a significant positive correlation between EZH2 expression and cell proliferation in vitro and tumor formation in vivo by the up-regulation or down-regulation of EZH2 using CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene editing technology and shRNA in HeLa and SiHa cells. Further investigation indicated that EZH2 protein significantly accelerated the cell cycle transition from the G0/G1 to S phase. TOP/FOP-Flash reporter assay revealed that EZH2 significantly activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the target genes of Wnt/β-catenin pathway were up-regulated, including β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-myc. Moreover, dual-luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed that EZH2 inhibited the expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and TP53 through physically interacting with motifs in the promoters of the GSK-3β and TP53 genes. Additionally, blockage of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway resulted in significant inhibition of cell proliferation, and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway resulted in significant enhancement of cell proliferation, as induced by EZH2. Taken together, our data demonstrate that EZH2 promotes cell proliferation and tumor formation in cervical cancer through activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by epigenetic silencing via GSK-3β and TP53.

  20. EZH2-mediated repression of GSK-3β and TP53 promotes Wnt/β-catenin signaling-dependent cell expansion in cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qian; Zheng, Peng-Sheng; Yang, Wen-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a catalytic core component of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), stimulates the silencing of target genes through histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). Recent findings have indicated EZH2 is involved in the development and progression of various human cancers. However, the exact mechanism of EZH2 in the promotion of cervical cancer is largely unknown. Here, we show that EZH2 expression gradually increases during the progression of cervical cancer. We identified a significant positive correlation between EZH2 expression and cell proliferation in vitro and tumor formation in vivo by the up-regulation or down-regulation of EZH2 using CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene editing technology and shRNA in HeLa and SiHa cells. Further investigation indicated that EZH2 protein significantly accelerated the cell cycle transition from the G0/G1 to S phase. TOP/FOP-Flash reporter assay revealed that EZH2 significantly activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the target genes of Wnt/β-catenin pathway were up-regulated, including β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-myc. Moreover, dual-luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed that EZH2 inhibited the expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and TP53 through physically interacting with motifs in the promoters of the GSK-3β and TP53 genes. Additionally, blockage of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway resulted in significant inhibition of cell proliferation, and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway resulted in significant enhancement of cell proliferation, as induced by EZH2. Taken together, our data demonstrate that EZH2 promotes cell proliferation and tumor formation in cervical cancer through activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by epigenetic silencing via GSK-3β and TP53. PMID:27092879

  1. Glycerol-3-phosphate-induced catabolite repression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Eppler, Tanja; Postma, Pieter; Schütz, Alexandra; Völker, Uwe; Boos, Winfried

    2002-06-01

    The formation of glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) in cells growing on TB causes catabolite repression, as shown by the reduction in malT expression. For this repression to occur, the general proteins of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS), in particular EIIA(Glc), as well as the adenylate cyclase and the cyclic AMP-catabolite activator protein system, have to be present. We followed the level of EIIA(Glc) phosphorylation after the addition of glycerol or G3P. In contrast to glucose, which causes a dramatic shift to the dephosphorylated form, glycerol or G3P only slightly increased the amount of dephosphorylated EIIA(Glc). Isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside-induced overexpression of EIIA(Glc) did not prevent repression by G3P, excluding the possibility that G3P-mediated catabolite repression is due to the formation of unphosphorylated EIIA(Glc). A mutant carrying a C-terminally truncated adenylate cyclase was no longer subject to G3P-mediated repression. We conclude that the stimulation of adenylate cyclase by phosphorylated EIIA(Glc) is controlled by G3P and other phosphorylated sugars such as D-glucose-6-phosphate and is the basis for catabolite repression by non-PTS compounds. Further metabolism of these compounds is not necessary for repression. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to obtain an overview of proteins that are subject to catabolite repression by glycerol. Some of the prominently repressed proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Among these were periplasmic binding proteins (glutamine and oligopeptide binding protein, for example), enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, aldehyde dehydrogenase, Dps (a stress-induced DNA binding protein), and D-tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase.

  2. Global regulator Anr represses PlcH phospholipase activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa when oxygen is limiting.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Angelyca A; Daniels, Emily F; Hammond, John H; Willger, Sven D; Hogan, Deborah A

    2014-10-01

    Haemolytic phospholipase C (PlcH) is a potent virulence and colonization factor that is expressed at high levels by Pseudomonas aeruginosa within the mammalian host. The phosphorylcholine liberated from phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin by PlcH is further catabolized into molecules that both support growth and further induce plcH expression. We have shown previously that the catabolism of PlcH-released choline leads to increased activity of Anr, a global transcriptional regulator that promotes biofilm formation and virulence. Here, we demonstrated the presence of a negative feedback loop in which Anr repressed plcH transcription and we proposed that this regulation allowed for PlcH levels to be maintained in a way that promotes productive host-pathogen interactions. Evidence for Anr-mediated regulation of PlcH came from data showing that growth at low oxygen (1%) repressed PlcH abundance and plcH transcription in the WT, and that plcH transcription was enhanced in an Δanr mutant. The plcH promoter featured an Anr consensus sequence that was conserved across all P. aeruginosa genomes and mutation of conserved nucleotides within the Anr consensus sequence increased plcH expression under hypoxic conditions. The Anr-regulated transcription factor Dnr was not required for this effect. The loss of Anr was not sufficient to completely derepress plcH transcription as GbdR, a positive regulator of plcH, was required for expression. Overexpression of Anr was sufficient to repress plcH transcription even at 21 % oxygen. Anr repressed plcH expression and phospholipase C activity in a cell culture model for P. aeruginosa-epithelial cell interactions. The Authors.

  3. Salmonella promotes virulence by repressing cellulose production

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Mauricio H.; Lee, Eun-Jin; Choi, Jeongjoon; Groisman, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. In bacteria, cellulose confers protection against environmental insults and is a constituent of biofilms typically formed on abiotic surfaces. We report that, surprisingly, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium makes cellulose when inside macrophages. We determine that preventing cellulose synthesis increases virulence, whereas stimulation of cellulose synthesis inside macrophages decreases virulence. An attenuated mutant lacking the mgtC gene exhibited increased cellulose levels due to increased expression of the cellulose synthase gene bcsA and of cyclic diguanylate, the allosteric activator of the BcsA protein. Inactivation of bcsA restored wild-type virulence to the Salmonella mgtC mutant, but not to other attenuated mutants displaying a wild-type phenotype regarding cellulose. Our findings indicate that a virulence determinant can promote pathogenicity by repressing a pathogen's antivirulence trait. Moreover, they suggest that controlling antivirulence traits increases long-term pathogen fitness by mediating a trade-off between acute virulence and transmission. PMID:25848006

  4. Acoustic Levitator Maintains Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Gaspar, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    Transducer loading characteristics allow resonance tracked at high temperature. Acoustic-levitation chamber length automatically adjusted to maintain resonance at constant acoustic frequency as temperature changes. Developed for containerless processing of materials at high temperatures, system does not rely on microphones as resonance sensors, since microphones are difficult to fabricate for use at temperatures above 500 degrees C. Instead, system uses acoustic transducer itself as sensor.

  5. Seamless service: maintaining momentum.

    PubMed

    Grinstead, N; Timoney, R

    1994-01-01

    Describes the process used by the Mater Infirmorum Hospital in Belfast in 1992-1994 to achieve high quality care (Seamless Service), motivate staff to deliver and measure performance. Aims of the project include focusing the organization on the customer, improving teamwork and motivation at all levels. After comprehensive data collection from GPs, patients and staff management forums developed a full TQM strategy to gain support and maintain momentum including innovative staff events (every staff member was given the opportunity to attend) where multilevel, multidisciplinary workshops enabled staff to design customer care standards, develop teams and lead customer-driven change.

  6. Reagan: Maintain Antarctic program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan has decided that the United States should maintain an ‘active and influential presence’ in Antarctica to support the nation's interests. Following a review of a study by the Antarctica Policy Group, Reagan issued a memorandum, dated February 5, to the heads of 14 government agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Office of Science and Technology Policy, and the Office of Management and Budget.The U.S. presence in Antarctica ‘shall include the conduct of scientific activities in major disciplines; year-round occupation of the South Pole and two coastal stations; and availability of related necessary logistics support,’ wrote the President. In addition, NSF should continue to budget for the entire U.S. program in Antarctica. Short-term programs by other agencies require the recommendation of the Antarctica Policy Group and should be coordinated within the framework of NSF logistics support.

  7. Active and Repressive Chromatin-Associated Proteome after MPA Treatment and the Role of Midkine in Epithelial Monolayer Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Niamat; Lenz, Christof; Binder, Lutz; Pantakani, Dasaradha Venkata Krishna; Asif, Abdul R.

    2016-01-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is prescribed to maintain allografts in organ-transplanted patients. However, gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly diarrhea, are frequently observed as a side effect following MPA therapy. We recently reported that MPA altered the tight junction (TJ)-mediated barrier function in a Caco-2 cell monolayer model system. This study investigates whether MPA induces epigenetic changes which lead to GI complications, especially diarrhea. Methods: We employed a Chromatin Immunoprecipitation-O-Proteomics (ChIP-O-Proteomics) approach to identify proteins associated with active (H3K4me3) as well as repressive (H3K27me3) chromatin histone modifications in MPA-treated cells, and further characterized the role of midkine, a H3K4me3-associated protein, in the context of epithelial monolayer permeability. Results: We identified a total of 333 and 306 proteins associated with active and repressive histone modification marks, respectively. Among them, 241 proteins were common both in active and repressive chromatin, 92 proteins were associated exclusively with the active histone modification mark, while 65 proteins remained specific to repressive chromatin. Our results show that 45 proteins which bind to the active and seven proteins which bind to the repressive chromatin region exhibited significantly altered abundance in MPA-treated cells as compared to DMSO control cells. A number of novel proteins whose function is not known in bowel barrier regulation were among the identified proteins, including midkine. Our functional integrity assays on the Caco-2 cell monolayer showed that the inhibition of midkine expression prior to MPA treatment could completely block the MPA-mediated increase in barrier permeability. Conclusions: The ChIP-O-Proteomics approach delivered a number of novel proteins with potential implications in MPA toxicity. Consequently, it can be proposed that midkine inhibition could be a potent therapeutic approach to prevent the

  8. Maintaining proper dental records.

    PubMed

    Leeuw, Wilhemina

    2014-01-01

    Referred to as Standard of Care, the legal duty of a dentist requires exercising the degree of skill and care that would be exhibited by other prudent dentists faced with the same patient-care situation. Primarily, the goal of keeping good dental records is to maintain continuity of care. Diligent and complete documentation and charting procedures are essential to fulfilling the Standard of Care. Secondly, because dental records are considered legal documents they help protect the interest of the dentist and/or the patient by establishing the details of the services rendered. Patients today are better educated and more assertive than ever before and dentists must be equipped to protect themselves against malpractice claims. Every record component must be handled as if it could be summoned to a court room and scrutinized by an attorney, judge or jury. Complete, accurate, objective and honest entries in a patient record are the only way to defend against any clinical and/or legal problems that might arise. Most medical and dental malpractice claims arise from an unfavorable interaction with the dentist and not from a poor treatment outcome. By implementing the suggestions mentioned in this course, dental health care professionals can minimize the legal risks associated with the delivery of dental care to promote greater understanding for patients of their rights and privileges to their complete record.

  9. Targeted manipulation of leaf form via local growth repression.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Robert; Kasprzewska, Ania; Fleming, Andrew J

    2011-06-01

    A classical view is that leaf shape is the result of local promotion of growth linked to cell proliferation. However, an alternative hypothesis is that leaf form is the result of local repression of growth in an otherwise growing system. Here we show that leaf form can indeed be manipulated in a directed fashion by local repression of growth. We show that targeting expression of an inhibitor of a cyclin-dependent kinase (KRP1) to the sinus area of developing leaves of Arabidopsis leads to local growth repression and the formation of organs with extreme lobing, including generation of leaflet-like organs. Directing KRP1 expression to other regions of the leaf using an miRNA target sequence tagging approach also leads to predictable novel leaf forms, and repression of growth in the leaf margin blocks the outgrowth of lobes, leading to a smoother perimeter. In addition, we show that decreased growth around the perimeter and across the leaf abaxial surface leads to a change in 3D form, as predicted by mechanical models of leaf growth. Our analysis provides experimental evidence that local repression of growth influences leaf shape, suggesting that it could be part of the mechanism of morphogenesis in plants in the context of an otherwise growing system. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Ethical issues in the search for repressed memories.

    PubMed

    Merskey, H

    1996-01-01

    Currently, concepts of repression and dissociation are in flux. It has been pointed out that there is no scientific evidence for the occurrence of repression and that the whole notion is anecdotal. Dissociation, which is offered as an alternative to repression, cannot logically be held to operate without a motive force, as Freud argued, or a weakness of the organism, as Janet proposed. The concepts have been applied particularly to the idea that early childhood experience could be repressed but recovered many years later. This claim is at variance with established knowledge concerning human memory. Practices of subtle and overt suggestion, employed in recovered-memory treatments, give rise to a false-memory syndrome in which individuals, who have undergone various levels of suggestion, accuse their parents and others of childhood sexual abuse. The common phenomenon of childhood sexual abuse is contaminated by many cases that may be regarded on strong grounds as being false and have been retracted in more than 1,000 instances. Repressed-memory (RM) treatment is also at variance with traditional psychotherapy, which does not encourage confrontation on the basis of uncorroborated information; moreover, many cases of RM therapy seem to result in deterioration. Unlike traditional psychotherapy, some RM practitioners strongly encourage patients to hate individuals in their family circle. The consequences of these developments, the need for informed consent, and the development of legislative initiatives to challenge RM therapy are noted. The impact of these therapies and proposed legislation upon regular psychotherapy and psychiatry is outlined.

  11. CDC20 maintains tumor initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qi; Wu, Qiulian; Mack, Stephen C.; Yang, Kailin; Kim, Leo; Hubert, Christopher G.; Flavahan, William A.; Chu, Chengwei; Bao, Shideng; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most prevalent and lethal primary intrinsic brain tumor. Glioblastoma displays hierarchical arrangement with a population of self-renewing and tumorigenic glioma tumor initiating cells (TICs), or cancer stem cells. While non-neoplastic neural stem cells are generally quiescent, glioblastoma TICs are often proliferative with mitotic control offering a potential point of fragility. Here, we interrogate the role of cell-division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), an essential activator of anaphase-promoting complex (APC) E3 ubiquitination ligase, in the maintenance of TICs. By chromatin analysis and immunoblotting, CDC20 was preferentially expressed in TICs relative to matched non-TICs. Targeting CDC20 expression by RNA interference attenuated TIC proliferation, self-renewal and in vivo tumor growth. CDC20 disruption mediated its effects through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle progression. CDC20 maintains TICs through degradation of p21CIP1/WAF1, a critical negative regulator of TICs. Inhibiting CDC20 stabilized p21CIP1/WAF1, resulting in repression of several genes critical to tumor growth and survival, including CDC25C, c-Myc and Survivin. Transcriptional control of CDC20 is mediated by FOXM1, a central transcription factor in TICs. These results suggest CDC20 is a critical regulator of TIC proliferation and survival, linking two key TIC nodes – FOXM1 and p21CIP1/WAF1 — elucidating a potential point for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25938542

  12. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  13. Allele-specific DNA methylation and its interplay with repressive histone marks at promoter-mutant TERT genes

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Josh Lewis; Paucek, Richard D.; Huang, Franklin W.; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Nwumeh, Ronald; Costello, James C.; Cech, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY A mutation in the promoter of the Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT) gene is the most frequent noncoding mutation in cancer. The mutation drives unusual monoallelic expression of TERT, allowing immortalization. Here we find that DNA methylation of the TERT CpG Island (CGI) is also allele-specific in multiple cancers. The expressed allele is hypomethylated, which is opposite to cancers without TERT promoter mutations. The continued presence of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) on the inactive allele suggests that histone marks of repressed chromatin may be causally linked to high DNA methylation. Consistent with this hypothesis, TERT promoter DNA containing 5-methyl-CpG has much increased affinity for PRC2 in vitro. Thus, CpG methylation and histone marks appear to collaborate to maintain the two TERT alleles in different epigenetic states in TERT promoter-mutant cancers. Finally, in several cancers DNA methylation levels at the TERT CGI correlate with altered patient survival. PMID:29281820

  14. Feedback repression is required for mammalian circadian clock function.

    PubMed

    Sato, Trey K; Yamada, Rikuhiro G; Ukai, Hideki; Baggs, Julie E; Miraglia, Loren J; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Welsh, David K; Kay, Steve A; Ueda, Hiroki R; Hogenesch, John B

    2006-03-01

    Direct evidence for the requirement of transcriptional feedback repression in circadian clock function has been elusive. Here, we developed a molecular genetic screen in mammalian cells to identify mutants of the circadian transcriptional activators CLOCK and BMAL1, which were uncoupled from CRYPTOCHROME (CRY)-mediated transcriptional repression. Notably, mutations in the PER-ARNT-SIM domain of CLOCK and the C terminus of BMAL1 resulted in synergistic insensitivity through reduced physical interactions with CRY. Coexpression of these mutant proteins in cultured fibroblasts caused arrhythmic phenotypes in population and single-cell assays. These data demonstrate that CRY-mediated repression of the CLOCK/BMAL1 complex activity is required for maintenance of circadian rhythmicity and provide formal proof that transcriptional feedback is required for mammalian clock function.

  15. Two cis elements collaborate to spatially repress transcription from a sea urchin promoter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frudakis, T. N.; Wilt, F.

    1995-01-01

    The expression pattern of many territory-specific genes in metazoan embryos is maintained by an active process of negative spatial regulation. However, the mechanism of this strategy of gene regulation is not well understood in any system. Here we show that reporter constructs containing regulatory sequence for the SM30-alpha gene of Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus are expressed in a pattern congruent with that of the endogenous SM30 gene(s), largely as a result of active transcriptional repression in cell lineages in which the gene is not normally expressed. Chloramphenicol acetyl transferase assays of deletion constructs from the 2600-bp upstream region showed that repressive elements were present in the region from -1628 to -300. In situ hybridization analysis showed that the spatial fidelity of expression was severely compromised when the region from -1628 to -300 was deleted. Two highly repetitive sequence motifs, (G/A/C)CCCCT and (T/C)(T/A/C)CTTTT(T/A/C), are present in the -1628 to -300 region. Representatives of these elements were analyzed by gel mobility shift experiments and were found to interact specifically with protein in crude nuclear extracts. When oligonucleotides containing either sequence element were co-injected with a correctly regulated reporter as potential competitors, the reporter was expressed in inappropriate cells. When composite oligonucleotides, containing both sequence elements, were fused to a misregulated reporter, the expression of the reporter in inappropriate cells was suppressed. Comparison of composite oligonucleotides with oligonucleotides containing single constituent elements show that both sequence elements are required for effective spatial regulation. Thus, both individual elements are required, but only a composite element containing both elements is sufficient to function as a tissue-specific repressive element.

  16. Progesterone and the Repression of Myometrial Inflammation: The Roles of MKP-1 and the AP-1 System

    PubMed Central

    Lei, K.; Georgiou, E. X.; Chen, L.; Yulia, A.; Sooranna, S. R.; Brosens, J. J.; Bennett, P. R.

    2015-01-01

    Progesterone (P4) maintains uterine quiescence during pregnancy and its functional withdrawal is associated with increased prostaglandin synthesis and the onset of labor. In primary human myometrial cells, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) rather than the P4 receptor mediates P4 antagonism of IL-1β-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, the rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin synthesis. We now report that P4 also acts via GR to induce MAPK phosphatase (MKP)-1 and knockdown of MKP-1 impairs the ability of P4 to repress IL-1β-dependent COX-2 induction. Microarray analysis revealed that P4 repressed preferentially activator protein-1-responsive genes in response to IL-1β. Consistent with these observations, we found that the ability of P4 to reduce c-Jun activation was lost upon GR as well as MKP-1 knockdown. Interestingly, c-Jun levels in human myometrial cells declined upon GR and MKP-1 knockdown, which suggests the presence of an activator protein-1 feedback loop. This is supported by our observation that c-Jun levels declined after an initial rise in primary myometrial cells treated with phorbol 12-myrisatate 13-acetate, a potent activator of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Finally, we show that MKP-1 is an intermediate in P4-mediated repression of some but not all IL-1β-responsive genes. For example, P4 repression of IL11 and IRAK3 was maintained upon MKP-1 knockdown. Taken together, the data show that P4 acts via GR to drive MKP-1 expression, which in turn inhibits IL-1β-dependent c-Jun activation and COX-2 expression. PMID:26280733

  17. MOF-associated complexes ensure stem cell identity and Xist repression

    PubMed Central

    Chelmicki, Tomasz; Dündar, Friederike; Ramírez, Fidel; Gendrel, Anne-Valerie; Wright, Patrick Rudolf; Videm, Pavankumar; Backofen, Rolf; Heard, Edith; Manke, Thomas; Akhtar, Asifa

    2014-01-01

    Histone acetyl transferases (HATs) play distinct roles in many cellular processes and are frequently misregulated in cancers. Here, we study the regulatory potential of MYST1-(MOF)-containing MSL and NSL complexes in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and neuronal progenitors. We find that both complexes influence transcription by targeting promoters and TSS-distal enhancers. In contrast to flies, the MSL complex is not exclusively enriched on the X chromosome, yet it is crucial for mammalian X chromosome regulation as it specifically regulates Tsix, the major repressor of Xist lncRNA. MSL depletion leads to decreased Tsix expression, reduced REX1 recruitment, and consequently, enhanced accumulation of Xist and variable numbers of inactivated X chromosomes during early differentiation. The NSL complex provides additional, Tsix-independent repression of Xist by maintaining pluripotency. MSL and NSL complexes therefore act synergistically by using distinct pathways to ensure a fail-safe mechanism for the repression of X inactivation in ESCs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02024.001 PMID:24842875

  18. MiR-133 promotes cardiac reprogramming by directly repressing Snai1 and silencing fibroblast signatures.

    PubMed

    Muraoka, Naoto; Yamakawa, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Kazutaka; Sadahiro, Taketaro; Umei, Tomohiko; Isomi, Mari; Nakashima, Hanae; Akiyama, Mizuha; Wada, Rie; Inagawa, Kohei; Nishiyama, Takahiko; Kaneda, Ruri; Fukuda, Toru; Takeda, Shu; Tohyama, Shugo; Hashimoto, Hisayuki; Kawamura, Yoshifumi; Goshima, Naoki; Aeba, Ryo; Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Keiichi; Ieda, Masaki

    2014-07-17

    Fibroblasts can be directly reprogrammed into cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs) by overexpression of cardiac transcription factors or microRNAs. However, induction of functional cardiomyocytes is inefficient, and molecular mechanisms of direct reprogramming remain undefined. Here, we demonstrate that addition of miR-133a (miR-133) to Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT) or GMT plus Mesp1 and Myocd improved cardiac reprogramming from mouse or human fibroblasts by directly repressing Snai1, a master regulator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. MiR-133 overexpression with GMT generated sevenfold more beating iCMs from mouse embryonic fibroblasts and shortened the duration to induce beating cells from 30 to 10 days, compared to GMT alone. Snai1 knockdown suppressed fibroblast genes, upregulated cardiac gene expression, and induced more contracting iCMs with GMT transduction, recapitulating the effects of miR-133 overexpression. In contrast, overexpression of Snai1 in GMT/miR-133-transduced cells maintained fibroblast signatures and inhibited generation of beating iCMs. MiR-133-mediated Snai1 repression was also critical for cardiac reprogramming in adult mouse and human cardiac fibroblasts. Thus, silencing fibroblast signatures, mediated by miR-133/Snai1, is a key molecular roadblock during cardiac reprogramming. © 2014 The Authors.

  19. MiR-133 promotes cardiac reprogramming by directly repressing Snai1 and silencing fibroblast signatures

    PubMed Central

    Muraoka, Naoto; Yamakawa, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Kazutaka; Sadahiro, Taketaro; Umei, Tomohiko; Isomi, Mari; Nakashima, Hanae; Akiyama, Mizuha; Wada, Rie; Inagawa, Kohei; Nishiyama, Takahiko; Kaneda, Ruri; Fukuda, Toru; Takeda, Shu; Tohyama, Shugo; Hashimoto, Hisayuki; Kawamura, Yoshifumi; Goshima, Naoki; Aeba, Ryo; Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Keiichi; Ieda, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblasts can be directly reprogrammed into cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs) by overexpression of cardiac transcription factors or microRNAs. However, induction of functional cardiomyocytes is inefficient, and molecular mechanisms of direct reprogramming remain undefined. Here, we demonstrate that addition of miR-133a (miR-133) to Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT) or GMT plus Mesp1 and Myocd improved cardiac reprogramming from mouse or human fibroblasts by directly repressing Snai1, a master regulator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. MiR-133 overexpression with GMT generated sevenfold more beating iCMs from mouse embryonic fibroblasts and shortened the duration to induce beating cells from 30 to 10 days, compared to GMT alone. Snai1 knockdown suppressed fibroblast genes, upregulated cardiac gene expression, and induced more contracting iCMs with GMT transduction, recapitulating the effects of miR-133 overexpression. In contrast, overexpression of Snai1 in GMT/miR-133-transduced cells maintained fibroblast signatures and inhibited generation of beating iCMs. MiR-133-mediated Snai1 repression was also critical for cardiac reprogramming in adult mouse and human cardiac fibroblasts. Thus, silencing fibroblast signatures, mediated by miR-133/Snai1, is a key molecular roadblock during cardiac reprogramming. PMID:24920580

  20. Repressive Tolerance and the Practice of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Herbert Marcuse's concept of repressive tolerance argues that behind the justification of tolerance lies the possibility of ideological domination. Tolerance allows intolerable practices to go unchallenged and flattens discussion to assume all viewpoints have equal validity. When alternative, dissenting views are inserted into the curriculum…

  1. The Perils of Repressive Tolerance in Music Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrine, William M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, philosophers of music education have called for a greater degree of political engagement by music education practitioners. Using Marcuse's discussion of "repressive tolerance" as a conceptual framework, I argue that a politicized curriculum in music education works against the liberal ideas of free speech and a free…

  2. Intellectual Performance as a Function of Repression and Menstrual Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others

    Performance on complex (Space Relations and Verbal Reasoning) and simple (Digit Symbol) tests was investigated as a function of Byrne's Repression-Sensitization (RS) dimension, phase of menstrual cycle and premenstrual-menstrual (PM) symptomatology in a group of females not taking oral contraceptives. Two control groups, consisting of males and…

  3. MyoR Modulates Cardiac Conduction by Repressing Gata4

    PubMed Central

    Harris, John P.; Bhakta, Minoti; Bezprozvannaya, Svetlana; Wang, Lin; Lubczyk, Christina; Olson, Eric N.

    2014-01-01

    The cardiac conduction system coordinates electrical activation through a series of interconnected structures, including the atrioventricular node (AVN), the central connection point that delays impulse propagation to optimize cardiac performance. Although recent studies have uncovered important molecular details of AVN formation, relatively little is known about the transcriptional mechanisms that regulate AV delay, the primary function of the mature AVN. We identify here MyoR as a novel transcription factor expressed in Cx30.2+ cells of the AVN. We show that MyoR specifically inhibits a Cx30.2 enhancer required for AVN-specific gene expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MyoR interacts directly with Gata4 to mediate transcriptional repression. Our studies reveal that MyoR contains two nonequivalent repression domains. While the MyoR C-terminal repression domain inhibits transcription in a context-dependent manner, the N-terminal repression domain can function in a heterologous context to convert the Hand2 activator into a repressor. In addition, we show that genetic deletion of MyoR in mice increases Cx30.2 expression by 50% and prolongs AV delay by 13%. Taken together, we conclude that MyoR modulates a Gata4-dependent regulatory circuit that establishes proper AV delay, and these findings may have wider implications for the variability of cardiac rhythm observed in the general population. PMID:25487574

  4. Repression of the Low Affinity Iron Transporter Gene FET4

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Soraia M.; Menezes, Regina; Amaral, Catarina; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina; Pimentel, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is a well known mutagenic metal that can enter cells via nonspecific metal transporters, causing several cellular damages and eventually leading to death. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factor Yap1 plays a key role in the regulation of several genes involved in metal stress response. We have previously shown that Yap1 represses the expression of FET4, a gene encoding a low affinity iron transporter able to transport metals other than iron. Here, we have studied the relevance of this repression in cell tolerance to cadmium. Our results indicate that genomic deletion of Yap1 increases FET4 transcript and protein levels. In addition, the cadmium toxicity exhibited by this strain is completely reversed by co-deletion of FET4 gene. These data correlate well with the increased intracellular levels of cadmium observed in the mutant yap1. Rox1, a well known aerobic repressor of hypoxic genes, conveys the Yap1-mediated repression of FET4. We further show that, in a scenario where the activity of Yap1 or Rox1 is compromised, cells activate post-transcriptional mechanisms, involving the exoribonuclease Xrn1, to compensate the derepression of FET4. Our data thus reveal a novel protection mechanism against cadmium toxicity mediated by Yap1 that relies on the aerobic repression of FET4 and results in the impairment of cadmium uptake. PMID:26063801

  5. Countertransference in working with victims of political repression.

    PubMed

    Comas-Díaz, L; Padilla, A M

    1990-01-01

    The countertransferential reactions of psychotherapists working in a threatening environment with victims of political repression are described. Via case studies based on clinical consultation and direct testimony, this paper examines the effects on Chilean therapists living and working in that country. It is suggested that these clinical observations may have application to therapeutic work with victims in other stressful settings.

  6. State Repression and its Effects on Civil Conflict, Socio-Economic Outcomes, and Leadership Tenure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    feedback loop: how citizens respond peacefully or violently influences the type of repression rulers employ. How rulers use repression influences how and...whether citizens protest. Moreover, how rulers respond to their citizens may influence leadership duration. Obviously, the relationship among repression...US (and allied) officials may want policy options to influence rulers who are becoming increasingly repressive (as in Turkey and Egypt) or leaders who

  7. A WUSCHEL-Independent Stem Cell Specification Pathway Is Repressed by PHB, PHV and CNA in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chunghee; Clark, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    The homeostatic maintenance of stem cells that carry out continuous organogenesis at the shoot meristem is crucial for plant development. Key known factors act to signal between the stem cells and an underlying group of cells thought to act as the stem cell niche. In Arabidopsis thaliana the homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) is essential for stem cell initiation and maintenance at shoot and flower meristems. Recent data suggest that the WUS protein may move from the niche cells directly into the stem cells to maintain stem cell identity. Here we provide evidence for a second, previously unknown, pathway for stem cell specification at shoot and flower meristems that bypasses the requirement for WUS. We demonstrate that this novel stem cell specification pathway is normally repressed by the activity of the HD-zip III transcription factors PHABULOSA (PHB), PHAVOLUTA (PHV) and CORONA (CNA). When de-repressed, this second stem cell pathway leads to an accumulation of stem cells and an enlargement of the stem cell niche. When de-repressed in a wus mutant background, this second stem cell pathway leads to functional meristems with largely normal cell layering and meristem morphology, activation of WUS cis regulatory elements, and extensive, but not indeterminate, organogenesis. Thus, WUS is largely dispensable for stem cell specification and meristem function, suggesting a set of key stem cell specification factors, competitively regulated by WUS and PHB/PHV/CNA, remain unidentified. PMID:26011610

  8. A WUSCHEL-Independent Stem Cell Specification Pathway Is Repressed by PHB, PHV and CNA in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chunghee; Clark, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    The homeostatic maintenance of stem cells that carry out continuous organogenesis at the shoot meristem is crucial for plant development. Key known factors act to signal between the stem cells and an underlying group of cells thought to act as the stem cell niche. In Arabidopsis thaliana the homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) is essential for stem cell initiation and maintenance at shoot and flower meristems. Recent data suggest that the WUS protein may move from the niche cells directly into the stem cells to maintain stem cell identity. Here we provide evidence for a second, previously unknown, pathway for stem cell specification at shoot and flower meristems that bypasses the requirement for WUS. We demonstrate that this novel stem cell specification pathway is normally repressed by the activity of the HD-zip III transcription factors PHABULOSA (PHB), PHAVOLUTA (PHV) and CORONA (CNA). When de-repressed, this second stem cell pathway leads to an accumulation of stem cells and an enlargement of the stem cell niche. When de-repressed in a wus mutant background, this second stem cell pathway leads to functional meristems with largely normal cell layering and meristem morphology, activation of WUS cis regulatory elements, and extensive, but not indeterminate, organogenesis. Thus, WUS is largely dispensable for stem cell specification and meristem function, suggesting a set of key stem cell specification factors, competitively regulated by WUS and PHB/PHV/CNA, remain unidentified.

  9. Convergent evolution of chromatin modification by structurally distinct enzymes: comparative enzymology of histone H3 Lys²⁷ methylation by human polycomb repressive complex 2 and vSET.

    PubMed

    Swalm, Brooke M; Hallenbeck, Kenneth K; Majer, Christina R; Jin, Lei; Scott, Margaret Porter; Moyer, Mikel P; Copeland, Robert A; Wigle, Tim J

    2013-07-15

    H3K27 (histone H3 Lys27) methylation is an important epigenetic modification that regulates gene transcription. In humans, EZH (enhancer of zeste homologue) 1 and EZH2 are the only enzymes capable of catalysing methylation of H3K27. There is great interest in understanding structure-function relationships for EZH2, as genetic alterations in this enzyme are thought to play a causal role in a number of human cancers. EZH2 is challenging to study because it is only active in the context of the multi-subunit PRC2 (polycomb repressive complex 2). vSET is a viral lysine methyltransferase that represents the smallest protein unit capable of catalysing H3K27 methylation. The crystal structure of this minimal catalytic protein has been solved and researchers have suggested that vSET might prove useful as an EZH2 surrogate for the development of active site-directed inhibitors. To test this proposition, we conducted comparative enzymatic analysis of human EZH2 and vSET and report that, although both enzymes share similar preferences for methylation of H3K27, they diverge in terms of their permissiveness for catalysing methylation of alternative histone lysine sites, their relative preferences for utilization of multimeric macromolecular substrates, their active site primary sequences and, most importantly, their sensitivity to inhibition by drug-like small molecules. The cumulative data led us to suggest that EZH2 and vSET have very distinct active site structures, despite the commonality of the reaction catalysed by the two enzymes. Hence, the EZH2 and vSET pair of enzymes represent an example of convergent evolution in which distinct structural solutions have developed to solve a common catalytic need.

  10. Glucocorticoid Repression of Inflammatory Gene Expression Shows Differential Responsiveness by Transactivation- and Transrepression-Dependent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    King, Elizabeth M.; Chivers, Joanna E.; Rider, Christopher F.; Minnich, Anne; Giembycz, Mark A.; Newton, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Binding of glucocorticoid to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR/NR3C1) may repress inflammatory gene transcription via direct, protein synthesis-independent processes (transrepression), or by activating transcription (transactivation) of multiple anti-inflammatory/repressive factors. Using human pulmonary A549 cells, we showed that 34 out of 39 IL-1β-inducible mRNAs were repressed to varying degrees by the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone. Whilst these repressive effects were GR-dependent, they did not correlate with either the magnitude of IL-1β-inducibility or the NF-κB-dependence of the inflammatory genes. This suggests that induction by IL-1β and repression by dexamethasone are independent events. Roles for transactivation were investigated using the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. However, cycloheximide reduced the IL-1β-dependent expression of 13 mRNAs, which, along with the 5 not showing repression by dexamethasone, were not analysed further. Of the remaining 21 inflammatory mRNAs, cycloheximide significantly attenuated the dexamethasone-dependent repression of 11 mRNAs that also showed a marked time-dependence to their repression. Such effects are consistent with repression occurring via the de novo synthesis of a new product, or products, which subsequently cause repression (i.e., repression via a transactivation mechanism). Conversely, 10 mRNAs showed completely cycloheximide-independent, and time-independent, repression by dexamethasone. This is consistent with direct GR transrepression. Importantly, the inflammatory mRNAs showing attenuated repression by dexamethasone in the presence of cycloheximide also showed a significantly greater extent of repression and a higher potency to dexamethasone compared to those mRNAs showing cycloheximide-independent repression. This suggests that the repression of inflammatory mRNAs by GR transactivation-dependent mechanisms accounts for the greatest levels of repression and the most potent

  11. Repression of harmful meiotic recombination in centromeric regions

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Mridula; Smith, Gerald R.

    2016-01-01

    During the first division of meiosis, segregation of homologous chromosomes reduces the chromosome number by half. In most species, sister chromatid cohesion and reciprocal recombination (crossing-over) between homologous chromosomes are essential to provide tension to signal proper chromosome segregation during the first meiotic division. Crossovers are not distributed uniformly throughout the genome and are repressed at and near the centromeres. Rare crossovers that occur too near or in the centromere interfere with proper segregation and can give rise to aneuploid progeny, which can be severely defective or inviable. We review here how crossing-over occurs and how it is prevented in and around the centromeres. Molecular mechanisms of centromeric repression are only now being elucidated. However, rapid advances in understanding crossing-over, chromosome structure, and centromere functions promise to explain how potentially deleterious crossovers are avoided in certain chromosomal regions while allowing beneficial crossovers in others. PMID:26849908

  12. The transcription factor DREAM represses A20 and mediates inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tiruppathi, Chinnaswamy; Soni, Dheeraj; Wang, Dong-Mei; Xue, Jiaping; Singh, Vandana; Thippegowda, Prabhakar B.; Cheppudira, Bopaiah P.; Mishra, Rakesh K.; DebRoy, Auditi; Qian, Zhijian; Bachmaier, Kurt; Zhao, Youyang; Christman, John W.; Vogel, Stephen M.; Ma, Averil; Malik, Asrar B.

    2014-01-01

    Here we show that the transcription-repressor DREAM binds to the A20 promoter to repress the expression of A20, the deubiquitinase suppressing inflammatory NF-κB signaling. DREAM-deficient (Dream−/−) mice displayed persistent and unchecked A20 expression in response to endotoxin. DREAM functioned by transcriptionally repressing A20 through binding to downstream regulatory elements (DREs). In contrast, USF1 binding to the DRE-associated E-box domain activated A20 expression in response to inflammatory stimuli. These studies define the critical opposing functions of DREAM and USF1 in inhibiting and inducing A20 expression, respectively, and thereby the strength of NF-κB signaling. Targeting of DREAM to induce USF1-mediated A20 expression is therefore a potential anti-inflammatory strategy in diseases such as acute lung injury associated with unconstrained NF-κB activity. PMID:24487321

  13. Repressive coping and alexithymia in idiopathic environmental intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Elberling, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI). Methods The study included participants who had previously participated in a general population-based study and reported symptoms of environmental intolerance (n = 787) and patients with IEI (n = 237). The participants completed questionnaires assessing IEI, namely, a measure of repressive coping combining scores on the Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS) and the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and a negative affectivity scale (NAS). Multiple, hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted using IEI variables as the dependent variables. Results The TMAS and MCSDS scores were independently associated with the IEI variables, but there was no evidence of a role of the repressive coping construct. While the total alexithymia score was unrelated to IEI, the TAS-20 subscale of difficulties identifying feelings (DIF) was independently associated with symptoms attributed to IEI. Negative affectivity was a strong independent predictor of the IEI variables and a mediator of the association between DIF and IEI. Conclusion Our results provide no evidence for a role of repressive coping in IEI, and our hypothesis of an association with alexithymia was only partly supported. In contrast, strong associations between IEI and negative emotional reactions, defensiveness and difficulties identifying feelings were found, suggesting a need for exploring the influence of these emotional reactions in IEI. PMID:21432559

  14. Revisiting the Master-Signifier, or, Mandela and Repression.

    PubMed

    Hook, Derek; Vanheule, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    The concept of the master-signifier has been subject to a variety of applications in Lacanian forms of political discourse theory and ideology critique. While there is much to be commended in literature of this sort, it often neglects salient issues pertaining to the role of master signifiers in the clinical domain of (individual) psychical economy. The popularity of the concept of the master (or "empty") signifier in political discourse analysis has thus proved a double-edged sword. On the one hand it demonstrates how crucial psychical processes are performed via the operations of the signifier, extending thus the Lacanian thesis that identification is the outcome of linguistic and symbolic as opposed to merely psychological processes. On the other, the use of the master signifier concept within the political realm to track discursive formations tends to distance the term from the dynamics of the unconscious and operation of repression. Accordingly, this paper revisits the master signifier concept, and does so within the socio-political domain, yet while paying particular attention to the functioning of unconscious processes of fantasy and repression. More specifically, it investigates how Nelson Mandela operates as a master signifier in contemporary South Africa, as a vital means of knitting together diverse elements of post-apartheid society, enabling the fantasy of the post-apartheid nation, and holding at bay a whole series of repressed and negated undercurrents.

  15. CIP, a cardiac Isl1-interacting protein, represses cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhan-Peng; Seok, Hee Young; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Jinghai; Chen, Jian-Fu; Tao, Yazhong; Pu, William T.; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Mammalian heart has minimal regenerative capacity. In response to mechanical or pathological stress, the heart undergoes cardiac remodeling. Pressure and volume overload in the heart cause increased size (hypertrophic growth) of cardiomyocytes. Whereas the regulatory pathways that activate cardiac hypertrophy have been well established, the molecular events that inhibit or repress cardiac hypertrophy are less known. Objective To identify and investigate novel regulators that modulate cardiac hypertrophy. Methods and Results Here, we report the identification, characterization and functional examination of CIP, a novel cardiac Isl1-interacting protein. CIP was identified from a bioinformatic search for novel cardiac-expressed genes in mouse embryonic hearts. CIP encodes a nuclear protein without recognizable motifs. Northern blotting, in situ hybridization and reporter gene tracing demonstrated that CIP is highly expressed in cardiomyocytes of developing and adult hearts. Yeast-two-hybrid screening identified Isl1, a LIM/homeodomain transcription factor essential for the specification of cardiac progenitor cells in the second heart field, as a co-factor of CIP. CIP directly interacted with Isl1 and we mapped the domains of these two proteins which mediate their interaction. We show that CIP represses the transcriptional activity of Isl1 in the activation of the MEF2C enhancer. The expression of CIP was dramatically reduced in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. Most importantly, overexpression of CIP repressed agonist-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Conclusions Our studies therefore identify CIP a novel regulator of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:22343712

  16. CIP, a cardiac Isl1-interacting protein, represses cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhan-Peng; Young Seok, Hee; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Jinghai; Chen, Jian-Fu; Tao, Yazhong; Pu, William T; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2012-03-16

    Mammalian heart has minimal regenerative capacity. In response to mechanical or pathological stress, the heart undergoes cardiac remodeling. Pressure and volume overload in the heart cause increased size (hypertrophic growth) of cardiomyocytes. Whereas the regulatory pathways that activate cardiac hypertrophy have been well-established, the molecular events that inhibit or repress cardiac hypertrophy are less known. To identify and investigate novel regulators that modulate cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we report the identification, characterization, and functional examination of a novel cardiac Isl1-interacting protein (CIP). CIP was identified from a bioinformatic search for novel cardiac-expressed genes in mouse embryonic hearts. CIP encodes a nuclear protein without recognizable motifs. Northern blotting, in situ hybridization, and reporter gene tracing demonstrated that CIP is highly expressed in cardiomyocytes of developing and adult hearts. Yeast two-hybrid screening identified Isl1, a LIM/homeodomain transcription factor essential for the specification of cardiac progenitor cells in the second heart field, as a cofactor of CIP. CIP directly interacted with Isl1, and we mapped the domains of these two proteins, which mediate their interaction. We show that CIP represses the transcriptional activity of Isl1 in the activation of the myocyte enhancer factor 2C. The expression of CIP was dramatically reduced in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. Most importantly, overexpression of CIP repressed agonist-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Our studies therefore identify CIP as a novel regulator of cardiac hypertrophy.

  17. Revisiting the Master-Signifier, or, Mandela and Repression

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Derek; Vanheule, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    The concept of the master-signifier has been subject to a variety of applications in Lacanian forms of political discourse theory and ideology critique. While there is much to be commended in literature of this sort, it often neglects salient issues pertaining to the role of master signifiers in the clinical domain of (individual) psychical economy. The popularity of the concept of the master (or “empty”) signifier in political discourse analysis has thus proved a double-edged sword. On the one hand it demonstrates how crucial psychical processes are performed via the operations of the signifier, extending thus the Lacanian thesis that identification is the outcome of linguistic and symbolic as opposed to merely psychological processes. On the other, the use of the master signifier concept within the political realm to track discursive formations tends to distance the term from the dynamics of the unconscious and operation of repression. Accordingly, this paper revisits the master signifier concept, and does so within the socio-political domain, yet while paying particular attention to the functioning of unconscious processes of fantasy and repression. More specifically, it investigates how Nelson Mandela operates as a master signifier in contemporary South Africa, as a vital means of knitting together diverse elements of post-apartheid society, enabling the fantasy of the post-apartheid nation, and holding at bay a whole series of repressed and negated undercurrents. PMID:26834664

  18. Posttranscriptional silencing of the lncRNA MALAT1 by miR-217 inhibits the epithelial–mesenchymal transition via enhancer of zeste homolog 2 in the malignant transformation of HBE cells induced by cigarette smoke extract

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Lu; Luo, Fei; Liu, Yi

    Lung cancer is regarded as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths, and cigarette smoking is one of the strongest risk factors for the development of lung cancer. However, the mechanisms for cigarette smoke-induced lung carcinogenesis remain unclear. The present study investigated the effects of an miRNA (miR-217) on levels of an lncRNA (MALAT1) and examined the role of these factors in the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. In these cells, CSE caused decreases of miR-217 levels and increases in lncRNA MALAT1 levels. Over-expression of miR-217 with a mimic attenuated themore » CSE-induced increase of MALAT1 levels, and reduction of miR-217 levels by an inhibitor enhanced expression of MALAT1. Moreover, the CSE-induced increase of MALAT1 expression was blocked by an miR-217 mimic, indicating that miR-217 negatively regulates MALAT1 expression. Knockdown of MALAT1 reversed CSE-induced increases of EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2) and H3K27me3 levels. In addition to the alteration from epithelial to spindle-like mesenchymal morphology, chronic exposure of HBE cells to CSE increased the levels of EZH2, H3K27me3, vimentin, and N-cadherin and decreased E-cadherin levels, effects that were reversed by MALAT1 siRNA or EZH2 siRNA. The results indicate that miR-217 regulation of EZH2/H3K27me3 via MALAT1 is involved in CSE-induced EMT and malignant transformation of HBE cells. The posttranscriptional silencing of MALAT1 by miR-217 provides a link, through EZH2, between ncRNAs and the EMT and establishes a mechanism for CSE-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • CSE exposure decreases miR-217 levels and increases MALAT1 levels. • miR-217 negatively regulates MALAT1 expression. • MALAT1, via EZH2, is involved in the EMT of CSE-transformed HBE cells.« less

  19. Zambian Peer Educators for HIV Self-Testing (ZEST) study: rationale and design of a cluster randomised trial of HIV self-testing among female sex workers in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Catherine E; Ortblad, Katrina F; Chanda, Michael M; Mwanda, Kalasa; Nicodemus, Wendy; Sikaundi, Rebecca; Fullem, Andrew; Barresi, Leah G; Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-04-20

    HIV testing and knowledge of status are starting points for HIV treatment and prevention interventions. Among female sex workers (FSWs), HIV testing and status knowledge remain far from universal. HIV self-testing (HIVST) is an alternative to existing testing services for FSWs, but little evidence exists how it can be effectively and safely implemented. Here, we describe the rationale and design of a cluster randomised trial designed to inform implementation and scale-up of HIVST programmes for FSWs in Zambia. The Zambian Peer Educators for HIV Self-Testing (ZEST) study is a 3-arm cluster randomised trial taking place in 3 towns in Zambia. Participants (N=900) are eligible if they are women who have exchanged sex for money or goods in the previous 1 month, are HIV negative or status unknown, have not tested for HIV in the previous 3 months, and are at least 18 years old. Participants are recruited by peer educators working in their communities. Participants are randomised to 1 of 3 arms: (1) direct distribution (in which they receive an HIVST from the peer educator directly); (2) fixed distribution (in which they receive a coupon with which to collect the HIVST from a drug store or health post) or (3) standard of care (referral to existing HIV testing services only, without any offer of HIVST). Participants are followed at 1 and 4 months following distribution of the first HIVST. The primary end point is HIV testing in the past month measured at the 1-month and 4-month visits. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health in Boston, USA and ERES Converge in Lusaka, Zambia. The findings of this trial will be presented at local, regional and international meetings and submitted to peer-reviewed journals for publication. Pre-results; NCT02827240. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. SIRT1 deacetylates RFX5 and antagonizes repression of collagen type I (COL1A2) transcription in smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Jun; Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jiangsu Provincial Hospital of Chinese Traditional Medicine; Wu, Xiaoyan

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 interacts with and deacetylates RFX5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 activation attenuates whereas SIRT1 inhibition enhances collagen repression by RFX5 in vascular smooth muscle cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 promotes cytoplasmic localization and proteasomal degradation of RFX5 and cripples promoter recruitment of RFX5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IFN-{gamma} represses SIRT1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 agonist alleviates collagen repression by IFN-{gamma} in vascular smooth muscle cells. -- Abstract: Decreased expression of collagen by vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) within the atherosclerotic plaque contributes to the thinning of the fibrous cap and poses a great threat to plaque rupture. Elucidation of the mechanismmore » underlying repressed collagen type I (COL1A2) gene would potentially provide novel solutions that can prevent rupture-induced complications. We have previously shown that regulatory factor for X-box (RFX5) binds to the COL1A2 transcription start site and represses its transcription. Here we report that SIRT1, an NAD-dependent, class III deacetylase, forms a complex with RFX5. Over-expression of SIRT1 or NAMPT, which synthesizes NAD+ to activate SIRT1, or treatment with the SIRT1 agonist resveratrol decreases RFX5 acetylation and disrupts repression of the COL1A2 promoter activity by RFX5. On the contrary, knockdown of SIRT1 or treatment with SIRT1 inhibitors induces RFX5 acetylation and enhances the repression of collagen transcription. SIRT1 antagonizes RFX5 activity by promoting its nuclear expulsion and proteasomal degradation hence dampening its binding to the COL1A2 promoter. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-{gamma} represses COL1A2 transcription by down-regulating SIRT1 expression in SMCs. Therefore, our data have identified as novel pathway whereby SIRT1 maintains collagen synthesis in SMCs by modulating RFX5 activity.« less

  1. ZEB1 limits adenoviral infectability by transcriptionally repressing the Coxsackie virus and Adenovirus Receptor

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We have previously reported that RAS-MEK (Cancer Res. 2003 May 1;63(9):2088-95) and TGF-β (Cancer Res. 2006 Feb 1;66(3):1648-57) signaling negatively regulate coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) cell-surface expression and adenovirus uptake. In the case of TGF-β, down-regulation of CAR occurred in context of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process associated with transcriptional repression of E-cadherin by, for instance, the E2 box-binding factors Snail, Slug, SIP1 or ZEB1. While EMT is crucial in embryonic development, it has been proposed to contribute to the formation of invasive and metastatic carcinomas by reducing cell-cell contacts and increasing cell migration. Results Here, we show that ZEB1 represses CAR expression in both PANC-1 (pancreatic) and MDA-MB-231 (breast) human cancer cells. We demonstrate that ZEB1 physically associates with at least one of two closely spaced and conserved E2 boxes within the minimal CAR promoter here defined as genomic region -291 to -1 relative to the translational start ATG. In agreement with ZEB1's established role as a negative regulator of the epithelial phenotype, silencing its expression in MDA-MB-231 cells induced a partial Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition (MET) characterized by increased levels of E-cadherin and CAR, and decreased expression of fibronectin. Conversely, knockdown of ZEB1 in PANC-1 cells antagonized both the TGF-β-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin and CAR and the reduction of adenovirus uptake. Interestingly, even though ZEB1 clearly contributes to the TGF-β-induced mesenchymal phenotype of PANC-1 cells, TGF-β did not seem to affect ZEB1's protein levels or subcellular localization. These findings suggest that TGF-β may inhibit CAR expression by regulating factor(s) that cooperate with ZEB1 to repress the CAR promoter, rather than by regulating ZEB1 expression levels. In addition to the negative E2 box-mediated regulation the minimal CAR promoter is

  2. Single-cell analysis of Daxx and ATRX-dependent transcriptional repression

    PubMed Central

    Newhart, Alyshia; Rafalska-Metcalf, Ilona U.; Yang, Tian; Negorev, Dmitri G.; Janicki, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Histone H3.3 is a constitutively expressed H3 variant implicated in the epigenetic inheritance of chromatin structures. Recently, the PML-nuclear body (PML-NB)/Nuclear Domain 10 (ND10) proteins, Daxx and ATRX, were found to regulate replication-independent histone H3.3 chromatin assembly at telomeres and pericentric heterochromatin. As it is not completely understood how PML-NBs/ND10s regulate transcription and resistance to viral infection, we have used a CMV-promoter-regulated inducible transgene array, at which Daxx and ATRX are enriched, to delineate the mechanisms through which they regulate transcription. When integrated into HeLa cells, which express both Daxx and ATRX, the array is refractory to activation. However, transcription can be induced when ICP0, the HSV-1 E3 ubiquitin ligase required to reverse latency, is expressed. As ATRX and Daxx are depleted from the activated array in ICP0-expressing HeLa cells, this suggests that they are required to maintain a repressed chromatin environment. As histone H3.3 is strongly recruited to the ICP0-activated array but does not co-localize with the DNA, this also suggests that chromatin assembly is blocked during activation. The conclusion that the Daxx and ATRX pathway is required for transcriptional repression and chromatin assembly at this site is further supported by the finding that an array integrated into the ATRX-negative U2OS cell line can be robustly activated and that histone H3.3 is similarly recruited and unincorporated into the chromatin. Therefore, this study has important implications for understanding gene silencing, viral latency and PML-NB/ND10 function. PMID:22976303

  3. ATF3 represses PPARγ expression and inhibits adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Min-Kyung; Jung, Myeong Ho, E-mail: jung0603@pusan.ac.kr

    Highlights: • ATF3 decrease the expression of PPARγ and its target gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • ATF3 represses the promoter activity of PPARγ2 gene. • ATF/CRE (−1537/−1530) is critical for ATF3-mediated downregulation of PPARγ. • ATF3 binds to the promoter region containing the ATF/CRE. • ER stress inhibits adipocyte differentiation through downregulation of PPARγ by ATF3. - Abstract: Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-adaptive transcription factor that mediates cellular stress response signaling. We previously reported that ATF3 represses CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) expression and inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. In this study, we explored potential role of ATF3more » in negatively regulating peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). ATF3 decreased the expression of PPARγ and its target gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ATF3 also repressed the activity of −2.6 Kb promoter of mouse PPARγ2. Overexpression of PPARγ significantly prevented the ATF3-mediated inhibition of 3T3-L1 differentiation. Transfection studies with 5′ deleted-reporters showed that ATF3 repressed the activity of −2037 bp promoter, whereas it did not affect the activity of −1458 bp promoter, suggesting that ATF3 responsive element is located between the −2037 and −1458. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that ATF3 binds to ATF/CRE site (5′-TGACGTTT-3′) between −1537 and −1530. Mutation of the ATF/CRE site abrogated ATF3-mediated transrepression of the PPARγ2 promoter. Treatment with thapsigargin, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer, increased ATF3 expression, whereas it decreased PPARγ expression. ATF3 knockdown significantly blocked the thapsigargin-mediated downregulation of PPARγ expression. Furthermore, overexpression of PPARγ prevented inhibition of 3T3-L1 differentiation by thapsigargin. Collectively, these results suggest that ATF3

  4. Blood-Brain Glucose Transfer: Repression in Chronic Hyperglycemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjedde, Albert; Crone, Christian

    1981-10-01

    Diabetic patients with increased plasma glucose concentrations may develop cerebral symptoms of hypoglycemia when their plasma glucose is rapidly lowered to normal concentrations. The symptoms may indicate insufficient transport of glucose from blood to brain. In rats with chronic hyperglycemia the maximum glucose transport capacity of the blood-brain barrier decreased from 400 to 290 micromoles per 100 grams per minute. When plasma glucose was lowered to normal values, the glucose transport rate into brain was 20 percent below normal. This suggests that repressive changes of the glucose transport mechanism occur in brain endothelial cells in response to increased plasma glucose.

  5. How social media matter: Repression and the diffusion of the Occupy Wall Street movement.

    PubMed

    Suh, Chan S; Vasi, Ion Bogdan; Chang, Paul Y

    2017-07-01

    This study explores the role played by social media in reshaping the repression-mobilization relationship. Drawing on the case of the Occupy Wall Street movement, we examine the impact of Facebook and Twitter on the spatial diffusion of protests during a period of heightened state repression. Results from event history analyses suggest that the effects of repression on protest diffusion are contingent on the presence of social media accounts supporting the movement. We find that state repression at earlier protest sites encouraged activists to create Facebook and Twitter accounts in their own cities, which then served as important vehicles for the initiation of new Occupy protests. Moreover, results suggest that repression incidents can directly facilitate future protests in cities that already have Occupy Facebook accounts. This study highlights the potential of social media to both mediate and moderate the influence of repression on the diffusion of contemporary movements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensation in a single neuron pair represses male behavior in hermaphrodites

    PubMed Central

    White, Jamie Q.; Jorgensen, Erik M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pheromones elicit innate sex-specific mating behaviors in many species. We demonstrate that in C. elegans, male-specific sexual attraction behavior is programmed in both sexes but repressed in hermaphrodites. Repression requires a single sensory neuron pair, the ASIs. To represses attraction in adults, the ASIs must be present, active, and capable of sensing the environment during development. The ASIs release TGF-β, and ASI function can be bypassed by experimental activation of TGF-β signaling. Sexual attraction in de-repressed hermaphrodites requires the same sensory neurons as in males. The sexual identity of both these sensory neurons and a distinct subset of interneurons must be male to relieve repression and release attraction. TGF-β may therefore act to change connections between sensory- and interneurons during development to engage repression. Thus, sensation in a single sensory neuron pair during development reprograms a common neural circuit from male to female behavior. PMID:22920252

  7. Maintaining Sustainability for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The promise of sustainably designed school facilities is that they will operate more efficiently and last longer than buildings constructed in more traditional ways. But that promise comes with a big if. The payoff is delivered only if the facility managers operate and maintain the buildings in ways that adhere to sustainable strategies called for…

  8. [Maintaining patients' autonomy at home].

    PubMed

    Niang, Bénédicte; Coudre, Jean Pierre

    2015-01-01

    To maintain the flow of hospital discharges, the patient's return home with support from a home nursing service is important. If any difficulties are identified, there are various programmes or good practices which can be put into place. The future law on adapting society to ageing also comprises a scheme combining home assistance and nursing care.

  9. Repression of P Element-Mediated Hybrid Dysgenesis in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, M. J.; Raymond, J. D.; Rasmusson, K. E.; Miller, L. M.; McLarnon, C. F.; Zunt, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Inbred lines derived from a strain called Sexi were analyzed for their abilities to repress P element-mediated gonadal dysgenesis. One line had high repression ability, four had intermediate ability and two had very low ability. The four intermediate lines also exhibited considerable within-line variation for this trait; furthermore, in at least two cases, this variation could not be attributed to recurring P element movement. Repression of gonadal dysgenesis in the hybrid offspring of all seven lines was due primarily to a maternal effect; there was no evidence for repression arising de novo in the hybrids themselves. In one of the lines, repression ability was inherited maternally, indicating the involvement of cytoplasmic factors. In three other lines, repression ability appeared to be determined by partially dominant or additive chromosomal factors; however, there was also evidence for a maternal effect that reduced the expression of these factors in at least two of the lines. In another line, repression ability seemed to be due to recessive chromosomal factors. All seven lines possessed numerous copies of a particular P element, called KP, which has been hypothesized to produce a polypeptide repressor of gonadal dysgenesis. This hypothesis, however, does not explain why the inbred Sexi lines varied so much in their repression abilities. It is suggested that some of this variation may be due to differences in the chromosomal position of the KP elements, or that other nonautonomous P elements are involved in the repression of hybrid dysgenesis in these lines. PMID:2155854

  10. DJ-1 activates autophagy in the repression of cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ruicong; Jiang, Jingzhou; Dong, Bin; Tan, Weiping; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Jingjing; Chen, Yili; Dong, Yugang; Liu, Chen

    2017-11-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is the risk factor of heart failure when the heart is confronted with pressure overload or neurohumoral stimuli. Autophagy, a conserved degradative pathway, is one of the important mechanisms involved in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy. DJ-1 is a traditional anti-oxidative protein and emerging evidence suggested that DJ-1 might modulate autophagy. However, the regulation of autophagy by DJ-1 in the process of cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. In our study, we firstly discovered that the expression of DJ-1declined in the process of pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy, and its alteration was parallel with the impairment of autophagy. Furthermore, we proved that DJ-1 knockout mice exhibited a more hypertrophied phenotype than wildtype mice in cardiac hypertrophy which indicated that DJ-1 is responsible for the repression of cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, DJ-1 knockout significantly exacerbated pulmonary edema due to cardiac hypertrophy. In the process of cardiac hypertrophy, DJ-1 knockout significantly impaired autophagy activation and enhanced mTORC1 and mTORC2 phosphorylation were found. Similarly, our in vitro study proved that DJ-1 overexpression ameliorated phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and promoted autophagy activation. Taken together, DJ-1 might repress both pressure overload and PE-induced cardiac hypertrophy via the activation of autophagy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. DNA residence time is a regulatory factor of transcription repression

    PubMed Central

    Clauß, Karen; Popp, Achim P.; Schulze, Lena; Hettich, Johannes; Reisser, Matthias; Escoter Torres, Laura; Uhlenhaut, N. Henriette

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Transcription comprises a highly regulated sequence of intrinsically stochastic processes, resulting in bursts of transcription intermitted by quiescence. In transcription activation or repression, a transcription factor binds dynamically to DNA, with a residence time unique to each factor. Whether the DNA residence time is important in the transcription process is unclear. Here, we designed a series of transcription repressors differing in their DNA residence time by utilizing the modular DNA binding domain of transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) and varying the number of nucleotide-recognizing repeat domains. We characterized the DNA residence times of our repressors in living cells using single molecule tracking. The residence times depended non-linearly on the number of repeat domains and differed by more than a factor of six. The factors provoked a residence time-dependent decrease in transcript level of the glucocorticoid receptor-activated gene SGK1. Down regulation of transcription was due to a lower burst frequency in the presence of long binding repressors and is in accordance with a model of competitive inhibition of endogenous activator binding. Our single molecule experiments reveal transcription factor DNA residence time as a regulatory factor controlling transcription repression and establish TALE-DNA binding domains as tools for the temporal dissection of transcription regulation. PMID:28977492

  12. Ski represses BMP signaling in Xenopus and mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    kluo@lbl.gov

    2001-05-16

    The bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in vertebrate development. In Xenopus, BMPs act as epidermal inducers and also as negative regulators of neurogenesis. Antagonism of BMP signaling results in neuralization. BMPs signal through the cell-surface receptors and downstream Smad molecules. Upon stimulation with BMP, Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 are phosphorylated by the activated BMP receptors, form a complex with Smad4, and translocate into the nucleus, where they regulate the expression of BMP target genes. Here, we show that the Ski oncoprotein can block BMP signaling and the expression of BMP-responsive genes in both Xenopus and mammalian cells bymore » directly interacting with and repressing the activity of BMP-specific Smad complexes. This ability to antagonize BMP signaling results in neuralization by Ski in the Xenopus embryo and blocking of osteoblast differentiation of murine W-20-17 cells. Thus, Ski is able to repress the activity of all receptor-associated Smads and may regulate vertebrate development by modulating the signaling activity of transforming growth factor-{beta} family members.« less

  13. Pseudouridylate Synthetase of Escherichia coli: a Catabolite-Repressible Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, L. R.; Breitman, T. R.

    1971-01-01

    The growth on pseudouridine of two pyrimidine auxotrophs of Escherichia coli (Bu− and W63-86) was markedly enhanced when glycerol replaced glucose as a carbon source or when adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphoric acid was added to medium containing glucose. These results indicated that an enzyme catalyzing a reaction in the pathway of pseudouridine conversion to uracil was sensitive to catabolite repression. The following pathway is proposed for pseudouridine utilization: [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] Pseudouridylate synthetase was sensitive to catabolite repression in strains Bu− and W63-86. In contrast, strains B5RU and W5RU, mutants of Bu− and W63-86 which were selected for their ability to grow rapidly on pseudouridine in the presence of glucose, had high levels of pseudouridylate synthetase in the presence of glucose. In the case of B5RU but not W5RU, synthetase activity was greater in cells grown on glycerol or on glucose plus adenosine 3′:5-cyclic monophosphoric acid than on glucose. PMID:4329733

  14. MYCN repression of Lifeguard/FAIM2 enhances neuroblastoma aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Planells-Ferrer, L; Urresti, J; Soriano, A; Reix, S; Murphy, D M; Ferreres, J C; Borràs, F; Gallego, S; Stallings, R L; Moubarak, R S; Segura, M F; Comella, J X

    2014-09-04

    Neuroblastoma (NBL) is the most common solid tumor in infants and accounts for 15% of all pediatric cancer deaths. Several risk factors predict NBL outcome: age at the time of diagnosis, stage, chromosome alterations and MYCN (V-Myc Avian Myelocytomatosis Viral Oncogene Neuroblastoma-Derived Homolog) amplification, which characterizes the subset of the most aggressive NBLs with an overall survival below 30%. MYCN-amplified tumors develop exceptional chemoresistance and metastatic capacity. These properties have been linked to defects in the apoptotic machinery, either by silencing components of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway (e.g. caspase-8) or by overexpression of antiapoptotic regulators (e.g. Bcl-2, Mcl-1 or FLIP). Very little is known on the implication of death receptors and their antagonists in NBL. In this work, the expression levels of several death receptor antagonists were analyzed in multiple human NBL data sets. We report that Lifeguard (LFG/FAIM2 (Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule 2)/NMP35) is downregulated in the most aggressive and undifferentiated tumors. Intringuingly, although LFG has been initially characterized as an antiapoptotic protein, we have found a new association with NBL differentiation. Moreover, LFG repression resulted in reduced cell adhesion, increased sphere growth and enhanced migration, thus conferring a higher metastatic capacity to NBL cells. Furthermore, LFG expression was found to be directly repressed by MYCN at the transcriptional level. Our data, which support a new functional role for a hitherto undiscovered MYCN target, provide a new link between MYCN overexpression and increased NBL metastatic properties.

  15. RSK2 represses HSF1 activation during heat shock

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaozhe; Asea, Alexzander; Xie, Yue; Kabingu, Edith; Stevenson, Mary Ann; Calderwood, Stuart K.

    2000-01-01

    Heat shock transcription factor 1(HSF1) activation is a multistep process. The conversion of a latent cytoplasmic form to a nuclear, DNA binding state appears to be activated by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In previous studies, we showed that HSF 1 is phosphorylated by the protein kinase RSK2 in vitro and that this effect is inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at the concentration that leads to the activation of HSF1 in vivo (Stevenson et al 1999). In the present study, using cells from a patient with Coffin-Lowry syndrome (deficient in RSK2), we demonstrate that RSK2 slightly represses activation of HSF1 in vivo at 37°C. In Coffin-Lowry syndrome cells, HSF1-HSE DNA binding activity after treatment with sodium salicylate was slightly higher than that in untreated cells, indicating that although RSK2 is involved in HSF1 regulation, it is not the unique protein kinase that suppresses HSF1-HSE binding activity at 37°C. However, heat shock treatment resulted in significantly higher HSF1-HSE binding activity in Coffin-Lowry syndrome cells as compared with normal controls, suggesting that RSK2 represses HSF1-HSE binding activity during heat shock. PMID:11189448

  16. RSK2 represses HSF1 activation during heat shock.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Asea, A; Xie, Y; Kabingu, E; Stevenson, M A; Calderwood, S K

    2000-11-01

    Heat shock transcription factor 1(HSF1) activation is a multistep process. The conversion of a latent cytoplasmic form to a nuclear, DNA binding state appears to be activated by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In previous studies, we showed that HSF 1 is phosphorylated by the protein kinase RSK2 in vitro and that this effect is inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at the concentration that leads to the activation of HSF1 in vivo (Stevenson et al 1999). In the present study, using cells from a patient with Coffin-Lowry syndrome (deficient in RSK2), we demonstrate that RSK2 slightly represses activation of HSF1 in vivo at 37 degrees C. In Coffin-Lowry syndrome cells, HSF1-HSE DNA binding activity after treatment with sodium salicylate was slightly higher than that in untreated cells, indicating that although RSK2 is involved in HSF1 regulation, it is not the unique protein kinase that suppresses HSF1-HSE binding activity at 37 degrees C. However, heat shock treatment resulted in significantly higher HSF1-HSE binding activity in Coffin-Lowry syndrome cells as compared with normal controls, suggesting that RSK2 represses HSF1-HSE binding activity during heat shock.

  17. Hepatic nuclear factor 3 and nuclear factor 1 regulate 5-aminolevulinate synthase gene expression and are involved in insulin repression.

    PubMed

    Scassa, María E; Guberman, Alejandra S; Ceruti, Julieta M; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2004-07-02

    Although the negative regulation of gene expression by insulin has been widely studied, the transcription factors responsible for the insulin effect are still unknown. The purpose of this work was to explore the molecular mechanisms involved in the insulin repression of the 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS) gene. Deletion analysis of the 5'-regulatory region allowed us to identify an insulin-responsive region located at -459 to -354 bp. This fragment contains a highly homologous insulin-responsive (IRE) sequence. By transient transfection assays, we determined that hepatic nuclear factor 3 (HNF3) and nuclear factor 1 (NF1) are necessary for an appropriate expression of the ALAS gene. Insulin overrides the HNF3beta or HNF3beta plus NF1-mediated stimulation of ALAS transcriptional activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and Southwestern blotting indicate that HNF3 binds to the ALAS promoter. Mutational analysis of this region revealed that IRE disruption abrogates insulin action, whereas mutation of the HNF3 element maintains hormone responsiveness. This dissociation between HNF3 binding and insulin action suggests that HNF3beta is not the sole physiologic mediator of insulin-induced transcriptional repression. Furthermore, Southwestern blotting assay shows that at least two polypeptides other than HNF3beta can bind to ALAS promoter and that this binding is dependent on the integrity of the IRE. We propose a model in which insulin exerts its negative effect through the disturbance of HNF3beta binding or transactivation potential, probably due to specific phosphorylation of this transcription factor by Akt. In this regard, results obtained from transfection experiments using kinase inhibitors support this hypothesis. Due to this event, NF1 would lose accessibility to the promoter. The posttranslational modification of HNF3 would allow the binding of a protein complex that recognizes the core IRE. These results provide a potential mechanism for the insulin

  18. Arabidopsis Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 binding sites contain putative GAGA factor binding motifs within coding regions of genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is an essential regulator of gene expression that maintains genes in a repressed state by marking chromatin with trimethylated Histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3). In Arabidopsis, loss of PRC2 function leads to pleiotropic effects on growth and development thought to be due to ectopic expression of seed and embryo-specific genes. While there is some understanding of the mechanisms by which specific genes are targeted by PRC2 in animal systems, it is still not clear how PRC2 is recruited to specific regions of plant genomes. Results We used ChIP-seq to determine the genome-wide distribution of hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged FERTLIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE-HA), the Extra Sex Combs homolog protein present in all Arabidopsis PRC2 complexes. We found that the FIE-HA binding sites co-locate with a subset of the H3K27me3 sites in the genome and that the associated genes were more likely to be de-repressed in mutants of PRC2 components. The FIE-HA binding sites are enriched for three sequence motifs including a putative GAGA factor binding site that is also found in Drosophila Polycomb Response Elements (PREs). Conclusions Our results suggest that PRC2 binding sites in plant genomes share some sequence features with Drosophila PREs. However, unlike Drosophila PREs which are located in promoters and devoid of H3K27me3, Arabidopsis FIE binding sites tend to be in gene coding regions and co-localize with H3K27me3. PMID:24001316

  19. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  20. Maintaining protein composition in cilia.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Louise A; Elmaghloob, Yasmin; Ismail, Shehab

    2017-12-20

    The primary cilium is a sensory organelle that is vital in regulating several signalling pathways. Unlike most organelles cilia are open to the rest of the cell, not enclosed by membranes. The distinct protein composition is crucial to the function of cilia and many signalling proteins and receptors are specifically concentrated within distinct compartments. To maintain this composition, a mechanism is required to deliver proteins to the cilium whilst another must counter the entropic tendency of proteins to distribute throughout the cell. The combination of the two mechanisms should result in the concentration of ciliary proteins to the cilium. In this review we will look at different cellular mechanisms that play a role in maintaining the distinct composition of cilia, including regulation of ciliary access and trafficking of ciliary proteins to, from and within the cilium.

  1. Using Incentives to Improve Maintainability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    felt that if these tasks were successfully accomplished, system acquisition would be streamlined and ~ost savings would result. One of the...reducing the it [ Ref. 12]. labor hours and spares required to These savings generally accrue system and are difficul~ to the acquisition. As one...maintainability were not considered. The savings that result will be generated by the reduction in man-hours spent in the maintenance of tbe equipment, the

  2. Indonesian drilling maintains steady pace

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    Offshore drilling activity in Indonesia increased nominally the first quarter of 1985 to an average 29 rigs. Barring any further problems with oil prices and markets, operators are expected to maintain essentially the current general level of appraisal/development work for the rest of this year. There are still a number of prospective regions to be explored in Southeast Asia. Regional developments are described for the South China Sea area, the Java Sea, South Sumatra, Kalimantan, Irian Jaya and the Malacca Strait.

  3. Ubx dynamically regulates Dpp signaling by repressing Dad expression during copper cell regeneration in the adult Drosophila midgut

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongjie; Qi, Yanyan; Jasper, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of metazoans is lined by a series of regionally distinct epithelia. To maintain structure and function of the GI tract, regionally diversified differentiation of somatic stem cell (SC) lineages is critical. The adult Drosophila midgut provides an accessible model to study SC regulation and specification in a regionally defined manner. SCs of the posterior midgut (PM) have been studied extensively, but the control of SCs in the middle midgut (MM) is less well understood. The MM contains a stomach-like copper cell region (CCR) that is regenerated by gastric stem cells (GSSCs) and contains acid-secreting copper cells (CCs). Bmp-like Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signaling determines the identity of GSSCs, and is required for CC regeneration, yet the precise control of Dpp signaling activity in this lineage remains to be fully established. Here, we show that Dad, a negative feedback regulator of Dpp signaling, is dynamically regulated in the GSSC lineage to allow CC differentiation. Dad is highly expressed in GSSCs and their first daughter cells, the gastroblasts (GBs), but has to be repressed in differentiating CCs to allow Dpp-mediated differentiation into CCs. We find that the Hox gene ultrabithorax (Ubx) is required for this regulation. Loss of Ubx prevents Dad repression in the CCR, resulting in defective CC regeneration. Our study highlights the need for dynamic control of Dpp signaling activity in the differentiation of the GSSC lineage and identifies Ubx as a critical regulator of this process. PMID:27570230

  4. Allele-Specific DNA Methylation and Its Interplay with Repressive Histone Marks at Promoter-Mutant TERT Genes.

    PubMed

    Stern, Josh Lewis; Paucek, Richard D; Huang, Franklin W; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Nwumeh, Ronald; Costello, James C; Cech, Thomas R

    2017-12-26

    A mutation in the promoter of the Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT) gene is the most frequent noncoding mutation in cancer. The mutation drives unusual monoallelic expression of TERT, allowing immortalization. Here, we find that DNA methylation of the TERT CpG island (CGI) is also allele-specific in multiple cancers. The expressed allele is hypomethylated, which is opposite to cancers without TERT promoter mutations. The continued presence of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) on the inactive allele suggests that histone marks of repressed chromatin may be causally linked to high DNA methylation. Consistent with this hypothesis, TERT promoter DNA containing 5-methyl-CpG has much increased affinity for PRC2 in vitro. Thus, CpG methylation and histone marks appear to collaborate to maintain the two TERT alleles in different epigenetic states in TERT promoter mutant cancers. Finally, in several cancers, DNA methylation levels at the TERT CGI correlate with altered patient survival. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of Nuclear Lamina in Gene Repression and Maintenance of Chromosome Architecture in the Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Shevelyov, Y Y; Ulianov, S V

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear lamina is a protein meshwork composed of lamins and lamin-associated proteins that lines the nuclear envelope from the inside and forms repressive transcription compartment. The review presents current data on the contribution of nuclear lamina to the repression of genes located in this compartment and on the mechanisms of chromatin attachment to the nuclear envelope.

  6. Relations among Childhood Memory, a History of Abuse, Dissociation, and Repression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melchert, Timothy P.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationships between history of child abuse, recovered abuse memories, childhood memory in general, repression, and dissociation with a sample of undergraduate students (N=560). General quality of childhood memory was found to be unrelated to a history of abuse. Repressive personality traits were unrelated to recovering abuse…

  7. Interference of transcription across H-NS binding sites and repression by H-NS.

    PubMed

    Rangarajan, Aathmaja Anandhi; Schnetz, Karin

    2018-05-01

    Nucleoid-associated protein H-NS represses transcription by forming extended DNA-H-NS complexes. Repression by H-NS operates mostly at the level of transcription initiation. Less is known about how DNA-H-NS complexes interfere with transcription elongation. In vitro H-NS has been shown to enhance RNA polymerase pausing and to promote Rho-dependent termination, while in vivo inhibition of Rho resulted in a decrease of the genome occupancy by H-NS. Here we show that transcription directed across H-NS binding regions relieves H-NS (and H-NS/StpA) mediated repression of promoters in these regions. Further, we observed a correlation of transcription across the H-NS-bound region and de-repression. The data suggest that the transcribing RNA polymerase is able to remodel the H-NS complex and/or dislodge H-NS from the DNA and thus relieve repression. Such an interference of transcription and H-NS mediated repression may imply that poorly transcribed AT-rich loci are prone to be repressed by H-NS, while efficiently transcribed loci escape repression. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Glucocorticoid Receptor-Mediated Repression of Pro-Inflammatory Genes in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0314 TITLE: Glucocorticoid Receptor-Mediated Repression of Pro-Inflammatory Genes in Rheumatoid Arthritis ...19 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Glucocorticoid Receptor-Mediated Repression of Pro- Inflammatory Genes in Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...SUBJECT TERMS Rheumatoid arthritis , inflammation and autoimmunity, macrophages, glucocorticoid receptor, transcriptional regulation, coactivators and

  9. Polycomb repressive complex 1 modifies transcription of active genes

    PubMed Central

    Pherson, Michelle; Misulovin, Ziva; Gause, Maria; Mihindukulasuriya, Kathie; Swain, Amanda; Dorsett, Dale

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the role of Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) at active genes. The PRC1 and PRC2 complexes are crucial for epigenetic silencing during development of an organism. They are recruited to Polycomb response elements (PREs) and establish silenced domains over several kilobases. Recent studies show that PRC1 is also directly recruited to active genes by the cohesin complex. Cohesin participates broadly in control of gene transcription, but it is unknown whether cohesin-recruited PRC1 also plays a role in transcriptional control of active genes. We address this question using genome-wide RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq). The results show that PRC1 influences transcription of active genes, and a significant fraction of its effects are likely direct. The roles of different PRC1 subunits can also vary depending on the gene. Depletion of PRC1 subunits by RNA interference alters phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and occupancy by the Spt5 pausing-elongation factor at most active genes. These effects on Pol II phosphorylation and Spt5 are likely linked to changes in elongation and RNA processing detected by nascent RNA-seq, although the mechanisms remain unresolved. The experiments also reveal that PRC1 facilitates association of Spt5 with enhancers and PREs. Reduced Spt5 levels at these regulatory sequences upon PRC1 depletion coincide with changes in Pol II occupancy and phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that, in addition to its repressive roles in epigenetic gene silencing, PRC1 broadly influences transcription of active genes and may suppress transcription of nonpromoter regulatory sequences. PMID:28782042

  10. MYCN repression of Lifeguard/FAIM2 enhances neuroblastoma aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Planells-Ferrer, L; Urresti, J; Soriano, A; Reix, S; Murphy, D M; Ferreres, J C; Borràs, F; Gallego, S; Stallings, R L; Moubarak, R S; Segura, M F; Comella, J X

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NBL) is the most common solid tumor in infants and accounts for 15% of all pediatric cancer deaths. Several risk factors predict NBL outcome: age at the time of diagnosis, stage, chromosome alterations and MYCN (V-Myc Avian Myelocytomatosis Viral Oncogene Neuroblastoma-Derived Homolog) amplification, which characterizes the subset of the most aggressive NBLs with an overall survival below 30%. MYCN-amplified tumors develop exceptional chemoresistance and metastatic capacity. These properties have been linked to defects in the apoptotic machinery, either by silencing components of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway (e.g. caspase-8) or by overexpression of antiapoptotic regulators (e.g. Bcl-2, Mcl-1 or FLIP). Very little is known on the implication of death receptors and their antagonists in NBL. In this work, the expression levels of several death receptor antagonists were analyzed in multiple human NBL data sets. We report that Lifeguard (LFG/FAIM2 (Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule 2)/NMP35) is downregulated in the most aggressive and undifferentiated tumors. Intringuingly, although LFG has been initially characterized as an antiapoptotic protein, we have found a new association with NBL differentiation. Moreover, LFG repression resulted in reduced cell adhesion, increased sphere growth and enhanced migration, thus conferring a higher metastatic capacity to NBL cells. Furthermore, LFG expression was found to be directly repressed by MYCN at the transcriptional level. Our data, which support a new functional role for a hitherto undiscovered MYCN target, provide a new link between MYCN overexpression and increased NBL metastatic properties. PMID:25188511

  11. Three WRKY transcription factors additively repress abscisic acid and gibberellin signaling in aleurone cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyuan; Gu, Lingkun; Ringler, Patricia; Smith, Stanley; Rushton, Paul J; Shen, Qingxi J

    2015-07-01

    Members of the WRKY transcription factor superfamily are essential for the regulation of many plant pathways. Functional redundancy due to duplications of WRKY transcription factors, however, complicates genetic analysis by allowing single-mutant plants to maintain wild-type phenotypes. Our analyses indicate that three group I WRKY genes, OsWRKY24, -53, and -70, act in a partially redundant manner. All three showed characteristics of typical WRKY transcription factors: each localized to nuclei and yeast one-hybrid assays indicated that they all bind to W-boxes, including those present in their own promoters. Quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses indicated that the expression levels of the three WRKY genes varied in the different tissues tested. Particle bombardment-mediated transient expression analyses indicated that all three genes repress the GA and ABA signaling in a dosage-dependent manner. Combination of all three WRKY genes showed additive antagonism of ABA and GA signaling. These results suggest that these WRKY proteins function as negative transcriptional regulators of GA and ABA signaling. However, different combinations of these WRKY genes can lead to varied strengths in suppression of their targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. miR-25/93 mediates hypoxia-induced immunosuppression by repressing cGAS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min-Zu; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Chen, Su-Feng; Nieh, Shin; O'Connor, Carolyn; Liu, Chia-Lin; Tsai, Wen-Wei; Wu, Cheng-Jang; Martin, Lorena; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Wu, Kou-Juey; Lu, Li-Fan; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2017-10-01

    The mechanisms by which hypoxic tumours evade immunological pressure and anti-tumour immunity remain elusive. Here, we report that two hypoxia-responsive microRNAs, miR-25 and miR-93, are important for establishing an immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment by downregulating expression of the DNA sensor cGAS. Mechanistically, miR-25/93 targets NCOA3, an epigenetic factor that maintains basal levels of cGAS expression, leading to repression of cGAS during hypoxia. This allows hypoxic tumour cells to escape immunological responses induced by damage-associated molecular pattern molecules, specifically the release of mitochondrial DNA. Moreover, restoring cGAS expression results in an anti-tumour immune response. Clinically, decreased levels of cGAS are associated with poor prognosis for patients with breast cancer harbouring high levels of miR-25/93. Together, these data suggest that inactivation of the cGAS pathway plays a critical role in tumour progression, and reveal a direct link between hypoxia-responsive miRNAs and adaptive immune responses to the hypoxic tumour microenvironment, thus unveiling potential new therapeutic strategies.

  13. miR25/93 mediates hypoxia-induced immunosuppression by repressing cGAS

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min-Zu; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Chen, Su-Feng; Nieh, Shin; O’Connor, Carolyn; Liu, Chia-Lin; Tsai, Wen-Wei; Wu, Cheng-Jang; Martin, Lorena; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Wu, Kou-Juey; Lu, Li-Fan

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms by which hypoxic tumors evade immunological pressure and anti-tumor immunity remain elusive. Here, we report that two hypoxia-responsive microRNAs, miR25 and miR93, are important for establishing an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment by down-regulating expression of the DNA-sensor cGAS. Mechanistically, miR25/93 targets NCOA3, an epigenetic factor that maintains basal levels of cGAS expression, leading to repression of cGAS upon hypoxia. This allows hypoxic tumor cells to escape immunological responses induced by damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), specifically the release of mtDNA. Moreover, restoring cGAS expression results in an anti-tumor immune response. Clinically, decreased levels of cGAS are associated with poor prognosis for patients with breast cancer harboring high levels of miR25/93. Together, these data suggest that inactivation of the cGAS pathway plays a critical role in tumor progression, and reveals a direct link between hypoxia-responsive miRNAs and adaptive immune responses to the hypoxic tumor microenvironment, thus unveiling potential new therapeutic strategies. PMID:28920955

  14. How to maintain chain drives

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.L.

    1992-06-18

    Properly selected and maintained chain drives can be expected to give thousands of hours of reliable service. Selection is usually done just once. This paper reports on good maintenance which must be done regularly to keep the drive operating. An effective maintenance program for roller chain should include correct type and adequate amounts of lubrication, replacement of worn chains and sprockets, and elimination of drive interferences. It is important to set u a lubrication and inspection/correction schedule to ensure that all required maintenance is carried out.

  15. Staradmin -- Starlink User Database Maintainer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Adrian

    The subject of this SSN is a utility called STARADMIN. This utility allows the system administrator to build and maintain a Starlink User Database (UDB). The principal source of information for each user is a text file, named after their username. The content of each file is a list consisting of one keyword followed by the relevant user data per line. These user database files reside in a single directory. The STARADMIN program is used to manipulate these user data files and automatically generate user summary lists.

  16. The relationship between two types of impaired emotion processing: repressive coping and alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Lynn B.; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    The constructs of repressive coping and alexithymia are both related to impaired emotion processing, yet individuals with a repressive coping style (repressors) score lower than controls on standard self-report measures of alexithymia. A large body of evidence indicates that repressors avoid negative affect. Therefore, the current study examined the relationship between repressive coping and alexithymia by using independently-rated interviews with the aim of bypassing repressors’ tendency of avoiding negative affect. Results showed that repressors scored high on alexithymia, similar to anxious individuals on the independently-rated interview, but scored low on alexithymia on a questionnaire measure. Our findings confirm a link between alexithymia and repressive coping and stress the need for non-standard measures in exploring the nature of the relationship between repressive coping and alexithymia. PMID:26136706

  17. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  18. RNA-binding protein HuR sequesters microRNA-21 to prevent translation repression of proinflammatory tumor suppressor gene programmed cell death 4.

    PubMed

    Poria, D K; Guha, A; Nandi, I; Ray, P S

    2016-03-31

    Translation control of proinflammatory genes has a crucial role in regulating the inflammatory response and preventing chronic inflammation, including a transition to cancer. The proinflammatory tumor suppressor protein programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) is important for maintaining the balance between inflammation and tumorigenesis. PDCD4 messenger RNA translation is inhibited by the oncogenic microRNA, miR-21. AU-rich element-binding protein HuR was found to interact with the PDCD4 3'-untranslated region (UTR) and prevent miR-21-mediated repression of PDCD4 translation. Cells stably expressing miR-21 showed higher proliferation and reduced apoptosis, which was reversed by HuR expression. Inflammatory stimulus caused nuclear-cytoplasmic relocalization of HuR, reversing the translation repression of PDCD4. Unprecedentedly, HuR was also found to bind to miR-21 directly, preventing its interaction with the PDCD4 3'-UTR, thereby preventing the translation repression of PDCD4. This suggests that HuR might act as a 'miRNA sponge' to regulate miRNA-mediated translation regulation under conditions of stress-induced nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of HuR, which would allow fine-tuned gene expression in complex regulatory environments.

  19. piRNA pathway targets active LINE1 elements to establish the repressive H3K9me3 mark in germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Pezic, Dubravka; Manakov, Sergei A.; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Aravin, Alexei A.

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) occupy a large fraction of metazoan genomes and pose a constant threat to genomic integrity. This threat is particularly critical in germ cells, as changes in the genome that are induced by TEs will be transmitted to the next generation. Small noncoding piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) recognize and silence a diverse set of TEs in germ cells. In mice, piRNA-guided transposon repression correlates with establishment of CpG DNA methylation on their sequences, yet the mechanism and the spectrum of genomic targets of piRNA silencing are unknown. Here we show that in addition to DNA methylation, the piRNA pathway is required to maintain a high level of the repressive H3K9me3 histone modification on long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) in germ cells. piRNA-dependent chromatin repression targets exclusively full-length elements of actively transposing LINE families, demonstrating the remarkable ability of the piRNA pathway to recognize active elements among the large number of genomic transposon fragments. PMID:24939875

  20. Natural Memory Beyond the Storage Model: Repression, Trauma, and the Construction of a Personal Past

    PubMed Central

    Axmacher, Nikolai; Do Lam, Anne T. A.; Kessler, Henrik; Fell, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    Naturally occurring memory processes show features which are difficult to investigate by conventional cognitive neuroscience paradigms. Distortions of memory for problematic contents are described both by psychoanalysis (internal conflicts) and research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; external traumata). Typically, declarative memory for these contents is impaired – possibly due to repression in the case of internal conflicts or due to dissociation in the case of external traumata – but they continue to exert an unconscious pathological influence: neurotic symptoms or psychosomatic disorders after repression or flashbacks and intrusions in PTSD after dissociation. Several experimental paradigms aim at investigating repression in healthy control subjects. We argue that these paradigms do not adequately operationalize the clinical process of repression, because they rely on an intentional inhibition of random stimuli (suppression). Furthermore, these paradigms ignore that memory distortions due to repression or dissociation are most accurately characterized by a lack of self-referential processing, resulting in an impaired integration of these contents into the self. This aspect of repression and dissociation cannot be captured by the concept of memory as a storage device which is usually employed in the cognitive neurosciences. It can only be assessed within the framework of a constructivist memory concept, according to which successful memory involves a reconstruction of experiences such that they fit into a representation of the self. We suggest several experimental paradigms that allow for the investigation of the neural correlates of repressed memories and trauma-induced memory distortions based on a constructivist memory concept. PMID:21151366

  1. Political Repression Against Soviet Astronomers in the 1930s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremmeva, A. I.

    1993-12-01

    The Soviet government's repression of the Russian intelligentsia in the late 1930s had a devastating effect on astronomy. This period was marked by the strengthening of a rigid ideology in society and a growing atmosphere of suspicion, fear, and spy mania. Under these conditions the international nature of astronomy--in particular the need for foreign contacts--became the excuse for accusations of "wrecking" against astronomers. The fate of individual astronomers and institutions depended greatly, however, on local circumstances. For example, the general political repression of the 1930s began in Leningrad at a time when Pulkovo Observatory director B. P. Gerasimovich was engaged in a sharp conflict with a small group of junior staff led by V. A. Ambartsumian. In addition, the very first arrest of a Leningrad astronomer--namely the arrest of B. V. Numerov--appears to have initiated a cascading series of arrests that spread like an avalanche through the close-knit com- munity of Leningrad astronomers. These two factors led to the devastating ruin of Pulkovo. Completely different circumstances saved GAISh. This was a com- paratively young institute whose junior staff had spent its formative years at GAISh rather than joining the staff from out- side (as had been the case at Pulkovo). Thus the GAISh staff had a greater degree of homogeneity and solidarity, and this, in turn, may explain why the ideological department at GAISh (the "partburo") conducted itself in a manner that differed sharply from that of the "partburo" at Pulkovo. Thanks to these circum- stances not even one arrest occurred at GAISh. The directors of Pulkovo and GAISh came from very similar back- grounds, but the different conditions at Pulkovo and GAISh led to dramatic differences in their fates: execution for B. P. Gerasimovich in 1937 and "only" the persecution of GAISh director V. G. Fesenkov. The persecution of V. G. Fesenkov included his dismissal from the post of chairman of the Astronomical

  2. Dimethylated H3K27 Is a Repressive Epigenetic Histone Mark in the Protist Entamoeba histolytica and Is Significantly Enriched in Genes Silenced via the RNAi Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Foda, Bardees M.; Singh, Upinder

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a fundamental biological process that plays a crucial role in regulation of gene expression in many organisms. Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) is one of the important nuclear roles of RNAi. Our previous data show that Entamoeba histolytica has a robust RNAi pathway that links to TGS via Argonaute 2-2 (Ago2-2) associated 27-nucleotide small RNAs with 5′-polyphosphate termini. Here, we report the first repressive histone mark to be identified in E. histolytica, dimethylation of H3K27 (H3K27Me2), and demonstrate that it is enriched at genes that are silenced by RNAi-mediated TGS. An RNAi-silencing trigger can induce H3K27Me2 deposits at both episomal and chromosomal loci, mediating gene silencing. Our data support two phases of RNAi-mediated TGS: an active silencing phase where the RNAi trigger is present and both H3K27Me2 and Ago2-2 concurrently enrich at chromosomal loci; and an established silencing phase in which the RNAi trigger is removed, but gene silencing with H3K27Me2 enrichment persist independently of Ago2-2 deposition. Importantly, some genes display resistance to chromosomal silencing despite induction of functional small RNAs. In those situations, the RNAi-triggering plasmid that is maintained episomally gets partially silenced and has H3K27Me2 enrichment, but the chromosomal copy displays no repressive histone enrichment. Our data are consistent with a model in which H3K27Me2 is a repressive histone modification, which is strongly associated with transcriptional repression. This is the first example of an epigenetic histone modification that functions to mediate RNAi-mediated TGS in the deep-branching eukaryote E. histolytica. PMID:26149683

  3. Nanos-mediated repression of hid protects larval sensory neurons after a global switch in sensitivity to apoptotic signals

    PubMed Central

    Bhogal, Balpreet; Plaza-Jennings, Amara

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic arbor morphology is a key determinant of neuronal function. Once established, dendrite branching patterns must be maintained as the animal develops to ensure receptive field coverage. The translational repressors Nanos (Nos) and Pumilio (Pum) are required to maintain dendrite growth and branching of Drosophila larval class IV dendritic arborization (da) neurons, but their specific regulatory role remains unknown. We show that Nos-Pum-mediated repression of the pro-apoptotic gene head involution defective (hid) is required to maintain a balance of dendritic growth and retraction in class IV da neurons and that upregulation of hid results in decreased branching because of an increase in caspase activity. The temporal requirement for nos correlates with an ecdysone-triggered switch in sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli that occurs during the mid-L3 transition. We find that hid is required during pupariation for caspase-dependent pruning of class IV da neurons and that Nos and Pum delay pruning. Together, these results suggest that Nos and Pum provide a crucial neuroprotective regulatory layer to ensure that neurons behave appropriately in response to developmental cues. PMID:27256879

  4. Nanos-mediated repression of hid protects larval sensory neurons after a global switch in sensitivity to apoptotic signals.

    PubMed

    Bhogal, Balpreet; Plaza-Jennings, Amara; Gavis, Elizabeth R

    2016-06-15

    Dendritic arbor morphology is a key determinant of neuronal function. Once established, dendrite branching patterns must be maintained as the animal develops to ensure receptive field coverage. The translational repressors Nanos (Nos) and Pumilio (Pum) are required to maintain dendrite growth and branching of Drosophila larval class IV dendritic arborization (da) neurons, but their specific regulatory role remains unknown. We show that Nos-Pum-mediated repression of the pro-apoptotic gene head involution defective (hid) is required to maintain a balance of dendritic growth and retraction in class IV da neurons and that upregulation of hid results in decreased branching because of an increase in caspase activity. The temporal requirement for nos correlates with an ecdysone-triggered switch in sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli that occurs during the mid-L3 transition. We find that hid is required during pupariation for caspase-dependent pruning of class IV da neurons and that Nos and Pum delay pruning. Together, these results suggest that Nos and Pum provide a crucial neuroprotective regulatory layer to ensure that neurons behave appropriately in response to developmental cues. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1) The...

  6. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1) The...

  7. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1) The...

  8. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1) The...

  9. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1) The...

  10. Beta-arrestin-1 protein represses diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Le-nan; Hu, Wen-xiang; Zhang, Ming-liang; Xin, Shun-mei; Jia, Wei-ping; Zhao, Jian; Pei, Gang

    2011-08-12

    Diet-related obesity is a major metabolic disorder. Excessive fat mass is associated with type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis, and arteriosclerosis. Dysregulation of lipid metabolism and adipose tissue function contributes to diet-induced obesity. Here, we report that β-arrestin-1 knock-out mice are susceptible to diet-induced obesity. Knock-out of the gene encoding β-arrestin-1 caused increased fat mass accumulation and decreased whole-body insulin sensitivity in mice fed a high-fat diet. In β-arrestin-1 knock-out mice, we observed disrupted food intake and energy expenditure and increased macrophage infiltration in white adipose tissue. At the molecular level, β-arrestin-1 deficiency affected the expression of many lipid metabolic genes and inflammatory genes in adipose tissue. Consistently, transgenic overexpression of β-arrestin-1 repressed diet-induced obesity and improved glucose tolerance and systemic insulin sensitivity. Thus, our findings reveal that β-arrestin-1 plays a role in metabolism regulation.

  11. Auto-phosphorylation Represses Protein Kinase R Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Die; de Weerd, Nicole A; Willard, Belinda; Polekhina, Galina; Williams, Bryan R G; Sadler, Anthony J

    2017-03-10

    The central role of protein kinases in controlling disease processes has spurred efforts to develop pharmaceutical regulators of their activity. A rational strategy to achieve this end is to determine intrinsic auto-regulatory processes, then selectively target these different states of kinases to repress their activation. Here we investigate auto-regulation of the innate immune effector protein kinase R, which phosphorylates the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α to inhibit global protein translation. We demonstrate that protein kinase R activity is controlled by auto-inhibition via an intra-molecular interaction. Part of this mechanism of control had previously been reported, but was then controverted. We account for the discrepancy and extend our understanding of the auto-inhibitory mechanism by identifying that auto-inhibition is paradoxically instigated by incipient auto-phosphorylation. Phosphor-residues at the amino-terminus instigate an intra-molecular interaction that enlists both of the N-terminal RNA-binding motifs of the protein with separate surfaces of the C-terminal kinase domain, to co-operatively inhibit kinase activation. These findings identify an innovative mechanism to control kinase activity, providing insight for strategies to better regulate kinase activity.

  12. Freud's 'thought-transference', repression, and the future of psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Farrell, D

    1983-01-01

    Psychoanalysts since Freud have largely neglected his important, paradigmatic ideas on the possibility of 'thought-transference' (telepathy) as an influence in mental life. A chance recording of two dreams which proved to coincide in some detail with distant reality events again suggests evidence in favour of the telepathy hypothesis. On interpretation, one of these dreams reveals even greater correspondence with the reality event and shows the mechanism of transformation of the repressed wish from latent dream content into manifest dream, utilizing a number of elements of the dream instigator, an apparently telepathically received day residue. Working with this material proceeded against very strong resistance, most evident in repeated forgetting of one or another bit of the clinical data. This has been the fate of ideas pertaining to the occult since Freud's first formulations, as is documented here by references to the early history of psychoanalysis. The issue now and for the future is whether psychoanalysis will continue to ignore the crucial question of validity in regard to the telepathy hypothesis. The psychoanalytic method is uniquely qualified to investigate so-called parapsychological phenomena and has the same obligation to do so as with other mental events. We need to examine the evidence in spite of the threat posed to our conventional understanding of the limits of the mind by the very act of acknowledging the question. If we can overcome our resistance to undertaking this task, we may find that, once again, Freud pointed the way towards discovery of a new paradigm in science.

  13. Selective repression of SINE transcription by RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Dhaval; Vavrova-Anderson, Jana; Oler, Andrew J; Cairns, Bradley R; White, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    A million copies of the Alu short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) are scattered throughout the human genome, providing ∼11% of our total DNA. SINEs spread by retrotransposition, using a transcript generated by RNA polymerase (pol) III from an internal promoter. Levels of these pol III-dependent Alu transcripts are far lower than might be expected from the abundance of the template. This was believed to reflect transcriptional suppression through DNA methylation, denying pol III access to most SINEs through chromatin-mediated effects. Contrary to expectations, our recent study found no evidence that methylation of SINE DNA reduces its occupancy or expression by pol III. However, histone H3 associated with SINEs is prominently methylated on lysine 9, a mark that correlates with transcriptional silencing. The SUV39 methyltransferases that deposit this mark can be found at many SINEs. Furthermore, a selective inhibitor of SUV39 stimulates pol III recruitment to these loci, as well as SINE expression. These data suggest that methylation of histone H3 rather than DNA may mediate repression of SINE transcription by pol III, at least under the conditions we studied.

  14. Repressive coping and self-reports of parenting.

    PubMed

    Myers, L B; Brewin, C R; Winter, D A

    1999-03-01

    To investigate whether women who possess a repressive coping style (repressors) self-report more positive judgments of their childhood on questionnaire and repertory grid measures compared with non-repressors. Repressors (low anxiety-high defensiveness) were compared with a composite group of non-repressors, containing some low anxious (low anxiety-low defensiveness), some high anxious (high anxiety-low defensiveness), some defensive high anxious (high anxiety-high defensiveness) and some non-extreme scorers. Participants completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI; Parker, Tupling & Brown, 1979) and a 10 x 10 repertory grid, Self-Identification Form. On the PBI, repressors scored significantly higher than non-repressors on paternal care and significantly lower on paternal overprotection. There were no group differences for maternal measures. On the repertory grid, repressors compared with non-repressors perceived (a) themselves as significantly closer to their father, a woman they like, and their ideal partner, and significantly further from a woman they dislike, and a man they dislike; and (b) their father as significantly closer to a woman they like, a partner/person they admire, and an ideal partner. In addition, repressors were significantly tighter on construing than non-repressors. The results supported the hypothesis that repressors would rate their interactions with their fathers more positively than non-repressors when allowed to do so on self-report measures.

  15. MYB89 Transcription Factor Represses Seed Oil Accumulation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Duan, Shaowei; Zhu, Yana; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Gao, Chenhao; Ma, Haoli; Liao, Yuncheng

    2017-01-01

    In many higher plants, seed oil accumulation is precisely controlled by intricate multilevel regulatory networks, among which transcriptional regulation mainly influences oil biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the master positive transcription factors, WRINKLED1 (WRI1) and LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), are important for seed oil accumulation. We found that an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, MYB89, was expressed predominantly in developing seeds during maturation. Oil and major fatty acid biosynthesis in seeds was significantly promoted by myb89-1 mutation and MYB89 knockdown; thus, MYB89 was an important repressor during seed oil accumulation. RNA sequencing revealed remarkable up-regulation of numerous genes involved in seed oil accumulation in myb89 seeds at 12 d after pollination. Posttranslational activation of a MYB89-glucocorticoid receptor fusion protein and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that MYB89 inhibited seed oil accumulation by directly repressing WRI1 and five key genes and by indirectly suppressing L1L and 11 key genes involved in oil biosynthesis during seed maturation. These results help us to understand the novel function of MYB89 and provide new insights into the regulatory network of transcriptional factors controlling seed oil accumulation in Arabidopsis. PMID:27932421

  16. Tristetraprolin Represses Estrogen Receptor α Transactivation in Breast Cancer Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Barrios-García, Tonatiuh; Tecalco-Cruz, Angeles; Gómez-Romero, Vania; Reyes-Carmona, Sandra; Meneses-Morales, Iván; León-Del-Río, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) mediates the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) in normal mammary gland, and it is a key participant in breast cancer tumor development. ERα transactivation activity is mediated by the synergistic interaction of two domains designated AF1 and AF2. The function of AF2 is to recruit coactivator and corepressor proteins that allow ERα to oscillate between the roles of transcriptional activator and repressor. In contrast, the mechanism responsible for AF-1 transcriptional activity is not completely understood. In this study, we identified tristetraproline (TTP) as a novel ERα-associated protein. TTP expression in MCF7 cells repressed ERα transactivation and reduced MCF7 cell proliferation and the ability of the cells to form tumors in a mouse model. We show that TTP transcriptional activity is mediated through its recruitment to the promoter region of ERα target genes and its interaction with histone deacetylases, in particular with HDAC1. TTP expression attenuates the coactivating activity of SRC-1, suggesting that exchange between TTP and other coactivators may play an important role in fine-tuning ERα transactivation. These results indicate that TTP acts as a bona fide ERα corepressor and suggest that this protein may be a contributing factor in the development of E2-dependent tumors in breast cancer. PMID:24737323

  17. Andrei Sakharov Prize Talk: Supporting Repressed Scientists: Continuing Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birman, Joseph L.

    2010-02-01

    Some years ago, Max Perutz asked ``By What Right Do We Scientists Invoke Human Rights?" My presentation will start with mentioning actions of the international community which relate to this question. Such action as the creation in 1919 of the International Research Council, and continuing on to the present with the UN sanctioned International Council of Scientific Unions [ICSU], and other Committees such as those formed by APS, CCS, NYAS, AAAS which give support to repressed scientists around the world now. My own work has attempted to combine my individual initiatives with work as a member and officer of these groups. Together with like minded colleagues who are deeply affected when colleagues are discharged from their positions, exiled, imprisoned and subject to brutal treatment, often after mock ``trials", we react. On visits in 1968 to conferences in Budapest, and then in 1969 to Moscow, Tallin and Leningrad I became personally and deeply touched by the lives of colleagues who were seriously constrained by living under dictatorships. I could move freely into and out of their countries,speak openly about my work or any other matter. They could not, under penalty of possibly serious punishment. Yet, I felt these people were like my extended family. If my grandparents had not left Eastern Europe for the USA in the late 189Os our situations could have been reversed. A little later in the 197O's, ``refusenik" and ``dissident" scientists in the USSR needed support. Colleagues like Andrei Sakharov, Naum Meiman, Mark Azbel, Yakov Alpert, Yuri Orlov and others were being punished for exercising their rights under the UN sanctioned international protocals on ``Universality of Science and Free Circulation of Scientists". Their own governments [which signed these agreements] ignored the very protections they had supported. On frequent trips to the USSR during the 7Os,and 8Os I also seized the opportunity for ``individual initiative" to help these colleagues. I asked for

  18. The HTLV-1 Tax Oncoprotein Represses Ku80 Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ducu, Razvan I.; Dayaram, Tajhal; Marriott, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    The HTLV-I oncoprotein Tax interferes with DNA double strand break repair. Since non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a major pathway used to repair DNA double strand breaks we examined the effect of Tax on this pathway, with particular interest in the expression and function of Ku80, a critical component of the NHEJ pathway. Tax expression decreased Ku80 mRNA and protein levels, and repressed transcription from the Ku80 promoter. Conversely, Ku80 mRNA increased following siRNA knockdown of Tax in HTLV-I infected cells. Tax expression was associated with an elevated number of micronuclei and nucleoplasmic bridges, hallmarks of improper DNA double strand break repair. Our studies identified Tax as a transcriptional repressor of Ku80 that correlates with decreased DNA repair function. The reduction of Ku80 transcription by Tax may deplete the cell of an essential DNA break binding protein, resulting in reduced repair of DNA double strand breaks and accumulation genomic mutations. PMID:21571351

  19. mTOR referees memory and disease through mRNA repression and competition.

    PubMed

    Raab-Graham, Kimberly F; Niere, Farr

    2017-06-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity is required for memory and is dysregulated in disease. Activation of mTOR promotes protein synthesis; however, new studies are demonstrating that mTOR activity also represses the translation of mRNAs. Almost three decades ago, Kandel and colleagues hypothesised that memory was due to the induction of positive regulators and removal of negative constraints. Are these negative constraints repressed mRNAs that code for proteins that block memory formation? Herein, we will discuss the mRNAs coded by putative memory suppressors, how activation/inactivation of mTOR repress protein expression at the synapse, how mTOR activity regulates RNA binding proteins, mRNA stability, and translation, and what the possible implications of mRNA repression are to memory and neurodegenerative disorders. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  20. Induction and Repression in the S-Adenosylmethionine and Methionine Biosynthetic Systems of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, A. J.; Spence, K. D.

    1973-01-01

    Two methionine biosynthetic enzymes and the methionine adenosyltransferase are repressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae when grown under conditions where the intracellular levels of S-adenosylmethionine are high. The nature of the co-repressor molecule of this repression was investigated by following the intracellular levels of methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, and S-adenosylhomocysteine, as well as enzyme activities, after growth under various conditions. Under all of the conditions found to repress these enzymes, there is an accompanying induction of the S-adenosylmethionine-homocysteine methyltransferase which suggests that this enzyme may play a key role in the regulation of S-adenosylmethionine and methionine balance and synthesis. S-methylmethionine also induces the methyltransferase, but unlike S-adenosylmethionine, it does not repress the methionine adenosyltransferase or other methionine biosynthetic enzymes tested. PMID:4583251

  1. Maintaining quality in blood banking.

    PubMed

    Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

    1995-03-01

    component will warrant redress. The degree of fault attributed to the producer will in part depend on whether they have met the best available standards at all stages in the preparation of the product. If a Transfusion Service can show that it's operation has external accreditation, particularly to an internationally recognised standard such as ISO 9000 and they can show that staff have been properly trained, that equipment is properly supplied and maintained and that the facility is appropriate to the work being carried out, then the liability that exists when something goes wrong will be reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  2. Long noncoding RNA EWSAT1-mediated gene repression facilitates Ewing sarcoma oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Marques Howarth, Michelle; Simpson, David; Ngok, Siu P.; Nieves, Bethsaida; Chen, Ron; Siprashvili, Zurab; Vaka, Dedeepya; Breese, Marcus R.; Crompton, Brian D.; Alexe, Gabriela; Hawkins, Doug S.; Jacobson, Damon; Brunner, Alayne L.; West, Robert; Mora, Jaume; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Khavari, Paul; Sweet-Cordero, E. Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal translocation that results in fusion of the genes encoding RNA-binding protein EWS and transcription factor FLI1 (EWS-FLI1) is pathognomonic for Ewing sarcoma. EWS-FLI1 alters gene expression through mechanisms that are not completely understood. We performed RNA sequencing (RNAseq) analysis on primary pediatric human mesenchymal progenitor cells (pMPCs) expressing EWS-FLI1 in order to identify gene targets of this oncoprotein. We determined that long noncoding RNA-277 (Ewing sarcoma–associated transcript 1 [EWSAT1]) is upregulated by EWS-FLI1 in pMPCs. Inhibition of EWSAT1 expression diminished the ability of Ewing sarcoma cell lines to proliferate and form colonies in soft agar, whereas EWSAT1 inhibition had no effect on other cell types tested. Expression of EWS-FLI1 and EWSAT1 repressed gene expression, and a substantial fraction of targets that were repressed by EWS-FLI1 were also repressed by EWSAT1. Analysis of RNAseq data from primary human Ewing sarcoma further supported a role for EWSAT1 in mediating gene repression. We identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (HNRNPK) as an RNA-binding protein that interacts with EWSAT1 and found a marked overlap in HNRNPK-repressed genes and those repressed by EWS-FLI1 and EWSAT1, suggesting that HNRNPK participates in EWSAT1-mediated gene repression. Together, our data reveal that EWSAT1 is a downstream target of EWS-FLI1 that facilitates the development of Ewing sarcoma via the repression of target genes. PMID:25401475

  3. Repression by Jun of the Polyoma-virus enhancer overrides activation in a cell specific manner.

    PubMed Central

    Schneikert, J; Imler, J L; Wasylyk, B

    1991-01-01

    The activities of promoters and enhancers are generated by the combinatorial effects of the factors which interact with them. The Polyoma virus (Py) enhancer contains sequences that are positively regulated by the proto-oncogene Jun. Surprisingly, Jun has an additional and overriding repressing effect on enhancer activity, which is cell specific. Thus overall enhancer activity cannot be simply deduced from the properties of individual elements. We present evidence that repression is indirect. Images PMID:1850124

  4. Repressive histone methylation regulates cardiac myocyte cell cycle exit.

    PubMed

    El-Nachef, Danny; Oyama, Kyohei; Wu, Yun-Yu; Freeman, Miles; Zhang, Yiqiang; Robb MacLellan, W

    2018-05-22

    Mammalian cardiac myocytes (CMs) stop proliferating soon after birth and subsequent heart growth comes from hypertrophy, limiting the adult heart's regenerative potential after injury. The molecular events that mediate CM cell cycle exit are poorly understood. To determine the epigenetic mechanisms limiting CM cycling in adult CMs (ACMs) and whether trimethylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me3), a histone modification associated with repressed chromatin, is required for the silencing of cell cycle genes, we developed a transgenic mouse model where H3K9me3 is specifically removed in CMs by overexpression of histone demethylase, KDM4D. Although H3K9me3 is found across the genome, its loss in CMs preferentially disrupts cell cycle gene silencing. KDM4D binds directly to cell cycle genes and reduces H3K9me3 levels at these promotors. Loss of H3K9me3 preferentially leads to increased cell cycle gene expression resulting in enhanced CM cycling. Heart mass was increased in KDM4D overexpressing mice by postnatal day 14 (P14) and continued to increase until 9-weeks of age. ACM number, but not size, was significantly increased in KDM4D expressing hearts, suggesting CM hyperplasia accounts for the increased heart mass. Inducing KDM4D after normal development specifically in ACMs resulted in increased cell cycle gene expression and cycling. We demonstrated that H3K9me3 is required for CM cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation in ACMs. Depletion of H3K9me3 in adult hearts prevents and reverses permanent cell cycle exit and allows hyperplastic growth in adult hearts in vivo. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. CcpA-Dependent Carbon Catabolite Repression in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Jessica B.; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) by transcriptional regulators follows different mechanisms in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. In gram-positive bacteria, CcpA-dependent CCR is mediated by phosphorylation of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system intermediate HPr at a serine residue at the expense of ATP. The reaction is catalyzed by HPr kinase, which is activated by glycolytic intermediates. In this review, the distribution of CcpA-dependent CCR among bacteria is investigated by searching the public databases for homologues of HPr kinase and HPr-like proteins throughout the bacterial kingdom and by analyzing their properties. Homologues of HPr kinase are commonly observed in the phylum Firmicutes but are also found in the phyla Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Spirochaetes, and Chlorobi, suggesting that CcpA-dependent CCR is not restricted to gram-positive bacteria. In the α and β subdivisions of the Proteobacteria, the presence of HPr kinase appears to be common, while in the γ subdivision it is more of an exception. The genes coding for the HPr kinase homologues of the Proteobacteria are in a gene cluster together with an HPr-like protein, termed XPr, suggesting a functional relationship. Moreover, the XPr proteins contain the serine phosphorylation sequence motif. Remarkably, the analysis suggests a possible relation between CcpA-dependent gene regulation and the nitrogen regulation system (Ntr) found in the γ subdivision of the Proteobacteria. The relation is suggested by the clustering of CCR and Ntr components on the genome of members of the Proteobacteria and by the close phylogenetic relationship between XPr and NPr, the HPr-like protein in the Ntr system. In bacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria that contain HPr kinase and XPr, the latter may be at the center of a complex regulatory network involving both CCR and the Ntr system. PMID:14665673

  6. Viral repression of fungal pheromone precursor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Baasiri, R A; Van Alfen, N K

    1998-02-01

    Biological control of chestnut blight caused by the filamentous ascomycete Cryphonectria parasitica can be achieved with a virus that infects this fungus. This hypovirus causes a perturbation of fungal development that results in low virulence (hypovirulence), poor asexual sporulation, and female infertility without affecting fungal growth in culture. At the molecular level, the virus is known to affect the transcription of a number of fungal genes. Two of these genes, Vir1 and Vir2, produce abundant transcripts in noninfected strains of the fungus, but the transcripts are not detectable in virus-infected strains. We report here that these two genes encode the pheromone precursors of the Mat-2 mating type of the fungus; consequently, these genes have been renamed Mf2/1 and Mf2/2. To determine if the virus affects the mating systems of both mating types of this fungus, the pheromone precursor gene, Mf1/1, of a Mat-1 strain was cloned and likewise was found to be repressed in virus-infected strains. The suppression of transcription of the pheromone precursor genes of this fungus could be the cause of the mating defect of infected strains of the fungus. Although published reports suggest that a G alpha(i) subunit may be involved in this regulation, our results do not support this hypothesis. The prepropheromone encoded by Mf1/1 is structurally similar to that of the prepro-p-factor of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This is the first description of the complete set of pheromone precursor genes encoded by a filamentous ascomycete.

  7. Viral Repression of Fungal Pheromone Precursor Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Baasiri, Rudeina A.; Van Alfen, Neal K.

    1998-01-01

    Biological control of chestnut blight caused by the filamentous ascomycete Cryphonectria parasitica can be achieved with a virus that infects this fungus. This hypovirus causes a perturbation of fungal development that results in low virulence (hypovirulence), poor asexual sporulation, and female infertility without affecting fungal growth in culture. At the molecular level, the virus is known to affect the transcription of a number of fungal genes. Two of these genes, Vir1 and Vir2, produce abundant transcripts in noninfected strains of the fungus, but the transcripts are not detectable in virus-infected strains. We report here that these two genes encode the pheromone precursors of the Mat-2 mating type of the fungus; consequently, these genes have been renamed Mf2/1 and Mf2/2. To determine if the virus affects the mating systems of both mating types of this fungus, the pheromone precursor gene, Mf1/1, of a Mat-1 strain was cloned and likewise was found to be repressed in virus-infected strains. The suppression of transcription of the pheromone precursor genes of this fungus could be the cause of the mating defect of infected strains of the fungus. Although published reports suggest that a Gαi subunit may be involved in this regulation, our results do not support this hypothesis. The prepropheromone encoded by Mf1/1 is structurally similar to that of the prepro-p-factor of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This is the first description of the complete set of pheromone precursor genes encoded by a filamentous ascomycete. PMID:9447992

  8. MUC1-C Represses the Crumbs Complex Polarity Factor CRB3 and Downregulates the Hippo Pathway.

    PubMed

    Alam, Maroof; Bouillez, Audrey; Tagde, Ashujit; Ahmad, Rehan; Rajabi, Hasan; Maeda, Takahiro; Hiraki, Masayuki; Suzuki, Yozo; Kufe, Donald

    2016-12-01

    Apical-basal polarity and epithelial integrity are maintained in part by the Crumbs (CRB) complex. The C--terminal subunit of MUC1 (MUC1-C) is a transmembrane protein that is expressed at the apical border of normal epithelial cells and aberrantly at high levels over the entire surface of their transformed counterparts. However, it is not known whether MUC1-C contributes to this loss of polarity that is characteristic of carcinoma cells. Here it is demonstrated that MUC1-C downregulates expression of the Crumbs complex CRB3 protein in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. MUC1-C associates with ZEB1 on the CRB3 promoter and represses CRB3 transcription. Notably, CRB3 activates the core kinase cassette of the Hippo pathway, which includes LATS1 and LATS2. In this context, targeting MUC1-C was associated with increased phosphorylation of LATS1, consistent with activation of the Hippo pathway, which is critical for regulating cell contact, tissue repair, proliferation, and apoptosis. Also shown is that MUC1-C--mediated suppression of CRB3 and the Hippo pathway is associated with dephosphorylation and activation of the oncogenic YAP protein. In turn, MUC1-C interacts with YAP, promotes formation of YAP/β-catenin complexes, and induces the WNT target gene MYC. These data support a previously unrecognized pathway in which targeting MUC1-C in TNBC cells (i) induces CRB3 expression, (ii) activates the CRB3-driven Hippo pathway, (iii) inactivates YAP, and thereby (iv) suppresses YAP/β-catenin-mediated induction of MYC expression. These findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for the MUC1-C oncoprotein in the regulation of polarity and the Hippo pathway in breast cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 14(12); 1266-76. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. MUC1-C Represses the Crumbs Complex Polarity Factor CRB3 and Downregulates the Hippo Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Maroof; Bouillez, Audrey; Tagde, Ashujit; Ahmad, Rehan; Rajabi, Hasan; Maeda, Takahiro; Hiraki, Masayuki; Suzuki, Yozo; Kufe, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Apical-basal polarity and epithelial integrity are maintained in part by the Crumbs (CRB) complex. The C-terminal subunit of MUC1 (MUC1-C) is a transmembrane protein that is expressed at the apical border of normal epithelial cells and aberrantly at high levels over the entire surface of their transformed counterparts. However, it is not known if MUC1-C contributes to this loss of polarity that is characteristic of carcinoma cells. Here it is demonstrated that MUC1-C downregulates expression of the Crumbs complex CRB3 protein in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. MUC1-C associates with ZEB1 on the CRB3 promoter and represses CRB3 transcription. Notably, CRB3 activates the core kinase cassette of the Hippo pathway, which includes LATS1 and LATS2. In this context, targeting MUC1-C was associated with increased phosphorylation of LATS1, consistent with activation of the Hippo pathway, which is critical for regulating cell contact, tissue repair, proliferation and apoptosis. Also shown is that MUC1-C-mediated suppression of CRB3 and the Hippo pathway is associated with dephosphorylation and activation of the oncogenic YAP protein. In turn, MUC1-C interacts with YAP, promotes formation of YAP/β-catenin complexes and induces the WNT target gene MYC. These data support a previously unrecognized model in which targeting MUC1-C in TNBC cells (i) induces CRB3 expression, (ii) activates the CRB3-driven Hippo pathway, (iii) inactivates YAP, and thereby (iv) suppresses YAP/β-catenin-mediated induction of MYC expression. Implications These findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for the MUC1-C oncoprotein in the regulation of polarity and the Hippo pathway in breast cancer. PMID:27658423

  10. The HUSH complex cooperates with TRIM28 to repress young retrotransposons and new genes.

    PubMed

    Robbez-Masson, Luisa; Tie, Christopher H C; Conde, Lucia; Tunbak, Hale; Husovsky, Connor; Tchasovnikarova, Iva A; Timms, Richard T; Herrero, Javier; Lehner, Paul J; Rowe, Helen M

    2018-05-04

    Retrotransposons encompass half of the human genome and contribute to the formation of heterochromatin, which provides nuclear structure and regulates gene expression. Here, we asked if the human silencing hub (HUSH) complex is necessary to silence retrotransposons and whether it collaborates with TRIM28 and the chromatin remodeler ATRX at specific genomic loci. We show that the HUSH complex contributes to de novo repression and DNA methylation of a SVA retrotransposon reporter. By using naïve vs. primed mouse pluripotent stem cells, we reveal a critical role for the HUSH complex in naïve cells, implicating it in programming epigenetic marks in development. While the HUSH component FAM208A binds to endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) and long interspersed element-1s (LINE-1s or L1s), it is mainly required to repress evolutionarily young L1s (mouse-specific lineages less than 5 million years old). TRIM28, in contrast, is necessary to repress both ERVs and young L1s. Genes co-repressed by TRIM28 and FAM208A are evolutionarily young, or exhibit tissue-specific expression, are enriched in young L1s and display evidence for regulation through LTR promoters. Finally, we demonstrate that the HUSH complex is also required to repress L1 elements in human cells. Overall, these data indicate that the HUSH complex and TRIM28 co-repress young retrotransposons and new genes rewired by retrotransposon non-coding DNA. Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. Repression by Homeoprotein Pitx1 of Virus-Induced Interferon A Promoters Is Mediated by Physical Interaction and trans Repression of IRF3 and IRF7

    PubMed Central

    Island, Marie-Laure; Mesplede, Thibault; Darracq, Nicole; Bandu, Marie-Thérèse; Christeff, Nicolas; Djian, Philippe; Drouin, Jacques; Navarro, Sébastien

    2002-01-01

    Interferon A (IFN-A) genes are differentially expressed after virus induction. The differential expression of individual IFN-A genes is modulated by the specific transcription activators IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and IRF-7 and the homeoprotein transcription repressor Pitx1. We now show that repression by Pitx1 does not appear to be due to the recruitment of histone deacetylases. On the other hand, Pitx1 inhibits the IRF3 and IRF7 transcriptional activity of the IFN-A11 and IFN-A5 promoters and interacts physically with IRF3 and IRF7. Pitx1 trans-repression activity maps to specific C-terminal domains, and the Pitx1 homeodomain is involved in physical interaction with IRF3 or IRF7. IRF3 is able to bind to the antisilencer region of the IFN-A4 promoter, which overrides the repressive activity of Pitx1. These results indicate that interaction between the Pitx1 homeodomain and IRF3 or IRF7 and the ability of the Pitx1 C-terminal repressor domains to block IFN-A11 and IFN-A5 but not IFN-A4 promoter activities may contribute to our understanding of the complex differential transcriptional activation, repression, and antirepression of the IFN-A genes. PMID:12242290

  12. De-repression of RaRF-mediated RAR repression by adenovirus E1A in the nucleolus.

    PubMed

    Um, Soo-Jong; Youn, Hye Sook; Kim, Eun-Joo

    2014-02-21

    Transcriptional activity of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) is regulated by diverse binding partners, including classical corepressors and coactivators, in response to its ligand retinoic acid (RA). Recently, we identified a novel corepressor of RAR called the retinoic acid resistance factor (RaRF) (manuscript submitted). Here, we report how adenovirus E1A stimulates RAR activity by associating with RaRF. Based on immunoprecipitation (IP) assays, E1A interacts with RaRF through the conserved region 2 (CR2), which is also responsible for pRb binding. The first coiled-coil domain of RaRF was sufficient for this interaction. An in vitro glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay was used to confirm the direct interaction between E1A and RaRF. Further fluorescence microscopy indicated that E1A and RaRF were located in the nucleoplasm and nucleolus, respectively. However, RaRF overexpression promoted nucleolar translocation of E1A from the nucleoplasm. Both the RA-dependent interaction of RAR with RaRF and RAR translocation to the nucleolus were disrupted by E1A. RaRF-mediated RAR repression was impaired by wild-type E1A, but not by the RaRF binding-defective E1A mutant. Taken together, our data suggest that E1A is sequestered to the nucleolus by RaRF through a specific interaction, thereby leaving RAR in the nucleoplasm for transcriptional activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Social adjustment and repressive adaptive style in survivors of pediatric cancer.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Fiona; Wurz, Amanda; Russell, K Brooke; Reynolds, Kathleen; Strother, Douglas; Dewey, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between repressive adaptive style and self-reports of social adjustment in survivors of pediatric cancer compared to their siblings. We hypothesized that there would be a greater proportion of repressors among survivors of pediatric cancer compared to siblings, and that repressive adaptive style would be significantly associated with more positive self-reports of social adjustment. We utilized a cross-sectional approach. Seventy-seven families participated. Survivors of pediatric cancer (n = 77, 48% male; 8-18 years of age) and one sibling (n = 50, 48% male; 8-18 years of age) completed measures assessing repressive adaptive style and social adjustment. As well, one parent from each family completed a socio-demographic questionnaire. Questionnaire packages were mailed to eligible families who agreed to participate, and were mailed back to investigators in a pre-addressed, pre-stamped envelope. Chi-square analyses revealed there was no significant difference in the proportion of repressors among survivors and siblings. Social adjustment scores were subjected to a two (group: survivor, sibling) by two (repressor, nonrepressor) ANCOVA with gender and age as covariates. There was a significant main effect of repressive adaptive style (F = 5.69, p < .05, η 2 = 0.05) with a modest effect. Survivors and siblings with a repressive style reported significantly higher social adjustment scores (M = 106.91, SD = 11.69) compared to nonrepressors (M = 99.57, SD = 13.45). Repressive adaptive style explains some of the variance in survivors and siblings' self-reports of social adjustment. Future research should aim to better understand the role of the repressive adaptive style in survivors and siblings of children with cancer.

  14. Genetics of carbon catabolite repression in Saccharomycess cerevisiae: genes involved in the derepression process.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, F K; Kaufmann, I; Rasenberger, H; Haubetamann, P

    1977-02-28

    A recessive mutant cat1-1, wild type CAT1, was isolated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It did not grow on glycerol nor ferment maltose even with fully constitutive, glucose resistant maltase synthesis. It prevented derepression of isocitrate lyase, fructose-1,6-diphosphatase and maltase in a constitutive but glucose sensitive maltase mutant. Derepression of malate dehydrogenase was retarded and slowed down. Sucrose fermentation and invertase synthesis was not affected. Respiration was normal. From this mutant, two reverse mutants were isolated. One was recessive, acted as a suppressor of cat1-1 and was called cat2-1, wild type CAT2; the other was dominant and allelic to CAT1 and designated CAT1-2d and cat2-1 caused an earlier derepression of enzymes studied but did not affect the repressed nor the fully derepressed enzyme levels. CAT1-2d and cat2-1 did not show any additive effects. It is proposed that carbon catabolite repression acts in two ways. The direct way represses synthesis of sensitive enzymes, during growth on repressing carbon sources whereas the other way regulates the derepression process. After alleviation of carbon catabolite repression, gene CAT1 becomes active and prevents the activity of CAT2 which functions as a repressor of sensitive enzyme synthesis. The CAT2 gene product has to be eliminated before derepression can actually occur. The time required for this causes a delay in derepression after the depletion of a repressible carbon source. cat1-1 cannot block CAT2 activity and therefore, derepression is blocked. cat2-1 is inactive and derepression can start after carbon catabolite repression has ceased. CAT1-2d permanently active as a repressor of CAT2 and eliminates the delay in derepression.

  15. Associations between repression, general maladjustment, body weight, and body shape in older males: the Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Niaura, Raymond S; Stroud, Laura R; Todaro, John; Ward, Kenneth D; Spiro, Avron; Aldwin, Carolyn; Landsberg, Lewis; Weiss, Scott T

    2003-01-01

    We examined relationships between repression, general maladjustment, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). The participants were 1,081 healthy older men from the Normative Aging Study. Repression and General Maladjustment Scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory were composite measures of personality. Repression was associated with lower BMI and WHR, and maladjustment with higher BMI and WHR. However, associations between WHR and personality dimensions were no longer significant when controlling for BMI, but associations between BMI and personality dimensions remained significant when controlling for WHR. These effects were explained by differing relationships between WHR, repression, and maladjustment for normal weight, overweight, and obese individuals. Specifically, associations between repression, maladjustment, and body shape were significant for normal weight and overweight individuals, but not for obese individuals. Health behaviors including smoking did not mediate relationships between repression, maladjustment, and body shape, but might be considered in future studies as mechanisms underlying links between personality and body shape.

  16. Repression of Pseudomonas putida phenanthrene-degrading activity by plant root extracts and exudates.

    PubMed

    Rentz, Jeremy A; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2004-06-01

    The phenanthrene-degrading activity (PDA) of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17484 was repressed after incubation with plant root extracts of oat (Avena sativa), osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix alba x matsudana), kou (Cordia subcordata) and milo (Thespesia populnea) and plant root exudates of oat (Avena sativa) and hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides x nigra DN34). Total organic carbon content of root extracts ranged from 103 to 395 mg l(-1). Characterization of root extracts identified acetate (not detectable to 8.0 mg l(-1)), amino acids (1.7-17.3 mg l(-1)) and glucose (1.6-14.0 mg l(-1)), indicating a complex mixture of substrates. Repression was also observed after exposure to potential root-derived substrates, including organic acids, glucose (carbohydrate) and glutamate (amino acid). Carbon source regulation (e.g. catabolite repression) was apparently responsible for the observed repression of P. putida PDA by root extracts. However, we showed that P. putida grows on root extracts and exudates as sole carbon and energy sources. Enhanced growth on root products may compensate for partial repression, because larger microbial populations are conducive to faster degradation rates. This would explain the commonly reported increase in phenanthrene removal in the rhizosphere.

  17. Obacunone Represses Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands 1 and 2 in an envZ-Dependent Fashion

    PubMed Central

    Vikram, Amit; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K.; Jesudhasan, Palmy R.

    2012-01-01

    Obacunone belongs to a class of unique triterpenoids called limonoids, present in Citrus species. Previous studies from our laboratory suggested that obacunone possesses antivirulence activity and demonstrates inhibition of cell-cell signaling in Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli O157:H7. The present work sought to determine the effect of obacunone on the food-borne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 by using a cDNA microarray. Transcriptomic studies indicated that obacunone represses Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1), the maltose transporter, and the hydrogenase operon. Furthermore, phenotypic data for the Caco-2 infection assay and maltose utilization were in agreement with microarray data suggesting repression of SPI1 and maltose transport. Further studies demonstrated that repression of SPI1 was plausibly mediated through hilA. Additionally, obacunone seems to repress SPI2 under SPI2-inducing conditions as well as in Caco-2 infection models. Furthermore, obacunone seems to repress hilA in an EnvZ-dependent fashion. Altogether, the results of the study seems to suggest that obacunone exerts an antivirulence effect on S. Typhimurium and may serve as a lead compound for development of antivirulence strategies for S. Typhimurium. PMID:22843534

  18. Obacunone represses Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2 in an envZ-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Vikram, Amit; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Jesudhasan, Palmy R; Pillai, Suresh D; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2012-10-01

    Obacunone belongs to a class of unique triterpenoids called limonoids, present in Citrus species. Previous studies from our laboratory suggested that obacunone possesses antivirulence activity and demonstrates inhibition of cell-cell signaling in Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli O157:H7. The present work sought to determine the effect of obacunone on the food-borne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 by using a cDNA microarray. Transcriptomic studies indicated that obacunone represses Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1), the maltose transporter, and the hydrogenase operon. Furthermore, phenotypic data for the Caco-2 infection assay and maltose utilization were in agreement with microarray data suggesting repression of SPI1 and maltose transport. Further studies demonstrated that repression of SPI1 was plausibly mediated through hilA. Additionally, obacunone seems to repress SPI2 under SPI2-inducing conditions as well as in Caco-2 infection models. Furthermore, obacunone seems to repress hilA in an EnvZ-dependent fashion. Altogether, the results of the study seems to suggest that obacunone exerts an antivirulence effect on S. Typhimurium and may serve as a lead compound for development of antivirulence strategies for S. Typhimurium.

  19. Induction Specificity and Catabolite Repression of the Early Enzymes in Camphor Degradation by Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Hartline, Richard A.; Gunsalus, I. C.

    1971-01-01

    The ability of bornane and substituted bornanes to induce the early enzymes for d(+)-camphor degradation and control of these enzymes by catabolite repression were studied in a strain of a Pseudomonas putida. Bornane and 20 substituted bornane compounds showed induction. Of these 21 compounds, bornane and 8 of the substituted bornanes provided induction without supporting growth. Oxygen, but not nitrogen, enhanced the inductive potency of the unsubstituted bornane ring. All bornanedione isomers caused induction, and those with substituents on each of the three consecutive carbon atoms, including the methyl group at the bridgehead carbon, showed induction without supporting growth. Although it was not possible to obtain experimental data for a case of absolute gratuitous induction by compounds not supporting growth, indirect evidence in support of gratuitous induction is presented. It is proposed that the ability of P. putida to tolerate the unusually high degree of possible gratuitous induction observed for camphor catabolism may be related to the infrequent occurrence of bicyclic ring structures in nature. Survival of an organism with a broad specificity for gratuitous induction is discussed. Glucose and succinate, but not glutamate, produced catabolite repression of the early camphor-degrading enzymes. Pathway enzymes differ in their degree of sensitivity to succinate-provoked catabolite repression. The ability of a compound to produce catabolite repression is not, however, directly related to the duration of the lag period (diauxic lag) between growth on camphor and growth on the repressing compound. PMID:5573731

  20. Repression of Meiotic Genes by Antisense Transcription and by Fkh2 Transcription Factor in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Khan, Sohail R.; Futcher, Bruce; Leatherwood, Janet K.

    2012-01-01

    In S. pombe, about 5% of genes are meiosis-specific and accumulate little or no mRNA during vegetative growth. Here we use Affymetrix tiling arrays to characterize transcripts in vegetative and meiotic cells. In vegetative cells, many meiotic genes, especially those induced in mid-meiosis, have abundant antisense transcripts. Disruption of the antisense transcription of three of these mid-meiotic genes allowed vegetative sense transcription. These results suggest that antisense transcription represses sense transcription of meiotic genes in vegetative cells. Although the mechanism(s) of antisense mediated transcription repression need to be further explored, our data indicates that RNAi machinery is not required for repression. Previously, we and others used non-strand specific methods to study splicing regulation of meiotic genes and concluded that 28 mid-meiotic genes are spliced only in meiosis. We now demonstrate that the “unspliced” signal in vegetative cells comes from the antisense RNA, not from unspliced sense RNA, and we argue against the idea that splicing regulates these mid-meiotic genes. Most of these mid-meiotic genes are induced in mid-meiosis by the forkhead transcription factor Mei4. Interestingly, deletion of a different forkhead transcription factor, Fkh2, allows low levels of sense expression of some mid-meiotic genes in vegetative cells. We propose that vegetative expression of mid-meiotic genes is repressed at least two independent ways: antisense transcription and Fkh2 repression. PMID:22238674

  1. Evaluation and control of miRNA-like off-target repression for RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Seok, Heeyoung; Lee, Haejeong; Jang, Eun-Sook; Chi, Sung Wook

    2018-03-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely adopted to repress specific gene expression and is easily achieved by designing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) with perfect sequence complementarity to the intended target mRNAs. Although siRNAs direct Argonaute (Ago), a core component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), to recognize and silence target mRNAs, they also inevitably function as microRNAs (miRNAs) and suppress hundreds of off-targets. Such miRNA-like off-target repression is potentially detrimental, resulting in unwanted toxicity and phenotypes. Despite early recognition of the severity of miRNA-like off-target repression, this effect has often been overlooked because of difficulties in recognizing and avoiding off-targets. However, recent advances in genome-wide methods and knowledge of Ago-miRNA target interactions have set the stage for properly evaluating and controlling miRNA-like off-target repression. Here, we describe the intrinsic problems of miRNA-like off-target effects caused by canonical and noncanonical interactions. We particularly focus on various genome-wide approaches and chemical modifications for the evaluation and prevention of off-target repression to facilitate the use of RNAi with secured specificity.

  2. Are the "memory wars" over? A scientist-practitioner gap in beliefs about repressed memory.

    PubMed

    Patihis, Lawrence; Ho, Lavina Y; Tingen, Ian W; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2014-02-01

    The "memory wars" of the 1990s refers to the controversy between some clinicians and memory scientists about the reliability of repressed memories. To investigate whether such disagreement persists, we compared various groups' beliefs about memory and compared their current beliefs with beliefs expressed in past studies. In Study 1, we found high rates of belief in repressed memory among undergraduates. We also found that greater critical-thinking ability was associated with more skepticism about repressed memories. In Study 2, we found less belief in repressed memory among mainstream clinicians today compared with the 1990s. Groups that contained research-oriented psychologists and memory experts expressed more skepticism about the validity of repressed memories relative to other groups. Thus, a substantial gap between the memory beliefs of clinical-psychology researchers and those of practitioners persists today. These results hold implications for the potential resolution of the science-practice gap and for the dissemination of memory research in the training of mental-health professionals.

  3. Histone methyltransferase Ash1L mediates activity-dependent repression of neurexin-1α

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Τao; Liang, Chen; Li, Dongdong; Tian, Miaomiao; Liu, Sanxiong; Gao, Guanjun; Guan, Ji-Song

    2016-01-01

    Activity-dependent transcription is critical for the regulation of long-term synaptic plasticity and plastic rewiring in the brain. Here, we report that the transcription of neurexin1α (nrxn1α), a presynaptic adhesion molecule for synaptic formation, is regulated by transient neuronal activation. We showed that 10 minutes of firing at 50 Hz in neurons repressed the expression of nrxn1α for 24 hours in a primary cortical neuron culture through a transcriptional repression mechanism. By performing a screening assay using a synthetic zinc finger protein (ZFP) to pull down the proteins enriched near the nrxn1α promoter region in vivo, we identified that Ash1L, a histone methyltransferase, is enriched in the nrxn1α promoter. Neuronal activity triggered binding of Ash1L to the promoter and enriched the histone marker H3K36me2 at the nrxn1α promoter region. Knockout of Ash1L in mice completely abolished the activity-dependent repression of nrxn1α. Taken together, our results reveal that a novel process of activity-dependent transcriptional repression exists in neurons and that Ash1L mediates the long-term repression of nrxn1α, thus implicating an important role for epigenetic modification in brain functioning. PMID:27229316

  4. Repressive Coping Does Not Contribute to Anosognosia in First-Diagnosis Patients With Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Verhülsdonk, Sandra; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Christian; Höft, Barbara; Schwender, Holger; Supprian, Tillmann; Hellen, Florence; Kalbe, Elke

    2017-01-01

    Anosognosia is common in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) even in early stages. Although neural correlates and the impact of cognitive dysfunctions have been described, possible psychodynamic processes such as a repressive coping style as described in other illnesses, have not been examined. Our study aimed to examine possible psychological influence factors on illness perception embracing a repressive coping style and cognitive functions in AD patients in the diagnostic process. Fifty-four subjects with mild AD diagnosed in our memory clinic were enrolled. Anosognosia was evaluated using a patient-caregiver discrepancy rating. All patients underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing. In addition, characteristics of a repressive coping style were assessed. In total, 79.6% of our patients showed a lack of awareness at least to some degree. 33.3% of the patients were classified as repressors. Repressors and nonrepressors did not differ in cognition, or the unawareness score. Multivariate regression analysis showed that repressive coping style did not significantly contribute to anosognosia, but that verbal memory and naming ability had a strong influence. Although our data indicate that a high proportion of patients with mild AD show characteristics of repressive coping, this possible defense mechanism had no influence on the awareness of illness-related deficits measured by caregiver patient discrepancy.

  5. Wnt-Mediated Repression via Bipartite DNA Recognition by TCF in the Drosophila Hematopoietic System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen U.; Blauwkamp, Timothy A.; Burby, Peter E.; Cadigan, Ken M.

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays many important roles in animal development, tissue homeostasis and human disease. Transcription factors of the TCF family mediate many Wnt transcriptional responses, promoting signal-dependent activation or repression of target gene expression. The mechanism of this specificity is poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that for activated targets in Drosophila, TCF/Pangolin (the fly TCF) recognizes regulatory DNA through two DNA binding domains, with the High Mobility Group (HMG) domain binding HMG sites and the adjacent C-clamp domain binding Helper sites. Here, we report that TCF/Pangolin utilizes a similar bipartite mechanism to recognize and regulate several Wnt-repressed targets, but through HMG and Helper sites whose sequences are distinct from those found in activated targets. The type of HMG and Helper sites is sufficient to direct activation or repression of Wnt regulated cis-regulatory modules, and protease digestion studies suggest that TCF/Pangolin adopts distinct conformations when bound to either HMG-Helper site pair. This repressive mechanism occurs in the fly lymph gland, the larval hematopoietic organ, where Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls prohemocytic differentiation. Our study provides a paradigm for direct repression of target gene expression by Wnt/β-catenin signaling and allosteric regulation of a transcription factor by DNA. PMID:25144371

  6. Cytotype Control of Drosophila Melanogaster P Element Transposition: Genomic Position Determines Maternal Repression

    PubMed Central

    Misra, S.; Buratowski, R. M.; Ohkawa, T.; Rio, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    P element transposition in Drosophila is controlled by the cytotype regulatory state: in P cytotype, transposition is repressed, whereas in M cytotype, transposition can occur. P cytotype is determined by a combination of maternally inherited factors and chromosomal P elements in the zygote. Transformant strains containing single elements that encoded the 66-kD P element protein zygotically repressed transposition, but did not display the maternal repression characteristic of P cytotype. Upon mobilization to new genomic positions, some of these repressor elements showed significant maternal repression of transposition in genetic assays, involving a true maternal effect. Thus, the genomic position of repressor elements can determine the maternal vs. zygotic inheritance of P cytotype. Immunoblotting experiments indicate that this genomic position effect does not operate solely by controlling the expression level of the 66-kD repressor protein during oogenesis. Likewise, P element derivatives containing the hsp26 maternal regulator sequence expressed high levels of the 66-kD protein during oogenesis, but showed no detectable maternal repression. These data suggest that the location of a repressor element in the genome may determine maternal inheritance of P cytotype by a mechanism involving more than the overall level of expression of the 66-kD protein in the ovary. PMID:8293979

  7. Carboxyl-Terminal Amino Acids 1052 to 1082 of the Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen (LANA) Interact with RBP-Jκ and Are Responsible for LANA-Mediated RTA Repression

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yi; He, Zhiheng; Liang, Deguang; Zhang, Quanzhi; Zhang, Hongxing; Deng, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8, is closely associated with several malignancies, including Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease. KSHV can establish lifelong latency in the host, but the mechanism is not fully understood. Previous studies have proposed a feedback model in which the viral replication and transcription activator (RTA) can induce the expression of the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) during early infection. LANA, in turn, represses transcription and RTA function to establish and maintain KSHV latency. The interaction between LANA and the recombination signal sequence binding protein Jκ (RBP-Jκ, also called CSL), a major transcriptional repressor of the Notch signaling pathway, is essential for RTA repression. In the present study, we show that the LANA carboxyl-terminal amino acids 1052 to 1082 are responsible for the LANA interaction with RBP-Jκ. The secondary structure of the LANA carboxyl terminus resembles the RBP-Jκ-associated module (RAM) of Notch receptor. Furthermore, deletion of the region of LANA residues 1052 to 1082 resulted in aberrant expression of RTA, leading to elevated viral lytic replication. For the first time, we dissected a conserved RBP-Jκ binding domain in LANA and demonstrated that this domain was indispensable for LANA-mediated repression of KSHV lytic genes, thus helping the virus maintain latency and control viral reactivation. PMID:22379075

  8. Carboxyl-terminal amino acids 1052 to 1082 of the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) interact with RBP-Jκ and are responsible for LANA-mediated RTA repression.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi; He, Zhiheng; Liang, Deguang; Zhang, Quanzhi; Zhang, Hongxing; Deng, Qiang; Robertson, Erle S; Lan, Ke

    2012-05-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8, is closely associated with several malignancies, including Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease. KSHV can establish lifelong latency in the host, but the mechanism is not fully understood. Previous studies have proposed a feedback model in which the viral replication and transcription activator (RTA) can induce the expression of the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) during early infection. LANA, in turn, represses transcription and RTA function to establish and maintain KSHV latency. The interaction between LANA and the recombination signal sequence binding protein Jκ (RBP-Jκ, also called CSL), a major transcriptional repressor of the Notch signaling pathway, is essential for RTA repression. In the present study, we show that the LANA carboxyl-terminal amino acids 1052 to 1082 are responsible for the LANA interaction with RBP-Jκ. The secondary structure of the LANA carboxyl terminus resembles the RBP-Jκ-associated module (RAM) of Notch receptor. Furthermore, deletion of the region of LANA residues 1052 to 1082 resulted in aberrant expression of RTA, leading to elevated viral lytic replication. For the first time, we dissected a conserved RBP-Jκ binding domain in LANA and demonstrated that this domain was indispensable for LANA-mediated repression of KSHV lytic genes, thus helping the virus maintain latency and control viral reactivation.

  9. The Sin3p PAH Domains Provide Separate Functions Repressing Meiotic Gene Transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ▿

    PubMed Central

    Mallory, Michael J.; Law, Michael J.; Buckingham, Lela E.; Strich, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Meiotic genes in budding yeast are repressed during vegetative growth but are transiently induced during specific stages of meiosis. Sin3p represses the early meiotic gene (EMG) by bridging the DNA binding protein Ume6p to the histone deacetylase Rpd3p. Sin3p contains four paired amphipathic helix (PAH) domains, one of which (PAH3) is required for repressing several genes expressed during mitotic cell division. This report examines the roles of the PAH domains in mediating EMG repression during mitotic cell division and following meiotic induction. PAH2 and PAH3 are required for mitotic EMG repression, while electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicate that only PAH2 is required for stable Ume6p-promoter interaction. Unlike mitotic repression, reestablishing EMG repression following transient meiotic induction requires PAH3 and PAH4. In addition, the role of Sin3p in reestablishing repression is expanded to include additional loci that it does not control during vegetative growth. These findings indicate that mitotic and postinduction EMG repressions are mediated by two separate systems that utilize different Sin3p domains. PMID:20971827

  10. Sall1 Maintains Nephron Progenitors and Nascent Nephrons by Acting as Both an Activator and a Repressor

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Shoichiro; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Ohmori, Tomoko; Taguchi, Atsuhiro; Kudo, Kuniko; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sato, Yuki; Hino, Shinjiro; Sander, Maike; Perantoni, Alan O.; Sugano, Sumio; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The balanced self-renewal and differentiation of nephron progenitors are critical for kidney development and controlled, in part, by the transcription factor Six2, which antagonizes canonical Wnt signaling-mediated differentiation. A nuclear factor, Sall1, is expressed in Six2-positive progenitors as well as differentiating nascent nephrons, and it is essential for kidney formation. However, the molecular functions and targets of Sall1, especially the functions and targets in the nephron progenitors, remain unknown. Here, we report that Sall1 deletion in Six2-positive nephron progenitors results in severe progenitor depletion and apoptosis of the differentiating nephrons in mice. Analysis of mice with an inducible Sall1 deletion revealed that Sall1 activates genes expressed in progenitors while repressing genes expressed in differentiating nephrons. Sall1 and Six2 co-occupied many progenitor-related gene loci, and Sall1 bound to Six2 biochemically. In contrast, Sall1 did not bind to the Wnt4 locus suppressed by Six2. Sall1-mediated repression was also independent of its binding to DNA. Thus, Sall1 maintains nephron progenitors and their derivatives by a unique mechanism, which partly overlaps but is distinct from that of Six2: Sall1 activates progenitor-related genes in Six2-positive nephron progenitors and represses gene expression in Six2-negative differentiating nascent nephrons. PMID:24744442

  11. Space Maintainers in Dentistry: Past to Present

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers. PMID:24298544

  12. Space maintainers in dentistry: past to present.

    PubMed

    Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers.

  13. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this...

  14. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this...

  15. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this...

  16. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this...

  17. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this...

  18. Designing for Maintainability and System Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    The final goal for a delivered system (whether a car, aircraft, avionics box or computer) should be its availability to operate and perform its intended function over its expected design life. Hence, in designing a system, we cannot think in terms of delivering the system and just walking away. The system supplier needs to provide support throughout the operating life of the product. Here, supportability requires an effective combination of reliability, maintainability, logistics and operations engineering (as well as safety engineering) to have a system that is available for its intended use throughout its designated mission lifetime. Maintainability is a key driving element in the effective support and upkeep of the system as well as providing the ability to modify and upgrade the system throughout its lifetime. This paper then, will concentrate on maintainability and its integration into the system engineering and design process. The topics to be covered include elements of maintainability, the total cost of ownership, how system availability, maintenance and logistics costs and spare parts cost effect the overall program costs. System analysis and maintainability will show how maintainability fits into the overall systems approach to project development. Maintainability processes and documents will focus on how maintainability is to be performed and what documents are typically generated for a large scale program. Maintainability analysis shows how trade-offs can be performed for various alternative components. The conclusions summarize the paper and are followed by specific problems for hands-on training.

  19. Glucocorticoid and cytokine crosstalk: Feedback, feedforward, and co-regulatory interactions determine repression or resistance.

    PubMed

    Newton, Robert; Shah, Suharsh; Altonsy, Mohammed O; Gerber, Antony N

    2017-04-28

    Inflammatory signals induce feedback and feedforward systems that provide temporal control. Although glucocorticoids can repress inflammatory gene expression, glucocorticoid receptor recruitment increases expression of negative feedback and feedforward regulators, including the phosphatase, DUSP1, the ubiquitin-modifying enzyme, TNFAIP3, or the mRNA-destabilizing protein, ZFP36. Moreover, glucocorticoid receptor cooperativity with factors, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), may enhance regulator expression to promote repression. Conversely, MAPKs, which are inhibited by glucocorticoids, provide feedforward control to limit expression of the transcription factor IRF1, and the chemokine, CXCL10. We propose that modulation of feedback and feedforward control can determine repression or resistance of inflammatory gene expression toglucocorticoid. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Glucocorticoid and cytokine crosstalk: Feedback, feedforward, and co-regulatory interactions determine repression or resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Suharsh; Altonsy, Mohammed O.; Gerber, Antony N.

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory signals induce feedback and feedforward systems that provide temporal control. Although glucocorticoids can repress inflammatory gene expression, glucocorticoid receptor recruitment increases expression of negative feedback and feedforward regulators, including the phosphatase, DUSP1, the ubiquitin-modifying enzyme, TNFAIP3, or the mRNA-destabilizing protein, ZFP36. Moreover, glucocorticoid receptor cooperativity with factors, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), may enhance regulator expression to promote repression. Conversely, MAPKs, which are inhibited by glucocorticoids, provide feedforward control to limit expression of the transcription factor IRF1, and the chemokine, CXCL10. We propose that modulation of feedback and feedforward control can determine repression or resistance of inflammatory gene expression toglucocorticoid. PMID:28283576

  1. Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Enacts Wnt Signaling in Intestinal Homeostasis and Contributes to the Instigation of Stemness in Diseases Entailing Epithelial Hyperplasia or Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Oittinen, Mikko; Popp, Alina; Kurppa, Kalle; Lindfors, Katri; Mäki, Markku; Kaikkonen, Minna U; Viiri, Keijo

    2017-02-01

    Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates the homeostasis of intestinal epithelium by controlling the balance between intestinal stem cell self-renewal and differentiation but epigenetic mechanisms enacting the process are not known. We hypothesized that epigenetic regulator, Polycomb Repressive Complex-2 (PRC2), is involved in Wnt-mediated epithelial homeostasis on the crypt-villus axis and aberrancies therein are implicated both in celiac disease and in intestinal malignancies. We found that PRC2 establishes repressive crypt and villus specific trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) signature on genes responsible for, for example, nutrient transport and cell killing in crypts and, for example, proliferation and differentiation in mature villi, suggesting that PRC2 facilitates the Wnt-governed intestinal homeostasis. When celiac patients are on gluten-containing diet PRC2 is out-of-bounds active and consequently its target genes were found affected in intestinal epithelium. Significant set of effective intestinal PRC2 targets are also differentially expressed in colorectal adenoma and carcinomas. Our results suggest that PRC2 gives rise and maintains polar crypt and villus specific H3K27me3 signatures. As H3K27me3 is a mark enriched in developmentally important genes, identified intestinal PRC2 targets are possibly imperative drivers for enterocyte differentiation and intestinal stem cell maintenance downstream to Wnt-signaling. Our work also elucidates the mechanism sustaining the crypt hyperplasia in celiac disease and suggest that PRC2-dependent fostering of epithelial stemness is a common attribute in intestinal diseases in which epithelial hyperplasia or neoplasia prevails. Finally, this work demonstrates that in intestine PRC2 represses genes having both pro-stemness and pro-differentiation functions, fact need to be considered when designing epigenetic therapies including PRC2 as a drug target. Stem Cells 2017;35:445-457. © 2016 Alpha

  2. Transcriptional repression of ER through hMAPK dependent histone deacetylation by class I HDACs.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, Amy; Volmar, Claude-Henry; Wahlestedt, Claes; Ayad, Nagi; El-Ashry, Dorraya

    2014-09-01

    Anti-estrogen therapies are not effective in ER- breast cancers, thus identifying mechanisms underlying lack of ER expression in ER- breast cancers is imperative. We have previously demonstrated that hyperactivation of MAPK (hMAPK) downstream of overexpressed EGFR or overexpression/amplification of Her2 represses ER protein and mRNA expression. Abrogation of hMAPK in ER- breast cancer cell lines and primary cultures causes re-expression of ER and restoration of anti-estrogen responses. This study was performed to identify mechanisms of hMAPK-induced transcriptional repression of ER. We found that ER promoter activity is significantly reduced in the presence of hMAPK signaling, yet did not identify specific promoter sequences responsible for this repression. We performed an epigenetic compound screen in an ER- breast cancer cell line that expresses hMAPK yet does not exhibit ER promoter hypermethylation. A number of HDAC inhibitors were identified and confirmed to modulate ER expression and estrogen signaling in multiple ER- cell lines and tumor samples lacking ER promoter methylation. siRNA-mediated knockdown of HDACs 1, 2, and 3 reversed the mRNA repression in multiple breast cancer cell lines and primary cultures and ER promoter-associated histone acetylation increased following MAPK inhibition. These data implicate histone deacetylation downstream of hMAPK in the observed ER mRNA repression associated with hMAPK. Importantly, histone deacetylation appears to be a common mechanism in the transcriptional repression of ER between ER- breast cancers with or without ER promoter hypermethylation.

  3. Molecular mechanism underlying juvenile hormone-mediated repression of precocious larval-adult metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Kayukawa, Takumi; Jouraku, Akiya; Ito, Yuka; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2017-01-31

    Juvenile hormone (JH) represses precocious metamorphosis of larval to pupal and adult transitions in holometabolous insects. The early JH-inducible gene Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) plays a key role in the repression of metamorphosis as a mediator of JH action. Previous studies demonstrated that Kr-h1 inhibits precocious larval-pupal transition in immature larva via direct transcriptional repression of the pupal specifier Broad-Complex (BR-C). JH was recently reported to repress the adult specifier gene Ecdysone-induced protein 93F (E93); however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we found that JH suppressed ecdysone-inducible E93 expression in the epidermis of the silkworm Bombyx mori and in a B. mori cell line. Reporter assays in the cell line revealed that the JH-dependent suppression was mediated by Kr-h1. Genome-wide ChIP-seq analysis identified a consensus Kr-h1 binding site (KBS, 14 bp) located in the E93 promoter region, and EMSA confirmed that Kr-h1 directly binds to the KBS. Moreover, we identified a C-terminal conserved domain in Kr-h1 essential for the transcriptional repression of E93 Based on these results, we propose a mechanism in which JH-inducible Kr-h1 directly binds to the KBS site upstream of the E93 locus to repress its transcription in a cell-autonomous manner, thereby preventing larva from bypassing the pupal stage and progressing to precocious adult development. These findings help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating the metamorphic genetic network, including the functional significance of Kr-h1, BR-C, and E93 in holometabolous insect metamorphosis.

  4. Sulfate-Dependent Repression of Genes That Function in Organosulfur Metabolism in Bacillus subtilis Requires Spx

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, Kyle N.; Nakano, Shunji; Zuber, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress in Bacillus subtilis results in the accumulation of Spx protein, which exerts both positive and negative transcriptional control over a genome-wide scale through its interaction with the RNA polymerase α subunit. Previous microarray transcriptome studies uncovered a unique class of genes that are controlled by Spx-RNA polymerase interaction under normal growth conditions that do not promote Spx overproduction. These genes were repressed by Spx when sulfate was present as a sole sulfur source. The genes include those of the ytmI, yxeI, and ssu operons, which encode products resembling proteins that function in the uptake and desulfurization of organic sulfur compounds. Primer extension and analysis of operon-lacZ fusion expression revealed that the operons are repressed by sulfate and cysteine; however, Spx functioned only in sulfate-dependent repression. Both the ytmI operon and the divergently transcribed ytlI, encoding a LysR-type regulator that positively controls ytmI operon transcription, are repressed by Spx in sulfate-containing media. The CXXC motif of Spx, which is necessary for redox sensitive control of Spx activity in response to oxidative stress, is not required for sulfate-dependent repression. The yxeL-lacZ and ssu-lacZ fusions were also repressed in an Spx-dependent manner in media containing sulfate as the sole sulfur source. This work uncovers a new role for Spx in the control of sulfur metabolism in a gram-positive bacterium under nonstressful growth conditions. PMID:15937167

  5. Clinical events in coronary patients who report low distress: adverse effect of repressive coping.

    PubMed

    Denollet, Johan; Martens, Elisabeth J; Nyklícek, Ivan; Conraads, Viviane M; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2008-05-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) patients who report low distress are considered to be at low psychological risk for clinical events. However, patients with a repressive coping style may fail to detect and report signals of emotional distress. The authors hypothesized that repressive CAD patients are at risk for clinical events, despite low self-rated distress. This was a prospective 5- to 10-year follow-up study, with a mean follow-up of 6.6 years. At baseline, 731 CAD patients filled out Trait-Anxiety (distress), Marlowe-Crowne (defensiveness), and Type D scales; 159 patients were classified as "repressive," 360 as "nonrepressive," and 212 as "Type D." The primary endpoint was a composite of total mortality or myocardial infarction (MI); the secondary endpoint was cardiac mortality/MI. No patients were lost to follow-up; 91 patients had a clinical event (including 35 cardiac death and 32 MI). Repressive patients reported low levels of anxiety, anger and depression at baseline, but were at increased risk for death/MI (21/159 = 13%) compared with nonrepressive patients (22/360 = 6%), p = .009. Poor systolic function, poor exercise tolerance, 3-vessel disease, index MI and Type-D personality--but not depression, anxiety or anger--also independently predicted clinical events. After controlling for these variables, repressive patients still had a twofold increased risk of death/MI, OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.10-4.08, p = .025). These findings were replicated for cardiac mortality/MI. CAD patients who use a repressive coping style are at increased risk for clinical events, despite their claims of low emotional distress. This phenomenon may cause an underestimation of the effect of stress on the heart. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Dopamine Signaling Leads to Loss of Polycomb Repression and Aberrant Gene Activation in Experimental Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Lerdrup, Mads; Gomes, Ana-Luisa; Kryh, Hanna; Spigolon, Giada; Caboche, Jocelyne; Fisone, Gilberto; Hansen, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins bind to and repress genes in embryonic stem cells through lineage commitment to the terminal differentiated state. PcG repressed genes are commonly characterized by the presence of the epigenetic histone mark H3K27me3, catalyzed by the Polycomb repressive complex 2. Here, we present in vivo evidence for a previously unrecognized plasticity of PcG-repressed genes in terminally differentiated brain neurons of parkisonian mice. We show that acute administration of the dopamine precursor, L-DOPA, induces a remarkable increase in H3K27me3S28 phosphorylation. The induction of the H3K27me3S28p histone mark specifically occurs in medium spiny neurons expressing dopamine D1 receptors and is dependent on Msk1 kinase activity and DARPP-32-mediated inhibition of protein phosphatase-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments showed that increased H3K27me3S28p was accompanied by reduced PcG binding to regulatory regions of genes. An analysis of the genome wide distribution of L-DOPA-induced H3K27me3S28 phosphorylation by ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq) in combination with expression analysis by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) showed that the induction of H3K27me3S28p correlated with increased expression of a subset of PcG repressed genes. We found that induction of H3K27me3S28p persisted during chronic L-DOPA administration to parkisonian mice and correlated with aberrant gene expression. We propose that dopaminergic transmission can activate PcG repressed genes in the adult brain and thereby contribute to long-term maladaptive responses including the motor complications, or dyskinesia, caused by prolonged administration of L-DOPA in Parkinson's disease. PMID:25254549

  7. An Unexpected Effect: Restitution Maintains Object Throwing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Mary

    1988-01-01

    This study examined effects of restitution on object throwing behavior of an adolescent male with severe mental retardation. Restitution was shown to maintain throwing behavior. When the subject was not forced to pick up what he threw (no restitution), throwing dropped to zero and was maintained at a very low rate. (Author/PB)

  8. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2002-01-01

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  9. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2006-04-11

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  10. The Cost of Maintaining Educational Communications Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, David A.

    Tentative formulas for calculating the cost of maintaining educational communications equipment are proposed. The formulas are based on a survey of campuses of the State University of New York. The survey analyzed the types of equipment to be maintained, types of maintenance, who uses the equipment, who services the equipment, and the cost…

  11. The NUCLEAR FACTOR-CONSTANS complex antagonizes Polycomb repression to de-repress FLOWERING LOCUS T expression in response to inductive long days in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao; Gao, Zheng; Wang, Yizhong; Chen, Zhijuan; Zhang, Wenju; Huang, Jirong; Yu, Hao; He, Yuehui

    2018-07-01

    Many plants sense the seasonal cues, day length or photoperiod changes, to align the timing of the developmental transition to flowering with changing seasons for reproductive success. Inductive day lengths through the photoperiod pathway induce the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) or FT relatives that encode a major mobile florigen to promote flowering. In Arabidopsis thaliana, under inductive long days the photoperiod pathway output CONSTANS (CO) accumulates toward the end of the day, and associates with the B and C subunits of Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) to form the NF-CO complex that acts to promote FT expression near dusk, whereas Polycomb group (PcG) proteins function to silence FT expression. How NF-CO acts to antagonize the function of PcG proteins to regulate FT expression remains unclear. Here, we show that the NF-CO complex bound to the proximal FT promoter, through chromatin looping, acts in concert with an NF-Y complex bound to a distal enhancer to reduce the levels of PcG proteins, including both Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and PRC2 at the FT promoter, leading to a relieving of Polycomb silencing and thus FT de-repression near dusk. Thus, our study provides molecular insights on how the 'active' photoperiod pathway and the 'repressive' Polycomb silencing system interact to control temporal FT expression, conferring the long-day induction of flowering in Arabidopsis. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Jasmonate Controls Leaf Growth by Repressing Cell Proliferation and the Onset of Endoreduplication while Maintaining a Potential Stand-By Mode1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Noir, Sandra; Bömer, Moritz; Takahashi, Naoki; Ishida, Takashi; Tsui, Tjir-Li; Balbi, Virginia; Shanahan, Hugh; Sugimoto, Keiko; Devoto, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Phytohormones regulate plant growth from cell division to organ development. Jasmonates (JAs) are signaling molecules that have been implicated in stress-induced responses. However, they have also been shown to inhibit plant growth, but the mechanisms are not well understood. The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on leaf growth regulation were investigated in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants altered in JA synthesis and perception, allene oxide synthase and coi1-16B (for coronatine insensitive1), respectively. We show that MeJA inhibits leaf growth through the JA receptor COI1 by reducing both cell number and size. Further investigations using flow cytometry analyses allowed us to evaluate ploidy levels and to monitor cell cycle progression in leaves and cotyledons of Arabidopsis and/or Nicotiana benthamiana at different stages of development. Additionally, a novel global transcription profiling analysis involving continuous treatment with MeJA was carried out to identify the molecular players whose expression is regulated during leaf development by this hormone and COI1. The results of these studies revealed that MeJA delays the switch from the mitotic cell cycle to the endoreduplication cycle, which accompanies cell expansion, in a COI1-dependent manner and inhibits the mitotic cycle itself, arresting cells in G1 phase prior to the S-phase transition. Significantly, we show that MeJA activates critical regulators of endoreduplication and affects the expression of key determinants of DNA replication. Our discoveries also suggest that MeJA may contribute to the maintenance of a cellular “stand-by mode” by keeping the expression of ribosomal genes at an elevated level. Finally, we propose a novel model for MeJA-regulated COI1-dependent leaf growth inhibition. PMID:23439917

  13. How might flukes and tapeworms maintain genome integrity without a canonical piRNA pathway?

    PubMed

    Skinner, Danielle E; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Koziol, Uriel; Brehm, Klaus; Brindley, Paul J

    2014-03-01

    Surveillance by RNA interference is central to controlling the mobilization of transposable elements (TEs). In stem cells, Piwi argonaute (Ago) proteins and associated proteins repress mobilization of TEs to maintain genome integrity. This defense mechanism targeting TEs is termed the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway. In this opinion article, we draw attention to the situation that the genomes of cestodes and trematodes have lost the piwi and vasa genes that are hallmark characters of the germline multipotency program. This absence of Piwi-like Agos and Vasa helicases prompts the question: how does the germline of these flatworms withstand mobilization of TEs? Here, we present an interpretation of mechanisms likely to defend the germline integrity of parasitic flatworms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. How might flukes and tapeworms maintain genome integrity without a canonical piRNA pathway?

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Danielle E.; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Koziol, Uriel; Brehm, Klaus; Brindley, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance by RNA interference is central to controlling the mobilization of transposable elements (TEs). In stem cells, Piwi argonaute (Ago) proteins and associated proteins repress mobilization of TEs to maintain genome integrity. This defense mechanism targeting TEs is termed the Piwi-interacting RNA (Piwi-piRNA) pathway. In this Opinion, we draw attention to the situation that the genomes of cestodes and trematodes have lost the piwi and vasa genes that are hallmark characters of the germline multipotency program. This absence of Piwi-like Agos and Vasa helicases prompts the question: how does the germline of these flatworms withstand mobilization of TEs? Here we present an interpretation of mechanisms likely to defend the germline integrity of parasitic flatworms. PMID:24485046

  15. The Arabidopsis Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) Components AtBMI1A, B, and C Impact Gene Networks throughout All Stages of Plant Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Polycomb Group regulation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is required to maintain cell differentiation and allow developmental phase transitions. This is achieved by the activity of three PcG repressive complex 2s (PRC2s) and the participation of a yet poorly defined PRC1. Previous results showed that apparent PRC1 components perform discrete roles during plant development, suggesting the existence of PRC1 variants; however, it is not clear in how many processes these components participate. We show that AtBMI1 proteins are required to promote all developmental phase transitions and to control cell proliferation during organ growth and development, expanding their proposed range of action. While AtBMI1 function during germination is closely linked to B3 domain transcription factors VAL1/2 possibly in combination with GT-box binding factors, other AtBMI1 regulatory networks require participation of different factor combinations. Conversely, EMF1 and LHP1 bind many H3K27me3 positive genes up-regulated in atbmi1a/b/c mutants; however, loss of their function affects expression of a different subset, suggesting that even if EMF1, LHP1, and AtBMI1 exist in a common PRC1 variant, their role in repression depends on the functional context. PMID:27837089

  16. Loss of NR2E3 represses AHR by LSD1 reprogramming, is associated with poor prognosis in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Tilak; Choi, Kwangmin; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Wang, Jiang; Kim, Dasom; Janakiram, Vinothini; Cho, Sung-Gook; Puga, Alvaro; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Kim, Kyounghyun

    2017-09-06

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays crucial roles in inflammation, metabolic disorder, and cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating AHR expression remain unknown. Here, we found that an orphan nuclear NR2E3 maintains AHR expression, and forms an active transcriptional complex with transcription factor Sp1 and coactivator GRIP1 in MCF-7 human breast and HepG2 liver cancer cell lines. NR2E3 loss promotes the recruitment of LSD1, a histone demethylase of histone 3 lysine 4 di-methylation (H3K4me2), to the AHR gene promoter region, resulting in repression of AHR expression. AHR expression and responsiveness along with H3K4me2 were significantly reduced in the livers of Nr2e3 rd7 (Rd7) mice that express low NR2E3 relative to the livers of wild-type mice. SP2509, an LSD1 inhibitor, fully restored AHR expression and H3K4me2 levels in Rd7 mice. Lastly, we demonstrated that both AHR and NR2E3 are significantly associated with good clinical outcomes in liver cancer. Together, our results reveal a novel link between NR2E3, AHR, and liver cancer via LSD1-mediated H3K4me2 histone modification in liver cancer development.

  17. BEND3 represses rDNA transcription by stabilizing a NoRC component via USP21 deubiquitinase

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abid; Giri, Sumanprava; Wang, Yating; Chakraborty, Arindam; Ghosh, Archit K.; Anantharaman, Aparna; Aggarwal, Vasudha; Sathyan, Kizhakke M.; Ha, Taekjip; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V.; Prasanth, Supriya G.

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis dictates the translational capacity of cells. Several mechanisms establish and maintain transcriptional output from eukaryotic ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci. rDNA silencing is one such mechanism that ensures the inactivity and hence the maintenance of a silenced state of a subset of rRNA gene copies. Whereas oncogenic agents stimulate rRNA gene transcription, tumor suppressors decrease rRNA gene transcription. We demonstrate in mammalian cells that BANP, E5R, and Nac1 (BEN) domain 3 (BEND3), a quadruple BEN domain-containing protein, localizes in nucleoli and binds to ribosomal RNA gene promoters to help repress rRNA genes. Loss of BEND3 increases histone H3K4 trimethylation and, correspondingly, decreases rDNA promoter DNA methylation, consistent with a role for BEND3 in rDNA silencing. BEND3 associates with the nucleolar-remodeling complex (NoRC), and SUMOylated BEND3 stabilizes NoRC component TTF-1–interacting protein 5 via association with ubiquitin specific protease 21 (USP21) debiquitinase. Our results provide mechanistic insights into how the novel rDNA transcription repressor BEND3 acts together with NoRC to actively coordinate the establishment of rDNA silencing. PMID:26100909

  18. BEND3 represses rDNA transcription by stabilizing a NoRC component via USP21 deubiquitinase.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abid; Giri, Sumanprava; Wang, Yating; Chakraborty, Arindam; Ghosh, Archit K; Anantharaman, Aparna; Aggarwal, Vasudha; Sathyan, Kizhakke M; Ha, Taekjip; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2015-07-07

    Ribosome biogenesis dictates the translational capacity of cells. Several mechanisms establish and maintain transcriptional output from eukaryotic ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci. rDNA silencing is one such mechanism that ensures the inactivity and hence the maintenance of a silenced state of a subset of rRNA gene copies. Whereas oncogenic agents stimulate rRNA gene transcription, tumor suppressors decrease rRNA gene transcription. We demonstrate in mammalian cells that BANP, E5R, and Nac1 (BEN) domain 3 (BEND3), a quadruple BEN domain-containing protein, localizes in nucleoli and binds to ribosomal RNA gene promoters to help repress rRNA genes. Loss of BEND3 increases histone H3K4 trimethylation and, correspondingly, decreases rDNA promoter DNA methylation, consistent with a role for BEND3 in rDNA silencing. BEND3 associates with the nucleolar-remodeling complex (NoRC), and SUMOylated BEND3 stabilizes NoRC component TTF-1-interacting protein 5 via association with ubiquitin specific protease 21 (USP21) debiquitinase. Our results provide mechanistic insights into how the novel rDNA transcription repressor BEND3 acts together with NoRC to actively coordinate the establishment of rDNA silencing.

  19. Chromatin Accessibility Mapping Identifies Mediators of Basal Transcription and Retinoid-Induced Repression of OTX2 in Medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Monica; Song, Lingyun; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Furey, Terrence S.; Crawford, Gregory E.; Yan, Hai; He, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    Despite an emerging understanding of the genetic alterations giving rise to various tumors, the mechanisms whereby most oncogenes are overexpressed remain unclear. Here we have utilized an integrated approach of genomewide regulatory element mapping via DNase-seq followed by conventional reporter assays and transcription factor binding site discovery to characterize the transcriptional regulation of the medulloblastoma oncogene Orthodenticle Homeobox 2 (OTX2). Through these studies we have revealed that OTX2 is differentially regulated in medulloblastoma at the level of chromatin accessibility, which is in part mediated by DNA methylation. In cell lines exhibiting chromatin accessibility of OTX2 regulatory regions, we found that autoregulation maintains OTX2 expression. Comparison of medulloblastoma regulatory elements with those of the developing brain reveals that these tumors engage a developmental regulatory program to drive OTX2 transcription. Finally, we have identified a transcriptional regulatory element mediating retinoid-induced OTX2 repression in these tumors. This work characterizes for the first time the mechanisms of OTX2 overexpression in medulloblastoma. Furthermore, this study establishes proof of principle for applying ENCODE datasets towards the characterization of upstream trans-acting factors mediating expression of individual genes. PMID:25198066

  20. Endothelial miR-17∼92 cluster negatively regulates arteriogenesis via miRNA-19 repression of WNT signaling.

    PubMed

    Landskroner-Eiger, Shira; Qiu, Cong; Perrotta, Paola; Siragusa, Mauro; Lee, Monica Y; Ulrich, Victoria; Luciano, Amelia K; Zhuang, Zhen W; Corti, Federico; Simons, Michael; Montgomery, Rusty L; Wu, Dianqing; Yu, Jun; Sessa, William C

    2015-10-13

    The contribution of endothelial-derived miR-17∼92 to ischemia-induced arteriogenesis has not been investigated in an in vivo model. In the present study, we demonstrate a critical role for the endothelial-derived miR-17∼92 cluster in shaping physiological and ischemia-triggered arteriogenesis. Endothelial-specific deletion of miR-17∼92 results in an increase in collateral density limbs and hearts and in ischemic limbs compared with control mice, and consequently improves blood flow recovery. Individual cluster components positively or negatively regulate endothelial cell (EC) functions in vitro, and, remarkably, ECs lacking the cluster spontaneously form cords in a manner rescued by miR-17a, -18a, and -19a. Using both in vitro and in vivo analyses, we identified FZD4 and LRP6 as targets of miR-19a/b. Both of these targets were up-regulated in 17∼92 KO ECs compared with control ECs, and both were shown to be targeted by miR-19 using luciferase assays. We demonstrate that miR-19a negatively regulates FZD4, its coreceptor LRP6, and WNT signaling, and that antagonism of miR-19a/b in aged mice improves blood flow recovery after ischemia and reduces repression of these targets. Collectively, these data provide insights into miRNA regulation of arterialization and highlight the importance of vascular WNT signaling in maintaining arterial blood flow.

  1. I-mfa domain proteins specifically interact with HTLV-1 Tax and repress its transactivating functions

    SciTech Connect

    Kusano, Shuichi, E-mail: skusano@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Hachiman, Miho

    The I-mfa domain proteins HIC (also known as MDFIC) and I-mfa (also known as MDFI) are candidate tumor suppressor genes that are involved in cellular and viral transcriptional regulation. Here, we show that HIC and I-mfa directly interact with human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein in vitro. In addition, HIC and I-mfa repress Tax-dependent transactivation of an HTLV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) reporter construct in COS-1, Jurkat and high-Tax-producing HTLV-1-infected T cells. HIC also interacts with Tax through its I-mfa domain in vivo and represses Tax-dependent transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR and NF-κB reporter constructs in an interaction-dependent manner.more » Furthermore, we show that HIC decreases the nuclear distribution and stimulates the proteasomal degradation of Tax. These data reveal that HIC specifically interacts with HTLV-1 Tax and negatively regulates Tax transactivational activity by altering its subcellular distribution and stability. - Highlights: • I-mfa domain proteins, HIC and I-mfa, specifically interact with HTLV-1 Tax. • HIC and I-mfa repress the Tax-dependent transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR. • HIC represses the Tax-dependent transactivation of NF-κΒ. • HIC decreases the nuclear distribution of Tax. • HIC stimulates the proteasomal degradation of Tax.« less

  2. Facilitated recycling protects human RNA polymerase III from repression by Maf1 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cabart, Pavel; Lee, JaeHoon; Willis, Ian M

    2008-12-26

    Yeast cells synthesize approximately 3-6 million molecules of tRNA every cell cycle at a rate of approximately 2-4 transcripts/gene/s. This high rate of transcription is achieved through many rounds of reinitiation by RNA polymerase (pol) III on stable DNA-bound complexes of the initiation factor TFIIIB. Studies in yeast have shown that the rate of reinitiation is increased by facilitated recycling, a process that involves the repeated reloading of the polymerase on the same transcription unit. However, when nutrients become limiting or stress conditions are encountered, RNA pol III transcription is rapidly repressed through the action of the conserved Maf1 protein. Here we examine the relationship between Maf1-mediated repression and facilitated recycling in a human RNA pol III in vitro system. Using an immobilized template transcription assay, we demonstrate that facilitated recycling is conserved from yeast to humans. We assessed the ability of recombinant human Maf1 to inhibit different steps in transcription before and after preinitiation complex assembly. We show that recombinant Maf1 can inhibit the recruitment of TFIIIB and RNA pol III to immobilized templates. However, RNA pol III bound to preinitiation complexes or in elongation complexes is protected from repression by Maf1 and can undergo several rounds of initiation. This indicates that recombinant Maf1 is unable to inhibit facilitated recycling. The data suggest that additional biochemical steps may be necessary for rapid Maf1-dependent repression of RNA pol III transcription.

  3. The corepressor CtBP interacts with Evi-1 to repress transforming growth factor beta signaling.

    PubMed

    Izutsu, K; Kurokawa, M; Imai, Y; Maki, K; Mitani, K; Hirai, H

    2001-05-01

    Evi-1 is a zinc finger nuclear protein whose inappropriate expression leads to leukemic transformation of hematopoietic cells in mice and humans. This was previously shown to block the antiproliferative effect of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). Evi-1 represses TGF-beta signaling by direct interaction with Smad3 through its first zinc finger motif. Here, it is demonstrated that Evi-1 represses Smad-induced transcription by recruiting C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) as a corepressor. Evi-1 associates with CtBP1 through one of the consensus binding motifs, and this association is required for efficient inhibition of TGF-beta signaling. A specific inhibitor for histone deacetylase (HDAc) alleviates Evi-1-mediated repression of TGF-beta signaling, suggesting that HDAc is involved in the transcriptional repression by Evi-1. This identifies a novel function of Evi-1 as a member of corepressor complexes and suggests that aberrant recruitment of corepressors is one of the mechanisms for Evi-1-induced leukemogenesis.

  4. Chromatin Redistribution of the DEK Oncoprotein Represses hTERT Transcription in Leukemias12

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Maroun; Thenoz, Morgan; Capraro, Valérie; Robin, Jean-Philippe; Pinatel, Christiane; Lancon, Agnès; Galia, Perrine; Sibon, David; Thomas, Xavier; Ducastelle-Lepretre, Sophie; Nicolini, Franck; El-Hamri, Mohamed; Chelghoun, Youcef; Wattel, Eric; Mortreux, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous factors have been found to modulate hTERT transcription, the mechanism of its repression in certain leukemias remains unknown. We show here that DEK represses hTERT transcription through its enrichment on the hTERT promoter in cells from chronic and acute myeloid leukemias, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, but not acute lymphocytic leukemias where hTERT is overexpressed. We isolated DEK from the hTERT promoter incubated with nuclear extracts derived from fresh acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells and from cells expressing Tax, an hTERT repressor encoded by the human T cell leukemia virus type 1. In addition to the recruitment of DEK, the displacement of two potent known hTERT transactivators from the hTERT promoter characterized both AML cells and Tax-expressing cells. Reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays permitted to map the region that supports the repressive effect of DEK on hTERT transcription, which was proportionate to the level of DEK-promoter association but not with the level of DEK expression. Besides hTERT repression, this context of chromatin redistribution of DEK was found to govern about 40% of overall transcriptional modifications, including those of cancer-prone genes. In conclusion, DEK emerges as an hTERT repressor shared by various leukemia subtypes and seems involved in the deregulation of numerous genes associated with leukemogenesis. PMID:24563617

  5. Repressive Adaptive Style and Self-Reported Psychological Functioning in Adolescent Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Gerstle, Melissa; Montague, Erica Q.

    2008-01-01

    Low levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and psychosocial distress have been reported in pediatric cancer survivors. One explanation is the relatively high prevalence of the repressive adaptive style (low distress, high restraint) in this population. We investigated the relationship between this…

  6. Catabolite repression in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 is mediated by CcpA.

    PubMed Central

    Monedero, V; Gosalbes, M J; Pérez-Martínez, G

    1997-01-01

    The chromosomal ccpA gene from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 has been cloned and sequenced. It encodes the CcpA protein, a central catabolite regulator belonging to the LacI-GalR family of bacterial repressors, and shows 54% identity with CcpA proteins from Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium. The L. casei ccpA gene was able to complement a B. subtilis ccpA mutant. An L. casei ccpA mutant showed increased doubling times and a relief of the catabolite repression of some enzymatic activities, such as N-acetylglucosaminidase and phospho-beta-galactosidase. Detailed analysis of CcpA activity was performed by using the promoter region of the L. casei chromosomal lacTEGF operon which is subject to catabolite repression and contains a catabolite responsive element (cre) consensus sequence. Deletion of this cre site or the presence of the ccpA mutation abolished the catabolite repression of a lacp::gusA fusion. These data support the role of CcpA as a common regulatory element mediating catabolite repression in low-GC-content gram-positive bacteria. PMID:9352913

  7. Personality and Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors: Repression, Resilience and Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Julia; Volkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Karnik, Niranjan; Denny, Katherine G.; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Mitterer, Michaela; Humphreys, Keith; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Shaw, Richard J.; Steiner, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Examining personality and psychopathological symptoms among unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs), we measured intra-individual dimensions (repression and correlates thereof) usually associated with resilience. Forty-one URMs completed the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (WAI), assessing personality, and the Youth Self-Report (YSR), describing…

  8. SnoN co-repressor binds and represses smad7 gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Briones-Orta, Marco A; Sosa-Garrocho, Marcela; Moreno-Alvarez, Paola; Fonseca-Sánchez, Miguel A; Macías-Silva, Marina

    2006-03-17

    SnoN and Ski oncoproteins are co-repressors for Smad proteins and repress TGF-beta-responsive gene expression. The smad7 gene is a TGF-beta target induced by Smad signaling, and its promoter contains the Smad-binding element (SBE) required for a positive regulation by the TGF-beta/Smad pathway. SnoN and Ski co-repressors also bind SBE but regulate negatively smad7 gene. Ski along with Smad4 binds and represses the smad7 promoter, whereas the repression mechanism by SnoN is not clear. Ski and SnoN overexpression inhibits smad7 reporter expression induced through TGF-beta signaling. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we found that SnoN binds smad7 promoter at the basal condition, whereas after a short TGF-beta treatment for 15-30 min SnoN is downregulated and no longer bound smad7 promoter. Interestingly, after a prolonged TGF-beta treatment SnoN is upregulated and returns to its position on the smad7 promoter, functioning probably as a negative feedback control. Thus, SnoN also seems to regulate negatively the TGF-beta-responsive smad7 gene by binding and repressing its promoter in a similar way to Ski.

  9. Repression of mesodermal fate by foxa, a key endoderm regulator of the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Oliveri, Paola; Walton, Katherine D; Davidson, Eric H; McClay, David R

    2006-11-01

    The foxa gene is an integral component of the endoderm specification subcircuit of the endomesoderm gene regulatory network in the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryo. Its transcripts become confined to veg2, then veg1 endodermal territories, and, following gastrulation, throughout the gut. It is also expressed in the stomodeal ectoderm. gatae and otx genes provide input into the pregastrular regulatory system of foxa, and Foxa represses its own transcription, resulting in an oscillatory temporal expression profile. Here, we report three separate essential functions of the foxa gene: it represses mesodermal fate in the veg2 endomesoderm; it is required in postgastrular development for the expression of gut-specific genes; and it is necessary for stomodaeum formation. If its expression is reduced by a morpholino, more endomesoderm cells become pigment and other mesenchymal cell types, less gut is specified, and the larva has no mouth. Experiments in which blastomere transplantation is combined with foxa MASO treatment demonstrate that, in the normal endoderm, a crucial role of Foxa is to repress gcm expression in response to a Notch signal, and hence to repress mesodermal fate. Chimeric recombination experiments in which veg2, veg1 or ectoderm cells contained foxa MASO show which region of foxa expression controls each of the three functions. These experiments show that the foxa gene is a component of three distinct embryonic gene regulatory networks.

  10. The natural product peiminine represses colorectal carcinoma tumor growth by inducing autophagic cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Lyu, Qing; Key Lab in Healthy Science and Technology, Division of Life Science, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, 518055; Tou, Fangfang

    Autophagy is evolutionarily conservative in eukaryotic cells that engulf cellular long-lived proteins and organelles, and it degrades the contents through fusion with lysosomes, via which the cell acquires recycled building blocks for the synthesis of new molecules. In this study, we revealed that peiminine induces cell death and enhances autophagic flux in colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells. We determined that peiminine enhances the autophagic flux by repressing the phosphorylation of mTOR through inhibiting upstream signals. Knocking down ATG5 greatly reduced the peiminine-induced cell death in wild-type HCT-116 cells, while treating Bax/Bak-deficient cells with peiminine resulted in significant cell death. In summary,more » our discoveries demonstrated that peiminine represses colorectal carcinoma cell proliferation and cell growth by inducing autophagic cell death. - Highlights: • Peiminine induces autophagy and upregulates autophagic flux. • Peiminine represses colorectal carcinoma tumor growth. • Peiminine induces autophagic cell death. • Peiminine represses mTOR phosphorylation by influencing PI3K/Akt and AMPK pathway.« less

  11. Examining the Influence of Trait Anxiety/Repression-Sensitization on Individuals' Reactions to Fear Appeals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Kim; Morrison, Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Examines the impact of persuasive fear appeals promoting condom usage to prevent AIDS. Indicates that inherent level of anxiety influences how both the threat and the efficacy of recommended responses are perceived, but that trait anxiety/repression-sensitization has no influence on attitudes, intentions, behaviors, perceived manipulation, or…

  12. A Symptom-Focused Hypnotic Approach to Accessing and Processing Previously Repressed/Dissociated Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratican, Kathleen L.

    1996-01-01

    The kinesthetic track back technique accesses the origins of current symptoms and may uncover previously repressed/dissociated material, if such material exists in the client's unconscious mind, is relevant to the symptoms, and is ready to be processed consciously. Case examples are given to illustrate proper use of this technique. (LSR)

  13. Global transcriptional repression in C. elegans germline precursors by regulated sequestration of TAF-4.

    PubMed

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Nishi, Yuichi; Robertson, Scott M; Lin, Rueyling

    2008-10-03

    In C. elegans, four asymmetric divisions, beginning with the zygote (P0), generate transcriptionally repressed germline blastomeres (P1-P4) and somatic sisters that become transcriptionally active. The protein PIE-1 represses transcription in the later germline blastomeres but not in the earlier germline blastomeres P0 and P1. We show here that OMA-1 and OMA-2, previously shown to regulate oocyte maturation, repress transcription in P0 and P1 by binding to and sequestering in the cytoplasm TAF-4, a component critical for assembly of TFIID and the pol II preinitiation complex. OMA-1/2 binding to TAF-4 is developmentally regulated, requiring phosphorylation by the DYRK kinase MBK-2, which is activated at meiosis II after fertilization. OMA-1/2 are normally degraded after the first mitosis, but ectopic expression of wild-type OMA-1 is sufficient to repress transcription in both somatic and later germline blastomeres. We propose that phosphorylation by MBK-2 serves as a developmental switch, converting OMA-1/2 from oocyte to embryo regulators.

  14. Global transcriptional repression in C. elegans germline precursors by regulated sequestration of TFIID component TAF-4

    PubMed Central

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Nishi, Yuichi; Robertson, Scott M.; Lin, Rueyling

    2008-01-01

    In C. elegans, four asymmetric divisions, beginning with the zygote (P0), generate transcriptionally repressed germline blastomeres (P1–P4) and somatic sisters that become transcriptionally active. The protein PIE-1 represses transcription in the later germline blastomeres, but not in the earlier germline blastomeres P0 and P1. We show here that OMA-1 and OMA-2, previously shown to regulate oocyte maturation, repress transcription in P0 and P1 by binding to and sequestering in the cytoplasm TAF-4, a component critical for assembly of TFIID and the pol II preinitiation complex. OMA-1/2 binding to TAF-4 is developmentally regulated, requiring phosphorylation by the DYRK kinase MBK-2, which is activated at meiosis II following fertilization. OMA-1/2 are normally degraded after the first mitosis, but ectopic expression of wildtype OMA-1 is sufficient to repress transcription in both somatic and later germline blastomeres. We propose that phosphorylation by MBK-2 serves as a developmental switch, converting OMA-1/2 from oocyte to embryo regulators. PMID:18854162

  15. A Test of the Homogeneous versus Heterogeneous Categories of the Repression-Sensitization Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millimet, C. Raymond; Cohen, Howard J.

    1973-01-01

    A study was designed to examine further the psychometric relationships between the Marlowe-Crown Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS) and a Repression-Sensitization (R-S) scale in order to affirm or deny the meaningfulness of pairing these two personality measures. The relationships between these measures was considered to be of sufficiently high…

  16. Insights into GATA-1 Mediated Gene Activation versus Repression via Genome-wide Chromatin Occupancy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ming; Riva, Laura; Xie, Huafeng; Schindler, Yocheved; Moran, Tyler B.; Cheng, Yong; Yu, Duonan; Hardison, Ross; Weiss, Mitchell J; Orkin, Stuart H.; Bernstein, Bradley E.; Fraenkel, Ernest; Cantor, Alan B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The transcription factor GATA-1 is required for terminal erythroid maturation and functions as an activator or repressor depending on gene context. Yet its in vivo site selectivity and ability to distinguish between activated versus repressed genes remain incompletely understood. In this study, we performed GATA-1 ChIP-seq in erythroid cells and compared it to GATA-1 induced gene expression changes. Bound and differentially expressed genes contain a greater number of GATA binding motifs, a higher frequency of palindromic GATA sites, and closer occupancy to the transcriptional start site versus non-differentially expressed genes. Moreover, we show that the transcription factor Zbtb7a occupies GATA-1 bound regions of some direct GATA-1 target genes, that the presence of SCL/TAL1 helps distinguish transcriptional activation versus repression, and that Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is involved in epigenetic silencing of a subset of GATA-1 repressed genes. These data provide insights into GATA-1 mediated gene regulation in vivo. PMID:19941827

  17. Repressing Distress in Childhood: A Defense against Health-Related Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Armande

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a review of empirical investigations of the repressive adaptive style in youth. Studies were selected on the basis of their adherence to Weinberger et al.'s ("J Abnorm Psychol" 88: 369-380, 1979) paradigm, consisting of the interaction between a measure of distress and a measure of defensiveness to categorize repressors. The presence…

  18. "The Neurosis That Has Possessed Us": Political Repression in the Cold War Medical Profession.

    PubMed

    Chowkwanyun, Merlin

    2018-04-27

    Political repression played a central role in shaping the political complexion of the American medical profession, the policies it advocated, and those allowed to function comfortably in it. Previous work on the impact of McCarthyism and medicine focuses heavily on the mid-century failure of national health insurance (NHI) and medical reform organizations that suffered from McCarthyist attacks. The focus is national and birds-eye but says less about the impact on day-to-day life of physicians caught in a McCarthyist web; and how exactly the machinery of political repression within the medical profession worked on the ground. This study shifts orientation by using the abrupt dismissal of three Los Angeles physicians from their jobs as a starting point for exploring these dynamics. I argue that the rise of the medical profession and the repressive state in the mid-century, frequently studied apart, worked hand-in-hand, with institutions from each playing symbiotic and mutually reinforcing roles. I also explore tactics of resistance - rhetorical and organizational - to medical repression by physicians who came under attack.

  19. FH535, a β-catenin pathway inhibitor, represses pancreatic cancer xenograft growth and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Fei-Ran; Zhou, Binhua P.; Lian, Lian; Shen, Bairong; Chen, Kai; Duan, Weiming; Wu, Meng-Yao; Tao, Min; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The WNT/β-catenin pathway plays an important role in pancreatic cancer carcinogenesis. We evaluated the correlation between aberrant β-catenin pathway activation and the prognosis pancreatic cancer, and the potential of applying the β-catenin pathway inhibitor FH535 to pancreatic cancer treatment. Meta-analysis and immunohistochemistry showed that abnormal β-catenin pathway activation was associated with unfavorable outcome. FH535 repressed pancreatic cancer xenograft growth in vivo. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of microarray data indicated that target genes responding to FH535 participated in stemness maintenance. Real-time PCR and flow cytometry confirmed that FH535 downregulated CD24 and CD44, pancreatic cancer stem cell (CSC) markers, suggesting FH535 impairs pancreatic CSC stemness. GO analysis of β-catenin chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing data identified angiogenesis-related gene regulation. Immunohistochemistry showed that higher microvessel density correlated with elevated nuclear β-catenin expression and unfavorable outcome. FH535 repressed the secretion of the proangiogenic cytokines vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and also inhibited angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Protein and mRNA microarrays revealed that FH535 downregulated the proangiogenic genes ANGPT2, VEGFR3, IFN-γ, PLAUR, THPO, TIMP1, and VEGF. FH535 not only represses pancreatic CSC stemness in vitro, but also remodels the tumor microenvironment by repressing angiogenesis, warranting further clinical investigation. PMID:27323403

  20. Testis development requires the repression of Wnt4 by Fgf signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Samantha A.; Lin, Yi-Tzu; Capel, Blanche

    2013-01-01

    The bipotential gonad expresses genes associated with both the male and female pathways. Adoption of the male testicular fate is associated with the repression of many female genes including Wnt4. However, the importance of repression of Wnt4 to the establishment of male development was not previously determined. Deletion of either Fgf9 or Fgfr2 in an XY gonad resulted in up-regulation of Wnt4 and male-to-female sex reversal. We investigated whether the deletion if Wnt4 could rescue sex reversal in Fgf9 and Fgfr2 mutants. XY Fgf9/Wnt4 and Fgfr2/Wnt4 double mutants developed testes with male somatic and germ cells present, suggesting that the primary role of Fgf signaling is the repression of female-promoting genes. Thus, the decision to adopt the male fate is based not only on whether male genes, such as Sox9, are expressed, but also on the active repression of female genes, such as Wnt4. Because loss of Wnt4 results in the up-regulation of Fgf9, we also tested the possibility that derepression of Fgf9 was responsible for the aspects of male development observed in XX Wnt4 mutants. However, we found that the relationship between these two signaling factors is not symmetric: loss of Fgf9 in XX Wnt4−/− gonads does not rescue their partial female-to-male sex-reversal. PMID:22705479

  1. Lifting DELLA repression of Arabidopsis seed germination by nonproteolytic gibberellin signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    DELLA repression of Arabidopsis seed germination can be lifted through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and proteolysis-independent GA signaling. GA-binding to the GID1 (GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1) GA receptors stimulates GID1-GA-DELLA complex formation which in turn triggers DELLA protein ubiq...

  2. Universities in the Business of Repression: The Academic-Military-Industrial Complex and Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jonathan

    This book presents the thesis that U.S. universities have become part of an academic-military-industrial complex that support repression and murder in Central America. Part 1 explains how U.S. policies have been based on murder in Central America and examines the responsibility of transnational corporations and U.S. war planners in this…

  3. Cutaneous Papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins associate with MAML1 to repress transactivation and NOTCH signaling

    PubMed Central

    Brimer, Nicole; Lyons, Charles; Wallberg, Annika E.; Vande Pol, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    Papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins associate with LXXLL motifs on target cellular proteins to alter their function. Using a proteomic approach, we found the E6 oncoproteins of cutaneous papillomaviruses Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 (BE6) and HPV types 1 and 8 (1E6 and 8E6) associated with the MAML1 transcriptional co-activator. All three E6 proteins bind to an acidic LXXLL motif at the carboxy-terminus of MAML1 and repress transactivation by MAML1. MAML1 is best known as the co-activator and effector of NOTCH induced transcription, and BPV-1 E6 represses synthetic NOTCH responsive promoters, endogenous NOTCH responsive promoters, and is found in a complex with MAML1 in stably transformed cells. BPV-1 induced papillomas show characteristics of repressed NOTCH signal transduction, including suprabasal expression of integrins, talin, and basal type keratins, and delayed expression of the NOTCH dependent HES1 transcription factor. These observations give rise to a model whereby papillomavirus oncoproteins including BPV-1 E6 and the cancer associated HPV-8 E6 repress Notch induced transcription, thereby delaying keratinocyte differentiation. PMID:22249263

  4. Repression of TFIIH Transcriptional Activity and TFIIH-Associated cdk7 Kinase Activity at Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Long, John J.; Leresche, Anne; Kriwacki, Richard W.; Gottesfeld, Joel M.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear transcription is repressed when eukaryotic cells enter mitosis. Mitotic repression of transcription of various cellular and viral gene promoters by RNA polymerase II can be reproduced in vitro either with extracts prepared from cells arrested at mitosis with the microtubule polymerization inhibitor nocodazole or with nuclear extracts prepared from asynchronous cells and the mitotic protein kinase cdc2/cyclin B. Purified cdc2/cyclin B kinase is also sufficient to inhibit transcription in reconstituted transcription reactions with biochemically purified and recombinant basal transcription factors and RNA polymerase II. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1 can reverse the effect of cdc2/cyclin B kinase, indicating that repression of transcription is due to protein phosphorylation. Transcription rescue and inhibition experiments with each of the basal factors and the polymerase suggest that multiple components of the transcription machinery are inactivated by cdc2/cyclin B kinase. For an activated promoter, targets of repression are TFIID and TFIIH, while for a basal promoter, TFIIH is the major target for mitotic inactivation of transcription. Protein labeling experiments indicate that the p62 and p36 subunits of TFIIH are in vitro substrates for mitotic phosphorylation. Using the carboxy-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II as a test substrate for phosphorylation, the TFIIH-associated kinase, cdk7/cyclin H, is inhibited concomitant with inhibition of transcription activity. Our results suggest that there exist multiple phosphorylation targets for the global shutdown of transcription at mitosis. PMID:9488463

  5. 7 CFR 784.12 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS 2004 EWE LAMB REPLACEMENT AND RETENTION PAYMENT PROGRAM § 784.12 Maintaining records... accounts must be retained for 3 years after the date of payment to the sheep and lamb operations under this...

  6. Investigating Behavioral and Psychophysiological Reactions to Conflict-Related and Individualized Stimuli as Potential Correlates of Repression.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Henrik; Schmidt, Anna Christine; Hildenbrand, Oliver; Scharf, Daniela; Kehyayan, Aram; Axmacher, Nikolai

    2017-01-01

    Background: Repression is considered as a central defense mechanism in psychodynamic theory. It refers to the process by which "unbearable" mental contents (e.g., those related to internal conflicts) are kept out of consciousness. The process of repression is probably closely related to concepts of emotion regulation derived from a different theoretical background. This relationship is particularly relevant because it relates repression to current research in the affective neurosciences as well as to experimental studies on emotion regulation. Due to its complex and highly individual nature, repression has been notoriously difficult to investigate. We investigated repression with an individualized experiment in healthy subjects in order to establish methods to study repression in clinical populations. To this end we operationalized repression using individualized experimental conditions, and then studied potential behavioral [memory and reaction time (RT)] and psychophysiological correlates [skin conductance response (SCR)]. Method: Twenty-nine healthy female subjects were asked to freely associate to individualized cue sentences. Sentences were generated from individual psychodynamic interviews based on operationlized psychodynamic diagnosis (OPD), and were comprised of three different types: positive, negative non-conflictual, and negative conflict-related sentences. Subjects were asked to name the first three associations coming into their mind. Afterward, the remaining time was used for free association. SCR during each association trial and RT of the first given association were recorded. The memory for the first three associations was subsequently tested in an unexpected recall. Results: Associations to conflict-related cue sentences were associated with longer RTs and increased SCRs. Moreover, the unexpected recall task showed memory for these associations to be reduced. Conclusion: We interpret these findings as possible correlates of repression, in line

  7. Defining Responsibility in Maintaining Financial Accounting Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    acquisition and issuance of materials, original cost , location, etc., KAR 2 (Property and Inventory Accounting )." (3:10) The final methodology used in...PROFESSIONAL MILITARY COMPTROLLER SCHOOL IDEA PAPER TITLE DEFINING RESPONSIBILITY IN MAINTAINING FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS AUTHOR . :.a EFANIE B...or the Department of the Air Force. DIC tiJ.[ In.,,- B . . . .. . PMCS IDEA PAPER TITLE: Defining Responsibility in Maintaining Financial Accounting

  8. Maintainability Program Requirements for Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This document is established to provide common general requirements for all NASA programs to: design maintainability into all systems where maintenance is a factor in system operation and mission success; and ensure that maintainability characteristics are developed through the systems engineering process. These requirements are not new. Design for ease of maintenance and minimization of repair time have always been fundamental requirements of the systems engineering process. However, new or reusable orbital manned and in-flight maintainable unmanned space systems demand special emphasis on maintainability, and this document has been prepared to meet that need. Maintainability requirements on many NASA programs differ in phasing and task emphasis from requirements promulgated by other Government agencies. This difference is due to the research and development nature of NASA programs where quantities produced are generally small; therefore, the depth of logistics support typical of many programs is generally not warranted. The cost of excessive maintenance is very high due to the logistics problems associated with the space environment. The ability to provide timely maintenance often involves safety considerations for manned space flight applications. This document represents a basic set of requirements that will achieve a design for maintenance. These requirements are directed primarily at manned and unmanned orbital space systems. To be effective, maintainability requirements should be tailored to meet specific NASA program and project needs and constraints. NASA activities shall invoke the requirements of this document consistent with program planning in procurements or on inhouse development efforts.

  9. Nitrogen Metabolite Repression of Metabolism and Virulence in the Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, I. Russel; Chow, Eve W. L.; Morrow, Carl A.; Djordjevic, Julianne T.; Fraser, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Proper regulation of metabolism is essential to maximizing fitness of organisms in their chosen environmental niche. Nitrogen metabolite repression is an example of a regulatory mechanism in fungi that enables preferential utilization of easily assimilated nitrogen sources, such as ammonium, to conserve resources. Here we provide genetic, transcriptional, and phenotypic evidence of nitrogen metabolite repression in the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. In addition to loss of transcriptional activation of catabolic enzyme-encoding genes of the uric acid and proline assimilation pathways in the presence of ammonium, nitrogen metabolite repression also regulates the production of the virulence determinants capsule and melanin. Since GATA transcription factors are known to play a key role in nitrogen metabolite repression, bioinformatic analyses of the C. neoformans genome were undertaken and seven predicted GATA-type genes were identified. A screen of these deletion mutants revealed GAT1, encoding the only global transcription factor essential for utilization of a wide range of nitrogen sources, including uric acid, urea, and creatinine—three predominant nitrogen constituents found in the C. neoformans ecological niche. In addition to its evolutionarily conserved role in mediating nitrogen metabolite repression and controlling the expression of catabolic enzyme and permease-encoding genes, Gat1 also negatively regulates virulence traits, including infectious basidiospore production, melanin formation, and growth at high body temperature (39°–40°). Conversely, Gat1 positively regulates capsule production. A murine inhalation model of cryptococcosis revealed that the gat1Δ mutant is slightly more virulent than wild type, indicating that Gat1 plays a complex regulatory role during infection. PMID:21441208

  10. Targeted repression of AXIN2 and MYC gene expression using designer TALEs

    SciTech Connect

    Rennoll, Sherri A.; Scott, Samantha A.; Yochum, Gregory S., E-mail: gsy3@psu.edu

    Highlights: • We designed TALE–SID fusion proteins to target AXIN2 and MYC. • TALE–SIDs bound the chromosomal AXIN2 and MYC genes and repressed their expression. • TALE–SIDs repress β-catenin{sup S45F}-dependent AXIN2 and MYC transcription. - Abstract: Designer TALEs (dTALEs) are chimeric transcription factors that can be engineered to regulate gene expression in mammalian cells. Whether dTALEs can block gene transcription downstream of signal transduction cascades, however, has yet to be fully explored. Here we tested whether dTALEs can be used to target genes whose expression is controlled by Wnt/β-catenin signaling. TALE DNA binding domains were engineered to recognize sequences adjacentmore » to Wnt responsive enhancer elements (WREs) that control expression of axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2) and c-MYC (MYC). These custom DNA binding domains were linked to the mSin3A interaction domain (SID) to generate TALE–SID chimeric repressors. The TALE–SIDs repressed luciferase reporter activity, bound their genomic target sites, and repressed AXIN2 and MYC expression in HEK293 cells. We generated a novel HEK293 cell line to determine whether the TALE–SIDs could function downstream of oncogenic Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Treating these cells with doxycycline and tamoxifen stimulates nuclear accumulation of a stabilized form of β-catenin found in a subset of colorectal cancers. The TALE–SIDs repressed AXIN2 and MYC expression in these cells, which suggests that dTALEs could offer an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of colorectal cancer.« less

  11. Regulation of lac Operon Expression: Reappraisal of the Theory of Catabolite Repression

    PubMed Central

    Wanner, Barry L.; Kodaira, Ryoji; Neidhardt, Frederick C.

    1978-01-01

    The physiological state of Escherichia coli with respect to (permanent) catabolite repression was assessed by measuring the steady-state level of β-galactosidase in induced or in constitutive cells under a variety of growth conditions. Four results were obtained. (i) Catabolite repression had a major effect on fully induced or constitutive expression of the lac gene, and the magnitude of this effect was found to be dependent on the promoter structure; cells with a wild-type lac promoter showed an 18-fold variation in lac expression, and cells with the lacP37 (formerly lac-L37) promoter exhibited several hundred-fold variation. (ii) Exogenous adenosine cyclic 3′,5′-monophosphoric acid (cAMP) could not abolish catabolite repression, even though several controls demonstrated that cAMP was entering the cells in significant amounts. (Rapid intracellular degradation of cAMP could not be ruled out.) (iii) Neither the growth rate nor the presence of biosynthetic products altered the degree of catabolite repression; all variation could be related to the catabolites present in the growth medium. (iv) Slowing by imposing an amino acid restriction decreased the differential rate of β-galactosidase synthesis from the wild-type lac promoter when bacteria were cultured in either the absence or presence of cAMP; this decreased lac expression also occurred when the bacteria harbored the catabolite-insensitive lacP5 (formerly lacUV5) promoter mutation. These findings support the idea that (permanent) catabolite repression is set by the catabolites in the growth medium and may not be related to an imbalance between catabolism and anabolism. PMID:214424

  12. Specific repression of β-globin promoter activity by nuclear ferritin

    PubMed Central

    Broyles, Robert H.; Belegu, Visar; DeWitt, Christina R.; Shah, Sandeep N.; Stewart, Charles A.; Pye, Quentin N.; Floyd, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Developmental hemoglobin switching involves sequential globin gene activations and repressions that are incompletely understood. Earlier observations, described herein, led us to hypothesize that nuclear ferritin is a repressor of the adult β-globin gene in embryonic erythroid cells. Our data show that a ferritin-family protein in K562 cell nuclear extracts binds specifically to a highly conserved CAGTGC motif in the β-globin promoter at −153 to −148 bp from the cap site, and mutation of the CAGTGC motif reduces binding 20-fold in competition gel-shift assays. Purified human ferritin that is enriched in ferritin-H chains also binds the CAGTGC promoter segment. Expression clones of ferritin-H markedly repress β-globin promoter-driven reporter gene expression in cotransfected CV-1 cells in which the β-promoter has been stimulated with the transcription activator erythroid Krüppel-like factor (EKLF). We have constructed chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter plasmids containing either a wild-type or mutant β-globin promoter for the −150 CAGTGC motif and have compared the constructs for susceptibility to repression by ferritin-H in cotransfection assays. We find that stimulation by cotransfected EKLF is retained with the mutant promoter, whereas repression by ferritin-H is lost. Thus, mutation of the −150 CAGTGC motif not only markedly reduces in vitro binding of nuclear ferritin but also abrogates the ability of expressed ferritin-H to repress this promoter in our cell transfection assay, providing a strong link between DNA binding and function, and strong support for our proposal that nuclear ferritin-H is a repressor of the human β-globin gene. Such a repressor could be helpful in treating sickle cell and other genetic diseases. PMID:11481480

  13. The transcription factor Mlc promotes Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation through repression of phosphotransferase system components.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Bradley S; Lopilato, Jane E; Smith, Daniel R; Watnick, Paula I

    2014-07-01

    The phosphoenol phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a multicomponent signal transduction cascade that regulates diverse aspects of bacterial cellular physiology in response to the availability of high-energy sugars in the environment. Many PTS components are repressed at the transcriptional level when the substrates they transport are not available. In Escherichia coli, the transcription factor Mlc (for makes large colonies) represses transcription of the genes encoding enzyme I (EI), histidine protein (HPr), and the glucose-specific enzyme IIBC (EIIBC(Glc)) in defined media that lack PTS substrates. When glucose is present, the unphosphorylated form of EIIBC(Glc) sequesters Mlc to the cell membrane, preventing its interaction with DNA. Very little is known about Vibrio cholerae Mlc. We found that V. cholerae Mlc activates biofilm formation in LB broth but not in defined medium supplemented with either pyruvate or glucose. Therefore, we questioned whether V. cholerae Mlc functions differently than E. coli Mlc. Here we have shown that, like E. coli Mlc, V. cholerae Mlc represses transcription of PTS components in both defined medium and LB broth and that E. coli Mlc is able to rescue the biofilm defect of a V. cholerae Δmlc mutant. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Mlc indirectly activates transcription of the vps genes by repressing expression of EI. Because activation of the vps genes by Mlc occurs under only a subset of the conditions in which repression of PTS components is observed, we conclude that additional inputs present in LB broth are required for activation of vps gene transcription by Mlc. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Drosophila Pumilio Protein Contains Multiple Autonomous Repression Domains That Regulate mRNAs Independently of Nanos and Brain Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Weidmann, Chase A.

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster Pumilio is an RNA-binding protein that potently represses specific mRNAs. In developing embryos, Pumilio regulates a key morphogen, Hunchback, in collaboration with the cofactor Nanos. To investigate repression by Pumilio and Nanos, we created cell-based assays and found that Pumilio inhibits translation and enhances mRNA decay independent of Nanos. Nanos robustly stimulates repression through interactions with the Pumilio RNA-binding domain. We programmed Pumilio to recognize a new binding site, which garners repression of new target mRNAs. We show that cofactors Brain Tumor and eIF4E Homologous Protein are not obligatory for Pumilio and Nanos activity. The conserved RNA-binding domain of Pumilio was thought to be sufficient for its function. Instead, we demonstrate that three unique domains in the N terminus of Pumilio possess the major repressive activity and can function autonomously. The N termini of insect and vertebrate Pumilio and Fem-3 binding factors (PUFs) are related, and we show that corresponding regions of human PUM1 and PUM2 have repressive activity. Other PUF proteins lack these repression domains. Our findings suggest that PUF proteins have evolved new regulatory functions through protein sequences appended to their conserved PUF repeat RNA-binding domains. PMID:22064486

  15. Drosophila Pumilio protein contains multiple autonomous repression domains that regulate mRNAs independently of Nanos and brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Weidmann, Chase A; Goldstrohm, Aaron C

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster Pumilio is an RNA-binding protein that potently represses specific mRNAs. In developing embryos, Pumilio regulates a key morphogen, Hunchback, in collaboration with the cofactor Nanos. To investigate repression by Pumilio and Nanos, we created cell-based assays and found that Pumilio inhibits translation and enhances mRNA decay independent of Nanos. Nanos robustly stimulates repression through interactions with the Pumilio RNA-binding domain. We programmed Pumilio to recognize a new binding site, which garners repression of new target mRNAs. We show that cofactors Brain Tumor and eIF4E Homologous Protein are not obligatory for Pumilio and Nanos activity. The conserved RNA-binding domain of Pumilio was thought to be sufficient for its function. Instead, we demonstrate that three unique domains in the N terminus of Pumilio possess the major repressive activity and can function autonomously. The N termini of insect and vertebrate Pumilio and Fem-3 binding factors (PUFs) are related, and we show that corresponding regions of human PUM1 and PUM2 have repressive activity. Other PUF proteins lack these repression domains. Our findings suggest that PUF proteins have evolved new regulatory functions through protein sequences appended to their conserved PUF repeat RNA-binding domains.

  16. Gene repression via multiplex gRNA strategy in Y. lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Lai; Peng, Yang-Zi; Liu, Duo; Liu, Hong; Cao, Ying-Xiu; Li, Bing-Zhi; Li, Chun; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2018-04-20

    The oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising microbial cell factory due to their biochemical characteristics and native capacity to accumulate lipid-based chemicals. To create heterogenous biosynthesis pathway and manipulate metabolic flux in Y. lipolytica, numerous studies have been done for developing synthetic biology tools for gene regulation. CRISPR interference (CRISPRi), as an emerging technology, has been applied for specifically repressing genes of interest. In this study, we established CRISPRi systems in Y. lipolytica based on four different repressors, that was DNase-deactivated Cpf1 (dCpf1) from Francisella novicida, deactivated Cas9 (dCas9) from Streptococcus pyogenes, and two fusion proteins (dCpf1-KRAB and dCas9-KRAB). Ten gRNAs that bound to different regions of gfp gene were designed and the results indicated that there was no clear correlation between the repression efficiency and targeting sites no matter which repressor protein was used. In order to rapidly yield strong gene repression, a multiplex gRNAs strategy based on one-step Golden-brick assembly technology was developed. High repression efficiency 85% (dCpf1) and 92% (dCas9) were achieved in a short time by making three different gRNAs towards gfp gene simultaneously, which avoided the need of screening effective gRNA loci in advance. Moreover, two genes interference including gfp and vioE and three genes repression including vioA, vioB and vioE in protodeoxy-violaceinic acid pathway were also realized. Taken together, successful CRISPRi-mediated regulation of gene expression via four different repressors dCpf1, dCas9, dCpf1-KRAB and dCas9-KRAB in Y. lipolytica is achieved. And we demonstrate a multiplexed gRNA targeting strategy can efficiently achieve transcriptional simultaneous repression of several targeted genes and different sites of one gene using the one-step Golden-brick assembly. This timesaving method promised to be a potent transformative tool valuable for

  17. Quantifying edge significance on maintaining global connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yuhua; Li, Yebin; Zhang, Min; Ma, Guoshuai; Lu, Furong

    2017-01-01

    Global connectivity is a quite important issue for networks. The failures of some key edges may lead to breakdown of the whole system. How to find them will provide a better understanding on system robustness. Based on topological information, we propose an approach named LE (link entropy) to quantify the edge significance on maintaining global connectivity. Then we compare the LE with the other six acknowledged indices on the edge significance: the edge betweenness centrality, degree product, bridgeness, diffusion importance, topological overlap and k-path edge centrality. Experimental results show that the LE approach outperforms in quantifying edge significance on maintaining global connectivity. PMID:28349923

  18. DeoR repression at-a-distance only weakly responds to changes in interoperator separation and DNA topology.

    PubMed Central

    Dandanell, G

    1992-01-01

    The interoperator distance between a synthetic operator Os and the deoP2O2-galK fusion was varied between 46 and 176 bp. The repression of the deoP2 directed galK expression as a function of the interoperator distance (center-to-center) was measured in vivo in a single-copy system. The results show that the DeoR repressor efficiently can repress transcription at all the interoperator distances tested. The degree of repression depends very little on the spacing between the operators, however, a weak periodic dependency of 8-11 bp may exist. PMID:1437558

  19. Two Distinct Repressive Mechanisms for Histone 3 Lysine 4 Methylation through Promoting 3′-End Antisense Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Margaritis, Thanasis; Oreal, Vincent; Brabers, Nathalie; Maestroni, Laetitia; Vitaliano-Prunier, Adeline; Benschop, Joris J.; van Hooff, Sander; van Leenen, Dik

    2012-01-01

    Histone H3 di- and trimethylation on lysine 4 are major chromatin marks that correlate with active transcription. The influence of these modifications on transcription itself is, however, poorly understood. We have investigated the roles of H3K4 methylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by determining genome-wide expression-profiles of mutants in the Set1 complex, COMPASS, that lays down these marks. Loss of H3K4 trimethylation has virtually no effect on steady-state or dynamically-changing mRNA levels. Combined loss of H3K4 tri- and dimethylation results in steady-state mRNA upregulation and delays in the repression kinetics of specific groups of genes. COMPASS-repressed genes have distinct H3K4 methylation patterns, with enrichment of H3K4me3 at the 3′-end, indicating that repression is coupled to 3′-end antisense transcription. Further analyses reveal that repression is mediated by H3K4me3-dependent 3′-end antisense transcription in two ways. For a small group of genes including PHO84, repression is mediated by a previously reported trans-effect that requires the antisense transcript itself. For the majority of COMPASS-repressed genes, however, it is the process of 3′-end antisense transcription itself that is the important factor for repression. Strand-specific qPCR analyses of various mutants indicate that this more prevalent mechanism of COMPASS-mediated repression requires H3K4me3-dependent 3′-end antisense transcription to lay down H3K4me2, which seems to serve as the actual repressive mark. Removal of the 3′-end antisense promoter also results in derepression of sense transcription and renders sense transcription insensitive to the additional loss of SET1. The derepression observed in COMPASS mutants is mimicked by reduction of global histone H3 and H4 levels, suggesting that the H3K4me2 repressive effect is linked to establishment of a repressive chromatin structure. These results indicate that in S. cerevisiae, the non-redundant role of H3K4

  20. Functional repression of PtSND2 represses growth and development by disturbing auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling in transgenic poplar.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haihai; Tang, Renjie; Wang, Cuiting; Qi, Qi; Gai, Ying; Jiang, Xiangning; Zhang, Hongxia

    2015-01-01

    Using chimeric repressor silencing technology, we previously reported that functional repression of PtSND2 severely arrested wood formation in transgenic poplar (Populus). Here, we provide further evidence that auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling were disturbed in these transgenic plants, leading to pleiotropic defects in their growth patterns, including inhibited leaf enlargement and vascular tissue development in the leaf central vein, suppressed cambial growth and fiber elongation in the stem, and arrested growth in the root system. Two transgenic lines, which displayed the most remarkable phenotypic deviation from the wild-type, were selected for detailed studies. In both transgenic lines, expression of genes for auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling was down-regulated, and indole-3-acetic acid distribution was severely disturbed in the apical buds, leaves, stems and roots of field-grown transgenic plants. Transient transcription dual-luciferase assays of ProPtTYDC2::LUC, ProPttLAX2::LUC and ProPoptrIAA20.2::LUC in poplar protoplasts revealed that expression of auxin-related genes might be regulated by PtSND2 at the transcriptional level. All these results indicate that functional repression of PtSND2 altered auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling, and thereby disturbed the normal growth and development of transgenic plants. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Maintaining Hope in the Face of Evil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri

    2002-01-01

    P. G. Zimbardo (2001) and M. E. P. Seligman (in an interview with S. Carpenter, 2001) discuss evil and hope in response to the September 11, 2001, disaster. The implications for counseling are presented with an emphasis on how counselors can maintain hope for themselves and their clients in the face of evil. (Author)

  2. Seed zones for maintaining adapted plant populations

    Treesearch

    J. Bradley St. Clair; G. Randy Johnson; Vicky J. Erickson; Richard C. Johnson; Nancy L. Shaw

    2007-01-01

    Seed zones delineate areas within which plant materials can be transferred with little risk that they will be poorly adapted to their new location. They ensure successful restoration and revegetation, and help maintain the integrity of natural genetic structure. The value of seed zones is recognized in numerous policy statements from federal and state agencies. Results...

  3. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, S.H.

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  4. Maintaining Interest in Operator Requal Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, H. J., Jr.

    A study reviewed operator training programs at Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station to determine their interface with plant operations and to devise new ways of maintaining interest in requalification (requal) training. The operator training review committee that was formed to implement the review documented over 100 issues and concerns…

  5. Women's work. Maintaining a healthy body weight.

    PubMed

    Welch, Nicky; Hunter, Wendy; Butera, Karina; Willis, Karen; Cleland, Verity; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2009-08-01

    This study describes women's perceptions of the supports and barriers to maintaining a healthy weight among currently healthy weight women from urban and rural socio-economically disadvantaged areas. Using focus groups and interviews, we asked women about their experiences of maintaining a healthy weight. Overwhelmingly, women described their healthy weight practices in terms of concepts related to work and management. The theme of 'managing health' comprised issues of managing multiple responsibilities, time, and emotions associated with healthy practices. Rural women faced particular difficulties in accessing supports at a practical level (for example, lack of childcare) and due to the gendered roles they enacted in caring for others. Family background (in particular, mothers' attitudes to food and weight) also appeared to influence perceptions about healthy weight maintenance. In the context of global increases in the prevalence of obesity, the value of initiatives aimed at supporting healthy weight women to maintain their weight should not be under-estimated. Such initiatives need to work within the social and personal constraints that women face in maintaining good health.

  6. Pedagogical Practices: Nurturing and Maintaining Democratic Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubler-Larimore, Lucretia Marie

    2011-01-01

    This case study examined the pedagogical practices of four teachers of one public elementary school whose mission seeks to nurture and maintain democratic habits for participation in a democratic society. Historically, public schools have been charged with the duty of preparing young minds to live within in a democratic society and as such this…

  7. Obtaining, Maintaining, and Advancing Your Fitness Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Patricia; Herman, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Public awareness of health, fitness, and exercise has increased and the fitness industry has expanded in recent years. Yet, ironically, the health of our nation continues to deteriorate. Now more than ever there is the need for qualified fitness professionals to help individuals to improve or maintain health and fitness. Since fitness…

  8. Strategies for Maintaining a Support Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Pearl R.

    This manual is concerned with helping already-established support groups maintain themselves over an extended period of time. It helps facilitators apply principles for addressing such problems as dissension within the group, poor attendance, losing sight of the group's purpose, and overdependence on a leader. The manual contains questionnaires to…

  9. Acceptable Practices in Maintaining Personnel Files.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Personnel Administrators, Seven Hills, OH.

    Determining acceptable practices in maintaining personnel files is a pertinent issue for school personnel administrators today. Recognizing this, the Georgia Association of School Personnel Administrators accepted the study of this topic as a committee assignment from the American Association of School Personnel Administrators. A survey instrument…

  10. [Deodorant effects of champignon extract and repressive effects on production of indole and tryptamine in vivo].

    PubMed

    Koizumi, I; Suzuki, Y; Shimura, S

    1997-01-01

    Champignon extract has potent deodorant effects, and its repressive effects on bad smells generated by the decomposition of fishery products are especially marked. Utilizing the amount of ammonical nitrogen, indoleacetic acid and tryptamine generated as the standard criteria, the deodorant effects of champingnon were evaluated. In an in vitro test, chicken liver homogenate was decomposed by incubating at 37 degrees C and with the progress of its decomposition, ammonical nitrogen was generated. Champignon extract was shown to have the ability to repress the generation of ammonical nitrogen. For an in vivo test, an excessive amount of tryptophan was orally administered to domestic rabbits resalting in an increase in blood levels of indoleacetic acid and tryptamine. Champignon extract given concomitantly rapidly reduced blood levels of the two compounds to negligible levels.

  11. Secularization versus religious revival in Eastern Europe: Church institutional resilience, state repression and divergent paths.

    PubMed

    Northmore-Ball, Ksenia; Evans, Geoffrey

    2016-05-01

    Despite continuing for over two decades, the debate about the nature of the trends in religiosity in post-Communist Eastern Europe remains unresolved: some arguing that these countries are undergoing the same process of secularization as the West, while others insist that the entire region is experiencing a religious revival. Using national sample surveys from the early 1990s to 2007 to examine the change in demographic predictors of religiosity, we show that Catholic and Orthodox countries are experiencing different trends, the first group displaying evidence of secularization and the second of revival, and that these two different trends are likely to derive from the legacies of state repression and the differing abilities of the churches to resist such repression. We argue that the current literature has thus taken a mistakenly general approach, and that the post-Communist region consists of at least two distinct groups of societies with different trends in religiosity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Mutations in GAL2 or GAL4 alleviate catabolite repression produced by galactose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez; Flores

    2000-06-01

    Galactose does not allow growth of pyruvate carboxylase mutants in media with ammonium as a nitrogen source, and inhibits growth of strains defective in phosphoglyceromutase in ethanol-glycerol mixtures. Starting with pyc1, pyc2, and gpm1 strains, we isolated mutants that eliminated those galactose effects. The mutations were recessive and were named dgr1-1 and dgr2-1. Strains bearing those mutations in an otherwise wild-type background grew slower than the wild type in rich galactose media, and their growth was dependent on respiration. Galactose repression of several enzymes was relieved in the mutants. Biochemical and genetic evidence showed that dgr1-1 was allelic with GAL2 and dgr2-1 with GAL4. The results indicate that the rate of galactose consumption is critical to cause catabolite repression.

  13. MYC association with cancer risk and a new model of MYC-mediated repression.

    PubMed

    Cole, Michael D

    2014-07-01

    MYC is one of the most frequently mutated and overexpressed genes in human cancer but the regulation of MYC expression and the ability of MYC protein to repress cellular genes (including itself) have remained mysterious. Recent genome-wide association studies show that many genetic polymorphisms associated with disease risk map to distal regulatory elements that regulate the MYC promoter through large chromatin loops. Cancer risk-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contain more potent enhancer activity, promoting higher MYC levels and a greater risk of disease. The MYC promoter is also subject to complex regulatory circuits and limits its own expression by a feedback loop. A model for MYC autoregulation is discussed which involves a signaling pathway between the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) tumor suppressor and repressive histone modifications laid down by the EZH2 methyltransferase. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  14. Repurposing endogenous type I CRISPR-Cas systems for programmable gene repression

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Michelle L.; Mullis, Adam S.; Leenay, Ryan T.; Beisel, Chase L.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems have shown tremendous promise as heterologous tools for genome editing and transcriptional regulation. Because these RNA-directed immune systems are found in most prokaryotes, an opportunity exists to harness the endogenous systems as convenient tools in these organisms. Here, we report that the Type I-E CRISPR-Cas system in Escherichia coli can be co-opted for programmable transcriptional repression. We found that deletion of the signature cas3 gene converted this immune system into a programmable gene regulator capable of reversible gene silencing of heterologous and endogenous genes. Targeting promoter regions yielded the strongest repression, whereas targeting coding regions showed consistent strand bias. Furthermore, multi-targeting CRISPR arrays could generate complex phenotypes. This strategy offers a simple approach to convert many endogenous Type I systems into transcriptional regulators, thereby expanding the available toolkit for CRISPR-mediated genetic control while creating new opportunities for genome-wide screens and pathway engineering. PMID:25326321

  15. Nuclear factor I-A represses expression of the cell adhesion molecule L1

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 plays a crucial role in development and plasticity of the nervous system. Neural cells thus require precise control of L1 expression. Results We identified a full binding site for nuclear factor I (NFI) transcription factors in the regulatory region of the mouse L1 gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed binding of nuclear factor I-A (NFI-A) to this site. Moreover, for a brain-specific isoform of NFI-A (NFI-A bs), we confirmed the interaction in vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Reporter gene assays showed that in neuroblastoma cells, overexpression of NFI-A bs repressed L1 expression threefold. Conclusion Our findings suggest that NFI-A, in particular its brain-specific isoform, represses L1 gene expression, and might act as a second silencer of L1 in addition to the neural restrictive silencer factor (NRSF). PMID:20003413

  16. The role of LANP and ataxin 1 in E4F-mediated transcriptional repression

    PubMed Central

    Cvetanovic, Marija; Rooney, Robert J; Garcia, Jesus J; Toporovskaya, Nataliya; Zoghbi, Huda Y; Opal, Puneet

    2007-01-01

    The leucine-rich acidic nuclear protein (LANP) belongs to the INHAT family of corepressors that inhibits histone acetyltransferases. The mechanism by which LANP restricts its repression to specific genes is unknown. Here, we report that LANP forms a complex with transcriptional repressor E4F and modulates its activity. As LANP interacts with ataxin 1—a protein mutated in the neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1)—we tested whether ataxin 1 can alter the E4F–LANP interaction. We show that ataxin 1 relieves the transcriptional repression induced by the LANP–E4F complex by competing with E4F for LANP. These results provide the first functional link, to our knowledge, between LANP and ataxin 1, and indicate a potential mechanism for the transcriptional aberrations observed in SCA1. PMID:17557114

  17. The role of the concentration camps in the Nazi repression of prostitutes, 1933-9.

    PubMed

    Harris, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    This article uses prostitutes as a case study in order to investigate the role of the early concentration camps as centres of detention for social deviants. In contrasting the intensification of repressive policies towards prostitutes against narratives which demonstrate the unexpectedly lax treatment of these women, it explores what the reasons behind these contradictions might have been, and what this demonstrates about the development of these institutions. It asks the following questions. How and why were prostitutes interned? Which bureaucrats were responsible for incarcerating these women and what did they view the role of the camp to be? Were such policies centrally directed or the product of local decision-making? Through asking these questions, the article explores to what extent these camps were unique as mechanisms for the repression and marginalization of prostitutes.

  18. LIN-39/Hox triggers cell division and represses EFF-1/fusogen-dependent vulval cell fusion

    PubMed Central

    Shemer, Gidi; Podbilewicz, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    General mechanisms by which Hox genes establish cell fates are known. However, a few Hox effectors mediating cell behaviors have been identified. Here we found the first effector of LIN-39/HoxD4/Dfd in Caenorhabditis elegans. In specific vulval precursor cells (VPCs), LIN-39 represses early and late expression of EFF-1, a membrane protein essential for cell fusion. Repression of eff-1 is also achieved by the activity of CEH-20/Exd/Pbx, a known cofactor of Hox proteins. Unfused VPCs in lin-39(−);eff-1(−) double mutants fail to divide but migrate, executing vulval fates. Thus, lin-39 is essential for inhibition of EFF-1-dependent cell fusion and stimulation of cell proliferation during vulva formation. Supplemental material is available at http://www.genesdev.org. PMID:12502736

  19. Mechanisms of transcriptional repression of cell-cycle G2/M promoters by p63

    PubMed Central

    Testoni, Barbara; Mantovani, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    p63 is a developmentally regulated transcription factor related to p53, which activates and represses specific genes. The human AEC (Ankyloblepharon–Ectodermal dysplasia-Clefting) and EEC (Ectrodactyly–Ectodermal dysplasia–Cleft lip/palate) syndromes are caused by missense mutations of p63, within the DNA-binding domain (EEC) or in the C-terminal sterile alpha motif domain (AEC). We show here that p63 represses transcription of cell-cycle G2/M genes by binding to multiple CCAAT core promoters in immortalized and primary keratinocytes. The CCAAT-activator NF-Y and ΔNp63α are associated in vivo and a conserved α-helix of the NF-YC histone fold is required. p63 AEC mutants, but not an EEC mutant, are incapable to bind NF-Y. ΔNp63α, but not the AEC mutants repress CCAAT-dependent transcription of G2/M genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation recruitment assays establish that the AEC mutants are not recruited to G2/M promoters, while normally present on 14-3-3σ, which contains a sequence-specific binding site. Surprisingly, the EEC C306R mutant activates transcription. Upon keratinocytes differentiation, NF-Y and p63 remain bound to G2/M promoters, while HDACs are recruited, histones deacetylated, Pol II displaced and transcription repressed. Our data indicate that NF-Y is a molecular target of p63 and that inhibition of growth activating genes upon differentiation is compromised by AEC missense mutations. PMID:16473849

  20. Lamina-Associated Domains: Links with Chromosome Architecture, Heterochromatin, and Gene Repression.

    PubMed

    van Steensel, Bas; Belmont, Andrew S

    2017-05-18

    In metazoan cell nuclei, hundreds of large chromatin domains are in close contact with the nuclear lamina. Such lamina-associated domains (LADs) are thought to help organize chromosomes inside the nucleus and have been associated with gene repression. Here, we discuss the properties of LADs, the molecular mechanisms that determine their association with the nuclear lamina, their dynamic links with other nuclear compartments, and their proposed roles in gene regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of Ind transcription activation and repression domains required for dorsoventral patterning of the CNS.

    PubMed

    Von Ohlen, Tonia L; Moses, Cade

    2009-07-01

    Specification of cell fates across the dorsoventral axis of the central nervous system in Drosophila involves the subdivision of the neuroectoderm into three domains that give rise to three columns of neural precursor cells called neuroblasts. Ventral nervous system defective (Vnd), intermediate neuroblasts defective (Ind) and muscle segment homeobox (Msh) are expressed in the three columns from ventral to dorsal, respectively. The products of these genes play multiple important roles in formation and specification of the embryonic nervous system. Ind, for example, is known to play roles in two important processes. First, Ind is essential for formation of neuroblasts conjunction with SoxB class transcription factors. Sox class transcription factors are known to specify neural stem cells in vertebrates. Second, Ind plays an important role in patterning the CNS in conjunction with, vnd and msh, which is also similar to how vertebrates pattern their neural tube. This work focuses two important aspects of Ind function. First, we used multiple approaches to identify and characterize specific domains within the protein that confer repressor or activator ability. Currently, little is known about the presence of activation or repression domains within Ind. Here, we show that transcriptional repression by Ind requires multiple conserved domains within the protein, and that Ind has a transcriptional activation domain. Specifically, we have identified a novel domain, the Pst domain, that has transcriptional repression ability and appears to act independent of interaction with the co-repressor Groucho. This domain is highly conserved among insect species, but is not found in vertebrate Gsh class homeodomain proteins. Second, we show that Ind can and does repress vnd expression, but does so in a stage specific manner. We conclude from this that the function of Ind in regulating vnd expression is one of refinement and maintenance of the dorsal border.

  2. Structural basis of JAZ repression of MYC transcription factors in jasmonate signalling

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Feng; Yao, Jian; Ke, Jiyuan; ...

    2015-08-10

    The plant hormone jasmonate plays crucial roles in regulating plant responses to herbivorous insects and microbial pathogens and is an important regulator of plant growth and development. Key mediators of jasmonate signalling include MYC transcription factors, which are repressed by jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) transcriptional repressors in the resting state. In the presence of active jasmonate, JAZ proteins function as jasmonate co-receptors by forming a hormone-dependent complex with COI1, the F-box subunit of an SCF-type ubiquitin E3 ligase. The hormone-dependent formation of the COI1–JAZ co-receptor complex leads to ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of JAZ repressors and release of MYC proteins frommore » transcriptional repression. The mechanism by which JAZ proteins repress MYC transcription factors and how JAZ proteins switch between the repressor function in the absence of hormone and the co-receptor function in the presence of hormone remain enigmatic. In this paper, we show that Arabidopsis MYC3 undergoes pronounced conformational changes when bound to the conserved Jas motif of the JAZ9 repressor. The Jas motif, previously shown to bind to hormone as a partly unwound helix, forms a complete α-helix that displaces the amino (N)-terminal helix of MYC3 and becomes an integral part of the MYC N-terminal fold. In this position, the Jas helix competitively inhibits MYC3 interaction with the MED25 subunit of the transcriptional Mediator complex. Finally, our structural and functional studies elucidate a dynamic molecular switch mechanism that governs the repression and activation of a major plant hormone pathway.« less

  3. Trichostatin A enhances estrogen receptor-alpha repression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells under hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, Hyunggyun; Park, Joonwoo; Shim, Myeongguk

    Estrogen receptor (ER) is a crucial determinant of resistance to endocrine therapy, which may change during the progression of breast cancer. We previously showed that hypoxia induces ESR1 gene repression and ERα protein degradation via proteasome-mediated pathway in breast cancer cells. HDAC plays important roles in the regulation of histone and non-histone protein post-translational modification. HDAC inhibitors can induce epigenetic changes and have therapeutic potential for targeting various cancers. Trichostatin A exerts potent antitumor activities against breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In this report, we show that TSA augments ESR1 gene repression at the transcriptional level and downregulates ERαmore » protein expression under hypoxic conditions through a proteasome-mediated pathway. TSA-induced estrogen response element-driven reporter activity in the absence of estrogen was synergistically enhanced under hypoxia; however, TSA inhibited cell proliferation under both normoxia and hypoxia. Our data show that the hypoxia-induced repression of ESR1 and degradation of ERα are enhanced by concomitant treatment with TSA. These findings expand our understanding of hormone responsiveness in the tumor microenvironment; however, additional in-depth studies are required to elucidate the detailed mechanisms of TSA-induced ERα regulation under hypoxia. - Highlights: • TSA augments ESR1 gene repression at the transcriptional level under hypoxia. • TSA downregulates ERα protein expression under hypoxia. • TSA-induced ERα regulation under hypoxia is essential for understanding the behavior and progression of breast cancer.« less

  4. Repression, Civil Conflict and Leadership Tenure: The Thai Case Study: 2006-2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-30

    peaceful protestors. The Army argues that it intervenes to prevent more violence and instability. The armed forces also censor the Internet making it...protestors . The Thai public responded negatively to violent repression, as did many of Thailand’s allies in Europe, Asia and North America . In the wake...of expression, blocking and shutting down websites and radio stations, and censoring the Internet. In addition, the new government banned gatherings

  5. From Sensorimotor Inhibition to Freudian Repression: Insights from Psychosis Applied to Neurosis

    PubMed Central

    Bazan, Ariane

    2012-01-01

    First, three case studies are presented of psychotic patients having in common an inability to hold something down or out. In line with other theories on psychosis, we propose that a key change is at the efference copy system. Going back to Freud’s mental apparatus, we propose that the messages of discharge of the motor neurons, mobilized to direct perception, also called “indications of reality,” are equivalent to the modern efference copies. With this key, the reading of the cases is coherent with the psychodynamic understanding of psychosis, being a downplay of secondary processes, and consequently, a dominance of primary processes. Moreover, putting together the sensorimotor idea of a failure of efference copy-mediated inhibition with the psychoanalytic idea of a failing repression in psychosis, the hypothesis emerges that the attenuation enabled by the efference copy dynamics is, in some instances, the physiological instantiation of repression. Second, we applied this idea to the mental organization in neurosis. Indeed, the efference copy-mediated attenuation is thought to be the mechanism through which sustained activation of an intention, without reaching it – i.e., inhibition of an action – gives rise to mental imagery. Therefore, as inhibition is needed for any targeted action or for normal language understanding, acting in the world, or processing language, structurally induces mental imagery, constituting a subjective unconscious mental reality. Repression is a special instance of inhibition for emotionally threatening stimuli. These stimuli require stronger inhibition, leaving (the attenuation of) the motor intentions totally unanswered, in order to radically prevent execution which would lead to development of excess affect. This inhibition, then, yields a specific type of motor imagery, called “phantoms,” which induce mental preoccupation, as well as symptoms which, especially through their form, refer to the repressed motor fragments

  6. Canaries in a coal-mine? What the killings of journalists tell us about future repression

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Sabine C

    2017-01-01

    An independent press that is free from government censorship is regarded as instrumental to ensuring human rights protection. Yet governments across the globe often target journalists when their reports seem to offend them or contradict their policies. Can the government’s infringements of the rights of journalists tell us anything about its wider human rights agenda? The killing of a journalist is a sign of deteriorating respect for human rights. If a government orders the killing of a journalist, it is willing to use extreme measures to eliminate the threat posed by the uncontrolled flow of information. If non-state actors murder journalists, it reflects insecurity, which can lead to a backlash by the government, again triggering state-sponsored repression. To test the argument whether the killing of journalists is a precursor to increasing repression, we introduce a new global dataset on killings of journalists between 2002 and 2013 that uses three different sources that track such events across the world. The new data show that mostly local journalists are targeted and that in most cases the perpetrators remain unconfirmed. Particularly in countries with limited repression, human rights conditions are likely to deteriorate in the two years following the killing of a journalist. When journalists are killed, human rights conditions are unlikely to improve where standard models of human rights would expect an improvement. Our research underlines the importance of taking the treatment of journalists seriously, not only because failure to do so endangers their lives and limits our understanding of events on the ground, but also because their physical safety is an important precursor of more repression in the future. PMID:28546646

  7. Molybdenum effector of fumarate reductase repression and nitrate reductase induction in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Iuchi, S; Lin, E C

    1987-01-01

    In Escherichia coli the presence of nitrate prevents the utilization of fumarate as an anaerobic electron acceptor. The induction of the narC operon encoding the nitrate reductase is coupled to the repression of the frd operon encoding the fumarate reductase. This coupling is mediated by nitrate as an effector and the narL product as the regulatory protein (S. Iuchi and E. C. C. Lin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:3901-3905, 1987). The protein-ligand complex appears to control narC positively but frd negatively. In the present study we found that a molybdenum coeffector acted synergistically with nitrate in the regulation of frd and narC. In chlD mutants believed to be impaired in molybdate transport (or processing), full repression of phi(frd-lac) and full induction of phi(narC-lac) by nitrate did not occur unless the growth medium was directly supplemented with molybdate (1 microM). This requirement was not clearly manifested in wild-type cells, apparently because it was met by the trace quantities of molybdate present as a contaminant in the mineral medium. In chlB mutants, which are known to accumulate the Mo cofactor because of its failure to be inserted as a prosthetic group into proteins such as nitrate reductase, nitrate repression of frd and induction of narC were also intensified by molybdate supplementation. In this case a deficiency of the molybdenum coeffector might have resulted from enhanced feedback inhibition of molybdate transport (or processing) by the elevated level of the unutilized Mo cofactor. In addition, mutations in chlE, which are known to block the synthesis of the organic moiety of the Mo cofactor, lowered the threshold concentration of nitrate (< 1 micromole) necessary for frd repression and narC induction. These changes could be explained simply by the higher intracellular nitrate attainable in cells lacking the ability to destroy the effector. PMID:3301812

  8. VDAC electronics: 4. Novel electrical mechanism and thermodynamic estimations of glucose repression of yeast respiration.

    PubMed

    Lemeshko, Victor V

    2017-11-01

    Inhibition of cell respiration by high concentrations of glucose (glucose repression), known as "Crabtree effect", has been demonstrated for various cancerous strains, highly proliferating cells and yeast lines. Although significant progress in understanding metabolic events associated with the glucose repression of cell respiration has been achieved, it is not yet clear whether the Crabtree effect is the result of a limited activity of the respiratory chain, or of some glucose-mediated regulation of mitochondrial metabolic state. In this work we propose an electrical mechanism of glucose repression of the yeast S. cerevisiae, resulting from generation of the mitochondrial outer membrane potential (OMP) coupled to the direct oxidation of cytosolic NADH in mitochondria. This yeast-type mechanism of OMP generation is different from the earlier proposed VDAC-hexokinase-mediated voltage generation of cancer-type, associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane. The model was developed assuming that VDAC is more permeable to NADH than to NAD + . Thermodynamic estimations of OMP, generated as a result of NADH(2-)/NAD + (1-) turnover through the outer membrane, demonstrated that the values of calculated negative OMP match the known range of VDAC voltage sensitivity, thus suggesting a possibility of OMP-dependent VDAC-mediated regulation of cell energy metabolism. According to the proposed mechanism, we suggest that the yeast-type Crabtree effect is the result of a fast VDAC-mediated electrical repression of mitochondria due to a decrease in the outer membrane permeability to charged metabolites and owing their redistribution between the mitochondrial intermembrane space and the cytosol, both controlled by metabolically-derived OMP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Opi1 mediates repression of phospholipid biosynthesis by phosphate limitation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kliewe, Felix; Kumme, Jacqueline; Grigat, Mathias; Hintze, Stefan; Schüller, Hans-Joachim

    2017-02-01

    Structural genes of phospholipid biosynthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are transcribed when precursor molecules inositol and choline (IC) are limiting. Gene expression is stimulated by the heterodimeric activator Ino2/Ino4, which binds to ICRE (inositol/choline-responsive element) promoter sequences. Activation is prevented by repressor Opi1, counteracting Ino2 when high concentrations of IC are available. Here we show that ICRE-dependent gene activation is repressed not only by an excess of IC but also under conditions of phosphate starvation. While PHO5 is activated by phosphate limitation, INO1 expression is repressed about 10-fold. Repression of ICRE-dependent genes by low phosphate is no longer observed in an opi1 mutant while repression is still effective in mutants of the PHO regulon (pho4, pho80, pho81 and pho85). In contrast, gene expression with high phosphate is reduced in the absence of pleiotropic sensor protein kinase Pho85. We could demonstrate that Pho85 binds to Opi1 in vitro and in vivo and that this interaction is increased in the presence of high concentrations of phosphate. Interestingly, Pho85 binds to two separate domains of Opi1 which have been previously shown to recruit pleiotropic corepressor Sin3 and activator Ino2, respectively. We postulate that Pho85 positively influences ICRE-dependent gene expression by phosphorylation-dependent weakening of Opi1 repressor, affecting its functional domains required for promoter recruitment and corepressor interaction. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Repression of enhancer II activity by a negative regulatory element in the hepatitis B virus genome.

    PubMed Central

    Lo, W Y; Ting, L P

    1994-01-01

    Enhancer II of human hepatitis B virus has dual functions in vivo. Located at nucleotides (nt) 1646 to 1741, it can stimulate the surface and X promoters from a downstream position. Moreover, the same sequence can also function as upstream regulatory element that activates the core promoter in a position- and orientation-dependent manner. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of a negative regulatory element (NRE) upstream of enhancer II (nt 1613 to 1636) which can repress both the enhancer and upstream stimulatory function of the enhancer II sequence in differentiated liver cells. This NRE has marginal inhibitory effect by itself but a strong repressive function in the presence of a functional enhancer II. Mutational analysis reveals that sequence from nt 1616 to 1621 is required for repression of enhancer activity by the NRE. Gel shift analysis reveals that this negative regulatory region can be recognized by a specific protein factor(s) present at the 0.4 M NaCl fraction of HepG2 nuclear extracts. The discovery of the NRE indicates that HBV gene transcription is controlled by combined effects of both positive and negative regulation. It also provides a unique system with which to study the mechanism of negative regulation of gene expression. Images PMID:8107237

  11. The transcription factor NRSF contributes to epileptogenesis by selective repression of a subset of target genes

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Shawn; Brennan, Gary P; Dubé, Celine; Rajpara, Seeta; Iyer, Shruti; Richichi, Cristina; Bernard, Christophe; Baram, Tallie Z

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms generating epileptic neuronal networks following insults such as severe seizures are unknown. We have previously shown that interfering with the function of the neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF/REST), an important transcription factor that influences neuronal phenotype, attenuated development of this disorder. In this study, we found that epilepsy-provoking seizures increased the low NRSF levels in mature hippocampus several fold yet surprisingly, provoked repression of only a subset (∼10%) of potential NRSF target genes. Accordingly, the repressed gene-set was rescued when NRSF binding to chromatin was blocked. Unexpectedly, genes selectively repressed by NRSF had mid-range binding frequencies to the repressor, a property that rendered them sensitive to moderate fluctuations of NRSF levels. Genes selectively regulated by NRSF during epileptogenesis coded for ion channels, receptors, and other crucial contributors to neuronal function. Thus, dynamic, selective regulation of NRSF target genes may play a role in influencing neuronal properties in pathological and physiological contexts. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01267.001 PMID:25117540

  12. Separate necdin domains bind ARNT2 and HIF1{alpha} and repress transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Eitan R.; Fan Chenming

    2007-11-09

    PWS is caused by the loss of expression of a set of maternally imprinted genes including NECDIN (NDN). NDN is expressed in post-mitotic neurons and plays an essential role in PWS as mouse models lacking only the Ndn gene mimic aspects of this disease. Patients haploid for SIM1 develop a PW-like syndrome. Here, we report that NDN directly interacts with ARNT2, a bHLH-PAS protein and dimer partner for SIM1. We also found that NDN can interact with HIF1{alpha}. We showed that NDN can repress transcriptional activation mediated by ARNT2:SIM1 as well as ARNT2:HIF1{alpha}. The N-terminal 115 residues of NDN aremore » sufficient for interaction with the bHLH domains of ARNT2 or HIF1{alpha} but not for transcriptional repression. Using GAL4-NDN fusion proteins, we determined that NDN possesses multiple repression domains. We thus propose that NDN regulates neuronal function and hypoxic response by regulating the activities of the ARNT2:SIM1 and ARNT2:HIF1{alpha} dimers, respectively.« less

  13. YB-1 regulates tiRNA-induced Stress Granule formation but not translational repression

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Shawn M.; Achorn, Chris; Kedersha, Nancy L.; Anderson, Paul J.; Ivanov, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Stress-induced angiogenin (ANG)-mediated tRNA cleavage promotes a cascade of cellular events that starts with production of tRNA-derived stress-induced RNAs (tiRNAs) and culminates with enhanced cell survival. This stress response program relies on a subset tiRNAs that inhibit translation initiation and induce the assembly of stress granules (SGs), cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes with cytoprotective and pro-survival properties. SG-promoting tiRNAs bear oligoguanine motifs at their 5′-ends, assemble G-quadruplex-like structures and interact with the translational silencer YB-1. We used CRISPR/Cas9-based genetic manipulations and biochemical approaches to examine the role of YB-1 in tiRNA-mediated translational repression and SG assembly. We found that YB-1 directly binds to tiRNAs via its cold shock domain. This interaction is required for packaging of tiRNA-repressed mRNAs into SGs but is dispensable for tiRNA-mediated translational repression. Our studies reveal the functional role of YB-1 in the ANG-mediated stress response program. PMID:27174937

  14. To suppress, or not to suppress? That is repression: controlling intrusive thoughts in addictive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Moss, Antony C; Erskine, James A K; Albery, Ian P; Allen, James Richard; Georgiou, George J

    2015-05-01

    Research to understand how individuals cope with intrusive negative or threatening thoughts suggests a variety of different cognitive strategies aimed at thought control. In this review, two of these strategies--thought suppression and repressive coping--are discussed in the context of addictive behaviour. Thought suppression involves conscious, volitional attempts to expel a thought from awareness, whereas repressive coping, which involves the avoidance of thoughts without the corresponding conscious intention, appears to be a far more automated process. Whilst there has been an emerging body of research exploring the role of thought suppression in addictive behaviour, there remains a dearth of research which has considered the role of repressive coping in the development of, and recovery from, addiction. Based on a review of the literature, and a discussion of the supposed mechanisms which underpin these strategies for exercising mental control, a conceptual model is proposed which posits a potential common mechanism. This model makes a number of predictions which require exploration in future research to fully understand the cognitive strategies utilised by individuals to control intrusive thoughts related to their addictive behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determinants of RNA binding and translational repression by the Bicaudal-C regulatory protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Park, Sookhee; Blaser, Susanne; Sheets, Michael D

    2014-03-14

    Bicaudal-C (Bic-C) RNA binding proteins function as important translational repressors in multiple biological contexts within metazoans. However, their RNA binding sites are unknown. We recently demonstrated that Bic-C functions in spatially regulated translational repression of the xCR1 mRNA during Xenopus development. This repression contributes to normal development by confining the xCR1 protein, a regulator of key signaling pathways, to specific cells of the embryo. In this report, we combined biochemical approaches with in vivo mRNA reporter assays to define the minimal Bic-C target site within the xCR1 mRNA. This 32-nucleotide Bic-C target site is predicted to fold into a stem-loop secondary structure. Mutational analyses provided evidence that this stem-loop structure is important for Bic-C binding. The Bic-C target site was sufficient for Bic-C mediated repression in vivo. Thus, we describe the first RNA binding site for a Bic-C protein. This identification provides an important step toward understanding the mechanisms by which evolutionarily conserved Bic-C proteins control cellular function in metazoans.

  16. A BEN-domain-containing protein associates with heterochromatin and represses transcription.

    PubMed

    Sathyan, Kizhakke M; Shen, Zhen; Tripathi, Vidisha; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2011-09-15

    In eukaryotes, higher order chromatin structure governs crucial cellular processes including DNA replication, transcription and post-transcriptional gene regulation. Specific chromatin-interacting proteins play vital roles in the maintenance of chromatin structure. We have identified BEND3, a quadruple BEN domain-containing protein that is highly conserved amongst vertebrates. BEND3 colocalizes with HP1 and H3 trimethylated at K9 at heterochromatic regions in mammalian cells. Using an in vivo gene locus, we have been able to demonstrate that BEND3 associates with the locus only when it is heterochromatic and dissociates upon activation of transcription. Furthermore, tethering BEND3 inhibits transcription from the locus, indicating that BEND3 is involved in transcriptional repression through its interaction with histone deacetylases and Sall4, a transcription repressor. We further demonstrate that BEND3 is SUMOylated and that such modifications are essential for its role in transcriptional repression. Finally, overexpression of BEND3 causes premature chromatin condensation and extensive heterochromatinization, resulting in cell cycle arrest. Taken together, our data demonstrate the role of a novel heterochromatin-associated protein in transcriptional repression.

  17. A BEN-domain-containing protein associates with heterochromatin and represses transcription

    PubMed Central

    Sathyan, Kizhakke M.; Shen, Zhen; Tripathi, Vidisha; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V.; Prasanth, Supriya G.

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes, higher order chromatin structure governs crucial cellular processes including DNA replication, transcription and post-transcriptional gene regulation. Specific chromatin-interacting proteins play vital roles in the maintenance of chromatin structure. We have identified BEND3, a quadruple BEN domain-containing protein that is highly conserved amongst vertebrates. BEND3 colocalizes with HP1 and H3 trimethylated at K9 at heterochromatic regions in mammalian cells. Using an in vivo gene locus, we have been able to demonstrate that BEND3 associates with the locus only when it is heterochromatic and dissociates upon activation of transcription. Furthermore, tethering BEND3 inhibits transcription from the locus, indicating that BEND3 is involved in transcriptional repression through its interaction with histone deacetylases and Sall4, a transcription repressor. We further demonstrate that BEND3 is SUMOylated and that such modifications are essential for its role in transcriptional repression. Finally, overexpression of BEND3 causes premature chromatin condensation and extensive heterochromatinization, resulting in cell cycle arrest. Taken together, our data demonstrate the role of a novel heterochromatin-associated protein in transcriptional repression. PMID:21914818

  18. Repression of calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in trigeminal neurons by a Theobroma cacao extract☆

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Marcie J.; Patil, Vinit V.; Vause, Carrie V.; Durham, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Cocoa bean preparations were first used by the ancient Maya and Aztec civilizations of South America to treat a variety of medical ailments involving the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and nervous systems. Diets rich in foods containing abundant polyphenols, as found in cocoa, underlie the protective effects reported in chronic inflammatory diseases. Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from trigeminal nerves promotes inflammation in peripheral tissues and nociception. Aim of the study To determine whether a methanol extract of Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae) beans enriched for polyphenols could inhibit CGRP expression, both an in vitro and an in vivo approach was taken. Results Treatment of rat trigeminal ganglia cultures with depolarizing stimuli caused a significant increase in CGRP release that was repressed by pretreatment with Theobroma cacao extract. Pretreatment with Theobroma cacao was also shown to block the KCl- and capsaicin-stimulated increases in intracellular calcium. Next, the effects of Theobroma cacao on CGRP levels were determined using an in vivo model of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation. Capsaicin injection into the TMJ capsule caused an ipsilateral decrease in CGRP levels. Theobroma cacao extract injected into the TMJ capsule 24 h prior to capsaicin treatment repressed the stimulatory effects of capsaicin. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that Theobroma cacao extract can repress stimulated CGRP release by a mechanism that likely involves blockage of calcium channel activity. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of diets rich in cocoa may include suppression of sensory trigeminal nerve activation. PMID:17997062

  19. Smad4 suppresses the tumorigenesis and aggressiveness of neuroblastoma through repressing the expression of heparanase

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hongxia; Zheng, Liduan; Jiao, Wanju; Mei, Hong; Li, Dan; Song, Huajie; Fang, Erhu; Wang, Xiaojing; Li, Shiwang; Huang, Kai; Tong, Qiangsong

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase (HPSE) is the only endo-β-D-glucuronidase that is correlated with the progression of neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extracranial malignancy in childhood. However, the mechanisms underlying HPSE expression in NB still remain largely unknown. Herein, through analyzing cis-regulatory elements and mining public microarray datasets, we identified SMAD family member 4 (Smad4) as a crucial transcription regulator of HPSE in NB. We demonstrated that Smad4 repressed the HPSE expression at the transcriptional levels in NB cells. Mechanistically, Smad4 suppressed the HPSE expression through directly binding to its promoter and repressing the lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF1)-facilitated transcription of HPSE via physical interaction. Gain- and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that Smad4 inhibited the growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis of NB cells in vitro and in vivo. Restoration of HPSE expression prevented the NB cells from changes in these biological features induced by Smad4. In clinical NB specimens, Smad4 was under-expressed and inversely correlated with HPSE levels, while LEF1 was highly expressed and positively correlated with HPSE expression. Patients with high Smad4 expression, low LEF1 or HPSE levels had greater survival probability. These results demonstrate that Smad4 suppresses the tumorigenesis and aggressiveness of NB through repressing the HPSE expression. PMID:27595937

  20. Smad4 suppresses the tumorigenesis and aggressiveness of neuroblastoma through repressing the expression of heparanase.

    PubMed

    Qu, Hongxia; Zheng, Liduan; Jiao, Wanju; Mei, Hong; Li, Dan; Song, Huajie; Fang, Erhu; Wang, Xiaojing; Li, Shiwang; Huang, Kai; Tong, Qiangsong

    2016-09-06

    Heparanase (HPSE) is the only endo-β-D-glucuronidase that is correlated with the progression of neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extracranial malignancy in childhood. However, the mechanisms underlying HPSE expression in NB still remain largely unknown. Herein, through analyzing cis-regulatory elements and mining public microarray datasets, we identified SMAD family member 4 (Smad4) as a crucial transcription regulator of HPSE in NB. We demonstrated that Smad4 repressed the HPSE expression at the transcriptional levels in NB cells. Mechanistically, Smad4 suppressed the HPSE expression through directly binding to its promoter and repressing the lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF1)-facilitated transcription of HPSE via physical interaction. Gain- and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that Smad4 inhibited the growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis of NB cells in vitro and in vivo. Restoration of HPSE expression prevented the NB cells from changes in these biological features induced by Smad4. In clinical NB specimens, Smad4 was under-expressed and inversely correlated with HPSE levels, while LEF1 was highly expressed and positively correlated with HPSE expression. Patients with high Smad4 expression, low LEF1 or HPSE levels had greater survival probability. These results demonstrate that Smad4 suppresses the tumorigenesis and aggressiveness of NB through repressing the HPSE expression.

  1. Loop nucleotides control primary and mature miRNA function in target recognition and repression

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Si-Biao; Deis Trujillo, Robin; Tang, Yujie; O'Gorman, William E

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) genes produce three major RNA products; primary (pri-), precursor (pre-), and mature miRNAs. Each product includes sequences complementary to cognate targets, thus they all can in principle interact with the targets. In a recent study we showed that pri-miRNAs play a direct role in target recognition and repression in the absence of functional mature miRNAs. Here we examined the functional contribution of pri-miRNAs in target regulation when full-length functional miRNAs are present. We found that pri-let-7 loop nucleotides control the production of the 5′ end of mature miRNAs and modulate the activity of the miRNA gene. This insight enabled us to modulate biogenesis of functional mature miRNAs and dissect the causal relationships between mature miRNA biogenesis and target repression. We demonstrate that both pri- and mature miRNAs can contribute to target repression and that their contributions can be distinguished by the differences between the pri- and mature miRNAs' sensitivity to bind to the first seed nucleotide. Our results demonstrate that the regulatory information encoded in the pri-/pre-miRNA loop nucleotides controls the activities of pri-miRNAs and mature let-7 by influencing pri-miRNA and target complex formation and the fidelity of mature miRNA seed generation. PMID:22142974

  2. Blue light-mediated transcriptional activation and repression of gene expression in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Premkumar; Devarajan, Kavya; Chua, Tze Kwang; Zhang, Hanzhong; Gunawan, Erry; Poh, Chueh Loo

    2016-01-01

    Light-regulated modules offer unprecedented new ways to control cellular behavior in precise spatial and temporal resolution. The availability of such tools may dramatically accelerate the progression of synthetic biology applications. Nonetheless, current optogenetic toolbox of prokaryotes has potential issues such as lack of rapid and switchable control, less portable, low dynamic expression and limited parts. To address these shortcomings, we have engineered a novel bidirectional promoter system for Escherichia coli that can be induced or repressed rapidly and reversibly using the blue light dependent DNA-binding protein EL222. We demonstrated that by modulating the dosage of light pulses or intensity we could control the level of gene expression precisely. We show that both light-inducible and repressible system can function in parallel with high spatial precision in a single cell and can be switched stably between ON- and OFF-states by repetitive pulses of blue light. In addition, the light-inducible and repressible expression kinetics were quantitatively analysed using a mathematical model. We further apply the system, for the first time, to optogenetically synchronize two receiver cells performing different logic behaviors over time using blue light as a molecular clock signal. Overall, our modular approach layers a transformative platform for next-generation light-controllable synthetic biology systems in prokaryotes. PMID:27353329

  3. Gene-specific mechanisms direct glucocorticoid-receptor-driven repression of inflammatory response genes in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sacta, Maria A; Tharmalingam, Bowranigan; Coppo, Maddalena; Rollins, David A; Deochand, Dinesh K; Benjamin, Bradley; Yu, Li; Zhang, Bin; Hu, Xiaoyu; Li, Rong; Chinenov, Yurii

    2018-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) potently represses macrophage-elicited inflammation, however, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Our genome-wide analysis in mouse macrophages reveals that pro-inflammatory paused genes, activated via global negative elongation factor (NELF) dissociation and RNA Polymerase (Pol)2 release from early elongation arrest, and non-paused genes, induced by de novo Pol2 recruitment, are equally susceptible to acute glucocorticoid repression. Moreover, in both cases the dominant mechanism involves rapid GR tethering to p65 at NF-kB-binding sites. Yet, specifically at paused genes, GR activation triggers widespread promoter accumulation of NELF, with myeloid cell-specific NELF deletion conferring glucocorticoid resistance. Conversely, at non-paused genes, GR attenuates the recruitment of p300 and histone acetylation, leading to a failure to assemble BRD4 and Mediator at promoters and enhancers, ultimately blocking Pol2 initiation. Thus, GR displays no preference for a specific pro-inflammatory gene class; however, it effects repression by targeting distinct temporal events and components of transcriptional machinery. PMID:29424686

  4. Epigenetic regulation of puberty via Zinc finger protein-mediated transcriptional repression

    PubMed Central

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Wright, Hollis; Castellano, Juan Manuel; Matagne, Valerie; Toro, Carlos A.; Ramaswamy, Suresh; Plant, Tony M.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

    2015-01-01

    In primates, puberty is unleashed by increased GnRH release from the hypothalamus following an interval of juvenile quiescence. GWAS implicates Zinc finger (ZNF) genes in timing human puberty. Here we show that hypothalamic expression of several ZNFs decreased in agonadal male monkeys in association with the pubertal reactivation of gonadotropin secretion. Expression of two of these ZNFs, GATAD1 and ZNF573, also decreases in peripubertal female monkeys. However, only GATAD1 abundance increases when gonadotropin secretion is suppressed during late infancy. Targeted delivery of GATAD1 or ZNF573 to the rat hypothalamus delays puberty by impairing the transition of a transcriptional network from an immature repressive epigenetic configuration to one of activation. GATAD1 represses transcription of two key puberty-related genes, KISS1 and TAC3, directly, and reduces the activating histone mark H3K4me2 at each promoter via recruitment of histone demethylase KDM1A. We conclude that GATAD1 epitomizes a subset of ZNFs involved in epigenetic repression of primate puberty. PMID:26671628

  5. Epigenetic regulation of puberty via Zinc finger protein-mediated transcriptional repression.

    PubMed

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Wright, Hollis; Castellano, Juan Manuel; Matagne, Valerie; Toro, Carlos A; Ramaswamy, Suresh; Plant, Tony M; Ojeda, Sergio R

    2015-12-16

    In primates, puberty is unleashed by increased GnRH release from the hypothalamus following an interval of juvenile quiescence. GWAS implicates Zinc finger (ZNF) genes in timing human puberty. Here we show that hypothalamic expression of several ZNFs decreased in agonadal male monkeys in association with the pubertal reactivation of gonadotropin secretion. Expression of two of these ZNFs, GATAD1 and ZNF573, also decreases in peripubertal female monkeys. However, only GATAD1 abundance increases when gonadotropin secretion is suppressed during late infancy. Targeted delivery of GATAD1 or ZNF573 to the rat hypothalamus delays puberty by impairing the transition of a transcriptional network from an immature repressive epigenetic configuration to one of activation. GATAD1 represses transcription of two key puberty-related genes, KISS1 and TAC3, directly, and reduces the activating histone mark H3K4me2 at each promoter via recruitment of histone demethylase KDM1A. We conclude that GATAD1 epitomizes a subset of ZNFs involved in epigenetic repression of primate puberty.

  6. Light represses transcription of asparagine synthetase genes in photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic organs of plants.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, F Y; Coruzzi, G

    1991-01-01

    Asparagine synthetase (AS) mRNA in Pisum sativum accumulates preferentially in plants grown in the dark. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrate that expression of both the AS1 and AS2 genes is negatively regulated by light at the level of transcription. A decrease in the transcriptional rate of the AS1 gene can be detected as early as 20 min after exposure to light. Time course experiments reveal that the levels of AS mRNA fluctuate dramatically during a "normal" light/dark cycle. This is due to a direct effect of light and not to changes associated with circadian rhythm. A novel finding is that the light-repressed expression of the AS1 gene is as dramatic in nonphotosynthetic organs such as roots as it is in leaves. Experiments demonstrate that the small amount of light which passes through the soil is sufficient to repress AS1 expression in roots, indicating that light has a direct effect on AS1 gene expression in roots. The negative regulation of AS gene expression by light was shown to be a general phenomenon in plants which also occurs in nonlegumes such as Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Nicotiana tabacum. Thus, the AS genes can serve as a model with which to dissect the molecular basis for light-regulated transcriptional repression in plants. Images PMID:1681424

  7. RNAi mediates post-transcriptional repression of gene expression in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Smialowska, Agata, E-mail: smialowskaa@gmail.com; School of Life Sciences, Södertörn Högskola, Huddinge 141-89; Djupedal, Ingela

    Highlights: • Protein coding genes accumulate anti-sense sRNAs in fission yeast S. pombe. • RNAi represses protein-coding genes in S. pombe. • RNAi-mediated gene repression is post-transcriptional. - Abstract: RNA interference (RNAi) is a gene silencing mechanism conserved from fungi to mammals. Small interfering RNAs are products and mediators of the RNAi pathway and act as specificity factors in recruiting effector complexes. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome encodes one of each of the core RNAi proteins, Dicer, Argonaute and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (dcr1, ago1, rdp1). Even though the function of RNAi in heterochromatin assembly in S. pombe is established, its rolemore » in controlling gene expression is elusive. Here, we report the identification of small RNAs mapped anti-sense to protein coding genes in fission yeast. We demonstrate that these genes are up-regulated at the protein level in RNAi mutants, while their mRNA levels are not significantly changed. We show that the repression by RNAi is not a result of heterochromatin formation. Thus, we conclude that RNAi is involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing in S. pombe.« less

  8. RYBP stimulates PRC1 to shape chromatin-based communication between Polycomb repressive complexes

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Nathan R; King, Hamish W; Blackledge, Neil P; Fursova, Nadezda A; Ember, Katherine JI; Fischer, Roman; Kessler, Benedikt M; Klose, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins function as chromatin-based transcriptional repressors that are essential for normal gene regulation during development. However, how these systems function to achieve transcriptional regulation remains very poorly understood. Here, we discover that the histone H2AK119 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) is defined by the composition of its catalytic subunits and is highly regulated by RYBP/YAF2-dependent stimulation. In mouse embryonic stem cells, RYBP plays a central role in shaping H2AK119 mono-ubiquitylation at PcG targets and underpins an activity-based communication between PRC1 and Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) which is required for normal histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). Without normal histone modification-dependent communication between PRC1 and PRC2, repressive Polycomb chromatin domains can erode, rendering target genes susceptible to inappropriate gene expression signals. This suggests that activity-based communication and histone modification-dependent thresholds create a localized form of epigenetic memory required for normal PcG chromatin domain function in gene regulation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18591.001 PMID:27705745

  9. Repression of calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in trigeminal neurons by a Theobroma cacao extract.

    PubMed

    Abbey, Marcie J; Patil, Vinit V; Vause, Carrie V; Durham, Paul L

    2008-01-17

    Cocoa bean preparations were first used by the ancient Maya and Aztec civilizations of South America to treat a variety of medical ailments involving the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and nervous systems. Diets rich in foods containing abundant polyphenols, as found in cocoa, underlie the protective effects reported in chronic inflammatory diseases. Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from trigeminal nerves promotes inflammation in peripheral tissues and nociception. To determine whether a methanol extract of Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae) beans enriched for polyphenols could inhibit CGRP expression, both an in vitro and an in vivo approach was taken. Treatment of rat trigeminal ganglia cultures with depolarizing stimuli caused a significant increase in CGRP release that was repressed by pretreatment with Theobroma cacao extract. Pretreatment with Theobroma cacao was also shown to block the KCl- and capsaicin-stimulated increases in intracellular calcium. Next, the effects of Theobroma cacao on CGRP levels were determined using an in vivo model of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation. Capsaicin injection into the TMJ capsule caused an ipsilateral decrease in CGRP levels. Theobroma cacao extract injected into the TMJ capsule 24h prior to capsaicin treatment repressed the stimulatory effects of capsaicin. Our results demonstrate that Theobroma cacao extract can repress stimulated CGRP release by a mechanism that likely involves blockage of calcium channel activity. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of diets rich in cocoa may include suppression of sensory trigeminal nerve activation.

  10. Epigenetic Repression of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Myofibroblastic Hepatic Stellate Cells through Histone Deacetylases 4

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Lan; Han, Yuan-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are highly expressed in acute injury, are progressively repressed or silenced in fibrotic liver, favoring extracellular matrix accumulation, while the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Similarly, normal/quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) express high levels of MMPs in response to injury signals, such as interleukin-1. After transdifferentiation, the myofibroblastic HSCs are incapable of expressing many MMPs; however, the major signaling pathways required for MMP expression are intact, indicating that repression is at the level of the chromatin. Indeed, both the MMP9 and MMP13 genes are inaccessible to transcription factors and RNA polymerase II, in association with impaired histone acetylation in their promoters. In accordance with impaired histone acetylation at the cellular level, histone deacetylase-4 is accumulated during HSC transdifferentiation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of histone deacetylase-4 in quiescent HSCs results in repression of MMP promoter activities as well as endogenous MMP9 protein expression. Thus, our findings suggest that a histone deacetylase-4-dependent mechanism underlies the epigenetic silencing of MMP genes during tissue fibrogenesis. PMID:20847282

  11. sRNA antitoxins: more than one way to repress a toxin.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jia; Fozo, Elizabeth M

    2014-08-04

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin loci consist of two genes: one encodes a potentially toxic protein, and the second, an antitoxin to repress its function or expression. The antitoxin can either be an RNA or a protein. For type I and type III loci, the antitoxins are RNAs; however, they have very different modes of action. Type I antitoxins repress toxin protein expression through interacting with the toxin mRNA, thereby targeting the mRNA for degradation or preventing its translation or both; type III antitoxins directly bind to the toxin protein, sequestering it. Along with these two very different modes of action for the antitoxin, there are differences in the functions of the toxin proteins and the mobility of these loci between species. Within this review, we discuss the major differences as to how the RNAs repress toxin activity, the potential consequences for utilizing different regulatory strategies, as well as the confirmed and potential biological roles for these loci across bacterial species.

  12. Highly repressible expression system for cloning genes that specify potentially toxic proteins.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, C D; Timmis, K N

    1987-01-01

    A highly repressible expression vector system that allows the cloning of potentially deleterious genes has been constructed. Undesired expression of a cloned gene was prevented (i) at the level of initiation of transcription, by the presence of the strong but highly repressible leftward promoter of bacteriophage lambda, lambda pL, and (ii) at the level of transcript elongation or translation, through synthesis of antisense RNA complementary to the mRNA of the cloned gene. The system was tested by measuring the inhibition of expression of traT, the gene for the TraT major outer membrane lipoprotein. Direct detection and functional assays indicated that an essentially complete inhibition of traT expression was obtained. As a further test of the system, the gene encoding the EcoRI restriction endonuclease was cloned in the absence of the gene of the corresponding protective EcoRI modification methylase. Transformants harboring this construct were only viable when both repression controls were operational. Images PMID:2443481

  13. Repression of myoblast proliferation and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 promoter activity by KLF10 protein.

    PubMed

    Parakati, Rajini; DiMario, Joseph X

    2013-05-10

    FGFR1 gene expression regulates myoblast proliferation and differentiation, and its expression is controlled by Krüppel-like transcription factors. KLF10 interacts with the FGFR1 promoter, repressing its activity and cell proliferation. KLF10 represses FGFR1 promoter activity and thereby myoblast proliferation. A model of transcriptional control of chicken FGFR1 gene regulation during myogenesis is presented. Skeletal muscle development is controlled by regulation of myoblast proliferation and differentiation into muscle fibers. Growth factors such as fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) regulate cell proliferation and differentiation in numerous tissues, including skeletal muscle. Transcriptional regulation of FGFR1 gene expression is developmentally regulated by the Sp1 transcription factor, a member of the Krüppel-like factor (KLF) family of transcriptional regulators. Here, we show that another KLF transcription factor, KLF10, also regulates myoblast proliferation and FGFR1 promoter activity. Expression of KLF10 reduced myoblast proliferation by 86%. KLF10 expression also significantly reduced FGFR1 promoter activity in myoblasts and Sp1-mediated FGFR1 promoter activity in Drosophila SL2 cells. Southwestern blot, electromobility shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that KLF10 bound to the proximal Sp factor binding site of the FGFR1 promoter and reduced Sp1 complex formation with the FGFR1 promoter at that site. These results indicate that KLF10 is an effective repressor of myoblast proliferation and represses FGFR1 promoter activity in these cells via an Sp1 binding site.

  14. TBR2 antagonizes retinoic acid dependent neuronal differentiation by repressing Zfp423 during corticogenesis.

    PubMed

    Massimino, Luca; Flores-Garcia, Lisbeth; Di Stefano, Bruno; Colasante, Gaia; Icoresi-Mazzeo, Cecilia; Zaghi, Mattia; Hamilton, Bruce A; Sessa, Alessandro

    2018-02-15

    During cerebral cortex development, neural progenitors are required to elaborate a variety of cell differentiation signals to which they are continuously exposed. RA acid is a potent inducer of neuronal differentiation as it was found to influence cortical development. We report herein that TBR2, a transcription factor specific to Intermediate (Basal) Neural Progenitors (INPs), represses activation of the RA responsive element and expression of RA target genes in cell lines. This repressive action on RA signaling was functionally confirmed by the decrease of RA-mediated neuronal differentiation in neural stem cells stably overexpressing TBR2. In vivo mapping of RA activity in the developing cortex indicated that RA activity is detected in radial glial cells and subsequently downregulated in INPs, revealing a fine cell-type specific regulation of its signaling. Thus, TBR2 might be a molecular player in opposing RA signaling in INPs. Interestingly, this negative regulation is achieved at least in part by directly repressing the critical nuclear RA co-factor ZFP423. Indeed, we found ZFP423 to be expressed in the developing cortex and promote RA-dependent neuronal differentiation. These data indicate that TBR2 contributes to suppressing RA signaling in INPs, thereby enabling them to re-enter the cell cycle and delay neuronal differentiation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. TIP60 represses telomerase expression by inhibiting Sp1 binding to the TERT promoter

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Amit Kumar; Xiuzhen, Magdalene Claire; Lee, Kwok Kin; Hora, Shainan; Zhang, Yanzhou; Kwok, Hui Si; Deng, Lih Wen; Tenen, Daniel G.; Kappei, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    HIV1-TAT interactive protein (TIP60) is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. However, the potential mechanisms endowing its tumor suppressor ability remain incompletely understood. It plays a vital role in virus-induced cancers where TIP60 down-regulates the expression of human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoprotein E6 which in turn destabilizes TIP60. This intrigued us to identify the role of TIP60, in the context of a viral infection, where it is targeted by oncoproteins. Through an array of molecular biology techniques such as Chromatin immunoprecipitation, expression analysis and mass spectrometry, we establish the hitherto unknown role of TIP60 in repressing the expression of the catalytic subunit of the human telomerase complex, TERT, a key driver for immortalization. TIP60 acetylates Sp1 at K639, thus inhibiting Sp1 binding to the TERT promoter. We identified that TIP60-mediated growth suppression of HPV-induced cervical cancer is mediated in part due to TERT repression through Sp1 acetylation. In summary, our study has identified a novel substrate for TIP60 catalytic activity and a unique repressive mechanism acting at the TERT promoter in virus-induced malignancies. PMID:29045464

  16. Generation of a glucose de-repressed mutant of Trichoderma reesei using disparity mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Iwakuma, Hidekazu; Koyama, Yoshiyuki; Miyachi, Ayako; Nasukawa, Masashi; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Yano, Shuntaro; Ogihara, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    We obtained a novel glucose de-repressed mutant of Trichoderma reesei using disparity mutagenesis. A plasmid containing DNA polymerase δ lacking proofreading activity, and AMAI, an autonomously replicating sequence was introduced into T. reesei ATCC66589. The rate of mutation evaluated with 5-fluoroorotic acid resistance was approximately 30-fold higher than that obtained by UV irradiation. The transformants harboring incompetent DNA polymerase δ were then selected on 2-deoxyglucose agar plates with hygromycin B. The pNP-lactoside hydrolyzing activities of mutants were 2 to 5-fold higher than the parent in liquid medium containing glucose. Notably, the amino acid sequence of cre1, a key gene involved in glucose repression, was identical in the mutant and parent strains, and further, the cre1 expression levels was not abolished in the mutant. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the strains of T. reesei generated by disparity mutagenesis are glucose de-repressed variants that contain mutations in yet-unidentified factors other than cre1.

  17. Repressive coping among British college women: A potential protective factor against body image concerns, drive for thinness, and bulimia symptoms.

    PubMed

    Mohiyeddini, Changiz

    2017-09-01

    Repressive coping, as a means of preserving a positive self-image, has been widely explored in the context of dealing with self-evaluative cues. The current study extends this research by exploring whether repressive coping is associated with lower levels of body image concerns, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms, and higher positive rational acceptance. A sample of 229 female college students was recruited in South London. Repressive coping was measured via the interaction between trait anxiety and defensiveness. The results of moderated regression analysis with simple slope analysis show that compared to non-repressors, repressors reported lower levels of body image concerns, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms while exhibiting a higher use of positive rational acceptance. These findings, in line with previous evidence, suggest that repressive coping may be adaptive particularly in the context of body image. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dampening DNA binding: a common mechanism of transcriptional repression for both ncRNAs and protein domains.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, James A; Kugel, Jennifer F

    2010-01-01

    With eukaryotic non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) now established as critical regulators of cellular transcription, the true diversity with which they can elicit biological effects is beginning to be appreciated. Two ncRNAs, mouse B2 RNA and human Alu RNA, have been found to repress mRNA transcription in response to heat shock. They do so by binding directly to RNA polymerase II, assembling into complexes on promoter DNA, and disrupting contacts between the polymerase and the DNA. Such a mechanism of repression had not previously been observed for a eukaryotic ncRNA; however, there are examples of eukaryotic protein domains that repress transcription by blocking essential protein-DNA interactions. Comparing the mechanism of transcriptional repression utilized by these protein domains to that used by B2 and Alu RNAs raises intriguing questions regarding transcriptional control, and how B2 and Alu RNAs might themselves be regulated.

  19. Trocar anterior chamber maintainer: Improvised infusion technique.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Amar; Narang, Priya; Kumar, Dhivya A; Agarwal, Ashvin

    2016-02-01

    We present an improvised technique of infusion that uses a trocar cannula as an anterior chamber maintainer (ACM). Although routinely used in posterior segment surgery, the trocar cannula has been infrequently used in complex anterior segment procedures. The trocar ACM creates a transconjunctival biplanar wound of appropriate size that is self-sealing and overcomes the shortcomings of an ACM, such as spontaneous extrusion and forced introduction into the eye from variability in the size of the corneal paracentesis incision. Constant infusion inflow through the trocar ACM is used to maintain positive intraocular pressure through a self-sealing sclerotomy incision at the limbus. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maintaining professional resilience through group restorative supervision.

    PubMed

    Wallbank, Sonya

    2013-08-01

    Restorative clinical supervision has been delivered to over 2,500 professionals and has shown to be highly effective in reducing burnout, stress and increasing compassion satisfaction. Demand for the programme has shown that a sustainable model of implementation is needed for organisations who may not be able to invest in continued individual sessions. Following the initial six sessions, group restorative supervision has been developed and this paper reports on the programme's success in maintaining and continuing to improve compassion satisfaction, stress and burnout through the process of restorative group supervision. This means that organisations can continue to maintain the programme once the initial training has been completed and have confidence within the restorative group supervision to support professionals in managing the emotional demands of their role. The restorative groups have also had inadvertent positive benefits in workplace functioning. The paper outlines how professionals have been able to use this learning to support them in being more effective.

  1. Cas9 Nickase-Assisted RNA Repression Enables Stable and Efficient Manipulation of Essential Metabolic Genes in Clostridium cellulolyticum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Li, Yongchao; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong

    2017-01-01

    Essential gene functions remain largely underexplored in bacteria. Clostridium cellulolyticum is a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing; however, its genetic manipulation to reduce the formation of less-valuable acetate is technically challenging due to the essentiality of acetate-producing genes. Here we developed a Cas9 nickase-assisted chromosome-based RNA repression to stably manipulate essential genes in C. cellulolyticum . Our plasmid-based expression of antisense RNA (asRNA) molecules targeting the phosphotransacetylase ( pta ) gene successfully reduced the enzymatic activity by 35% in cellobiose-grown cells, metabolically decreased the acetate titer by 15 and 52% in wildtype transformants on cellulose and xylan, respectively. To control both acetate and lactate simultaneously, we transformed the repression plasmid into lactate production-deficient mutant and found the plasmid delivery reduced acetate titer by more than 33%, concomitant with negligible lactate formation. The strains with pta gene repression generally diverted more carbon into ethanol. However, further testing on chromosomal integrants that were created by double-crossover recombination exhibited only very weak repression because DNA integration dramatically lessened gene dosage. With the design of a tandem repetitive promoter-driven asRNA module and the use of a new Cas9 nickase genome editing tool, a chromosomal integrant (LM3P) was generated in a single step and successfully enhanced RNA repression, with a 27% decrease in acetate titer on cellulose in antibiotic-free medium. These results indicate the effectiveness of tandem promoter-driven RNA repression modules in promoting gene repression in chromosomal integrants. Our combinatorial method using a Cas9 nickase genome editing tool to integrate the gene repression module demonstrates easy-to-use and high-efficiency advantages, paving the way for stably manipulating genes, even essential ones, for functional characterization

  2. Cas9 Nickase-Assisted RNA Repression Enables Stable and Efficient Manipulation of Essential Metabolic Genes in Clostridium cellulolyticum

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tao; Li, Yongchao; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2017-01-01

    Essential gene functions remain largely underexplored in bacteria. Clostridium cellulolyticum is a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing; however, its genetic manipulation to reduce the formation of less-valuable acetate is technically challenging due to the essentiality of acetate-producing genes. Here we developed a Cas9 nickase-assisted chromosome-based RNA repression to stably manipulate essential genes in C. cellulolyticum. Our plasmid-based expression of antisense RNA (asRNA) molecules targeting the phosphotransacetylase (pta) gene successfully reduced the enzymatic activity by 35% in cellobiose-grown cells, metabolically decreased the acetate titer by 15 and 52% in wildtype transformants on cellulose and xylan, respectively. To control both acetate and lactate simultaneously, we transformed the repression plasmid into lactate production-deficient mutant and found the plasmid delivery reduced acetate titer by more than 33%, concomitant with negligible lactate formation. The strains with pta gene repression generally diverted more carbon into ethanol. However, further testing on chromosomal integrants that were created by double-crossover recombination exhibited only very weak repression because DNA integration dramatically lessened gene dosage. With the design of a tandem repetitive promoter-driven asRNA module and the use of a new Cas9 nickase genome editing tool, a chromosomal integrant (LM3P) was generated in a single step and successfully enhanced RNA repression, with a 27% decrease in acetate titer on cellulose in antibiotic-free medium. These results indicate the effectiveness of tandem promoter-driven RNA repression modules in promoting gene repression in chromosomal integrants. Our combinatorial method using a Cas9 nickase genome editing tool to integrate the gene repression module demonstrates easy-to-use and high-efficiency advantages, paving the way for stably manipulating genes, even essential ones, for functional characterization and

  3. Methods for Maintaining Insect Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Dwight E.

    2002-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are now commonly used in insect physiology, developmental biology, pathology, and molecular biology. As the field has advanced from methods development to a standard procedure, so has the diversity of scientists using the technique. This paper describes methods that are effective for maintaining various insect cell lines. The procedures are differentiated between loosely or non-attached cell strains, attached cell strains, and strongly adherent cell strains. PMID:15455043

  4. Interventions to Maintain Mobility: What Works?

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lesley A.; Schmidt, Erica L.; Ball, Karlene

    2012-01-01

    Mobility, in broad terms, includes everything from the ability to move within your immediate environment (e.g., get out of bed) to the ability to drive across the country. Mobility is essential to maintaining independence and wellbeing, particularly for older adults. This is highlighted by the large number of interventions developed for older adults with the goal of maintaining such mobility. The current paper reviews the state of the science with respect to mobility interventions. Inclusion criteria for the review were: (1) articles must have been peer-reviewed; (2) interventions were evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); (3) studies included a mobility outcome such as lifespace, driving, or walking ability, (4) studies included a sample of healthy community-dwelling older adults (e.g., not investigations of disease conditions); and (5) studies reported enough empirical data and detail such that results could potentially be replicated. Three main types of interventions were identified: cognitive training, educational interventions, and exercise interventions. A detailed summary and evaluation of each type of intervention, and the current evidence regarding its effectiveness in maintaining mobility, are discussed. Several interventions show clear evidence of effectiveness, and thus are prime areas for translation of results to the older population. Needs and issues for future intervention research are also detailed. PMID:23083492

  5. Mir-29 repression in bladder outlet obstruction contributes to matrix remodeling and altered stiffness.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Mari; Bhattachariya, Anirban; Dahan, Diana; Uvelius, Bengt; Albinsson, Sebastian; Swärd, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has uncovered a role of the microRNA (miRNA) miR-29 in remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Partial bladder outlet obstruction is a prevalent condition in older men with prostate enlargement that leads to matrix synthesis in the lower urinary tract and increases bladder stiffness. Here we tested the hypothesis that miR-29 is repressed in the bladder in outlet obstruction and that this has an impact on protein synthesis and matrix remodeling leading to increased bladder stiffness. c-Myc, NF-κB and SMAD3, all of which repress miR-29, were activated in the rat detrusor following partial bladder outlet obstruction but at different times. c-Myc and NF-κB activation occurred early after obstruction, and SMAD3 phosphorylation increased later, with a significant elevation at 6 weeks. c-Myc, NF-κB and SMAD3 activation, respectively, correlated with repression of miR-29b and miR-29c at 10 days of obstruction and with repression of miR-29c at 6 weeks. An mRNA microarray analysis showed that the reduction of miR-29 following outlet obstruction was associated with increased levels of miR-29 target mRNAs, including mRNAs for tropoelastin, the matricellular protein Sparc and collagen IV. Outlet obstruction increased protein levels of eight out of eight examined miR-29 targets, including tropoelastin and Sparc. Transfection of human bladder smooth muscle cells with antimiR-29c and miR-29c mimic caused reciprocal changes in target protein levels in vitro. Tamoxifen inducible and smooth muscle-specific deletion of Dicer in mice reduced miR-29 expression and increased tropoelastin and the thickness of the basal lamina surrounding smooth muscle cells in the bladder. It also increased detrusor stiffness independent of outlet obstruction. Taken together, our study supports a model where the combined repressive influences of c-Myc, NF-κB and SMAD3 reduce miR-29 in bladder outlet obstruction, and where the resulting drop in miR-29 contributes to matrix remodeling and

  6. Selective targeting of the repressive transcription factors YY1 and cMyc to disrupt quiescent human immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed

    Barton, Kirston; Margolis, David

    2013-02-01

    Quiescent HIV-1 infection of resting CD4(+) T cells is an obstacle to eradication of HIV-1 infection. These reservoirs are maintained, in part, by repressive complexes that bind to the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) and recruit histone deacetylases (HDACs). cMyc and YY1 are two transcription factors that are recruited as part of well-described, distinct complexes to the HIV-1 LTR and in turn recruit HDACs. In prior studies, depletion of single factors that recruit HDAC1 in various cell lines was sufficient to upregulate LTR activity. We used short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to test the effect of targeted disruption of a single transcription factor on quiescent proviruses in T cell lines. In this study, we found that depletion of YY1 significantly increases mRNA and protein expression from the HIV-1 promoter in some contexts, but does not affect HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, or acetylated histone 3 occupancy of the HIV-1 LTR. Conversely, depletion of cMyc or cMyc and YY1 does not significantly alter the level of transcription from the LTR or affect recruitment of HDACs to the HIV-1 LTR. Furthermore, global inhibition of HDACs with the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) enhanced the increase in LTR transcription in cells that were depleted of YY1.These findings show that despite prior isolated findings, redundancy in repressors of HIV-1 LTR expression will require selective targeting of multiple restrictive mechanisms to comprehensively induce the escape of quiescent proviruses from latency.

  7. PKCθ promotes c-Rel–driven mammary tumorigenesis in mice and humans by repressing estrogen receptor α synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Belguise, Karine; Sonenshein, Gail E.

    2007-01-01

    The vast majority of primary human breast cancer tissues display aberrant nuclear NF-κB c-Rel expression. A causal role for c-Rel in mammary tumorigenesis has been demonstrated using a c-Rel transgenic mouse model; however, tumors developed with a long latency, suggesting a second event is needed to trigger tumorigenesis. Here we show that c-Rel activity in the mammary gland is repressed by estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling, and we identify an epigenetic mechanism in breast cancer mediated by activation of what we believe is a novel PKCθ-Akt pathway that leads to downregulation of ERα synthesis and derepression of c-Rel. ERα levels were lower in c-Rel–induced mammary tumors compared with normal mammary gland tissue. PKCθ induced c-Rel activity and target gene expression and promoted growth of c-Rel- and c-RelxCK2α–driven mouse mammary tumor–derived cell lines. RNA expression levels of PKCθ and c-Rel target genes were inversely correlated with ERα levels in human breast cancer specimens. PKCθ activated Akt, thereby inactivating forkhead box O protein 3a (FOXO3a) and leading to decreased synthesis of its target genes, ERα and p27Kip1. Thus we have shown that activation of PKCθ inhibits the FOXO3a/ERα/p27Kip1 axis that normally maintains an epithelial cell phenotype and induces c-Rel target genes, thereby promoting proliferation, survival, and more invasive breast cancer. PMID:18037997

  8. Sall4 is essential for stabilization, but not for pluripotency, of embryonic stem cells by repressing aberrant trophectoderm gene expression.

    PubMed

    Yuri, Shunsuke; Fujimura, Sayoko; Nimura, Keisuke; Takeda, Naoki; Toyooka, Yayoi; Fujimura, Yu-Ichi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Ura, Kiyoe; Koseki, Haruhiko; Niwa, Hitoshi; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi

    2009-04-01

    Sall4 is a mouse homolog of a causative gene of the autosomal dominant disorder Okihiro syndrome. We previously showed that the absence of Sall4 leads to lethality during peri-implantation and that Sall4-null embryonic stem (ES) cells proliferate poorly with intact pluripotency when cultured on feeder cells. Here, we report that, in the absence of feeder cells, Sall4-null ES cells express the trophectoderm marker Cdx2, but are maintained for a long period in an undifferentiated state with minimally affected Oct3/4 expression. Feeder-free Sall4-null ES cells contribute solely to the inner cell mass and epiblast in vivo, indicating that these cells still retain pluripotency and do not fully commit to the trophectoderm. These phenotypes could arise from derepression of the Cdx2 promoter, which is normally suppressed by Sall4 and the Mi2/NuRD HDAC complex. However, proliferation was impaired and G1 phase prolonged in the absence of Sall4, suggesting another role for Sall4 in cell cycle control. Although Sall1, also a Sall family gene, is known to genetically interact with Sall4 in vivo, Sall1-null ES cells have no apparent defects and no exacerbation is observed in ES cells lacking both Sall1 and Sall4, compared with Sall4-null cells. This suggests a unique role for Sall4 in ES cells. Thus, though Sall4 does not contribute to the central machinery of the pluripotency, it stabilizes ES cells by repressing aberrant trophectoderm gene expression.

  9. Gene Repression in Haloarchaea Using the CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)-Cas I-B System.

    PubMed

    Stachler, Aris-Edda; Marchfelder, Anita

    2016-07-15

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas system is used by bacteria and archaea to fend off foreign genetic elements. Since its discovery it has been developed into numerous applications like genome editing and regulation of transcription in eukaryotes and bacteria. For archaea currently no tools for transcriptional repression exist. Because molecular biology analyses in archaea become more and more widespread such a tool is vital for investigating the biological function of essential genes in archaea. Here we use the model archaeon Haloferax volcanii to demonstrate that its endogenous CRISPR-Cas system I-B can be harnessed to repress gene expression in archaea. Deletion of cas3 and cas6b genes results in efficient repression of transcription. crRNAs targeting the promoter region reduced transcript levels down to 8%. crRNAs targeting the reading frame have only slight impact on transcription. crRNAs that target the coding strand repress expression only down to 88%, whereas crRNAs targeting the template strand repress expression down to 8%. Repression of an essential gene results in reduction of transcription levels down to 22%. Targeting efficiencies can be enhanced by expressing a catalytically inactive Cas3 mutant. Genes can be targeted on plasmids or on the chromosome, they can be monocistronic or part of a polycistronic operon. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Gene Repression in Haloarchaea Using the CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)-Cas I-B System*

    PubMed Central

    Stachler, Aris-Edda; Marchfelder, Anita

    2016-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas system is used by bacteria and archaea to fend off foreign genetic elements. Since its discovery it has been developed into numerous applications like genome editing and regulation of transcription in eukaryotes and bacteria. For archaea currently no tools for transcriptional repression exist. Because molecular biology analyses in archaea become more and more widespread such a tool is vital for investigating the biological function of essential genes in archaea. Here we use the model archaeon Haloferax volcanii to demonstrate that its endogenous CRISPR-Cas system I-B can be harnessed to repress gene expression in archaea. Deletion of cas3 and cas6b genes results in efficient repression of transcription. crRNAs targeting the promoter region reduced transcript levels down to 8%. crRNAs targeting the reading frame have only slight impact on transcription. crRNAs that target the coding strand repress expression only down to 88%, whereas crRNAs targeting the template strand repress expression down to 8%. Repression of an essential gene results in reduction of transcription levels down to 22%. Targeting efficiencies can be enhanced by expressing a catalytically inactive Cas3 mutant. Genes can be targeted on plasmids or on the chromosome, they can be monocistronic or part of a polycistronic operon. PMID:27226589

  11. The N-CoR complex enables chromatin remodeler SNF2H to enhance repression by thyroid hormone receptor

    PubMed Central

    Alenghat, Theresa; Yu, Jiujiu; Lazar, Mitchell A

    2006-01-01

    Unliganded thyroid hormone receptor (TR) actively represses transcription via the nuclear receptor corepressor (N-CoR)/histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) complex. Although transcriptional activation by liganded receptors involves chromatin remodeling, the role of ATP-dependent remodeling in receptor-mediated repression is unknown. Here we report that SNF2H, the mammalian ISWI chromatin remodeling ATPase, is critical for repression of a genomically integrated, TR-regulated reporter gene. N-CoR and HDAC3 are both required for recruitment of SNF2H to the repressed gene. SNF2H does not interact directly with the N-CoR/HDAC3 complex, but binds to unacetylated histone H4 tails, suggesting that deacetylase activity of the corepressor complex is critical to SNF2H function. Indeed, HDAC3 as well as SNF2H are required for nucleosomal organization on the TR target gene. Consistent with these findings, reduction of SNF2H induces expression of an endogenous TR-regulated gene, dio1, in liver cells. Thus, although not apparent from studies of transiently transfected reporter genes, gene repression by TR involves the targeting of chromatin remodeling factors to repressed genes by the HDAC activity of nuclear receptor corepressors. PMID:16917504

  12. PRC2 is required to maintain expression of the maternal Gtl2-Rian-Mirg locus by preventing de novo DNA methylation in mouse embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Das, Partha Pratim; Hendrix, David A.; Apostolou, Effie; Buchner, Alice H.; Canver, Matthew C.; Beyaz, Semir; Ljuboja, Damir; Kuintzle, Rachael; Kim, Woojin; Karnik, Rahul; Shao, Zhen; Xie, Huafeng; Xu, Jian; De Los Angeles, Alejandro; Zhang, Yingying; Choe, Junho; Jun, Don Leong Jia; Shen, Xiaohua; Gregory, Richard I.; Daley, George Q.; Meissner, Alexander; Kellis, Manolis; Hochedlinger, Konrad; Kim, Jonghwan; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) function and DNA methylation (DNAme) are typically correlated with the gene repression. Here, we show that PRC2 is required to maintain expression of maternal microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) from the Gtl2-Rian-Mirg locus, which is essential for full pluripotency of iPSCs. In the absence of PRC2 the entire locus becomes transcriptionally repressed due to gain of DNA methylation at the intergenic differentially methylated regions (IG-DMR). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the IG-DMR serves as an enhancer of the maternal Gtl2-Rian-Mirg locus. Mechanistic study reveals that PRC2 interacts physically with Dnmt3 methyltransferases and prevents their recruitment and subsequent DNAme at the IG-DMR, thereby allowing for proper expression of the maternal Gtl2-Rian-Mirg locus. Our observations provide a novel mechanism by which PRC2 counteracts the action of Dnmt3 methyltransferases at an imprinted locus required for full pluripotency. PMID:26299972

  13. Loss of tumor suppressor KDM6A amplifies PRC2-regulated transcriptional repression in bladder cancer and can be targeted through inhibition of EZH2.

    PubMed

    Ler, Lian Dee; Ghosh, Sujoy; Chai, Xiaoran; Thike, Aye Aye; Heng, Hong Lee; Siew, Ee Yan; Dey, Sucharita; Koh, Liang Kai; Lim, Jing Quan; Lim, Weng Khong; Myint, Swe Swe; Loh, Jia Liang; Ong, Pauline; Sam, Xin Xiu; Huang, Dachuan; Lim, Tony; Tan, Puay Hoon; Nagarajan, Sanjanaa; Cheng, Christopher Wai Sam; Ho, Henry; Ng, Lay Guat; Yuen, John; Lin, Po-Hung; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Weng, Wen-Hui; Rozen, Steven G; Tan, Patrick; Creasy, Caretha L; Pang, See-Tong; McCabe, Michael T; Poon, Song Ling; Teh, Bin Tean

    2017-02-22

    Trithorax-like group complex containing KDM6A acts antagonistically to Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) containing EZH2 in maintaining the dynamics of the repression and activation of gene expression through H3K27 methylation. In urothelial bladder carcinoma, KDM6A (a H3K27 demethylase) is frequently mutated, but its functional consequences and therapeutic targetability remain unknown. About 70% of KDM6A mutations resulted in a total loss of expression and a consequent loss of demethylase function in this cancer type. Further transcriptome analysis found multiple deregulated pathways, especially PRC2/EZH2, in KDM6A -mutated urothelial bladder carcinoma. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis revealed enrichment of H3K27me3 at specific loci in KDM6A -null cells, including PRC2/EZH2 and their downstream targets. Consequently, we targeted EZH2 (an H3K27 methylase) and demonstrated that KDM6A -null urothelial bladder carcinoma cell lines were sensitive to EZH2 inhibition. Loss- and gain-of-function assays confirmed that cells with loss of KDM6A are vulnerable to EZH2. IGFBP3, a direct KDM6A/EZH2/H3K27me3 target, was up-regulated by EZH2 inhibition and contributed to the observed EZH2-dependent growth suppression in KDM6A -null cell lines. EZH2 inhibition delayed tumor onset in KDM6A -null cells and caused regression of KDM6A -null bladder tumors in both patient-derived and cell line xenograft models. In summary, our study demonstrates that inactivating mutations of KDM6A , which are common in urothelial bladder carcinoma, are potentially targetable by inhibiting EZH2. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. rahu is a mutant allele of Dnmt3c, encoding a DNA methyltransferase homolog required for meiosis and transposon repression in the mouse male germline

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Julian; Lailler, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional silencing by heritable cytosine-5 methylation is an ancient strategy to repress transposable elements. It was previously thought that mammals possess four DNA methyltransferase paralogs—Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b and Dnmt3l—that establish and maintain cytosine-5 methylation. Here we identify a fifth paralog, Dnmt3c, that is essential for retrotransposon methylation and repression in the mouse male germline. From a phenotype-based forward genetics screen, we isolated a mutant mouse called ‘rahu’, which displays severe defects in double-strand-break repair and homologous chromosome synapsis during male meiosis, resulting in sterility. rahu is an allele of a transcription unit (Gm14490, renamed Dnmt3c) that was previously mis-annotated as a Dnmt3-family pseudogene. Dnmt3c encodes a cytosine methyltransferase homolog, and Dnmt3crahu mutants harbor a non-synonymous mutation of a conserved residue within one of its cytosine methyltransferase motifs, similar to a mutation in human DNMT3B observed in patients with immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial anomalies syndrome. The rahu mutation lies at a potential dimerization interface and near the potential DNA binding interface, suggesting that it compromises protein-protein and/or protein-DNA interactions required for normal DNMT3C function. Dnmt3crahu mutant males fail to establish normal methylation within LINE and LTR retrotransposon sequences in the germline and accumulate higher levels of transposon-derived transcripts and proteins, particularly from distinct L1 and ERVK retrotransposon families. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Dnmt3c arose during rodent evolution by tandem duplication of Dnmt3b, after the divergence of the Dipodoidea and Muroidea superfamilies. These findings provide insight into the evolutionary dynamics and functional specialization of the transposon suppression machinery critical for mammalian sexual reproduction and epigenetic regulation. PMID:28854222

  15. Identifying Crucial Parameter Correlations Maintaining Bursting Activity

    PubMed Central

    Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons) allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO) model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron) and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency) similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, Leak; a persistent K current, K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, P) that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of Leak, K2, and P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained. PMID:24945358

  16. Store operations to maintain cache coherence

    DOEpatents

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin

    2017-08-01

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.

  17. ZEST Flight Test Experiments, Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    present on KTF/PMRF are 3 the Hawaiian monk seal and the Hawaiian hoary bat. The monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) has established a colony on Niihau ...feeding and resting offshore of the Nohili Ditch (DOE, 1991). 3 The channel between Kauai and Niihau islands is along the migration route of the

  18. Low loss fusion splicing polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber and conventional polarization-maintaining fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuoming, Sun; Ningfang, Song; Jing, Jin; Jingming, Song; Pan, Ma

    2012-12-01

    An efficient and simple method of fusion splicing of a Polarization-Maintaining Photonic Crystal Fiber (PM-PCF) and a conventional Polarization-Maintaining Fiber (PMF) with a low loss of 0.65 dB in experiment is reported. The minimum bending diameter of the joint can reach 2 cm. Theoretical calculation of the splicing loss based on mode field diameters (MFDs) mismatch of the two kinds of fibers is given. All parameters affected the splicing loss were studied.

  19. Specificity protein 1 (Sp1) maintains basal epithelial expression of the miR-200 family: implications for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Kolesnikoff, Natasha; Attema, Joanne L; Roslan, Suraya; Bert, Andrew G; Schwarz, Quenten P; Gregory, Philip A; Goodall, Gregory J

    2014-04-18

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is required for the specification of tissues during embryonic development and is recapitulated during the metastatic progression of tumors. The miR-200 family plays a critical role in enforcing the epithelial state with their expression lost in cells undergoing EMT. EMT can be mediated by activation of the ZEB1 and ZEB2 (ZEB) transcription factors, which repress miR-200 expression via a self-reinforcing double negative feedback loop to promote the mesenchymal state. However, it remains unclear what factors drive and maintain epithelial-specific expression of miR-200 in the absence of EMT-inducing factors. Here, we show that the transcription factor Specificity Protein 1 (Sp1) binds to the miR-200b∼200a∼429 proximal promoter and activates miR-200 expression in epithelial cells. In mesenchymal cells, Sp1 expression is maintained, but its ability to activate the miR-200 promoter is perturbed by ZEB-mediated repression. Reduction of Sp1 expression caused changes in EMT-associated markers in epithelial cells. Furthermore, we observed co-expression of Sp1 and miR-200 during mouse embryonic development wherein miR-200 expression was only lost in regions with high ZEB expression. Together, these findings indicate that miR-200 family members require Sp1 to drive basal expression and to maintain an epithelial state.

  20. Intentions to Maintain Adherence to Mammography

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, J. Michael; Brewer, Noel T.; Lipkus, Isaac M.; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Strigo, Tara S.; Rimer, Barbara K.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective Recent attention has focused on moving women from having initial mammograms to maintaining adherence to regular mammography schedules. We examined behavioral intentions to maintain mammography adherence, which include the likelihood of performing a behavior, and implementation intentions, specific action plans to obtain mammograms. Potential predictors were Theory of Planned Behavior constructs, previous barriers, previous mammography maintenance, and age. Methods Respondents were 2062 currently adherent women due for their next mammograms in 3–4 months according to American Cancer Society recommendations for annual screening. Statistical models were used to examine predictors of behavioral and two implementation intentions, including having thought about where women would get their next mammograms and having thought about making appointments. Results With the exception of pros, cons, and subjective norms, all variables predicted behavioral intentions (p ≤ 0.05). Stronger perceived control, previous mammography maintenance, and one barrier (vs. none) predicted being more likely to have thought about where to get their next mammograms. Previous maintenance and no barriers (vs. two) predicted being more likely to have thought about making appointments. Conclusions Our findings suggest that among women currently adherent to mammography, volitional factors, such as barriers, may be better predictors of implementation intentions than motivational factors, such as attitudes. Implementation variables may be useful in understanding how women move from intentions to action. Future research should examine how such factors relate to mammography maintenance behaviors and can be integrated into behavior change interventions. PMID:18657041

  1. Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE)

    PubMed Central

    Boker, Steven M.; Brick, Timothy R.; Pritikin, Joshua N.; Wang, Yang; von Oertzen, Timo; Brown, Donald; Lach, John; Estabrook, Ryne; Hunter, Michael D.; Maes, Hermine H.; Neale, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE) is a novel paradigm for research in the behavioral, social, and health sciences. The MIDDLE approach is based on the seemingly-impossible idea that data can be privately maintained by participants and never revealed to researchers, while still enabling statistical models to be fit and scientific hypotheses tested. MIDDLE rests on the assumption that participant data should belong to, be controlled by, and remain in the possession of the participants themselves. Distributed likelihood estimation refers to fitting statistical models by sending an objective function and vector of parameters to each participants’ personal device (e.g., smartphone, tablet, computer), where the likelihood of that individual’s data is calculated locally. Only the likelihood value is returned to the central optimizer. The optimizer aggregates likelihood values from responding participants and chooses new vectors of parameters until the model converges. A MIDDLE study provides significantly greater privacy for participants, automatic management of opt-in and opt-out consent, lower cost for the researcher and funding institute, and faster determination of results. Furthermore, if a participant opts into several studies simultaneously and opts into data sharing, these studies automatically have access to individual-level longitudinal data linked across all studies. PMID:26717128

  2. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Dimenstein, Izak B.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular “niche of knowledge.” This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining “Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology” (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal. PMID:27688928

  3. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability.

    PubMed

    Dimenstein, Izak B

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular "niche of knowledge." This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal.

  4. Reliability/maintainability/testability design for dormancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seman, Robert M.; Etzl, Julius M.; Purnell, Arthur W.

    1988-05-01

    This document has been prepared as a tool for designers of dormant military equipment and systems. The purpose of this handbook is to provide design engineers with Reliability/Maintainability/Testability design guidelines for systems which spend significant portions of their life cycle in a dormant state. The dormant state is defined as a nonoperating mode where a system experiences very little or no electrical stress. The guidelines in this report present design criteria in the following categories: (1) Part Selection and Control; (2) Derating Practices; (3) Equipment/System Packaging; (4) Transportation and Handling; (5) Maintainability Design; (6) Testability Design; (7) Evaluation Methods for In-Plant and Field Evaluation; and (8) Product Performance Agreements. Whereever applicable, design guidelines for operating systems were included with the dormant design guidelines. This was done in an effort to produce design guidelines for a more complete life cycle. Although dormant systems spend significant portions of their life cycle in a nonoperating mode, the designer must design the system for the complete life cycle, including nonoperating as well as operating modes. The guidelines are primarily intended for use in the design of equipment composed of electronic parts and components. However, they can also be used for the design of systems which encompass both electronic and nonelectronic parts, as well as for the modification of existing systems.

  5. Maintaining heterokaryosis in pseudo-homothallic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Grognet, Pierre; Silar, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Among all the strategies displayed by fungi to reproduce and propagate, some species have adopted a peculiar behavior called pseudo-homothallism. Pseudo-homothallic fungi are true heterothallics, i.e., they need 2 genetically-compatible partners to mate, but they produce self-fertile mycelium in which the 2 different nuclei carrying the compatible mating types are present. This lifestyle not only enables the fungus to reproduce without finding a compatible partner, but also to cross with any mate it may encounter. However, to be fully functional, pseudo-homothallism requires maintaining heterokaryosis at every stage of the life cycle. We recently showed that neither the structure of the mating-type locus nor hybrid-enhancing effect due to the presence of the 2 mating types accounts for the maintenance of heterokaryosis in the pseudo-homothallic fungus P. anserina. In this addendum, we summarize the mechanisms creating heterokaryosis in P. anserina and 2 other well-known pseudo-homothallic fungi, Neurospora tetrasperma and Agaricus bisporus. We also discuss mechanisms potentially involved in maintaining heterokaryosis in these 3 species. PMID:26479494

  6. Maintaining heterokaryosis in pseudo-homothallic fungi.

    PubMed

    Grognet, Pierre; Silar, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Among all the strategies displayed by fungi to reproduce and propagate, some species have adopted a peculiar behavior called pseudo-homothallism. Pseudo-homothallic fungi are true heterothallics, i.e., they need 2 genetically-compatible partners to mate, but they produce self-fertile mycelium in which the 2 different nuclei carrying the compatible mating types are present. This lifestyle not only enables the fungus to reproduce without finding a compatible partner, but also to cross with any mate it may encounter. However, to be fully functional, pseudo-homothallism requires maintaining heterokaryosis at every stage of the life cycle. We recently showed that neither the structure of the mating-type locus nor hybrid-enhancing effect due to the presence of the 2 mating types accounts for the maintenance of heterokaryosis in the pseudo-homothallic fungus P. anserina. In this addendum, we summarize the mechanisms creating heterokaryosis in P. anserina and 2 other well-known pseudo-homothallic fungi, Neurospora tetrasperma and Agaricus bisporus. We also discuss mechanisms potentially involved in maintaining heterokaryosis in these 3 species.

  7. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research. PMID:26078711

  8. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research.

  9. Design guidelines for remotely maintainable equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Margaret M.; Manouchehri, Davoud

    1988-01-01

    The quantity and complexity of on-orbit assets will increase significantly over the next decade. Maintaining and servicing these costly assets represent a difficult challenge. Three general methods are proposed to maintain equipment while it is still in orbit: an extravehicular activity (EVA) crew can perform the task in an unpressurized maintenance area outside any space vehicle; an intravehicular activity (IVA) crew can perform the maintenance in a shirt sleeve environment, perhaps at a special maintenance work station in a space vehicle; or a telerobotic manipulator can perform the maintenance in an unpressurized maintenance area at a distance from the crew (who may be EVA, IVA, or on the ground). However, crew EVA may not always be possible; the crew may have other demands on their time that take precedence. In addition, the orbit of the tasks themselves may be impossible for crew entry. Also crew IVA may not always be possible as option for equipment maintenance. For example, the equipment may be too large to fit through the vehicle airlock. Therefore, in some circumstances, the third option, telerobotic manipulation, may be the only feasible option. Telerobotic manipulation has, therefore, an important role for on-orbit maintenance. It is not only used for the reasons outlined above, but also used in some cases as backup to the EVA crew in an orbit that they can reach.

  10. To Grow, Nurture, and Maintain: Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, I.; Lam, K.; Hennelly, L. O.; Archie, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The importance and difficulties encountered in a sustainable urban farm can be witnessed at the Stanford Earth Systems Educational Garden, in the growth, maintenance, and nurturing of the soil. Techniques and chemicals developed in the mid to late 1900's have infiltrated the traditional farming techniques that allowed humans to continuously farm for hundreds of years. The sudden spur of interest in sustainability has lead many, including Stanford Earth Systems, to reincorporate traditional methods in conjunction with modern technology. To override the damage made by chemicals and industrial farming, we had to recognize that healthy crops originated from healthy soil; thus we began investigating how to nourish soil. We began to research the ideal composition and structure of soil and methods to create and maintain fertile soil. Secondly, we prioritized the importance of nurturing plants and fed the plants with a plethora of natural fertilizers. We also created a compost pile so that the soil could rehabilitate and refill with nutrients with help provided by bacteria. Lastly, we had to maintain the soil to keep the soil viable for future crops. To do this, we had to acknowledge the chemical composition of the soil and plant cover crops to ensure that the nutrients are replenished. Our experiences enabled us to understand the time and effort required to manage suitable crops, animals, and structures for an urban farm.

  11. Does PKM(zeta) maintain memory?

    PubMed

    Kwapis, Janine L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2014-06-01

    Work on the long-term stability of memory has identified a potentially critical role for protein kinase Mzeta (PKMζ) in maintaining established memory. PKMζ, an autonomously active isoform of PKC, is hypothesized to sustain those changes that occurred during memory formation in order to preserve the memory engram over time. Initial studies investigating the role of PKMζ were largely successful in demonstrating a role for the kinase in memory maintenance; disrupting PKMζ activity with ζ-inhibitory peptide (ZIP) was successful in disrupting a variety of established associations in a number of key brain regions. More recent work, however, has questioned both the role of PKMζ in memory maintenance and the effectiveness of ZIP as a specific inhibitor of PKMζ activity. Here, we outline the research both for and against the idea that PKMζ is a memory maintenance mechanism and discuss how these two lines of research can be reconciled. We conclude by proposing a number of studies that would help to clarify the role of PKMζ in memory and define other mechanisms the brain may use to maintain memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mapping and mutagenesis of the amino-terminal transcriptional repression domain of the Drosophila Krüppel protein.

    PubMed Central

    Licht, J D; Hanna-Rose, W; Reddy, J C; English, M A; Ro, M; Grossel, M; Shaknovich, R; Hansen, U

    1994-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the Drosophila Krüppel protein is a transcriptional repressor with separable DNA-binding and transcriptional repression activities. In this study, the minimal amino (N)-terminal repression region of the Krüppel protein was defined by transferring regions of the Krüppel protein to a heterologous DNA-binding protein, the lacI protein. Fusion of a predicted alpha-helical region from amino acids 62 to 92 in the N terminus of the Krüppel protein was sufficient to transfer repression activity. This putative alpha-helix has several hydrophobic surfaces, as well as a glutamine-rich surface. Mutants containing multiple amino acid substitutions of the glutamine residues demonstrated that this putative alpha-helical region is essential for repression activity of a Krüppel protein containing the entire N-terminal and DNA-binding regions. Furthermore, one point mutant with only a single glutamine on this surface altered to lysine abolished the ability of the Krüppel protein to repress, indicating the importance of the amino acid at residue 86 for repression. The N terminus also contained an adjacent activation region localized between amino acids 86 and 117. Finally, in accordance with predictions from primary amino acid sequence similarity, a repression region from the Drosophila even-skipped protein, which was six times more potent than that of the Krüppel protein in the mammalian cells, was characterized. This segment included a hydrophobic stretch of 11 consecutive alanine residues and a proline-rich region. Images PMID:8196644

  13. Malate-mediated carbon catabolite repression in Bacillus subtilis involves the HPrK/CcpA pathway.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Frederik M; Jules, Matthieu; Mehne, Felix M P; Le Coq, Dominique; Landmann, Jens J; Görke, Boris; Aymerich, Stéphane; Stülke, Jörg

    2011-12-01

    Most organisms can choose their preferred carbon source from a mixture of nutrients. This process is called carbon catabolite repression. The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis uses glucose as the preferred source of carbon and energy. Glucose-mediated catabolite repression is caused by binding of the CcpA transcription factor to the promoter regions of catabolic operons. CcpA binds DNA upon interaction with its cofactors HPr(Ser-P) and Crh(Ser-P). The formation of the cofactors is catalyzed by the metabolite-activated HPr kinase/phosphorylase. Recently, it has been shown that malate is a second preferred carbon source for B. subtilis that also causes catabolite repression. In this work, we addressed the mechanism by which malate causes catabolite repression. Genetic analyses revealed that malate-dependent catabolite repression requires CcpA and its cofactors. Moreover, we demonstrate that HPr(Ser-P) is present in malate-grown cells and that CcpA and HPr interact in vivo in the presence of glucose or malate but not in the absence of a repressing carbon source. The formation of the cofactor HPr(Ser-P) could be attributed to the concentrations of ATP and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate in cells growing with malate. Both metabolites are available at concentrations that are sufficient to stimulate HPr kinase activity. The adaptation of cells to environmental changes requires dynamic metabolic and regulatory adjustments. The repression strength of target promoters was similar to that observed in steady-state growth conditions, although it took somewhat longer to reach the second steady-state of expression when cells were shifted to malate.

  14. Malate-Mediated Carbon Catabolite Repression in Bacillus subtilis Involves the HPrK/CcpA Pathway ▿ §

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Frederik M.; Jules, Matthieu; Mehne, Felix M. P.; Le Coq, Dominique; Landmann, Jens J.; Görke, Boris; Aymerich, Stéphane; Stülke, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Most organisms can choose their preferred carbon source from a mixture of nutrients. This process is called carbon catabolite repression. The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis uses glucose as the preferred source of carbon and energy. Glucose-mediated catabolite repression is caused by binding of the CcpA transcription factor to the promoter regions of catabolic operons. CcpA binds DNA upon interaction with its cofactors HPr(Ser-P) and Crh(Ser-P). The formation of the cofactors is catalyzed by the metabolite-activated HPr kinase/phosphorylase. Recently, it has been shown that malate is a second preferred carbon source for B. subtilis that also causes catabolite repression. In this work, we addressed the mechanism by which malate causes catabolite repression. Genetic analyses revealed that malate-dependent catabolite repression requires CcpA and its cofactors. Moreover, we demonstrate that HPr(Ser-P) is present in malate-grown cells and that CcpA and HPr interact in vivo in the presence of glucose or malate but not in the absence of a repressing carbon source. The formation of the cofactor HPr(Ser-P) could be attributed to the concentrations of ATP and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate in cells growing with malate. Both metabolites are available at concentrations that are sufficient to stimulate HPr kinase activity. The adaptation of cells to environmental changes requires dynamic metabolic and regulatory adjustments. The repression strength of target promoters was similar to that observed in steady-state growth conditions, although it took somewhat longer to reach the second steady-state of expression when cells were shifted to malate. PMID:22001508

  15. Very low amounts of glucose cause repression of the stress-responsive gene HSP12 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    de Groot, E; Bebelman, J P; Mager, W H; Planta, R J

    2000-02-01

    Changing the growth mode of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by adding fermentable amounts of glucose to cells growing on a non-fermentable carbon source leads to rapid repression of general stress-responsive genes like HSP12. Remarkably, glucose repression of HSP12 appeared to occur even at very low glucose concentrations, down to 0.005%. Although these low levels of glucose do not induce fermentative growth, they do act as a growth signal, since upon addition of glucose to a concentration of 0.02%, growth rate increased and ribosomal protein gene transcription was up-regulated. In an attempt to elucidate how this type of glucose signalling may operate, several signalling mutants were examined. Consistent with the low amounts of glucose that elicit HSP12 repression, neither the main glucose-repression pathway nor cAMP-dependent activation of protein kinase A appeared to play a role in this regulation. Using mutants involved in glucose metabolism, evidence was obtained suggesting that glucose 6-phosphate serves as a signalling molecule. To identify the target for glucose repression on the promoter of the HSP12 gene, a promoter deletion series was used. The major transcription factors governing (stress-induced) transcriptional activation of HSP12 are Msn2p and Msn4p, binding to the general stress-responsive promoter elements (STREs). Surprisingly, glucose repression of HSP12 appeared to be independent of Msn2/4p: HSP12 transcription in glycerol-grown cells was unaffected in a deltamsn2deltamsn4 strain. Nevertheless, evidence was obtained that STRE-mediated transcription is the target of repression by low amounts of glucose. These data suggest that an as yet unidentified factor is involved in STRE-mediated transcriptional regulation of HSP12.

  16. Role of ND10 nuclear bodies in the chromatin repression of HSV-1.

    PubMed

    Gu, Haidong; Zheng, Yi

    2016-04-05

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a neurotropic virus that establishes lifelong latent infection in human ganglion sensory neurons. This unique life cycle necessitates an intimate relation between the host defenses and virus counteractions over the long course of infection. Two important aspects of host anti-viral defense, nuclear substructure restriction and epigenetic chromatin regulation, have been intensively studied in the recent years. Upon viral DNA entering the nucleus, components of discrete nuclear bodies termed nuclear domain 10 (ND10), converge at viral DNA and place restrictions on viral gene expression. Meanwhile the infected cell mobilizes its histones and histone-associated repressors to force the viral DNA into nucleosome-like structures and also represses viral transcription. Both anti-viral strategies are negated by various HSV countermeasures. One HSV gene transactivator, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), is a key player in antagonizing both the ND10 restriction and chromatin repression. On one hand, ICP0 uses its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity to target major ND10 components for proteasome-dependent degradation and thereafter disrupts the ND10 nuclear bodies. On the other hand, ICP0 participates in de-repressing the HSV chromatin by changing histone composition or modification and therefore activates viral transcription. Involvement of a single viral protein in two seemingly different pathways suggests that there is coordination in host anti-viral defense mechanisms and also cooperation in viral counteraction strategies. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the role of chromatin regulation and ND10 dynamics in both lytic and latent HSV infection. We focus on the new observations showing that ND10 nuclear bodies play a critical role in cellular chromatin regulation. We intend to find the connections between the two major anti-viral defense pathways, chromatin remodeling and ND10 structure, in order to achieve a better

  17. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Catabolite Repression Control Protein Crc Is Devoid of RNA Binding Activity

    PubMed Central

    Djinovic-Carugo, Kristina; Bläsi, Udo

    2013-01-01

    The Crc protein has been shown to mediate catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas, leading to a preferential assimilation of carbon sources. It has been suggested that Crc acts as a translational repressor of mRNAs, encoding functions involved in uptake and breakdown of different carbon sources. Moreover, the regulatory RNA CrcZ, the level of which is increased in the presence of less preferred carbon sources, was suggested to bind to and sequester Crc, resulting in a relief of catabolite repression. Here, we determined the crystal structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Crc, a member of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease family, at 1.8 Å. Although Crc displays high sequence similarity with its orthologs, there are amino acid alterations in the area corresponding to the active site in AP proteins. Unlike typical AP endonuclease family proteins, Crc has a reduced overall positive charge and the conserved positively charged amino-acid residues of the DNA-binding surface of AP proteins are partially substituted by negatively charged, polar and hydrophobic residues. Crc protein purified to homogeneity from P. aeruginosa did neither display DNase activity, nor did it bind to previously identified RNA substrates. Rather, the RNA chaperone Hfq was identified as a contaminant in His-tagged Crc preparations purified by one step Ni-affinity chromatography from Escherichia coli, and was shown to account for the RNA binding activity observed with the His-Crc preparations. Taken together, these data challenge a role of Crc as a direct translational repressor in carbon catabolite repression in P. aeruginosa. PMID:23717639

  18. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa catabolite repression control protein Crc is devoid of RNA binding activity.

    PubMed

    Milojevic, Tetyana; Grishkovskaya, Irina; Sonnleitner, Elisabeth; Djinovic-Carugo, Kristina; Bläsi, Udo

    2013-01-01

    The Crc protein has been shown to mediate catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas, leading to a preferential assimilation of carbon sources. It has been suggested that Crc acts as a translational repressor of mRNAs, encoding functions involved in uptake and breakdown of different carbon sources. Moreover, the regulatory RNA CrcZ, the level of which is increased in the presence of less preferred carbon sources, was suggested to bind to and sequester Crc, resulting in a relief of catabolite repression. Here, we determined the crystal structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Crc, a member of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease family, at 1.8 Å. Although Crc displays high sequence similarity with its orthologs, there are amino acid alterations in the area corresponding to the active site in AP proteins. Unlike typical AP endonuclease family proteins, Crc has a reduced overall positive charge and the conserved positively charged amino-acid residues of the DNA-binding surface of AP proteins are partially substituted by negatively charged, polar and hydrophobic residues. Crc protein purified to homogeneity from P. aeruginosa did neither display DNase activity, nor did it bind to previously identified RNA substrates. Rather, the RNA chaperone Hfq was identified as a contaminant in His-tagged Crc preparations purified by one step Ni-affinity chromatography from Escherichia coli, and was shown to account for the RNA binding activity observed with the His-Crc preparations. Taken together, these data challenge a role of Crc as a direct translational repressor in carbon catabolite repression in P. aeruginosa.

  19. High Ambient Temperature Represses Anthocyanin Biosynthesis through Degradation of HY5

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sara; Hwang, Geonhee; Lee, Seulgi; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Paik, Inyup; Nguyen, Thom Thi; Kim, Jungmook; Oh, Eunkyoo

    2017-01-01

    Anthocyanins are flavonoid compounds that protect plant tissues from many environmental stresses including high light irradiance, freezing temperatures, and pathogen infection. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis is intimately associated with environmental changes to enhance plant survival under stressful environmental conditions. Various factors, such as UV, visible light, cold, osmotic stress, and pathogen infection, can induce anthocyanin biosynthesis. In contrast, high temperatures are known to reduce anthocyanin accumulation in many plant species, even drastically in the skin of fruits such as grape berries and apples. However, the mechanisms by which high temperatures regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana remain largely unknown. Here, we show that high ambient temperatures repress anthocyanin biosynthesis through the E3 ubiquitin ligase CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) and the positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5). We show that an increase in ambient temperature decreases expression of genes required in both the early and late steps of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway in Arabidopsis seedlings. As a result, seedlings grown at a high temperature (28°C) accumulate less anthocyanin pigment than those grown at a low temperature (17°C). We further show that high temperature induces the degradation of the HY5 protein in a COP1 activity-dependent manner. In agreement with this finding, anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation do not respond to ambient temperature changes in cop1 and hy5 mutant plants. The degradation of HY5 derepresses the expression of MYBL2, which partially mediates the high temperature repression of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Overall, our study demonstrates that high ambient temperatures repress anthocyanin biosynthesis through a COP1-HY5 signaling module. PMID:29104579

  20. Endocytosis of a maltose permease is induced when amylolytic enzyme production is repressed in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Hiramoto, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Mizuki; Ichikawa, Takanori; Matsuura, Yuka; Hasegawa-Shiro, Sachiko; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2015-09-01

    In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, amylolytic enzyme production is induced by the presence of maltose. Previously, we identified a putative maltose permease (MalP) gene in the maltose-utilizing cluster of A. oryzae. malP disruption causes a significant decrease in α-amylase activity and maltose consumption, indicating that MalP is a maltose transporter required for amylolytic enzyme production in A. oryzae. Although the expression of amylase genes and malP is repressed by the presence of glucose, the effect of glucose on the abundance of functional MalP is unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of glucose and other carbon sources on the subcellular localization of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged MalP. After glucose addition, GFP-MalP at the plasma membrane was internalized and delivered to the vacuole. This glucose-induced internalization of GFP-MalP was inhibited by treatment with latrunculin B, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. Furthermore, GFP-MalP internalization was inhibited by repressing the HECT ubiquitin ligase HulA (ortholog of yeast Rsp5). These results suggest that MalP is transported to the vacuole by endocytosis in the presence of glucose. Besides glucose, mannose and 2-deoxyglucose also induced the endocytosis of GFP-MalP and amylolytic enzyme production was inhibited by the addition of these sugars. However, neither the subcellular localization of GFP-MalP nor amylolytic enzyme production was influenced by the addition of xylose or 3-O-methylglucose. These results imply that MalP endocytosis is induced when amylolytic enzyme production is repressed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of a phorbol ester-repressible v-src-inducible gene

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, D.L.; Levy, D.B.; Yannoni, Y.

    1989-02-01

    Chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) infected with a temperature-sensitive Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) mutant, tsNY72-4, express a set of pp60{sup v-src}-induced RNAs soon after shift to the permissive temperature. By subtractive and differential screening, the authors have cloned 12 of these sequences, 2 of which were c-fos and krox-24. Serum induced all the v-src-inducible genes tested, suggesting that these genes serve roles in normal cell division and are not specific to transformation per se. Significantly, however, v-src produced prolonged, and in some cases kinetically complex, patterns of induction compared to serum. For most of the clones, phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate (TPA) inducedmore » mRNAs with kinetics similar to that of serum. However, one clone (CEF-4) was expressed in a biphasic manner. Another (CEF-10) was repressed by TPA at 1 hr, after which this mRNA was permanently induced. The pattern of repression-induction of CEF-10 mRNA is the inverse of protein kinase C (PKC) activity in the cell, suggesting that PKC actively represses this gene. In vivo expression of CEF-10 mRNA is restricted predominantly to the lung. A full-length CEF-10 cDNA encodes a 41-kDa protein that has an amino-terminal signal peptide for secretion, contains a markedly high number of cysteine residues, and shows no sequence similarity to known proteins.« less

  2. Multiple Genes Repress Motility in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Constitutively Expressing Type 1 Fimbriae▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Simms, Amy N.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2008-01-01

    Two surface organelles of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), flagella and type 1 fimbriae, are critical for colonization of the urinary tract but mediate opposite actions. Flagella propel bacteria through urine and along mucus layers, while type 1 fimbriae allow bacteria to adhere to specific receptors present on uroepithelial cells. Constitutive expression of type 1 fimbriae leads to repression of motility and chemotaxis in UPEC strain CFT073, suggesting that UPEC may coordinately regulate motility and adherence. To identify genes involved in this regulation of motility by type 1 fimbriae, transposon mutagenesis was performed on a phase-locked type 1 fimbrial ON variant of strain CFT073 (CFT073 fim L-ON), followed by a screen for restoration of motility in soft agar. Functions of the genes identified included attachment, metabolism, transport, DNA mismatch repair, and transcriptional regulation, and a number of genes had hypothetical function. Isogenic deletion mutants of these genes were also constructed in CFT073 fim L-ON. Motility was partially restored in six of these mutants, including complementable mutations in four genes encoding known transcriptional regulators, lrhA, lrp, slyA, and papX; a mismatch repair gene, mutS; and one hypothetical gene, ydiV. Type 1 fimbrial expression in these mutants was unaltered, and the majority of these mutants expressed larger amounts of flagellin than the fim L-ON parental strain. Our results indicate that repression of motility in CFT073 fim L-ON is not solely due to the constitutive expression of type 1 fimbriae on the surfaces of the bacteria and that multiple genes may contribute to this repression. PMID:18359812

  3. Orphan nuclear receptor TLX recruits histone deacetylases to repress transcription and regulate neural stem cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, GuoQiang; Yu, Ruth T.; Evans, Ronald M.; Shi, Yanhong

    2007-01-01

    TLX is a transcription factor that is essential for neural stem cell proliferation and self-renewal. However, the molecular mechanism of TLX-mediated neural stem cell proliferation and self-renewal is largely unknown. We show here that TLX recruits histone deacetylases (HDACs) to its downstream target genes to repress their transcription, which in turn regulates neural stem cell proliferation. TLX interacts with HDAC3 and HDAC5 in neural stem cells. The HDAC5-interaction domain was mapped to TLX residues 359–385, which contains a conserved nuclear receptor–coregulator interaction motif IXXLL. Both HDAC3 and HDAC5 have been shown to be recruited to the promoters of TLX target genes along with TLX in neural stem cells. Recruitment of HDACs led to transcriptional repression of TLX target genes, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21CIP1/WAF1(p21), and the tumor suppressor gene, pten. Either inhibition of HDAC activity or knockdown of HDAC expression led to marked induction of p21 and pten gene expression and dramatically reduced neural stem cell proliferation, suggesting that the TLX-interacting HDACs play an important role in neural stem cell proliferation. Moreover, expression of a TLX peptide containing the minimal HDAC5 interaction domain disrupted the TLX–HDAC5 interaction. Disruption of this interaction led to significant induction of p21 and pten gene expression and to dramatic inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a mechanism for neural stem cell proliferation through transcriptional repression of p21 and pten gene expression by TLX–HDAC interactions. PMID:17873065

  4. Orphan nuclear receptor TLX recruits histone deacetylases to repress transcription and regulate neural stem cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guoqiang; Yu, Ruth T; Evans, Ronald M; Shi, Yanhong

    2007-09-25

    TLX is a transcription factor that is essential for neural stem cell proliferation and self-renewal. However, the molecular mechanism of TLX-mediated neural stem cell proliferation and self-renewal is largely unknown. We show here that TLX recruits histone deacetylases (HDACs) to its downstream target genes to repress their transcription, which in turn regulates neural stem cell proliferation. TLX interacts with HDAC3 and HDAC5 in neural stem cells. The HDAC5-interaction domain was mapped to TLX residues 359-385, which contains a conserved nuclear receptor-coregulator interaction motif IXXLL. Both HDAC3 and HDAC5 have been shown to be recruited to the promoters of TLX target genes along with TLX in neural stem cells. Recruitment of HDACs led to transcriptional repression of TLX target genes, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21(CIP1/WAF1)(p21), and the tumor suppressor gene, pten. Either inhibition of HDAC activity or knockdown of HDAC expression led to marked induction of p21 and pten gene expression and dramatically reduced neural stem cell proliferation, suggesting that the TLX-interacting HDACs play an important role in neural stem cell proliferation. Moreover, expression of a TLX peptide containing the minimal HDAC5 interaction domain disrupted the TLX-HDAC5 interaction. Disruption of this interaction led to significant induction of p21 and pten gene expression and to dramatic inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a mechanism for neural stem cell proliferation through transcriptional repression of p21 and pten gene expression by TLX-HDAC interactions.

  5. HIF-1α represses the expression of the angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-2.

    PubMed

    MacLauchlan, Susan C; Calabro, Nicole E; Huang, Yan; Krishna, Meenakshi; Bancroft, Tara; Sharma, Tanuj; Yu, Jun; Sessa, William C; Giordano, Frank; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2018-01-01

    Thrombospondin-2 (TSP2) is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis whose expression is dynamically regulated following injury. In the present study, it is shown that HIF-1α represses TSP2 transcription. Specifically, in vitro studies demonstrate that the prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor DMOG or hypoxia decrease TSP2 expression in fibroblasts. This effect is shown to be via a transcriptional mechanism as hypoxia does not alter TSP2 mRNA stability and this effect requires the TSP2 promoter. In addition, the documented repressive effect of nitric oxide (NO) on TSP2 is shown to be non-canonical and involves stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor-1a (HIF-1α). The regulation of TSP2 by hypoxia is supported by the in vivo observation that TSP2 has spatiotemporal expression distinct from regions of hypoxia in gastrocnemius muscle following murine hindlimb ischemia (HLI). A role for TSP2 regulation by HIF-1α is supported by the dysregulation of TSP2 expression in SM22α-cre HIF-1α KO mice following HLI. Indeed, there is a reduction in blood flow recovery in the SM22a-cre HIF-1α KO mice compared to littermate controls following HLI surgery, associated with impaired recovery and increased TSP2 levels. Moreover, SM22α-cre HIF-1α KO smooth muscle cells mice have increased TSP2 mRNA levels that persist in hypoxia. These findings identify a novel, ischemia-induced pro-angiogenic mechanism involving the transcriptional repression of TSP2 by HIF-1α. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Repression of anti-proliferative factor Tob1 in osteoarthritic cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Gebauer, Mathias; Saas, Joachim; Haag, Jochen; Dietz, Uwe; Takigawa, Masaharu; Bartnik, Eckart; Aigner, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative disorder of the modern world. However, many basic cellular features and molecular processes of the disease are poorly understood. In the present study we used oligonucleotide-based microarray analysis of genes of known or assumed relevance to the cellular phenotype to screen for relevant differences in gene expression between normal and osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Custom made oligonucleotide DNA arrays were used to screen for differentially expressed genes in normal (n = 9) and osteoarthritic (n = 10) cartilage samples. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with gene-specific primers was used for quantification. Primary human adult articular chondrocytes and chondrosarcoma cell line HCS-2/8 were used to study changes in gene expression levels after stimulation with interleukin-1β and bone morphogenetic protein, as well as the dependence on cell differentiation. In situ hybridization with a gene-specific probe was applied to detect mRNA expression levels in fetal growth plate cartilage. Overall, more than 200 significantly regulated genes were detected between normal and osteoarthritic cartilage (P < 0.01). One of the significantly repressed genes, Tob1, encodes a protein belonging to a family involved in silencing cells in terms of proliferation and functional activity. The repression of Tob1 was confirmed by quantitative PCR and correlated to markers of chondrocyte activity and proliferation in vivo. Tob1 expression was also detected at a decreased level in isolated chondrocytes and in the chondrosarcoma cell line HCS-2/8. Again, in these cells it was negatively correlated with proliferative activity and positively with cellular differentiation. Altogether, the downregulation of the expression of Tob1 in osteoarthritic chondrocytes might be an important aspect of the cellular processes taking place during osteoarthritic cartilage degeneration. Activation, the reinitiation of proliferative activity and the loss

  7. Dexamethasone Induces Cardiomyocyte Terminal Differentiation via Epigenetic Repression of Cyclin D2 Gene.

    PubMed

    Gay, Maresha S; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Li, Yong; Kanna, Angela; Zhang, Lubo

    2016-08-01

    Dexamethasone treatment of newborn rats inhibited cardiomyocyte proliferation and stimulated premature terminal differentiation of cardiomyocytes in the developing heart. Yet mechanisms remain undetermined. The present study tested the hypothesis that the direct effect of glucocorticoid receptor-mediated epigenetic repression of cyclin D2 gene in the cardiomyocyte plays a key role in the dexamethasone-mediated effects in the developing heart. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from 2-day-old rats. Cells were stained with a cardiomyocyte marker α-actinin and a proliferation marker Ki67. Cyclin D2 expression was evaluated by Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Promoter methylation of CcnD2 was determined by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP). Overexpression of Cyclin D2 was conducted by transfection of FlexiCcnD2 (+CcnD2) construct. Treatment of cardiomyocytes isolated from newborn rats with dexamethasone for 48 hours significantly inhibited cardiomyocyte proliferation with increased binucleation and decreased cyclin D2 protein abundance. These effects were blocked with Ru486 (mifepristone). In addition, the dexamethasone treatment significantly increased cyclin D2 gene promoter methylation in newborn rat cardiomyocytes. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine inhibited dexamethasone-mediated promoter methylation, recovered dexamethasone-induced cyclin D2 gene repression, and blocked the dexamethasone-elicited effects on cardiomyocyte proliferation and binucleation. In addition, the overexpression of cyclin D2 restored the dexamethasone-mediated inhibition of proliferation and increase in binucleation in newborn rat cardiomyocytes. The results demonstrate that dexamethasone acting on glucocorticoid receptors has a direct effect and inhibits proliferation and stimulates premature terminal differentiation of cardiomyocytes in the developing heart via epigenetic repression of cyclin D2 gene. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and

  8. Dexamethasone Induces Cardiomyocyte Terminal Differentiation via Epigenetic Repression of Cyclin D2 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Maresha S.; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Li, Yong; Kanna, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Dexamethasone treatment of newborn rats inhibited cardiomyocyte proliferation and stimulated premature terminal differentiation of cardiomyocytes in the developing heart. Yet mechanisms remain undetermined. The present study tested the hypothesis that the direct effect of glucocorticoid receptor-mediated epigenetic repression of cyclin D2 gene in the cardiomyocyte plays a key role in the dexamethasone-mediated effects in the developing heart. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from 2-day-old rats. Cells were stained with a cardiomyocyte marker α-actinin and a proliferation marker Ki67. Cyclin D2 expression was evaluated by Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Promoter methylation of CcnD2 was determined by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP). Overexpression of Cyclin D2 was conducted by transfection of FlexiCcnD2 (+CcnD2) construct. Treatment of cardiomyocytes isolated from newborn rats with dexamethasone for 48 hours significantly inhibited cardiomyocyte proliferation with increased binucleation and decreased cyclin D2 protein abundance. These effects were blocked with Ru486 (mifepristone). In addition, the dexamethasone treatment significantly increased cyclin D2 gene promoter methylation in newborn rat cardiomyocytes. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine inhibited dexamethasone-mediated promoter methylation, recovered dexamethasone-induced cyclin D2 gene repression, and blocked the dexamethasone-elicited effects on cardiomyocyte proliferation and binucleation. In addition, the overexpression of cyclin D2 restored the dexamethasone-mediated inhibition of proliferation and increase in binucleation in newborn rat cardiomyocytes. The results demonstrate that dexamethasone acting on glucocorticoid receptors has a direct effect and inhibits proliferation and stimulates premature terminal differentiation of cardiomyocytes in the developing heart via epigenetic repression of cyclin D2 gene. PMID:27302109

  9. Different Levels of Catabolite Repression Optimize Growth in Stable and Variable Environments

    PubMed Central

    New, Aaron M.; Cerulus, Bram; Govers, Sander K.; Perez-Samper, Gemma; Zhu, Bo; Boogmans, Sarah; Xavier, Joao B.; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Organisms respond to environmental changes by adapting the expression of key genes. However, such transcriptional reprogramming requires time and energy, and may also leave the organism ill-adapted when the original environment returns. Here, we study the dynamics of transcriptional reprogramming and fitness in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to changing carbon environments. Population and single-cell analyses reveal that some wild yeast strains rapidly and uniformly adapt gene expression and growth to changing carbon sources, whereas other strains respond more slowly, resulting in long periods of slow growth (the so-called “lag phase”) and large differences between individual cells within the population. We exploit this natural heterogeneity to evolve a set of mutants that demonstrate how the frequency and duration of changes in carbon source can favor different carbon catabolite repression strategies. At one end of this spectrum are “specialist” strategies that display high rates of growth in stable environments, with more stringent catabolite repression and slower transcriptional reprogramming. The other mutants display less stringent catabolite repression, resulting in leaky expression of genes that are not required for growth in glucose. This “generalist” strategy reduces fitness in glucose, but allows faster transcriptional reprogramming and shorter lag phases when the cells need to shift to alternative carbon sources. Whole-genome sequencing of these mutants reveals that mutations in key regulatory genes such as HXK2 and STD1 adjust the regulation and transcriptional noise of metabolic genes, with some mutations leading to alternative gene regulatory strategies that allow “stochastic sensing” of the environment. Together, our study unmasks how variable and stable environments favor distinct strategies of transcriptional reprogramming and growth. PMID:24453942

  10. Developmentally linked human DNA hypermethylation is associated with down-modulation, repression, and upregulation of transcription

    PubMed Central

    Baribault, Carl; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Ponnaluri, V. K. Chaithanya; Pradhan, Sriharsa; Lacey, Michelle; Ehrlich, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT DNA methylation can affect tissue-specific gene transcription in ways that are difficult to discern from studies focused on genome-wide analyses of differentially methylated regions (DMRs). To elucidate the variety of associations between differentiation-related DNA hypermethylation and transcription, we used available epigenomic and transcriptomic profiles from 38 human cell/tissue types to focus on such relationships in 94 genes linked to hypermethylated DMRs in myoblasts (Mb). For 19 of the genes, promoter-region hypermethylation in Mb (and often a few heterologous cell types) was associated with gene repression but, importantly, DNA hypermethylation was absent in many other repressed samples. In another 24 genes, DNA hypermethylation overlapped cryptic enhancers or super-enhancers and correlated with down-modulated, but not silenced, gene expression. However, such methylation was absent, surprisingly, in both non-expressing samples and highly expressing samples. This suggests that some genes need DMR hypermethylation to help repress cryptic enhancer chromatin only when they are actively transcribed. For another 11 genes, we found an association between intergenic hypermethylated DMRs and positive expression of the gene in Mb. DNA hypermethylation/transcription correlations similar to those of Mb were evident sometimes in diverse tissues, such as aorta and brain. Our findings have implications for the possible involvement of methylated DNA in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, congenital heart malformations, and cancer. This epigenomic analysis suggests that DNA methylation is not simply the inevitable consequence of changes in gene expression but, instead, is often an active agent for fine-tuning transcription in association with development. PMID:29498561

  11. The miR172 target TOE3 represses AGAMOUS expression during Arabidopsis floral patterning.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Sangmin; Yun, Ju; Lee, Minyoung; Park, Chung-Mo

    2014-02-01

    microRNA172 (miR172) regulates phase transition and floral patterning in Arabidopsis by repressing targets that encode the APETALA2 (AP2) and AP2-like transcription factors. The miR172-mediated repression of the AP2 gene restricts AGAMOUS (AG) expression. In addition, most miR172 targets, including AP2, redundantly act as floral repressors, and the overexpression of the target genes causes delayed flowering. However, how miR172 targets other than AP2 regulate both of the developmental processes remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that miR172-mediated repression of the TARGET OF EAT 3 (TOE3) gene is critical for floral patterning in Arabidopsis. Transgenic plants that overexpress a miR172-resistant TOE3 gene (rTOE3-ox) exhibit indeterminate flowers with numerous stamens and carpelloid organs, which is consistent with previous observations in transgenic plants that overexpress a miR172-resistant AP2 gene. TOE3 binds to the second intron of the AG gene. Accordingly, AG expression is significantly reduced in rTOE3-ox plants. TOE3 also interacts with AP2 in the nucleus. Given the major role of AP2 in floral patterning, miR172 likely regulates TOE3 in floral patterning, at least in part via AP2. In addition, a miR156 target SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 3 directly activates TOE3 expression, revealing a novel signaling interaction between miR156 and miR172 in floral patterning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A feedback regulatory model for RifQ-mediated repression of rifamycin export in Amycolatopsis mediterranei.

    PubMed

    Lei, Chao; Wang, Jingzhi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Xinqiang; Zhao, Guoping; Wang, Jin

    2018-01-29

    Due to the important role of rifamycin in curing tuberculosis infection, the study on rifamycin has never been stopped. Although RifZ, which locates within the rifamycin biosynthetic cluster, has recently been characterized as a pathway-specific regulator for rifamycin biosynthesis, little is known about the regulation of rifamycin export. In this work, we proved that the expression of the rifamycin efflux pump (RifP) was regulated by RifQ, a TetR-family transcriptional regulator. Deletion of rifQ had little impact on bacterial growth, but resulted in improved rifamycin production, which was consistent with the reverse transcription PCR results that RifQ negatively regulated rifP's transcription. With electrophoretic mobility shift assay and DNase I Footprinting assay, RifQ was found to directly bind to the promoter region of rifP, and a typical inverted repeat was identified within the RifQ-protected sequences. The transcription initiation site of rifP was further characterized and found to be upstream of the RifQ binding sites, well explaining the RifQ-mediated repression of rifP's transcription in vivo. Moreover, rifamycin B (the end product of rifamycin biosynthesis) remarkably decreased the DNA binding affinity of RifQ, which led to derepression of rifamycin export, reducing the intracellular concentration of rifamycin B as well as its toxicity against the host. Here, we proved that the export of rifamycin B was repressed by RifQ in Amycolatopsis mediterranei, and the RifQ-mediated repression could be specifically relieved by rifamycin B, the end product of rifamycin biosynthesis, based on which a feedback model was proposed for regulation of rifamycin export. With the findings here, one could improve the antibiotic yield by simply inactivating the negative regulator of the antibiotic transporter.

  13. Repression of inflammasome by Francisella tularensis during early stages of infection.

    PubMed

    Dotson, Rachel J; Rabadi, Seham M; Westcott, Elizabeth L; Bradley, Stephen; Catlett, Sally V; Banik, Sukalyani; Harton, Jonathan A; Bakshi, Chandra Shekhar; Malik, Meenakshi

    2013-08-16

    Francisella tularensis is an important human pathogen responsible for causing tularemia. F. tularensis has long been developed as a biological weapon and is now classified as a category A agent by the Centers for Disease Control because of its possible use as a bioterror agent. F. tularensis represses inflammasome; a cytosolic multi-protein complex that activates caspase-1 to produce proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. However, the Francisella factors and the mechanisms through which F. tularensis mediates these suppressive effects remain relatively unknown. Utilizing a mutant of F. tularensis in FTL_0325 gene, this study investigated the mechanisms of inflammasome repression by F. tularensis. We demonstrate that muted IL-1β and IL-18 responses generated in macrophages infected with F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) or the virulent SchuS4 strain are due to a predominant suppressive effect on TLR2-dependent signal 1. Our results also demonstrate that FTL_0325 of F. tularensis impacts proIL-1β expression as early as 2 h post-infection and delays activation of AIM2 and NLRP3-inflammasomes in a TLR2-dependent fashion. An enhanced activation of caspase-1 and IL-1β observed in FTL_0325 mutant-infected macrophages at 24 h post-infection was independent of both AIM2 and NLRP3. Furthermore, F. tularensis LVS delayed pyroptotic cell death of the infected macrophages in an FTL_0325-dependent manner during the early stages of infection. In vivo studies in mice revealed that suppression of IL-1β by FTL_0325 early during infection facilitates the establishment of a fulminate infection by F. tularensis. Collectively, this study provides evidence that F. tularensis LVS represses inflammasome activation and that F. tularensis-encoded FTL_0325 mediates this effect.

  14. Repression of Inflammasome by Francisella tularensis during Early Stages of Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Rachel J.; Rabadi, Seham M.; Westcott, Elizabeth L.; Bradley, Stephen; Catlett, Sally V.; Banik, Sukalyani; Harton, Jonathan A.; Bakshi, Chandra Shekhar; Malik, Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is an important human pathogen responsible for causing tularemia. F. tularensis has long been developed as a biological weapon and is now classified as a category A agent by the Centers for Disease Control because of its possible use as a bioterror agent. F. tularensis represses inflammasome; a cytosolic multi-protein complex that activates caspase-1 to produce proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. However, the Francisella factors and the mechanisms through which F. tularensis mediates these suppressive effects remain relatively unknown. Utilizing a mutant of F. tularensis in FTL_0325 gene, this study investigated the mechanisms of inflammasome repression by F. tularensis. We demonstrate that muted IL-1β and IL-18 responses generated in macrophages infected with F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) or the virulent SchuS4 strain are due to a predominant suppressive effect on TLR2-dependent signal 1. Our results also demonstrate that FTL_0325 of F. tularensis impacts proIL-1β expression as early as 2 h post-infection and delays activation of AIM2 and NLRP3-inflammasomes in a TLR2-dependent fashion. An enhanced activation of caspase-1 and IL-1β observed in FTL_0325 mutant-infected macrophages at 24 h post-infection was independent of both AIM2 and NLRP3. Furthermore, F. tularensis LVS delayed pyroptotic cell death of the infected macrophages in an FTL_0325-dependent manner during the early stages of infection. In vivo studies in mice revealed that suppression of IL-1β by FTL_0325 early during infection facilitates the establishment of a fulminate infection by F. tularensis. Collectively, this study provides evidence that F. tularensis LVS represses inflammasome activation and that F. tularensis-encoded FTL_0325 mediates this effect. PMID:23821549

  15. DDM1 represses noncoding RNA expression and RNA-directed DNA methylation in heterochromatin.

    PubMed

    Tan, Feng; Lu, Yue; Jiang, Wei; Zhao, Yu; Wu, Tian; Zhang, Ruoyu; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2018-05-24

    Cytosine methylation of DNA, which occurs at CG, CHG, and CHH (H=A, C, or T) sequences in plants, is a hallmark for epigenetic repression of repetitive sequences. The chromatin remodeling factor DECREASE IN DNA METHYLATION1 (DDM1) is essential for DNA methylation, especially at CG and CHG sequences. However, its potential role in RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) and in chromatin function is not completely understood in rice (Oryza sativa). In this work, we used high-throughput approaches to study the function of rice DDM1 (OsDDM1) in RdDM and the expression of non-coding RNA (ncRNA). We show that loss of function of OsDDM1 results in ectopic CHH methylation of transposable elements and repeats. The ectopic CHH methylation was dependent on rice DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE2 (OsDRM2), a DNA methyltransferase involved in RdDM. Mutations in OsDDM1 lead to decreases of histone H3K9me2 and increases in the levels of heterochromatic small RNA (sRNA) and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). In particular, OsDDM1 was found to be essential to repress transcription of the two repetitive sequences, Centromeric Retrotransposons of Rice1 (CRR1) and the dominant centromeric CentO repeats. These results suggest that OsDDM1 antagonizes RdDM at heterochromatin and represses tissue-specific expression of ncRNA from repetitive sequences in the rice genome. {copyright, serif} 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  16. Repressive LTR nucleosome positioning by the BAF complex is required for HIV latency.

    PubMed

    Rafati, Haleh; Parra, Maribel; Hakre, Shweta; Moshkin, Yuri; Verdin, Eric; Mahmoudi, Tokameh

    2011-11-01

    Persistence of a reservoir of latently infected memory T cells provides a barrier to HIV eradication in treated patients. Several reports have implicated the involvement of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes in restricting early steps in HIV infection, in coupling the processes of integration and remodeling, and in promoter/LTR transcription activation and repression. However, the mechanism behind the seemingly contradictory involvement of SWI/SNF in the HIV life cycle remains unclear. Here we addressed the role of SWI/SNF in regulation of the latent HIV LTR before and after transcriptional activation. We determined the predicted nucleosome affinity of the LTR sequence and found a striking reverse correlation when compared to the strictly positioned in vivo LTR nucleosomal structure; sequences encompassing the DNase hypersensitive regions displayed the highest nucleosome affinity, while the strictly positioned nucleosomes displayed lower affinity for nucleosome formation. To examine the mechanism behind this reverse correlation, we used a combinatorial approach to determine DNA accessibility, histone occupancy, and the unique recruitment and requirement of BAF and PBAF, two functionally distinct subclasses of SWI/SNF at the LTR of HIV-infected cells before and after activation. We find that establishment and maintenance of HIV latency requires BAF, which removes a preferred nucleosome from DHS1 to position the repressive nucleosome-1 over energetically sub-optimal sequences. Depletion of BAF resulted in de-repression of HIV latency concomitant with a dramatic alteration in the LTR nucleosome profile as determined by high resolution MNase nucleosomal mapping. Upon activation, BAF was lost from the HIV promoter, while PBAF was selectively recruited by acetylated Tat to facilitate LTR transcription. Thus BAF and PBAF, recruited during different stages of the HIV life cycle, display opposing function on the HIV promoter. Our data point to the ATP-dependent BRG1

  17. Repressive LTR Nucleosome Positioning by the BAF Complex Is Required for HIV Latency

    PubMed Central

    Hakre, Shweta; Moshkin, Yuri; Verdin, Eric; Mahmoudi, Tokameh

    2011-01-01

    Persistence of a reservoir of latently infected memory T cells provides a barrier to HIV eradication in treated patients. Several reports have implicated the involvement of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes in restricting early steps in HIV infection, in coupling the processes of integration and remodeling, and in promoter/LTR transcription activation and repression. However, the mechanism behind the seemingly contradictory involvement of SWI/SNF in the HIV life cycle remains unclear. Here we addressed the role of SWI/SNF in regulation of the latent HIV LTR before and after transcriptional activation. We determined the predicted nucleosome affinity of the LTR sequence and found a striking reverse correlation when compared to the strictly positioned in vivo LTR nucleosomal structure; sequences encompassing the DNase hypersensitive regions displayed the highest nucleosome affinity, while the strictly positioned nucleosomes displayed lower affinity for nucleosome formation. To examine the mechanism behind this reverse correlation, we used a combinatorial approach to determine DNA accessibility, histone occupancy, and the unique recruitment and requirement of BAF and PBAF, two functionally distinct subclasses of SWI/SNF at the LTR of HIV-infected cells before and after activation. We find that establishment and maintenance of HIV latency requires BAF, which removes a preferred nucleosome from DHS1 to position the repressive nucleosome-1 over energetically sub-optimal sequences. Depletion of BAF resulted in de-repression of HIV latency concomitant with a dramatic alteration in the LTR nucleosome profile as determined by high resolution MNase nucleosomal mapping. Upon activation, BAF was lost from the HIV promoter, while PBAF was selectively recruited by acetylated Tat to facilitate LTR transcription. Thus BAF and PBAF, recruited during different stages of the HIV life cycle, display opposing function on the HIV promoter. Our data point to the ATP-dependent BRG1

  18. An endothelial cell niche induces hepatic specification through dual repression of Wnt and Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Han, Songyan; Dziedzic, Noelle; Gadue, Paul; Keller, Gordon M.; Gouon-Evans, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Complex cross-talk between endoderm and the microenvironment is an absolute requirement to orchestrate hepatic specification and expansion. In the mouse, the septum transversum and cardiac mesoderm, through secreted BMPs and FGFs, respectively, instruct the adjacent ventral endoderm to become hepatic endoderm. Consecutively, endothelial cells promote expansion of the specified hepatic endoderm. Using a mouse reporter embryonic stem (ES) cell line in which hCD4 and hCD25 were targeted to the Foxa2 and Foxa3 loci, we reconstituted an in vitro culture system in which committed endoderm cells co-expressing hCD4-Foxa2 and hCD25-Foxa3 were isolated, and co-cultured with endothelial cells in the presence of BMP4 and bFGF. In this culture setting, we provide mechanistic evidence that endothelial cells function not only to promote hepatic endoderm expansion, but are also required at an earlier step for hepatic specification, at least in part through regulation of the Wnt and Notch pathways. Activation of Wnt and Notch by chemical or genetic approaches increases endoderm cell numbers but inhibits hepatic specification, and conversely, chemical inhibition of both pathways enhances hepatic specification and reduces proliferation. Using identical co-culture conditions, we defined a similar dependence of endoderm harvested from embryos on endothelial cells to support their growth and hepatic specification. Our findings (1) confirm a conserved role of Wnt repression for mouse hepatic specification, (2) uncover a novel role for Notch repression in the hepatic fate decision, and (3) demonstrate that repression of Wnt and Notch signaling in hepatic endoderm is controlled by the endothelial cell niche. PMID:21732480

  19. Maintaining human productivity during Mars transit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Billings, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the special nature of the human-machine relationship during a trip to Mars. In particular, the potential for monotony and boredom during a long-duration space voyage and the effect on motivation and productivity can be important considerations to the health and welfare of the crew. For the voyage to Mars, a design may be considered that will purposefully maintain some level of workload for the crew as a preventive measure for the deterioration of productivity that comes with boredom. This paper speculates on these considerations, on the appropriate level of workload for maximum productivity, and on what might be done during the mission to alleviate the problems caused by monotony and boredom.

  20. Maintaining technical excellence requires a national plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    To meet the challenge of technical excellence, AIA established a rocket propulsion committee to develop the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan. Developing such a plan required a broad spectrum of experience and disciplines. The Strategic Plan team needed the participation of industry, government, and academia. The plan provides, if followed, a means for the U.S. to maintain technical excellence and world leadership in rocket propulsion. To implement the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan is to invest in the social, economic, and technological futures of America. The plan lays the basis for upgrading existing propulsion systems and a firm base for future full scale development, production, and operation of rocket propulsion systems for space, defense, and commercial applications.

  1. [Maintaining solidarity: is mutuality the solution?].

    PubMed

    Gevers, J K M; Ploem, M C

    2013-01-01

    Solidarity is essentially the willingness to contribute to the community and its demands, which may even involve contributing more than one is expecting to receive. Another principle is mutuality: this refers to a balance between rights and obligations or between mutual obligations. In its advisory document 'The importance of mutuality......solidarity takes work!', The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care underlines the importance of ensuring solidarity within the Dutch health care system, e.g. by encouraging patients to take responsibility for their own health, possibly by introducing elements of mutuality. In our contribution, we comment on the Council's advice. Although we fully agree with the overall conclusion that solidarity should be maintained within the system, we do not see how the introduction of increased mutuality will contribute to this goal.

  2. Blimp-1 represses CD8 T cell expression of PD-1 using a feed-forward transcriptional circuit during acute viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Peiyuan; Youngblood, Benjamin A.; Austin, James W.; Rasheed Mohammed, Ata Ur; Butler, Royce; Ahmed, Rafi

    2014-01-01

    Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory immune receptor that regulates T cell function, yet the molecular events that control its expression are largely unknown. We show here that B lymphocyte–induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1)–deficient CD8 T cells fail to repress PD-1 during the early stages of CD8 T cell differentiation after acute infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) strain Armstrong. Blimp-1 represses PD-1 through a feed-forward repressive circuit by regulating PD-1 directly and by repressing NFATc1 expression, an activator of PD-1 expression. Blimp-1 binding induces a repressive chromatin structure at the PD-1 locus, leading to the eviction of NFATc1 from its site. These data place Blimp-1 at an important phase of the CD8 T cell effector response and provide a molecular mechanism for its repression of PD-1. PMID:24590765

  3. Balancing selection maintains cryptic colour morphs.

    PubMed

    Wellenreuther, Maren

    2017-11-01

    Animals display incredibly diverse colour patterns, a testament to evolution's endless innovation in shaping life. In many species, the interplay between males and females in the pursuit of mates has driven the evolution of a myriad of colour forms, from the flashy peacock tail feathers to the tiniest colour markings in damselflies. In others, colour provides crypsis by allowing to blend into the background and to escape the eyes of predators. While the obvious benefits of this dazzling diversity for reproduction and survival seem straightforward, its maintenance is not. Theory predicts that genetic drift and various forms of selection reduce variation over time, making the persistence of colour variants over generations a puzzle. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Lindtke et al. () study the cryptic colour morphs of Timema cristinae walking sticks to shed light on the genetic architecture and mechanisms that allow colour polymorphism maintenance over long timescales. By combining genome-wide data with phenotyping information from natural populations, they were able to map the green and melanistic colour to one genomic region with highly reduced effective recombination rate between two main chromosomal variants, consistent with an inversion polymorphism. These two main chromosomal variants showed geographically widespread heterozygote excess, and genomic signatures consistent with long-term balancing selection. A younger chromosomal variant was detected for the third morph, the green-striped colour morphs, in the same genomic regions as the melanistic and the green-unstriped morphs. Together, these results suggest that the genetic architecture of cryptic T. cristinae morphs is caused by nonrecombining genomic blocks that have been maintained over extended time periods by balancing selection making this study one of the few available empirical examples documenting that balancing selection of various forms may play an important role in maintaining adaptive genetic

  4. Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Regulates MiR-200b in Retinal Endothelial Cells: Potential Relevance in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Michael Anthony; Feng, Biao; Chakrabarti, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-induced augmented vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production is a key event in diabetic retinopathy. We have previously demonstrated that downregulation of miR-200b increases VEGF, mediating structural and functional changes in the retina in diabetes. However, mechanisms regulating miR-200b in diabetes are not known. Histone methyltransferase complex, Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), has been shown to repress miRNAs in neoplastic process. We hypothesized that, in diabetes, PRC2 represses miR-200b through its histone H3 lysine-27 trimethylation mark. We show that human retinal microvascular endothelial cells exposed to high levels of glucose regulate miR-200b repression through histone methylation and that inhibition of PRC2 increases miR-200b while reducing VEGF. Furthermore, retinal tissue from animal models of diabetes showed increased expression of major PRC2 components, demonstrating in vivo relevance. This research established a repressive relationship between PRC2 and miR-200b, providing evidence of a novel mechanism of miRNA regulation through histone methylation. PMID:25884496

  5. Mir-17-3p Controls Spinal Neural Progenitor Patterning by Regulating Olig2/Irx3 Cross-repressive Loop

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun-An; Huang, Yuan-Ping; Mazzoni, Esteban O.; Tan, G. Christopher; Zavadil, Jiri; Wichterle, Hynek

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Neural patterning relies on transcriptional cross-repressive interactions that ensure unequivocal assignment of neural progenitor identity to proliferating cells. Progenitors of spinal motor neurons (pMN) and V2 interneurons (p2) are specified by a pair of cross-repressive transcription factors Olig2 and Irx3. Lineage tracing revealed that many p2 progenitors transiently express the pMN marker Olig2 during spinal cord development. Here we demonstrate that the repression of Olig2 in p2 domain is controlled by mir-17-3p microRNA-mediated silencing of Olig2 mRNA. Mice lacking all microRNAs or just the mir-17~92 cluster manifest a dorsal shift in pMN/p2 boundary and impairment in the production of V2 interneurons. Our findings suggest that microRNA-mediated repression of Olig2 mRNA plays a critical role during the patterning of ventral spinal progenitor domains by shifting the balance of cross-repressive interactions between Olig2 and Irx3 transcription factors. PMID:21338882

  6. A noncoding RNA transcribed from the AGAMOUS (AG) second intron binds to CURLY LEAF and represses AG expression in leaves.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Wen; Deng, Shulin; Xu, Haiying; Mao, Hui-Zhu; Liu, Jun; Niu, Qi-Wen; Wang, Huan; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2018-06-04

    Dispersed H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) of the AGAMOUS (AG) genomic locus is mediated by CURLY LEAF (CLF), a component of the Polycomb Repressive Complex (PRC) 2. Previous reports have shown that the AG second intron, which confers AG tissue-specific expression, harbors sequences targeted by several positive and negative regulators. Using RACE reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we found that the AG intron 2 encodes several noncoding RNAs. RNAi experiment showed that incRNA4 is needed for CLF repressive activity. AG-incRNA4RNAi lines showed increased leaf AG mRNA levels associated with a decrease of H3K27me3 levels; these plants displayed AG overexpression phenotypes. Genetic and biochemical analyses demonstrated that the AG-incRNA4 can associate with CLF to repress AG expression in leaf tissues through H3K27me3-mediated repression and to autoregulate its own expression level. The mechanism of AG-incRNA4-mediated repression may be relevant to investigations on tissue-specific expression of Arabidopsis MADS-box genes. © 2018 The Authors New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Melanie Klein and Repression: an examination of some unpublished Notes of 1934.

    PubMed

    Hinshelwood, R D

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen pages of unpublished Notes were found in the Melanie Klein Archives dating from early 1934, a crucial moment in Klein's development. She was at this time, 1934, moving away from child analysis, whilst also rethinking and revising her allegiance to Karl Abraham's theory of the phases of libidinal development. These Notes, entitled "Early Repression Mechanism," show Klein struggling to develop what became her characteristic theories of the depressive position and the paranoid-schizoid position. Although these Notes are precursors of the paper Klein gave later to the IPA Congress in 1934, they also show the origins of the emphasis she and her followers eventually gave to "splitting" rather than repression. The Notes give us an insight into the way that she worked clinically at the time. We see Klein's confidence develop as she diverged from the classical theories and technique. Her ideas were based on close attention to the detail of her clinical material, rather than attacking theoretical problems directly. The Notes show her method of struggling to her own conclusions, and they offer us a chance to grasp the roots of the subsequent controversy over Kleinian thought.

  8. Age at earliest reported memory: associations with personality traits, behavioral health, and repression.

    PubMed

    Spirrison, C L; McCarley, N G

    2001-09-01

    The present study examined relationships between the age at earliest memory and the personality traits and behavioral health of 107 undergraduates. Participants answered questions on their earliest memory and completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and a medical history form. Analyses indicated that continuous scores on two MBTI scales (Sensing-Intuition and Judging-Perceiving) were inversely related to age at earliest memory as were participant's self-reported drug and alcohol problems, emotional and psychological symptoms, accident rates, physical symptoms, and satisfaction with health. Respondents who reported first memories at or after 7 years of age (i.e., approximately 1 SD above the mean age at recalled memory) were classified as repressors. Repressors scored in the Sensing and Judging directions on the MBTI and reported significantly fewer emotional symptoms, accidents, psychological symptoms, and less health satisfaction than nonrepressors. Results are consistent with the age at earliest memory and repression literature and support the use of earliest memory age as an index of repression.

  9. Repression of Virus-Induced Interferon A Promoters by Homeodomain Transcription Factor Ptx1

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Sébastien; Island, Marie-Laure; Drouin, Jacques; Bandu, Marie-Thérese; Christeff, Nicolas; Darracq, Nicole; Barbey, Régine; Doly, Janine; Thomas, Dominique; Navarro, Sébastien

    2000-01-01

    Interferon A (IFN-A) genes are differentially expressed after virus induction. The differential expression of individual IFN-A genes is modulated by substitutions in the proximal positive virus responsive element A (VRE-A) of their promoters and by the presence or absence of a distal negative regulatory element (DNRE). The functional feature of the DNRE is to specifically act by repression of VRE-A activity. With the use of the yeast one-hybrid system, we describe here the identification of a specific DNRE-binding protein, the pituitary homeobox 1 (Ptx1 or Pitx1). Ptx1 is detectable in different cell types that differentially express IFN-A genes, and the endogenous Ptx1 protein binds specifically to the DNRE. Upon virus induction, Ptx1 negatively regulates the transcription of DNRE-containing IFN-A promoters, and the C-terminal region, as well as the homeodomain of the Ptx1 protein, is required for this repression. After virus induction, the expression of the Ptx1 antisense RNA leads to a significant increase of endogenous IFN-A gene transcription and is able to modify the pattern of differential expression of individual IFN-A genes. These studies suggest that Ptx1 contributes to the differential transcriptional strength of the promoters of different IFN-A genes and that these genes may provide new targets for transcriptional regulation by a homeodomain transcription factor. PMID:11003649

  10. Neural Progenitors Adopt Specific Identities by Directly Repressing All Alternative Progenitor Transcriptional Programs.

    PubMed

    Kutejova, Eva; Sasai, Noriaki; Shah, Ankita; Gouti, Mina; Briscoe, James

    2016-03-21

    In the vertebrate neural tube, a morphogen-induced transcriptional network produces multiple molecularly distinct progenitor domains, each generating different neuronal subtypes. Using an in vitro differentiation system, we defined gene expression signatures of distinct progenitor populations and identified direct gene-regulatory inputs corresponding to locations of specific transcription factor binding. Combined with targeted perturbations of the network, this revealed a mechanism in which a progenitor identity is installed by active repression of the entire transcriptional programs of other neural progenitor fates. In the ventral neural tube, sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, together with broadly expressed transcriptional activators, concurrently activates the gene expression programs of several domains. The specific outcome is selected by repressive input provided by Shh-induced transcription factors that act as the key nodes in the network, enabling progenitors to adopt a single definitive identity from several initially permitted options. Together, the data suggest design principles relevant to many developing tissues. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Heterochromatin assembly and transcriptome repression by Set1 in coordination with a class II histone deacetylase

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, David R; Meyer, Lauren F; Grady, Patrick J R; Meyer, Michelle M; Cam, Hugh P

    2014-01-01

    Histone modifiers play essential roles in controlling transcription and organizing eukaryotic genomes into functional domains. Here, we show that Set1, the catalytic subunit of the highly conserved Set1C/COMPASS complex responsible for histone H3K4 methylation (H3K4me), behaves as a repressor of the transcriptome largely independent of Set1C and H3K4me in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Intriguingly, while Set1 is enriched at highly expressed and repressed loci, Set1 binding levels do not generally correlate with the levels of transcription. We show that Set1 is recruited by the ATF/CREB homolog Atf1 to heterochromatic loci and promoters of stress-response genes. Moreover, we demonstrate that Set1 coordinates with the class II histone deacetylase Clr3 in heterochromatin assembly at prominent chromosomal landmarks and repression of the transcriptome that includes Tf2 retrotransposons, noncoding RNAs, and regulators of development and stress-responses. Our study delineates a molecular framework for elucidating the functional links between transcriptome control and chromatin organization. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04506.001 PMID:25497836

  12. Repression of transcriptional activity of C/EBPalpha by E2F-dimerization partner complexes.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Katrin; Bégay, Valérie; Schuetz, Anja; Heinemann, Udo; Leutz, Achim

    2010-05-01

    The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) coordinates proliferation arrest and the differentiation of myeloid progenitors, adipocytes, hepatocytes, keratinocytes, and cells of the lung and placenta. C/EBPalpha transactivates lineage-specific differentiation genes and inhibits proliferation by repressing E2F-regulated genes. The myeloproliferative C/EBPalpha BRM2 mutant serves as a paradigm for recurrent human C-terminal bZIP C/EBPalpha mutations that are involved in acute myeloid leukemogenesis. BRM2 fails to repress E2F and to induce adipogenesis and granulopoiesis. The data presented here show that, independently of pocket proteins, C/EBPalpha interacts with the dimerization partner (DP) of E2F and that C/EBPalpha-E2F/DP interaction prevents both binding of C/EBPalpha to its cognate sites on DNA and transactivation of C/EBP target genes. The BRM2 mutant, in addition, exhibits enhanced interaction with E2F-DP and reduced affinity toward DNA and yet retains transactivation potential and differentiation competence that becomes exposed when E2F/DP levels are low. Our data suggest a tripartite balance between C/EBPalpha, E2F/DP, and pocket proteins in the control of proliferation, differentiation, and tumorigenesis.

  13. Global DNA hypomethylation coupled to repressive chromatin domain formation and gene silencing in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hon, Gary C.; Hawkins, R. David; Caballero, Otavia L.; Lo, Christine; Lister, Ryan; Pelizzola, Mattia; Valsesia, Armand; Ye, Zhen; Kuan, Samantha; Edsall, Lee E.; Camargo, Anamaria Aranha; Stevenson, Brian J.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Bafna, Vineet; Strausberg, Robert L.; Simpson, Andrew J.; Ren, Bing

    2012-01-01

    While genetic mutation is a hallmark of cancer, many cancers also acquire epigenetic alterations during tumorigenesis including aberrant DNA hypermethylation of tumor suppressors, as well as changes in chromatin modifications as caused by genetic mutations of the chromatin-modifying machinery. However, the extent of epigenetic alterations in cancer cells has not been fully characterized. Here, we describe complete methylome maps at single nucleotide resolution of a low-passage breast cancer cell line and primary human mammary epithelial cells. We find widespread DNA hypomethylation in the cancer cell, primarily at partially methylated domains (PMDs) in normal breast cells. Unexpectedly, genes within these regions are largely silenced in cancer cells. The loss of DNA methylation in these regions is accompanied by formation of repressive chromatin, with a significant fraction displaying allelic DNA methylation where one allele is DNA methylated while the other allele is occupied by histone modifications H3K9me3 or H3K27me3. Our results show a mutually exclusive relationship between DNA methylation and H3K9me3 or H3K27me3. These results suggest that global DNA hypomethylation in breast cancer is tightly linked to the formation of repressive chromatin domains and gene silencing, thus identifying a potential epigenetic pathway for gene regulation in cancer cells. PMID:22156296

  14. Anchoring of Heterochromatin to the Nuclear Lamina Reinforces Dosage Compensation-Mediated Gene Repression.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Martha J; Lau, Alyssa C; Brouhard, Elizabeth A; Davis, Michael B; Jiang, Jianhao; Sifuentes, Margarita H; Csankovszki, Györgyi

    2016-09-01

    Higher order chromosome structure and nuclear architecture can have profound effects on gene regulation. We analyzed how compartmentalizing the genome by tethering heterochromatic regions to the nuclear lamina affects dosage compensation in the nematode C. elegans. In this organism, the dosage compensation complex (DCC) binds both X chromosomes of hermaphrodites to repress transcription two-fold, thus balancing gene expression between XX hermaphrodites and XO males. X chromosome structure is disrupted by mutations in DCC subunits. Using X chromosome paint fluorescence microscopy, we found that X chromosome structure and subnuclear localization are also disrupted when the mechanisms that anchor heterochromatin to the nuclear lamina are defective. Strikingly, the heterochromatic left end of the X chromosome is less affected than the gene-rich middle region, which lacks heterochromatic anchors. These changes in X chromosome structure and subnuclear localization are accompanied by small, but significant levels of derepression of X-linked genes as measured by RNA-seq, without any observable defects in DCC localization and DCC-mediated changes in histone modifications. We propose a model in which heterochromatic tethers on the left arm of the X cooperate with the DCC to compact and peripherally relocate the X chromosomes, contributing to gene repression.

  15. Anchoring of Heterochromatin to the Nuclear Lamina Reinforces Dosage Compensation-Mediated Gene Repression

    PubMed Central

    Brouhard, Elizabeth A.; Jiang, Jianhao; Sifuentes, Margarita H.

    2016-01-01

    Higher order chromosome structure and nuclear architecture can have profound effects on gene regulation. We analyzed how compartmentalizing the genome by tethering heterochromatic regions to the nuclear lamina affects dosage compensation in the nematode C. elegans. In this organism, the dosage compensation complex (DCC) binds both X chromosomes of hermaphrodites to repress transcription two-fold, thus balancing gene expression between XX hermaphrodites and XO males. X chromosome structure is disrupted by mutations in DCC subunits. Using X chromosome paint fluorescence microscopy, we found that X chromosome structure and subnuclear localization are also disrupted when the mechanisms that anchor heterochromatin to the nuclear lamina are defective. Strikingly, the heterochromatic left end of the X chromosome is less affected than the gene-rich middle region, which lacks heterochromatic anchors. These changes in X chromosome structure and subnuclear localization are accompanied by small, but significant levels of derepression of X-linked genes as measured by RNA-seq, without any observable defects in DCC localization and DCC-mediated changes in histone modifications. We propose a model in which heterochromatic tethers on the left arm of the X cooperate with the DCC to compact and peripherally relocate the X chromosomes, contributing to gene repression. PMID:27690361

  16. Transcriptional repression mediated by repositioning of genes to the nuclear lamina.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K L; Zullo, J M; Bertolino, E; Singh, H

    2008-03-13

    Nuclear compartmentalization seems to have an important role in regulating metazoan genes. Although studies on immunoglobulin and other loci have shown a correlation between positioning at the nuclear lamina and gene repression, the functional consequences of this compartmentalization remain untested. We devised an approach for inducible tethering of genes to the inner nuclear membrane (INM), and tested the consequences of such repositioning on gene activity in mouse fibroblasts. Here, using three-dimensional DNA-immunoFISH, we demonstrate repositioning of chromosomal regions to the nuclear lamina that is dependent on breakdown and reformation of the nuclear envelope during mitosis. Moreover, tethering leads to the accumulation of lamin and INM proteins, but not to association with pericentromeric heterochromatin or nuclear pore complexes. Recruitment of genes to the INM can result in their transcriptional repression. Finally, we use targeted adenine methylation (DamID) to show that, as is the case for our model system, inactive immunoglobulin loci at the nuclear periphery are contacted by INM and lamina proteins. We propose that these molecular interactions may be used to compartmentalize and to limit the accessibility of immunoglobulin loci to transcription and recombination factors.

  17. let-7 Contributes to Diabetic Retinopathy but Represses Pathological Ocular Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qinbo; Frost, Robert J. A.; Anderson, Chastain; Zhao, Fangkun; Ma, Jing; Yu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The in vivo function of microRNAs (miRs) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) remains unclear. We report here that let-7 family members are expressed in retinal and choroidal endothelial cells (ECs). In ECs, overexpression of let-7 by adenovirus represses EC proliferation, migration, and networking in vitro, whereas inhibition of the let-7 family with a locked nucleic acid (LNA)–anti-miR has the opposite effect. Mechanistically, silencing of the let-7 target HMGA2 gene mimics the phenotype of let-7 overexpression in ECs. let-7 transgenic (let-7-Tg) mice show features of nonproliferative DR, including tortuous retinal vessels and defective pericyte coverage. However, these mice develop significantly less choroidal neovascularization (CNV) compared to wild-type controls after laser injury. Consistently, silencing of let-7 in the eye increased laser-induced CNV in wild-type mice. Together, our data establish a causative role of let-7 in nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and a repressive function of let-7 in pathological angiogenesis, suggesting distinct implications of let-7 in the pathogenesis of DR and AMD. PMID:28584193

  18. Repression of cell proliferation by miR319-regulated TCP4.

    PubMed

    Schommer, Carla; Debernardi, Juan M; Bresso, Edgardo G; Rodriguez, Ramiro E; Palatnik, Javier F

    2014-10-01

    Leaf development has been extensively studied on a genetic level. However, little is known about the interplay between the developmental regulators and the cell cycle machinery--a link that ultimately affects leaf form and size. miR319 is a conserved microRNA that regulates TCP transcription factors involved in multiple developmental pathways, including leaf development and senescence, organ curvature, and hormone biosynthesis and signaling. Here, we analyze the participation of TCP4 in the control of cell proliferation. A small increase in TCP4 activity has an immediate impact on leaf cell number, by significantly reducing cell proliferation. Plants with high TCP4 levels have a strong reduction in the expression of genes known to be active in G2-M phase of the cell cycle. Part of these effects is mediated by induction of miR396, which represses Growth-Regulating Factor (GRF) transcription factors. Detailed analysis revealed TCP4 to be a direct regulator of MIR396b. However, we found that TCP4 can control cell proliferation through additional pathways, and we identified a direct connection between TCP4 and ICK1/KRP1, a gene involved in the progression of the cell cycle. Our results show that TCP4 can activate different pathways that repress cell proliferation. © The Author 2014. Published by the Molecular Plant Shanghai Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of CSPB and IPPE, SIBS, CAS.

  19. CHES1/FOXN3 regulates cell proliferation by repressing PIM2 and protein biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Huot, Geneviève; Vernier, Mathieu; Bourdeau, Véronique; Doucet, Laurent; Saint-Germain, Emmanuelle; Gaumont-Leclerc, Marie-France; Moro, Alejandro; Ferbeyre, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The expression of the forkhead transcription factor checkpoint suppressor 1 (CHES1), also known as FOXN3, is reduced in many types of cancers. We show here that CHES1 decreases protein synthesis and cell proliferation in tumor cell lines but not in normal fibroblasts. Conversely, short hairpin RNA–mediated depletion of CHES1 increases tumor cell proliferation. Growth suppression depends on the CHES1 forkhead DNA-binding domain and correlates with the nuclear localization of CHES1. CHES1 represses the expression of multiple genes, including the kinases PIM2 and DYRK3, which regulate protein biosynthesis, and a number of genes in cilium biogenesis. CHES1 binds directly to the promoter of PIM2, and in cells expressing CHES1 the levels of PIM2 are reduced, as well as the phosphorylation of the PIM2 target 4EBP1. Overexpression of PIM2 or eIF4E partially reverses the antiproliferative effect of CHES1, indicating that PIM2 and protein biosynthesis are important targets of the antiproliferative effect of CHES1. In several human hematopoietic cancers, CHES1 and PIM2 expressions are inversely correlated, suggesting that repression of PIM2 by CHES1 is clinically relevant. PMID:24403608

  20. CHES1/FOXN3 regulates cell proliferation by repressing PIM2 and protein biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Huot, Geneviève; Vernier, Mathieu; Bourdeau, Véronique; Doucet, Laurent; Saint-Germain, Emmanuelle; Gaumont-Leclerc, Marie-France; Moro, Alejandro; Ferbeyre, Gerardo

    2014-03-01

    The expression of the forkhead transcription factor checkpoint suppressor 1 (CHES1), also known as FOXN3, is reduced in many types of cancers. We show here that CHES1 decreases protein synthesis and cell proliferation in tumor cell lines but not in normal fibroblasts. Conversely, short hairpin RNA-mediated depletion of CHES1 increases tumor cell proliferation. Growth suppression depends on the CHES1 forkhead DNA-binding domain and correlates with the nuclear localization of CHES1. CHES1 represses the expression of multiple genes, including the kinases PIM2 and DYRK3, which regulate protein biosynthesis, and a number of genes in cilium biogenesis. CHES1 binds directly to the promoter of PIM2, and in cells expressing CHES1 the levels of PIM2 are reduced, as well as the phosphorylation of the PIM2 target 4EBP1. Overexpression of PIM2 or eIF4E partially reverses the antiproliferative effect of CHES1, indicating that PIM2 and protein biosynthesis are important targets of the antiproliferative effect of CHES1. In several human hematopoietic cancers, CHES1 and PIM2 expressions are inversely correlated, suggesting that repression of PIM2 by CHES1 is clinically relevant.

  1. Repression of the interleukin 6 gene promoter by p53 and the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanam, U.; Ray, A.; Sehgal, P.B.

    1991-09-01

    The aberrant overexpression of interleukin 6 (IL-6) is implicated as an autocrine mechanism in the enhanced proliferation of the neoplastic cell elements in various B- and T-cell malignancies and in some carcinomas and sarcomas; many of these neoplasms have been shown to be associated with a mutated p53 gene. The possibility that wild-type (wt) p53, a nuclear tumor-suppressor protein, but not its transforming mutants might serve to repress IL-6 gene expression was investigated in HeLa cells. The authors transiently cotransfected these cells with constitutive cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer/promoter expression plasmids overproducing wt or mutant human or murine p53 and with appropriatemore » chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter plasmids containing the promoter elements of human IL-6, c-fos, or {beta}-actin genes or of porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I gene in pN-38 to evaluate the effect of the various p53 species on these promoters. These observations identify transcriptional repression as a property of p53 and suggest that p53 and RB may be involved as transcriptional repressors in modulating IL-6 gene expression during cellular differentiation and oncogenesis.« less

  2. Low doses of Paclitaxel repress breast cancer invasion through DJ-1/KLF17 signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ismail Ahmed; El-Sokkary, Gamal H; Saber, Saber H

    2018-04-27

    Paclitaxel (taxol) is an important agent against many tumours, including breast cancer. Ample data documents that paclitaxel inhibits breast cancer metastasis while others prove that paclitaxel enhances breast cancer metastasis. The mechanisms by which paclitaxel exerts its action are not well established. This study focuses on the effect of paclitaxel, particularly the low doses on breast cancer metastasis and the mechanisms that regulate it. Current results show that, paclitaxel exerts significant cytotoxicity even at low doses in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Interestingly, paclitaxel significantly inhibits cell invasion and migration, decreases Snail and increases E-cadherin mRNA expression levels at the indicated low doses. Furthermore, paclitaxel-inhibiting breast cancer metastasis is associated with down-regulation of DJ-1 and ID-1 mRNA expression level with a concurrent increase in KLF17 expression. Under the same experimental conditions, paclitaxel induces KLF17 and concurrently represses ID-1 protein levels. Our results show for the first time that paclitaxel inhibits breast cancer metastasis through regulating DJ-1/KLF17/ID-1 signalling pathway; repressed DJ-1 and ID-1 and enhanced KLF17 expression. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. mTORC1 activity repression by late endosomal phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Marat, Andrea L; Wallroth, Alexander; Lo, Wen-Ting; Müller, Rainer; Norata, Giuseppe Danilo; Falasca, Marco; Schultz, Carsten; Haucke, Volker

    2017-06-02

    Nutrient sensing by mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) on lysosomes and late endosomes (LyLEs) regulates cell growth. Many factors stimulate mTORC1 activity, including the production of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P 3 ] by class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) at the plasma membrane. We investigated mechanisms that repress mTORC1 under conditions of growth factor deprivation. We identified phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P 2 ], synthesized by class II PI3K β (PI3KC2β) at LyLEs, as a negative regulator of mTORC1, whereas loss of PI3KC2β hyperactivated mTORC1. Growth factor deprivation induced the association of PI3KC2β with the Raptor subunit of mTORC1. Local PI(3,4)P 2 synthesis triggered repression of mTORC1 activity through association of Raptor with inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins. These results unravel an unexpected function for local PI(3,4)P 2 production in shutting off mTORC1. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. SH003 represses tumor angiogenesis by blocking VEGF binding to VEGFR2

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyeong Sim; Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Kangwook; Lee, Kang Min; Choi, Youn Kyung; Shin, Yong Cheol; Cho, Sung-Gook; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is a key feature of cancer progression, because a tumor requires abundant oxygen and nutrition to grow. Here, we demonstrate that SH003, a mixed herbal extract containing Astragalus membranaceus (Am), Angelica gigas (Ag) and Trichosanthes Kirilowii Maximowicz (Tk), represses VEGF-induced tumor angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. SH003 inhibited VEGF-induced migration, invasion and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with no effect on the proliferation. SH003 reduced CD31-positive vessel numbers in tumor tissues and retarded tumor growth in our xenograft mouse tumor model, while SH003 did not affect pancreatic tumor cell viability. Consistently, SH003 inhibited VEGF-stimulated vascular permeability in ears and back skins. Moreover, SH003 inhibited VEGF-induced VEGFR2-dependent signaling by blocking VEGF binding to VEGFR2. Therefore, our data conclude that SH003 represses tumor angiogenesis by inhibiting VEGF-induced VEGFR2 activation, and suggest that SH003 may be useful for treating cancer. PMID:27105528

  5. Cell type-specific translational repression of Cyclin B during meiosis in males.

    PubMed

    Baker, Catherine Craig; Gim, Byung Soo; Fuller, Margaret T

    2015-10-01

    The unique cell cycle dynamics of meiosis are controlled by layers of regulation imposed on core mitotic cell cycle machinery components by the program of germ cell development. Although the mechanisms that regulate Cdk1/Cyclin B activity in meiosis in oocytes have been well studied, little is known about the trans-acting factors responsible for developmental control of these factors in male gametogenesis. During meiotic prophase in Drosophila males, transcript for the core cell cycle protein Cyclin B1 (CycB) is expressed in spermatocytes, but the protein does not accumulate in spermatocytes until just before the meiotic divisions. Here, we show that two interacting proteins, Rbp4 and Fest, expressed at the onset of spermatocyte differentiation under control of the developmental program of male gametogenesis, function to direct cell type- and stage-specific repression of translation of the core G2/M cell cycle component cycB during the specialized cell cycle of male meiosis. Binding of Fest to Rbp4 requires a 31-amino acid region within Rbp4. Rbp4 and Fest are required for translational repression of cycB in immature spermatocytes, with Rbp4 binding sequences in a cell type-specific shortened form of the cycB 3' UTR. Finally, we show that Fest is required for proper execution of meiosis I. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Ski represses bone morphogenic protein signaling in Xenopus and mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Mariani, Francesca V.; Harland, Richard M.; Luo, Kunxin

    2000-01-01

    The bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in vertebrate development. In Xenopus, BMPs act as epidermal inducers and also as negative regulators of neurogenesis. Antagonism of BMP signaling results in neuralization. BMPs signal through the cell-surface receptors and downstream Smad molecules. Upon stimulation with BMP, Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 are phosphorylated by the activated BMP receptors, form a complex with Smad4, and translocate into the nucleus, where they regulate the expression of BMP target genes. Here, we show that the Ski oncoprotein can block BMP signaling and the expression of BMP-responsive genes in both Xenopus and mammalian cells by directly interacting with and repressing the activity of BMP-specific Smad complexes. This ability to antagonize BMP signaling results in neuralization by Ski in the Xenopus embryo and blocking of osteoblast differentiation of murine W-20-17 cells. Thus, Ski is able to repress the activity of all receptor-associated Smads and may regulate vertebrate development by modulating the signaling activity of transforming growth factor-β family members. PMID:11121043

  7. The Ski oncoprotein interacts with the Smad proteins to repress TGFbeta signaling.

    PubMed

    Luo, K; Stroschein, S L; Wang, W; Chen, D; Martens, E; Zhou, S; Zhou, Q

    1999-09-01

    Smad proteins are critical signal transducers downstream of the receptors of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) superfamily. On phosphorylation and activation by the active TGFbeta receptor complex, Smad2 and Smad3 form hetero-oligomers with Smad4 and translocate into the nucleus, where they interact with different cellular partners, bind to DNA, regulate transcription of various downstream response genes, and cross-talk with other signaling pathways. Here we show that a nuclear oncoprotein, Ski, can interact directly with Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 on a TGFbeta-responsive promoter element and repress their abilities to activate transcription through recruitment of the nuclear transcriptional corepressor N-CoR and possibly its associated histone deacetylase complex. Overexpression of Ski in a TGFbeta-responsive cell line renders it resistant to TGFbeta-induced growth inhibition and defective in activation of JunB expression. This ability to overcome TGFbeta-induced growth arrest may be responsible for the transforming activity of Ski in human and avian cancer cells. Our studies suggest a new paradigm for inactivation of the Smad proteins by an oncoprotein through transcriptional repression.

  8. The Ski oncoprotein interacts with the Smad proteins to repress TGFβ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Kunxin; Stroschein, Shannon L.; Wang, Wei; Chen, Dan; Martens, Eric; Zhou, Sharleen; Zhou, Qiang

    1999-01-01

    Smad proteins are critical signal transducers downstream of the receptors of the transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) superfamily. On phosphorylation and activation by the active TGFβ receptor complex, Smad2 and Smad3 form hetero-oligomers with Smad4 and translocate into the nucleus, where they interact with different cellular partners, bind to DNA, regulate transcription of various downstream response genes, and cross-talk with other signaling pathways. Here we show that a nuclear oncoprotein, Ski, can interact directly with Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 on a TGFβ-responsive promoter element and repress their abilities to activate transcription through recruitment of the nuclear transcriptional corepressor N-CoR and possibly its associated histone deacetylase complex. Overexpression of Ski in a TGFβ-responsive cell line renders it resistant to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition and defective in activation of JunB expression. This ability to overcome TGFβ-induced growth arrest may be responsible for the transforming activity of Ski in human and avian cancer cells. Our studies suggest a new paradigm for inactivation of the Smad proteins by an oncoprotein through transcriptional repression. PMID:10485843

  9. Ski represses bone morphogenic protein signaling in Xenopus and mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Mariani, F V; Harland, R M; Luo, K

    2000-12-19

    The bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in vertebrate development. In Xenopus, BMPs act as epidermal inducers and also as negative regulators of neurogenesis. Antagonism of BMP signaling results in neuralization. BMPs signal through the cell-surface receptors and downstream Smad molecules. Upon stimulation with BMP, Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 are phosphorylated by the activated BMP receptors, form a complex with Smad4, and translocate into the nucleus, where they regulate the expression of BMP target genes. Here, we show that the Ski oncoprotein can block BMP signaling and the expression of BMP-responsive genes in both Xenopus and mammalian cells by directly interacting with and repressing the activity of BMP-specific Smad complexes. This ability to antagonize BMP signaling results in neuralization by Ski in the Xenopus embryo and blocking of osteoblast differentiation of murine W-20-17 cells. Thus, Ski is able to repress the activity of all receptor-associated Smads and may regulate vertebrate development by modulating the signaling activity of transforming growth factor-beta family members.

  10. Repression of protein translation and mTOR signaling by proteasome inhibitor in colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, William Ka Kei, E-mail: wukakei@cuhk.edu.hk; Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

    2009-09-04

    Protein homeostasis relies on a balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a major catabolic pathway for protein degradation. In this respect, proteasome inhibition has been used therapeutically for the treatment of cancer. Whether inhibition of protein degradation by proteasome inhibitor can repress protein translation via a negative feedback mechanism, however, is unknown. In this study, proteasome inhibitor MG-132 lowered the proliferation of colon cancer cells HT-29 and SW1116. In this connection, MG-132 reduced the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) at Ser2448 and Ser2481 and the phosphorylation of its downstream targets 4E-BP1 and p70/p85more » S6 kinases. Further analysis revealed that MG-132 inhibited protein translation as evidenced by the reductions of {sup 35}S-methionine incorporation and polysomes/80S ratio. Knockdown of raptor, a structural component of mTOR complex 1, mimicked the anti-proliferative effect of MG-132. To conclude, we demonstrate that the inhibition of protein degradation by proteasome inhibitor represses mTOR signaling and protein translation in colon cancer cells.« less

  11. Pax6 Represses Androgen Receptor-Mediated Transactivation by Inhibiting Recruitment of the Coactivator SPBP

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Sylvia Sagen; Kaino, Katrine; Sjøttem, Eva; Johansen, Terje

    2011-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) has a central role in development and maintenance of the male reproductive system and in the etiology of prostate cancer. The transcription factor Pax6 has recently been reported to act as a repressor of AR and to be hypermethylated in prostate cancer cells. SPBP is a transcriptional regulator that previously has been shown to enhance the activity of Pax6. In this study we have identified SPBP to act as a transcriptional coactivator of AR. We also show that Pax6 inhibits SPBP-mediated enhancement of AR activity on the AR target gene probasin promoter, a repression that was partly reversed by increased expression of SPBP. Enhanced expression of Pax6 reduced the amount of SPBP associated with the probasin promoter when assayed by ChIP in HeLa cells. We mapped the interaction between both AR and SPBP, and AR and Pax6 to the DNA-binding domains of the involved proteins. Further binding studies revealed that Pax6 and SPBP compete for binding to AR. These results suggest that Pax6 represses AR activity by displacing and/or inhibiting recruitment of coactivators to AR target promoters. Understanding the mechanism for inhibition of AR coactivators can give rise to molecular targeted drugs for treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:21935435

  12. Military westernization and state repression in the post-Cold War era.

    PubMed

    Swed, Ori; Weinreb, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The waves of unrest that have shaken the Arab world since December 2010 have highlighted significant differences in the readiness of the military to intervene in political unrest by forcefully suppressing dissent. We suggest that in the post-Cold War period, this readiness is inversely associated with the level of military westernization, which is a product of the acquisition of arms from western countries. We identify two mechanisms linking the acquisition of arms from western countries to less repressive responses: dependence and conditionality; and a longer-term diffusion of ideologies regarding the proper form of civil-military relations. Empirical support for our hypothesis is found in an analysis of 2523 cases of government response to political unrest in 138 countries in the 1996-2005 period. We find that military westernization mitigates state repression in general, with more pronounced effects in the poorest countries. However, we also identify substantial differences between the pre- and post-9/11 periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Repression of class I transcription by cadmium is mediated by the protein phosphatase 2A

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lei; Le Roux, Gwenaëlle; Ducrot, Cécile; Chédin, Stéphane; Labarre, Jean; Riva, Michel; Carles, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Toxic metals are part of our environment, and undue exposure to them leads to a variety of pathologies. In response, most organisms adapt their metabolism and have evolved systems to limit this toxicity and to acquire tolerance. Ribosome biosynthesis being central for protein synthesis, we analyzed in yeast the effects of a moderate concentration of cadmium (Cd2+) on Pol I transcription that represents >60% of the transcriptional activity of the cells. We show that Cd2+ rapidly and drastically shuts down the expression of the 35S rRNA. Repression does not result from a poisoning of any of the components of the class I transcriptional machinery by Cd2+, but rather involves a protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-dependent cellular signaling pathway that targets the formation/dissociation of the Pol I–Rrn3 complex. We also show that Pol I transcription is repressed by other toxic metals, such as Ag+ and Hg2+, which likewise perturb the Pol I–Rrn3 complex, but through PP2A-independent mechanisms. Taken together, our results point to a central role for the Pol I–Rrn3 complex as molecular switch for regulating Pol I transcription in response to toxic metals. PMID:23640330

  14. Identification of two bvg-repressed surface proteins of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Stenson, T H; Peppler, M S

    1995-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the etiological agent of whooping cough, has the ability to modulate its phenotype in response to environmental conditions by using the BvgAS sensory transduction system which is encoded by the vir locus (now known as bvg). The BvgAS system is part of a large family of two-component sensory transduction systems which are common to a number of pathogenic bacteria. Although much is known about the proteins which exist in the B. pertussis virulent (X-mode or phase I) phenotype, relatively little is known about the proteins produced in the avirulent (C-mode or phase III) phenotype. We used sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing techniques to demonstrate the existence of at least 22 vir-repressed molecules which are increased in the avirulent phenotype. In addition, a series of monoclonal antibodies which are specific for the surface of avirulent B. pertussis were developed. Using immunological and protein techniques, we characterized two of these antigens as surface-exposed proteins. One of these antigens is expressed only in B. pertussis but not in the related species B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica. The other antigen is also present in B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica but is expressed at lower levels which are not regulated by bvg. The identification and characterization of vir-repressed proteins (and the genes which encode and regulate them) may help elucidate a physiological role for modulation of this obligate human pathogen. PMID:7558280

  15. A common bacterial metabolite elicits prion-based bypass of glucose repression

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David M; Dietrich, David; Clardy, Jon; Jarosz, Daniel F

    2016-01-01

    Robust preference for fermentative glucose metabolism has motivated domestication of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This program can be circumvented by a protein-based genetic element, the [GAR+] prion, permitting simultaneous metabolism of glucose and other carbon sources. Diverse bacteria can elicit yeast cells to acquire [GAR+], although the molecular details of this interaction remain unknown. Here we identify the common bacterial metabolite lactic acid as a strong [GAR+] inducer. Transient exposure to lactic acid caused yeast cells to heritably circumvent glucose repression. This trait had the defining genetic properties of [GAR+], and did not require utilization of lactic acid as a carbon source. Lactic acid also induced [GAR+]-like epigenetic states in fungi that diverged from S. cerevisiae ~200 million years ago, and in which glucose repression evolved independently. To our knowledge, this is the first study to uncover a bacterial metabolite with the capacity to potently induce a prion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17978.001 PMID:27906649

  16. Arctigenin represses TGF-β-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanrui; Lou, Zhiyuan; Lee, Seong-Ho

    2017-11-18

    Arctigenin (ARC) is a lignan that is abundant in Asteraceae plants, which show anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. The current study investigated whether ARC affects cancer progression and metastasis, focusing on EMT using invasive human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. No toxicity was observed in the cells treated with different doses of ARC (12-100 μM). The treatment of ARC repressed TGF-β-stimulated changes of metastatic morphology and cell invasion and migration. ARC inhibited TGF-β-induced phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of smad2/3, and expression of snail. ARC also decreased expression of N-cadherin and increased expression of E-cadherin in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners. These changes were accompanied by decreased amount of phospho-smad2/3 in nucleus and nuclear translocation of smad2/3. Moreover, ARC repressed TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of ERK and transcriptional activity of β-catenin. Our data demonstrate anti-metastatic activity of ARC in lung cancer model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Time-series analysis of the transcriptome and proteome of Escherichia coli upon glucose repression.

    PubMed

    Borirak, Orawan; Rolfe, Matthew D; de Koning, Leo J; Hoefsloot, Huub C J; Bekker, Martijn; Dekker, Henk L; Roseboom, Winfried; Green, Jeffrey; de Koster, Chris G; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    2015-10-01

    Time-series transcript- and protein-profiles were measured upon initiation of carbon catabolite repression in Escherichia coli, in order to investigate the extent of post-transcriptional control in this prototypical response. A glucose-limited chemostat culture was used as the CCR-free reference condition. Stopping the pump and simultaneously adding a pulse of glucose, that saturated the cells for at least 1h, was used to initiate the glucose response. Samples were collected and subjected to quantitative time-series analysis of both the transcriptome (using microarray analysis) and the proteome (through a combination of 15N-metabolic labeling and mass spectrometry). Changes in the transcriptome and corresponding proteome were analyzed using statistical procedures designed specifically for time-series data. By comparison of the two sets of data, a total of 96 genes were identified that are post-transcriptionally regulated. This gene list provides candidates for future in-depth investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved in post-transcriptional regulation during carbon catabolite repression in E. coli, like the involvement of small RNAs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Translation of 5′ leaders is pervasive in genes resistant to eIF2 repression

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Ciara; Kenny, Elaine M; Terenin, Ilya M; Dmitriev, Sergey E; Cormican, Paul; Morris, Derek W; Shatsky, Ivan N; Baranov, Pavel V

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells rapidly reduce protein synthesis in response to various stress conditions. This can be achieved by the phosphorylation-mediated inactivation of a key translation initiation factor, eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2). However, the persistent translation of certain mRNAs is required for deployment of an adequate stress response. We carried out ribosome profiling of cultured human cells under conditions of severe stress induced with sodium arsenite. Although this led to a 5.4-fold general translational repression, the protein coding open reading frames (ORFs) of certain individual mRNAs exhibited resistance to the inhibition. Nearly all resistant transcripts possess at least one efficiently translated upstream open reading frame (uORF) that represses translation of the main coding ORF under normal conditions. Site-specific mutagenesis of two identified stress resistant mRNAs (PPP1R15B and IFRD1) demonstrated that a single uORF is sufficient for eIF2-mediated translation control in both cases. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that at least two regulatory uORFs (namely, in SLC35A4 and MIEF1) encode functional protein products. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03971.001 PMID:25621764

  19. Targeting MUC1-C suppresses polycomb repressive complex 1 in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Tagde, Ashujit; Markert, Tahireh; Rajabi, Hasan; Hiraki, Masayuki; Alam, Maroof; Bouillez, Audrey; Avigan, David; Anderson, Kenneth; Kufe, Donald

    2017-09-19

    The polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) includes the BMI1, RING1 and RING2 proteins. BMI1 is required for survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. The MUC1-C oncoprotein is aberrantly expressed by MM cells, activates MYC and is also necessary for MM cell survival. The present studies show that targeting MUC1-C with (i) stable and inducible silencing and CRISPR/Cas9 editing and (ii) the pharmacologic inhibitor GO-203, which blocks MUC1-C function, downregulates BMI1, RING1 and RING2 expression. The results demonstrate that MUC1-C drives BMI1 transcription by a MYC-dependent mechanism. MUC1-C thus promotes MYC occupancy on the BMI1 promoter and thereby activates BMI1 expression. We also show that the MUC1-C→MYC pathway induces RING2 expression. Moreover, in contrast to BMI1 and RING2, we found that MUC1-C drives RING1 by an NF-κB p65-dependent mechanism. Targeting MUC1-C and thereby the suppression of these key PRC1 proteins was associated with downregulation of the PRC1 E3 ligase activity as evidenced by decreases in ubiquitylation of histone H2A. Targeting MUC1-C also resulted in activation of the PRC1-repressed tumor suppressor genes, PTEN, CDNK2A and BIM . These findings identify a heretofore unrecognized role for MUC1-C in the epigenetic regulation of MM cells.

  20. I-mfa domain proteins specifically interact with HTLV-1 Tax and repress its transactivating functions.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Shuichi; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Hachiman, Miho; Ikeda, Masanori

    2015-12-01

    The I-mfa domain proteins HIC (also known as MDFIC) and I-mfa (also known as MDFI) are candidate tumor suppressor genes that are involved in cellular and viral transcriptional regulation. Here, we show that HIC and I-mfa directly interact with human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein in vitro. In addition, HIC and I-mfa repress Tax-dependent transactivation of an HTLV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) reporter construct in COS-1, Jurkat and high-Tax-producing HTLV-1-infected T cells. HIC also interacts with Tax through its I-mfa domain in vivo and represses Tax-dependent transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR and NF-κB reporter constructs in an interaction-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that HIC decreases the nuclear distribution and stimulates the proteasomal degradation of Tax. These data reveal that HIC specifically interacts with HTLV-1 Tax and negatively regulates Tax transactivational activity by altering its subcellular distribution and stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Antisense transcriptional interference mediates condition-specific gene repression in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Nevers, Alicia; Doyen, Antonia; Malabat, Christophe; Néron, Bertrand; Kergrohen, Thomas; Jacquier, Alain; Badis, Gwenael

    2018-05-18

    Pervasive transcription generates many unstable non-coding transcripts in budding yeast. The transcription of such noncoding RNAs, in particular antisense RNAs (asRNAs), has been shown in a few examples to repress the expression of the associated mRNAs. Yet, such mechanism is not known to commonly contribute to the regulation of a given class of genes. Using a mutant context that stabilized pervasive transcripts, we observed that the least expressed mRNAs during the exponential phase were associated with high levels of asRNAs. These asRNAs also overlapped their corresponding gene promoters with a much higher frequency than average. Interrupting antisense transcription of a subset of genes corresponding to quiescence-enriched mRNAs restored their expression. The underlying mechanism acts in cis and involves several chromatin modifiers. Our results convey that transcription interference represses up to 30% of the 590 least expressed genes, which includes 163 genes with quiescence-enriched mRNAs. We also found that pervasive transcripts constitute a higher fraction of the transcriptome in quiescence relative to the exponential phase, consistent with gene expression itself playing an important role to suppress pervasive transcription. Accordingly, the HIS1 asRNA, normally only present in quiescence, is expressed in exponential phase upon HIS1 mRNA transcription interruption.

  2. Translation repression via modulation of the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein in the inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Chen, Xiaoli; Liu, Qiuying; Zhang, Shaojie; Hu, Wenqian

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression is precisely regulated during the inflammatory response to control infection and limit the detrimental effects of inflammation. Here, we profiled global mRNA translation dynamics in the mouse primary macrophage-mediated inflammatory response and identified hundreds of differentially translated mRNAs. These mRNAs’ 3’UTRs have enriched binding motifs for several RNA-binding proteins, which implies extensive translational regulatory networks. We characterized one such protein, Zfp36, as a translation repressor. Using primary macrophages from a Zfp36-V5 epitope tagged knock-in mouse generated by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing, we found that the endogenous Zfp36 directly interacts with the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein. Importantly, this interaction is required for the translational repression of Zfp36’s target mRNAs in resolving inflammation. Altogether, these results uncovered critical roles of translational regulations in controlling appropriate gene expression during the inflammatory response and revealed a new biologically relevant molecular mechanism of translational repression via modulating the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27786.001 PMID:28635594

  3. MicroRNA MiR-17 retards tissue growth and represses fibronectin expression.

    PubMed

    Shan, Sze Wan; Lee, Daniel Y; Deng, Zhaoqun; Shatseva, Tatiana; Jeyapalan, Zina; Du, William W; Zhang, Yaou; Xuan, Jim W; Yee, Siu-Pok; Siragam, Vinayakumar; Yang, Burton B

    2009-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded regulatory RNAs, frequently expressed as clusters. Previous studies have demonstrated that the six-miRNA cluster miR-17~92 has important roles in tissue development and cancers. However, the precise role of each miRNA in the cluster is unknown. Here we show that overexpression of miR-17 results in decreased cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. Transgenic mice overexpressing miR-17 showed overall growth retardation, smaller organs and greatly reduced haematopoietic cell lineages. We found that fibronectin and the fibronectin type-III domain containing 3A (FNDC3A) are two targets that have their expression repressed by miR-17, both in vitro and in transgenic mice. Several lines of evidence support the notion that miR-17 causes cellular defects through its repression of fibronectin expression. Our single miRNA expression assay may be evolved to allow the manipulation of individual miRNA functions in vitro and in vivo. We anticipate that this could serve as a model for studying gene regulation by miRNAs in the development of gene therapy.

  4. Investigation of repressive and enhancive effects of fruit extracts on the activity of glucose-6-phophatase.

    PubMed

    Zahoor, Muhammad; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Naz, Sumaira

    2016-11-01

    Glucose-6-phosphatase is a key enzyme of glucose metabolic pathways. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to glycogen storage disease. This enzyme also plays a negative role in diabetes mellitus disorder in which the catalytic activity of this enzyme increases. Thus there is need for activators to enhance the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase in glycogen storage disease of type 1b while in diabetes mellitus repressors are needed to reduce its activity. Crude extracts of apricot, fig, mulberry and apple fruits were investigated for their repressive/enhancive effects on glucose-6-phosphatase in vivo. Albino mice were used as experimental animal. All the selected extracts showed depressive effects on glucose-6-phosphatase, which shows that all these extracts can be used as antidiabetic supplement of food. The inhibitory pattern was competitive one, which was evident from the effect of increasing dose from 1g/Kg body weight to 3g/Kg body weight for all the selected fruit extracts. However fig and apple fruit extracts showed high repressive effects for high doses as compared to apricot and mulberry fruit extracts. None of these selected fruit extracts showed enhancive effect on glucose-6-phosphatase activity. All these fruits or their extracts can be used as antidiabetic dietary supplement for diabetes mellitus.

  5. p53 targets chromatin structure alteration to repress alpha-fetoprotein gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ogden, S K; Lee, K C; Wernke-Dollries, K; Stratton, S A; Aronow, B; Barton, M C

    2001-11-09

    Many of the functions ascribed to p53 tumor suppressor protein are mediated through transcription regulation. We have shown that p53 represses hepatic-specific alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) gene expression by direct interaction with a composite HNF-3/p53 DNA binding element. Using solid-phase, chromatin-assembled AFP DNA templates and analysis of chromatin structure and transcription in vitro, we find that p53 binds DNA and alters chromatin structure at the AFP core promoter to regulate transcription. Chromatin assembled in the presence of hepatoma extracts is activated for AFP transcription with an open, accessible core promoter structure. Distal (-850) binding of p53 during chromatin assembly, but not post-assembly, reverses transcription activation concomitant with promoter inaccessibility to restriction enzyme digestion. Inhibition of histone deacetylase activity by trichostatin-A (TSA) addition, prior to and during chromatin assembly, activated chromatin transcription in parallel with increased core promoter accessibility. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses showed increased H3 and H4 acetylated histones at the core promoter in the presence of TSA, while histone acetylation remained unchanged at the site of distal p53 binding. Our data reveal that p53 targets chromatin structure alteration at the core promoter, independently of effects on histone acetylation, to establish repressed AFP gene expression.

  6. Communicating contentious geoscience issues and maintaining impartiality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nice, S. E.; Mitchell, C.

    2013-12-01

    Shale Gas exploration in the UK has been major and often controversial news in the British media over the last 2 years. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been an integral part of this story as the UK Governments independent and impartial advisor on geosciences. BGS has been involved in writing policy on fracking and induced earthquakes as well as researching potential quantities of shale gas in the UK and also researching natural methane levels in groundwater before large scale fracking activities begin. Shale Gas in the UK, as in the US and Europe has caused much controversy and as a result has many pro and anti fracking campaigns. The challenge for BGS has been to deliver front line science, whilst maintaining complete impartiality on the subject. The BGS communications team developed a strategy over this period to ensure that our message was clear and strong. This involved working closely with the scientists involved to formulate key messages that could delivered through controlled statements on the BGS webpages, press releases, at press conferences as well as on broadcast and print media. Our scientists were media trained during this time to ensure that they stayed en message and wouldn't be caught by the press or opponents of fracking into making statements that could have been used to either scare up the position or give the antagonist room to cast doubt on our impartiality. This strategy proved highly successful and BGS managed to communicate the facts, remain impartial whilst avoiding attempts to undermine the potential for Shale gas exploitation in the UK. The success of this communication strategy was due to the cooperation of the scientists, a clear strategy from the communications team and the unequivocal support of the senior executive at BGS. This abstract will conclude how the BGS has developed its communication strategy to be more streamlined and open. BGS must allow it's scientists to talk to the media about the science that they do. Much of

  7. Ploidally antagonistic selection maintains stable genetic polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Immler, Simone; Arnqvist, Göran; Otto, Sarah Perin

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the maintenance of genetic variation in the face of selection remains a key issue in evolutionary biology. One potential mechanism for the maintenance of genetic variation is opposing selection during the diploid and haploid stages of biphasic life cycles universal among eukaryotic sexual organisms. If haploid and diploid gene expression both occur, selection can act in each phase, potentially in opposing directions. In addition, sex-specific selection during haploid phases is likely simply because male and female gametophytes/gametes tend to have contrasting life histories. We explored the potential for the maintenance of a stable polymorphism under ploidally antagonistic as well as sex-specific selection. Furthermore, we examined the role of the chromosomal location of alleles (autosomal or sex-linked). Our analyses show that the most permissible conditions for the maintenance of polymorphism occur under negative ploidy-by-sex interactions, where stronger selection for an allele in female than male diploids is coupled with weaker selection against the allele in female than male haploids. Such ploidy-by-sex interactions also promote allele frequency differences between the sexes. With constant fitness, ploidally antagonistic selection can maintain stable polymorphisms for autosomal and X-linked genes but not for Y-linked genes. We discuss the implications of our results and outline a number of biological settings where the scenarios modeled may apply. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution © 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation began about one hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continued until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS mass spectrometer consists of the spare unit from the Viking mission to Mars. Bendix Aerospace under contract to NASA LaRC incorporated the Viking mass spectrometer, a microprocessor based logic card, a pressurized instrument case, and the University of Texas at Dallas provided a gas inlet system into a configuration suited to interface with the shuttle Columbia. The SUMS experiment underwent static and dynamic calibration as well as vacuum maintenance before and after STS 40 shuttle flight. The SUMS flew a total of 3 times on the space shuttle Columbia. Between flights the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399.

  9. Position statement. Part two: Maintaining immune health.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Neil P; Gleeson, Michael; Pyne, David B; Nieman, David C; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Shephard, Roy J; Oliver, Samuel J; Bermon, Stéphane; Kajeniene, Alma

    2011-01-01

    The physical training undertaken by athletes is one of a set of lifestyle or behavioural factors that can influence immune function, health and ultimately exercise performance. Others factors including potential exposure to pathogens, health status, lifestyle behaviours, sleep and recovery, nutrition and psychosocial issues, need to be considered alongside the physical demands of an athlete's training programme. The general consensus on managing training to maintain immune health is to start with a programme of low to moderate volume and intensity; employ a gradual and periodised increase in training volumes and loads; add variety to limit training monotony and stress; avoid excessively heavy training loads that could lead to exhaustion, illness or injury; include non-specific cross-training to offset staleness; ensure sufficient rest and recovery; and instigate a testing programme for identifying signs of performance deterioration and manifestations of physical stress. Inter-individual variability in immunocompetence, recovery, exercise capacity, non-training stress factors, and stress tolerance likely explains the different vulnerability of athletes to illness. Most athletes should be able to train with high loads provided their programme includes strategies devised to control the overall strain and stress. Athletes, coaches and medical personnel should be alert to periods of increased risk of illness (e.g. intensive training weeks, the taper period prior to competition, and during competition) and pay particular attention to recovery and nutritional strategies.

  10. Maintaining patient dignity in intensive care settings.

    PubMed

    Turnock, C; Kelleher, M

    2001-06-01

    Maintenance of the dignity of intensive care unit (ICU) patients, particularly minimizing exposure of genitalia, may be problematic. The aim of the study was to develop strategies to maximize the dignity of ICU patients using an action research methodology. The first stage assessed current practice through 62 hours of non-participant observation of patient care. Patient dignity was maintained in almost one-third of observed cases. However, more intimate areas such as bosom and genitalia were exposed in over 40% of the incidents. Whilst screens were fully used in over one-third of exposure incidents, full screening did not occur for all or part of the remaining incidents. Significant factors (P < 0.05) influencing exposure included gender and age. Female and younger (< 60 years) patients were more likely to be exposed; older patients (> 70 years) were less likely to be screened when exposed. The next stage involved identification of solutions to the problem of inappropriate patient exposure through the medium of a multi-disciplinary focus group. The focus group recommended raising staff awareness and documentation of situations that may compromise maintenance of dignity. The final stage of the study involved an audit of these recommendations. The main audit findings were more adequate clothing of patients plus a high level of staff awareness of patients' dignity needs.

  11. Protecting America's secrets while maintaining academic freedom.

    PubMed

    Keel, Brooks A

    2004-04-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax mail attacks, have had a profound impact on Americans' personal and professional lives and have sparked an active debate regarding the delicate balance between the need for national security and the pursuit of academic freedom. Although academic freedom can be defined in many ways, there are four primary tenets of freedom in an academic environment: freedom to research, freedom to publish, freedom to teach, and freedom to speak. Each of these tenets has come under attack in the wake of September 11, 2001. In this report the author further defines academic freedom and reflects upon recent events that have had a real or perceived impact on this freedom, including (1) attempts to categorize and restrict some research as "sensitive," (2) implementation of export control laws and select agent regulations, (3) limitations on the publication of research findings, (4) prohibition of certain foreign nationals from collaborating with U.S. researchers and receiving education and training in U.S. colleges and universities, and (5) restraint of faculty free speech. The author offers some suggestions as to how academia might achieve a proper balance between protecting our national security while promoting and maintaining academic freedom.

  12. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial DNA fragment activates Reg1p-dependent glucose-repressible transcription in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, G M; Tornow, J

    1997-12-01

    As part of an effort to identify random carbon-source-regulated promoters in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, we discovered that a mitochondrial DNA fragment is capable of directing glucose-repressible expression of a reporter gene. This fragment (CR24) originated from the mitochondrial genome adjacent to a transcription initiation site. Mutational analyses identified a GC cluster within the fragment that is required for transcriptional induction. Repression of nuclear CR24-driven transcription required Reg1p, indicating that this mitochondrially derived promoter is a member of a large group of glucose-repressible nuclear promoters that are similarly regulated by Reg1p. In vivo and in vitro binding assays indicated the presence of factors, located within the nucleus and the mitochondria, that bind to the GC cluster. One or more of these factors may provide a regulatory link between the nucleus and mitochondria.

  13. Arginine methylation promotes translation repression activity of eIF4G-binding protein, Scd6.

    PubMed

    Poornima, Gopalakrishna; Shah, Shanaya; Vignesh, Venkadasubramanian; Parker, Roy; Rajyaguru, Purusharth I

    2016-11-02

    Regulation of translation plays a critical role in determining mRNA fate. A new role was recently reported for a subset of RGG-motif proteins in repressing translation initiation by binding eIF4G1. However the signaling mechanism(s) that leads to spatial and temporal regulation of repression activity of RGG-motif proteins remains unknown. Here we report the role of arginine methylation in regulation of repression activity of Scd6, a conserved RGG-motif protein. We demonstrate that Scd6 gets arginine methylated at its RGG-motif and Hmt1 plays an important role in its methylation. We identify specific methylated arginine residues in the Scd6 RGG-motif in vivo We provide evidence that methylation augments Scd6 repression activity. Arginine methylation defective (AMD) mutant of Scd6 rescues the growth defect caused by overexpression of Scd6, a feature of translation repressors in general. Live-cell imaging of the AMD mutant revealed that it is defective in inducing formation of stress granules. Live-cell imaging and pull-down results indicate that it fails to bind eIF4G1 efficiently. Consistent with these results, a strain lacking Hmt1 is also defective in Scd6-eIF4G1 interaction. Our results establish that arginine methylation augments Scd6 repression activity by promoting eIF4G1-binding. We propose that arginine methylation of translation repressors with RGG-motif could be a general modulator of their repression activity. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Arabidopsis ETR1 and ERS1 Differentially Repress the Ethylene Response in Combination with Other Ethylene Receptor Genes1[W

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    The ethylene response is negatively regulated by a family of five ethylene receptor genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The five members of the ethylene receptor family can physically interact and form complexes, which implies that cooperativity for signaling may exist among the receptors. The ethylene receptor gene mutations etr1-1(C65Y)(for ethylene response1-1), ers1-1(I62P) (for ethylene response sensor1-1), and ers1C65Y are dominant, and each confers ethylene insensitivity. In this study, the repression of the ethylene response by these dominant mutant receptor genes was examined in receptor-defective mutants to investigate the functional significance of receptor cooperativity in ethylene signaling. We showed that etr1-1(C65Y), but not ers1-1(I62P), substantially repressed various ethylene responses independent of other receptor genes. In contrast, wild-type receptor genes differentially supported the repression of ethylene responses by ers1-1(I62P); ETR1 and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE4 (EIN4) supported ers1-1(I62P) functions to a greater extent than did ERS2, ETR2, and ERS1. The lack of both ETR1 and EIN4 almost abolished the repression of ethylene responses by ers1C65Y, which implied that ETR1 and EIN4 have synergistic effects on ers1C65Y functions. Our data indicated that a dominant ethylene-insensitive receptor differentially repressed ethylene responses when coupled with a wild-type ethylene receptor, which supported the hypothesis that the formation of a variety of receptor complexes may facilitate differential receptor signal output, by which ethylene responses can be repressed to different extents. We hypothesize that plants can respond to a broad ethylene concentration range and exhibit tissue-specific ethylene responsiveness with differential cooperation of the multiple ethylene receptors. PMID:22227969

  15. LRH-1 regulates hepatic lipid homeostasis and maintains arachidonoyl phospholipid pools critical for phospholipid diversity

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Diego A.; Krause, William C.; Suzawa, Miyuki; Escusa, Hazel; Foo, Juat Chin; Shihadih, Diyala S.; Stahl, Andreas; Nyangau, Edna; Hellerstein, Marc; Wenk, Markus R.; Silver, David L.; Ingraham, Holly A.

    2018-01-01

    Excess lipid accumulation is an early signature of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) (encoded by NR5A2) is suppressed in human NAFLD, evidence linking this phospholipid-bound nuclear receptor to hepatic lipid metabolism is lacking. Here, we report an essential role for LRH-1 in hepatic lipid storage and phospholipid composition based on an acute hepatic KO of LRH-1 in adult mice (LRH-1AAV8-Cre mice). Indeed, LRH-1–deficient hepatocytes exhibited large cytosolic lipid droplets and increased triglycerides (TGs). LRH-1–deficient mice fed high-fat diet displayed macrovesicular steatosis, liver injury, and glucose intolerance, all of which were reversed or improved by expressing wild-type human LRH-1. While hepatic lipid synthesis decreased and lipid export remained unchanged in mutants, elevated circulating free fatty acid helped explain the lipid imbalance in LRH-1AAV8-Cre mice. Lipidomic and genomic analyses revealed that loss of LRH-1 disrupts hepatic phospholipid composition, leading to lowered arachidonoyl (AA) phospholipids due to repression of Elovl5 and Fads2, two critical genes in AA biosynthesis. Our findings reveal a role for the phospholipid sensor LRH-1 in maintaining adequate pools of hepatic AA phospholipids, further supporting the idea that phospholipid diversity is an important contributor to healthy hepatic lipid storage. PMID:29515023

  16. ATRX Plays a Key Role in Maintaining Silencing at Interstitial Heterochromatic Loci and Imprinted Genes

    PubMed Central

    Voon, Hsiao P.J.; Hughes, Jim R.; Rode, Christina; De La Rosa-Velázquez, Inti A.; Jenuwein, Thomas; Feil, Robert; Higgs, Douglas R.; Gibbons, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Histone H3.3 is a replication-independent histone variant, which replaces histones that are turned over throughout the entire cell cycle. H3.3 deposition at euchromatin is dependent on HIRA, whereas ATRX/Daxx deposits H3.3 at pericentric heterochromatin and telomeres. The role of H3.3 at heterochromatic regions is unknown, but mutations in the ATRX/Daxx/H3.3 pathway are linked to aberrant telomere lengthening in certain cancers. In this study, we show that ATRX-dependent deposition of H3.3 is not limited to pericentric heterochromatin and telomeres but also occurs at heterochromatic sites throughout the genome. Notably, ATRX/H3.3 specifically localizes to silenced imprinted alleles in mouse ESCs. ATRX KO cells failed to deposit H3.3 at these sites, leading to loss of the H3K9me3 heterochromatin modification, loss of repression, and aberrant allelic expression. We propose a model whereby ATRX-dependent deposition of H3.3 into heterochromatin is normally required to maintain the memory of silencing at imprinted loci. PMID:25865896

  17. Distance education: strategies for maintaining relationships.

    PubMed

    Hill, P

    2000-09-01

    Experience with Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in the Bachelor of Applied Health Science (BAppHSc) course suggests that one of the key elements for students is the sense of relationship built up through Problem Based Learning (PBL). Failure to retain students is more likely to be related to personal than academic concerns. The low attrition rate is largely attributed to the sense of community and support the course generates. In 1997, the Centre for Indigenous Health, Education and Research offered the BAppHSc to rural Queensland. Campuses were opened in the Torres Strait and Cairns, with 9 and 5 students respectively. The course consisted of PBL sessions, fixed resource sessions provided by local staff or guest lecturers, video-conferencing and the use of videos, or text. Face-to-face contact hours were concentrated into two blocks of one and two weeks respectively, plus one day per week. Course materials such as journal articles and texts were provided. The nine Torres students and three Cairns students completed the first semester. This paper discusses the differences between the centres and examines strategies for maintaining the sense of relationship in distance education settings. In 1999 applications from other remote areas are challenging the model further. Multiple technologies are envisaged and discussed. In addition, similar methods are being applied to post graduate courses and collaboration with other institutions in the Pacific suggested. This would allow cross crediting of such course-work into a range of courses and institutions, reducing duplication and increasing options.

  18. Maintaining Homeostasis by Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Christoph W.; Bach, Dominik R.

    2015-01-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that—in both the foraging and the casino frames—participants’ choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization. PMID:26024504

  19. Maintaining homeostasis by decision-making.

    PubMed

    Korn, Christoph W; Bach, Dominik R

    2015-05-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that--in both the foraging and the casino frames--participants' choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization.

  20. NASA Sees Typhoon Kilo Maintaining its Eye

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Typhoon Kilo continues to thrive in the Northwestern Pacific and imagery from NASA's Terra satellite late on September 7 showed that the storm still maintained a clear eye. The MODIS or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument that flies aboard Terra provided a visible-light image of Kilo on September 7 at 23:50 UTC (7:50 p.m. EDT). The image showed thick bands of thunderstorms wrapping around the eastern and northern quadrants of the visible eye. At 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT) on September 9, Typhoon Kilo had maximum sustained winds near 65 knots (74.8 mph/120.4 kph). Kilo is expected to strengthen to 75 knots (86.3 mph/ 138.9 kph) later in the day before weakening. It was centered near 26.8 North latitude and 158.5 East longitude, about 289 nautical miles northeast of Minami Tori Shima, Japan. Kilo was moving to the west-northwest at 18 knots (20.7 mph/33.3 kph). The Joint Typhoon Warning Center noted that Kilo is expected to take more of a northerly track by September 10. Thereafter, Kilo is expected to become extra-tropical and curve to the northeast near the Kuril Islands in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region. The islands form an 808 mile (1,300 kilometer) volcanic archipelago that stretches northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia. For updated watches and warnings from the Japan Meteorological Agency, visit: www.jma.go.jp/en/warn/ NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  1. miR-206 represses hypertrophy of myogenic cells but not muscle fibers via inhibition of HDAC4.

    PubMed

    Winbanks, Catherine E; Beyer, Claudia; Hagg, Adam; Qian, Hongwei; Sepulveda, Patricio V; Gregorevic, Paul

    2013-01-01

    microRNAs regulate the development of myogenic progenitors, and the formation of skeletal muscle fibers. However, the role miRNAs play in controlling the growth and adaptation of post-mitotic musculature is less clear. Here, we show that inhibition of the established pro-myogenic regulator miR-206 can promote hypertrophy and increased protein synthesis in post-mitotic cells of the myogenic lineage. We have previously demonstrated that histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is a target of miR-206 in the regulation of myogenic differentiation. We confirmed that inhibition of miR-206 de-repressed HDAC4 accumulation in cultured myotubes. Importantly, inhibition of HDAC4 activity by valproic acid or sodium butyrate prevented hypertrophy of myogenic cells otherwise induced by inhibition of miR-206. To test the significance of miRNA-206 as a regulator of skeletal muscle mass in vivo, we designed recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV6 vectors) expressing miR-206, or a miR-206 "sponge," featuring repeats of a validated miR-206 target sequence. We observed that over-expression or inhibition of miR-206 in the muscles of mice decreased or increased endogenous HDAC4 levels respectively, but did not alter muscle mass or myofiber size. We subsequently manipulated miR-206 levels in muscles undergoing follistatin-induced hypertrophy or denervation-induced atrophy (models of muscle adaptation where endogenous miR-206 expression is altered). Vector-mediated manipulation of miR-206 activity in these models of cell growth and wasting did not alter gain or loss of muscle mass respectively. Our data demonstrate that although the miR-206/HDAC4 axis operates in skeletal muscle, the post-natal expression of miR-206 is not a key regulator of basal skeletal muscle mass or specific modes of muscle growth and wasting. These studies support a context-dependent role of miR-206 in regulating hypertrophy that may be dispensable for maintaining or modifying the adult skeletal muscle phenotype

  2. miR-206 Represses Hypertrophy of Myogenic Cells but Not Muscle Fibers via Inhibition of HDAC4

    PubMed Central

    Winbanks, Catherine E.; Beyer, Claudia; Hagg, Adam; Qian, Hongwei; Sepulveda, Patricio V.; Gregorevic, Paul

    2013-01-01

    microRNAs regulate the development of myogenic progenitors, and the formation of skeletal muscle fibers. However, the role miRNAs play in controlling the growth and adaptation of post-mitotic musculature is less clear. Here, we show that inhibition of the established pro-myogenic regulator miR-206 can promote hypertrophy and increased protein synthesis in post-mitotic cells of the myogenic lineage. We have previously demonstrated that histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is a target of miR-206 in the regulation of myogenic differentiation. We confirmed that inhibition of miR-206 de-repressed HDAC4 accumulation in cultured myotubes. Importantly, inhibition of HDAC4 activity by valproic acid or sodium butyrate prevented hypertrophy of myogenic cells otherwise induced by inhibition of miR-206. To test the significance of miRNA-206 as a regulator of skeletal muscle mass in vivo, we designed recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV6 vectors) expressing miR-206, or a miR-206 “sponge,” featuring repeats of a validated miR-206 target sequence. We observed that over-expression or inhibition of miR-206 in the muscles of mice decreased or increased endogenous HDAC4 levels respectively, but did not alter muscle mass or myofiber size. We subsequently manipulated miR-206 levels in muscles undergoing follistatin-induced hypertrophy or denervation-induced atrophy (models of muscle adaptation where endogenous miR-206 expression is altered). Vector-mediated manipulation of miR-206 activity in these models of cell growth and wasting did not alter gain or loss of muscle mass respectively. Our data demonstrate that although the miR-206/HDAC4 axis operates in skeletal muscle, the post-natal expression of miR-206 is not a key regulator of basal skeletal muscle mass or specific modes of muscle growth and wasting. These studies support a context-dependent role of miR-206 in regulating hypertrophy that may be dispensable for maintaining or modifying the adult skeletal muscle phenotype

  3. A transgenerational role of the germline nuclear RNAi pathway in repressing heat stress-induced transcriptional activation in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Ni, Julie Zhouli; Kalinava, Natallia; Chen, Esteban; Huang, Alex; Trinh, Thi; Gu, Sam Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stress-induced transgenerational epigenetic effects have been observed in various model organisms and human. The capacity and mechanism of such phenomena are poorly understood. In C. elegans, siRNA mediates transgenerational gene silencing through the germline nuclear RNAi pathway. This pathway is also required to maintain the germline immortality when C. elegans is under heat stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is unknown. In this study, we investigated the impact of heat stress on chromatin, transcription, and siRNAs at the whole-genome level, and whether any of the heat-induced effects is transgenerationally heritable in either the wild-type or the germline nuclear RNAi mutant animals. We performed 12-generation temperature-shift experiments using the wild-type C. elegans and a mutant strain that lacks the germline-specific nuclear Argonaute protein HRDE-1/WAGO-9. By examining the mRNA, small RNA, RNA polymerase II, and H3K9 trimethylation profiles at the whole-genome level, we revealed an epigenetic role of HRDE-1 in repressing heat stress-induced transcriptional activation of over 280 genes. Many of these genes are in or near LTR (long-terminal repeat) retrotransposons. Strikingly, for some of these genes, the heat stress-induced transcriptional activation in the hrde-1 mutant intensifies in the late generations under the heat stress and is heritable for at least two generations after the mutant animals are shifted back to lower temperature. hrde-1 mutation also leads to siRNA expression changes of many genes. This effect on siRNA is dependent on both the temperature and generation. Our study demonstrated that a large number of the endogenous targets of the germline nuclear RNAi pathway in C. elegans are sensitive to heat-induced transcriptional activation. This effect at certain genomic loci including LTR retrotransposons is transgenerational. Germline nuclear RNAi antagonizes this temperature effect at the transcriptional level

  4. Examining Escherichia coli glycolytic pathways, catabolite repression, and metabolite channeling using Δpfk mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Hollinshead, Whitney D.; Rodriguez, Sarah; Martin, Hector Garcia

    Background: Glycolysis breakdowns glucose into essential building blocks and ATP/NAD(P)H for the cell, occupying a central role in its growth and bio-production. Among glycolytic pathways, the Entner Doudoroff pathway (EDP) is a more thermodynamically favorable pathway with fewer enzymatic steps than either the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMPP) or the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP). However, Escherichia coli do not use their native EDP for glucose metabolism. Results: Overexpression of edd and eda in E. coli to enhance EDP activity resulted in only a small shift in the flux directed through the EDP (~20 % of glycolysis flux). Disrupting the EMPP bymore » phosphofructokinase I (pfkA) knockout increased flux through OPPP (~60 % of glycolysis flux) and the native EDP (~14 % of glycolysis flux), while overexpressing edd and eda in this ΔpfkA mutant directed ~70 % of glycolytic flux through the EDP. The downregulation of EMPP via the pfkA deletion significantly decreased the growth rate, while EDP overexpression in the ΔpfkA mutant failed to improve its growth rates due to metabolic burden. However, the reorganization of E. coli glycolytic strategies did reduce glucose catabolite repression. The ΔpfkA mutant in glucose medium was able to cometabolize acetate via the citric acid cycle and gluconeogenesis, while EDP overexpression in the ΔpfkA mutant repressed acetate flux toward gluconeogenesis. Moreover, 13C-pulse experiments in the ΔpfkA mutants showed unsequential labeling dynamics in glycolysis intermediates, possibly suggesting metabolite channeling (metabolites in glycolysis are pass from enzyme to enzyme without fully equilibrating within the cytosol medium). Conclusions: We engineered E. coli to redistribute its native glycolytic flux. The replacement of EMPP by EDP did not improve E. coli glucose utilization or biomass growth, but alleviated catabolite repression. More importantly, our results supported the hypothesis of channeling in the

  5. Examining Escherichia coli glycolytic pathways, catabolite repression, and metabolite channeling using Δpfk mutants

    DOE PAGES

    Hollinshead, Whitney D.; Rodriguez, Sarah; Martin, Hector Garcia; ...

    2016-10-10

    Background: Glycolysis breakdowns glucose into essential building blocks and ATP/NAD(P)H for the cell, occupying a central role in its growth and bio-production. Among glycolytic pathways, the Entner Doudoroff pathway (EDP) is a more thermodynamically favorable pathway with fewer enzymatic steps than either the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMPP) or the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP). However, Escherichia coli do not use their native EDP for glucose metabolism. Results: Overexpression of edd and eda in E. coli to enhance EDP activity resulted in only a small shift in the flux directed through the EDP (~20 % of glycolysis flux). Disrupting the EMPP bymore » phosphofructokinase I (pfkA) knockout increased flux through OPPP (~60 % of glycolysis flux) and the native EDP (~14 % of glycolysis flux), while overexpressing edd and eda in this ΔpfkA mutant directed ~70 % of glycolytic flux through the EDP. The downregulation of EMPP via the pfkA deletion significantly decreased the growth rate, while EDP overexpression in the ΔpfkA mutant failed to improve its growth rates due to metabolic burden. However, the reorganization of E. coli glycolytic strategies did reduce glucose catabolite repression. The ΔpfkA mutant in glucose medium was able to cometabolize acetate via the citric acid cycle and gluconeogenesis, while EDP overexpression in the ΔpfkA mutant repressed acetate flux toward gluconeogenesis. Moreover, 13C-pulse experiments in the ΔpfkA mutants showed unsequential labeling dynamics in glycolysis intermediates, possibly suggesting metabolite channeling (metabolites in glycolysis are pass from enzyme to enzyme without fully equilibrating within the cytosol medium). Conclusions: We engineered E. coli to redistribute its native glycolytic flux. The replacement of EMPP by EDP did not improve E. coli glucose utilization or biomass growth, but alleviated catabolite repression. More importantly, our results supported the hypothesis of channeling in the

  6. Drosophila E-Cadherin Functions in Hematopoietic Progenitors to Maintain Multipotency and Block Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hongjuan; Wu, Xiaorong; Fossett, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in stem cell biology concerns the regulatory strategies that control the choice between multipotency and differentiation. Drosophila blood progenitors or prohemocytes exhibit key stem cell characteristics, including multipotency, quiescence, and niche dependence. As a result, studies of Drosophila hematopoiesis have provided important insights into the molecular mechanisms that control these processes. Here, we show that E-cadherin is an important regulator of prohemocyte fate choice, maintaining prohemocyte multipotency and blocking differentiation. These functions are reminiscent of the role of E-cadherin in mammalian embryonic stem cells. We also show that mis-expression of E-cadherin in differentiating hemocytes disrupts the boundary between these cells and undifferentiated prohemocytes. Additionally, upregulation of E-cadherin in differentiating hemocytes increases the number of intermediate cell types expressing the prohemocyte marker, Patched. Furthermore, our studies indicate that the Drosophila GATA transcriptional co-factor, U-shaped, is required for E-cadherin expression. Consequently, E-cadherin is a downstream target of U-shaped in the maintenance of prohemocyte multipotency. In contrast, we showed that forced expression of the U-shaped GATA-binding partner, Serpent, repressed E-cadherin expression and promoted lamellocyte differentiation. Thus, U-shaped may maintain E-cadherin expression by blocking the inhibitory activity of Serpent. Collectively, these observations suggest that GATA:FOG complex formation regulates E-cadherin levels and, thereby, the choice between multipotency and differentiation. The work presented in this report further defines the molecular basis of prohemocyte cell fate choice, which will provide important insights into the mechanisms that govern stem cell biology. PMID:24040319

  7. Maintaining embryonic stem cell pluripotency with Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Sokol, Sergei Y

    2011-10-01

    Wnt signaling pathways control lineage specification in vertebrate embryos and regulate pluripotency in embryonic stem (ES) cells, but how the balance between progenitor self-renewal and differentiation is achieved during axis specification and tissue patterning remains highly controversial. The context- and stage-specific effects of the different Wnt pathways produce complex and sometimes opposite outcomes that help to generate embryonic cell diversity. Although the results of recent studies of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in ES cells appear to be surprising and controversial, they converge on the same conserved mechanism that leads to the inactivation of TCF3-mediated repression.

  8. PAX5 tyrosine phosphorylation by SYK co-operatively functions with its serine phosphorylation to cancel the PAX5-dependent repression of BLIMP1: A mechanism for antigen-triggered plasma cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Yuichiro; Hayakawa, Fumihiko; Hirano, Daiki; Kojima, Yuki; Morishita, Takanobu; Yasuda, Takahiko; Naoe, Tomoki; Kiyoi, Hitoshi

    2016-06-24

    Plasma cell differentiation is initiated by antigen stimulation of the B cell receptor (BCR) and is regulated by BLIMP1. Prior to the stimulation of BCR, BLIMP1 is suppressed by PAX5, which is a key transcriptional repressor that maintains B cell identity. The upregulation of BLIMP1 and subsequent suppression of PAX5 by BLIMP1 are observed after the BCR stimulation. These events are considered to trigger plasma cell differentiation; however, the mechanisms responsible currently remain unclear. We herein demonstrated that the BCR signaling component, SYK, caused PAX5 tyrosine phosphorylation in vitro and in cells. Transcriptional repression on the BLIMP1 promoter by PAX5 was attenuated by this phosphorylation. The BCR stimulation induced the phosphorylation of SYK, tyrosine phosphorylation of PAX5, and up-regulation of BLIMP1 mRNA expression in B cells. The tyrosine phosphorylation of PAX5 co-operatively functioned with PAX5 serine phosphorylation by ERK1/2, which was our previous findings, to cancel the PAX5-dependent repression of BLIMP1. This co-operation may be a trigger for plasma cell differentiation. These results imply that PAX5 phosphorylation by a BCR signal is the initial event in plasma cell differentiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. PABP is not essential for microRNA-mediated translational repression and deadenylation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Fukaya, Takashi; Tomari, Yukihide

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs silence their complementary target genes via formation of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) that contains an Argonaute (Ago) protein at its core. It was previously proposed that GW182, an Ago-associating protein, directly binds to poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) and interferes with its function, leading to silencing of the target mRNAs. Here we show that Drosophila Ago1-RISC induces silencing via two independent pathways: shortening of the poly(A) tail and pure repression of translation. Our data suggest that although PABP generally modulates poly(A) length and translation efficiency, neither PABP function nor GW182–PABP interaction is a prerequisite for these two silencing pathways. Instead, we propose that each of the multiple functional domains within GW182 has a potential for silencing, and yet they need to act together in the context of full-length GW182 to exert maximal silencing. PMID:22117217

  10. Repressed ghosts and dissociated vampires in the enacted dimension of psychoanalytic treatment.

    PubMed

    Katz, Gil

    2015-04-01

    One of the most evocative uses of the metaphor of a ghost in psychoanalytic writing was crafted by Hans Loewald in "On the Therapeutic Action of Psycho-Analysis" (1960). In this seminal work, Loewald likened the process of psychoanalytic change to that of transforming psychic ghosts into ancestors. In the present paper, the author supplements the metaphor of ghosts that haunt with the metaphor of vampires that menace, and links these two alien experiences to two psychological processes: repression and dissociation. Descriptions of ghosts and vampires in folklore, and the ways they are experienced in analytic treatment, are followed by an explication of the enacted dimension of analytic process-the arena of treatment in which all demons are inevitably revivified, "recognized," and ultimately laid to rest. The paper includes a clinical illustration of a dissociated vampire: a Holocaust trauma transmitted across three generations of survivors. © 2015 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  11. High-power CO laser with RF discharge for isotope separation employing condensation repression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, I. Ya.; Koptev, A. V.

    2008-10-01

    High-power CO laser can be the effective tool in such applications as isotope separation using the free-jet CRISLA method. The way of transfer from CO small-scale experimental installation to industrial high-power CO lasers is proposed through the use of a low-current radio-frequency (RF) electric discharge in a supersonic stream without an electron gun. The calculation model of scaling CO laser with RF discharge in supersonic stream was developed. The developed model allows to calculate parameters of laser installation and optimize them with the purpose of reception of high efficiency and low cost of installation as a whole. The technical decision of industrial CO laser for isotope separation employing condensation repression is considered. The estimated cost of laser is some hundred thousand dollars USA and small sizes of laser head give possibility to install it in any place.

  12. Subinhibitory concentrations of phloretin repress the virulence of Salmonella typhimurium and protect against Salmonella typhimurium infection.

    PubMed

    Shuai-Cheng, Wu; Ben-Dong, Fu; Xiu-Ling, Chu; Jian-Qing, Su; Yun-Xing, Fu; Zhen-Qiang, Cui; Dao-Xiu, Xu; Zong-Mei, Wu

    2016-11-01

    Phloretin, a natural component of many fruits, exhibits anti-virulence effects and provides a new alternative to counter bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of phloretin on the virulence of Salmonella typhimurium. At concentrations where growth of Salmonella was not inhibited, phloretin significantly inhibited bacteria biofilm formation and motility. Subinhibitory concentrations of phloretin repressed eight genes involved in the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and 3 genes involved in flagella production. Furthermore, subinhibitory concentrations of phloretin inhibited the adhesion and invasion of Salmonella in IEC-6 cells and reduced the LDH levels of S. typhimurium-infected IEC-6 cells. Additionally, phloretin significantly decreased the cecum bacterial loads of the mice infected with live S. typhimurium containing subinhibitory concentrations of phloretin by gavage. These results suggested that subinhibitory concentrations of phloretin attenuate the virulence of S. typhimurium and protect against S. typhimurium infection.

  13. Differential requirements for Runx proteins in CD4 repression and epigenetic silencing during T lymphocyte development.

    PubMed

    Taniuchi, Ichiro; Osato, Motomi; Egawa, Takeshi; Sunshine, Mary Jean; Bae, Suk Chul; Komori, Toshihisa; Ito, Yoshiaki; Littman, Dan R

    2002-11-27

    T lymphocytes differentiate in discrete stages within the thymus. Immature thymocytes lacking CD4 and CD8 coreceptors differentiate into double-positive cells (CD4(+)CD8(+)), which are selected to become either CD4(+)CD8(-)helper cells or CD4(-)CD8(+) cytotoxic cells. A stage-specific transcriptional silencer regulates expression of CD4 in both immature and CD4(-)CD8(+) thymocytes. We show here that binding sites for Runt domain transcription factors are essential for CD4 silencer function at both stages, and that different Runx family members are required to fulfill unique functions at each stage. Runx1 is required for active repression in CD4(-)CD8(-) thymocytes whereas Runx3 is required for establishing epigenetic silencing in cytotoxic lineage thymocytes. Runx3-deficient cytotoxic T cells, but not helper cells, have defective responses to antigen, suggesting that Runx proteins have critical functions in lineage specification and homeostasis of CD8-lineage T lymphocytes.

  14. MLL-ENL inhibits polycomb repressive complex 1 to achieve efficient transformation of hematopoietic cells

    PubMed Central

    Maethner, Emanuel; Garcia-Cuellar, Maria-Paz; Breitinger, Constanze; Takacova, Sylvia; Divoky, Vladimir; Hess, Jay L.; Slany, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Stimulation of transcriptional elongation is a key activity of leukemogenic MLL fusion proteins. Here we provide evidence that MLL-ENL also inhibits polycomb-mediated silencing as a prerequisite for efficient transformation. Biochemical studies identified ENL as scaffold that contacted the elongation machinery as well as the PRC1 (polycomb repressive complex 1) component CBX8. These interactions were mutually exclusive in vitro corresponding to an antagonistic behavior of MLL-ENL and CBX8 in vivo. CBX8 inhibited elongation in a specific reporter assay and this effect was neutralized by direct association with ENL. Correspondingly MLL-ENL defective in CBX8 binding could not fully activate gene loci necessary for transformation. Finally, we demonstrate dimerization of MLL-ENL as neomorphic activity that may augment polycomb inhibition and transformation. PMID:23623499

  15. Viral MicroRNAs Repress the Cholesterol Pathway, and 25-Hydroxycholesterol Inhibits Infection.

    PubMed

    Serquiña, Anna K P; Kambach, Diane M; Sarker, Ontara; Ziegelbauer, Joseph M

    2017-07-11

    From various screens, we found that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) viral microRNAs (miRNAs) target several enzymes in the mevalonate/cholesterol pathway. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR [a rate-limiting step in the mevalonate pathway]), and farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase 1 (FDFT1 [a committed step in the cholesterol branch]) are repressed by multiple KSHV miRNAs. Transfection of viral miRNA mimics in primary endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells [HUVECs]) is sufficient to reduce intracellular cholesterol levels; however, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting only HMGCS1 did not reduce cholesterol levels. This suggests that multiple targets are needed to perturb this tightly regulated pathway. We also report here that cholesterol levels were decreased in de novo -infected HUVECs after 7 days. This reduction is at least partially due to viral miRNAs, since the mutant form of KSHV lacking 10 of the 12 miRNA genes had increased cholesterol compared to wild-type infections. We hypothesized that KSHV is downregulating cholesterol to suppress the antiviral response by a modified form of cholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC). We found that the cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) gene, which is responsible for generating 25HC, had increased expression in de novo -infected HUVECs but was strongly suppressed in long-term latently infected cell lines. We found that 25HC inhibits KSHV infection when added exogenously prior to de novo infection. In conclusion, we found that multiple KSHV viral miRNAs target enzymes in the mevalonate pathway to modulate cholesterol in infected cells during latency. This repression of cholesterol levels could potentially be beneficial to viral infection by decreasing the levels of 25HC. IMPORTANCE A subset of viruses express unique microRNAs (miRNAs), which act like cellular miRNAs to generally repress host gene

  16. Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Confers BRG1 Dependency on the CIITA Locus.

    PubMed

    Abou El Hassan, Mohamed; Yu, Tao; Song, Lan; Bremner, Rod

    2015-05-15

    CIITA (or MHC2TA) coordinates constitutive and IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC class II genes. IFN-γ responsiveness of CIITA requires BRG1 (SMARCA4), the ATPase engine of the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex (also called BAF). SWI/SNF is defective in many human cancers, providing a mechanism to explain IFN-γ resistance. BRG1 dependency is mediated through remote elements. Short CIITA reporters lacking these elements respond to IFN-γ, even in BRG1-deficient cells, suggesting that BRG1 counters a remote repressive influence. The nature of this distal repressor is unknown, but it would represent a valuable therapeutic target to reactivate IFN-γ responsiveness in cancer. In this article, we show that the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) components EZH2 and SUZ12, as well as the associated histone mark H3K27me3, are codetected at interenhancer regions across the CIITA locus. IFN-γ caused a BRG1-dependent reduction in H3K27me3, associated with nucleosome displacement. SUZ12 knockdown restored IFN-γ responsiveness in BRG1-null cells, and it mimicked the ability of BRG1 to induce active histone modifications (H3K27ac, H3K4me) at the -50-kb enhancer. Thus, PRC2 confers BRG1 dependency on the CIITA locus. Our data suggest that, in addition to its known roles in promoting stemness and proliferation, PRC2 may inhibit immune surveillance, and it could be targeted to reactivate CIITA expression in SWI/SNF deficient cancers. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Fibroblast growth factor represses Smad-mediated myofibroblast activation in aortic valvular interstitial cells

    PubMed Central

    Cushing, Melinda C.; Mariner, Peter D.; Liao, Jo-Tsu; Sims, Evan A.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to identify signaling pathways that oppose connective tissue fibrosis in the aortic valve. Using valvular interstitial cells (VICs) isolated from porcine aortic valve leaflets, we show that basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) effectively blocks transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated myofibroblast activation. FGF-2 prevents the induction of α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression and the exit of VICs from the cell cycle, both of which are hallmarks of myofibroblast activation. By blocking the activity of the Smad transcription factors that serve as the downstream nuclear effectors of TGF-β1, FGF-2 treatment inhibits fibrosis in VICs. Using an exogenous Smad-responsive transcriptional promoter reporter, we show that Smad activity is repressed by FGF-2, likely an effect of the fact that FGF-2 treatment prevents the nuclear localization of Smads in these cells. This appears to be a direct effect of FGF signaling through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades as the treatment of VICs with the MAPK/extracellular regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 acted to induce fibrosis and blocked the ability of FGF-2 to inhibit TGF-β1 signaling. Furthermore, FGF-2 treatment of VICs blocks the development of pathological contractile and calcifying phenotypes, suggesting that these pathways may be utilized in the engineering of effective treatments for valvular disease.—Cushing, M. C., Mariner, P. D., Liao, J. T., Sims, E. A., Anseth, K. S. Fibroblast growth factor represses Smad-mediated myofibroblast activation in aortic valvular interstitial cells. PMID:18218921

  18. Sox2 Is an Androgen Receptor-Repressed Gene That Promotes Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kregel, Steven; Kiriluk, Kyle J.; Rosen, Alex M.; Cai, Yi; Reyes, Edwin E.; Otto, Kristen B.; Tom, Westin; Paner, Gladell P.; Szmulewitz, Russell Z.; Vander Griend, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in detection and therapy, castration-resistant prostate cancer continues to be a major clinical problem. The aberrant activity of stem cell pathways, and their regulation by the Androgen Receptor (AR), has the potential to provide insight into novel mechanisms and pathways to prevent and treat advanced, castrate-resistant prostate cancers. To this end, we investigated the role of the embryonic stem cell regulator Sox2 [SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2] in normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells. In the normal prostate, Sox2 is expressed in a portion of basal epithelial cells. Prostate tumors were either Sox2-positive or Sox2-negative, with the percentage of Sox2-positive tumors increasing with Gleason Score and metastases. In the castration-resistant prostate cancer cell line CWR-R1, endogenous expression of Sox2 was repressed by AR signaling, and AR chromatin-IP shows that AR binds the enhancer element within the Sox2 promoter. Likewise, in normal prostate epithelial cells and human embryonic stem cells, increased AR signaling also decreases Sox2 expression. Resistance to the anti-androgen MDV3100 results in a marked increase in Sox2 expression within three prostate cancer cell lines, and in the castration-sensitive LAPC-4 prostate cancer cell line ectopic expression of Sox2 was sufficient to promote castration-resistant tumor formation. Loss of Sox2 expression in the castration-resistant CWR-R1 prostate cancer cell line inhibited cell growth. Up-regulation of Sox2 was not associated with increased CD133 expression but was associated with increased FGF5 (Fibroblast Growth Factor 5) expression. These data propose a model of elevated Sox2 expression due to loss of AR-mediated repression during castration, and consequent castration-resistance via mechanisms not involving induction of canonical embryonic stem cell pathways. PMID:23326489

  19. Repression of Salmonella enterica phoP Expression by Small Molecules from Physiological Bile

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, L. Caetano M.; Wang, Melody; Andersen, Sarah K.; Ferreira, Rosana B. R.; Kappelhoff, Reinhild; Han, Jun; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in humans causes the life-threatening disease typhoid fever. In the laboratory, typhoid fever can be modeled through the inoculation of susceptible mice with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Using this murine model, we previously characterized the interactions between Salmonella Typhimurium and host cells in the gallbladder and showed that this pathogen can successfully invade gallbladder epithelial cells and proliferate. Additionally, we showed that Salmonella Typhimurium can use bile phospholipids to grow at high rates. These abilities are likely important for quick colonization of the gallbladder during typhoid fever and further pathogen dissemination through fecal shedding. To further characterize the interactions between Salmonella and the gallbladder environment, we compared the transcriptomes of Salmonella cultures grown in LB broth or physiological murine bile. Our data showed that many genes involved in bacterial central metabolism are affected by bile, with the citric acid cycle being repressed and alternative respiratory systems being activated. Additionally, our study revealed a new aspect of Salmonella interactions with bile through the identification of the global regulator phoP as a bile-responsive gene. Repression of phoP expression could also be achieved using physiological, but not commercial, bovine bile. The biological activity does not involve PhoPQ sensing of a bile component and is not caused by bile acids, the most abundant organic components of bile. Bioactivity-guided purification allowed the identification of a subset of small molecules from bile that can elicit full activity; however, a single compound with phoP inhibitory activity could not be isolated, suggesting that multiple molecules may act in synergy to achieve this effect. Due to the critical role of phoP in Salmonella virulence, further studies in this area will likely reveal aspects of the interaction between Salmonella

  20. MicroRNA-193b represses cell proliferation and regulates cyclin D1 in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiamin; Feilotter, Harriet E; Paré, Geneviève C; Zhang, Xiao; Pemberton, Joshua G W; Garady, Cherif; Lai, Dulcie; Yang, Xiaolong; Tron, Victor A

    2010-05-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive form of human skin cancer characterized by high metastatic potential and poor prognosis. To better understand the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in melanoma, the expression of 470 miRNAs was profiled in tissue samples from benign nevi and metastatic melanomas. We identified 31 miRNAs that were differentially expressed (13 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated) in metastatic melanomas relative to benign nevi. Notably, miR-193b was significantly down-regulated in the melanoma tissues examined. To understand the role of miR-193b in melanoma, functional studies were undertaken. Overexpression of miR-193b in melanoma cell lines repressed cell proliferation. Gene expression profiling identified 314 genes down-regulated by overexpression of miR-193b in Malme-3M cells. Eighteen of these down-regulated genes, including cyclin D1 (CCND1), were also identified as putative miR-193b targets by TargetScan. Overexpression of miR-193b in Malme-3M cells down-regulated CCND1 mRNA and protein by > or = 50%. A luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-193b directly regulates CCND1 by binding to the 3'untranslated region of CCND1 mRNA. These studies indicate that miR-193b represses cell proliferation and regulates CCND1 expression and suggest that dysregulation of miR-193b may play an important role in melanoma development.

  1. MicroRNA-193b Represses Cell Proliferation and Regulates Cyclin D1 in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiamin; Feilotter, Harriet E.; Paré, Geneviève C.; Zhang, Xiao; Pemberton, Joshua G.W.; Garady, Cherif; Lai, Dulcie; Yang, Xiaolong; Tron, Victor A.

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive form of human skin cancer characterized by high metastatic potential and poor prognosis. To better understand the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in melanoma, the expression of 470 miRNAs was profiled in tissue samples from benign nevi and metastatic melanomas. We identified 31 miRNAs that were differentially expressed (13 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated) in metastatic melanomas relative to benign nevi. Notably, miR-193b was significantly down-regulated in the melanoma tissues examined. To understand the role of miR-193b in melanoma, functional studies were undertaken. Overexpression of miR-193b in melanoma cell lines repressed cell proliferation. Gene expression profiling identified 314 genes down-regulated by overexpression of miR-193b in Malme-3M cells. Eighteen of these down-regulated genes, including cyclin D1 (CCND1), were also identified as putative miR-193b targets by TargetScan. Overexpression of miR-193b in Malme-3M cells down-regulated CCND1 mRNA and protein by ≥50%. A luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-193b directly regulates CCND1 by binding to the 3′untranslated region of CCND1 mRNA. These studies indicate that miR-193b represses cell proliferation and regulates CCND1 expression and suggest that dysregulation of miR-193b may play an important role in melanoma development. PMID:20304954

  2. Polycomb repressive complex 2 epigenomic signature defines age-associated hypermethylation and gene expression changes

    PubMed Central

    Dozmorov, Mikhail G

    2015-01-01

    Although age-associated gene expression and methylation changes have been reported throughout the literature, the unifying epigenomic principles of aging remain poorly understood. Recent explosion in availability and resolution of functional/regulatory genome annotation data (epigenomic data), such as that provided by the ENCODE and Roadmap Epigenomics projects, provides an opportunity for the identification of epigenomic mechanisms potentially altered by age-associated differentially methylated regions (aDMRs) and regulatory signatures in the promoters of age-associated genes (aGENs). In this study we found that aDMRs and aGENs identified in multiple independent studies share a common Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 signature marked by EZH2, SUZ12, CTCF binding sites, repressive H3K27me3, and activating H3K4me1 histone modification marks, and a “poised promoter” chromatin state. This signature is depleted in RNA Polymerase II-associated transcription factor binding sites, activating H3K79me2, H3K36me3, H3K27ac marks, and an “active promoter” chromatin state. The PRC2 signature was shown to be generally stable across cell types. When considering the directionality of methylation changes, we found the PRC2 signature to be associated with aDMRs hypermethylated with age, while hypomethylated aDMRs were associated with enhancers. In contrast, aGENs were associated with the PRC2 signature independently of the directionality of gene expression changes. In this study we demonstrate that the PRC2 signature is the common epigenomic context of genomic regions associated with hypermethylation and gene expression changes in aging. PMID:25880792

  3. Melatonin inhibits proliferation and invasion via repression of miRNA-155 in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Junyi; Lu, Zhongsheng; Ji, Chenghong; Chen, Yuchao; Liu, Yuzhao; Lei, Zhe; Wang, Longqiang; Zhang, Hong-Tao; Li, Xiangdong

    2017-09-01

    Melatonin, an indolamine mostly synthesized in the pineal gland, exerts the anti-cancer effect by various mechanisms in glioma cells. Our previous study showed that miR-155 promoted glioma cell proliferation and invasion. However, the question of whether melatonin may inhibit glioma by regulating miRNAs has not yet been addressed. In this study, we found that melatonin (100μM, 1μM and 1nM) significantly inhibited the expression of miR-155 in human glioma cell lines U87, U373 and U251. Especially, the lowest expression of miR-155 was detected in 1μM melatonin-treated glioma cells. Melatonin (1μM) inhibits cell proliferation of U87 by promoting cell apoptosis. Nevertheless, melatonin had no effect on cell cycle distribution of U87 cells. Moreover, U87 cells treated with 1μM melatonin presented significantly lower migration and invasion ability when compared with control cells. Importantly, melatonin inhibited c-MYB expression, and c-MYB knockdown reduced miR-155 expression and migration and invasion in U87 cells. Taken together, for the first time, our findings show that melatonin inhibits miR-155 expression and thereby represses glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and suggest that melatonin may downregulate the expression of miR-155 via repression of c-MYB. This will provide a theoretical basis for revealing the anti-glioma mechanisms of melatonin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Melatonin Represses Metastasis in Her2-postive Human Breast Cancer Cells by Suppressing RSK2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Lulu; Summers, Whitney; Xiang, Shulin; Yuan, Lin; Dauchy, Robert T.; Reynolds, Amberly; Wren-Dail, Melissa A.; Pointer, David; Frasch, Tripp; Blask, David E.; Hill, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the circadian/melatonin signal in suppressing the metastatic progression of breast and other cancers has been reported by numerous laboratories including our own. Currently, the mechanisms underlying the anti-metastatic actions of melatonin have not been well established. In the present study, the anti-metastatic actions of melatonin were evaluated and compared on the ERα-negative, Her2-positive SKBR-3 breast tumor cell line and ERα-positive MCF-7 cells overexpressing a constitutively active HER2.1 construct (MCF-7Her2.1 cells). Activation of Her2 is reported to induce the expression and/or phosphorylation-dependent activation of numerous kinases and transcription factors that drive drug resistance and metastasis in breast cancer. A key signaling node activated by the Her2/Mapk/Erk pathway is Rsk2, which has been shown to induce numerous signaling pathways associated with the development of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis including: Creb, Stat3, cSrc, Fak, Pax, Fascin, and actin polymerization. The data demonstrate that melatonin (both endogenous and exogenous) significantly represses this invasive/metastatic phenotype through a mechanism that involves the suppression of EMT, either by promoting mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET), and/or by inhibiting key signaling pathways involved in later stages of metastasis. These data, combined with our earlier in vitro studies, support the concept that maintenance of elevated and extended duration of nocturnal melatonin levels plays a critical role in repressing the metastatic progression of breast cancer. PMID:27535706

  5. miR-10a restores human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation by repressing KLF4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiao; Dong, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-hui; Zhang, Dong-Cheng; You, Xiang-Yu; Zhong, Yun; Chen, Min-Sheng; Liu, Shi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    miRNAs have recently been shown to play a significant role in human aging. However, data demonstrating the effects of aging-related miRNAs in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are limited. We observed that hMSC differentiation decreased with aging. We also identified that miR-10a expression was significantly decreased with age by comparing the miRNA expression of hMSCs derived from young and aged individuals. Therefore, we hypothesized that the downregulation of miR-10a may be associated with the decreased differentiation capability of hMSCs from aged individuals. Lentiviral constructs were used to up- or downregulate miR-10a in young and old hMSCs. Upregulation of miR-10a resulted in increased differentiation to adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages and in reduced cell senescence. Conversely, downregulation of miR-10a resulted in decreased cell differentiation and increased cell senescence. A chimeric luciferase reporter system was generated, tagged with the full-length 3′-UTR region of KLF4 harboring the seed-matched sequence with or without four nucleotide mutations. These constructs were cotransfected with the miR-10a mimic into cells. The luciferase activity was significantly repressed by the miR-10a mimic, proving the direct binding of miR-10a to the 3′-UTR of KLF4. Direct suppression of KLF4 in aged hMSCs increased cell differentiation and decreased cell senescence. In conclusion, miR-10a restores the differentiation capability of aged hMSCs through repression of KLF4. Aging-related miRNAs may have broad applications in the restoration of cell dysfunction caused by aging. J. Cell. Physiol. 228: 2324–2336, 2013. © The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23696417

  6. Lysogeny with Shiga Toxin 2-Encoding Bacteriophages Represses Type III Secretion in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuefang; McAteer, Sean P.; Tree, Jai J.; Shaw, Darren J.; Wolfson, Eliza B. K.; Beatson, Scott A.; Roe, Andrew J.; Allison, Lesley J.; Chase-Topping, Margo E.; Mahajan, Arvind; Tozzoli, Rosangela; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.; Morabito, Stefano; Gally, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Lytic or lysogenic infections by bacteriophages drive the evolution of enteric bacteria. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) have recently emerged as a significant zoonotic infection of humans with the main serotypes carried by ruminants. Typical EHEC strains are defined by the expression of a type III secretion (T3S) system, the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) and association with specific clinical symptoms. The genes for Stx are present on lambdoid bacteriophages integrated into the E. coli genome. Phage type (PT) 21/28 is the most prevalent strain type linked with human EHEC infections in the United Kingdom and is more likely to be associated with cattle shedding high levels of the organism than PT32 strains. In this study we have demonstrated that the majority (90%) of PT 21/28 strains contain both Stx2 and Stx2c phages, irrespective of source. This is in contrast to PT 32 strains for which only a minority of strains contain both Stx2 and 2c phages (28%). PT21/28 strains had a lower median level of T3S compared to PT32 strains and so the relationship between Stx phage lysogeny and T3S was investigated. Deletion of Stx2 phages from EHEC strains increased the level of T3S whereas lysogeny decreased T3S. This regulation was confirmed in an E. coli K12 background transduced with a marked Stx2 phage followed by measurement of a T3S reporter controlled by induced levels of the LEE-encoded regulator (Ler). The presence of an integrated Stx2 phage was shown to repress Ler induction of LEE1 and this regulation involved the CII phage regulator. This repression could be relieved by ectopic expression of a cognate CI regulator. A model is proposed in which Stx2-encoding bacteriophages regulate T3S to co-ordinate epithelial cell colonisation that is promoted by Stx and secreted effector proteins. PMID:22615557

  7. Host and Bacterial Proteins That Repress Recruitment of LC3 to Shigella Early during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Baxt, Leigh A.; Goldberg, Marcia B.

    2014-01-01

    Shigella spp. are intracytosolic gram-negative pathogens that cause disease by invasion and spread through the colonic mucosa, utilizing host cytoskeletal components to form propulsive actin tails. We have previously identified the host factor Toca-1 as being recruited to intracellular S. flexneri and being required for efficient bacterial actin tail formation. We show that at early times during infection (40 min.), the type three-secreted effector protein IcsB recruits Toca-1 to intracellular bacteria and that recruitment of Toca-1 is associated with repression of recruitment of LC3, as well as with repression of recruitment of the autophagy marker NDP52, around these intracellular bacteria. LC3 is best characterized as a marker of autophagosomes, but also marks phagosomal membranes in the process LC3-associated phagocytosis. IcsB has previously been demonstrated to be required for S. flexneri evasion of autophagy at late times during infection (4–6 hr) by inhibiting binding of the autophagy protein Atg5 to the Shigella surface protein IcsA (VirG). Our results suggest that IcsB and Toca-1 modulation of LC3 recruitment restricts LC3-associated phagocytosis and/or LC3 recruitment to vacuolar membrane remnants. Together with published results, our findings suggest that IcsB inhibits innate immune responses in two distinct ways, first, by inhibiting LC3-associated phagocytosis and/or LC3 recruitment to vacuolar membrane remnants early during infection, and second, by inhibiting autophagy late during infection. PMID:24722587

  8. Political repression, civil society and the politics of responding to AIDS in the BRICS nations.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J; Harris, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    The policy responses to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations have played out amid radically different political environments that have shaped state-civil society relations in critical ways. In contrasting these different environments, this article offers the first comparison of the policy response to AIDS in the BRICS nations and seeks to understand the way in which political context matters for conditioning the response to a major epidemic. Using a comparative historical approach, we find that while collaborative state-civil society relations have produced an aggressive response and successful outcomes in Brazil, democratic openness and state-civil society engagement has not necessarily correlated with an aggressive response or better outcomes in the other cases. Response to the epidemic has been worst by far in democratic South Africa, followed by Russia, where in the former, denialism and antagonistic state-civil society relations fuelled a delayed response and proved extremely costly in terms of human lives. In Russia, a lack of civil societal opportunity for mobilization and non-governmental organization (NGO) growth, political centralization and the state's unwillingness to work with NGOs led to an ineffective government response. Top-down bureaucratic rule and a reluctance to fully engage civil society in democratic India substantially delayed the state's efforts to engage in a successful partnership with NGOs. Nevertheless, China has done surprisingly well, in spite of its repressive approach and narrow engagement with civil society. And in all cases, we find the relationship between state and civil society to be evolving over time in important ways. These findings suggest the need for more research on the links between democratic openness, political repression and policy responses to epidemics. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in

  9. Evidence against translational repression by the carboxyltransferase component of Escherichia coli acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alexander C; Cronan, John E

    2014-11-01

    In Escherichia coli, synthesis of the malonyl coenzyme A (malonyl-CoA) required for membrane lipid synthesis is catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a large complex composed of four subunits. The subunit proteins are needed in a defined stoichiometry, and it remains unclear how such production is achieved since the proteins are encoded at three different loci. Meades and coworkers (G. Meades, Jr., B. K. Benson, A. Grove, and G. L. Waldrop, Nucleic Acids Res. 38:1217-1227, 2010, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkp1079) reported that coordinated production of the AccA and AccD subunits is due to a translational repression mechanism exerted by the proteins themselves. The AccA and AccD subunits form the carboxyltransferase (CT) heterotetramer that catalyzes the second partial reaction of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Meades et al. reported that CT tetramers bind the central portions of the accA and accD mRNAs and block their tran