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Sample records for zeta potential determination

  1. Stimulation and inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis by organosolv lignins as determined by zeta potential and hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yang; Sun, Shaolong; Huang, Chen; Yong, Qiang; Elder, Thomas; Tu, Maobing

    2017-01-01

    Lignin typically inhibits enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass, but certain organosolv lignins or lignosulfonates enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between lignin and cellulases play critical roles in the enzymatic hydrolysis process. However, how to incorporate these two interactions into the consideration of lignin effects has not been investigated. We examined the physicochemical properties and the structures of ethanol organosolv lignins (EOL) from hardwood and softwood and ascertained the association between lignin properties and their inhibitory and stimulatory effects on enzymatic hydrolysis. The zeta potential and hydrophobicity of EOL lignin samples, isolated from organosolv pretreatment of cottonwood (CW), black willow (BW), aspen (AS), eucalyptus (EH), and loblolly pine (LP), were determined and correlated with their effects on enzymatic hydrolysis of Avicel. EOLs from CW, BW, and AS improved the 72 h hydrolysis yield by 8-12%, while EOLs from EH and LP decreased the 72 h hydrolysis yield by 6 and 16%, respectively. The results showed a strong correlation between the 72 h hydrolysis yield with hydrophobicity and zeta potential. The correlation indicated that the hydrophobicity of EOL had a negative effect and the negative zeta potential of EOL had a positive effect. HSQC NMR spectra showed that β- O -4 linkages in lignin react with ethanol to form an α -ethoxylated β- O -4' substructure (A') during organosolv pretreatment. Considerable amounts of C 2,6 -H 2,6 correlation in p -hydroxybenzoate (PB) units were observed for EOL-CW, EOL-BW, and EOL-AS, but not for EOL-EH and EOL-LP. This study revealed that the effect of lignin on enzymatic hydrolysis is a function of both hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic repulsions. The lignin inhibition is controlled by lignin hydrophobicity and the lignin stimulation is governed by the negative zeta potential. The net effect of lignin depends on the combined

  2. Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis for Determination of Hydrodynamic Diameter, Concentration, and Zeta-Potential of Polyplex Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David R; Green, Jordan J

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) is a recently developed nanoparticle characterization technique that offers certain advantages over dynamic light scattering for characterizing polyplex nanoparticles in particular. Dynamic light scattering results in intensity-weighted average measurements of nanoparticle characteristics. In contrast, NTA directly tracks individual particles, enabling concentration measurements as well as the direct determination of number-weighted particle size and zeta-potential. A direct number-weighted assessment of nanoparticle characteristics is particularly useful for polydisperse samples of particles, including many varieties of gene delivery particles that can be prone to aggregation. Here, we describe the synthesis of poly(beta-amino ester)/deoxyribonucleic acid (PBAE/DNA) polyplex nanoparticles and their characterization using NTA to determine hydrodynamic diameter, zeta-potential, and concentration. Additionally, we detail methods of labeling nucleic acids with fluorophores to assess only those polyplex nanoparticles containing plasmids via NTA. Polymeric gene delivery of exogenous plasmid DNA has great potential for treating a wide variety of diseases by inducing cells to express a gene of interest.

  3. The adsorption of cationic and amphoteric copolymers on glass surfaces: zeta potential measurements, adsorption isotherm determination, and FT Raman characterization.

    PubMed

    Tartakovsky, Alla; Drutis, Dane M; Carnali, Joseph O

    2003-07-15

    The adsorption of cationic and amphoteric copolymers onto controlled pore glass (CPG) powders has been studied by measurement of the powder particle zeta (zeta) potential, by determination of the adsorption isotherm, and by FT Raman measurements of the polymer-coated powder. The cationic polymers consisted chiefly of homopolymers of dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (DMDAAC) or copolymers of DMDAAC and acrylamide. The amphoteric polymers studied included copolymers of DMDAAC and acrylic acid. The comonomer ratio was varied to explore the dependence of cationic charge density on the extent and effect of adsorption. Both types of polymers adsorb onto the anionic glass surface via an ion-exchange mechanism. Consequently, a correspondingly higher mass of a low-charge-density copolymer adsorbs than of a cationic homopolymer. The presence of the anionic portion in the amphoteric polymers does not significantly alter this picture. The zeta potential, however, reflects the overall nature of the polymer. Cationic polymers effectively neutralize the glass surface, while amphoteric polymers leave the zeta potential net negative. Adsorption isotherms, determined via the depletion technique using colloidal titration, were used to "calibrate" a FT Raman method. The latter was used to determined the amount of adsorbed polymer under solution conditions in which colloidal titration could not be performed.

  4. Zeta potential in ceramic industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecuit, M.

    1984-01-01

    Deflocculation, electrical conductivity and zeta potential (ZP) are studied for the addition of 0 to 10000 ppm Na2SiO3 deflocculator to slips obtained from three argillaceous materials (kaolin d'Arvor, ball clay Hyplas 64, and/or Granger Clay No. 10). The quantity of Na2SO3 required to deflocculate a slip is independent of the density but differes for each clay. The ZP is directly related to the density of the slip. The higher the ZP the more stable a slip is; the value of the ZP of a mixture does not follow a simple law but the electrical resistance of a mixture does follow a simple additive law. The ZP appears to have linear relation with the specific surface of the argillaceous material.

  5. Zeta potential control for electrophoresis cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    Zeta potential arises from fact that ions tend to be adsorbed on surface of cell walls. This potential interfaces with electric field sensed by migrating particles and degrades resolution of separation. By regulating sign and magnitude of applied potential induced charge can be used to increase or decrease effective wall zeta potential.

  6. A zeta potential value determines the aggregate's size of penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives in aqueous suspension whereas positive charge is required for toxicity against bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Deryabin, Dmitry G; Efremova, Ludmila V; Vasilchenko, Alexey S; Saidakova, Evgeniya V; Sizova, Elena A; Troshin, Pavel A; Zhilenkov, Alexander V; Khakina, Ekaterina A; Khakina, Ekaterina E

    2015-08-08

    The cause-effect relationships between physicochemical properties of amphiphilic [60]fullerene derivatives and their toxicity against bacterial cells have not yet been clarified. In this study, we report how the differences in the chemical structure of organic addends in 10 originally synthesized penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives modulate their zeta potential and aggregate's size in salt-free and salt-added aqueous suspensions as well as how these physicochemical characteristics affect the bioenergetics of freshwater Escherichia coli and marine Photobacterium phosphoreum bacteria. Dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler micro-electrophoresis, agarose gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy, and bioluminescence inhibition assay were used to characterize the fullerene aggregation behavior in aqueous solution and their interaction with the bacterial cell surface, following zeta potential changes and toxic effects. Dynamic light scattering results indicated the formation of self-assembled [60]fullerene aggregates in aqueous suspensions. The measurement of the zeta potential of the particles revealed that they have different surface charges. The relationship between these physicochemical characteristics was presented as an exponential regression that correctly described the dependence of the aggregate's size of penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives in salt-free aqueous suspension from zeta potential value. The prevalence of DLVO-related effects was shown in salt-added aqueous suspension that decreased zeta potential values and affected the aggregation of [60]fullerene derivatives expressed differently for individual compounds. A bioluminescence inhibition assay demonstrated that the toxic effect of [60]fullerene derivatives against E. coli cells was strictly determined by their positive zeta potential charge value being weakened against P. phosphoreum cells in an aquatic system of high salinity. Atomic force microscopy data suggested that the

  7. Characterization of gold nanoparticles with different hydrophilic coatings via capillary electrophoresis and Taylor dispersion analysis. Part I: determination of the zeta potential employing a modified analytic approximation.

    PubMed

    Pyell, Ute; Jalil, Alaa H; Pfeiffer, Christian; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2015-07-15

    Taking gold nanoparticles with different hydrophilic coatings as an example, it is investigated whether capillary electrophoresis in combination with Taylor dispersion analysis allows for the precise determination of mean electrophoretic mobilities, electrophoretic mobility distributions, and zeta potentials in a matrix of exactly known composition and the calibration-free determination of number-weighted mean hydrodynamic radii. Our experimental data confirm that the calculation of the zeta potential for colloidal nanoparticles with ζ>25 mV requires to take the relaxation effect into account. Because of the requirement to avoid particle-wall interactions, a solution of disodiumtetraborate decahydrate (borax) in deionized water had been selected as suitable electrolyte. Measurements of the electrophoretic mobility at different ionic strength and application of the analytic approximation developed by Ohshima show that in the present case of a buffered solution with a weak electrolyte co-ion and a strong electrolyte counterion, the effective ionic drag coefficient should be approximated with the ionic drag coefficient of the counterion. The obtained results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations regarding the dependence of the zeta potential and the electrokinetic surface charge density on the ionic strength. We also show that Taylor dispersion analysis (besides estimation of the number-weighted mean hydrodynamic radius) provides additional information on the type and width of the number-weighted particle distribution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigating the time-dependent zeta potential of wood surfaces.

    PubMed

    Muff, Livius F; Luxbacher, Thomas; Burgert, Ingo; Michen, Benjamin

    2018-05-15

    This work reports on streaming potential measurements through natural capillaries in wood and investigates the cause of a time-dependent zeta potential measured during the equilibration of wood cell-walls with an electrolyte solution. For the biomaterial, this equilibration phase takes several hours, which is much longer than for many other materials that have been characterized by electrokinetic measurements. During this equilibration phase the zeta potential magnitude is decaying due to two parallel mechanisms: (i) the swelling of the cell-wall which causes a dimensional change reducing the charge density at the capillary interface; (ii) the transport of ions from the electrolyte solution into the permeable cell-wall which alters the electrical potential at the interface by internal charge compensation. The obtained results demonstrate the importance of equilibration kinetics for an accurate determination of the zeta potential, especially for materials that interact strongly with the measurement electrolyte. Moreover, the change in zeta potential with time can be correlated with the bulk swelling of wood if the effect of electrolyte ion diffusion is excluded. This study shows the potential of streaming potential measurements of wood, and possibly of other hygroscopic and nanoporous materials, to reveal kinetic information about their interaction with liquids, such as swelling and ion uptake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Zeta potential orientation dependence of sapphire substrates.

    PubMed

    Kershner, Ryan J; Bullard, Joseph W; Cima, Michael J

    2004-05-11

    The zeta potential of planar sapphire substrates for three different crystallographic orientations was measured by a streaming potential technique in the presence of KCl and (CH3)4NCl electrolytes. The streaming potential was measured for large single crystalline C-plane (0001), A-plane (1120), and R-plane (1102) wafers over a full pH range at three or more ionic strengths ranging from 1 to 100 mM. The roughness of the epi-polished wafers was verified using atomic force microscopy to be on the order of atomic scale, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to ensure that the samples were free of silica and other contaminants. The results reveal a shift in the isoelectric point (iep) of the three samples by as much as two pH units, with the R-plane surface exhibiting the most acidic behavior and the C-plane samples having the highest iep. The iep at all ionic strengths was tightly centered around a single pH for each wafer. These values of iep are substantially different from the range of pH 8-10 consistently reported in the literature for alpha-Al2O3 particles. Particle zeta potential measurements were performed on a model powder using phase analysis light scattering, and the iep was confirmed to occur at pH 8. Modified Auger parameters (MAP) were calculated from XPS spectra of a monolayer of iridium metal deposited on the sapphire by electron beam deposition. A shift in MAP consistent with the observed differences in iep of the surfaces confirms the effect of surface structure on the transfer of charge between the Ir and sapphire, hence accounting for the changes in acidity as a function of crystallographic orientation.

  10. Molecular origins of the zeta potential

    DOE PAGES

    Predota, Milan; Machesky, Michael L.; Wesolowski, David J.

    2016-09-19

    The zeta potential (ZP) is an oft-reported measure of the macroscopic charge state of solid surfaces and colloidal particles in contact with solvents. However, the origin of this readily measurable parameter has remained divorced from the molecular-level processes governing the underlying electrokinetic phenomena, which limits its usefulness. Here, we connect the macroscopic measure to the microscopic realm through nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of electroosmotic flow between parallel slabs of the hydroxylated (110) rutile (TiO 2) surface. These simulations provided streaming mobilities, which were converted to ZP via the commonly used Helmholtz-Smoluchowski equation. A range of rutile surface charge densities (0.1more » to –0.4 C/m 2), corresponding to pH values between about 2.8 and 9.4, in RbCl, NaCl, and SrCl 2 aqueous solutions, were modeled and compared to experimental ZPs for TiO 2 particle suspensions. Simulated ZPs qualitatively agree with experiment and show that “anomalous” ZP values and inequalities between the point of zero charge derived from electrokinetic versus pH titration measurements both arise from differing co- and counterion sorption affinities. We show that at the molecular level the ZP arises from the delicate interplay of spatially varying dynamics, structure, and electrostatics in a narrow interfacial region within about 15 Å of the surface, even in dilute salt solutions. This contrasts fundamentally with continuum descriptions of such interfaces, which predict the ZP response region to be inversely related to ionic strength. In reality the properties of this interfacial region are dominated by relatively immobile and structured water. Furthermore, viscosity values are substantially greater than in the bulk, and electrostatic potential profiles are oscillatory in nature.« less

  11. Estimation of the zeta potential and the dielectric constant using velocity measurements in the electroosmotic flows.

    PubMed

    Park, H M; Hong, S M

    2006-12-15

    In this paper we develop a method for the determination of the zeta potential zeta and the dielectric constant epsilon by exploiting velocity measurements of the electroosmotic flow in microchannels. The inverse problem is solved through the minimization of a performance function utilizing the conjugate gradient method. The present method is found to estimate zeta and epsilon with reasonable accuracy even with noisy velocity measurements.

  12. Surface Complexation Modeling of Calcite Zeta Potential Measurement in Mixed Brines for Carbonate Wettability Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, J.; Zeng, Y.; Biswal, S. L.; Hirasaki, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    We presents zeta potential measurements and surface complexation modeling (SCM) of synthetic calcite in various conditions. The systematic zeta potential measurement and the proposed SCM provide insight into the role of four potential determining cations (Mg2+, SO42- , Ca2+ and CO32-) and CO2 partial pressure in calcite surface charge formation and facilitate the revealing of calcite wettability alteration induced by brines with designed ionic composition ("smart water"). Brines with varying potential determining ions (PDI) concentration in two different CO2 partial pressure (PCO2) are investigated in experiments. Then, a double layer SCM is developed to model the zeta potential measurements. Moreover, we propose a definition for contribution of charged surface species and quantitatively analyze the variation of charged species contribution when changing brine composition. After showing our model can accurately predict calcite zeta potential in brines containing mixed PDIs, we apply it to predict zeta potential in ultra-low and pressurized CO2 environments for potential applications in carbonate enhanced oil recovery including miscible CO2 flooding and CO2 sequestration in carbonate reservoirs. Model prediction reveals that pure calcite surface will be positively charged in all investigated brines in pressurized CO2 environment (>1atm). Moreover, the sensitivity of calcite zeta potential to CO2 partial pressure in the various brine is found to be in the sequence of Na2CO3 > Na2SO4 > NaCl > MgCl2 > CaCl2 (Ionic strength=0.1M).

  13. Influence of the Dukhin and Reynolds numbers on the apparent zeta potential of granular porous media.

    PubMed

    Crespy, A; Bolève, A; Revil, A

    2007-01-01

    The Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (HS) equation is widely used to determine the apparent zeta potential of porous materials using the streaming potential method. We present a model able to correct this apparent zeta potential of granular media of the influence of the Dukhin and Reynolds numbers. The Dukhin number represents the ratio between the surface conductivity (mainly occurring in the Stern layer) and the pore water conductivity. The Reynolds number represents the ratio between inertial and viscous forces in the Navier-Stokes equation. We show here that the HS equation can lead to serious errors if it is used to predict the dependence of zeta potential on flow in the inertial laminar flow regime without taking into account these corrections. For indifferent 1:1 electrolytes (such as sodium chloride), we derived two simple scaling laws for the dependence of the streaming potential coupling coefficient (or the apparent zeta potential) on the Dukhin and Reynolds numbers. Our model is compared with a new set of experimental data obtained on glass bead packs saturated with NaCl solutions at different salinities and pH. We find fairly good agreement between the model and these experimental data.

  14. Zeta-potential Analyses using Micro Electrical Field Flow Fractionation with Fluorescent Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Moon-Hwan; Dosev, Dosi; Kennedy, Ian M.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly growing application of nanoparticles in biotechnology requires fast and accessible tools for their manipulation and for characterization of their colloidal properties. In this work we determine the zeta-potentials for polystyrene nanoparticles using micro electrical field flow fractionation (μ–EFFF) which is an efficient method for sorting of particles by size. The data obtained by μ–EFFF were compared to zeta potentials determined by standard capillary electrophoresis. For proof of concept, we used polystyrene nanoparticles of two different sizes, impregnated with two different fluorescent dyes. Fluorescent emission spectra were used to evaluate the particle separation in both systems. Using the theory of electrophoresis, we estimated the zeta-potentials as a function of size, dielectric permittivity, viscosity and electrophoretic mobility. The results obtained by the μ–EFFF technique were confirmed by the conventional capillary electrophoresis measurements. These results demonstrate the applicability of the μ–EFFF method not only for particle size separation but also as a simple and inexpensive tool for measurements of nanoparticles zeta potentials. PMID:18542710

  15. A Comparison of Streaming and Microelectrophoresis Methods for Obtaining the zeta Potential of Granular Porous Media Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Johnson

    1999-01-01

    The electrokinetic behavior of granular quartz sand in aqueous solution is investigated by both microelectrophoresis and streaming potential methods. zeta potentials of surfaces composed of granular quartz obtained via streaming potential methods are compared to electrophoretic mobility zeta potential values of colloid-sized quartz fragments. The zeta values generated by these alternate methods are in close agreement over a wide pH range and electrolyte concentrations spanning several orders of magnitude. Streaming measurements performed on chemically heterogeneous mixtures of physically homogeneous sand are shown to obey a simple mixing model based on the surface area-weighted average of the streaming potentials associated with the individual end members. These experimental results support the applicability of the streaming potential method as a means of determining the zeta potential of granular porous media surfaces. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  16. Secondary electroosmotic flow in microchannels with nonuniform and asymmetric Zeta potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinbai; He, Guowei; Liu, Feng

    2004-11-01

    Microfluidics has a broad range of applications in biotechnology, such as sample injection, drug delivering, solution mixing, and separations. All of these techniques require handling fluids in the low Reynolds number (Re) regime. Electroosmotic flow (EOF) or electroosmocitcs is the bulk movement of liquid relative to a stationary surface due to an externally applied electronic field. It is an alternative to pressure-driven flows with convenient implementation The driving force for EOF is dependent on the zeta potential. Previous reseraches focus on the nonuniform Zeta potential. In the present work, we consider nonuniform and asymmetric Zeta potential. The effects of asymmetric Zeta potential on the EOF are investigated analytically and simulated numerically. It is demonstrated that the nonuniform and asymmetric Zeta potential can generate more flow patterns for microfluidic control compared to symmetric Zeta potential.

  17. Zeta potentials in the flotation of oxide and silicate minerals.

    PubMed

    Fuerstenau, D W; Pradip

    2005-06-30

    Adsorption of collectors and modifying reagents in the flotation of oxide and silicate minerals is controlled by the electrical double layer at the mineral-water interface. In systems where the collector is physically adsorbed, flotation with anionic or cationic collectors depends on the mineral surface being charged oppositely. Adjusting the pH of the system can enhance or prevent the flotation of a mineral. Thus, the point of zero charge (PZC) of the mineral is the most important property of a mineral in such systems. The length of the hydrocarbon chain of the collector is important because of chain-chain association enhances the adsorption once the surfactant ions aggregate to form hemimicelles at the surface. Strongly chemisorbing collectors are able to induce flotation even when collector and the mineral surface are charged similarly, but raising the pH sufficiently above the PZC can repel chemisorbing collectors from the mineral surface. Zeta potentials can be used to delineate interfacial phenomena in these various systems.

  18. Estimation of zeta potential of electroosmotic flow in a microchannel using a reduced-order model.

    PubMed

    Park, H M; Hong, S M; Lee, J S

    2007-10-01

    A reduced-order model is derived for electroosmotic flow in a microchannel of nonuniform cross section using the Karhunen-Loève Galerkin (KLG) procedure. The resulting reduced-order model is shown to predict electroosmotic flows accurately with minimal consumption of computer time for a wide range of zeta potential zeta and dielectric constant epsilon. Using the reduced-order model, a practical method is devised to estimate zeta from the velocity measurements of the electroosmotic flow in the microchannel. The proposed method is found to estimate zeta with reasonable accuracy even with noisy velocity measurements.

  19. Coagulation-flocculation mechanisms in wastewater treatment plants through zeta potential measurements.

    PubMed

    López-Maldonado, E A; Oropeza-Guzman, M T; Jurado-Baizaval, J L; Ochoa-Terán, A

    2014-08-30

    Based on the polyelectrolyte-contaminant physical and chemical interactions at the molecular level, this article analyzed and discussed the coagulation-flocculation and chemical precipitation processes in order to improve their efficiency. Bench experiments indicate that water pH, polyelectrolyte (PE) dosing strategy and cationic polyelectrolyte addition are key parameters for the stability of metal-PE complexes. The coagulation-flocculation mechanism is proposed based on zeta potential (ζ) measurement as the criteria to define the electrostatic interaction between pollutants and coagulant-flocculant agents. Polyelectrolyte and wastewater dispersions are exposed to an electrophoretic effect to determine ζ. Finally, zeta potential values are compared at pH 9, suggesting the optimum coagulant dose at 162mg/L polydadmac and 67mg/L of flocculant, since a complete removal of TSS and turbidity is achieved. Based on the concentration of heavy metals (0.931mg/L Sn, 0.7mg/L Fe and 0.63mg/L Pb), treated water met the Mexican maximum permissible limits. In addition, the treated water has 45mg O2/L chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 45mg C/L total organic carbon (TOC). The coagulation-flocculation mechanism is proposed taking into account both: zeta potential (ζ)-pH measurement and chemical affinity, as the criteria to define the electrostatic and chemical interaction between pollutants and polyelectrolytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Oscillatory electroosmotic flow in a parallel-plate microchannel under asymmetric zeta potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, M.; Arcos, J.; Méndez, F.; Bautista, O.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we conduct a theoretical analysis of the start-up of an oscillatory electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a parallel-plate microchannel under asymmetric zeta potentials. It is found that the transient evolution of the flow field is controlled by the parameters {R}ω , {R}\\zeta , and \\bar{κ }, which represent the dimensionless frequency, the ratio of the zeta potentials of the microchannel walls, and the electrokinetic parameter, which is defined as the ratio of the microchannel height to the Debye length. The analysis is performed for both low and high zeta potentials; in the former case, an analytical solution is derived, whereas in the latter, a numerical solution is obtained. These solutions provide the fundamental characteristics of the oscillatory EOFs for which, with suitable adjustment of the zeta potential and the dimensionless frequency, the velocity profiles of the fluid flow exhibit symmetric or asymmetric shapes.

  1. Influence of surface conductivity on the apparent zeta potential of calcite.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Leroy, Philippe; Heberling, Frank; Devau, Nicolas; Jougnot, Damien; Chiaberge, Christophe

    2016-04-15

    Zeta potential is a physicochemical parameter of particular importance in describing the surface electrical properties of charged porous media. However, the zeta potential of calcite is still poorly known because of the difficulty to interpret streaming potential experiments. The Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (HS) equation is widely used to estimate the apparent zeta potential from these experiments. However, this equation neglects the influence of surface conductivity on streaming potential. We present streaming potential and electrical conductivity measurements on a calcite powder in contact with an aqueous NaCl electrolyte. Our streaming potential model corrects the apparent zeta potential of calcite by accounting for the influence of surface conductivity and flow regime. We show that the HS equation seriously underestimates the zeta potential of calcite, particularly when the electrolyte is diluted (ionic strength ⩽ 0.01 M) because of calcite surface conductivity. The basic Stern model successfully predicted the corrected zeta potential by assuming that the zeta potential is located at the outer Helmholtz plane, i.e. without considering a stagnant diffuse layer at the calcite-water interface. The surface conductivity of calcite crystals was inferred from electrical conductivity measurements and computed using our basic Stern model. Surface conductivity was also successfully predicted by our surface complexation model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Zeta potential of microfluidic substrates: 1. Theory, experimental techniques, and effects on separations.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Brian J; Hasselbrink, Ernest F

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes theory, experimental techniques, and the reported data pertaining to the zeta potential of silica and silicon with attention to use as microfluidic substrate materials, particularly for microchip chemical separations. Dependence on cation concentration, buffer and cation type, pH, cation valency, and temperature are discussed. The Debye-Hückel limit, which is often correctly treated as a good approximation for describing the ion concentration in the double layer, can lead to serious errors if it is extended to predict the dependence of zeta potential on the counterion concentration. For indifferent univalent electrolytes (e.g., sodium and potassium), two simple scalings for the dependence of zeta potential on counterion concentration can be derived in high- and low-zeta limits of the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzman equation solution in the double layer. It is shown that for most situations relevant to microchip separations, the high-zeta limit is most applicable, leading to the conclusion that the zeta potential on silica substrates is approximately proportional to the logarithm of the molar counterion concentration. The zeta vs. pH dependence measurements from several experiments are compared by normalizing the zeta based on concentration.

  3. Investigating the clinical potential for 14-3-3 zeta protein to serve as a biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recently, 14-3-3 zeta protein was identified as a potential serum biomarker of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical potential of 14-3-3 zeta protein for monitoring EOC progression compared with CA-125 and HE4. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting University of Pecs Medical Center Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology/Oncology (Pecs, Hungary). Population Thirteen EOC patients with advanced stage (FIGO IIb-IIIc) epithelial ovarian cancer that underwent radical surgery and received six consecutive cycles of first line chemotherapy (paclitaxel, carboplatin) in 21-day intervals. Methods Pre- and post-chemotherapy computed tomography (CT) scans were performed. Serum levels of CA-125, HE4, and 14-3-3 zeta protein were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative electrochemiluminescence assay (ECLIA). Main outcome measures Serum levels of CA-125, HE4, and 14-3-3 zeta protein, as well as lesion size according to pre- and post-chemotherapy CT scans. Results Serum levels of CA-125 and HE4 were found to significantly decrease following chemotherapy, and this was consistent with the decrease in lesion size detected post-chemotherapy. In contrast, 14-3-3 zeta protein levels did not significantly differ in healthy postmenopausal patients versus EOC patients. Conclusions Determination of CA-125 and HE4 serum levels for the determination of the risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA) represents a useful tool for the prediction of chemotherapy efficacy for EOC patients. However, levels of 14-3-3 zeta protein were not found to vary significantly as a consequence of treatment. Therefore we question if 14-3-3 zeta protein is a reliable biomarker, which correlates with the clinical behavior of EOC. PMID:24238270

  4. Tunnel determinants from spectral zeta functions. Instanton effects in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Izquierdo, A. Alonso; Guilarte, J. Mateos

    2014-07-23

    In this paper we develop an spectral zeta function regularization procedure on the determinants of instanton fluctuation operators that describe the semi-classical order of tunnel effects between degenerate vacua.

  5. Optimal aluminum/zirconium: Protein interactions for predicting antiperspirant efficacy using zeta potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shaotang; Vaughn, John; Pappas, Iraklis; Fitzgerald, Michael; Masters, James G; Pan, Long

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between commercial antiperspirant (AP) salts [aluminum chlorohydrate (ACH), activated ACH, aluminum sesquichlorohydrate (ASCH), zirconium aluminum glycine (ZAG), activated ZAG), pure aluminum polyoxocations (Al13-mer, Al30-mer), and the zirconium(IV)-glycine complex Zr6 (O)4 (OH)4 (H2O)8 (Gly)8]12+(-) (CP-2 or ZG) with Bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied using zeta potential and turbidity measurements. The maximal turbidity, which revealed the optimal interactions between protein and metal salts, for all protein-metal salt samples was observed at the isoelectric point (IEP), where the zeta potential of the solution was zero. Efficacy of AP salts was determined via three parameters: the amount of salt required to flocculate BSA to reach IEP, the turbidity of solution at the IEP, and the pH range over which the turbidity of the solution remains sufficiently high. By comparing active salt performance from this work to traditional prescreening methods, this methodology was able to provide a consistent efficacy assessment for metal actives in APs or in water treatment.

  6. Stability of fenbendazole suspensions for veterinary use. Correlation between zeta potential and sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Arias, José L; López-Viota, Margarita; Clares, Beatriz; Ruiz, Ma Adolfina

    2008-08-07

    In this paper we have carried out a detailed investigation of the stability and redispersibility characteristics of fenbendazole aqueous suspensions, through a thermodynamic and electrokinetic characterization, considering the effect of both pH and ionic strength. The hydrophobic character of the drug, and the surface charge and electrical double-layer thickness play an essential role in the stability of the system, hence the need for a full characterization of fenbendazole. It was found that the drug suspensions displays "delayed" or "hindered" sedimentation, determined by their hydrophobic character and their low zeta potential (indicating a small electrokinetic charge on the particles). The electrostatic repulsion between the particles is responsible for the low sedimentation volume and poor redispersibility of the drug. However, only low concentrations of AlCl(3) induced a significant effect on both the zeta potential and stability of the drug, leading to a "free-layered" sedimentation and a very easy redispersion which could be of great interest in the design of an oral pharmaceutical dosage form for veterinary.

  7. Surface electrochemical properties of red mud (bauxite residue): zeta potential and surface charge density.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravendra; Ming, Hui

    2013-03-15

    The surface electrochemical properties of red mud (bauxite residue) from different alumina refineries in Australia and China were studied by electrophoresis and measuring surface charge density obtained from acid/base potentiometric titrations. The electrophoretic properties were measured from zeta potentials obtained in the presence of 0.01 and 0.001 M KNO(3) over a wide pH range (3.5-10) by titration. The isoelectric point (IEP) values were found to vary from 6.35 to 8.70 for the red mud samples. Further investigation into the surface charge density of one sample (RRM) by acid/base potentiometric titration showed similar results for pH(PZC) with pH(IEP) obtained from electrokinetic measurements. The pH(IEP) determined from zeta potential measurements can be used as a characteristic property of red mud. The minerals contained in red mud contributed to the different values of pH(IEP) of samples obtained from different refineries. Different relationships of pH(IEP) with Al/Fe and Al/Si ratios (molar basis) were also found for different red mud samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An induced current method for measuring zeta potential of electrolyte solution-air interface.

    PubMed

    Song, Yongxin; Zhao, Kai; Wang, Junsheng; Wu, Xudong; Pan, Xinxiang; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Dongqing

    2014-02-15

    This paper reports a novel and very simple method for measuring the zeta potential of electrolyte solution-air interface. When a measuring electrode contacts the electrolyte solution-air interface, an electrical current will be generated due to the potential difference between the electrode-air surface and the electrolyte solution-air interface. The amplitude of the measured electric signal is linearly proportional to this potential difference; and depends only on the zeta potential at the electrolyte solution-air interface, regardless of the types and concentrations of the electrolyte. A correlation between the zeta potential and the measured voltage signal is obtained based on the experimental data. Using this equation, the zeta potential of any electrolyte solution-air interface can be evaluated quickly and easily by inserting an electrode through the electrolyte solution-air interface and measuring the electrical signal amplitude. This method was verified by comparing the obtained results of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 solutions of different pH values and concentrations with the zeta potential data reported in the published journal papers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement of Zeta-Potential at Microchannel Wall by a Nanoscale Laser Induced Fluorescence Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazoe, Yutaka; Sato, Yohei

    A nanoscale laser induced fluorescence imaging was proposed by using fluorescent dye and the evanescent wave with total internal reflection of a laser beam. The present study focused on the two-dimensional measurement of zeta-potential at the microchannel wall, which is an electrostatic potential at the wall surface and a dominant parameter of electroosmotic flow. The evanescent wave, which decays exponentially from the wall, was used as an excitation light of the fluorescent dye. The fluorescent intensity detected by a CCD camera is closely related to the zeta-potential. Two kinds of fluorescent dye solution at different ionic concentrations were injected into a T-shaped microchannel, and formed a mixing flow field in the junction area. The two-dimensional distribution of zeta-potential at the microchannel wall in the pressure-driven flow field was measured. The obtained zeta-potential distribution has a transverse gradient toward the mixing flow field and was changed by the difference in the averaged velocity of pressure-driven flow. To understand the ion motion in the mixing flow field, the three-dimensional flow structure was analyzed by the velocity measurement using micron-resolution particle image velocimetry and the numerical simulation. It is concluded that the two-dimensional distribution of zeta-potential at the microchannel wall was dependent on the ion motion in the flow field, which was governed by the convection and molecular diffusion.

  10. Study of a binary interpenetrated polymeric complex by correlation of rheological parameters with zeta potential and conductivity.

    PubMed

    Nita, Loredana Elena; Chiriac, Aurica P; Neamtu, Iordana; Bercea, Maria

    2010-03-01

    The interpenetrated macromolecular chains complexation between poly(aspartic acid) and poly(vinyl alcohol) in aqueous solution it was investigated. The interpolymer complexation process was evaluated through dynamic rheology. The aspects concerning the stability of the tested homopolymers and the prepared interpolymeric complex there were achieved from the evaluation of the aqueous solutions'zeta potential and also by determining the pH influence upon the zeta potential and the conductivity. The data obtained through the rheological dynamic measurements were correlated with the composition of the polymeric mixture, the dependence of zeta potential and conductivity. The study reveals the conditions for the formation of interpenetrated polymeric complex as being a ratio of 70wt.% PAS to 30wt.% PVA at 22 degrees C and 50/50 PAS/PVA ratio at 37 degrees C temperature. From the pH influence upon the zeta potential values it was evidenced the PAS aqueous solution does not reach the isoelectric point. At the same time, PVA solution and the complex PAS/PVA reaches the isoelectric point at strongly acid pH. The better stability of PAS, PVA and their mixture in solution is recorded in the alkaline domain (7.5or=12). The conductivity increases with the rising of the PAS content, pH and temperature. Other characteristics of the prepared interpenetrated polymeric structure, as for example thermal stability, there are also presented.

  11. Development of a novel in silico model of zeta potential for metal oxide nanoparticles: a nano-QSPR approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrzykowska, Ewelina; Mikolajczyk, Alicja; Sikorska, Celina; Puzyn, Tomasz

    2016-11-01

    Once released into the aquatic environment, nanoparticles (NPs) are expected to interact (e.g. dissolve, agglomerate/aggregate, settle), with important consequences for NP fate and toxicity. A clear understanding of how internal and environmental factors influence the NP toxicity and fate in the environment is still in its infancy. In this study, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach was employed to systematically explore factors that affect surface charge (zeta potential) under environmentally realistic conditions. The nano-QSPR model developed with multiple linear regression (MLR) was characterized by high robustness ({{{Q}}{{2}}}{{CV}}=0.90) and external predictivity ({{{Q}}{{2}}}{{EXT}}=0.93). The results clearly showed that zeta potential values varied markedly as functions of the ionic radius of the metal atom in the metal oxides, confirming that agglomeration and the extent of release of free MexOy largely depend on their intrinsic properties. A developed nano-QSPR model was successfully applied to predict zeta potential in an ionized solution of NPs for which experimentally determined values of response have been unavailable. Hence, the application of our model is possible when the values of zeta potential in the ionized solution for metal oxide nanoparticles are undetermined, without the necessity of performing more time consuming and expensive experiments. We believe that our studies will be helpful in predicting the conditions under which MexOy is likely to become problematic for the environment and human health.

  12. Application of the zeta potential for stationary phase characterization in ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Buszewski, Bogusław; Jaćkowska, Magdalena; Bocian, Szymon; Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina

    2013-01-01

    Two series of homemade stationary bonded phases for ion chromatography were investigated according to their zeta potential. One set of dendrimer anion exchanger was synthesized on the polymer support whereas the second material was prepared on the silica gel. The zeta potential data in water environment as well as buffered water solution were obtained. The influence of the length of anion-exchanger chains, the type of the support of the modified surface, and charge distribution on these data was investigated. Additionally, the zeta potential was correlated with retention factor of inorganic ions to describe their influence on the retention mechanism in ion chromatography. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Preparation and characterization of methacrylate hydrogels for zeta potential control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregonis, D. E.; Ma, S. M.; Vanwagenen, R.; Andrade, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    A technique based on the measurement of streaming potentials has been developed to evaluate the effects of hydrophilic coatings on electroosmotic flow. The apparatus and procedure are described as well as some results concerning the electrokinetic potential of glass capillaries as a function of ionic strength, pH, and temperature. The effect that turbulence and entrance flow conditions have on accurate streaming potential measurements is discussed. Various silane adhesion promoters exhibited only a slight decrease in streaming potential. A coating utilizing a glycidoxy silane base upon which methylcellulose is applied affords a six-fold decrease over uncoated tubes. Hydrophilic methacrylate gels show similar streaming potential behavior, independent of the water content of the gel. By introduction of positive or negative groups into the hydrophilic methacrylate gels, a range of streaming potential values are obtained having absolute positive or negative signs.

  14. Analyte preconcentration in nanofluidic channels with nonuniform zeta potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, A.; McCallum, C.; Storey, B. D.; Pennathur, S.; Meinhart, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that charged analytes in the presence of nonuniform electric fields concentrate at locations where the relevant driving forces balance, and a wide range of ionic stacking and focusing methods are commonly employed to leverage these physical mechanisms in order to improve signal levels in biosensing applications. In particular, nanofluidic channels with spatially varying conductivity distributions have been shown to provide increased preconcentration of charged analytes due to the existence of a finite electric double layer (EDL), in which electrostatic attraction and repulsion from charged surfaces produce nonuniform transverse ion distributions. In this work, we use numerical simulations to show that one can achieve greater levels of sample accumulation by using field-effect control via wall-embedded electrodes to tailor the surface potential heterogeneity in a nanochannel with overlapped EDLs. In addition to previously demonstrated stacking and focusing mechanisms, we find that the coupling between two-dimensional ion distributions and the axial electric field under overlapped EDL conditions can generate an ion concentration polarization interface in the middle of the channel. Under an applied electric field, this interface can be used to concentrate sample ions between two stationary regions of different surface potential and charge density. Our numerical model uses the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system of equations coupled with the Stokes equation to demonstrate the phenomenon, and we discuss in detail the driving forces behind the predicted sample enhancement. The numerical velocity and salt concentration profiles exhibit good agreement with analytical results from a simplified one-dimensional area-averaged model for several limiting cases, and we show predicted amplification ratios of up to 105.

  15. Synthesis, bioactivity and zeta potential investigations of chlorine and fluorine substituted hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Fahami, Abbas; Beall, Gary W; Betancourt, Tania

    2016-02-01

    Chlorine and fluorine substituted hydroxyapatites (HA-Cl-F) with different degrees of ion replacement were successfully prepared by the one step mechanochemical activation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR spectra indicated that substitution of these anions in milled powders resulted in the formation of pure hydroxyapatite phase except for the small observed change in the lattice parameters and unit cell volumes of the resultant hydroxyapatite. Microscopic observations showed that the milled product had a cluster-like structure made up of polygonal and spherical particles with an average particle size of approximately ranged from 20±5 to 70±5nm. The zeta potential of milled samples was performed at three different pH (5, 7.4, and 9). The obtained zeta potential values were negative for all three pH values. Negative zeta potential was described to favor osseointegration, apatite nucleation, and bone regeneration. The bioactivity of samples was investigated on sintered pellets soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution and apatite crystals formed on the surface of the pellets after being incubated for 14days. Zeta potential analysis and bioactivity experiment suggested that HA-Cl-F will lead to the formation of new apatite particles and therefore be a potential implant material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Surfactants, not size or zeta-potential influence blood-brain barrier passage of polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Nadine; Henrich-Noack, Petra; Kockentiedt, Sarah; Hintz, Werner; Tomas, Jürgen; Sabel, Bernhard A

    2014-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) can deliver drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but little is known which of the factors surfactant, size and zeta-potential are essential for allowing BBB passage. To this end we designed purpose-built fluorescent polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA) NP and imaged the NP's passage over the blood-retina barrier - which is a model of the BBB - in live animals. Rats received intravenous injections of fluorescent PBCA-NP fabricated by mini-emulsion polymerisation to obtain various NP's compositions that varied in surfactants (non-ionic, anionic, cationic), size (67-464nm) and zeta-potential. Real-time imaging of retinal blood vessels and retinal tissue was carried out with in vivo confocal neuroimaging (ICON) before, during and after NP's injection. Successful BBB passage with subsequent cellular labelling was achieved if NP were fabricated with non-ionic surfactants or cationic stabilizers but not when anionic compounds were added. NP's size and charge had no influence on BBB passage and cell labelling. This transport was not caused by an unspecific opening of the BBB because control experiments with injections of unlabelled NP and fluorescent dye (to test a "door-opener" effect) did not lead to parenchymal labelling. Thus, neither NP's size nor chemo-electric charge, but particle surface is the key factor determining BBB passage. This result has important implications for NP engineering in medicine: depending on the surfactant, NP can serve one of two opposite functions: while non-ionic tensides enhance brain up-take, addition of anionic tensides prevents it. NP can now be designed to specifically enhance drug delivery to the brain or, alternatively, to prevent brain penetration so to reduce unwanted psychoactive effects of drugs or prevent environmental nanoparticles from entering tissue of the central nervous system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. High-concentration zeta potential measurements using light-scattering techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kaszuba, Michael; Corbett, Jason; Watson, Fraser Mcneil; Jones, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Zeta potential is the key parameter that controls electrostatic interactions in particle dispersions. Laser Doppler electrophoresis is an accepted method for the measurement of particle electrophoretic mobility and hence zeta potential of dispersions of colloidal size materials. Traditionally, samples measured by this technique have to be optically transparent. Therefore, depending upon the size and optical properties of the particles, many samples will be too concentrated and will require dilution. The ability to measure samples at or close to their neat concentration would be desirable as it would minimize any changes in the zeta potential of the sample owing to dilution. However, the ability to measure turbid samples using light-scattering techniques presents a number of challenges. This paper discusses electrophoretic mobility measurements made on turbid samples at high concentration using a novel cell with reduced path length. Results are presented on two different sample types, titanium dioxide and a polyurethane dispersion, as a function of sample concentration. For both of the sample types studied, the electrophoretic mobility results show a gradual decrease as the sample concentration increases and the possible reasons for these observations are discussed. Further, a comparison of the data against theoretical models is presented and discussed. Conclusions and recommendations are made from the zeta potential values obtained at high concentrations. PMID:20732896

  18. Chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate composite dispersions: characterization of rheology, flocculate size and zeta potential.

    PubMed

    Khunawattanakul, Wanwisa; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Rades, Thomas; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2008-03-03

    Composite dispersions of chitosan (CS), a positively charged polymer, and magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS), a negatively charged clay, were prepared and rheology, flocculate size and zeta potential of the CS-MAS dispersions were investigated. High and low molecular weights of CS (HCS and LCS, respectively) were used in this study. Moreover, the effects of heat treatment at 60 degrees C on the characteristics of the CS-MAS dispersions and the zeta potential of MAS upon addition of CS at different pHs were examined. Incorporation of MAS into CS dispersions caused an increase in viscosity and a shift of CS flow type from Newtonian to pseudoplastic flow with thixotropic properties. Heat treatment brought about a significant decrease in viscosity and hysteresis area of the composite dispersions. Microscopic studies showed that flocculation of MAS occurred after mixing with CS. The size and polydispersity index of the HCS-MAS flocculate were greater than those of the LCS-MAS flocculate. However, a narrower size distribution and the smaller size of the HCS-MAS flocculate were found after heating at 60 degrees C. Zeta potentials of the CS-MAS flocculates were positive and slightly increased with increasing MAS content. In the zeta potential studies, the negative charge of the MAS could be neutralized by the addition of CS. Increasing the pH and molecular weight of CS resulted in higher CS concentrations required to neutralize the charge of MAS. These findings suggest that the electrostatic interaction between CS and MAS caused a change in flow behavior and flocculation of the composite dispersions, depending on the molecular weight of CS. Heat treatment affected the rheological properties and the flocculate size of the composite dispersions. Moreover, pH of medium and molecular weight of CS influence the zeta potential of MAS.

  19. Zeta potentials of the rare earth element fluorcarbonate minerals focusing on bastnäsite and parisite.

    PubMed

    Owens, C L; Nash, G R; Hadler, K; Fitzpatrick, R S; Anderson, C G; Wall, F

    2018-06-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are critical to a wide range of technologies ranging from mobile phones to wind turbines. Processing and extraction of REE minerals from ore bodies is, however, both challenging and relatively poorly understood, as the majority of deposits contain only limited enrichment of REEs. An improved understanding of the surface properties of the minerals is important in informing and optimising their processing, in particular for separation by froth flotation. The measurement of zeta potential can be used to extract information regarding the electrical double layer, and hence surface properties of these minerals. There are over 34 REE fluorcarbonate minerals currently identified, however bastnäsite, synchysite and parisite are of most economic importance. Bastnäsite-(Ce), the most common REE fluorcarbonate, supplies over 50% of the world's REE. Previous studies of bastnäsite have showed a wide range of surface behaviour, with the iso-electric point (IEP), being measured between pH values of 4.6 and 9.3. In contrast, no values of IEP have been reported for parisite or synchysite. In this work, we review previous studies of the zeta potentials of bastnäsite to investigate the effects of different methodologies and sample preparation. In addition, measurements of zeta potentials of parisite under water, collector and supernatant conditions were conducted, the first to be reported. These results showed an iso-electric point for parisite of 5.6 under water, with a shift to a more negative zeta potential with both collector (hydroxamic and fatty acids) and supernatant conditions. The IEP with collectors and supernatant was <3.5. As zeta potential measurements in the presence of reagents and supernatants are the most rigorous way of determining the efficiency of a flotation reagent, the agreement between parisite zeta potentials obtained here and previous work on bastnäsite suggests that parisite may be processed using similar reagent schemes to

  20. Cursory examination of the zeta potential behaviors of two optical materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tesar, A.; Oja, T.

    1992-01-02

    When an oxide surface is placed in water, a difference in potential across the interface occurs due to dipole orientation. Hydroxyl groups or bound oxygen atoms on the oxide surface will orient adjacent water molecules which balance the dipole charge. This occurs over some small distance called the electrical double layer. Trace amounts of high field strength ions present in the vicinity of the double layer can have significant effects on the double layer. When there is movement of the oxide surface with respect to the water, a shearing of the double layer occurs. The electrical potential at this surfacemore » of shear is termed the zeta potential. The impetus for this study was to document the zeta potential behavior in water of two optical materials. (1) a multicomponent phosphate glass; and (2) Zerodur, a silicate glass-ceramic.« less

  1. Zeta potential in oil-water-carbonate systems and its impact on oil recovery during controlled salinity water-flooding

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Matthew D.; Al-Mahrouqi, Dawoud; Vinogradov, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory experiments and field trials have shown that oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs can be increased by modifying the brine composition injected during recovery in a process termed controlled salinity water-flooding (CSW). However, CSW remains poorly understood and there is no method to predict the optimum CSW composition. This work demonstrates for the first time that improved oil recovery (IOR) during CSW is strongly correlated to changes in zeta potential at both the mineral-water and oil-water interfaces. We report experiments in which IOR during CSW occurs only when the change in brine composition induces a repulsive electrostatic force between the oil-brine and mineral-brine interfaces. The polarity of the zeta potential at both interfaces must be determined when designing the optimum CSW composition. A new experimental method is presented that allows this. Results also show for the first time that the zeta potential at the oil-water interface may be positive at conditions relevant to carbonate reservoirs. A key challenge for any model of CSW is to explain why IOR is not always observed. Here we suggest that failures using the conventional (dilution) approach to CSW may have been caused by a positively charged oil-water interface that had not been identified. PMID:27876833

  2. Electrokinetically driven active micro-mixers utilizing zeta potential variation induced by field effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Fu, Lung-Ming; Lee, Kuo-Hoong; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents a new electrokinetically driven active micro-mixer which uses localized capacitance effects to induce zeta potential variations along the surface of silica-based microchannels. The mixer is fabricated by etching bulk flow and shielding electrode channels into glass substrates and then depositing Au/Cr thin films within the latter to form capacitor electrodes, which establish localized zeta potential variations near the electrical double layer (EDL) region of the electroosmotic flow (EOF) within the microchannels. The potential variations induce flow velocity changes within a homogeneous fluid and a rapid mixing effect if an alternating electric field is provided. The current experimental data confirm that the fluid velocity can be actively controlled by using the capacitance effect of the buried shielding electrodes to vary the zeta potential along the channel walls. While compared with commonly used planar electrodes across the microchannels, the buried shielding electrodes prevent current leakage caused by bad bonding and allow direct optical observation during operation. It also shows that the buried shielding electrodes can significantly induce the field effect, resulting in higher variations of zeta potential. Computational fluid dynamic simulations are also used to study the fluid characteristics of the developed active mixers. The numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the developed microfluidic device permits a high degree of control over the fluid flow and an efficient mixing effect. Moreover, the developed device could be used as a pumping device as well. The development of the active electrokinetically driven micro-mixer could be crucial for micro-total-analysis-systems.

  3. The use of zeta potential as a tool to study phase transitions in binary phosphatidylcholines mixtures.

    PubMed

    Sierra, M B; Pedroni, V I; Buffo, F E; Disalvo, E A; Morini, M A

    2016-06-01

    Temperature dependence of the zeta potential (ZP) is proposed as a tool to analyze the thermotropic behavior of unilamellar liposomes prepared from binary mixtures of phosphatidylcholines in the absence or presence of ions in aqueous suspensions. Since the lipid phase transition influences the surface potential of the liposome reflecting a sharp change in the ZP during the transition, it is proposed as a screening method for transition temperatures in complex systems, given its high sensitivity and small amount of sample required, that is, 70% less than that required in the use of conventional calorimeters. The sensitivity is also reflected in the pre-transition detection in the presence of ions. Plots of phase boundaries for these mixed-lipid vesicles were constructed by plotting the delimiting temperatures of both main phase transition and pre-transition vs. the lipid composition of the vesicle. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies, although subject to uncertainties in interpretation due to broad bands in lipid mixtures, allowed the validation of the temperature dependence of the ZP method for determining the phase transition and pre-transition temperatures. The system chosen was dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC/DPPC), the most common combination in biological membranes. This work may be considered as a starting point for further research into more complex lipid mixtures with functional biological importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimation of Nanodiamond Surface Charge Density from Zeta Potential and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhenpeng; Wang, Yi

    2017-04-20

    Molecular dynamics simulations of nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used to study their interactions with various biological macromolecules. Such simulations generally require detailed knowledge of the surface composition of the NP under investigation. Even for some well-characterized nanoparticles, however, this knowledge is not always available. An example is nanodiamond, a nanoscale diamond particle with surface dominated by oxygen-containing functional groups. In this work, we explore using the harmonic restraint method developed by Venable et al., to estimate the surface charge density (σ) of nanodiamonds. Based on the Gouy-Chapman theory, we convert the experimentally determined zeta potential of a nanodiamond to an effective charge density (σ eff ), and then use the latter to estimate σ via molecular dynamics simulations. Through scanning a series of nanodiamond models, we show that the above method provides a straightforward protocol to determine the surface charge density of relatively large (> ∼100 nm) NPs. Overall, our results suggest that despite certain limitation, the above protocol can be readily employed to guide the model construction for MD simulations, which is particularly useful when only limited experimental information on the NP surface composition is available to a modeler.

  5. Interlaboratory comparison for the measurement of particle size and zeta potential of silica nanoparticles in an aqueous suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberty, Andrée; Franks, Katrin; Braun, Adelina; Kestens, Vikram; Roebben, Gert; Linsinger, Thomas P. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements has organised an interlaboratory comparison (ILC) to allow the participating laboratories to demonstrate their proficiency in particle size and zeta potential measurements on monomodal aqueous suspensions of silica nanoparticles in the 10-100 nm size range. The main goal of this ILC was to identify competent collaborators for the production of certified nanoparticle reference materials. 38 laboratories from four different continents participated in the ILC with different methods for particle sizing and determination of zeta potential. Most of the laboratories submitted particle size results obtained with centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS), dynamic light scattering (DLS) or electron microscopy (EM), or zeta potential values obtained via electrophoretic light scattering (ELS). The results of the laboratories were evaluated using method-specific z scores, calculated on the basis of consensus values from the ILC. For CLS (13 results) and EM (13 results), all reported values were within the ±2 | z| interval. For DLS, 25 of the 27 results reported were within the ±2 | z| interval, the two other results were within the ±3 | z| interval. The standard deviations of the corresponding laboratory mean values varied between 3.7 and 6.5%, which demonstrates satisfactory interlaboratory comparability of CLS, DLS and EM particle size values. From the received test reports, a large discrepancy was observed in terms of the laboratory's quality assurance systems, which are equally important for the selection of collaborators in reference material certification projects. Only a minority of the participating laboratories is aware of all the items that are mandatory in test reports compliant to ISO/IEC 17025 (ISO General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. International Organisation for Standardization, Geneva, 2005b). The absence of measurement uncertainty values in the reports, for

  6. Electroosmotic flow of Phan-Thien-Tanner fluids at high zeta potentials: An exact analytical solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Rajkumar; Deka, Nabajit; Sarma, Kuldeep; Mondal, Pranab Kumar

    2018-06-01

    We present a mathematical model to study the electroosmotic flow of a viscoelastic fluid in a parallel plate microchannel with a high zeta potential, taking hydrodynamic slippage at the walls into account in the underlying analysis. We use the simplified Phan-Thien-Tanner (s-PTT) constitutive relationships to describe the rheological behavior of the viscoelastic fluid, while Navier's slip law is employed to model the interfacial hydrodynamic slip. Here, we derive analytical solutions for the potential distribution, flow velocity, and volumetric flow rate based on the complete Poisson-Boltzmann equation (without considering the frequently used Debye-Hückel linear approximation). For the underlying electrokinetic transport, this investigation primarily reveals the influence of fluid rheology, wall zeta potential as modulated by the interfacial electrochemistry and interfacial slip on the velocity distribution, volumetric flow rate, and fluid stress, as well as the apparent viscosity. We show that combined with the viscoelasticity of the fluid, a higher wall zeta potential and slip coefficient lead to a phenomenal enhancement in the volumetric flow rate. We believe that this analysis, besides providing a deep theoretical insight to interpret the transport process, will also serve as a fundamental design tool for microfluidic devices/systems under electrokinetic influence.

  7. Effect of additive on Zeta potential and particle size of nickel nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vikash; Tarachand, Chotia, Chandrabhan; Okram, G. S.

    2017-05-01

    Nickel nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by thermal decomposition method using Oleylamine (OLY) as a solvent and Trioctylphosphine (TOP) as a surfactant. We have investigated the effect of pH and addition of Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the stability and particle size of Ni NPs using zeta potential and particle size analyser. Coating of the surfactants on the surface of Ni NPs was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Autotitration study of zeta potential of these NPs in ethanol by dynamic light scattering (DLS) at different pH values confirmed an isoelectric point (IEP) at pH = 3.64 in ethanol and pH = 3.04 after addition of EDTA in ethanol. It was observed that addition of EDTA in nanosuspension enhances stability of Ni-NPs significantly.

  8. Red blood cell membrane viscoelasticity, agglutination and zeta potential measurements with double optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Adriana; Fernandes, Heloise P.; Barjas-Castro, Maria L.; de Thomaz, André A.; de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2006-02-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) viscoelastic membrane contains proteins and glycolproteins embedded in, or attached, to a fluid lipid bilayer and are negatively charged, which creates a repulsive electric (zeta) potential between the cells and prevents their aggregation in the blood stream. There are techniques, however, to decrease the zeta potential to allow cell agglutination which are the basis of most of the tests of antigen-antibody interactions in blood banks. This report shows the use of a double optical tweezers to measure RBC membrane viscosity, agglutination and zeta potential. In our technique one of the optical tweezers trap a silica bead that binds strongly to a RBC at the end of a RBCs rouleaux and, at the same time, acts as a pico-Newton force transducer, after calibration through its displacement from the equilibrium position. The other optical tweezers trap the RBC at the other end. To measure the membrane viscosity the optical force is measured as a function of the velocity between the RBCs. To measure the adhesion the tweezers are slowly displaced apart until the RBCs disagglutination happens. The RBC zeta potential is measured in two complimentary ways, by the force on the silica bead attached to a single RBC in response to an applied electric field, and the conventional way, by the measurement of terminal velocity of the RBC after released from the optical trap. These two measurements provide information about the RBC charges and, also, electrolytic solution properties. We believe this can improve the methods of diagnosis in blood banks.

  9. Electrokinetic mixing at high zeta potentials: ionic size effects on cross stream diffusion.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian Yazdi, Alireza; Sadeghi, Arman; Saidi, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-03-15

    The electrokinetic phenomena at high zeta potentials may show several unique features which are not normally observed. One of these features is the ionic size (steric) effect associated with the solutions of high ionic concentration. In the present work, attention is given to the influences of finite ionic size on the cross stream diffusion process in an electrokinetically actuated Y-shaped micromixer. The method consists of a finite difference based numerical approach for non-uniform grid which is applied to the dimensionless form of the governing equations, including the modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The results reveal that, neglecting the ionic size at high zeta potentials gives rise to the overestimation of the mixing length, because the steric effects retard liquid flow, thereby enhancing the mixing efficiency. The importance of steric effects is found to be more intense for channels of smaller width to height ratio. It is also observed that, in sharp contrast to the conditions that the ions are treated as point charges, increasing the zeta potential improves the cross stream diffusion when incorporating the ionic size. Moreover, increasing the EDL thickness decreases the mixing length, whereas the opposite is true for the channel aspect ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Entrapment of ovalbumin into liposomes--factors affecting entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential.

    PubMed

    Brgles, Marija; Jurasin, Darija; Sikirić, Maja Dutour; Frkanec, Ruza; Tomasić, Jelka

    2008-01-01

    Various amounts of Ovalbumin (OVA) were encapsulated into positively and negatively charged multilamellar liposomes, with the aim to investigate the entrapment efficiency in different buffers and to study their effects on the liposome size and zeta potential. Results showed that the entrapment efficiency of OVA in anionic liposomes was the same in 10 mM Phosphate Buffer (PB) as in Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS; PB + 0.15 M NaCl). Also, liposome size was approximately 1200 nm for all anionic liposomes incorporating OVA. The entrapment efficiency of OVA in cationic liposomes was highly dependent on ionic strength. The size of cationic liposomes was approximately 1200 nm in PBS, regardless of protein content, but increased with the amount of the incorporated protein in PB. Aggregation of cationic liposomes in PB was observed when the mass of the protein was 2.5 mg or greater. The zeta potential of anionic liposomes was negative and of cationic liposomes positive in the whole range of protein mass tested. These results show how different compositions of lipid and aqueous phases can be used to vary the entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential--the factors that are of great importance for the use of liposomes as drug carriers.

  11. Effective charges and zeta potentials of oil in water microemulsions in the presence of Hofmeister salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Alexandre P.; Levin, Yan

    2018-06-01

    We present a theory which allows us to calculate the effective charge and zeta potential of oil droplets in microemulsions containing Hofmeister salts. A modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation is used to account for the surface and ion polarizations and hydrophobic and dispersion interactions. The ions are classified as kosmotropes and chaotropes according to their Jones-Dole viscosity B coefficient. Kosmotropes stay hydrated and do not enter into the oil phase, while chaotropes can adsorb to the oil-water interface. The effective interaction potentials between ions and oil-water interface are parametrized so as to accurately account for the excess interfacial tension.

  12. Effective charges and zeta potentials of oil in water microemulsions in the presence of Hofmeister salts.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Alexandre P; Levin, Yan

    2018-06-14

    We present a theory which allows us to calculate the effective charge and zeta potential of oil droplets in microemulsions containing Hofmeister salts. A modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation is used to account for the surface and ion polarizations and hydrophobic and dispersion interactions. The ions are classified as kosmotropes and chaotropes according to their Jones-Dole viscosity B coefficient. Kosmotropes stay hydrated and do not enter into the oil phase, while chaotropes can adsorb to the oil-water interface. The effective interaction potentials between ions and oil-water interface are parametrized so as to accurately account for the excess interfacial tension.

  13. Directional flow induced by synchronized longitudinal and zeta-potential controlling AC-electrical fields.

    PubMed

    van der Wouden, E J; Hermes, D C; Gardeniers, J G E; van den Berg, A

    2006-10-01

    Electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a microchannel can be controlled by electronic control of the surface charge using an electrode embedded in the wall of the channel. By setting a voltage to the electrode, the zeta-potential at the wall can be changed locally. Thus, the electrode acts as a "gate" for liquid flow, in analogy with a gate in a field-effect transistor. In this paper we will show three aspects of a Field Effect Flow Control (FEFC) structure. We demonstrate the induction of directional flow by the synchronized switching of the gate potential with the channel axial potential. The advantage of this procedure is that potential gas formation by electrolysis at the electrodes that provide the axial electric field is suppressed at sufficiently large switching frequencies, while the direction and magnitude of the EOF can be maintained. Furthermore we will give an analysis of the time constants involved in the charging of the insulator, and thus the switching of the zeta potential, in order to predict the maximum operating frequency. For this purpose an equivalent electrical circuit is presented and analyzed. It is shown that in order to accurately describe the charging dynamics and pH dependency the traditionally used three capacitor model should be expanded with an element describing the buffer capacitance of the silica wall surface.

  14. The zeta potential of extended dielectrics and conductors in terms of streaming potential and streaming current measurements.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Moreno, Amparo M; Vadillo-Rodríguez, Virginia; Perera-Núñez, Julia; Bruque, José M; González-Martín, M Luisa

    2012-07-21

    The electrical characterization of surfaces in terms of the zeta potential (ζ), i.e., the electric potential contributing to the interaction potential energy, is of major importance in a wide variety of industrial, environmental and biomedical applications in which the integration of any material with the surrounding media is initially mediated by the physico-chemical properties of its outer surface layer. Among the different existing electrokinetic techniques for obtaining ζ, streaming potential (V(str)) and streaming current (I(str)) are important when dealing with flat-extended samples. Mostly dielectric materials have been subjected to this type of analysis and only a few papers can be found in the literature regarding the electrokinetic characterization of conducting materials. Nevertheless, a standardized procedure is typically followed to calculate ζ from the measured data and, importantly, it is shown in this paper that such a procedure leads to incorrect zeta potential values when conductors are investigated. In any case, assessment of a reliable numerical value of ζ requires careful consideration of the origin of the input data and the characteristics of the experimental setup. In particular, it is shown that the cell resistance (R) typically obtained through a.c. signals (R(a.c.)), and needed for the calculations of ζ, always underestimates the zeta potential values obtained from streaming potential measurements. The consideration of R(EK), derived from the V(str)/I(str) ratio, leads to reliable values of ζ when dielectrics are investigated. For metals, the contribution of conductivity of the sample to the cell resistance provokes an underestimation of R(EK), which leads to unrealistic values of ζ. For the electrical characterization of conducting samples I(str) measurements constitute a better choice. In general, the findings gathered in this manuscript establish a measurement protocol for obtaining reliable zeta potentials of dielectrics and

  15. Protein adsorption on dopamine-melanin films: role of electrostatic interactions inferred from zeta-potential measurements versus chemisorption.

    PubMed

    Bernsmann, Falk; Frisch, Benoît; Ringwald, Christian; Ball, Vincent

    2010-04-01

    We recently showed the possibility to build dopamine-melanin films of controlled thickness by successive immersions of a substrate in alkaline solutions of dopamine [F. Bernsmann, A. Ponche, C. Ringwald, J. Hemmerlé, J. Raya, B. Bechinger, J.-C. Voegel, P. Schaaf, V. Ball, J. Phys. Chem. C 113 (2009) 8234-8242]. In this work the structure and properties of such films are further explored. The zeta-potential of dopamine-melanin films is measured as a function of the total immersion time to build the film. It appears that the film bears a constant zeta-potential of (-39+/-3) mV after 12 immersion steps. These data are used to calculate the surface density of charged groups of the dopamine-melanin films at pH 8.5 that are mostly catechol or quinone imine chemical groups. Furthermore the zeta-potential is used to explain the adsorption of three model proteins (lysozyme, myoglobin, alpha-lactalbumin), which is monitored by quartz crystal microbalance. We come to the conclusion that protein adsorption on dopamine-melanin is not only determined by possible covalent binding between amino groups of the proteins and catechol groups of dopamine-melanin but that electrostatic interactions contribute to protein binding. Part of the adsorbed proteins can be desorbed by sodium dodecylsulfate solutions at the critical micellar concentration. The fraction of weakly bound proteins decreases with their isoelectric point. Additionally the number of available sites for covalent binding of amino groups on melanin grains is quantified. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effective flocculation of Chlorella vulgaris using chitosan with zeta potential measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Y. J.; Lau, S. W.

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae are considered as one promising source of third-generation biofuels due to their fast growth rates, potentially higher yield rates and wide ranges of growth conditions. However, the extremely low biomass concentration in microalgae cultures presents a great challenge to the harvesting of microalgae because a large volume of water needs to be removed to obtain dry microalgal cells for the subsequent oil extraction process. In this study, the fresh water microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was effectively harvested using both low molecular weight (MW) and high MW chitosan flocculants. The flocculation efficiency was evaluated by physical appearance, supernatant absorbance, zeta potential and solids content after centrifugal dewatering. High flocculation efficiency of 98.0-99.0% was achieved at the optimal dosage of 30-40 mg/g with formation of large microalgae flocs. This study suggests that the polymer bridging mechanism was governing the flocculation behaviour of C. vulgaris using high MW chitosan. Besides, charge patch neutralisation mechanism prevailed at low MW chitosan where lower dosage was sufficient to reach near-zero zeta potential compared with the high MW chitosan. The amount of chitosan polymer present in the culture may also affect the mechanism of flocculation.

  17. Zeta potential in oil-brine-sandstone system and its role in oil recovery during controlled salinity waterflooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Jackson, M.

    2017-12-01

    Wettability alteration is widely recognised as a primary role in improved oil recovery (IOR) during controlled salinity waterflooding (CSW) by modifying brine composition. The change of wettability of core sample depends on adsorption of polar oil compounds into the mineral surface which influences its surface charge density and zeta potential. It has been proved that zeta potentials can be useful to quantify the wettability and incremental oil recovery in natural carbonates. However, the study of zeta potential in oil-brine-sandstone system has not investigated yet. In this experimental study, the zeta potential is used to examine the controlled salinity effects on IOR in nature sandstone (Doddington) aged with two types of crude oils (Oil T and Oil D) over 4 weeks at 80 °C. Results show that the zeta potential measured in the Oil T-brine-sandstone system following primary waterflooding decreases compared to that in fully water saturation, which is consistent with the negative oil found in carbonates study, and IOR response during secondary waterflooding using diluted seawater was observed. In the case of negative oil, the injected low salinity brine induces a more repulsive electrostatic force between the mineral-brine interface and oil-brine interface, which results in an increase disjoining pressure and alters the rock surface to be more water-wet. For Oil D with a positive oil-brine interface, the zeta potential becomes more positive compared to that under single phase condition. The conventional waterflooding fails to observe the IOR in Oil D-brine-sandstone system due to a less repulsive electrostatic force built up between the two interfaces. After switching the injection brine from low salinity brine to formation brine, the IOR was observed. Measured zeta potentials shed some light on the mechanism of wettability alteration in the oil-brine-sandstone system and oil recovery during CSW.

  18. Joule heating effects on electromagnetohydrodynamic flow through a peristaltically induced micro-channel with different zeta potential and wall slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjit, N. K.; Shit, G. C.

    2017-09-01

    This paper aims to develop a mathematical model for magnetohydrodynamic flow of biofluids through a hydrophobic micro-channel with periodically contracting and expanding walls under the influence of an axially applied electric field. The velocity slip effects have been taken into account at the channel walls by employing different slip lengths due to hydrophobic gating. Different temperature jump factors have also been used to investigate the thermomechanical interactions at the fluid-solid interface. The electromagnetohydrodynamic flow in a microchannel is simplified under the framework of Debye-Hückel linearization approximation. We have derived the closed-form solutions for the linearized dimensionless boundary value problem under the assumptions of long wave length and low Reynolds number. The axial velocity, temperature, pressure distribution, stream function, wall shear stress and the Nusselt number have been appraised for diverse values of the parameters approaching into the problem. Our main focus is to determine the effects of different zeta potential on the axial velocity and temperature distribution under electromagnetic environment. This study puts forward an important observation that the different zeta potential plays an important role in controlling fluid velocity. The study further reveals that the temperature increases significantly with the Joule heating parameter and the Brinkman number (arises due to the dissipation of energy).

  19. A new biphasic osteoinductive calcium composite material with a negative Zeta potential for bone augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, Ralf; Kolk, Andreas; Gerressen, Marcus; Driemel, Oliver; Maciejewski, Oliver; Hermanns-Sachweh, Benita; Riediger, Dieter; Stein, Jamal M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the osteogenic potential of a biphasic calcium composite material (BCC) with a negative surface charge for maxillary sinus floor augmentation. In a 61 year old patient, the BCC material was used in a bilateral sinus floor augmentation procedure. Six months postoperative, a bone sample was taken from the augmented regions before two titanium implants were inserted at each side. We analyzed bone neoformation by histology, bone density by computed tomography, and measured the activity of voltage-activated calcium currents of osteoblasts and surface charge effects. Control orthopantomograms were carried out five months after implant insertion. The BCC was biocompatible and replaced by new mineralized bone after being resorbed completely. The material demonstrated a negative surface charge (negative Zeta potential) which was found to be favorable for bone regeneration and osseointegration of dental implants. PMID:19523239

  20. Variability in Bioreactivity Linked to Changes in Size and Zeta Potential of Diesel Exhaust Particles in Human Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Srijata; Zhang, Lin; Subramaniam, Prasad; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Strickland, Pamela A. Ohman.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lioy, Paul J.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Ryan, Mary; Porter, Alex; Schwander, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Acting as fuel combustion catalysts to increase fuel economy, cerium dioxide (ceria, CeO2) nanoparticles have been used in Europe as diesel fuel additives (Envirox™). We attempted to examine the effects of particles emitted from a diesel engine burning either diesel (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) or diesel doped with various concentrations of CeO2 (DEP-Env) on innate immune responses in THP-1 and primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Batches of DEP and DEP-Env were obtained on three separate occasions using identical collection and extraction protocols with the aim of determining the reproducibility of particles generated at different times. However, we observed significant differences in size and surface charge (zeta potential) of the DEP and DEP-Env across the three batches. We also observed that exposure of THP-1 cells and PBMC to identical concentrations of DEP and DEP-Env from the three batches resulted in statistically significant differences in bioreactivity as determined by IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-12p40 mRNA (by qRT-PCR) and protein expression (by ELISPOT assays). Importantly, bioreactivity was noted in very tight ranges of DEP size (60 to 120 nm) and zeta potential (−37 to −41 mV). Thus, these physical properties of DEP and DEP-Env were found to be the primary determinants of the bioreactivity measured in this study. Our findings also point to the potential risk of over- or under- estimation of expected bioreactivity effects (and by inference of public health risks) from bulk DEP use without taking into account potential batch-to-batch variations in physical (and possibly chemical) properties. PMID:24825358

  1. Zeta-potential and particle size studies of silver sulphide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Vikash, E-mail: vikash@csr.res.in; Tarachand,; Ganesan, V.

    Silver sulfide (Ag{sub 2}S) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared successfully for the first time using diethylene glycol (DEG) as a surfactant. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data revealed single phase nature of the compound and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) confirmed its nominal composition. Their sizes were 43 nm from XRD, 50 nm from atomic force microscopy (AFM) and 19 nm & 213 nm from dynamic light scattering (DLS); their differences have been discussed. Autotitration study of zeta potential of these NPs in deionized water by DLS at different pH values confirmed an isoelectric point at pH = 5.14 and their very unstable nature in deionized water.

  2. Cellular internalization of polycation-coated microparticles and its dependence on their zeta potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Noritaka; Kondo, Ryosuke

    2018-03-01

    By applying microparticles to HeLa cells, the number of particles adhered on the cell and that of the ones internalized in the cells were evaluated. Three-dimensional tomographic images of the cells with the particles were obtained by multiphoton excitation laser scanning microscopy, and the adhered and internalized particles were counted separately. When the surface charge of the particles was reversed from negative to positive by coating the particles with polycations, both numbers significantly increased owing to the electrostatic attraction between the cells and the polycation-coated particles. Four different positively charged particles were prepared using four different polycations, and the numbers of adhered and internalized particles were compared. Our results suggest that these numbers depended on the zeta potential rather than the molecular structure of the polycation.

  3. Investigation of the influence of the zeta-potential on the filtration rate in the presence of collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provirnina, E. V.; Barbin, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    The value of the zeta-potential does not have an explicit effect, which is expressed by a simple math correlation, on filtration rate when a solution of the tested collector is filtered through a cake prepared under standard conditions from the examined particulate material. The zeta-potential measurements and filtration tests were carried out on silica and galena with solutions contg. a cationic container ANP and Et xanthane, resp. at PH = 6.5, varying concentration of the agent (0-2500 g/ton), and under a vacuum of 100 to 600 mm Hg.

  4. Binding of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-zeta (PLC-zeta) to phospholipid membranes: potential role of an unstructured cluster of basic residues.

    PubMed

    Nomikos, Michail; Mulgrew-Nesbitt, Anna; Pallavi, Payal; Mihalyne, Gyongyi; Zaitseva, Irina; Swann, Karl; Lai, F Anthony; Murray, Diana; McLaughlin, Stuart

    2007-06-01

    Phospholipase C-zeta (PLC-zeta) is a sperm-specific enzyme that initiates the Ca2+ oscillations in mammalian eggs that activate embryo development. It shares considerable sequence homology with PLC-delta1, but lacks the PH domain that anchors PLC-delta1 to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, PIP2. Thus it is unclear how PLC-zeta interacts with membranes. The linker region between the X and Y catalytic domains of PLC-zeta, however, contains a cluster of basic residues not present in PLC-delta1. Application of electrostatic theory to a homology model of PLC-zeta suggests this basic cluster could interact with acidic lipids. We measured the binding of catalytically competent mouse PLC-zeta to phospholipid vesicles: for 2:1 phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine (PC/PS) vesicles, the molar partition coefficient, K, is too weak to be of physiological significance. Incorporating 1% PIP2 into the 2:1 PC/PS vesicles increases K about 10-fold, to 5x10(3) M-1, a biologically relevant value. Expressed fragments corresponding to the PLC-zeta X-Y linker region also bind with higher affinity to polyvalent than monovalent phosphoinositides on nitrocellulose filters. A peptide corresponding to the basic cluster (charge=+7) within the linker region, PLC-zeta-(374-385), binds to PC/PS vesicles with higher affinity than PLC-zeta, but its binding is less sensitive to incorporating PIP2. The acidic residues flanking this basic cluster in PLC-zeta may account for both these phenomena. FRET experiments suggest the basic cluster could not only anchor the protein to the membrane, but also enhance the local concentration of PIP2 adjacent to the catalytic domain.

  5. Effects of image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, and surface roughness on the zeta potential of spherical electric double layers.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zecheng; Xing, Xiangjun; Xu, Zhenli

    2012-07-21

    We investigate the effects of image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, and surface roughness on spherical electric double layer structures in electrolyte solutions with divalent counterions in the setting of the primitive model. By using Monte Carlo simulations and the image charge method, the zeta potential profile and the integrated charge distribution function are computed for varying surface charge strengths and salt concentrations. Systematic comparisons were carried out between three distinct models for interfacial charges: (1) SURF1 with uniform surface charges, (2) SURF2 with discrete point charges on the interface, and (3) SURF3 with discrete interfacial charges and finite excluded volume. By comparing the integrated charge distribution function and the zeta potential profile, we argue that the potential at the distance of one ion diameter from the macroion surface is a suitable location to define the zeta potential. In SURF2 model, we find that image charge effects strongly enhance charge inversion for monovalent interfacial charges, and strongly suppress charge inversion for multivalent interfacial charges. For SURF3, the image charge effect becomes much smaller. Finally, with image charges in action, we find that excluded volumes (in SURF3) suppress charge inversion for monovalent interfacial charges and enhance charge inversion for multivalent interfacial charges. Overall, our results demonstrate that all these aspects, i.e., image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, their excluding volumes, have significant impacts on zeta potentials of electric double layers.

  6. Hydrodynamic dispersion in a combined magnetohydrodynamic- electroosmotic-driven flow through a microchannel with slowly varying wall zeta potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, C.; Arcos, J.; Bautista, O.; Méndez, F.

    2017-09-01

    The effective dispersion coefficient of a neutral solute in the combined electroosmotic (EO) and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-driven flow of a Newtonian fluid through a parallel flat plate microchannel is studied. The walls of the microchannel are assumed to have modulated and low zeta potentials that vary slowly in the axial direction in a sinusoidal manner. The flow field required to obtain the dispersion coefficient is solved using the lubrication approximation theory. The solution of the electrical potential is based on the Debye-Hückel approximation for a symmetric (Z :Z ) electrolyte solution. The EO and MHD effects, together with the variations in the zeta potentials of the walls, are observed to notably modify the axial distribution of the effective dispersion coefficient. The problem is formulated for two cases of the zeta potential function. Note that the dispersion coefficient primarily depends on the Hartmann number, on the ratio of the half height of the microchannel to the Debye length, and on the assumed variation in the zeta potentials of the walls.

  7. Interrelationship between the zeta potential and viscoelastic properties in coacervates complexes.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Andrews, Hugo; Enríquez-Ramírez, Karina Esmeralda; García-Márquez, Eristeo; Ramírez-Santiago, Cesar; Lobato-Calleros, Consuelo; Vernon-Carter, Jaime

    2013-06-05

    The formation of the complex coacervate (CC) phases between gum Arabic (GA) and low molecular weight chitosan (Ch) and the interrelationship between the zeta-potential and viscoelastic properties of the coacervate phase were investigated. The maximum charge difference of biopolymers stock dispersion was displayed in a range of pH between 4.0 and 5.5. Titration experiment between the oppositely charged biopolymers showed that the isoelectric point was found at a biopolymers mass ratio (R[GA:Ch]) of R[5.5:1]. Turbidity, size and ζ-potential of the soluble complexes (SC) showed an interrelation with the complex coacervate yield (CCY). Higher CCY values (82.2-88.1%) were obtained in the range from R[3:1] to R[5.5:1]. Change the R[GA:Ch] in dispersion, make possible to produce CC's phases exhibiting cationic (R[1:1] and R[3:1]), neutral (R[5.5:1]) or anionic (R[9:1] and R[7:1]) charged. All CC's exhibited liquid-viscoelastic behavior at lower frequencies and a crossover between G″ and G' at higher frequencies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of zeta potential on the performance of a ring-type electroosmotic mixer.

    PubMed

    Kim, T A; Koo, K H; Kim, Y J

    2009-12-01

    In order to achieve faster mixing, a new type of electrokinetic mixer with a T-type channel is introduced. The proposed mixer takes two fluids from different inlets and combines them into a single channel. The fluids then enter a mixing chamber with different inner and outer radii. Four microelectrodes are positioned on the outer wall of the mixing chamber. The electric potentials on the four microelectrodes are sinusoidal with respect to time and have various maximum voltages, zeta potentials and frequency values. The working fluid is water and each inlet has a different initial concentration values. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equation is solved in the channel, with a slip boundary condition on the inner and outer walls of the mixing chamber. The convection-diffusion equation is used to describe the concentration of the dissolved substances in the fluid. The pressure, concentration and flow fields in the channel are calculated and the results are graphically depicted for various flow and electric conditions.

  9. Optimal MEMS device for mobility and zeta potential measurements using DC electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Karam, Pascal R; Dukhin, Andrei; Pennathur, Sumita

    2017-05-01

    We have developed a novel microchannel geometry that allows us to perform simple DC electrophoresis to measure the electrophoretic mobility and zeta potential of analytes and particles. In standard capillary geometries, mobility measurements using DC fields are difficult to perform. Specifically, measurements in open capillaries require knowledge of the hard to measure and often dynamic wall surface potential. Although measurements in closed capillaries eliminate this requirement, the measurements must be performed at infinitesimally small regions of zero flow where the pressure driven-flow completely cancels the electroosmotic flow (Komagata Planes). Furthermore, applied DC fields lead to electrode polarization, further questioning the reliability and accuracy of the measurement. In contrast, our geometry expands and moves the Komagata planes to where velocity gradients are at a minimum, and thus knowledge of the precise location of a Komagata plane is not necessary. Additionally, our microfluidic device prevents electrode polarization because of fluid recirculation around the electrodes. We fabricated our device using standard MEMS fabrication techniques and performed electrophoretic mobility measurements on 500 nm fluorescently tagged polystyrene particles at various buffer concentrations. Results are comparable to two different commercial dynamic light scattering based particle sizing instruments. We conclude with guidelines to further develop this robust electrophoretic tool that allows for facile and efficient particle characterization. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Zeta Potential Measurements on Three Clays from Turkey and Effects of Clays on Coal Flotation

    PubMed

    Hussain; Dem&idot;rc&idot;; özbayoğlu

    1996-12-25

    There is a growing trend of characterizing coal and coal wastes in order to study the effect of clays present in them during coal washing. Coarse wastes from the Zonguldak Coal Washery, Turkey, were characterized and found to contain kaolinite, illite, and chlorite. These three clays, obtained in almost pure form from various locations in Turkey, have been subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis to assess their purity and zeta potential measurements in order to evaluate their properties in terms of their surface charge and point of zero charge (pzc) values. It was found from XRD data that these clays were almost pure and their electrokinetic potential should therefore be representative of their colloidal behavior. All three clay minerals were negatively charged over the range from pH 2.5 to 11. Chlorite and illite have pzc at pH 3 and pH 2.5, respectively, whereas kaolinite has no pzc. The effect of these clays in Zonguldak coal, wastes, and black waters on coal flotation was studied by floating artificial mixtures of Zonguldak clean coal (4.5% ash) and individual clay. The flotation tests on coal/individual clay revealed that each clay influences coal flotation differently according to its type and amount. Illite had the worst effect on coal floated, followed by chlorite and kaolinite. The loss of yield in coal was found to be 18% for kaolinite, 20% for chlorite, and 28% for illite, indicating the worst effect of illite and least for kaolinite during coal flotation.

  11. Influence of temperature, anions and size distribution on the zeta potential of DMPC, DPPC and DMPE lipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Morini, M A; Sierra, M B; Pedroni, V I; Alarcon, L M; Appignanesi, G A; Disalvo, E A

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the work is to compare the influence of the multilamellarity, phase state, lipid head groups and ionic media on the origin of the surface potential of lipid membranes. With this aim, we present a new analysis of the zeta potential of multilamellar and unilamellar vesicles composed by phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) dispersed in water and ionic solutions of polarizable anions, at temperatures below and above the phase transition. In general, the adsorption of anions seems to explain the origin of the zeta potential in vesicles only above the transition temperature (Tc). In this case, the sign of the surface potential is ascribed to a partial orientation of head group moiety toward the aqueous phase. This is noticeable in PC head groups but not in PEs, due to the strong lateral interaction between PO and NH group in PE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS PHASE PROPERTIES ON CLAY PARTICLE ZETA POTENTIAL AND ELECTRO-OSMOTIC PERMEABILITY: IMPLICATIONS FOR ELECTRO-KINETIC SOIL REMEDIATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aqueous phase properties (pH, ionic strength and divalent metal ion concentration) on clay particle zeta potential and packed-bed electro-osmotic permeability was quantified. Although pH strongly altered the zeta potential of a Georgia kaolinite, it did not signi...

  13. Flotation of algae for water reuse and biomass production: role of zeta potential and surfactant to separate algal particles.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Dong-Heui; Kim, Mi-Sug

    2015-01-01

    The effect of chemical coagulation and biological auto-flocculation relative to zeta potential was examined to compare flotation and sedimentation separation processes for algae harvesting. Experiments revealed that microalgae separation is related to auto-flocculation of Anabaena spp. and requires chemical coagulation for the whole period of microalgae cultivation. In addition, microalgae separation characteristics which are associated with surfactants demonstrated optimal microalgae cultivation time and separation efficiency of dissolved CO2 flotation (DCF) as an alternative to dissolved air flotation (DAF). Microalgae were significantly separated in response to anionic surfactant rather than cationic surfactant as a function of bubble size and zeta potential. DAF and DCF both showed slightly efficient flotation; however, application of anionic surfactant was required when using DCF.

  14. Reduced Zeta potential through use of cationic adhesion promoter for improved resist process performance and minimizing material consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Lorna; Thompson, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a non-HMDS (non-silane) adhesion promoter that was used to reduce the zeta potential for very thin (proprietary) polymer on silicon. By reducing the zeta potential, as measured by the minimum sample required to fully coat a wafer, the amount of polymer required to coat silicon substrates was significantly reduced in the manufacture of X-ray windows used for high transmission of low-energy X-rays. Moreover, this approach used aqueous based adhesion promoter described as a cationic surface active agent that has been shown to improve adhesion of photoresists (positive, negative, epoxy [SU8], e-beam and dry film). As well as reducing the amount of polymer required to coat substrates, this aqueous adhesion promoter is nonhazardous, and contains non-volatile solvents.

  15. Rheological behavior, zeta potential, and accelerated stability tests of Buriti oil (Mauritia flexuosa) emulsions containing lyotropic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, Cinthia Fernanda; de Faria Sato, Anne Miwa Callejón; de Camargo, Flavio Bueno; Campos, Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves Maia; Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the Amazon region presents a huge biodiversity; therefore, countless natural resources are being employed in the production of phytocosmetics and phytomedicines. The purpose of this work was to obtain emulsions produced with Buriti oil and non-ionic surfactants. Two surfactant systems were employed (Steareth-2 associated to Ceteareth-5 and to Ceteareth-20) to produce the emulsions using phase diagram method. Emulsions were obtained by echo-planar imaging method at 75°C. Rheological behavior and zeta potential were evaluated, and accelerated stability tests were performed. All emulsions analyzed presented pseudoplastic behavior. Zeta potential values were obtained between -14.2 and -53.3 mV. The formulations did not show changes in either physical stability, pH, or rheological behavior after accelerated stability tests. Significant differences were observed only after temperature cycling test. Based on these results, the emulsions obtained could be considered as promising delivery systems.

  16. Zeta potential study of Sb2S3 nanoparticles synthesized by a facile polyol method in various surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Monika; Okram, Gunadhor Singh

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, we report the successful synthesis of stibnite Sb2S3 nanoparticles (NPs) by a facile polyol method using various surfactant. The structural and optical properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Zeta potential. Rietveld refinement of XRD data confirms the single phase orthorhombic crystal structure of stibnite Sb2S3. Presence of six obvious Raman modes further confirmed their stoichiometric formation. Effect of different surfactants on the surface charge of Sb2S3 NPs was studied using Zeta potential measurement in deionized water at different pH values. They reveal that these NPs are more stable when it was synthesized in presence of EDTA than that of CTAB or without surfactant samples with high zeta potential. The isoelectronic point was found at pH = 6.4 for pure sample, 3.5 and 7.2 for CTAB and not found for EDTA Sb2S3 samples. This information can be useful for many industrial applications like pharmaceuticals, ceramics, waste water treatment and medicines.

  17. pH Effects on solubility, zeta potential, and correlation between antibacterial activity and molecular weight of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shun-Hsien; Lin, Hong-Ting Victor; Wu, Guan-James; Tsai, Guo Jane

    2015-12-10

    Six chitosans with molecular weights (MWs) of 300, 156, 72.1, 29.2, 7.1, and 3.3 kDa were prepared by cellulase degradation of chitosan (300 kDa) and ultrafiltration techniques. We examined the correlation between activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and chitosan MW, and provided the underlying explanation. In acidic pH conditions, the chitosan activity increased with increasing MW, irrespective of the temperature and bacteria tested. However, at neutral pH, chitosan activity increased as the MW decreased, and little activity was observed for chitosans with MW >29.2 kDa. At pH 5.0 and 6.0, chitosans exhibited good water solubility and zeta potential (ZP) decreased with the MW, whereas the solubility and ZP of the chitosans decreased with increasing MW at pH 7.0. Particularly, low solubility and negative ZP values were determined for chitosans with MW >29.2 kDa, which may explain the loss of their antibacterial activity at pH 7.0. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dynamic Light Scattering and Zeta Potential of Colloidal Mixtures of Amelogenin and Hydroxyapatite in Calcium and Phosphate Rich Ionic Milieus

    PubMed Central

    Uskoković, Vuk; Odsinada, Roselyn; Djordjevic, Sonia; Habelitz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The concept of zeta-potential has been used for more than a century as a basic parameter in controlling the stability of colloidal suspensions, irrespective of the nature of their particulate ingredients – organic or inorganic. There are prospects that self-assembly of peptide species and the protein-mineral interactions related to biomineralization may be controlled using this fundamental physicochemical parameter. In this study, we have analyzed the particle size and zeta-potential of the full-length recombinant human amelogenin (rH174), the main protein of the developing enamel matrix, in the presence of calcium and phosphate ions and hydroxyapatite (HAP) particles. As calcium and phosphate salts are introduced to rH174 sols in increments, zeta-potential of the rH174 nanospheres is more affected by negatively charged ions, suggesting their tendency to locate within the double charge layer. Phosphate ions have a more pronounced effect on both the zeta-potential and aggregation propensity of rH174 nanospheres compared to calcium ions. The isoelectric point of amelogenin was independent on the ionic strength of the solution and the concentration of calcium and/or phosphate ions. Whereas rH174 shows a higher affinity for phosphate than for calcium, HAP attracts both of these ions to the shear plane of the double layer. The parallel size and zeta-potential analysis of HAP and rH174 colloidal mixtures indicated that at pH 7.4, despite both HAP and rH174 particles being negatively charged, rH174 adsorbs well onto HAP particles. The process is slower at pH 7.4 than at pH 4.5 when the HAP surface is negatively charged and the rH174 nanosphere carries an overall positive charge. The results presented hereby demonstrate that electrostatic interactions can affect the kinetics of the adsorption of rH174 onto HAP. PMID:21146151

  19. Thickness determination of biological samples with a zeta-calibrated scanning tunneling microscope.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z H; Hartmann, T; Baumeister, W; Guckenberger, R

    1990-01-01

    A single-tube scanning tunneling microscope has been zeta-calibrated by using atomic steps of crystalline gold and was used for measuring the thickness of two biological samples, metal-coated as well as uncoated. The hexagonal surface layer of the bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans with an open network-type structure shows thickness values that are strongly influenced by the substrate and the preparation method. In contrast, the thickness of the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium with its densely packed less-corrugated structure exhibits very little variation in thickness in coated preparations and the values obtained are in good agreement with x-ray data. Images PMID:2251276

  20. The role of zeta potential in the adhesion of E. coli to suspended intertidal sediments.

    PubMed

    Wyness, Adam J; Paterson, David M; Defew, Emma C; Stutter, Marc I; Avery, Lisa M

    2018-05-29

    The extent of pathogen transport to and within aquatic systems depends heavily on whether the bacterial cells are freely suspended or in association with suspended particles. The surface charge of both bacterial cells and suspended particles affects cell-particle adhesion and subsequent transport and exposure pathways through settling and resuspension cycles. This study investigated the adhesion of Faecal Indicator Organisms (FIOs) to natural suspended intertidal sediments over the salinity gradient encountered at the transition zone from freshwater to marine environments. Phenotypic characteristics of three E. coli strains, and the zeta potential (surface charge) of the E. coli strains and 3 physically different types of intertidal sediments was measured over a salinity gradient from 0 to 5 Practical Salinity Units (PSU). A batch adhesion microcosm experiment was constructed with each combination of E. coli strain, intertidal sediment and 0, 2, 3.5 and 5 PSU. The zeta potential profile of one E. coli strain had a low negative charge and did not change in response to an increase in salinity, and the remaining E. coli strains and the sediments exhibited a more negative charge that decreased with an increase in salinity. Strain type was the most important factor in explaining cell-particle adhesion, however adhesion was also dependant on sediment type and salinity (2, 3.5 PSU > 0, 5 PSU). Contrary to traditional colloidal (Derjaguin, Landau, Vervey, and Overbeek (DLVO)) theory, zeta potential of strain or sediment did not correlate with cell-particle adhesion. E. coli strain characteristics were the defining factor in cell-particle adhesion, implying that diverse strain-specific transport and exposure pathways may exist. Further research applying these findings on a catchment scale is necessary to elucidate these pathways in order to improve accuracy of FIO fate and transport models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cell surface groups of two picocyanobacteria strains studied by zeta potential investigations, potentiometric titration, and infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Maria; Sibler, Sabine

    2005-06-15

    In order to clarify the role of picocyanobacteria in aquatic biogeochemical processes (e.g., calcite precipitation), cell surface properties need to be investigated. An experimental study of the cell surface characteristics of two Synechococcus-type unicellular autotrophic picocyanobacterial strains was carried out. One strain was isolated from Lake Plon and contained phycocyanin, the other strain came from Lago Maggiore and was rich in phycoerythrin. Potentiometric titrations were conducted to determine the different types of sites present on the bacteria cell walls. Infrared spectroscopy allowed characterization of the various functional groups (RNH(2), RCOOH, ROH, RPO(2)) and investigations of zeta potential provided insight into the isoelectrical points of the strains. Titrations reveal three distinct sites on the bacterial surfaces of phycocyanin- and phycoerythrin-rich strains with pK values of 4.8+/-0.3/5.0+/-0.2, 6.6+/-0.2/6.7+/-0.4, and 8.8+/-0.1/8.7+/-0.2, corresponding to carboxyl, phosphate, and amine groups with surface densities of 2.6+/-0.4/7.4+/-1.6 x 10(-4), 1.9+/-0.5/4.4+/-0.8 x 10(-4), and 2.5+/-0.4/4.8+/-0.7 x 10(-4) mol/g of dry bacteria. The deprotonation constants are similar to those of bacterial strains and site densities are also within an order of magnitude of other strains. The phycoerythrin-rich strain had a higher number of binding sites than the phycocyanin-rich strain. The results showed that picocyanobacteria may adsorb either calcium cations or carbonate anions and therefore strongly influence the biogeochemical cycling of calcite in pelagic systems.

  2. Hydrogen bonding and interparticle forces in platelet alpha-Al2O3 dispersions: yield stress and zeta potential.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Kay-Sen; Teh, E-Jen; Leong, Yee-Kwong; Ong, Ban Choon

    2009-04-09

    Adsorbed phosphate on smooth platelet alpha-Al2O3 particles at saturation surface coverage gives rise to strong interparticle attractive forces in dispersion. The maximum yield stress at the point of zero charge was increased by 2-fold. This was attributed to a high density of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the adsorbed phosphate layers of the interacting particles. Adsorbed citrate at saturation surface coverage, however, reduced the maximum yield stress by 50%. It adsorbed to form a very effective steric barrier as intramolecular hydrogen bonding between -OH and the free terminal carboxylic group prevented strong interactions with other adsorbed citrate molecules residing on the second interacting particle. This steric barrier kept the interacting platelet particles further apart, thereby weakening the van der Waals attraction. The platelet alpha-Al2O3 dispersions were flocculated at all pH level. These dispersions displayed a maximum yield stress at the point of zero zeta potential at the pH approximately 8.0. They also obeyed the yield stress-DLVO force model as characterized by a linear decrease in the yield stress with the square of the zeta potential.

  3. The Isolation of DNA by Polycharged Magnetic Particles: An Analysis of the Interaction by Zeta Potential and Particle Size

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Yazan; Xhaxhiu, Kledi; Kopel, Pavel; Hynek, David; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic isolation of biological targets is in major demand in the biotechnology industry today. This study considers the interaction of four surface-modified magnetic micro- and nanoparticles with selected DNA fragments. Different surface modifications of nanomaghemite precursors were investigated: MAN37 (silica-coated), MAN127 (polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated), MAN158 (phosphate-coated), and MAN164 (tripolyphosphate-coated). All particles were positive polycharged agglomerated monodispersed systems. Mean particle sizes were 0.48, 2.97, 2.93, and 3.67 μm for MAN37, MAN127, MAN164, and MAN158, respectively. DNA fragments exhibited negative zeta potential of −0.22 mV under binding conditions (high ionic strength, low pH, and dehydration). A decrease in zeta potential of particles upon exposure to DNA was observed with exception of MAN158 particles. The measured particle size of MAN164 particles increased by nearly twofold upon exposure to DNA. Quantitative PCR isolation of DNA with a high retrieval rate was observed by magnetic particles MAN127 and MAN164. Interaction between polycharged magnetic particles and DNA is mediated by various binding mechanisms such as hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Future development of DNA isolation technology requires an understanding of the physical and biochemical conditions of this process. PMID:27104527

  4. Zeta potential and Raman studies of PVP capped Bi2S3 nanoparticles synthesized by polyol method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarachand, Sathe, Vasant G.; Okram, Gunadhor S.

    2018-05-01

    Here we report the synthesis and characterisation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) capped Bi2S3 nanoparticles via one step catalyst-free polyol method. Raman spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analysis were performed on it. Rietveld refinement of powder XRD of PVP capped samples confirmed the formation of single phase orthorhombic Bi2S3 for all PVP capped samples. The presence of eight obvious Raman modes further confirmed the formation of stoichiometric Bi2S3. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies show a clear increase in hydrodynamic diameter for samples made with increasing PVP concentration. Particle size obtained from DLS and XRD (using Scherrer's formula) combine with change in full width half maxima of Raman modes collectively suggest overall improvement in crystallinity and quality of product on introducing PVP. In zeta potential (ζ) measurement, steric hindrance of carbon chains plays very crucial role and a systematic reduction of ζ value is observed for samples made with decreasing PVP concentration. An isoelectric point is obtained for sample made with low PVP (1g). Present results are likely to open a window for its medical and catalytic applications.

  5. The Isolation of DNA by Polycharged Magnetic Particles: An Analysis of the Interaction by Zeta Potential and Particle Size.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Yazan; Xhaxhiu, Kledi; Kopel, Pavel; Hynek, David; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-04-20

    Magnetic isolation of biological targets is in major demand in the biotechnology industry today. This study considers the interaction of four surface-modified magnetic micro- and nanoparticles with selected DNA fragments. Different surface modifications of nanomaghemite precursors were investigated: MAN37 (silica-coated), MAN127 (polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated), MAN158 (phosphate-coated), and MAN164 (tripolyphosphate-coated). All particles were positive polycharged agglomerated monodispersed systems. Mean particle sizes were 0.48, 2.97, 2.93, and 3.67 μm for MAN37, MAN127, MAN164, and MAN158, respectively. DNA fragments exhibited negative zeta potential of -0.22 mV under binding conditions (high ionic strength, low pH, and dehydration). A decrease in zeta potential of particles upon exposure to DNA was observed with exception of MAN158 particles. The measured particle size of MAN164 particles increased by nearly twofold upon exposure to DNA. Quantitative PCR isolation of DNA with a high retrieval rate was observed by magnetic particles MAN127 and MAN164. Interaction between polycharged magnetic particles and DNA is mediated by various binding mechanisms such as hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Future development of DNA isolation technology requires an understanding of the physical and biochemical conditions of this process.

  6. Evanescent-wave particle velocimetry measurements of zeta-potentials in fused-silica microchannels.

    PubMed

    Cevheri, Necmettin; Yoda, Minami

    2013-07-01

    The wall ζ-potential ζ(w), the potential at the shear plane of the electric double layer, depends on the properties of the BGE solution such as the valence and type of electrolyte, the pH and the ionic strength. Most of the methods estimate ζ(w) from measurements of the EOF velocity magnitude ueo , usually spatially averaged over the entire capillary. In these initial studies, evanescent-wave particle velocimetry was used to measure ueo in steady EOF for a variety of monovalent aqueous solutions to evaluate the effect of small amounts of divalent cations, as well as the pH and ionic strength of BGE solutions. In brief, the magnitude of the EOF velocity of NaCl-NaOH and borate buffer-NaOH solutions was estimated from the measured velocities of radius α = 104 nm fluorescent polystyrene particles in 33 μm fused-silica microchannels. The particle ζ-potentials were measured separately using laser-Doppler micro-electrophoresis; ζ(w) was then determined from ueo. The results suggest that evanescent-wave particle velocimetry can be used to estimate ζ(w) for a variety of BGE solutions, and that it can be used in the future to estimate local wall ζ-potential, and hence spatial variations in ζ(w). © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Predicting the influence of liposomal lipid composition on liposome size, zeta potential and liposome-induced dendritic cell maturation using a design of experiments approach.

    PubMed

    Soema, Peter C; Willems, Geert-Jan; Jiskoot, Wim; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon F

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effect of liposomal lipid composition on the physicochemical characteristics and adjuvanticity of liposomes was investigated. Using a design of experiments (DoE) approach, peptide-containing liposomes containing various lipids (EPC, DOPE, DOTAP and DC-Chol) and peptide concentrations were formulated. Liposome size and zeta potential were determined for each formulation. Moreover, the adjuvanticity of the liposomes was assessed in an in vitro dendritic cell (DC) model, by quantifying the expression of DC maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86. The acquired data of these liposome characteristics were successfully fitted with regression models, and response contour plots were generated for each response factor. These models were applied to predict a lipid composition that resulted in a liposome with a target zeta potential. Subsequently, the expression of the DC maturation factors for this lipid composition was predicted and tested in vitro; the acquired maturation responses corresponded well with the predicted ones. These results show that a DoE approach can be used to screen various lipids and lipid compositions, and to predict their impact on liposome size, charge and adjuvanticity. Using such an approach may accelerate the formulation development of liposomal vaccine adjuvants. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Zeta potential response of human erythrocyte membranes to the modulators of Gardos channel activity under low rate β-radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhirnov, V V; Iakovenko, I N; Voitsitskiy, V M; Khyzhnyak, S V; Zubrikova-Chugainova, O G; Gorobetz, V A

    2015-12-01

    Study of human erythrocyte DP response under modification by activators and blockers of the functional state of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels under low rate β-radiation. Erythrocytes were isolated from the donor blood. The zeta potential was computed from the value of the cell electrophoretic mobility. The investigated drugs preliminary introduced in cellular suspensions, and then aliquote of 90Sr(NO3)2 solution to get the final activity concentration of 44,4kBq⋅l-1. The radioisotope radiation of 90Sr/90Y (RR, 15 μGy⋅h-1) increases an absolute value of erythrocyte membranes DP (DPab), and its action is reversible. It specifies the effect is mediated by non-ionizing part of the RR. Dibutyril-cAMP dose-independent increases DPab of erythrocyte membranes in the concentration range of 1-100 мкМ, but RR does not amplify this effect. Anaprilin increases dose-independent DPab in concentrations 10 and 100 μМ. The effect of maximal concentration of anaprilin (100 μМ) decreases by RR. Clotrimazol increases DPab of erythrocyte membranes in the concentration range of 0,1-10 μМ relatively control, while its maximal concentration - decreases, and the minimal level does not reliably influence on this index The action of сlotrimazol on DP in concentrations of 10-100 μМ is abolished by RR, and is not changed in the range of 0,1-1,0 μМ. Nitrendipine raises DPab of erythrocyte membranes in all of range of concentrations, and RR amplifies the effect of the drug. 1. There is a threshold of the biological action on cells for the ionizing component of radioisotope radiation determined by efficiency of operation their antioxidant system.2. At dose rates below a threshold, the action of ionizing radiation is mediated by its non-ionizing component, and is reversible, and therefore is determined only in the field of radiation. V. V. Zhirnov, I. N. Iakovenko, V.M. Voitsitskiy, S. V. Khyzhnyak, О. G. Zubrikova-Chugainova, V.A. Gorobetz.

  9. Elucidation of the mechanisms of action of Bacteriophage K/nano-emulsion formulations against S. aureus via measurement of particle size and zeta potential.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Patricia Perez; Jenkins, A Toby A; Arnot, Tom C

    2016-03-01

    In earlier work we have demonstrated the effect that nano-emulsions have on bacterial growth, and most importantly the enhanced bacteriophage infectivity against Staphylococcus aureus in planktonic culture when phage are carried in nano-emulsions. However, the mechanisms of enhancement of the bacteriophage killing effect are not specifically understood. This work focuses on the investigation of the possible interactions between emulsion droplets and bacterial cells, between emulsion droplets and bacteriophages, and finally interactions between all three components: nano-emulsion droplets, bacteria, and bacteriophages. The first approach consists of simple calculations to determine the spatial distribution of the components, based on measurements of particle size. It was found that nano-emulsion droplets are much more numerous than bacteria or bacteriophage, and due to their size and surface area they must be covering the surface of both cells and bacteriophage particles. Stabilisation of bacteriophages due to electrostatic forces and interaction with nano-emulsion droplets is suspected, since bacteriophages may be protected against inactivation due to 'charge shielding'. Zeta potential was measured for the individual components in the system, and for all of them combined. It was concluded that the presence of nano-emulsions could be reducing electrostatic repulsion between bacterial cells and bacteriophage, both of which are very negatively 'charged'. Moreover, nano-emulsions lead to more favourable interaction between bacteriophages and bacteria, enhancing the anti-microbial or killing effect. These findings are relevant since the physicochemical properties of nano-emulsions (i.e. particle size distribution and zeta potential) are key in determining the efficacy of the formulation against infection in the context of responsive burn wound dressings-which is the main target for this work. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Positive zeta potential of a negatively charged semi-permeable plasma membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Jing, Haoyuan; Das, Siddhartha

    2017-08-01

    The negative charge of the plasma membrane (PM) severely affects the nature of moieties that may enter or leave the cells and controls a large number of ion-interaction-mediated intracellular and extracellular events. In this letter, we report our discovery of a most fascinating scenario, where one interface (e.g., membrane-cytosol interface) of the negatively charged PM shows a positive surface (or ζ) potential, while the other interface (e.g., membrane-electrolyte interface) still shows a negative ζ potential. Therefore, we encounter a completely unexpected situation where an interface (e.g., membrane-cytosol interface) that has a negative surface charge density demonstrates a positive ζ potential. We establish that the attainment of such a property by the membrane can be ascribed to an interplay of the nature of the membrane semi-permeability and the electrostatics of the electric double layer established on either side of the charged membrane. We anticipate that such a membrane property can lead to such capabilities of the cell (in terms of accepting or releasing certain kinds of moieties as well regulating cellular signaling) that was hitherto inconceivable.

  11. Electroosmotic flow in a rectangular channel with variable wall zeta-potential: comparison of numerical simulation with asymptotic theory.

    PubMed

    Datta, Subhra; Ghosal, Sandip; Patankar, Neelesh A

    2006-02-01

    Electroosmotic flow in a straight micro-channel of rectangular cross-section is computed numerically for several situations where the wall zeta-potential is not constant but has a specified spatial variation. The results of the computation are compared with an earlier published asymptotic theory based on the lubrication approximation: the assumption that any axial variations take place on a long length scale compared to a characteristic channel width. The computational results are found to be in excellent agreement with the theory even when the scale of axial variations is comparable to the channel width. In the opposite limit when the wavelength of fluctuations is much shorter than the channel width, the lubrication theory fails to describe the solution either qualitatively or quantitatively. In this short wave limit the solution is well described by Ajdari's theory for electroosmotic flow between infinite parallel plates (Ajdari, A., Phys. Rev. E 1996, 53, 4996-5005.) The infinitely thin electric double layer limit is assumed in the theory as well as in the simulation.

  12. Effect of the adsorption of lithium and borate species on the zeta potential of particles of cobalt ferrite, nickel ferrite, and magnetite.

    PubMed

    Barale, M; Lefèvre, G; Carrette, F; Catalette, H; Fédoroff, M; Cote, G

    2008-12-01

    Zetametric measurements on suspensions of oxide particles (cobalt ferrite, nickel ferrite, and magnetite) representative of corrosion products from primary circuits of pressurized water reactors were performed at 25 and 70 degrees C in the presence of lithium and borate species. No effect of lithium ions was observed. Borate species cause a decrease of the isoelectric point (IEP), attributed to the sorption of borate as a negative complex MOB(OH)3(-). A predictive model based on thermodynamic calculations (2-pK and diffuse layer models) of the surface acidity constants from the data of acid-base titrations combined with an empirical relationship between the surface potential Psi 0 and the zeta potential determined by zetametry was developed. A whole set of parameters valid at 25 degrees C, in a range of ionic strength between 10(-4) and 10(-2) molL(-1) and in a range of pH between 4 and 8, was determined for this model. Increase of temperature to 70 degrees C in the presence of borate results in a decrease of IEP for cobalt ferrite and an increase of the IEP for nickel ferrite.

  13. Generation of nanobubbles by ceramic membrane filters: The dependence of bubble size and zeta potential on surface coating, pore size and injected gas pressure.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ahmed Khaled Abdella; Sun, Cuizhen; Hua, Likun; Zhang, Zhibin; Zhang, Yanhao; Zhang, Wen; Marhaba, Taha

    2018-07-01

    Generation of gaseous nanobubbles (NBs) by simple, efficient, and scalable methods is critical for industrialization and applications of nanobubbles. Traditional generation methods mainly rely on hydrodynamic, acoustic, particle, and optical cavitation. These generation processes render issues such as high energy consumption, non-flexibility, and complexity. This research investigated the use of tubular ceramic nanofiltration membranes to generate NBs in water with air, nitrogen and oxygen gases. This system injects pressurized gases through a tubular ceramic membrane with nanopores to create NBs. The effects of membrane pores size, surface energy, and the injected gas pressures on the bubble size and zeta potential were examined. The results show that the gas injection pressure had considerable effects on the bubble size, zeta potential, pH, and dissolved oxygen of the produced NBs. For example, increasing the injection air pressure from 69 kPa to 414 kPa, the air bubble size was reduced from 600 to 340 nm respectively. Membrane pores size and surface energy also had significant effects on sizes and zeta potentials of NBs. The results presented here aim to fill out the gaps of fundamental knowledge about NBs and development of efficient generation methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Design and assembly of ternary Pt/Re/SnO2 NPs by controlling the zeta potential of individual Pt, Re, and SnO2 NPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drzymała, Elżbieta; Gruzeł, Grzegorz; Pajor-Świerzy, Anna; Depciuch, Joanna; Socha, Robert; Kowal, Andrzej; Warszyński, Piotr; Parlinska-Wojtan, Magdalena

    2018-05-01

    In this study Pt, Re, and SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were combined in a controlled manner into binary and ternary combinations for a possible application for ethanol oxidation. For this purpose, zeta potentials as a function of the pH of the individual NPs solutions were measured. In order to successfully combine the NPs into Pt/SnO2 and Re/SnO2 NPs, the solutions were mixed together at a pH guaranteeing opposite zeta potentials of the metal and oxide NPs. The individually synthesized NPs and their binary/ternary combinations were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. FTIR and XPS spectroscopy showed that the individually synthesized Pt and Re NPs are metallic and the Sn component was oxidized to SnO2. STEM showed that all NPs are well crystallized and the sizes of the Pt, Re, and SnO2 NPs were 2.2, 1.0, and 3.4 nm, respectively. Moreover, EDS analysis confirmed the successful formation of binary Pt/SnO2 and Re/SnO2 NP, as well as ternary Pt/Re/SnO2 NP combinations. This study shows that by controlling the zeta potential of individual metal and oxide NPs, it is possible to assemble them into binary and ternary combinations. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Zeta Potential Measurements on Solid Surfaces for in Vitro Biomaterials Testing: Surface Charge, Reactivity Upon Contact With Fluids and Protein Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Sara; Cazzola, Martina; Peretti, Veronica; Stella, Barbara; Spriano, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Surface properties of biomaterials (e.g., roughness, chemical composition, charge, wettability, and hydroxylation degree) are key features to understand and control the complex interface phenomena that happens upon contact with physiological fluids. Numerous physico-chemical techniques can be used in order to investigate in depth these crucial material features. Among them, zeta potential measurements are widely used for the characterization of colloidal suspensions, but actually poorly explored in the study of solid surfaces, even if they can give significant information about surface charge in function of pH and indirectly about surface functional groups and reactivity. The aim of the present research is application of zeta potential measurements of solid surfaces for the in vitro testing of biomaterials. In particular, bare and surface modified Ti6Al4V samples have been compared in order to evaluate their isoelectric points (IEPs), surface charge at physiological pH, in vitro bioactivity [in simulated body fluid (SBF)] and protein absorption. Zeta potential titration was demonstrated as a suitable technique for the surface characterization of surface treated Ti6Al4V substrates. Significant shift of the isoelectric point was recorded after a chemical surface treatment (because of the exposition of hydroxyl groups), SBF soaking (because of apatite precipitation IEP moves close to apatite one) and protein absorption (IEP moves close to protein ones). Moreover, the shape of the curve gives information about exposed functional groups (e.g., a plateau in the basic range appears due to the exposition of acidic OH groups and in the acidic range due to exposition of basic NH2 groups). PMID:29868575

  16. zeta 1 and zeta 2 Reticuli and the existence of the zeta Herculis group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Peloso, E. F.; da Silva, L.; Porto de Mello, G. F.

    2000-06-01

    We report the detailed analysis of the solar type stars zeta 1 and zeta 2 Reticuli. We obtained accurate effective temperatures (T_eff = 5746 +/- 27 K and 5859 +/- 27 K respectively) and surface gravities (log g = 4.54 +/- 0.02 and 4.46 +/- 0.01 respectively). Both stars are slightly metal deficient ([Fe/H] = -0.22 +/- 0.05) and their element abundance patterns are compatible with one another and with the Sun. The hypothesis, suggested by previous detailed analyses, that these stars could be helium rich relative to the Sun, was investigated. The stars were found to have a normal, solar helium abundance. We analysed the stars' membership of the zeta Herculis stellar kinematic group (SKG). Some probable members have nearly the same galactic orbital parameters, chemical composition and evolutionary states, which confirm the existence of a metal deficient SKG. Since we determined that zeta Herculis does not belong to this group, we propose it be renamed zeta Reticuli SKG. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile, and at the Observatório do Pico dos Dias, operated by the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, CNPq, Brazil.

  17. Synthesis of the RGO/Al2O3 core-shell nanocomposite flakes and characterization of their unique electrostatic properties using zeta potential measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jastrzębska, A. M.; Karcz, J.; Letmanowski, R.; Zabost, D.; Ciecierska, E.; Zdunek, J.; Karwowska, E.; Siekierski, M.; Olszyna, A.; Kunicki, A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the influence of the modification of electrostatic properties of RGO/Al2O3 core-shell nanocomposite flakes. The amount of crystalline form of aluminum oxide was very small. It existed mostly in amorphous phase in the form of covalently bonded to GO surface. The morphological, structural and physicochemical investigations results showed that spherical Al2O3 nanoparticles (ca. 41 nm) in gamma phase completely covered the surface of curly-shaped RGO flakes and acted as a spreader between individual flakes. The high BET specific surface area of the analyzed composite (119.71 m2/g) together with very low open porosity (0.479 cm3/g) indicated that RGO/Al2O3 nanocomposite flakes showed low tendency to agglomeration. The zeta potential curves obtained for RGO/Al2O3 core-shell nanocomposite flakes were differing from curves obtained for GO and Al2O3 suspensions in distilled water and neutral environment. The specific electrostatic properties of the core-shell system of RGO/Al2O3 flakes had an influence on its surface charge (zeta potential) which was measured by applying an external electric field. The FTIR and Raman investigations results also confirmed that the Cdbnd O species were not taking part in the surface amphoteric reactions resulting in the formation of electrostatic surface charge.

  18. Characterization of the startup transient electrokinetic flow in rectangular channels of arbitrary dimensions, zeta potential distribution, and time-varying pressure gradient.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew; Villegas, Arturo; Diez, F Javier

    2015-03-01

    The solution to the startup transient EOF in an arbitrary rectangular microchannel is derived analytically and validated experimentally. This full 2D transient solution describes the evolution of the flow through five distinct periods until reaching a final steady state. The derived analytical velocity solution is validated experimentally for different channel sizes and aspect ratios under time-varying pressure gradients. The experiments used a time resolved micro particle image velocimetry technique to calculate the startup transient velocity profiles. The measurements captured the effect of time-varying pressure gradient fields derived in the analytical solutions. This is tested by using small reservoirs at both ends of the channel which allowed a time-varying pressure gradient to develop with a time scale on the order of the transient EOF. Results showed that under these common conditions, the effect of the pressure build up in the reservoirs on the temporal development of the transient startup EOF in the channels cannot be neglected. The measurements also captured the analytical predictions for channel walls made of different materials (i.e., zeta potentials). This was tested in channels that had three PDMS and one quartz wall, resulting in a flow with an asymmetric velocity profile due to variations in the zeta potential between the walls. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Mixtures of latex particles and the surfactant of opposite charge used as interface stabilizers--influence of particle contact angle, zeta potential, flocculation and shear energy.

    PubMed

    Deleurence, Rémi; Parneix, Caroline; Monteux, Cécile

    2014-09-28

    We investigate the stabilization of air-water interfaces by mixtures of negatively charged latex particles (sulfate polystyrene) and cationic surfactants (alkyl trimethylammonium bromides). First we report results concerning the binding of surfactant molecules to the latex particles. As the surfactant concentration increases, the charge of the particles reverses, from negative to positive, because CnTAB first binds electrostatically to the latex particles and then through hydrophobic interaction with the monolayer already adsorbed on the particles as well as directly with the hydrophobic surface of the latex. Over a large range of surfactant concentrations around the charge inversion, a strong flocculation is observed and 100 μm large aggregates form in the suspension. Unlike previous studies published on mixtures of inorganic particles with oppositely charged surfactants, we show that we can vary the sign of the zeta potential of the particles without changing the contact angle of the particles over a large range of surfactant concentrations. Indeed, the latex particles that we study are more hydrophobic than inorganic particles, hence adding moderate concentrations of the surfactant results in a weak variation of the contact angle while the charge of the particles can be reversed. This enables decoupling of the effect of zeta potential and contact angle on the interfacial properties of the mixtures. Our study shows that the contact angle and the charge of the particles are not sufficient parameters to control the foam properties, and the key-parameters are the flocculation state and the shear energy applied to produce the foam. Indeed, flocculated samples, whatever the sign of the zeta potential, enable production of a stable armour at the interface. The large aggregates do not adsorb spontaneously at the interface because of their large size, however when a large shear energy is used to produce the foam very stable foam is obtained, where particles are trapped

  20. A PARADOXICAL RELATION BETWEEN ZETA POTENTIAL AND SUSPENSION STABILITY IN S AND R VARIANTS OF INTESTINAL BACTERIA

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Eleanore W.; Mudd, Stuart

    1935-01-01

    The relation between electrokinetic potential and suspension stability of four strains of non-flagellate intestinal bacteria has been studied. The smooth forms have ζ-potentials which approximate zero over a wide range of pH and salt concentration, yet nevertheless form stable suspensions. The rough variants have ζ-potentials which vary with pH and electrolyte concentration in the familiar way. The rough forms have values of ζ-potential critical for their suspension stability. PMID:19872869

  1. Stimulation and inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis by organosolv lignins as determined by zeta potential and hydrophobicity

    Treesearch

    Yang Huang; Shaolong Sun; Chen Huang; Qiang Yong; Thomas Elder; Maobing Tu

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lignin typically inhibits enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass, but certain organosolv lignins or lignosulfonates enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between lignin and cellulases play critical roles in the enzymatic hydrolysis process. However, how to incorporate these two...

  2. Zeta Potential and Aggregation of Virus-Like Particle of Human Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus Under Different Physicochemical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Samandoulgou, Idrissa; Fliss, Ismaïl; Jean, Julie

    2015-09-01

    Although the spread of human norovirus reportedly depends on its ability to bind to food materials, the mechanism of the phenomenon remains unknown. Since protein size and electrical charge are reportedly important parameters in their adsorption, the current work is focused on determining human noroviruses isoelectric point (IEP), electrical charge and aggregate size at different pH, ionic strength (IS), and temperature. Using the baculovirus expression vector system, we produced and purified virus-like particles (VLPs) of GI.1 and GII.4 noroviruses and feline calicivirus, determined their IEP, and examined their size and electrical charge using a Zetasizer Nano ZS apparatus. Shape and size were also visualized using transmission electron microscopy. IEPs were found close to pH 4. Net charge increased as the pH deviated from the IEP. VLPs were negatively charged at all IS tested and showed a gradual decrease in charge with increasing IS. At low temperature, VLPs were 20-45 nm in diameter at pH far from their IEP and under almost all IS conditions, while aggregates appeared at or near the IEP. At increased temperatures, aggregates appeared at or near the IEP and at high IS. Aggregation at the IEP was also confirmed by microscopy. This suggests that electrostatic interactions would be the predominant factor in VLPs adhesion at pH far from 4 and at low ionic strength. In contrast, non-electrostatic interactions would prevail at around pH 4 and would be reinforced by aggregates, since size generally favors multiple bonding with sorbents.

  3. A new approach to triggering mechanism of volcano landslides based on zeta potential and surface free energy balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, I.; Ontiveros-Ortega, A.; Calero, J.; Romero, C.

    2018-01-01

    The layers of Almagre (iron-rich deposits) from Tenerife Island are the result of thermal metamorphism of soils in contact with lava flow (1073-1273 K). These layers of small thickness relative to the basaltic wash, are interesting for geotechnical study, because the stability of the deposits is determined by the weakest element, in this case Almagre, which acts as a sliding plane. The flow of maritime air over the hillsides of the volcanic islands increases the content of cations in ashes deposits. This modifies the superficial properties of material that composes the substratum. This modification affects the retention of water and the cohesion of material making up the deposit. The results show that the presence of sodium and magnesium increased the hydrophobicity of the material, which had a weak water retention capacity and strong cohesion at basic pH. When there is iron in solution, repulsion between the particles is greater than one obtained with other studied electrolytes. Hence, the deposit is less stable, and Almagre under saturated water conditions constitutes an ideal layer for landslides.

  4. Effect of contact angle, zeta potential and particles size on the in vitro studies of Al2O3 and SiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Suriyaprabha, Rangaraj; Rajendran, Venkatachalam; Kannan, Narayanasamy

    2015-02-01

    Currently, nanometal oxides find their role in different biological applications such as tissue engineering, implant and bone replacement materials. Owing to the increased use of nanoparticles, it is necessary to understand their release and toxicity in the biological system. In this regard, three independent studies such as in vitro cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity and biocompatibility of nano- and micrometal oxide particles such as alumina (Al2O3) and silica (SiO2) are evaluated. It is evident from cell viability study that nanoAl2O3 and SiO2 particles are less toxic when compared with microAl2O3 and SiO2 to NIH 3T3 cell lines up to 200 µg/ml. Antioxidant properties of micro- and nanoAl2O3 in terms of radical scavenging percentage for micro- and nanoAl2O3 are 59.1% and 72.1%, respectively, at 100 mg. Similarly, the radical scavenging percentage of nano- and bulk SiO2 are 81.0% and 67.2%, respectively. The present study reveals that the cellular behaviour, interaction and biocompatibility of metal oxides differ with dose, particle size, contact angle and zeta potential. The present study opens up a new strategy to analyse in vitro nanotoxicity.

  5. The preparation, surface structure, zeta potential, surface charge density and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanostructures of different shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Inderpreet Singh; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali

    2013-09-01

    Titania based nanocatalysts such as sodium titanates of different morphology having superior surface properties are getting wide importance in photocatalysis research. Despite having sodium (Na) contents and its high temperature synthesis (that generally deteriorate the photoreactivity), these Na-titanates often exhibit better photoactivity than P25-TiO2 catalyst. Hence, this work demonstrated the influence of crystal structure, BET surface area, surface charge, zeta potential (ζ) and metal loading on the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared sodium titanate nanotube (TNT) and titania nanorod (TNR). Straw like hollow orthorhombic-TNT (Na2Ti2O5·H2O) particles (W = 9-12 nm and L = 82-115 nm) and rice like pure anatase-TNR particles (W = 8-13 nm and L = 81-134 nm) are obtained by the hydrothermal treatment of P25-TiO2 with NaOH, which in fact, altered the net surface charge of TNT and TNR particles. The observed ζ = -2.82 (P25-TiO2), -13.5 (TNT) and -22.5 mV (TNR) are significantly altered by the Ag and Cu deposition. It has been found here that TNT displayed best photocatalytic activity for the imidacloprid insecticide (C9H10ClN5O2) degradation to CO2 formation under UV irradiation because of its largest surface area 176 m2 g-1 among the catalysts studied.

  6. Density-functional theory of spherical electric double layers and zeta potentials of colloidal particles in restricted-primitive-model electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang-Xin; Wu, Jianzhong; Gao, Guang-Hua

    2004-04-15

    A density-functional theory is proposed to describe the density profiles of small ions around an isolated colloidal particle in the framework of the restricted primitive model where the small ions have uniform size and the solvent is represented by a dielectric continuum. The excess Helmholtz energy functional is derived from a modified fundamental measure theory for the hard-sphere repulsion and a quadratic functional Taylor expansion for the electrostatic interactions. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the results from Monte Carlo simulations and from previous investigations using integral-equation theory for the ionic density profiles and the zeta potentials of spherical particles at a variety of solution conditions. Like the integral-equation approaches, the density-functional theory is able to capture the oscillatory density profiles of small ions and the charge inversion (overcharging) phenomena for particles with elevated charge density. In particular, our density-functional theory predicts the formation of a second counterion layer near the surface of highly charged spherical particle. Conversely, the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory and its variations are unable to represent the oscillatory behavior of small ion distributions and charge inversion. Finally, our density-functional theory predicts charge inversion even in a 1:1 electrolyte solution as long as the salt concentration is sufficiently high. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  7. Zeta functions on tori using contour integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, Emilio; Kirsten, Klaus; Robles, Nicolas; Williams, Floyd

    2015-12-01

    A new, seemingly useful presentation of zeta functions on complex tori is derived by using contour integration. It is shown to agree with the one obtained by using the Chowla-Selberg series formula, for which an alternative proof is thereby given. In addition, a new proof of the functional determinant on the torus results, which does not use the Kronecker first limit formula nor the functional equation of the non-holomorphic Eisenstein series. As a bonus, several identities involving the Dedekind eta function are obtained as well.

  8. Protein Kinase M[Zeta] Is Essential for the Induction and Maintenance of Dopamine-Induced Long-Term Potentiation in Apical CA1 Dendrites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navakkode, Sheeja; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Sacktor, Todd Charlton; Frey, Julietta U.

    2010-01-01

    Dopaminergic D1/D5-receptor-mediated processes are important for certain forms of memory as well as for a cellular model of memory, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. D1/D5-receptor function is required for the induction of the protein synthesis-dependent maintenance of CA1-LTP (L-LTP) through activation…

  9. Benchmark calculations with correlated molecular wavefunctions. XIII. Potential energy curves for He2, Ne2 and Ar2 using correlation consistent basis sets through augmented sextuple zeta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, Tanja

    1999-02-01

    The potential energy curves of the rare gas dimers He2, Ne2, and Ar2 have been computed using correlation consistent basis sets ranging from singly augmented aug-cc-pVDZ sets through triply augmented t-aug-cc-pV6Z sets, with the augmented sextuple basis sets being reported herein. Several methods for including electron correlation were investigated, namely Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2, MP3 and MP4) and coupled cluster theory [CCSD and CCSD(T)]. For He2CCSD(T)/d-aug-cc-pV6Z calculations yield a well depth of 7.35cm-1 (10.58K), with an estimated complete basis set (CBS) limit of 7.40cm-1 (10.65K). The latter is smaller than the 'exact' well depth (Aziz, R. A., Janzen, A. R., and Moldover, M. R., 1995, Phys. Rev. Lett., 74, 1586) by about 0.2cm-1 (0.35K). The Ne well depth, computed with the CCSD(T)/d-aug-cc-pV6Z method, is 28.31cm-1 and the estimated CBS limit is 28.4cm-1, approximately 1cm-1 smaller than the empirical potential of Aziz, R. A., and Slaman, M., J., 1989, Chem. Phys., 130, 187. Inclusion of core and core-valence correlation effects has a negligible effect on the Ne well depth, decreasing it by only 0.04cm-1. For Ar2, CCSD(T)/ d-aug-cc-pV6Z calculations yield a well depth of 96.2cm-1. The corresponding HFDID potential of Aziz, R. A., 1993, J. chem. Phys., 99, 4518 predicts of D of 99.7cm-1. Inclusion of core and core-valence effects in Ar increases the well depth and decreases the discrepancy by approximately 1cm-1.

  10. Rotationally excited HD toward Zeta Ophiuchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. L.; Morton, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    Copernicus satellite measurements of HD in J-double prime = 1 and J-double prime = 0 toward Zeta Oph are reported. The ratio of the number densities of HD in the J = 0 and J = 1 states is determined to be 0.15 + or - 0.02 at the 1-sigma level. A value of approximately 24 x 10 to the -17th erg/cu cm per A at 1000 A is obtained for the UV energy density at the Zeta Oph cloud, and the mechanisms for excitation of HD are examined. A tight upper limit is derived for the abundance of HCl, which has been predicted to be present due to the interaction of ionized chlorine with neutral hydrogen. A calculation is performed which indicates that the cloud is 28 pc from the star. It is shown that the two-component cloud model of Black and Dalgarno (1977) with densities of 500 and 2500 H nuclei per cu cm for the outer regions and core, respectively, is in excellent agreement with the observations.

  11. Microencapsulation of β-Carotene Based on Casein/Guar Gum Blend Using Zeta Potential-Yield Stress Phenomenon: an Approach to Enhance Photo-stability and Retention of Functionality.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Deepika; Jain, Ashay; Ghoshal, Gargi; Shivhare, U S; Katare, O P

    2017-07-01

    β-Carotene, abundant majorly in carrot, pink guava yams, spinach, kale, sweet potato, and palm oil, is an important nutrient for human health due to its scavenging action upon reactive free radicals wherever produced in the body. Inclusion of liposoluble β-carotene in foods and food ingredients is a challenging aspect due to its labile nature and low absorption from natural sources. This fact has led to the application of encapsulation of β-carotene to improve stability and bioavailability. The present work was aimed to fabricate microcapsules (MCs) of β-carotene oily dispersion using the complex coacervation technique with casein (CA) and guar gum (GG) blend. The ratio of CA:GG was found to be 1:0.5 (w/v) when optimized on the basis of zeta potential-yield stress phenomenon. These possessed a higher percentage yield (71.34 ± 0.55%), lower particle size (176.47 ± 4.65 μm), higher encapsulation efficiency (65.95 ± 5.33%), and in general, a uniform surface morphology was observed with particles showing optimized release behavior. Prepared MCs manifested effective and controlled release (up to 98%) following zero-order kinetics which was adequately explained by the Korseymer-Peppas model. The stability of the freeze-dried MCs was established in simulated gastrointestinal fluids (SGF, SIF) for 8 h. Antioxidant activity of the MCs was studied and revealed the retention of the functional architecture of β-carotene in freeze-dried MCs. Minimal photolytic degradation upon encapsulation of β-carotene addressed the challenge regarding photo-stability of β-carotene as confirmed via mass spectroscopy.

  12. Rocket spectroscopy of zeta Orionis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    Analysis of a spectrum of zeta Ori extending from 922 to 1453 A with approximately 0.8 A resolution recorded at rocket altitudes. All lines used in existing models of stellar atmospheres appear in the recorded spectrum with the exception of those masked by telluric N2 or strong P Cygni-type profiles and by an O V line at 1371.29 A. Fifteen multiplets of subordinate lines have been reliably identified, indicating an approximate range of excitation from 0 to 50 eV. Transitions in C III (1176 A), N III (991 A), N V (1239, 1243 A), O VI (1032, 1038 A), Si IV (1394, 1403 A), S IV (1063, 1074 A), and S VI (933, 944 A) have been observed as P Cygni-type profiles presumably arising in a circumstellar envelope. The degree of ionization, transitions present, and mean radial velocities are all consistent with viewing the envelope as a hot (about 100,000 K), rarefied plasma in which collisional ionization is important. Interstellar lines in C I (1277, 1280 A), C II (1036, 1334 A), N I (1134-1135 A), N I (1200-1201 A), N II (1084-1086 A), O I (1302, 1305 A), Si II (1190, 1193 A), Si II (1260 A), and Si II (1304 A) have been definitely identified. Other transitions in Ar II, S I, C I, and Fe II are tentatively identified. The equivalent width of the L alpha line is found to be 10.4 plus or minus 1.6 A, corresponding to a columnar density of 2.0 plus or minus 0.7 x 10 to the 20th per cu cm.

  13. Retention of membrane charge attributes by cryopreserved-thawed sperm and zeta selection.

    PubMed

    Kam, Tricia L; Jacobson, John D; Patton, William C; Corselli, Johannah U; Chan, Philip J

    2007-09-01

    Mature sperm can be selected based on their negative zeta electrokinetic potential. The zeta selection of cryopreserved sperm is unknown. The objective was to study the effect of zeta processing on the morphology and kinematic parameters of cryopreserved-thawed sperm. Colloid-washed sperm (N = 9 cases) were cryopreserved for 24 h, thawed and diluted in serum-free medium in positive-charged tubes. After centrifugation, the tubes were decanted, serum-supplemented medium was added and the resuspended sperm were analyzed. Untreated sperm and fresh sperm served as the controls. There were improvements in strict normal morphology in fresh (11.8 +/- 0.3 versus control 8.8 +/- 0.3 %, mean +/- SEM) and thawed (8.7 +/- 0.2 versus control 5.4 +/- 0.2%) sperm after zeta processing. Percent sperm necrosis was reduced after zeta processing (66.0 +/- 0.6 versus unprocessed 74.6 +/- 0.3%). Progression decreased by 50% but not total motility after zeta processing of thawed sperm. The results suggested that the cryopreservation process did not impact the sperm membrane net zeta potential and higher percentages of sperm with normal strict morphology, acrosome integrity and reduced necrosis were recovered. The zeta method was simple and improved the selection of quality sperm after cryopreservation but more studies would be needed before routine clinical application.

  14. Chromospheric Structure and Wind Acceleration in Zeta Aur Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Philip D.

    2001-01-01

    This NASA grant supported an analysis of the variability of the wind of the supergiant primary star (K4 Ib) in the eclipsing binary Zeta Aurigae (Zeta Aur). In the ultraviolet, the main-sequence companion star (B5 V) dominates the observed flux, and therefore serves as a convenient probe of the cool supergiant's wind. This study utilized the extensive set of (100+) ultraviolet spectroscopic observations obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite over its operational lifetime of 1978-1995. Although the resolution of IUE is limited (about 25 km/s), it is adequate to resolve variability in the wind features in Zeta Aur's ultraviolet spectrum, which are blueshifted 70 km/s from line center. Our analysis used the tau-v technique of Cardelli and Savage, which makes full use of the available line profile information. We find that the wind column densities vary by up to an order of magnitude over time. These results are being written up for submission to the Astrophysical Journal as the third paper of a series on the chromosphere and wind of Zeta Aurigae. The first two papers report on the construction of mean chromosphere and wind models respectively, based on HST/GHRS observations and funded by STScI. The third paper - this research - reports on variability of the Zeta Aur wind as determined from our analysis of the long IUE time series. This paper will be completed within the next three months; the delay in publication was to allow the completion of Papers 1 and 2, which logically precede the present work. Therefore, an additional no-cost extension was requested in order to ensure budgeted funds remain available for publication of this work. Unfortunately, this request was denied, and so I am forced to write this final report before publication of Paper 3. Regardless, this paper will be submitted for publication within the next three months.

  15. Relating zeta functions of discrete and quantum graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jonathan; Weyand, Tracy

    2018-02-01

    We write the spectral zeta function of the Laplace operator on an equilateral metric graph in terms of the spectral zeta function of the normalized Laplace operator on the corresponding discrete graph. To do this, we apply a relation between the spectrum of the Laplacian on a discrete graph and that of the Laplacian on an equilateral metric graph. As a by-product, we determine how the multiplicity of eigenvalues of the quantum graph, that are also in the spectrum of the graph with Dirichlet conditions at the vertices, depends on the graph geometry. Finally we apply the result to calculate the vacuum energy and spectral determinant of a complete bipartite graph and compare our results with those for a star graph, a graph in which all vertices are connected to a central vertex by a single edge.

  16. Observations of H II regions around Zeta OPH and other O-B stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakova, L. I.; Kutirev, A. S.; Ataev, A. Sh.

    1988-01-01

    A Fabry-Perot spectrometer was used to measure the emission intensities in H-beta near Zeta Oph, Alpha Vir, Alpha Cam, and HD 188209. The spectrometer sensitivity is 0.2 rayleighs, the intensity measurement accuracy is 20 percent. Ionization zone boundaries are determined for Zeta Oph and Alpha Vir; the angular diameters of both regions are about 15 deg. The contour of the H II region near Zeta Oph on the level of the double background in the southwest does not close; instead, it expands again and incorporates the region associated with the B-association II Sco.

  17. Computational strategies for the Riemann zeta function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borwein, Jonathan M.; Bradley, David M.; Crandall, Richard E.

    2000-09-01

    We provide a compendium of evaluation methods for the Riemann zeta function, presenting formulae ranging from historical attempts to recently found convergent series to curious oddities old and new. We concentrate primarily on practical computational issues, such issues depending on the domain of the argument, the desired speed of computation, and the incidence of what we call "value recycling".

  18. Determining the Potential Benefit of Powered Prostheses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    CA184478-01 04/11/2014–03/31/2017 0.15 calendar months NIH/NCI $50,000 (No- cost extension) Impact of public housing assistance on... benefits of direct observation while significantly reducing the time and cost burden associated with training and monitoring field staff. Role: Principal...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0548 TITLE: Determining the Potential Benefit of Powered Prostheses PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Deanna H. Gates

  19. Group entropies, correlation laws, and zeta functions.

    PubMed

    Tempesta, Piergiulio

    2011-08-01

    The notion of group entropy is proposed. It enables the unification and generaliztion of many different definitions of entropy known in the literature, such as those of Boltzmann-Gibbs, Tsallis, Abe, and Kaniadakis. Other entropic functionals are introduced, related to nontrivial correlation laws characterizing universality classes of systems out of equilibrium when the dynamics is weakly chaotic. The associated thermostatistics are discussed. The mathematical structure underlying our construction is that of formal group theory, which provides the general structure of the correlations among particles and dictates the associated entropic functionals. As an example of application, the role of group entropies in information theory is illustrated and generalizations of the Kullback-Leibler divergence are proposed. A new connection between statistical mechanics and zeta functions is established. In particular, Tsallis entropy is related to the classical Riemann zeta function.

  20. Determination of the Navier slip coefficient of microchannels exploiting the streaming potential.

    PubMed

    Park, Hung Mok

    2012-03-01

    For most microchannels made of hydrophobic materials such as polymers, velocity slip occurs at the wall, affecting volumetric flow rate of electroosmotic flow Q(eof) and streaming potential (∂ϕ(str)/∂z). Since most techniques exploit Q(eof) or (∂ϕ(str)/∂z) to determine the zeta potential, ζ, it is very difficult to measure ζ of hydrophobic walls, if the slip coefficient b is not found a priori. Until now, Q(eof) and (∂ϕ(str)/∂z) are known to depend on ζ and b in a same functional form, which makes it impossible to estimate ζ or b separately using measurements of Q(eof) and (∂ϕ(str)/∂z). However, exploiting the analytic formula for Q(eof) and (∂ϕ(str)/∂z) derived in the present work, it is found that the effect of ζ and that of b on Q(eof) and (∂ϕ(str)/∂z) can be separated from each other by varying the bulk ionic concentration. Thus, the slip coefficient as well as the zeta potential of hydrophobic microchannels can be found with reasonable accuracy by means of a nonlinear curve fitting method using measured data of Q(eof) and (∂ϕ(str)/∂z) at various bulk ionic concentrations. The present method allows an accurate estimation of slip coefficient of hydrophobic microchannels, which is quite simple and cheap compared with methods employing microparticle velocimetry. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Zeta Pegasi: An SPB Variable Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Broadband photometric observations of the bright star Zeta Pegasi are presented that display brightness variability of 488.2 +/- 6.6 micromag (ppm) range with a period of 22.952 +/- 0.804 hr (f approx. equals 1.04566 c/d). The variation is monosinusoidal, so the star is recommended for membership in the class of small-amplitude Slowly Pulsating B-Stars (SPB) variables oscillating in a non-radial g-mode.

  2. Venus: radar determination of gravity potential.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, I I; Pettengill, G H; Sherman, G N; Rogers, A E; Ingalls, R P

    1973-02-02

    We describe a method for the determination of the gravity potential of Venus from multiple-frequency radar measurements. The method is based on the strong frequency dependence of the absorption of radio waves in Venus' atmosphere. Comparison of the differing radar reflection intensities at several frequencies yields the height of the surface relative to a reference pressure contour; combination with measurements of round-trip echo delays allows the pressure, and hence the gravity potential contour, to be mapped relative to the mean planet radius. Since calibration data from other frequencies are unavailable, the absorption-sensitive Haystack Observatory data have been analyzed under the assumption of uniform surface reflectivity to yield a gravity equipotential contour for the equatorial region and a tentative upper bound of 6 x 10(-4) on the fractional difference of Venus' principal equatorial moments of inertia. The minima in the equipotential contours appear to be associated with topographic minima.

  3. Spectroscopic determination of the water pair potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellers, Raymond Scott, II

    This thesis details the first experimental determination of a water pair potential via nonlinear least squares fit of high precision microwave and far-IR vibration- rotation-tunneling (VRT) data. Provided is a review of the theory of intermolecular forces, methods of determining these forces by ab initio theory, and a survey of analytical forms that are parameterized to model such forces. Also reviewed are important features of water dimer VRT spectra, in particular the characteristic tunneling splittings due to hydrogen bond rearrangements, and how these features are related to the anisotropy of the water dimer potential energy surface (PES). Comparisons are made between high level ab initio calculations of the water dimer PES and a number of well known water pair potentials. The importance of the intramolecular degrees of freedom in the parameterization of a new PES is studied through a systematic series of ab initio calculations. These results suggest that a reasonably accurate pair potential can be constructed with the constraint of rigid monomers. ÅThe computation of the VRT states of the water dimer in a fully-coupled six-dimensional Hamiltonian by the split Wigner pseudospectral (SWPS) method is presented. Discussed in detail is the performance of the code and recent improvements of the algorithm which significantly decrease the execution time over an earlier implementation. The VRT states of several potentials are calculated and compared to experiment. It is shown that none of these potentials can reproduce the water dimer tunneling splittings with quantitative accuracy. The SWPS code is embedded in a non-linear least squares fitting routine and is used to fit a potential to 22 microwave and far-IR transitions. The resulting PES, VRT- 1(R,P), is derived from the ab initio/semiempirical ASPW (Anisotropic Site Potential for Water) potential which includes multipole expansions for the electrostatic, dispersion, exchange- repulsion, and induction terms

  4. The spectral energy distribution of Zeta Puppis and HD 50896

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, A. V.; Cassinelli, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    The ultraviolet spectral energy distribution of the O5f star Zeta Pup and the WN5 star HD 50896 are derived from OAO-2 observations with the calibration of Bless, Code, and Fairchild (1976). An estimate of the interstellar reddening (0.12 magnitude) of the Wolf-Rayet star is determined from the size of the characteristic interstellar extinction bump at 4.6 inverse microns. After correction for extinction, both stars show a flat energy distribution in the ultraviolet. The distribution of HD 50896 from 1100 A to 2 microns is in good agreement with results of extended model atmospheres, but some uncertainty remains because of the interstellar-extinction correction. The absolute energy distribution of Zeta Pup is fitted by a 42,000-K plane-parallel model if the model's flux is adjusted for the effects of electron scattering in the stellar wind and for UV line blanketing that was determined empirically from high-resolution Copernicus satellite observations. To achieve this fit, it is necessary to push both the spectroscopically determined temperature and the ultraviolet calibration to the limits of their probable errors.

  5. GRANULATION IN THE PHOTOSPHERE OF {zeta} CYGNI

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, David F., E-mail: dfgray@uwo.ca

    2012-05-15

    A series of 35 high-resolution spectra are used to measure the third-signature plot of the G8 III star, {zeta} Cygni, which shows convective velocities only 8% larger than the Sun. Bisector mapping yields a flux deficit, a measure of granulation contrast, typical of other giants. The observations also give radial velocities with errors {approx}30 m s{sup -1} and allow the orbit to be refined. Velocity excursions relative to the smooth orbital motion, possibly from the granulation, have values exceeding 200 m s{sup -1}. Temperature variations were looked for using line-depth ratios, but none were found.

  6. Mapping Protein-Protein Interactions of the Resistance-Related Bacterial Zeta Toxin-Epsilon Antitoxin Complex (ε₂ζ₂) with High Affinity Peptide Ligands Using Fluorescence Polarization.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bachiller, María Isabel; Brzozowska, Iwona; Odolczyk, Norbert; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Rademann, Jörg

    2016-07-16

    Toxin-antitoxin systems constitute a native survival strategy of pathogenic bacteria and thus are potential targets of antibiotic drugs. Here, we target the Zeta-Epsilon toxin-antitoxin system, which is responsible for the stable maintenance of certain multiresistance plasmids in Gram-positive bacteria. Peptide ligands were designed on the basis of the ε₂ζ₂ complex. Three α helices of Zeta forming the protein-protein interaction (PPI) site were selected and peptides were designed conserving the residues interacting with Epsilon antitoxin while substituting residues binding intramolecularly to other parts of Zeta. Designed peptides were synthesized with an N-terminal fluoresceinyl-carboxy-residue for binding assays and provided active ligands, which were used to define the hot spots of the ε₂ζ₂ complex. Further shortening and modification of the binding peptides provided ligands with affinities <100 nM, allowing us to determine the most relevant PPIs and implement a robust competition binding assay.

  7. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Fractal diffusion coefficient from dynamical zeta functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristadoro, Giampaolo

    2006-03-01

    Dynamical zeta functions provide a powerful method to analyse low-dimensional dynamical systems when the underlying symbolic dynamics is under control. On the other hand, even simple one-dimensional maps can show an intricate structure of the grammar rules that may lead to a non-smooth dependence of global observables on parameters changes. A paradigmatic example is the fractal diffusion coefficient arising in a simple piecewise linear one-dimensional map of the real line. Using the Baladi-Ruelle generalization of the Milnor-Thurnston kneading determinant, we provide the exact dynamical zeta function for such a map and compute the diffusion coefficient from its smallest zero.

  8. Zeta Ophiuchi -- Runaway Star Plowing through Space Dust

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-24

    The blue star near the center of this image is Zeta Ophiuchi. Zeta Ophiuchi is actually a very massive, hot, bright blue star plowing its way through a large cloud of interstellar dust and gas in this image from NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer.

  9. Radio and submillimetre observations of wind structure in zeta Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomme, R.; van de Steene, G. C.; Prinja, R. K.; Runacres, M. C.; Clark, J. S.

    2003-09-01

    We present radio and submillimetre observations of the O4I(n)f star zeta Pup, and discuss structure in the outer region of its wind ( ~ 10-100 R_*). The properties of bremsstrahlung, the dominant emission process at these wavelengths, make it sensitive to structure and allow us to study how the amount of structure changes in the wind by comparing the fluxes at different wavelengths. Possible forms of structure at these distances include Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs), stochastic clumping, a disk or a polar enhancement. As the CIRs are azimuthally asymmetric, they should result in variability at submillimetre or radio wavelengths. To look for this variability, we acquired 3.6 and 6 cm observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), covering about two rotational periods of the star. We supplemented these with archive observations from the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA), which cover a much longer time scale. We did not find variability at more than the +/-20% level. The long integration time does allow an accurate determination of the fluxes at 3.6 and 6 cm. Converting these fluxes into a mass loss rate, we find dot {M} = 3.5 x 10-6 Msun/yr. This value confirms the significant discrepancy with the mass loss rate derived from the Hα profile, making zeta Pup an exception to the usually good agreement between the Hα and radio mass loss rates. To study the run of structure as a function of distance, we supplemented the ATCA data by observing zeta Pup at 850 mu m with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) and at 20 cm with the VLA. A smooth wind model shows that the millimetre fluxes are too high compared to the radio fluxes. While recombination of helium in the outer wind cannot be discounted as an explanation, the wealth of evidence for structure strongly suggests this as the explanation for the discrepancy. Model calculations show that the structure needs to be present in the inner ~ 70 R_* of the wind, but that it decays significantly, or maybe

  10. The white dwarf companion of the B a 2 star zeta Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1981-01-01

    The Ba II star zeta Cap has a white dwarf companion. Its T (sub eff) is determined to be 22000 K, its mass is approximately one solar mass. The importance of this finding for the explanation of abundance peculiarities is discussed.

  11. IUE observations of the atmospheric eclipsing binary system Zeta Aurigae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champman, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    IUE observations of the eclipsing binary system Zeta Aurigae made prior to and during the eclipse of the relatively small B8 V star by the cool supergiant star (spectral type K2 II) are reported. Spectral lines produced by the absorption of B star radiation in the atmosphere of the K star during eclipse can be used as a probe of the extended K star atmosphere, due to the negligible cool star continuum in the 1200-3200 A region. Spectra taken prior to eclipse are found to be similar to those of the single B8 V star 64 Ori, with the exception of very strong multi-component absorption lines of Si II, Si IV, C IV and the Mg resonance doublet with strong P Cygni profiles, indicating a double shell. Absorption lines including those corresponding to Al II, Al III, Cr II, Mn II, Fe II, Ni II and Ca II are observed to increase in strength and number as the eclipse progresses, with high-ionization-potential lines formed far from the K star, possibly in a shock wave, and low-ionization potential lines, formed in cool plasma, probably a cool wind, nearer to the K star. Finally, an emission-line spectra with lines corresponding to those previously observed in absorption is noted at the time the B-star continuum had disappeared.

  12. The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP){beta}/{zeta} is expressed in different subtypes of human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Garcia-Suarez, Olivia; Instituto Universitario de Oncologia del Principado de Asturias, Oviedo

    2007-10-12

    Increasing evidence suggests mutations in human breast cancer cells that induce inappropriate expression of the 18-kDa cytokine pleiotrophin (PTN, Ptn) initiate progression of breast cancers to a more malignant phenotype. Pleiotrophin signals through inactivating its receptor, the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP){beta}/{zeta}, leading to increased tyrosine phosphorylation of different substrate proteins of RPTP{beta}/{zeta}, including {beta}-catenin, {beta}-adducin, Fyn, GIT1/Cat-1, and P190RhoGAP. PTN signaling thus has wide impact on different important cellular systems. Recently, PTN was found to activate anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) through the PTN/RPTP{beta}/{zeta} signaling pathway; this discovery potentially is very important, since constitutive ALK activity of nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK fusionmore » protein is causative of anaplastic large cell lymphomas, and, activated ALK is found in other malignant cancers. Recently ALK was identified in each of 63 human breast cancers from 22 subjects. We now demonstrate that RPTP{beta}/{zeta} is expressed in each of these same 63 human breast cancers that previously were found to express ALK and in 10 additional samples of human breast cancer. RPTP{beta}/{zeta} furthermore was localized not only in its normal association with the cell membrane but also scattered in cytoplasm and in nuclei in different breast cancer cells and, in the case of infiltrating ductal carcinomas, the distribution of RPTP{beta}/{zeta} changes as the breast cancer become more malignant. The data suggest that the PTN/RPTP{beta}/{zeta} signaling pathway may be constitutively activated and potentially function to constitutively activate ALK in human breast cancer.« less

  13. Novel Method for Finding [zeta](2[rho]) from a Product of Sines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    Euler gave a simple method for showing that [zeta](2)=1/1[superscript 2] + 1/2[superscript 2] + 1/3[superscript 2] + ... = [pi][superscript 2]/6. He generalized his method so as to find [zeta](4), [zeta](6), [zeta](8),.... His computations became increasingly more complex as the arguments increased. In this note we show a different generalization…

  14. Apples: A Standard Food for Determining Potential Residential Pesticide Transfers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children’s unstructured eating behaviors lend themselves to potential dietary exposures to synthetic pyrethroid pesticides applied in the home. To determine the potential for excess dietary exposure of children from handling food during consumption, a standard food has been de...

  15. Three proposed B-associations in the vicinity of zeta puppis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upton, E. K. L.

    1971-01-01

    There appear to be three loose B associations in the general vicinity of zeta Puppis, all at distances of approximately 300 to 400 parsecs from the sun. Their diameters, perpendicular to the line of sight, are 20 to 50 parsecs, and their separations are of similar size. All three are situated in bright areas of the Gum nebula. The proposed associations A and C lie in the two brightest parts of the nebula. The three associations are not all of the same age. Association C is about 50 million years old, whereas A and B are decidedly younger. The ages of A and B cannot be determined from the present data, as their color-magnitude diagrams show no clear turnoff from the main sequence. Association A may be young enough to qualify as the birthplace of zeta Puppis. There is no other identifiable association in which zeta Puppis can have originated, unless its age is substantially greater than the 3 million years assumed.

  16. Does PKM(zeta) maintain memory?

    PubMed

    Kwapis, Janine L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2014-06-01

    Work on the long-term stability of memory has identified a potentially critical role for protein kinase Mzeta (PKMζ) in maintaining established memory. PKMζ, an autonomously active isoform of PKC, is hypothesized to sustain those changes that occurred during memory formation in order to preserve the memory engram over time. Initial studies investigating the role of PKMζ were largely successful in demonstrating a role for the kinase in memory maintenance; disrupting PKMζ activity with ζ-inhibitory peptide (ZIP) was successful in disrupting a variety of established associations in a number of key brain regions. More recent work, however, has questioned both the role of PKMζ in memory maintenance and the effectiveness of ZIP as a specific inhibitor of PKMζ activity. Here, we outline the research both for and against the idea that PKMζ is a memory maintenance mechanism and discuss how these two lines of research can be reconciled. We conclude by proposing a number of studies that would help to clarify the role of PKMζ in memory and define other mechanisms the brain may use to maintain memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of the η‧-nucleus optical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanova, M.; Metag, V.; Paryev, E. Ya.; Bayadilov, D.; Bantes, B.; Beck, R.; Beloglazov, Y. A.; Böse, S.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Challand, Th.; Crede, V.; Dahlke, T.; Dietz, F.; Drexler, P.; Eberhardt, H.; Elsner, D.; Ewald, R.; Fornet-Ponse, K.; Friedrich, S.; Frommberger, F.; Funke, Ch.; Gottschall, M.; Gridnev, A.; Grüner, M.; Gutz, E.; Hammann, Ch.; Hammann, D.; Hannappel, J.; Hartmann, J.; Hillert, W.; Hoffmeister, P.; Honisch, Ch.; Jaegle, I.; Kaiser, D.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kammer, S.; Keshelashvili, I.; Kleber, V.; Klein, F.; Klempt, E.; Krusche, B.; Lang, M.; Lopatin, I. V.; Maghrbi, Y.; Makonyi, K.; Müller, J.; Odenthal, T.; Piontek, D.; Schaepe, S.; Schmidt, Ch.; Schmieden, H.; Schmitz, R.; Seifen, T.; Thiel, A.; Thoma, U.; van Pee, H.; Walther, D.; Wendel, Ch.; Wiedner, U.; Wilson, A.; Winnebeck, A.; Zenke, F.

    2013-12-01

    The excitation function and momentum distribution of η‧ mesons have been measured in photon induced reactions on 12C in the energy range of 1250-2600 MeV. The experiment was performed with tagged photon beams from the ELSA electron accelerator using the Crystal Barrel and TAPS detectors. The data are compared to model calculations to extract information on the sign and magnitude of the real part of the η‧-nucleus potential. Within the model, the comparison indicates an attractive potential of -(37±10(stat)±10(syst)) MeV depth at normal nuclear matter density. Since the modulus of this depth is larger than the modulus of the imaginary part of the η‧-nucleus potential of -(10±2.5) MeV, determined by transparency ratio measurements, a search for resolved η‧-bound states appears promising.

  18. The interstellar line spectra of zeta Ophiuchi and zeta Persei and their relation to the short wavelength microwave background radiation. Ph.D. Thesis - N. Y. Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bortolot, V. J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Thirty-one high dispersion Coude spectrograms of zeta Ophiuchi and seven of zeta Persei were numerically synthesized to produce high resolution, low noise spectra in the interval 3650 A to 4350 that yield data on atomic and molecular absorption in well-defined regions of the interstellar medium. The detection threshold is improved by as much as a factor 5 over single plates. Several interstellar lines were discovered in the zeta Oph - 15km/sec cloud and the zeta Per + 13 km/sec cloud.

  19. Directly patching high-level exchange-correlation potential based on fully determined optimized effective potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chen; Chi, Yu-Chieh

    2017-12-01

    The key element in Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory is the exchange-correlation (XC) potential. We recently proposed the exchange-correlation potential patching (XCPP) method with the aim of directly constructing high-level XC potential in a large system by patching the locally computed, high-level XC potentials throughout the system. In this work, we investigate the patching of the exact exchange (EXX) and the random phase approximation (RPA) correlation potentials. A major challenge of XCPP is that a cluster's XC potential, obtained by solving the optimized effective potential equation, is only determined up to an unknown constant. Without fully determining the clusters' XC potentials, the patched system's XC potential is "uneven" in the real space and may cause non-physical results. Here, we developed a simple method to determine this unknown constant. The performance of XCPP-RPA is investigated on three one-dimensional systems: H20, H10Li8, and the stretching of the H19-H bond. We investigated two definitions of EXX: (i) the definition based on the adiabatic connection and fluctuation dissipation theorem (ACFDT) and (ii) the Hartree-Fock (HF) definition. With ACFDT-type EXX, effective error cancellations were observed between the patched EXX and the patched RPA correlation potentials. Such error cancellations were absent for the HF-type EXX, which was attributed to the fact that for systems with fractional occupation numbers, the integral of the HF-type EXX hole is not -1. The KS spectra and band gaps from XCPP agree reasonably well with the benchmarks as we make the clusters large.

  20. Activation-induced proteolysis of cytoplasmic domain of zeta in T cell receptors and Fc receptors.

    PubMed

    Taupin, J L; Anderson, P

    1994-12-01

    The CD3-T cell receptor (TCR) complex on T cells and the Fc gamma receptor type III (Fc gamma RIII)-zeta-gamma complex on natural killer cells are functionally analogous activation receptors that associate with a family of disulfide-linked dimers composed of the related subunits zeta and gamma. Immunochemical analysis of receptor complexes separated on two-dimensional diagonal gels allowed the identification of a previously uncharacterized zeta-p14 heterodimer. zeta-p14 is a component of both CD3-TCR and Fc gamma RIII-zeta-gamma. Peptide mapping analysis shows that p14 is structurally related to zeta, suggesting that it is either: (i) derived from zeta proteolytically or (ii) the product of an alternatively spliced mRNA. The observation that COS cells transformed with a cDNA encoding zeta express zeta-p14 supports the former possibility. The expression of CD3-TCR complexes including zeta-p14 increases following activation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or concanavalin A, suggesting that proteolysis of zeta may contribute to receptor modulation or desensitization.

  1. Local zeta factors and geometries under Spec Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manin, Yu I.

    2016-08-01

    The first part of this note shows that the odd-period polynomial of each Hecke cusp eigenform for the full modular group produces via the Rodriguez-Villegas transform ([1]) a polynomial satisfying the functional equation of zeta type and having non-trivial zeros only in the middle line of its critical strip. The second part discusses the Chebyshev lambda-structure of the polynomial ring as Borger's descent data to \\mathbf{F}_1 and suggests its role in a possible relation of the Γ\\mathbf{R}-factor to 'real geometry over \\mathbf{F}_1' (cf. [2]).

  2. Determining the potential productivity of food crops in controlled environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    The quest to determine the maximum potential productivity of food crops is greatly benefitted by crop growth models. Many models have been developed to analyze and predict crop growth in the field, but it is difficult to predict biological responses to stress conditions. Crop growth models for the optimal environments of a Controlled Environment Life Support System (CELSS) can be highly predictive. This paper discusses the application of a crop growth model to CELSS; the model is used to evaluate factors limiting growth. The model separately evaluates the following four physiological processes: absorption of PPF by photosynthetic tissue, carbon fixation (photosynthesis), carbon use (respiration), and carbon partitioning (harvest index). These constituent processes determine potentially achievable productivity. An analysis of each process suggests that low harvest index is the factor most limiting to yield. PPF absorption by plant canopies and respiration efficiency are also of major importance. Research concerning productivity in a CELSS should emphasize: (1) the development of gas exchange techniques to continuously monitor plant growth rates and (2) environmental techniques to reduce plant height in communities.

  3. Genetic determinants and potential therapeutic targets for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Reznik, Robert; Hendifar, Andrew E; Tuli, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the United States, carrying a 5-year survival rate of approximately 5%, which is the poorest prognosis of any solid tumor type. Given the dismal prognosis associated with PDAC, a more thorough understanding of risk factors and genetic predisposition has important implications not only for cancer prevention, but also for screening techniques and the development of personalized therapies. While screening of the general population is not recommended or practicable with current diagnostic methods, studies are ongoing to evaluate its usefulness in people with at least 5- to 10-fold increased risk of PDAC. In order to help identify high-risk populations who would be most likely to benefit from early detection screening tests for pancreatic cancer, discovery of additional pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes is crucial. Thus, specific gene-based, gene-product, and marker-based testing for the early detection of pancreatic cancer are currently being developed, with the potential for these to be useful as potential therapeutic targets as well. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the genetic basis for PDAC with a focus on germline and familial determinants. A discussion of potential therapeutic targets and future directions in screening and treatment is also provided.

  4. Genetic determinants and potential therapeutic targets for pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Reznik, Robert; Hendifar, Andrew E.; Tuli, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the United States, carrying a 5-year survival rate of approximately 5%, which is the poorest prognosis of any solid tumor type. Given the dismal prognosis associated with PDAC, a more thorough understanding of risk factors and genetic predisposition has important implications not only for cancer prevention, but also for screening techniques and the development of personalized therapies. While screening of the general population is not recommended or practicable with current diagnostic methods, studies are ongoing to evaluate its usefulness in people with at least 5- to 10-fold increased risk of PDAC. In order to help identify high-risk populations who would be most likely to benefit from early detection screening tests for pancreatic cancer, discovery of additional pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes is crucial. Thus, specific gene-based, gene-product, and marker-based testing for the early detection of pancreatic cancer are currently being developed, with the potential for these to be useful as potential therapeutic targets as well. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the genetic basis for PDAC with a focus on germline and familial determinants. A discussion of potential therapeutic targets and future directions in screening and treatment is also provided. PMID:24624093

  5. In vitro phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 by protein kinase C-zeta: functional analysis and identification of novel phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Sommerfeld, Mark R; Metzger, Sabine; Stosik, Magdalene; Tennagels, Norbert; Eckel, Jürgen

    2004-05-18

    Protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-zeta) participates both in downstream insulin signaling and in the negative feedback control of insulin action. Here we used an in vitro approach to identify PKC-zeta phosphorylation sites within insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and to characterize the functional implications. A recombinant IRS-1 fragment (rIRS-1(449)(-)(664)) containing major tyrosine motifs for interaction with phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase strongly associated to the p85alpha subunit of PI 3-kinase after Tyr phosphorylation by the insulin receptor. Phosphorylation of rIRS-1(449)(-)(664) by PKC-zeta induced a prominent inhibition of this process with a mixture of classical PKC isoforms being less effective. Both PKC-zeta and the classical isoforms phosphorylated rIRS-1(449)(-)(664) on Ser(612). However, modification of this residue did not reduce the affinity of p85alpha binding to pTyr-containing peptides (amino acids 605-615 of rat IRS-1), as determined by surface plasmon resonance. rIRS-1(449)(-)(664) was then phosphorylated by PKC-zeta using [(32)P]ATP and subjected to tryptic phosphopeptide mapping based on two-dimensional HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry. Ser(498) and Ser(570) were identified as novel phosphoserine sites targeted by PKC-zeta. Both sites were additionally confirmed by phosphopeptide mapping of the corresponding Ser --> Ala mutants of rIRS-1(449)(-)(664). Ser(570) was specifically targeted by PKC-zeta, as shown by immunoblotting with a phosphospecific antiserum against Ser(570) of IRS-1. Binding of p85alpha to the S570A mutant was less susceptible to inhibition by PKC-zeta, when compared to the S612A mutant. In conclusion, our in vitro data demonstrate a strong inhibitory action of PKC-zeta at the level of IRS-1/PI 3-kinase interaction involving multiple serine phosphorylation sites. Whereas Ser(612) appears not to participate in the negative control of insulin signaling, Ser(570) may at least partly contribute to this process.

  6. p62 modulates Akt activity via association with PKC{zeta} in neuronal survival and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Joung, Insil; Kim, Hak Jae; Kwon, Yunhee Kim

    2005-08-26

    p62 is a ubiquitously expressed phosphoprotein that interacts with a number of signaling molecules and a major component of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. It has been implicated in important cellular functions such as cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic pathways. In this study, we have addressed the potential role of p62 during neuronal differentiation and survival using HiB5, a rat neuronal progenitor cell. We generated a recombinant adenovirus encoding T7-epitope tagged p62 to reliably transfer p62 cDNA into the neuronal cells. The results show that an overexpression of p62 led not only to neuronal differentiation, but alsomore » to decreased cell death induced by serum withdrawal in HiB5 cells. In this process p62-dependent Akt phosphorylation occurred via the release of Akt from PKC{zeta} by association of p62 and PKC{zeta}, which is known as a negative regulator of Akt activation. These findings indicate that p62 facilitates cell survival through novel signaling cascades that result in Akt activation. Furthermore, we found that p62 expression was induced during neuronal differentiation. Taken together, the data suggest p62 is a regulator of neuronal cell survival and differentiation.« less

  7. Nonenzymic spectrophotometric determination of potential poison ivy cross-reactors.

    PubMed

    Quattrone, A J

    1977-03-01

    I describe an inexpensive, nonenzymic analytical system for prescreening substances that might cross-react as Rhus toxing (e.g., poison ivy, poison oak, and sumac allergens) on human skin. By spectrophotometric assay after incubation with an oxidizing mixture of Cu(II)ammine complex and ammonium persulfate, I could accurately and reproducibly determine o-quinoidal products of several potential synthetic cross-reactors and native poison ivy allergen, and could distinguish these from catecholamines, resorcinol, p-hydroquinone, and a closely related phenol. A good correlation was obtained between this nonenzymic technique and an enzymic assay. This Cu(II)ammine/persulfate oxidative assay, however, is inexpensive and obviates any spectral interference from enzymic proteins.

  8. Plasticity during Early Brain Development Is Determined by Ontogenetic Potential.

    PubMed

    Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Lidzba, Karen; Pavlova, Marina A; Wilke, Marko; Staudt, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Two competing hypotheses address neuroplasticity during early brain development: the "Kennard principle" describes the compensatory capacities of the immature developing CNS as superior to those of the adult brain, whereas the "Hebb principle" argues that the young brain is especially sensitive to insults. We provide evidence that these principles are not mutually exclusive. Following early brain lesions that are unilateral, the brain can refer to homotopic areas of the healthy hemisphere. This potential for reorganization is unique to the young brain but available only when, during ontogenesis of brain development, these areas have been used for the functions addressed. With respect to motor function, ipsilateral motor tracts can be recruited, which are only available during early brain development. Language can be reorganized to the right after early left hemispheric lesions, as the representation of the language network is initially bilateral. However, even in these situations, compensatory capacities of the developing brain are found to have limitations, probably defined by early determinants. Thus, plasticity and adaptivity are seen only within ontogenetic potential; that is, axonal or cortical structures cannot be recruited beyond early developmental possibilities. The young brain is probably more sensitive and vulnerable to lesions when these are bilateral. This is shown here for bilateral periventricular white matter lesions that clearly have an impact on cortical architecture and function, thus probably interfering with early network building. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Can Eccentric Debris Disks Be Long-lived? A First Numerical Investigation and Application to Zeta(exp 2) Reticuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faramaz, V.; Beust, H.; Thebault, P.; Augereau, J.-C.; Bonsor, A.; delBurgo, C.; Ertel, S.; Marshall, J. P.; Milli, J.; Montesinos, B.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Context. Imaging of debris disks has found evidence for both eccentric and offset disks. One hypothesis is that they provide evidence for massive perturbers, for example, planets or binary companions, which sculpt the observed structures. One such disk was recently observed in the far-IR by the Herschel Space Observatory around Zeta2 Reticuli. In contrast with previously reported systems, the disk is significantly eccentric, and the system is several Gyr old. Aims. We aim to investigate the long-term evolution of eccentric structures in debris disks caused by a perturber on an eccentric orbit around the star. We hypothesise that the observed eccentric disk around Zeta2 Reticuli might be evidence of such a scenario. If so, we are able to constrain the mass and orbit of a potential perturber, either a giant planet or a binary companion. Methods. Analytical techniques were used to predict the effects of a perturber on a debris disk. Numerical N-body simulations were used to verify these results and further investigate the observable structures that may be produced by eccentric perturbers. The long-term evolution of the disk geometry was examined, with particular application to the Zeta2 Reticuli system. In addition, synthetic images of the disk were produced for direct comparison with Herschel observations. Results. We show that an eccentric companion can produce both the observed offsets and eccentric disks. These effects are not immediate, and we characterise the timescale required for the disk to develop to an eccentric state (and any spirals to vanish). For Zeta2 Reticuli, we derive limits on the mass and orbit of the companion required to produce the observations. Synthetic images show that the pattern observed around Zeta2 Reticuli can be produced by an eccentric disk seen close to edge-on, and allow us to bring additional constraints on the disk parameters of our model (disk flux and extent). Conclusions. We conclude that eccentric planets or stellar companions

  10. Moments of zeta functions associated to hyperelliptic curves over finite fields

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Michael O.; Wu, Kaiyu

    2015-01-01

    Let q be an odd prime power, and denote the set of square-free monic polynomials D(x)∈Fq[x] of degree d. Katz and Sarnak showed that the moments, over , of the zeta functions associated to the curves y2=D(x), evaluated at the central point, tend, as , to the moments of characteristic polynomials, evaluated at the central point, of matrices in USp(2⌊(d−1)/2⌋). Using techniques that were originally developed for studying moments of L-functions over number fields, Andrade and Keating conjectured an asymptotic formula for the moments for q fixed and . We provide theoretical and numerical evidence in favour of their conjecture. In some cases, we are able to work out exact formulae for the moments and use these to precisely determine the size of the remainder term in the predicted moments. PMID:25802418

  11. Determination of estrogenic potential in waste water without sample extraction.

    PubMed

    Avberšek, Miha; Žegura, Bojana; Filipič, Metka; Uranjek-Ževart, Nataša; Heath, Ester

    2013-09-15

    This study describes the modification of the ER-Calux assay for testing water samples without sample extraction (NE-(ER-Calux) assay). The results are compared to those obtained with ER-Calux assay and a theoretical estrogenic potential obtained by GC-MSD. For spiked tap and waste water samples there was no statistical difference between estrogenic potentials obtained by the three methods. Application of NE-(ER-Calux) to "real" influent and effluents from municipal waste water treatment plants and receiving surface waters found that the NE-(ER-Calux) assay gave higher values compared to ER-Calux assay and GC-MSD. This is explained by the presence of water soluble endocrine agonists that are usually removed during extraction. Intraday dynamics of the estrogenic potential of a WWTP influent and effluent revealed an increase in the estrogenic potential of the influent from 12.9 ng(EEQ)/L in the morning to a peak value of 40.0 ng(EEQ)/L in the afternoon. The estrogenic potential of the effluent was potential was 92-98%. Daytime estrogenic potential values varied significantly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 14-3-3 zeta is a molecular target in guggulsterone induced apoptosis in head and neck cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Macha, Muzafar A; Matta, Ajay; Chauhan, Ss; Siu, Kw Michael; Ralhan, Ranju

    2010-11-30

    The five-year survival rates for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients are less than 50%, and the prognosis has not improved, despite advancements in standard multi-modality therapies. Hence major emphasis is being laid on identification of novel molecular targets and development of multi-targeted therapies. 14-3-3 zeta, a multifunctional phospho-serine/phospho-threonine binding protein, is emerging as an effector of pro-survival signaling by binding to several proteins involved in apoptosis (Bad, FKHRL1 and ASK1) and may serve as an appropriate target for head and neck cancer therapy. Herein, we determined effect of guggulsterone (GS), a farnesoid X receptor antagonist, on 14-3-3 zeta associated molecular pathways for abrogation of apoptosis in head and neck cancer cells. Head and neck cancer cells were treated with guggulsterone (GS). Effect of GS-treatment was evaluated using cell viability (MTT) assay and apoptosis was verified by annexin V, DNA fragmentation and M30 CytoDeath antibody assay. Mechanism of GS-induced apoptosis was determined by western blotting and co-IP assays using specific antibodies. Using in vitro models of head and neck cancer, we showed 14-3-3 zeta as a key player regulating apoptosis in GS treated SCC4 cells. Treatment with GS releases BAD from the inhibitory action of 14-3-3 zeta in proliferating HNSCC cells by activating protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). These events initiate the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, as revealed by increased levels of cytochrome c in cytoplasmic extracts of GS-treated SCC4 cells. In addition, GS treatment significantly reduced the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2, xIAP, Mcl1, survivin, cyclin D1 and c-myc, thus committing cells to apoptosis. These events were followed by activation of caspase 9, caspase 8 and caspase 3 leading to cleavage of its downstream target, poly-ADP-ribose phosphate (PARP). GS targets 14-3-3 zeta associated cellular pathways for reducing

  13. Characterisation of the protein corona using tunable resistive pulse sensing: determining the change and distribution of a particle's surface charge.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Emma L C J; Healey, Matthew J; Holton, Elizabeth; Sivakumaran, Muttuswamy; Manstana, Sarabjit; Platt, Mark

    2016-08-01

    The zeta potential of the protein corona around carboxyl particles has been measured using tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS). A simple and rapid assay for characterising zeta potentials within buffer, serum and plasma is presented monitoring the change, magnitude and distribution of proteins on the particle surface. First, we measure the change in zeta potential of carboxyl-functionalised nanoparticles in solutions that contain biologically relevant concentrations of individual proteins, typically constituted in plasma and serum, and observe a significant difference in distributions and zeta values between room temperature and 37 °C assays. The effect is protein dependent, and the largest difference between the two temperatures is recorded for the γ-globulin protein where the mean zeta potential changes from -16.7 to -9.0 mV for 25 and 37 °C, respectively. This method is further applied to monitor particles placed into serum and/or plasma. A temperature-dependent change is again observed with serum showing a 4.9 mV difference in zeta potential between samples incubated at 25 and 37 °C; this shift was larger than that observed for samples in plasma (0.4 mV). Finally, we monitor the kinetics of the corona reorientation for particles initially placed into serum and then adding 5 % (V/V) plasma. The technology presented offers an interesting insight into protein corona structure and kinetics of formation measured in biologically relevant solutions, i.e. high protein, high salt levels, and its particle-by-particle analysis gives a measure of the distribution of particle zeta potential that may offer a better understanding of the behaviour of nanoparticles in solution. Graphical Abstract The relative velocity of a nanoparticle as it traverses a nanopore can be used to determine its zeta potential. Monitoring the changes in translocation speeds can therefore be used to follow changes to the surface chemistry/composition of 210 nm particles that were placed

  14. Stimulus waveform determines the characteristics of sensory nerve action potentials.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Pedro; Leote, João; Cabib, Christopher; Casanova-Molla, Jordi; Valls-Sole, Josep

    2016-03-01

    In routine nerve conduction studies supramaximal electrical stimuli generate sensory nerve action potentials by depolarization of nerve fibers under the cathode. However, stimuli of submaximal intensity may give rise to action potentials generated under the anode. We tested if this phenomenon depends on the characteristics of stimulus ending. We added a circuit to our stimulation device that allowed us to modify the end of the stimulus by increasing the time constant of the decay phase. Increasing the fall time caused a reduction of anode action potential (anAP) amplitude, and eventually abolished it, in all tested subjects. We subsequently examined the stimulus waveform in a series of available electromyographs stimulators and found that the anAP could only be obtained with stimulators that issued stimuli ending sharply. Our results prove that the anAP is generated at stimulus end, and depends on the sharpness of current shut down. Electromyographs produce stimuli of varying characteristics, which limits the reproducibility of anAP results by interested researchers. The study of anodal action potentials might be a useful tool to have a quick appraisal of distal human sensory nerve excitability. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Empirical Comparison of Potential Determinants of Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas Ewin

    1977-01-01

    Four basic determinants of parental authority are suggested. Hypotheses are tested using questionnaire data from 3,641 sixth, eighth, tenth, and twelfth grade students. Acceptance of parental authority is associated most strongly with offspring's perceptions of parental expertise and benefits received from parents. (Author)

  16. A Floating Potential Method for Determining Ion Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, John D.; Chen, Francis F.

    2001-10-01

    The density n in partially ionized discharges is often found from the saturation ion current Ii of a cylindrical Langmuir probe. Collisionless probe theories, however, disagree with measured I - V curves probably because of collisions^1. We use a heuristic method that yields n from probe data agreeing with microwave interferometry. Probe current I is raised to the 4/3 power and fitted to a straight line on an I^4/3-V plot. The line is extrapolated to the floating potential V_f, thus approximating I_i(V_f). The sheath thickness d_sh for V = Vf is calculated from the Child-Langmuir (CL) law, and applying the Bohm sheath criterion to the surface at r_sh = Rp + d_sh yields n when Ii = I_i(V_f). This method works, but it cannot be justified by theory. Neglected are (a) cylindrical convergence of the ion charge, (b) finite ion energy at r = r_sh, (c) ions orbiting the probe, and (d) escape of ions axially. The Allen-Boyd-Reynolds theory, which treats (a) and (b) and neglects (c) and (d), gives too low n's. Apparently the errors self-cancel, and the simple Vf method gives the right result. ^1 F.F. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 8, 3029 (2001).

  17. Resistance to hepatitis C virus: potential genetic and immunological determinants.

    PubMed

    Mina, Michael M; Luciani, Fabio; Cameron, Barbara; Bull, Rowena A; Beard, Michael R; Booth, David; Lloyd, Andrew R

    2015-04-01

    Studies of individuals who were highly exposed but seronegative (HESN) for HIV infection led to the discovery that homozygosity for the Δ32 deletion mutation in the CCR5 gene prevents viral entry into target cells, and is associated with resistance to infection. Additionally, evidence for protective immunity has been noted in some HESN groups, such as sex workers in The Gambia. Population studies of individuals at high risk for hepatitis C virus infection suggest that an HESN phenotype exists. The body of evidence, which suggests that protective immunity allows clearance of hepatitis C virus without seroconversion is growing. Furthermore, proof-of-principle evidence from in-vitro studies shows that genetic polymorphisms can confer resistance to establishment of infection. This Review discusses the possibility that genetic mutations confer resistance against hepatitis C virus, and also explores evidence for protective immunity, including via genetically programmed variations in host responses. The data generally strengthens the notion that investigations of naturally arising polymorphisms within the hepatitis C virus interactome, and genetic association studies of well characterised HESN individuals, could identify potential targets for vaccine design and inform novel therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mapping Protein–Protein Interactions of the Resistance-Related Bacterial Zeta Toxin–Epsilon Antitoxin Complex (ε2ζ2) with High Affinity Peptide Ligands Using Fluorescence Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Bachiller, María Isabel; Brzozowska, Iwona; Odolczyk, Norbert; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Rademann, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Toxin–antitoxin systems constitute a native survival strategy of pathogenic bacteria and thus are potential targets of antibiotic drugs. Here, we target the Zeta–Epsilon toxin–antitoxin system, which is responsible for the stable maintenance of certain multiresistance plasmids in Gram-positive bacteria. Peptide ligands were designed on the basis of the ε2ζ2 complex. Three α helices of Zeta forming the protein–protein interaction (PPI) site were selected and peptides were designed conserving the residues interacting with Epsilon antitoxin while substituting residues binding intramolecularly to other parts of Zeta. Designed peptides were synthesized with an N-terminal fluoresceinyl-carboxy-residue for binding assays and provided active ligands, which were used to define the hot spots of the ε2ζ2 complex. Further shortening and modification of the binding peptides provided ligands with affinities <100 nM, allowing us to determine the most relevant PPIs and implement a robust competition binding assay. PMID:27438853

  19. HD 93521, zeta Ophiuchi, and the effects of rapid rotation on the atmospheres and winds of 09.5 V stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Derck

    1995-01-01

    Both low- and high-resolution IUE spectra of the rapidly rotating 09.5 V stars HD 93521 and zeta Oph are used to develop a coherent picture of the effects of rapid rotation on the atmospheres and winds of late, main-sequence O stars. The observational consequences are by far the strongest on HD 93521, most likely because it is being viewed nearly equator-on. In particular, it is shown that HD 93521 (1) a much smaller UV optical flux ratio than expected, (2) UV photospheric lines indicative of a BO supergiant, (3) an abnormally strong N v wind doublet, and (4) wind profiles suggesting that its wind has latitudinally dependent properties. Because HD 93521 has a larger observed v sin i than zeta Oph and yet its H-alpha emission is no stronger than in zeta Oph, it is speculated that zeta Oph actually rotates as fast or faster than HD 93521, but has a smaller sin i. Because zeta Oph is significantly reddened, nothing can be determined about its intrinsic UV energy distribution. However, it is shown that its UV photospheric lines are a bit peculiar and that its C IV and N V wind doublets are abnormally strong and have unusual profiles. The C IV profile agrees with models of a rotationally distorted wind similar to the one in HD 93521, except viewed at an angle i approximately 60 deg-80 deg. The spectral peculiarities of both stars are attributed to the combined effects of gravity darkening of their atmospheres and rotational distortion of their winds. The differences between their spectra are interpreted as the result of being viewed at different inclination angles. Because of the gravity darkening, atmospheric analyses of either star based on single temperature and surface gravity model atmospheres are probably unreliable. Finally, I describe how different effects conspire to make the spectroscopic signatures of gravity darkening so pronounced at 09.5 V.

  20. Hippocampal Infusion of Zeta Inhibitory Peptide Impairs Recent, but Not Remote, Recognition Memory in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Jena B.; Ocampo, Amber C.; Broadbent, Nicola J.; Clark, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial memory in rodents can be erased following the infusion of zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP) into the dorsal hippocampus via indwelling guide cannulas. It is believed that ZIP impairs spatial memory by reversing established late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP). However, it is unclear whether other forms of hippocampus-dependent memory, such as recognition memory, are also supported by hippocampal LTP. In the current study, we tested recognition memory in rats following hippocampal ZIP infusion. In order to combat the limited targeting of infusions via cannula, we implemented a stereotaxic approach for infusing ZIP throughout the dorsal, intermediate, and ventral hippocampus. Rats infused with ZIP 3–7 days after training on the novel object recognition task exhibited impaired object recognition memory compared to control rats (those infused with aCSF). In contrast, rats infused with ZIP 1 month after training performed similar to control rats. The ability to form new memories after ZIP infusions remained intact. We suggest that enhanced recognition memory for recent events is supported by hippocampal LTP, which can be reversed by hippocampal ZIP infusion. PMID:26380123

  1. A gene variation of 14-3-3 zeta isoform in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Murakami, K; Situ, S Y; Eshete, F

    1996-11-14

    A variant form of 14-3-3 zeta was isolated from the rat hippocampal cDNA library. The cloned cDNA is 1687 bp in length and it contains an entire ORF (nt = 63-797) with 245 amino acids that is characteristic to 14-3-3 zeta subtype. By comparing with reported sequences of 14-3-3 zeta, we found three nucleotide substitutions within the coding sequence in our clone; C<-->T transition at nt = 325 and G<-->C transversions at nt = 387 and 388. Both are missense mutations, leading ACG (Thr) to ATG (Met) and CGT (Arg) to GCT (Ala) conversions at residue 88 and 109, respectively. Our results show that at least three different genetic variants of 14-3-3 zeta are present in rat species which results in protein variations. Such mutation in the amino acid sequence is an important indication of the diverse functions of this protein and may also contribute to the recent contradictory observations regarding the role of the 14-3-3 zeta subtype.

  2. Toxicity and Metabolism of Zeta-Cypermethrin in Field-Collected and Laboratory Strains of the Neotropical Predator Chrysoperla externa Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Haramboure, M; Smagghe, G; Niu, J; Christiaens, O; Spanoghe, P; Alzogaray, R A

    2017-06-01

    Resistance to pesticides has been studied in several insect pests, but information on the natural enemies of pests-including the Neotropical predator Chrysoperla externa Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), a major biological control agent in South America-is lacking. We report here a comparative study between a field-collected strain of C. externa subjected to monthly sprayings of pyrethroids and neonicotinoids and a laboratory strain without exposure to pesticides. The tolerance of both strains against zeta-cypermethrin was similar, and addition of the synergist piperonyl butoxide increased the toxicity by 30% in both strains. Gas-chromatography analyses and mixed-function-oxidase measurements indicated similar values in both strains and also confirmed the key role of oxidative metabolism in this species. Because C. externa has maintained a tolerance to zeta-cypermethrin without previous pesticide exposure, this species could potentially be mass-reared and released in fields in the presence of pesticide pressure.

  3. Zeta Function Regularization in Casimir Effect Calculations and J. S. DOWKER's Contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, Emilio

    2012-06-01

    A summary of relevant contributions, ordered in time, to the subject of operator zeta functions and their application to physical issues is provided. The description ends with the seminal contributions of Stephen Hawking and Stuart Dowker and collaborators, considered by many authors as the actual starting point of the introduction of zeta function regularization methods in theoretical physics, in particular, for quantum vacuum fluctuation and Casimir effect calculations. After recalling a number of the strengths of this powerful and elegant method, some of its limitations are discussed. Finally, recent results of the so-called operator regularization procedure are presented.

  4. Zeta Function Regularization in Casimir Effect Calculations and J. S. Dowker's Contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, Emilio

    2012-07-01

    A summary of relevant contributions, ordered in time, to the subject of operator zeta functions and their application to physical issues is provided. The description ends with the seminal contributions of Stephen Hawking and Stuart Dowker and collaborators, considered by many authors as the actual starting point of the introduction of zeta function regularization methods in theoretical physics, in particular, for quantum vacuum fluctuation and Casimir effect calculations. After recalling a number of the strengths of this powerful and elegant method, some of its limitations are discussed. Finally, recent results of the so called operator regularization procedure are presented.

  5. Dynamic interaction between 14-3-3zeta and bax during TNF-α-induced apoptosis in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuejuan; Xing, Da; Chen, Tongsheng

    2006-09-01

    Bax, a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, localizes largely in the cytoplasm but redistributes to mitochondria and undergoes oligomerization to induce the release of apoptogenic factors such as cytochrome c in response to apoptotic stimuli. Cytoplasmic protein 14-3-3zeta binds to Bax and, upon apoptotic stimulation, releases Bax by a caspase-independent mechanism. However, the direct interaction of the cytoplasmic 14-3-3zeta and Bax in living cells has not been observed. In present study, to monitor the dynamic interaction between 14-3-3zeta and Bax in living cells in real time during apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), DsRed-14-3-3zeta plasmid is constructed. By cotransfecting DsRed- 14-3-3zeta and GFP-Bax plasmids into human lung adenocarcinoma cells (ASTC-a-1), we observe the dynamic interaction between Bax and 14-3-3zeta using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique on laser scanning confocal microscope. The results show that 14-3-3zeta remains in the cytoplasm but GFP-Bax translocates to mitochondria completely after TNF-α stimulation. These results reveal that 14-3-3zeta binds directly to Bax in healthy cells, and that 14-3-3zeta negatively regulates Bax translocation to mitochondria during TNF-α-induced apoptosis.

  6. Relationship between phospholipase C-zeta, semen parameters, and chromatin status.

    PubMed

    Tavalaee, Marziyeh; Kiani-Esfahani, Abbas; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad H

    2017-08-01

    The need for additional tests to complement basic sperm analysis in clinics is well appreciated. In this regard, a number of tests such as sperm DNA integrity test as a tool in diagnosis and treatment of infertility are suggested. But recent studies have focused on main sperm factors involved in oocyte activation such as phospholipase C-zeta (PLCζ) that initiate intracellular Ca 2+ signaling and embryogenesis. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between PLCζ, basic semen parameters, sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF), and protamine deficiency in men with normal (n=32) and abnormal (n=23) semen parameters. Unlike SDF and protamine deficiency, as negative factors related to fertility, the mean value of PLCζ as positive factor related to infertility was significantly lower in men with abnormal semen parameters compared to men with normal semen parameters. Significant correlations were also observed between sperm concentration, motility, and abnormal morphology with the percentage of PLCζ positive spermatozoa. In addition, logistic regression analysis revealed that sperm morphology is more predictive than sperm motility and concentration for PLCζ presence. In addition, a statistically significant negative relationship was observed between the percentage of PLCζ positive spermatozoa and SDF. These findings suggested during ICSI, selection of sperm based on morphology has a profound effect on its ability to induce oocyte activation based on the likelihood of PLCζ expression. Therefore, assessment of PLCζ as an index for fertilization potential of a semen sample in men with severe teratozoospermia may define individuals who are candidates for artificial oocyte activation (AOA) and may avoid failed fertilization post ICSI.

  7. WATER QUALITY AND OYSTER HEALTH (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA): AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO DETERMINING HABITAT RESTORATION POTENTIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volety, Aswani K., S. Gregory Tolley and James T. Winstead. 2001. Water Quality and Oyster Health (Crassostrea virginica): An Integrated Approach to Determining Habitat Restoration Potential (Abstract). Presented at the 5th International Conference on Shellfish Restoration, 18-21...

  8. Determining the Intermolecular Potential Energy in a Gas: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olbregts, J.; Walgraeve, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which gas viscosity coefficients over a large temperature range are used to determine the parameters of the intermolecular potential energy and other properties such as virial coefficients. (MLH)

  9. Electrochemistry of cations in diopsidic melt - Determining diffusion rates and redox potentials from voltammetric curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, Russell O.; Haskin, Larry A.; Crane, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on determinations of reduction potentials and their temperature dependence of selected ions in diopsidic melt, by using linear sweep voltammetry. Diffusion coefficients were measured for cations of Eu, Mn, Cr, and In. Enthalpies and entropies of reduction were determined for the cations V(V), Cr(3+), Mn(2+), Mn(3+), Fe(2+), Cu(2+), Mo(VI), Sn(IV), and Eu(3+). Reduction potentials were used to study the structural state of cations in the melt.

  10. Asymptotic analysis on a pseudo-Hermitian Riemann-zeta Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Brody, Dorje C.

    2018-04-01

    The differential-equation eigenvalue problem associated with a recently-introduced Hamiltonian, whose eigenvalues correspond to the zeros of the Riemann zeta function, is analyzed using Fourier and WKB analysis. The Fourier analysis leads to a challenging open problem concerning the formulation of the eigenvalue problem in the momentum space. The WKB analysis gives the exact asymptotic behavior of the eigenfunction.

  11. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of glutathione transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1a-1a)

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, Christopher D.; Zhong, Guo; Smeltz, Marci

    2014-01-21

    Crystals of glutathione transferase zeta 1 were grown and shown to diffract X-rays to 3.1 Å resolution. They belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.0, b = 49.6, c = 54.6 Å, α = 82.9, β = 69.9, γ = 73.4°.

  12. Boundary Conditions for the Maintenance of Memory by PKM[zeta] in Neocortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shema, Reul; Hazvi, Shoshi; Sacktor, Todd C.; Dudai, Yadin

    2009-01-01

    We report here that ZIP, a selective inhibitor of the atypical protein kinase C isoform PKM[zeta], abolishes very long-term conditioned taste aversion (CTA) associations in the insular cortex of the behaving rat, at least 3 mo after encoding. The effect of ZIP is not replicated by a general serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor that is…

  13. On small values of the Riemann zeta-function at Gram points

    SciTech Connect

    Korolev, M A

    In this paper, we prove the existence of a large set of Gram points t{sub n} such that the values ζ(0.5+it{sub n}) are 'anomalously' close to zero. A lower bound for the negative 'discrete' moment of the Riemann zeta-function on the critical line is also given. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  14. Kinetic determinations of accurate relative oxidation potentials of amines with reactive radical cations.

    PubMed

    Gould, Ian R; Wosinska, Zofia M; Farid, Samir

    2006-01-01

    Accurate oxidation potentials for organic compounds are critical for the evaluation of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of their radical cations. Except when using a specialized apparatus, electrochemical oxidation of molecules with reactive radical cations is usually an irreversible process, providing peak potentials, E(p), rather than thermodynamically meaningful oxidation potentials, E(ox). In a previous study on amines with radical cations that underwent rapid decarboxylation, we estimated E(ox) by correcting the E(p) from cyclic voltammetry with rate constants for decarboxylation obtained using laser flash photolysis. Here we use redox equilibration experiments to determine accurate relative oxidation potentials for the same amines. We also describe an extension of these experiments to show how relative oxidation potentials can be obtained in the absence of equilibrium, from a complete kinetic analysis of the reversible redox kinetics. The results provide support for the previous cyclic voltammetry/laser flash photolysis method for determining oxidation potentials.

  15. Determining the electron energy distribution near the plasma potential in the earth's ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, W. E.; Hays, P. B.; Cutler, J. R.; Dobbs, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    A determination of the plasma potential using an electrostatic analyzer is described in which the potential difference between the instrument slit system and surrounding plasma is minimized. Data obtained from rocket-borne instrumentation demonstrate the viability of this technique for electron fluxes between thermal energies (about 0.5 V) and suprathermal energies (many volts).

  16. A combined electronegativity equalization and electrostatic potential fit method for the determination of atomic point charges.

    PubMed

    Berente, Imre; Czinki, Eszter; Náray-Szabó, Gábor

    2007-09-01

    We report an approach for the determination of atomic monopoles of macromolecular systems using connectivity and geometry parameters alone. The method is appropriate also for the calculation of charge distributions based on the quantum mechanically determined wave function and does not suffer from the mathematical instability of other electrostatic potential fit methods. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. FT-IR and Zeta potential measurements on TiO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Jaiveer; Rathore, Ravi; Kaurav, Netram, E-mail: netramkaurav@yahoo.co.uk

    2016-05-23

    In the present investigation, ultrafine TiO particles have been synthesized successfully by thermal decomposition method. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. As-synthesized TiO nanoparticles have a cubic structure as characterized by power X-ray diffraction (XRD), which shows that TiO nanoparticles have narrow size distribution with particle size 11.5 nm. FTIR data shows a strong peak at 1300 cm{sup −1}, assignable to the Ti-O stretching vibrations mode.

  18. A quantum perturbative pair distribution for determining interatomic potentials from extended x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, F.

    2002-11-01

    In this paper we develop a technique for determining interatomic potentials in materials in the quantum regime from single-shell extended x-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) spectra. We introduce a pair distribution function, based on ordinary quantum time-independent perturbation theory. In the proposed scheme, the model potential parameters enter the distribution through a fourth-order Taylor expansion of the potential, and are directly refined in the fit of the model signal to the experimental spectrum. We discuss in general the validity of our theoretical framework, namely the quantum regime and perturbative treatment, and work out a simple tool for monitoring the sensitivity of our theory in determining lattice anharmonicities based on the statistical F-test. As an example, we apply our formalism to an EXAFS spectrum at the Ag K edge of AgI at T = 77 K. We determine the Ag-I potential parameters and find good agreement with previous studies.

  19. Line identifications in the ultraviolet spectra of Tau Herculis, B5 IV, and Zeta Draconis, B6 III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underhill, A. B.; Adelman, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tables of the lines found on two tracings each of the ultraviolet spectrum of Tau Her, B5 IV, and Zeta Dra, B6 III, made by the Copernicus satellite and possible identifications are given. The ranges 1025-1451A for Tau Her and 1035 to 1425A for Zeta Dra are covered by the U2 spectrometer at a resolution of 0.2A; the ranges 2028 to 2959A for Tau Her and 2000 to 3000A for Zeta Dra are covered by the V2 spectrometer at a resolution of 0.4A. The observed density of lines in the U2 region is 1.1 lines/A for Tau Her and 1.7 lines/A for Zeta Dra. In the V2 region it is 0.8 lines/A for Tau Her and 0.9 lines/A for Zeta Dra.

  20. Determination of cable parameters in skeletal muscle fibres during repetitive firing of action potentials.

    PubMed

    Riisager, Anders; Duehmke, Rudy; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard; Huang, Christopher L; Pedersen, Thomas Holm

    2014-10-15

    Recent studies in rat muscle fibres show that repetitive firing of action potentials causes changes in fibre resting membrane conductance (Gm) that reflect regulation of ClC-1 Cl(-) and KATP K(+) ion channels. Methodologically, these findings were obtained by inserting two microelectrodes at close proximity in the same fibres enabling measurements of fibre input resistance (Rin) in between action potential trains. Since the fibre length constant (λ) could not be determined, however, the calculation of Gm relied on the assumptions that the specific cytosolic resistivity (Ri) and muscle fibre volume remained constant during the repeated action potential firing. Here we present a three-microelectrode technique that enables determinations of multiple cable parameters in action potential-firing fibres including Rin and λ as well as waveform and conduction velocities of fully propagating action potentials. It is shown that in both rat and mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) fibres, action potential firing leads to substantial changes in both muscle fibre volume and Ri. The analysis also showed, however, that regardless of these changes, rat and mouse EDL fibres both exhibited initial decreases in Gm that were eventually followed by a ∼3-fold, fully reversible increase in Gm after the firing of 1450-1800 action potentials. Using this three-electrode method we further show that the latter rise in Gm was closely associated with excitation failures and loss of action potential signal above -20 mV. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  1. Determination of cable parameters in skeletal muscle fibres during repetitive firing of action potentials

    PubMed Central

    Riisager, Anders; Duehmke, Rudy; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard; Huang, Christopher L; Pedersen, Thomas Holm

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in rat muscle fibres show that repetitive firing of action potentials causes changes in fibre resting membrane conductance (Gm) that reflect regulation of ClC-1 Cl− and KATP K+ ion channels. Methodologically, these findings were obtained by inserting two microelectrodes at close proximity in the same fibres enabling measurements of fibre input resistance (Rin) in between action potential trains. Since the fibre length constant (λ) could not be determined, however, the calculation of Gm relied on the assumptions that the specific cytosolic resistivity (Ri) and muscle fibre volume remained constant during the repeated action potential firing. Here we present a three-microelectrode technique that enables determinations of multiple cable parameters in action potential-firing fibres including Rin and λ as well as waveform and conduction velocities of fully propagating action potentials. It is shown that in both rat and mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) fibres, action potential firing leads to substantial changes in both muscle fibre volume and Ri. The analysis also showed, however, that regardless of these changes, rat and mouse EDL fibres both exhibited initial decreases in Gm that were eventually followed by a ∼3-fold, fully reversible increase in Gm after the firing of 1450–1800 action potentials. Using this three-electrode method we further show that the latter rise in Gm was closely associated with excitation failures and loss of action potential signal above −20 mV. PMID:25128573

  2. Applicability of Separation Potentials to Determining the Parameters of Cascade Efficiency in Enrichment of Ternary Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palkin, V. A.; Igoshin, I. S.

    2017-01-01

    The separation potentials suggested by various researchers for separating multicomponent isotopic mixtures are considered. An estimation of their applicability to determining the parameters of the efficiency of enrichment of a ternary mixture in a cascade with an optimum scheme of connection of stages made up of elements with three takeoffs is carried out. The separation potential most precisely characterizing the separative power and other efficiency parameters of stages and cascade schemes has been selected based on the results of the estimation made.

  3. Carbon and nitrogen abundances in the supergiants HD 93840 and zeta Per

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Derck; Altner, Bruce; Wynne, David; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.

    1990-01-01

    The BN supergiant HD 93840 is shown to have the same temperature and surface gravity as the normal Bi Ib zeta Per. Differential abundance analysis of their C 4 and N 5 wind line profiles are found. The results are independent of the usual model atmosphere analyses and, therefore, a valuable check on them. Ratios for the C and N surface abundances in HD 93840 compared to Per of 1:10 and 4.6:1 are found respectively. By introducing a simple model for the compositions of both atmospheres the fraction of material in each atmosphere which has undergone CNO processing, more than 90 percent for HD 93840 and less than about 15 percent for zeta Per, is derived.

  4. Molecular basis of length polymorphism in the human zeta-globin gene complex.

    PubMed Central

    Goodbourn, S E; Higgs, D R; Clegg, J B; Weatherall, D J

    1983-01-01

    The length polymorphism between the human zeta-globin gene and its pseudogene is caused by an allele-specific variation in the copy number of a tandemly repeating 36-base-pair sequence. This sequence is related to a tandemly repeated 14-base-pair sequence in the 5' flanking region of the human insulin gene, which is known to cause length polymorphism, and to a repetitive sequence in intervening sequence (IVS) 1 of the pseudo-zeta-globin gene. Evidence is presented that the latter is also of variable length, probably because of differences in the copy number of the tandem repeat. The homology between the three length polymorphisms may be an indication of the presence of a more widespread group of related sequences in the human genome, which might be useful for generalized linkage studies. PMID:6308667

  5. Averages of ratios of the Riemann zeta-function and correlations of divisor sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrey, Brian; Keating, Jonathan P.

    2017-10-01

    Nonlinearity has published articles containing a significant number-theoretic component since the journal was first established. We examine one thread, concerning the statistics of the zeros of the Riemann zeta function. We extend this by establishing a connection between the ratios conjecture for the Riemann zeta-function and a conjecture concerning correlations of convolutions of Möbius and divisor functions. Specifically, we prove that the ratios conjecture and an arithmetic correlations conjecture imply the same result. This provides new support for the ratios conjecture, which previously had been motivated by analogy with formulae in random matrix theory and by a heuristic recipe. Our main theorem generalises a recent calculation pertaining to the special case of two-over-two ratios.

  6. Evaluation of a 6-wire thermocouple psychrometer for determination of in-situ water potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Loskot, C.L.; Rousseau, J.P.; Kurzmack, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    The US Geological Survey has been conducting investigations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to provide information about the hydrologic and geologic suitability of this site for storing high-level nuclear wastes in an underground mined repository. Test drilling and instrumentation are a principal method of investigation. The main objectives of the deep unsaturated-zone testhole program are: (1) to determine the flux of water moving through the unsaturated welded and nonwelded tuff units, (2) to determine the vertical and lateral distribution of moisture content, water potential, and other important geohydrologic characteristics in the rock units penetrated, and (3) to monitor stability and changesmore » in in-situ fluid potentials with time. Thermocouple psychrometers will be used to monitor in-situ water potentials.« less

  7. Environmental Enrichment Increases Glucocorticoid Receptors and Decreases GluA2 and Protein Kinase M Zeta (PKMζ) Trafficking During Chronic Stress: A Protective Mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Zanca, Roseanna M.; Braren, Stephen H.; Maloney, Brigid; Schrott, Lisa M.; Luine, Victoria N.; Serrano, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) housing paradigms have long been shown beneficial for brain function involving neural growth and activity, learning and memory capacity, and for developing stress resiliency. The expression of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluA2, which is important for synaptic plasticity and memory, is increased with corticosterone (CORT), undermining synaptic plasticity and memory. Thus, we determined the effect of EE and stress on modulating GluA2 expression in Sprague-Dawley male rats. Several markers were evaluated which include: plasma CORT, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), GluA2, and the atypical protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ). For 1 week standard-(ST) or EE-housed animals were treated with one of the following four conditions: (1) no stress; (2) acute stress (forced swim test, FST; on day 7); (3) chronic restraint stress (6 h/day for 7 days); and (4) chronic + acute stress (restraint stress 6 h/day for 7 days + FST on day 7). Hippocampi were collected on day 7. Our results show that EE animals had reduced time immobile on the FST across all conditions. After chronic + acute stress EE animals showed increased GR levels with no change in synaptic GluA2/PKMζ. ST-housed animals showed the reverse pattern with decreased GR levels and a significant increase in synaptic GluA2/PKMζ. These results suggest that EE produces an adaptive response to chronic stress allowing for increased GR levels, which lowers neuronal excitability reducing GluA2/PKMζ trafficking. We discuss this EE adaptive response to stress as a potential underlying mechanism that is protective for retaining synaptic plasticity and memory function. PMID:26617502

  8. Formation and stability of manganese-doped ZnS quantum dot monolayers determined by QCM-D and streaming potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Oćwieja, Magdalena; Matras-Postołek, Katarzyna; Maciejewska-Prończuk, Julia; Morga, Maria; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Sovinska, Svitlana; Żaba, Adam; Gajewska, Marta; Król, Tomasz; Cupiał, Klaudia; Bredol, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Manganese-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) stabilized by cysteamine hydrochloride were successfully synthesized. Their thorough physicochemical characteristics were acquired using UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The average particle size, derived from HR-TEM, was 3.1nm, which agrees with the hydrodynamic diameter acquired by DLS, that was equal to 3-4nm, depending on ionic strength. The quantum dots also exhibited a large positive zeta potential varying between 75 and 36mV for ionic strength of 10 -4 and 10 -2 M, respectively (at pH 6.2) and an intense luminescent emission at 590nm. The quantum yield was equal to 31% and the optical band gap energy was equal to 4.26eV. The kinetics of QD monolayer formation on silica substrates (silica sensors and oxidized silicon wafers) under convection-controlled transport was quantitatively evaluated by the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and the streaming potential measurements. A high stability of the monolayer for ionic strength 10 -4 and 10 -2 M was confirmed in these measurements. The experimental data were adequately reflected by the extended random sequential adsorption model (eRSA). Additionally, thorough electrokinetic characteristics of the QD monolayers and their stability for various ionic strengths and pH were acquired by streaming potential measurements carried out under in situ conditions. These results were quantitatively interpreted in terms of the three-dimensional (3D) electrokinetic model that furnished bulk zeta potential of particles for high ionic strengths that is impractical by other experimental techniques. It is concluded that these results can be used for designing of biosensors of controlled monolayer structure capable to bind various ligands via covalent as well as electrostatic interactions

  9. Life history determines genetic structure and evolutionary potential of host-parasite interactions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Luke G; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J; Linde, Celeste C

    2008-12-01

    Measures of population genetic structure and diversity of disease-causing organisms are commonly used to draw inferences regarding their evolutionary history and potential to generate new variation in traits that determine interactions with their hosts. Parasite species exhibit a range of population structures and life-history strategies, including different transmission modes, life-cycle complexity, off-host survival mechanisms and dispersal ability. These are important determinants of the frequency and predictability of interactions with host species. Yet the complex causal relationships between spatial structure, life history and the evolutionary dynamics of parasite populations are not well understood. We demonstrate that a clear picture of the evolutionary potential of parasitic organisms and their demographic and evolutionary histories can only come from understanding the role of life history and spatial structure in influencing population dynamics and epidemiological patterns.

  10. Potential determinants of deductible uptake in health insurance: How to increase uptake in The Netherlands?

    PubMed

    van Winssen, K P M; van Kleef, R C; van de Ven, W P M M

    2016-12-01

    In health insurance, voluntary deductibles are offered to the insured in return for a premium rebate. Previous research has shown that 11 % of the Dutch insured opted for a voluntary deductible (VD) in health insurance in 2014, while the highest VD level was financially profitable for almost 50 % of the population in retrospect. To explain this discrepancy, this paper identifies and discusses six potential determinants of the decision to opt for a VD from the behavioral economic literature: loss aversion, risk attitude, ambiguity aversion, debt aversion, omission bias, and liquidity constraints. Based on these determinants, five potential strategies are proposed to increase the number of insured opting for a VD. Presenting the VD as the default option and providing transparent information regarding the VD are the two most promising strategies. If, as a result of these strategies, more insured would opt for a VD, moral hazard would be reduced.

  11. Life history determines genetic structure and evolutionary potential of host–parasite interactions

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Luke G.; Thrall, Peter H.; Burdon, Jeremy J.; Linde, Celeste C.

    2009-01-01

    Measures of population genetic structure and diversity of disease-causing organisms are commonly used to draw inferences regarding their evolutionary history and potential to generate new variation in traits that determine interactions with their hosts. Parasite species exhibit a range of population structures and life-history strategies, including different transmission modes, life-cycle complexity, off-host survival mechanisms and dispersal ability. These are important determinants of the frequency and predictability of interactions with host species. Yet the complex causal relationships between spatial structure, life history and the evolutionary dynamics of parasite populations are not well understood. We demonstrate that a clear picture of the evolutionary potential of parasitic organisms and their demographic and evolutionary histories can only come from understanding the role of life history and spatial structure in influencing population dynamics and epidemiological patterns. PMID:18947899

  12. Moraxella Species as Potential Sources of MCR-Like Polymyxin Resistance Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Kieffer, Nicolas; Nordmann, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plasmid-mediated resistance to polymyxins mediated by the MCR-1/2 determinants has been reported in Enterobacteriaceae worldwide. Using PCR-based and cloning strategies, a series of Moraxella spp. were screened for mcr-like genes. Moraxella spp. that are mainly animal pathogens but may also be human pathogens were identified as potential reservoirs of mcr-like genes. PMID:28320720

  13. Determination of auroral electrostatic potentials using high- and low-altitude particle distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiff, P. H.; Collin, H. L.; Craven, J. D.; Burch, J. L.; Winningham, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    The auroral electrostatic potential differences were determined from the particle distribution functions obtained nearly simultaneously above and below the auroral acceleration region by DE-1 at altitudes 9000-15,000 km and DE-2 at 400-800 km. Three independent techniques were used: (1) the peak energies of precipitating electrons observed by DE-2, (2) the widening of loss cones for upward traveling electrons observed by DE-1, and (3) the energies of upgoing ions observed by DE-1. The assumed parallel electrostatic potential difference calculated by the three methods was nearly the same. The results confirmed the hypothesis that parallel electrostatic fields of 1-10 kV potential drop at 1-2 earth radii altitude are an important source for auroral particle acceleration.

  14. Black hole algorithm for determining model parameter in self-potential data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sungkono; Warnana, Dwa Desa

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of self-potential (SP) data is increasingly popular in geophysical method due to its relevance in many cases. However, the inversion of SP data is often highly nonlinear. Consequently, local search algorithms commonly based on gradient approaches have often failed to find the global optimum solution in nonlinear problems. Black hole algorithm (BHA) was proposed as a solution to such problems. As the name suggests, the algorithm was constructed based on the black hole phenomena. This paper investigates the application of BHA to solve inversions of field and synthetic self-potential (SP) data. The inversion results show that BHA accurately determines model parameters and model uncertainty. This indicates that BHA is highly potential as an innovative approach for SP data inversion.

  15. Validation of methodology for determination of the mercury methylation potential in sediments using radiotracers.

    PubMed

    Zizek, Suzana; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio; Horvat, Milena

    2008-04-01

    Experiments to determine the mercury methylation potential were performed on sediments from two locations on the river Idrijca (Slovenia), differing in ambient mercury concentrations. The tracer used was the radioactive isotope (197)Hg. The benefit of using this tracer is its high specific activity, which enables spikes as low as 0.02 ng Hg(2+) g(-1) of sample to be used. It was therefore possible to compare the efficiency of the methylation potential experiments over a range of spike concentrations from picogram to microgram levels. The first part of the work aimed to validate the experimental blanks and the second part consisted of several series of incubation experiments on two different river sediments using a range of tracer additions. The results showed high variability in the obtained methylation potentials. Increasing Hg(2+) additions gave a decrease in the percentage of the tracer methylated during incubation; in absolute terms, the spikes that spanned four orders of magnitude (0.019-190 pg g(-1) of sediment slurry) resulted in MeHg formation between 0.01 and 0.1 ng MeHg g(-1) in Podroteja and Kozarska Grapa. Higher spikes resulted in slightly elevated MeHg production (up to a maximum of 0.27 ng g(-1)). The values of methylation potential were similar in both sediments. The results imply that the experimental determination of mercury methylation potential strongly depends on the experimental setup itself and the amount of tracer added to the system under study. It is therefore recommended to use different concentrations of tracer and perform the experiments in several replicates. The amount of mercury available for methylation in nature is usually very small. Therefore, adding very low amounts of tracer in the methylation potential studies probably gives results that have a higher environmental relevance. It is also suggested to express the results obtained in absolute amounts of MeHg produced and not just as the percentage of the added tracer.

  16. Remission of rheumatoid arthritis and potential determinants: a national multi-center cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan-Ying; Zhang, Sa-Li; Wang, Xiu-Ru; Feng, Min; Li, Chun; An, Yuan; Li, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Li-Zhi; Wang, Cai-Hong; Wang, Yong-Fu; Yang, Rong; Yan, Hui-Ming; Wang, Guo-Chun; Lu, Xin; Liu, Xia; Zhu, Ping; Chen, Li-Na; Jin, Hong-Tao; Liu, Jin-Ting; Guo, Hui-Fang; Chen, Hai-Ying; Xie, Jian-Li; Wei, Ping; Wang, Jun-Xiang; Liu, Xiang-Yuan; Sun, Lin; Cui, Liu-Fu; Shu, Rong; Liu, Bai-Lu; Yu, Ping; Zhang, Zhuo-Li; Li, Guang-Tao; Li, Zhen-Bin; Yang, Jing; Li, Jun-Fang; Jia, Bin; Zhang, Feng-Xiao; Tao, Jie-Mei; Lin, Jin-Ying; Wei, Mei-Qiu; Liu, Xiao-Min; Ke, Dan; Hu, Shao-Xian; Ye, Cong; Han, Shu-Ling; Yang, Xiu-Yan; Li, Hao; Huang, Ci-Bo; Gao, Ming; Lai, Bei; Cheng, Yong-Jing; Li, Xing-Fu; Song, Li-Jun; Yu, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Ai-Xue; Wu, Li-Jun; Wang, Yan-Hua; He, Lan; Sun, Wen-Wen; Gong, Lu; Wang, Xiao-Yuan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Yi; Li, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yan; Su, Yin; Zhang, Chun-Fang; Mu, Rong; Li, Zhan-Guo

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the remission rate of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in China and identify its potential determinants. A multi-center cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2009 to January 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews of the rheumatology outpatients in 28 tertiary hospitals in China. The remission rates were calculated in 486 RA patients according to different definitions of remission: the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28), the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI), the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), and the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) Boolean definition. Potential determinants of RA remission were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The remission rates of RA from this multi-center cohort were 8.6% (DAS28), 8.4% (SDAI), 8.2% (CDAI), and 6.8% (Boolean), respectively. Favorable factors associated with remission were: low Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score, absence of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP), and treatment of methotrexate (MTX) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Younger age was also predictive for the DAS28 and the Boolean remission. Multivariate analyses revealed a low HAQ score, the absence of anti-CCP, and the treatment with HCQ as independent determinants of remission. The clinical remission rate of RA patients was low in China. A low HAQ score, the absence of anti-CCP, and HCQ were significant independent determinants for RA remission.

  17. Relations between elliptic multiple zeta values and a special derivation algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broedel, Johannes; Matthes, Nils; Schlotterer, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    We investigate relations between elliptic multiple zeta values (eMZVs) and describe a method to derive the number of indecomposable elements of given weight and length. Our method is based on representing eMZVs as iterated integrals over Eisenstein series and exploiting the connection with a special derivation algebra. Its commutator relations give rise to constraints on the iterated integrals over Eisenstein series relevant for eMZVs and thereby allow to count the indecomposable representatives. Conversely, the above connection suggests apparently new relations in the derivation algebra. Under https://tools.aei.mpg.de/emzv we provide relations for eMZVs over a wide range of weights and lengths.

  18. The 1979-1980 eclipse of Zeta Aurigae. I - The circumstellar envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    A model of the K-star wind far from the K star, and its interaction with the B star, has been derived from a study of Mg(+) and C(+++) resonance lines in the spectrum of Zeta Aurigae during 1979 and 1980. A mass loss rate from the K star of 2 x 10 to the -8th solar masses/year is suggested by the data; the rate of accretion of the K supergiant's material by the B star then being such that the matter accreted over a period of ten years is of the order of the total mass of the photosphere of the B star.

  19. Determination of the Water Potential Threshold at Which Rice Growth Is Impacted.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Caio Luiz; de Borja Reis, André Froes; Mazzafera, Paulo; Favarin, José Laércio

    2018-06-22

    Rice feeds 50% of the world’s population. Flooding is the most common irrigation system used for growing rice, a practice responsible for a large amount of water loss. Climate changes may affect water availability in irrigated agriculture, and it will be necessary to develop more sustainable irrigation practices. The aim of this work was to determine, in controlled conditions, the threshold when water potential begins to decrease plant growth. Two independent greenhouse experiments were conducted during middle summer and fall, in order to validate the results for high and low evapotranspiration conditions. Rice plants were grown in hydroponics and the water potential was adjusted with polyethylene glycol 6000, varying from −0.04 MPa (control) to −0.19 MPa. Leaf water potential, water use efficiency, leaf area, and root and shoot biomass were evaluated. All assayed parameters decreased as the water potential was decreased. The water potential threshold which starts to negatively affect rice growth was between −0.046 and −0.056 MPa, which are values close to those observed in the field in previous research. The definition of a critical value may help to improve water management in rice cultivation and to maintain productivity.

  20. Interside Latency Differences in Brainstem Auditory and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials. Defining Upper Limits to Determine Asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Moncho, Dulce; Poca, Maria A; Minoves, Teresa; Ferré, Alejandro; Sahuquillo, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Limits of the interside differences are invaluable when interpreting asymmetry in brainstem auditory evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) recordings. The aim of this study was to analyze the normal upper limits of interside latency differences of brainstem auditory evoked potentials and SEP from the posterior tibial nerve and median nerve to determine asymmetry. The authors performed a prospective study in 56 healthy subjects aged 15 to 64 years with no neurological or hearing disorders. They analyzed (1) the latencies of I, III, and V waves and I-III, III-V, and I-V intervals and the amplitude ratios V/I and IV/I for brainstem auditory evoked potentials bilaterally; (2) the latencies of N8, N22, N28, and P37 waves and the interval N22-P37 and the amplitude P37 for posterior tibial nerve SEP bilaterally; and (3) the latencies and amplitudes of N9, N13, and N20 waves and N9-N13 and N13-N20 intervals for median nerve SEP bilaterally. The interside differences for these parameters were calculated and analyzed. The authors obtained an upper limit for the interside latency differences from brainstem auditory evoked potentials that was significantly lower than the previously published data. However, the upper limits of interside latency differences for SEP were similar to those previously reported. The findings of this study should be considered when laboratories analyze asymmetry using the normative data published by another center, however temporarily, in organizing new laboratories.

  1. Prioritization of pesticides based on daily dietary exposure potential as determined from the SHEDS model.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Lisa Jo; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Zhilin; Xue, Jianping

    2016-10-01

    A major pathway for exposure to many pesticides is through diet. The objectives were to rank pesticides by comparing their calculated daily dietary exposure as determined by EPA's Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) to single pesticides for different age groups to acceptable daily intakes (ADI), characterize pesticide trends in exposures over different time periods, and determine commodities contributing to pesticide exposures. SHEDS was applied, using Pesticide Data Program (PDP) (1991-2011) and pesticide usage data on crops from USDA combined with NHANES dietary consumption data, to generate exposure estimates by age group. ADI data collected from EPA, WHO, and other sources were used to rank pesticides based on relativeness of the dietary exposure potential to ADI by age groups. Sensitivity analysis provided trends in pesticide exposures. Within SHEDS, commodities contributing the majority of pesticides with greatest exposure potential were determined. The results indicated that the highest ranking pesticides were methamidophos and diazinon which exceeded 100% of the ADI. Sensitivity analysis indicated that exposure to methamidophos, diazinon, malathion, ethion and formetanate hydrochloride had a marked decrease from 1991-1999 to 2000-2011. Contributions analysis indicated that apples, mushroom, carrots, and lettuce contributed to diazinon exposure. Beans and pepper contributed to methamidophos exposure. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Calibration procedures for the quantitative determination of membrane potential in human cells using anionic dyes.

    PubMed

    Klapperstück, Thomas; Glanz, Dagobert; Hanitsch, Stefan; Klapperstück, Manuela; Markwardt, Fritz; Wohlrab, Johannes

    2013-07-01

    Quantitative determinations of the cell membrane potential of lymphocytes (Wilson et al., J Cell Physiol 1985;125:72-81) and thymocytes (Krasznai et al., J Photochem Photobiol B 1995;28:93-99) using the anionic dye DiBAC4 (3) proved that dye depletion in the extracellular medium as a result of cellular uptake can be negligible over a wide range of cell densities. In contrast, most flow cytometric studies have not verified this condition but rather assumed it from the start. Consequently, the initially prepared extracellular dye concentration has usually been used for the calculation of the Nernst potential of the dye. In this study, however, external dye depletion could be observed in both large IGR-1 and small LCL-HO cells under experimental conditions, which have often been applied routinely in spectrofluorimetry and flow cytometry. The maximum cell density at which dye depletion could be virtually avoided was dependent on cell size and membrane potential and definitely needed to be taken into account to ensure reliable results. In addition, accepted calibration procedures based on the partition of sodium and potassium (Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation) or potassium alone (Nernst equation) were performed by flow cytometry on cell suspensions with an appropriately low cell density. The observed extensive lack of concordance between the correspondingly calculated membrane potential and the equilibrium potential of DiBAC4 (3) revealed that these methods require the additional measurement of cation parameters (membrane permeability and/or intracellular concentration). In contrast, due to the linear relation between fluorescence and low DiBAC4 (3) concentrations, the Nernst potential of the dye for totally depolarized cells can be reliably used for calibration with an essentially lower effort and expense. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  3. Differential interaction and aggregation of 3-repeat and 4-repeat tau isoforms with 14-3-3{zeta} protein

    SciTech Connect

    Sadik, Golam; Tanaka, Toshihisa, E-mail: tanaka@psy.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kato, Kiyoko

    2009-05-22

    Tau isoforms, 3-repeat (3R) and 4-repeat tau (4R), are differentially involved in neuronal development and in several tauopathies. 14-3-3 protein binds to tau and 14-3-3/tau association has been found both in the development and in tauopathies. To understand the role of 14-3-3 in the differential regulation of tau isoforms, we have performed studies on the interaction and aggregation of 3R-tau and 4R-tau, either phosphorylated or unphosphorylated, with 14-3-3{zeta}. We show by surface plasmon resonance studies that the interaction between unphosphorylated 3R-tau and 14-3-3{zeta} is {approx}3-folds higher than that between unphosphorylated 4R-tau and 14-3-3{zeta}. Phosphorylation of tau by protein kinase Amore » (PKA) increases the affinity of both 3R- and 4R-tau for 14-3-3{zeta} to a similar level. An in vitro aggregation assay employing both transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed the aggregation of unphosphorylated 4R-tau to be significantly higher than that of unphosphorylated 3R-tau following the induction of 14-3-3{zeta}. The filaments formed from 3R- and 4R-tau were almost similar in morphology. In contrast, the aggregation of both 3R- and 4R-tau was reduced to a similar low level after phosphorylation with PKA. Taken together, these results suggest that 14-3-3{zeta} exhibits a similar role for tau isoforms after PKA-phosphorylation, but a differential role for unphosphorylated tau. The significant aggregation of 4R-tau by 14-3-3{zeta} suggests that 14-3-3 may act as an inducer in the generation of 4R-tau-predominant neurofibrillary tangles in tauopathies.« less

  4. The Structural Evolution of Milky-Way-Like Star-Forming Galaxies zeta is approximately 1.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Shannon G.; Fumagalli, Mattia; Franx, Marun; VanDokkum, Pieter G.; VanDerWel, Arjen; Leja, Joel; Labbe, Ivo; Brammr, Gabriel; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We follow the structural evolution of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) like the Milky Way by selecting progenitors to zeta is approx. 1.3 based on the stellar mass growth inferred from the evolution of the star-forming sequence. We select our sample from the 3D-HT survey, which utilizes spectroscopy from the HST-WFC3 G141 near-IR grism and enables precise redshift measurements for our sample of SFGs. Structural properties are obtained from Sersic profile fits to CANDELS WFC3 imaging. The progenitors of zeta = 0 SFGs with stellar mass M = 10(exp 10.5) solar mass are typically half as massive at zeta is approx. 1. This late-time stellar mass grow is consistent with recent studies that employ abundance matching techniques. The descendant SFGs at zeta is approx. 0 have grown in half-light radius by a factor of approx. 1.4 zeta is approx. 1. The half-light radius grows with stellar mass as r(sub e) alpha stellar mass(exp 0.29). While most of the stellar mass is clearly assembling at large radii, the mass surface density profiles reveal ongoing mass growth also in the central regions where bulges and pseudobulges are common features in present day late-type galaxies. Some portion of this growth in the central regions is due to star formation as recent observations of H(a) maps for SFGs at zeta approx. are found to be extended but centrally peaked. Connecting our lookback study with galactic archeology, we find the stellar mass surface density at R - 8 kkpc to have increased by a factor of approx. 2 since zeta is approx. 1, in good agreement with measurements derived for the solar neighborhood of the Milky Way.

  5. Determining the meson-nucleus potential - on the way to mesic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metag, Volker

    2015-08-01

    Experimental approaches to determine the real and imaginary part of the meson-nucleus potential are described. The experiments have been performed with the Crystal Barrel/TAPS detector at the electron accelerator ELSA (Bonn) and the Crystal Ball/TAPS detector at MAMI (Mainz). Measuring the transparency ratio as well as the excitation function and momentum distribution for photo production of ω and η' mesons, the imaginary part of the η'-nucleus potential is found to be smaller than the real part. In case of the ω meson the opposite is observed. This makes the η' meson a good candidate for the search for meson-nucleus bound states while no resolved ω mesic states can be expected. The results are discussed and compared to theoretical predictions. An outlook on future experiments is given.

  6. Calorimetric determination of the thermoneutral potential for Li/BrCl in SOCl2 (BCX) cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric C.; Kalu, Eric E.; White, Ralph E.

    1991-01-01

    Proliferation of lithium cells into large modular battery packs are projected for future space applications. Assuring battery design safety while maintaining high energy density requires accurate and precise knowledge of the thermal parameters of the battery cell. Specifically, the thermoneutral potential was determined using heat conduction calorimetry on Li/BrCl in SOCl2 (BCX) DD-cells and compared to measurements obtained on Li/SOCl2 D-cells. Over 20 to 60 C, the Li/BCX cells were found to have a thermoneutral potential significantly higher (near 4.0 volts) than that for the Li/SOCl2 cells tested. The higher heat generation measured during discharge reflects the higher electrochemical polarization observed with the BCX cells.

  7. Strength of the repulsive part of the interatomic potential determines fragility in metallic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueblo, Christopher E.; Sun, Minhua; Kelton, K. F.

    2017-08-01

    The dynamical behaviour of liquids is frequently characterized by the fragility, which can be defined from the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity, η (ref. ). For a strong liquid, the activation energy for η changes little with cooling towards the glass transition temperature, Tg. The change is much greater in fragile liquids, with the activation energy becoming very large near Tg. While fragility is widely recognized as an important concept--believed, for example, to play an important role in glass formation--the microscopic origin of fragility is poorly understood. Here, we present new experimental evidence showing that fragility reflects the strength of the repulsive part of the interatomic potential, which can be determined from the steepness of the pair distribution function near the hard-sphere cutoff. On the basis of an analysis of scattering data from ten different metallic alloy liquids, we show that stronger liquids have steeper repulsive potentials.

  8. Vibrational stark effects to identify ion pairing and determine reduction potentials in electrolyte-free environments

    DOE PAGES

    Mani, Tomoyasu; Grills, David C.; Miller, John R.

    2015-01-02

    A recently-developed instrument for time-resolved infrared detection following pulse radiolysis has been used to measure the ν(C≡N) IR band of the radical anion of a CN-substituted fluorene in tetrahydrofuran. Specific vibrational frequencies can exhibit distinct frequency shifts due to ion-pairing, which can be explained in the framework of the vibrational Stark effect. Measurements of the ratio of free ions and ion-pairs in different electrolyte concentrations allowed us to obtain an association constant and free energy change for ion-pairing. As a result, this new method has the potential to probe the geometry of ion-pairing and allows the reduction potentials of moleculesmore » to be determined in the absence of electrolyte in an environment of low dielectric constant.« less

  9. Investigating contactless high frequency ultrasound microbeam stimulation for determination of invasion potential of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Lee, Nan Sook; Lee, Changyang; Lam, Kwok Ho; Kim, Hyung Ham; Woo, Jonghye; Lin, Ming-Yi; Kisler, Kassandra; Choi, Hojong; Zhou, Qifa; Chow, Robert H; Shung, K Kirk

    2013-10-01

    In this article, we investigate the application of contactless high frequency ultrasound microbeam stimulation (HFUMS) for determining the invasion potential of breast cancer cells. In breast cancer patients, the finding of tumor metastasis significantly worsens the clinical prognosis. Thus, early determination of the potential of a tumor for invasion and metastasis would significantly impact decisions about aggressiveness of cancer treatment. Recent work suggests that invasive breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), but not weakly invasive breast cancer cells (MCF-7, SKBR3, and BT-474), display a number of neuronal characteristics, including expression of voltage-gated sodium channels. Since sodium channels are often co-expressed with calcium channels, this prompted us to test whether single-cell stimulation by a highly focused ultrasound microbeam would trigger Ca(2+) elevation, especially in highly invasive breast cancer cells. To calibrate the diameter of the microbeam ultrasound produced by a 200-MHz single element LiNbO3 transducer, we focused the beam on a wire target and performed a pulse-echo test. The width of the beam was ∼17 µm, appropriate for single cell stimulation. Membrane-permeant fluorescent Ca(2+) indicators were utilized to monitor Ca(2+) changes in the cells due to HFUMS. The cell response index (CRI), which is a composite parameter reflecting both Ca(2+) elevation and the fraction of responding cells elicited by HFUMS, was much greater in highly invasive breast cancer cells than in the weakly invasive breast cancer cells. The CRI of MDA-MB-231 cells depended on peak-to-peak amplitude of the voltage driving the transducer. These results suggest that HFUMS may serve as a novel tool to determine the invasion potential of breast cancer cells, and with further refinement may offer a rapid test for invasiveness of tumor biopsies in situ. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Determination of as-discarded methane potential in residential and commercial municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Chickering, Giles W; Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-06-01

    Methane generation potential, L 0 , is a primary parameter of the first-order decay (FOD) model used for prediction and regulation of landfill gas (LFG) generation in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The current US EPA AP-42 default value for L 0 , which has been in place for almost 20 years, is 100 m 3 CH 4 /Mg MSW as-discarded. Recent research suggests the yield of landfilled waste could be less than 60 m 3 CH 4 /Mg MSW. This study aimed to measure the L 0 of present-day residential and commercial as-discarded MSW. In doing so, 39 waste collection vehicles were sorted for composition before samples of each biodegradable fraction were analyzed for methane generation potential. Methane yields were determined for over 450 samples of 14 different biodegradable MSW fractions, later to be combined with moisture content and volatile solids data to calculate L 0 values for each waste load. An average value of 80 m 3 CH 4 /Mg MSW was determined for all samples with 95% of values in the interval 74-86 m 3 CH 4 /Mg MSW as-discarded. While no statistically significant difference was observed, commercial MSW yields (mean 85, median 88 m 3 CH 4 /Mg MSW) showed a higher average L 0 than residential MSW (mean 75, median 71 m 3 CH 4 /Mg MSW). Many methane potential values for individual fractions described in previous work were found within the range of values determined by BMP in this study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Organization of the human [zeta]-crystallin/quinone reductase gene (CRYZ)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, P.; Rao, P.V.; Zigler, J.S. Jr.

    1994-05-15

    [zeta]-Crystallin is a protein highly expressed in the lens of guinea pigs and camels, where it comprises about 10% of the total soluble protein. It has recently been characterized as a novel quinone oxidoreductase present in a variety of mammalian tissues. The authors report here the isolation and characterization of the human [zeta]-crystallin gene (CRYZ) and its processed pseudogene. The functional gene is composed of nine exons and spans about 20 kb. The 5[prime]-flanking region of the gene is rich in G and C (58%) and lacks TATA and CAAT boxes. Previous analysis of the guinea pig gene revealed themore » presence of two different promoters, one responsible for the high lens-specific expression and the other for expression at the enzymatic level in numerous tissues. Comparative analysis with the guinea pig gene shows that a region of [approximately]2.5 kb that includes the promoter responsible for the high expression in the lens in guinea pig is not present in the human gene. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.« less

  12. Casimir force in brane worlds: Coinciding results from Green's and zeta function approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Linares, Roman; Morales-Tecotl, Hugo A.; Pedraza, Omar

    2010-06-15

    Casimir force encodes the structure of the field modes as vacuum fluctuations and so it is sensitive to the extra dimensions of brane worlds. Now, in flat spacetimes of arbitrary dimension the two standard approaches to the Casimir force, Green's function, and zeta function yield the same result, but for brane world models this was only assumed. In this work we show that both approaches yield the same Casimir force in the case of universal extra dimensions and Randall-Sundrum scenarios with one and two branes added by p compact dimensions. Essentially, the details of the mode eigenfunctions that enter themore » Casimir force in the Green's function approach get removed due to their orthogonality relations with a measure involving the right hypervolume of the plates, and this leaves just the contribution coming from the zeta function approach. The present analysis corrects previous results showing a difference between the two approaches for the single brane Randall-Sundrum; this was due to an erroneous hypervolume of the plates introduced by the authors when using the Green's function. For all the models we discuss here, the resulting Casimir force can be neatly expressed in terms of two four-dimensional Casimir force contributions: one for the massless mode and the other for a tower of massive modes associated with the extra dimensions.« less

  13. An interstellar cloud density from Copernicus observations of CO in the spectrum of Zeta Ophiuchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. M.; Stecher, T. P.; Krishna Swamy, K. S.

    1978-01-01

    Interstellar CO absorption bands in Copernicus spectra of Zeta Oph have been studied. Absorption profiles, computed under the assumption that excitation is due to collisions with H2 molecules and interaction with the 3-K background radiation field, were fitted to the reduced data of nine bands. When a gas kinetic temperature of 56 K is assumed, the best-fit condition implies a hydrogen-nucleus density of 120 per cu cm, a CO column density of 1.2 by 10 to the 15th power per sq cm, and a radial-velocity dispersion of 0.9 km/s. The relevance of these results to existing ideas concerning the Zeta Oph interstellar clouds is discussed. It is suggested that the strongest interstellar component is not circumstellar in origin but is instead part of a supernova remnant. Simple calculations are made to establish the plausibility of the supernova-remnant identification. This suggestion is also supported by Heiles's (1976) 21-cm pictures.

  14. Restitution slope is principally determined by steady-state action potential duration

    PubMed Central

    Shattock, Michael J.; Park, Kyung Chan; Yang, Hsiang-Yu; Lee, Angela W. C.; Niederer, Steven; MacLeod, Kenneth T.

    2017-01-01

    Aims The steepness of the action potential duration (APD) restitution curve and local tissue refractoriness are both thought to play important roles in arrhythmogenesis. Despite this, there has been little recognition of the apparent association between steady-state APD and the slope of the restitution curve. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that restitution slope is determined by APD and to examine the relationship between restitution slope, refractoriness and susceptibility to VF. Methods and results Experiments were conducted in isolated hearts and ventricular myocytes from adult guinea pigs and rabbits. Restitution curves were measured under control conditions and following intervention to prolong (clofilium, veratridine, bretylium, low [Ca]e, chronic transverse aortic constriction) or shorten (catecholamines, rapid pacing) ventricular APD. Despite markedly differing mechanisms of action, all interventions that prolonged the action potential led to a steepening of the restitution curve (and vice versa). Normalizing the restitution curve as a % of steady-state APD abolished the difference in restitution curves with all interventions. Effects on restitution were preserved when APD was modulated by current injection in myocytes pre-treated with the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM – to abolish the intracellular calcium transient. The non-linear relation between APD and the rate of repolarization of the action potential is shown to underpin the common influence of APD on the slope of the restitution curve. Susceptibility to VF was found to parallel changes in APD/refractoriness, rather than restitution slope. Conclusion(s) Steady-state APD is the principal determinant of the slope of the ventricular electrical restitution curve. In the absence of post-repolarization refractoriness, factors that prolong the action potential would be expected to steepen the restitution curve. However, concomitant changes in tissue refractoriness act to reduce

  15. Restitution slope is principally determined by steady-state action potential duration.

    PubMed

    Shattock, Michael J; Park, Kyung Chan; Yang, Hsiang-Yu; Lee, Angela W C; Niederer, Steven; MacLeod, Kenneth T; Winter, James

    2017-06-01

    The steepness of the action potential duration (APD) restitution curve and local tissue refractoriness are both thought to play important roles in arrhythmogenesis. Despite this, there has been little recognition of the apparent association between steady-state APD and the slope of the restitution curve. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that restitution slope is determined by APD and to examine the relationship between restitution slope, refractoriness and susceptibility to VF. Experiments were conducted in isolated hearts and ventricular myocytes from adult guinea pigs and rabbits. Restitution curves were measured under control conditions and following intervention to prolong (clofilium, veratridine, bretylium, low [Ca]e, chronic transverse aortic constriction) or shorten (catecholamines, rapid pacing) ventricular APD. Despite markedly differing mechanisms of action, all interventions that prolonged the action potential led to a steepening of the restitution curve (and vice versa). Normalizing the restitution curve as a % of steady-state APD abolished the difference in restitution curves with all interventions. Effects on restitution were preserved when APD was modulated by current injection in myocytes pre-treated with the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM - to abolish the intracellular calcium transient. The non-linear relation between APD and the rate of repolarization of the action potential is shown to underpin the common influence of APD on the slope of the restitution curve. Susceptibility to VF was found to parallel changes in APD/refractoriness, rather than restitution slope. Steady-state APD is the principal determinant of the slope of the ventricular electrical restitution curve. In the absence of post-repolarization refractoriness, factors that prolong the action potential would be expected to steepen the restitution curve. However, concomitant changes in tissue refractoriness act to reduce susceptibility to sustained VF. Dependence on

  16. Determination of aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients based on the three-dimensional full potential equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbanna, Hesham M.; Carlson, Leland A.

    1992-01-01

    The quasi-analytical approach is applied to the three-dimensional full potential equation to compute wing aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients in the transonic regime. Symbolic manipulation is used to reduce the effort associated with obtaining the sensitivity equations, and the large sensitivity system is solved using 'state of the art' routines. Results are compared to those obtained by the direct finite difference approach and both methods are evaluated to determine their computational accuracy and efficiency. The quasi-analytical approach is shown to be accurate and efficient for large aerodynamic systems.

  17. Potential and Actual Neonatal Organ and Tissue Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.

    PubMed

    Stiers, Justin; Aguayo, Cecile; Siatta, Angela; Presson, Angela P; Perez, Richard; DiGeronimo, Robert

    2015-07-01

    The need for transplants continues to exceed organ and tissue donor availability. Although recent surgical advances have resulted in successful transplants using very small pediatric donors, including neonates, the actual practice of neonatal organ donation after circulatory determination of death (DCDD) remains uncommon. To describe the percentage of neonates potentially eligible for DCDD, including those who underwent successful donation, and reasons for ineligibility in those who did not in a single neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We obtained data from the Children's Hospital Neonatal Database and Intermountain Donor Services (IDS) organ procurement records. The 136 deaths that occurred in the NICU of the Primary Children's Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 1, 2010, through May 7, 2013, were reviewed retrospectively from January 12 through July 1, 2014, to determine potential eligibility for DCDD as determined by IDS minimum eligibility criteria (requirement of life-sustaining interventions and weight >2 kg). For patients who did not undergo DCDD, we reviewed records to determine the reasons for ineligibility. Potential eligibility for DCDD among neonates who died in the study NICU. Of 136 deaths in the NICU, 60 (44.1%) met criteria for DCDD; however, fewer than 10% were referred appropriately to the regional organ procurement organization for evaluation. Forty-five neonates (33.1%) ultimately died within 90 minutes of withdrawal of life-sustaining interventions and thus would have been eligible for organ donation based on warm ischemic time. The most common causes of death among the 60 potentially eligible neonatal donors were neonatal encephalopathy (n = 17) and multiple congenital anomalies (n = 14). Nonreferral or late referral by the medical team was the most frequent reason for donor ineligibility, including 49 neonates (36.0%). Overall, only 4 neonates (2.9%) underwent successful DCDD. Although almost half of all neonatal deaths

  18. Determination of adiabatic ionization potentials and electron affinities of energetic molecules with the Gaussian-4 method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaa, M. Riad

    2017-06-01

    Adiabatic ionization potentials (IPad) and electron affinities (EAad) are determined with the Gaussian-4 (G4) method for the energetic molecules PETN, RDX, β-δ-HMX, CL-17, TNB, TNT, CL-14, DADNE, TNA, and TATB. The IPad and EAad values are in the range of 8.43-11.73 and 0.74-2.86 eV, respectively. Variations are due to substitutional effects of electron withdrawing and donating functional groups. Enthalpies of formation are also determined for several of these molecules to augment the list of recently reported G4 values. The calculated IPad and EAad provide quantitative assessment of such molecular properties as chemical hardness, molecular electronegativity, and "intrinsic" molecular physical hardness.

  19. Quantum Mechanical Determination of Potential Energy Surfaces for TiO and H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss current ab initio methods for determining potential energy surfaces, in relation to the TiO and H2O molecules, both of which make important contributions to the opacity of oxygen-rich stars. For the TiO molecule we discuss the determination of the radiative lifetimes of the excited states and band oscillator strengths for both the triplet and singlet band systems. While the theoretical radiative lifetimes for TiO agree well with recent measurements, the band oscillator strengths differ significantly from those currently employed in opacity calculations. For the H2O molecule we discuss the current results for the potential energy and dipole moment ground state surfaces generated at NASA Ames. We show that it is necessary to account for such effects as core-valence Correlation energy to generate a PES of near spectroscopic accuracy. We also describe how we solve the ro-vibrational problem to obtain the line positions and intensities that are needed for opacity sampling.

  20. Genetic Structure and Potential Environmental Determinants of Local Genetic Diversity in Japanese Honeybees (Apis cerana japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Nagamitsu, Teruyoshi; Yasuda, Mika; Saito-Morooka, Fuki; Inoue, Maki N.; Nishiyama, Mio; Goka, Koichi; Sugiura, Shinji; Maeto, Kaoru; Okabe, Kimiko; Taki, Hisatomo

    2016-01-01

    Declines in honeybee populations have been a recent concern. Although causes of the declines remain unclear, environmental factors may be responsible. We focused on the potential environmental determinants of local populations of wild honeybees, Apis cerana japonica, in Japan. This subspecies has little genetic variation in terms of its mitochondrial DNA sequences, and genetic variations at nuclear loci are as yet unknown. We estimated the genetic structure and environmental determinants of local genetic diversity in nuclear microsatellite genotypes of fathers and mothers, inferred from workers collected at 139 sites. The genotypes of fathers and mothers showed weak isolation by distance and negligible genetic structure. The local genetic diversity was high in central Japan, decreasing toward the peripheries, and depended on the climate and land use characteristics of the sites. The local genetic diversity decreased as the annual precipitation increased, and increased as the proportion of urban and paddy field areas increased. Positive effects of natural forest area, which have also been observed in terms of forager abundance in farms, were not detected with respect to the local genetic diversity. The findings suggest that A. cerana japonica forms a single population connected by gene flow in its main distributional range, and that climate and landscape properties potentially affect its local genetic diversity. PMID:27898704

  1. Total levels, localization patterns, and proportions of sperm exhibiting phospholipase C zeta are significantly correlated with fertilization rates after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Yelumalai, Suseela; Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti N; Kashir, Junaid; Mounce, Ginny; Da Silva, Sarah J Martins; Barratt, Christopher L; McVeigh, Enda; Coward, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    To study the relationship of total levels, localization patterns, and proportions of sperm exhibiting phospholipase C zeta, with fertilization rates after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Laboratory study; controls vs. patients after IVF (n = 27) or ICSI (n = 17) treatment. Fertility center. A total of 44 semen samples, subjected to either IVF or ICSI treatment. Oocyte collection, ICSI or IVF, determination of sperm concentration and motility, and immunocytochemical analyses of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ). None. Percentages of sperm exhibiting PLCζ. Significant positive correlation between ICSI fertilization rates and total levels, localization patterns, and the proportion (percentage) of sperm exhibiting PLCζ. Total levels, localization patterns, and the proportion of sperm exhibiting PLCζ are correlated with fertilization rates for ICSI, but not for IVF. Evaluating total levels, localization patterns, and proportions of PLCζ may represent a useful diagnostic tool for clinical purposes in men for whom IVF is not advised or has previously failed. This clinical study further supports the fundamental role of PLCζ in the oocyte activation process. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Implementation of the Baldwin-Barth turbulence model into the ZETA code and its diagnosis. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, Scott L.

    1993-01-01

    The Baldwin-Barth turbulence model was implemented into Zeta, a time-accurate, zonal, integro-differential code for incompressible laminar and turbulent flows. The implementation procedure is patterned after the model subroutine in ARC2D. The results of ZETA with the Baldwin-Barth turbulence model were compared with experimental data, with ZETA using Baldwin-Lomax model, and with ARC2D using the Baldwin-Barth model. The Baldwin-Barth model subroutine was tested by inputting an ARC2D velocity solution of an NACA-0012 airfoil at R(sub e) = 3.9 x 10(exp 6) and alpha = 5 deg. The resultant turbulent viscosity and Reynolds stresses compared favorably with the original data. For the same grid having grid points inside the laminar sublayer, which is necessary due to the one-equation nature of the model, ZETA however predicts early separation. It was found that the current ZETA has problem with such a fine grid. Further work is in progress to solve this problem.

  3. [Determination of irreversibility of clinical brain death. Electroencephalography and evoked potentials].

    PubMed

    Buchner, H; Ferbert, A

    2016-02-01

    Principally, in the fourth update of the rules for the procedure to finally determine the irreversible cessation of function of the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brainstem, the importance of an electroencephalogram (EEG), somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) are confirmed. This paper presents the reliability and validity of the electrophysiological diagnosis, discusses the amendments in the fourth version of the guidelines and introduces the practical application, problems and sources of error.An EEG is the best established supplementary diagnostic method for determining the irreversibility of clinical brain death syndrome. It should be noted that residual brain activity can often persist for many hours after the onset of brain death syndrome, particularly in patients with primary brainstem lesions. The derivation and analysis of an EEG requires a high level of expertise to be able to safely distinguish artefacts from primary brain activity. The registration of EEGs to demonstrate the irreversibility of clinical brain death syndrome is extremely time consuming.The BAEPs can only be used to confirm the irreversibility of brain death syndrome in serial examinations or in the rare cases of a sustained wave I or sustained waves I and II. Very often, an investigation cannot be reliably performed because of existing sound conduction disturbances or failure of all potentials even before the onset of clinical brain death syndrome. This explains why BAEPs are only used in exceptional cases.The SEPs of the median nerve can be very reliably derived, are technically simple and with few sources of error. A serial investigation is not required and the time needed for examination is short. For these reasons SEPs are given preference over EEGs and BAEPs for establishing the irreversibility of clinical brain death syndrome.

  4. Individual and hospital-related determinants of potentially inappropriate admissions emerging from administrative records.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Marco; Buja, Alessandra; Piergentili, Paolo; Golfetto, Maria Teresa; Serafin, Gianni; Gallo, Silvia; Dalla Barba, Livio; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    The appropriate use of health care is an important issue in developed countries. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the extent of potentially inappropriate hospital admissions and their individual, clinical and hospital-related determinants. Medical records were analyzed for the year 2014 held by the Local Heath Unit n. 13 in the Veneto Region of north-east Italy (19,000 records). The outcomes calculated were: admissions for conditions amenable to day hospital care; brief medical admissions; outlier lengths of stay for elderly patients' medical admissions; and medical admissions to surgical wards. Univariate analyses and logistic regression models were used to test associations with demographic, clinical and hospital ward covariates, including organizational indicators. Inappropriate reliance on acute care beds ranged from 6% to 28%, depending on the type of quality indicator analyzed. Some individual features, and wards' specific characteristics were associated with at least one of the phenomena of inappropriate hospital resource usage. In particular, male gender, younger age and transferals seemed to affect inappropriate admissions to surgical wards. Potentially avoidable admissions featuring inpatients amenable to day hospital care were associated with subjects with fewer comorbidities and lower case-mix wards, while inappropriately short medical stays were influenced by patients' higher functional status and local residency and by lower bed occupancy rates. In conclusion, inappropriately long hospital stays for elderly cases were associated with patients with multiple pathologies in wards with a low bed-occupancy. Education level and citizenship did not seem to influence inappropriate admissions. Some individual, clinical ad structural characteristics of patients and wards emerging from administrative records could be associated with inappropriate reliance on acute hospital beds. Analyzing the indicators considered in this study could generate

  5. Estimating sugarcane yield potential using an in-season determination of normalized difference vegetative index.

    PubMed

    Lofton, Josh; Tubana, Brenda S; Kanke, Yumiko; Teboh, Jasper; Viator, Howard; Dalen, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Estimating crop yield using remote sensing techniques has proven to be successful. However, sugarcane possesses unique characteristics; such as, a multi-year cropping cycle and plant height-limiting for midseason fertilizer application timing. Our study objective was to determine if sugarcane yield potential could be estimated using an in-season estimation of normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI). Sensor readings were taken using the GreenSeeker® handheld sensor from 2008 to 2011 in St. Gabriel and Jeanerette, LA, USA. In-season estimates of yield (INSEY) values were calculated by dividing NDVI by thermal variables. Optimum timing for estimating sugarcane yield was between 601-750 GDD. In-season estimated yield values improved the yield potential (YP) model compared to using NDVI. Generally, INSEY value showed a positive exponential relationship with yield (r(2) values 0.48 and 0.42 for cane tonnage and sugar yield, respectively). When models were separated based on canopy structure there was an increase the strength of the relationship for the erectophile varieties (r(2) 0.53 and 0.47 for cane tonnage and sugar yield, respectively); however, the model for planophile varieties weakened slightly. Results of this study indicate using an INSEY value for predicting sugarcane yield shows potential of being a valuable management tool for sugarcane producers in Louisiana.

  6. The influence of the atmosphere on geoid and potential coefficient determinations from gravity data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, R.; Rapp, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    For the precise computation of geoid undulations the effect of the attraction of the atmosphere on the solution of the basic boundary value problem of gravimetric geodesy must be considered. This paper extends the theory of Moritz for deriving an atmospheric correction to the case when the undulations are computed by combining anomalies in a cap surrounding the computation point with information derived from potential coefficients. The correction term is a function of the cap size and the topography within the cap. It reaches a value of 3.0 m for a cap size of 30 deg, variations on the decimeter level being caused by variations in the topography. The effect of the atmospheric correction terms on potential coefficients is found to be small, reaching a maximum of 0.0055 millionths at n = 2, m = 2 when terrestrial gravity data are considered. The magnitude of this correction indicates that in future potential coefficient determination from gravity data the atmospheric correction should be made to such data.

  7. Potential determinants of efficacy of mirror therapy in stroke patients--A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Maddalena; Morkisch, Nadine; Fritzsch, Claire; Mehnert, Jan; Steinbrink, Jens; Niedeggen, Michael; Dohle, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Mirror therapy (MT) was found to improve motor function after stroke. However, there is high variability between patients regarding motor recovery. The following pilot study was designed to identify potential factors determining this variability between patients with severe upper limb paresis, receiving MT. Eleven sub-acute stroke patients with severe upper limb paresis participated, receiving in-patient rehabilitation. After a set of pre-assessments (including measurement of brain activity at the primary motor cortex and precuneus during the mirror illusion, using near-infrared spectroscopy as described previously), four weeks of MT were applied, followed by a set of post-assessments. Discriminant group analysis for MT responders and non-responders was performed. Six out of eleven patients were defined as responders and five as non-responders on the basis of their functional motor improvement. The initial motor function and the activity shift in both precunei (mirror index) were found to discriminate significantly between responders and non-responders. In line with earlier results, initial motor function was confirmed as crucial determinant of motor recovery. Additionally, activity response to the mirror illusion in both precunei was found to be a candidate for determination of the efficacy of MT.

  8. Potential determinants of efficacy of mirror therapy in stroke patients – A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti, Maddalena; Morkisch, Nadine; Fritzsch, Claire; Mehnert, Jan; Steinbrink, Jens; Niedeggen, Michael; Dohle, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Mirror therapy (MT) was found to improve motor function after stroke. However, there is high variability between patients regarding motor recovery. Objectives: The following pilot study was designed to identify potential factors determining this variability between patients with severe upper limb paresis, receiving MT. Methods: Eleven sub-acute stroke patients with severe upper limb paresis participated, receiving in-patient rehabilitation. After a set of pre-assessments (including measurement of brain activity at the primary motor cortex and precuneus during the mirror illusion, using near-infrared spectroscopy as described previously), four weeks of MT were applied, followed by a set of post-assessments. Discriminant group analysis for MT responders and non-responders was performed. Results: Six out of eleven patients were defined as responders and five as non-responders on the basis of their functional motor improvement. The initial motor function and the activity shift in both precunei (mirror index) were found to discriminate significantly between responders and non-responders. Conclusions: In line with earlier results, initial motor function was confirmed as crucial determinant of motor recovery. Additionally, activity response to the mirror illusion in both precunei was found to be a candidate for determination of the efficacy of MT. PMID:26409402

  9. Comparison of tumor related signaling pathways with known compounds to determine potential agents for lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Song; Liu, Renwang; Da, Yurong

    2018-06-05

    This study compared tumor-related signaling pathways with known compounds to determine potential agents for lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) treatment. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes signaling pathway analyses were performed based on LUAD differentially expressed genes from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project and genotype-tissue expression controls. These results were compared to various known compounds using the Connectivity Mapping dataset. The clinical significance of the hub genes identified by overlapping pathway enrichment analysis was further investigated using data mining from multiple sources. A drug-pathway network for LUAD was constructed, and molecular docking was carried out. After the integration of 57 LUAD-related pathways and 35 pathways affected by small molecules, five overlapping pathways were revealed. Among these five pathways, the p53 signaling pathway was the most significant, with CCNB1, CCNB2, CDK1, CDKN2A, and CHEK1 being identified as hub genes. The p53 signaling pathway is implicated as a risk factor for LUAD tumorigenesis and survival. A total of 88 molecules significantly inhibiting the five LUAD-related oncogenic pathways were involved in the LUAD drug-pathway network. Daunorubicin, mycophenolic acid, and pyrvinium could potentially target the hub gene CHEK1 directly. Our study highlights the critical pathways that should be targeted in the search for potential LUAD treatments, most importantly, the p53 signaling pathway. Some compounds, such as ciclopirox and AG-028671, may have potential roles for LUAD treatment but require further experimental verification. © 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. A multi-level assessment methodology for determining the potential for groundwater contamination by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Crowe, A S; Booty, W G

    1995-05-01

    A multi-level pesticide assessment methodology has been developed to permit regulatory personnel to undertake a variety of assessments on the potential for pesticide used in agricultural areas to contaminate the groundwater regime at an increasingly detailed geographical scale of investigation. A multi-level approach accounts for a variety of assessment objectives and detail required in the assessment, the restrictions on the availability and accuracy of data, the time available to undertake the assessment, and the expertise of the decision maker. The level 1: regional scale is designed to prioritize districts having a potentially high risk for groundwater contamination from the application of a specific pesticide for a particular crop. The level 2: local scale is used to identify critical areas for groundwater contamination, at a soil polygon scale, within a district. A level 3: soil profile scale allows the user to evaluate specific factors influencing pesticide leaching and persistence, and to determine the extent and timing of leaching, through the simulation of the migration of a pesticide within a soil profile. Because of the scale of investigation, limited amount of data required, and qualitative nature of the assessment results, the level 1 and level 2 assessment are designed primarily for quick and broad guidance related to management practices. A level 3 assessment is more complex, requires considerably more data and expertise on the part of the user, and hence is designed to verify the potential for contamination identified during the level 1 or 2 assessment. The system combines environmental modelling, geographical information systems, extensive databases, data management systems, expert systems, and pesticide assessment models, to form an environmental information system for assessing the potential for pesticides to contaminate groundwater.

  11. Interstellar detection of the intersystem line Si II lambda 2335 toward zeta Ophiuchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelli, Jason A.; Sofia, Ulysses J.; Savage, Blair D.; Keenan, Francis P.; Dufton, Philip L.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the detection of the weak intersystem transistion of Si II lambda 2335 A in the sight line toward zeta Oph using the Ech-B mode (3.5 km/s resolution) of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph. The high-quality spectrum is characterized by an empirically measured signal-to-noise of 450, in excellent agreement with that expected from photon-statistics. The measured equivalent width of the Si II line is W(sub lambda) = 0.48 +/- 0.12 mA. Using the new experimental f-value of Calamai, Smith, and Bergeson, we find a Si II column density of 2.34 (+/- 0.58) x 10(exp 15) atoms/sq cm and (Si/H)(sub zeta Oph) = 1.78 (+/- 0.44) x 10(exp -6) for the principal absorbing component(s) at v(sub sun) approx. = -15 km/s. Analysis of the Si II lambda 1808 absorption over the same velocity range using the new experimental f-value of Bergeson & Lawler yields a column density (corrected for saturation) that is consistent within the weak line errors and confirms the relative accuracies of these new f-values. Furthermore, these results indicate that accurate abundances can now be derived for Si II, particularly from the weak Si II lambda 2335 A since it is free of saturation effects. For the zeta Oph v(sub sun) approx. = -15 km/s component(s), we find that greater than 95% of the available cosmic abundance (i.e. the 1989 meteoritic abundances of Anders & Grevesse) of Mg, Fe, and Si is 'missing' from the gas phase and is presumably locked up in the dust. These elements are present in the dust grains in ratios of Fe/Si approximately equals 0.9 and Mg/Si approximately equals 1.1, consistent with the ratio of their cosmic abundances. These ratios are in sharp contrast to more diffuse clouds like those seen toward the high-latitude halo star HD 93521 where in the dust Fe/Si approximately equals 1.8 and Mg/Si approximately equals 2.1.

  12. Navigability Potential of Washington Rivers and Streams Determined with Hydraulic Geometry and a Geographic Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2009-01-01

    Using discharge and channel geometry measurements from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations and data from a geographic information system, regression relations were derived to predict river depth, top width, and bottom width as a function of mean annual discharge for rivers in the State of Washington. A new technique also was proposed to determine bottom width in channels, a parameter that has received relatively little attention in the geomorphology literature. These regression equations, when combined with estimates of mean annual discharge available in the National Hydrography Dataset, enabled the prediction of hydraulic geometry for any stream or river in the State of Washington. Predictions of hydraulic geometry can then be compared to thresholds established by the Washington State Department of Natural Resources to determine navigability potential of rivers. Rivers with a mean annual discharge of 1,660 cubic feet per second or greater are 'probably navigable' and rivers with a mean annual discharge of 360 cubic feet per second or less are 'probably not navigable'. Variance in the dataset, however, leads to a relatively wide range of prediction intervals. For example, although the predicted hydraulic depth at a mean annual discharge of 1,660 cubic feet per second is 3.5 feet, 90-percent prediction intervals indicate that the actual hydraulic depth may range from 1.8 to 7.0 feet. This methodology does not determine navigability - a legal concept determined by federal common law - instead, this methodology is a tool for predicting channel depth, top width, and bottom width for rivers and streams in Washington.

  13. Catalytic properties of an expressed and purified higher plant type zeta-carotene desaturase from Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Breitenbach, J; Kuntz, M; Takaichi, S; Sandmann, G

    1999-10-01

    The zeta-carotene desaturase from Capsicum annuum (EC 1.14.99.-) was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized biochemically. The enzyme acts as a monomer with lipophilic quinones as cofactors. Km values for the substrate zeta-carotene or the intermediate neurosporene in the two-step desaturation reaction are almost identical. Product analysis showed that different lycopene isomers are formed, including substantial amounts of the all-trans form, together with 7,7',9,9'-tetracis prolycopene via the corresponding neurosporene isomers. The application of different geometric isomers as substrates revealed that the zeta-carotene desaturase has no preference for certain isomers and that the nature of the isomers formed during catalysis depends strictly on the isomeric composition of the substrate.

  14. High mobility group box-1 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C zeta and secreted in colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hanna; Park, Minhee; Shin, Nara

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific enzyme for HMGB1 phosphorylation and its secretion is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of PKC-{zeta} leads to significant reduction of the secreted HMGB1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation of specific site of HMGB1 redirects its secretion in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of PKC-{zeta} in cancers explains the enhanced HMGB1 secretion. -- Abstract: High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein, is overexpressed and secreted in cancer cells. Phosphorylation on two different nuclear localization signal regions are known to be important for the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic transport and secretion of HMGB1. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanism of HMGB1 modifications and its subsequentmore » secretion from cancer cells. To identify the specific enzyme and important sites for HMGB1 phosphorylation, we screened the protein kinase C (PKC) family in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116) for HMGB1 binding by pull-down experiments using a 3XFLAG-HMGB1 construct. Strong interactions between atypical PKCs (PKC-{zeta}, {lambda}, and {iota}) and cytoplasmic HMGB1 were observed in HCT116 cells. We further identified the most critical PKC isotype that regulates HMGB1 secretion is PKC-{zeta} by using PKC inhibitors and siRNA experiments. The serine residues at S39, S53 and S181 of HMGB1 were related to enhancing HMGB1 secretion. We also demonstrated overexpression and activation of PKC-{zeta} in colon cancer tissues. Our findings suggest that PKC-{zeta} is involved in the phosphorylation of HMGB1, and the phosphorylation of specific serine residues in the nuclear localization signal regions is related to enhanced HMGB1 secretion in colon cancer cells.« less

  15. Determination of climatic potential of Qom province for rain fed wheat using RS and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdan Panah, H.; Soleimani Tabar, M.

    2010-09-01

    This investigation was done to determine climatic potential of Qom province for wheat culture using RS and GIS. After collecting meteorological and wheat phonological data of available stations in Qom and its adjacent provinces we analyzed the data to obtain agrometeorological indices which affects on growth and yield of wheat. In the next step for these indices (the maximum and minimum temperature, sunshine hours, relative humidity, slope, elevation, GDD,rainfall,wind.land use and thermal stresses) we prepared separate maps using GIS and RS. Finally the above mentioned layers were overlaid to obtain agroclimatic map of wheat in Qom province. Results showed that about 30.2 percent of province is very suitable,53.5 percent is suitable,15.2 percent is moderate and 1.1 percent is not suitable for wheat culturing. Key words: Agrometeorology, GIS, RS, Wheat

  16. Complex chromosomal neighborhood effects determine the adaptive potential of a gene under selection.

    PubMed

    Steinrueck, Magdalena; Guet, Călin C

    2017-07-25

    How the organization of genes on a chromosome shapes adaptation is essential for understanding evolutionary paths. Here, we investigate how adaptation to rapidly increasing levels of antibiotic depends on the chromosomal neighborhood of a drug-resistance gene inserted at different positions of the Escherichia coli chromosome. Using a dual-fluorescence reporter that allows us to distinguish gene amplifications from other up-mutations, we track in real-time adaptive changes in expression of the drug-resistance gene. We find that the relative contribution of several mutation types differs systematically between loci due to properties of neighboring genes: essentiality, expression, orientation, termination, and presence of duplicates. These properties determine rate and fitness effects of gene amplification, deletions, and mutations compromising transcriptional termination. Thus, the adaptive potential of a gene under selection is a system-property with a complex genetic basis that is specific for each chromosomal locus, and it can be inferred from detailed functional and genomic data.

  17. Rotational Energy Transfer of N2 Determined Using a New Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A new N2-N2 rigid-rotor surface has been determined using extensive Ab Initio quantum chemistry calculations together with recent experimental data for the second virial coefficient. Rotational energy transfer is studied using the new potential energy surface (PES) employing the close coupling method below 200 cm(exp -1) and coupled state approximation above that. Comparing with a previous calculation based on the PES of van der Avoird et al.,3 it is found that the new PES generally gives larger cross sections for large (delta)J transitions, but for small (delta)J transitions the cross sections are either comparable or smaller. Correlation between the differences in the cross sections and the two PES will be attempted. The computed cross sections will also be compared with available experimental data.

  18. Sidewall tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2001-01-01

    A sidewall tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, a) a body adapted for insertion into an opening in earthen soil below grade, the body having lateral sidewalls; b) a laterally oriented porous material provided relative to the body lateral sidewalls, the laterally oriented porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body; c) a pressure a sensor in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; and d) sidewall engaging means for engaging a portion of a sidewall of an earth opening to laterally urge the porous material into hydraulic communication with earthen soil of another portion of the opening sidewall. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed.

  19. Detection of boron, cobalt, and other weak interstellar lines toward Zeta Ophiuchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Federman, S. R.; Sheffer, Y.; Lambert, D. L.; Gilliland, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    Numerous weak lines from interstellar atomic species toward Zeta Ophiuchi were observed with the Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph. Of particular note are the first interstellar detection of cobalt and the detection of boron in this sight line. These measurements provide estimates for the amount of depletion for the two elements. Boron, a volatile, and cobalt, a refractory element, display the depletion pattern found by Savage et al. (1992). The abundance of phosphorus in the H II region associated with the star was obtained from a detection of P III. Additional weak lines from S I, C I, Ni II, and Cu II were detected for the first time; these lines provide the basis for refinements in oscillator strength and column density. Analysis of the neutral sulfur data indicates that the atomic gas is more widely distributed than the molecular material in the main component.

  20. The Italian cross-sectional survey of the management of bone metastasis: ZeTa study

    PubMed Central

    Santini, Daniele; Bertoldo, Francesco; Dell'Aquila, Emanuela; Cecchini, Isabella; Fregosi, Stefania; Bortolussi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies have emphasized the importance of the maintenance of bone health in a comprehensive cancer care. However, no survey about approach to bone metastasis care is currently available. The ZeTa study provides a picture of the Italian oncologists' therapeutics habits in this area, in a real clinical-practice scenario. Design This study was based on online questionnaire-based interviews to Italian oncologists that included 145 questions. The aim was to collect information on the treatment of bone metastasis, the current use of bisphosphonates, the awareness of guidelines and the concerns about ONJ, the use of vitamin D supplementation. Results 445 oncologists were contacted, 283 agreed to participate. The results show that the current management of bone metastasis is still sub-optimal, as the recommendations from current clinical guidelines are not completely followed by all specialists. Conclusions This survey highlights the urgent need to improve management of bone metastasis in cancer patients. PMID:26909253

  1. Interstellar gas phase abundance of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, copper, gallium, germanium, and krypton toward Zeta Ophiuchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelli, Jason A.; Savage, Blair D.; Ebbets, Dennis C.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of weak (less than 10 mA) UV interstellar absorption line data obtained for the line of sight to the O9.5 IV star Zeta Oph is presented. Measurements of weak semiforbidden lines of N I, O I, Cu II, and a new UV detection of Na I are reported along with a small upper limit for C II. Interstellar detections of Ga II, Ge II, and Kr I are also presented. Ga, Ge, and Kr represent the heaviest elements detected in the ISM. A comparison of the derived column densities to cosmic abundances shows Ga to be depleted by about -1.2 dex while Ge is overabundant by +0.2 dex. Assuming Kr to be undepleted, a logarithmic cosmic abundance of Kr/H = 2.95 is obtained on the scale where H = 12.00.

  2. On the accuracy potential of focused plenoptic camera range determination in long distance operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardemann, Hannes; Maas, Hans-Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Plenoptic cameras have found increasing interest in optical 3D measurement techniques in recent years. While their basic principle is 100 years old, the development in digital photography, micro-lens fabrication technology and computer hardware has boosted the development and lead to several commercially available ready-to-use cameras. Beyond their popular option of a posteriori image focusing or total focus image generation, their basic ability of generating 3D information from single camera imagery depicts a very beneficial option for certain applications. The paper will first present some fundamentals on the design and history of plenoptic cameras and will describe depth determination from plenoptic camera image data. It will then present an analysis of the depth determination accuracy potential of plenoptic cameras. While most research on plenoptic camera accuracy so far has focused on close range applications, we will focus on mid and long ranges of up to 100 m. This range is especially relevant, if plenoptic cameras are discussed as potential mono-sensorial range imaging devices in (semi-)autonomous cars or in mobile robotics. The results show the expected deterioration of depth measurement accuracy with depth. At depths of 30-100 m, which may be considered typical in autonomous driving, depth errors in the order of 3% (with peaks up to 10-13 m) were obtained from processing small point clusters on an imaged target. Outliers much higher than these values were observed in single point analysis, stressing the necessity of spatial or spatio-temporal filtering of the plenoptic camera depth measurements. Despite these obviously large errors, a plenoptic camera may nevertheless be considered a valid option for the application fields of real-time robotics like autonomous driving or unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles, where the accuracy requirements decrease with distance.

  3. Reliable determination of new lipid peroxidation compounds as potential early Alzheimer Disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    García-Blanco, Ana; Peña-Bautista, Carmen; Oger, Camille; Vigor, Claire; Galano, Jean-Marie; Durand, Thierry; Martín-Ibáñez, Nuria; Baquero, Miguel; Vento, Máximo; Cháfer-Pericás, Consuelo

    2018-07-01

    Lipid peroxidation plays an important role in Alzheimer Disease, so corresponding metabolites found in urine samples could be potential biomarkers. The aim of this work is to develop a reliable ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analytical method to determine a new set of lipid peroxidation compounds in urine samples. Excellent sensitivity was achieved with limits of detection between 0.08 and 17 nmol L -1 , which renders this method suitable to monitor analytes concentrations in real samples. The method's precision was satisfactory with coefficients of variation around 5-17% (intra-day) and 8-19% (inter-day). The accuracy of the method was assessed by analysis of spiked urine samples obtaining recoveries between 70% and 120% for most of the analytes. The utility of the described method was tested by analyzing urine samples from patients early diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia Alzheimer Disease following the clinical standard criteria. As preliminary results, some analytes (17(RS)-10-epi-SC-Δ 15 -11-dihomo-IsoF, PGE 2 ) and total parameters (Neuroprostanes, Isoprostanes, Isofurans) show differences between the control and the clinical groups. So, these analytes could be potential early Alzheimer Disease biomarkers assessing the patients' pro-oxidant condition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An Efficient Means of Determining the Newtonian Potential for Highly Flattened Mass Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohl, H.

    1999-05-01

    In this dissertation talk we present a mathematical result that, to the best of our knowledge, has been previously undiscovered. That is, the Green's function in a variety of orthogonal coordinate systems may be expressed in terms of a single sum over the azimuthal quantum number, m, of terms involving Toroidal Harmonics. We show how this new addition theorem can be effectively applied to a variety of potential problems in gravitation, electrostatics and magnetostatics and, in particular, demonstrate how it may be used to analyze the properties of general nonaxisymmetric disk systems with and without vertical extent. Finally, we describe our numerical implementation of the addition theorem in order to determine the Newtonian potential extremely close to highly flattened mass distributions. This yields an extremely efficient technique for computing the boundary values in a general algorithm that is designed to solve the 3D Poisson equation on a cylindrical coordinate lattice. We acknowledge support from the U.S. National Science Foundation through grant AST-9528424 and DGE-9355007, the latter of which has been issued through the NSF's Graduate Traineeships Program. This work also has been supported, in part, by grants of high-performance-computing time on NPACI facilities at SDSC and UT, Austin, and through the PET program of NAVOCEANO DoD Major Shared Resource Center in Stennis, MS.

  5. Determination of the mean inner potential of cadmium telluride via electron holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, C.; Dhar, A.; Shintake, T.

    2017-04-01

    Mean inner potential is a fundamental material parameter in solid state physics and electron microscopy and has been experimentally measured in CdTe, a technologically important semiconductor. As a first step, the inelastic mean free path for electron scattering in CdTe was determined, using electron energy loss spectroscopy, to enable precise thickness mapping of thin CdTe lamellae. The obtained value was λi(CdTe, 300 kV) = 192 ± 10 nm. This value is relatively large, given the high density of the material, and is discussed in the text. Next, electron diffraction and specimen tilting were employed to identify weakly diffracting lattice orientations, to enable the straightforward measurement of the electron phase shift. Finally, electron holography was utilized to quantitatively map the phase shift experienced by electron waves passing through a CdTe crystal, with several different propagation vectors. Utilization of both thickness and phase data allowed computation of mean inner potential as V0 (CdTe) = 14.0 ± 0.9 V, within the range of previous theoretical estimates.

  6. Potential role of centrioles in determining the morphogenetic status of animal somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Tkemaladze, J; Chichinadze, K

    2005-05-01

    Irreversible differentiation (change of morphogenetic status) and programmed death (apoptosis) are observed only in somatic cells. Cell division is the only way by which the morphogenetic status of the offspring cells may be modified. It is known that there is a fixed limit to the number of possible cell divisions, the so-called 'Hayflick limit'. Existing links between cell division, differentiation and apoptosis make it possible to conclude that all these processes could be controlled by a single self-reproducing structure. Potential candidates for this replicable structure in a somatic cell are chromosomes, mitochondria (both contain DNA), and centrioles. Centrioles (diplosome) are the most likely unit that can fully regulate the processes of irreversible differentiation, determination and modification of the morphogenetic status. It may contain differently encoded RNA molecules stacked in a definite order. During mitosis, these RNA molecules are released one by one into the cytoplasm. In the presence of reverse transcriptase and endonuclease, RNA can be embedded in nuclear DNA. This process presumably changes the status of repressed and potentially active genes and, subsequently, the morphogenetic status of a cell.

  7. Anaerobic hydrolysis and acidification of organic substrates: determination of anaerobic hydrolytic potential.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Rajinikanth; Béline, Fabrice

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to develop a biochemical-test mainly to evaluate the hydrolytic-potential of different substrates and to apply this test to characterize various organic substrates. Outcome of this study can be used for optimization of the WWTPs through enhancement of N/P removal or anaerobic digestion. Out of four series of batch experiments, the first two tests were conducted to determine the optimal operating conditions (test duration, inoculum-ratio etc.) for the hydrolytic-potential test using secondary and synthetically-prepared sludges. Based on the results (generation of CODs, pH and VFA), test duration was fixed between 6 and 7d allowing to attain maximum hydrolysis and to avoid methanogenesis. Effect of inoculum-ratios on acid fermentation of sludge was not significantly noticed. Using this methodology, third and fourth tests were performed to characterize various organic substrates namely secondary, pre-treated sludge, pig and two different cattle slurries. VFA production was shown to be substantially dependent on substrates types. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determining the Number of Ischemic Strokes Potentially Eligible for Endovascular Thrombectomy: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chia, Nicholas H; Leyden, James M; Newbury, Jonathan; Jannes, Jim; Kleinig, Timothy J

    2016-05-01

    Endovascular thrombectomy (ET) is standard-of-care for ischemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusion, but estimates of potentially eligible patients from population-based studies have not been published. Such data are urgently needed to rationally plan hyperacute services. Retrospective analysis determined the incidence of ET-eligible ischemic strokes in a comprehensive population-based stroke study (Adelaide, Australia 2009-2010). Stroke patients were stratified via a prespecified eligibility algorithm derived from recent ET trials comprising stroke subtype, pathogenesis, severity, premorbid modified Rankin Score, presentation delay, large vessel occlusion, and target mismatch penumbra. Recognizing centers may interpret recent ET trials either loosely or rigidly; 2 eligibility algorithms were applied: restrictive (key criteria modified Rankin Scale score 0-1, presentation delay <3.5 hours, and target mismatch penumbra) and permissive (modified Rankin Scale score 0-3 and presentation delay <5 hours). In a population of 148 027 people, 318 strokes occurred in the 1-year study period (crude attack rate 215 [192-240] per 100 000 person-years). The number of ischemic strokes eligible by restrictive criteria was 17/258 (7%; 95% confidence intervals 4%-10%) and by permissive criteria, an additional 16 were identified, total 33/258 (13%; 95% confidence intervals 9%-18%). Two of 17 patients (and 6/33 permissive patients) had thrombolysis contraindications. Using the restrictive algorithm, there were 11 (95% confidence intervals 4-18) potential ET cases per 100 000 person-years or 22 (95% confidence intervals 13-31) using the permissive algorithm. In this cohort, ≈7% of ischemic strokes were potentially eligible for ET (13% with permissive criteria). In similar populations, the permissive criteria predict that ≤22 strokes per 100 000 person-years may be eligible for ET. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Computer-assisted sperm morphometry fluorescence-based analysis has potential to determine progeny sex.

    PubMed

    Santolaria, Pilar; Pauciullo, Alfredo; Silvestre, Miguel A; Vicente-Fiel, Sandra; Villanova, Leyre; Pinton, Alain; Viruel, Juan; Sales, Ester; Yániz, Jesús L

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the ability of computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASA-Morph) with fluorescence to discriminate between spermatozoa carrying different sex chromosomes from the nuclear morphometrics generated and different statistical procedures in the bovine species. The study was divided into two experiments. The first was to study the morphometric differences between X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa (SX and SY, respectively). Spermatozoa from eight bulls were processed to assess simultaneously the sex chromosome by FISH and sperm morphometry by fluorescence-based CASA-Morph. SX cells were larger than SY cells on average (P < 0.001) although with important differences between bulls. A simultaneous evaluation of all the measured features by discriminant analysis revealed that nuclear area and average fluorescence intensity were the variables selected by stepwise discriminant function analysis as the best discriminators between SX and SY. In the second experiment, the sperm nuclear morphometric results from CASA-Morph in nonsexed (mixed SX and SY) and sexed (SX) semen samples from four bulls were compared. FISH allowed a successful classification of spermatozoa according to their sex chromosome content. X-sexed spermatozoa displayed a larger size and fluorescence intensity than nonsexed spermatozoa (P < 0.05). We conclude that the CASA-Morph fluorescence-based method has the potential to find differences between X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in bovine species although more studies are needed to increase the precision of sex determination by this technique.

  10. Theory and methodology for utilizing genes as biomarkers to determine potential biological mixtures.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sadeep; Smith, Michael W; Beaty, Terri H; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2005-01-01

    Genetically determined mixture information can be used as a surrogate for physical or behavioral characteristics in epidemiological studies examining research questions related to socially stigmatized behaviors and horizontally transmitted infections. A new measure, the probability of mixture discrimination (PMD), was developed to aid mixture analysis that estimates the ability to differentiate single from multiple genomes in biological mixtures. Four autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) were identified, genotyped and evaluated in African American, European American, Hispanic, and Chinese individuals to estimate PMD. Theoretical PMD frameworks were also developed for autosomal and sex-linked (X and Y) STR markers in potential male/male, male/female and female/female mixtures. Autosomal STRs genetically determine the presence of multiple genomes in mixture samples of unknown genders with more power than the apparently simpler X and Y chromosome STRs. Evaluation of four autosomal STR loci enables the detection of mixtures of DNA from multiple sources with above 99% probability in all four racial/ethnic populations. The genetic-based approach has applications in epidemiology that provide viable alternatives to survey-based study designs. The analysis of genes as biomarkers can be used as a gold standard for validating measurements from self-reported behaviors that tend to be sensitive or socially stigmatizing, such as those involving sex and drugs.

  11. Determinants of physician's office visits and potential effects of co-payments: evidence from Austria.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Philipp; Mahlich, Jörg C

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyse determinants of physician office visits and potential effects of co-payments in Austria. Based on survey data, the number of annual physician office visits is regressed on a set of explanatory variable such as income, communication behaviour in waiting room, travel time, gender, age, presence of chronic diseases and connectedness to family members. It was then examined how those determinants are affected by hypothetical co-payments in the range of €5 to €200. Our results suggest a negative impact of income and family connectedness on doctor's visits. On the other hand, age, morbidity and active communication behaviour in the waiting room are positively associated with office visits. The significant impact of both income and active communication behaviour on the number of doctor's visits disappears when significant co-payments greater than €50 are introduced. Higher co-payments would reduce healthcare service utilization in Austria mainly because of a demand reduction of poorer patients. Another key finding of our study is that the desire to chat with peers in the waiting room is another significant driver of physician office visits. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Capillary electrophoresis fingerprinting and spectrophotometric determination of antioxidant potential for classification of Mentha products.

    PubMed

    Roblová, Vendula; Bittová, Miroslava; Kubáň, Petr; Kubáň, Vlastimil

    2016-07-01

    In this work aqueous infusions from ten Mentha herbal samples (four different Mentha species and six hybrids of Mentha x piperita) and 20 different peppermint teas were screened by capillary electrophoresis with UV detection. The fingerprint separation was accomplished in a 25 mM borate background electrolyte with 10% methanol at pH 9.3. The total polyphenolic content in the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically at 765 nm by a Folin-Ciocalteu phenol assay. Total antioxidant activity was determined by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical at 515 nm. The peak areas of 12 dominant peaks from CE analysis, present in all samples, and the value of total polyphenolic content and total antioxidant activity obtained by spectrophotometry was combined into a single data matrix and principal component analysis was applied. The obtained principal component analysis model resulted in distinct clusters of Mentha and peppermint tea samples distinguishing the samples according to their potential protective antioxidant effect. Principal component analysis, using a non-targeted approach with no need for compound identification, was found as a new promising tool for the screening of herbal tea products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A study on the determination of the natural park's sustainable tourism potential.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Mehmet; Zeren, Ilknur; Sevik, Hakan; Cakir, Cansel; Akpinar, Huseyin

    2018-02-23

    The surface site of Yesilyuva Nature Park encompasses natural, social, economic, and cultural characteristics and has become a marker of the region's natural and cultural heritage. To support the preservation of this site, promotional activities should be planned. In this study, because of tourism and related opinions of residents and visitors alike in terms of their natural determination, an important cultural and historical feature is aimed at evaluating the tourism potential of Yesilyuva Nature Park. This framework is designed to establish prospective tourism sustainability. As a result, Yesilyuva Nature Park's natural and cultural properties have been determined to be suitable for sustainable tourism activities using geographic information systems (GIS). This protection in the field, which balances sustainability and landscape design, will provide for the development of tourism activities. In the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis and survey, residents and visitors reported that the most important feature of the Yesilyuva Nature Park was its natural beauty. Visitors often come to observe traditional and natural life and to engage in tourism activities. All the data, which includes maps derived from GIS, represents landscape planning for sustainable tourism areas in Yesilyuva Nature Park.

  14. Determination of coalbed methane potential and gas adsorption capacity in Western Kentucky coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mardon, S.M.; Takacs, K.G.; Hower, J.C.; Eble, C.F.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The Illinois Basin has not been developed for Coalbed Methane (CBM) production. It is imperative to determine both gas content and other parameters for the Kentucky portion of the Illinois Basin if exploration is to progress and production is to occur in this area. This research is part of a larger project being conducted by the Kentucky Geological Survey to evaluate the CBM production of Pennsylvanian-age western Kentucky coals in Ohio, Webster, and Union counties using methane adsorption isotherms, direct gas desorption measurements, and chemical analyses of coal and gas. This research will investigate relationships between CBM potential and petrographic, surface area, pore size, and gas adsorption isotherm analyses of the coals. Maceral and reflectance analyses are being conducted at the Center for Applied Energy Research. At the Indiana Geological Survey, the surface area and pore size of the coals will be analyzed using a Micrometrics ASAP 2020, and the CO2 isotherm analyses will be conducted using a volumetric adsorption apparatus in a water temperature bath. The aforementioned analyses will be used to determine site specific correlations for the Kentucky part of the Illinois Basin. The data collected will be compared with previous work in the Illinois Basin and will be correlated with data and structural features in the basin. Gas composition and carbon and hydrogen isotopic data suggest mostly thermogenic origin of coalbed gas in coals from Webster and Union Counties, Kentucky, in contrast to the dominantly biogenic character of coalbed gas in Ohio County, Kentucky.

  15. Spectroscopic determination of the intermolecular potential energy surface for Ar-NH3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmuttenmaer, C. A.; Cohen, R. C.; Saykally, R. J.

    1994-07-01

    The three-dimensional intermolecular potential energy surface (IPS) for Ar-NH3 has been determined from a least-squares fit to 61 far infrared and microwave vibration-rotation-tunneling (VRT) measurements and to temperature-dependent second virial coefficients. The three intermolecular coordinates (R,θ,φ) are treated without invoking any approximations regarding their separability, and the NH3 inversion-tunneling motion is included adiabatically. A surface with 13 variable parameters has been optimized to accurately reproduce the spectroscopic observables, using the collocation method to treat the coupled multidimensional dynamics within a scattering formalism. Anisotropy in the IPS is found to significantly mix the free rotor basis functions. The 149.6 cm-1 global minimum on this surface occurs with the NH3 symmetry axis nearly perpendicular to the van der Waals bond axis (θ=96.6°), at a center-of-mass separation of 3.57 Å, and with the Ar atom midway between two of the NH3 hydrogen atoms (φ=60°). The position of the global minimum is very different from the center-of-mass distance extracted from microwave spectroscopic studies. Long-range (R≳3.8 Å) attractive interactions are greatest when either a N-H bond or the NH3 lone pair is directed toward the argon. Comparisons with ab initio surfaces for this molecule as well as the experimentally determined IPS for Ar-H2O are presented.

  16. Application and potential of capillary electroseparation methods to determine antioxidant phenolic compounds from plant food material.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Fernández, Elena; Gómez-Romero, María; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2010-12-15

    Antioxidants are one of the most common active ingredients of nutritionally functional foods which can play an important role in the prevention of oxidation and cellular damage inhibiting or delaying the oxidative processes. In recent years there has been an increased interest in the application of antioxidants to medical treatment as information is constantly gathered linking the development of human diseases to oxidative stress. Within antioxidants, phenolic molecules are an important category of compounds, commonly present in a wide variety of plant food materials. Their correct determination is pivotal nowadays and involves their extraction from the sample, analytical separation, identification, quantification and interpretation of the data. The aim of this review is to provide an overview about all the necessary steps of any analytical procedure to achieve the determination of phenolic compounds from plant matrices, paying particular attention to the application and potential of capillary electroseparation methods. Since it is quite complicated to establish a classification of plant food material, and to structure the current review, we will group the different matrices as follows: fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices and medicinal plants, beverages, vegetable oils, cereals, legumes and nuts and other matrices (including cocoa beans and bee products). At the end of the overview, we include two sections to explain the usefulness of the data about phenols provided by capillary electrophoresis and the newest trends. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of dissociation constants of compounds with potential cognition enhancing activity by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lisková, Anna; Krivánková, Ludmila

    2005-12-01

    Accurate determination of pK(a) values is important for proper characterization of newly synthesized molecules. In this work we have used CZE for determination of pK(a) values of new compounds prepared from intermediates, 2, 3 and 4-(2-chloro-acetylamino)-phenoxyacetic acids, by substituting chloride for 2-oxo-pyrrolidine, 2-oxo-piperidine or 2-oxo-azepane. These substances are expected to have a cognition enhancing activity and free radicals scavenging effect. Measurements were performed in a polyacrylamide-coated fused-silica capillary of 0.075 mm ID using direct UV detection at 254 nm. Three electrolyte systems were used for measurements to eliminate effects of potential interactions between tested compounds and components of the BGE. In the pH range 2.7-5.4, chloride, formate, acetate and phosphate were used as BGE co-ions, and sodium, beta-alanine and epsilon-aminocaproate as counterions. Mobility standards were measured simultaneously with the tested compounds for calculations of correct electrophoretic mobilities. Several approaches for the calculation of the pK(a) values were used. The values of pK(a) were determined by standard point-to-point calculation using Henderson-Hasselbach equation. Mobility and pH data were also evaluated by using nonlinear regression. Three parameter sigmoidal function fitted the experimental data with correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. Results from CZE measurements were compared with spectrophotometric measurements performed in sodium formate buffer solutions and evaluated at wavelength where the highest absorbance difference for varying pH was recorded. The experimental pK(a) values were compared with corresponding values calculated by the SPARC online calculator. Results of all three used methods were in good correlation.

  18. Use of Bioclimatic Factors to Determine Potential Niche of Vaccinia Virus, an Emerging and Zoonotic Pathogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiner, C. A.; Nakazawa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Emerging and understudied pathogens often lack information that most commonly used analytical tools require, such as negative controls or baseline data making public health control of emerging pathogens challenging. In lieu of opportunities to collect more data from larger outbreaks or formal epidemiological studies, new analytical strategies, merging case data with publically available datasets, can be used to understand transmission patterns and drivers of disease emergence. Zoonotic infections with Vaccinia virus (VACV) were first reported in Brazil in 1999, VACV is an emerging zoonotic Orthopoxvirus, which primarily infects dairy cattle and farmers in close contact with infected cows. Prospective studies of emerging pathogens could provide critical data that would inform public health planning and response to outbreaks. By using the location of 87-recorded outbreaks and publicly available bioclimatic data we demonstrate one such approach. Using an Ecological Niche Model (ENM), we identify the environmental conditions under which VACV outbreaks have occurred, and determine additional locations in two affected South American countries that may be susceptible to transmission. Further, we show how suitability for the virus responds to different levels of various environmental factors and highlight the most important climatic factors in determining its transmission. The final ENM predicted all areas where Brazilian outbreaks occurred, two out of five Colombian outbreaks and identified new regions within Brazil that are suitable for transmission based on bioclimatic factors. Further, the most important factors in determining transmission suitability are precipitation of the wettest quarter, annual precipitation, mean temperature of the coldest quarter and mean diurnal range. The analyses here provide a means by which to study patterns of an emerging infectious disease, and regions that are potentially at risk for it, in spite of the paucity of critical data. Policy

  19. 7 CFR 14.6 - Criteria for determining the primary purpose of payments with respect to potential exclusion from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for determining the primary purpose of... Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINING THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF CERTAIN PAYMENTS FOR FEDERAL TAX PURPOSES § 14.6 Criteria for determining the primary purpose of payments with respect to potential exclusion from gross...

  20. 7 CFR 14.6 - Criteria for determining the pri- mary purpose of payments with respect to potential exclusion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for determining the pri- mary purpose of... Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINING THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF CERTAIN PAYMENTS FOR FEDERAL TAX PURPOSES § 14.6 Criteria for determining the pri- mary purpose of payments with respect to potential exclusion from gross...

  1. 7 CFR 14.6 - Criteria for determining the primary purpose of payments with respect to potential exclusion from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria for determining the primary purpose of... Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINING THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF CERTAIN PAYMENTS FOR FEDERAL TAX PURPOSES § 14.6 Criteria for determining the primary purpose of payments with respect to potential exclusion from gross...

  2. The determinants of cost-effectiveness potential: an historical perspective on lipid-lowering therapies.

    PubMed

    Refoios Camejo, Rodrigo; McGrath, Clare; Miraldo, Marisa; Rutten, Frans

    2013-05-01

    The concept of cost effectiveness emerged in an attempt to link the prices of new healthcare technologies to the immediate value they provide, with payers defining the acceptable cost per unit of incremental effect over the alternatives available. It has been suggested that such measures allow developers to assess potential market profitability in an early stage of development, but may result in discouraging investment in efficient research if not used appropriately. The objective of this study is to identify the pattern of the factors determining cost effectiveness and assess the evolution of cost-effectiveness potential for drugs in development using lipid-lowering therapy as a case study. The study is based on observational clinical and market data covering a 20-year period (from 1990 to 2010) in the UK. Real-life clinical data including total cholesterol laboratory test results were extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and are used to illustrate how the clinical effectiveness of existing standard care changed over time in patients managed in clinical practice. Prescription Cost Analysis (PCA) data were extracted and the average price of the drug mix used was computed throughout the study period. Using this information, the maximum clinical benefit and cost savings to be had were estimated for each year of the analysis using a cost-effectiveness model. Subsequently, the highest price a new technology providing the maximum clinical effectiveness possible (i.e. eliminating cardiovascular risk from high cholesterol levels) could achieve under current cost-effectiveness rules was calculated and used as a measure of the potential cost effectiveness of drugs in development. The results in this study show that the total cholesterol values of patients managed in clinical practice moved steadily towards recommended clinical targets. Overall, the absolute potential for incremental health-related quality of life decreased by approximately 78

  3. Multiwavelength Characterization of an ACT-Selected, Lensed Dusty Star-Forming Galaxy at zeta 2.64

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts-Borsani, G. W.; Jimenez-Donaire, M. J.; Dapra, M.; Alatalo, K.; Aretxaga, I.; Alvarez-Marquez, J.; Baker, A. J.; Fujimoto, S.; Gallardo, P. A.; Gralla, M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present C I(21) and multi-transition C-12 O observations of a dusty star-forming galaxy, ACT J2029+0120,which we spectroscopically confirm to lie at zeta = 2.64. We detect CO(3-2), CO(5-4), CO(7-6), CO(8-7), and C I(2-1) at high significance, tentatively detect HCO+(4-3), and place strong upper limits on the integrated strength of dense gas tracers (HCN(4-3) and CS(7-6)). Multi-transition CO observations and dense gas tracers can provide valuable constraints on the molecular gas content and excitation conditions in high-redshift galaxies. We therefore use this unique data set to construct a CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the source, which is most consistent with that of a ULIRG Seyfert or QSO host object in the taxonomy of the Herschel Comprehensive ULIRG Emission Survey. We employ RADEX models to fit the peak of the CO SLED, inferring a temperature of T approximately 117 K and n(sub H2) approximately 10(exp5) cm(exp -3), most consistent with a ULIRGQSO object and the presence of high-density tracers. We also find that the velocity width of the C I line is potentially larger than seen in all CO transitions forth is object, and that the L'(sub Ci(2-1))/L'(sub CO(3-2))ratio is also larger than seen in other lensed and unlensed submillimeter galaxies and QSO hosts; if confirmed, this anomaly could be an effect of differential lensing of a shocked molecular outflow.

  4. Determining the groundwater potential recharge zone and karst springs catchment area: Saldoran region, western Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Gholam Hossein; Bagheri, Rahim; Rahimi, Fahimeh

    2016-12-01

    Assessing the groundwater recharge potential zone and differentiation of the spring catchment area are extremely important to effective management of groundwater systems and protection of water quality. The study area is located in the Saldoran karstic region, western Iran. It is characterized by a high rate of precipitation and recharge via highly permeable fractured karstic formations. Pire-Ghar, Sarabe-Babaheydar and Baghe-rostam are three major karstic springs which drain the Saldoran anticline. The mean discharge rate and electrical conductivity values for these springs were 3, 1.9 and 0.98 m3/s, and 475, 438 and 347 μS/cm, respectively. Geology, hydrogeology and geographical information system (GIS) methods were used to define the catchment areas of the major karstic springs and to map recharge zones in the Saldoran anticline. Seven major influencing factors on groundwater recharge rates (lithology, slope value and aspect, drainage, precipitation, fracture density and karstic domains) were integrated using GIS. Geology maps and field verification were used to determine the weights of factors. The final map was produced to reveal major zones of recharge potential. More than 80 % of the study area is terrain that has a recharge rate of 55-70 % (average 63 %). Evaluating the water budget of Saldoran Mountain showed that the total volume of karst water emerging from the Saldoran karst springs is equal to the total annual recharge on the anticline. Therefore, based on the geological and hydrogeological investigations, the catchment area of the mentioned karst springs includes the whole Saldoran anticline.

  5. Temperature measurement by thermal strain imaging with diagnostic power ultrasound, with potential for thermal index determination.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hai-Dong; Zhou, Li-Xia; Wells, Peter N T; Halliwell, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Over the years, there has been a substantial increase in acoustic exposure in diagnostic ultrasound as new imaging modalities with higher intensities and frame rates have been introduced; and more electronic components have been packed into the probe head, so that there is a tendency for it to become hotter. With respect to potential thermal effects, including those which may be hazardous occurring during ultrasound scanning, there is a correspondingly growing need for in vivo techniques to guide the operator as to the actual temperature rise occurring in the examined tissues. Therefore, an in vivo temperature estimator would be of considerable practical value. The commonly-used method of tissue thermal index (TI) measurement with a hydrophone in water could underestimate the actual value of TI (in one report by as much as 2.9 times). To obtain meaningful results, it is necessary to map the temperature elevation in 2-D (or 3-D) space. We present methodology, results and validation of a 2-D spatial and temporal thermal strain ultrasound temperature estimation technique in phantoms, and its apparently novel application in tracking the evolution of heat deposition at diagnostic exposure levels. The same ultrasound probe is used for both transmission and reception. The displacement and thermal strain estimation methods are similar to those used in high-intensity focused ultrasound thermal monitoring. The use of radiofrequency signals permits the application of cross correlation as a similarity measurement for tracking feature displacement. The displacement is used to calculate the thermal strain directly related to the temperature rise. Good agreement was observed between the temperature rise and the ultrasound power and scan duration. Thermal strain up to 1.4% was observed during 4000-s scan. Based on the results obtained for the temperature range studied in this work, the technique demonstrates potential for applicability in phantom (and possibly in vivo tissue

  6. Foraging environment determines the genetic architecture and evolutionary potential of trophic morphology in cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Kevin J; Concannon, Moira; Navon, Dina; Wang, Jason; Ea, Ilene; Groveas, Kiran; Campbell, Calum; Albertson, R Craig

    2016-12-01

    Phenotypic plasticity allows organisms to change their phenotype in response to shifts in the environment. While a central topic in current discussions of evolutionary potential, a comprehensive understanding of the genetic underpinnings of plasticity is lacking in systems undergoing adaptive diversification. Here, we investigate the genetic basis of phenotypic plasticity in a textbook adaptive radiation, Lake Malawi cichlid fishes. Specifically, we crossed two divergent species to generate an F 3 hybrid mapping population. At early juvenile stages, hybrid families were split and reared in alternate foraging environments that mimicked benthic/scraping or limnetic/sucking modes of feeding. These alternate treatments produced a variation in morphology that was broadly similar to the major axis of divergence among Malawi cichlids, providing support for the flexible stem theory of adaptive radiation. Next, we found that the genetic architecture of several morphological traits was highly sensitive to the environment. In particular, of 22 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL), only one was shared between the environments. In addition, we identified QTL acting across environments with alternate alleles being differentially sensitive to the environment. Thus, our data suggest that while plasticity is largely determined by loci specific to a given environment, it may also be influenced by loci operating across environments. Finally, our mapping data provide evidence for the evolution of plasticity via genetic assimilation at an important regulatory locus, ptch1. In all, our data address long-standing discussions about the genetic basis and evolution of plasticity. They also underscore the importance of the environment in affecting developmental outcomes, genetic architectures, morphological diversity and evolutionary potential. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Isolation and determination of four potential antimicrobial components from Pseudomonas aeruginosa extracts

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ling-Qing; Zeng, Jian-Wen; Jiang, Chong-He; Wang, Huan; Li, Yu-Zhen; Wen, Wei-Hong; Li, Jie-Hua; Wang, Feng; Ting, Wei-Jen; Sun, Zi-Yong; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause disease and also can be isolated from the skin of healthy people. Additionally, it exhibits certain antimicrobial effects against other microorganisms. Methods: We collected 60 strains of P. aeruginosa and screened their antimicrobial effects against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) using the filter paper-disk method, the cross-streaking method and the co-culture method and then evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the chloroform-isolated S. aureus extracts against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, Gram-positive cocci), vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA, Gram-positive cocci), Corynebacterium spp. (CS, Gram-positive bacilli), Acinetobacter baumannii (AB, Gram-negative bacilli), Moraxella catarrhalis (MC, Gram-negative diplococcus), Candida albicans (CA, fungi), Candida tropicalis (CT, fungi), Candida glabrata (CG, fungi) and Candida parapsilosis (CP, fungi). Results: The PA06 and PA46 strains have strong antimicrobial effects. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that the major components of PA06 and PA46 that exhibit antimicrobial activity are functionally similar to phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and pyocyanin. Preparative HPLC was performed to separate and isolate the 4 major potential antimicrobial components: PA06ER10, PA06ER16, PA06ER23 and PA06ER31. Further, the molecular masses of PA06ER10 (260.1), PA06ER16 (274.1), PA06ER23 (286.1) and PA06ER31 (318.2) were determined by electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry. Conclusion: P. aeruginosa can produce small molecules with potential antimicrobial activities against MRSA, VISA, CS, MC, CA, CT, CG and CP but not against AB. PMID:29200950

  8. Household crowding as a potential mediator of socioeconomic determinants of tuberculosis incidence in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pelissari, Daniele Maria; Diaz-Quijano, Fredi Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies have identified social conditions associated with tuberculosis, contextual and individual factors have rarely been analysed simultaneously. Consequently, we aimed to identify contextual and individual factors associated with tuberculosis incidence in general population in Brazil in 2010. We also assessed whether household crowding mediates the association between socioeconomic determinants and tuberculosis incidence. Individual data of tuberculosis cases were obtained from 5,565 municipalities in Brazil in 2010 (last year of national census), and merged with contextual variables. The associations were evaluated in a multilevel analysis using negative binomial regression. After adjusting for individual factors (age, sex and race) and geographic region, the following contextual factors were associated with tuberculosis incidence rate: AIDS incidence rate [incidence rate ratio (IRR), 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18–1.24], unemployment rate (IRR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.13–1.19), Gini coefficient (IRR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02–1.08), proportion of inmates (IRR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.09–1.14), mean per capita household income (IRR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91–0.97) and primary care coverage (IRR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92–0.96). Inclusion of household crowding in the multivariate model led to a loss of the associations of both Gini coefficient and mean per capita household income. In conclusion, our findings suggest that income inequality and poverty, as determinants of tuberculosis incidence, can be mediated by household crowding. Moreover, prison population can represent a potential social reservoir of tuberculosis in Brazil and should be addressed as a priority for disease control. Finally, the negative association between primary health coverage and tuberculosis incidence highlights the importance of this level of care as a strategy to control this disease. PMID:28419146

  9. Lysability of fibrin clots is a potential new determinant of stroke risk in atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Skov, Jane; Sidelmann, Johannes J; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Jespersen, Jørgen; Gram, Jørgen

    2014-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation increases the risk of ischemic stroke, but the risk depends on other factors as well. Present risk stratification schemes use age and co-morbidities, but not biochemical markers. We investigated the hypothesis that the formation, structure and lysability of fibrin clots are potential determinants of stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation. A total of 179 patients with atrial fibrillation in stable anticoagulant treatment were included. Thirty-two had a previous ischemic stroke. We measured thrombin generation, plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein and analysed fibrin structure and lysability by turbidity. Fibrinolytic capacity was measured using the euglobulin fraction of plasma expressed in terms of t-PA equivalents (IU/ml). The patients with previous stroke had a slightly higher burden of co-morbidities compared with the remaining patients as indicated by the CHA2DS2-VASc score, but no significant differences were found regarding age, fibrinogen concentration, C-reactive protein, thrombin generation or fibrinolytic capacity. Furthermore, the patients with previous stroke had a higher mass/length ratio of fibrin fibers (5.5 vs. 5.1 x10(12) Da/cm, p=0.044) and an increased lysability (79.3 vs. 55.3%, p<0.01). The higher lysability of fibrin clots in atrial fibrillation patients with previous stroke is most likely a result of a difference in fibrin fiber properties. An increased lysability may increase the risk of embolization of clots formed in the atria, and therefore fibrin clot structure seems to be a determinant of stroke risk in atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Combined use of two membrane-potential-sensitive dyes for determination of the Galvani potential difference across a biomimetic oil/water interface.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Tatsuya; Nagatani, Hirohisa; Osakai, Toshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    The fluorescence behavior of anionic membrane-potential-sensitive dyes, bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol (DiBAC4(3)) and bis-(1,3-diethylthiobarbituric acid)trimethine oxonol (DiSBAC2(3)), at a biomimetic 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE)/water (W) interface was studied by the mean of potential-modulated fluorescence (PMF) spectroscopy. The respective dyes gave a well-defined PMF signal due to the adsorption/desorption at the DCE/W interface. It was also found that the potentials where the two dyes gave the PMF signals were different by about 100 mV. We then attempted a combined use of the two dyes for determination of the Galvani potential difference across the DCE/W interface. When 40 μM DiBAC4(3) and 15 μM DiSBAC2(3) were initially added to the W phase, distinctly different spectra were obtained for different interfacial potentials. The ratio of the PMF signal intensities at 530 and 575 nm (the fluorescence maximum wavelengths for the respective dyes) showed a clear dependence on the interfacial potential. These results suggested the potential utility of the combined use of two dyes for the determination of membrane potentials in vivo.

  11. Preservation of motor maps with increased motor evoked potential amplitude threshold in RMT determination.

    PubMed

    Lucente, Giuseppe; Lam, Steven; Schneider, Heike; Picht, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Non-invasive pre-surgical mapping of eloquent brain areas with navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a useful technique linked to the improvement of surgical planning and patient outcomes. The stimulator output intensity and subsequent resting motor threshold determination (rMT) are based on the motor-evoked potential (MEP) elicited in the target muscle with an amplitude above a predetermined threshold of 50 μV. However, a subset of patients is unable to achieve complete relaxation in the target muscles, resulting in false positives that jeopardize mapping validity with conventional MEP determination protocols. Our aim is to explore the feasibility and reproducibility of a novel mapping approach that investigates how an increase of the MEP amplitude threshold to 300 and 500 μV affects subsequent motor maps. Seven healthy subjects underwent motor mapping with nTMS. RMT was calculated with the conventional methodology in conjunction with experimental 300- and 500-μV MEP amplitude thresholds. Motor mapping was performed with 105% of rMT stimulator intensity using the FDI as the target muscle. Motor mapping was possible in all patients with both the conventional and experimental setups. Motor area maps with a conventional 50-μV threshold showed poor correlation with 300-μV (α = 0.446, p < 0.001) maps, but showed excellent consistency with 500-μV motor area maps (α = 0.974, p < 0.001). MEP latencies were significantly less variable (23 ms for 50 μV vs. 23.7 ms for 300 μV vs. 23.7 ms for 500 μV, p < 0.001). A slight but significant increase of the electric field (EF) value was found (EF: 60.8 V/m vs. 64.8 V/m vs. 66 V/m p < 0.001). Our study demonstrates the feasibility of increasing the MEP detection threshold to 500 μV in rMT determination and motor area mapping with nTMS without losing precision.

  12. The 2012 Madeira Dengue Outbreak: Epidemiological Determinants and Future Epidemic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, José; Recker, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Dengue, a vector-borne viral disease of increasing global importance, is classically associated with tropical and sub-tropical regions around the world. Urbanisation, globalisation and climate trends, however, are facilitating the geographic spread of its mosquito vectors, thereby increasing the risk of the virus establishing itself in previously unaffected areas and causing large-scale epidemics. On 3 October 2012, two autochthonous dengue infections were reported within the Autonomous Region of Madeira, Portugal. During the following seven months, this first ‘European’ dengue outbreak caused more than 2000 local cases and 81 exported cases to mainland Europe. Here, using an ento-epidemiological mathematical framework, we estimate that the introduction of dengue to Madeira occurred around a month before the first official cases, during the period of maximum influx of airline travel, and that the naturally declining temperatures of autumn were the determining factor for the outbreak's demise in early December 2012. Using key estimates, together with local climate data, we further propose that there is little support for dengue endemicity on this island, but a high potential for future epidemic outbreaks when seeded between May and August—a period when detection of imported cases is crucial for Madeira's public health planning. PMID:25144749

  13. The 2012 Madeira dengue outbreak: epidemiological determinants and future epidemic potential.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, José; Recker, Mario

    2014-08-01

    Dengue, a vector-borne viral disease of increasing global importance, is classically associated with tropical and sub-tropical regions around the world. Urbanisation, globalisation and climate trends, however, are facilitating the geographic spread of its mosquito vectors, thereby increasing the risk of the virus establishing itself in previously unaffected areas and causing large-scale epidemics. On 3 October 2012, two autochthonous dengue infections were reported within the Autonomous Region of Madeira, Portugal. During the following seven months, this first 'European' dengue outbreak caused more than 2000 local cases and 81 exported cases to mainland Europe. Here, using an ento-epidemiological mathematical framework, we estimate that the introduction of dengue to Madeira occurred around a month before the first official cases, during the period of maximum influx of airline travel, and that the naturally declining temperatures of autumn were the determining factor for the outbreak's demise in early December 2012. Using key estimates, together with local climate data, we further propose that there is little support for dengue endemicity on this island, but a high potential for future epidemic outbreaks when seeded between May and August-a period when detection of imported cases is crucial for Madeira's public health planning.

  14. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    1997-01-01

    A portable tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, a) a body having opposing first and second ends and being adapted for complete insertion into earthen soil below grade; b) a porous material provided at the first body end, the porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body at the first body end, the fluid chamber being fluidically sealed within the body but for the porous material; c) a degassed liquid received within the fluid chamber; d) a pressure transducer mounted in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; e) the body, pressure transducer and degassed liquid having a combined mass; f) a flexible suspension line connected to the body adjacent the second body end, the flexible line being of sufficient strength to gravitationally freely self suspend the combined mass; and c) the combined mass being sufficient to effectively impart hydraulic communication between below-grade earthen soil contacted by the porous material under the weight of the combined mass. Tensiometers configured to engage the sidewalls of an earthen opening are also disclosed. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed.

  15. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, J.M.; Sisson, J.B.

    1997-07-08

    A portable tensiometer to in-situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, (a) a body having opposing first and second ends and being adapted for complete insertion into earthen soil below grade; (b) a porous material provided at the first body end, the porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body at the first body end, the fluid chamber being fluidically sealed within the body but for the porous material; (c) a degassed liquid received within the fluid chamber; (d) a pressure transducer mounted in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; (e) the body, pressure transducer and degassed liquid having a combined mass; (f) a flexible suspension line connected to the body adjacent the second body end, the flexible line being of sufficient strength to gravitationally freely self suspend the combined mass; and (g) the combined mass being sufficient to effectively impart hydraulic communication between below-grade earthen soil contacted by the porous material under the weight of the combined mass. Tensiometers configured to engage the sidewalls of an earthen opening are also disclosed. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed. 12 figs.

  16. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, J.M.; Mattson, E.D.; Sisson, J.B.

    1998-06-02

    A tensiometer to in-situ determine below-grade soil moisture, potential of earthen soil includes, (a) an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and, comprising; (b) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; (c) a first fluid conduit extending outwardly of the first fluid chamber; (d) a first controllable isolation valve provided within the first fluid conduit, the first controllable isolation valve defining a second fluid chamber in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber through the first fluid conduit and the isolation valve, the first controllable isolation valve being received within the below-grade portion; and (e) a pressure transducer in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure transducer being received within the below-grade portion. An alternate embodiment includes an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and including: (1) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; and (2) a pressure sensing apparatus in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure sensing apparatus being entirely received within the below-grade portion. A method is also disclosed using the above and other apparatus. 6 figs.

  17. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Mattson, Earl D.; Sisson, James B.

    1998-01-01

    A tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture, potential of earthen soil includes, a) an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and, comprising; b) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; c) a first fluid conduit extending outwardly of the first fluid chamber; d) a first controllable isolation valve provided within the first fluid conduit, the first controllable isolation valve defining a second fluid chamber in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber through the first fluid conduit and the isolation valve, the first controllable isolation valve being received within the below-grade portion; and e) a pressure transducer in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure transducer being received within the below-grade portion. An alternate embodiment includes an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and including: i) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; and ii) a pressure sensing apparatus in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure sensing apparatus being entirely received within the below-grade portion. A method is also disclosed using the above and other apparatus.

  18. A comprehensive approach to determine the probiotic potential of human-derived Lactobacillus for industrial use.

    PubMed

    Gregoret, V; Perezlindo, M J; Vinderola, G; Reinheimer, J; Binetti, A

    2013-05-01

    Specific strains should only be regarded as probiotics if they fulfill certain safety, technological and functional criteria. The aim of this work was to study, from a comprehensive point of view (in vitro and in vivo tests), three Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus paracasei JP1, Lactobacillus rhamnosus 64 and Lactobacillus gasseri 37) isolated from feces of local newborns, determining some parameters of technological, biological and functional relevance. All strains were able to adequately grow in different economic culture media (cheese whey, buttermilk and milk), which were also suitable as cryoprotectants. As selective media, LP-MRS was more effective than B-MRS for the enumeration of all strains. The strains were resistant to different technological (frozen storage, high salt content) and biological (simulated gastrointestinal digestion after refrigerated storage in acidified milk, bile exposure) challenges. L. rhamnosus 64 and L. gasseri 37, in particular, were sensible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and vancomycin, increased the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage and induced the proliferation of IgA producing cells in small intestine when administered to mice. Even when clinical trails are still needed, both strains fulfilled the main criteria proposed by FAO/WHO to consider them as potential probiotics for the formulation of new foods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A potential vorticity-based determination of the transport barrier in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploeger, F.; Gottschling, C.; Griessbach, S.; Grooß, J.-U.; Guenther, G.; Konopka, P.; Müller, R.; Riese, M.; Stroh, F.; Tao, M.; Ungermann, J.; Vogel, B.; von Hobe, M.

    2015-11-01

    The Asian summer monsoon provides an important pathway of tropospheric source gases and pollution into the lower stratosphere. This transport is characterized by deep convection and steady upwelling, combined with confinement inside a large-scale anticyclonic circulation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). In this paper, we show that a barrier to horizontal transport along the 380 K isentrope in the monsoon anticyclone can be determined from a local maximum in the gradient of potential vorticity (PV), following methods developed for the polar vortex (e.g., Nash et al., 1996). The monsoon anticyclone is dynamically highly variable and the maximum in the PV gradient is weak, such that additional constraints are needed (e.g., time averaging). Nevertheless, PV contours in the monsoon anticyclone agree well with contours of trace gas mixing ratios (CO, O3) and mean age from model simulations with a Lagrangian chemistry transport model (CLaMS) and satellite observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument. Hence, the PV-based transport barrier reflects the separation between air inside the core of the anticyclone and the background atmosphere well. For the summer season 2011 we find an average PV value of 3.6 PVU for the transport barrier in the anticyclone on the 380 K isentrope.

  20. Intake of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids and their determinants in adults in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Hertog, M G; Hollman, P C; Katan, M B; Kromhout, D

    1993-01-01

    Flavonoids are strong antioxidants that occur naturally in foods and can inhibit carcinogenesis in rodents. Accurate data on population-wide intakes of flavonoids are not available. Here, using data of the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 1987-1988, we report the intake of the potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, apigenin, and luteolin among 4,112 adults. The flavonoid content of vegetables, fruits, and beverages was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. In all subjects, average intake of all flavonoids combined was 23 mg/day. The most important flavonoid was the flavonol quercetin (mean intake 16 mg/day). The most important sources of flavonoids were tea (48% of total intake), onions (29%), and apples (7%). Flavonoid intake did not vary between seasons; it was not correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.001), and it was only weakly correlated with the intake of vitamin A (retinol equivalents, r = 0.14), dietary fiber (r = 0.21), and vitamin C (r = 0.26). Our use of new analytic technology suggests that in the past flavonoid intake has been overestimated fivefold. However, on a milligram-per-day basis, the intake of the antioxidant flavonoids still exceeded that of the antioxidants beta-carotene and vitamin E. Thus flavonoids represent an important source of antioxidants in the human diet.

  1. Lysine N[superscript zeta]-Decarboxylation Switch and Activation of the [beta]-Lactam Sensor Domain of BlaR1 Protein of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Borbulevych, Oleg; Kumarasiri, Malika; Wilson, Brian

    The integral membrane protein BlaR1 of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus senses the presence of {beta}-lactam antibiotics in the milieu and transduces the information to the cytoplasm, where the biochemical events that unleash induction of antibiotic resistance mechanisms take place. We report herein by two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR experiments of the sensor domain of BlaR1 in solution and by determination of an x-ray structure for the apo protein that Lys-392 of the antibiotic-binding site is posttranslationally modified by N{sup {zeta}}-carboxylation. Additional crystallographic and NMR data reveal that on acylation of Ser-389 by antibiotics, Lys-392 experiences N{sup {zeta}}-decarboxylation. This unique process, termed themore » lysine N{sup {zeta}}-decarboxylation switch, arrests the sensor domain in the activated ('on') state, necessary for signal transduction and all the subsequent biochemical processes. We present structural information on how this receptor activation process takes place, imparting longevity to the antibiotic-receptor complex that is needed for the induction of the antibiotic-resistant phenotype in methicillin-resistant S. aureus.« less

  2. A simple scheme to determine potential aquatic metal toxicity from mining wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildeman, T.R.; Smith, K.S.; Ranville, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    A decision tree (mining waste decision tree) that uses simple physical and chemical tests has been developed to determine whether effluent from mine waste material poses a potential toxicity threat to the aquatic environment. For the chemical portion of the tree, leaching tests developed by the United States Geological Survey, the Colorado Division of Minerals and Geology (Denver, CO), and a modified 1311 toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test of the United States Environmental Protection Agency have been extensively used as a surrogate for readily available metals that can be released into the environment from mining wastes. To assist in the assessment, element concentration pattern graphs (ECPG) are produced that compare concentrations of selected groups of elements from the three leachates and any water associated with the mining waste. The MWDT makes a distinction between leachates or waters with pH less than or greater than 5. Generally, when the pH values are below 5, the ECPG of the solutions are quite similar, and potential aquatic toxicity from cationic metals, such as Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Al, is assumed. Below pH 5, these metals are mostly dissolved, generally are not complexed with organic or inorganic ligands, and hence are more bioavailable. Furthermore, there is virtually no carbonate alkalinity at pH less than 5. All of these factors promote metal toxicity to aquatic organisms. On the other hand, when the pH value of the water or the leachates is above 5, the ECPG from the solutions are variable, and inferred aquatic toxicity depends on factors in addition to the metals released from the leaching tests. Hence, leachates and waters with pH above 5 warrant further examination of their chemical composition. Physical ranking criteria provide additional information, particularly in areas where waste piles exhibit similar chemical rankings. Rankings from physical and chemical criteria generally are not correlated. Examples of how this

  3. Determinants of dietary diversity and the potential role of men in improving household nutrition in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Afari-Sefa, Victor; Lukumay, Philipo Joseph; Dubois, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Good nutrition is a prerequisite for a healthy and active life, especially for agriculture-dependent households. However, diets in most households in Tanzania lack diversity because the intake of meat, poultry, fish, and vegetables and fruits is low. This study estimates factors influencing dietary diversity of the household, children under five years, and women using primary survey data. It qualitatively assesses male dietary patterns and men’s potential role in improving the nutritional status of the entire household. The findings show that the most consumed foods within the household are cereals, vegetables, oils and fats, spices, condiments and beverages. Children (d = 0.4; p<0.05) and women (d = 0.5; p<0.01) in female-headed households have low dietary diversity compared to those in male-headed households. Women and children access less diverse diets since 46% and 26%, achieved minimum dietary diversity respectively. Production of vegetables (coef. 0.34; p<0.05) play an important role in improving the dietary diversity of women. Gender (coef. 0.05; p<0.10) and education of the household head (coef. 0.02; p<0.01), food preparation and nutrition training (coef. 0.10; p<0.05) are important factors influencing dietary diversity of the members of a household. Results suggest that there is a need to support community-based programs to provide information on food and the importance of vegetables, their preparation, consumption and utilization to address food and nutrition challenges. Men can contribute towards improving household nutrition security by reducing consumption of food away from the home, especially during periods of food shortages. We recommend the use of complementary quantitative research to determine the patterns and dynamics of men’s dietary diversity and compare it with that of other household members. PMID:29232413

  4. Structural Determinants of the Transient Receptor Potential 1 (TRPV1) Channel Activation by Phospholipid Analogs*

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L.; Serrano-Flores, Barbara; Llorente, Itzel; Hernández-García, Enrique; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Banerjee, Souvik; Miller, Duane; Gududuru, Veeresh; Fells, James; Norman, Derek; Tigyi, Gabor; Escalante-Alcalde, Diana; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is a polymodal protein that responds to various stimuli, including capsaicin (the pungent compound found in chili peppers), extracellular acid, and basic intracellular pH, temperatures close to 42 °C, and several lipids. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), an endogenous lipid widely associated with neuropathic pain, is an agonist of the TRPV1 channel found in primary afferent nociceptors and is activated by other noxious stimuli. Agonists or antagonists of lipid and other chemical natures are known to possess specific structural requirements for producing functional effects on their targets. To better understand how LPA and other lipid analogs might interact and affect the function of TRPV1, we set out to determine the structural features of these lipids that result in the activation of TRPV1. By changing the acyl chain length, saturation, and headgroup of these LPA analogs, we established strict requirements for activation of TRPV1. Among the natural LPA analogs, we found that only LPA 18:1, alkylglycerophosphate 18:1, and cyclic phosphatidic acid 18:1, all with a monounsaturated C18 hydrocarbon chain activate TRPV1, whereas polyunsaturated and saturated analogs do not. Thus, TRPV1 shows a more restricted ligand specificity compared with LPA G-protein-coupled receptors. We synthesized fatty alcohol phosphates and thiophosphates and found that many of them with a single double bond in position Δ9, 10, or 11 and Δ9 cyclopropyl group can activate TRPV1 with efficacy similar to capsaicin. Finally, we developed a pharmacophore and proposed a mechanistic model for how these lipids could induce a conformational change that activates TRPV1. PMID:25035428

  5. Early determinants of vagal activity at preschool age - With potential dependence on sex.

    PubMed

    Kühne, Britta; Genser, Bernd; De Bock, Freia

    2016-12-01

    In children, autonomic nervous function is related to various highly prevalent health problems and might therefore represent an early indicator of ill health. We aimed to investigate the role of early-life exposures and physical activity (PA) as potential determinants of autonomic function at preschool age. We used an existing longitudinal data set of repeated vagal tone measurements (assessed via heart rate recovery (HRR)) and retrospectively assessed early-life exposures in 1052 children (mean age: 59.4months, 47.5% girls) from 52 preschools in Germany recruited from 2008 to 2010. HRR 1min after submaximal exercise served as primary outcome. Through multilevel linear regression analysis adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic factors, we assessed the association between repeatedly measured HRR and pregnancy smoking status, breastfeeding and objectively measured PA. Besides significant regression coefficients for previously described correlates of HRR (sex, age), we could show positive associations of HRR with breastfeeding (six versus zero months: +4.2 beats per minute (BPM), p=0.004) and PA (+1.0BPM for 10min increase of moderate-to-vigorous PA/day, p<0.001). Smoking before and during pregnancy showed no significant association with HRR in the total sample. However, we found interactions between sex and smoking before and during pregnancy as well as between sex and breastfeeding, suggesting significant associations with HRR only in girls. Besides PA, early pre- and postnatal exposures seem to have long-lasting effects on children's autonomic function, still recordable at preschool age. Our data suggest that these effects might be sex-dependent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural determinants of the transient receptor potential 1 (TRPV1) channel activation by phospholipid analogs.

    PubMed

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L; Serrano-Flores, Barbara; Llorente, Itzel; Hernández-García, Enrique; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Banerjee, Souvik; Miller, Duane; Gududuru, Veeresh; Fells, James; Norman, Derek; Tigyi, Gabor; Escalante-Alcalde, Diana; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2014-08-29

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is a polymodal protein that responds to various stimuli, including capsaicin (the pungent compound found in chili peppers), extracellular acid, and basic intracellular pH, temperatures close to 42 °C, and several lipids. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), an endogenous lipid widely associated with neuropathic pain, is an agonist of the TRPV1 channel found in primary afferent nociceptors and is activated by other noxious stimuli. Agonists or antagonists of lipid and other chemical natures are known to possess specific structural requirements for producing functional effects on their targets. To better understand how LPA and other lipid analogs might interact and affect the function of TRPV1, we set out to determine the structural features of these lipids that result in the activation of TRPV1. By changing the acyl chain length, saturation, and headgroup of these LPA analogs, we established strict requirements for activation of TRPV1. Among the natural LPA analogs, we found that only LPA 18:1, alkylglycerophosphate 18:1, and cyclic phosphatidic acid 18:1, all with a monounsaturated C18 hydrocarbon chain activate TRPV1, whereas polyunsaturated and saturated analogs do not. Thus, TRPV1 shows a more restricted ligand specificity compared with LPA G-protein-coupled receptors. We synthesized fatty alcohol phosphates and thiophosphates and found that many of them with a single double bond in position Δ9, 10, or 11 and Δ9 cyclopropyl group can activate TRPV1 with efficacy similar to capsaicin. Finally, we developed a pharmacophore and proposed a mechanistic model for how these lipids could induce a conformational change that activates TRPV1. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Antiholomorphic perturbations of Weierstrass Zeta functions and Green’s function on tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Konstantin; Mamayusupov, Khudoyor; Mukherjee, Sabyasachi; Schleicher, Dierk

    2017-08-01

    In Bergweiler and Eremenko (2016 Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 144 2911-22), Bergweiler and Eremenko computed the number of critical points of the Green’s function on a torus by investigating the dynamics of a certain family of antiholomorphic meromorphic functions on tori. They also observed that hyperbolic maps are dense in this family of meromorphic functions in a rather trivial way. In this paper, we study the parameter space of this family of meromorphic functions, which can be written as antiholomorphic perturbations of Weierstrass Zeta functions. On the one hand, we give a complete topological description of the hyperbolic components and their boundaries, and on the other hand, we show that these sets admit natural parametrizations by associated dynamical invariants. This settles a conjecture, made in Lin and Wang (2010 Ann. Math. 172 911-54), on the topology of the regions in the upper half plane {H} where the number of critical points of the Green’s function remains constant.

  8. Tc Trends and Terrestrial Planet Formation: The Case of Zeta Reticuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adibekyan, Vardan; Delgado-Mena, Elisa; Figueira, Pedro; Sousa, Sergio; Santos, Nuno; Faria, Joao; González Hernández, Jonay; Israelian, Garik; Harutyunyan, Gohar; Suárez-Andrés, Lucia; Hakobyan, Artur

    2016-11-01

    During the last decade astronomers have been trying to search for chemical signatures of terrestrial planet formation in the atmospheres of the hosting stars. Several studies suggested that the chemical abundance trend with the condensation temperature, Tc, is a signature of rocky planet formation. In particular, it was suggested that the Sun shows 'peculiar' chemical abundances due to the presence of the terrestrial planets in our solar-system. However, the rocky material accretion or the trap of rocky materials in terrestrial planets is not the only explanation for the chemical 'peculiarity' of the Sun, or other Sun-like stars with planets. In this talk I madea very brief review of this topic, and presented our last results for the particular case of Zeta Reticuli binary system: A very interesting and well-known system (known in science fiction and ufology as the world of Grey Aliens, or Reticulans) where one of the components hosts an exo-Kuiper belt, and the other component is a 'single', 'lonely' star.

  9. A study of EUV emission from the O4f star Zeta Puppis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, Wayne L.; Vallerga, John

    1995-01-01

    Our 20 ks observation did not allow us to carry out our primary objective, i.e., to test the limitations of deeply embedded EUV and X-ray sources. However, it did provide a very useful constraint in our analysis of a newly acquired high S/N ROSAT PSPC X-ray spectrum of Zeta Pup. In addition, modifications to our stellar wind opacity code have been preformed to investigate the sensitivity of the EUV opacity energy range to different photospheric model flux inputs and different wind structures. These analyses provided the justification for a 140 ks follow up EUVE Cycle III observation of this star. We have recently been informed that our requested observation has been accepted as a Type 1 target for Cycle III. The remainder of this report focuses on the following: (1) a brief background on the status of X-ray emission from OB stars; (2) a discussion on the importance of EUV observations; (3) a discussion of our scientific objectives; and (4) a summary of our technical approach for our Cycle III observation (including the predicted EUV counts for various lines.)

  10. A Search for EUV Emission from the O4f Star Zeta Puppis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, Wayne L.; Vallerga, John

    1996-01-01

    We obtained a 140 ks EUVE observation of the O4f star, zeta Puppis. Because of its low ISM column density and highly ionized stellar wind, a unique EUV window is accessible for viewing between 128 to 140 A, suggesting that this star may he the only O star observable with the EUVE. Although no SW spectrometer wavelength bin had a signal to noise greater than 3, a bin at 136 A had a signal to noise of 2.4. This bin is where models predict the brightest line due to OV emission should occur. We present several EUV line emission models. These models were constrained by fitting the ROSAT PSPC X-ray data and our EUVE data. If the OV emission is real, the best fits to the data suggest that there are discrepancies in our current understanding of EUV/X-ray production mechanisms. In particular, the emission measure of the EUV source is found to be much greater than the total wind emission measure, suggesting that the EUV shock must produce a very large density enhancement. In addition, the location of the EUV and X-ray shocks are found to be separated by approx. 0.3 stellar radii, but the EUV emission region is found to be approx. 400 times larger than the X-ray emission region. We also discuss the implications of a null detection and present relevant upper limits.

  11. Pleiotrophin and its receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta as regulators of angiogenesis and cancer.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Evangelia; Pantazaka, Evangelia; Castana, Penelope; Tsalios, Thomas; Polyzos, Alexandros; Beis, Dimitris

    2016-12-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted heparin-binding growth factor that through its receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta (RPTPβ/ζ) has a significant regulatory effect on angiogenesis and cancer. PTN and RPTPβ/ζ are over-expressed in several types of human cancers and regulate important cancer cell functions in vitro and cancer growth in vivo. This review begins with a brief introduction of PTN and the regulation of its expression. PTN receptors are described with special emphasis on RPTPβ/ζ, which also interacts with and/or affects the function of other important targets for cancer therapy, such as vascular endothelial growth factor A, α ν β 3 and cell surface nucleolin. PTN biological activities related to angiogenesis and cancer are extensively discussed. Finally, up to date approaches of targeting PTN or RPTPβ/ζ for cancer treatment are presented. Insights into the regulatory role of PTN/RPTPβ/ζ on angiogenesis will be extremely beneficial for future development of alternative anti-angiogenic approaches in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Steady state method to determine unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at the ambient water potential

    DOEpatents

    HUbbell, Joel M.

    2014-08-19

    The present invention relates to a new laboratory apparatus for measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at a single water potential. One or more embodiments of the invented apparatus can be used over a wide range of water potential values within the tensiometric range, requires minimal laboratory preparation, and operates unattended for extended periods with minimal supervision. The present invention relates to a new laboratory apparatus for measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at a single water potential. One or more embodiments of the invented apparatus can be used over a wide range of water potential values within the tensiometric range, requires minimal laboratory preparation, and operates unattended for extended periods with minimal supervision.

  13. Measuring short distance dispersal of Alliaria petiolata and determining potential long distance dispersal mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Roger C.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Alliaria petiolata, an herbaceous plant, has invaded woodlands in North America. Its ecology has been thoroughly studied, but an overlooked aspect of its biology is seed dispersal distances and mechanisms. We measured seed dispersal distances in the field and tested if epizoochory is a potential mechanism for long-distance seed dispersal. Methods Dispersal distances were measured by placing seed traps in a sector design around three seed point sources, which consisted of 15 second-year plants transplanted within a 0.25 m radius circle. Traps were placed at intervals ranging from 0.25–3.25 m from the point source. Traps remained in the field until a majority of seeds were dispersed. Eight probability density functions were fitted to seed trap counts via maximum likelihood. Epizoochory was tested as a potential seed dispersal mechanism for A. petiolata through a combination of field and laboratory experiments. To test if small mammals transport A. petiolata seeds in their fur, experimental blocks were placed around dense A. petiolata patches. Each block contained a mammal inclusion treatment (MIT) and control. The MIT consisted of a wood-frame (31 × 61× 31 cm) covered in wire mesh, except for the two 31 × 31 cm ends, placed over a germination tray filled with potting soil. A pan filled with bait was placed in the center of the tray. The control frame (11 × 31 × 61 cm) was placed over a germination tray and completely covered in wire mesh to exclude animal activity. Treatments were in the field for peak seed dispersal. In March, trays were moved to a greenhouse and A. petiolata seedlings were counted and then compared between treatments. To determine if A. petiolata seeds attach to raccoon (Procyon lotor) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fur, wet and dry seeds were dropped onto wet and dry fur. Furs were rotated 180 degrees and the seeds that remained attached were counted. To measure seed retention, seeds were dropped on

  14. The Berry phase and the phase of the determinant

    SciTech Connect

    Braverman, Maxim

    2014-04-15

    We show that under very general assumptions the adiabatic approximation of the phase of the zeta-regularized determinant of the imaginary-time Schrödinger operator with periodic Hamiltonian is equal to the Berry phase.

  15. Determination of Antibacterial and Technological Properties of Vaginal Lactobacilli for Their Potential Application in Dairy Products

    PubMed Central

    Siroli, Lorenzo; Patrignani, Francesca; Serrazanetti, Diana I.; Parolin, Carola; Ñahui Palomino, Rogers A.; Vitali, Beatrice; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2017-01-01

    Functional foods could differently affect human health in relation to the gender. Recent studies have highlighted the anti-Candida and anti-Chlamydia activities of some Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vagina of healthy women. Considering these important beneficial activities on women's health, the preparation of functional food containing active vaginal lactobacilli can represent a great scientific challenge for the female gender. In this context, the aim of this work was to study some functional and technological properties of 17 vaginal strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus vaginalis in the perspective to include them in dairy products. The antagonistic activities against the pathogenic and spoilage species associated to food products and against the principal etiological agents of the genitourinary tract infections were evaluated. Moreover, the vaginal lactobacilli were characterized for their antibiotic resistance, and for their fermentation kinetics and viability during the refrigerated storage in milk. Finally, the volatile molecule profiles of the obtained fermented milks were determined. The results showed that several strains, mainly belonging to the species Lactobacillus crispatus, exhibited a significant antagonistic activity against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms of food interest, as well as against urogenital pathogens. All the vaginal lactobacilli showed antimicrobial activity against strains belonging to the foodborne pathogenic species Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Eenterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. In addition, most of the Lactobacillus strains were active toward the main pathogens responsible of vaginal and urinary tract infections including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Proteus mirabilis. The antimicrobial activity can be attributed to the high production of organic acids. The fermentation kinetics in milk

  16. Determining electrically evoked compound action potential thresholds: a comparison of computer versus human analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Glassman, E Katelyn; Hughes, Michelle L

    2013-01-01

    Current cochlear implants (CIs) have telemetry capabilities for measuring the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP). Neural Response Telemetry (Cochlear) and Neural Response Imaging (Advanced Bionics [AB]) can measure ECAP responses across a range of stimulus levels to obtain an amplitude growth function. Software-specific algorithms automatically mark the leading negative peak, N1, and the following positive peak/plateau, P2, and apply linear regression to estimate ECAP threshold. Alternatively, clinicians may apply expert judgments to modify the peak markers placed by the software algorithms, or use visual detection to identify the lowest level yielding a measurable ECAP response. The goals of this study were to: (1) assess the variability between human and computer decisions for (a) marking N1 and P2 and (b) determining linear-regression threshold (LRT) and visual-detection threshold (VDT); and (2) compare LRT and VDT methods within and across human- and computer-decision methods. ECAP amplitude-growth functions were measured for three electrodes in each of 20 ears (10 Cochlear Nucleus® 24RE/CI512, and 10 AB CII/90K). LRT, defined as the current level yielding an ECAP with zero amplitude, was calculated for both computer- (C-LRT) and human-picked peaks (H-LRT). VDT, defined as the lowest level resulting in a measurable ECAP response, was also calculated for both computer- (C-VDT) and human-picked peaks (H-VDT). Because Neural Response Imaging assigns peak markers to all waveforms but does not include waveforms with amplitudes less than 20 μV in its regression calculation, C-VDT for AB subjects was defined as the lowest current level yielding an amplitude of 20 μV or more. Overall, there were significant correlations between human and computer decisions for peak-marker placement, LRT, and VDT for both manufacturers (r = 0.78-1.00, p < 0.001). For Cochlear devices, LRT and VDT correlated equally well for both computer- and human-picked peaks (r

  17. Theoretical determination of one-electron redox potentials for DNA bases, base pairs, and stacks.

    PubMed

    Paukku, Y; Hill, G

    2011-05-12

    Electron affinities, ionization potentials, and redox potentials for DNA bases, base pairs, and N-methylated derivatives are computed at the DFT/M06-2X/6-31++G(d,p) level of theory. Redox properties of a guanine-guanine stack model are explored as well. Reduction and oxidation potentials are in good agreement with the experimental ones. Electron affinities of base pairs were found to be negative. Methylation of canonical bases affects the ionization potentials the most. Base pair formation and base stacking lower ionization potentials by 0.3 eV. Pairing of guanine with the 5-methylcytosine does not seem to influence the redox properties of this base pair much.

  18. Effects of salt secretion on psychrometric determinations of water potential of cotton leaves.

    PubMed

    Klepper, B; Barrs, H D

    1968-07-01

    Thermocouple psychrometers gave lower estimates of water potential of cotton leaves than did a pressure chamber. This difference was considerable for turgid leaves, but progressively decreased for leaves with lower water potentials and fell to zero at water potentials below about -10 bars. The conductivity of washings from cotton leaves removed from the psychrometric equilibration chambers was related to the magnitude of this discrepancy in water potential, indicating that the discrepancy is due to salts on the leaf surface which make the psychrometric estimates too low. This error, which may be as great as 400 to 500%, cannot be eliminated by washing the leaves because salts may be secreted during the equilibration period. Therefore, a thermocouple psychrometer is not suitable for measuring the water potential of cotton leaves when it is above about -10 bars.

  19. Effects of Salt Secretion on Psychrometric Determinations of Water Potential of Cotton Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Klepper, Betty; Barrs, H. D.

    1968-01-01

    Thermocouple psychrometers gave lower estimates of water potential of cotton leaves than did a pressure chamber. This difference was considerable for turgid leaves, but progressively decreased for leaves with lower water potentials and fell to zero at water potentials below about −10 bars. The conductivity of washings from cotton leaves removed from the psychrometric equilibration chambers was related to the magnitude of this discrepancy in water potential, indicating that the discrepancy is due to salts on the leaf surface which make the psychrometric estimates too low. This error, which may be as great as 400 to 500%, cannot be eliminated by washing the leaves because salts may be secreted during the equilibration period. Therefore, a thermocouple psychrometer is not suitable for measuring the water potential of cotton leaves when it is above about −10 bars. PMID:16656895

  20. Determination of the real part of the η'-Nb optical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanova, M.; Friedrich, S.; Metag, V.; Paryev, E. Ya.; Afzal, F. N.; Bayadilov, D.; Beck, R.; Becker, M.; Böse, S.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Crede, V.; Elsner, D.; Frommberger, F.; Grüner, M.; Gutz, E.; Hammann, Ch.; Hannappel, J.; Hartmann, J.; Hillert, W.; Hoffmeister, P.; Honisch, Ch.; Jude, T.; Kalischewski, F.; Keshelashvili, I.; Klein, F.; Koop, K.; Krusche, B.; Lang, M.; Makonyi, K.; Messi, F.; Müller, J.; Müllers, J.; Piontek, D.-M.; Rostomyan, T.; Schaab, D.; Schmidt, C.; Schmieden, H.; Schmitz, R.; Seifen, T.; Sowa, C.; Spieker, K.; Thiel, A.; Thoma, U.; Triffterer, T.; Urban, M.; van Pee, H.; Walther, D.; Wendel, C.; Werthmüller, D.; Wiedner, U.; Wilson, A.; Witthauer, L.; Wunderlich, Y.; Zaunick, H.-G.; Cbelsa/Taps Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    The excitation function and momentum distribution of η' mesons have been measured in photoproduction off 93Nb in the energy range of 1.2-2.9 GeV. The experiment has been performed with the combined Crystal Barrel and MiniTAPS detector system, using tagged photon beams from the ELSA electron accelerator. Information on the sign and magnitude of the real part of the η'-Nb potential has been extracted from a comparison of the data with model calculations. An attractive potential of -(41 ±10 (stat )±15 (syst )) MeV depth at normal nuclear matter density is deduced within model uncertainties. This value is consistent with the potential depth of -(37 ±10 (stat )±10 (syst )) MeV obtained in an earlier measurement for a light nucleus (carbon). This relatively shallow η'-nucleus potential will make the search for η'-nucleus bound states more difficult.

  1. Agglomeration Determines Effects of Carbonaceous Nanomaterials on Soybean Nodulation, Dinitrogen Fixation Potential, and Growth in Soil

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effects of carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNMs) on agricultural plants are of concern. However, little research has been performed using plants cultivated to maturity in soils contaminated with various CNMs at different concentrations. Here, we grew soybean for 39 days...

  2. Determination of the expansion of the potential of the earth's normal gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochiev, A. A.

    The potential of the generalized problem of 2N fixed centers is expanded in a polynomial and Legendre function series. Formulas are derived for the expansion coefficients, and the disturbing function of the problem is constructed in an explicit form.

  3. 38 CFR 21.6054 - Criteria for determining good employment potential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Stabilization of medical conditions or substance abuse problems. (6) Participation in therapeutic work programs... good potential for achieving employment does not exist, a personal interview will be scheduled, and the...

  4. Determination of siloxanes in silicone products and potential migration to milk, formula and liquid simulants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Wong, Jon W; Begley, Timothy H; Hayward, Douglas G; Limm, William

    2012-08-01

    A pressurised solvent extraction procedure coupled with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selective ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM) method was developed to determine three cyclic siloxanes, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) and three linear siloxanes, octamethyltrisiloxane (L3), decamethyltetrasiloxane (L4), dodecamethylpentasiloxane (L5), in silicone products. Additionally, two different extraction methods were developed to measure these siloxanes migrating into milk, infant formula and liquid simulants (50 and 95% ethanol in water). The limits of quantification (LOQs) of the six siloxanes ranged from 6 ng/g (L3) to 15 ng/g (D6). Silicone nipples and silicone bakewares were extracted using pressurised solvent extraction (PSE) and analysed using the GC-MS-SIM method. No linear siloxanes were detected in the silicone nipple samples analysed. The three cyclic siloxanes (D4, D5 and D6) were detected in all silicone nipple samples with concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 269 µg/g. In the bakeware samples, except for L3, the other five siloxanes were detected with concentrations ranging from 0.2 µg/g (L4) to 7030 µg/g (D6). To investigate the potential migration of the six siloxanes from silicone nipples to milk and infant formula, a liquid extraction and dispersive clean-up procedure was developed for the two matrices. The procedure used a mix of hexane and ethyl acetate (1 : 1, v/v) as extraction solvent and C₁₈ powder as the dispersive clean-up sorbent. For the liquid simulants, extraction of the siloxanes was achieved using hexane without any salting out or clean-up procedures. The recoveries of the six siloxanes from the milk, infant formula and simulants fortified at 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 µg/l ranged from 70 to 120% with a relative standard derivation (RSD) of less than 15% (n = 4). Migration tests were performed by exposing milk, infant formula and the liquid

  5. 14-3-3 sigma and 14-3-3 zeta plays an opposite role in cell growth inhibition mediated by transforming growth factor-beta 1.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hye-Young; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Bae, Eun-Jin; Kim, Shin-Tae; Lee, Ho-Jae; Kim, Seong-Jin; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2010-03-01

    The expression of 14-3-3 proteins is dysregulated in various types of cancer. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of 14-3-3 zeta and 14-3-3 sigma on cell growth inhibition mediated by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1). Mouse mammary epithelial cells (Eph4) that are transformed with oncogenic c-H-Ras (EpRas) and no longer sensitive to TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition displayed increased expression of 14-3-3 zeta and decreased expression of 14-3-3 sigma compared with parental Eph4 cells. Using small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown and overexpression of 14-3-3 sigma or 14-3-3 zeta, we showed that 14-3-3 sigma is required for TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition whereas 14-3-3 zeta negatively modulates this growth inhibitory response. Notably, overexpression of 14-3-3 zeta increased the level of Smad3 protein that is phosphorylated at linker regions and cannot mediate the TGF-beta1 growth inhibitory response. Consistent with this finding, mutation of the 14-3-3 zeta phosphorylation sites in Smad3 markedly reduced the 14-3-3 zeta-mediated inhibition of TGF-beta1-induced p15 promoter-reporter activity and cell cycle arrest, suggesting that these residues are critical targets of 14-3-3 zeta in the suppression of TGF-beta1-mediated growth. Taken together, our findings indicate that dysregulation of 14-3-3 sigma or 14-3-3 zeta contributes to TGF-beta1 resistance in cancer cells.

  6. High-resolution ultraviolet observations of interstellar lines toward Zeta Persei observed with the balloon-borne ultraviolet stellar spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, T.P.; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.; Joseph, C.L.

    1987-10-01

    The balloon-borne ultraviolet stellar spectrometer payload has been used to obtain high-resolution data on interstellar absorption lines toward Zeta Per. The only lines clearly present in the 2150-2450 region were several Fe II features, which show double structure. The two velocity components were sufficiently well separated that it was possible to construct separate curves of growth to derive the Fe II column densities for the individual components. These column densities and the component velocity separation were then used to compute a realistic two-component curve of growth for the line of sight to Zeta Per, which was then used to reanalyzemore » existing ultraviolet data from Copernicus. The results were generally similar to an earlier two-component analysis of the Copernicus data, with the important exception that the silicon depletion increased from near zero to about 1 dex. This makes the Zeta Per depletion pattern quite similar to those derived for other reddened lines of sight, supporting the viewpoint that the general diffuse interstellar medium has a nearly constant pattern of depletions. 31 references.« less

  7. Oxygen potential of uranium--plutonium oxide as determined by controlled- atmosphere thermogravimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Gerald C.

    1975-10-01

    The oxygen-to-metal atom ratio, or O/M, of solid solution uranium- plutonium oxide reactor fuel is a measure of the concentration of crystal defects in the oxide which affect many fuel properties, particularly, fuel oxygen potential. Fabrication of a high-temperature oxygen electrode, employing an electro-active tip of oxygen-deficient solid-state electrolyte, intended to confirm gaseous oxygen potentials is described. Uranium oxide and plutonium oxide O/M reference materials were prepared by in situ oxidation of high purity metals in the thermobalance. A solid solution uranium-plutonium oxide O/M reference material was prepared by alloying the uranium and plutonium metals in a yttrium oxide cruciblemore » at 1200°C and oxidizing with moist He at 250°C. The individual and solid solution oxides were isothermally equilibrated with controlled oxygen potentials between 800 and 1300°C and the equilibrated O/ M ratios calculated with corrections for impurities and buoyancy effects. Use of a reference oxygen potential of -100 kcal/mol to produce an O/M of 2.000 is confirmed by these results. However, because of the lengthy equilibration times required for all oxides, use of the O/M reference materials rather than a reference oxygen potential is recommended for O/M analysis methods calibrations.« less

  8. Zebrafish pronephros tubulogenesis and epithelial identity maintenance are reliant on the polarity proteins Prkc iota and zeta.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Gary F; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2014-12-15

    The zebrafish pronephros provides an excellent in vivo system to study the mechanisms of vertebrate nephron development. When and how renal progenitors in the zebrafish embryo undergo tubulogenesis to form nephrons is poorly understood, but is known to involve a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and the acquisition of polarity. Here, we determined the precise timing of these events in pronephros tubulogenesis. As the ternary polarity complex is an essential regulator of epithelial cell polarity across tissues, we performed gene knockdown studies to assess the roles of the related factors atypical protein kinase C iota and zeta (prkcι, prkcζ). We found that prkcι and prkcζ serve partially redundant functions to establish pronephros tubule epithelium polarity. Further, the loss of prkcι or the combined knockdown of prkcι/ζ disrupted proximal tubule morphogenesis and podocyte migration due to cardiac defects that prevented normal fluid flow to the kidney. Surprisingly, tubule cells in prkcι/ζ morphants displayed ectopic expression of the transcription factor pax2a and the podocyte-associated genes wt1a, wt1b, and podxl, suggesting that prkcι/ζ are needed to maintain renal epithelial identity. Knockdown of genes essential for cardiac contractility and vascular flow to the kidney, such as tnnt2a, or elimination of pronephros fluid output through knockdown of the intraflagellar transport gene ift88, was not associated with ectopic pronephros gene expression, thus suggesting a unique role for prkcι/ζ in maintaining tubule epithelial identity separate from the consequence of disruptions to renal fluid flow. Interestingly, knockdown of pax2a, but not wt1a, was sufficient to rescue ectopic tubule gene expression in prkcι/ζ morphants. These data suggest a model in which the redundant activities of prkcι and prkcζ are essential to establish tubule epithelial polarity and also serve to maintain proper epithelial cell type identity in the tubule by

  9. Zebrafish pronephros tubulogenesis and epithelial identity maintenance are reliant on the polarity proteins Prkc iota and zeta

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Gary F.; Wingert, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish pronephros provides an excellent in vivo system to study the mechanisms of vertebrate nephron development. When and how renal progenitors in the zebrafish embryo undergo tubulogenesis to form nephrons is poorly understood, but is known to involve a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and the acquisition of polarity. Here, we determined the precise timing of these events in pronephros tubulogenesis. As the ternary polarity complex is an essential regulator of epithelial cell polarity across tissues, we performed gene knockdown studies to assess the roles of the related factors atypical protein kinase C iota and zeta (prkcι, prkcζ). We found that prkcι and prkcζ serve partially redundant functions to establish pronephros tubule epithelium polarity. Further, the loss of prkcι or the combined knockdown of prkcι/ζ disrupted proximal tubule morphogenesis and podocyte migration due to cardiac defects that prevented normal fluid flow to the kidney. Surprisingly, tubule cells in prkcι/ζ morphants displayed ectopic expression of the transcription factor pax2a and the podocyte-associated genes wt1a, wt1b, and podxl, suggesting that prkcι/ζ are needed to maintain renal epithelial identity. Knockdown of genes essential for cardiac contractility and vascular flow to the kidney, such as tnnt2a, or elimination of pronephros fluid output through knockdown of the intraflagellar transport gene ift88, was not associated with ectopic pronephros gene expression, thus suggesting a unique role for prkcι/ζ in maintaining tubule epithelial identity separate from the consequence of disruptions to renal fluid flow. Interestingly, knockdown of pax2a, but not wt1a, was sufficient to rescue ectopic tubule gene expression in prkcι/ζ morphants. These data suggest a model in which the redundant activities of prkcι and prkcζ are essential to establish tubule epithelial polarity and also serve to maintain proper epithelial cell type identity in the tubule by

  10. The determination of Volta-potentials at the metal/solution interface

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, V.M.

    1985-08-01

    This paper discusses the effect of polar dielectric solvents on the Voltapotential component caused by the change in surface potential in sp-metals which are in contact with a solution at the point of zero charge. It is shown that this change depends relatively little on the metal and solvent. A change in potential drop occurs in the metal as a result of phase contact. This change is known to be responsible for the decrease in surface energy of the metal such as is revealed in the effect of enhanced metallic ductility during mechanical working in polar media. The conjugate effectmore » of improved wettability is seen during cathodic polarization of electrodes when the metal's surface potential also should decrease.« less

  11. Determination of set potential voltages for cucumber mosaic virus detection using screen printed carbon electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uda, M. N. A.; Hasfalina, C. M.; Samsuzana, A. A.; Faridah, S.; Rafidah A., R.; Hashim, U.; Ariffin, Shahrul A. B.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.

    2017-03-01

    Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) is a most dangerous pathogen among the cucurbit plant which it striking cucumbers, zucchinis, squashes, watermelons but it also striking to non-cucurbit such as peppers, tobaccos, celeries, beans and tomatoes. Symptoms shown by this virus when they starting to strike are very significant and at the end can kill the hosts they infected. In order to detect these viruses, biosensor such as screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) is developed and fixes a set potential voltage is defined using Chronoamperometry (CM) immunosensor technique. For short introduction, CM is a process which is a constant applied potential voltage between the working and reference electrode is maintained in order to create an electrons transfer for the oxidation or reduction species taking place at the surface of working electrode is measured and in this manuscript, complete details about measurement were used to finding the stable set potential voltages will be pointed out.

  12. Determination of serum lysophosphatidic acid as a potential biomarker for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Meleh, Marija; Pozlep, Barbara; Mlakar, Anita; Meden-Vrtovec, Helena; Zupancic-Kralj, Lucija

    2007-10-15

    A fast and selective analytical method, used to determine the different lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) species in serum, has been developed and validated. LPA species were quantitatively extracted from serum using methanol-chloroform (2:1, v/v). The proteins were precipitated by this solvent mixture and separated by centrifugation in one step. LPA levels were determined in clear extracts using the HPLC-MS/MS method. The linearity of this method was established in the concentration range between 0.1 and 16 microM for all LPA species with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.99. Recovery of all LPA species determined by the serum, fortified at approximately 1 microM and 2-3 microM, was between 93% and 111% with an average R.S.D. of less than 8%. This method was used to determine LPA in numerous sera of healthy controls, patients with benign ovarian tumours and ovarian cancer at different stages. Significantly higher total LPA levels were determined in the sera of patients with different types of tumours (benign and malignant).

  13. Determination of Metastatic Potential in Breast Tumors by Global Molecular Characterization Using Multiple Modalities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    5 Results ...to disease prognosis and in determining the course of treatment for the patient (2) . Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous and complex disease...progression is a challenge. Introduction of high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays has helped not only for whole genome

  14. 75 FR 27170 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Determination Concerning the Potential for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... issue a final rule determining whether to issue efficiency standards for battery chargers (BCs) and EPSs... Standards for Non- Class A External Power Supplies AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Web site at http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings...

  15. Prioritization of pesticides based on daily dietary exposure potential as determined from the SHEDS model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major pathway for exposure to many pesticides is through diet. The objectives were to rank pesticides by comparing their calculated daily dietary exposure as determined by EPA's Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) to single pesticides for different age groups ...

  16. Determining Your Potential as an Entrepreneur. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 2. Research & Development Series No. 240AB2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on determining one's potential as an entrepreneur, the second in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use with secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts…

  17. Determining Your Potential as an Entrepreneur. PACE Revised. Level 2. Unit 2. Research & Development Series No. 240BB2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This unit on determining one's potential as an entrepreneur, the second in a series of 18 modules, is on the second level of the revised PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) comprehensive curriculum. Geared to advanced secondary and beginning postsecondary or adult students, the modules provide an opportunity to learn about…

  18. Determining Your Potential as an Entrepreneur. PACE Revised. Level 3. Unit 2. Research & Development Series No. 240CB2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This individualized, competency-based unit on determining one's potential as an entrepreneur, the second of 18 modules, is on the third level of the revised Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). Intended for the advanced secondary and postsecondary levels and for adults wanting training or retraining, this unit, together…

  19. In Vitro Determination of the Allergenic Potential of Egg White in Processed Meat

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrandt, Sabine; Schütte, Larsen; Stoyanov, Stefan; Hammer, Günther; Steinhart, Hans; Paschke, Angelika

    2010-01-01

    Hen's egg white has been reported as a causative agent of allergic reactions, with ovalbumin, conalbumin, ovomucoid, and lysozyme being the major allergens. However, little is known about the effects of processing with heat and high pressure on the allergenicity of egg white proteins as ingredients in meat. For this purpose, the allergenic characteristics of such treated preparations were studied. The IgE-binding capacity was analyzed by EAST inhibition in raw and processed meat preparations using sera from patients with hen's egg specific IgE. Increasing heat treatment as well as the application of high pressure decreased IgE binding, which is a measure of allergenic potential. The combined application of heat (70°C) and high pressure had synergistic effects in reducing the allergenic potential nearly twice as the sum of the single treatments conducted separately. PMID:20948881

  20. Studies for determining thermal ion extraction potential for aluminium plasma generated by electron beam evaporator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dileep Kumar, V.; Barnwal, Tripti A.; Mukherjee, Jaya; Gantayet, L. M.

    2010-02-01

    For effective evaporation of refractory metal, electron beam is found to be most suitable vapour generator source. Using electron beam, high throughput laser based purification processes are carried out. But due to highly concentrated electron beam, the vapour gets ionised and these ions lead to dilution of the pure product of laser based separation process. To estimate the concentration of these ions and extraction potential requirement to remove these ions from vapour stream, experiments have been conducted using aluminium as evaporant. The aluminium ingots were placed in water cooled copper crucible. Inserts were used to hold the evaporant, in order to attain higher number density in the vapour processing zone and also for confining the liquid metal. Parametric studies with beam power, number density and extraction potential were conducted. In this paper we discuss the trend of the generation of thermal ions and electrostatic field requirement for extraction.

  1. Progress toward determining the potential of ODS alloys for gas turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Hoppin, G., III; Sheffler, K.

    1983-01-01

    The Materials for Advanced Turbine Engine (MATE) Program managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center is supporting two projects to evaluate the potential of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys for aircraft gas turbine applications. One project involves the evaluation of Incoloy (TM) MA-956 for application as a combustor liner material. An assessment of advanced engine potential will be conducted by means of a test in a P&WA 2037 turbofan engine. The other project involves the evaluation of Inconel (TM) MA 6000 for application as a high pressure turbine blade material and includes a test in a Garrett TFE 731 turbofan engine. Both projects are progressing toward these engine tests in 1984.

  2. NF-kappaB Activity in Macrophages Determines Metastatic Potential of Breast Tumor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Cheng DS, Chodosh LA, Blackwell TS, Yull FE: Activation of nuclear factor kappa B in mammary epithelium promotes milk loss during mammary... microbial products (15, 16). To date, the potential role of macrophages in the fetal lung innate immune response has not been closely examined. Studies...In this model, microbial products initially activate NF-kB in lung macrophages. The release of inflammatory mediators, particularly IL-1b and/or TNF-a

  3. Theoretical determination of the ionization potential and the electron affinity of organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Susumu

    2017-11-01

    Ionization potential and electron affinity of organic semicondutors are important quantities, which are relevant to charge injection barriers. The electrostatic and dynamical contributions to the polarization energies for the injected charges in pentacene polymorphs were investigated. While the dynamical polarization induced narrowing of the energy gap, the electrostatic effect shifted up or down the frontier energy levels, which is sensitive to the molecular orientation at the surface.

  4. Rotational Energy Transfer of N2 Gas Determined Using a New Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Rotational energy transfer between two N2 molecules is a fundamental process of some importance. Exchange is expected to play a role, but its importance is somewhat uncertain. Rotational energy transfer cross sections of N2 also have applications in many other fields including modeling of aerodynamic flows, laser operations, and linewidth analysis in nonintrusive laser diagnostics. A number of N2-N2 rigid rotor potential energy surface (PES) has been reported in the literature.

  5. Considerations in Selecting Bioassay Organisms for Determining the Potential Environmental Impact of Dredged Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Hg), cad- mium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), petroleum hydrocarbons , or organohalogens occurred. 27. The copepod Acartia tonsa, the mysid shrimp...suspensions of kaolin previously mixed with diesel fuel to coat the particles with petroleum hydrocarbons . Three seasonal experiments involving uptake...by block rnber) VA list of factors was developed to aid in the selection of test species for bioassay and bioaccumulation potential studies with

  6. Determination of electric dipole transitions in heavy quarkonia using potential non-relativistic QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segovia, Jorge; Steinbeißer, Sebastian

    2018-05-01

    The electric dipole transitions {χ }bJ(1P)\\to γ \\Upsilon (1S) with J = 0, 1, 2 and {h}b(1P)\\to γ {η }b(1S) are computed using the weak-coupling version of a low-energy effective field theory named potential non-relativistic QCD (pNRQCD). In order to improve convergence and thus give firm predictions for the studied reactions, the full static potential is incorporated into the leading order Hamiltonian; moreover, we must handle properly renormalon effects and re-summation of large logarithms. The precision we reach is {k}γ 3/{(mv)}2× O({v}2), where kγ is the photon energy, m is the mass of the heavy quark and v its velocity. Our analysis separates those relativistic contributions that account for the electromagnetic interaction terms in the pNRQCD Lagrangian which are v 2 suppressed and those that account for wave function corrections of relative order v 2. Among the last ones, corrections from 1/m and 1/m2 potentials are computed, but not those coming from higher Fock states since they demand non-perturbative input and are {{{Λ }}}{{QCD}}2/{(mv)}2 or {{{Λ }}}{{QCD}}3/({m}3{v}4) suppressed, at least, in the strict weak coupling regime. These proceedings are based on the forthcoming publication [1].

  7. Assessment of wastewater effluent quality in Thessaly region, Greece, for determining its irrigation reuse potential.

    PubMed

    Bakopoulou, S; Emmanouil, C; Kungolos, A

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess wastewater effluent quality in Thessaly region, Greece, in relation to its physicochemical and microbiological burden as well as its toxic potential on a number of organisms. Wastewater may be used for agricultural as well as for landscape irrigation purposes; therefore, its toxicity potential is quite important. Thessaly region has been chosen since this region suffers from a distinct water shortage in summer period necessitating alternative water resources. During our research, treated effluents from four wastewater treatment plants operating in the region (Larissa, Volos, Karditsa, and Tirnavos) were tested for specific physicochemical and microbiological parameters [biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), pH, electrical conductivity, selected metals presence (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, As), and fecal coliforms' (FC) number]. The effluents were also tested for their toxicity using two different bioassays (Daphnia magna immobilization test and Phytotoxkit microbiotest). The findings were compared to relative regulations and guidelines regarding wastewater reuse for irrigation. The results overall show that secondary effluents in Thessaly region are generally acceptable for reuse for irrigation purposes according to limits set by legislation, if effective advanced treatment methods are applied prior to reuse. However, their potential toxicity should be closely monitored, since it was found that it may vary significantly in relation to season and location, when indicator plant and zooplankton organisms are used. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of Nerve Fiber Diameter Distribution From Compound Action Potential: A Continuous Approach.

    PubMed

    Un, M Kerem; Kaghazchi, Hamed

    2018-01-01

    When a signal is initiated in the nerve, it is transmitted along each nerve fiber via an action potential (called single fiber action potential (SFAP)) which travels with a velocity that is related with the diameter of the fiber. The additive superposition of SFAPs constitutes the compound action potential (CAP) of the nerve. The fiber diameter distribution (FDD) in the nerve can be computed from the CAP data by solving an inverse problem. This is usually achieved by dividing the fibers into a finite number of diameter groups and solve a corresponding linear system to optimize FDD. However, number of fibers in a nerve can be measured sometimes in thousands and it is possible to assume a continuous distribution for the fiber diameters which leads to a gradient optimization problem. In this paper, we have evaluated this continuous approach to the solution of the inverse problem. We have utilized an analytical function for SFAP and an assumed a polynomial form for FDD. The inverse problem involves the optimization of polynomial coefficients to obtain the best estimate for the FDD. We have observed that an eighth order polynomial for FDD can capture both unimodal and bimodal fiber distributions present in vivo, even in case of noisy CAP data. The assumed FDD distribution regularizes the ill-conditioned inverse problem and produces good results.

  9. Time-resolved determination of the potential of zero charge at polycrystalline Au/ionic liquid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Barbosa, Nella M.; Roling, Bernhard

    2018-05-01

    The potential of zero charge (PZC) is a fundamental property that describes the electrode/electrolyte interface. The determination of the PZC at electrode/ionic liquid interfaces has been challenging due to the lack of models that fully describe these complex interfaces as well as the non-standardized approaches used to characterize them. In this work, we present a method that combines electrode immersion transient and impedance measurements for the determination of the PZC. This combined approach allows the distinction of the potential of zero free charge (pzfc), related to fast double layer charging on a millisecond timescale, from a potential of zero charge on a timescale of tens of seconds related to slower ion transport processes at the interface. Our method highlights the complementarity of these electrochemical techniques and the importance of selecting the correct timescale to execute experiments and interpret the results.

  10. Determination of Surface Potential and Electrical Double-Layer Structure at the Aqueous Electrolyte-Nanoparticle Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Matthew A.; Abbas, Zareen; Kleibert, Armin; Green, Richard G.; Goel, Alok; May, Sylvio; Squires, Todd M.

    2016-01-01

    The structure of the electrical double layer has been debated for well over a century, since it mediates colloidal interactions, regulates surface structure, controls reactivity, sets capacitance, and represents the central element of electrochemical supercapacitors. The surface potential of such surfaces generally exceeds the electrokinetic potential, often substantially. Traditionally, a Stern layer of nonspecifically adsorbed ions has been invoked to rationalize the difference between these two potentials; however, the inability to directly measure the surface potential of dispersed systems has rendered quantitative measurements of the Stern layer potential, and other quantities associated with the outer Helmholtz plane, impossible. Here, we use x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy from a liquid microjet to measure the absolute surface potentials of silica nanoparticles dispersed in aqueous electrolytes. We quantitatively determine the impact of specific cations (Li+ , Na+ , K+ , and Cs+ ) in chloride electrolytes on the surface potential, the location of the shear plane, and the capacitance of the Stern layer. We find that the magnitude of the surface potential increases linearly with the hydrated-cation radius. Interpreting our data using the simplest assumptions and most straightforward understanding of Gouy-Chapman-Stern theory reveals a Stern layer whose thickness corresponds to a single layer of water molecules hydrating the silica surface, plus the radius of the hydrated cation. These results subject electrical double-layer theories to direct and falsifiable tests to reveal a physically intuitive and quantitatively verified picture of the Stern layer that is consistent across multiple electrolytes and solution conditions.

  11. Determination of the maximum-depth to potential field sources by a maximum structural index method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedi, M.; Florio, G.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and fast determination of the limiting depth to the sources may represent a significant help to the data interpretation. To this end we explore the possibility of determining those source parameters shared by all the classes of models fitting the data. One approach is to determine the maximum depth-to-source compatible with the measured data, by using for example the well-known Bott-Smith rules. These rules involve only the knowledge of the field and its horizontal gradient maxima, and are independent from the density contrast. Thanks to the direct relationship between structural index and depth to sources we work out a simple and fast strategy to obtain the maximum depth by using the semi-automated methods, such as Euler deconvolution or depth-from-extreme-points method (DEXP). The proposed method consists in estimating the maximum depth as the one obtained for the highest allowable value of the structural index (Nmax). Nmax may be easily determined, since it depends only on the dimensionality of the problem (2D/3D) and on the nature of the analyzed field (e.g., gravity field or magnetic field). We tested our approach on synthetic models against the results obtained by the classical Bott-Smith formulas and the results are in fact very similar, confirming the validity of this method. However, while Bott-Smith formulas are restricted to the gravity field only, our method is applicable also to the magnetic field and to any derivative of the gravity and magnetic field. Our method yields a useful criterion to assess the source model based on the (∂f/∂x)max/fmax ratio. The usefulness of the method in real cases is demonstrated for a salt wall in the Mississippi basin, where the estimation of the maximum depth agrees with the seismic information.

  12. Potential contributions of heat shock proteins to temperature-dependent sex determination in the American alligator.

    PubMed

    Kohno, S; Katsu, Y; Urushitani, H; Ohta, Y; Iguchi, T; Guillette, L J

    2010-01-01

    Sex determination in the American alligator depends on the incubation temperature experienced during a thermo-sensitive period (TSP), although sex determination can be 'reversed' by embryonic exposure to an estrogenic compound. Thus, temperature and estrogenic signals play essential roles during temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). The genetic basis for TSD is poorly understood, although previous studies observed that many of the genes associated with genetic sex determination (GSD) are expressed in species with TSD. Heat shock proteins (HSPs), good candidates because of their temperature-sensitive expression, have not been examined in regard to TSD but HSPs have the ability to modify steroid receptor function. A number of HSP cDNAs (HSP27, DNAJ, HSP40, HSP47, HSP60, HSP70A, HSP70B, HSP70C, HSP75, HSP90alpha, HSP90beta, and HSP108) as well as cold-inducible RNA binding protein (CIRBP) and HSP-binding protein (HSPBP) were cloned, and expression of their mRNA in the gonadal-adrenal-mesonephros complex (GAM) was investigated. Embryonic and neonatal GAMs exhibited mRNA for all of the HSPs examined during and after the TSP. One-month-old GAMs were separated into 3 portions (gonad, adrenal gland, and mesonephros), and sexual dimorphism in the mRNA expression of gonadal HSP27 (male > female), gonadal HSP70A (male < female), and adrenal HSP90 alpha (male > female) was observed. These findings provide new insights on TSD and suggest that further studies examining the role of HSPs during gonadal development are needed. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Clinical Trials Using Anti-CD19/CD28/CD3zeta CAR Gammaretroviral Vector-transduced Autologous T Lymphocytes KTE-C19

    Cancer.gov

    NCI supports clinical trials that test new and more effective ways to treat cancer. Find clinical trials studying anti-cd19/cd28/cd3zeta car gammaretroviral vector-transduced autologous t lymphocytes kte-c19.

  14. Empirical temperature-dependent intermolecular potentials determined by data mining from crystal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D. W. M.; Kuleshova, L. N.

    2018-05-01

    Modern force fields are accurate enough to describe thermal effects in molecular crystals. Here, we have extended our earlier approach to discrete force fields for various temperatures to a force field with a continuous function. For the parametrisation of the force field, we used data mining on experimental structures with the temperature as an additional descriptor. The obtained force field can be used to minimise energy at a finite temperature and for molecular dynamics with zero-K potentials. The applicability of the method has been demonstrated for the prediction of crystal density, temperature density gradients and transition temperature.

  15. Liquid Alumina: Detailed Atomic Coordination Determined from Neutron Diffraction Data Using Empirical Potential Structure Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landron, C.; Hennet, L.; Jenkins, T. E.; Greaves, G. N.; Coutures, J. P.; Soper, A. K.

    2001-05-01

    The neutron scattering structure factor SN\\(Q\\) for a 40 mg drop of molten alumina ( Al2O3) held at 2500 K, using a laser-heated aerodynamic levitation furnace, is measured for the first time. A 1700 atom model of liquid alumina is generated from these data using the technique of empirical potential structural refinement. About 62% of the aluminum sites are 4-fold coordinated, matching the mostly triply coordinated oxygen sites, but some 24% of the aluminum sites are 5-fold coordinated. The octahedral aluminum sites found in crystalline α-Al2O3 occur only at the 2% level in liquid alumina.

  16. Evaluation to determine the caries remineralization potential of three dentifrices: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Arun; Jonathan, R; Benin, P; Kuumar, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the remineralizing potential of three different remineralizing agents (GC tooth Mousse, Clinpro tooth crθme and SHY-NM) on demineralized tooth surfaces using micro CT and microhardness. Materials and Methods: Forty five freshly extracted mandibular premolars were collected and enamel specimens were prepared. The samples were assigned to three groups with fifteen specimens in each group. The specimens were then demineralized using McInne's demineralizing solution in two cycles. After that, remineralization was carried out in two cycles for 30 days using Casein phosphopeptide - Amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP - ACP), 0.21% sodium fluoride - Tricalcium phosphate (f-TCP) and Calcium Sodium Phosphosilicate (CSP) containing tooth pastes for groups I, II, III respectively. The specimens were evaluated for Linear attenuation co-efficient using micro CT (Scanco™) and Vicker's Micro Hardness (Schimadzu™) testing at different time periods. The results were tabulated and statistically analysed. Results: It was observed that all the three remineralizing agents used in the study significantly increased the Linear Attenuation Co-efficient and Vicker's hardness number values of the enamel specimens following 15 days and 30 days application. Conclusion: CPP – ACP showed the better remineralizing potential than the other two agents and there was no statistical significant difference between f-TCP and CSP groups. PMID:23956545

  17. Determining polarizable force fields with electrostatic potentials from quantum mechanical linear response theory

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Weitao, E-mail: weitao.yang@duke.edu; Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708

    We developed a new method to calculate the atomic polarizabilities by fitting to the electrostatic potentials (ESPs) obtained from quantum mechanical (QM) calculations within the linear response theory. This parallels the conventional approach of fitting atomic charges based on electrostatic potentials from the electron density. Our ESP fitting is combined with the induced dipole model under the perturbation of uniform external electric fields of all orientations. QM calculations for the linear response to the external electric fields are used as input, fully consistent with the induced dipole model, which itself is a linear response model. The orientation of the uniformmore » external electric fields is integrated in all directions. The integration of orientation and QM linear response calculations together makes the fitting results independent of the orientations and magnitudes of the uniform external electric fields applied. Another advantage of our method is that QM calculation is only needed once, in contrast to the conventional approach, where many QM calculations are needed for many different applied electric fields. The molecular polarizabilities obtained from our method show comparable accuracy with those from fitting directly to the experimental or theoretical molecular polarizabilities. Since ESP is directly fitted, atomic polarizabilities obtained from our method are expected to reproduce the electrostatic interactions better. Our method was used to calculate both transferable atomic polarizabilities for polarizable molecular mechanics’ force fields and nontransferable molecule-specific atomic polarizabilities.« less

  18. Towards improved migraine management: Determining potential trigger factors in individual patients.

    PubMed

    Peris, Francesc; Donoghue, Stephen; Torres, Ferran; Mian, Alec; Wöber, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Background Certain chronic diseases such as migraine result in episodic, debilitating attacks for which neither cause nor timing is well understood. Historically, possible triggers were identified through analysis of aggregated data from populations of patients. However, triggers common in populations may not be wholly responsible for an individual's attacks. To explore this hypothesis we developed a method to identify individual 'potential trigger' profiles and analysed the degree of inter-individual variation. Methods We applied N = 1 statistical analysis to a 326-migraine-patient database from a study in which patients used paper-based diaries for 90 days to track 33 factors (potential triggers or premonitory symptoms) associated with their migraine attacks. For each patient, univariate associations between factors and migraine events were analysed using Cox proportional hazards models. Results We generated individual factor-attack association profiles for 87% of the patients. The average number of factors associated with attacks was four per patient: Factor profiles were highly individual and were unique in 85% of patients with at least one identified association. Conclusion Accurate identification of individual factor-attack profiles is a prerequisite for testing which are true triggers and for development of trigger avoidance or desensitisation strategies. Our methodology represents a necessary development toward this goal.

  19. Hydrothermal circulation at Mount St. Helens determined by self-potential measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedrosian, P.A.; Unsworth, M.J.; Johnston, M.J.S.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of hydrothermal circulation within active volcanoes is of importance in identifying regions of hydrothermal alteration which may in turn control explosivity, slope stability and sector collapse. Self-potential measurements, indicative of fluid circulation, were made within the crater of Mount St. Helens in 2000 and 2001. A strong dipolar anomaly in the self-potential field was detected on the north face of the 1980-86 lava dome. This anomaly reaches a value of negative one volt on the lower flanks of the dome and reverses sign toward the dome summit. The anomaly pattern is believed to result from a combination of thermoelectric, electrokinetic, and fluid disruption effects within and surrounding the dome. Heat supplied from a cooling dacite magma very likely drives a shallow hydrothermal convection cell within the dome. The temporal stability of the SP field, low surface recharge rate, and magmatic component to fumarole condensates and thermal waters suggest the hydrothermal system is maintained by water vapor exsolved from the magma and modulated on short time scales by surface recharge. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Two-Stage Method to Determine Optimal Product Sampling considering Dynamic Potential Market

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhineng; Lu, Wei; Han, Bing

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops an optimization model for the diffusion effects of free samples under dynamic changes in potential market based on the characteristics of independent product and presents a two-stage method to figure out the sampling level. The impact analysis of the key factors on the sampling level shows that the increase of the external coefficient or internal coefficient has a negative influence on the sampling level. And the changing rate of the potential market has no significant influence on the sampling level whereas the repeat purchase has a positive one. Using logistic analysis and regression analysis, the global sensitivity analysis gives a whole analysis of the interaction of all parameters, which provides a two-stage method to estimate the impact of the relevant parameters in the case of inaccuracy of the parameters and to be able to construct a 95% confidence interval for the predicted sampling level. Finally, the paper provides the operational steps to improve the accuracy of the parameter estimation and an innovational way to estimate the sampling level. PMID:25821847

  1. Determination of the Wound Healing Potentials of Medicinal Plants Historically Used in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Freiesleben, Sara H.; Soelberg, Jens; Nyberg, Nils T.

    2017-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the wound healing potentials of 17 medicinal plants historically used in Ghana for wound healing. Warm and cold water extracts were prepared from the 17 dried plant species and tested in vitro in the scratch assay with NIH 3T3 fibroblasts from mice. The wound healing scratch assay was used to evaluate the effect of the plants on cell proliferation and/or migration in vitro, as a test for potential wound healing properties. After 21 hours of incubation increased proliferation and/or migration of fibroblasts in the scratch assay was obtained for 5 out of the 17 plant species. HPLC separation of the most active plant extract, which was a warm water extract of Philenoptera cyanescens, revealed the wound healing activity to be attributed to rutin and a triglycoside of quercetin. The present study suggests that Allophylus spicatus, Philenoptera cyanescens, Melanthera scandens, Ocimum gratissimum, and Jasminum dichotomum have wound healing activity in vitro. PMID:28326125

  2. A whole genome bioinformatic approach to determine potential latent phase specific targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Defelipe, Lucas A; Do Porto, Dario Fernández; Pereira Ramos, Pablo Ivan; Nicolás, Marisa Fabiana; Sosa, Ezequiel; Radusky, Leandro; Lanzarotti, Esteban; Turjanski, Adrián G; Marti, Marcelo A

    2016-03-01

    Current Tuberculosis treatment is long and expensive, faces the increasing burden of MDR/XDR strains and lack of effective treatment against latent form, resulting in an urgent need of new anti-TB drugs. Key to TB biology is its capacity to fight the host's RNOS mediated attack. RNOS are known to display a concentration dependent mycobactericidal activity, which leads to the following hypothesis "if we know which proteins are targeted by RNOS and kill TB, we we might be able to inhibit them with drugs resulting in a synergistic bactericidal effect". Based on this idea, we performed an Mtb metabolic network whole proteome analysis of potential RNOS sensitive and relevant targets which includes target druggability and essentiality criteria. Our results, available at http://tuberq.proteinq.com.ar yield new potential TB targets, like I3PS, while also providing and updated view of previous proposals becoming an important tool for researchers looking for new ways of killing TB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Two different spectrophotometric determinations of potential anticancer drug and its toxic metabolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farid, Nehal F.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.

    2015-06-01

    Flutamide is a hormone therapy used for men with advanced prostate cancer. Flutamide is highly susceptible to hydrolysis with the production of 3-(trifluoromethyl)aniline, which is reported to be one of its toxic metabolites, impurities and related substances according to BP and USP. Flutamide was found to be stable when exposed to oxidation by 30% hydrogen peroxide and direct sunlight for up to 4 h. Two accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric methods were used for determination of flutamide in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulations. Method (I) is the area under curve (AUC) spectrophotometric method that depends on measuring the AUC in the wavelength ranges of 275-305 nm and 350-380 nm and using Cramer's rule. The linearity range was found to be 1-35 μg/mL and 0.5-16 μg/mL for the drug and the degradate, respectively. In method (II), combination of the isoabsorptive and dual wavelength spectrophotometric methods was used for resolving the binary mixture. The absorbance at 249.2 nm (λiso) was used for determination of total mixture concentration, while the difference in absorbance between 232 nm and 341.2 nm was used for measuring the drug concentration. By subtraction, the degradate concentration was obtained. Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 2-35 μg/mL and 0.5-20 μg/mL for the drug and its degradate, respectively. The two methods were validated according to USP guidelines and were applied for determination of the drug in its pharmaceutical dosage form. Moreover AUC method was used for the kinetic study of the hydrolytic degradation of flutamide. The kinetic degradation of flutamide was found to follow pseudo-first order kinetics and is pH and temperature dependent. Activation energy, kinetic rate constants and t1/2 at different temperatures and pH values were calculated.

  4. Potentialities of mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for actinides determination in urine.

    PubMed

    Bouvier-Capely, C; Ritt, J; Baglan, N; Cossonnet, C

    2004-05-01

    The applicability of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for determining actinides in urine was investigated. Performances of ICP-MS including detection limit and analysis time were studied and compared with alpha spectrometry performances. In the field of individual monitoring of workers, the comparison chart obtained in this study can be used as a guide for medical laboratories to select the most adequate procedure to be carried out depending on the case in question (the radioisotope to be measured, the required sensitivity, and the desired response time).

  5. Determinants of Perceived Stress in Individuals with Obesity: Exploring the Relationship of Potentially Obesity-Related Factors and Perceived Stress.

    PubMed

    Junne, Florian; Ziser, Katrin; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Schag, Kathrin; Skoda, Eva; Mack, Isabelle; Niess, Andreas; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Associations of specific types of stress with increased food intake and subsequent weight gain have been demonstrated in animal models as well as in experimental and epidemiological studies on humans. This study explores the research question of to what extent potentially obesity-related factors determine perceived stress in individuals with obesity. N = 547 individuals with obesity participated in a cross-sectional study assessing perceived stress as the outcome variable and potential determinants of stress related to obesity. Based on the available evidence, a five factorial model of 'obesity-related obesogenic stressors' was hypothesized, including the dimensions, 'drive for thinness', 'impulse regulation', 'ineffectiveness', 'social insecurity', and 'body dissatisfaction'. The model was tested using multiple linear regression analyses. The five factorial model of 'potentially obesity-related stressors' resulted in a total variance explanation of adjusted R² = 0.616 for males and adjusted R² = 0.595 for females for perceived stress. The relative variance contribution of the five included factors differed substantially for the two sexes. The findings of this cross-sectional study support the hypothesized, potentially obesity-related factors: 'drive for thinness', 'impulse regulation', 'ineffectiveness', 'social insecurity', and 'body dissatisfaction' as relevant determinants of perceived stress in individuals with obesity. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  6. Determinants of Perceived Stress in Individuals with Obesity: Exploring the Relationship of Potentially Obesity-Related Factors and Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Junne, Florian; Ziser, Katrin; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Schag, Kathrin; Skoda, Eva; Mack, Isabelle; Niess, Andreas; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Objective Associations of specific types of stress with increased food intake and subsequent weight gain have been demonstrated in animal models as well as in experimental and epidemiological studies on humans. This study explores the research question of to what extent potentially obesity-related factors determine perceived stress in individuals with obesity. Methods N = 547 individuals with obesity participated in a cross-sectional study assessing perceived stress as the outcome variable and potential determinants of stress related to obesity. Based on the available evidence, a five factorial model of ‘obesity-related obesogenic stressors’ was hypothesized, including the dimensions, ‘drive for thinness’, ‘impulse regulation’, ‘ineffectiveness’, ‘social insecurity’, and ‘body dissatisfaction’. The model was tested using multiple linear regression analyses. Results The five factorial model of ‘potentially obesity-related stressors’ resulted in a total variance explanation of adjusted R² = 0.616 for males and adjusted R² = 0.595 for females for perceived stress. The relative variance contribution of the five included factors differed substantially for the two sexes. Conclusion The findings of this cross-sectional study support the hypothesized, potentially obesity-related factors: ‘drive for thinness’, ‘impulse regulation’, ‘ineffectiveness’, ‘social insecurity’, and ‘body dissatisfaction’ as relevant determinants of perceived stress in individuals with obesity. PMID:28433993

  7. Gradient RP-HPLC method for the determination of potential impurities in atazanavir sulfate.

    PubMed

    Chitturi, Sreenivasa Rao; Somannavar, Yallappa Somappa; Peruri, Badarinadh Gupta; Nallapati, Sreenivas; Sharma, Hemant Kumar; Budidet, Shankar Reddy; Handa, Vijay Kumar; Vurimindi, Hima Bindu

    2011-04-28

    This paper proposes a simple and selective RP-HPLC method for the determination of process impurities and degradation products (degradants) of atazanavir sulfate (ATV) drug substance. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Ascentis(®) Express C8, (150mm×4.6mm, 2.7μm) column thermostated at 30°C under gradient elution by a binary mixture of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 3.5, 0.02M) and ACN at a flow rate of 1.0ml/min. A photodiode array (PDA) detector set at 250nm was used for detection. Stress testing (forced degradation) of ATV was carried out under acidic, alkaline, oxidative, photolytic, thermal and humidity conditions. In presence of alkali, ATV transformed into cyclized products and the order of degradation reaction is determined by the method of initial rates. The unknown process impurities and alkaline degradants are isolated by preparative LC and characterized by ESI-MS/MS, (1)H NMR, and FT-IR spectral data. The developed method is validated with respect to sensitivity (lod and loq), linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness and can be implemented for routine quality control analysis and stability testing of ATV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A general definition of the heritable variation that determines the potential of a population to respond to selection.

    PubMed

    Bijma, Piter

    2011-12-01

    Genetic selection is a major force shaping life on earth. In classical genetic theory, response to selection is the product of the strength of selection and the additive genetic variance in a trait. The additive genetic variance reflects a population's intrinsic potential to respond to selection. The ordinary additive genetic variance, however, ignores the social organization of life. With social interactions among individuals, individual trait values may depend on genes in others, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects. Models accounting for indirect genetic effects, however, lack a general definition of heritable variation. Here I propose a general definition of the heritable variation that determines the potential of a population to respond to selection. This generalizes the concept of heritable variance to any inheritance model and level of organization. The result shows that heritable variance determining potential response to selection is the variance among individuals in the heritable quantity that determines the population mean trait value, rather than the usual additive genetic component of phenotypic variance. It follows, therefore, that heritable variance may exceed phenotypic variance among individuals, which is impossible in classical theory. This work also provides a measure of the utilization of heritable variation for response to selection and integrates two well-known models of maternal genetic effects. The result shows that relatedness between the focal individual and the individuals affecting its fitness is a key determinant of the utilization of heritable variance for response to selection.

  9. A General Definition of the Heritable Variation That Determines the Potential of a Population to Respond to Selection

    PubMed Central

    Bijma, Piter

    2011-01-01

    Genetic selection is a major force shaping life on earth. In classical genetic theory, response to selection is the product of the strength of selection and the additive genetic variance in a trait. The additive genetic variance reflects a population’s intrinsic potential to respond to selection. The ordinary additive genetic variance, however, ignores the social organization of life. With social interactions among individuals, individual trait values may depend on genes in others, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects. Models accounting for indirect genetic effects, however, lack a general definition of heritable variation. Here I propose a general definition of the heritable variation that determines the potential of a population to respond to selection. This generalizes the concept of heritable variance to any inheritance model and level of organization. The result shows that heritable variance determining potential response to selection is the variance among individuals in the heritable quantity that determines the population mean trait value, rather than the usual additive genetic component of phenotypic variance. It follows, therefore, that heritable variance may exceed phenotypic variance among individuals, which is impossible in classical theory. This work also provides a measure of the utilization of heritable variation for response to selection and integrates two well-known models of maternal genetic effects. The result shows that relatedness between the focal individual and the individuals affecting its fitness is a key determinant of the utilization of heritable variance for response to selection. PMID:21926298

  10. Evaluation of a 6-wire thermocouple psychrometer for determination of in-situ water potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Loskot, C.L.; Rousseau, J.P.; Kurzmack, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    A 6-wire, Peltier-type thermocouple psychrometer was designed and evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey for monitoring in-situ water potentials in dry-drilled boreholes in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. The psychrometer consists of a wet-bulb, chromel-constantan, sensing junction and a separate dry-bulb, copper-constantan, reference junction. Two additional reference junctions are formed where the chromel and constantan wires of the wet-bulb sensing junction are soldered to separate, paired, copper, lead wires. In contrast, in the standard 3-wire thermocouple psychrometer, both the wet bulb and dry bulb share a common wire. The new design has resulted in a psychrometermore » that has an expanded range and greater reliability, sensitivity, and accuracy compared to the standard model.« less

  11. Two different spectrophotometric determinations of potential anticancer drug and its toxic metabolite.

    PubMed

    Farid, Nehal F; Abdelwahab, Nada S

    2015-06-15

    Flutamide is a hormone therapy used for men with advanced prostate cancer. Flutamide is highly susceptible to hydrolysis with the production of 3-(trifluoromethyl)aniline, which is reported to be one of its toxic metabolites, impurities and related substances according to BP and USP. Flutamide was found to be stable when exposed to oxidation by 30% hydrogen peroxide and direct sunlight for up to 4h. Two accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric methods were used for determination of flutamide in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulations. Method (I) is the area under curve (AUC) spectrophotometric method that depends on measuring the AUC in the wavelength ranges of 275-305 nm and 350-380nm and using Cramer's rule. The linearity range was found to be 1-35 μg/mL and 0.5-16 μg/mL for the drug and the degradate, respectively. In method (II), combination of the isoabsorptive and dual wavelength spectrophotometric methods was used for resolving the binary mixture. The absorbance at 249.2 nm (λiso) was used for determination of total mixture concentration, while the difference in absorbance between 232 nm and 341.2 nm was used for measuring the drug concentration. By subtraction, the degradate concentration was obtained. Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 2-35 μg/mL and 0.5-20 μg/mL for the drug and its degradate, respectively. The two methods were validated according to USP guidelines and were applied for determination of the drug in its pharmaceutical dosage form. Moreover AUC method was used for the kinetic study of the hydrolytic degradation of flutamide. The kinetic degradation of flutamide was found to follow pseudo-first order kinetics and is pH and temperature dependent. Activation energy, kinetic rate constants and t1/2 at different temperatures and pH values were calculated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Child welfare professionals' determination of when children's access or potential access to loaded firearms constitutes child neglect.

    PubMed

    Evans, Erin M; Jennissen, Charles A; Oral, Resmiye; Denning, Gerene M

    2017-11-01

    Pediatric deaths and injuries from access to firearms are a significant public health problem. No studies have examined how experts determine child neglect regarding firearm access in the home. Our study objectives were to identify factors that influenced pediatric experts' finding of firearm-related child neglect and to assess their attitudes toward child access prevention (CAP) laws. A survey was distributed to the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Child Abuse and Neglect members. Demographics, attitudes regarding CAP laws, and ages (up to 14 years old) at which experts deemed several scenarios as child neglect were determined. Scenarios tested potential versus actual loaded firearm access, presence or absence of a CAP law, and injury versus no injury when the firearm was accessed. One hundred ninety-three surveys were completed. Experts agreed (>95%) that CAP laws were important, even for children up to age 15 years. Although a high percentage considered potential access to a loaded firearm as child neglect, a CAP law significantly increased the percentage for each age. In addition, higher percentages of respondents from states with CAP laws than those without deemed potential access as child neglect for 12- and 14-year-olds. In contrast, if the child had accessed a loaded firearm, there were no significant differences in the high percentages that deemed the scenario as child neglect under any conditions, including with and without a CAP law. Although almost all child neglect experts considered potential and actual access to loaded firearms as child neglect, CAP laws increased the percentage for cases of potential access. Universal CAP laws may help ensure that determinations of child neglect are more consistent across states. The deterrent effect of potential child neglect findings may increase the number of parents securing firearms in ways that prevent child access and reduce firearm-related deaths and injuries. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  13. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of Emissive Probes to Determine the Plasma Potential of the Plumes of Various Electric Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Erinna M.

    2005-01-01

    A significant problem in the use of electric thrusters in spacecraft is the formation of low-energy ions in the thruster plume. Low-energy ions are formed in the plume via random collisions between high-velocity ions ejected from the thruster and slow-moving neutral atoms of propellant effusing from the engine. The sputtering of spacecraft materials due to interactions with low-energy ions may result in erosion or contamination of the spacecraft. The trajectory of these ions is determined primarily by the plasma potential of the plume. Thus, accurate characterization of the plasma potential is essential to predicting low-energy ion contamination. Emissive probes were utilized to determine the plasma potential. When the ion and electron currents to the probe are balanced, the potential of such probes float to the plasma potential. Two emissive probes were fabricated; one utilizing a DC power supply, another utilizing a rectified AC power source. Labview programs were written to coordinate and automate probe motion in the thruster plume. Employing handshaking interaction, these motion programs were synchronized to various data acquisition programs to ensure precision and accuracy of the measurements. Comparing these experimental values to values from theoretical models will allow for a more accurate prediction of low-energy ion interaction.

  14. A method for the determination of potentially profitable service patterns for commuter air carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, R. K.; Kuhlthau, A. R.; Deptula, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    A methodology for estimating market conception was developed as a part of the short-haul air transportation program. It is based upon an analysis of actual documents which provide a record of known travel history. Applying this methodology a forecast was made of the demand for an air feeder service between Charlottesville, Virginia and Dulles International Airport. Local business travel vouchers and local travel agent records were selected to provide the documentation. The market was determined to be profitable for an 8-passenger Cessna 402B aircraft flying a 2-hour daily service pattern designed to mesh to the best extent possible with the connecting schedules at Dulles. The Charlottesville - Dulles air feeder service market conception forecast and its methodology are documented.

  15. Determination of potential solar power sites in the United States based upon satellite cloud observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiser, H. W.; Senn, H. V.; Bukkapatnam, S. T.; Akyuzlu, K.

    1977-01-01

    The use of cloud images in the visual spectrum from the SMS/GOES geostationary satellites to determine the hourly distribution of sunshine on a mesoscale in the continental United States excluding Alaska is presented. Cloud coverage and density as a function of time of day and season are evaluated through the use of digital data processing techniques. Low density cirrus clouds are less detrimental to solar energy collection than other types; and clouds in the morning and evening are less detrimental than those during midday hours of maximum insolation. Seasonal geographic distributions of cloud cover/sunshine are converted to langleys of solar radiation received at the earth's surface through relationships developed from long term measurements at six widely distributed stations.

  16. Indoor air pollutants, ventilation rate determinants and potential control strategies in Chinese dwellings: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Jun; Cao, Guangyu; Zhou, Xiang; Su, Xing

    2017-05-15

    After nearly twenty years of rapid modernization and urbanization in China, huge achievements have transformed the daily lives of the Chinese people. However, unprecedented environmental consequences in both indoor and outdoor environments have accompanied this progress and have triggered public awareness and demands for improved living standards, especially in residential environments. Indoor pollution data measured for >7000 dwellings (approximately 1/3 were newly decorated and were tested for volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements, while the rest were tested for particles, phthalates and other semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon) in China within the last ten years were reviewed, summarized and compared with indoor concentration recommendations based on sensory or health end-points. Ubiquitous pollutants that exceed the concentration recommendations, including particulate matter, formaldehyde, benzene and other VOCs, moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon, were found, indicating a common indoor air quality (IAQ) issue in Chinese dwellings. With very little prevention, oral, inhalation and dermal exposure to those pollutants at unhealthy concentration levels is almost inevitable. CO 2 , VOCs, humidity and radon can serve as ventilation determinants, each with different ventilation demands and strategies, at typical occupant densities in China; and particle reduction should be a prerequisite for determining ventilation requirements. Two directional ventilation modes would have profound impacts on improving IAQ for Chinese residences are: 1) natural (or window) ventilation with an air cleaner and 2) mechanical ventilation with an air filtration unit, these two modes were reviewed and compared for their applicability and advantages and disadvantages for reducing human exposure to indoor air pollutants. In general, mode 2 can more reliably ensure good IAQ for occupants; while mode 1 is more applicable due to its

  17. In vitro determination of the anti-aging potential of four southern African medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aging is an inevitable process for all living organisms. During this process reactive oxygen species generation is increased which leads to the activation of hyaluronidase, collagenase and elastase, which can further contribute to skin aging. Four southern African medicinal plants; Clerodendrum glabrum, Schotia brachypetala, Psychotria capensis and Peltophorum africanum, were investigated to assess their anti-aging properties. Methods Anti-elastase, anti-collagenase and anti-hyaluronidase activities of twenty-eight samples, consisting of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the four plants, were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Radical scavenging activity was determined by the ability of the plant extracts to scavenge the ABTS•+ radical. Results The majority of the samples in the anti-elastase assay and nine in the anti-collagenase assay showed more than 80% inhibition. The ethyl acetate extract of S. brachypetala bark and leaves of P. capensis inhibited elastase activity by more than 90%. The methanol extract of S. brachypetala bark contained the highest anti-hyaluronidase activity (75.13 ± 7.49%) whilst the ethyl acetate extract of P. africanum bark exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (IC50: 1.99 ± 0.23 μg/ml). Conclusion The free radical scavenging activity and enzyme inhibitory activity of the plant extracts investigated suggests that they can help restore skin elasticity and thereby slow the wrinkling process. P. africanum was the plant with the most promising activity and will be subjected to further testing and isolation of the active compound/s. PMID:24188320

  18. Determining potential 30/20 GHZ domestic satellite system concepts and establishment of a suitable experimental configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G. H.; Anzic, G.

    1979-01-01

    NASA is conducting a series of millimeter wave satellite communication systems and market studies to: (1) determine potential domestic 30/20 GHz satellite concepts and market potential, and (2) establish the requirements for a suitable technology verification payload which, although intended to be modest in capacity, would sufficiently demonstrate key technologies and experimentally address key operational issues. Preliminary results and critical issues of the current contracted effort are described. Also included is a description of a NASA-developed multibeam satellite payload configuration which may be representative of concepts utilized in a technology flight verification program.

  19. Determination of the potential bioavailability of plant microRNAs using a simulated human digestion process.

    PubMed

    Philip, Anna; Ferro, Valerie A; Tate, Rothwelle J

    2015-10-01

    The "dietary xenomiR hypothesis" proposes that microRNAs (miRNAs) in foodstuffs survive transit through the mammalian gastrointestinal tract and pass into cells intact to affect gene regulation. However, debate continues as to whether dietary intake poses a feasible route for such exogenous gene regulators. Understanding on miRNA levels during pretreatments of human diet is essential to test their bioavailability during digestion. This study makes the novel first use of an in vitro method to eliminate the inherent complexities and variability of in vivo approaches used to test this hypothesis. Plant miRNA levels in soybean and rice were measured during storage, processing, cooking, and early digestion using real-time PCR. We have demonstrated for the first time that storage, processing, and cooking does not abolish the plant miRNAs present in the foodstuffs. In addition, utilizing a simulated human digestion system revealed significant plant miRNA bioavailability after early stage digestion for 75 min. Attenuation of plant messenger RNA and synthetic miRNA was observed under these conditions. Even after an extensive pretreatment, plant-derived miRNA, delivered by typical dietary ingestion, has a robustness that could make them bioavailable for uptake during early digestion. The potential benefit of these regulatory molecules in pharma nutrition could be explored further. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Attenuated total reflectance-FT-IR spectroscopy for gunshot residue analysis: potential for ammunition determination.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Justin; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Lednev, Igor K

    2013-08-06

    The ability to link a suspect to a particular shooting incident is a principal task for many forensic investigators. Here, we attempt to achieve this goal by analysis of gunshot residue (GSR) through the use of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with statistical analysis. The firearm discharge process is analogous to a complex chemical process. Therefore, the products of this process (GSR) will vary based upon numerous factors, including the specific combination of the firearm and ammunition which was discharged. Differentiation of FT-IR data, collected from GSR particles originating from three different firearm-ammunition combinations (0.38 in., 0.40 in., and 9 mm calibers), was achieved using projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The technique was cross (leave-one-out), both internally and externally, validated. External validation was achieved via assignment (caliber identification) of unknown FT-IR spectra from unknown GSR particles. The results demonstrate great potential for ATR-FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of GSR for forensic purposes.

  1. The hydrological modeling in terms of determining the potential European beaver effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, Marta; Jagodzińska, Jadwiga

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the paper was the hydrological analysis, in terms of categorizing main watercourses (based on coupled catchments) and marking areas covered by potential impact of the occurrence and activities of the European beaver Castor fiber. At the analysed area - the Forest District Głogów Małopolski there is a population of about 200 beavers in that Forest District. Damage inflicted by beavers was detected on 33.0 ha of the Forest District, while in the area of 13.9 ha the damage was small (below 10%). The monitoring of the beavers' behaviour and the analysis of their influence on hydrology of the area became an important element of using geoinformationtools in the management of forest areas. ArcHydro ArcGIS Esri module was applied, as an integrated set of tools for hydrographical analysis and modelling. Further steps of the procedure are hydrologic analyses such as: marking river networks on the DTM, filling holes, making maps of the flow direction, making the map of the accumulation flow, defining and segmentation of streams, marking elementary basins, marking coupled basins, making dams in the places, where beavers occur and localization of the area with a visible impact of damming. The result of the study includes maps prepared for the Forest District: the map of main rivers and their basins, categories of watercourses and compartments particularly threatened by beaver's foraging.

  2. The Application of 2-D Resistivity and Self Potential (SP) Methods in Determining the Water Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordiana, M. M.; Tajudeen Olugbenga, Adeeko; Afiq Saharudin, Muhamad; nabila, S.; El Hidayah Ismail, Noer

    2018-04-01

    Existence of water flow at urban area will decrease the shear strength and increase hydraulic conductivity of soil which finally caused subsurface problems at this area. To avoid landslide, slope instability and disturbance of the ecosystem, good and detailed planning must be done when developing hilly area. The understanding about geological condition has to be considering before construction activities be done. Six 2-D resistivity survey lines with minimum 5 m electrode spacing were executed using Pole-dipole array. The field investigation such as borehole was carried out at multiple locations in the area where the 2-D resistivity method have been conducted. The directions and intensities of the water were evaluated with self-potential (SP) method. Subsequently, the results from borehole were used to verify the results of electrical resistivity method. Interpretation of 2-D resistivity data showed a low resistivity value (< 40 ohm-m), which appears to be a zone that is fully saturated with sandy silt and this could be an influence factor the increasing water level because sandy silt is highly permeable in nature. The borehole, support the results of 2-D resistivity method relating a saturated zone in the survey area. There is a good correlation between the 2-D resistivity investigations and the results of borehole records.

  3. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts.

  4. Equilibrium sampling to determine the thermodynamic potential for bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants from sediment.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Annika; MacLeod, Matthew; Wickström, Håkan; Mayer, Philipp

    2014-10-07

    Equilibrium partitioning (EqP) theory is currently the most widely used approach for linking sediment pollution by persistent hydrophobic organic chemicals to bioaccumulation. Most applications of the EqP approach assume (I) a generic relationship between organic carbon-normalized chemical concentrations in sediments and lipid-normalized concentrations in biota and (II) that bioaccumulation does not induce levels exceeding those expected from equilibrium partitioning. Here, we demonstrate that assumption I can be obviated by equilibrating a silicone sampler with chemicals in sediment, measuring chemical concentrations in the silicone, and applying lipid/silicone partition ratios to yield concentrations in lipid at thermodynamic equilibrium with the sediment (CLip⇌Sed). Furthermore, we evaluated the validity of assumption II by comparing CLip⇌Sed of selected persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) to lipid-normalized concentrations for a range of biota from a Swedish background lake. PCBs in duck mussels, roach, eel, pikeperch, perch and pike were mostly below the equilibrium partitioning level relative to the sediment, i.e., lipid-normalized concentrations were ≤CLip⇌Sed, whereas HCB was near equilibrium between biota and sediment. Equilibrium sampling allows straightforward, sensitive and precise measurement of CLip⇌Sed. We propose CLip⇌Sed as a metric of the thermodynamic potential for bioaccumulation of persistent organic chemicals from sediment useful to prioritize management actions to remediate contaminated sites.

  5. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Cuong D.; Gopalsamy, Geetha L.; Mortimer, Elissa K.; Young, Graeme P.

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease. PMID:26035248

  6. TGF-β Determines the Pro-migratory Potential of bFGF Signaling in Medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Santhana Kumar, Karthiga; Neve, Anuja; Guerreiro Stucklin, Ana S; Kuzan-Fischer, Claudia M; Rushing, Elisabeth J; Taylor, Michael D; Tripolitsioti, Dimitra; Behrmann, Lena; Kirschenbaum, Daniel; Grotzer, Michael A; Baumgartner, Martin

    2018-06-26

    The microenvironment shapes cell behavior and determines metastatic outcomes of tumors. We addressed how microenvironmental cues control tumor cell invasion in pediatric medulloblastoma (MB). We show that bFGF promotes MB tumor cell invasion through FGF receptor (FGFR) in vitro and that blockade of FGFR represses brain tissue infiltration in vivo. TGF-β regulates pro-migratory bFGF function in a context-dependent manner. Under low bFGF, the non-canonical TGF-β pathway causes ROCK activation and cortical translocation of ERK1/2, which antagonizes FGFR signaling by inactivating FGFR substrate 2 (FRS2), and promotes a contractile, non-motile phenotype. Under high bFGF, negative-feedback regulation of FRS2 by bFGF-induced ERK1/2 causes repression of the FGFR pathway. Under these conditions, TGF-β counters inactivation of FRS2 and restores pro-migratory signaling. These findings pinpoint coincidence detection of bFGF and TGF-β signaling by FRS2 as a mechanism that controls tumor cell invasion. Thus, targeting FRS2 represents an emerging strategy to abrogate aberrant FGFR signaling. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Injection of Syngeneic Murine Melanoma Cells to Determine Their Metastatic Potential in the Lungs.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Joshua J; Cohessy, Sean; Wong, Eric T

    2016-05-24

    Approximately 90% of human cancer deaths are linked to metastasis. Despite the prevalence and relative harm of metastasis, therapeutics for treatment or prevention are lacking. We report a method for the establishment of pulmonary metastases in mice, useful for the study of this phenomenon. Tail vein injection of B57BL/6J mice with B16-BL6 is among the most used models for melanoma metastases. Some of the circulating tumor cells establish themselves in the lungs of the mouse, creating "experimental" metastatic foci. With this model it is possible to measure the relative effects of therapeutic agents on the development of cancer metastasis. The difference in enumerated lung foci between treated and untreated mice indicates the efficacy of metastases neutralization. However, prior to the investigation of a therapeutic agent, it is necessary to determine an optimal number of injected B16-BL6 cells for the quantitative analysis of metastatic foci. Injection of too many cells may result in an overabundance of metastatic foci, impairing proper quantification and overwhelming the effects of anti-cancer therapies, while injection of too few cells will hinder the comparison between treated and controls.

  8. Injection of Syngeneic Murine Melanoma Cells to Determine Their Metastatic Potential in the Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, Joshua J.; Cohessy, Sean; Wong, Eric T.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 90% of human cancer deaths are linked to metastasis. Despite the prevalence and relative harm of metastasis, therapeutics for treatment or prevention are lacking. We report a method for the establishment of pulmonary metastases in mice, useful for the study of this phenomenon. Tail vein injection of B57BL/6J mice with B16-BL6 is among the most used models for melanoma metastases. Some of the circulating tumor cells establish themselves in the lungs of the mouse, creating "experimental" metastatic foci. With this model it is possible to measure the relative effects of therapeutic agents on the development of cancer metastasis. The difference in enumerated lung foci between treated and untreated mice indicates the efficacy of metastases neutralization. However, prior to the investigation of a therapeutic agent, it is necessary to determine an optimal number of injected B16-BL6 cells for the quantitative analysis of metastatic foci. Injection of too many cells may result in an overabundance of metastatic foci, impairing proper quantification and overwhelming the effects of anti-cancer therapies, while injection of too few cells will hinder the comparison between treated and controls. PMID:27285567

  9. Determination of Dacarbazine Φ-Order Photokinetics, Quantum Yields, and Potential for Actinometry.

    PubMed

    Maafi, Mounir; Lee, Lok-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of drugs' photodegradation kinetics is more accurately achieved by means of the recently developed Φ-order kinetics than by the zero-, first-, and/or second-order classical treatments. The photodegradation of anti-cancer dacarbazine (DBZ) in ethanol has been investigated and found to obey Φ-order kinetics when subjected to continuous and monochromatic irradiation of various wavelengths. Its photochemical efficiency was proven to be wavelength dependent in the 220-350 nm range, undergoing a 50-fold increase. Albeit this variation was well defined by a sigmoid pattern, the overall photoreactivity of DBZ was proven to depend also on the contributions of reactants and experimental attributes. The usefulness of DBZ to serve as a drug-actinometer has been investigated using the mathematical framework of Φ-order kinetics. It has been shown that DBZ in ethanol can represent a good candidate for reliable actinometry in the range 270-350 nm. A detailed and easy-to-implement procedure has been proposed for DBZ actinometry. This procedure could advantageously be implemented prior to the determination of the photodegradation quantum yields. This approach might be found useful for the development of many drug actinometers as alternatives to quinine hydrochloride. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  10. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in compost samples: A potential tool to determine appropriate composting time.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fengxiang; Pan, Zaifa; Hong, Chunlai; Wang, Weiping; Chen, Xiaoyang; Xue, Zhiyong; Yao, Yanlai

    2016-12-01

    Changes in volatile organic compound contents in compost samples during pig manure composting were studied using a headspace, solid-phase micro-extraction method (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). Parameters affecting the SPME procedure were optimized as follows: the coating was carbon molecular sieve/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber, the temperature was 60°C and the time was 30min. Under these conditions, 87 compounds were identified from 17 composting samples. Most of the volatile components could only be detected before day 22. However, benzenes, alkanes and alkenes increased and eventually stabilized after day 22. Phenol and acid substances, which are important factors for compost quality, were almost undetectable on day 39 in natural compost (NC) samples and on day 13 in maggot-treated compost (MC) samples. Our results indicate that the approach can be effectively used to determine the composting times by analysis of volatile substances in compost samples. An appropriate composting time not only ensures the quality of compost and reduces the loss of composting material but also reduces the generation of hazardous substances. The appropriate composting times for MC and NC were approximately 22days and 40days, respectively, during the summer in Zhejiang. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Determinants of willingness to consume genetically modified (GM) foods and the potential expenditure in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Popoola, L A; Otitoju, M A; Tanko, L

    2017-01-06

    Consumption decision and likely expenditure are critical fundamentals that may ultimately shape the future of GM crops development and deployment in Nigeria. The present study constituted an attempt to examine factors of significance with bearing influence on these key consumer-led issues. Structured and pre-tested questionnaire were employed to elicit response from consumers. In all, 232 responses were analysed with Heckman two-stage selection model. The socio-economic data shows that majority of respondents (45.3%) are civil servants with outstanding 94% of approached respondents attaining tertiary education. The average age stood at 32 years and household size of 4 persons. From the analysis, income was significant but cast a negative influence on consumption willingness. On the contrary, health and environmental benefits emerged significant and proceed in the same direction as consumption decision. Expenditure by consumers on GM crops in the study area may be determined by age and household size of consumers as indicated by the significance of these two factors. It follows that GM crops may find greater appeal and acceptance among older consumers and medium to large-sized household.

  12. Research to Support the Determination of Spacecraft Maximum Acceptable Concentrations of Potential Atmospheric Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, John L.

    1997-01-01

    In many ways, the typical approach to the handling of bibliographic material for generating review articles and similar manuscripts has changed little since the use of xerographic reproduction has become widespread. The basic approach is to collect reprints of the relevant material and place it in folders or stacks based on its dominant content. As the amount of information available increases with the passage of time, the viability of this mechanical approach to bibliographic management decreases. The personal computer revolution has changed the way we deal with many familiar tasks. For example, word processing on personal computers has supplanted the typewriter for many applications. Similarly, spreadsheets have not only replaced many routine uses of calculators but have also made possible new applications because the cost of calculation is extremely low. Objective The objective of this research was to use personal computer bibliographic software technology to support the determination of spacecraft maximum acceptable concentration (SMAC) values. Specific Aims The specific aims were to produce draft SMAC documents for hydrogen sulfide and tetrachloroethylene taking maximum advantage of the bibliographic software.

  13. Electrochemical Determination of the Antioxidant Potential of Some Less Common Fruit Species

    PubMed Central

    Gazdik, Zbynek; Krska, Boris; Adam, Vojtech; Saloun, Jan; Pokorna, Tunde; Reznicek, Vojtech; Horna, Ales; Kizek, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Various berries and fruit types of less common fruit species are known to contain antioxidants. Consumption of high amounts of antioxidant flavonoids, which display a variety of biological properties, including antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activity, may have a positive impact on human health, particularly for the prevention of cancer and other inflammatory diseases. In these studies, based on the hypothesis that the fruit extract with the highest content would possess significantly higher health benefits, flavonoid-rich extracts were obtained from some less common fruit species – Blue Honeysuckles (Lonicera Kamtschatica and Lonicera edulis, Turcz. ex. Freyn), Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) and Chinese Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida BUNGE) – grown from germplasm held at the Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno, Czech Republic and then characterized in terms of biological value based on the results from a relative antioxidant capacity assessment. The antioxidant content evaluation was based on the total flavonoid amount, determined by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED). A DPPH• test was applied as a reference. The antioxidant content measured in Chinese Hawthorn fruit extract identified it as a potent source of flavonoid antioxidants, with a content 9-fold higher than that seen in Amelanchier fruit. The multifunctional HPLC-ED array method coupled with a DPPH• reference appears to be the optimal analytical progress, accurately reflecting the nutritive-therapeutic properties of a fruit. PMID:27873945

  14. APOE polymorphism as a potential determinant of functional fitness in the elderly regardless of nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Snejdrlova, Michaela; Kalvach, Zdenek; Topinkova, Eva; Vrablik, Michal; Prochazkova, Renata; Kvasilova, Marie; Lanska, Vera; Zlatohlavek, Lukas; Prusikova, Martina; Ceska, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Life expectancy is determined by a combination of genetic predisposition (~25%) and environmental influences (~75%). Nevertheless a stronger genetic influence is anticipated in long-living individuals. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene belongs among the most studied candidate genes of longevity. We evaluated the relation of APOE polymorphism and fitness status in the elderly. We examined a total number of 128 subjects, over 80 years of age. Using a battery of functional tests their fitness status was assessed and the subjects were stratified into 5 functional categories according to Spirduso´s classification. Biochemistry analysis was performed by enzymatic method using automated analyzers. APOE gene polymorphism was analysed performed using PCR-RFLP. APOE4 allele carriers had significantly worse fitness status compared to non-carriers (p=0.025). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed the APOE4 carriers had higher risk (p=0.05) of functional unfitness compared to APOE2/E3 individuals. APOE gene polymorphism seems be an important genetic contributor to frailty development in the elderly. While APOE2 carriers tend to remain functionally fit till higher age, the functional status of APOE4 carriers deteriorates more rapidly. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters

  15. Separation of mycotoxin-containing sources in grain dust and determination of their mycotoxin potential.

    PubMed Central

    Palmgren, M S; Lee, L S

    1986-01-01

    Two distinct reservoirs of mycotoxins exist in fungal-infected cereal grains--the fungal spores and the spore-free mycelium-substrate matrix. Many fungal spores are of respirable size and the mycelium-substrate matrix can be pulverized to form particles of respirable size during routine handling of grain. In order to determine the contribution of each source to the level of mycotoxin contamination of dust, we developed techniques to harvest and separate mycelium-substrate matrices from spores of fungi. Conventional quantitative chromatographic analyses of separated materials indicated that aflatoxin from Aspergillus parasiticus, norsolorinic acid from a mutant of A. parasiticus, and secalonic acid D from Penicillium oxalicum were concentrated in the mycelium-substrate matrices and not in the spores. In contrast, spores of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus contained significant concentrations of aurasperone C and fumigaclavine C, respectively; only negligible amounts of the toxins were detected in the mycelium-substrate matrices of these two fungi. PMID:3709472

  16. A survey to determine the potential impact of foundation year career aims on surgical specialty training

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rikesh Kumar; Sayers, Adele Elizabeth; Akbar, Muhammad Jawaid; Hunter, Iain Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The competition for Core Surgical Training (CST) positions and subsequent Surgical Specialty Training (ST3) posts throughout the UK is fierce. Our aim was to conduct a pilot study to assess whether current foundation year doctors were considering pursuing a career in surgery and the reasons guiding their decisions. Methods A ten-item questionnaire was voluntarily completed by foundation doctors at a large acute teaching trust. Factors evaluated included: experience working within a surgical rotation; previous consideration of a career in surgery; whether they found a career in surgery appealing; reasons guiding their decision and would they be applying to CST. Results All 67 foundation doctors approached agreed to participate: of which 56 (83.6%) had experience working within a surgical rotation. Males were significantly more likely to find a career in surgery appealing (p < 0.001). Although 20 (29.9%) had previously considered a surgical career, only 11 (16.4%) would be applying to CST. Reasons for finding a career in surgery appealing included: job satisfaction (84.2%), diversity of work (79.0%) and working environment/colleagues (47.4%). Of those that did not consider a career in surgery to be appealing, reasons included: working hours (75.0%), work/life balance (62.5%), working environment/colleagues (50%). Discussion and conclusion Although only a small proportion of current foundation doctors were surveyed in our study, only 16.4% were considering applying for CST. These figures are lower than previously suggested and would indicate that there will be fewer applicants for CST in future years, which may potentially reduce the current bottleneck of applicants at ST3. PMID:25568777

  17. Combining raw and compositional data to determine the spatial patterns of Potentially Toxic Elements in soils.

    PubMed

    Boente, C; Albuquerque, M T D; Fernández-Braña, A; Gerassis, S; Sierra, C; Gallego, J R

    2018-08-01

    When considering complex scenarios involving several attributes, such as in environmental characterization, a clearer picture of reality can be achieved through the dimensional reduction of data. In this context, maps facilitate the visualization of spatial patterns of contaminant distribution and the identification of enriched areas. A set, of 15 Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) - (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn), was measured in soil, collected in Langreo's municipality (80km 2 ), Spain. Relative enrichment (RE) is introduced here to refer to the proportion of elements present in a given context. Indeed, a novel approach is provided for research into PTE fate. This method involves studying the variability of PTE proportions throughout the study area, thereby allowing the identification of dissemination trends. Traditional geostatistical approaches commonly use raw data (concentrations) accepting that the elements analyzed make up the entirety of the soil. However, in geochemical studies the analyzed elements are just a fraction of the total soil composition. Therefore, considering compositional data is pivotal. The spatial characterization of PTEs considering raw and compositional data together allowed a broad discussion about, not only the PTEs concentration's distribution but also to reckon possible trends of relative enrichment (RE). Transformations to open closed data are widely used for this purpose. Spatial patterns have an indubitable interest. In this study, the Centered Log-ratio transformation (clr) was used, followed by its back-transformation, to build a set of compositional data that, combined with raw data, allowed to establish the sources of the PTEs and trends of spatial dissemination. Based on the obtained findings it was possible to conclude that the Langreo area is deeply affected by its industrial and mining legacy. City center is highly enriched in Pb and Hg and As shows enrichment in a northwesterly direction

  18. Radiotracer properties determined by high performance liquid chromatography: a potential tool for brain radiotracer discovery.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S; Lewsey, James; Dewar, Deborah; Pimlott, Sally L

    2012-01-01

    Previously, development of novel brain radiotracers has largely relied on simple screening tools. Improved selection methods at the early stages of radiotracer discovery and an increased understanding of the relationships between in vitro physicochemical and in vivo radiotracer properties are needed. We investigated if high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methodologies could provide criteria for lead candidate selection by comparing HPLC measurements with radiotracer properties in humans. Ten molecules, previously used as radiotracers in humans, were analysed to obtain the following measures: partition coefficient (Log P); permeability (P(m)); percentage of plasma protein binding (%PPB); and membrane partition coefficient (K(m)). Relationships between brain entry measurements (Log P, P(m) and %PPB) and in vivo brain percentage injected dose (%ID); and K(m) and specific binding in vivo (BP(ND)) were investigated. Log P values obtained using in silico packages and flask methods were compared with Log P values obtained using HPLC. The modelled associations with %ID were stronger for %PPB (r(2)=0.65) and P(m) (r(2)=0.77) than for Log P (r(2)=0.47) while 86% of BP(ND) variance was explained by K(m). Log P values were variable dependant on the methodology used. Log P should not be relied upon as a predictor of blood-brain barrier penetration during brain radiotracer discovery. HPLC measurements of permeability, %PPB and membrane interactions may be potentially useful in predicting in vivo performance and hence allow evaluation and ranking of compound libraries for the selection of lead radiotracer candidates at early stages of radiotracer discovery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A survey to determine the potential impact of foundation year career aims on surgical specialty training.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rikesh Kumar; Sayers, Adele Elizabeth; Akbar, Muhammad Jawaid; Hunter, Iain Andrew

    2014-03-01

    The competition for Core Surgical Training (CST) positions and subsequent Surgical Specialty Training (ST3) posts throughout the UK is fierce. Our aim was to conduct a pilot study to assess whether current foundation year doctors were considering pursuing a career in surgery and the reasons guiding their decisions. A ten-item questionnaire was voluntarily completed by foundation doctors at a large acute teaching trust. Factors evaluated included: experience working within a surgical rotation; previous consideration of a career in surgery; whether they found a career in surgery appealing; reasons guiding their decision and would they be applying to CST. All 67 foundation doctors approached agreed to participate: of which 56 (83.6%) had experience working within a surgical rotation. Males were significantly more likely to find a career in surgery appealing (p < 0.001). Although 20 (29.9%) had previously considered a surgical career, only 11 (16.4%) would be applying to CST. Reasons for finding a career in surgery appealing included: job satisfaction (84.2%), diversity of work (79.0%) and working environment/colleagues (47.4%). Of those that did not consider a career in surgery to be appealing, reasons included: working hours (75.0%), work/life balance (62.5%), working environment/colleagues (50%). Although only a small proportion of current foundation doctors were surveyed in our study, only 16.4% were considering applying for CST. These figures are lower than previously suggested and would indicate that there will be fewer applicants for CST in future years, which may potentially reduce the current bottleneck of applicants at ST3.

  20. Determination of the potential gold electrowinning from an ammoniacal thiosulphate solution applied to recycling of printed circuit board scraps.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Angela C; Carrillo Abad, Jordi; García Gabaldón, Montserrat; Veit, Hugo M; Pérez Herranz, Valentín

    2016-01-01

    The use of electrochemical techniques in the selective recovery of gold from a solution containing thiosulphate, ammonia, and copper, obtained from the leaching of printed circuit boards from mobile phones using ammoniacal thiosulphate, are shown in this work. First, cyclic voltammetry tests were performed to determine the potential of electrodeposition of gold and copper, and then, electrowinning tests at different potentials for checking the rates of recovery of these metals were performed. The results of the cyclic voltammetry show that copper deposition occurs at potentials more negative than -600 mV (Ag/AgCl), whereas the gold deposition can be performed at potentials more positives than -600 mV (Ag/AgCl). The results of electrowinning show that 99% of the gold present in solutions containing thiosulphate and copper can be selectively recovered in a potential range between -400 mV (vs Ag/AgCl) and -500 mV (vs Ag/AgCl). Furthermore, 99% of copper can be recovered in potentials more negative than -700 mV (vs Ag/AgCl). © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Segmented all-electron Gaussian basis sets of double and triple zeta qualities for Fr, Ra, and Ac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, C. T.; de Oliveira, A. Z.; Ferreira, I. B.; Jorge, F. E.; Martins, L. S. C.

    2017-05-01

    Segmented all-electron basis sets of valence double and triple zeta qualities plus polarization functions for the elements Fr, Ra, and Ac are generated using non-relativistic and Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) Hamiltonians. The sets are augmented with diffuse functions with the purpose to describe appropriately the electrons far from the nuclei. At the DKH-B3LYP level, first atomic ionization energies and bond lengths, dissociation energies, and polarizabilities of a sample of diatomics are calculated. Comparison with theoretical and experimental data available in the literature is carried out. It is verified that despite the small sizes of the basis sets, they are yet reliable.

  2. Dioxin levels in fertilizers from Belgium: determination and evaluation of the potential impact on soil contamination.

    PubMed

    Elskens, M; Pussemier, L; Dumortier, P; Van Langenhove, K; Scholl, G; Goeyens, L; Focant, J F

    2013-06-01

    Dioxins are harmful persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to which humans are exposed mostly via the consumption of animal products. They can enter the food chain at any stage, including crop fertilization. Fertilizers belong to several categories: synthetic chemicals providing the essential elements (mostly N, P and K) that are required by the crops but also organic fertilizers or amendments, liming materials, etc. Ninety-seven samples of fertilizers were taken in Belgium during the year 2011 and analyzed after a soft extraction procedure for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) using GC-IDHRMS. Only small qualitative differences could be observed between the main fertilizer categories since the PCDD:PCDF:DL-PCB average ratio obtained with the results expressed in TEQ was often close to 30:30:40 (typically for sewage sludge) or 40:30:30 (typically for compost). The median dioxin levels determined were generally lower than recorded previously and were the highest for sewage sludge and compost (5.6 and 5.5 ng TEQ/kg dry weight (dw), respectively). The levels in other fertilizers were lower including manure for which the median value was only 0.2 ng TEQ/kg dw. Several fertilization scenarios relying on the use of those fertilizers were assessed taking into consideration the application conditions prevailing in Belgium. From this assessment it could be concluded that the contribution of fertilizers to the overall soil contamination will be low by comparison of other sources of contamination such as atmospheric depositions. At the field scale, intensive use of compost and sewage sludge will increase dramatically the dioxin inputs compared with other fertilization practices but this kind of emission to the soil will still be relatively low compared to the dioxin atmospheric depositions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of the Potential Benefit of Time-Frequency Gain Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Anzalone, Michael C.; Calandruccio, Lauren; Doherty, Karen A.; Carney, Laurel H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum benefit provided by a time-frequency gain-manipulation algorithm for noise-reduction (NR) based on an ideal detector of speech energy. The amount of detected energy necessary to show benefit using this type of NR algorithm was examined, as well as the necessary speed and frequency resolution of the gain manipulation. Design NR was performed using time-frequency gain manipulation, wherein the gains of individual frequency bands depended on the absence or presence of speech energy within each band. Three different experiments were performed: (1) NR using ideal detectors, (2) NR with nonideal detectors, and (3) NR with ideal detectors and different processing speeds and frequency resolutions. All experiments were performed using the Hearing-in-Noise test (HINT). A total of 6 listeners with normal hearing and 14 listeners with hearing loss were tested. Results HINT thresholds improved for all listeners with NR based on the ideal detectors used in Experiment I. The nonideal detectors of Experiment II required detection of at least 90% of the speech energy before an improvement was seen in HINT thresholds. The results of Experiment III demonstrated that relatively high temporal resolution (<100 msec) was required by the NR algorithm to improve HINT thresholds. Conclusions The results indicated that a single-microphone NR system based on time-frequency gain manipulation improved the HINT thresholds of listeners. However, to obtain benefit in speech intelligibility, the detectors used in such a strategy were required to detect an unrealistically high percentage of the speech energy and to perform the gain manipulations on a fast temporal basis. PMID:16957499

  4. Determining potential pregnancy status differences based on a new method of yearling heifer prebreeding examination.

    PubMed

    Monday, Jessica D; Larson, Robert L; Laflin, Shelie; White, Brad J; Theurer, Miles E

    2018-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the Ready-Intermediate-Problem (RIP) replacement heifer evaluation matrix's ability to classify heifers into groups with differing reproductive outcomes. Beef heifers (n = 341) from six Kansas herds were classified according to RIP matrix guidelines and then exposed to AI breeding, bull breeding, or a combination of both as per the management plans for each participating herd. Following the breeding season the heifers were evaluated to determine pregnancy status, AI pregnancy status, days bred, and the number of 21 day cycles needed during the breeding season to become pregnant. After the breeding season, 298 (87%) of the heifers were pregnant, 204 (68%) of which became pregnant in the first 21 days of the breeding season. There was a significant interaction (P = 0.01) in RIP classification and pregnancy by 21 day cycle. Ready classified heifers had a significantly greater risk of becoming pregnant after a single AI exposure (P = 0.03) and in the first 21-day cycle (P = 0.02) compared to Problem classified heifers, and significantly less risk of being non-pregnant at the end of the breeding season (P < 0.01) compared to Problem classified heifers. The RIP matrix can be useful for classifying heifers prior to the onset of the breeding season. Further research is needed to evaluate the matrix in other settings and populations of U.S. beef heifers as well as at different intervals between evaluation and the start of breeding season. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reactivity to low-flow as a potential determinant for brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatation.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Kunihiko; Elyas, Salim; Adingupu, Damilola D; Casanova, Francesco; Gooding, Kim M; Strain, W David; Shore, Angela C; Gates, Phillip E

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have reported a vasoconstrictor response in the radial artery during a cuff-induced low-flow condition, but a similar low-flow condition in the brachial artery results in nonuniform reactivity. This variable reactivity to low-flow influences the subsequent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) response following cuff-release. However, it is uncertain whether reactivity to low-flow is important in data interpretation in clinical populations and older adults. This study aimed to determine the influence of reactivity to low-flow on the magnitude of brachial artery FMD response in middle-aged and older individuals with diverse cardiovascular risk profiles. Data were analyzed from 165 individuals, divided into increased cardiovascular risk (CVR: n = 115, 85M, 67.0 ± 8.8 years) and healthy control (CTRL: n = 50, 30M, 63.2 ± 7.2 years) groups. Brachial artery diameter and blood velocity data obtained from Doppler ultrasound were used to calculate FMD, reactivity to low-flow and estimated shear rate (SR) using semiautomated edge-detection software. There was a significant association between reactivity to low-flow and FMD in overall (r = 0.261), CTRL (r = 0.410) and CVR (r = 0.189, all P < 0.05) groups. Multivariate regression analysis found that reactivity to low-flow, peak SR, and baseline diameter independently contributed to FMD along with sex, the presence of diabetes, and smoking (total R(2) = 0.450). There was a significant association between reactivity to low-flow and the subsequent FMD response in the overall dataset, and reactivity to low-flow independently contributed to FMD These findings suggest that reactivity to low-flow plays a key role in the subsequent brachial artery FMD response and is important in the interpretation of FMD data. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  6. Determination of redox potentials for the Watson-Crick base pairs, DNA nucleosides, and relevant nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Hernandez, Carlos E; Close, David M; Gorb, Leonid; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2007-05-17

    Redox potentials for the DNA nucleobases and nucleosides, various relevant nucleoside analogues, Watson-Crick base pairs, and seven organic dyes are presented based on DFT/B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) and B3YLP/6-311+G(2df,p)//B3LYP/6-31+G* levels of calculations. The values are determined from an experimentally calibrated set of equations that correlate the vertical ionization (electron affinity) energy of 20 organic molecules with their experimental reversible oxidation (reduction) potential. Our results are in good agreement with those estimated experimentally for the DNA nucleosides in acetonitrile solutions (Seidel et al. J. Phys. Chem. 1996, 100, 5541). We have found that nucleosides with anti conformation exhibit lower oxidation potentials than the corresponding syn conformers. The lowering in the oxidation potential is due to the formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bonding interaction between the 5'-OH group of the sugar and the N3 of the purine bases or C2=O of the pyrimidine bases in the syn conformation. Pairing of adenine or guanine with its complementary pyrimidine base decreases its oxidation potential by 0.15 or 0.28 V, respectively. The calculated energy difference between the oxidation potential for the G.C base pair and that of the guanine base is in good agreement with the experimental value estimated recently (0.34 V: Caruso, T.; et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 15040). The complete and consistent set of reversible redox values determined in this work for the DNA constituents is expected to be of considerable value to those studying charge and electronic energy transfer in DNA.

  7. Identification and clarification of the role of key active site residues in bacterial glutathione S-transferase zeta/maleylpyruvate isomerase

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ti; Li, De-Feng; Zhou, Ning-Yi, E-mail: n.zhou@pentium.whiov.ac.cn

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Application of site-directed mutagenesis to probe the active site residues of glutathione-dependent maleylpyruvate isomerase. {yields} Two conserved residues, Arg8 and Arg176, in zeta class glutathione S-transferases are critical for maleylpyruvate orientation and enolization. {yields} Arg109, found exclusively in NagL, participates in k{sub cat} regulation. {yields} The T11A mutant exhibited a significantly decreased K{sub m} value for glutathione with little impact on maleylpyruvate kinetics. {yields} The Thr11 residue appears to have significance in the evolution of glutathione S-transferase classes. -- Abstract: The maleylpyruvate isomerase NagL from Ralstonia sp. strain U2, which has been structurally characterized previously, catalyzes the isomerizationmore » of maleylpyruvate to fumarylpyruvate. It belongs to the class zeta glutathione S-transferases (GSTZs), part of the cytosolic GST family (cGSTs). In this study, site-directed mutagenesis was conducted to probe the functions of 13 putative active site residues. Steady-state kinetic information for mutants in the reduced glutathione (GSH) binding site, suggested that (a) Gln64 and Asp102 interact directly with the glutamyl moiety of glutathione, (b) Gln49 and Gln64 are involved in a potential electron-sharing network that influences the ionization of the GSH thiol. The information also suggests that (c) His38, Asn108 and Arg109 interact with the GSH glycine moiety, (d) His104 has a role in the ionization of the GSH sulfur and the stabilization of the maleyl terminal carboxyl group in the reaction intermediate and (e) Arg110 influences the electron distribution in the active site and therefore the ionization of the GSH thiolate. Kinetic data for mutants altered in the substrate-binding site imply that (a) Arg8 and Arg176 are critical for maleylpyruvate orientation and enolization, and (b) Arg109 (exclusive to NagL) participates in k{sub cat} regulation. Surprisingly, the T11A mutant

  8. Potential determinants of health-care professionals' use of survivorship care plans: a qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework.

    PubMed

    Birken, Sarah A; Presseau, Justin; Ellis, Shellie D; Gerstel, Adrian A; Mayer, Deborah K

    2014-11-15

    Survivorship care plans are intended to improve coordination of care for the nearly 14 million cancer survivors in the United States. Evidence suggests that survivorship care plans (SCPs) have positive outcomes for survivors, health-care professionals, and cancer programs, and several high-profile organizations now recommend SCP use. Nevertheless, SCP use remains limited among health-care professionals in United States cancer programs. Knowledge of barriers to SCP use is limited in part because extant studies have used anecdotal evidence to identify determinants. This study uses the theoretical domains framework to identify relevant constructs that are potential determinants of SCP use among United States health-care professionals. We conducted semi-structured interviews to assess the relevance of 12 theoretical domains in predicting SCP use among 13 health-care professionals in 7 cancer programs throughout the United States with diverse characteristics. Relevant theoretical domains were identified through thematic coding of interview transcripts, identification of specific beliefs within coded text units, and mapping of specific beliefs onto theoretical constructs. We found the following theoretical domains (based on specific beliefs) to be potential determinants of SCP use: health-care professionals' beliefs about the consequences of SCP use (benefit to survivors, health-care professionals, and the system as a whole); motivation and goals regarding SCP use (advocating SCP use; extent to which using SCPs competed for health-care professionals' time); environmental context and resources (whether SCPs were delivered at a dedicated visit and whether a system, information technology, and funding facilitated SCP use); and social influences (whether using SCPs is an organizational priority, influential people support SCP use, and people who could assist with SCP use buy into using SCPs). Specific beliefs mapped onto the following psychological constructs: outcome

  9. Zeta Sperm Selection Improves Pregnancy Rate and Alters Sex Ratio in Male Factor Infertility Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein; Deemeh, Mohammad Reza; Tavalaee, Marziyeh; Sekhavati, Mohammad Hadi; Gourabi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background Selection of sperm for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is usually considered as the ultimate technique to alleviate male-factor infertility. In routine ICSI, selection is based on morphology and viability which does not necessarily preclude the chance injection of DNA-damaged or apoptotic sperm into the oocyte. Sperm with high negative surface electrical charge, named “Zeta potential”, are mature and more likely to have intact chromatin. In addition, X-bearing spermatozoa carry more negative charge. Therefore, we aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of Zeta procedure with routine sperm selection in infertile men candidate for ICSI. Materials and Methods From a total of 203 ICSI cycles studied, 101 cycles were allocated to density gradient centrifugation (DGC)/Zeta group and the remaining 102 were included in the DGC group in this prospective study. Clinical outcomes were com- pared between the two groups. The ratios of Xand Y bearing sperm were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods in 17 independent semen samples. Results In the present double-blind randomized clinical trial, a significant increase in top quality embryos and pregnancy rate were observed in DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group. Moreover, sex ratio (XY/XX) at birth significantly was lower in the DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group despite similar ratio of X/Y bearings sper- matozoa following Zeta selection. Conclusion Zeta method not only improves the percentage of top embryo quality and pregnancy outcome but also alters the sex ratio compared to the conventional DGC method, despite no significant change in the ratio of Xand Ybearing sperm population (Registration number: IRCT201108047223N1). PMID:27441060

  10. Copernicus studies of interstellar material in the Perseus II complex. III - The line of sight to Zeta Persei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, T. P., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectrophotometric data obtained with Copernicus are used to analyze the distribution, composition, density, temperature, and kinematics of the interstellar material along the line of sight to Zeta Persei. The far-UV extinction curve for the star is evaluated along with the kinematics of the interstellar gas, observations of atomic and molecular hydrogen, curves of growth for neutral and ionized species, atomic abundances and depletions, ionization equilibria, and observations of CO and OH lines. The results show that there are apparently three clouds along the line of sight to Zeta Persei: a main cloud at approximately +13 km/s which contains most of the material and forms all the neutral and molecular lines as well as most of the ionic lines, a second component at +22 km/s which must contribute to the strong UV lines of most ions, and a third component at roughly +2 km/s which gives rise to a strong Si III line at 1206 A. It is also found that the UV extinction curve has a somewhat steep far-UV rise, indicating the presence of a substantial number of small grains, and that about 30% of the hydrogen nuclei over the entire line of sight are in molecular form.

  11. Determination of the ionization potentials of security-relevant substances with single photon ionization mass spectrometry using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Schramm, E; Mühlberger, F; Mitschke, S; Reichardt, G; Schulte-Ladbeck, R; Pütz, M; Zimmermann, R

    2008-02-01

    Several ionization potentials (IPs) of security relevant substances were determined with single photon ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SPI-TOFMS) using monochromatized synchrotron radiation from the "Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft für Synchrotronstrahlung" (BESSY). In detail, the IPs of nine explosives and related compounds, seven narcotics and narcotics precursors, and one chemical warfare agent (CWA) precursor were determined, whereas six IPs already known from the literature were verified correctly. From seven other substances, including one CWA precursor, the IP could not be determined as the molecule ion peak could not be detected. For these substances the appearance energy (AE) of a main fragment was determined. The analyzed security-relevant substances showed IPs significantly below the IPs of common matrix compounds such as nitrogen and oxygen. Therefore, it is possible to find photon energies in between, whereby the molecules of interest can be detected with SPI in very low concentrations due to the shielding of the matrix. All determined IPs except the one of the explosive EGDN were below 10.5 eV. Hence, laser-generated 118 nm photons can be applied for detecting almost all security-relevant substances by, e.g., SPI-TOFMS.

  12. DEHP exposure in utero disturbs sex determination and is potentially linked with precocious puberty in female mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yongan

    Human's ubiquitous exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is thought to be associated with female reproductive toxicity. Previous studies found that DEHP inhibited follicle growth and decreased estradiol levels in adult female mice. However, limited information is available on the link between in utero DEHP exposure and ovarian development in female mouse offspring. The present study evaluates the disturbances in regulatory genes involved in female sex determination and the ovarian outcomes in fetal and postnatal female mice treated with in utero DEHP exposure. Pregnant mice were exposed to DEHP by gavage, with the dosage regime beginning at human relevant exposuremore » levels. After in utero DEHP exposure, increased follicular atresia was observed in the female pups at postnatal days (PND) 21. Foxl2 expression was significantly upregulated, and Fst was significantly downregulated by DEHP above 2 mg/kg/d at PND 1 and 21. This suggests that lesion of granulosa cell differentiation and disturbance of follicle development in postnatal female mice. The expression of Cyp11a1 and Star were significantly downregulated by in utero DEHP exposure, indicating effects on estradiol biosynthesis. The female sex determination pathway was disturbed in fetus by DEHP at 2 mg/kg/d and above during the critical time window of sex determination causing significant upregulation of Foxl2, Wnt4, β-catenin and Fst. Furthermore, the increased expression of Wnt4 was supported by whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH). These results suggest a possible association between in utero DEHP exposure and precocious puberty in the postnatal life of mice offspring, where disturbance of the sex determination regulating pathway acted as an important mechanism. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate disturbs fetus sex determination. • DEHP upregulated Foxl2 expression potentially disturbs postnatal granulosa cell differentiation. • DEHP accelerated medulla

  13. [Evaluation of consumer's acceptance of a peach palm snack (Bactris gasipaes) and determination of its potential as a functional food].

    PubMed

    López-Calvo, Rebeca; Pérez, Ana M; Ivankovich Guillén, Carmen; Calderón Villaplana, Sandra; Pineda Castro, Maria Lourdes

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' acceptance of a peach palm snack and to determine its potential as a functional food by chemical characterization. An assessment was conducted with 100 consumers to determine the acceptance of different snack formulations and the results were subjected to cluster analysis. This analysis revealed two groups. Group 2 included people that consume snacks and peach palm frequently and showed the highest grades for the snack evaluated characteristics. All the consumers in group 2 and approximately 85% of the consumers in group 1 indicated that they would buy the product suggesting that there is a niche market for the developed peach palm snack. Also, a qualitative evaluation, using mini focus groups, of the two most widely accepted formulas of the snack (chosen according to previously described study) was performed. The sessions considered the opinion of middle class professionals and housewives. It was determined that the combination of tara gum and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) allows a positive synergistic effect on the sensory characteristics of the snack, highlighting natural peach flavor and improving crunchiness. In a dry basis, the snack contains per 100 g: 9 ± 4 g of fat, 14.0 ± 0.3 g of dietary fiber, 15500 ± 32 µg of carotenoids and has an antioxidant capacity of 4700 ± 8 µmol TE, which demonstrates its potential as a functional food.

  14. A model of the general ocean circulation determined from a joint solution for the Earth's gravity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerem, R. S.; Tapley, B. D.; Shum, C. K.; Yuan, D. N.

    1989-01-01

    If the geoid and the satellite position are known accurately, satellite altimetry can be used to determine the geostrophic velocity of the surface ocean currents. The purpose of this investigation is to simultaneously estimate the sea surface topography, zeta, the model for the gravity field, and the satellite orbit. Satellite tracking data from fourteen satellites were used; along with Seasat and Geosat altimeter data as well as surface gravity data for the solution. The estimated model of zeta compares well at long wavelengths with the hydrographic model of zeta. Covariance studies show that the geoid is separable from zeta up to degree 9, at which point geoid error becomes comparable to the signal of zeta.

  15. Study to determine potential flight applications and human factors design guidelines for voice recognition and synthesis systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. W.; Parks, D. L.

    1985-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine potential commercial aircraft flight deck applications and implementation guidelines for voice recognition and synthesis. At first, a survey of voice recognition and synthesis technology was undertaken to develop a working knowledge base. Then, numerous potential aircraft and simulator flight deck voice applications were identified and each proposed application was rated on a number of criteria in order to achieve an overall payoff rating. The potential voice recognition applications fell into five general categories: programming, interrogation, data entry, switch and mode selection, and continuous/time-critical action control. The ratings of the first three categories showed the most promise of being beneficial to flight deck operations. Possible applications of voice synthesis systems were categorized as automatic or pilot selectable and many were rated as being potentially beneficial. In addition, voice system implementation guidelines and pertinent performance criteria are proposed. Finally, the findings of this study are compared with those made in a recent NASA study of a 1995 transport concept.

  16. Study to determine potential flight applications and human factors design guidelines for voice recognition and synthesis systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. W.; Parks, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine potential commercial aircraft flight deck applications and implementation guidelines for voice recognition and synthesis. At first, a survey of voice recognition and synthesis technology was undertaken to develop a working knowledge base. Then, numerous potential aircraft and simulator flight deck voice applications were identified and each proposed application was rated on a number of criteria in order to achieve an overall payoff rating. The potential voice recognition applications fell into five general categories: programming, interrogation, data entry, switch and mode selection, and continuous/time-critical action control. The ratings of the first three categories showed the most promise of being beneficial to flight deck operations. Possible applications of voice synthesis systems were categorized as automatic or pilot selectable and many were rated as being potentially beneficial. In addition, voice system implementation guidelines and pertinent performance criteria are proposed. Finally, the findings of this study are compared with those made in a recent NASA study of a 1995 transport concept.

  17. Polarization curve measurements combined with potential probe sensing for determining current density distribution in vanadium redox-flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Maik; Bredemeyer, Niels; Tenhumberg, Nils; Turek, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Potential probes are applied to vanadium redox-flow batteries for determination of effective felt resistance and current density distribution. During the measurement of polarization curves in 100 cm2 cells with different carbon felt compression rates, alternating potential steps at cell voltages between 0.6 V and 2.0 V are applied. Polarization curves are recorded at different flow rates and states of charge of the battery. Increasing compression rates lead to lower effective felt resistances and a more uniform resistance distribution. Low flow rates at high or low state of charge result in non-linear current density distribution with high gradients, while high flow rates give rise to a nearly linear behavior.

  18. Determination of the energy potential of gases produced in the pyrolysis processes of the vegetal carbon manufacture industry.

    PubMed

    Gañan, J; González, J F; González-García, C M; Cuerda-Correa, E M; Macías-García, A

    2006-03-01

    In this work, a pyrolysis plant located in Valverde de Leganes, Badajoz (SW Spain) was studied. At present, only the solid phase obtained by pyrolysis finds an application as domestic fuel. In order to analyze the feasibility of a further energetic exploitation of the plant under study, the gases flowing through the chimneys were collected at different times throughout the pyrolysis process. Next, they were characterized and quantified by gas chromatography, the energy potential of each of the gases being determined. According to the results obtained in this study, a total energy potential of 5.6 x 10(7) MJ (i.e., 1.78 MW(t)) might be generated yearly. Hence, considering an overall process yield equal to 20%, up to 358 KW(e) would be produced. This power would supply enough electric energy to the industry, the remaining being added to the common electric network.

  19. Ab initio single and multideterminant methods used in the determination of reduction potentials and magnetic properties of Rieske ferredoxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Nathan Lee

    2008-10-01

    The [Fe2S2]2+/[Fe2S 2]+ electronic structure of seven Rieske protein active sites (bovine mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex, spinach chloroplast cytochrome b6f complex, Rieske-type ferredoxin associated with biphenyl dioxygenase from Burkholderia cepacia, yeast cytochrome bcl complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rieske subunit of arsenite oxidase from Alcaligenes faecalis, respiratory-type Rieske protein from Thermus thermophilus, and Rieske protein II (soxF) from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius), which lie in a reduction potential range from -150 mV to 375 mV, have been studied by both single and multi-determinant quantum mechanical methods. Calculated reduction potentials and magnetic properties are found comparable to experimental values.

  20. The potential contributions of geographic information science to the study of social determinants of health in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rabiei-Dastjerdi, Hamidreza; Matthews, Stephen A

    2018-01-01

    Recent interest in the social determinants of health (SDOH) and the effects of neighborhood contexts on individual health and well-being has grown exponentially. In this brief communication, we describe recent developments in both analytical perspectives and methods that have opened up new opportunities for researchers interested in exploring neighborhoods and health research within a SDOH framework. We focus specifically on recent advances in geographic information science, statistical methods, and spatial analytical tools. We close with a discussion of how these recent developments have the potential to enhance SDOH research in Iran.

  1. Effect of grid transparency and finite collector size on determining ion temperature and density by the retarding potential analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troy, B. E., Jr.; Maier, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of the grid transparency and finite collector size on the values of thermal ion density and temperature determined by the standard RPA (retarding potential analyzer) analysis method are investigated. The current-voltage curves calculated for varying RPA parameters and a given ion mass, temperature, and density are analyzed by the standard RPA method. It is found that only small errors in temperature and density are introduced for an RPA with typical dimensions, and that even when the density error is substantial for nontypical dimensions, the temperature error remains minimum.

  2. Fuzzy-PI-based centralised control of semi-isolated FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC in a PV/battery hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahendran, Venmathi; Ramabadran, Ramaprabha

    2016-11-01

    Multiport converters with centralised controller have been most commonly used in stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)/battery hybrid system to supply the load smoothly without any disturbances. This study presents the performance analysis of four-port SEPIC/ZETA bidirectional converter (FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC) using various types of centralised control schemes like Fuzzy tuned proportional integral controller (Fuzzy-PI), fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and conventional proportional integral (PI) controller. The proposed FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC with various control strategy is derived for simultaneous power management of a PV source using distributed maximum power point tracking (DMPPT) algorithm, a rechargeable battery, and a load by means of centralised controller. The steady state and the dynamic response of the FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC are analysed using three different types of controllers under line and load regulation. The Fuzzy-PI-based control scheme improves the dynamic response of the system when compared with the FLC and the conventional PI controller. The power balance between the ports is achieved by pseudorandom carrier modulation scheme. The response of the FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC is also validated experimentally using hardware prototype model of 500 W system. The effectiveness of the control strategy is validated using simulation and experimental results.

  3. Spectroscopic and Ab Initio Determination of the Ring-Twisting Potential Energy Function for 1,3-Cyclohexadiene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autrey, Daniel; Choo, Jaebum; Laane, Jaan

    2000-10-01

    The ring-twisting vibration of 1,3-cyclohexadiene has been studied using Raman and infrared spectroscopy of the molecule in the vapor phase. The Raman spectrum shows five ring-twisting transitions in the 150 - 200 cm-1 region. The far-infrared spectrum shows only two transitions for this vibration, which is infrared forbidden in the C_2v (planar) approximation. Three ring-twisting combination bands were also observed off a fundamental vibration at 926.1 cm-1. A coordinate dependent kinetic energy expansion for the ring-twisting motion was calculated, and this was used to determine the ring-twisting potential function. Ab initio calculations were performed using Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) using different basis sets. The barrier to planarity of 1150 cm-1 was determined from the spectroscopic data. The various ab initio calculations gave barriers to planarity in the 1197 - 1593 cm-1 range.

  4. Potential for chlorate interference in ion chromatographic determination of total nitrogen in natural waters following alkaline persulfate digestion.

    PubMed

    Halstead, J A; Edwards, J; Soracco, R J; Armstrong, R W

    1999-10-01

    Determination of total nitrogen in aqueous samples after thermal potassium peroxydisulfate (persulfate) digestion is a commonly used alternative to the tedious Kjeldahl procedure. When ion chromatography is used to quantify the nitrate formed during digestion, there is a potential for interference from a chlorate peak if the digested sample initially contained chloride in concentrations close to or greater than the concentration of nitrogen. It was determined that this interference can be avoided either by using chromatographic conditions which cleanly resolve the nitrate and chlorate peaks (e.g., the Dionex AG9-HG column) or by using digestion reagent concentrations chosen to maintain a high pH throughout the digestion. The second alternative is not a viable option for investigators using a single digestion for both total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) analysis.

  5. A least-squares minimisation approach to depth determination from numerical second horizontal self-potential anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrahman, El-Sayed Mohamed; Soliman, Khalid; Essa, Khalid Sayed; Abo-Ezz, Eid Ragab; El-Araby, Tarek Mohamed

    2009-06-01

    This paper develops a least-squares minimisation approach to determine the depth of a buried structure from numerical second horizontal derivative anomalies obtained from self-potential (SP) data using filters of successive window lengths. The method is based on using a relationship between the depth and a combination of observations at symmetric points with respect to the coordinate of the projection of the centre of the source in the plane of the measurement points with a free parameter (graticule spacing). The problem of depth determination from second derivative SP anomalies has been transformed into the problem of finding a solution to a non-linear equation of the form f(z)=0. Formulas have been derived for horizontal cylinders, spheres, and vertical cylinders. Procedures are also formulated to determine the electric dipole moment and the polarization angle. The proposed method was tested on synthetic noisy and real SP data. In the case of the synthetic data, the least-squares method determined the correct depths of the sources. In the case of practical data (SP anomalies over a sulfide ore deposit, Sariyer, Turkey and over a Malachite Mine, Jefferson County, Colorado, USA), the estimated depths of the buried structures are in good agreement with the results obtained from drilling and surface geology.

  6. Determination of the intrinsic redox potentials of FeS centers of respiratory complex I from experimental titration curves

    PubMed Central

    Medvedev, Emile S.; Couch, Vernon A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Euro et al. [Biochem. 47, 3185 (2008)] have reported titration data for seven of nine FeS redox centers of complex I from E. coli. There is a significant uncertainty in the assignment of the titration data. Four of the titration curves were assigned to N1a, N1b, N6b, and N2 centers; one curve either to N3 or N7; one more either to N4 or N5; and the last one denoted Nx could not be assigned at all. In addition, the assignment of the titration data to N6b/N6a pair is also uncertain. In this paper, using our calculated interaction energies [Couch et al. BBA 1787, 1266 (2009)], we perform statistical analysis of these data, considering a variety of possible assignments, find the best fit, and determine the intrinsic redox potentials of the centers. The intrinsic potentials could be determined with uncertainty of less than ±10 mV at 95% confidence level for best fit assignments. We also find that the best agreement between theoretical and experimental titration curves is obtained with the N6b-N2 interaction equal to 71±14 or 96±26 mV depending on the N6b/N6a titration data assignment, which is stronger than was expected and may indicate a close distance of N2 center to the membrane surface. PMID:20513348

  7. Liquid chromatographic determination of urinary 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine and pseudouridine as potential biological markers for leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Zambonin, C G; Aresta, A; Palmisano, F; Specchia, G; Liso, V

    1999-12-01

    A simple reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (LC) method for the determination of urinary 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (m5dCyd), recently claimed (on the basis of an imuno-technique) to be a potential marker for leukaemia, has been developed. Sample pre-treatment is based on a microcolumn clean-up step with an average recovery of 79% and a RSD of 3%. Detection limit was 0.2 microg/ml which is about tenfold lower than levels previously measured by an ELISA method in urine of healthy individuals. The creatinine (Cre) excretion, necessary for normalising the m5dCyd excretion, was evaluated by ion-pair liquid chromatography which permitted the simultaneous determination of pseudouridine (psi), a modified nucleoside also potentially useful as a marker for leukaemia. The described LC procedures were applied to the analysis of urine samples from healthy individuals and leukaemia patients. While the urinary psi/Cre ratio was found significantly increased for leukaemia patients, the urinary m5dCyd levels in healthy individuals were below the detection limits and did not increase in presence of the malignant disease.

  8. Issues using linkage of hospital records and death certificate data to determine the size of a potential palliative care population.

    PubMed

    Brameld, Kate; Spilsbury, Katrina; Rosenwax, Lorna; Murray, Kevin; Semmens, James

    2017-06-01

    Studies aiming to identify palliative care populations have used data from death certificates and in some cases hospital records. The size and characteristics of the identified populations can show considerable variation depending on the data sources used. It is important that service planners and researchers are aware of this. To illustrate the differences in the size and characteristics of a potential palliative care population depending on the differential use of linked hospital records and death certificate data. Retrospective cohort study. The cohort consisted of 23,852 people aged 20 years and over who died in Western Australia between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2010 after excluding deaths related to pregnancy or trauma. Within this cohort, the number, proportion and characteristics of people who died from one or more of 10 medical conditions considered amenable to palliative care were identified using linked hospital records and death certificate data. Depending on the information source(s) used, between 43% and 73% of the 23,852 people who died had a condition potentially amenable to palliative care identified. The median age at death and the sex distribution of the decedents by condition also varied with the information source. Health service planners and researchers need to be aware of the limitations when using hospital records and death certificate data to determine a potential palliative care population. The use of Emergency Department and other administrative data sources could further exacerbate this variation.

  9. Determination of pumper truck intervention ratios in zones with high fire potential by using geographical information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aricak, Burak; Kucuk, Omer; Enez, Korhan

    2014-01-01

    Fighting forest fires not only depends on the forest type, topography, and weather conditions, but is also closely related to the technical properties of fire-fighting equipment. Firefighting is an important part of fire management planning. However, because of the complex nature of forests, creating thematic layers to generate potential fire risk maps is difficult. The use of remote sensing data has become an efficient method for the discrete classification of potential fire risks. The study was located in the Central District of the Kastamonu Regional Forest Directorate, covering an area of 24,320 ha, 15,685 ha of which is forested. On the basis of stand age, crown closure, and tree species, the sizes and distributions of potential fire risk zones within the study area were determined using high-resolution GeoEye satellite imagery and geographical information system data. The status of pumper truck intervention in zones with high fire risk and the sufficiency of existing forest roads within an existing forest network were discussed based on combustible matter characteristics. Pumper truck intervention was 83% for high-risk zones, 79% for medium-risk zones, and 78% for low-risk zones. A pumper truck intervention area map along existing roads was also created.

  10. Capillary electrophoresis tandem mass spectrometry determination of glutamic acid and homocysteine's metabolites: Potential biomarkers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cieslarova, Zuzana; Lopes, Fernando Silva; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio; França, Marcondes Cavalcante; Colnaghi Simionato, Ana Valéria

    2017-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects both lower and upper motor neurons, leading to muscle atrophy, paralysis, and death caused by respiratory failure or infectious complications. Altered levels of homocysteine, cysteine, methionine, and glutamic acid have been observed in plasma of ALS patients. In this context, a method for determination of these potential biomarkers in plasma by capillary electrophoresis tandem mass spectrometry (CE-MS/MS) is proposed herein. Sample preparation was carefully investigated, since sulfur-containing amino acids may interact with plasma proteins. Owing to the non-thiol sulfur atom in methionine, it was necessary to split sample preparation into two methods: i) determination of homocysteine and cysteine as S-acetyl amino acids; ii) determination of glutamic acid and methionine. All amino acids were separated within 25min by CE-MS/MS using 5molL -1 acetic acid as background electrolyte and 5mmolL -1 acetic acid in 50% methanol/H 2 O (v/v) as sheath liquid. The proposed CE-MS/MS method was validated, presenting RSD values below 6% and 11% for intra- and inter-day precision, respectively, for the middle concentration level within the linear range. The limits of detection ranged from 35 (homocysteine) to 268nmolL -1 (glutamic acid). The validated method was applied to the analysis of plasma samples from a group of healthy individuals and patients with ALS, showing the potential of glutamic acid and homocysteine metabolites as biomarkers of ALS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel conductivity mechanism of highly disordered carbon systems based on an investigation of graph zeta function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsutani, Shigeki; Sato, Iwao

    2017-09-01

    In the previous report (Matsutani and Suzuki, 2000 [21]), by proposing the mechanism under which electric conductivity is caused by the activational hopping conduction with the Wigner surmise of the level statistics, the temperature-dependent of electronic conductivity of a highly disordered carbon system was evaluated including apparent metal-insulator transition. Since the system consists of small pieces of graphite, it was assumed that the reason why the level statistics appears is due to the behavior of the quantum chaos in each granular graphite. In this article, we revise the assumption and show another origin of the Wigner surmise, which is more natural for the carbon system based on a recent investigation of graph zeta function in graph theory. Our method can be applied to the statistical treatment of the electronic properties of the randomized molecular system in general.

  12. Kinetic temperature in the interior of the zeta Ophiuchi cloud from Copernicus observations of interstellar C/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, T.P. Jr.

    1978-03-15

    The Copernicus ultraviolet telescope-spectrometer has been used to carry out sensitive scans of the D/sup 1/..sigma../sub u//sup +/-X/sup 1/..sigma../sup +/ (0-0) transition of C/sub 2/ at 2312 A in the spectrum of zeta Ophiuchi. An absorption feature was detected at the 4sigma level of significance at the position of the R(0) line, implying a column density of 1.22 x 10/sup 12/ cm/sup -2/ for the J=0 level. An upper limit on the R(2) line of 2.6 mA, yielding N(J=2) < or =1.66 x 10/sup 12/ cm/sup -2/ implies a rotational temperature of at most 22 K, with a high probabilitymore » that T/sub rot/< or =16 K. This represents the limit on the kinetic temperature of the ambient gas because radiative transitions between the rotational levels of this homonuclear molecule are forbidden. The total column density of C/sub 2/ is estimated to be at most 3.2 x 10/sup 12/, a factor of approx.4 below the abundance expected from a recent model calculation for the zeta Oph cloud. The discrepancy may be due to an incorrect branching ratio for the reaction CH)..-->..CH/sub 2/+H ..-->..+H/sub 2/, to the presence of greater depletion of carbon in the cloud core than assumed, to an underestimate of the photodissociation rate for C/sub 2/, or to an incorrect oscillator strength.« less

  13. Determination of the potential implementation impact of 2016 ministry of environmental protection generic assessment criteria for potentially contaminated sites in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Tang, Yu-Ting; Nathanail, C Paul

    2017-04-12

    The Ministry of Environmental Protection of China issued a 3rd draft edition of risk-based Generic Assessment Criteria (the MEP-GAC) in March 2016. Since these will be the first authoritative GAC in China, their implementation is likely to have a significant impact on China's growing contaminated land management sector. This study aims to determine the potential implementation impact of the MEP-GAC through an in-depth analysis of the management context, land use scenarios, health criteria values adopted and exposure pathways considered. The MEP-GAC have been proposed for two broad categories of land use scenarios for contaminated land risk assessment, and these two categories of land use scenarios need to be further delved, and a MEP-GAC for Chinese cultivated land scenario ought to be developed, to ensure human health protection of Chinese farmers. The MEP-GAC have adopted 10 -6 as the acceptable lifetime cancer risk, given the widespread extent and severe level of land contamination in China, consideration should be given to the decision on excess lifetime cancer risk of 10 -5 . During risk assessment process in practice, it is better to review the 20% TDI against local circumstances to determine their suitability before adopting it. The MEP-GAC are based on a SOM value of 1%, for regions with particularly high SOM, it might be necessary to develop regional GAC, due to SOM's significant impact on the GAC developed. An authoritative risk assessment model developed based on HJ25.3-2014 would help facilitate the DQRA process in practice. The MEP-GAC could better reflect the likely exposures of China's citizens due to vapour inhalation by using characteristics of Chinese exposure scenarios, including China-generic building stock, as inputs into the Johnson and Ettinger model as opposed to adoption of the US EPA parameters. The MEP-GAC once implemented will set the trajectory for the development of the investigation, assessment and remediation of land contamination

  14. Assessment of Determinants of Emission Potentially Affecting the Concentration of Airborne Nano-Objects and Their Agglomerates and Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Cindy; Fransman, Wouter; Boessen, Ruud; Oerlemans, Arné; Ottenbros, Ilse B; Vermeulen, Roel

    2017-01-01

    Nano-specific inhalation exposure models could potentially be effective tools to assess and control worker exposure to nano-objects, and their aggregates and agglomerates (NOAA). However, due to the lack of reliable and consistent collected NOAA exposure data, the scientific basis for validation of the existing NOAA exposure models is missing or limited. The main objective of this study was to gain more insight into the effect of various determinants underlying the potential on the concentration of airborne NOAA close to the source with the purpose of providing a scientific basis for existing and future exposure inhalation models. Four experimental studies were conducted to investigate the effect of 11 determinants of emission on the concentration airborne NOAA close to the source during dumping of ~100% nanopowders. Determinants under study were: nanomaterial, particle size, dump mass, height, rate, ventilation rate, mixing speed, containment, particle surface coating, moisture content of the powder, and receiving surface. The experiments were conducted in an experimental room (19.5 m3) with well-controlled environmental and ventilation conditions. Particle number concentration and size distribution were measured using real-time measurement devices. Dumping of nanopowders resulted in a higher number concentration and larger particles than dumping their reference microsized powder (P < 0.05). Statistically significant more and larger particles were also found during dumping of SiO2 nanopowder compared to TiO2/Al2O3 nanopowders. Particle surface coating did not affect the number concentration but on average larger particles were found during dumping of coated nanopowders. An increase of the powder's moisture content resulted in less and smaller particles in the air. Furthermore, the results indicate that particle number concentration increases with increasing dump height, rate, and mass and decreases when ventilation is turned on. These results give an indication of

  15. A set-up for simultaneous measurement of second harmonic generation and streaming potential and some test applications.

    PubMed

    Lützenkirchen, Johannes; Scharnweber, Tim; Ho, Tuan; Striolo, Alberto; Sulpizi, Marialore; Abdelmonem, Ahmed

    2018-06-15

    We present a measurement cell that allows simultaneous measurement of second harmonic generation (SHG) and streaming potential (SP) at mineral-water interfaces with flat specimen that are suitable for non-linear optical (NLO) studies. The set-up directly yields SHG data for the interface of interest and can also be used to obtain information concerning the influence of flow on NLO signals from that interface. The streaming potential is at present measured against a reference substrate (PTFE). The properties of this inert reference can be independently determined for the same conditions. With the new cell, for the first time the SHG signal and the SP for flat surfaces have been simultaneously measured on the same surface. This can in turn be used to unambiguously relate the two observations for identical solution composition. The SHG test of the cell with a fluorite sample confirmed previously observed differences in NLO signal under flow vs. no flow conditions in sum frequency generation (SFG) investigations. As a second test surface, an inert ("hydrophobic") OTS covered sapphire-c electrolyte interface was studied to verify the zeta-potential measurements with the new cell. For this system we obtained combined zeta-potential/SHG data in the vicinity of the point of zero charge, which were found to be proportional to each other as expected. Furthermore, on the accessible time scales of the SHG measurements no effects of flow, flow velocity and stopped flow occurred on the interfacial water structure. This insensitivity to flow for the inert surface was corroborated by concomitant molecular dynamics simulations. Finally, the set-up was used for simultaneous measurements of the two properties as a function of pH in automated titrations with an oxidic surface. Different polarization combinations obtained in two separate titrations, yielded clearly different SHG data, while under identical conditions zeta-potentials were exactly reproduced. The polarization combination

  16. Shielding requirements for constant-potential diagnostic x-ray beams determined by a Monte Carlo calculation.

    PubMed

    Simpkin, D J

    1989-02-01

    A Monte Carlo calculation has been performed to determine the transmission of broad constant-potential x-ray beams through Pb, concrete, gypsum wallboard, steel and plate glass. The EGS4 code system was used with a simple broad-beam geometric model to generate exposure transmission curves for published 70, 100, 120 and 140-kVcp x-ray spectra. These curves are compared to measured three-phase generated x-ray transmission data in the literature and found to be reasonable. For calculation ease the data are fit to an equation previously shown to describe such curves quite well. These calculated transmission data are then used to create three-phase shielding tables for Pb and concrete, as well as other materials not available in Report No. 49 of the NCRP.

  17. Evaluation of modeling as a tool to determine the potential impacts related to drilling wastes in the Brazilian offshore.

    PubMed

    Pivel, María Alejandra Gómez; Dal Sasso Freitas, Carla Maria

    2010-08-01

    Numerical models that predict the fate of drilling discharges at sea constitute a valuable tool for both the oil industry and regulatory agencies. In order to provide reliable estimates, models must be validated through the comparison of predictions with field or laboratory observations. In this paper, we used the Offshore Operators Committee Model to simulate the discharges from two wells drilled at Campos Basin, offshore SE Brazil, and compared the results with field observations obtained 3 months after drilling. The comparison showed that the model provided reasonable predictions, considering that data about currents were reconstructed and theoretical data were used to characterize the classes of solids. The model proved to be a valuable tool to determine the degree of potential impact associated to drilling activities. However, since the accuracy of the model is directly dependent on the quality of input data, different possible scenarios should be considered when used for forecast modeling.

  18. Determining potential 30/20 GHz domestic satellite system concepts and establishment of a suitable experimental configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G. H.; Anzic, G.

    1979-01-01

    Issues and results in a NASA study of the potential concepts and markets for a multibeam 30/20 GHz domestic satellite system in the 1990s are presented. Issues considered include the reduction of signal attenuation due to rain, beam-beam interference isolation in the multibeam system, the method of access/modulation (FDMA, TDMA or hybrid) and the market for reduced reliability and wideband services. A hypothetical demonstration payload configuration which would attempt to resolve these issues is illustrated. The communications payload would employ a system of seven contiguous coverage spots in order to demonstrate a typical cell in a contiguous beam system having extensive frequency re-use, as in a direct-to-user system, and a single spot, typical of a trunking system, to determine signal isolation. The payload could be carried on several existing buses and is illustrated on an MMS bus.

  19. Potential reach of effective smoking prevention programmes in vocational schools: determinants of school directors' intention to adopt these programmes.

    PubMed

    Veldwijk, J; Hoving, C; van Gelder, B M; Feenstra, T L

    2012-04-01

    Investigating the current, intended and potential reach of two effective smoking prevention programs in Dutch vocational schools and identifying determinants of school directors' intention to adopt these programs. Cross-sectional survey. Two questionnaires were developed based on the Diffusion of Innovation theory and the I-Change model, focussing on either the 'Healthy School and Stimulants program' (HSS program) or the 'Out-of-school Computer Tailoring program' (CT program). The questionnaires were distributed amongst all Dutch vocational school directors (n = 452) of which 34% completed the questionnaire. The potential reach of the HSS program was 29% whereas the potential reach of the CT program was 5%. Regression analyses revealed that being female, perceiving a higher percentage of smoking students in school, having a personality more open towards change, perceiving a low need for a smoking prevention program, fewer disadvantages of the program, a higher level of self-efficacy towards adopting the program and a more positive social norm towards adopting a smoking prevention program from other school directors resulted in a positive intention towards adopting either program. The present study showed that the reach of effective smoking prevention programs is fairly low. School-based smoking prevention efforts are likely to improve if schools choose to use programs that are proven to be effective, which can be encouraged by adapting existing and newly designed programs to school directors' characteristics and providing easy access to reliable information regarding available programs. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Human REV3 DNA Polymerase Zeta Localizes to Mitochondria and Protects the Mitochondrial Genome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhupendra; Li, Xiurong; Owens, Kjerstin M; Vanniarajan, Ayyasamy; Liang, Ping; Singh, Keshav K

    2015-01-01

    To date, mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) is the only polymerase known to be present in mammalian mitochondria. A dogma in the mitochondria field is that there is no other polymerase present in the mitochondria of mammalian cells. Here we demonstrate localization of REV3 DNA polymerase in the mammalian mitochondria. We demonstrate localization of REV3 in the mitochondria of mammalian tissue as well as cell lines. REV3 associates with POLG and mitochondrial DNA and protects the mitochondrial genome from DNA damage. Inactivation of Rev3 leads to reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced OXPHOS activity, and increased glucose consumption. Conversely, inhibition of the OXPHOS increases expression of Rev3. Rev3 expression is increased in human primary breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines. Inactivation of Rev3 decreases cell migration and invasion, and localization of Rev3 in mitochondria increases survival and the invasive potential of cancer cells. Taken together, we demonstrate that REV3 functions in mammalian mitochondria and that mitochondrial REV3 is associated with the tumorigenic potential of cells.

  1. Literature review of levels and determinants of exposure to potential carcinogens and other agents in the road construction industry.

    PubMed

    Burstyn, I; Kromhout, H; Boffetta, P

    2000-01-01

    Workers in the road construction industry include asphalt plant, ground construction, and road paving workers. These individuals can be exposed to a wide range of potentially hazardous substances. A summary of levels of exposure to different substances measured during road construction is presented. In modern road paving, workers typically are exposed to 0.1 to 2 mg/m3 of bitumen fume, which includes 10 to 200 ng/m3 of benzo(a)pyrene. Sampling strategies and analytical methods employed in each reviewed survey are described briefly. The published reports provide some insight into the identity of factors that influence exposure to bitumen among road construction workers: type of work performed, meteorological conditions, temperature of paved asphalt. However, there is a lack of (a) comprehensive and well-designed studies that evaluate determinants of exposure to bitumen in road construction, and (b) standard methods for bitumen sampling and analysis. Information on determinants of other exposures in road construction is either absent or limited. It is concluded that data available through published reports have limited value in assessing historical exposure levels in the road construction industry.

  2. The Methodology Applied in DPPH, ABTS and Folin-Ciocalteau Assays Has a Large Influence on the Determined Antioxidant Potential.

    PubMed

    Abramovič, Helena; Grobin, Blaž; Poklar, Nataša; Cigić, Blaž

    2017-06-01

    Antioxidant potential (AOP) is not only the property of the matrix analyzed but also depends greatly on the methodology used. The chromogenic radicals 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay were applied to estimate how the method and the composition of the assay solvent influence the AOP determined for coffee, tea, beer, apple juice and dietary supplements. Large differences between the AOP values depending on the reaction medium were observed, with the highest AOP determined mostly in the FC assay. In reactions with chromogenic radicals several fold higher values of AOP were obtained in buffer pH 7.4 than in water or methanol. The type of assay and solvent composition have similar influences on the reactivity of a particular antioxidant, either pure or as part of a complex matrix. The reaction kinetics of radicals with antioxidants in samples reveals that AOP depends strongly on incubation time, yet differently for each sample analyzed and the assay applied.

  3. The diagnostic accuracy of a clinical examination in determining intra-articular hip pain for potential hip arthroscopy candidates.

    PubMed

    Martin, RobRoy L; Irrgang, James J; Sekiya, Jon K

    2008-09-01

    One purpose of this study was to determine whether signs and symptoms could identify when a majority of the hip pain was originating from intra-articular sources in potential arthroscopic surgery candidates. The second purpose was to quantify pain reduction after an anesthetic intra-articular injection in those with potential labral pathology. Subjects with hip pain being evaluated by an orthopaedic surgeon specializing in hip arthroscopy were prospectively enrolled in the study. Clinical examination results were recorded. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were calculated to determine their accuracy in identifying those who would have greater than 50% pain relief from those with 50% pain relief or less. We enrolled 105 subjects in this study. An anesthetic intra-articular injection was performed in 49 potential candidates for arthroscopic surgery (47%). The mean age in these 49 subjects was 42 years (SD, 15 years; range, 18 to 68 years), with 25 men (51%) and 24 women (49%). According to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) arthrogram, 18 individuals had a definite labral tear, 29 had a possible tear, and 2 had no labral tears. In those with definite tears or possible tears, 39% (n = 7) and 45% (n = 13), respectively, did not achieve a greater than 50% reduction of pain. Groin pain, clicking, pinching pain with sitting, lateral thigh pain, flexion abduction external rotation test, flexion-internal rotation-adduction test, and trochanteric tenderness were not useful in identifying those with greater than 50% pain relief from those with 50% relief or less. The symptoms and signs investigated in this study did not accurately or consistently identify subjects with primary intra-articular pain sources. Furthermore, candidates for hip arthroscopy with a labral tear identified on MRI arthrogram had varied responses to anesthetic intra-articular injection. Therefore all labral tears identified on MRI arthrogram may not be a major contributor to patients' pain

  4. Propagation-of-uncertainty from contact angle and streaming potential measurements to XDLVO model assessments of membrane-colloid interactions.

    PubMed

    Muthu, Satish; Childress, Amy; Brant, Jonathan

    2014-08-15

    Membrane fouling assessed from a fundamental standpoint within the context of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) model. The DLVO model requires that the properties of the membrane and foulant(s) be quantified. Membrane surface charge (zeta potential) and free energy values are characterized using streaming potential and contact angle measurements, respectively. Comparing theoretical assessments for membrane-colloid interactions between research groups requires that the variability of the measured inputs be established. The impact that such variability in input values on the outcome from interfacial models must be quantified to determine an acceptable variance in inputs. An interlaboratory study was conducted to quantify the variability in streaming potential and contact angle measurements when using standard protocols. The propagation of uncertainty from these errors was evaluated in terms of their impact on the quantitative and qualitative conclusions on extended DLVO (XDLVO) calculated interaction terms. The error introduced into XDLVO calculated values was of the same magnitude as the calculated free energy values at contact and at any given separation distance. For two independent laboratories to draw similar quantitative conclusions regarding membrane-foulant interfacial interactions the standard error in contact angle values must be⩽2.5°, while that for the zeta potential values must be⩽7 mV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transcript levels of the soluble sperm factor protein phospholipase C zeta 1 (PLCζ1) increase through induced spermatogenesis in European eel.

    PubMed

    Morini, Marina; Peñaranda, David S; Vílchez, María C; Gallego, Víctor; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Asturiano, Juan F; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Pérez, Luz

    2015-09-01

    Activation at fertilization of the vertebrate egg is triggered by Ca(2+) waves. Recent studies suggest the phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein, triggers egg activation by an IP3-mediated Ca(2+) release and allow Ca(2+) waves at fertilization. In the present study we cloned, characterized, and phylogenetically positioned the European eel PLCζ (PLCζ1). It is 1521 bp long, with 10 exons encoding an open reading frame of 506 amino acids. The amino acid sequence contains an EF-hand domain, X and Y catalytic domains, and a carboxy-terminal C2 domain, all typical of other PLCζ orthologous. The tissue distribution was studied, and the gene expression was determined in testis during induced sexual maturation at three different thermal regimes. Also, brain and pituitary expression was studied through sex maturation at constant temperature. plcζ1 was expressed in brain of male and female, in testis but not in ovaries. By first time in vertebrates, it is reported plcζ1 expression in the pituitary gland. Testis plcζ1 expression increased through spermatogenesis under all the thermal regimes, but being significantly elevated at lower temperatures. It was very low when testis contained only spermatogonia or spermatocytes, while maximum expression was found during spermiogenesis. These results support the hypothesis for an eel sperm-specific PLCζ1 inducing egg activation, similarly to mammals and some teleosts, but different from some other teleost species, which express this protein in ovaries, but not in testes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The ng_ζ1 toxin of the gonococcal epsilon/zeta toxin/antitoxin system drains precursors for cell wall synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rocker, Andrea; Peschke, Madeleine; Kittilä, Tiia; Sakson, Roman; Brieke, Clara; Meinhart, Anton

    2018-04-27

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin complexes are emerging as key players modulating bacterial physiology as activation of toxins induces stasis or programmed cell death by interference with vital cellular processes. Zeta toxins, which are prevalent in many bacterial genomes, were shown to interfere with cell wall formation by perturbing peptidoglycan synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we characterize the epsilon/zeta toxin-antitoxin (TA) homologue from the Gram-negative pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae termed ng_ɛ1 / ng_ζ1. Contrary to previously studied streptococcal epsilon/zeta TA systems, ng_ɛ1 has an epsilon-unrelated fold and ng_ζ1 displays broader substrate specificity and phosphorylates multiple UDP-activated sugars that are precursors of peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide synthesis. Moreover, the phosphorylation site is different from the streptococcal zeta toxins, resulting in a different interference with cell wall synthesis. This difference most likely reflects adaptation to the individual cell wall composition of Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms but also the distinct involvement of cell wall components in virulence.

  7. Expression of the growth factor pleiotrophin and its receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta in the serum, cartilage and subchondral bone of patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kaspiris, Angelos; Mikelis, Constantinos; Heroult, Melanie; Khaldi, Lubna; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kouvaras, Ioannis; Dangas, Spyridon; Vasiliadis, Elias; Lioté, Frédéric; Courty, José; Papadimitriou, Evangelia

    2013-07-01

    Pleiotrophin is a heparin-binding growth factor expressed in embryonic but not mature cartilage, suggesting a role in cartilage development. Elucidation of the molecular changes observed during the remodelling process in osteoarthritis is of paramount importance. This study aimed to investigate serum pleiotrophin levels and expression of pleiotrophin and its receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta in the cartilage and subchondral bone of osteoarthritis patients. Serum samples derived from 16 osteoarthritis patients and 18 healthy donors. Pleiotrophin and receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta in the cartilage and subchondral bone were studied in 29 patients who had undergone total knee or hip replacement for primary osteoarthritis and in 10 control patients without macroscopic osteoarthritis changes. Serum pleiotrophin levels and expression of pleiotrophin in chondrocytes and subchondral bone osteocytes significantly increased in osteoarthritis patients graded Ahlback II to III. Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta was mainly detected in the subchondral bone osteocytes of patients with moderate osteoarthritis and as disease severity increased, in the osteocytes and bone lining cells of the distant trabeculae. These data render pleiotrophin and receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta promising candidates for further studies towards developing targeted therapeutic schemes for osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2012 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Potential determinants of vitamin D in Finnish adults: a cross-sectional study from the Northern Finland birth cohort 1966.

    PubMed

    Palaniswamy, Saranya; Hyppönen, Elina; Williams, Dylan M; Jokelainen, Jari; Lowry, Estelle; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sebert, Sylvain

    2017-03-06

    Evidence from randomised controlled trials suggests that vitamin D may reduce multimorbidity, but very few studies have investigated specific determinants of vitamin D2 and D3 (two isoforms of 25-hydroxyvitamin D). The aim of the study was to investigate the determinants of vitamin D2 and D3 and to identify the risk factors associated with hypovitaminosis D. Cross-sectional study. Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. 2374 male and 2384 female participants with data on serum 25(OH)D 2 and 25(OH)D 3 concentrations measured at 31 years of age (1997), together with comprehensive measures of daylight, anthropometric, social, lifestyle and contraceptive cofactors. We assessed a wide range of potential determinants prior to a nationwide fortification programme introduced in Finland. The determinants of 25(OH)D 2 , 25(OH)D 3 and 25(OH)D concentrations were analysed by linear regression and risk factors for being in lower tertile of 25(OH)D concentration by ordinal logistic regression. At the time of sampling, 72% of the participants were vitamin D sufficient (≥50 nmol/L). Low sunlight exposure period (vs high) was associated positively with 25(OH)D 2 and negatively with 25(OH)D 3 concentrations. Use of oral contraceptives (vs non-users) was associated with an increase of 0.17 nmol/L (95% CI 0.08 to 0.27) and 0.48 nmol/L (95% CI 0.41 to 0.56) in 25(OH)D 2 and 25(OH)D 3 concentrations. Sex, season, latitude, alcohol consumption and physical activity were the factors most strongly associated with 25(OH)D concentration. Risk factors for low vitamin D status were low sunlight exposure defined by time of sampling, residing in northern latitudes, obesity, higher waist circumference, low physical activity and unhealthy diet. We demonstrate some differential associations of environmental and lifestyle factors with 25(OH)D 2 and 25(OH)D 3 raising important questions related to personalised healthcare. Future strategies could implement lifestyle modification and

  9. Potential determinants of vitamin D in Finnish adults: a cross-sectional study from the Northern Finland birth cohort 1966

    PubMed Central

    Palaniswamy, Saranya; Hyppönen, Elina; Williams, Dylan M; Jokelainen, Jari; Lowry, Estelle; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sebert, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Objective Evidence from randomised controlled trials suggests that vitamin D may reduce multimorbidity, but very few studies have investigated specific determinants of vitamin D2 and D3 (two isoforms of 25-hydroxyvitamin D). The aim of the study was to investigate the determinants of vitamin D2 and D3 and to identify the risk factors associated with hypovitaminosis D. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Participants 2374 male and 2384 female participants with data on serum 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 concentrations measured at 31 years of age (1997), together with comprehensive measures of daylight, anthropometric, social, lifestyle and contraceptive cofactors. Methods We assessed a wide range of potential determinants prior to a nationwide fortification programme introduced in Finland. The determinants of 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D concentrations were analysed by linear regression and risk factors for being in lower tertile of 25(OH)D concentration by ordinal logistic regression. Results At the time of sampling, 72% of the participants were vitamin D sufficient (≥50 nmol/L). Low sunlight exposure period (vs high) was associated positively with 25(OH)D2 and negatively with 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Use of oral contraceptives (vs non-users) was associated with an increase of 0.17 nmol/L (95% CI 0.08 to 0.27) and 0.48 nmol/L (95% CI 0.41 to 0.56) in 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Sex, season, latitude, alcohol consumption and physical activity were the factors most strongly associated with 25(OH)D concentration. Risk factors for low vitamin D status were low sunlight exposure defined by time of sampling, residing in northern latitudes, obesity, higher waist circumference, low physical activity and unhealthy diet. Conclusions We demonstrate some differential associations of environmental and lifestyle factors with 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 raising important questions related to personalised healthcare. Future strategies

  10. Measurements and theoretical interpretation of points of zero charge/potential of BSA protein.

    PubMed

    Salis, Andrea; Boström, Mathias; Medda, Luca; Cugia, Francesca; Barse, Brajesh; Parsons, Drew F; Ninham, Barry W; Monduzzi, Maura

    2011-09-20

    The points of zero charge/potential of proteins depend not only on pH but also on how they are measured. They depend also on background salt solution type and concentration. The protein isoelectric point (IEP) is determined by electrokinetical measurements, whereas the isoionic point (IIP) is determined by potentiometric titrations. Here we use potentiometric titration and zeta potential (ζ) measurements at different NaCl concentrations to study systematically the effect of ionic strength on the IEP and IIP of bovine serum albumin (BSA) aqueous solutions. It is found that high ionic strengths produce a shift of both points toward lower (IEP) and higher (IIP) pH values. This result was already reported more than 60 years ago. At that time, the only available theory was the purely electrostatic Debye-Hückel theory. It was not able to predict the opposite trends of IIP and IEP with ionic strength increase. Here, we extend that theory to admit both electrostatic and nonelectrostatic (NES) dispersion interactions. The use of a modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation for a simple model system (a charge regulated spherical colloidal particle in NaCl salt solutions), that includes these ion specific interactions, allows us to explain the opposite trends observed for isoelectric point (zero zeta potential) and isoionic point (zero protein charge) of BSA. At higher concentrations, an excess of the anion (with stronger NES interactions than the cation) is adsorbed at the surface due to an attractive ionic NES potential. This makes the potential relatively more negative. Consequently, the IEP is pushed toward lower pH. But the charge regulation condition means that the surface charge becomes relatively more positive as the surface potential becomes more negative. Consequently, the IIP (measuring charge) shifts toward higher pH as concentration increases, in the opposite direction from the IEP (measuring potential). © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Toward Improved Description of DNA Backbone: Revisiting Epsilon and Zeta Torsion Force Field Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Zgarbová, Marie; Luque, F. Javier; Šponer, Jiří; Cheatham, Thomas E.; Otyepka, Michal; Jurečka, Petr

    2013-01-01

    We present a refinement of the backbone torsion parameters ε and ζ of the Cornell et al. AMBER force field for DNA simulations. The new parameters, denoted as εζOL1, were derived from quantum-mechanical calculations with inclusion of conformation-dependent solvation effects according to the recently reported methodology (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2012, 7(9), 2886-2902). The performance of the refined parameters was analyzed by means of extended molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for several representative systems. The results showed that the εζOL1 refinement improves the backbone description of B-DNA double helices and G-DNA stem. In B-DNA simulations, we observed an average increase of the helical twist and narrowing of the major groove, thus achieving better agreement with X-ray and solution NMR data. The balance between populations of BI and BII backbone substates was shifted towards the BII state, in better agreement with ensemble-refined solution experimental results. Furthermore, the refined parameters decreased the backbone RMS deviations in B-DNA MD simulations. In the antiparallel guanine quadruplex (G-DNA) the εζOL1 modification improved the description of non-canonical α/γ backbone substates, which were shown to be coupled to the ε/ζ torsion potential. Thus, the refinement is suggested as a possible alternative to the current ε/ζ torsion potential, which may enable more accurate modeling of nucleic acids. However, long-term testing is recommended before its routine application in DNA simulations. PMID:24058302

  12. Clinical relevancy and determinants of potential drug–drug interactions in chronic kidney disease patients: results from a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Ahsan; Masood, Imran; Khan, Tahir Mehmood

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) alters the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses of various renally excreted drugs and increases the risk of drug-related problems, such as drug–drug interactions. Objectives To assess the pattern, determinants, and clinical relevancy of potential drug–drug interactions (pDDIs) in CKD patients. Materials and methods This study retrospectively reviewed medical charts of all CKD patients admitted in the nephrology unit of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan from January 2013 to December 2014. The Micromedex Drug-Reax® system was used to screen patient profiles for pDDIs, and IBM SPSS version 20 was used to carry out statistical analysis. Results We evaluated 209 medical charts and found pDDIs in nearly 78.5% CKD patients. Overall, 541 pDDIs were observed, of which, nearly 60.8% patients had moderate, 41.1% had minor, 27.8% had major, and 13.4% had contraindicated interactions. Among those interactions, 49.4% had good evidence, 44.0% had fair, 6.3% had excellent evidence, and 35.5% interactions had delayed onset of action. The potential adverse outcomes of pDDIs included postural hypotension, QT prolongation, ceftriaxone–calcium precipitation, cardiac arrhythmias, and reduction in therapeutic effectiveness. The occurrence of pDDIs was found strongly associated with the age of <60 years, number of prescribed medicines ≥5, hypertension, and the lengthy hospitalization of patients. Conclusion The occurrence of pDDIs was high in CKD patients. It was observed that CKD patients with an older age, higher number of prescribed medicines, lengthy hospitalization, and hypertension were at a higher risk of pDDIs. PMID:29354553

  13. A unique approach to determine the ice nucleating potential of soot-containing aerosol from biomass combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, E. J.; McMeeking, G. R.; McCluskey, C.; DeMott, P. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Ice nucleating particles (INP) play a crucial role in cloud and precipitation development in mixed phase clouds by catalyzing ice formation at temperatures warmer than -36 C. Despite their importance, however, there is still considerable uncertainty as to the sources and chemical nature of INP. Water insoluble particles such as mineral dust and certain biological aerosols have been shown to be efficient ice nuclei, and soot particles have also been suggested as potential INP. Biomass burning, such as wildfires and prescribed burning, is a large contributor to atmospheric soot concentrations, and could therefore be a potentially important source of INP. Both laboratory and field studies have detected enhanced INP concentrations in smoke plumes; however, the chemical composition of these INP is still uncertain as fires emit and loft a complex mixture of aerosol particles. In this work we employ a novel approach to selectively remove soot aerosol from the sample stream to determine the specific contribution of soot to INP concentrations. A number of commonly consumed biomass fuels were burned in the U.S. Forest Service combustion laboratory during the FLAME-4 (Fire Laboratory At Missoula Experiment - 4) study. Number concentrations of INP acting in the condensation and immersion freezing modes and total aerosol greater than 500 nm in diameter (N500) were measured using the Colorado State University Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber (CFDC). To determine the contribution of soot to INP concentrations, the sample stream was passed through a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2; Droplet Measurement Technologies) which employs laser induced incandescence (LII) to detect soot containing particles and total soot mass. During LII, soot containing particles are vaporized and removed from the sample while non-soot containing particles pass through the instrument unaffected. By sampling the exhaust of the SP2 with the CFDC and alternately cycling laser power on and off we were

  14. Torsion-wagging tunneling and vibrational states in hydrazine determined from its ab initio potential energy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łodyga, Wiesław; Makarewicz, Jan

    2012-05-01

    Geometries, anharmonic vibrations, and torsion-wagging (TW) multiplets of hydrazine and its deuterated species are studied using high-level ab initio methods employing the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) as well as the coupled cluster singles and doubles model including connected triple corrections, CCSD(T), in conjunction with extended basis sets containing diffuse and core functions. To describe the splitting patterns caused by tunneling in TW states, the 3D potential energy surface (PES) for the large-amplitude TW modes is constructed. Stationary points in the 3D PES, including equivalent local minima and saddle points are characterized. Using this 3D PES, a flexible Hamiltonian is built numerically and then employed to solve the vibrational problem for TW coupled motion. The calculated ground state rav structure is expected to be more reliable than the experimental one that has been determined using a simplified structural model. The calculated fundamental frequencies allowed resolution of the assignment problems discussed earlier in the literature. The determined energy barriers, including the contributions from the small-amplitude vibrations, to the tunneling of the symmetric and antisymmetric wagging mode of 1997 cm-1 and 3454 cm-1, respectively, are in reasonable agreement with the empirical estimates of 2072 cm-1 and 3312 cm-1, respectively [W. Łodyga et al. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 183, 374 (1997), 10.1006/jmsp.1997.7271]. However, the empirical torsion barrier of 934 cm-1 appears to be overestimated. The ab initio calculations yield two torsion barriers: cis and trans of 744 cm-1 and 2706 cm-1, respectively. The multiplets of the excited torsion states are predicted from the refined 3D PES.

  15. ICP-MS multielemental determination of metals potentially released from dental implants and articular prostheses in human biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento-González, Alejandro; Marchante-Gayón, Juan Manuel; Tejerina-Lobo, José María; Paz-Jiménez, José; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2005-06-01

    A sector field high-resolution (HR)-ICP-MS and an octapole reaction system (ORS)-ICP-MS have been compared for the simultaneous determination of traces of metals (Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, and Mo) released from dental implants and articular prostheses in human biological fluids. Optimum sample treatments were evaluated to minimize matrix effects in urine and whole blood. Urine samples were diluted tenfold with ultrapure water, whereas whole blood samples were digested with high-purity nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and finally diluted tenfold with ultrapure water. In both matrices, internal standardization (Ga and Y) was employed to avoid potential matrix interferences and ICP-MS signal drift. Spectral interferences arising from the plasma gases or the major components of urine and whole blood were identified by (HR)-ICP-MS at 3,000 resolving power. The capabilities of (HR)-ICP-MS and (ORS)-ICP-MS for the removal of such spectral interferences were evaluated and compared. Results indicate that polyatomic interferences, which hamper the determination of such metallic elements in these biological samples, could be overcome by using a resolving power of 3,000. Using (ORS)-ICP-MS, all those elements could be quantified except Ti and V (due to the polyatomic ions 31P16O and 35Cl16O, respectively). The accuracy of the proposed methodologies by (HR)- and (ORS)-ICP-MS was checked against two reference materials. Good agreement between the given values and the concentrations obtained for all the analytes under scrutiny was found except for Ti and V when analyzed by (ORS)-ICP-MS.

  16. Detection of GRB 060927 at zeta = 5.47: Implications for the Use of Gamma-Ray Bursts as Probes of the End of the Dark Ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz-Velasco, A. E.; Swan, H.; Troja, E.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Sterling, R. L. C.; Xu, D.; Aharonian, F.; Akerlof, C.; Andersen, M. I.; hide

    2007-01-01

    We report on follow-up observations of the gamma-ray burst GRB 060927 using the robotic ROTSE-IIIa telescope and a suite of larger aperture groundbased telescopes. An optical afterglow was detected 20 s after the burst, the earliest rest-frame detection of optical emission from any GRB. Spectroscopy performed with the VLT about 13 hours after the trigger shows a continuum break at lambda approx. equals 8070 A, produced by neutral hydrogen absorption at zeta = 5.6. We also detect an absorption line at 8158 A which we interpret as Si II lambda 1260 at zeta = 5.467. Hence, GRB 060927 is the second most distant GRB with a spectroscopically measured redshift. The shape of the red wing of the spectral break can be fitted by a damped Ly(alpha) profile with a column density with log(N(sub HI)/sq cm) = 22.50 +/- 0.15. We discuss the implications of this work for the use of GRBs as probes of the end of the dark ages and draw three main conclusions: i) GRB afterglows originating from zeta greater than or approx. equal to 6 should be relatively easy to detect from the ground, but rapid near-infrared monitoring is necessary to ensure that they are found; ii) The presence of large H I column densities in some GRBs host galaxies at zeta > 5 makes the use of GRBs to probe the reionization epoch via spectroscopy of the red damping wing challenging; iii) GRBs appear crucial to locate typical star-forming galaxies at zeta > 5 and therefore the type of galaxies responsible for the reionization of the universe.

  17. Determining the parameters of Weibull function to estimate the wind power potential in conditions of limited source meteorological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetisova, Yu. A.; Ermolenko, B. V.; Ermolenko, G. V.; Kiseleva, S. V.

    2017-04-01

    We studied the information basis for the assessment of wind power potential on the territory of Russia. We described the methodology to determine the parameters of the Weibull function, which reflects the density of distribution of probabilities of wind flow speeds at a defined basic height above the surface of the earth using the available data on the average speed at this height and its repetition by gradations. The application of the least square method for determining these parameters, unlike the use of graphical methods, allows performing a statistical assessment of the results of approximation of empirical histograms by the Weibull formula. On the basis of the computer-aided analysis of the statistical data, it was shown that, at a fixed point where the wind speed changes at different heights, the range of parameter variation of the Weibull distribution curve is relatively small, the sensitivity of the function to parameter changes is quite low, and the influence of changes on the shape of speed distribution curves is negligible. Taking this into consideration, we proposed and mathematically verified the methodology of determining the speed parameters of the Weibull function at other heights using the parameter computations for this function at a basic height, which is known or defined by the average speed of wind flow, or the roughness coefficient of the geological substrate. We gave examples of practical application of the suggested methodology in the development of the Atlas of Renewable Energy Resources in Russia in conditions of deficiency of source meteorological data. The proposed methodology, to some extent, may solve the problem related to the lack of information on the vertical profile of repeatability of the wind flow speeds in the presence of a wide assortment of wind turbines with different ranges of wind-wheel axis heights and various performance characteristics in the global market; as a result, this methodology can become a powerful tool for

  18. Migratory behavior and physiological development as potential determinants of life history diversity in fall Chinook Salmon in the Clearwater River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Connor, William P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.

    2018-01-01

    We studied the influence of behavior, water velocity, and physiological development on the downstream movement of subyearling fall‐run Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in both free‐flowing and impounded reaches of the Clearwater and Snake rivers as potential mechanisms that might explain life history diversity in this stock. Movement rates and the percentage of radio‐tagged fish that moved faster than the average current velocity were higher in the free‐flowing Clearwater River than in impounded reaches. This supports the notion that water velocity is a primary determinant of downstream movement regardless of a fish's physiological development. In contrast, movement rates slowed and detections became fewer in impounded reaches, where water velocities were much lower. The percentage of fish that moved faster than the average current velocity continued to decline and reached zero in the lowermost reach of Lower Granite Reservoir, suggesting that the behavioral disposition to move downstream was low. These findings contrast with those of a similar, previous study of Snake River subyearlings despite similarity in hydrodynamic conditions between the two studies. Physiological differences between Snake and Clearwater River migrants shed light on this disparity. Subyearlings from the Clearwater River were parr‐like in their development and never showed the increase in gill Na+/K+‐ATPase activity displayed by smolts from the Snake River. Results from this study provide evidence that behavioral and life history differences between Snake and Clearwater River subyearlings may have a physiological basis that is modified by environmental conditions.

  19. Volatile Compounds in Honey: A Review on Their Involvement in Aroma, Botanical Origin Determination and Potential Biomedical Activities

    PubMed Central

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Ndip, Roland N.; Clarke, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in honey are obtained from diverse biosynthetic pathways and extracted by using various methods associated with varying degrees of selectivity and effectiveness. These compounds are grouped into chemical categories such as aldehyde, ketone, acid, alcohol, hydrocarbon, norisoprenoids, terpenes and benzene compounds and their derivatives, furan and pyran derivatives. They represent a fingerprint of a specific honey and therefore could be used to differentiate between monofloral honeys from different floral sources, thus providing valuable information concerning the honey’s botanical and geographical origin. However, only plant derived compounds and their metabolites (terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene compounds and their derivatives) must be employed to discriminate among floral origins of honey. Notwithstanding, many authors have reported different floral markers for honey of the same floral origin, consequently sensory analysis, in conjunction with analysis of VOCs could help to clear this ambiguity. Furthermore, VOCs influence honey’s aroma described as sweet, citrus, floral, almond, rancid, etc. Clearly, the contribution of a volatile compound to honey aroma is determined by its odor activity value. Elucidation of the aroma compounds along with floral origins of a particular honey can help to standardize its quality and avoid fraudulent labeling of the product. Although only present in low concentrations, VOCS could contribute to biomedical activities of honey, especially the antioxidant effect due to their natural radical scavenging potential. PMID:22272147

  20. Determining Potential in the Army’s Officer Corps: Leveraging Technology to Manage and Promote Active Duty Captains Based on Merit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-09

    DETERMINING POTENTIAL IN THE ARMY’S OFFICER CORPS: LEVERAGING TECHNOLOGY TO MANAGE AND PROMOTE ACTIVE DUTY CAPTAINS BASED ON MERIT...Determining Potential in the Army’s Officer Corps: Leveraging Technology to Manage and Promote Active Duty Captains Based on Merit 5a. CONTRACT...NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Major Ross Carlos Pixler 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f

  1. Characterization and Expression Pattern Analysis of the T-Complex Protein-1 Zeta Subunit in Musca domestica L (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuejun; Xiu, Jiangfan; Li, Yan; Ma, Huiling; Wu, Jianwei; Wang, Bo; Guo, Guo

    2017-07-01

    Chaperonins, belonging to the T-complex protein-1 (TCP-1) family, assist in the correct folding of nascent and misfolded proteins. It is well-known that in mammals, the zeta subunit of the TCP-1 complex (TCP-1ζ) plays a vital role in the folding and assembly of cytoskeleta proteins. This study reported for the first time the cloning, characterization and expression pattern analysis of the TCP-1ζ from Musca domestica, which was named as MdTCP-1ζ. The MdTCP-1ζ cDNA is 1,803 bp long with a 1,596 bp open reading frame that encodes a protein with 531 bp amino acids. The analysis of the transcriptional profile of MdTCP-1ζ using qRT-PCR revealed relatively high expression in the salivary glands and trachea at the tissues while among the developmental stages. The highest expression was observed only in the eggs suggesting that the MdTCP-1ζ may play a role in embryonic development. The expression of MdTCP-1ζ was also significantly induced after exposure to short-term heat shock and infection by Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, or Candida albicans. This suggested that MdTCP-1ζ may take part in the immune responses of housefly and perhaps contribute to the protection against cellular injury. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  2. Assembly dynamics and stability of the pneumococcal epsilon zeta antitoxin toxin (PezAT) system from Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Mutschler, Hannes; Reinstein, Jochen; Meinhart, Anton

    2010-07-09

    The pneumococcal epsilon zeta antitoxin toxin (PezAT) system is a chromosomally encoded, class II toxin antitoxin system from the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumnoniae. Neutralization of the bacteriotoxic protein PezT is carried out by complex formation with its cognate antitoxin PezA. Here we study the stability of the inhibitory complex in vivo and in vitro. We found that toxin release is impeded in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis due to the proteolytic resistance of PezA once bound to PezT. These findings are supported by in vitro experiments demonstrating a strong thermodynamic stabilization of both proteins upon binding. A detailed kinetic analysis of PezAT assembly revealed that these particular features of PezAT are based on a strong, electrostatically guided binding mechanism leading to a stable toxin antitoxin complex with femtomolar affinity. Our data show that PezAT complex formation is distinct to all other conventional toxin antitoxin modules and a controlled mode of toxin release is required for activation.

  3. The CD3-Zeta Chimeric Antigen Receptor Overcomes TCR Hypo-Responsiveness of Human Terminal Late-Stage T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Awerkiew, Sabine; Schmidt, Annette; Hombach, Andreas A.; Pfister, Herbert; Abken, Hinrich

    2012-01-01

    Adoptive therapy of malignant diseases with tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells showed remarkable efficacy in recent trials. Repetitive T cell receptor (TCR) engagement of target antigen, however, inevitably ends up in hypo-responsive cells with terminally differentiated KLRG-1+ CD57+ CD7− phenotype limiting their therapeutic efficacy. We here revealed that hypo-responsiveness of CMV-specific late-stage CD8+ T cells is due to reduced TCR synapse formation compared to younger cells. Membrane anchoring of TCR components contributes to T cell hypo-responsiveness since dislocation of galectin-3 from the synapse by swainsonine restored both TCR synapse formation and T cell response. Transgenic expression of a CD3-zeta signaling chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) recovered hypo-responsive T cells to full effector functions indicating that the defect is restricted to TCR membrane components while synapse formation of the transgenic CAR was not blocked. CAR engineered late-stage T cells released cytokines and mediated redirected cytotoxicity as efficiently as younger effector T cells. Our data provide a rationale for TCR independent, CAR mediated activation in the adoptive cell therapy to avoid hypo-responsiveness of late-stage T cells upon repetitive antigen encounter. PMID:22292024

  4. Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yelumalai, Suseela; Mounce, Ginny; da Silva, Sarah J. Martins; Child, Tim; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22–54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ–related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm’s fundamental ability to activate an oocyte. PMID:27270687

  5. Studying Current-Potential Curves Using a Bipotentiometric Lodometric Back-Titration for the Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits and Vegetables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdini, Roxana A.; Lagier, Claudia M.

    2004-01-01

    Voltammetry principles are introduced to students by means of a bipotentiometric method to determine vitamin C in fruits and vegetables. The aim is to draw attention to voltammetric methods, particular to the study of current-potential curves, stressing the potential applicability in areas of food quality control.

  6. Potential improvements aimed at high precision δ13C isotopic ratio determinations in CO2 mixtures using optical absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Koulikov, Serguei; Assonov, Sergey; Fajgelj, Ales; Tans, Pieter

    2018-07-01

    The manuscript explores some advantages and limitations of laser based optical spectroscopy, aimed at achieving robust, high-reproducibility 13 C 16 O 2 and 12 C 16 O 2 ratio determinations on the VPDB-CO 2 δ 13 C scale by measuring the absorbance of line pairs of 13 C 16 O 2 and 12 C 16 O 2 . In particular, the sensitivities of spectroscopic lines to both pressure (P) and temperature (T) are discussed. Based on the considerations and estimations presented, a level of reproducibility of the 13 C 16 O 2 / 12 C 16 O 2 ratio determinations may be achieved of about 10 -6 . Thus one may establish an optical spectroscopic measurement technique for robust, high-precision 13 C 16 O 2 and 12 C 16 O 2 ratio measurements aimed at very low uncertainty. (Notably, creating such an optical instrument and developing technical solutions is beyond the scope of this paper.) The total combined uncertainty will also include the uncertainty component(s) related to the accuracy of calibration on the VPDB-CO 2 δ 13 C scale. Addressing high-accuracy calibrations is presently not straightforward - absolute numerical values of 13 C/ 12 C for the VPDB-CO 2 scale are not well known. Traditional stable isotope mass-spectrometry uses calibrations vs CO 2 evolved from the primary carbonate reference materials; which can hardly be used for calibrating commercial optical stable isotope analysers. In contrast to mass-spectrometry, the major advantage of the laser-based spectrometric technique detailed in this paper is its high robustness. Therefore one can introduce a new spectrometric δ 13 C characterisation method which, being once well-calibrated on the VPDB-CO 2 scale, may not require any further (re-)calibrations. This can be used for characterisation of δ 13 C in CO 2 -in-air mixtures with high precision and also with high accuracy. If this technique can be realised with the estimated long-term reproducibility (order of 10 -6 ), it could potentially serve as a more convenient Optical

  7. The fluorescence lifetime of BRI1-GFP as probe for the noninvasive determination of the membrane potential in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgass, K.; Caesar, K.; Schleifenbaum, F.; Meixner, A. J.; Harter, K.

    2010-02-01

    As the excited state lifetime of a fluorescent molecule depends on its environment, it is possible to use it as a probe for physico-chemical parameters of the surrounding medium. Whereas this is well known for many solid guest/host systems, only few reports of quantitative, temporal resolved in vivo studies to monitor the nano-environment for a protein-coupled chromophore such as GFP are known from literature. Here we present a novel approach to determine the membrane potential of living (plant) cells based on the fluorescence lifetime (FLT) analysis of membrane-located GFP. By using confocal sample scanning microscopy (CSSM) combined with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, we recently showed that the phytohormone brassinolide (BL) induces cell wall expansion and a decrease in the FLT of the BRI1-GFP in living cells of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. BRI1 is the dominant functional receptor for BL in Arabidopsis and locates to the plasma membrane. Although the dependence of the FLT of GFP on its physico-chemical environment such as pH-value, refractive index and pressure has been reported, the observed FLT decrease of BRI1-GFP in response to BL application could not be explained by these parameters. However, our in vivo FLT and CSSM analyses indicate that the BLinduced change in the FLT of BRI1-GFP is caused by hyperpolarisation of the plasma membrane (Em). Thus, our results indicate that BRI1-GFP serves as sensitive and non-invasive probe for recording the Em of the plasma membrane in living plant cells with high spatio-temporal resolution.

  8. Multiresidue determination and potential risks of emerging pesticides in aquatic products from Northeast China by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lei; Lu, Xianbo; Tan, Jun; Wang, Longxing; Chen, Jiping

    2018-01-01

    A simple method for determining 33 pesticides with a wide polarity range (logK ow 0.6-4.5) in aquatic products was developed based on LC-MS/MS. The target analytes included three types of widely used pesticides: insecticides, fungicides and herbicides. Based on the optimization of ultrasonic assisted extraction and GPC clean-up procedures, the matrix effect, extraction recoveries and LOD were improved distinctively. LOQ of this method was below 0.5ng/g for all pesticides, which is superior to values in the literature, and the matrix effect was reduced effectively (-14.7% to 7.5%). The method was successfully applied to investigate the pesticide residue levels of twenty-five samples including seven common kinds of fishes from Northeast China. The results showed that all targeted pesticides were present in the fish samples; however, their levels were low, except for atrazine, linuron, ethoprophos, tetrachlorvinphos, acetochlor and fenthion. Atrazine and linuron caught our attention because the concentrations of atrazine in fish samples from Liaoning province were in the range of 0.5-8ng/g (w/w) with mean concentration of 2.3ng/g, which were far above those of other pesticides. The levels of linuron were in the range of 0.6-6ng/g (mean concentration 2.8ng/g), which were the highest among all targeted pesticides in the Inner Mongolia. This is the first systematic investigation on the characteristics and levels of these pesticides in aquatic products from northeast China. Considering their toxicity and bioaccumulation, the potential risk of atrazine and linuron from consuming aquatic products should be paid more attention. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Migratory Behavior and Physiological Development as Potential Determinants of Life History Diversity in Fall Chinook Salmon in the Clearwater River

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Connor, William P.

    We studied the influence of behavior, water velocity, and physiological development on the downstream movement of subyearling fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in free-flowing and impounded reaches of the Clearwater and Snake rivers as potential mechanisms that might explain life history diversity in this stock. Movement rates and the percentage of radio-tagged fish that moved faster than the average current velocity were highest in the free-flowing Clearwater River compared to impounded reaches. This provided support for our hypothesis that water velocity is a primary determinant of downstream movement regardless of a fish’s physiological development. In contrast, movement rates slowed andmore » detections became fewer in impounded reaches where velocities were much lower. The percentage of fish that moved faster than the average current velocity continued to decline and reached zero in the lower-most reach of Lower Granite Reservoir suggesting that behavioral disposition to move downstream was low. These findings contrast those of a similar, previous study of Snake River subyearlings in spite of hydrodynamic conditions being similar. Physiological differences between Snake and Clearwater river migrants shed light on this disparity. Subyearlings from the Clearwater River were parr-like in their development and never showed an increase in gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity as did smolts from the Snake River. The later emergence timing and cooler rearing temperatures in the Clearwater River may suppress normal physiological development that causes many fish to delay downstream movement and adopt a yearling life history strategy.« less

  10. Determination of point of zero charge of natural organic materials.

    PubMed

    Bakatula, Elisee Nsimba; Richard, Dominique; Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Zagury, Gerald J

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluates different methods to determine points of zero charge (PZCs) on five organic materials, namely maple sawdust, wood ash, peat moss, compost, and brown algae, used for the passive treatment of contaminated neutral drainage effluents. The PZC provides important information about metal sorption mechanisms. Three methods were used: (1) the salt addition method, measuring the PZC; (2) the zeta potential method, measuring the isoelectric point (IEP); (3) the ion adsorption method, measuring the point of zero net charge (PZNC). Natural kaolinite and synthetic goethite were also tested with both the salt addition and the ion adsorption methods in order to validate experimental protocols. Results obtained from the salt addition method in 0.05 M NaNO 3 were the following: 4.72 ± 0.06 (maple sawdust), 9.50 ± 0.07 (wood ash), 3.42 ± 0.03 (peat moss), 7.68 ± 0.01 (green compost), and 6.06 ± 0.11 (brown algae). Both the ion adsorption and the zeta potential methods failed to give points of zero charge for these substrates. The PZC of kaolinite (3.01 ± 0.03) was similar to the PZNC (2.9-3.4) and fell within the range of values reported in the literature (2.7-4.1). As for the goethite, the PZC (10.9 ± 0.05) was slightly higher than the PZNC (9.0-9.4). The salt addition method has been found appropriate and convenient to determine the PZC of natural organic substrates.

  11. PROBLEMS OF THE OPTICAL MODEL FOR DEUTERONS. II. EXPERIMENTS FOR DETERMINATION OF THE PARAMETERS OF THE OPTICAL POTENTIAL FOR DEUTERONS (in Polish)

    SciTech Connect

    Grotowski, K.

    1963-01-01

    An experiment for determination of the parameters of the optical potential for deuterons is presented. Total reaction cross sections for the interaction of deuterons with nuclei were determined by evaluating the cross sections for the emission of charged particles and neutrons. The angular distributions for the elastic scattering of deuterons were also measured. (auth)

  12. Does the mechanism of sex determination constrain the potential for sex manipulation? A test in geckos with contrasting sex-determining systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Kubička, Lukáš; Landová, Eva

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of yolk steroids was suggested to influence offspring gender in oviparous animals subject to both temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and genotypic sex determination (GSD). However, the proposed mechanisms of steroid effects are thought to differ between TSD and GSD: a direct effect of oestrogens on gonad feminisation in TSD species vs a differential induction of male-producing or female-producing gametes in GSD species. Geckos offer an ideal opportunity for testing these suggested mechanisms. Closely related gecko species differ in their modes of sex determination. They lay clutches of two synchronously formed eggs; both eggs share equal steroid levels. If identical hormonal composition and environment during vitellogenesis, gravidity and incubation determine the sex of the progeny, siblings should share the same gender in both TSD and GSD geckos. We found strong support for this prediction in a TSD gecko species. Among clutches that were incubated at the temperature that produced both sexes, there were no clutches with siblings of the opposite sex. On the other hand, about half of the clutches yielded siblings of the opposite sex in four GSD species. These results suggest that sex-determining systems constrain the ability of the female to produce single-sex siblings and, hence, it seems that the GSD mechanism constrains the opportunities for sex ratio manipulation in geckos via yolk steroid manipulation.

  13. HST-WFC3 Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Quenched Galaxies at zeta approx 1.5 from the WISP Survey: Stellar Populations Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedregal, A. G.; Scarlata, C.; Henry, A. L.; Atek, H.; Rafelski, M.; Teplitz, H. I.; Dominguez, A.; Siana, B.; Colbert, J. W.; Malkan, M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We combine Hubble Space Telescope (HST) G102 and G141 near-IR (NIR) grism spectroscopy with HST/WFC3- UVIS, HST/WFC3-IR, and Spitzer/IRAC [3.6 microns] photometry to assemble a sample of massive (log(Mstar/M solar mass) at approx 11.0) and quenched (specific star formation rate < 0.01 G/yr(exp -1) galaxies at zeta approx 1.5. Our sample of 41 galaxies is the largest with G102+G141 NIR spectroscopy for quenched sources at these redshifts. In contrast to the local universe, zeta approx 1.5 quenched galaxies in the high-mass range have a wide range of stellar population properties. We find that their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are well fitted with exponentially decreasing star formation histories and short star formation timescales (tau less than or equal to 100 M/yr). Quenched galaxies also show a wide distribution in ages, between 1 and 4 G/yr. In the (u - r)0-versus-mass space quenched galaxies have a large spread in rest-frame color at a given mass. Most quenched galaxies populate the zeta appro. 1.5 red sequence (RS), but an important fraction of them (32%) have substantially bluer colors. Although with a large spread, we find that the quenched galaxies on the RS have older median ages (3.1 G/yr) than the quenched galaxies off the RS (1.5 G/yr). We also show that a rejuvenated SED cannot reproduce the observed stacked spectra of (the bluer) quenched galaxies off the RS. We derive the upper limit on the fraction of massive galaxies on the RS at zeta approx 1.5 to be <43%.We speculate that the young quenched galaxies off the RS are in a transition phase between vigorous star formation at zeta > 2 and the zeta approx 1.5 RS. According to their estimated ages, the time required for quenched galaxies off the RS to join their counterparts on the z approx. 1.5 RS is of the order of approx. 1G/yr.

  14. Determining the drift potential of Venturi nozzles compared with standard nozzles across three insecticide spray solutions in a wind tunnel.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J Connor; Chechetto, Rodolfo G; O'Donnell, Chris C; Dorr, Gary J; Moore, John H; Baker, Greg J; Powis, Kevin J; Hewitt, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has sought to adopt the use of drift-reducing technologies (DRTs) for use in field trials to control diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola (Brassica napus L.). Previous studies observed no difference in canopy penetration from fine to coarse sprays, but the coverage was higher for fine sprays. DBM has a strong propensity to avoid sprayed plant material, putting further pressure on selecting technologies that maximise coverage, but often this is at the expense of a greater drift potential. This study aims to examine the addition of a DRT oil that is labelled for control of DBM as well and its effect on the drift potential of the spray solution. The objectives of the study are to quantify the droplet size spectrum and spray drift potential of each nozzle type to select technologies that reduce spray drift, to examine the effect of the insecticide tank mix at both (50 and 100 L ha(-1) ) application rates on droplet size and spray drift potential across tested nozzle type and to compare the droplet size results of each nozzle by tank mix against the drift potential of each nozzle. The nozzle type affected the drift potential the most, but the spray solution also affected drift potential. The fine spray quality (TCP) resulted in the greatest drift potential (7.2%), whereas the coarse spray quality (AIXR) resulted in the lowest (1.3%), across all spray solutions. The spray solutions mixed at the 100 L ha(-1) application volume rate resulted in a higher drift potential than the same products mixed at the 50 L ha(-1) mix rate. The addition of the paraffinic DRT oil was significant in reducing the drift potential of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstkai (Bt)-only treatments across all tested nozzle types. The reduction in drift potential from the fine spray quality to the coarse spray quality was up to 85%. The addition of a DRT oil is an effective way to reduce the spray solution drift potential across all

  15. Determining CO2 storage potential during miscible CO2 enhanced oil recovery: Noble gas and stable isotope tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Hunt, Andrew; Beebe, Thomas L; Parker, Andrew D; Warwick, Peter D.; Drake, Ronald; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are fueling anthropogenic climate change. Geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs is one option for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere while enhancing oil recovery. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites in the United States for permanent CO2 storage, an active multi-stage miscible CO2flooding project in the Permian Basin (North Ward Estes Field, near Wickett, Texas) was investigated. In addition, two major natural CO2 reservoirs in the southeastern Paradox Basin (McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon) were also investigated as they provide CO2 for EOR operations in the Permian Basin. Produced gas and water were collected from three different CO2 flooding phases (with different start dates) within the North Ward Estes Field to evaluate possible CO2 storage mechanisms and amounts of total CO2retention. McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon were sampled for produced gas to determine the noble gas and stable isotope signature of the original injected EOR gas and to confirm the source of this naturally-occurring CO2. As expected, the natural CO2produced from McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon is a mix of mantle and crustal sources. When comparing CO2 injection and production rates for the CO2 floods in the North Ward Estes Field, it appears that CO2 retention in the reservoir decreased over the course of the three injections, retaining 39%, 49% and 61% of the injected CO2 for the 2008, 2010, and 2013 projects, respectively, characteristic of maturing CO2 miscible flood projects. Noble gas isotopic composition of the injected and produced gas for the flood projects suggest no active fractionation, while δ13CCO2 values suggest no active CO2dissolution into formation water, or mineralization. CO2 volumes capable of dissolving in residual formation fluids were also estimated along with the potential to store pure-phase supercritical CO2. Using a combination

  16. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infections in the Republic of Djibouti: evaluation of their prevalence and potential determinants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Formerly known as a hypoendemic malaria country, the Republic of Djibouti declared the goal of pre-eliminating malaria in 2006. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and mixed infections in the Djiboutian population by using serological tools and to identify potential determinants of the disease and hotspots of malaria transmission within the country. Methods The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax within the districts of the capital city and the rest of the Republic of Djibouti were assessed using 13 and 2 serological markers, respectively. The relationship between the immune humeral response to P. falciparum and P. vivax and variables such as age, gender, wealth status, urbanism, educational level, distance to rivers/lakes, living area, having fever in the last month, and staying in a malaria-endemic country more than one year was estimated and analysed by questionnaires administered to 1910 Djiboutians. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression models of the immune humeral response were obtained for P. falciparum and P. vivax. Results The P. falciparum and P. vivax seroprevalence rates were 31.5%, CI95% [29.4-33.7] and 17.5%, CI95% [15.8-19.3], respectively. Protective effects against P. falciparum and P. vivax were female gender, educational level, and never having visited a malaria-endemic area for more than one year. For P. falciparum only, a protective effect was observed for not having a fever in the last month, living more than 1.5 km away from lakes and rivers, and younger ages. Conclusions This is the first study that assessed the seroprevalence of P. vivax in the Republic of Djibouti. It is necessary to improve knowledge of this pathogen in order to create an effective elimination programme. As supported by recent observations on the subject, the Republic of Djibouti has probably demonstrated a real decrease in the transmission of P. falciparum in the past seven years, which

  17. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infections in the Republic of Djibouti: evaluation of their prevalence and potential determinants.

    PubMed

    Khaireh, Bouh Abdi; Briolant, Sébastien; Pascual, Aurélie; Mokrane, Madjid; Machault, Vanessa; Travaillé, Christelle; Khaireh, Mohamed Abdi; Farah, Ismail Hassan; Ali, Habib Moussa; Abdi, Abdul-Ilah Ahmed; Ayeh, Souleiman Nour; Darar, Houssein Youssouf; Ollivier, Lénaïck; Waiss, Mohamed Killeh; Bogreau, Hervé; Rogier, Christophe; Pradines, Bruno

    2012-11-28

    Formerly known as a hypoendemic malaria country, the Republic of Djibouti declared the goal of pre-eliminating malaria in 2006. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and mixed infections in the Djiboutian population by using serological tools and to identify potential determinants of the disease and hotspots of malaria transmission within the country. The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax within the districts of the capital city and the rest of the Republic of Djibouti were assessed using 13 and 2 serological markers, respectively. The relationship between the immune humeral response to P. falciparum and P. vivax and variables such as age, gender, wealth status, urbanism, educational level, distance to rivers/lakes, living area, having fever in the last month, and staying in a malaria-endemic country more than one year was estimated and analysed by questionnaires administered to 1910 Djiboutians. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression models of the immune humeral response were obtained for P. falciparum and P. vivax. The P. falciparum and P. vivax seroprevalence rates were 31.5%, CI95% [29.4-33.7] and 17.5%, CI95% [15.8-19.3], respectively. Protective effects against P. falciparum and P. vivax were female gender, educational level, and never having visited a malaria-endemic area for more than one year. For P. falciparum only, a protective effect was observed for not having a fever in the last month, living more than 1.5 km away from lakes and rivers, and younger ages. This is the first study that assessed the seroprevalence of P. vivax in the Republic of Djibouti. It is necessary to improve knowledge of this pathogen in order to create an effective elimination programme. As supported by recent observations on the subject, the Republic of Djibouti has probably demonstrated a real decrease in the transmission of P. falciparum in the past seven years, which should encourage authorities to

  18. First insights into a type II toxin-antitoxin system from the clinical isolate Mycobacterium sp. MHSD3, similar to epsilon/zeta systems.

    PubMed

    Jaén-Luchoro, Daniel; Aliaga-Lozano, Francisco; Gomila, Rosa Maria; Gomila, Margarita; Salvà-Serra, Francisco; Lalucat, Jorge; Bennasar-Figueras, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    A putative type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system was found in the clinical isolate Mycobacterium sp. MHSD3, a strain closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae. Further analyses of the protein sequences of the two genes revealed the presence of domains related to a TA system. BLAST analyses indicated the presence of closely related proteins in the genomes of other recently published M. chelonae strains. The functionality of both elements of the TA system was demonstrated when expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and the predicted structure of the toxin is very similar to those of well-known zeta-toxins, leading to the definition of a type II TA system similar to epsilon/zeta TA systems in strains that are closely related to M. chelonae.

  19. Protein kinase C zeta suppresses low- or high-grade colorectal cancer (CRC) phenotypes by interphase centrosome anchoring.

    PubMed

    Deevi, Ravi Kiran; Javadi, Arman; McClements, Jane; Vohhodina, Jekaterina; Savage, Kienan; Loughrey, Maurice Bernard; Evergren, Emma; Campbell, Frederick Charles

    2018-04-01

    Histological grading provides prognostic stratification of colorectal cancer (CRC) by scoring heterogeneous phenotypes. Features of aggressiveness include aberrant mitotic spindle configurations, chromosomal breakage, and bizarre multicellular morphology, but pathobiology is poorly understood. Protein kinase C zeta (PKCz) controls mitotic spindle dynamics, chromosome segregation, and multicellular patterns, but its role in CRC phenotype evolution remains unclear. Here, we show that PKCz couples genome segregation to multicellular morphology through control of interphase centrosome anchoring. PKCz regulates interdependent processes that control centrosome positioning. Among these, interaction between the cytoskeletal linker protein ezrin and its binding partner NHERF1 promotes the formation of a localized cue for anchoring interphase centrosomes to the cell cortex. Perturbation of these phenomena induced different outcomes in cells with single or extra centrosomes. Defective anchoring of a single centrosome promoted bipolar spindle misorientation, multi-lumen formation, and aberrant epithelial stratification. Collectively, these disturbances induce cribriform multicellular morphology that is typical of some categories of low-grade CRC. By contrast, defective anchoring of extra centrosomes promoted multipolar spindle formation, chromosomal instability (CIN), disruption of glandular morphology, and cell outgrowth across the extracellular matrix interface characteristic of aggressive, high-grade CRC. Because PKCz enhances apical NHERF1 intensity in 3D epithelial cultures, we used an immunohistochemical (IHC) assay of apical NHERF1 intensity as an indirect readout of PKCz activity in translational studies. We show that apical NHERF1 IHC intensity is inversely associated with multipolar spindle frequency and high-grade morphology in formalin-fixed human CRC samples. To conclude, defective PKCz control of interphase centrosome anchoring may underlie distinct categories of

  20. Phosphorylated Protein Kinase C (Zeta/Lambda) Expression in Colorectal Adenocarcinoma and Its Correlation with Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Min-Kyung; Kim, Ji Yeon; Seong, In-Ock; Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Kyung-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Background: Protein kinase C zeta/lambda (PKCζ/λ) is a family of protein kinase enzymes that contributes to cell proliferation and regulation, which are important for cancer development. PKCζ/λ has been shown to be an important regulator of tumorigenesis in intestinal cancer. The phosphorylated form of PKCζ/λ, p-PKCζ/λ, is suggested as an active form of PKCζ/λ. However, p-PKCζ/λ expression and its clinicopathologic implication in colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRAC) are unclear. Methods: Seven whole-tissue sections of malignant polyps containing both non-neoplastic and neoplastic mucosa, 11 adenomas with low-grade dysplasia, and 173 CRACs were examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot assay for p-PKCζ/λ protein expression. The association of p-PKCζ/λ expression with clinicopathologic factors including patient survival was studied. Results: In non-neoplastic epithelia, p-PKCζ/λ showed a weak cytoplasmic immunostaining. Adenomas and CRACs demonstrated up-regulated p-PKCζ/λ detection. Cytoplasmic p-PKCζ/λ expression was higher in CRAC than in adenoma. In CRACs, p-PKCζ/λ expression was inversely correlated with pathologic TNM stage (I-II versus III-IV) and poor differentiation. Statistical correlations between low expression of p-PKCζ/λ with shortened overall survival and disease-free survival were seen (p=0.004 and p=0.034, respectively). Conclusions: P-PKCζ/λ overexpression is implicated in tumorigenesis but down-regulation was a poor prognostic factor in CRAC.

  1. Protein kinase C zeta suppresses low‐ or high‐grade colorectal cancer (CRC) phenotypes by interphase centrosome anchoring

    PubMed Central

    Deevi, Ravi Kiran; Javadi, Arman; McClements, Jane; Vohhodina, Jekaterina; Savage, Kienan; Loughrey, Maurice Bernard; Evergren, Emma

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Histological grading provides prognostic stratification of colorectal cancer (CRC) by scoring heterogeneous phenotypes. Features of aggressiveness include aberrant mitotic spindle configurations, chromosomal breakage, and bizarre multicellular morphology, but pathobiology is poorly understood. Protein kinase C zeta (PKCz) controls mitotic spindle dynamics, chromosome segregation, and multicellular patterns, but its role in CRC phenotype evolution remains unclear. Here, we show that PKCz couples genome segregation to multicellular morphology through control of interphase centrosome anchoring. PKCz regulates interdependent processes that control centrosome positioning. Among these, interaction between the cytoskeletal linker protein ezrin and its binding partner NHERF1 promotes the formation of a localized cue for anchoring interphase centrosomes to the cell cortex. Perturbation of these phenomena induced different outcomes in cells with single or extra centrosomes. Defective anchoring of a single centrosome promoted bipolar spindle misorientation, multi‐lumen formation, and aberrant epithelial stratification. Collectively, these disturbances induce cribriform multicellular morphology that is typical of some categories of low‐grade CRC. By contrast, defective anchoring of extra centrosomes promoted multipolar spindle formation, chromosomal instability (CIN), disruption of glandular morphology, and cell outgrowth across the extracellular matrix interface characteristic of aggressive, high‐grade CRC. Because PKCz enhances apical NHERF1 intensity in 3D epithelial cultures, we used an immunohistochemical (IHC) assay of apical NHERF1 intensity as an indirect readout of PKCz activity in translational studies. We show that apical NHERF1 IHC intensity is inversely associated with multipolar spindle frequency and high‐grade morphology in formalin‐fixed human CRC samples. To conclude, defective PKCz control of interphase centrosome anchoring may underlie

  2. Functional Role of Tyr12 in the Catalytic Activity of Novel Zeta-like Glutathione S-transferase from Acidovorax sp. KKS102.

    PubMed

    Shehu, Dayyabu; Alias, Zazali

    2018-05-19

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of enzymes that function in the detoxification of variety of electrophilic substrates. In the present work, we report a novel zeta-like GST (designated as KKSG9) from the biphenyl/polychlorobiphenyl degrading organism Acidovorax sp. KKS102. KKSG9 possessed low sequence similarity but similar biochemical properties to zeta class GSTs. Functional analysis showed that the enzyme exhibits wider substrate specificity compared to most zeta class GSTs by reacting with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), p-nitrobenzyl chloride (NBC), ethacrynic acid (EA), hydrogen peroxide, and cumene hydroperoxide. The enzyme also displayed dehalogenation function against dichloroacetate, permethrin, and dieldrin. The functional role of Tyr12 was also investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant (Y12C) displayed low catalytic activity and dehalogenation function against all the substrates when compared with the wild type. Kinetic analysis using NBC and GSH as substrates showed that the mutant (Y12C) displayed a higher affinity for NBC when compared with the wild type, however, no significant change in GSH affinity was observed. These findings suggest that the presence of tyrosine residue in the motif might represent an evolutionary trend toward improving the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The enzyme as well could be useful in the bioremediation of various types of organochlorine pollutants.

  3. Potential use of the bioreactor to determine effects of microgravity and other environmental parameters on growth of hybridoma cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ley, Kenneth D.

    1987-01-01

    It is argued that the bioreactor being developed at NASA will allow researchers to determine the optimal conditions (e.g., pH, O sub 2, CO sub 2, nutrients) for growth of hybridoma cells, and to determine whether cell growth and antibody production are enhanced in the microgravity of space.

  4. "I Think I'm Reaching My Potential": Students' Self-Determination Experiences in an Inclusive High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenman, Laura T.; Pell, Megan M.; Poudel, Bishwa B.; Pleet-Odle, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    Through a 5-year qualitative case study of an inclusive high school, we examined students' experiences of self-determination. We conducted analyses of multiple interviews with students, parents, teachers, guidance staff, and administrators using grounded theory methods and guided by self-determination conceptual frameworks. Explicit expectations…

  5. Determination of Surface Charge of Titanium Dioxide (Anatase) at High Ionic Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonen, M. A.; Strongin, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Charge development on mineral surfaces is an important control on the fate of minor and trace elements in a wide range of environments, including in possible radioactive waste repositories. Formation waters have often a high ionic strength. In this study, we determined the zeta potential (ζ) of anatase in potassium chloride solutions with concentrations up to 3M (25°C). The zeta potential is the potential at the hydrodynamic shear plane. In this study, we made use of the electro-acoustic effect. This effect is based on the development of a measureable potential/current when the electrical double layer outside the shearplane is separated from a charged particle through rapid oscillation induced by a sound wave. The advantage of this type of measurement is that the particles are not subjected to a high electric field (common to typical zeta potential measurements), which leads to electrode reactions and a shift of solution pH. Measurements were collected by subtracting the ion vibration current (IVI) due to the presence of potassium and chloride ions from the CVI. The correction is necessary for measurements in solutions with I > 0.25 M. This subtraction was done at each of the measurement conditions by centrifuging the slurrly, measuring the IVI of the supernatant, reconstituting the slurry, and then measuring CVI of the slurry. Subtraction of IVI at each condition is critical because IVI changes with pH and accounts for most of raw signal. The results show that the anatase isoelectric point shifts from a pH ~6.5 to a value of ~4.5 at 1M KCl. At ionic strength in excess of 1 M KCl, the surface appears to be slightly negatively charged accross the pH range accessible by this technique (pH 2.5-10). The loss of an isoelectric point suggests that KCl is no longer an indifferent electrolyte at 1 M KCl and higher. The results are in disagreement with earlier measurements in which anatase was shown to have a positive charge at high ionic strength across the pH scale. The

  6. Free-energy calculations using classical molecular simulation: application to the determination of the melting point and chemical potential of a flexible RDX model.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Michael S; Lísal, Martin; Brennan, John K

    2016-03-21

    We present an extension of various free-energy methodologies to determine the chemical potential of the solid and liquid phases of a fully-flexible molecule using classical simulation. The methods are applied to the Smith-Bharadwaj atomistic potential representation of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), a well-studied energetic material, to accurately determine the solid and liquid phase Gibbs free energies, and the melting point (Tm). We outline an efficient technique to find the absolute chemical potential and melting point of a fully-flexible molecule using one set of simulations to compute the solid absolute chemical potential and one set of simulations to compute the solid-liquid free energy difference. With this combination, only a handful of simulations are needed, whereby the absolute quantities of the chemical potentials are obtained, for use in other property calculations, such as the characterization of crystal polymorphs or the determination of the entropy. Using the LAMMPS molecular simulator, the Frenkel and Ladd and pseudo-supercritical path techniques are adapted to generate 3rd order fits of the solid and liquid chemical potentials. Results yield the thermodynamic melting point Tm = 488.75 K at 1.0 atm. We also validate these calculations and compare this melting point to one obtained from a typical superheated simulation technique.

  7. Direct Determination of the Equilibrium Unbinding Potential Profile for a Short DNA Duplex from Force Spectroscopy Data

    SciTech Connect

    Noy, A

    2004-05-04

    Modern force microscopy techniques allow researchers to use mechanical forces to probe interactions between biomolecules. However, such measurements often happen in non-equilibrium regime, which precludes straightforward extraction of the equilibrium energy information. Here we use the work averaging method based on Jarzynski equality to reconstruct the equilibrium interaction potential from the unbinding of a complementary 14-mer DNA duplex from the results of non-equilibrium single-molecule measurements. The reconstructed potential reproduces most of the features of the DNA stretching transition, previously observed only in equilibrium stretching of long DNA sequences. We also compare the reconstructed potential with the thermodynamic parameters of DNAmore » duplex unbinding and show that the reconstruction accurately predicts duplex melting enthalpy.« less

  8. Method of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey California District Sacramento Laboratory?Determination of Trihalomethane Formation Potential, Method Validation, and Quality-Control Practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crepeau, Kathryn L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Bush, Noel

    2004-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of the trihalomethane formation potential of water samples has been developed. The trihalomethane formation potential is measured by dosing samples with chlorine under specified conditions of pH, temperature, incubation time, darkness, and residual-free chlorine, and then analyzing the resulting trihalomethanes by purge and trap/gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector. Detailed explanations of the method and quality-control practices are provided. Method validation experiments showed that the trihalomethane formation potential varies as a function of time between sample collection and analysis, residual-free chlorine concentration, method of sample dilution, and the concentration of bromide in the sample.

  9. Zeta-Proteobacteria dominate the formation of microbial mats in low-temperature hydrothermal vents at Loihi Seamount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassa, A. C.; McAllister, S. M.; Safran, S. A.; Moyer, C. L.

    2007-12-01

    Loihi Seamount is Hawaii's youngest volcano and one of the earth's most active. Loihi is located 30 km SE of the big island of Hawaii and rises over 3000m above the sea floor and summits at 1100m below sea level. An eruption in 1996 of Loihi led to the formation of Pele's Pit, a 300 meter deep caldera. The current observations have revealed diffuse hydrothermal venting causing low to intermediate temperatures (10 to 65°C). The elevated temperatures, coupled with high concentrations of Fe(II) (ranging from 50 to 750 μM) support conditions allowing for extensive microbial mat formation. The focus of this study was to identify the colonizing populations of bacteria generated by the microbial mats at Loihi Seamount. Twenty-six microbial growth chambers were deployed and recovered after placement in the flow of hydrothermal vents for 3 to 8 days from within Loihi's caldera. Genomic DNA was extracted from samples and analyzed by Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) using eight restriction enzyme treatments to generate fingerprints from bacterial amplicons of small subunit rRNA genes (SSU rDNAs). Pearson product-moment coupled with UPGMA cluster analysis of these T-RFLP fingerprints showed that these communities bifurcated into two primary clusters. The first (Group 1) had an average vent effluent temperature of 44°C, and the second (Group 2) had an average vent effluent temperature of 64°C. Representative samples from within the two clusters (or groups) were chosen for further clone library and sequencing analysis. These libraries revealing a dominance of the recently discovered zeta- Proteobacteria in the lower temperature group (Group 1) indicating that they were the dominant colonizers of the microbial mats. These microaerophilic, obligately lithotrophic, Fe-oxidizing bacteria are most closely related to Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. The higher temperature group (Group 2) was dominated by epsilon- Proteobacteria primarily of the genus

  10. Determination of the mutagenic and genotoxic potential of simulated leachate from an automobile workshop soil on eukaryotic system.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Okunola Adenrele; Omosebi, Omotoyosi; Chizea, Ifychukwwu

    2015-07-01

    Contamination of soil and water bodies with spent engine oil and petroleum products is a serious ecological problem, primarily in the automobile workshops and garages. This has potential short and chronic adverse health risks. Information is currently scarce on the potential mutagenicity and genotoxicity of such wastes. In this study, the potential mutagenic and genotoxic effects of simulated leachate from automobile workshop soil in Sagamu, Ogun state, Nigeria, were investigated. The assays utilized were bone marrow micronucleus (MN) and chromosome aberration (CA), sperm morphology and sperm count in mice. The physicochemical analysis of the leachate was also carried out. Experiments were carried out at concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% (volume per volume; leachate:distilled water) of the leachate sample. MN analysis showed a concentration-dependent induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes across the treatment groups. In the CA test, there was concentration-dependent significant reduction in mitotic index and induction of different types of CAs. Assessment of sperm shape showed a significant increase in sperm abnormalities with significant decrease in mean sperm count in treated groups. Heavy metals analyzed in the tested sample are believed to contribute significantly to the observed genetic damage. This indicates that automobile workshop soil-simulated leachate contains potential genotoxic agents and constitutes a genetic risk in exposed human population. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Method Development and Application to Determine Potential Plant Uptake of Antibiotics and Other Drugs in Irrigated Crop Production Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown the detection of pharmaceuticals in surface waters across the United States. The objective of this study was to develop methods, and apply them, to evaluate the potential for food chain transfer when pharmaceutical containing wastewaters are used for cr...

  12. Environmental controls on seasonal ecosystem evapotranspiration/potential evapotranspiration ratio as determined by the global eddy flux measurements

    Treesearch

    Chunwei Liu; Ge Sun; Steve McNulty; Asko Noormets; Yuan Fang

    2017-01-01

    The evapotranspiration / potential evapotranspiration (AET / PET) ratio is traditionally termed as the crop coefficient (Kc) and has been generally used as ecosystem evaporative stress index. In the current hydrology literature, Kc has been widely used as a parameter to estimate crop water demand by water managers but has...

  13. Ensiling characteristics of distillers wet grains with corn stalks and determination of the feeding potential for dairy heifers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The characteristics and feeding potential of corn distillers wet grains with solubles (DWGS) ensiled with corn stalks (CS) were evaluated in a two-part experiment. A mix of 66.7 % DWGS and 33.3 % CS (as-fed) was ensiled in two plastic silage bags. One silage bag was left untreated (UNT) and the othe...

  14. The potential of acoustics to determine family differences for wood quality in a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trial

    Treesearch

    E M Raley; Jennifer H Myszewski; T D Byram

    2007-01-01

    Acoustics have been used to determine wood quality attributes in both standing timber and sawn lumber. Sonic transmission data are collected non-destructively and can act as a surrogate for stiffness, they are directly related to modulus of elasticity (MOE) and closely related to differences in microfibril angle (MFA). Together with wood density, MFA and MOE are the...

  15. Objectively Determining the Educational Potential of Computer and Video-Based Courseware; or, Producing Reliable Evaluations Despite the Dog and Pony Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Andrew J.; And Others

    The Center for Interactive Technology, Applications, and Research at the College of Engineering of the University of South Florida (Tampa) has developed objective and descriptive evaluation models to assist in determining the educational potential of computer and video courseware. The computer-based courseware evaluation model and the video-based…

  16. Pressure and Force Characteristics of Noncircular Cylinders as Affected by Reynolds Number with a Method Included for Determining the Potential Flow About Arbitrary Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhamus, Edward C.; Geller, Edward W.; Grunwald, Kalman J.

    1959-01-01

    The low-speed pressure-distribution and force characteristics of several noncircular two-dimensional cylinders were measured in wind tunnel through a range of Reynolds numbers and flow incidences. A method of determining the potential-flow pressure distribution for arbitrary cross sections is described. Application of the data in predicting the spin characteristics of fuselages is briefly discussed.

  17. Interface potential sensing from adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) on carbon nanotube (CNT) monitored by zero current potentiometry for HSA determination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Wu, Yi; Song, Jun-Feng

    2015-10-15

    In this work, the adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) on the bare multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) was investigated by a new electrochemical method, termed as zero current potentiometry. For this, a MWNT strip was prepared by directly adhering MWNTs on the transparent adhesive tape surface. Moreover, when HSA adsorbed onto MWNT at the MWNT/solution interface, an interface potential Ψ yielded. The interface potential Ψ as the zero current potential Ezcp simply related to it was monitored by zero current potentiometry. The relationship between the zero current potential Ezcp, the HSA concentration and others was established in simple stoichiometric relation. Based on this, both the adsorption of HSA on MWNT and the HSA determination can be studied. For the HSA determination, the theoretic conclusion consisted with experimental results. The zero current potential Ezcp was proportional to the HSA concentration in the range of 2.8 × 10(-8) - 3.4 × 10(-7)M with the limit of detection 2 × 10(-8)M. The linear regression equation was Ezcp/V (vs, SCE) = (0.159 ± 0.01) + (0.358 ± 0.02) × 10(6)CHSA (µM). This determination was fast, high sensitive and good selective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Coarse Architecture of the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) Ion Channel Determined by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer*

    PubMed Central

    De-la-Rosa, Víctor; Rangel-Yescas, Gisela E.; Ladrón-de-Guevara, Ernesto; Rosenbaum, Tamara; Islas, León D.

    2013-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 ion channel is responsible for the perception of high temperatures and low extracellular pH, and it is also involved in the response to some pungent compounds. Importantly, it is also associated with the perception of pain and noxious stimuli. Here, we attempt to discern the molecular organization and location of the N and C termini of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 ion channel by measuring FRET between genetically attached enhanced yellow and cyan fluorescent protein to the N or C terminus of the channel protein, expressed in transfected HEK 293 cells or Xenopus laevis oocytes. The static measurements of the domain organization were mapped into an available cryo-electron microscopy density of the channel with good agreement. These measurements also provide novel insights into the organization of terminal domains and their proximity to the plasma membrane. PMID:23965996

  19. Gravimetric determination of the Thickness of Taku Glacier: Impact of Glacier Thickness on Subglacial Hydrology and Potential Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, T. G.; Borthwick, L.; Jarrin, D.; Miller, M.; Wall, R.; Beem, L.; Riverman, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    High resolution measurements of spatial ice thickness variability on the Juneau Icefield are critical to an understanding of current glacial dynamics in the Coast Mountains of Southeast Alaska. In particular, such data are lacking on the Taku Glacier, a tidewater glacier in the Juneau region whose unique advance has slowed in recent years. Significantly, such information is necessary to develop an accurate description of ice dynamics as well as sub-surface hydrology and bedrock erosion. Utilizing relative gravimetry, we sought to modify existing parameterized models of ice thickness with field measurements taken along the centerline of the Taku. Here we present a three-dimensional representation of ice thickness for the Taku, based on in situ observations from July 2016. As the glacier approaches a potential period of rapid terminal retreat, this data gives refined physical information prior to this potential juncture in the tidewater cycle-an observation that may yield insight into marine ice sheet instabilities more broadly.

  20. Relation of Different Type Love-Shida Numbers Determined with the Use of Time-Varying Incremental Gravitational Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Peter; Grafarend, Erik; Engels, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    There are different equations to describe relations between different classes of Love-Shida numbers. In this study with the use of the time-varying gravitational potential an integral relation was obtained which connects tidal Love-Shida numbers (h, l, k), load numbers (h', l', k'), potential free Love-Shida numbers generated by normal (h″, l″, k″) and horizontal (h‴, l‴, k‴) stresses. The equations obtained in frame of present study is the only one which - holds for every type of Love-Shida numbers, - describes a relationship not between different, but the same type of Love-Shida numbers, - does not follow from the sixth-order differential equation system of motion usually applied to calculate the Love-Shida numbers.

  1. Coarse architecture of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel determined by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    De-la-Rosa, Víctor; Rangel-Yescas, Gisela E; Ladrón-de-Guevara, Ernesto; Rosenbaum, Tamara; Islas, León D

    2013-10-11

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 ion channel is responsible for the perception of high temperatures and low extracellular pH, and it is also involved in the response to some pungent compounds. Importantly, it is also associated with the perception of pain and noxious stimuli. Here, we attempt to discern the molecular organization and location of the N and C termini of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 ion channel by measuring FRET between genetically attached enhanced yellow and cyan fluorescent protein to the N or C terminus of the channel protein, expressed in transfected HEK 293 cells or Xenopus laevis oocytes. The static measurements of the domain organization were mapped into an available cryo-electron microscopy density of the channel with good agreement. These measurements also provide novel insights into the organization of terminal domains and their proximity to the plasma membrane.

  2. Determination of a correction factor for the interaction potential of He + ions backscattered from a Cu(1 0 0) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draxler, M.; Walker, M.; McConville, C. F.

    2006-08-01

    We have used coaxial impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (CAICISS) data collected from 3 keV He+ ions backscattered from a Cu(1 0 0) surface in different azimuthal orientations to investigate the influence of the screening length on CAICISS polar angle scans. We have compared the experimental data to computer simulations generated with the FAN code and found that for our experimental conditions an exceptionally low value of 0.53 was required for the correction factor to the Firsov screening length used with the Thomas-Fermi-Moliere potential. In addition we found that the Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark potential is not applicable, resulting in incorrect peak positions in the CAICISS polar angle plots.

  3. Boiling point deter