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Sample records for zeta potential scanning

  1. Zeta potential in ceramic industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecuit, M.

    1984-01-01

    Deflocculation, electrical conductivity and zeta potential (ZP) are studied for the addition of 0 to 10000 ppm Na2SiO3 deflocculator to slips obtained from three argillaceous materials (kaolin d'Arvor, ball clay Hyplas 64, and/or Granger Clay No. 10). The quantity of Na2SO3 required to deflocculate a slip is independent of the density but differes for each clay. The ZP is directly related to the density of the slip. The higher the ZP the more stable a slip is; the value of the ZP of a mixture does not follow a simple law but the electrical resistance of a mixture does follow a simple additive law. The ZP appears to have linear relation with the specific surface of the argillaceous material.

  2. Zeta potential control for electrophoresis cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    Zeta potential arises from fact that ions tend to be adsorbed on surface of cell walls. This potential interfaces with electric field sensed by migrating particles and degrades resolution of separation. By regulating sign and magnitude of applied potential induced charge can be used to increase or decrease effective wall zeta potential.

  3. Zeta potential orientation dependence of sapphire substrates.

    PubMed

    Kershner, Ryan J; Bullard, Joseph W; Cima, Michael J

    2004-05-11

    The zeta potential of planar sapphire substrates for three different crystallographic orientations was measured by a streaming potential technique in the presence of KCl and (CH3)4NCl electrolytes. The streaming potential was measured for large single crystalline C-plane (0001), A-plane (1120), and R-plane (1102) wafers over a full pH range at three or more ionic strengths ranging from 1 to 100 mM. The roughness of the epi-polished wafers was verified using atomic force microscopy to be on the order of atomic scale, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to ensure that the samples were free of silica and other contaminants. The results reveal a shift in the isoelectric point (iep) of the three samples by as much as two pH units, with the R-plane surface exhibiting the most acidic behavior and the C-plane samples having the highest iep. The iep at all ionic strengths was tightly centered around a single pH for each wafer. These values of iep are substantially different from the range of pH 8-10 consistently reported in the literature for alpha-Al2O3 particles. Particle zeta potential measurements were performed on a model powder using phase analysis light scattering, and the iep was confirmed to occur at pH 8. Modified Auger parameters (MAP) were calculated from XPS spectra of a monolayer of iridium metal deposited on the sapphire by electron beam deposition. A shift in MAP consistent with the observed differences in iep of the surfaces confirms the effect of surface structure on the transfer of charge between the Ir and sapphire, hence accounting for the changes in acidity as a function of crystallographic orientation.

  4. Molecular origins of the zeta potential

    DOE PAGES

    Predota, Milan; Machesky, Michael L.; Wesolowski, David J.

    2016-09-19

    The zeta potential (ZP) is an oft-reported measure of the macroscopic charge state of solid surfaces and colloidal particles in contact with solvents. However, the origin of this readily measurable parameter has remained divorced from the molecular-level processes governing the underlying electrokinetic phenomena, which limits its usefulness. Here, we connect the macroscopic measure to the microscopic realm through nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of electroosmotic flow between parallel slabs of the hydroxylated (110) rutile (TiO 2) surface. These simulations provided streaming mobilities, which were converted to ZP via the commonly used Helmholtz-Smoluchowski equation. A range of rutile surface charge densities (0.1more » to –0.4 C/m 2), corresponding to pH values between about 2.8 and 9.4, in RbCl, NaCl, and SrCl 2 aqueous solutions, were modeled and compared to experimental ZPs for TiO 2 particle suspensions. Simulated ZPs qualitatively agree with experiment and show that “anomalous” ZP values and inequalities between the point of zero charge derived from electrokinetic versus pH titration measurements both arise from differing co- and counterion sorption affinities. We show that at the molecular level the ZP arises from the delicate interplay of spatially varying dynamics, structure, and electrostatics in a narrow interfacial region within about 15 Å of the surface, even in dilute salt solutions. This contrasts fundamentally with continuum descriptions of such interfaces, which predict the ZP response region to be inversely related to ionic strength. In reality the properties of this interfacial region are dominated by relatively immobile and structured water. Furthermore, viscosity values are substantially greater than in the bulk, and electrostatic potential profiles are oscillatory in nature.« less

  5. Investigating the time-dependent zeta potential of wood surfaces.

    PubMed

    Muff, Livius F; Luxbacher, Thomas; Burgert, Ingo; Michen, Benjamin

    2018-05-15

    This work reports on streaming potential measurements through natural capillaries in wood and investigates the cause of a time-dependent zeta potential measured during the equilibration of wood cell-walls with an electrolyte solution. For the biomaterial, this equilibration phase takes several hours, which is much longer than for many other materials that have been characterized by electrokinetic measurements. During this equilibration phase the zeta potential magnitude is decaying due to two parallel mechanisms: (i) the swelling of the cell-wall which causes a dimensional change reducing the charge density at the capillary interface; (ii) the transport of ions from the electrolyte solution into the permeable cell-wall which alters the electrical potential at the interface by internal charge compensation. The obtained results demonstrate the importance of equilibration kinetics for an accurate determination of the zeta potential, especially for materials that interact strongly with the measurement electrolyte. Moreover, the change in zeta potential with time can be correlated with the bulk swelling of wood if the effect of electrolyte ion diffusion is excluded. This study shows the potential of streaming potential measurements of wood, and possibly of other hygroscopic and nanoporous materials, to reveal kinetic information about their interaction with liquids, such as swelling and ion uptake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Secondary electroosmotic flow in microchannels with nonuniform and asymmetric Zeta potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinbai; He, Guowei; Liu, Feng

    2004-11-01

    Microfluidics has a broad range of applications in biotechnology, such as sample injection, drug delivering, solution mixing, and separations. All of these techniques require handling fluids in the low Reynolds number (Re) regime. Electroosmotic flow (EOF) or electroosmocitcs is the bulk movement of liquid relative to a stationary surface due to an externally applied electronic field. It is an alternative to pressure-driven flows with convenient implementation The driving force for EOF is dependent on the zeta potential. Previous reseraches focus on the nonuniform Zeta potential. In the present work, we consider nonuniform and asymmetric Zeta potential. The effects of asymmetric Zeta potential on the EOF are investigated analytically and simulated numerically. It is demonstrated that the nonuniform and asymmetric Zeta potential can generate more flow patterns for microfluidic control compared to symmetric Zeta potential.

  7. Zeta potentials in the flotation of oxide and silicate minerals.

    PubMed

    Fuerstenau, D W; Pradip

    2005-06-30

    Adsorption of collectors and modifying reagents in the flotation of oxide and silicate minerals is controlled by the electrical double layer at the mineral-water interface. In systems where the collector is physically adsorbed, flotation with anionic or cationic collectors depends on the mineral surface being charged oppositely. Adjusting the pH of the system can enhance or prevent the flotation of a mineral. Thus, the point of zero charge (PZC) of the mineral is the most important property of a mineral in such systems. The length of the hydrocarbon chain of the collector is important because of chain-chain association enhances the adsorption once the surfactant ions aggregate to form hemimicelles at the surface. Strongly chemisorbing collectors are able to induce flotation even when collector and the mineral surface are charged similarly, but raising the pH sufficiently above the PZC can repel chemisorbing collectors from the mineral surface. Zeta potentials can be used to delineate interfacial phenomena in these various systems.

  8. Thickness determination of biological samples with a zeta-calibrated scanning tunneling microscope.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z H; Hartmann, T; Baumeister, W; Guckenberger, R

    1990-01-01

    A single-tube scanning tunneling microscope has been zeta-calibrated by using atomic steps of crystalline gold and was used for measuring the thickness of two biological samples, metal-coated as well as uncoated. The hexagonal surface layer of the bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans with an open network-type structure shows thickness values that are strongly influenced by the substrate and the preparation method. In contrast, the thickness of the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium with its densely packed less-corrugated structure exhibits very little variation in thickness in coated preparations and the values obtained are in good agreement with x-ray data. Images PMID:2251276

  9. Investigating the clinical potential for 14-3-3 zeta protein to serve as a biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recently, 14-3-3 zeta protein was identified as a potential serum biomarker of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical potential of 14-3-3 zeta protein for monitoring EOC progression compared with CA-125 and HE4. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting University of Pecs Medical Center Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology/Oncology (Pecs, Hungary). Population Thirteen EOC patients with advanced stage (FIGO IIb-IIIc) epithelial ovarian cancer that underwent radical surgery and received six consecutive cycles of first line chemotherapy (paclitaxel, carboplatin) in 21-day intervals. Methods Pre- and post-chemotherapy computed tomography (CT) scans were performed. Serum levels of CA-125, HE4, and 14-3-3 zeta protein were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative electrochemiluminescence assay (ECLIA). Main outcome measures Serum levels of CA-125, HE4, and 14-3-3 zeta protein, as well as lesion size according to pre- and post-chemotherapy CT scans. Results Serum levels of CA-125 and HE4 were found to significantly decrease following chemotherapy, and this was consistent with the decrease in lesion size detected post-chemotherapy. In contrast, 14-3-3 zeta protein levels did not significantly differ in healthy postmenopausal patients versus EOC patients. Conclusions Determination of CA-125 and HE4 serum levels for the determination of the risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA) represents a useful tool for the prediction of chemotherapy efficacy for EOC patients. However, levels of 14-3-3 zeta protein were not found to vary significantly as a consequence of treatment. Therefore we question if 14-3-3 zeta protein is a reliable biomarker, which correlates with the clinical behavior of EOC. PMID:24238270

  10. Estimation of the zeta potential and the dielectric constant using velocity measurements in the electroosmotic flows.

    PubMed

    Park, H M; Hong, S M

    2006-12-15

    In this paper we develop a method for the determination of the zeta potential zeta and the dielectric constant epsilon by exploiting velocity measurements of the electroosmotic flow in microchannels. The inverse problem is solved through the minimization of a performance function utilizing the conjugate gradient method. The present method is found to estimate zeta and epsilon with reasonable accuracy even with noisy velocity measurements.

  11. Estimation of zeta potential of electroosmotic flow in a microchannel using a reduced-order model.

    PubMed

    Park, H M; Hong, S M; Lee, J S

    2007-10-01

    A reduced-order model is derived for electroosmotic flow in a microchannel of nonuniform cross section using the Karhunen-Loève Galerkin (KLG) procedure. The resulting reduced-order model is shown to predict electroosmotic flows accurately with minimal consumption of computer time for a wide range of zeta potential zeta and dielectric constant epsilon. Using the reduced-order model, a practical method is devised to estimate zeta from the velocity measurements of the electroosmotic flow in the microchannel. The proposed method is found to estimate zeta with reasonable accuracy even with noisy velocity measurements.

  12. Oscillatory electroosmotic flow in a parallel-plate microchannel under asymmetric zeta potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, M.; Arcos, J.; Méndez, F.; Bautista, O.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we conduct a theoretical analysis of the start-up of an oscillatory electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a parallel-plate microchannel under asymmetric zeta potentials. It is found that the transient evolution of the flow field is controlled by the parameters {R}ω , {R}\\zeta , and \\bar{κ }, which represent the dimensionless frequency, the ratio of the zeta potentials of the microchannel walls, and the electrokinetic parameter, which is defined as the ratio of the microchannel height to the Debye length. The analysis is performed for both low and high zeta potentials; in the former case, an analytical solution is derived, whereas in the latter, a numerical solution is obtained. These solutions provide the fundamental characteristics of the oscillatory EOFs for which, with suitable adjustment of the zeta potential and the dimensionless frequency, the velocity profiles of the fluid flow exhibit symmetric or asymmetric shapes.

  13. Influence of surface conductivity on the apparent zeta potential of calcite.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Leroy, Philippe; Heberling, Frank; Devau, Nicolas; Jougnot, Damien; Chiaberge, Christophe

    2016-04-15

    Zeta potential is a physicochemical parameter of particular importance in describing the surface electrical properties of charged porous media. However, the zeta potential of calcite is still poorly known because of the difficulty to interpret streaming potential experiments. The Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (HS) equation is widely used to estimate the apparent zeta potential from these experiments. However, this equation neglects the influence of surface conductivity on streaming potential. We present streaming potential and electrical conductivity measurements on a calcite powder in contact with an aqueous NaCl electrolyte. Our streaming potential model corrects the apparent zeta potential of calcite by accounting for the influence of surface conductivity and flow regime. We show that the HS equation seriously underestimates the zeta potential of calcite, particularly when the electrolyte is diluted (ionic strength ⩽ 0.01 M) because of calcite surface conductivity. The basic Stern model successfully predicted the corrected zeta potential by assuming that the zeta potential is located at the outer Helmholtz plane, i.e. without considering a stagnant diffuse layer at the calcite-water interface. The surface conductivity of calcite crystals was inferred from electrical conductivity measurements and computed using our basic Stern model. Surface conductivity was also successfully predicted by our surface complexation model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Zeta potential of microfluidic substrates: 1. Theory, experimental techniques, and effects on separations.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Brian J; Hasselbrink, Ernest F

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes theory, experimental techniques, and the reported data pertaining to the zeta potential of silica and silicon with attention to use as microfluidic substrate materials, particularly for microchip chemical separations. Dependence on cation concentration, buffer and cation type, pH, cation valency, and temperature are discussed. The Debye-Hückel limit, which is often correctly treated as a good approximation for describing the ion concentration in the double layer, can lead to serious errors if it is extended to predict the dependence of zeta potential on the counterion concentration. For indifferent univalent electrolytes (e.g., sodium and potassium), two simple scalings for the dependence of zeta potential on counterion concentration can be derived in high- and low-zeta limits of the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzman equation solution in the double layer. It is shown that for most situations relevant to microchip separations, the high-zeta limit is most applicable, leading to the conclusion that the zeta potential on silica substrates is approximately proportional to the logarithm of the molar counterion concentration. The zeta vs. pH dependence measurements from several experiments are compared by normalizing the zeta based on concentration.

  15. Surface Complexation Modeling of Calcite Zeta Potential Measurement in Mixed Brines for Carbonate Wettability Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, J.; Zeng, Y.; Biswal, S. L.; Hirasaki, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    We presents zeta potential measurements and surface complexation modeling (SCM) of synthetic calcite in various conditions. The systematic zeta potential measurement and the proposed SCM provide insight into the role of four potential determining cations (Mg2+, SO42- , Ca2+ and CO32-) and CO2 partial pressure in calcite surface charge formation and facilitate the revealing of calcite wettability alteration induced by brines with designed ionic composition ("smart water"). Brines with varying potential determining ions (PDI) concentration in two different CO2 partial pressure (PCO2) are investigated in experiments. Then, a double layer SCM is developed to model the zeta potential measurements. Moreover, we propose a definition for contribution of charged surface species and quantitatively analyze the variation of charged species contribution when changing brine composition. After showing our model can accurately predict calcite zeta potential in brines containing mixed PDIs, we apply it to predict zeta potential in ultra-low and pressurized CO2 environments for potential applications in carbonate enhanced oil recovery including miscible CO2 flooding and CO2 sequestration in carbonate reservoirs. Model prediction reveals that pure calcite surface will be positively charged in all investigated brines in pressurized CO2 environment (>1atm). Moreover, the sensitivity of calcite zeta potential to CO2 partial pressure in the various brine is found to be in the sequence of Na2CO3 > Na2SO4 > NaCl > MgCl2 > CaCl2 (Ionic strength=0.1M).

  16. Cellular internalization of polycation-coated microparticles and its dependence on their zeta potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Noritaka; Kondo, Ryosuke

    2018-03-01

    By applying microparticles to HeLa cells, the number of particles adhered on the cell and that of the ones internalized in the cells were evaluated. Three-dimensional tomographic images of the cells with the particles were obtained by multiphoton excitation laser scanning microscopy, and the adhered and internalized particles were counted separately. When the surface charge of the particles was reversed from negative to positive by coating the particles with polycations, both numbers significantly increased owing to the electrostatic attraction between the cells and the polycation-coated particles. Four different positively charged particles were prepared using four different polycations, and the numbers of adhered and internalized particles were compared. Our results suggest that these numbers depended on the zeta potential rather than the molecular structure of the polycation.

  17. An induced current method for measuring zeta potential of electrolyte solution-air interface.

    PubMed

    Song, Yongxin; Zhao, Kai; Wang, Junsheng; Wu, Xudong; Pan, Xinxiang; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Dongqing

    2014-02-15

    This paper reports a novel and very simple method for measuring the zeta potential of electrolyte solution-air interface. When a measuring electrode contacts the electrolyte solution-air interface, an electrical current will be generated due to the potential difference between the electrode-air surface and the electrolyte solution-air interface. The amplitude of the measured electric signal is linearly proportional to this potential difference; and depends only on the zeta potential at the electrolyte solution-air interface, regardless of the types and concentrations of the electrolyte. A correlation between the zeta potential and the measured voltage signal is obtained based on the experimental data. Using this equation, the zeta potential of any electrolyte solution-air interface can be evaluated quickly and easily by inserting an electrode through the electrolyte solution-air interface and measuring the electrical signal amplitude. This method was verified by comparing the obtained results of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 solutions of different pH values and concentrations with the zeta potential data reported in the published journal papers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement of Zeta-Potential at Microchannel Wall by a Nanoscale Laser Induced Fluorescence Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazoe, Yutaka; Sato, Yohei

    A nanoscale laser induced fluorescence imaging was proposed by using fluorescent dye and the evanescent wave with total internal reflection of a laser beam. The present study focused on the two-dimensional measurement of zeta-potential at the microchannel wall, which is an electrostatic potential at the wall surface and a dominant parameter of electroosmotic flow. The evanescent wave, which decays exponentially from the wall, was used as an excitation light of the fluorescent dye. The fluorescent intensity detected by a CCD camera is closely related to the zeta-potential. Two kinds of fluorescent dye solution at different ionic concentrations were injected into a T-shaped microchannel, and formed a mixing flow field in the junction area. The two-dimensional distribution of zeta-potential at the microchannel wall in the pressure-driven flow field was measured. The obtained zeta-potential distribution has a transverse gradient toward the mixing flow field and was changed by the difference in the averaged velocity of pressure-driven flow. To understand the ion motion in the mixing flow field, the three-dimensional flow structure was analyzed by the velocity measurement using micron-resolution particle image velocimetry and the numerical simulation. It is concluded that the two-dimensional distribution of zeta-potential at the microchannel wall was dependent on the ion motion in the flow field, which was governed by the convection and molecular diffusion.

  19. Application of the zeta potential for stationary phase characterization in ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Buszewski, Bogusław; Jaćkowska, Magdalena; Bocian, Szymon; Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina

    2013-01-01

    Two series of homemade stationary bonded phases for ion chromatography were investigated according to their zeta potential. One set of dendrimer anion exchanger was synthesized on the polymer support whereas the second material was prepared on the silica gel. The zeta potential data in water environment as well as buffered water solution were obtained. The influence of the length of anion-exchanger chains, the type of the support of the modified surface, and charge distribution on these data was investigated. Additionally, the zeta potential was correlated with retention factor of inorganic ions to describe their influence on the retention mechanism in ion chromatography. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Preparation and characterization of methacrylate hydrogels for zeta potential control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregonis, D. E.; Ma, S. M.; Vanwagenen, R.; Andrade, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    A technique based on the measurement of streaming potentials has been developed to evaluate the effects of hydrophilic coatings on electroosmotic flow. The apparatus and procedure are described as well as some results concerning the electrokinetic potential of glass capillaries as a function of ionic strength, pH, and temperature. The effect that turbulence and entrance flow conditions have on accurate streaming potential measurements is discussed. Various silane adhesion promoters exhibited only a slight decrease in streaming potential. A coating utilizing a glycidoxy silane base upon which methylcellulose is applied affords a six-fold decrease over uncoated tubes. Hydrophilic methacrylate gels show similar streaming potential behavior, independent of the water content of the gel. By introduction of positive or negative groups into the hydrophilic methacrylate gels, a range of streaming potential values are obtained having absolute positive or negative signs.

  1. Influence of the Dukhin and Reynolds numbers on the apparent zeta potential of granular porous media.

    PubMed

    Crespy, A; Bolève, A; Revil, A

    2007-01-01

    The Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (HS) equation is widely used to determine the apparent zeta potential of porous materials using the streaming potential method. We present a model able to correct this apparent zeta potential of granular media of the influence of the Dukhin and Reynolds numbers. The Dukhin number represents the ratio between the surface conductivity (mainly occurring in the Stern layer) and the pore water conductivity. The Reynolds number represents the ratio between inertial and viscous forces in the Navier-Stokes equation. We show here that the HS equation can lead to serious errors if it is used to predict the dependence of zeta potential on flow in the inertial laminar flow regime without taking into account these corrections. For indifferent 1:1 electrolytes (such as sodium chloride), we derived two simple scaling laws for the dependence of the streaming potential coupling coefficient (or the apparent zeta potential) on the Dukhin and Reynolds numbers. Our model is compared with a new set of experimental data obtained on glass bead packs saturated with NaCl solutions at different salinities and pH. We find fairly good agreement between the model and these experimental data.

  2. The use of zeta potential as a tool to study phase transitions in binary phosphatidylcholines mixtures.

    PubMed

    Sierra, M B; Pedroni, V I; Buffo, F E; Disalvo, E A; Morini, M A

    2016-06-01

    Temperature dependence of the zeta potential (ZP) is proposed as a tool to analyze the thermotropic behavior of unilamellar liposomes prepared from binary mixtures of phosphatidylcholines in the absence or presence of ions in aqueous suspensions. Since the lipid phase transition influences the surface potential of the liposome reflecting a sharp change in the ZP during the transition, it is proposed as a screening method for transition temperatures in complex systems, given its high sensitivity and small amount of sample required, that is, 70% less than that required in the use of conventional calorimeters. The sensitivity is also reflected in the pre-transition detection in the presence of ions. Plots of phase boundaries for these mixed-lipid vesicles were constructed by plotting the delimiting temperatures of both main phase transition and pre-transition vs. the lipid composition of the vesicle. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies, although subject to uncertainties in interpretation due to broad bands in lipid mixtures, allowed the validation of the temperature dependence of the ZP method for determining the phase transition and pre-transition temperatures. The system chosen was dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC/DPPC), the most common combination in biological membranes. This work may be considered as a starting point for further research into more complex lipid mixtures with functional biological importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Analyte preconcentration in nanofluidic channels with nonuniform zeta potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, A.; McCallum, C.; Storey, B. D.; Pennathur, S.; Meinhart, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that charged analytes in the presence of nonuniform electric fields concentrate at locations where the relevant driving forces balance, and a wide range of ionic stacking and focusing methods are commonly employed to leverage these physical mechanisms in order to improve signal levels in biosensing applications. In particular, nanofluidic channels with spatially varying conductivity distributions have been shown to provide increased preconcentration of charged analytes due to the existence of a finite electric double layer (EDL), in which electrostatic attraction and repulsion from charged surfaces produce nonuniform transverse ion distributions. In this work, we use numerical simulations to show that one can achieve greater levels of sample accumulation by using field-effect control via wall-embedded electrodes to tailor the surface potential heterogeneity in a nanochannel with overlapped EDLs. In addition to previously demonstrated stacking and focusing mechanisms, we find that the coupling between two-dimensional ion distributions and the axial electric field under overlapped EDL conditions can generate an ion concentration polarization interface in the middle of the channel. Under an applied electric field, this interface can be used to concentrate sample ions between two stationary regions of different surface potential and charge density. Our numerical model uses the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system of equations coupled with the Stokes equation to demonstrate the phenomenon, and we discuss in detail the driving forces behind the predicted sample enhancement. The numerical velocity and salt concentration profiles exhibit good agreement with analytical results from a simplified one-dimensional area-averaged model for several limiting cases, and we show predicted amplification ratios of up to 105.

  4. Synthesis, bioactivity and zeta potential investigations of chlorine and fluorine substituted hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Fahami, Abbas; Beall, Gary W; Betancourt, Tania

    2016-02-01

    Chlorine and fluorine substituted hydroxyapatites (HA-Cl-F) with different degrees of ion replacement were successfully prepared by the one step mechanochemical activation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR spectra indicated that substitution of these anions in milled powders resulted in the formation of pure hydroxyapatite phase except for the small observed change in the lattice parameters and unit cell volumes of the resultant hydroxyapatite. Microscopic observations showed that the milled product had a cluster-like structure made up of polygonal and spherical particles with an average particle size of approximately ranged from 20±5 to 70±5nm. The zeta potential of milled samples was performed at three different pH (5, 7.4, and 9). The obtained zeta potential values were negative for all three pH values. Negative zeta potential was described to favor osseointegration, apatite nucleation, and bone regeneration. The bioactivity of samples was investigated on sintered pellets soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution and apatite crystals formed on the surface of the pellets after being incubated for 14days. Zeta potential analysis and bioactivity experiment suggested that HA-Cl-F will lead to the formation of new apatite particles and therefore be a potential implant material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High-concentration zeta potential measurements using light-scattering techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kaszuba, Michael; Corbett, Jason; Watson, Fraser Mcneil; Jones, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Zeta potential is the key parameter that controls electrostatic interactions in particle dispersions. Laser Doppler electrophoresis is an accepted method for the measurement of particle electrophoretic mobility and hence zeta potential of dispersions of colloidal size materials. Traditionally, samples measured by this technique have to be optically transparent. Therefore, depending upon the size and optical properties of the particles, many samples will be too concentrated and will require dilution. The ability to measure samples at or close to their neat concentration would be desirable as it would minimize any changes in the zeta potential of the sample owing to dilution. However, the ability to measure turbid samples using light-scattering techniques presents a number of challenges. This paper discusses electrophoretic mobility measurements made on turbid samples at high concentration using a novel cell with reduced path length. Results are presented on two different sample types, titanium dioxide and a polyurethane dispersion, as a function of sample concentration. For both of the sample types studied, the electrophoretic mobility results show a gradual decrease as the sample concentration increases and the possible reasons for these observations are discussed. Further, a comparison of the data against theoretical models is presented and discussed. Conclusions and recommendations are made from the zeta potential values obtained at high concentrations. PMID:20732896

  6. Zeta-potential Analyses using Micro Electrical Field Flow Fractionation with Fluorescent Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Moon-Hwan; Dosev, Dosi; Kennedy, Ian M.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly growing application of nanoparticles in biotechnology requires fast and accessible tools for their manipulation and for characterization of their colloidal properties. In this work we determine the zeta-potentials for polystyrene nanoparticles using micro electrical field flow fractionation (μ–EFFF) which is an efficient method for sorting of particles by size. The data obtained by μ–EFFF were compared to zeta potentials determined by standard capillary electrophoresis. For proof of concept, we used polystyrene nanoparticles of two different sizes, impregnated with two different fluorescent dyes. Fluorescent emission spectra were used to evaluate the particle separation in both systems. Using the theory of electrophoresis, we estimated the zeta-potentials as a function of size, dielectric permittivity, viscosity and electrophoretic mobility. The results obtained by the μ–EFFF technique were confirmed by the conventional capillary electrophoresis measurements. These results demonstrate the applicability of the μ–EFFF method not only for particle size separation but also as a simple and inexpensive tool for measurements of nanoparticles zeta potentials. PMID:18542710

  7. Estimation of Nanodiamond Surface Charge Density from Zeta Potential and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhenpeng; Wang, Yi

    2017-04-20

    Molecular dynamics simulations of nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used to study their interactions with various biological macromolecules. Such simulations generally require detailed knowledge of the surface composition of the NP under investigation. Even for some well-characterized nanoparticles, however, this knowledge is not always available. An example is nanodiamond, a nanoscale diamond particle with surface dominated by oxygen-containing functional groups. In this work, we explore using the harmonic restraint method developed by Venable et al., to estimate the surface charge density (σ) of nanodiamonds. Based on the Gouy-Chapman theory, we convert the experimentally determined zeta potential of a nanodiamond to an effective charge density (σ eff ), and then use the latter to estimate σ via molecular dynamics simulations. Through scanning a series of nanodiamond models, we show that the above method provides a straightforward protocol to determine the surface charge density of relatively large (> ∼100 nm) NPs. Overall, our results suggest that despite certain limitation, the above protocol can be readily employed to guide the model construction for MD simulations, which is particularly useful when only limited experimental information on the NP surface composition is available to a modeler.

  8. Chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate composite dispersions: characterization of rheology, flocculate size and zeta potential.

    PubMed

    Khunawattanakul, Wanwisa; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Rades, Thomas; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2008-03-03

    Composite dispersions of chitosan (CS), a positively charged polymer, and magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS), a negatively charged clay, were prepared and rheology, flocculate size and zeta potential of the CS-MAS dispersions were investigated. High and low molecular weights of CS (HCS and LCS, respectively) were used in this study. Moreover, the effects of heat treatment at 60 degrees C on the characteristics of the CS-MAS dispersions and the zeta potential of MAS upon addition of CS at different pHs were examined. Incorporation of MAS into CS dispersions caused an increase in viscosity and a shift of CS flow type from Newtonian to pseudoplastic flow with thixotropic properties. Heat treatment brought about a significant decrease in viscosity and hysteresis area of the composite dispersions. Microscopic studies showed that flocculation of MAS occurred after mixing with CS. The size and polydispersity index of the HCS-MAS flocculate were greater than those of the LCS-MAS flocculate. However, a narrower size distribution and the smaller size of the HCS-MAS flocculate were found after heating at 60 degrees C. Zeta potentials of the CS-MAS flocculates were positive and slightly increased with increasing MAS content. In the zeta potential studies, the negative charge of the MAS could be neutralized by the addition of CS. Increasing the pH and molecular weight of CS resulted in higher CS concentrations required to neutralize the charge of MAS. These findings suggest that the electrostatic interaction between CS and MAS caused a change in flow behavior and flocculation of the composite dispersions, depending on the molecular weight of CS. Heat treatment affected the rheological properties and the flocculate size of the composite dispersions. Moreover, pH of medium and molecular weight of CS influence the zeta potential of MAS.

  9. Cursory examination of the zeta potential behaviors of two optical materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tesar, A.; Oja, T.

    1992-01-02

    When an oxide surface is placed in water, a difference in potential across the interface occurs due to dipole orientation. Hydroxyl groups or bound oxygen atoms on the oxide surface will orient adjacent water molecules which balance the dipole charge. This occurs over some small distance called the electrical double layer. Trace amounts of high field strength ions present in the vicinity of the double layer can have significant effects on the double layer. When there is movement of the oxide surface with respect to the water, a shearing of the double layer occurs. The electrical potential at this surfacemore » of shear is termed the zeta potential. The impetus for this study was to document the zeta potential behavior in water of two optical materials. (1) a multicomponent phosphate glass; and (2) Zerodur, a silicate glass-ceramic.« less

  10. Stimulation and inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis by organosolv lignins as determined by zeta potential and hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yang; Sun, Shaolong; Huang, Chen; Yong, Qiang; Elder, Thomas; Tu, Maobing

    2017-01-01

    Lignin typically inhibits enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass, but certain organosolv lignins or lignosulfonates enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between lignin and cellulases play critical roles in the enzymatic hydrolysis process. However, how to incorporate these two interactions into the consideration of lignin effects has not been investigated. We examined the physicochemical properties and the structures of ethanol organosolv lignins (EOL) from hardwood and softwood and ascertained the association between lignin properties and their inhibitory and stimulatory effects on enzymatic hydrolysis. The zeta potential and hydrophobicity of EOL lignin samples, isolated from organosolv pretreatment of cottonwood (CW), black willow (BW), aspen (AS), eucalyptus (EH), and loblolly pine (LP), were determined and correlated with their effects on enzymatic hydrolysis of Avicel. EOLs from CW, BW, and AS improved the 72 h hydrolysis yield by 8-12%, while EOLs from EH and LP decreased the 72 h hydrolysis yield by 6 and 16%, respectively. The results showed a strong correlation between the 72 h hydrolysis yield with hydrophobicity and zeta potential. The correlation indicated that the hydrophobicity of EOL had a negative effect and the negative zeta potential of EOL had a positive effect. HSQC NMR spectra showed that β- O -4 linkages in lignin react with ethanol to form an α -ethoxylated β- O -4' substructure (A') during organosolv pretreatment. Considerable amounts of C 2,6 -H 2,6 correlation in p -hydroxybenzoate (PB) units were observed for EOL-CW, EOL-BW, and EOL-AS, but not for EOL-EH and EOL-LP. This study revealed that the effect of lignin on enzymatic hydrolysis is a function of both hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic repulsions. The lignin inhibition is controlled by lignin hydrophobicity and the lignin stimulation is governed by the negative zeta potential. The net effect of lignin depends on the combined

  11. Electrokinetically driven active micro-mixers utilizing zeta potential variation induced by field effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Fu, Lung-Ming; Lee, Kuo-Hoong; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents a new electrokinetically driven active micro-mixer which uses localized capacitance effects to induce zeta potential variations along the surface of silica-based microchannels. The mixer is fabricated by etching bulk flow and shielding electrode channels into glass substrates and then depositing Au/Cr thin films within the latter to form capacitor electrodes, which establish localized zeta potential variations near the electrical double layer (EDL) region of the electroosmotic flow (EOF) within the microchannels. The potential variations induce flow velocity changes within a homogeneous fluid and a rapid mixing effect if an alternating electric field is provided. The current experimental data confirm that the fluid velocity can be actively controlled by using the capacitance effect of the buried shielding electrodes to vary the zeta potential along the channel walls. While compared with commonly used planar electrodes across the microchannels, the buried shielding electrodes prevent current leakage caused by bad bonding and allow direct optical observation during operation. It also shows that the buried shielding electrodes can significantly induce the field effect, resulting in higher variations of zeta potential. Computational fluid dynamic simulations are also used to study the fluid characteristics of the developed active mixers. The numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the developed microfluidic device permits a high degree of control over the fluid flow and an efficient mixing effect. Moreover, the developed device could be used as a pumping device as well. The development of the active electrokinetically driven micro-mixer could be crucial for micro-total-analysis-systems.

  12. Electroosmotic flow of Phan-Thien-Tanner fluids at high zeta potentials: An exact analytical solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Rajkumar; Deka, Nabajit; Sarma, Kuldeep; Mondal, Pranab Kumar

    2018-06-01

    We present a mathematical model to study the electroosmotic flow of a viscoelastic fluid in a parallel plate microchannel with a high zeta potential, taking hydrodynamic slippage at the walls into account in the underlying analysis. We use the simplified Phan-Thien-Tanner (s-PTT) constitutive relationships to describe the rheological behavior of the viscoelastic fluid, while Navier's slip law is employed to model the interfacial hydrodynamic slip. Here, we derive analytical solutions for the potential distribution, flow velocity, and volumetric flow rate based on the complete Poisson-Boltzmann equation (without considering the frequently used Debye-Hückel linear approximation). For the underlying electrokinetic transport, this investigation primarily reveals the influence of fluid rheology, wall zeta potential as modulated by the interfacial electrochemistry and interfacial slip on the velocity distribution, volumetric flow rate, and fluid stress, as well as the apparent viscosity. We show that combined with the viscoelasticity of the fluid, a higher wall zeta potential and slip coefficient lead to a phenomenal enhancement in the volumetric flow rate. We believe that this analysis, besides providing a deep theoretical insight to interpret the transport process, will also serve as a fundamental design tool for microfluidic devices/systems under electrokinetic influence.

  13. Effect of additive on Zeta potential and particle size of nickel nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vikash; Tarachand, Chotia, Chandrabhan; Okram, G. S.

    2017-05-01

    Nickel nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by thermal decomposition method using Oleylamine (OLY) as a solvent and Trioctylphosphine (TOP) as a surfactant. We have investigated the effect of pH and addition of Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the stability and particle size of Ni NPs using zeta potential and particle size analyser. Coating of the surfactants on the surface of Ni NPs was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Autotitration study of zeta potential of these NPs in ethanol by dynamic light scattering (DLS) at different pH values confirmed an isoelectric point (IEP) at pH = 3.64 in ethanol and pH = 3.04 after addition of EDTA in ethanol. It was observed that addition of EDTA in nanosuspension enhances stability of Ni-NPs significantly.

  14. Red blood cell membrane viscoelasticity, agglutination and zeta potential measurements with double optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Adriana; Fernandes, Heloise P.; Barjas-Castro, Maria L.; de Thomaz, André A.; de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2006-02-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) viscoelastic membrane contains proteins and glycolproteins embedded in, or attached, to a fluid lipid bilayer and are negatively charged, which creates a repulsive electric (zeta) potential between the cells and prevents their aggregation in the blood stream. There are techniques, however, to decrease the zeta potential to allow cell agglutination which are the basis of most of the tests of antigen-antibody interactions in blood banks. This report shows the use of a double optical tweezers to measure RBC membrane viscosity, agglutination and zeta potential. In our technique one of the optical tweezers trap a silica bead that binds strongly to a RBC at the end of a RBCs rouleaux and, at the same time, acts as a pico-Newton force transducer, after calibration through its displacement from the equilibrium position. The other optical tweezers trap the RBC at the other end. To measure the membrane viscosity the optical force is measured as a function of the velocity between the RBCs. To measure the adhesion the tweezers are slowly displaced apart until the RBCs disagglutination happens. The RBC zeta potential is measured in two complimentary ways, by the force on the silica bead attached to a single RBC in response to an applied electric field, and the conventional way, by the measurement of terminal velocity of the RBC after released from the optical trap. These two measurements provide information about the RBC charges and, also, electrolytic solution properties. We believe this can improve the methods of diagnosis in blood banks.

  15. Electrokinetic mixing at high zeta potentials: ionic size effects on cross stream diffusion.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian Yazdi, Alireza; Sadeghi, Arman; Saidi, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-03-15

    The electrokinetic phenomena at high zeta potentials may show several unique features which are not normally observed. One of these features is the ionic size (steric) effect associated with the solutions of high ionic concentration. In the present work, attention is given to the influences of finite ionic size on the cross stream diffusion process in an electrokinetically actuated Y-shaped micromixer. The method consists of a finite difference based numerical approach for non-uniform grid which is applied to the dimensionless form of the governing equations, including the modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The results reveal that, neglecting the ionic size at high zeta potentials gives rise to the overestimation of the mixing length, because the steric effects retard liquid flow, thereby enhancing the mixing efficiency. The importance of steric effects is found to be more intense for channels of smaller width to height ratio. It is also observed that, in sharp contrast to the conditions that the ions are treated as point charges, increasing the zeta potential improves the cross stream diffusion when incorporating the ionic size. Moreover, increasing the EDL thickness decreases the mixing length, whereas the opposite is true for the channel aspect ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Coagulation-flocculation mechanisms in wastewater treatment plants through zeta potential measurements.

    PubMed

    López-Maldonado, E A; Oropeza-Guzman, M T; Jurado-Baizaval, J L; Ochoa-Terán, A

    2014-08-30

    Based on the polyelectrolyte-contaminant physical and chemical interactions at the molecular level, this article analyzed and discussed the coagulation-flocculation and chemical precipitation processes in order to improve their efficiency. Bench experiments indicate that water pH, polyelectrolyte (PE) dosing strategy and cationic polyelectrolyte addition are key parameters for the stability of metal-PE complexes. The coagulation-flocculation mechanism is proposed based on zeta potential (ζ) measurement as the criteria to define the electrostatic interaction between pollutants and coagulant-flocculant agents. Polyelectrolyte and wastewater dispersions are exposed to an electrophoretic effect to determine ζ. Finally, zeta potential values are compared at pH 9, suggesting the optimum coagulant dose at 162mg/L polydadmac and 67mg/L of flocculant, since a complete removal of TSS and turbidity is achieved. Based on the concentration of heavy metals (0.931mg/L Sn, 0.7mg/L Fe and 0.63mg/L Pb), treated water met the Mexican maximum permissible limits. In addition, the treated water has 45mg O2/L chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 45mg C/L total organic carbon (TOC). The coagulation-flocculation mechanism is proposed taking into account both: zeta potential (ζ)-pH measurement and chemical affinity, as the criteria to define the electrostatic and chemical interaction between pollutants and polyelectrolytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Entrapment of ovalbumin into liposomes--factors affecting entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential.

    PubMed

    Brgles, Marija; Jurasin, Darija; Sikirić, Maja Dutour; Frkanec, Ruza; Tomasić, Jelka

    2008-01-01

    Various amounts of Ovalbumin (OVA) were encapsulated into positively and negatively charged multilamellar liposomes, with the aim to investigate the entrapment efficiency in different buffers and to study their effects on the liposome size and zeta potential. Results showed that the entrapment efficiency of OVA in anionic liposomes was the same in 10 mM Phosphate Buffer (PB) as in Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS; PB + 0.15 M NaCl). Also, liposome size was approximately 1200 nm for all anionic liposomes incorporating OVA. The entrapment efficiency of OVA in cationic liposomes was highly dependent on ionic strength. The size of cationic liposomes was approximately 1200 nm in PBS, regardless of protein content, but increased with the amount of the incorporated protein in PB. Aggregation of cationic liposomes in PB was observed when the mass of the protein was 2.5 mg or greater. The zeta potential of anionic liposomes was negative and of cationic liposomes positive in the whole range of protein mass tested. These results show how different compositions of lipid and aqueous phases can be used to vary the entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential--the factors that are of great importance for the use of liposomes as drug carriers.

  18. A Comparison of Streaming and Microelectrophoresis Methods for Obtaining the zeta Potential of Granular Porous Media Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Johnson

    1999-01-01

    The electrokinetic behavior of granular quartz sand in aqueous solution is investigated by both microelectrophoresis and streaming potential methods. zeta potentials of surfaces composed of granular quartz obtained via streaming potential methods are compared to electrophoretic mobility zeta potential values of colloid-sized quartz fragments. The zeta values generated by these alternate methods are in close agreement over a wide pH range and electrolyte concentrations spanning several orders of magnitude. Streaming measurements performed on chemically heterogeneous mixtures of physically homogeneous sand are shown to obey a simple mixing model based on the surface area-weighted average of the streaming potentials associated with the individual end members. These experimental results support the applicability of the streaming potential method as a means of determining the zeta potential of granular porous media surfaces. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Effective charges and zeta potentials of oil in water microemulsions in the presence of Hofmeister salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Alexandre P.; Levin, Yan

    2018-06-01

    We present a theory which allows us to calculate the effective charge and zeta potential of oil droplets in microemulsions containing Hofmeister salts. A modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation is used to account for the surface and ion polarizations and hydrophobic and dispersion interactions. The ions are classified as kosmotropes and chaotropes according to their Jones-Dole viscosity B coefficient. Kosmotropes stay hydrated and do not enter into the oil phase, while chaotropes can adsorb to the oil-water interface. The effective interaction potentials between ions and oil-water interface are parametrized so as to accurately account for the excess interfacial tension.

  20. Effective charges and zeta potentials of oil in water microemulsions in the presence of Hofmeister salts.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Alexandre P; Levin, Yan

    2018-06-14

    We present a theory which allows us to calculate the effective charge and zeta potential of oil droplets in microemulsions containing Hofmeister salts. A modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation is used to account for the surface and ion polarizations and hydrophobic and dispersion interactions. The ions are classified as kosmotropes and chaotropes according to their Jones-Dole viscosity B coefficient. Kosmotropes stay hydrated and do not enter into the oil phase, while chaotropes can adsorb to the oil-water interface. The effective interaction potentials between ions and oil-water interface are parametrized so as to accurately account for the excess interfacial tension.

  1. Directional flow induced by synchronized longitudinal and zeta-potential controlling AC-electrical fields.

    PubMed

    van der Wouden, E J; Hermes, D C; Gardeniers, J G E; van den Berg, A

    2006-10-01

    Electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a microchannel can be controlled by electronic control of the surface charge using an electrode embedded in the wall of the channel. By setting a voltage to the electrode, the zeta-potential at the wall can be changed locally. Thus, the electrode acts as a "gate" for liquid flow, in analogy with a gate in a field-effect transistor. In this paper we will show three aspects of a Field Effect Flow Control (FEFC) structure. We demonstrate the induction of directional flow by the synchronized switching of the gate potential with the channel axial potential. The advantage of this procedure is that potential gas formation by electrolysis at the electrodes that provide the axial electric field is suppressed at sufficiently large switching frequencies, while the direction and magnitude of the EOF can be maintained. Furthermore we will give an analysis of the time constants involved in the charging of the insulator, and thus the switching of the zeta potential, in order to predict the maximum operating frequency. For this purpose an equivalent electrical circuit is presented and analyzed. It is shown that in order to accurately describe the charging dynamics and pH dependency the traditionally used three capacitor model should be expanded with an element describing the buffer capacitance of the silica wall surface.

  2. The zeta potential of extended dielectrics and conductors in terms of streaming potential and streaming current measurements.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Moreno, Amparo M; Vadillo-Rodríguez, Virginia; Perera-Núñez, Julia; Bruque, José M; González-Martín, M Luisa

    2012-07-21

    The electrical characterization of surfaces in terms of the zeta potential (ζ), i.e., the electric potential contributing to the interaction potential energy, is of major importance in a wide variety of industrial, environmental and biomedical applications in which the integration of any material with the surrounding media is initially mediated by the physico-chemical properties of its outer surface layer. Among the different existing electrokinetic techniques for obtaining ζ, streaming potential (V(str)) and streaming current (I(str)) are important when dealing with flat-extended samples. Mostly dielectric materials have been subjected to this type of analysis and only a few papers can be found in the literature regarding the electrokinetic characterization of conducting materials. Nevertheless, a standardized procedure is typically followed to calculate ζ from the measured data and, importantly, it is shown in this paper that such a procedure leads to incorrect zeta potential values when conductors are investigated. In any case, assessment of a reliable numerical value of ζ requires careful consideration of the origin of the input data and the characteristics of the experimental setup. In particular, it is shown that the cell resistance (R) typically obtained through a.c. signals (R(a.c.)), and needed for the calculations of ζ, always underestimates the zeta potential values obtained from streaming potential measurements. The consideration of R(EK), derived from the V(str)/I(str) ratio, leads to reliable values of ζ when dielectrics are investigated. For metals, the contribution of conductivity of the sample to the cell resistance provokes an underestimation of R(EK), which leads to unrealistic values of ζ. For the electrical characterization of conducting samples I(str) measurements constitute a better choice. In general, the findings gathered in this manuscript establish a measurement protocol for obtaining reliable zeta potentials of dielectrics and

  3. Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis for Determination of Hydrodynamic Diameter, Concentration, and Zeta-Potential of Polyplex Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David R; Green, Jordan J

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) is a recently developed nanoparticle characterization technique that offers certain advantages over dynamic light scattering for characterizing polyplex nanoparticles in particular. Dynamic light scattering results in intensity-weighted average measurements of nanoparticle characteristics. In contrast, NTA directly tracks individual particles, enabling concentration measurements as well as the direct determination of number-weighted particle size and zeta-potential. A direct number-weighted assessment of nanoparticle characteristics is particularly useful for polydisperse samples of particles, including many varieties of gene delivery particles that can be prone to aggregation. Here, we describe the synthesis of poly(beta-amino ester)/deoxyribonucleic acid (PBAE/DNA) polyplex nanoparticles and their characterization using NTA to determine hydrodynamic diameter, zeta-potential, and concentration. Additionally, we detail methods of labeling nucleic acids with fluorophores to assess only those polyplex nanoparticles containing plasmids via NTA. Polymeric gene delivery of exogenous plasmid DNA has great potential for treating a wide variety of diseases by inducing cells to express a gene of interest.

  4. Effective flocculation of Chlorella vulgaris using chitosan with zeta potential measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Y. J.; Lau, S. W.

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae are considered as one promising source of third-generation biofuels due to their fast growth rates, potentially higher yield rates and wide ranges of growth conditions. However, the extremely low biomass concentration in microalgae cultures presents a great challenge to the harvesting of microalgae because a large volume of water needs to be removed to obtain dry microalgal cells for the subsequent oil extraction process. In this study, the fresh water microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was effectively harvested using both low molecular weight (MW) and high MW chitosan flocculants. The flocculation efficiency was evaluated by physical appearance, supernatant absorbance, zeta potential and solids content after centrifugal dewatering. High flocculation efficiency of 98.0-99.0% was achieved at the optimal dosage of 30-40 mg/g with formation of large microalgae flocs. This study suggests that the polymer bridging mechanism was governing the flocculation behaviour of C. vulgaris using high MW chitosan. Besides, charge patch neutralisation mechanism prevailed at low MW chitosan where lower dosage was sufficient to reach near-zero zeta potential compared with the high MW chitosan. The amount of chitosan polymer present in the culture may also affect the mechanism of flocculation.

  5. Optimal aluminum/zirconium: Protein interactions for predicting antiperspirant efficacy using zeta potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shaotang; Vaughn, John; Pappas, Iraklis; Fitzgerald, Michael; Masters, James G; Pan, Long

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between commercial antiperspirant (AP) salts [aluminum chlorohydrate (ACH), activated ACH, aluminum sesquichlorohydrate (ASCH), zirconium aluminum glycine (ZAG), activated ZAG), pure aluminum polyoxocations (Al13-mer, Al30-mer), and the zirconium(IV)-glycine complex Zr6 (O)4 (OH)4 (H2O)8 (Gly)8]12+(-) (CP-2 or ZG) with Bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied using zeta potential and turbidity measurements. The maximal turbidity, which revealed the optimal interactions between protein and metal salts, for all protein-metal salt samples was observed at the isoelectric point (IEP), where the zeta potential of the solution was zero. Efficacy of AP salts was determined via three parameters: the amount of salt required to flocculate BSA to reach IEP, the turbidity of solution at the IEP, and the pH range over which the turbidity of the solution remains sufficiently high. By comparing active salt performance from this work to traditional prescreening methods, this methodology was able to provide a consistent efficacy assessment for metal actives in APs or in water treatment.

  6. Stability of fenbendazole suspensions for veterinary use. Correlation between zeta potential and sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Arias, José L; López-Viota, Margarita; Clares, Beatriz; Ruiz, Ma Adolfina

    2008-08-07

    In this paper we have carried out a detailed investigation of the stability and redispersibility characteristics of fenbendazole aqueous suspensions, through a thermodynamic and electrokinetic characterization, considering the effect of both pH and ionic strength. The hydrophobic character of the drug, and the surface charge and electrical double-layer thickness play an essential role in the stability of the system, hence the need for a full characterization of fenbendazole. It was found that the drug suspensions displays "delayed" or "hindered" sedimentation, determined by their hydrophobic character and their low zeta potential (indicating a small electrokinetic charge on the particles). The electrostatic repulsion between the particles is responsible for the low sedimentation volume and poor redispersibility of the drug. However, only low concentrations of AlCl(3) induced a significant effect on both the zeta potential and stability of the drug, leading to a "free-layered" sedimentation and a very easy redispersion which could be of great interest in the design of an oral pharmaceutical dosage form for veterinary.

  7. Surface electrochemical properties of red mud (bauxite residue): zeta potential and surface charge density.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravendra; Ming, Hui

    2013-03-15

    The surface electrochemical properties of red mud (bauxite residue) from different alumina refineries in Australia and China were studied by electrophoresis and measuring surface charge density obtained from acid/base potentiometric titrations. The electrophoretic properties were measured from zeta potentials obtained in the presence of 0.01 and 0.001 M KNO(3) over a wide pH range (3.5-10) by titration. The isoelectric point (IEP) values were found to vary from 6.35 to 8.70 for the red mud samples. Further investigation into the surface charge density of one sample (RRM) by acid/base potentiometric titration showed similar results for pH(PZC) with pH(IEP) obtained from electrokinetic measurements. The pH(IEP) determined from zeta potential measurements can be used as a characteristic property of red mud. The minerals contained in red mud contributed to the different values of pH(IEP) of samples obtained from different refineries. Different relationships of pH(IEP) with Al/Fe and Al/Si ratios (molar basis) were also found for different red mud samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Zeta potential in oil-brine-sandstone system and its role in oil recovery during controlled salinity waterflooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Jackson, M.

    2017-12-01

    Wettability alteration is widely recognised as a primary role in improved oil recovery (IOR) during controlled salinity waterflooding (CSW) by modifying brine composition. The change of wettability of core sample depends on adsorption of polar oil compounds into the mineral surface which influences its surface charge density and zeta potential. It has been proved that zeta potentials can be useful to quantify the wettability and incremental oil recovery in natural carbonates. However, the study of zeta potential in oil-brine-sandstone system has not investigated yet. In this experimental study, the zeta potential is used to examine the controlled salinity effects on IOR in nature sandstone (Doddington) aged with two types of crude oils (Oil T and Oil D) over 4 weeks at 80 °C. Results show that the zeta potential measured in the Oil T-brine-sandstone system following primary waterflooding decreases compared to that in fully water saturation, which is consistent with the negative oil found in carbonates study, and IOR response during secondary waterflooding using diluted seawater was observed. In the case of negative oil, the injected low salinity brine induces a more repulsive electrostatic force between the mineral-brine interface and oil-brine interface, which results in an increase disjoining pressure and alters the rock surface to be more water-wet. For Oil D with a positive oil-brine interface, the zeta potential becomes more positive compared to that under single phase condition. The conventional waterflooding fails to observe the IOR in Oil D-brine-sandstone system due to a less repulsive electrostatic force built up between the two interfaces. After switching the injection brine from low salinity brine to formation brine, the IOR was observed. Measured zeta potentials shed some light on the mechanism of wettability alteration in the oil-brine-sandstone system and oil recovery during CSW.

  9. A new biphasic osteoinductive calcium composite material with a negative Zeta potential for bone augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, Ralf; Kolk, Andreas; Gerressen, Marcus; Driemel, Oliver; Maciejewski, Oliver; Hermanns-Sachweh, Benita; Riediger, Dieter; Stein, Jamal M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the osteogenic potential of a biphasic calcium composite material (BCC) with a negative surface charge for maxillary sinus floor augmentation. In a 61 year old patient, the BCC material was used in a bilateral sinus floor augmentation procedure. Six months postoperative, a bone sample was taken from the augmented regions before two titanium implants were inserted at each side. We analyzed bone neoformation by histology, bone density by computed tomography, and measured the activity of voltage-activated calcium currents of osteoblasts and surface charge effects. Control orthopantomograms were carried out five months after implant insertion. The BCC was biocompatible and replaced by new mineralized bone after being resorbed completely. The material demonstrated a negative surface charge (negative Zeta potential) which was found to be favorable for bone regeneration and osseointegration of dental implants. PMID:19523239

  10. Zeta-potential and particle size studies of silver sulphide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Vikash, E-mail: vikash@csr.res.in; Tarachand,; Ganesan, V.

    Silver sulfide (Ag{sub 2}S) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared successfully for the first time using diethylene glycol (DEG) as a surfactant. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data revealed single phase nature of the compound and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) confirmed its nominal composition. Their sizes were 43 nm from XRD, 50 nm from atomic force microscopy (AFM) and 19 nm & 213 nm from dynamic light scattering (DLS); their differences have been discussed. Autotitration study of zeta potential of these NPs in deionized water by DLS at different pH values confirmed an isoelectric point at pH = 5.14 and their very unstable nature in deionized water.

  11. Surfactants, not size or zeta-potential influence blood-brain barrier passage of polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Nadine; Henrich-Noack, Petra; Kockentiedt, Sarah; Hintz, Werner; Tomas, Jürgen; Sabel, Bernhard A

    2014-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) can deliver drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but little is known which of the factors surfactant, size and zeta-potential are essential for allowing BBB passage. To this end we designed purpose-built fluorescent polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA) NP and imaged the NP's passage over the blood-retina barrier - which is a model of the BBB - in live animals. Rats received intravenous injections of fluorescent PBCA-NP fabricated by mini-emulsion polymerisation to obtain various NP's compositions that varied in surfactants (non-ionic, anionic, cationic), size (67-464nm) and zeta-potential. Real-time imaging of retinal blood vessels and retinal tissue was carried out with in vivo confocal neuroimaging (ICON) before, during and after NP's injection. Successful BBB passage with subsequent cellular labelling was achieved if NP were fabricated with non-ionic surfactants or cationic stabilizers but not when anionic compounds were added. NP's size and charge had no influence on BBB passage and cell labelling. This transport was not caused by an unspecific opening of the BBB because control experiments with injections of unlabelled NP and fluorescent dye (to test a "door-opener" effect) did not lead to parenchymal labelling. Thus, neither NP's size nor chemo-electric charge, but particle surface is the key factor determining BBB passage. This result has important implications for NP engineering in medicine: depending on the surfactant, NP can serve one of two opposite functions: while non-ionic tensides enhance brain up-take, addition of anionic tensides prevents it. NP can now be designed to specifically enhance drug delivery to the brain or, alternatively, to prevent brain penetration so to reduce unwanted psychoactive effects of drugs or prevent environmental nanoparticles from entering tissue of the central nervous system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of the influence of the zeta-potential on the filtration rate in the presence of collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provirnina, E. V.; Barbin, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    The value of the zeta-potential does not have an explicit effect, which is expressed by a simple math correlation, on filtration rate when a solution of the tested collector is filtered through a cake prepared under standard conditions from the examined particulate material. The zeta-potential measurements and filtration tests were carried out on silica and galena with solutions contg. a cationic container ANP and Et xanthane, resp. at PH = 6.5, varying concentration of the agent (0-2500 g/ton), and under a vacuum of 100 to 600 mm Hg.

  13. Binding of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-zeta (PLC-zeta) to phospholipid membranes: potential role of an unstructured cluster of basic residues.

    PubMed

    Nomikos, Michail; Mulgrew-Nesbitt, Anna; Pallavi, Payal; Mihalyne, Gyongyi; Zaitseva, Irina; Swann, Karl; Lai, F Anthony; Murray, Diana; McLaughlin, Stuart

    2007-06-01

    Phospholipase C-zeta (PLC-zeta) is a sperm-specific enzyme that initiates the Ca2+ oscillations in mammalian eggs that activate embryo development. It shares considerable sequence homology with PLC-delta1, but lacks the PH domain that anchors PLC-delta1 to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, PIP2. Thus it is unclear how PLC-zeta interacts with membranes. The linker region between the X and Y catalytic domains of PLC-zeta, however, contains a cluster of basic residues not present in PLC-delta1. Application of electrostatic theory to a homology model of PLC-zeta suggests this basic cluster could interact with acidic lipids. We measured the binding of catalytically competent mouse PLC-zeta to phospholipid vesicles: for 2:1 phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine (PC/PS) vesicles, the molar partition coefficient, K, is too weak to be of physiological significance. Incorporating 1% PIP2 into the 2:1 PC/PS vesicles increases K about 10-fold, to 5x10(3) M-1, a biologically relevant value. Expressed fragments corresponding to the PLC-zeta X-Y linker region also bind with higher affinity to polyvalent than monovalent phosphoinositides on nitrocellulose filters. A peptide corresponding to the basic cluster (charge=+7) within the linker region, PLC-zeta-(374-385), binds to PC/PS vesicles with higher affinity than PLC-zeta, but its binding is less sensitive to incorporating PIP2. The acidic residues flanking this basic cluster in PLC-zeta may account for both these phenomena. FRET experiments suggest the basic cluster could not only anchor the protein to the membrane, but also enhance the local concentration of PIP2 adjacent to the catalytic domain.

  14. Design and assembly of ternary Pt/Re/SnO2 NPs by controlling the zeta potential of individual Pt, Re, and SnO2 NPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drzymała, Elżbieta; Gruzeł, Grzegorz; Pajor-Świerzy, Anna; Depciuch, Joanna; Socha, Robert; Kowal, Andrzej; Warszyński, Piotr; Parlinska-Wojtan, Magdalena

    2018-05-01

    In this study Pt, Re, and SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were combined in a controlled manner into binary and ternary combinations for a possible application for ethanol oxidation. For this purpose, zeta potentials as a function of the pH of the individual NPs solutions were measured. In order to successfully combine the NPs into Pt/SnO2 and Re/SnO2 NPs, the solutions were mixed together at a pH guaranteeing opposite zeta potentials of the metal and oxide NPs. The individually synthesized NPs and their binary/ternary combinations were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. FTIR and XPS spectroscopy showed that the individually synthesized Pt and Re NPs are metallic and the Sn component was oxidized to SnO2. STEM showed that all NPs are well crystallized and the sizes of the Pt, Re, and SnO2 NPs were 2.2, 1.0, and 3.4 nm, respectively. Moreover, EDS analysis confirmed the successful formation of binary Pt/SnO2 and Re/SnO2 NP, as well as ternary Pt/Re/SnO2 NP combinations. This study shows that by controlling the zeta potential of individual metal and oxide NPs, it is possible to assemble them into binary and ternary combinations. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Effects of image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, and surface roughness on the zeta potential of spherical electric double layers.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zecheng; Xing, Xiangjun; Xu, Zhenli

    2012-07-21

    We investigate the effects of image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, and surface roughness on spherical electric double layer structures in electrolyte solutions with divalent counterions in the setting of the primitive model. By using Monte Carlo simulations and the image charge method, the zeta potential profile and the integrated charge distribution function are computed for varying surface charge strengths and salt concentrations. Systematic comparisons were carried out between three distinct models for interfacial charges: (1) SURF1 with uniform surface charges, (2) SURF2 with discrete point charges on the interface, and (3) SURF3 with discrete interfacial charges and finite excluded volume. By comparing the integrated charge distribution function and the zeta potential profile, we argue that the potential at the distance of one ion diameter from the macroion surface is a suitable location to define the zeta potential. In SURF2 model, we find that image charge effects strongly enhance charge inversion for monovalent interfacial charges, and strongly suppress charge inversion for multivalent interfacial charges. For SURF3, the image charge effect becomes much smaller. Finally, with image charges in action, we find that excluded volumes (in SURF3) suppress charge inversion for monovalent interfacial charges and enhance charge inversion for multivalent interfacial charges. Overall, our results demonstrate that all these aspects, i.e., image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, their excluding volumes, have significant impacts on zeta potentials of electric double layers.

  16. Hydrodynamic dispersion in a combined magnetohydrodynamic- electroosmotic-driven flow through a microchannel with slowly varying wall zeta potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, C.; Arcos, J.; Bautista, O.; Méndez, F.

    2017-09-01

    The effective dispersion coefficient of a neutral solute in the combined electroosmotic (EO) and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-driven flow of a Newtonian fluid through a parallel flat plate microchannel is studied. The walls of the microchannel are assumed to have modulated and low zeta potentials that vary slowly in the axial direction in a sinusoidal manner. The flow field required to obtain the dispersion coefficient is solved using the lubrication approximation theory. The solution of the electrical potential is based on the Debye-Hückel approximation for a symmetric (Z :Z ) electrolyte solution. The EO and MHD effects, together with the variations in the zeta potentials of the walls, are observed to notably modify the axial distribution of the effective dispersion coefficient. The problem is formulated for two cases of the zeta potential function. Note that the dispersion coefficient primarily depends on the Hartmann number, on the ratio of the half height of the microchannel to the Debye length, and on the assumed variation in the zeta potentials of the walls.

  17. Interrelationship between the zeta potential and viscoelastic properties in coacervates complexes.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Andrews, Hugo; Enríquez-Ramírez, Karina Esmeralda; García-Márquez, Eristeo; Ramírez-Santiago, Cesar; Lobato-Calleros, Consuelo; Vernon-Carter, Jaime

    2013-06-05

    The formation of the complex coacervate (CC) phases between gum Arabic (GA) and low molecular weight chitosan (Ch) and the interrelationship between the zeta-potential and viscoelastic properties of the coacervate phase were investigated. The maximum charge difference of biopolymers stock dispersion was displayed in a range of pH between 4.0 and 5.5. Titration experiment between the oppositely charged biopolymers showed that the isoelectric point was found at a biopolymers mass ratio (R[GA:Ch]) of R[5.5:1]. Turbidity, size and ζ-potential of the soluble complexes (SC) showed an interrelation with the complex coacervate yield (CCY). Higher CCY values (82.2-88.1%) were obtained in the range from R[3:1] to R[5.5:1]. Change the R[GA:Ch] in dispersion, make possible to produce CC's phases exhibiting cationic (R[1:1] and R[3:1]), neutral (R[5.5:1]) or anionic (R[9:1] and R[7:1]) charged. All CC's exhibited liquid-viscoelastic behavior at lower frequencies and a crossover between G″ and G' at higher frequencies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of zeta potential on the performance of a ring-type electroosmotic mixer.

    PubMed

    Kim, T A; Koo, K H; Kim, Y J

    2009-12-01

    In order to achieve faster mixing, a new type of electrokinetic mixer with a T-type channel is introduced. The proposed mixer takes two fluids from different inlets and combines them into a single channel. The fluids then enter a mixing chamber with different inner and outer radii. Four microelectrodes are positioned on the outer wall of the mixing chamber. The electric potentials on the four microelectrodes are sinusoidal with respect to time and have various maximum voltages, zeta potentials and frequency values. The working fluid is water and each inlet has a different initial concentration values. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equation is solved in the channel, with a slip boundary condition on the inner and outer walls of the mixing chamber. The convection-diffusion equation is used to describe the concentration of the dissolved substances in the fluid. The pressure, concentration and flow fields in the channel are calculated and the results are graphically depicted for various flow and electric conditions.

  19. Optimal MEMS device for mobility and zeta potential measurements using DC electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Karam, Pascal R; Dukhin, Andrei; Pennathur, Sumita

    2017-05-01

    We have developed a novel microchannel geometry that allows us to perform simple DC electrophoresis to measure the electrophoretic mobility and zeta potential of analytes and particles. In standard capillary geometries, mobility measurements using DC fields are difficult to perform. Specifically, measurements in open capillaries require knowledge of the hard to measure and often dynamic wall surface potential. Although measurements in closed capillaries eliminate this requirement, the measurements must be performed at infinitesimally small regions of zero flow where the pressure driven-flow completely cancels the electroosmotic flow (Komagata Planes). Furthermore, applied DC fields lead to electrode polarization, further questioning the reliability and accuracy of the measurement. In contrast, our geometry expands and moves the Komagata planes to where velocity gradients are at a minimum, and thus knowledge of the precise location of a Komagata plane is not necessary. Additionally, our microfluidic device prevents electrode polarization because of fluid recirculation around the electrodes. We fabricated our device using standard MEMS fabrication techniques and performed electrophoretic mobility measurements on 500 nm fluorescently tagged polystyrene particles at various buffer concentrations. Results are comparable to two different commercial dynamic light scattering based particle sizing instruments. We conclude with guidelines to further develop this robust electrophoretic tool that allows for facile and efficient particle characterization. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Study of a binary interpenetrated polymeric complex by correlation of rheological parameters with zeta potential and conductivity.

    PubMed

    Nita, Loredana Elena; Chiriac, Aurica P; Neamtu, Iordana; Bercea, Maria

    2010-03-01

    The interpenetrated macromolecular chains complexation between poly(aspartic acid) and poly(vinyl alcohol) in aqueous solution it was investigated. The interpolymer complexation process was evaluated through dynamic rheology. The aspects concerning the stability of the tested homopolymers and the prepared interpolymeric complex there were achieved from the evaluation of the aqueous solutions'zeta potential and also by determining the pH influence upon the zeta potential and the conductivity. The data obtained through the rheological dynamic measurements were correlated with the composition of the polymeric mixture, the dependence of zeta potential and conductivity. The study reveals the conditions for the formation of interpenetrated polymeric complex as being a ratio of 70wt.% PAS to 30wt.% PVA at 22 degrees C and 50/50 PAS/PVA ratio at 37 degrees C temperature. From the pH influence upon the zeta potential values it was evidenced the PAS aqueous solution does not reach the isoelectric point. At the same time, PVA solution and the complex PAS/PVA reaches the isoelectric point at strongly acid pH. The better stability of PAS, PVA and their mixture in solution is recorded in the alkaline domain (7.5or=12). The conductivity increases with the rising of the PAS content, pH and temperature. Other characteristics of the prepared interpenetrated polymeric structure, as for example thermal stability, there are also presented.

  1. Development of a novel in silico model of zeta potential for metal oxide nanoparticles: a nano-QSPR approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrzykowska, Ewelina; Mikolajczyk, Alicja; Sikorska, Celina; Puzyn, Tomasz

    2016-11-01

    Once released into the aquatic environment, nanoparticles (NPs) are expected to interact (e.g. dissolve, agglomerate/aggregate, settle), with important consequences for NP fate and toxicity. A clear understanding of how internal and environmental factors influence the NP toxicity and fate in the environment is still in its infancy. In this study, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach was employed to systematically explore factors that affect surface charge (zeta potential) under environmentally realistic conditions. The nano-QSPR model developed with multiple linear regression (MLR) was characterized by high robustness ({{{Q}}{{2}}}{{CV}}=0.90) and external predictivity ({{{Q}}{{2}}}{{EXT}}=0.93). The results clearly showed that zeta potential values varied markedly as functions of the ionic radius of the metal atom in the metal oxides, confirming that agglomeration and the extent of release of free MexOy largely depend on their intrinsic properties. A developed nano-QSPR model was successfully applied to predict zeta potential in an ionized solution of NPs for which experimentally determined values of response have been unavailable. Hence, the application of our model is possible when the values of zeta potential in the ionized solution for metal oxide nanoparticles are undetermined, without the necessity of performing more time consuming and expensive experiments. We believe that our studies will be helpful in predicting the conditions under which MexOy is likely to become problematic for the environment and human health.

  2. The adsorption of cationic and amphoteric copolymers on glass surfaces: zeta potential measurements, adsorption isotherm determination, and FT Raman characterization.

    PubMed

    Tartakovsky, Alla; Drutis, Dane M; Carnali, Joseph O

    2003-07-15

    The adsorption of cationic and amphoteric copolymers onto controlled pore glass (CPG) powders has been studied by measurement of the powder particle zeta (zeta) potential, by determination of the adsorption isotherm, and by FT Raman measurements of the polymer-coated powder. The cationic polymers consisted chiefly of homopolymers of dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (DMDAAC) or copolymers of DMDAAC and acrylamide. The amphoteric polymers studied included copolymers of DMDAAC and acrylic acid. The comonomer ratio was varied to explore the dependence of cationic charge density on the extent and effect of adsorption. Both types of polymers adsorb onto the anionic glass surface via an ion-exchange mechanism. Consequently, a correspondingly higher mass of a low-charge-density copolymer adsorbs than of a cationic homopolymer. The presence of the anionic portion in the amphoteric polymers does not significantly alter this picture. The zeta potential, however, reflects the overall nature of the polymer. Cationic polymers effectively neutralize the glass surface, while amphoteric polymers leave the zeta potential net negative. Adsorption isotherms, determined via the depletion technique using colloidal titration, were used to "calibrate" a FT Raman method. The latter was used to determined the amount of adsorbed polymer under solution conditions in which colloidal titration could not be performed.

  3. Zeta Potential Measurements on Three Clays from Turkey and Effects of Clays on Coal Flotation

    PubMed

    Hussain; Dem&idot;rc&idot;; özbayoğlu

    1996-12-25

    There is a growing trend of characterizing coal and coal wastes in order to study the effect of clays present in them during coal washing. Coarse wastes from the Zonguldak Coal Washery, Turkey, were characterized and found to contain kaolinite, illite, and chlorite. These three clays, obtained in almost pure form from various locations in Turkey, have been subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis to assess their purity and zeta potential measurements in order to evaluate their properties in terms of their surface charge and point of zero charge (pzc) values. It was found from XRD data that these clays were almost pure and their electrokinetic potential should therefore be representative of their colloidal behavior. All three clay minerals were negatively charged over the range from pH 2.5 to 11. Chlorite and illite have pzc at pH 3 and pH 2.5, respectively, whereas kaolinite has no pzc. The effect of these clays in Zonguldak coal, wastes, and black waters on coal flotation was studied by floating artificial mixtures of Zonguldak clean coal (4.5% ash) and individual clay. The flotation tests on coal/individual clay revealed that each clay influences coal flotation differently according to its type and amount. Illite had the worst effect on coal floated, followed by chlorite and kaolinite. The loss of yield in coal was found to be 18% for kaolinite, 20% for chlorite, and 28% for illite, indicating the worst effect of illite and least for kaolinite during coal flotation.

  4. Influence of temperature, anions and size distribution on the zeta potential of DMPC, DPPC and DMPE lipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Morini, M A; Sierra, M B; Pedroni, V I; Alarcon, L M; Appignanesi, G A; Disalvo, E A

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the work is to compare the influence of the multilamellarity, phase state, lipid head groups and ionic media on the origin of the surface potential of lipid membranes. With this aim, we present a new analysis of the zeta potential of multilamellar and unilamellar vesicles composed by phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) dispersed in water and ionic solutions of polarizable anions, at temperatures below and above the phase transition. In general, the adsorption of anions seems to explain the origin of the zeta potential in vesicles only above the transition temperature (Tc). In this case, the sign of the surface potential is ascribed to a partial orientation of head group moiety toward the aqueous phase. This is noticeable in PC head groups but not in PEs, due to the strong lateral interaction between PO and NH group in PE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS PHASE PROPERTIES ON CLAY PARTICLE ZETA POTENTIAL AND ELECTRO-OSMOTIC PERMEABILITY: IMPLICATIONS FOR ELECTRO-KINETIC SOIL REMEDIATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aqueous phase properties (pH, ionic strength and divalent metal ion concentration) on clay particle zeta potential and packed-bed electro-osmotic permeability was quantified. Although pH strongly altered the zeta potential of a Georgia kaolinite, it did not signi...

  6. Zeta potentials of the rare earth element fluorcarbonate minerals focusing on bastnäsite and parisite.

    PubMed

    Owens, C L; Nash, G R; Hadler, K; Fitzpatrick, R S; Anderson, C G; Wall, F

    2018-06-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are critical to a wide range of technologies ranging from mobile phones to wind turbines. Processing and extraction of REE minerals from ore bodies is, however, both challenging and relatively poorly understood, as the majority of deposits contain only limited enrichment of REEs. An improved understanding of the surface properties of the minerals is important in informing and optimising their processing, in particular for separation by froth flotation. The measurement of zeta potential can be used to extract information regarding the electrical double layer, and hence surface properties of these minerals. There are over 34 REE fluorcarbonate minerals currently identified, however bastnäsite, synchysite and parisite are of most economic importance. Bastnäsite-(Ce), the most common REE fluorcarbonate, supplies over 50% of the world's REE. Previous studies of bastnäsite have showed a wide range of surface behaviour, with the iso-electric point (IEP), being measured between pH values of 4.6 and 9.3. In contrast, no values of IEP have been reported for parisite or synchysite. In this work, we review previous studies of the zeta potentials of bastnäsite to investigate the effects of different methodologies and sample preparation. In addition, measurements of zeta potentials of parisite under water, collector and supernatant conditions were conducted, the first to be reported. These results showed an iso-electric point for parisite of 5.6 under water, with a shift to a more negative zeta potential with both collector (hydroxamic and fatty acids) and supernatant conditions. The IEP with collectors and supernatant was <3.5. As zeta potential measurements in the presence of reagents and supernatants are the most rigorous way of determining the efficiency of a flotation reagent, the agreement between parisite zeta potentials obtained here and previous work on bastnäsite suggests that parisite may be processed using similar reagent schemes to

  7. Flotation of algae for water reuse and biomass production: role of zeta potential and surfactant to separate algal particles.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Dong-Heui; Kim, Mi-Sug

    2015-01-01

    The effect of chemical coagulation and biological auto-flocculation relative to zeta potential was examined to compare flotation and sedimentation separation processes for algae harvesting. Experiments revealed that microalgae separation is related to auto-flocculation of Anabaena spp. and requires chemical coagulation for the whole period of microalgae cultivation. In addition, microalgae separation characteristics which are associated with surfactants demonstrated optimal microalgae cultivation time and separation efficiency of dissolved CO2 flotation (DCF) as an alternative to dissolved air flotation (DAF). Microalgae were significantly separated in response to anionic surfactant rather than cationic surfactant as a function of bubble size and zeta potential. DAF and DCF both showed slightly efficient flotation; however, application of anionic surfactant was required when using DCF.

  8. Reduced Zeta potential through use of cationic adhesion promoter for improved resist process performance and minimizing material consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Lorna; Thompson, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a non-HMDS (non-silane) adhesion promoter that was used to reduce the zeta potential for very thin (proprietary) polymer on silicon. By reducing the zeta potential, as measured by the minimum sample required to fully coat a wafer, the amount of polymer required to coat silicon substrates was significantly reduced in the manufacture of X-ray windows used for high transmission of low-energy X-rays. Moreover, this approach used aqueous based adhesion promoter described as a cationic surface active agent that has been shown to improve adhesion of photoresists (positive, negative, epoxy [SU8], e-beam and dry film). As well as reducing the amount of polymer required to coat substrates, this aqueous adhesion promoter is nonhazardous, and contains non-volatile solvents.

  9. Rheological behavior, zeta potential, and accelerated stability tests of Buriti oil (Mauritia flexuosa) emulsions containing lyotropic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, Cinthia Fernanda; de Faria Sato, Anne Miwa Callejón; de Camargo, Flavio Bueno; Campos, Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves Maia; Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the Amazon region presents a huge biodiversity; therefore, countless natural resources are being employed in the production of phytocosmetics and phytomedicines. The purpose of this work was to obtain emulsions produced with Buriti oil and non-ionic surfactants. Two surfactant systems were employed (Steareth-2 associated to Ceteareth-5 and to Ceteareth-20) to produce the emulsions using phase diagram method. Emulsions were obtained by echo-planar imaging method at 75°C. Rheological behavior and zeta potential were evaluated, and accelerated stability tests were performed. All emulsions analyzed presented pseudoplastic behavior. Zeta potential values were obtained between -14.2 and -53.3 mV. The formulations did not show changes in either physical stability, pH, or rheological behavior after accelerated stability tests. Significant differences were observed only after temperature cycling test. Based on these results, the emulsions obtained could be considered as promising delivery systems.

  10. Zeta potential study of Sb2S3 nanoparticles synthesized by a facile polyol method in various surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Monika; Okram, Gunadhor Singh

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, we report the successful synthesis of stibnite Sb2S3 nanoparticles (NPs) by a facile polyol method using various surfactant. The structural and optical properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Zeta potential. Rietveld refinement of XRD data confirms the single phase orthorhombic crystal structure of stibnite Sb2S3. Presence of six obvious Raman modes further confirmed their stoichiometric formation. Effect of different surfactants on the surface charge of Sb2S3 NPs was studied using Zeta potential measurement in deionized water at different pH values. They reveal that these NPs are more stable when it was synthesized in presence of EDTA than that of CTAB or without surfactant samples with high zeta potential. The isoelectronic point was found at pH = 6.4 for pure sample, 3.5 and 7.2 for CTAB and not found for EDTA Sb2S3 samples. This information can be useful for many industrial applications like pharmaceuticals, ceramics, waste water treatment and medicines.

  11. Zeta potential in oil-water-carbonate systems and its impact on oil recovery during controlled salinity water-flooding

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Matthew D.; Al-Mahrouqi, Dawoud; Vinogradov, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory experiments and field trials have shown that oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs can be increased by modifying the brine composition injected during recovery in a process termed controlled salinity water-flooding (CSW). However, CSW remains poorly understood and there is no method to predict the optimum CSW composition. This work demonstrates for the first time that improved oil recovery (IOR) during CSW is strongly correlated to changes in zeta potential at both the mineral-water and oil-water interfaces. We report experiments in which IOR during CSW occurs only when the change in brine composition induces a repulsive electrostatic force between the oil-brine and mineral-brine interfaces. The polarity of the zeta potential at both interfaces must be determined when designing the optimum CSW composition. A new experimental method is presented that allows this. Results also show for the first time that the zeta potential at the oil-water interface may be positive at conditions relevant to carbonate reservoirs. A key challenge for any model of CSW is to explain why IOR is not always observed. Here we suggest that failures using the conventional (dilution) approach to CSW may have been caused by a positively charged oil-water interface that had not been identified. PMID:27876833

  12. Interlaboratory comparison for the measurement of particle size and zeta potential of silica nanoparticles in an aqueous suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberty, Andrée; Franks, Katrin; Braun, Adelina; Kestens, Vikram; Roebben, Gert; Linsinger, Thomas P. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements has organised an interlaboratory comparison (ILC) to allow the participating laboratories to demonstrate their proficiency in particle size and zeta potential measurements on monomodal aqueous suspensions of silica nanoparticles in the 10-100 nm size range. The main goal of this ILC was to identify competent collaborators for the production of certified nanoparticle reference materials. 38 laboratories from four different continents participated in the ILC with different methods for particle sizing and determination of zeta potential. Most of the laboratories submitted particle size results obtained with centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS), dynamic light scattering (DLS) or electron microscopy (EM), or zeta potential values obtained via electrophoretic light scattering (ELS). The results of the laboratories were evaluated using method-specific z scores, calculated on the basis of consensus values from the ILC. For CLS (13 results) and EM (13 results), all reported values were within the ±2 | z| interval. For DLS, 25 of the 27 results reported were within the ±2 | z| interval, the two other results were within the ±3 | z| interval. The standard deviations of the corresponding laboratory mean values varied between 3.7 and 6.5%, which demonstrates satisfactory interlaboratory comparability of CLS, DLS and EM particle size values. From the received test reports, a large discrepancy was observed in terms of the laboratory's quality assurance systems, which are equally important for the selection of collaborators in reference material certification projects. Only a minority of the participating laboratories is aware of all the items that are mandatory in test reports compliant to ISO/IEC 17025 (ISO General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. International Organisation for Standardization, Geneva, 2005b). The absence of measurement uncertainty values in the reports, for

  13. Dynamic Light Scattering and Zeta Potential of Colloidal Mixtures of Amelogenin and Hydroxyapatite in Calcium and Phosphate Rich Ionic Milieus

    PubMed Central

    Uskoković, Vuk; Odsinada, Roselyn; Djordjevic, Sonia; Habelitz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The concept of zeta-potential has been used for more than a century as a basic parameter in controlling the stability of colloidal suspensions, irrespective of the nature of their particulate ingredients – organic or inorganic. There are prospects that self-assembly of peptide species and the protein-mineral interactions related to biomineralization may be controlled using this fundamental physicochemical parameter. In this study, we have analyzed the particle size and zeta-potential of the full-length recombinant human amelogenin (rH174), the main protein of the developing enamel matrix, in the presence of calcium and phosphate ions and hydroxyapatite (HAP) particles. As calcium and phosphate salts are introduced to rH174 sols in increments, zeta-potential of the rH174 nanospheres is more affected by negatively charged ions, suggesting their tendency to locate within the double charge layer. Phosphate ions have a more pronounced effect on both the zeta-potential and aggregation propensity of rH174 nanospheres compared to calcium ions. The isoelectric point of amelogenin was independent on the ionic strength of the solution and the concentration of calcium and/or phosphate ions. Whereas rH174 shows a higher affinity for phosphate than for calcium, HAP attracts both of these ions to the shear plane of the double layer. The parallel size and zeta-potential analysis of HAP and rH174 colloidal mixtures indicated that at pH 7.4, despite both HAP and rH174 particles being negatively charged, rH174 adsorbs well onto HAP particles. The process is slower at pH 7.4 than at pH 4.5 when the HAP surface is negatively charged and the rH174 nanosphere carries an overall positive charge. The results presented hereby demonstrate that electrostatic interactions can affect the kinetics of the adsorption of rH174 onto HAP. PMID:21146151

  14. Protein adsorption on dopamine-melanin films: role of electrostatic interactions inferred from zeta-potential measurements versus chemisorption.

    PubMed

    Bernsmann, Falk; Frisch, Benoît; Ringwald, Christian; Ball, Vincent

    2010-04-01

    We recently showed the possibility to build dopamine-melanin films of controlled thickness by successive immersions of a substrate in alkaline solutions of dopamine [F. Bernsmann, A. Ponche, C. Ringwald, J. Hemmerlé, J. Raya, B. Bechinger, J.-C. Voegel, P. Schaaf, V. Ball, J. Phys. Chem. C 113 (2009) 8234-8242]. In this work the structure and properties of such films are further explored. The zeta-potential of dopamine-melanin films is measured as a function of the total immersion time to build the film. It appears that the film bears a constant zeta-potential of (-39+/-3) mV after 12 immersion steps. These data are used to calculate the surface density of charged groups of the dopamine-melanin films at pH 8.5 that are mostly catechol or quinone imine chemical groups. Furthermore the zeta-potential is used to explain the adsorption of three model proteins (lysozyme, myoglobin, alpha-lactalbumin), which is monitored by quartz crystal microbalance. We come to the conclusion that protein adsorption on dopamine-melanin is not only determined by possible covalent binding between amino groups of the proteins and catechol groups of dopamine-melanin but that electrostatic interactions contribute to protein binding. Part of the adsorbed proteins can be desorbed by sodium dodecylsulfate solutions at the critical micellar concentration. The fraction of weakly bound proteins decreases with their isoelectric point. Additionally the number of available sites for covalent binding of amino groups on melanin grains is quantified. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of zeta potential in the adhesion of E. coli to suspended intertidal sediments.

    PubMed

    Wyness, Adam J; Paterson, David M; Defew, Emma C; Stutter, Marc I; Avery, Lisa M

    2018-05-29

    The extent of pathogen transport to and within aquatic systems depends heavily on whether the bacterial cells are freely suspended or in association with suspended particles. The surface charge of both bacterial cells and suspended particles affects cell-particle adhesion and subsequent transport and exposure pathways through settling and resuspension cycles. This study investigated the adhesion of Faecal Indicator Organisms (FIOs) to natural suspended intertidal sediments over the salinity gradient encountered at the transition zone from freshwater to marine environments. Phenotypic characteristics of three E. coli strains, and the zeta potential (surface charge) of the E. coli strains and 3 physically different types of intertidal sediments was measured over a salinity gradient from 0 to 5 Practical Salinity Units (PSU). A batch adhesion microcosm experiment was constructed with each combination of E. coli strain, intertidal sediment and 0, 2, 3.5 and 5 PSU. The zeta potential profile of one E. coli strain had a low negative charge and did not change in response to an increase in salinity, and the remaining E. coli strains and the sediments exhibited a more negative charge that decreased with an increase in salinity. Strain type was the most important factor in explaining cell-particle adhesion, however adhesion was also dependant on sediment type and salinity (2, 3.5 PSU > 0, 5 PSU). Contrary to traditional colloidal (Derjaguin, Landau, Vervey, and Overbeek (DLVO)) theory, zeta potential of strain or sediment did not correlate with cell-particle adhesion. E. coli strain characteristics were the defining factor in cell-particle adhesion, implying that diverse strain-specific transport and exposure pathways may exist. Further research applying these findings on a catchment scale is necessary to elucidate these pathways in order to improve accuracy of FIO fate and transport models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrogen bonding and interparticle forces in platelet alpha-Al2O3 dispersions: yield stress and zeta potential.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Kay-Sen; Teh, E-Jen; Leong, Yee-Kwong; Ong, Ban Choon

    2009-04-09

    Adsorbed phosphate on smooth platelet alpha-Al2O3 particles at saturation surface coverage gives rise to strong interparticle attractive forces in dispersion. The maximum yield stress at the point of zero charge was increased by 2-fold. This was attributed to a high density of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the adsorbed phosphate layers of the interacting particles. Adsorbed citrate at saturation surface coverage, however, reduced the maximum yield stress by 50%. It adsorbed to form a very effective steric barrier as intramolecular hydrogen bonding between -OH and the free terminal carboxylic group prevented strong interactions with other adsorbed citrate molecules residing on the second interacting particle. This steric barrier kept the interacting platelet particles further apart, thereby weakening the van der Waals attraction. The platelet alpha-Al2O3 dispersions were flocculated at all pH level. These dispersions displayed a maximum yield stress at the point of zero zeta potential at the pH approximately 8.0. They also obeyed the yield stress-DLVO force model as characterized by a linear decrease in the yield stress with the square of the zeta potential.

  17. The Isolation of DNA by Polycharged Magnetic Particles: An Analysis of the Interaction by Zeta Potential and Particle Size

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Yazan; Xhaxhiu, Kledi; Kopel, Pavel; Hynek, David; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic isolation of biological targets is in major demand in the biotechnology industry today. This study considers the interaction of four surface-modified magnetic micro- and nanoparticles with selected DNA fragments. Different surface modifications of nanomaghemite precursors were investigated: MAN37 (silica-coated), MAN127 (polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated), MAN158 (phosphate-coated), and MAN164 (tripolyphosphate-coated). All particles were positive polycharged agglomerated monodispersed systems. Mean particle sizes were 0.48, 2.97, 2.93, and 3.67 μm for MAN37, MAN127, MAN164, and MAN158, respectively. DNA fragments exhibited negative zeta potential of −0.22 mV under binding conditions (high ionic strength, low pH, and dehydration). A decrease in zeta potential of particles upon exposure to DNA was observed with exception of MAN158 particles. The measured particle size of MAN164 particles increased by nearly twofold upon exposure to DNA. Quantitative PCR isolation of DNA with a high retrieval rate was observed by magnetic particles MAN127 and MAN164. Interaction between polycharged magnetic particles and DNA is mediated by various binding mechanisms such as hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Future development of DNA isolation technology requires an understanding of the physical and biochemical conditions of this process. PMID:27104527

  18. Joule heating effects on electromagnetohydrodynamic flow through a peristaltically induced micro-channel with different zeta potential and wall slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjit, N. K.; Shit, G. C.

    2017-09-01

    This paper aims to develop a mathematical model for magnetohydrodynamic flow of biofluids through a hydrophobic micro-channel with periodically contracting and expanding walls under the influence of an axially applied electric field. The velocity slip effects have been taken into account at the channel walls by employing different slip lengths due to hydrophobic gating. Different temperature jump factors have also been used to investigate the thermomechanical interactions at the fluid-solid interface. The electromagnetohydrodynamic flow in a microchannel is simplified under the framework of Debye-Hückel linearization approximation. We have derived the closed-form solutions for the linearized dimensionless boundary value problem under the assumptions of long wave length and low Reynolds number. The axial velocity, temperature, pressure distribution, stream function, wall shear stress and the Nusselt number have been appraised for diverse values of the parameters approaching into the problem. Our main focus is to determine the effects of different zeta potential on the axial velocity and temperature distribution under electromagnetic environment. This study puts forward an important observation that the different zeta potential plays an important role in controlling fluid velocity. The study further reveals that the temperature increases significantly with the Joule heating parameter and the Brinkman number (arises due to the dissipation of energy).

  19. Zeta potential and Raman studies of PVP capped Bi2S3 nanoparticles synthesized by polyol method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarachand, Sathe, Vasant G.; Okram, Gunadhor S.

    2018-05-01

    Here we report the synthesis and characterisation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) capped Bi2S3 nanoparticles via one step catalyst-free polyol method. Raman spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analysis were performed on it. Rietveld refinement of powder XRD of PVP capped samples confirmed the formation of single phase orthorhombic Bi2S3 for all PVP capped samples. The presence of eight obvious Raman modes further confirmed the formation of stoichiometric Bi2S3. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies show a clear increase in hydrodynamic diameter for samples made with increasing PVP concentration. Particle size obtained from DLS and XRD (using Scherrer's formula) combine with change in full width half maxima of Raman modes collectively suggest overall improvement in crystallinity and quality of product on introducing PVP. In zeta potential (ζ) measurement, steric hindrance of carbon chains plays very crucial role and a systematic reduction of ζ value is observed for samples made with decreasing PVP concentration. An isoelectric point is obtained for sample made with low PVP (1g). Present results are likely to open a window for its medical and catalytic applications.

  20. The Isolation of DNA by Polycharged Magnetic Particles: An Analysis of the Interaction by Zeta Potential and Particle Size.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Yazan; Xhaxhiu, Kledi; Kopel, Pavel; Hynek, David; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-04-20

    Magnetic isolation of biological targets is in major demand in the biotechnology industry today. This study considers the interaction of four surface-modified magnetic micro- and nanoparticles with selected DNA fragments. Different surface modifications of nanomaghemite precursors were investigated: MAN37 (silica-coated), MAN127 (polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated), MAN158 (phosphate-coated), and MAN164 (tripolyphosphate-coated). All particles were positive polycharged agglomerated monodispersed systems. Mean particle sizes were 0.48, 2.97, 2.93, and 3.67 μm for MAN37, MAN127, MAN164, and MAN158, respectively. DNA fragments exhibited negative zeta potential of -0.22 mV under binding conditions (high ionic strength, low pH, and dehydration). A decrease in zeta potential of particles upon exposure to DNA was observed with exception of MAN158 particles. The measured particle size of MAN164 particles increased by nearly twofold upon exposure to DNA. Quantitative PCR isolation of DNA with a high retrieval rate was observed by magnetic particles MAN127 and MAN164. Interaction between polycharged magnetic particles and DNA is mediated by various binding mechanisms such as hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Future development of DNA isolation technology requires an understanding of the physical and biochemical conditions of this process.

  1. Variability in Bioreactivity Linked to Changes in Size and Zeta Potential of Diesel Exhaust Particles in Human Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Srijata; Zhang, Lin; Subramaniam, Prasad; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Strickland, Pamela A. Ohman.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lioy, Paul J.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Ryan, Mary; Porter, Alex; Schwander, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Acting as fuel combustion catalysts to increase fuel economy, cerium dioxide (ceria, CeO2) nanoparticles have been used in Europe as diesel fuel additives (Envirox™). We attempted to examine the effects of particles emitted from a diesel engine burning either diesel (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) or diesel doped with various concentrations of CeO2 (DEP-Env) on innate immune responses in THP-1 and primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Batches of DEP and DEP-Env were obtained on three separate occasions using identical collection and extraction protocols with the aim of determining the reproducibility of particles generated at different times. However, we observed significant differences in size and surface charge (zeta potential) of the DEP and DEP-Env across the three batches. We also observed that exposure of THP-1 cells and PBMC to identical concentrations of DEP and DEP-Env from the three batches resulted in statistically significant differences in bioreactivity as determined by IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-12p40 mRNA (by qRT-PCR) and protein expression (by ELISPOT assays). Importantly, bioreactivity was noted in very tight ranges of DEP size (60 to 120 nm) and zeta potential (−37 to −41 mV). Thus, these physical properties of DEP and DEP-Env were found to be the primary determinants of the bioreactivity measured in this study. Our findings also point to the potential risk of over- or under- estimation of expected bioreactivity effects (and by inference of public health risks) from bulk DEP use without taking into account potential batch-to-batch variations in physical (and possibly chemical) properties. PMID:24825358

  2. Evanescent-wave particle velocimetry measurements of zeta-potentials in fused-silica microchannels.

    PubMed

    Cevheri, Necmettin; Yoda, Minami

    2013-07-01

    The wall ζ-potential ζ(w), the potential at the shear plane of the electric double layer, depends on the properties of the BGE solution such as the valence and type of electrolyte, the pH and the ionic strength. Most of the methods estimate ζ(w) from measurements of the EOF velocity magnitude ueo , usually spatially averaged over the entire capillary. In these initial studies, evanescent-wave particle velocimetry was used to measure ueo in steady EOF for a variety of monovalent aqueous solutions to evaluate the effect of small amounts of divalent cations, as well as the pH and ionic strength of BGE solutions. In brief, the magnitude of the EOF velocity of NaCl-NaOH and borate buffer-NaOH solutions was estimated from the measured velocities of radius α = 104 nm fluorescent polystyrene particles in 33 μm fused-silica microchannels. The particle ζ-potentials were measured separately using laser-Doppler micro-electrophoresis; ζ(w) was then determined from ueo. The results suggest that evanescent-wave particle velocimetry can be used to estimate ζ(w) for a variety of BGE solutions, and that it can be used in the future to estimate local wall ζ-potential, and hence spatial variations in ζ(w). © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Positive zeta potential of a negatively charged semi-permeable plasma membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Jing, Haoyuan; Das, Siddhartha

    2017-08-01

    The negative charge of the plasma membrane (PM) severely affects the nature of moieties that may enter or leave the cells and controls a large number of ion-interaction-mediated intracellular and extracellular events. In this letter, we report our discovery of a most fascinating scenario, where one interface (e.g., membrane-cytosol interface) of the negatively charged PM shows a positive surface (or ζ) potential, while the other interface (e.g., membrane-electrolyte interface) still shows a negative ζ potential. Therefore, we encounter a completely unexpected situation where an interface (e.g., membrane-cytosol interface) that has a negative surface charge density demonstrates a positive ζ potential. We establish that the attainment of such a property by the membrane can be ascribed to an interplay of the nature of the membrane semi-permeability and the electrostatics of the electric double layer established on either side of the charged membrane. We anticipate that such a membrane property can lead to such capabilities of the cell (in terms of accepting or releasing certain kinds of moieties as well regulating cellular signaling) that was hitherto inconceivable.

  4. A zeta potential value determines the aggregate's size of penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives in aqueous suspension whereas positive charge is required for toxicity against bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Deryabin, Dmitry G; Efremova, Ludmila V; Vasilchenko, Alexey S; Saidakova, Evgeniya V; Sizova, Elena A; Troshin, Pavel A; Zhilenkov, Alexander V; Khakina, Ekaterina A; Khakina, Ekaterina E

    2015-08-08

    The cause-effect relationships between physicochemical properties of amphiphilic [60]fullerene derivatives and their toxicity against bacterial cells have not yet been clarified. In this study, we report how the differences in the chemical structure of organic addends in 10 originally synthesized penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives modulate their zeta potential and aggregate's size in salt-free and salt-added aqueous suspensions as well as how these physicochemical characteristics affect the bioenergetics of freshwater Escherichia coli and marine Photobacterium phosphoreum bacteria. Dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler micro-electrophoresis, agarose gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy, and bioluminescence inhibition assay were used to characterize the fullerene aggregation behavior in aqueous solution and their interaction with the bacterial cell surface, following zeta potential changes and toxic effects. Dynamic light scattering results indicated the formation of self-assembled [60]fullerene aggregates in aqueous suspensions. The measurement of the zeta potential of the particles revealed that they have different surface charges. The relationship between these physicochemical characteristics was presented as an exponential regression that correctly described the dependence of the aggregate's size of penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives in salt-free aqueous suspension from zeta potential value. The prevalence of DLVO-related effects was shown in salt-added aqueous suspension that decreased zeta potential values and affected the aggregation of [60]fullerene derivatives expressed differently for individual compounds. A bioluminescence inhibition assay demonstrated that the toxic effect of [60]fullerene derivatives against E. coli cells was strictly determined by their positive zeta potential charge value being weakened against P. phosphoreum cells in an aquatic system of high salinity. Atomic force microscopy data suggested that the

  5. Electroosmotic flow in a rectangular channel with variable wall zeta-potential: comparison of numerical simulation with asymptotic theory.

    PubMed

    Datta, Subhra; Ghosal, Sandip; Patankar, Neelesh A

    2006-02-01

    Electroosmotic flow in a straight micro-channel of rectangular cross-section is computed numerically for several situations where the wall zeta-potential is not constant but has a specified spatial variation. The results of the computation are compared with an earlier published asymptotic theory based on the lubrication approximation: the assumption that any axial variations take place on a long length scale compared to a characteristic channel width. The computational results are found to be in excellent agreement with the theory even when the scale of axial variations is comparable to the channel width. In the opposite limit when the wavelength of fluctuations is much shorter than the channel width, the lubrication theory fails to describe the solution either qualitatively or quantitatively. In this short wave limit the solution is well described by Ajdari's theory for electroosmotic flow between infinite parallel plates (Ajdari, A., Phys. Rev. E 1996, 53, 4996-5005.) The infinitely thin electric double layer limit is assumed in the theory as well as in the simulation.

  6. pH Effects on solubility, zeta potential, and correlation between antibacterial activity and molecular weight of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shun-Hsien; Lin, Hong-Ting Victor; Wu, Guan-James; Tsai, Guo Jane

    2015-12-10

    Six chitosans with molecular weights (MWs) of 300, 156, 72.1, 29.2, 7.1, and 3.3 kDa were prepared by cellulase degradation of chitosan (300 kDa) and ultrafiltration techniques. We examined the correlation between activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and chitosan MW, and provided the underlying explanation. In acidic pH conditions, the chitosan activity increased with increasing MW, irrespective of the temperature and bacteria tested. However, at neutral pH, chitosan activity increased as the MW decreased, and little activity was observed for chitosans with MW >29.2 kDa. At pH 5.0 and 6.0, chitosans exhibited good water solubility and zeta potential (ZP) decreased with the MW, whereas the solubility and ZP of the chitosans decreased with increasing MW at pH 7.0. Particularly, low solubility and negative ZP values were determined for chitosans with MW >29.2 kDa, which may explain the loss of their antibacterial activity at pH 7.0. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell surface groups of two picocyanobacteria strains studied by zeta potential investigations, potentiometric titration, and infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Maria; Sibler, Sabine

    2005-06-15

    In order to clarify the role of picocyanobacteria in aquatic biogeochemical processes (e.g., calcite precipitation), cell surface properties need to be investigated. An experimental study of the cell surface characteristics of two Synechococcus-type unicellular autotrophic picocyanobacterial strains was carried out. One strain was isolated from Lake Plon and contained phycocyanin, the other strain came from Lago Maggiore and was rich in phycoerythrin. Potentiometric titrations were conducted to determine the different types of sites present on the bacteria cell walls. Infrared spectroscopy allowed characterization of the various functional groups (RNH(2), RCOOH, ROH, RPO(2)) and investigations of zeta potential provided insight into the isoelectrical points of the strains. Titrations reveal three distinct sites on the bacterial surfaces of phycocyanin- and phycoerythrin-rich strains with pK values of 4.8+/-0.3/5.0+/-0.2, 6.6+/-0.2/6.7+/-0.4, and 8.8+/-0.1/8.7+/-0.2, corresponding to carboxyl, phosphate, and amine groups with surface densities of 2.6+/-0.4/7.4+/-1.6 x 10(-4), 1.9+/-0.5/4.4+/-0.8 x 10(-4), and 2.5+/-0.4/4.8+/-0.7 x 10(-4) mol/g of dry bacteria. The deprotonation constants are similar to those of bacterial strains and site densities are also within an order of magnitude of other strains. The phycoerythrin-rich strain had a higher number of binding sites than the phycocyanin-rich strain. The results showed that picocyanobacteria may adsorb either calcium cations or carbonate anions and therefore strongly influence the biogeochemical cycling of calcite in pelagic systems.

  8. Generation of nanobubbles by ceramic membrane filters: The dependence of bubble size and zeta potential on surface coating, pore size and injected gas pressure.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ahmed Khaled Abdella; Sun, Cuizhen; Hua, Likun; Zhang, Zhibin; Zhang, Yanhao; Zhang, Wen; Marhaba, Taha

    2018-07-01

    Generation of gaseous nanobubbles (NBs) by simple, efficient, and scalable methods is critical for industrialization and applications of nanobubbles. Traditional generation methods mainly rely on hydrodynamic, acoustic, particle, and optical cavitation. These generation processes render issues such as high energy consumption, non-flexibility, and complexity. This research investigated the use of tubular ceramic nanofiltration membranes to generate NBs in water with air, nitrogen and oxygen gases. This system injects pressurized gases through a tubular ceramic membrane with nanopores to create NBs. The effects of membrane pores size, surface energy, and the injected gas pressures on the bubble size and zeta potential were examined. The results show that the gas injection pressure had considerable effects on the bubble size, zeta potential, pH, and dissolved oxygen of the produced NBs. For example, increasing the injection air pressure from 69 kPa to 414 kPa, the air bubble size was reduced from 600 to 340 nm respectively. Membrane pores size and surface energy also had significant effects on sizes and zeta potentials of NBs. The results presented here aim to fill out the gaps of fundamental knowledge about NBs and development of efficient generation methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of gold nanoparticles with different hydrophilic coatings via capillary electrophoresis and Taylor dispersion analysis. Part I: determination of the zeta potential employing a modified analytic approximation.

    PubMed

    Pyell, Ute; Jalil, Alaa H; Pfeiffer, Christian; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2015-07-15

    Taking gold nanoparticles with different hydrophilic coatings as an example, it is investigated whether capillary electrophoresis in combination with Taylor dispersion analysis allows for the precise determination of mean electrophoretic mobilities, electrophoretic mobility distributions, and zeta potentials in a matrix of exactly known composition and the calibration-free determination of number-weighted mean hydrodynamic radii. Our experimental data confirm that the calculation of the zeta potential for colloidal nanoparticles with ζ>25 mV requires to take the relaxation effect into account. Because of the requirement to avoid particle-wall interactions, a solution of disodiumtetraborate decahydrate (borax) in deionized water had been selected as suitable electrolyte. Measurements of the electrophoretic mobility at different ionic strength and application of the analytic approximation developed by Ohshima show that in the present case of a buffered solution with a weak electrolyte co-ion and a strong electrolyte counterion, the effective ionic drag coefficient should be approximated with the ionic drag coefficient of the counterion. The obtained results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations regarding the dependence of the zeta potential and the electrokinetic surface charge density on the ionic strength. We also show that Taylor dispersion analysis (besides estimation of the number-weighted mean hydrodynamic radius) provides additional information on the type and width of the number-weighted particle distribution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Zeta potential response of human erythrocyte membranes to the modulators of Gardos channel activity under low rate β-radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhirnov, V V; Iakovenko, I N; Voitsitskiy, V M; Khyzhnyak, S V; Zubrikova-Chugainova, O G; Gorobetz, V A

    2015-12-01

    Study of human erythrocyte DP response under modification by activators and blockers of the functional state of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels under low rate β-radiation. Erythrocytes were isolated from the donor blood. The zeta potential was computed from the value of the cell electrophoretic mobility. The investigated drugs preliminary introduced in cellular suspensions, and then aliquote of 90Sr(NO3)2 solution to get the final activity concentration of 44,4kBq⋅l-1. The radioisotope radiation of 90Sr/90Y (RR, 15 μGy⋅h-1) increases an absolute value of erythrocyte membranes DP (DPab), and its action is reversible. It specifies the effect is mediated by non-ionizing part of the RR. Dibutyril-cAMP dose-independent increases DPab of erythrocyte membranes in the concentration range of 1-100 мкМ, but RR does not amplify this effect. Anaprilin increases dose-independent DPab in concentrations 10 and 100 μМ. The effect of maximal concentration of anaprilin (100 μМ) decreases by RR. Clotrimazol increases DPab of erythrocyte membranes in the concentration range of 0,1-10 μМ relatively control, while its maximal concentration - decreases, and the minimal level does not reliably influence on this index The action of сlotrimazol on DP in concentrations of 10-100 μМ is abolished by RR, and is not changed in the range of 0,1-1,0 μМ. Nitrendipine raises DPab of erythrocyte membranes in all of range of concentrations, and RR amplifies the effect of the drug. 1. There is a threshold of the biological action on cells for the ionizing component of radioisotope radiation determined by efficiency of operation their antioxidant system.2. At dose rates below a threshold, the action of ionizing radiation is mediated by its non-ionizing component, and is reversible, and therefore is determined only in the field of radiation. V. V. Zhirnov, I. N. Iakovenko, V.M. Voitsitskiy, S. V. Khyzhnyak, О. G. Zubrikova-Chugainova, V.A. Gorobetz.

  11. Zeta Potential Measurements on Solid Surfaces for in Vitro Biomaterials Testing: Surface Charge, Reactivity Upon Contact With Fluids and Protein Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Sara; Cazzola, Martina; Peretti, Veronica; Stella, Barbara; Spriano, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Surface properties of biomaterials (e.g., roughness, chemical composition, charge, wettability, and hydroxylation degree) are key features to understand and control the complex interface phenomena that happens upon contact with physiological fluids. Numerous physico-chemical techniques can be used in order to investigate in depth these crucial material features. Among them, zeta potential measurements are widely used for the characterization of colloidal suspensions, but actually poorly explored in the study of solid surfaces, even if they can give significant information about surface charge in function of pH and indirectly about surface functional groups and reactivity. The aim of the present research is application of zeta potential measurements of solid surfaces for the in vitro testing of biomaterials. In particular, bare and surface modified Ti6Al4V samples have been compared in order to evaluate their isoelectric points (IEPs), surface charge at physiological pH, in vitro bioactivity [in simulated body fluid (SBF)] and protein absorption. Zeta potential titration was demonstrated as a suitable technique for the surface characterization of surface treated Ti6Al4V substrates. Significant shift of the isoelectric point was recorded after a chemical surface treatment (because of the exposition of hydroxyl groups), SBF soaking (because of apatite precipitation IEP moves close to apatite one) and protein absorption (IEP moves close to protein ones). Moreover, the shape of the curve gives information about exposed functional groups (e.g., a plateau in the basic range appears due to the exposition of acidic OH groups and in the acidic range due to exposition of basic NH2 groups). PMID:29868575

  12. Synthesis of the RGO/Al2O3 core-shell nanocomposite flakes and characterization of their unique electrostatic properties using zeta potential measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jastrzębska, A. M.; Karcz, J.; Letmanowski, R.; Zabost, D.; Ciecierska, E.; Zdunek, J.; Karwowska, E.; Siekierski, M.; Olszyna, A.; Kunicki, A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the influence of the modification of electrostatic properties of RGO/Al2O3 core-shell nanocomposite flakes. The amount of crystalline form of aluminum oxide was very small. It existed mostly in amorphous phase in the form of covalently bonded to GO surface. The morphological, structural and physicochemical investigations results showed that spherical Al2O3 nanoparticles (ca. 41 nm) in gamma phase completely covered the surface of curly-shaped RGO flakes and acted as a spreader between individual flakes. The high BET specific surface area of the analyzed composite (119.71 m2/g) together with very low open porosity (0.479 cm3/g) indicated that RGO/Al2O3 nanocomposite flakes showed low tendency to agglomeration. The zeta potential curves obtained for RGO/Al2O3 core-shell nanocomposite flakes were differing from curves obtained for GO and Al2O3 suspensions in distilled water and neutral environment. The specific electrostatic properties of the core-shell system of RGO/Al2O3 flakes had an influence on its surface charge (zeta potential) which was measured by applying an external electric field. The FTIR and Raman investigations results also confirmed that the Cdbnd O species were not taking part in the surface amphoteric reactions resulting in the formation of electrostatic surface charge.

  13. Characterization of the startup transient electrokinetic flow in rectangular channels of arbitrary dimensions, zeta potential distribution, and time-varying pressure gradient.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew; Villegas, Arturo; Diez, F Javier

    2015-03-01

    The solution to the startup transient EOF in an arbitrary rectangular microchannel is derived analytically and validated experimentally. This full 2D transient solution describes the evolution of the flow through five distinct periods until reaching a final steady state. The derived analytical velocity solution is validated experimentally for different channel sizes and aspect ratios under time-varying pressure gradients. The experiments used a time resolved micro particle image velocimetry technique to calculate the startup transient velocity profiles. The measurements captured the effect of time-varying pressure gradient fields derived in the analytical solutions. This is tested by using small reservoirs at both ends of the channel which allowed a time-varying pressure gradient to develop with a time scale on the order of the transient EOF. Results showed that under these common conditions, the effect of the pressure build up in the reservoirs on the temporal development of the transient startup EOF in the channels cannot be neglected. The measurements also captured the analytical predictions for channel walls made of different materials (i.e., zeta potentials). This was tested in channels that had three PDMS and one quartz wall, resulting in a flow with an asymmetric velocity profile due to variations in the zeta potential between the walls. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Predicting the influence of liposomal lipid composition on liposome size, zeta potential and liposome-induced dendritic cell maturation using a design of experiments approach.

    PubMed

    Soema, Peter C; Willems, Geert-Jan; Jiskoot, Wim; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon F

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effect of liposomal lipid composition on the physicochemical characteristics and adjuvanticity of liposomes was investigated. Using a design of experiments (DoE) approach, peptide-containing liposomes containing various lipids (EPC, DOPE, DOTAP and DC-Chol) and peptide concentrations were formulated. Liposome size and zeta potential were determined for each formulation. Moreover, the adjuvanticity of the liposomes was assessed in an in vitro dendritic cell (DC) model, by quantifying the expression of DC maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86. The acquired data of these liposome characteristics were successfully fitted with regression models, and response contour plots were generated for each response factor. These models were applied to predict a lipid composition that resulted in a liposome with a target zeta potential. Subsequently, the expression of the DC maturation factors for this lipid composition was predicted and tested in vitro; the acquired maturation responses corresponded well with the predicted ones. These results show that a DoE approach can be used to screen various lipids and lipid compositions, and to predict their impact on liposome size, charge and adjuvanticity. Using such an approach may accelerate the formulation development of liposomal vaccine adjuvants. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mixtures of latex particles and the surfactant of opposite charge used as interface stabilizers--influence of particle contact angle, zeta potential, flocculation and shear energy.

    PubMed

    Deleurence, Rémi; Parneix, Caroline; Monteux, Cécile

    2014-09-28

    We investigate the stabilization of air-water interfaces by mixtures of negatively charged latex particles (sulfate polystyrene) and cationic surfactants (alkyl trimethylammonium bromides). First we report results concerning the binding of surfactant molecules to the latex particles. As the surfactant concentration increases, the charge of the particles reverses, from negative to positive, because CnTAB first binds electrostatically to the latex particles and then through hydrophobic interaction with the monolayer already adsorbed on the particles as well as directly with the hydrophobic surface of the latex. Over a large range of surfactant concentrations around the charge inversion, a strong flocculation is observed and 100 μm large aggregates form in the suspension. Unlike previous studies published on mixtures of inorganic particles with oppositely charged surfactants, we show that we can vary the sign of the zeta potential of the particles without changing the contact angle of the particles over a large range of surfactant concentrations. Indeed, the latex particles that we study are more hydrophobic than inorganic particles, hence adding moderate concentrations of the surfactant results in a weak variation of the contact angle while the charge of the particles can be reversed. This enables decoupling of the effect of zeta potential and contact angle on the interfacial properties of the mixtures. Our study shows that the contact angle and the charge of the particles are not sufficient parameters to control the foam properties, and the key-parameters are the flocculation state and the shear energy applied to produce the foam. Indeed, flocculated samples, whatever the sign of the zeta potential, enable production of a stable armour at the interface. The large aggregates do not adsorb spontaneously at the interface because of their large size, however when a large shear energy is used to produce the foam very stable foam is obtained, where particles are trapped

  16. Elucidation of the mechanisms of action of Bacteriophage K/nano-emulsion formulations against S. aureus via measurement of particle size and zeta potential.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Patricia Perez; Jenkins, A Toby A; Arnot, Tom C

    2016-03-01

    In earlier work we have demonstrated the effect that nano-emulsions have on bacterial growth, and most importantly the enhanced bacteriophage infectivity against Staphylococcus aureus in planktonic culture when phage are carried in nano-emulsions. However, the mechanisms of enhancement of the bacteriophage killing effect are not specifically understood. This work focuses on the investigation of the possible interactions between emulsion droplets and bacterial cells, between emulsion droplets and bacteriophages, and finally interactions between all three components: nano-emulsion droplets, bacteria, and bacteriophages. The first approach consists of simple calculations to determine the spatial distribution of the components, based on measurements of particle size. It was found that nano-emulsion droplets are much more numerous than bacteria or bacteriophage, and due to their size and surface area they must be covering the surface of both cells and bacteriophage particles. Stabilisation of bacteriophages due to electrostatic forces and interaction with nano-emulsion droplets is suspected, since bacteriophages may be protected against inactivation due to 'charge shielding'. Zeta potential was measured for the individual components in the system, and for all of them combined. It was concluded that the presence of nano-emulsions could be reducing electrostatic repulsion between bacterial cells and bacteriophage, both of which are very negatively 'charged'. Moreover, nano-emulsions lead to more favourable interaction between bacteriophages and bacteria, enhancing the anti-microbial or killing effect. These findings are relevant since the physicochemical properties of nano-emulsions (i.e. particle size distribution and zeta potential) are key in determining the efficacy of the formulation against infection in the context of responsive burn wound dressings-which is the main target for this work. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A PARADOXICAL RELATION BETWEEN ZETA POTENTIAL AND SUSPENSION STABILITY IN S AND R VARIANTS OF INTESTINAL BACTERIA

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Eleanore W.; Mudd, Stuart

    1935-01-01

    The relation between electrokinetic potential and suspension stability of four strains of non-flagellate intestinal bacteria has been studied. The smooth forms have ζ-potentials which approximate zero over a wide range of pH and salt concentration, yet nevertheless form stable suspensions. The rough variants have ζ-potentials which vary with pH and electrolyte concentration in the familiar way. The rough forms have values of ζ-potential critical for their suspension stability. PMID:19872869

  18. Effect of the adsorption of lithium and borate species on the zeta potential of particles of cobalt ferrite, nickel ferrite, and magnetite.

    PubMed

    Barale, M; Lefèvre, G; Carrette, F; Catalette, H; Fédoroff, M; Cote, G

    2008-12-01

    Zetametric measurements on suspensions of oxide particles (cobalt ferrite, nickel ferrite, and magnetite) representative of corrosion products from primary circuits of pressurized water reactors were performed at 25 and 70 degrees C in the presence of lithium and borate species. No effect of lithium ions was observed. Borate species cause a decrease of the isoelectric point (IEP), attributed to the sorption of borate as a negative complex MOB(OH)3(-). A predictive model based on thermodynamic calculations (2-pK and diffuse layer models) of the surface acidity constants from the data of acid-base titrations combined with an empirical relationship between the surface potential Psi 0 and the zeta potential determined by zetametry was developed. A whole set of parameters valid at 25 degrees C, in a range of ionic strength between 10(-4) and 10(-2) molL(-1) and in a range of pH between 4 and 8, was determined for this model. Increase of temperature to 70 degrees C in the presence of borate results in a decrease of IEP for cobalt ferrite and an increase of the IEP for nickel ferrite.

  19. Effect of contact angle, zeta potential and particles size on the in vitro studies of Al2O3 and SiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Suriyaprabha, Rangaraj; Rajendran, Venkatachalam; Kannan, Narayanasamy

    2015-02-01

    Currently, nanometal oxides find their role in different biological applications such as tissue engineering, implant and bone replacement materials. Owing to the increased use of nanoparticles, it is necessary to understand their release and toxicity in the biological system. In this regard, three independent studies such as in vitro cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity and biocompatibility of nano- and micrometal oxide particles such as alumina (Al2O3) and silica (SiO2) are evaluated. It is evident from cell viability study that nanoAl2O3 and SiO2 particles are less toxic when compared with microAl2O3 and SiO2 to NIH 3T3 cell lines up to 200 µg/ml. Antioxidant properties of micro- and nanoAl2O3 in terms of radical scavenging percentage for micro- and nanoAl2O3 are 59.1% and 72.1%, respectively, at 100 mg. Similarly, the radical scavenging percentage of nano- and bulk SiO2 are 81.0% and 67.2%, respectively. The present study reveals that the cellular behaviour, interaction and biocompatibility of metal oxides differ with dose, particle size, contact angle and zeta potential. The present study opens up a new strategy to analyse in vitro nanotoxicity.

  20. The preparation, surface structure, zeta potential, surface charge density and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanostructures of different shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Inderpreet Singh; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali

    2013-09-01

    Titania based nanocatalysts such as sodium titanates of different morphology having superior surface properties are getting wide importance in photocatalysis research. Despite having sodium (Na) contents and its high temperature synthesis (that generally deteriorate the photoreactivity), these Na-titanates often exhibit better photoactivity than P25-TiO2 catalyst. Hence, this work demonstrated the influence of crystal structure, BET surface area, surface charge, zeta potential (ζ) and metal loading on the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared sodium titanate nanotube (TNT) and titania nanorod (TNR). Straw like hollow orthorhombic-TNT (Na2Ti2O5·H2O) particles (W = 9-12 nm and L = 82-115 nm) and rice like pure anatase-TNR particles (W = 8-13 nm and L = 81-134 nm) are obtained by the hydrothermal treatment of P25-TiO2 with NaOH, which in fact, altered the net surface charge of TNT and TNR particles. The observed ζ = -2.82 (P25-TiO2), -13.5 (TNT) and -22.5 mV (TNR) are significantly altered by the Ag and Cu deposition. It has been found here that TNT displayed best photocatalytic activity for the imidacloprid insecticide (C9H10ClN5O2) degradation to CO2 formation under UV irradiation because of its largest surface area 176 m2 g-1 among the catalysts studied.

  1. Density-functional theory of spherical electric double layers and zeta potentials of colloidal particles in restricted-primitive-model electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang-Xin; Wu, Jianzhong; Gao, Guang-Hua

    2004-04-15

    A density-functional theory is proposed to describe the density profiles of small ions around an isolated colloidal particle in the framework of the restricted primitive model where the small ions have uniform size and the solvent is represented by a dielectric continuum. The excess Helmholtz energy functional is derived from a modified fundamental measure theory for the hard-sphere repulsion and a quadratic functional Taylor expansion for the electrostatic interactions. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the results from Monte Carlo simulations and from previous investigations using integral-equation theory for the ionic density profiles and the zeta potentials of spherical particles at a variety of solution conditions. Like the integral-equation approaches, the density-functional theory is able to capture the oscillatory density profiles of small ions and the charge inversion (overcharging) phenomena for particles with elevated charge density. In particular, our density-functional theory predicts the formation of a second counterion layer near the surface of highly charged spherical particle. Conversely, the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory and its variations are unable to represent the oscillatory behavior of small ion distributions and charge inversion. Finally, our density-functional theory predicts charge inversion even in a 1:1 electrolyte solution as long as the salt concentration is sufficiently high. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  2. zeta 1 and zeta 2 Reticuli and the existence of the zeta Herculis group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Peloso, E. F.; da Silva, L.; Porto de Mello, G. F.

    2000-06-01

    We report the detailed analysis of the solar type stars zeta 1 and zeta 2 Reticuli. We obtained accurate effective temperatures (T_eff = 5746 +/- 27 K and 5859 +/- 27 K respectively) and surface gravities (log g = 4.54 +/- 0.02 and 4.46 +/- 0.01 respectively). Both stars are slightly metal deficient ([Fe/H] = -0.22 +/- 0.05) and their element abundance patterns are compatible with one another and with the Sun. The hypothesis, suggested by previous detailed analyses, that these stars could be helium rich relative to the Sun, was investigated. The stars were found to have a normal, solar helium abundance. We analysed the stars' membership of the zeta Herculis stellar kinematic group (SKG). Some probable members have nearly the same galactic orbital parameters, chemical composition and evolutionary states, which confirm the existence of a metal deficient SKG. Since we determined that zeta Herculis does not belong to this group, we propose it be renamed zeta Reticuli SKG. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile, and at the Observatório do Pico dos Dias, operated by the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, CNPq, Brazil.

  3. Scanning Surface Potential Microscopy of Spore Adhesion on Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ida; Chung, Eunhyea; Kweon, Hyojin

    2012-01-01

    The adhesion of spores of Bacillus anthracis - the cause of anthrax and a likely biological threat - to solid surfaces is an important consideration in cleanup after an accidental or deliberate release. However, because of safety concerns, directly studying B. anthracis spores with advanced instrumentation is problematic. As a first step, we are examining the electrostatic potential of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which is a closely related species that is often used as a simulant to study B. anthracis. Scanning surface potential microscopy (SSPM), also known as Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), was used to investigate the influence of relativemore » humidity (RH) on the surface electrostatic potential of Bt that had adhered to silica, mica, or gold substrates. AFM/SSPM side-by-side images were obtained separately in air, at various values of RH, after an aqueous droplet with spores was applied on each surface and allowed to dry before measurements. In the SSPM images, a negative potential on the surface of the spores was observed compared with that of the substrates. The surface potential decreased as the humidity increased. Spores were unable to adhere to a surface with an extremely negative potential, such as mica.« less

  4. SCAN+

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Krebs, John Svoboda

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determine the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing formore » automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.« less

  5. A new scanning device in CT with dose reduction potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tischenko, Oleg; Xu, Yuan; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2006-03-01

    The amount of x-ray radiation currently applied in CT practice is not utilized optimally. A portion of radiation traversing the patient is either not detected at all or is used ineffectively. The reason lies partly in the reconstruction algorithms and partly in the geometry of the CT scanners designed specifically for these algorithms. In fact, the reconstruction methods widely used in CT are intended to invert the data that correspond to ideal straight lines. However, the collection of such data is often not accurate due to likely movement of the source/detector system of the scanner in the time interval during which all the detectors are read. In this paper, a new design of the scanner geometry is proposed that is immune to the movement of the CT system and will collect all radiation traversing the patient. The proposed scanning design has a potential to reduce the patient dose by a factor of two. Furthermore, it can be used with the existing reconstruction algorithm and it is particularly suitable for OPED, a new robust reconstruction algorithm.

  6. Protein Kinase M[Zeta] Is Essential for the Induction and Maintenance of Dopamine-Induced Long-Term Potentiation in Apical CA1 Dendrites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navakkode, Sheeja; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Sacktor, Todd Charlton; Frey, Julietta U.

    2010-01-01

    Dopaminergic D1/D5-receptor-mediated processes are important for certain forms of memory as well as for a cellular model of memory, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. D1/D5-receptor function is required for the induction of the protein synthesis-dependent maintenance of CA1-LTP (L-LTP) through activation…

  7. Benchmark calculations with correlated molecular wavefunctions. XIII. Potential energy curves for He2, Ne2 and Ar2 using correlation consistent basis sets through augmented sextuple zeta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, Tanja

    1999-02-01

    The potential energy curves of the rare gas dimers He2, Ne2, and Ar2 have been computed using correlation consistent basis sets ranging from singly augmented aug-cc-pVDZ sets through triply augmented t-aug-cc-pV6Z sets, with the augmented sextuple basis sets being reported herein. Several methods for including electron correlation were investigated, namely Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2, MP3 and MP4) and coupled cluster theory [CCSD and CCSD(T)]. For He2CCSD(T)/d-aug-cc-pV6Z calculations yield a well depth of 7.35cm-1 (10.58K), with an estimated complete basis set (CBS) limit of 7.40cm-1 (10.65K). The latter is smaller than the 'exact' well depth (Aziz, R. A., Janzen, A. R., and Moldover, M. R., 1995, Phys. Rev. Lett., 74, 1586) by about 0.2cm-1 (0.35K). The Ne well depth, computed with the CCSD(T)/d-aug-cc-pV6Z method, is 28.31cm-1 and the estimated CBS limit is 28.4cm-1, approximately 1cm-1 smaller than the empirical potential of Aziz, R. A., and Slaman, M., J., 1989, Chem. Phys., 130, 187. Inclusion of core and core-valence correlation effects has a negligible effect on the Ne well depth, decreasing it by only 0.04cm-1. For Ar2, CCSD(T)/ d-aug-cc-pV6Z calculations yield a well depth of 96.2cm-1. The corresponding HFDID potential of Aziz, R. A., 1993, J. chem. Phys., 99, 4518 predicts of D of 99.7cm-1. Inclusion of core and core-valence effects in Ar increases the well depth and decreases the discrepancy by approximately 1cm-1.

  8. Microencapsulation of β-Carotene Based on Casein/Guar Gum Blend Using Zeta Potential-Yield Stress Phenomenon: an Approach to Enhance Photo-stability and Retention of Functionality.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Deepika; Jain, Ashay; Ghoshal, Gargi; Shivhare, U S; Katare, O P

    2017-07-01

    β-Carotene, abundant majorly in carrot, pink guava yams, spinach, kale, sweet potato, and palm oil, is an important nutrient for human health due to its scavenging action upon reactive free radicals wherever produced in the body. Inclusion of liposoluble β-carotene in foods and food ingredients is a challenging aspect due to its labile nature and low absorption from natural sources. This fact has led to the application of encapsulation of β-carotene to improve stability and bioavailability. The present work was aimed to fabricate microcapsules (MCs) of β-carotene oily dispersion using the complex coacervation technique with casein (CA) and guar gum (GG) blend. The ratio of CA:GG was found to be 1:0.5 (w/v) when optimized on the basis of zeta potential-yield stress phenomenon. These possessed a higher percentage yield (71.34 ± 0.55%), lower particle size (176.47 ± 4.65 μm), higher encapsulation efficiency (65.95 ± 5.33%), and in general, a uniform surface morphology was observed with particles showing optimized release behavior. Prepared MCs manifested effective and controlled release (up to 98%) following zero-order kinetics which was adequately explained by the Korseymer-Peppas model. The stability of the freeze-dried MCs was established in simulated gastrointestinal fluids (SGF, SIF) for 8 h. Antioxidant activity of the MCs was studied and revealed the retention of the functional architecture of β-carotene in freeze-dried MCs. Minimal photolytic degradation upon encapsulation of β-carotene addressed the challenge regarding photo-stability of β-carotene as confirmed via mass spectroscopy.

  9. Rocket spectroscopy of zeta Orionis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    Analysis of a spectrum of zeta Ori extending from 922 to 1453 A with approximately 0.8 A resolution recorded at rocket altitudes. All lines used in existing models of stellar atmospheres appear in the recorded spectrum with the exception of those masked by telluric N2 or strong P Cygni-type profiles and by an O V line at 1371.29 A. Fifteen multiplets of subordinate lines have been reliably identified, indicating an approximate range of excitation from 0 to 50 eV. Transitions in C III (1176 A), N III (991 A), N V (1239, 1243 A), O VI (1032, 1038 A), Si IV (1394, 1403 A), S IV (1063, 1074 A), and S VI (933, 944 A) have been observed as P Cygni-type profiles presumably arising in a circumstellar envelope. The degree of ionization, transitions present, and mean radial velocities are all consistent with viewing the envelope as a hot (about 100,000 K), rarefied plasma in which collisional ionization is important. Interstellar lines in C I (1277, 1280 A), C II (1036, 1334 A), N I (1134-1135 A), N I (1200-1201 A), N II (1084-1086 A), O I (1302, 1305 A), Si II (1190, 1193 A), Si II (1260 A), and Si II (1304 A) have been definitely identified. Other transitions in Ar II, S I, C I, and Fe II are tentatively identified. The equivalent width of the L alpha line is found to be 10.4 plus or minus 1.6 A, corresponding to a columnar density of 2.0 plus or minus 0.7 x 10 to the 20th per cu cm.

  10. Retention of membrane charge attributes by cryopreserved-thawed sperm and zeta selection.

    PubMed

    Kam, Tricia L; Jacobson, John D; Patton, William C; Corselli, Johannah U; Chan, Philip J

    2007-09-01

    Mature sperm can be selected based on their negative zeta electrokinetic potential. The zeta selection of cryopreserved sperm is unknown. The objective was to study the effect of zeta processing on the morphology and kinematic parameters of cryopreserved-thawed sperm. Colloid-washed sperm (N = 9 cases) were cryopreserved for 24 h, thawed and diluted in serum-free medium in positive-charged tubes. After centrifugation, the tubes were decanted, serum-supplemented medium was added and the resuspended sperm were analyzed. Untreated sperm and fresh sperm served as the controls. There were improvements in strict normal morphology in fresh (11.8 +/- 0.3 versus control 8.8 +/- 0.3 %, mean +/- SEM) and thawed (8.7 +/- 0.2 versus control 5.4 +/- 0.2%) sperm after zeta processing. Percent sperm necrosis was reduced after zeta processing (66.0 +/- 0.6 versus unprocessed 74.6 +/- 0.3%). Progression decreased by 50% but not total motility after zeta processing of thawed sperm. The results suggested that the cryopreservation process did not impact the sperm membrane net zeta potential and higher percentages of sperm with normal strict morphology, acrosome integrity and reduced necrosis were recovered. The zeta method was simple and improved the selection of quality sperm after cryopreservation but more studies would be needed before routine clinical application.

  11. SCANNING VOLTA POTENTIALS MEASUREMENTS OF METALS IN IRRADIATED AIR.

    SciTech Connect

    ISAACS, H.S.; ADZIC, G.; AND ENERGY SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT

    2000-10-22

    A method for direct dc measurement of the Volta potential is presented. High intensity synchrotron x-ray beams were used to locally irradiate the atmosphere adjacent to the metal surface and produce a conducting path between a sample and a reference probe. The direct measurements of potential in the ionized air could be made at probe heights of around 1 mm compared to less than 0.1 mm for the Kelvin probe. The measurements were similar to traditional Kelvin probe measurements, but had a poorer spatial resolution. In contrast to the Kelvin probe methods, the approach described allows observation of the currentmore » as a function of impressed voltage. Methods to improve the special resolution of the technique and applications to corrosion under coating will be presented.« less

  12. Dynamic interaction between 14-3-3zeta and bax during TNF-α-induced apoptosis in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuejuan; Xing, Da; Chen, Tongsheng

    2006-09-01

    Bax, a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, localizes largely in the cytoplasm but redistributes to mitochondria and undergoes oligomerization to induce the release of apoptogenic factors such as cytochrome c in response to apoptotic stimuli. Cytoplasmic protein 14-3-3zeta binds to Bax and, upon apoptotic stimulation, releases Bax by a caspase-independent mechanism. However, the direct interaction of the cytoplasmic 14-3-3zeta and Bax in living cells has not been observed. In present study, to monitor the dynamic interaction between 14-3-3zeta and Bax in living cells in real time during apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), DsRed-14-3-3zeta plasmid is constructed. By cotransfecting DsRed- 14-3-3zeta and GFP-Bax plasmids into human lung adenocarcinoma cells (ASTC-a-1), we observe the dynamic interaction between Bax and 14-3-3zeta using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique on laser scanning confocal microscope. The results show that 14-3-3zeta remains in the cytoplasm but GFP-Bax translocates to mitochondria completely after TNF-α stimulation. These results reveal that 14-3-3zeta binds directly to Bax in healthy cells, and that 14-3-3zeta negatively regulates Bax translocation to mitochondria during TNF-α-induced apoptosis.

  13. Computational strategies for the Riemann zeta function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borwein, Jonathan M.; Bradley, David M.; Crandall, Richard E.

    2000-09-01

    We provide a compendium of evaluation methods for the Riemann zeta function, presenting formulae ranging from historical attempts to recently found convergent series to curious oddities old and new. We concentrate primarily on practical computational issues, such issues depending on the domain of the argument, the desired speed of computation, and the incidence of what we call "value recycling".

  14. Prostate: techniques, results, and potential applications of color Doppler US scanning.

    PubMed

    Rifkin, M D; Sudakoff, G S; Alexander, A A

    1993-02-01

    Color Doppler ultrasound (US) scanning and conventional endorectal gray-scale US of the prostate were performed in 619 patients. Pathologic correlation was available in all cases after US-guided transrectal biopsy. There were 132 cancers in 121 men, 13 foci of atypia in 10 men, 33 foci of inflammation in 31 men, and 469 benign lesions in 457 men. Two hundred seventy patients with abnormal areas of flow identified at color Doppler scanning also underwent spectral waveform analysis of the area of potential concern. No statistical difference in the mean resistive indexes was identified in any patient (P = .25; Scheffe F test, analysis of variance). All malignant lesions had abnormalities demonstrated at gray-scale US and/or focal or diffuse abnormal flow demonstrated at color Doppler scanning. Of the 132 cancers, 123 (93%) had corresponding gray-scale abnormalities and 114 (86%) demonstrated abnormal flow at color Doppler imaging. Nine of the 132 cancers (7%) had no obviously identifiable abnormality at gray-scale scanning but had distinctly abnormal flow at color Doppler scanning. Abnormal findings at color scanning without abnormal findings at gray-scale scanning occurred in eight of the 33 cases of inflammatory foci (24%) and in 24 of the 469 (5%) benign lesions.

  15. Group entropies, correlation laws, and zeta functions.

    PubMed

    Tempesta, Piergiulio

    2011-08-01

    The notion of group entropy is proposed. It enables the unification and generaliztion of many different definitions of entropy known in the literature, such as those of Boltzmann-Gibbs, Tsallis, Abe, and Kaniadakis. Other entropic functionals are introduced, related to nontrivial correlation laws characterizing universality classes of systems out of equilibrium when the dynamics is weakly chaotic. The associated thermostatistics are discussed. The mathematical structure underlying our construction is that of formal group theory, which provides the general structure of the correlations among particles and dictates the associated entropic functionals. As an example of application, the role of group entropies in information theory is illustrated and generalizations of the Kullback-Leibler divergence are proposed. A new connection between statistical mechanics and zeta functions is established. In particular, Tsallis entropy is related to the classical Riemann zeta function.

  16. Zeta Pegasi: An SPB Variable Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Broadband photometric observations of the bright star Zeta Pegasi are presented that display brightness variability of 488.2 +/- 6.6 micromag (ppm) range with a period of 22.952 +/- 0.804 hr (f approx. equals 1.04566 c/d). The variation is monosinusoidal, so the star is recommended for membership in the class of small-amplitude Slowly Pulsating B-Stars (SPB) variables oscillating in a non-radial g-mode.

  17. Strength of the interatomic potential derived from angular scans in LEIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primetzhofer, D.; Markin, S. N.; Draxler, M.; Beikler, R.; Taglauer, E.; Bauer, P.

    2008-09-01

    Angular scans were performed for a Cu(1 0 0) single crystal and He + ions. The results were compared to MARLOWE, KALYPSO and FAN simulations to obtain information on the interaction potential. The influence of the used evaluation procedure on the deduced scattering potential was investigated. The scattering potential is found to be weaker than what is predicted by an uncorrected TFM potential. It was found that the use of a single screening correction factor is applicable in a wide range of impact parameters. It is further shown that selection of single scattering trajectories and a limitation of information depth to the surface layers is possible for neutral and charge integrated spectra.

  18. Fifth-year surveillance computed tomography scanning after potentially curative resections for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Walter, Catherine J; Al-Allak, Asmaa; Borley, Neil; Goodman, Anthony; Wheeler, James M D

    2013-02-01

    Optimal follow-up after colorectal resection for adenocarcinoma is yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to examine the role of a fifth-year surveillance Computed Tomography (CT) scan in detecting recurrence in our population. A retrospective analysis of all patients who had undergone potentially curative resections of colorectal adenocarcinomas between 2003 and 2004 was performed using electronic and casenote records. Data analysis was performed using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and GnuPSPP statistical software. Two hundred and seven patients (111 male and 96 female) with a median age of 74 years (IQR 66-80) undergoing colorectal resections were studied. One hundred and twenty-one patients (58%) were alive and disease free at 5 years of whom 81 (67%) had received a fifth-year surveillance CT scan. Fifth-year scanning did not demonstrate any new colorectal metastases. However 6 (7%) scans revealed new, undiagnosed, non-colorectal malignancies. Thirty-four patients developed metastatic disease. All metastasis were diagnosed by 3½ years of follow-up. Eleven of these 34 cases presented after their second-year surveillance CT scan. Those patients with asymptomatic metastasis at the time of their discovery demonstrated improved likelihood of five year survival. This study showed no role for a fifth-year surveillance CT scan in the detection of resectable metastases, however there was a 7% pick up rate for detecting new malignancies. CT scanning beyond 2 years was needed to identify about one-third of the recurrences reported in this study. Copyright © 2012 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sestamibi scan-directed parathyroid surgery: potentially high failure rate without measurement of intraoperative parathyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Westerdahl, Johan; Bergenfelz, Anders

    2004-11-01

    The present study evaluated sestamibi scan-directed parathyroidectomy with intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) assessment (ioPTH). The preoperative sestamibi scintigraphies were compared with the intraoperative findings for 103 patients undergoing first exploration for sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). Data were collected prospectively. Ninety-nine patients (96%) were cured. Patients with persistent pHPT (n = 4) all had an incorrect scintigram as well as an insufficient decline of ioPTH. At operation, 90 patients (87%) had solitary parathyroid adenoma; 12 patients had multiglandular disease. In one patient no enlarged parathyroid gland was found. Overall 77 of 118 abnormal glands (65%) were correctly identified by sestamibi scintigraphy. The sensitivity for localizing a single parathyroid adenoma was 80%. Patients with incorrect scintigrams had a higher proportion of upper pole adenomas than patients with correct scans. High glandular weight and high level of serum PTH were important factors for detectability. Sestamibi scintigraphy did not predict multiglandular disease. However, the use of ioPTH identified 8 of the 9 patients with a positive scan (a solitary focus) and multiglandular disease. In contrast, false-negative ioPTH led to four unnecessary bilateral explorations in the 63 patients with a scan-identified adenoma. With the help of ioPTH, a focused parathyroidectomy was accomplished in 43% of scan-negative patients with a solitary adenoma. In conclusion, sestamibi scintigraphy is an acceptable method for localizing a solitary parathyroid adenoma. However, the technique alone does not reliably predict multiglandular disease. Potentially the failure rate in scan-directed parathyroidectomy could increase, with up to 10% of patients without ioPTH.

  20. Zeta functions on tori using contour integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, Emilio; Kirsten, Klaus; Robles, Nicolas; Williams, Floyd

    2015-12-01

    A new, seemingly useful presentation of zeta functions on complex tori is derived by using contour integration. It is shown to agree with the one obtained by using the Chowla-Selberg series formula, for which an alternative proof is thereby given. In addition, a new proof of the functional determinant on the torus results, which does not use the Kronecker first limit formula nor the functional equation of the non-holomorphic Eisenstein series. As a bonus, several identities involving the Dedekind eta function are obtained as well.

  1. GRANULATION IN THE PHOTOSPHERE OF {zeta} CYGNI

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, David F., E-mail: dfgray@uwo.ca

    2012-05-15

    A series of 35 high-resolution spectra are used to measure the third-signature plot of the G8 III star, {zeta} Cygni, which shows convective velocities only 8% larger than the Sun. Bisector mapping yields a flux deficit, a measure of granulation contrast, typical of other giants. The observations also give radial velocities with errors {approx}30 m s{sup -1} and allow the orbit to be refined. Velocity excursions relative to the smooth orbital motion, possibly from the granulation, have values exceeding 200 m s{sup -1}. Temperature variations were looked for using line-depth ratios, but none were found.

  2. Rotationally excited HD toward Zeta Ophiuchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. L.; Morton, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    Copernicus satellite measurements of HD in J-double prime = 1 and J-double prime = 0 toward Zeta Oph are reported. The ratio of the number densities of HD in the J = 0 and J = 1 states is determined to be 0.15 + or - 0.02 at the 1-sigma level. A value of approximately 24 x 10 to the -17th erg/cu cm per A at 1000 A is obtained for the UV energy density at the Zeta Oph cloud, and the mechanisms for excitation of HD are examined. A tight upper limit is derived for the abundance of HCl, which has been predicted to be present due to the interaction of ionized chlorine with neutral hydrogen. A calculation is performed which indicates that the cloud is 28 pc from the star. It is shown that the two-component cloud model of Black and Dalgarno (1977) with densities of 500 and 2500 H nuclei per cu cm for the outer regions and core, respectively, is in excellent agreement with the observations.

  3. Multienergy CT acquisition and reconstruction with a stepped tube potential scan

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Le; Xing, Yuxiang, E-mail: xingyx@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    Purpose: Based on an energy-dependent property of matter, one may obtain a pseudomonochromatic attenuation map, a material composition image, an electron-density distribution, and an atomic number image using a dual- or multienergy computed tomography (CT) scan. Dual- and multienergy CT scans broaden the potential of x-ray CT imaging. The development of such systems is very useful in both medical and industrial investigations. In this paper, the authors propose a new dual- and multienergy CT system design (segmental multienergy CT, SegMECT) using an innovative scanning scheme that is conveniently implemented on a conventional single-energy CT system. The two-step-energy dual-energy CT canmore » be regarded as a special case of SegMECT. A special reconstruction method is proposed to support SegMECT. Methods: In their SegMECT, a circular trajectory in a CT scan is angularly divided into several arcs. The x-ray source is set to a different tube voltage for each arc of the trajectory. Thus, the authors only need to make a few step changes to the x-ray energy during the scan to complete a multienergy data acquisition. With such a data set, the image reconstruction might suffer from severe limited-angle artifacts if using conventional reconstruction methods. To solve the problem, they present a new prior-image-based reconstruction technique using a total variance norm of a quotient image constraint. On the one hand, the prior extracts structural information from all of the projection data. On the other hand, the effect from a possibly imprecise intensity level of the prior can be mitigated by minimizing the total variance of a quotient image. Results: The authors present a new scheme for a SegMECT configuration and establish a reconstruction method for such a system. Both numerical simulation and a practical phantom experiment are conducted to validate the proposed reconstruction method and the effectiveness of the system design. The results demonstrate that the

  4. Zeta Ophiuchi -- Runaway Star Plowing through Space Dust

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-24

    The blue star near the center of this image is Zeta Ophiuchi. Zeta Ophiuchi is actually a very massive, hot, bright blue star plowing its way through a large cloud of interstellar dust and gas in this image from NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer.

  5. Horizon scanning for invasive alien species with the potential to threaten biodiversity in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Helen E; Peyton, Jodey; Aldridge, David C; Bantock, Tristan; Blackburn, Tim M; Britton, Robert; Clark, Paul; Cook, Elizabeth; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina; Dines, Trevor; Dobson, Michael; Edwards, François; Harrower, Colin; Harvey, Martin C; Minchin, Dan; Noble, David G; Parrott, Dave; Pocock, Michael J O; Preston, Chris D; Roy, Sugoto; Salisbury, Andrew; Schönrogge, Karsten; Sewell, Jack; Shaw, Richard H; Stebbing, Paul; Stewart, Alan J A; Walker, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) are considered one of the greatest threats to biodiversity, particularly through their interactions with other drivers of change. Horizon scanning, the systematic examination of future potential threats and opportunities, leading to prioritization of IAS threats is seen as an essential component of IAS management. Our aim was to consider IAS that were likely to impact on native biodiversity but were not yet established in the wild in Great Britain. To achieve this, we developed an approach which coupled consensus methods (which have previously been used for collaboratively identifying priorities in other contexts) with rapid risk assessment. The process involved two distinct phases: Preliminary consultation with experts within five groups (plants, terrestrial invertebrates, freshwater invertebrates, vertebrates and marine species) to derive ranked lists of potential IAS.Consensus-building across expert groups to compile and rank the entire list of potential IAS. Five hundred and ninety-one species not native to Great Britain were considered. Ninety-three of these species were agreed to constitute at least a medium risk (based on score and consensus) with respect to them arriving, establishing and posing a threat to native biodiversity. The quagga mussel, Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, received maximum scores for risk of arrival, establishment and impact; following discussions the unanimous consensus was to rank it in the top position. A further 29 species were considered to constitute a high risk and were grouped according to their ranked risk. The remaining 63 species were considered as medium risk, and included in an unranked long list. The information collated through this novel extension of the consensus method for horizon scanning provides evidence for underpinning and prioritizing management both for the species and, perhaps more importantly, their pathways of arrival. Although our study focused on Great Britain, we suggest that

  6. IPRStats: visualization of the functional potential of an InterProScan run.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan J; Vincent, David E; Friedberg, Iddo

    2010-12-21

    InterPro is a collection of protein signatures for the classification and automated annotation of proteins. Interproscan is a software tool that scans protein sequences against Interpro member databases using a variety of profile-based, hidden markov model and positional specific score matrix methods. It not only combines a set of analysis tools, but also performs data look-up from various sources, as well as some redundancy removal. Interproscan is robust and scalable, able to perform on any machine from a netbook to a large cluster. However, when performing whole-genome or metagenome analysis, there is a need for a fast statistical visualization of the results to have good initial grasp on the functional potential of the sequences in the analyzed data set. This is especially important when analyzing and comparing metagenomic or metaproteomic data-sets. IPRStats is a tool for the visualization of Interproscan results. Interproscan results are parsed from the Interproscan XML or EBIXML file into an SQLite or MySQL database. The results for each signature database scan are read and displayed as pie-charts or bar charts as summary statistics. A table is also provided, where each entry is a signature (e.g. a Pfam entry) accompanied by one or more Gene Ontology terms, if Interproscan was run using the Gene Ontology option. We present an platform-independent, open source licensed tool that is useful for Interproscan users who wish to view the summary of their results in a rapid and concise fashion.

  7. What are the potential advantages and disadvantages of volumetric CT scanning?

    PubMed

    Voros, Szilard

    2009-01-01

    After the introduction and dissemination of 64-slice multislice computed tomography systems, cardiovascular CT has arrived at a crossroad, and different philosophies lead down different paths of technologic development. Increased number of detector rows in the z-axis led to the introduction of dynamic, volumetric scanning of the heart and allows for whole-organ imaging. Dynamic, volumetric "whole-organ" scanning significantly reduces image acquisition time; "single-beat whole-heart imaging" results in improved image quality and reduced radiation exposure and reduced contrast dose. It eliminates helical and pitch artifacts and allows for simultaneous imaging of the base and apex of the heart. Beyond coronary arterial luminal imaging, such innovations open up the opportunity for myocardial perfusion and viability imaging and coronary arterial plaque imaging. Dual-source technology with 2 x-ray tubes placed at 90-degree angles provides heart rate-independent temporal resolution and has the potential for tissue characterization on the basis of different attenuation values at different energy levels. Refined detector technology allows for improved low-contrast resolution and may be beneficial for more detailed evaluation of coronary arterial plaque composition. The clinical benefit of each of these technologies will have to be evaluated in carefully designed clinical trials and in everyday clinical practice. Such combined experience will probably show the relative benefit of each of these philosophies in different patient populations and in different clinical scenarios.

  8. Mapping Snow Depth with Automated Terrestrial Laser Scanning - Investigating Potential Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. S.; Gigele, T.; Fromm, R.

    2017-11-01

    This contribution presents an automated terrestrial laser scanning (ATLS) setup, which was used during the winter 2016/17 to monitor the snow depth distribution on a NW-facing slope at a high-alpine study site. We collected data at high temporal [(sub-)daily] and spatial resolution (decimetre-range) over 0.8 km² with a Riegl LPM-321, set in a weather-proof glass fibre enclosure. Two potential ATLS-applications are investigated here: monitoring medium-sized snow avalanche events, and tracking snow depth change caused by snow drift. The results show the ATLS data's high explanatory power and versatility for different snow research questions.

  9. Potential errors in optical density measurements due to scanning side in EBT and EBT2 Gafchromic film dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Desroches, Joannie; Bouchard, Hugo; Lacroix, Frédéric

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect on the measured optical density of scanning on either side of a Gafchromic EBT and EBT2 film using an Epson (Epson Canada Ltd., Toronto, Ontario) 10000XL flat bed scanner. Calibration curves were constructed using EBT2 film scanned in landscape orientation in both reflection and transmission mode on an Epson 10000XL scanner. Calibration curves were also constructed using EBT film. Potential errors due to an optical density difference from scanning the film on either side ("face up" or "face down") were simulated. Scanning the film face up or face down on the scanner bed while keeping the film angular orientation constant affects the measured optical density when scanning in reflection mode. In contrast, no statistically significant effect was seen when scanning in transmission mode. This effect can significantly affect relative and absolute dose measurements. As an application example, the authors demonstrate potential errors of 17.8% by inverting the film scanning side on the gamma index for 3%-3 mm criteria on a head and neck intensity modulated radiotherapy plan, and errors in absolute dose measurements ranging from 10% to 35% between 2 and 5 Gy. Process consistency is the key to obtaining accurate and precise results in Gafchromic film dosimetry. When scanning in reflection mode, care must be taken to place the film consistently on the same side on the scanner bed.

  10. The potential to characterize ecological data with terrestrial laser scanning in Harvard Forest, MA.

    PubMed

    Orwig, D A; Boucher, P; Paynter, I; Saenz, E; Li, Z; Schaaf, C

    2018-04-06

    Contemporary terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is being used widely in forest ecology applications to examine ecosystem properties at increasing spatial and temporal scales. Harvard Forest (HF) in Petersham, MA, USA, is a long-term ecological research (LTER) site, a National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) location and contains a 35 ha plot which is part of Smithsonian Institution's Forest Global Earth Observatory (ForestGEO). The combination of long-term field plots, eddy flux towers and the detailed past historical records has made HF very appealing for a variety of remote sensing studies. Terrestrial laser scanners, including three pioneering research instruments: the Echidna Validation Instrument, the Dual-Wavelength Echidna Lidar and the Compact Biomass Lidar, have already been used both independently and in conjunction with airborne laser scanning data and forest census data to characterize forest dynamics. TLS approaches include three-dimensional reconstructions of a plot over time, establishing the impact of ice storm damage on forest canopy structure, and characterizing eastern hemlock ( Tsuga canadensis ) canopy health affected by an invasive insect, the hemlock woolly adelgid ( Adelges tsugae ). Efforts such as those deployed at HF are demonstrating the power of TLS as a tool for monitoring ecological dynamics, identifying emerging forest health issues, measuring forest biomass and capturing ecological data relevant to other disciplines. This paper highlights various aspects of the ForestGEO plot that are important to current TLS work, the potential for exchange between forest ecology and TLS, and emphasizes the strength of combining TLS data with long-term ecological field data to create emerging opportunities for scientific study.

  11. The potential to characterize ecological data with terrestrial laser scanning in Harvard Forest, MA

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, P.; Saenz, E.; Li, Z.

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is being used widely in forest ecology applications to examine ecosystem properties at increasing spatial and temporal scales. Harvard Forest (HF) in Petersham, MA, USA, is a long-term ecological research (LTER) site, a National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) location and contains a 35 ha plot which is part of Smithsonian Institution's Forest Global Earth Observatory (ForestGEO). The combination of long-term field plots, eddy flux towers and the detailed past historical records has made HF very appealing for a variety of remote sensing studies. Terrestrial laser scanners, including three pioneering research instruments: the Echidna Validation Instrument, the Dual-Wavelength Echidna Lidar and the Compact Biomass Lidar, have already been used both independently and in conjunction with airborne laser scanning data and forest census data to characterize forest dynamics. TLS approaches include three-dimensional reconstructions of a plot over time, establishing the impact of ice storm damage on forest canopy structure, and characterizing eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) canopy health affected by an invasive insect, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae). Efforts such as those deployed at HF are demonstrating the power of TLS as a tool for monitoring ecological dynamics, identifying emerging forest health issues, measuring forest biomass and capturing ecological data relevant to other disciplines. This paper highlights various aspects of the ForestGEO plot that are important to current TLS work, the potential for exchange between forest ecology and TLS, and emphasizes the strength of combining TLS data with long-term ecological field data to create emerging opportunities for scientific study. PMID:29503723

  12. Remineralization Potential of Three Different Dentifrices using Raman Spectroscopy and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope.

    PubMed

    Job, Tisson V; Narayana, Girish T; Venkappa, Kishan K; Nathan, K Binu; Ahsan, Shameem; Harikaran, Jayakkodi

    2018-04-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the remineralization potential of three different dentifrices using Raman spectroscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Materials and methods: Totally, 30 extracted intact impacted third molar teeth were selected and the crown of each tooth in a group was separated from the root and longitudinally sectioned into four parts with each section under a subgroup, of which one section was an untreated section, the second and the third sections were demineralized in a demineralizing solution, and the third section was remineralized after demineralization. The teeth in the three groups were demineralized for 4 days and then treated with 0.21% sodium fluoride dentifrice with trical-cium phosphate, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), and NovaMin for 14 days, following which the teeth surfaces were studied using Raman spec-troscopy and CLSM to assess the remineralization potential of the three dentifrices. The data were recorded and analyzed statistically. Results: Raman spectroscopic analysis revealed better remin-eralization with CPP-ACP, which was statistically significant from the groups treated with the NovaMin dentifrice and the fluoride-containing dentifrice.Confocal laser scanning microscopic examination also revealed significant differences between the three groups with the NovaMin-containing dentifrice demonstrating a greater remineralization of the surface when compared with the CPP-ACP dentifrice. The teeth samples treated with fluoride-containing dentifrice demonstrated the least reminer-alization among the three groups. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the demineralized samples of teeth treated with CPP-ACP showed the highest concentration of phosphate ions when analyzed using Raman spectroscopy, and the microscopic examination using confocal laser revealed a better surface remineralization of the demin-eralized samples when treated with the NovaMin technology. Clinical

  13. Multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning for identifying rockslide modifications: potentialities and problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnetti, Cristina; Bertacchini, Eleonora; Capra, Alessandro; Rivola, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    approaches. The research focuses on TLS surveys for trying to detect displacements which might be responsible for instability. Four point clouds acquired in the last two years allow to monitor the spatial displacements of the whole slope, especially focusing on the rockslide sector. It is worth to underline an important aspect which contributes to highlight the significance of the work: the mean scanning distance is about 1.3 km. Few examples exist in literature about the use of very long-range TLS for displacements investigation. By sequentially analyzing TLS surfaces, displacement maps have been obtained for the rockslide area. Confirmation have been achieved by comparing results with movements of reflectors sited on the entire slope and continuously measured by total station. Such validation strengthens the idea that TLS has serious potentialities to be successfully used for analyzing instability. Comparing surfaces is not easy at all, thus a discussion about the encountered problems will be taken into account: any significant detail about potentialities and difficulties of the alignment strategy and the processing procedure will be given together with details about the specific algorithm implemented for filtering displacements by taking into account actual geomorphological conditions.

  14. IUE observations of the atmospheric eclipsing binary system Zeta Aurigae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champman, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    IUE observations of the eclipsing binary system Zeta Aurigae made prior to and during the eclipse of the relatively small B8 V star by the cool supergiant star (spectral type K2 II) are reported. Spectral lines produced by the absorption of B star radiation in the atmosphere of the K star during eclipse can be used as a probe of the extended K star atmosphere, due to the negligible cool star continuum in the 1200-3200 A region. Spectra taken prior to eclipse are found to be similar to those of the single B8 V star 64 Ori, with the exception of very strong multi-component absorption lines of Si II, Si IV, C IV and the Mg resonance doublet with strong P Cygni profiles, indicating a double shell. Absorption lines including those corresponding to Al II, Al III, Cr II, Mn II, Fe II, Ni II and Ca II are observed to increase in strength and number as the eclipse progresses, with high-ionization-potential lines formed far from the K star, possibly in a shock wave, and low-ionization potential lines, formed in cool plasma, probably a cool wind, nearer to the K star. Finally, an emission-line spectra with lines corresponding to those previously observed in absorption is noted at the time the B-star continuum had disappeared.

  15. The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP){beta}/{zeta} is expressed in different subtypes of human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Garcia-Suarez, Olivia; Instituto Universitario de Oncologia del Principado de Asturias, Oviedo

    2007-10-12

    Increasing evidence suggests mutations in human breast cancer cells that induce inappropriate expression of the 18-kDa cytokine pleiotrophin (PTN, Ptn) initiate progression of breast cancers to a more malignant phenotype. Pleiotrophin signals through inactivating its receptor, the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP){beta}/{zeta}, leading to increased tyrosine phosphorylation of different substrate proteins of RPTP{beta}/{zeta}, including {beta}-catenin, {beta}-adducin, Fyn, GIT1/Cat-1, and P190RhoGAP. PTN signaling thus has wide impact on different important cellular systems. Recently, PTN was found to activate anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) through the PTN/RPTP{beta}/{zeta} signaling pathway; this discovery potentially is very important, since constitutive ALK activity of nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK fusionmore » protein is causative of anaplastic large cell lymphomas, and, activated ALK is found in other malignant cancers. Recently ALK was identified in each of 63 human breast cancers from 22 subjects. We now demonstrate that RPTP{beta}/{zeta} is expressed in each of these same 63 human breast cancers that previously were found to express ALK and in 10 additional samples of human breast cancer. RPTP{beta}/{zeta} furthermore was localized not only in its normal association with the cell membrane but also scattered in cytoplasm and in nuclei in different breast cancer cells and, in the case of infiltrating ductal carcinomas, the distribution of RPTP{beta}/{zeta} changes as the breast cancer become more malignant. The data suggest that the PTN/RPTP{beta}/{zeta} signaling pathway may be constitutively activated and potentially function to constitutively activate ALK in human breast cancer.« less

  16. Novel Method for Finding [zeta](2[rho]) from a Product of Sines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    Euler gave a simple method for showing that [zeta](2)=1/1[superscript 2] + 1/2[superscript 2] + 1/3[superscript 2] + ... = [pi][superscript 2]/6. He generalized his method so as to find [zeta](4), [zeta](6), [zeta](8),.... His computations became increasingly more complex as the arguments increased. In this note we show a different generalization…

  17. Females scan more than males: a potential mechanism for sex differences in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Heisz, Jennifer J; Pottruff, Molly M; Shore, David I

    2013-07-01

    Recognition-memory tests reveal individual differences in episodic memory; however, by themselves, these tests provide little information regarding the stage (or stages) in memory processing at which differences are manifested. We used eye-tracking technology, together with a recognition paradigm, to achieve a more detailed analysis of visual processing during encoding and retrieval. Although this approach may be useful for assessing differences in memory across many different populations, we focused on sex differences in face memory. Females outperformed males on recognition-memory tests, and this advantage was directly related to females' scanning behavior at encoding. Moreover, additional exposures to the faces reduced sex differences in face recognition, which suggests that males may be able to improve their recognition memory by extracting more information at encoding through increased scanning. A strategy of increased scanning at encoding may prove to be a simple way to enhance memory performance in other populations with memory impairment.

  18. Evaluation and mitigation of potential errors in radiochromic film dosimetry due to film curvature at scanning

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, David A.; Nisbet, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This work considers a previously overlooked uncertainty present in film dosimetry which results from moderate curvature of films during the scanning process. Small film samples are particularly susceptible to film curling which may be undetected or deemed insignificant. In this study, we consider test cases with controlled induced curvature of film and with film raised horizontally above the scanner plate. We also evaluate the difference in scans of a film irradiated with a typical brachytherapy dose distribution with the film naturally curved and with the film held flat on the scanner. Typical naturally occurring curvature of film at scanning, giving rise to a maximum height 1 to 2 mm above the scan plane, may introduce dose errors of 1% to 4%, and considerably reduce gamma evaluation passing rates when comparing film‐measured doses with treatment planning system‐calculated dose distributions, a common application of film dosimetry in radiotherapy. The use of a triple‐channel dosimetry algorithm appeared to mitigate the error due to film curvature compared to conventional single‐channel film dosimetry. The change in pixel value and calibrated reported dose with film curling or height above the scanner plate may be due to variations in illumination characteristics, optical disturbances, or a Callier‐type effect. There is a clear requirement for physically flat films at scanning to avoid the introduction of a substantial error source in film dosimetry. Particularly for small film samples, a compression glass plate above the film is recommended to ensure flat‐film scanning. This effect has been overlooked to date in the literature. PACS numbers: 87.55.Qr, 87.56.bg, 87.55.km PMID:26103181

  19. Evaluation and mitigation of potential errors in radiochromic film dosimetry due to film curvature at scanning.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Antony L; Bradley, David A; Nisbet, Andrew

    2015-03-08

    This work considers a previously overlooked uncertainty present in film dosimetry which results from moderate curvature of films during the scanning process. Small film samples are particularly susceptible to film curling which may be undetected or deemed insignificant. In this study, we consider test cases with controlled induced curvature of film and with film raised horizontally above the scanner plate. We also evaluate the difference in scans of a film irradiated with a typical brachytherapy dose distribution with the film naturally curved and with the film held flat on the scanner. Typical naturally occurring curvature of film at scanning, giving rise to a maximum height 1 to 2 mm above the scan plane, may introduce dose errors of 1% to 4%, and considerably reduce gamma evaluation passing rates when comparing film-measured doses with treatment planning system-calculated dose distributions, a common application of film dosimetry in radiotherapy. The use of a triple-channel dosimetry algorithm appeared to mitigate the error due to film curvature compared to conventional single-channel film dosimetry. The change in pixel value and calibrated reported dose with film curling or height above the scanner plate may be due to variations in illumination characteristics, optical disturbances, or a Callier-type effect. There is a clear requirement for physically flat films at scanning to avoid the introduction of a substantial error source in film dosimetry. Particularly for small film samples, a compression glass plate above the film is recommended to ensure flat-film scanning. This effect has been overlooked to date in the literature.

  20. A Potential Use of 3-D Scanning to Evaluate the Chemical Composition of Pork Meat.

    PubMed

    Adamczak, Lech; Chmiel, Marta; Florowski, Tomasz; Pietrzak, Dorota; Witkowski, Marcin; Barczak, Tomasz

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of 3-D scanning method in chemical composition evaluation of pork meat. The sampling material comprised neck muscles (1000 g each) obtained from 20 pork carcasses. The volumetric estimation process of the elements was conducted on the basis of point cloud collected using 3-D scanner. Knowing the weight of neck muscles, their density was calculated which was subsequently correlated with the content of basic chemical components of the pork meat (water, protein and fat content, determined by standard methods). The significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) between meat density and water (r = 0.5213), protein (r = 0.5887), and fat (r = -0.6601) content were obtained. Based on the obtained results it seems likely to employ the 3-D scanning method to compute the meat chemical composition. The use of the 3-D scanning method in industrial practice will allow to evaluate the chemical composition of meat in online mode on a dressing and fabrication line and in a rapid, noninvasive manner. The control of the raw material using the 3-D scanning will allow to make visual assessment more objective and will enable optimal standardization of meat batches prior to processing stage. It will ensure not only the repeatability of product quality characteristics, but also optimal use of raw material-lean and fat meat. The knowledge of chemical composition of meat is essential due to legal requirements associated with mandatory nutrition facts labels on food products. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Chromospheric Structure and Wind Acceleration in Zeta Aur Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Philip D.

    2001-01-01

    This NASA grant supported an analysis of the variability of the wind of the supergiant primary star (K4 Ib) in the eclipsing binary Zeta Aurigae (Zeta Aur). In the ultraviolet, the main-sequence companion star (B5 V) dominates the observed flux, and therefore serves as a convenient probe of the cool supergiant's wind. This study utilized the extensive set of (100+) ultraviolet spectroscopic observations obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite over its operational lifetime of 1978-1995. Although the resolution of IUE is limited (about 25 km/s), it is adequate to resolve variability in the wind features in Zeta Aur's ultraviolet spectrum, which are blueshifted 70 km/s from line center. Our analysis used the tau-v technique of Cardelli and Savage, which makes full use of the available line profile information. We find that the wind column densities vary by up to an order of magnitude over time. These results are being written up for submission to the Astrophysical Journal as the third paper of a series on the chromosphere and wind of Zeta Aurigae. The first two papers report on the construction of mean chromosphere and wind models respectively, based on HST/GHRS observations and funded by STScI. The third paper - this research - reports on variability of the Zeta Aur wind as determined from our analysis of the long IUE time series. This paper will be completed within the next three months; the delay in publication was to allow the completion of Papers 1 and 2, which logically precede the present work. Therefore, an additional no-cost extension was requested in order to ensure budgeted funds remain available for publication of this work. Unfortunately, this request was denied, and so I am forced to write this final report before publication of Paper 3. Regardless, this paper will be submitted for publication within the next three months.

  2. The uterine blush. A potential false-positive in Meckel's scan interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Fink-Bennett, D.

    To determine the presence, prevalence, and clinical importance of /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate uterine uptake, this retrospective analysis of 71 Meckel's scans was undertaken. Specifically, each study was evaluated for the presence of a focal accumulation of radiotracer cephalad to the bladder. Patients received an intravenous dose of 150 microCi/kg of /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate. Each study consisted of 15 one minute anterior serial gamma camera images, and a 15, 30, and 60 minute anterior, right lateral and posterior scintiscan. Menstrual histories were obtained from all patients except two. No males (33/33), nor premenstrual (13/13), menopausal (4/4) or posthysterectomy (2/2) patients revealedmore » a uterine blush. Eleven of 15 patients (73%) with regular menses demonstrated a uterine blush. They were in the menstrual or secretory phases of their cycle. Four demonstrated no uterine uptake, had regular periods, but were in the proliferative phase of their cycle. Two with irregular periods, and one with no recorded menstrual history, manifested the blush. Radiotracer should be expected in the uterus during the menstrual and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle. It is a manifestation of a normal physiologic phenomenon, and must be recognized to prevent false-positive Meckel's scan interpretations.« less

  3. Does PKM(zeta) maintain memory?

    PubMed

    Kwapis, Janine L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2014-06-01

    Work on the long-term stability of memory has identified a potentially critical role for protein kinase Mzeta (PKMζ) in maintaining established memory. PKMζ, an autonomously active isoform of PKC, is hypothesized to sustain those changes that occurred during memory formation in order to preserve the memory engram over time. Initial studies investigating the role of PKMζ were largely successful in demonstrating a role for the kinase in memory maintenance; disrupting PKMζ activity with ζ-inhibitory peptide (ZIP) was successful in disrupting a variety of established associations in a number of key brain regions. More recent work, however, has questioned both the role of PKMζ in memory maintenance and the effectiveness of ZIP as a specific inhibitor of PKMζ activity. Here, we outline the research both for and against the idea that PKMζ is a memory maintenance mechanism and discuss how these two lines of research can be reconciled. We conclude by proposing a number of studies that would help to clarify the role of PKMζ in memory and define other mechanisms the brain may use to maintain memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving carbon dioxide yields and cell efficiencies for ethanol oxidation by potential scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majidi, Pasha; Pickup, Peter G.

    2014-12-01

    An ethanol electrolysis cell with aqueous ethanol supplied to the anode and nitrogen at the cathode has been operated under potential cycling conditions in order to increase the yield of carbon dioxide and thereby increase cell efficiency relative to operation at a fixed potential. At ambient temperature, faradaic yields of CO2 as high as 26% have been achieved, while only transient CO2 production was observed at constant potential. Yields increased substantially at higher temperatures, with maximum values at Pt anodes reaching 45% at constant potential and 65% under potential cycling conditions. Use of a PtRu anode increased the cell efficiency by decreasing the anode potential, but this was offset by decreased CO2 yields. Nonetheless, cycling increased the efficiency relative to constant potential. The maximum yields at PtRu and 80 °C were 13% at constant potential and 32% under potential cycling. The increased yields under cycling conditions have been attributed to periodic oxidative stripping of adsorbed CO, which occurs at lower potentials on PtRu than on Pt. These results will be important in the optimization of operating conditions for direct ethanol fuel cells and for the electrolysis of ethanol to produce clean hydrogen.

  5. Efficient Transition State Optimization of Periodic Structures through Automated Relaxed Potential Energy Surface Scans.

    PubMed

    Plessow, Philipp N

    2018-02-13

    This work explores how constrained linear combinations of bond lengths can be used to optimize transition states in periodic structures. Scanning of constrained coordinates is a standard approach for molecular codes with localized basis functions, where a full set of internal coordinates is used for optimization. Common plane wave-codes for periodic boundary conditions almost exlusively rely on Cartesian coordinates. An implementation of constrained linear combinations of bond lengths with Cartesian coordinates is described. Along with an optimization of the value of the constrained coordinate toward the transition states, this allows transition optimization within a single calculation. The approach is suitable for transition states that can be well described in terms of broken and formed bonds. In particular, the implementation is shown to be effective and efficient in the optimization of transition states in zeolite-catalyzed reactions, which have high relevance in industrial processes.

  6. Scanning fast and slow: current limitations of 3 Tesla functional MRI and future potential

    PubMed Central

    Boubela, Roland N.; Kalcher, Klaudius; Nasel, Christian; Moser, Ewald

    2017-01-01

    Functional MRI at 3T has become a workhorse for the neurosciences, e.g., neurology, psychology, and psychiatry, enabling non-invasive investigation of brain function and connectivity. However, BOLD-based fMRI is a rather indirect measure of brain function, confounded by physiology related signals, e.g., head or brain motion, brain pulsation, blood flow, intermixed with susceptibility differences close or distant to the region of neuronal activity. Even though a plethora of preprocessing strategies have been published to address these confounds, their efficiency is still under discussion. In particular, physiological signal fluctuations closely related to brain supply may mask BOLD signal changes related to “true” neuronal activation. Here we explore recent technical and methodological advancements aimed at disentangling the various components, employing fast multiband vs. standard EPI, in combination with fast temporal ICA. Our preliminary results indicate that fast (TR <0.5 s) scanning may help to identify and eliminate physiologic components, increasing tSNR and functional contrast. In addition, biological variability can be studied and task performance better correlated to other measures. This should increase specificity and reliability in fMRI studies. Furthermore, physiological signal changes during scanning may then be recognized as a source of information rather than a nuisance. As we are currently still undersampling the complexity of the brain, even at a rather coarse macroscopic level, we should be very cautious in the interpretation of neuroscientific findings, in particular when comparing different groups (e.g., age, sex, medication, pathology, etc.). From a technical point of view our goal should be to sample brain activity at layer specific resolution with low TR, covering as much of the brain as possible without violating SAR limits. We hope to stimulate discussion toward a better understanding and a more quantitative use of fMRI. PMID:28164083

  7. Scanning fast and slow: current limitations of 3 Tesla functional MRI and future potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubela, Roland N.; Kalcher, Klaudius; Nasel, Christian; Moser, Ewald

    2014-02-01

    Functional MRI at 3T has become a workhorse for the neurosciences, e.g., neurology, psychology, and psychiatry, enabling non-invasive investigation of brain function and connectivity. However, BOLD-based fMRI is a rather indirect measure of brain function, confounded by fluctuation related signals, e.g. head or brain motion, brain pulsation, blood flow, intermixed with susceptibility differences close or distant to the region of neuronal activity. Even though a plethora of preprocessing strategies have been published to address these confounds, their efficiency is still under discussion. In particular, physiological signal fluctuations closely related to brain supply may mask BOLD signal changes related to "true" neuronal activation. Here we explore recent technical and methodological advancements aimed at disentangling the various components, employing fast multiband vs. standard EPI, in combination with fast temporal ICA.Our preliminary results indicate that fast (TR< 0.5s) scanning may help to identify and eliminate physiologic components, increasing tSNR and functional contrast. In addition, biological variability can be studied and task performance better correlated to other measures. This should increase specificity and reliability in fMRI studies. Furthermore, physiological signal changes during scanning may then be recognized as a source of information rather than a nuisance. As we are currently still undersampling the complexity of the brain, even at a rather coarse macroscopic level, we should be very cautious in the interpretation of neuroscientific findings, in particular when comparing different groups (e.g., age, sex, medication, pathology, etc.). From a technical point of view our goal should be to sample brain activity at layer specific resolution with low TR, covering as much of the brain as possible without violating SAR limits. We hope to stimulate discussion towards a better understanding and a more quantitative use of fMRI.

  8. Relating zeta functions of discrete and quantum graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jonathan; Weyand, Tracy

    2018-02-01

    We write the spectral zeta function of the Laplace operator on an equilateral metric graph in terms of the spectral zeta function of the normalized Laplace operator on the corresponding discrete graph. To do this, we apply a relation between the spectrum of the Laplacian on a discrete graph and that of the Laplacian on an equilateral metric graph. As a by-product, we determine how the multiplicity of eigenvalues of the quantum graph, that are also in the spectrum of the graph with Dirichlet conditions at the vertices, depends on the graph geometry. Finally we apply the result to calculate the vacuum energy and spectral determinant of a complete bipartite graph and compare our results with those for a star graph, a graph in which all vertices are connected to a central vertex by a single edge.

  9. EPS composition and calcification potential of tufa-dominating cyanobacteria investigated by Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) and Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zippel, Barbara; Dynes, James J.; Obst, Martin; Lawrence, John R.; Neu, Thomas R.

    2010-05-01

    Tufa deposits in freshwater habitats are the result of calcium carbonate precipitation within interfacial microbial ecosystems. Calcite precipitation is influenced by the saturation index and the occurrence of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) which are produced by a variety of microorganisms. In theory, the first important step of biologically induced calcification processes is the adsorption of calcium ions by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by cyanobacteria. In the present study we take advantage of Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM) and combine it with Synchrotron imaging using Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM). STXM represents a technique that allows simultaneous analysis of inorganic and organic constituents as a scale of 50 nm. By means of STXM it is possible to differentiate between calcium carbonate phases at the Ca L-edge. Furthermore, STXM has also been used at the C K-edge to map the major biomolecules (proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides). The purpose of this study is to find out if there are differences in calcium adsorption depending on specific composition of the EPS produced by filamentous cyanobacteria isolated from a German hard water creek (Westerhöfer Bach, Harz Mountains). The goal was to elucidate the potential of biofilms constituents, including microbial cell surfaces as well as extracellular polymeric substances, in triggering the formation of calcium carbonate in tufa systems. For this purpose three filamentous cyanobacteria (Pseudanabaena sp., Leptolyngbya sp. and Nostoc sp.) were cultivated in creek-adapted as well as standard media (BG11) on polycarbonate slides. In situ EPS composition was detected by means of fluorescence lectin-binding approach (FLBA) using 23 commercially available lectins with different specificities for mono- and disaccharides and amino sugars. For CaCO3 nucleation experiments cyanobacterial biofilms grown on polycarbonate slides were deposited in NaHCO3/CaCl2 solutions

  10. The potential of high resolution airborne laser scanning for deriving geometric properties of single trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morsdorf, F.; Meier, E.; Koetz, B.; Nüesch, D.; Itten, K.; Allgöwer, B.

    2003-04-01

    The potential of airborne laserscanning for mapping forest stands has been intensively evaluated in the past few years. Algorithms deriving structural forest parameters in a stand-wise manner from laser data have been successfully implemented by a number of researchers. However, with very high point density laser (>20 points/m^2) data we pursue the approach of deriving these parameters on a single-tree basis. We explore the potential of delineating single trees from laser scanner raw data (x,y,z- triples) and validate this approach with a dataset of more than 2000 georeferenced trees, including tree height and crown diameter, gathered on a long term forest monitoring site by the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL). The accuracy of the laser scanner is evaluated trough 6 reference targets, being 3x3 m^2 in size and horizontally plain, for validating both the horizontal and vertical accuracy of the laser scanner by matching of triangular irregular networks (TINs). Single trees are segmented by a clustering analysis in all three coordinate dimensions and their geometric properties can then be derived directly from the tree cluster.

  11. The interstellar line spectra of zeta Ophiuchi and zeta Persei and their relation to the short wavelength microwave background radiation. Ph.D. Thesis - N. Y. Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bortolot, V. J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Thirty-one high dispersion Coude spectrograms of zeta Ophiuchi and seven of zeta Persei were numerically synthesized to produce high resolution, low noise spectra in the interval 3650 A to 4350 that yield data on atomic and molecular absorption in well-defined regions of the interstellar medium. The detection threshold is improved by as much as a factor 5 over single plates. Several interstellar lines were discovered in the zeta Oph - 15km/sec cloud and the zeta Per + 13 km/sec cloud.

  12. Evaluation of the remineralization potential of amorphous calcium phosphate and fluoride containing pit and fissure sealants using scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Prashant; Tandon, Shobha; Ganesh, M; Mehra, Anshul

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the remineralization potential of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (ACP) and Fluoride containing pit and Fissure Sealants using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Thirty maxillary first premolars were divided into three groups of ten each and were randomly selected for ACP containing (Aegis- Opaque White, Bosworth Co. Ltd.), Fluoride containing (Teethmate F1 Natural Clear, Kuraray Co. Ltd.), resin based (Concise- Opaque White, 3M ESPE Co. Ltd.) pit and fissure sealant applications. The Concise group served as a control. The teeth weresubjected to the pH-cycling regimen for a period of two weeks. After two weeks, the teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually into 4mm sections and were observed under Scanning Electron Microscope at 50X, 250X, 500X, 1000X and 1500X magnifications. The qualitative changes at the tooth surface and sealant interface were examined and presence of white zone at the interface was considered positive for remineralization. Both ACP containing (Aegis) and Fluoride containing (Teethmate F1) group showed white zone at the tooth surface-sealant interface. The resin based group (Concise) showed regular interface between the sealant and the tooth structure, but no clear cut white zone was observed. Both, Aegis and Teethmate F1 have the potential to remineralize. Release of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate molecules in Aegis group and formation of Fluoroapetite in Teethmate F1 group, were probably responsible for the remineralization.

  13. Activation-induced proteolysis of cytoplasmic domain of zeta in T cell receptors and Fc receptors.

    PubMed

    Taupin, J L; Anderson, P

    1994-12-01

    The CD3-T cell receptor (TCR) complex on T cells and the Fc gamma receptor type III (Fc gamma RIII)-zeta-gamma complex on natural killer cells are functionally analogous activation receptors that associate with a family of disulfide-linked dimers composed of the related subunits zeta and gamma. Immunochemical analysis of receptor complexes separated on two-dimensional diagonal gels allowed the identification of a previously uncharacterized zeta-p14 heterodimer. zeta-p14 is a component of both CD3-TCR and Fc gamma RIII-zeta-gamma. Peptide mapping analysis shows that p14 is structurally related to zeta, suggesting that it is either: (i) derived from zeta proteolytically or (ii) the product of an alternatively spliced mRNA. The observation that COS cells transformed with a cDNA encoding zeta express zeta-p14 supports the former possibility. The expression of CD3-TCR complexes including zeta-p14 increases following activation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or concanavalin A, suggesting that proteolysis of zeta may contribute to receptor modulation or desensitization.

  14. Local zeta factors and geometries under Spec Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manin, Yu I.

    2016-08-01

    The first part of this note shows that the odd-period polynomial of each Hecke cusp eigenform for the full modular group produces via the Rodriguez-Villegas transform ([1]) a polynomial satisfying the functional equation of zeta type and having non-trivial zeros only in the middle line of its critical strip. The second part discusses the Chebyshev lambda-structure of the polynomial ring as Borger's descent data to \\mathbf{F}_1 and suggests its role in a possible relation of the Γ\\mathbf{R}-factor to 'real geometry over \\mathbf{F}_1' (cf. [2]).

  15. The erosive potential of soft drinks on enamel surface substrate: an in vitro scanning electron microscopy investigation.

    PubMed

    Owens, Barry M; Kitchens, Michael

    2007-11-01

    Using scanning electron and light microscopy, this study qualitatively evaluated the erosive potential of carbonated cola beverages as well as sports and high-energy drinks on enamel surface substrate. Beverages used in this study included: Coca Cola Classic, Diet Coke, Gatorade sports drink, Red Bull high-energy drink, and tap water (control). Extracted human permanent molars free of hypocalcification and/or caries were used in this study. The coronal portion of each tooth was removed and sectioned longitudinally from the buccal to the lingual surface. The crown sections were embedded in acrylic resin, leaving the enamel surfaces exposed. Following finishing and polishing of all surfaces, one side was covered with red nail varnish while the remaining side was exposed to individual beverage immersion for 14 days, 24 hours per day, at 37 degrees C. The specimens were evaluated for enamel surface changes using scanning electron and light microscopy. Enamel specimens exhibited visual surface changes following immersion in the test beverages with Red Bull and Gatorade revealing the most striking surface morphological changes. Specimens subjected to Coca Cola Classic and Diet Coke immersion also displayed irregular post-treatment surface morphology. As verified by microscopic evaluation, all test beverages displayed enamel dissolution in the following order: Red Bull>Gatorade>Coca-Cola Classic>Diet Coke.

  16. The spectral energy distribution of Zeta Puppis and HD 50896

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, A. V.; Cassinelli, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    The ultraviolet spectral energy distribution of the O5f star Zeta Pup and the WN5 star HD 50896 are derived from OAO-2 observations with the calibration of Bless, Code, and Fairchild (1976). An estimate of the interstellar reddening (0.12 magnitude) of the Wolf-Rayet star is determined from the size of the characteristic interstellar extinction bump at 4.6 inverse microns. After correction for extinction, both stars show a flat energy distribution in the ultraviolet. The distribution of HD 50896 from 1100 A to 2 microns is in good agreement with results of extended model atmospheres, but some uncertainty remains because of the interstellar-extinction correction. The absolute energy distribution of Zeta Pup is fitted by a 42,000-K plane-parallel model if the model's flux is adjusted for the effects of electron scattering in the stellar wind and for UV line blanketing that was determined empirically from high-resolution Copernicus satellite observations. To achieve this fit, it is necessary to push both the spectroscopically determined temperature and the ultraviolet calibration to the limits of their probable errors.

  17. p62 modulates Akt activity via association with PKC{zeta} in neuronal survival and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Joung, Insil; Kim, Hak Jae; Kwon, Yunhee Kim

    2005-08-26

    p62 is a ubiquitously expressed phosphoprotein that interacts with a number of signaling molecules and a major component of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. It has been implicated in important cellular functions such as cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic pathways. In this study, we have addressed the potential role of p62 during neuronal differentiation and survival using HiB5, a rat neuronal progenitor cell. We generated a recombinant adenovirus encoding T7-epitope tagged p62 to reliably transfer p62 cDNA into the neuronal cells. The results show that an overexpression of p62 led not only to neuronal differentiation, but alsomore » to decreased cell death induced by serum withdrawal in HiB5 cells. In this process p62-dependent Akt phosphorylation occurred via the release of Akt from PKC{zeta} by association of p62 and PKC{zeta}, which is known as a negative regulator of Akt activation. These findings indicate that p62 facilitates cell survival through novel signaling cascades that result in Akt activation. Furthermore, we found that p62 expression was induced during neuronal differentiation. Taken together, the data suggest p62 is a regulator of neuronal cell survival and differentiation.« less

  18. Can Eccentric Debris Disks Be Long-lived? A First Numerical Investigation and Application to Zeta(exp 2) Reticuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faramaz, V.; Beust, H.; Thebault, P.; Augereau, J.-C.; Bonsor, A.; delBurgo, C.; Ertel, S.; Marshall, J. P.; Milli, J.; Montesinos, B.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Context. Imaging of debris disks has found evidence for both eccentric and offset disks. One hypothesis is that they provide evidence for massive perturbers, for example, planets or binary companions, which sculpt the observed structures. One such disk was recently observed in the far-IR by the Herschel Space Observatory around Zeta2 Reticuli. In contrast with previously reported systems, the disk is significantly eccentric, and the system is several Gyr old. Aims. We aim to investigate the long-term evolution of eccentric structures in debris disks caused by a perturber on an eccentric orbit around the star. We hypothesise that the observed eccentric disk around Zeta2 Reticuli might be evidence of such a scenario. If so, we are able to constrain the mass and orbit of a potential perturber, either a giant planet or a binary companion. Methods. Analytical techniques were used to predict the effects of a perturber on a debris disk. Numerical N-body simulations were used to verify these results and further investigate the observable structures that may be produced by eccentric perturbers. The long-term evolution of the disk geometry was examined, with particular application to the Zeta2 Reticuli system. In addition, synthetic images of the disk were produced for direct comparison with Herschel observations. Results. We show that an eccentric companion can produce both the observed offsets and eccentric disks. These effects are not immediate, and we characterise the timescale required for the disk to develop to an eccentric state (and any spirals to vanish). For Zeta2 Reticuli, we derive limits on the mass and orbit of the companion required to produce the observations. Synthetic images show that the pattern observed around Zeta2 Reticuli can be produced by an eccentric disk seen close to edge-on, and allow us to bring additional constraints on the disk parameters of our model (disk flux and extent). Conclusions. We conclude that eccentric planets or stellar companions

  19. Computation of the influence of scanning probe microscope (SPM) on quantum dot eigenstates and 2DEG potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopa, Michael

    2005-03-01

    We calculate the electronic structure of GaAs-AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) devices, such as quantum dots and quantum point contacts (QPCs) in the presence of a tip of a scanning probe microscope at some distance above the surface. The calculation employs standard density functional theory with exchange and correlation treated in the local density approximation. The position and voltage on the tip are varied and the conditions for depletion of the 2DEG are shown to compare favorably to experiment [1]. We show that the size of the depletion region created (by a negative tip voltage) is unexpectedly small due to focusing of the potential lines by the higher dielectric. We study the interaction of the tip with an isolated quantum dot that contains one or two electrons. The raster pattern of the difference between single particle energies reveals that the tip distorts the shape of the confining potential and suggests that excited state properties, if they can be measured experimentally, can contribute to the resolution of spatial information. [1] M.A. Topinka, R.M. Westervelt, E.J. Heller, ``http://meso.deas.harvard.edu/papers/Topinka, PT 56 12 (2003)'' (Imaging Electron Flow), Physics Today 56, 12 (2003).

  20. Background Signal as an in Situ Predictor of Dopamine Oxidation Potential: Improving Interpretation of Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry Data.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Carl J; Roberts, James G; McCarty, Gregory S; Sombers, Leslie A

    2017-02-15

    Background-subtracted fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has emerged as a powerful analytical technique for monitoring subsecond molecular fluctuations in live brain tissue. Despite increasing utilization of FSCV, efforts to improve the accuracy of quantification have been limited due to the complexity of the technique and the dynamic recording environment. It is clear that variable electrode performance renders calibration necessary for accurate quantification; however, the nature of in vivo measurements can make conventional postcalibration difficult, or even impossible. Analyte-specific voltammograms and scaling factors that are critical for quantification can shift or fluctuate in vivo. This is largely due to impedance changes, and the effects of impedance on these measurements have not been characterized. We have previously reported that the background current can be used to predict electrode-specific scaling factors in situ. In this work, we employ model circuits to investigate the impact of impedance on FSCV measurements. Additionally, we take another step toward in situ electrode calibration by using the oxidation potential of quinones on the electrode surface to accurately predict the oxidation potential for dopamine at any point in an electrochemical experiment, as both are dependent on impedance. The model, validated both in adrenal slice and live brain tissue, enables information encoded in the shape of the background voltammogram to determine electrochemical parameters that are critical for accurate quantification. This improves data interpretation and provides a significant next step toward more automated methods for in vivo data analysis.

  1. Radio and submillimetre observations of wind structure in zeta Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomme, R.; van de Steene, G. C.; Prinja, R. K.; Runacres, M. C.; Clark, J. S.

    2003-09-01

    We present radio and submillimetre observations of the O4I(n)f star zeta Pup, and discuss structure in the outer region of its wind ( ~ 10-100 R_*). The properties of bremsstrahlung, the dominant emission process at these wavelengths, make it sensitive to structure and allow us to study how the amount of structure changes in the wind by comparing the fluxes at different wavelengths. Possible forms of structure at these distances include Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs), stochastic clumping, a disk or a polar enhancement. As the CIRs are azimuthally asymmetric, they should result in variability at submillimetre or radio wavelengths. To look for this variability, we acquired 3.6 and 6 cm observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), covering about two rotational periods of the star. We supplemented these with archive observations from the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA), which cover a much longer time scale. We did not find variability at more than the +/-20% level. The long integration time does allow an accurate determination of the fluxes at 3.6 and 6 cm. Converting these fluxes into a mass loss rate, we find dot {M} = 3.5 x 10-6 Msun/yr. This value confirms the significant discrepancy with the mass loss rate derived from the Hα profile, making zeta Pup an exception to the usually good agreement between the Hα and radio mass loss rates. To study the run of structure as a function of distance, we supplemented the ATCA data by observing zeta Pup at 850 mu m with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) and at 20 cm with the VLA. A smooth wind model shows that the millimetre fluxes are too high compared to the radio fluxes. While recombination of helium in the outer wind cannot be discounted as an explanation, the wealth of evidence for structure strongly suggests this as the explanation for the discrepancy. Model calculations show that the structure needs to be present in the inner ~ 70 R_* of the wind, but that it decays significantly, or maybe

  2. Imaging charge carriers in potential-induced degradation defects of c-Si solar cells by scanning capacitance microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, C. -S.; Xiao, C.; Moutinho, H. R.; ...

    2018-02-13

    We report on nm-resolution imaging of charge-carrier distribution around local potential-induced degradation (PID) shunting defects using scanning capacitance microscopy. We imaged on cross sections of heavily field-degraded module areas, cored out and selected by mm-scale photoluminescence imaging. We found localized areas with abnormal carrier behavior induced by the PID defects: the apparent n-type carrier extends vertically into the absorber to ~1-2 um from the cell surface, and laterally in similar lengths; in defect-free areas, the n-type carrier extends ~0.5 um, which is consistent with the junction depth. For comparison, we also investigated areas of the same module exhibiting the leastmore » PID stress, and we found no such heavily damaged junction area. Instead, we found slightly abnormal carrier behavior, where the carrier-type inversion in the absorber did not occur, but the p-type carrier concentration changed slightly in a much smaller lateral length of ~300 nm. These nano-electrical findings may indicate a possible mechanism that the existing extended defects, which may not be significantly harmful to cell performance, can be changed by PID to heavily damaged junction areas.« less

  3. Imaging charge carriers in potential-induced degradation defects of c-Si solar cells by scanning capacitance microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, C. -S.; Xiao, C.; Moutinho, H. R.

    We report on nm-resolution imaging of charge-carrier distribution around local potential-induced degradation (PID) shunting defects using scanning capacitance microscopy. We imaged on cross sections of heavily field-degraded module areas, cored out and selected by mm-scale photoluminescence imaging. We found localized areas with abnormal carrier behavior induced by the PID defects: the apparent n-type carrier extends vertically into the absorber to ~1-2 um from the cell surface, and laterally in similar lengths; in defect-free areas, the n-type carrier extends ~0.5 um, which is consistent with the junction depth. For comparison, we also investigated areas of the same module exhibiting the leastmore » PID stress, and we found no such heavily damaged junction area. Instead, we found slightly abnormal carrier behavior, where the carrier-type inversion in the absorber did not occur, but the p-type carrier concentration changed slightly in a much smaller lateral length of ~300 nm. These nano-electrical findings may indicate a possible mechanism that the existing extended defects, which may not be significantly harmful to cell performance, can be changed by PID to heavily damaged junction areas.« less

  4. Differential Scanning Calorimetric Study and Potential Model of the Binding of the Primary Water of Hydration to K-Hyaluronate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitson, K. B.; Marlowe, R. L.; Lukan, A. M.; Lee, S. A.; Anthony, L.; Rupprecht, A.

    1997-11-01

    DSC was performed on samples of K-hyaluronate (KHA) through a temperature range of 25-180^oC. A transition peak was observed which is due to the desorption of the primary water of hydration. The maximum position of the peak was observed to change with different scan rates. The average energy of activation, E_A, and enthalpy for desorption of the primary water of hydration was determined to be 0.62 and 0.17 eV per water molecule, respectively. Analysis of Mossbauer data(G. Albanese et al., Hyperfine Int.,) 95, 97 (1995) allowed us to determine the effective force constant, k_eff, of the water bound to KHA to be approximately 19.4 eV/nm^2. The parameters E_A, ΔH,and k_eff allow us to construct a potential model for the primary water of hydration of KHA. Comparison of these parameters with the same parameters for HA and DNA with different counterions reveal that the energy of activation is similar, as well as the enthalpy change.

  5. Deceleration of probe beam by stage bias potential improves resolution of serial block-face scanning electron microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Bouwer, James C; Deerinck, Thomas J; Bushong, Eric; Astakhov, Vadim; Ramachandra, Ranjan; Peltier, Steven T; Ellisman, Mark H

    2017-01-01

    Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) is quickly becoming an important imaging tool to explore three-dimensional biological structure across spatial scales. At probe-beam-electron energies of 2.0 keV or lower, the axial resolution should improve, because there is less primary electron penetration into the block face. More specifically, at these lower energies, the interaction volume is much smaller, and therefore, surface detail is more highly resolved. However, the backscattered electron yield for metal contrast agents and the backscattered electron detector sensitivity are both sub-optimal at these lower energies, thus negating the gain in axial resolution. We found that the application of a negative voltage (reversal potential) applied to a modified SBEM stage creates a tunable electric field at the sample. This field can be used to decrease the probe-beam-landing energy and, at the same time, alter the trajectory of the signal to increase the signal collected by the detector. With decelerated low landing-energy electrons, we observed that the probe-beam-electron-penetration depth was reduced to less than 30 nm in epoxy-embedded biological specimens. Concurrently, a large increase in recorded signal occurred due to the re-acceleration of BSEs in the bias field towards the objective pole piece where the detector is located. By tuning the bias field, we were able to manipulate the trajectories of the  primary and secondary electrons, enabling the spatial discrimination of these signals using an advanced ring-type BSE detector configuration or a standard monolithic BSE detector coupled with a blocking aperture.

  6. Fish scale deformation analysis using scanning electron microscope: New potential biomarker in aquatic environmental monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayati, Dewi; Sulaiman, Norela; Othman, Shuhaimi; Ismail, B. S.

    2013-11-01

    Fish scale has the potential to be a rapid biomarker due to its structure and high possibility to come into contact with any pollutant in the aquatic environment. The scale structure consists of osteoblastic cells and other bone materials such as collagen where it is possible to form a molecular complex with heavy metals such as aluminum and iron. Hence, aluminum and iron in water could possibly destroy the scale material and marked as a scale deformation that quantitatively could be analyzed by comparing it to the normal scale structure. Water sampling and fish cage experiment were performed between June and July 2011 in Porong river which represented the water body that has high aluminum and iron contamination. The filtered water samples were preserved and extracted using the acid-mixture procedure prior to measurement of the aluminum and iron concentrations using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), while samples for total suspended solid (TSS) analysis were kept at 4 °C in cool-boxes. The scales were cleaned with sterile water, then dehydrated in 30, 50, 70, and 90% ethanol and dried on filter papers. They were then mounted on an aluminum stub and coated with gold in a sputter coater prior to Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observation. According to the SEM analysis, it was found that there were several deformations on the scale samples taken from sites that have high concentrations of aluminum and iron i.e. the increasing number of pits, deformation and decreasing number of spherules and ridges while the control scale exhibited the normal features. However, the site with higher TSS and pH indicated lower aluminum effect. A moderate correlation was found between the number of pits with aluminum (r=0.43) and iron (r=0.41) concentrations. Fish scale deformation using SEM analysis can potentially be a rapid biomarker in aquatic monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination. However, the measurement must be accompanied by pH and

  7. Fish scale deformation analysis using scanning electron microscope: New potential biomarker in aquatic environmental monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Hidayati, Dewi; Sulaiman, Norela; Othman, Shuhaimi

    2013-11-27

    Fish scale has the potential to be a rapid biomarker due to its structure and high possibility to come into contact with any pollutant in the aquatic environment. The scale structure consists of osteoblastic cells and other bone materials such as collagen where it is possible to form a molecular complex with heavy metals such as aluminum and iron. Hence, aluminum and iron in water could possibly destroy the scale material and marked as a scale deformation that quantitatively could be analyzed by comparing it to the normal scale structure. Water sampling and fish cage experiment were performed between Junemore » and July 2011 in Porong river which represented the water body that has high aluminum and iron contamination. The filtered water samples were preserved and extracted using the acid-mixture procedure prior to measurement of the aluminum and iron concentrations using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), while samples for total suspended solid (TSS) analysis were kept at 4 °C in cool-boxes. The scales were cleaned with sterile water, then dehydrated in 30, 50, 70, and 90% ethanol and dried on filter papers. They were then mounted on an aluminum stub and coated with gold in a sputter coater prior to Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observation. According to the SEM analysis, it was found that there were several deformations on the scale samples taken from sites that have high concentrations of aluminum and iron i.e. the increasing number of pits, deformation and decreasing number of spherules and ridges while the control scale exhibited the normal features. However, the site with higher TSS and pH indicated lower aluminum effect. A moderate correlation was found between the number of pits with aluminum (r=0.43) and iron (r=0.41) concentrations. Fish scale deformation using SEM analysis can potentially be a rapid biomarker in aquatic monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination. However, the measurement must be accompanied by p

  8. Dynamic scan control in STEM: Spiral scans

    DOE PAGES

    Lupini, Andrew R.; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; ...

    2016-06-13

    Here, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has emerged as one of the foremost techniques to analyze materials at atomic resolution. However, two practical difficulties inherent to STEM imaging are: radiation damage imparted by the electron beam, which can potentially damage or otherwise modify the specimen and slow-scan image acquisition, which limits the ability to capture dynamic changes at high temporal resolution. Furthermore, due in part to scan flyback corrections, typical raster scan methods result in an uneven distribution of dose across the scanned area. A method to allow extremely fast scanning with a uniform residence time would enable imaging atmore » low electron doses, ameliorating radiation damage and at the same time permitting image acquisition at higher frame-rates while maintaining atomic resolution. The practical complication is that rastering the STEM probe at higher speeds causes significant image distortions. Non-square scan patterns provide a solution to this dilemma and can be tailored for low dose imaging conditions. Here, we develop a method for imaging with alternative scan patterns and investigate their performance at very high scan speeds. A general analysis for spiral scanning is presented here for the following spiral scan functions: Archimedean, Fermat, and constant linear velocity spirals, which were tested for STEM imaging. The quality of spiral scan STEM images is generally comparable with STEM images from conventional raster scans, and the dose uniformity can be improved.« less

  9. Dynamic scan control in STEM: Spiral scans

    SciTech Connect

    Lupini, Andrew R.; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    Here, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has emerged as one of the foremost techniques to analyze materials at atomic resolution. However, two practical difficulties inherent to STEM imaging are: radiation damage imparted by the electron beam, which can potentially damage or otherwise modify the specimen and slow-scan image acquisition, which limits the ability to capture dynamic changes at high temporal resolution. Furthermore, due in part to scan flyback corrections, typical raster scan methods result in an uneven distribution of dose across the scanned area. A method to allow extremely fast scanning with a uniform residence time would enable imaging atmore » low electron doses, ameliorating radiation damage and at the same time permitting image acquisition at higher frame-rates while maintaining atomic resolution. The practical complication is that rastering the STEM probe at higher speeds causes significant image distortions. Non-square scan patterns provide a solution to this dilemma and can be tailored for low dose imaging conditions. Here, we develop a method for imaging with alternative scan patterns and investigate their performance at very high scan speeds. A general analysis for spiral scanning is presented here for the following spiral scan functions: Archimedean, Fermat, and constant linear velocity spirals, which were tested for STEM imaging. The quality of spiral scan STEM images is generally comparable with STEM images from conventional raster scans, and the dose uniformity can be improved.« less

  10. Potential for adult-based epidemiological studies to characterize overall cancer risks associated with a lifetime of CT scans.

    PubMed

    Shuryak, Igor; Lubin, Jay H; Brenner, David J

    2014-06-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that radiation exposure from pediatric CT scanning is associated with small excess cancer risks. However, the majority of CT scans are performed on adults, and most radiation-induced cancers appear during middle or old age, in the same age range as background cancers. Consequently, a logical next step is to investigate the effects of CT scanning in adulthood on lifetime cancer risks by conducting adult-based, appropriately designed epidemiological studies. Here we estimate the sample size required for such studies to detect CT-associated risks. This was achieved by incorporating different age-, sex-, time- and cancer type-dependent models of radiation carcinogenesis into an in silico simulation of a population-based cohort study. This approach simulated individual histories of chest and abdominal CT exposures, deaths and cancer diagnoses. The resultant sample sizes suggest that epidemiological studies of realistically sized cohorts can detect excess lifetime cancer risks from adult CT exposures. For example, retrospective analysis of CT exposure and cancer incidence data from a population-based cohort of 0.4 to 1.3 million (depending on the carcinogenic model) CT-exposed UK adults, aged 25-65 in 1980 and followed until 2015, provides 80% power for detecting cancer risks from chest and abdominal CT scans.

  11. Observations of H II regions around Zeta OPH and other O-B stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakova, L. I.; Kutirev, A. S.; Ataev, A. Sh.

    1988-01-01

    A Fabry-Perot spectrometer was used to measure the emission intensities in H-beta near Zeta Oph, Alpha Vir, Alpha Cam, and HD 188209. The spectrometer sensitivity is 0.2 rayleighs, the intensity measurement accuracy is 20 percent. Ionization zone boundaries are determined for Zeta Oph and Alpha Vir; the angular diameters of both regions are about 15 deg. The contour of the H II region near Zeta Oph on the level of the double background in the southwest does not close; instead, it expands again and incorporates the region associated with the B-association II Sco.

  12. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  13. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid; Radioactive iodine uptake and scan test - thyroid; Nuclear scan - thyroid ... the test. Ask your provider or the radiology/nuclear medicine team performing the scan about taking precautions.

  14. Tunnel determinants from spectral zeta functions. Instanton effects in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Izquierdo, A. Alonso; Guilarte, J. Mateos

    2014-07-23

    In this paper we develop an spectral zeta function regularization procedure on the determinants of instanton fluctuation operators that describe the semi-classical order of tunnel effects between degenerate vacua.

  15. A Preliminary Evaluation of the Potential Utility of the Surface Condition Analyzer (SCAN) System for Monitoring Runway Water Depth as Relating to Runway Traction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    one year with the savings realized in reduced wear on arresting gear. 2.2 Evaluation of the Potential Utility of the SCAN System for Monitoring Runway...without loss of accuracy due to build-up of rubber and other contaminants on the sensor surface? 2. Can water depth be measured representatively on a...Hargett, E.R., 1974: Skid- Resistance Evaluation of Seven Antihydroplaning Surfaces, Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland AP. NM4 87117, 39 pp

  16. [Retrospective computation of the ISS in multiple trauma patients: Potential pitfalls and limitations of findings in full body CT scans].

    PubMed

    Bogner, V; Brumann, M; Kusmenkov, T; Kanz, K G; Wierer, M; Berger, F; Mutschler, W

    2016-03-01

    The Injury Severity Score (ISS) is a well-established anatomical scoring system for polytraumatized patients. However, any inaccuracy in the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) directly increases the ISS impreciseness. Using the full body computed tomography (CT) scan report, ISS computation can be associated with certain pitfalls. This study evaluates interpretation variations depending on radiological reports and indicates requirements to reliably determine the ISS. The ISS of 81 polytraumatized patients was calculated based on the full body CT scan report. If an injury could not be attributed to a precise AIS cipher, the minimal and maximal ISS was computed. Real ISS included all conducted investigations, intraoperative findings, and final medical reports. The differences in ISS min, ISS max, and ISS real were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis test (p<0.05) and plotted in a linear regression analysis. Mean ISS min was 24.0 (± 0.7 SEM) points, mean ISS real 38.6 (±1.3 SEM) and mean ISS max was 48.3 (±1.4 SEM) points. All means were significantly different compared to one another (p<0.001). The difference between possible and real ISS showed a distinctive variation. Mean deviation was 9.7 (±0.9 SEM) points downward and 14.5 (±1.1 SEM) points upward. The difference between deviation to ISS min and ISS max was highly significant (p<0.001). Objectification of injury severity in polytraumatized patients using the ISS is an internationally well-established method in clinical and scientific settings. The full body CT scan report must meet distinct criteria and has to be written in acquaintance to the AIS scale if intended to be used for correct ISS computation.

  17. The improved z-scan technique: potentialities of the additional right-angle scattering channel and the input polarization control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volchkov, S. S.; Yuvchenko, S. A.; Zimnyakov, D. A.

    2018-04-01

    The theoretical possibility of retrieving the additional information on the dielectric properties of the nanoparticles material by single scattering in suspensions was studied. We have demonstrated a method of recreating the dielectric function of the material in the fundamental absorption band using the closed aperture z-scanning with the simultaneous Rayleigh scattering intensity measurements and the polarization control of an input laser beam. A possibility to recreate the form factor of the non-spherical particles or anisotropic nonlinear sensitivity for the sphere-like particles was also observed.

  18. Potential effect of CAD systems on the detection of actionable nodules in chest CT scans during routine reporting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormanns, Dag; Beyer, Florian; Butzbach, Arnauld; Zierott, Livia; Heindel, Walter

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to determine the impact of two different CAD systems used as concur-rent reader for detection of actionable nodules (>4 mm) on the interpretation of chest CT scans during routine reporting. Fifty consecutive MDCT scans (1 mm or 1.25 mm slice thickness, 0.8 mm reconstruction increment) were se-lected from clinical routine. All cases were read by a resident and a staff radiologist, and a written report was available in the radiology information system (RIS). The RIS report mentioned at least one actionable pulmonary nodule in 18 cases (50%) and did not report any pulmonary nodule in the remaining 32 cases. Two different recent CAD systems were independently applied to the 50 CT scans as concurrent reader with two radiologists: Siemens LungCare NEV and MEDIAN CAD-Lung. Two radiologists independently reviewed the CAD results and determined if a CAD result was a true positive or a false positive finding. Patients were classified into two groups: in group A if at least one actionable nodule was detected and in group B if no actionable nodules were found. The effect of CAD on routine reporting was simulated as set union of the findings of routine reporting and CAD thus applying CAD as concurrent reader. According to the RIS report group A (patients with at least one actionable nodule) contained 18 cases (36% of all 50 cases), and group B contained 32 cases. Application of a CAD system as concurrent reader resulted in detec-tion of additional CT scans with actionable nodules and reclassification into group A in 16 resp. 18 cases (radi-ologist 1 resp. radiologist 2) with Siemens NEV and in 19 resp. 18 cases with MEDIAN CAD-Lung. In seven cases MEDIAN CAD-Lung and in four cases Siemens NEV reclassified a case into group A while the other CAD system missed the relevant finding. Sensitivity on a nodule (>4 mm) base was .45 for Siemens NEV and .55 for MEDIAN CAD-Lung; the difference was not yet significant (p=.077). In our study use of CAD

  19. Reflectance confocal microscope for imaging oral tissues in vivo, potentially with line scanning as a low-cost approach for clinical use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Gary; Abeytunge, Sanjeewa; Eastman, Zachary; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2012-02-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy with a line scanning approach potentially offers a smaller, simpler and less expensive approach than traditional methods of point scanning for imaging in living tissues. With one moving mechanical element (galvanometric scanner), a linear array detector and off-the-shelf optics, we designed a compact (102x102x76mm) line scanning confocal reflectance microscope (LSCRM) for imaging human tissues in vivo in a clinical setting. Custom-designed electronics, based on field programmable gate array (FPGA) logic has been developed. With 405 nm illumination and a custom objective lens of numerical aperture 0.5, lateral resolution was measured to be 0.8 um (calculated 0.64 um). The calculated optical sectioning is 3.2 um. Preliminary imaging shows nuclear and cellular detail in human skin and oral epithelium in vivo. Blood flow is also visualized in the deeper connective tissue (lamina propria) in oral mucosa. Since a line is confocal only in one dimension (parallel) but not in the other, the detection is more sensitive to multiply scattered out of focus background noise than in the traditional point scanning configuration. Based on the results of our translational studies thus far, a simpler, smaller and lower-cost approach based on a LSCRM appears to be promising for clinical imaging.

  20. Hippocampal Infusion of Zeta Inhibitory Peptide Impairs Recent, but Not Remote, Recognition Memory in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Jena B.; Ocampo, Amber C.; Broadbent, Nicola J.; Clark, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial memory in rodents can be erased following the infusion of zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP) into the dorsal hippocampus via indwelling guide cannulas. It is believed that ZIP impairs spatial memory by reversing established late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP). However, it is unclear whether other forms of hippocampus-dependent memory, such as recognition memory, are also supported by hippocampal LTP. In the current study, we tested recognition memory in rats following hippocampal ZIP infusion. In order to combat the limited targeting of infusions via cannula, we implemented a stereotaxic approach for infusing ZIP throughout the dorsal, intermediate, and ventral hippocampus. Rats infused with ZIP 3–7 days after training on the novel object recognition task exhibited impaired object recognition memory compared to control rats (those infused with aCSF). In contrast, rats infused with ZIP 1 month after training performed similar to control rats. The ability to form new memories after ZIP infusions remained intact. We suggest that enhanced recognition memory for recent events is supported by hippocampal LTP, which can be reversed by hippocampal ZIP infusion. PMID:26380123

  1. A gene variation of 14-3-3 zeta isoform in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Murakami, K; Situ, S Y; Eshete, F

    1996-11-14

    A variant form of 14-3-3 zeta was isolated from the rat hippocampal cDNA library. The cloned cDNA is 1687 bp in length and it contains an entire ORF (nt = 63-797) with 245 amino acids that is characteristic to 14-3-3 zeta subtype. By comparing with reported sequences of 14-3-3 zeta, we found three nucleotide substitutions within the coding sequence in our clone; C<-->T transition at nt = 325 and G<-->C transversions at nt = 387 and 388. Both are missense mutations, leading ACG (Thr) to ATG (Met) and CGT (Arg) to GCT (Ala) conversions at residue 88 and 109, respectively. Our results show that at least three different genetic variants of 14-3-3 zeta are present in rat species which results in protein variations. Such mutation in the amino acid sequence is an important indication of the diverse functions of this protein and may also contribute to the recent contradictory observations regarding the role of the 14-3-3 zeta subtype.

  2. Kinetic temperature in the interior of the zeta Ophiuchi cloud from Copernicus observations of interstellar C/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, T.P. Jr.

    1978-03-15

    The Copernicus ultraviolet telescope-spectrometer has been used to carry out sensitive scans of the D/sup 1/..sigma../sub u//sup +/-X/sup 1/..sigma../sup +/ (0-0) transition of C/sub 2/ at 2312 A in the spectrum of zeta Ophiuchi. An absorption feature was detected at the 4sigma level of significance at the position of the R(0) line, implying a column density of 1.22 x 10/sup 12/ cm/sup -2/ for the J=0 level. An upper limit on the R(2) line of 2.6 mA, yielding N(J=2) < or =1.66 x 10/sup 12/ cm/sup -2/ implies a rotational temperature of at most 22 K, with a high probabilitymore » that T/sub rot/< or =16 K. This represents the limit on the kinetic temperature of the ambient gas because radiative transitions between the rotational levels of this homonuclear molecule are forbidden. The total column density of C/sub 2/ is estimated to be at most 3.2 x 10/sup 12/, a factor of approx.4 below the abundance expected from a recent model calculation for the zeta Oph cloud. The discrepancy may be due to an incorrect branching ratio for the reaction CH)..-->..CH/sub 2/+H ..-->..+H/sub 2/, to the presence of greater depletion of carbon in the cloud core than assumed, to an underestimate of the photodissociation rate for C/sub 2/, or to an incorrect oscillator strength.« less

  3. CT Scans

    MedlinePlus

    ... cross-sectional pictures of your body. Doctors use CT scans to look for Broken bones Cancers Blood clots Signs of heart disease Internal bleeding During a CT scan, you lie still on a table. The table ...

  4. CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003330.htm CT scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A computed tomography (CT) scan is an imaging method that uses x- ...

  5. Bone scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... scan is an imaging test used to diagnose bone diseases and find out how severe they are. How ... a 3-phase bone scan. To evaluate metastatic bone disease, images are taken only after the 3- to ...

  6. Toxicity and Metabolism of Zeta-Cypermethrin in Field-Collected and Laboratory Strains of the Neotropical Predator Chrysoperla externa Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Haramboure, M; Smagghe, G; Niu, J; Christiaens, O; Spanoghe, P; Alzogaray, R A

    2017-06-01

    Resistance to pesticides has been studied in several insect pests, but information on the natural enemies of pests-including the Neotropical predator Chrysoperla externa Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), a major biological control agent in South America-is lacking. We report here a comparative study between a field-collected strain of C. externa subjected to monthly sprayings of pyrethroids and neonicotinoids and a laboratory strain without exposure to pesticides. The tolerance of both strains against zeta-cypermethrin was similar, and addition of the synergist piperonyl butoxide increased the toxicity by 30% in both strains. Gas-chromatography analyses and mixed-function-oxidase measurements indicated similar values in both strains and also confirmed the key role of oxidative metabolism in this species. Because C. externa has maintained a tolerance to zeta-cypermethrin without previous pesticide exposure, this species could potentially be mass-reared and released in fields in the presence of pesticide pressure.

  7. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Fractal diffusion coefficient from dynamical zeta functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristadoro, Giampaolo

    2006-03-01

    Dynamical zeta functions provide a powerful method to analyse low-dimensional dynamical systems when the underlying symbolic dynamics is under control. On the other hand, even simple one-dimensional maps can show an intricate structure of the grammar rules that may lead to a non-smooth dependence of global observables on parameters changes. A paradigmatic example is the fractal diffusion coefficient arising in a simple piecewise linear one-dimensional map of the real line. Using the Baladi-Ruelle generalization of the Milnor-Thurnston kneading determinant, we provide the exact dynamical zeta function for such a map and compute the diffusion coefficient from its smallest zero.

  8. Zeta Function Regularization in Casimir Effect Calculations and J. S. DOWKER's Contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, Emilio

    2012-06-01

    A summary of relevant contributions, ordered in time, to the subject of operator zeta functions and their application to physical issues is provided. The description ends with the seminal contributions of Stephen Hawking and Stuart Dowker and collaborators, considered by many authors as the actual starting point of the introduction of zeta function regularization methods in theoretical physics, in particular, for quantum vacuum fluctuation and Casimir effect calculations. After recalling a number of the strengths of this powerful and elegant method, some of its limitations are discussed. Finally, recent results of the so-called operator regularization procedure are presented.

  9. Zeta Function Regularization in Casimir Effect Calculations and J. S. Dowker's Contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, Emilio

    2012-07-01

    A summary of relevant contributions, ordered in time, to the subject of operator zeta functions and their application to physical issues is provided. The description ends with the seminal contributions of Stephen Hawking and Stuart Dowker and collaborators, considered by many authors as the actual starting point of the introduction of zeta function regularization methods in theoretical physics, in particular, for quantum vacuum fluctuation and Casimir effect calculations. After recalling a number of the strengths of this powerful and elegant method, some of its limitations are discussed. Finally, recent results of the so called operator regularization procedure are presented.

  10. The potential of positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) scanning as a detector of high-risk patients with oral infection during preoperative staging.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Keisuke; Nakano, Makoto; Sawaki, Koichi; Okazaki, Fumihiko; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Takashiba, Shogo

    2016-08-01

    It is sometimes difficult to determine during the preoperative period whether patients have oral infections; these patients need treatment to prevent oral infection-related complications from arising during medical therapies, such as cancer therapy and surgery. One of the reasons for this difficulty is that basic medical tests do not identify oral infections, including periodontitis and periapical periodontitis. In this report, we investigated the potential of positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) as a diagnostic tool in these patients. We evaluated eight patients during the preoperative period. All patients underwent PET/CT scanning and were identified as having the signs of oral infection, as evidenced by (18)F-fludeoxyglucose (FDG) localization in the oral regions. Periodontal examination and orthopantomogram evaluation showed severe infection or bone resorption in the oral regions. (18)F-FDG was localized in oral lesions, such as severe periodontitis, apical periodontitis, and pericoronitis of the third molar. The densities of (18)F-FDG were proportional to the degree of inflammation. PET/CT is a potential diagnostic tool for oral infections. It may be particularly useful in patients during preoperative staging, as they frequently undergo scanning at this time, and those identified as having oral infections at this time require treatment before cancer therapy or surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Measuring the Thickness and Potential Profiles of the Space-Charge Layer at Organic/Organic Interfaces under Illumination and in the Dark by Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Geoffrey A; Wu, Yanfei; Haugstad, Greg; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2016-03-09

    Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy was used to measure band-bending at the model donor/acceptor heterojunction poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/fullerene (C60). Specifically, we measured the variation in the surface potential of C60 films with increasing thicknesses grown on P3HT to produce a surface potential profile normal to the substrate both in the dark and under illumination. The results confirm a space-charge carrier region with a thickness of 10 nm, consistent with previous observations. We discuss the possibility that the domain size in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, which is comparable to the space-charge layer thickness, is actually partly responsible for less than expected electron/hole recombination rates.

  12. Conventional 4-field box radiotherapy technique for cancer cervix: potential for geographic miss without CECT scan-based planning.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Y S; Singh, S; Kumar, S; Lal, P

    2004-01-01

    The advantage of 4-field radiation to the pelvis is that the use of lateral portals spares a portion of the small bowel anteriorly and rectum posteriorly. The standard lateral portals defined in textbooks are not always adequate especially in advanced cancer cervix. An analysis was done to determine adequacy of margins of standard lateral pelvic portals with CECT defined tumor volumes. The study included 40 patients of FIGO stage IIB and IIIB treated definitively for cancer cervix between 1998 and 2000. An inadequate margin was defined if the cervical growth and uterus were not encompassed by the 95% isodose. An inadequate posterior margin was common with bulky disease (P = 0.06) and with retroverted uterus (P = 0.08). Menopausal status, FIGO stage, associated myoma, and age were of no apparent prognostic significance. Bulk retained significant on multivariate analysis. An inadequate anterior margin was common in premenopausal (P = 0.01); anteverted uterus (P = 0.02); associated myoma (P = 0.01); and younger patients (P = 0.03). It was not influenced by bulk or stage. Menopausal status and associated myoma retained significant on multivariate analysis. Without the knowledge of precise tumor volume, the 4-field technique with standard portals is potentially risky as it may under dose the tumor through lateral portals and the standard AP/ PA portals are a safer option.

  13. Mapping Protein-Protein Interactions of the Resistance-Related Bacterial Zeta Toxin-Epsilon Antitoxin Complex (ε₂ζ₂) with High Affinity Peptide Ligands Using Fluorescence Polarization.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bachiller, María Isabel; Brzozowska, Iwona; Odolczyk, Norbert; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Rademann, Jörg

    2016-07-16

    Toxin-antitoxin systems constitute a native survival strategy of pathogenic bacteria and thus are potential targets of antibiotic drugs. Here, we target the Zeta-Epsilon toxin-antitoxin system, which is responsible for the stable maintenance of certain multiresistance plasmids in Gram-positive bacteria. Peptide ligands were designed on the basis of the ε₂ζ₂ complex. Three α helices of Zeta forming the protein-protein interaction (PPI) site were selected and peptides were designed conserving the residues interacting with Epsilon antitoxin while substituting residues binding intramolecularly to other parts of Zeta. Designed peptides were synthesized with an N-terminal fluoresceinyl-carboxy-residue for binding assays and provided active ligands, which were used to define the hot spots of the ε₂ζ₂ complex. Further shortening and modification of the binding peptides provided ligands with affinities <100 nM, allowing us to determine the most relevant PPIs and implement a robust competition binding assay.

  14. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting cyanogenic potential of cassava root in an outbred population.

    PubMed

    Whankaew, Sukhuman; Poopear, Supannee; Kanjanawattanawong, Supanath; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Boonseng, Opas; Lightfoot, David A; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn

    2011-05-25

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) can produce cyanide, a toxic compound, without self-injury. That ability was called the cyanogenic potential (CN). This project aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the CN in an outbred population derived from 'Hanatee' × 'Huay Bong 60', two contrasting cultivars. CN was evaluated in 2008 and in 2009 at Rayong province, and in 2009 at Lop Buri province, Thailand. CN was measured using a picrate paper kit. QTL analysis affecting CN was performed with 303 SSR markers. The phenotypic values showed continuous variation with transgressive segregation events with more (115 ppm) and less CN (15 ppm) than either parent ('Hanatee' had 33 ppm and 'Huay Bong 60' had 95 ppm). The linkage map consisted of 303 SSR markers, on 27 linkage groups with a map that encompassed 1,328 cM. The average marker interval was 5.8 cM. Five QTL underlying CN were detected. CN08R1from 2008 at Rayong, CN09R1and CN09R2 from 2009 at Rayong, and CN09L1 and CN09L2 from 2009 at Lop Buri were mapped on linkage group 2, 5, 10 and 11, respectively. Among all the identified QTL, CN09R1 was the most significantly associated with the CN trait with LOD score 5.75 and explained the greatest percentage of phenotypic variation (%Expl.) of 26%. Five new QTL affecting CN were successfully identified from 4 linkage groups. Discovery of these QTL can provide useful markers to assist in cassava breeding and studying genes affecting the trait.

  15. Schizophrenia: A genome scan targets chromosomes 3p and 8p as potential sites of susceptibility genes

    SciTech Connect

    Pulver, A.E.; Lasseter, V.K.; Kasch, L.

    Using a systematically ascertained sample of 57 families, each having 2 or more members with a consensus diagnosis of schizophrenia (DSM-III-R criteria), we have carried out linkage studies of 520 loci, covering approximately 70% of the genome for susceptibility loci for schizophrenia. A two-stage strategy based on lod score thresholds from simulation studies of our sample identified regions for further exploration. In each region, a dense map of highly informative dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms (heterozygosity greater than .70) was analyzed using dominant, recessive, and {open_quotes}affected only{close_quotes} models and nonparametric sib pair identity-by-descent methods. For one region, 8p22-p21, affected sib-pair analyses gavemore » a P value = .0001, corresponding to a lod score approximately equal to 3.00. For 8p22-p21, the maximum two-point lod score occurred using the {open_quotes}affected only{close_quotes} recessive model (Z{sub max} = 2.35; {theta}{sub M} = {theta}{sub F}); allowing for a constant sex difference in recombination fractions found in reference pedigrees, Z{sub max} = 2.78 ({theta}{sub M}/{theta}{sub F} = 3). For a second region, 3p26-p24, the maximum two-point lod score was 2.34 ({open_quotes}affected only{close_quotes} dominant model), and the affected sib-pair P value was .01. These two regions are worthy of further exploration as potential sites of susceptibility genes for schizophrenia. 59 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  16. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting cyanogenic potential of cassava root in an outbred population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) can produce cyanide, a toxic compound, without self-injury. That ability was called the cyanogenic potential (CN). This project aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the CN in an outbred population derived from 'Hanatee' × 'Huay Bong 60', two contrasting cultivars. CN was evaluated in 2008 and in 2009 at Rayong province, and in 2009 at Lop Buri province, Thailand. CN was measured using a picrate paper kit. QTL analysis affecting CN was performed with 303 SSR markers. Results The phenotypic values showed continuous variation with transgressive segregation events with more (115 ppm) and less CN (15 ppm) than either parent ('Hanatee' had 33 ppm and 'Huay Bong 60' had 95 ppm). The linkage map consisted of 303 SSR markers, on 27 linkage groups with a map that encompassed 1,328 cM. The average marker interval was 5.8 cM. Five QTL underlying CN were detected. CN08R1from 2008 at Rayong, CN09R1and CN09R2 from 2009 at Rayong, and CN09L1 and CN09L2 from 2009 at Lop Buri were mapped on linkage group 2, 5, 10 and 11, respectively. Among all the identified QTL, CN09R1 was the most significantly associated with the CN trait with LOD score 5.75 and explained the greatest percentage of phenotypic variation (%Expl.) of 26%. Conclusions Five new QTL affecting CN were successfully identified from 4 linkage groups. Discovery of these QTL can provide useful markers to assist in cassava breeding and studying genes affecting the trait. PMID:21609492

  17. Whole genome scan reveals the genetic signature of African Ankole cattle breed and potential for higher quality beef.

    PubMed

    Taye, Mengistie; Kim, Jaemin; Yoon, Sook Hee; Lee, Wonseok; Hanotte, Olivier; Dessie, Tadelle; Kemp, Stephen; Mwai, Okeyo Ally; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Cho, Seoae; Oh, Sung Jong; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Heebal

    2017-02-09

    Africa is home to numerous cattle breeds whose diversity has been shaped by subtle combinations of human and natural selection. African Sanga cattle are an intermediate type of cattle resulting from interbreeding between Bos taurus and Bos indicus subspecies. Recently, research has asserted the potential of Sanga breeds for commercial beef production with better meat quality as compared to Bos indicus breeds. Here, we identified meat quality related gene regions that are positively selected in Ankole (Sanga) cattle breeds as compared to indicus (Boran, Ogaden, and Kenana) breeds using cross-population (XP-EHH and XP-CLR) statistical methods. We identified 238 (XP-EHH) and 213 (XP-CLR) positively selected genes, of which 97 were detected from both statistics. Among the genes obtained, we primarily reported those involved in different biological process and pathways associated with meat quality traits. Genes (CAPZB, COL9A2, PDGFRA, MAP3K5, ZNF410, and PKM2) involved in muscle structure and metabolism affect meat tenderness. Genes (PLA2G2A, PARK2, ZNF410, MAP2K3, PLCD3, PLCD1, and ROCK1) related to intramuscular fat (IMF) are involved in adipose metabolism and adipogenesis. MB and SLC48A1 affect meat color. In addition, we identified genes (TIMP2, PKM2, PRKG1, MAP3K5, and ATP8A1) related to feeding efficiency. Among the enriched Gene Ontology Biological Process (GO BP) terms, actin cytoskeleton organization, actin filament-based process, and protein ubiquitination are associated with meat tenderness whereas cellular component organization, negative regulation of actin filament depolymerization and negative regulation of protein complex disassembly are involved in adipocyte regulation. The MAPK pathway is responsible for cell proliferation and plays an important role in hyperplastic growth, which has a positive effect on meat tenderness. Results revealed several candidate genes positively selected in Ankole cattle in relation to meat quality characteristics. The genes

  18. Relationship between phospholipase C-zeta, semen parameters, and chromatin status.

    PubMed

    Tavalaee, Marziyeh; Kiani-Esfahani, Abbas; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad H

    2017-08-01

    The need for additional tests to complement basic sperm analysis in clinics is well appreciated. In this regard, a number of tests such as sperm DNA integrity test as a tool in diagnosis and treatment of infertility are suggested. But recent studies have focused on main sperm factors involved in oocyte activation such as phospholipase C-zeta (PLCζ) that initiate intracellular Ca 2+ signaling and embryogenesis. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between PLCζ, basic semen parameters, sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF), and protamine deficiency in men with normal (n=32) and abnormal (n=23) semen parameters. Unlike SDF and protamine deficiency, as negative factors related to fertility, the mean value of PLCζ as positive factor related to infertility was significantly lower in men with abnormal semen parameters compared to men with normal semen parameters. Significant correlations were also observed between sperm concentration, motility, and abnormal morphology with the percentage of PLCζ positive spermatozoa. In addition, logistic regression analysis revealed that sperm morphology is more predictive than sperm motility and concentration for PLCζ presence. In addition, a statistically significant negative relationship was observed between the percentage of PLCζ positive spermatozoa and SDF. These findings suggested during ICSI, selection of sperm based on morphology has a profound effect on its ability to induce oocyte activation based on the likelihood of PLCζ expression. Therefore, assessment of PLCζ as an index for fertilization potential of a semen sample in men with severe teratozoospermia may define individuals who are candidates for artificial oocyte activation (AOA) and may avoid failed fertilization post ICSI.

  19. Advanced scanning probe lithography.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ricardo; Knoll, Armin W; Riedo, Elisa

    2014-08-01

    The nanoscale control afforded by scanning probe microscopes has prompted the development of a wide variety of scanning-probe-based patterning methods. Some of these methods have demonstrated a high degree of robustness and patterning capabilities that are unmatched by other lithographic techniques. However, the limited throughput of scanning probe lithography has prevented its exploitation in technological applications. Here, we review the fundamentals of scanning probe lithography and its use in materials science and nanotechnology. We focus on robust methods, such as those based on thermal effects, chemical reactions and voltage-induced processes, that demonstrate a potential for applications.

  20. Asymptotic analysis on a pseudo-Hermitian Riemann-zeta Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Brody, Dorje C.

    2018-04-01

    The differential-equation eigenvalue problem associated with a recently-introduced Hamiltonian, whose eigenvalues correspond to the zeros of the Riemann zeta function, is analyzed using Fourier and WKB analysis. The Fourier analysis leads to a challenging open problem concerning the formulation of the eigenvalue problem in the momentum space. The WKB analysis gives the exact asymptotic behavior of the eigenfunction.

  1. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of glutathione transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1a-1a)

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, Christopher D.; Zhong, Guo; Smeltz, Marci

    2014-01-21

    Crystals of glutathione transferase zeta 1 were grown and shown to diffract X-rays to 3.1 Å resolution. They belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.0, b = 49.6, c = 54.6 Å, α = 82.9, β = 69.9, γ = 73.4°.

  2. Boundary Conditions for the Maintenance of Memory by PKM[zeta] in Neocortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shema, Reul; Hazvi, Shoshi; Sacktor, Todd C.; Dudai, Yadin

    2009-01-01

    We report here that ZIP, a selective inhibitor of the atypical protein kinase C isoform PKM[zeta], abolishes very long-term conditioned taste aversion (CTA) associations in the insular cortex of the behaving rat, at least 3 mo after encoding. The effect of ZIP is not replicated by a general serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor that is…

  3. On small values of the Riemann zeta-function at Gram points

    SciTech Connect

    Korolev, M A

    In this paper, we prove the existence of a large set of Gram points t{sub n} such that the values ζ(0.5+it{sub n}) are 'anomalously' close to zero. A lower bound for the negative 'discrete' moment of the Riemann zeta-function on the critical line is also given. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  4. The white dwarf companion of the B a 2 star zeta Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1981-01-01

    The Ba II star zeta Cap has a white dwarf companion. Its T (sub eff) is determined to be 22000 K, its mass is approximately one solar mass. The importance of this finding for the explanation of abundance peculiarities is discussed.

  5. Stimulation and inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis by organosolv lignins as determined by zeta potential and hydrophobicity

    Treesearch

    Yang Huang; Shaolong Sun; Chen Huang; Qiang Yong; Thomas Elder; Maobing Tu

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lignin typically inhibits enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass, but certain organosolv lignins or lignosulfonates enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between lignin and cellulases play critical roles in the enzymatic hydrolysis process. However, how to incorporate these two...

  6. FT-IR and Zeta potential measurements on TiO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Jaiveer; Rathore, Ravi; Kaurav, Netram, E-mail: netramkaurav@yahoo.co.uk

    2016-05-23

    In the present investigation, ultrafine TiO particles have been synthesized successfully by thermal decomposition method. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. As-synthesized TiO nanoparticles have a cubic structure as characterized by power X-ray diffraction (XRD), which shows that TiO nanoparticles have narrow size distribution with particle size 11.5 nm. FTIR data shows a strong peak at 1300 cm{sup −1}, assignable to the Ti-O stretching vibrations mode.

  7. Line identifications in the ultraviolet spectra of Tau Herculis, B5 IV, and Zeta Draconis, B6 III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underhill, A. B.; Adelman, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tables of the lines found on two tracings each of the ultraviolet spectrum of Tau Her, B5 IV, and Zeta Dra, B6 III, made by the Copernicus satellite and possible identifications are given. The ranges 1025-1451A for Tau Her and 1035 to 1425A for Zeta Dra are covered by the U2 spectrometer at a resolution of 0.2A; the ranges 2028 to 2959A for Tau Her and 2000 to 3000A for Zeta Dra are covered by the V2 spectrometer at a resolution of 0.4A. The observed density of lines in the U2 region is 1.1 lines/A for Tau Her and 1.7 lines/A for Zeta Dra. In the V2 region it is 0.8 lines/A for Tau Her and 0.9 lines/A for Zeta Dra.

  8. Bone Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor might order additional imaging called single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). This imaging can help ... radioactivity from the tracers is usually completely eliminated two days after the scan. Results A doctor who ...

  9. Gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... material called gallium and is a type of nuclear medicine exam. A related test is gallium scan ... Brown ML, Forstrom LA, et al. Society of nuclear medicine procedure guideline for gallium scintigraphy in inflammation. ...

  10. MRI Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from torn ...

  11. Carbon and nitrogen abundances in the supergiants HD 93840 and zeta Per

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Derck; Altner, Bruce; Wynne, David; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.

    1990-01-01

    The BN supergiant HD 93840 is shown to have the same temperature and surface gravity as the normal Bi Ib zeta Per. Differential abundance analysis of their C 4 and N 5 wind line profiles are found. The results are independent of the usual model atmosphere analyses and, therefore, a valuable check on them. Ratios for the C and N surface abundances in HD 93840 compared to Per of 1:10 and 4.6:1 are found respectively. By introducing a simple model for the compositions of both atmospheres the fraction of material in each atmosphere which has undergone CNO processing, more than 90 percent for HD 93840 and less than about 15 percent for zeta Per, is derived.

  12. Molecular basis of length polymorphism in the human zeta-globin gene complex.

    PubMed Central

    Goodbourn, S E; Higgs, D R; Clegg, J B; Weatherall, D J

    1983-01-01

    The length polymorphism between the human zeta-globin gene and its pseudogene is caused by an allele-specific variation in the copy number of a tandemly repeating 36-base-pair sequence. This sequence is related to a tandemly repeated 14-base-pair sequence in the 5' flanking region of the human insulin gene, which is known to cause length polymorphism, and to a repetitive sequence in intervening sequence (IVS) 1 of the pseudo-zeta-globin gene. Evidence is presented that the latter is also of variable length, probably because of differences in the copy number of the tandem repeat. The homology between the three length polymorphisms may be an indication of the presence of a more widespread group of related sequences in the human genome, which might be useful for generalized linkage studies. PMID:6308667

  13. Averages of ratios of the Riemann zeta-function and correlations of divisor sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrey, Brian; Keating, Jonathan P.

    2017-10-01

    Nonlinearity has published articles containing a significant number-theoretic component since the journal was first established. We examine one thread, concerning the statistics of the zeros of the Riemann zeta function. We extend this by establishing a connection between the ratios conjecture for the Riemann zeta-function and a conjecture concerning correlations of convolutions of Möbius and divisor functions. Specifically, we prove that the ratios conjecture and an arithmetic correlations conjecture imply the same result. This provides new support for the ratios conjecture, which previously had been motivated by analogy with formulae in random matrix theory and by a heuristic recipe. Our main theorem generalises a recent calculation pertaining to the special case of two-over-two ratios.

  14. Three proposed B-associations in the vicinity of zeta puppis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upton, E. K. L.

    1971-01-01

    There appear to be three loose B associations in the general vicinity of zeta Puppis, all at distances of approximately 300 to 400 parsecs from the sun. Their diameters, perpendicular to the line of sight, are 20 to 50 parsecs, and their separations are of similar size. All three are situated in bright areas of the Gum nebula. The proposed associations A and C lie in the two brightest parts of the nebula. The three associations are not all of the same age. Association C is about 50 million years old, whereas A and B are decidedly younger. The ages of A and B cannot be determined from the present data, as their color-magnitude diagrams show no clear turnoff from the main sequence. Association A may be young enough to qualify as the birthplace of zeta Puppis. There is no other identifiable association in which zeta Puppis can have originated, unless its age is substantially greater than the 3 million years assumed.

  15. Infrared Scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    United Scanning Technologies, Inc.'s Infrared thermography is a relatively new noncontact, nondestructive inspection and testing tool which makes temperatures visible to the human eye. Infrared scanning devices produce images that show, by color or black and white shading differences, heat losses through damaged or inadequately insulated walls or roofs. The MISS Aeroscan services are designed to take the guesswork out of industrial roof maintenance and provide companies big savings by identifying the location of moisture damage from roof leaks, effectively targeting maintenance attention.

  16. Examination of the Potential of Structure-from-Motion (SfM) Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) for Rapid Nondestructive Field Measurement of Grass Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, S. D.; Roy, D. P.; Sathyachandran, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the above ground biomass of grasslands is needed for a number of applications including monitoring grass productivity, wildlife habitat, carbon storage, and fuel bed characteristics. Destructive biomass measurements, although highly accurate, are time consuming and are not easily undertaken on a repeat basis or over large areas. A number of non-destructive techniques have been developed that relate vegetation structural properties to above ground biomass. Conventionally, the disc pasture meter is used for rapid grass biomass estimation and uses the settling height of a disk placed on the grass and allometry. Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) are two technologies that have the potential to yield highly precise three-dimensional (3D) structural measurements of vegetation quite rapidly. Recent advances in computing and data acquisition technologies have led to the successful application of TLS and SfM in woody biomass estimation, but application in grassland systems remains largely untested. The Canopy Biomass Lidar (CBL) is one such advance and is a highly portable and relatively inexpensive TLS unit allowing for rapid and widespread data collection. We investigated the efficacy of a CBL unit as well as SfM in allometric estimation of grassland biomass from volumetric measurements derived from these two technologies, both separately and through the merging of the two independently generated 3D point clouds. The results are compared to biomass estimation from a pasture disc meter. Best use practices for grassland applications of these technologies are also presented.

  17. CT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... people who may have internal injuries from car accidents or other types of trauma. A CT scan can be used to visualize nearly all parts of the body and is used to diagnose disease or injury as well as to plan medical, surgical or radiation treatment. Why it's done Your doctor may recommend ...

  18. Sinus CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - sinus; Computed axial tomography scan - sinus; Computed tomography scan - sinus; CT scan - sinus ... Risks for a CT scan includes: Being exposed to radiation Allergic reaction to contrast dye CT scans expose you to more radiation than regular ...

  19. Pelvic CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - pelvis; Computed axial tomography scan - pelvis; Computed tomography scan - pelvis; CT scan - pelvis ... Risks of CT scans include: Being exposed to radiation Allergic reaction to contrast dye CT scans do expose you to more radiation ...

  20. Shoulder CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - shoulder; Computed axial tomography scan - shoulder; Computed tomography scan - shoulder; CT scan - shoulder ... Risks of CT scans include: Being exposed to radiation Allergic reaction to contrast dye Birth defect if done during pregnancy CT scans ...

  1. Improved image quality and diagnostic potential using ultra-high-resolution computed tomography of the lung with small scan FOV: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yali; Hamal, Preeti; You, Xiaofang; Mao, Haixia; Li, Fei; Sun, Xiwen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether CT imaging using an ultra-high-resolution CT (UHRCT) scan with a small scan field of view (FOV) provides higher image quality and helps to reduce the follow-up period compared with a conventional high-resolution CT (CHRCT) scan. We identified patients with at least one pulmonary nodule at our hospital from July 2015 to November 2015. CHRCT and UHRCT scans were conducted in all enrolled patients. Three experienced radiologists evaluated the image quality using a 5-point score and made diagnoses. The paired images were displayed side by side in a random manner and annotations of scan information were removed. The following parameters including image quality, diagnostic confidence of radiologists, follow-up recommendations and diagnostic accuracy were assessed. A total of 52 patients (62 nodules) were included in this study. UHRCT scan provides a better image quality regarding the margin of nodules and solid internal component compared to that of CHRCT (P < 0.05). Readers have higher diagnostic confidence based on the UHRCT images than of CHRCT images (P<0.05). The follow-up recommendations were significantly different between UHRCT and CHRCT images (P<0.05). Compared with the surgical pathological findings, UHRCT had a relative higher diagnostic accuracy than CHRCT (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that the UHRCT prototype scanner provides a better image quality of subsolid nodules compared to CHRCT and contributes significantly to reduce the patients' follow-up period. PMID:28231320

  2. Relations between elliptic multiple zeta values and a special derivation algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broedel, Johannes; Matthes, Nils; Schlotterer, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    We investigate relations between elliptic multiple zeta values (eMZVs) and describe a method to derive the number of indecomposable elements of given weight and length. Our method is based on representing eMZVs as iterated integrals over Eisenstein series and exploiting the connection with a special derivation algebra. Its commutator relations give rise to constraints on the iterated integrals over Eisenstein series relevant for eMZVs and thereby allow to count the indecomposable representatives. Conversely, the above connection suggests apparently new relations in the derivation algebra. Under https://tools.aei.mpg.de/emzv we provide relations for eMZVs over a wide range of weights and lengths.

  3. The 1979-1980 eclipse of Zeta Aurigae. I - The circumstellar envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    A model of the K-star wind far from the K star, and its interaction with the B star, has been derived from a study of Mg(+) and C(+++) resonance lines in the spectrum of Zeta Aurigae during 1979 and 1980. A mass loss rate from the K star of 2 x 10 to the -8th solar masses/year is suggested by the data; the rate of accretion of the K supergiant's material by the B star then being such that the matter accreted over a period of ten years is of the order of the total mass of the photosphere of the B star.

  4. A novel approach to measure elemental concentrations in cation exchange resins using XRF-scanning technique, and its potential in water pollution studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jyh-Jaan; Lin, Sheng-Chi; Löwemark, Ludvig; Liou, Ya-Hsuan; Chang, Queenie; Chang, Tsun-Kuo; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Croudace, Ian W.

    2016-04-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core-scanning is a fast, and convenient technique to assess elemental variations for a wide variety of research topics. However, the XRF scanning counts are often considered a semi-quantitative measurement due to possible absorption or scattering caused by down core variability in physical properties. To overcome this problem and extend the applications of XRF-scanning to water pollution studies, we propose to use cation exchange resin (IR-120) as an "elemental carrier", and to analyze the resins using the Itrax-XRF core scanner. The use of resin minimizes the matrix effects during the measurements, and can be employed in the field in great numbers due to its low price. Therefore, the fast, and non-destructive XRF-scanning technique can provide a quick and economical method to analyze environmental pollution via absorption in the resin. Five standard resin samples were scanned by the Itrax-XRF core scanner at different exposure times (1 s, 5 s, 15 s, 30 s, 100 s) to allow the comparisons of scanning counts with the absolute concentrations. The regression lines and correlation coefficients of elements that are generally used in pollution studies (Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) were examined for the different exposure times. The result shows that within the test range (from few ppm to thousands ppm), the correlation coefficients are all higher than 0.97, even at the shortest exposure time (1 s). Therefore, we propose to use this method in the field to monitor for example sewage disposal events. The low price of resin, and fast, multi elements and precise XRF-scanning technique provide a viable, cost- and time-effective approach that allows large sample numbers to be processed. In this way, the properties and sources of wastewater pollution can be traced for the purpose of environmental monitoring and environmental forensics.

  5. Differential interaction and aggregation of 3-repeat and 4-repeat tau isoforms with 14-3-3{zeta} protein

    SciTech Connect

    Sadik, Golam; Tanaka, Toshihisa, E-mail: tanaka@psy.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kato, Kiyoko

    2009-05-22

    Tau isoforms, 3-repeat (3R) and 4-repeat tau (4R), are differentially involved in neuronal development and in several tauopathies. 14-3-3 protein binds to tau and 14-3-3/tau association has been found both in the development and in tauopathies. To understand the role of 14-3-3 in the differential regulation of tau isoforms, we have performed studies on the interaction and aggregation of 3R-tau and 4R-tau, either phosphorylated or unphosphorylated, with 14-3-3{zeta}. We show by surface plasmon resonance studies that the interaction between unphosphorylated 3R-tau and 14-3-3{zeta} is {approx}3-folds higher than that between unphosphorylated 4R-tau and 14-3-3{zeta}. Phosphorylation of tau by protein kinase Amore » (PKA) increases the affinity of both 3R- and 4R-tau for 14-3-3{zeta} to a similar level. An in vitro aggregation assay employing both transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed the aggregation of unphosphorylated 4R-tau to be significantly higher than that of unphosphorylated 3R-tau following the induction of 14-3-3{zeta}. The filaments formed from 3R- and 4R-tau were almost similar in morphology. In contrast, the aggregation of both 3R- and 4R-tau was reduced to a similar low level after phosphorylation with PKA. Taken together, these results suggest that 14-3-3{zeta} exhibits a similar role for tau isoforms after PKA-phosphorylation, but a differential role for unphosphorylated tau. The significant aggregation of 4R-tau by 14-3-3{zeta} suggests that 14-3-3 may act as an inducer in the generation of 4R-tau-predominant neurofibrillary tangles in tauopathies.« less

  6. The Structural Evolution of Milky-Way-Like Star-Forming Galaxies zeta is approximately 1.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Shannon G.; Fumagalli, Mattia; Franx, Marun; VanDokkum, Pieter G.; VanDerWel, Arjen; Leja, Joel; Labbe, Ivo; Brammr, Gabriel; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We follow the structural evolution of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) like the Milky Way by selecting progenitors to zeta is approx. 1.3 based on the stellar mass growth inferred from the evolution of the star-forming sequence. We select our sample from the 3D-HT survey, which utilizes spectroscopy from the HST-WFC3 G141 near-IR grism and enables precise redshift measurements for our sample of SFGs. Structural properties are obtained from Sersic profile fits to CANDELS WFC3 imaging. The progenitors of zeta = 0 SFGs with stellar mass M = 10(exp 10.5) solar mass are typically half as massive at zeta is approx. 1. This late-time stellar mass grow is consistent with recent studies that employ abundance matching techniques. The descendant SFGs at zeta is approx. 0 have grown in half-light radius by a factor of approx. 1.4 zeta is approx. 1. The half-light radius grows with stellar mass as r(sub e) alpha stellar mass(exp 0.29). While most of the stellar mass is clearly assembling at large radii, the mass surface density profiles reveal ongoing mass growth also in the central regions where bulges and pseudobulges are common features in present day late-type galaxies. Some portion of this growth in the central regions is due to star formation as recent observations of H(a) maps for SFGs at zeta approx. are found to be extended but centrally peaked. Connecting our lookback study with galactic archeology, we find the stellar mass surface density at R - 8 kkpc to have increased by a factor of approx. 2 since zeta is approx. 1, in good agreement with measurements derived for the solar neighborhood of the Milky Way.

  7. Linking playa surface dust emission potential to feedbacks between surface moisture and salt crust expansion through high resolution terrestrial laser scanning measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nield, J. M.; King, J.; Wiggs, G.

    2012-12-01

    The dust emissivity of salt pans (or playas) can be significant but is controlled by interactions between wind erosivity, surface moisture, salt chemistry and crust morphology. These surface properties influence the aeolian transport threshold and can be highly variable over both short temporal and spatial scales. In the past, field studies have been hampered by practical difficulties in accurately measuring properties controlling sediment availability at the surface in high resolution. Studies typically therefore, have investigated large scale monthly or seasonal change using remote sensing and assume a homogeneous surface when predicting dust emissivity. Here we present the first high resolution measurements (sub-cm) of salt crust expansion related to changes in diurnal moisture over daily and weekly time periods using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS, ground-based LiDAR) on Sua Pan, Botswana. The TLS measures both elevation and relative surface moisture change simultaneously, without disturbing the surface. Measurement sequences enable the variability in aeolian sediment availability to be quantified along with temporal feedbacks associated with crust degradation. On crusts with well-developed polygon ridges (high aerodynamic and surface roughness), daily surface expansion was greater than 30mm. The greatest surface change occurred overnight on the upper, exposed sections of the ridges, particularly when surface temperatures dropping below 10°C. These areas also experienced the greatest moisture variation and became increasingly moist overnight in response to an increase in relative humidity. In contrast, during daylight hours, the ridge areas were drier than the lower lying inter-ridge areas. Positive feedbacks between surface topography and moisture reinforced the maximum diurnal moisture variation at ridge peaks, encouraging crust thrusting due to overnight salt hydration, further enhancing the surface, and therefore, aerodynamic roughness. These feedbacks

  8. Organization of the human [zeta]-crystallin/quinone reductase gene (CRYZ)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, P.; Rao, P.V.; Zigler, J.S. Jr.

    1994-05-15

    [zeta]-Crystallin is a protein highly expressed in the lens of guinea pigs and camels, where it comprises about 10% of the total soluble protein. It has recently been characterized as a novel quinone oxidoreductase present in a variety of mammalian tissues. The authors report here the isolation and characterization of the human [zeta]-crystallin gene (CRYZ) and its processed pseudogene. The functional gene is composed of nine exons and spans about 20 kb. The 5[prime]-flanking region of the gene is rich in G and C (58%) and lacks TATA and CAAT boxes. Previous analysis of the guinea pig gene revealed themore » presence of two different promoters, one responsible for the high lens-specific expression and the other for expression at the enzymatic level in numerous tissues. Comparative analysis with the guinea pig gene shows that a region of [approximately]2.5 kb that includes the promoter responsible for the high expression in the lens in guinea pig is not present in the human gene. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.« less

  9. Casimir force in brane worlds: Coinciding results from Green's and zeta function approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Linares, Roman; Morales-Tecotl, Hugo A.; Pedraza, Omar

    2010-06-15

    Casimir force encodes the structure of the field modes as vacuum fluctuations and so it is sensitive to the extra dimensions of brane worlds. Now, in flat spacetimes of arbitrary dimension the two standard approaches to the Casimir force, Green's function, and zeta function yield the same result, but for brane world models this was only assumed. In this work we show that both approaches yield the same Casimir force in the case of universal extra dimensions and Randall-Sundrum scenarios with one and two branes added by p compact dimensions. Essentially, the details of the mode eigenfunctions that enter themore » Casimir force in the Green's function approach get removed due to their orthogonality relations with a measure involving the right hypervolume of the plates, and this leaves just the contribution coming from the zeta function approach. The present analysis corrects previous results showing a difference between the two approaches for the single brane Randall-Sundrum; this was due to an erroneous hypervolume of the plates introduced by the authors when using the Green's function. For all the models we discuss here, the resulting Casimir force can be neatly expressed in terms of two four-dimensional Casimir force contributions: one for the massless mode and the other for a tower of massive modes associated with the extra dimensions.« less

  10. An interstellar cloud density from Copernicus observations of CO in the spectrum of Zeta Ophiuchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. M.; Stecher, T. P.; Krishna Swamy, K. S.

    1978-01-01

    Interstellar CO absorption bands in Copernicus spectra of Zeta Oph have been studied. Absorption profiles, computed under the assumption that excitation is due to collisions with H2 molecules and interaction with the 3-K background radiation field, were fitted to the reduced data of nine bands. When a gas kinetic temperature of 56 K is assumed, the best-fit condition implies a hydrogen-nucleus density of 120 per cu cm, a CO column density of 1.2 by 10 to the 15th power per sq cm, and a radial-velocity dispersion of 0.9 km/s. The relevance of these results to existing ideas concerning the Zeta Oph interstellar clouds is discussed. It is suggested that the strongest interstellar component is not circumstellar in origin but is instead part of a supernova remnant. Simple calculations are made to establish the plausibility of the supernova-remnant identification. This suggestion is also supported by Heiles's (1976) 21-cm pictures.

  11. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... CT scan makes detailed pictures of the body very quickly. The test may help look for: An abscess ...

  12. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... Healing problems or scar tissue following surgery A CT scan may also be used to guide a surgeon ...

  13. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... conditions: Birth (congenital) defect of the head or brain Brain infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside ...

  14. Implementation of the Baldwin-Barth turbulence model into the ZETA code and its diagnosis. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, Scott L.

    1993-01-01

    The Baldwin-Barth turbulence model was implemented into Zeta, a time-accurate, zonal, integro-differential code for incompressible laminar and turbulent flows. The implementation procedure is patterned after the model subroutine in ARC2D. The results of ZETA with the Baldwin-Barth turbulence model were compared with experimental data, with ZETA using Baldwin-Lomax model, and with ARC2D using the Baldwin-Barth model. The Baldwin-Barth model subroutine was tested by inputting an ARC2D velocity solution of an NACA-0012 airfoil at R(sub e) = 3.9 x 10(exp 6) and alpha = 5 deg. The resultant turbulent viscosity and Reynolds stresses compared favorably with the original data. For the same grid having grid points inside the laminar sublayer, which is necessary due to the one-equation nature of the model, ZETA however predicts early separation. It was found that the current ZETA has problem with such a fine grid. Further work is in progress to solve this problem.

  15. Interstellar detection of the intersystem line Si II lambda 2335 toward zeta Ophiuchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelli, Jason A.; Sofia, Ulysses J.; Savage, Blair D.; Keenan, Francis P.; Dufton, Philip L.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the detection of the weak intersystem transistion of Si II lambda 2335 A in the sight line toward zeta Oph using the Ech-B mode (3.5 km/s resolution) of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph. The high-quality spectrum is characterized by an empirically measured signal-to-noise of 450, in excellent agreement with that expected from photon-statistics. The measured equivalent width of the Si II line is W(sub lambda) = 0.48 +/- 0.12 mA. Using the new experimental f-value of Calamai, Smith, and Bergeson, we find a Si II column density of 2.34 (+/- 0.58) x 10(exp 15) atoms/sq cm and (Si/H)(sub zeta Oph) = 1.78 (+/- 0.44) x 10(exp -6) for the principal absorbing component(s) at v(sub sun) approx. = -15 km/s. Analysis of the Si II lambda 1808 absorption over the same velocity range using the new experimental f-value of Bergeson & Lawler yields a column density (corrected for saturation) that is consistent within the weak line errors and confirms the relative accuracies of these new f-values. Furthermore, these results indicate that accurate abundances can now be derived for Si II, particularly from the weak Si II lambda 2335 A since it is free of saturation effects. For the zeta Oph v(sub sun) approx. = -15 km/s component(s), we find that greater than 95% of the available cosmic abundance (i.e. the 1989 meteoritic abundances of Anders & Grevesse) of Mg, Fe, and Si is 'missing' from the gas phase and is presumably locked up in the dust. These elements are present in the dust grains in ratios of Fe/Si approximately equals 0.9 and Mg/Si approximately equals 1.1, consistent with the ratio of their cosmic abundances. These ratios are in sharp contrast to more diffuse clouds like those seen toward the high-latitude halo star HD 93521 where in the dust Fe/Si approximately equals 1.8 and Mg/Si approximately equals 2.1.

  16. Catalytic properties of an expressed and purified higher plant type zeta-carotene desaturase from Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Breitenbach, J; Kuntz, M; Takaichi, S; Sandmann, G

    1999-10-01

    The zeta-carotene desaturase from Capsicum annuum (EC 1.14.99.-) was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized biochemically. The enzyme acts as a monomer with lipophilic quinones as cofactors. Km values for the substrate zeta-carotene or the intermediate neurosporene in the two-step desaturation reaction are almost identical. Product analysis showed that different lycopene isomers are formed, including substantial amounts of the all-trans form, together with 7,7',9,9'-tetracis prolycopene via the corresponding neurosporene isomers. The application of different geometric isomers as substrates revealed that the zeta-carotene desaturase has no preference for certain isomers and that the nature of the isomers formed during catalysis depends strictly on the isomeric composition of the substrate.

  17. High mobility group box-1 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C zeta and secreted in colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hanna; Park, Minhee; Shin, Nara

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific enzyme for HMGB1 phosphorylation and its secretion is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of PKC-{zeta} leads to significant reduction of the secreted HMGB1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation of specific site of HMGB1 redirects its secretion in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of PKC-{zeta} in cancers explains the enhanced HMGB1 secretion. -- Abstract: High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein, is overexpressed and secreted in cancer cells. Phosphorylation on two different nuclear localization signal regions are known to be important for the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic transport and secretion of HMGB1. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanism of HMGB1 modifications and its subsequentmore » secretion from cancer cells. To identify the specific enzyme and important sites for HMGB1 phosphorylation, we screened the protein kinase C (PKC) family in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116) for HMGB1 binding by pull-down experiments using a 3XFLAG-HMGB1 construct. Strong interactions between atypical PKCs (PKC-{zeta}, {lambda}, and {iota}) and cytoplasmic HMGB1 were observed in HCT116 cells. We further identified the most critical PKC isotype that regulates HMGB1 secretion is PKC-{zeta} by using PKC inhibitors and siRNA experiments. The serine residues at S39, S53 and S181 of HMGB1 were related to enhancing HMGB1 secretion. We also demonstrated overexpression and activation of PKC-{zeta} in colon cancer tissues. Our findings suggest that PKC-{zeta} is involved in the phosphorylation of HMGB1, and the phosphorylation of specific serine residues in the nuclear localization signal regions is related to enhanced HMGB1 secretion in colon cancer cells.« less

  18. Detection of boron, cobalt, and other weak interstellar lines toward Zeta Ophiuchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Federman, S. R.; Sheffer, Y.; Lambert, D. L.; Gilliland, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    Numerous weak lines from interstellar atomic species toward Zeta Ophiuchi were observed with the Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph. Of particular note are the first interstellar detection of cobalt and the detection of boron in this sight line. These measurements provide estimates for the amount of depletion for the two elements. Boron, a volatile, and cobalt, a refractory element, display the depletion pattern found by Savage et al. (1992). The abundance of phosphorus in the H II region associated with the star was obtained from a detection of P III. Additional weak lines from S I, C I, Ni II, and Cu II were detected for the first time; these lines provide the basis for refinements in oscillator strength and column density. Analysis of the neutral sulfur data indicates that the atomic gas is more widely distributed than the molecular material in the main component.

  19. The Italian cross-sectional survey of the management of bone metastasis: ZeTa study

    PubMed Central

    Santini, Daniele; Bertoldo, Francesco; Dell'Aquila, Emanuela; Cecchini, Isabella; Fregosi, Stefania; Bortolussi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies have emphasized the importance of the maintenance of bone health in a comprehensive cancer care. However, no survey about approach to bone metastasis care is currently available. The ZeTa study provides a picture of the Italian oncologists' therapeutics habits in this area, in a real clinical-practice scenario. Design This study was based on online questionnaire-based interviews to Italian oncologists that included 145 questions. The aim was to collect information on the treatment of bone metastasis, the current use of bisphosphonates, the awareness of guidelines and the concerns about ONJ, the use of vitamin D supplementation. Results 445 oncologists were contacted, 283 agreed to participate. The results show that the current management of bone metastasis is still sub-optimal, as the recommendations from current clinical guidelines are not completely followed by all specialists. Conclusions This survey highlights the urgent need to improve management of bone metastasis in cancer patients. PMID:26909253

  20. Moments of zeta functions associated to hyperelliptic curves over finite fields

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Michael O.; Wu, Kaiyu

    2015-01-01

    Let q be an odd prime power, and denote the set of square-free monic polynomials D(x)∈Fq[x] of degree d. Katz and Sarnak showed that the moments, over , of the zeta functions associated to the curves y2=D(x), evaluated at the central point, tend, as , to the moments of characteristic polynomials, evaluated at the central point, of matrices in USp(2⌊(d−1)/2⌋). Using techniques that were originally developed for studying moments of L-functions over number fields, Andrade and Keating conjectured an asymptotic formula for the moments for q fixed and . We provide theoretical and numerical evidence in favour of their conjecture. In some cases, we are able to work out exact formulae for the moments and use these to precisely determine the size of the remainder term in the predicted moments. PMID:25802418

  1. Interstellar gas phase abundance of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, copper, gallium, germanium, and krypton toward Zeta Ophiuchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelli, Jason A.; Savage, Blair D.; Ebbets, Dennis C.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of weak (less than 10 mA) UV interstellar absorption line data obtained for the line of sight to the O9.5 IV star Zeta Oph is presented. Measurements of weak semiforbidden lines of N I, O I, Cu II, and a new UV detection of Na I are reported along with a small upper limit for C II. Interstellar detections of Ga II, Ge II, and Kr I are also presented. Ga, Ge, and Kr represent the heaviest elements detected in the ISM. A comparison of the derived column densities to cosmic abundances shows Ga to be depleted by about -1.2 dex while Ge is overabundant by +0.2 dex. Assuming Kr to be undepleted, a logarithmic cosmic abundance of Kr/H = 2.95 is obtained on the scale where H = 12.00.

  2. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gallbladder scan; Biliary scan; Cholescintigraphy; HIDA; Hepatobiliary nuclear imaging scan ... test results. This test is combined with other imaging (such as CT or ultrasound). After the gallbladder ...

  3. Lumbar spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... CT scans rapidly makes detailed pictures of the lower back. The test may be used to look for: ...

  4. Multiwavelength Characterization of an ACT-Selected, Lensed Dusty Star-Forming Galaxy at zeta 2.64

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts-Borsani, G. W.; Jimenez-Donaire, M. J.; Dapra, M.; Alatalo, K.; Aretxaga, I.; Alvarez-Marquez, J.; Baker, A. J.; Fujimoto, S.; Gallardo, P. A.; Gralla, M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present C I(21) and multi-transition C-12 O observations of a dusty star-forming galaxy, ACT J2029+0120,which we spectroscopically confirm to lie at zeta = 2.64. We detect CO(3-2), CO(5-4), CO(7-6), CO(8-7), and C I(2-1) at high significance, tentatively detect HCO+(4-3), and place strong upper limits on the integrated strength of dense gas tracers (HCN(4-3) and CS(7-6)). Multi-transition CO observations and dense gas tracers can provide valuable constraints on the molecular gas content and excitation conditions in high-redshift galaxies. We therefore use this unique data set to construct a CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the source, which is most consistent with that of a ULIRG Seyfert or QSO host object in the taxonomy of the Herschel Comprehensive ULIRG Emission Survey. We employ RADEX models to fit the peak of the CO SLED, inferring a temperature of T approximately 117 K and n(sub H2) approximately 10(exp5) cm(exp -3), most consistent with a ULIRGQSO object and the presence of high-density tracers. We also find that the velocity width of the C I line is potentially larger than seen in all CO transitions forth is object, and that the L'(sub Ci(2-1))/L'(sub CO(3-2))ratio is also larger than seen in other lensed and unlensed submillimeter galaxies and QSO hosts; if confirmed, this anomaly could be an effect of differential lensing of a shocked molecular outflow.

  5. Influence of Adsorbed Hydroxyl and Carbon Monoxide on Potential-Induced Reconstruction of Au(100) as Examined by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    years have witnessed substantial advances in our knowledge of metal reconstruction in electrochemical systems, primarily for low-index gold surfaces in...index gold surfaces, reconstruction can be formed or removed by applying electrode potentials corresponding to negative or positive electronic charge...potential and gold oxidation regions, for Au(100) in 0.1 M KOH, obtained in a conventional electrochemical cell (solid trace). The voltammetric

  6. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 18F-CP-18, a potential apoptosis imaging agent, as determined from PET/CT scans in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Doss, Mohan; Kolb, Hartmuth C; Walsh, Joseph C; Mocharla, Vani; Fan, Hong; Chaudhary, Ashok; Zhu, Zhihong; Alpaugh, R Katherine; Lango, Miriam N; Yu, Jian Q

    2013-12-01

    (18)F-CP-18, or (18S,21S,24S,27S,30S)-27-(2-carboxyethyl)-21-(carboxymethyl)-30-((2S,3R,4R,5R,6S)-6-((2-(4-(3-F18-fluoropropyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)acetamido)methyl)-3,4,5-trihydroxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-carboxamido)-24-isopropyl-18-methyl-17,20,23,26,29-pentaoxo-4,7,10,13-tetraoxa-16,19,22,25,28-pentaazadotriacontane-1,32-dioic acid, is being evaluated as a tissue apoptosis marker for PET imaging. The purpose of this study was to determine the biodistribution and estimate the normal-organ radiation-absorbed doses and effective dose from (18)F-CP-18. Successive whole-body PET/CT scans were obtained at approximately 7, 45, 90, 130, and 170 min after intravenous injection of (18)F-CP-18 in 7 healthy human volunteers. Blood samples and urine were collected between the PET/CT scans, and the biostability of (18)F-CP-18 was assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The PET scans were analyzed to determine the radiotracer uptake in different organs. OLINDA/EXM software was used to calculate human radiation doses based on the biodistribution of the tracer. (18)F-CP-18 was 54% intact in human blood at 135 min after injection. The tracer cleared rapidly from the blood pool with a half-life of approximately 30 min. Relatively high (18)F-CP-18 uptake was observed in the kidneys and bladder, with diffuse uptake in the liver and heart. The mean standardized uptake values (SUVs) in the bladder, kidneys, heart, and liver at around 50 min after injection were approximately 65, 6, 1.5, and 1.5, respectively. The calculated effective dose was 38 ± 4 μSv/MBq, with the urinary bladder wall having the highest absorbed dose at 536 ± 61 μGy/MBq using a 4.8-h bladder-voiding interval for the male phantom. For a 1-h voiding interval, these doses were reduced to 15 ± 2 μSv/MBq and 142 ± 15 μGy/MBq, respectively. For a typical injected activity of 555 MBq, the effective dose would be 21.1 ± 2.2 mSv for the 4.8-h interval, reduced to 8.3 ± 1.1 mSv for the 1-h interval

  7. Sulfacetamide loaded Eudragit® RL100 nanosuspension with potential for ocular delivery.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Bivash; Alexander, Kenneth S; Riga, Alan T

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric nanosuspension was prepared from an inert polymer resin (Eudragit® RL100) with the aim of improving the availability of sulfacetamide at the intraocular level to combat bacterial infections. Nanosuspensions were prepared by the solvent displacement method using acetone and Pluronic® F108 solution. Drug to polymer ratio was selected as formulation variable. Characterization of the nanosupension was performed by measuring particle size, zeta potential, Fourier Transform infrared spectra (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD), drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. In addition, freeze drying, redispersibility and short term stability study at room temperature and at 4(0)C were performed. Spherical, uniform particles (size below 500 nm) with positive zeta potential were obtained. No significant chemical interactions between drug and polymer were observed in the solid state characterization of the freeze dried nanosuspension (FDN). Drug entrapment efficiency of the selected batch was increased by changing the pH of the external phase and addition of polymethyl methacrylate in the formulation. The prepared nanosuspension exhibited good stability after storage at room temperature and at 4(0)C. Sucrose and Mannitol were used as cryoprotectants and exhibited good water redispersibility of the FDN. The results indicate that the formulation of sulfacetamide in Eudragit® RL100 nanosuspension could be utilized as potential delivery system for treating ocular bacterial infections.

  8. Inhibition of hydroxyapatite growth by casein, a potential salivary phosphoprotein homologue.

    PubMed

    Romero, Maria J R H; Nakashima, Syozi; Nikaido, Toru; Ichinose, Shizuko; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2015-08-01

    Salivary phosphoproteins are essential in tooth mineral regulation but are often overlooked in vitro. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of casein, as a salivary phosphoprotein homologue, on the deposition and growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) on tooth surfaces. Hydroxyapatite growth was quantified using seeded crystal systems. Artificial saliva (AS) containing HA powder and 0, 10, 20, 50, or 100 μg ml(-1) of casein, or 100 μg ml(-1) of dephosphorylated casein (Dcasein), was incubated for 0-8 h at 37°C, pH 7.2. Calcium concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Surface precipitation of HA on bovine enamel and dentine blocks, incubated in similar conditions for 7 d, was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Casein adsorption was assessed using modified Lowry assays and zeta-potential measurements. The AAS results revealed a concentration-dependent inhibition of calcium consumption. Hydroxyapatite precipitation occurred when no casein was present, whereas precipitation of HA was apparently completely inhibited in casein-containing groups. Adsorption data demonstrated increasingly negative zeta-potential with increased casein concentration and an affinity constant similar to proline-rich proteins with Langmuir modelling. Casein inhibited the deposition and growth of HA primarily through the binding of esterized phosphate to HA active sites, indicating its potential as a mineral-regulating salivary phosphoprotein homologue in vitro. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  9. Antiholomorphic perturbations of Weierstrass Zeta functions and Green’s function on tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Konstantin; Mamayusupov, Khudoyor; Mukherjee, Sabyasachi; Schleicher, Dierk

    2017-08-01

    In Bergweiler and Eremenko (2016 Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 144 2911-22), Bergweiler and Eremenko computed the number of critical points of the Green’s function on a torus by investigating the dynamics of a certain family of antiholomorphic meromorphic functions on tori. They also observed that hyperbolic maps are dense in this family of meromorphic functions in a rather trivial way. In this paper, we study the parameter space of this family of meromorphic functions, which can be written as antiholomorphic perturbations of Weierstrass Zeta functions. On the one hand, we give a complete topological description of the hyperbolic components and their boundaries, and on the other hand, we show that these sets admit natural parametrizations by associated dynamical invariants. This settles a conjecture, made in Lin and Wang (2010 Ann. Math. 172 911-54), on the topology of the regions in the upper half plane {H} where the number of critical points of the Green’s function remains constant.

  10. Tc Trends and Terrestrial Planet Formation: The Case of Zeta Reticuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adibekyan, Vardan; Delgado-Mena, Elisa; Figueira, Pedro; Sousa, Sergio; Santos, Nuno; Faria, Joao; González Hernández, Jonay; Israelian, Garik; Harutyunyan, Gohar; Suárez-Andrés, Lucia; Hakobyan, Artur

    2016-11-01

    During the last decade astronomers have been trying to search for chemical signatures of terrestrial planet formation in the atmospheres of the hosting stars. Several studies suggested that the chemical abundance trend with the condensation temperature, Tc, is a signature of rocky planet formation. In particular, it was suggested that the Sun shows 'peculiar' chemical abundances due to the presence of the terrestrial planets in our solar-system. However, the rocky material accretion or the trap of rocky materials in terrestrial planets is not the only explanation for the chemical 'peculiarity' of the Sun, or other Sun-like stars with planets. In this talk I madea very brief review of this topic, and presented our last results for the particular case of Zeta Reticuli binary system: A very interesting and well-known system (known in science fiction and ufology as the world of Grey Aliens, or Reticulans) where one of the components hosts an exo-Kuiper belt, and the other component is a 'single', 'lonely' star.

  11. A study of EUV emission from the O4f star Zeta Puppis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, Wayne L.; Vallerga, John

    1995-01-01

    Our 20 ks observation did not allow us to carry out our primary objective, i.e., to test the limitations of deeply embedded EUV and X-ray sources. However, it did provide a very useful constraint in our analysis of a newly acquired high S/N ROSAT PSPC X-ray spectrum of Zeta Pup. In addition, modifications to our stellar wind opacity code have been preformed to investigate the sensitivity of the EUV opacity energy range to different photospheric model flux inputs and different wind structures. These analyses provided the justification for a 140 ks follow up EUVE Cycle III observation of this star. We have recently been informed that our requested observation has been accepted as a Type 1 target for Cycle III. The remainder of this report focuses on the following: (1) a brief background on the status of X-ray emission from OB stars; (2) a discussion on the importance of EUV observations; (3) a discussion of our scientific objectives; and (4) a summary of our technical approach for our Cycle III observation (including the predicted EUV counts for various lines.)

  12. A Search for EUV Emission from the O4f Star Zeta Puppis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, Wayne L.; Vallerga, John

    1996-01-01

    We obtained a 140 ks EUVE observation of the O4f star, zeta Puppis. Because of its low ISM column density and highly ionized stellar wind, a unique EUV window is accessible for viewing between 128 to 140 A, suggesting that this star may he the only O star observable with the EUVE. Although no SW spectrometer wavelength bin had a signal to noise greater than 3, a bin at 136 A had a signal to noise of 2.4. This bin is where models predict the brightest line due to OV emission should occur. We present several EUV line emission models. These models were constrained by fitting the ROSAT PSPC X-ray data and our EUVE data. If the OV emission is real, the best fits to the data suggest that there are discrepancies in our current understanding of EUV/X-ray production mechanisms. In particular, the emission measure of the EUV source is found to be much greater than the total wind emission measure, suggesting that the EUV shock must produce a very large density enhancement. In addition, the location of the EUV and X-ray shocks are found to be separated by approx. 0.3 stellar radii, but the EUV emission region is found to be approx. 400 times larger than the X-ray emission region. We also discuss the implications of a null detection and present relevant upper limits.

  13. Pleiotrophin and its receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta as regulators of angiogenesis and cancer.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Evangelia; Pantazaka, Evangelia; Castana, Penelope; Tsalios, Thomas; Polyzos, Alexandros; Beis, Dimitris

    2016-12-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted heparin-binding growth factor that through its receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta (RPTPβ/ζ) has a significant regulatory effect on angiogenesis and cancer. PTN and RPTPβ/ζ are over-expressed in several types of human cancers and regulate important cancer cell functions in vitro and cancer growth in vivo. This review begins with a brief introduction of PTN and the regulation of its expression. PTN receptors are described with special emphasis on RPTPβ/ζ, which also interacts with and/or affects the function of other important targets for cancer therapy, such as vascular endothelial growth factor A, α ν β 3 and cell surface nucleolin. PTN biological activities related to angiogenesis and cancer are extensively discussed. Finally, up to date approaches of targeting PTN or RPTPβ/ζ for cancer treatment are presented. Insights into the regulatory role of PTN/RPTPβ/ζ on angiogenesis will be extremely beneficial for future development of alternative anti-angiogenic approaches in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Optical methods and differential scanning calorimetry as a potential tool for discrimination of olive oils (extra virgin and mix with vegetable oils)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolova, Kr.; Yovcheva, T.; Marudova, M.; Eftimov, T.; Bodurov, I.; Viraneva, A.; Vlaeva, I.

    2016-03-01

    Eleven samples from olive oil have been investigated using four physical methods - refractive index measurement, fluorescence spectra, color parameters and differential scanning colorimetry. In pomace olive oil (POO) and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) the oleic acid (65.24 %-78.40 %) predominates over palmitic (10.47 %-15.07 %) and linoleic (5.26 %-13.92 %) acids. The fluorescence spectra contain three peaks related to oxidation products at about λ = (500-540) nm, chlorophyll content at about λ = (675-680) nm and non determined pigments at λ = (700-750) nm. The melting point for EVOO and POO is between -1 °C and -6 °C. In contrast, the salad olive oils melt between -24 °C and -30 °C. The refractive index for EVOO is lower than that for mixed olive oils. The proposed physical methods could be used for fast and simple detection of vegetable oils in EVOO without use of chemical substances. The experimental results are in accordance with those obtained by chemical analysis.

  15. The Potential Protective Effects of 2-aminoethyl Diphenylborinate against Inner Ear Acoustic Trauma: Experimental Study Using Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kaymakçı, Mustafa; Acar, Mustafa; Burukoglu, Dilek; Kutlu, Hatice Mehtap; Shojaolsadati, Paria; Cingi, Cemal; Bayar Muluk, Nuray

    2015-04-01

    In this prospective experimental study, we investigated the preventive effects of 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB) in rats exposed to acoustic trauma (AT). Light microscopic, transmission electron microscopic (TEM), and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examinations were performed. Eighteen healthy Wistar albino rats were divided into the following three groups: groups 1 (control), 2 (AT), and 3 (AT+APB). The rats in groups 2 and 3 were exposed to AT; in group 3 rats, 2-APB at 2 mg/kg was also administered, initially transperitoneally, after 10 min. During the light microscopic, TEM, and SEM examinations, the structures of the cochlear hair cells, stereocilia, and Deiter's cells were normal in the control group. In the AT group, the organ of Corti and proximate structures were damaged according to the light microscopic examination. During the TEM examination, intense cellular damage and stereocilia loss were detected, while during the SEM examination, extensive damage and stereocilia loss were observed. Decreased damage with preserved cochlear structure was detected during the light microscopic examination in the AT+APB group than in the AT group. During the TEM and SEM examinations, although stereocilia loss occurred in the AT+APB group, near-normal cell, cilia, and tectorial membrane structures were also observed in the AT+APB group compared with the AT group. 2-APB may have protective effects against AT damage of the cochlea. The main mechanism underlying this effect is the inhibition of the vasoconstriction of the cochlear spiral modiolar artery, thereby improving cochlear blood flow. We conclude that 2-APB may also be effective if used immediately following AT.

  16. Assessing calves as carriers of Cryptosporidium and Giardia with zoonotic potential on dairy and beef farms within a water catchment area by mutation scanning.

    PubMed

    Abeywardena, Harshanie; Jex, Aaron R; Firestone, Simon M; McPhee, Sandra; Driessen, Nicole; Koehler, Anson V; Haydon, Shane R; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Stevens, Melita A; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we undertook a molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in calves on three dairy and two beef farms within an open drinking water catchment area (Melbourne, Australia). Faecal samples (n = 474) were collected from calves at two time points (5 months apart) and tested using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing phylogenetic approach, employing regions within the genes of small subunit (SSU) of ribosomal RNA (designated partial SSU), 60 kDa glycoprotein (pgp60) and triose phosphate isomerase (ptpi) as genetic markers. Using partial SSU, the C. bovis, C. parvum, C. ryanae and a new genotype of Cryptosporidium were characterised from totals of 74 (15.6%), 35 (7.3%), 37 (7.8%) and 9 (1.9%) samples, respectively. Using pgp60, C. parvum genotype IIa subgenotype A18G3R1 was detected in 29 samples. Using ptpi, G. duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in totals of 10 (2.1%) and 130 (27.4%) samples, respectively. The present study showed that a considerable proportion of dairy and beef calves in this open water catchment region excreted Cryptosporidium (i.e. subgenotype IIaA18G3R1) and Giardia (e.g. assemblage A) that are consistent with those infecting humans, inferring that they are of zoonotic importance. Future work should focus on exploring, in a temporal and spatial way, whether these parasites occur in the environment and water of the catchment reservoir. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... An abdominal CT scan makes detailed pictures of the structures inside your belly very quickly. This test may be used to look ...

  18. Cervical spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... cervical spine; Computed tomography scan of cervical spine; CT scan of cervical spine; Neck CT scan ... table that slides into the center of the CT scanner. Once you are inside the scanner, the ...

  19. Biparietal/transverse abdominal diameter ratio ≤ 1: potential marker for open spina bifida at 11-13-week scan.

    PubMed

    Simon, E G; Arthuis, C J; Haddad, G; Bertrand, P; Perrotin, F

    2015-03-01

    In the first trimester of pregnancy, a biparietal diameter (BPD) below the 5(th) percentile is a simple marker that enables the prenatal detection of half of all cases of open spina bifida. We hypothesized that relating the BPD measurement to the transverse abdominal diameter (TAD) might be another simple and effective screening method. In this study we assessed the performance of using the BPD/TAD ratio during the first trimester of pregnancy in screening for open spina bifida. A total of 20,551 first-trimester ultrasound scans (11-13 weeks' gestation), performed between 2000 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively; there were 26 cases of open spina bifida and 17,665 unaffected pregnancies with a crown-rump length of 45-84 mm and a record of both BPD and TAD measurements. The mean (± SD) BPD/TAD ratio was 1.00 ± 0.06 for fetuses with spina bifida and 1.13 ± 0.06 for those without (P < 0.0001). A BPD ≤ 5(th) percentile enabled the prenatal detection of 46.2% of spina bifida cases, while a BPD/TAD ratio of ≤ 1.00 detected 69.2%. If we considered cases in which either BPD was ≤ 5(th) percentile or BPD/TAD ratio was ≤ 1, we identified 76.9% of cases. In the latter case, the false-positive rate was 5.1%, while that for using a combination of both BPD ≤ 5th percentile and BPD/TAD ratio ≤ 1 was 0.6%, with a sensitivity of 38.5%. The positive predictive value of using a combination of BPD ≤ 5th percentile and BPD/TAD ratio ≤ 1 for detecting spina bifida was 8.5%. Between 11 and 13 weeks' gestation, relating BPD to TAD improves considerably the diagnostic performance of using BPD measurement alone in screening for open spina bifida. Screening using this marker is simple and applicable to a large population. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. 14-3-3 sigma and 14-3-3 zeta plays an opposite role in cell growth inhibition mediated by transforming growth factor-beta 1.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hye-Young; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Bae, Eun-Jin; Kim, Shin-Tae; Lee, Ho-Jae; Kim, Seong-Jin; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2010-03-01

    The expression of 14-3-3 proteins is dysregulated in various types of cancer. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of 14-3-3 zeta and 14-3-3 sigma on cell growth inhibition mediated by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1). Mouse mammary epithelial cells (Eph4) that are transformed with oncogenic c-H-Ras (EpRas) and no longer sensitive to TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition displayed increased expression of 14-3-3 zeta and decreased expression of 14-3-3 sigma compared with parental Eph4 cells. Using small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown and overexpression of 14-3-3 sigma or 14-3-3 zeta, we showed that 14-3-3 sigma is required for TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition whereas 14-3-3 zeta negatively modulates this growth inhibitory response. Notably, overexpression of 14-3-3 zeta increased the level of Smad3 protein that is phosphorylated at linker regions and cannot mediate the TGF-beta1 growth inhibitory response. Consistent with this finding, mutation of the 14-3-3 zeta phosphorylation sites in Smad3 markedly reduced the 14-3-3 zeta-mediated inhibition of TGF-beta1-induced p15 promoter-reporter activity and cell cycle arrest, suggesting that these residues are critical targets of 14-3-3 zeta in the suppression of TGF-beta1-mediated growth. Taken together, our findings indicate that dysregulation of 14-3-3 sigma or 14-3-3 zeta contributes to TGF-beta1 resistance in cancer cells.

  1. High-resolution ultraviolet observations of interstellar lines toward Zeta Persei observed with the balloon-borne ultraviolet stellar spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, T.P.; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.; Joseph, C.L.

    1987-10-01

    The balloon-borne ultraviolet stellar spectrometer payload has been used to obtain high-resolution data on interstellar absorption lines toward Zeta Per. The only lines clearly present in the 2150-2450 region were several Fe II features, which show double structure. The two velocity components were sufficiently well separated that it was possible to construct separate curves of growth to derive the Fe II column densities for the individual components. These column densities and the component velocity separation were then used to compute a realistic two-component curve of growth for the line of sight to Zeta Per, which was then used to reanalyzemore » existing ultraviolet data from Copernicus. The results were generally similar to an earlier two-component analysis of the Copernicus data, with the important exception that the silicon depletion increased from near zero to about 1 dex. This makes the Zeta Per depletion pattern quite similar to those derived for other reddened lines of sight, supporting the viewpoint that the general diffuse interstellar medium has a nearly constant pattern of depletions. 31 references.« less

  2. A new approach to triggering mechanism of volcano landslides based on zeta potential and surface free energy balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, I.; Ontiveros-Ortega, A.; Calero, J.; Romero, C.

    2018-01-01

    The layers of Almagre (iron-rich deposits) from Tenerife Island are the result of thermal metamorphism of soils in contact with lava flow (1073-1273 K). These layers of small thickness relative to the basaltic wash, are interesting for geotechnical study, because the stability of the deposits is determined by the weakest element, in this case Almagre, which acts as a sliding plane. The flow of maritime air over the hillsides of the volcanic islands increases the content of cations in ashes deposits. This modifies the superficial properties of material that composes the substratum. This modification affects the retention of water and the cohesion of material making up the deposit. The results show that the presence of sodium and magnesium increased the hydrophobicity of the material, which had a weak water retention capacity and strong cohesion at basic pH. When there is iron in solution, repulsion between the particles is greater than one obtained with other studied electrolytes. Hence, the deposit is less stable, and Almagre under saturated water conditions constitutes an ideal layer for landslides.

  3. Zeta Potential and Aggregation of Virus-Like Particle of Human Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus Under Different Physicochemical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Samandoulgou, Idrissa; Fliss, Ismaïl; Jean, Julie

    2015-09-01

    Although the spread of human norovirus reportedly depends on its ability to bind to food materials, the mechanism of the phenomenon remains unknown. Since protein size and electrical charge are reportedly important parameters in their adsorption, the current work is focused on determining human noroviruses isoelectric point (IEP), electrical charge and aggregate size at different pH, ionic strength (IS), and temperature. Using the baculovirus expression vector system, we produced and purified virus-like particles (VLPs) of GI.1 and GII.4 noroviruses and feline calicivirus, determined their IEP, and examined their size and electrical charge using a Zetasizer Nano ZS apparatus. Shape and size were also visualized using transmission electron microscopy. IEPs were found close to pH 4. Net charge increased as the pH deviated from the IEP. VLPs were negatively charged at all IS tested and showed a gradual decrease in charge with increasing IS. At low temperature, VLPs were 20-45 nm in diameter at pH far from their IEP and under almost all IS conditions, while aggregates appeared at or near the IEP. At increased temperatures, aggregates appeared at or near the IEP and at high IS. Aggregation at the IEP was also confirmed by microscopy. This suggests that electrostatic interactions would be the predominant factor in VLPs adhesion at pH far from 4 and at low ionic strength. In contrast, non-electrostatic interactions would prevail at around pH 4 and would be reinforced by aggregates, since size generally favors multiple bonding with sorbents.

  4. 14-3-3 zeta is a molecular target in guggulsterone induced apoptosis in head and neck cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Macha, Muzafar A; Matta, Ajay; Chauhan, Ss; Siu, Kw Michael; Ralhan, Ranju

    2010-11-30

    The five-year survival rates for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients are less than 50%, and the prognosis has not improved, despite advancements in standard multi-modality therapies. Hence major emphasis is being laid on identification of novel molecular targets and development of multi-targeted therapies. 14-3-3 zeta, a multifunctional phospho-serine/phospho-threonine binding protein, is emerging as an effector of pro-survival signaling by binding to several proteins involved in apoptosis (Bad, FKHRL1 and ASK1) and may serve as an appropriate target for head and neck cancer therapy. Herein, we determined effect of guggulsterone (GS), a farnesoid X receptor antagonist, on 14-3-3 zeta associated molecular pathways for abrogation of apoptosis in head and neck cancer cells. Head and neck cancer cells were treated with guggulsterone (GS). Effect of GS-treatment was evaluated using cell viability (MTT) assay and apoptosis was verified by annexin V, DNA fragmentation and M30 CytoDeath antibody assay. Mechanism of GS-induced apoptosis was determined by western blotting and co-IP assays using specific antibodies. Using in vitro models of head and neck cancer, we showed 14-3-3 zeta as a key player regulating apoptosis in GS treated SCC4 cells. Treatment with GS releases BAD from the inhibitory action of 14-3-3 zeta in proliferating HNSCC cells by activating protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). These events initiate the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, as revealed by increased levels of cytochrome c in cytoplasmic extracts of GS-treated SCC4 cells. In addition, GS treatment significantly reduced the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2, xIAP, Mcl1, survivin, cyclin D1 and c-myc, thus committing cells to apoptosis. These events were followed by activation of caspase 9, caspase 8 and caspase 3 leading to cleavage of its downstream target, poly-ADP-ribose phosphate (PARP). GS targets 14-3-3 zeta associated cellular pathways for reducing

  5. Gadopentetate dimeglumine is potentially an alternative contrast agent for three-dimensional computed tomography angiography with multidetector-row helical scanning.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Atul K; Alberico, Ronald A; Litwin, Alan; Kanter, Peter; Grossman, Zachary D

    2002-01-01

    To demonstrate that gadopentetate dimeglumine is potentially an alternative contrast medium for computed tomographic angiography (CTA). One 12.2-kg Beagle dog was studied as proof of principle; the cervical vessels of three adult human patients were imaged for presurgical planning of the neck. Gadopentetate dimeglumine, 0.5 mol/l (Berlex Laboratories, Wayne, NJ, U.S.A.), a LightSpeed QX/i CT (General Electric Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI, U.S.A.), and an Ultra Sparc II (SUN Microsystems, Santa Clara, CA, U.S.A.) running Advantage Windows 3.1 (General Electric Medical Systems) were used. Sufficient enhancement for CTA of the thoracic aorta, cervical vessels, and abdominal vessels was produced in the experimental dog, and the cervical vessels were clearly defined in all three patients. In that subset of patients with contraindications to iodinated contrast medium and for whom magnetic resonance angiography is inappropriate, gadopentetate dimeglumine may be an alternative contrast medium for CTA.

  6. Clinical Trials Using Anti-CD19/CD28/CD3zeta CAR Gammaretroviral Vector-transduced Autologous T Lymphocytes KTE-C19

    Cancer.gov

    NCI supports clinical trials that test new and more effective ways to treat cancer. Find clinical trials studying anti-cd19/cd28/cd3zeta car gammaretroviral vector-transduced autologous t lymphocytes kte-c19.

  7. Developing an Environmental Scanning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.

    A step-by-step approach is provided for developing an environmental scanning system for colleges and universities to assist them in planning for the future. The objectives of such a system are to detect social, scientific, economic, technical, and political interactions important to the organization; define potential threats and opportunities from…

  8. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  9. Heart CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Computed tomography scan - heart; Calcium scoring; Multi-detector CT scan - heart; Electron beam computed tomography - heart; Agatston ... table that slides into the center of the CT scanner. You will lie on your back with ...

  10. Body CT (CAT Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Computed tomography (CT) of the body uses ... of CT Scanning of the Body? What is CT Scanning of the Body? Computed tomography, more commonly ...

  11. Lung PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging; PET/CT - lung; Solitary pulmonary nodule - PET ... minutes. PET scans are performed along with a CT scan. This is because the combined information from ...

  12. Segmented all-electron Gaussian basis sets of double and triple zeta qualities for Fr, Ra, and Ac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, C. T.; de Oliveira, A. Z.; Ferreira, I. B.; Jorge, F. E.; Martins, L. S. C.

    2017-05-01

    Segmented all-electron basis sets of valence double and triple zeta qualities plus polarization functions for the elements Fr, Ra, and Ac are generated using non-relativistic and Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) Hamiltonians. The sets are augmented with diffuse functions with the purpose to describe appropriately the electrons far from the nuclei. At the DKH-B3LYP level, first atomic ionization energies and bond lengths, dissociation energies, and polarizabilities of a sample of diatomics are calculated. Comparison with theoretical and experimental data available in the literature is carried out. It is verified that despite the small sizes of the basis sets, they are yet reliable.

  13. In vitro phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 by protein kinase C-zeta: functional analysis and identification of novel phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Sommerfeld, Mark R; Metzger, Sabine; Stosik, Magdalene; Tennagels, Norbert; Eckel, Jürgen

    2004-05-18

    Protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-zeta) participates both in downstream insulin signaling and in the negative feedback control of insulin action. Here we used an in vitro approach to identify PKC-zeta phosphorylation sites within insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and to characterize the functional implications. A recombinant IRS-1 fragment (rIRS-1(449)(-)(664)) containing major tyrosine motifs for interaction with phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase strongly associated to the p85alpha subunit of PI 3-kinase after Tyr phosphorylation by the insulin receptor. Phosphorylation of rIRS-1(449)(-)(664) by PKC-zeta induced a prominent inhibition of this process with a mixture of classical PKC isoforms being less effective. Both PKC-zeta and the classical isoforms phosphorylated rIRS-1(449)(-)(664) on Ser(612). However, modification of this residue did not reduce the affinity of p85alpha binding to pTyr-containing peptides (amino acids 605-615 of rat IRS-1), as determined by surface plasmon resonance. rIRS-1(449)(-)(664) was then phosphorylated by PKC-zeta using [(32)P]ATP and subjected to tryptic phosphopeptide mapping based on two-dimensional HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry. Ser(498) and Ser(570) were identified as novel phosphoserine sites targeted by PKC-zeta. Both sites were additionally confirmed by phosphopeptide mapping of the corresponding Ser --> Ala mutants of rIRS-1(449)(-)(664). Ser(570) was specifically targeted by PKC-zeta, as shown by immunoblotting with a phosphospecific antiserum against Ser(570) of IRS-1. Binding of p85alpha to the S570A mutant was less susceptible to inhibition by PKC-zeta, when compared to the S612A mutant. In conclusion, our in vitro data demonstrate a strong inhibitory action of PKC-zeta at the level of IRS-1/PI 3-kinase interaction involving multiple serine phosphorylation sites. Whereas Ser(612) appears not to participate in the negative control of insulin signaling, Ser(570) may at least partly contribute to this process.

  14. Scanning Seismic Intrusion Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Scanning seismic intrusion detector employs array of automatically or manually scanned sensors to determine approximate location of intruder. Automatic-scanning feature enables one operator to tend system of many sensors. Typical sensors used with new system are moving-coil seismic pickups. Detector finds uses in industrial security systems.

  15. Identification and clarification of the role of key active site residues in bacterial glutathione S-transferase zeta/maleylpyruvate isomerase

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ti; Li, De-Feng; Zhou, Ning-Yi, E-mail: n.zhou@pentium.whiov.ac.cn

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Application of site-directed mutagenesis to probe the active site residues of glutathione-dependent maleylpyruvate isomerase. {yields} Two conserved residues, Arg8 and Arg176, in zeta class glutathione S-transferases are critical for maleylpyruvate orientation and enolization. {yields} Arg109, found exclusively in NagL, participates in k{sub cat} regulation. {yields} The T11A mutant exhibited a significantly decreased K{sub m} value for glutathione with little impact on maleylpyruvate kinetics. {yields} The Thr11 residue appears to have significance in the evolution of glutathione S-transferase classes. -- Abstract: The maleylpyruvate isomerase NagL from Ralstonia sp. strain U2, which has been structurally characterized previously, catalyzes the isomerizationmore » of maleylpyruvate to fumarylpyruvate. It belongs to the class zeta glutathione S-transferases (GSTZs), part of the cytosolic GST family (cGSTs). In this study, site-directed mutagenesis was conducted to probe the functions of 13 putative active site residues. Steady-state kinetic information for mutants in the reduced glutathione (GSH) binding site, suggested that (a) Gln64 and Asp102 interact directly with the glutamyl moiety of glutathione, (b) Gln49 and Gln64 are involved in a potential electron-sharing network that influences the ionization of the GSH thiol. The information also suggests that (c) His38, Asn108 and Arg109 interact with the GSH glycine moiety, (d) His104 has a role in the ionization of the GSH sulfur and the stabilization of the maleyl terminal carboxyl group in the reaction intermediate and (e) Arg110 influences the electron distribution in the active site and therefore the ionization of the GSH thiolate. Kinetic data for mutants altered in the substrate-binding site imply that (a) Arg8 and Arg176 are critical for maleylpyruvate orientation and enolization, and (b) Arg109 (exclusive to NagL) participates in k{sub cat} regulation. Surprisingly, the T11A mutant

  16. Mouse manipulation through single-switch scanning.

    PubMed

    Blackstien-Adler, Susie; Shein, Fraser; Quintal, Janet; Birch, Shae; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Given the current extensive reliance on the graphical user interface, independent access to computer software requires that users be able to manipulate a pointing device of some type (e.g., mouse, trackball) or be able to emulate a mouse by some other means (e.g., scanning). The purpose of the present study was to identify one or more optimal single-switch scanning mouse emulation strategies. Four alternative scanning strategies (continuous Cartesian, discrete Cartesian, rotational, and hybrid quadrant/continuous Cartesian) were selected for testing based on current market availability as well as on theoretical considerations of their potential speed and accuracy. Each strategy was evaluated using a repeated measures study design by means of a test program that permitted mouse emulation via any one of four scanning strategies in a motivating environment; response speed and accuracy could be automatically recorded and considered in view of the motor, cognitive, and perceptual demands of each scanning strategy. Ten individuals whose disabilities required them to operate a computer via single-switch scanning participated in the study. Results indicated that Cartesian scanning was the preferred and most effective scanning strategy. There were no significant differences between results from the Continuous Cartesian and Discrete Cartesian scanning strategies. Rotational scanning was quite slow with respect to the other strategies, although it was equally accurate. Hybrid Quadrant scanning improved access time but at the cost of fewer correct selections. These results demonstrated the importance of testing and comparing alternate single-switch scanning strategies.

  17. Zeta Sperm Selection Improves Pregnancy Rate and Alters Sex Ratio in Male Factor Infertility Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein; Deemeh, Mohammad Reza; Tavalaee, Marziyeh; Sekhavati, Mohammad Hadi; Gourabi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background Selection of sperm for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is usually considered as the ultimate technique to alleviate male-factor infertility. In routine ICSI, selection is based on morphology and viability which does not necessarily preclude the chance injection of DNA-damaged or apoptotic sperm into the oocyte. Sperm with high negative surface electrical charge, named “Zeta potential”, are mature and more likely to have intact chromatin. In addition, X-bearing spermatozoa carry more negative charge. Therefore, we aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of Zeta procedure with routine sperm selection in infertile men candidate for ICSI. Materials and Methods From a total of 203 ICSI cycles studied, 101 cycles were allocated to density gradient centrifugation (DGC)/Zeta group and the remaining 102 were included in the DGC group in this prospective study. Clinical outcomes were com- pared between the two groups. The ratios of Xand Y bearing sperm were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods in 17 independent semen samples. Results In the present double-blind randomized clinical trial, a significant increase in top quality embryos and pregnancy rate were observed in DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group. Moreover, sex ratio (XY/XX) at birth significantly was lower in the DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group despite similar ratio of X/Y bearings sper- matozoa following Zeta selection. Conclusion Zeta method not only improves the percentage of top embryo quality and pregnancy outcome but also alters the sex ratio compared to the conventional DGC method, despite no significant change in the ratio of Xand Ybearing sperm population (Registration number: IRCT201108047223N1). PMID:27441060

  18. Line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carucci, John A.; Stevenson, Mary; Gareau, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    We created a line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope as part of a new procedure: video assisted micrographic surgery (VAMS). The need for rapid pathological assessment of the tissue on the surface of skin excisions very large since there are 3.5 million new skin cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. The new design presented here is a confocal microscope without any scanning optics. Instead, a line is focused in space and the sample, which is flattened, is physically translated such that the line scans across its face in a direction perpendicular to the line its self. The line is 6mm long and the stage is capable of scanning 50 mm, hence the field of view is quite large. The theoretical diffraction-limited resolution is 0.7um lateral and 3.7um axial. However, in this preliminary report, we present initial results that are a factor of 5-7 poorer in resolution. The results are encouraging because they demonstrate that the linear array detector measures sufficient signal from fluorescently labeled tissue and also demonstrate the large field of view achievable with VAMS.

  19. Copernicus studies of interstellar material in the Perseus II complex. III - The line of sight to Zeta Persei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, T. P., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectrophotometric data obtained with Copernicus are used to analyze the distribution, composition, density, temperature, and kinematics of the interstellar material along the line of sight to Zeta Persei. The far-UV extinction curve for the star is evaluated along with the kinematics of the interstellar gas, observations of atomic and molecular hydrogen, curves of growth for neutral and ionized species, atomic abundances and depletions, ionization equilibria, and observations of CO and OH lines. The results show that there are apparently three clouds along the line of sight to Zeta Persei: a main cloud at approximately +13 km/s which contains most of the material and forms all the neutral and molecular lines as well as most of the ionic lines, a second component at +22 km/s which must contribute to the strong UV lines of most ions, and a third component at roughly +2 km/s which gives rise to a strong Si III line at 1206 A. It is also found that the UV extinction curve has a somewhat steep far-UV rise, indicating the presence of a substantial number of small grains, and that about 30% of the hydrogen nuclei over the entire line of sight are in molecular form.

  20. Investigating the use of in situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Nguy, Amanda

    2016-02-19

    Engineering nanoparticles with desired shape-dependent properties is the key to many applications in nanotechnology. Although many synthetic procedures exist to produce anisotropic gold nanoparticles, the dynamics of growth are typically unknown or hypothetical. In the case of seed-mediated growth in the presence of DNA into anisotropic nanoparticles, it is not known exactly how DNA directs growth into specific morphologies. A series of preliminary experiments were carried out to contribute to the investigation of the possible mechanism of DNA-mediated growth of gold nanoprisms into gold nanostars using liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Imaging in the liquid phase was achievedmore » through the use of a liquid cell platform and liquid cell holder that allow the sample to be contained within a “chip sandwich” between two electron transparent windows. Ex situ growth experiments were performed using Au-T30 NPrisms (30-base thymine oligonucleotide-coated gold nanoprisms) that are expected to grow into gold nanostars. Growth to form these nanostars were imaged using TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and liquid cell STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy). An attempt to perform in situ growth experiments with the same Au-T30 nanoprisms revealed challenges in obtaining desired morphology results due to the environmental differences within the liquid cell compared to the ex situ environment. Different parameters in the experimental method were explored including fluid line set up, simultaneous and alternating reagent addition, and the effect of different liquid cell volumes to ensure adequate flow of reagents into the liquid cell. Lastly, the binding affinities were compared for T30 and A30 DNA incubated with gold nanoparticles using zeta potential measurements, absorption spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). It was previously reported thymine bases have a lower binding affinity to gold surfaces than

  1. Mapping Protein–Protein Interactions of the Resistance-Related Bacterial Zeta Toxin–Epsilon Antitoxin Complex (ε2ζ2) with High Affinity Peptide Ligands Using Fluorescence Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Bachiller, María Isabel; Brzozowska, Iwona; Odolczyk, Norbert; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Rademann, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Toxin–antitoxin systems constitute a native survival strategy of pathogenic bacteria and thus are potential targets of antibiotic drugs. Here, we target the Zeta–Epsilon toxin–antitoxin system, which is responsible for the stable maintenance of certain multiresistance plasmids in Gram-positive bacteria. Peptide ligands were designed on the basis of the ε2ζ2 complex. Three α helices of Zeta forming the protein–protein interaction (PPI) site were selected and peptides were designed conserving the residues interacting with Epsilon antitoxin while substituting residues binding intramolecularly to other parts of Zeta. Designed peptides were synthesized with an N-terminal fluoresceinyl-carboxy-residue for binding assays and provided active ligands, which were used to define the hot spots of the ε2ζ2 complex. Further shortening and modification of the binding peptides provided ligands with affinities <100 nM, allowing us to determine the most relevant PPIs and implement a robust competition binding assay. PMID:27438853

  2. Fuzzy-PI-based centralised control of semi-isolated FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC in a PV/battery hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahendran, Venmathi; Ramabadran, Ramaprabha

    2016-11-01

    Multiport converters with centralised controller have been most commonly used in stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)/battery hybrid system to supply the load smoothly without any disturbances. This study presents the performance analysis of four-port SEPIC/ZETA bidirectional converter (FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC) using various types of centralised control schemes like Fuzzy tuned proportional integral controller (Fuzzy-PI), fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and conventional proportional integral (PI) controller. The proposed FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC with various control strategy is derived for simultaneous power management of a PV source using distributed maximum power point tracking (DMPPT) algorithm, a rechargeable battery, and a load by means of centralised controller. The steady state and the dynamic response of the FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC are analysed using three different types of controllers under line and load regulation. The Fuzzy-PI-based control scheme improves the dynamic response of the system when compared with the FLC and the conventional PI controller. The power balance between the ports is achieved by pseudorandom carrier modulation scheme. The response of the FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC is also validated experimentally using hardware prototype model of 500 W system. The effectiveness of the control strategy is validated using simulation and experimental results.

  3. Cloud Top Scanning radiometer (CTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A scanning radiometer to be used for measuring cloud radiances in each of three spectral regions is described. Significant features incorporated in the Cloud Top Scanner design are: (1) flexibility and growth potential through use of easily replaceable modular detectors and filters; (2) full aperture, multilevel inflight calibration; (3) inherent channel registration through employment of a single shared field stop; and (4) radiometric sensitivity margin in a compact optical design through use of Honeywell developed (Hg,Cd)Te detectors and preamplifiers.

  4. A novel conductivity mechanism of highly disordered carbon systems based on an investigation of graph zeta function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsutani, Shigeki; Sato, Iwao

    2017-09-01

    In the previous report (Matsutani and Suzuki, 2000 [21]), by proposing the mechanism under which electric conductivity is caused by the activational hopping conduction with the Wigner surmise of the level statistics, the temperature-dependent of electronic conductivity of a highly disordered carbon system was evaluated including apparent metal-insulator transition. Since the system consists of small pieces of graphite, it was assumed that the reason why the level statistics appears is due to the behavior of the quantum chaos in each granular graphite. In this article, we revise the assumption and show another origin of the Wigner surmise, which is more natural for the carbon system based on a recent investigation of graph zeta function in graph theory. Our method can be applied to the statistical treatment of the electronic properties of the randomized molecular system in general.

  5. Environmental Scanning Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truckee Meadows Community Coll., Sparks, NV.

    This report describes Truckee Meadows Community College's (Nevada) environmental scanning process and results. The college decided that environmental scanning and forecasting techniques should be used to plan for both short-term and long-term external factors that impact programs, enrollment, and budgets. Strategic goals include: (1) keeping pace…

  6. Multiline radar scan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, S.

    1977-01-01

    Scanning scheme is more efficient than conventional scanning. Originally designed for optical radar in space vehicles, scheme may also find uses in site-surveillance security systems and in other industrial applications. It should be particularly useful when system must run on battery energy, as would be case in power outages.

  7. Model PET Scan Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Amber; Gazdovich, Jennifer; Redouté, Oriane; Reverte, Juan Manuel; Shelley, Samantha; Todorova, Vesela

    2018-01-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to antimatter and how it, along with other modern physics topics, is utilized in positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It further describes a hands-on activity for students to help them gain an understanding of how PET scans assist in detecting cancer. Modern physics topics provide an exciting way to…

  8. Model PET Scan Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strunk, Amber; Gazdovich, Jennifer; Redouté, Oriane; Reverte, Juan Manuel; Shelley, Samantha; Todorova, Vesela

    2018-05-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to antimatter and how it, along with other modern physics topics, is utilized in positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It further describes a hands-on activity for students to help them gain an understanding of how PET scans assist in detecting cancer. Modern physics topics provide an exciting way to introduce students to current applications of physics.

  9. ReachScan - an Exposure Assessment Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ReachScan estimates surface water concentrations downstream from industrial sites to assess impacts on the aquatic environment and potential dose rates for humans exposed via ingestion of drinking water and fish.

  10. Laser Scanning In Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Patricia; Baker, Lionel R.

    1989-03-01

    This paper is a review of the applications of laser scanning in inspection. The reasons for the choice of a laser in flying spot scanning and the optical properties of a laser beam which are of value in a scanning instrument will be given. The many methods of scanning laser beams in both one and two dimensions will be described. The use of one dimensional laser scanners for automatic surface inspection for transmitting and reflective products will be covered in detail, with particular emphasis on light collection techniques. On-line inspection applications which will be mentioned include: photographic film web, metal strip products, paper web, glass sheet, car body paint surfaces and internal cylinder bores. Two dimensional laser scanning is employed in applications where increased resolution, increased depth of focus, and better contrast are required compared with conventional vidicon TV or solid state array cameras. Such examples as special microscope laser scanning systems and a TV compatible system for use in restricted areas of a nuclear reactor will be described. The technical and economic benefits and limitations of laser scanning video systems will be compared with conventional TV and CCD array devices.

  11. Human REV3 DNA Polymerase Zeta Localizes to Mitochondria and Protects the Mitochondrial Genome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhupendra; Li, Xiurong; Owens, Kjerstin M; Vanniarajan, Ayyasamy; Liang, Ping; Singh, Keshav K

    2015-01-01

    To date, mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) is the only polymerase known to be present in mammalian mitochondria. A dogma in the mitochondria field is that there is no other polymerase present in the mitochondria of mammalian cells. Here we demonstrate localization of REV3 DNA polymerase in the mammalian mitochondria. We demonstrate localization of REV3 in the mitochondria of mammalian tissue as well as cell lines. REV3 associates with POLG and mitochondrial DNA and protects the mitochondrial genome from DNA damage. Inactivation of Rev3 leads to reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced OXPHOS activity, and increased glucose consumption. Conversely, inhibition of the OXPHOS increases expression of Rev3. Rev3 expression is increased in human primary breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines. Inactivation of Rev3 decreases cell migration and invasion, and localization of Rev3 in mitochondria increases survival and the invasive potential of cancer cells. Taken together, we demonstrate that REV3 functions in mammalian mitochondria and that mitochondrial REV3 is associated with the tumorigenic potential of cells.

  12. Environmental Enrichment Increases Glucocorticoid Receptors and Decreases GluA2 and Protein Kinase M Zeta (PKMζ) Trafficking During Chronic Stress: A Protective Mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Zanca, Roseanna M.; Braren, Stephen H.; Maloney, Brigid; Schrott, Lisa M.; Luine, Victoria N.; Serrano, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) housing paradigms have long been shown beneficial for brain function involving neural growth and activity, learning and memory capacity, and for developing stress resiliency. The expression of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluA2, which is important for synaptic plasticity and memory, is increased with corticosterone (CORT), undermining synaptic plasticity and memory. Thus, we determined the effect of EE and stress on modulating GluA2 expression in Sprague-Dawley male rats. Several markers were evaluated which include: plasma CORT, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), GluA2, and the atypical protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ). For 1 week standard-(ST) or EE-housed animals were treated with one of the following four conditions: (1) no stress; (2) acute stress (forced swim test, FST; on day 7); (3) chronic restraint stress (6 h/day for 7 days); and (4) chronic + acute stress (restraint stress 6 h/day for 7 days + FST on day 7). Hippocampi were collected on day 7. Our results show that EE animals had reduced time immobile on the FST across all conditions. After chronic + acute stress EE animals showed increased GR levels with no change in synaptic GluA2/PKMζ. ST-housed animals showed the reverse pattern with decreased GR levels and a significant increase in synaptic GluA2/PKMζ. These results suggest that EE produces an adaptive response to chronic stress allowing for increased GR levels, which lowers neuronal excitability reducing GluA2/PKMζ trafficking. We discuss this EE adaptive response to stress as a potential underlying mechanism that is protective for retaining synaptic plasticity and memory function. PMID:26617502

  13. Development and analytical characterization of vitamin(s)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for potential food packaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aresta, Antonella; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Trapani, Adriana; Cellamare, Saverio; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio; De Giglio, Elvira

    2013-04-01

    Most vitamins are well-known natural antioxidant agents which can be usefully employed for foods preservation to increase their shelf life. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential of vitamin-based chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) for novel food packaging application. In particular, Vitamin C- and/or E-loaded CSNPs were formulated following the ionic gelation technique and using sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin as cross-linking agent. The obtained CSNPs were characterized in terms of size and zeta potential measurements, leading to size range of 375-503 nm and zeta range values from +16.0 to +33.8 mV. At the solid-state, the same particles were subjected to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Then, the antioxidant potential of the produced vitamin(s) nanoparticulate formulations has been evaluated through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl test, a rapid spectrophotometric assay. The standardized procedure was used on vitamin(s)-modified CSNPs systems to determine both the amount of active vitamin(s) loaded in CSNPs and their release performances by in vitro release studies. Of all, high vitamins association efficiency along with an improvement of their shelf life (also under light exposure up to 7 days) were achieved. Altogether, the results suggest that Vitamin E is available in a hydrophilic delivery system able to replace organic solvents usually used for the solubilization of this antioxidant agent. In conclusion, these nanocarriers represent a promising strategy for the co-administration of Vitamin E and Vitamin C in packaging materials intended for a better storage of hydrophilic and/or lipophilic food.

  14. Knee MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... CT scan of the knee Knee x-ray Alternative Names MRI - knee; Magnetic resonance imaging - knee Patient ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  15. Gallbladder radionuclide scan (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gallbladder radionuclide scan is performed by injecting a tracer (radioactive chemical) into the bloodstream. A gamma camera ... detect the gamma rays being emitted from the tracer, and the image of where the tracer is ...

  16. Pediatric CT Scans

    Cancer.gov

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  17. Fiber-Scanned Microdisplays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossman-Bosworth, Janet; Seibel, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Helmet- and head-mounted display systems, denoted fiber-scanned microdisplays, have been proposed to provide information in an "augmented reality" format (meaning that the information would be optically overlaid on the user's field of view).

  18. CT scan (image)

    MedlinePlus

    CT stands for computerized tomography. In this procedure, a thin X-ray beam is rotated around the ... D image of a section through the body. CT scans are very detailed and provide excellent information ...

  19. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  20. Slow Scan Telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Originally developed under contract for NASA by Ball Bros. Research Corporation for acquiring visual information from lunar and planetary spacecraft, system uses standard closed circuit camera connected to a device called a scan converter, which slows the stream of images to match an audio circuit, such as a telephone line. Transmitted to its destination, the image is reconverted by another scan converter and displayed on a monitor. In addition to assist scans, technique allows transmission of x-rays, nuclear scans, ultrasonic imagery, thermograms, electrocardiograms or live views of patient. Also allows conferencing and consultation among medical centers, general practitioners, specialists and disease control centers. Commercialized by Colorado Video, Inc., major employment is in business and industry for teleconferencing, cable TV news, transmission of scientific/engineering data, security, information retrieval, insurance claim adjustment, instructional programs, and remote viewing of advertising layouts, real estate, construction sites or products.

  1. Nuclear Heart Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your blood and travels to your heart. Nuclear heart scans use single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) to detect the energy from the tracer to make pictures of your ...

  2. Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Chinn, Diane [Pleasanton, CA; Stolz, Christopher J [Lathrop, CA; Wu, Zhouling [Pleasanton, CA; Huber, Robert [Discovery Bay, CA; Weinzapfel, Carolyn [Tracy, CA

    2006-07-11

    Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

  3. The ng_ζ1 toxin of the gonococcal epsilon/zeta toxin/antitoxin system drains precursors for cell wall synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rocker, Andrea; Peschke, Madeleine; Kittilä, Tiia; Sakson, Roman; Brieke, Clara; Meinhart, Anton

    2018-04-27

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin complexes are emerging as key players modulating bacterial physiology as activation of toxins induces stasis or programmed cell death by interference with vital cellular processes. Zeta toxins, which are prevalent in many bacterial genomes, were shown to interfere with cell wall formation by perturbing peptidoglycan synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we characterize the epsilon/zeta toxin-antitoxin (TA) homologue from the Gram-negative pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae termed ng_ɛ1 / ng_ζ1. Contrary to previously studied streptococcal epsilon/zeta TA systems, ng_ɛ1 has an epsilon-unrelated fold and ng_ζ1 displays broader substrate specificity and phosphorylates multiple UDP-activated sugars that are precursors of peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide synthesis. Moreover, the phosphorylation site is different from the streptococcal zeta toxins, resulting in a different interference with cell wall synthesis. This difference most likely reflects adaptation to the individual cell wall composition of Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms but also the distinct involvement of cell wall components in virulence.

  4. Expression of the growth factor pleiotrophin and its receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta in the serum, cartilage and subchondral bone of patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kaspiris, Angelos; Mikelis, Constantinos; Heroult, Melanie; Khaldi, Lubna; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kouvaras, Ioannis; Dangas, Spyridon; Vasiliadis, Elias; Lioté, Frédéric; Courty, José; Papadimitriou, Evangelia

    2013-07-01

    Pleiotrophin is a heparin-binding growth factor expressed in embryonic but not mature cartilage, suggesting a role in cartilage development. Elucidation of the molecular changes observed during the remodelling process in osteoarthritis is of paramount importance. This study aimed to investigate serum pleiotrophin levels and expression of pleiotrophin and its receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta in the cartilage and subchondral bone of osteoarthritis patients. Serum samples derived from 16 osteoarthritis patients and 18 healthy donors. Pleiotrophin and receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta in the cartilage and subchondral bone were studied in 29 patients who had undergone total knee or hip replacement for primary osteoarthritis and in 10 control patients without macroscopic osteoarthritis changes. Serum pleiotrophin levels and expression of pleiotrophin in chondrocytes and subchondral bone osteocytes significantly increased in osteoarthritis patients graded Ahlback II to III. Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta was mainly detected in the subchondral bone osteocytes of patients with moderate osteoarthritis and as disease severity increased, in the osteocytes and bone lining cells of the distant trabeculae. These data render pleiotrophin and receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta promising candidates for further studies towards developing targeted therapeutic schemes for osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2012 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Wide scanning spherical antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bing (Inventor); Stutzman, Warren L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A novel method for calculating the surface shapes for subreflectors in a suboptic assembly of a tri-reflector spherical antenna system is introduced, modeled from a generalization of Galindo-Israel's method of solving partial differential equations to correct for spherical aberration and provide uniform feed to aperture mapping. In a first embodiment, the suboptic assembly moves as a single unit to achieve scan while the main reflector remains stationary. A feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan thereby eliminating the need to oversize the main spherical reflector. In an alternate embodiment, both the main spherical reflector and the suboptic assembly are fixed. A flat mirror is used to create a virtual image of the suboptic assembly. Scan is achieved by rotating the mirror about the spherical center of the main reflector. The feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan.

  6. Toward Improved Description of DNA Backbone: Revisiting Epsilon and Zeta Torsion Force Field Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Zgarbová, Marie; Luque, F. Javier; Šponer, Jiří; Cheatham, Thomas E.; Otyepka, Michal; Jurečka, Petr

    2013-01-01

    We present a refinement of the backbone torsion parameters ε and ζ of the Cornell et al. AMBER force field for DNA simulations. The new parameters, denoted as εζOL1, were derived from quantum-mechanical calculations with inclusion of conformation-dependent solvation effects according to the recently reported methodology (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2012, 7(9), 2886-2902). The performance of the refined parameters was analyzed by means of extended molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for several representative systems. The results showed that the εζOL1 refinement improves the backbone description of B-DNA double helices and G-DNA stem. In B-DNA simulations, we observed an average increase of the helical twist and narrowing of the major groove, thus achieving better agreement with X-ray and solution NMR data. The balance between populations of BI and BII backbone substates was shifted towards the BII state, in better agreement with ensemble-refined solution experimental results. Furthermore, the refined parameters decreased the backbone RMS deviations in B-DNA MD simulations. In the antiparallel guanine quadruplex (G-DNA) the εζOL1 modification improved the description of non-canonical α/γ backbone substates, which were shown to be coupled to the ε/ζ torsion potential. Thus, the refinement is suggested as a possible alternative to the current ε/ζ torsion potential, which may enable more accurate modeling of nucleic acids. However, long-term testing is recommended before its routine application in DNA simulations. PMID:24058302

  7. HD 93521, zeta Ophiuchi, and the effects of rapid rotation on the atmospheres and winds of 09.5 V stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Derck

    1995-01-01

    Both low- and high-resolution IUE spectra of the rapidly rotating 09.5 V stars HD 93521 and zeta Oph are used to develop a coherent picture of the effects of rapid rotation on the atmospheres and winds of late, main-sequence O stars. The observational consequences are by far the strongest on HD 93521, most likely because it is being viewed nearly equator-on. In particular, it is shown that HD 93521 (1) a much smaller UV optical flux ratio than expected, (2) UV photospheric lines indicative of a BO supergiant, (3) an abnormally strong N v wind doublet, and (4) wind profiles suggesting that its wind has latitudinally dependent properties. Because HD 93521 has a larger observed v sin i than zeta Oph and yet its H-alpha emission is no stronger than in zeta Oph, it is speculated that zeta Oph actually rotates as fast or faster than HD 93521, but has a smaller sin i. Because zeta Oph is significantly reddened, nothing can be determined about its intrinsic UV energy distribution. However, it is shown that its UV photospheric lines are a bit peculiar and that its C IV and N V wind doublets are abnormally strong and have unusual profiles. The C IV profile agrees with models of a rotationally distorted wind similar to the one in HD 93521, except viewed at an angle i approximately 60 deg-80 deg. The spectral peculiarities of both stars are attributed to the combined effects of gravity darkening of their atmospheres and rotational distortion of their winds. The differences between their spectra are interpreted as the result of being viewed at different inclination angles. Because of the gravity darkening, atmospheric analyses of either star based on single temperature and surface gravity model atmospheres are probably unreliable. Finally, I describe how different effects conspire to make the spectroscopic signatures of gravity darkening so pronounced at 09.5 V.

  8. Detection of GRB 060927 at zeta = 5.47: Implications for the Use of Gamma-Ray Bursts as Probes of the End of the Dark Ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz-Velasco, A. E.; Swan, H.; Troja, E.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Sterling, R. L. C.; Xu, D.; Aharonian, F.; Akerlof, C.; Andersen, M. I.; hide

    2007-01-01

    We report on follow-up observations of the gamma-ray burst GRB 060927 using the robotic ROTSE-IIIa telescope and a suite of larger aperture groundbased telescopes. An optical afterglow was detected 20 s after the burst, the earliest rest-frame detection of optical emission from any GRB. Spectroscopy performed with the VLT about 13 hours after the trigger shows a continuum break at lambda approx. equals 8070 A, produced by neutral hydrogen absorption at zeta = 5.6. We also detect an absorption line at 8158 A which we interpret as Si II lambda 1260 at zeta = 5.467. Hence, GRB 060927 is the second most distant GRB with a spectroscopically measured redshift. The shape of the red wing of the spectral break can be fitted by a damped Ly(alpha) profile with a column density with log(N(sub HI)/sq cm) = 22.50 +/- 0.15. We discuss the implications of this work for the use of GRBs as probes of the end of the dark ages and draw three main conclusions: i) GRB afterglows originating from zeta greater than or approx. equal to 6 should be relatively easy to detect from the ground, but rapid near-infrared monitoring is necessary to ensure that they are found; ii) The presence of large H I column densities in some GRBs host galaxies at zeta > 5 makes the use of GRBs to probe the reionization epoch via spectroscopy of the red damping wing challenging; iii) GRBs appear crucial to locate typical star-forming galaxies at zeta > 5 and therefore the type of galaxies responsible for the reionization of the universe.

  9. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James M.; Leighton, James F.

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  10. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  11. Scanning microarray slides.

    PubMed

    Ares, Manuel

    2014-02-01

    Here we describe some practical concerns surrounding the scanning of microarray slides that have been hybridized with fluorescent dyes. We use a laser scanner that has two lasers, each set to excite a different fluor, and separate detectors to capture emission from each fluor. The laser passes over an address (position on the scanned surface) and the detectors capture photons emitted from each address. Two superimposed image files are written that carry intensities for each channel for each pixel of the image scan. These are the raw data. Image analysis software is used to identify and summarize the intensities of the pixels that make up each spot. After comparison to background pixels, the processed intensity levels representing the gene expression measurements are associated with the identity of each spot.

  12. Investigating the use of in situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy to explore DNA-mediated gold nanoparticle growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguy, Amanda

    Engineering nanoparticles with desired shape-dependent properties is the key to many applications in nanotechnology. Although many synthetic procedures exist to produce anisotropic gold nanoparticles, the dynamics of growth are typically unknown or hypothetical. In the case of seed-mediated growth in the presence of DNA into anisotropic nanoparticles, it is not known exactly how DNA directs growth into specific morphologies. A series of preliminary experiments were carried out to contribute to the investigation of the possible mechanism of DNA-mediated growth of gold nanoprisms into gold nanostars using liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Imaging in the liquid phase was achieved through the use of a liquid cell platform and liquid cell holder that allow the sample to be contained within a “chip sandwich” between two electron transparent windows. Ex situ growth experiments were performed using Au-T30 NPrisms (30-base thymine oligonucleotide-coated gold nanoprisms) that are expected to grow into gold nanostars. Growth to form these nanostars were imaged using TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and liquid cell STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy). An attempt to perform in situ growth experiments with the same Au-T30 nanoprisms revealed challenges in obtaining desired morphology results due to the environmental differences within the liquid cell compared to the ex situ environment. Different parameters in the experimental method were explored including fluid line set up, simultaneous and alternating reagent addition, and the effect of different liquid cell volumes to ensure adequate flow of reagents into the liquid cell. Lastly, the binding affinities were compared for T30 and A30 DNA incubated with gold nanoparticles using zeta potential measurements, absorption spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). It was previously reported thymine bases have a lower binding affinity to gold surfaces than

  13. Characterization and Expression Pattern Analysis of the T-Complex Protein-1 Zeta Subunit in Musca domestica L (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuejun; Xiu, Jiangfan; Li, Yan; Ma, Huiling; Wu, Jianwei; Wang, Bo; Guo, Guo

    2017-07-01

    Chaperonins, belonging to the T-complex protein-1 (TCP-1) family, assist in the correct folding of nascent and misfolded proteins. It is well-known that in mammals, the zeta subunit of the TCP-1 complex (TCP-1ζ) plays a vital role in the folding and assembly of cytoskeleta proteins. This study reported for the first time the cloning, characterization and expression pattern analysis of the TCP-1ζ from Musca domestica, which was named as MdTCP-1ζ. The MdTCP-1ζ cDNA is 1,803 bp long with a 1,596 bp open reading frame that encodes a protein with 531 bp amino acids. The analysis of the transcriptional profile of MdTCP-1ζ using qRT-PCR revealed relatively high expression in the salivary glands and trachea at the tissues while among the developmental stages. The highest expression was observed only in the eggs suggesting that the MdTCP-1ζ may play a role in embryonic development. The expression of MdTCP-1ζ was also significantly induced after exposure to short-term heat shock and infection by Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, or Candida albicans. This suggested that MdTCP-1ζ may take part in the immune responses of housefly and perhaps contribute to the protection against cellular injury. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  14. Assembly dynamics and stability of the pneumococcal epsilon zeta antitoxin toxin (PezAT) system from Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Mutschler, Hannes; Reinstein, Jochen; Meinhart, Anton

    2010-07-09

    The pneumococcal epsilon zeta antitoxin toxin (PezAT) system is a chromosomally encoded, class II toxin antitoxin system from the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumnoniae. Neutralization of the bacteriotoxic protein PezT is carried out by complex formation with its cognate antitoxin PezA. Here we study the stability of the inhibitory complex in vivo and in vitro. We found that toxin release is impeded in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis due to the proteolytic resistance of PezA once bound to PezT. These findings are supported by in vitro experiments demonstrating a strong thermodynamic stabilization of both proteins upon binding. A detailed kinetic analysis of PezAT assembly revealed that these particular features of PezAT are based on a strong, electrostatically guided binding mechanism leading to a stable toxin antitoxin complex with femtomolar affinity. Our data show that PezAT complex formation is distinct to all other conventional toxin antitoxin modules and a controlled mode of toxin release is required for activation.

  15. The CD3-Zeta Chimeric Antigen Receptor Overcomes TCR Hypo-Responsiveness of Human Terminal Late-Stage T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Awerkiew, Sabine; Schmidt, Annette; Hombach, Andreas A.; Pfister, Herbert; Abken, Hinrich

    2012-01-01

    Adoptive therapy of malignant diseases with tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells showed remarkable efficacy in recent trials. Repetitive T cell receptor (TCR) engagement of target antigen, however, inevitably ends up in hypo-responsive cells with terminally differentiated KLRG-1+ CD57+ CD7− phenotype limiting their therapeutic efficacy. We here revealed that hypo-responsiveness of CMV-specific late-stage CD8+ T cells is due to reduced TCR synapse formation compared to younger cells. Membrane anchoring of TCR components contributes to T cell hypo-responsiveness since dislocation of galectin-3 from the synapse by swainsonine restored both TCR synapse formation and T cell response. Transgenic expression of a CD3-zeta signaling chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) recovered hypo-responsive T cells to full effector functions indicating that the defect is restricted to TCR membrane components while synapse formation of the transgenic CAR was not blocked. CAR engineered late-stage T cells released cytokines and mediated redirected cytotoxicity as efficiently as younger effector T cells. Our data provide a rationale for TCR independent, CAR mediated activation in the adoptive cell therapy to avoid hypo-responsiveness of late-stage T cells upon repetitive antigen encounter. PMID:22292024

  16. Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yelumalai, Suseela; Mounce, Ginny; da Silva, Sarah J. Martins; Child, Tim; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22–54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ–related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm’s fundamental ability to activate an oocyte. PMID:27270687

  17. Scanning computed confocal imager

    DOEpatents

    George, John S.

    2000-03-14

    There is provided a confocal imager comprising a light source emitting a light, with a light modulator in optical communication with the light source for varying the spatial and temporal pattern of the light. A beam splitter receives the scanned light and direct the scanned light onto a target and pass light reflected from the target to a video capturing device for receiving the reflected light and transferring a digital image of the reflected light to a computer for creating a virtual aperture and outputting the digital image. In a transmissive mode of operation the invention omits the beam splitter means and captures light passed through the target.

  18. HST-WFC3 Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Quenched Galaxies at zeta approx 1.5 from the WISP Survey: Stellar Populations Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedregal, A. G.; Scarlata, C.; Henry, A. L.; Atek, H.; Rafelski, M.; Teplitz, H. I.; Dominguez, A.; Siana, B.; Colbert, J. W.; Malkan, M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We combine Hubble Space Telescope (HST) G102 and G141 near-IR (NIR) grism spectroscopy with HST/WFC3- UVIS, HST/WFC3-IR, and Spitzer/IRAC [3.6 microns] photometry to assemble a sample of massive (log(Mstar/M solar mass) at approx 11.0) and quenched (specific star formation rate < 0.01 G/yr(exp -1) galaxies at zeta approx 1.5. Our sample of 41 galaxies is the largest with G102+G141 NIR spectroscopy for quenched sources at these redshifts. In contrast to the local universe, zeta approx 1.5 quenched galaxies in the high-mass range have a wide range of stellar population properties. We find that their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are well fitted with exponentially decreasing star formation histories and short star formation timescales (tau less than or equal to 100 M/yr). Quenched galaxies also show a wide distribution in ages, between 1 and 4 G/yr. In the (u - r)0-versus-mass space quenched galaxies have a large spread in rest-frame color at a given mass. Most quenched galaxies populate the zeta appro. 1.5 red sequence (RS), but an important fraction of them (32%) have substantially bluer colors. Although with a large spread, we find that the quenched galaxies on the RS have older median ages (3.1 G/yr) than the quenched galaxies off the RS (1.5 G/yr). We also show that a rejuvenated SED cannot reproduce the observed stacked spectra of (the bluer) quenched galaxies off the RS. We derive the upper limit on the fraction of massive galaxies on the RS at zeta approx 1.5 to be <43%.We speculate that the young quenched galaxies off the RS are in a transition phase between vigorous star formation at zeta > 2 and the zeta approx 1.5 RS. According to their estimated ages, the time required for quenched galaxies off the RS to join their counterparts on the z approx. 1.5 RS is of the order of approx. 1G/yr.

  19. Scan This Book!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Andrew Richard

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an interview with Brewster Kahle, leader of the Open Content Alliance (OCA). OCA book scan program is an alternative to Google's library project that aims to make books accessible online. In this interview, Kahle discusses his views on the challenges of getting books on the Web, on Google's library…

  20. CT Scans - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tomography) Scan - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) (简体中文) Expand Section CT ( ... Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section CT ( ...

  1. Skim, Scan, and Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaughey, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Teachers often think of reading activities as silent, individual tasks in which seated students process every word in a copy of a text that the whole class is working with. Instead, in this activity, students will work in groups to practice skimming (identifying general ideas) and scanning (finding specific information) while reading several short…

  2. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  3. Brain PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissues are working. Other imaging tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) and computed tomography ( CT ) scans only reveal ... M, Hellwig S, Kloppel S, Weiller C. Functional neuroimaging: functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and single-photon emission computed ...

  4. Microwave Scanning System Correlations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-11

    The follow equipment is needed for each of the individual scanning systems: Handheld Scanner Equipment list 1. Dell Netbook (with the...proper software installed by Evisive) 2. Bluetooth USB port transmitter 3. Handheld Probe 4. USB to mini-USB Converter (links camera to netbook

  5. ICV Echo Ultrasound Scan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-31

    View of Integrated Cardiovascular (ICV) Echo Ultrasound Scan,in the Columbus module. ICV aims to quantify the extent,time course and clinical significance of cardiac atrophy (decrease in the size of the heart muscle) in space. Photo was taken during Expedition 34.

  6. Environmental Scanning Report, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Min

    In response to the change in the provincial economy from natural-resource-based industries to service-oriented industries, Vancouver Community College (VCC) in British Columbia (BC) conducted an environmental scan of the social and economic trends in the college's service region that will most likely affect prospective students' educational and…

  7. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Chemla, Daniel S.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Botkin, David

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  8. Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B.

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441 cm−1 (–OH), 1660 cm−1 (Alkenyl C–H & C=C Stretch), 1632 cm−1 (–COO–), 1414 cm−1 (–COO–), and 1219 cm−1 (–CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

  9. Conductivity map from scanning tunneling potentiometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Xianqi; Chen, Yunmei; Durand, Corentin; Li, An-Ping; Zhang, X-G

    2016-08-01

    We present a novel method for extracting two-dimensional (2D) conductivity profiles from large electrochemical potential datasets acquired by scanning tunneling potentiometry of a 2D conductor. The method consists of a data preprocessing procedure to reduce/eliminate noise and a numerical conductivity reconstruction. The preprocessing procedure employs an inverse consistent image registration method to align the forward and backward scans of the same line for each image line followed by a total variation (TV) based image restoration method to obtain a (nearly) noise-free potential from the aligned scans. The preprocessed potential is then used for numerical conductivity reconstruction, based on a TV model solved by accelerated alternating direction method of multiplier. The method is demonstrated on a measurement of the grain boundary of a monolayer graphene, yielding a nearly 10:1 ratio for the grain boundary resistivity over bulk resistivity.

  10. First insights into a type II toxin-antitoxin system from the clinical isolate Mycobacterium sp. MHSD3, similar to epsilon/zeta systems.

    PubMed

    Jaén-Luchoro, Daniel; Aliaga-Lozano, Francisco; Gomila, Rosa Maria; Gomila, Margarita; Salvà-Serra, Francisco; Lalucat, Jorge; Bennasar-Figueras, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    A putative type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system was found in the clinical isolate Mycobacterium sp. MHSD3, a strain closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae. Further analyses of the protein sequences of the two genes revealed the presence of domains related to a TA system. BLAST analyses indicated the presence of closely related proteins in the genomes of other recently published M. chelonae strains. The functionality of both elements of the TA system was demonstrated when expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and the predicted structure of the toxin is very similar to those of well-known zeta-toxins, leading to the definition of a type II TA system similar to epsilon/zeta TA systems in strains that are closely related to M. chelonae.

  11. Protein kinase C zeta suppresses low- or high-grade colorectal cancer (CRC) phenotypes by interphase centrosome anchoring.

    PubMed

    Deevi, Ravi Kiran; Javadi, Arman; McClements, Jane; Vohhodina, Jekaterina; Savage, Kienan; Loughrey, Maurice Bernard; Evergren, Emma; Campbell, Frederick Charles

    2018-04-01

    Histological grading provides prognostic stratification of colorectal cancer (CRC) by scoring heterogeneous phenotypes. Features of aggressiveness include aberrant mitotic spindle configurations, chromosomal breakage, and bizarre multicellular morphology, but pathobiology is poorly understood. Protein kinase C zeta (PKCz) controls mitotic spindle dynamics, chromosome segregation, and multicellular patterns, but its role in CRC phenotype evolution remains unclear. Here, we show that PKCz couples genome segregation to multicellular morphology through control of interphase centrosome anchoring. PKCz regulates interdependent processes that control centrosome positioning. Among these, interaction between the cytoskeletal linker protein ezrin and its binding partner NHERF1 promotes the formation of a localized cue for anchoring interphase centrosomes to the cell cortex. Perturbation of these phenomena induced different outcomes in cells with single or extra centrosomes. Defective anchoring of a single centrosome promoted bipolar spindle misorientation, multi-lumen formation, and aberrant epithelial stratification. Collectively, these disturbances induce cribriform multicellular morphology that is typical of some categories of low-grade CRC. By contrast, defective anchoring of extra centrosomes promoted multipolar spindle formation, chromosomal instability (CIN), disruption of glandular morphology, and cell outgrowth across the extracellular matrix interface characteristic of aggressive, high-grade CRC. Because PKCz enhances apical NHERF1 intensity in 3D epithelial cultures, we used an immunohistochemical (IHC) assay of apical NHERF1 intensity as an indirect readout of PKCz activity in translational studies. We show that apical NHERF1 IHC intensity is inversely associated with multipolar spindle frequency and high-grade morphology in formalin-fixed human CRC samples. To conclude, defective PKCz control of interphase centrosome anchoring may underlie distinct categories of

  12. Phosphorylated Protein Kinase C (Zeta/Lambda) Expression in Colorectal Adenocarcinoma and Its Correlation with Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Min-Kyung; Kim, Ji Yeon; Seong, In-Ock; Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Kyung-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Background: Protein kinase C zeta/lambda (PKCζ/λ) is a family of protein kinase enzymes that contributes to cell proliferation and regulation, which are important for cancer development. PKCζ/λ has been shown to be an important regulator of tumorigenesis in intestinal cancer. The phosphorylated form of PKCζ/λ, p-PKCζ/λ, is suggested as an active form of PKCζ/λ. However, p-PKCζ/λ expression and its clinicopathologic implication in colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRAC) are unclear. Methods: Seven whole-tissue sections of malignant polyps containing both non-neoplastic and neoplastic mucosa, 11 adenomas with low-grade dysplasia, and 173 CRACs were examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot assay for p-PKCζ/λ protein expression. The association of p-PKCζ/λ expression with clinicopathologic factors including patient survival was studied. Results: In non-neoplastic epithelia, p-PKCζ/λ showed a weak cytoplasmic immunostaining. Adenomas and CRACs demonstrated up-regulated p-PKCζ/λ detection. Cytoplasmic p-PKCζ/λ expression was higher in CRAC than in adenoma. In CRACs, p-PKCζ/λ expression was inversely correlated with pathologic TNM stage (I-II versus III-IV) and poor differentiation. Statistical correlations between low expression of p-PKCζ/λ with shortened overall survival and disease-free survival were seen (p=0.004 and p=0.034, respectively). Conclusions: P-PKCζ/λ overexpression is implicated in tumorigenesis but down-regulation was a poor prognostic factor in CRAC.

  13. Protein kinase C zeta suppresses low‐ or high‐grade colorectal cancer (CRC) phenotypes by interphase centrosome anchoring

    PubMed Central

    Deevi, Ravi Kiran; Javadi, Arman; McClements, Jane; Vohhodina, Jekaterina; Savage, Kienan; Loughrey, Maurice Bernard; Evergren, Emma

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Histological grading provides prognostic stratification of colorectal cancer (CRC) by scoring heterogeneous phenotypes. Features of aggressiveness include aberrant mitotic spindle configurations, chromosomal breakage, and bizarre multicellular morphology, but pathobiology is poorly understood. Protein kinase C zeta (PKCz) controls mitotic spindle dynamics, chromosome segregation, and multicellular patterns, but its role in CRC phenotype evolution remains unclear. Here, we show that PKCz couples genome segregation to multicellular morphology through control of interphase centrosome anchoring. PKCz regulates interdependent processes that control centrosome positioning. Among these, interaction between the cytoskeletal linker protein ezrin and its binding partner NHERF1 promotes the formation of a localized cue for anchoring interphase centrosomes to the cell cortex. Perturbation of these phenomena induced different outcomes in cells with single or extra centrosomes. Defective anchoring of a single centrosome promoted bipolar spindle misorientation, multi‐lumen formation, and aberrant epithelial stratification. Collectively, these disturbances induce cribriform multicellular morphology that is typical of some categories of low‐grade CRC. By contrast, defective anchoring of extra centrosomes promoted multipolar spindle formation, chromosomal instability (CIN), disruption of glandular morphology, and cell outgrowth across the extracellular matrix interface characteristic of aggressive, high‐grade CRC. Because PKCz enhances apical NHERF1 intensity in 3D epithelial cultures, we used an immunohistochemical (IHC) assay of apical NHERF1 intensity as an indirect readout of PKCz activity in translational studies. We show that apical NHERF1 IHC intensity is inversely associated with multipolar spindle frequency and high‐grade morphology in formalin‐fixed human CRC samples. To conclude, defective PKCz control of interphase centrosome anchoring may underlie

  14. Scanning holographic optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Shaw, L A; Panas, Robert M; Spadaccini, C M; Hopkins, J B

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this Letter is to introduce a new optical tweezers approach, called scanning holographic optical tweezers (SHOT), which drastically increases the working area (WA) of the holographic-optical tweezers (HOT) approach, while maintaining tightly focused laser traps. A 12-fold increase in the WA is demonstrated. The SHOT approach achieves its utility by combining the large WA of the scanning optical tweezers (SOT) approach with the flexibility of the HOT approach for simultaneously moving differently structured optical traps in and out of the focal plane. This Letter also demonstrates a new heuristic control algorithm for combining the functionality of the SOT and HOT approaches to efficiently allocate the available laser power among a large number of traps. The proposed approach shows promise for substantially increasing the number of particles that can be handled simultaneously, which would enable optical tweezers additive fabrication technologies to rapidly assemble microgranular materials and structures in reasonable build times.

  15. Nuclear Scans - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (Af-Soomaali ) ... हिन्दी (Hindi) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Japanese (日本語) Expand Section Bone Scan - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual ...

  16. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, W.C.; Blau, P.J.

    1994-11-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch. 2 figs.

  17. Fly-scan ptychography

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; ...

    2015-03-13

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. Thus, this approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems.

  18. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, Warren C.; Blau, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch.

  19. Scanning drop sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Shinde, Aniketa A.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Jones, Ryan J.; Marcin, Martin R.; Mitrovic, Slobodan

    2017-05-09

    Electrochemical or electrochemical and photochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.

  20. Scanning drop sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John

    2017-05-09

    Electrochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.

  1. Full cycle rapid scan EPR deconvolution algorithm.

    PubMed

    Tseytlin, Mark

    2017-08-01

    period. Separation of the interfering up- and down-field scan responses remains a challenge for reaching the full potential of this new method. For this reason, only a factor of two increase in the scan rate was achieved, in comparison with the standard half-scan RS EPR algorithm. It is important for practical use that faster scans not necessarily increase the signal bandwidth because acceleration of the Larmor frequency driven by the changing magnetic field changes its sign after passing the inflection points on the scan. The half-scan and full-scan algorithms are compared using a LiNC-BuO spin probe of known line-shape, demonstrating that the new method produces stable solutions when RS signals do not completely decay by the end of each half-scan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Full cycle rapid scan EPR deconvolution algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseytlin, Mark

    2017-08-01

    period. Separation of the interfering up- and down-field scan responses remains a challenge for reaching the full potential of this new method. For this reason, only a factor of two increase in the scan rate was achieved, in comparison with the standard half-scan RS EPR algorithm. It is important for practical use that faster scans not necessarily increase the signal bandwidth because acceleration of the Larmor frequency driven by the changing magnetic field changes its sign after passing the inflection points on the scan. The half-scan and full-scan algorithms are compared using a LiNC-BuO spin probe of known line-shape, demonstrating that the new method produces stable solutions when RS signals do not completely decay by the end of each half-scan.

  3. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-08-24

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability.

  4. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability. PMID:20696933

  5. Functional Role of Tyr12 in the Catalytic Activity of Novel Zeta-like Glutathione S-transferase from Acidovorax sp. KKS102.

    PubMed

    Shehu, Dayyabu; Alias, Zazali

    2018-05-19

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of enzymes that function in the detoxification of variety of electrophilic substrates. In the present work, we report a novel zeta-like GST (designated as KKSG9) from the biphenyl/polychlorobiphenyl degrading organism Acidovorax sp. KKS102. KKSG9 possessed low sequence similarity but similar biochemical properties to zeta class GSTs. Functional analysis showed that the enzyme exhibits wider substrate specificity compared to most zeta class GSTs by reacting with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), p-nitrobenzyl chloride (NBC), ethacrynic acid (EA), hydrogen peroxide, and cumene hydroperoxide. The enzyme also displayed dehalogenation function against dichloroacetate, permethrin, and dieldrin. The functional role of Tyr12 was also investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant (Y12C) displayed low catalytic activity and dehalogenation function against all the substrates when compared with the wild type. Kinetic analysis using NBC and GSH as substrates showed that the mutant (Y12C) displayed a higher affinity for NBC when compared with the wild type, however, no significant change in GSH affinity was observed. These findings suggest that the presence of tyrosine residue in the motif might represent an evolutionary trend toward improving the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The enzyme as well could be useful in the bioremediation of various types of organochlorine pollutants.

  6. Multicolor Scanning Laser Imaging in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mohammad S Z; Carrim, Zia Iqbal

    2017-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common cause of blindness in individuals younger than 60 years. Screening for retinopathy is undertaken using conventional color fundus photography and relies on the identification of hemorrhages, vascular abnormalities, exudates, and cotton-wool spots. These can sometimes be difficult to identify. Multicolor scanning laser imaging, a new imaging modality, may have a role in improving screening outcomes, as well as facilitating treatment decisions. Observational case series comprising two patients with known diabetes who were referred for further examination after color fundus photography revealed abnormal findings. Multicolor scanning laser imaging was undertaken. Features of retinal disease from each modality were compared. Multicolor scanning laser imaging provides superior visualization of retinal anatomy and pathology, thereby facilitating risk stratification and treatment decisions. Multicolor scanning laser imaging is a novel imaging technique offering the potential for improving the reliability of screening for diabetic retinopathy. Validation studies are warranted.

  7. Zebrafish pronephros tubulogenesis and epithelial identity maintenance are reliant on the polarity proteins Prkc iota and zeta.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Gary F; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2014-12-15

    The zebrafish pronephros provides an excellent in vivo system to study the mechanisms of vertebrate nephron development. When and how renal progenitors in the zebrafish embryo undergo tubulogenesis to form nephrons is poorly understood, but is known to involve a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and the acquisition of polarity. Here, we determined the precise timing of these events in pronephros tubulogenesis. As the ternary polarity complex is an essential regulator of epithelial cell polarity across tissues, we performed gene knockdown studies to assess the roles of the related factors atypical protein kinase C iota and zeta (prkcι, prkcζ). We found that prkcι and prkcζ serve partially redundant functions to establish pronephros tubule epithelium polarity. Further, the loss of prkcι or the combined knockdown of prkcι/ζ disrupted proximal tubule morphogenesis and podocyte migration due to cardiac defects that prevented normal fluid flow to the kidney. Surprisingly, tubule cells in prkcι/ζ morphants displayed ectopic expression of the transcription factor pax2a and the podocyte-associated genes wt1a, wt1b, and podxl, suggesting that prkcι/ζ are needed to maintain renal epithelial identity. Knockdown of genes essential for cardiac contractility and vascular flow to the kidney, such as tnnt2a, or elimination of pronephros fluid output through knockdown of the intraflagellar transport gene ift88, was not associated with ectopic pronephros gene expression, thus suggesting a unique role for prkcι/ζ in maintaining tubule epithelial identity separate from the consequence of disruptions to renal fluid flow. Interestingly, knockdown of pax2a, but not wt1a, was sufficient to rescue ectopic tubule gene expression in prkcι/ζ morphants. These data suggest a model in which the redundant activities of prkcι and prkcζ are essential to establish tubule epithelial polarity and also serve to maintain proper epithelial cell type identity in the tubule by

  8. Zebrafish pronephros tubulogenesis and epithelial identity maintenance are reliant on the polarity proteins Prkc iota and zeta

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Gary F.; Wingert, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish pronephros provides an excellent in vivo system to study the mechanisms of vertebrate nephron development. When and how renal progenitors in the zebrafish embryo undergo tubulogenesis to form nephrons is poorly understood, but is known to involve a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and the acquisition of polarity. Here, we determined the precise timing of these events in pronephros tubulogenesis. As the ternary polarity complex is an essential regulator of epithelial cell polarity across tissues, we performed gene knockdown studies to assess the roles of the related factors atypical protein kinase C iota and zeta (prkcι, prkcζ). We found that prkcι and prkcζ serve partially redundant functions to establish pronephros tubule epithelium polarity. Further, the loss of prkcι or the combined knockdown of prkcι/ζ disrupted proximal tubule morphogenesis and podocyte migration due to cardiac defects that prevented normal fluid flow to the kidney. Surprisingly, tubule cells in prkcι/ζ morphants displayed ectopic expression of the transcription factor pax2a and the podocyte-associated genes wt1a, wt1b, and podxl, suggesting that prkcι/ζ are needed to maintain renal epithelial identity. Knockdown of genes essential for cardiac contractility and vascular flow to the kidney, such as tnnt2a, or elimination of pronephros fluid output through knockdown of the intraflagellar transport gene ift88, was not associated with ectopic pronephros gene expression, thus suggesting a unique role for prkcι/ζ in maintaining tubule epithelial identity separate from the consequence of disruptions to renal fluid flow. Interestingly, knockdown of pax2a, but not wt1a, was sufficient to rescue ectopic tubule gene expression in prkcι/ζ morphants. These data suggest a model in which the redundant activities of prkcι and prkcζ are essential to establish tubule epithelial polarity and also serve to maintain proper epithelial cell type identity in the tubule by

  9. Zeta-Proteobacteria dominate the formation of microbial mats in low-temperature hydrothermal vents at Loihi Seamount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassa, A. C.; McAllister, S. M.; Safran, S. A.; Moyer, C. L.

    2007-12-01

    Loihi Seamount is Hawaii's youngest volcano and one of the earth's most active. Loihi is located 30 km SE of the big island of Hawaii and rises over 3000m above the sea floor and summits at 1100m below sea level. An eruption in 1996 of Loihi led to the formation of Pele's Pit, a 300 meter deep caldera. The current observations have revealed diffuse hydrothermal venting causing low to intermediate temperatures (10 to 65°C). The elevated temperatures, coupled with high concentrations of Fe(II) (ranging from 50 to 750 μM) support conditions allowing for extensive microbial mat formation. The focus of this study was to identify the colonizing populations of bacteria generated by the microbial mats at Loihi Seamount. Twenty-six microbial growth chambers were deployed and recovered after placement in the flow of hydrothermal vents for 3 to 8 days from within Loihi's caldera. Genomic DNA was extracted from samples and analyzed by Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) using eight restriction enzyme treatments to generate fingerprints from bacterial amplicons of small subunit rRNA genes (SSU rDNAs). Pearson product-moment coupled with UPGMA cluster analysis of these T-RFLP fingerprints showed that these communities bifurcated into two primary clusters. The first (Group 1) had an average vent effluent temperature of 44°C, and the second (Group 2) had an average vent effluent temperature of 64°C. Representative samples from within the two clusters (or groups) were chosen for further clone library and sequencing analysis. These libraries revealing a dominance of the recently discovered zeta- Proteobacteria in the lower temperature group (Group 1) indicating that they were the dominant colonizers of the microbial mats. These microaerophilic, obligately lithotrophic, Fe-oxidizing bacteria are most closely related to Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. The higher temperature group (Group 2) was dominated by epsilon- Proteobacteria primarily of the genus

  10. Free Motion Scanning System

    SciTech Connect

    Sword, Charles K.

    The present invention relates to an ultrasonic scanner and method for the imaging of a part surface, the scanner comprising: a probe assembly spaced apart from the surface including at least two tracking signals for emitting electromagnetic radiation and a transmitter for emitting ultrasonic waves onto a surface in order to induce at least a portion of said waves to be reflected from the surface, at least one detector for receiving the electromagnetic radiation wherein the detector is positioned to receive said radiation from the tracking signals, an analyzing means for recognizing a three-dimensional location of the tracking signals basedmore » on said emitted electromagnetic radiation, a differential conversion means for generating an output signal representative of the waveform of the reflected waves, and a means for relating said tracking signal location with the output signal and projecting an image of the resulting data. The scanner and method are particularly useful to acquire ultrasonic inspection data by scanning the probe-over a complex part surface in an arbitrary scanning pattern.« less

  11. Free motion scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Sword, Charles K.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ultrasonic scanner system and method for the imaging of a part system, the scanner comprising: a probe assembly spaced apart from the surface of the part including at least two tracking signals for emitting radiation and a transmitter for emitting ultrasonic waves onto a surface in order to induce at least a portion of the waves to be reflected from the part, at least one detector for receiving the radiation wherein the detector is positioned to receive the radiation from the tracking signals, an analyzer for recognizing a three-dimensional location of the tracking signals based on the emitted radiation, a differential converter for generating an output signal representative of the waveform of the reflected waves, and a device such as a computer for relating said tracking signal location with the output signal and projecting an image of the resulting data. The scanner and method are particularly useful to acquire ultrasonic inspection data by scanning the probe over a complex part surface in an arbitrary scanning pattern.

  12. Scanned focussed ultrasound hyperthermia: initial clinical results.

    PubMed

    Shimm, D S; Hynynen, K H; Anhalt, D P; Roemer, R B; Cassady, J R

    1988-11-01

    Between November 1986 and July, 1987, a preliminary study to determine the feasibility of scanned focussed ultrasound for clinical hyperthermia at various sites was conducted. Fourteen patient (17 tumors) have been treated using a microprocessor-controlled apparatus developed at the University of Arizona by modifying a commercially available diagnostic ultrasound unit. We have treated nine pelvic tumors, four extremity tumors, two brain tumors, and two extracranial head and neck tumors for a total of 42 treatments. Multipoint thermometry was achieved for all patients, with 2-25 (mean = 10) points monitored during each treatments within the scanned tumor volume. Average maximum temperature within the scanned tumor volume was 44.2, 44.7, 44.8, and 42.0 degrees C for pelvic, extremity brain, and extracranial head and neck tumors, respectively; similarly, 55%, 45%, 71%, and 0 of monitored points exceeded 42.5 degrees C. Pain limited applied power in 15 of 42 treatments, and bone pain with a periodicity similar to the scanning periodicity was seen in 11 treatments. A non-randomized comparison of temperatures achieved using scanned focussed ultrasound to those achieved using the microwave annular array and the CDRH Helix suggests that scanned focussed ultrasound may have promise and potential advantages in heating selected pelvic tumors.

  13. Environmental Scanning: Assessing Local Business Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.; Huntington, Robin B.

    Environmental scanning (ES) is a formal process of assessing trends and forecasting events which can influence an institution so that the potential challenges and opportunities can be effectively anticipated during strategic planning activities. The goal of ES is the implementation of proactive, anticipatory policies that will be robust under a…

  14. Plague and the gallium scan: case report

    SciTech Connect

    Stahly, T.L.; Shoop, J.D.

    1975-11-01

    Inflammation in the right axillary lymph nodes and the meninges was detected by $sup 67$Ga-citrate scans in an 11-year-old boy with Yersinia pestis infection. This case provides another example of $sup 67$Ga localizing to areas of infection, indicating potential utility in future cases of bubonic plague. (auth)

  15. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Densitometry (DEXA) Bone densitometry, also called dual-energy ... limitations of DEXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DEXA)? Bone density scanning, also called ...

  16. Infrared zone-scanning system.

    PubMed

    Belousov, Aleksandr; Popov, Gennady

    2006-03-20

    Challenges encountered in designing an infrared viewing optical system that uses a small linear detector array based on a zone-scanning approach are discussed. Scanning is performed by a rotating refractive polygon prism with tilted facets, which, along with high-speed line scanning, makes the scanning gear as simple as possible. A method of calculation of a practical optical system to compensate for aberrations during prism rotation is described.

  17. The Scanning Process: Getting Started.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfro, William L.; Morrison, James L.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning the external environment will become more essential to colleges in the coming decade. Developing an environmental scanning system can identify important emerging issues that may constitute either threats or opportunities. The organizational features of a mature scanning process are described. (MLW)

  18. Scanning the periphery.

    PubMed

    Day, George S; Schoemaker, Paul J H

    2005-11-01

    Companies often face new rivals, technologies, regulations, and other environmental changes that seem to come out of left field. How can they see these changes sooner and capitalize on them? Such changes often begin as weak signals on what the authors call the periphery, or the blurry zone at the edge of an organization's vision. As with human peripheral vision, these signals are difficult to see and interpret but can be vital to success or survival. Unfortunately, most companies lack a systematic method for determining where on the periphery they should be looking, how to interpret the weak signals they see, and how to allocate limited scanning resources. This article provides such a method-a question-based framework for helping companies scan the periphery more efficiently and effectively. The framework divides questions into three categories: learning from the past (What have been our past blind spots? What instructive analogies do other industries offer? Who in the industry is skilled at picking up weak signals and acting on them?); evaluating the present (What important signals are we rationalizing away? What are our mavericks, outliers, complainers, and defectors telling us? What are our peripheral customers and competitors really thinking?); and envisioning the future (What future surprises could really hurt or help us? What emerging technologies could change the game? Is there an unthinkable scenario that might disrupt our business?). Answering these questions is a good first step toward anticipating problems or opportunities that may appear on the business horizon. The article concludes with a self-test that companies can use to assess their need and capability for peripheral vision.

  19. Compact variable-temperature scanning force microscope.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Tien-Ming; de Lozanne, Alex

    2007-05-01

    A compact design for a cryogenic variable-temperature scanning force microscope using a fiber-optic interferometer to measure cantilever deflection is presented. The tip-sample coarse approach and the lateral tip positioning are performed by piezoelectric positioners in situ. The microscope has been operated at temperatures between 6 and 300 K. It is designed to fit into an 8 T superconducting magnet with the field applied in the out-of-plane direction. The results of scanning in various modes are demonstrated, showing contrast based on magnetic field gradients or surface potentials.

  20. Molecular excited states from the SCAN functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozer, David J.; Peach, Michael J. G.

    2018-06-01

    The performance of the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) meta-generalised gradient approximation exchange-correlation functional is investigated for the calculation of time-dependent density-functional theory molecular excitation energies of local, charge-transfer and Rydberg character, together with the excited ? potential energy curve in H2. The SCAN results frequently resemble those obtained using a global hybrid functional, with either a standard or increased fraction of exact orbital exchange. For local excitations, SCAN can exhibit significant triplet instability problems, resulting in imaginary triplet excitation energies for a number of cases. The Tamm-Dancoff approximation offers a simple approach to improve the situation, but the excitation energies are still significantly underestimated. Understanding the origin of these (near)-triplet instabilities may provide useful insight into future functional development.

  1. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Nels W.

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.Themore » project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.« less

  2. Laser Scanning Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Pozarowski, Piotr; Holden, Elena; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Summary The laser scanning cytometer (LSC) is the microscope-based cytofluorometer that offers a plethora of analytical capabilities. Multilaser-excited fluorescence emitted from individual cells is measured at several wavelength ranges, rapidly (up to 5000 cells/min), with high sensitivity and accuracy. The following applications of LSC are reviewed: (1) identification of cells that differ in degree of chromatin condensation (e.g., mitotic or apoptotic cells or lymphocytes vs granulocytes vs monocytes); (2) detection of translocation between cytoplasm vs nucleus or nucleoplasm vs nucleolus of regulatory molecules such as NF- κB, p53, or Bax; (3) semiautomatic scoring of micronuclei in mutagenicity assays; (4) analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridization; (5) enumeration and morphometry of nucleoli; (6) analysis of phenotype of progeny of individual cells in clonogenicity assay; (7) cell immunophenotyping; (8) visual examination, imaging, or sequential analysis of the cells measured earlier upon their relocation, using different probes; (9) in situ enzyme kinetics and other time-resolved processes; (10) analysis of tissue section architecture; (11) application for hypocellular samples (needle aspirate, spinal fluid, etc.); (12) other clinical applications. Advantages and limitations of LSC are discussed and compared with flow cytometry. PMID:16719355

  3. A prototype scanning system for optimal edging and trimming of rough hardwood lumber

    Treesearch

    Sang-Mook Lee; A. Lynn Abbott; Philip A. Araman; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with scanning and assessment of hardwood lumber early in the manufacturing process. Scanning operations that take place immediately after the headrig have significantly greater potential to reduce loss and improve economic value, as compared to scanning that is performed during subsequent manufacturing steps. In spite of this, the scanning of...

  4. Scanning-time evaluation of Digimarc Barcode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Rebecca; Pinard, Dan; Weaver, Matt; Alattar, Adnan

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a speed comparison between the use of Digimarc® Barcodes and the Universal Product Code (UPC) for customer checkout at point of sale (POS). The recently introduced Digimarc Barcode promises to increase the speed of scanning packaged goods at POS. When this increase is exploited by workforce optimization systems, the retail industry could potentially save billions of dollars. The Digimarc Barcode is based on Digimarc's watermarking technology, and it is imperceptible, very robust, and does not require any special ink, material, or printing processes. Using an image-based scanner, a checker can quickly scan consumer packaged goods (CPG) embedded with the Digimarc Barcode without the need to reorient the packages with respect to the scanner. Faster scanning of packages saves money and enhances customer satisfaction. It reduces the length of the queues at checkout, reduces the cost of cashier labor, and makes self-checkout more convenient. This paper quantifies the increase in POS scanning rates resulting from the use of the Digimarc Barcode versus the traditional UPC. It explains the testing methodology, describes the experimental setup, and analyzes the obtained results. It concludes that the Digimarc Barcode increases number of items per minute (IPM) scanned at least 50% over traditional UPC.

  5. The need for environmental horizon scanning.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, William J; Woodroof, Harry J

    2009-10-01

    Policymakers and practitioners in most fields, including conservation and the environment, often make decisions based on insufficient evidence. One reason for this is that issues appear unexpectedly, when with hindsight, many of them were foreseeable. A solution to the problem of being insufficiently prepared is routine horizon scanning, which we describe as the systematic search for potential threats and opportunities that are currently poorly recognized. Researchers can then decide which issues might be most worthwhile to study. Practitioners can also use horizon scanning to ensure timely policy development and research procurement. Here, we suggest that horizon scanning is an underused tool that should become a standard element of environmental and conservation practice. We make recommendations for its incorporation into research, policy and practice. We argue that, as an ecological and conservation community, we are failing to provide timely advice owing to a weakness in identifying forthcoming issues. We outline possible horizon-scanning methods, and also make recommendations as to how horizon scanning could have a more central role in environmental and conservation practice.

  6. GyneScan

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, U. Rajendra; Sree, S. Vinitha; Kulshreshtha, Sanjeev; Molinari, Filippo; Koh, Joel En Wei; Saba, Luca; Suri, Jasjit S.

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth highest cause of cancer in women and the leading cause of death from gynecological cancers. Accurate diagnosis of ovarian cancer from acquired images is dependent on the expertise and experience of ultrasonographers or physicians, and is therefore, associated with inter observer variabilities. Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) techniques use a number of different data mining techniques to automatically predict the presence or absence of cancer, and therefore, are more reliable and accurate. A review of published literature in the field of CAD based ovarian cancer detection indicates that many studies use ultrasound images as the base for analysis. The key objective of this work is to propose an effective adjunct CAD technique called GyneScan for ovarian tumor detection in ultrasound images. In our proposed data mining framework, we extract several texture features based on first order statistics, Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix and run length matrix. The significant features selected using t-test are then used to train and test several supervised learning based classifiers such as Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Decision Tree (DT), k-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), and Naïve Bayes (NB). We evaluated the developed framework using 1300 benign and 1300 malignant images. Using 11 significant features in KNN/PNN classifiers, we were able to achieve 100% classification accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value in detecting ovarian tumor. Even though more validation using larger databases would better establish the robustness of our technique, the preliminary results are promising. This technique could be used as a reliable adjunct method to existing imaging modalities to provide a more confident second opinion on the presence/absence of ovarian tumor. PMID:24325128

  7. Hyperchromatic laser scanning cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárnok, Attila; Mittag, Anja

    2007-02-01

    In the emerging fields of high-content and high-throughput single cell analysis for Systems Biology and Cytomics multi- and polychromatic analysis of biological specimens has become increasingly important. Combining different technologies and staining methods polychromatic analysis (i.e. using 8 or more fluorescent colors at a time) can be pushed forward to measure anything stainable in a cell, an approach termed hyperchromatic cytometry. For cytometric cell analysis microscope based Slide Based Cytometry (SBC) technologies are ideal as, unlike flow cytometry, they are non-consumptive, i.e. the analyzed sample is fixed on the slide. Based on the feature of relocation identical cells can be subsequently reanalyzed. In this manner data on the single cell level after manipulation steps can be collected. In this overview various components for hyperchromatic cytometry are demonstrated for a SBC instrument, the Laser Scanning Cytometer (Compucyte Corp., Cambridge, MA): 1) polychromatic cytometry, 2) iterative restaining (using the same fluorochrome for restaining and subsequent reanalysis), 3) differential photobleaching (differentiating fluorochromes by their different photostability), 4) photoactivation (activating fluorescent nanoparticles or photocaged dyes), and 5) photodestruction (destruction of FRET dyes). With the intelligent combination of several of these techniques hyperchromatic cytometry allows to quantify and analyze virtually all components of relevance on the identical cell. The combination of high-throughput and high-content SBC analysis with high-resolution confocal imaging allows clear verification of phenotypically distinct subpopulations of cells with structural information. The information gained per specimen is only limited by the number of available antibodies and by sterical hindrance.

  8. The bone scan.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Arnold I; Koshy, June; Morey, Jose; Lin, Cheryl; DiPoce, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Bone imaging continues to be the second greatest-volume nuclear imaging procedure, offering the advantage of total body examination, low cost, and high sensitivity. Its power rests in the physiological uptake and pathophysiologic behavior of 99m technetium (99m-Tc) diphosphonates. The diagnostic utility, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of 99m-Tc bone imaging for benign conditions and tumors was established when only planar imaging was available. Currently, nearly all bone scans are performed as a planar study (whole-body, 3-phase, or regional), with the radiologist often adding single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Here we review many current indications for planar bone imaging, highlighting indications in which the planar data are often diagnostically sufficient, although diagnosis may be enhanced by SPECT. (18)F sodium fluoride positron emission tomography (PET) is also re-emerging as a bone agent, and had been considered interchangeable with 99m-Tc diphosphonates in the past. In addition to SPECT, new imaging modalities, including (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose, PET/CT, CT, magnetic resonance, and SPECT/CT, have been developed and can aid in evaluating benign and malignant bone disease. Because (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose is taken up by tumor cells and Tc diphosphonates are taken up in osteoblastic activity or osteoblastic healing reaction, both modalities are complementary. CT and magnetic resonance may supplement, but do not replace, bone imaging, which often detects pathology before anatomic changes are appreciated. We also stress the importance of dose reduction by reducing the dose of 99m-Tc diphosphonates and avoiding unnecessary CT acquisitions. In addition, we describe an approach to image interpretation that emphasizes communication with referring colleagues and correlation with appropriate history to significantly improve our impact on patient care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multislice CT of the head and body routine scans: Are scanning protocols adjusted for paediatric patients?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Z; Al Ghamdi, KS; Baroum, IH

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the multislice CT scanning protocols of head, chest and abdomen are adjusted according to patient’s age in paediatric patients. Materials and Methods: Multislice CT examination records of paediatric patients undergoing head, chest and abdomen scans from three public hospitals during a one-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were categorised into the following age groups: under 4 years, 5–8 years, 9–12 years and 13–16 years, while the tube current was classified into the following ranges: < 49 mA, 50–99 mA, 100–149 mA, 150–199 mA, > 200 mA and unknown. Results: A total of 4998 patient records, comprising a combination of head, chest and abdomen CT scans, were assessed, with head CT scans representing nearly half of the total scans. Age-based adjusted CT protocols were observed in most of the scans with higher tube current setting being used with increasing age. However, a high tube current (150–199 mA) was still used in younger patients (0–8 years) undergoing head CT scans. In one hospital, CT protocols remained constant across all age groups, indicating potential overexposure to the patients. Conclusion: This analysis shows that paediatric CT scans are adjusted according to the patient’s age in most of the routine CT examinations. This indicates increased awareness regarding radiation risks associated with CT. However, high tube current settings are still used in younger patient groups, thus, optimisation of paediatric CT protocols and implementation of current guidelines, such as age-and weight-based scanning, should be recommended in daily practice. PMID:22970059

  10. Radioisotope scanning in osseous sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Technetium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc)-labeled pyrophosphate or diphosphonate compounds and gallium-67 citrate (/sup 67/Ga) are two radionuclide scanning agents that are in widespread use in clinical practice. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate is used extensively for bone scanning to detect metastatic bone disease, benign bone tumors, osteomyelitis, benign hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, and Paget's disease. Only two reports describe abnormal /sup 99m/Tc/ pyrophosphate bone scans in four patients with osseous sarcoidosis. Gallium-67 scans are used primarily to localize neoplastic or inflammatory lesions anywhere in the body. In recent years /sup 67/Ga scans have also been used to detect the presence of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis, butmore » there are no reports describing abnormal uptake of gallium in patients with osseous sarcoidosis. This report describes experience with radioisotope scanning in two patients with osseous sarcoidosis.« less

  11. The ClpXP protease is responsible for the degradation of the Epsilon antidote to the Zeta toxin of the streptococcal pSM19035 plasmid.

    PubMed

    Brzozowska, Iwona; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula

    2014-03-14

    Most bacterial genomes contain different types of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems. The ω-ε-ζ proteinaceous type II TA cassette from the streptococcal pSM19035 plasmid is a member of the ε/ζ family, which is commonly found in multiresistance plasmids and chromosomes of various human pathogens. Regulation of type II TA systems relies on the proteolysis of antitoxin proteins. Under normal conditions, the Epsilon antidote neutralizes the Zeta toxin through the formation of a tight complex. In this study, we show, using both in vivo and in vitro analyses, that the ClpXP protease is responsible for Epsilon antitoxin degradation. Using in vivo studies, we examined the stability of the plasmids with active or inactive ω-ε-ζ TA cassettes in B. subtilis mutants that were defective for different proteases. Using in vitro assays, the degradation of purified His6-Epsilon by the His6-LonBs, ClpPBs, and ClpXBs proteases from B. subtilis was analyzed. Additionally, we showed that purified Zeta toxin protects the Epsilon protein from rapid ClpXP-catalyzed degradation.

  12. Complete sequence of Enterococcus faecium pVEF3 and the detection of an omega-epsilon-zeta toxin-antitoxin module and an ABC transporter.

    PubMed

    Sletvold, H; Johnsen, P J; Hamre, I; Simonsen, G S; Sundsfjord, A; Nielsen, K M

    2008-07-01

    Glycopeptide resistant Enterococcus faecium (GREF) persists on Norwegian poultry farms despite the ban on the growth promoter avoparcin. The biological basis for long-term persistence of avoparcin resistance is not fully understood. This study presents the complete DNA sequence of the E. faecium R-plasmid pVEF3 and functional studies of some plasmid-encoded traits (a toxin-antitoxin (TA) system and an ABC transporter) that may be of importance for plasmid persistence. The pVEF3 (63.1 kbp), isolated from an E. faecium strain of poultry origin sampled in Norway in 1999, has 71 coding sequences including the vanA avoparcin/vancomycin resistance encoding gene cluster. pVEF3 encodes the TA system omega-epsilon-zeta, and plasmid stability tests and transcription analysis show that omega-epsilon-zeta is functional in Enterococcus faecalis OGIX, although with decreasing effect over time. The predicted ABC transporter was not found to confer reduced susceptibility to any of the 28 substances tested. The TA system identified in the pVEF-type plasmids may contribute to vanA plasmid persistence on Norwegian poultry farms. However, size and compositional heterogeneity among E. faecium vanA plasmids suggest that additional plasmid maintenance systems in combination with host specific factors and frequent horizontal gene transfer and rearrangement causes the observed plasmid composition and distribution patterns.

  13. DNA polymerase zeta cooperates with polymerases kappa and iota in translesion DNA synthesis across pyrimidine photodimers in cells from XPV patients.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Omer; Geacintov, Nicholas; Nakajima, Satoshi; Yasui, Akira; Livneh, Zvi

    2009-07-14

    Human cells tolerate UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) by translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), carried out by DNA polymerase eta, the POLH gene product. A deficiency in DNA polymerase eta due to germ-line mutations in POLH causes the hereditary disease xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV), which is characterized by sunlight sensitivity and extreme predisposition to sunlight-induced skin cancer. XPV cells are UV hypermutable due to the activity of mutagenic TLS across CPD, which explains the cancer predisposition of the patients. However, the identity of the backup polymerase that carries out this mutagenic TLS was unclear. Here, we show that DNA polymerase zeta cooperates with DNA polymerases kappa and iota to carry out error-prone TLS across a TT CPD. Moreover, DNA polymerases zeta and kappa, but not iota, protect XPV cells against UV cytotoxicity, independently of nucleotide excision repair. This presents an extreme example of benefit-risk balance in the activity of TLS polymerases, which provide protection against UV cytotoxicity at the cost of increased mutagenic load.

  14. Total levels, localization patterns, and proportions of sperm exhibiting phospholipase C zeta are significantly correlated with fertilization rates after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Yelumalai, Suseela; Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti N; Kashir, Junaid; Mounce, Ginny; Da Silva, Sarah J Martins; Barratt, Christopher L; McVeigh, Enda; Coward, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    To study the relationship of total levels, localization patterns, and proportions of sperm exhibiting phospholipase C zeta, with fertilization rates after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Laboratory study; controls vs. patients after IVF (n = 27) or ICSI (n = 17) treatment. Fertility center. A total of 44 semen samples, subjected to either IVF or ICSI treatment. Oocyte collection, ICSI or IVF, determination of sperm concentration and motility, and immunocytochemical analyses of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ). None. Percentages of sperm exhibiting PLCζ. Significant positive correlation between ICSI fertilization rates and total levels, localization patterns, and the proportion (percentage) of sperm exhibiting PLCζ. Total levels, localization patterns, and the proportion of sperm exhibiting PLCζ are correlated with fertilization rates for ICSI, but not for IVF. Evaluating total levels, localization patterns, and proportions of PLCζ may represent a useful diagnostic tool for clinical purposes in men for whom IVF is not advised or has previously failed. This clinical study further supports the fundamental role of PLCζ in the oocyte activation process. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Continuous scanning mode for ptychography

    DOE PAGES

    Clark, Jesse N.; Huang, Xiaojing; Harder, Ross J.; ...

    2014-10-15

    We outline how ptychographic imaging can be performed without the need for discrete scan positions. Through an idealized experiment, we demonstrate how a discrete-position scan regime can be replaced with a continuously scanned one with suitable modification of the reconstruction scheme based on coherent modes. Thus, the impact of this is that acquisition times can be reduced, significantly aiding ptychographic imaging with x rays, electrons, or visible light.

  16. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride-Loaded Functionalised Carbon Nanotubes as Potential Carriers for Tumour Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Das, Shilpee; Desai, Jagruti L.; Thakkar, Hetal P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to formulate gemcitabine hydrochloride loaded functionalised carbon nanotubes to achieve tumour targeted drug release and thereby reducing gemcitabine hydrochloride toxicity. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were functionalised using 1,2-distearoylphosphatidyl ethanolamine-methyl polyethylene glycol conjugate 2000. Optimised ratio 1:2 of carbon nanotubes:1,2-distearoylphosphatidyl ethanolamine-methyl polyethylene glycol conjugate 2000 was taken for loading of gemcitabine hydrochloride. The formulation was evaluated for different parameters. The results showed that maximum drug loading efficiency achieved was 41.59% with an average particle size of 188.7 nm and zeta potential of −10−1 mV. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images confirmed the tubular structure of the formulation. The carbon nanotubes were able to release gemcitabine hydrochloride faster in acidic pH than at neutral pH indicating its potential for tumour targeting. Gemcitabine hydrochloride release from carbon nanotubes was found to follow Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic model with non-Fickian diffusion pattern. Cytotoxic activity of formulation on A549 cells was found to be higher in comparison to free gemcitabine hydrochloride. Stability studies indicated that lyophilised samples of the formulation were more stable for 3 months under refrigerated condition than at room temperature. Thus carbon nanotubes can be promising carrier for the anticancer drug gemcitabine hydrochloride. PMID:24591746

  17. Potential effect of cationic liposomes on interactions with oral bacterial cells and biofilms.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Marika; Morisaki, Hirobumi; Negishi, Yoichi; Endo-Takahashi, Yoko; Kuwata, Hirotaka; Miyazaki, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2016-01-01

    Although oral infectious diseases have been attributed to bacteria, drug treatments remain ineffective because bacteria and their products exist as biofilms. Cationic liposomes have been suggested to electrostatically interact with the negative charge on the bacterial surface, thereby improving the effects of conventional drug therapies. However, the electrostatic interaction between oral bacteria and cationic liposomes has not yet been examined in detail. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavior of cationic liposomes and Streptococcus mutans in planktonic cells and biofilms. Liposomes with or without cationic lipid were prepared using a reverse-phase evaporation method. The zeta potentials of conventional liposomes (without cationic lipid) and cationic liposomes were -13 and 8 mV, respectively, and both had a mean particle size of approximately 180 nm. We first assessed the interaction between liposomes and planktonic bacterial cells with a flow cytometer. We then used a surface plasmon resonance method to examine the binding of liposomes to biofilms. We confirmed the binding behavior of liposomes with biofilms using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The interactions between cationic liposomes and S. mutans cells and biofilms were stronger than those of conventional liposomes. Microscopic observations revealed that many cationic liposomes interacted with the bacterial mass and penetrated the deep layers of biofilms. In this study, we demonstrated that cationic liposomes had higher affinity not only to oral bacterial cells, but also biofilms than conventional liposomes. This electrostatic interaction may be useful as a potential drug delivery system to biofilms.

  18. ScanImage: flexible software for operating laser scanning microscopes.

    PubMed

    Pologruto, Thomas A; Sabatini, Bernardo L; Svoboda, Karel

    2003-05-17

    Laser scanning microscopy is a powerful tool for analyzing the structure and function of biological specimens. Although numerous commercial laser scanning microscopes exist, some of the more interesting and challenging applications demand custom design. A major impediment to custom design is the difficulty of building custom data acquisition hardware and writing the complex software required to run the laser scanning microscope. We describe a simple, software-based approach to operating a laser scanning microscope without the need for custom data acquisition hardware. Data acquisition and control of laser scanning are achieved through standard data acquisition boards. The entire burden of signal integration and image processing is placed on the CPU of the computer. We quantitate the effectiveness of our data acquisition and signal conditioning algorithm under a variety of conditions. We implement our approach in an open source software package (ScanImage) and describe its functionality. We present ScanImage, software to run a flexible laser scanning microscope that allows easy custom design.

  19. Integrating visible light 3D scanning into the everyday world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    Visible light 3D scanning offers the potential to non-invasively and nearly non-perceptibly incorporate 3D imaging into the everyday world. This paper considers the various possible uses of visible light 3D scanning technology. It discusses multiple possible usage scenarios including in hospitals, security perimeter settings and retail environments. The paper presents a framework for assessing the efficacy of visible light 3D scanning for a given application (and compares this to other scanning approaches such as those using blue light or lasers). It also discusses ethical and legal considerations relevant to real-world use and concludes by presenting a decision making framework.

  20. Correcting scan-to-scan response variability for a radiochromic film-based reference dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, David, E-mail: rcfilmconsulting@gmail.com; Devic, Slobodan

    had the potential to cause dose uncertainty in excess of 5%. Two expedients will eliminate the uncertainties: a transparent sheet (preferably glass) placed over the scanned film keeps the film-to-light source distance constant, and an EBT3 reference film included in all scans provides correction factors for measured response values.« less

  1. Scan converting video tape recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, N. I. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A video tape recorder is disclosed of sufficient bandwidth to record monochrome television signals or standard NTSC field sequential color at current European and American standards. The system includes scan conversion means for instantaneous playback at scanning standards different from those at which the recording is being made.

  2. Development and Characterization of Nisin Nanoparticles as Potential Alternative for the Recurrent Vaginal Candidiasis Treatment.

    PubMed

    de Abreu, Letícia Coli Louvisse; Todaro, Valerio; Sathler, Plinio Cunha; da Silva, Luiz Cláudio Rodrigues Pereira; do Carmo, Flávia Almada; Costa, Cleonice Marques; Toma, Helena Keiko; Castro, Helena Carla; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira; Cabral, Lucio Mendes

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was the development and characterization of nisin-loaded nanoparticles and the evaluation of its potential antifungal activity. Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida sp. considered as one of the major public health problem currently. The discovery of antifungal agents that present a reduced or null resistance of Candida sp. and the development of more efficient drug release mechanisms are necessary for the improvement of candidiasis treatment. Nisin, a bacteriocin commercially available for more than 50 years, exhibits antibacterial action in food products with potential antifungal activity. Among several alternatives used to modulate antifungal activity of bacteriocins, polymeric nanoparticles have received great attention due to an effective drug release control and reduction of therapeutic dose, besides the minimization of adverse effects by the preferential accumulation in specific tissues. The nisin nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsification and solvent evaporation methods. Nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. Antifungal activity was accessed by pour plate method and cell counting using Candida albicans strains. The in vitro release profile and in vitro permeation studies were performed using dialysis bag method and pig vaginal mucosa in Franz diffusion cell, respectively. The results revealed nisin nanoparticles (300 nm) with spherical shape and high loading efficiency (93.88 ± 3.26%). In vitro test results suggest a promising application of these nanosystems as a prophylactic agent in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and other gynecological diseases.

  3. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin

    2014-08-15

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a widemore » range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10{sup −7} T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.« less

  4. Quantum mechanical study and spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible) study, potential energy surface scan, Fukui function analysis and HOMO-LUMO analysis of 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol by DFT methods.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, S; Balachandran, V

    2014-09-15

    This study represents an integral approach towards understanding the electronic and structural aspects of 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol (TBMP). Fourier-transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Fourier-transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectra of TBMP was recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-100 cm(-1), respectively. The molecular structures, vibrational wavenumbers, infrared intensities and Raman activities were calculated using DFT (B3LYP and LSDA) methods using 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. The most stable conformer of TBMP was identified from the computational results. The assignments of vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQMFF) methodology. The first order hyperpolarizability (β0) and related properties (β, α0 and Δα) of TBMP have been discussed. The stability and charge delocalization of the molecule was studied by Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. UV-Visible spectrum and effects of solvents have been discussed and the electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies were determined by time-dependent TD-DFT approach with B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory. The molecule orbital contributions are studied by density of energy states (DOSs). The reactivity sites are identified by mapping the electron density into electrostatic potential surface (MEP). Mulliken analysis of atomic charges is also calculated. The thermodynamic properties at different temperatures were calculated, revealing the correlations between standard heat capacities, standard entropy and standard enthalpy changes with temperatures. Global hardness, global softness, global electrophilicity and ionization potential of the title compound are determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid-scan EPR imaging.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Sandra S; Shi, Yilin; Woodcock, Lukas; Buchanan, Laura A; McPeak, Joseph; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J; Eaton, Gareth R

    2017-07-01

    In rapid-scan EPR the magnetic field or frequency is repeatedly scanned through the spectrum at rates that are much faster than in conventional continuous wave EPR. The signal is directly-detected with a mixer at the source frequency. Rapid-scan EPR is particularly advantageous when the scan rate through resonance is fast relative to electron spin relaxation rates. In such scans, there may be oscillations on the trailing edge of the spectrum. These oscillations can be removed by mathematical deconvolution to recover the slow-scan absorption spectrum. In cases of inhomogeneous broadening, the oscillations may interfere destructively to the extent that they are not visible. The deconvolution can be used even when it is not required, so spectra can be obtained in which some portions of the spectrum are in the rapid-scan regime and some are not. The technology developed for rapid-scan EPR can be applied generally so long as spectra are obtained in the linear response region. The detection of the full spectrum in each scan, the ability to use higher microwave power without saturation, and the noise filtering inherent in coherent averaging results in substantial improvement in signal-to-noise relative to conventional continuous wave spectroscopy, which is particularly advantageous for low-frequency EPR imaging. This overview describes the principles of rapid-scan EPR and the hardware used to generate the spectra. Examples are provided of its application to imaging of nitroxide radicals, diradicals, and spin-trapped radicals at a Larmor frequency of ca. 250MHz. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Are environmental scanning units effective?

    PubMed

    Stubbart, C

    1982-06-01

    Many authorities have urged companies to set up environmental scanning to assist corporate planning. Some advocates have recommended a unit at corporate level. This would give breadth of view and penetration into the future. It would arm decision makers with accurate forecasts. The information would be broad in scope and future directed. It could provide also assumptions for long-range planning. The Fahey and King study produced a model of corporate scanning types. The data showed that environmental information was built into the plan. Though the political environment was important, scanning was inadequate. The best location for scanning was not at corporate level and most firms used irregular methods. The Thomas study concluded that effective environmental scanning was permanent and multi level and that 'best practice' was continuous scanning. In 1978 the sample organizations were revisited. Five of the twelve have not changed their practice. The factors which encouraged a continuous model were the attitudes of academics and business media, demonstrated success of the units, the right kind of personnel. Contrary influences were changes in top management, decentralization moves, resource cuts, defining the environment and its significance, the availability of scanning competent personnel, surprise itself, and the availability of alternatives e.g. external forecasts.

  7. Re-scan confocal microscopy: scanning twice for better resolution

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Giulia M.R.; Breedijk, Ronald M.P.; Brandt, Rick A.J.; Zeelenberg, Christiaan H.C.; de Jong, Babette E.; Timmermans, Wendy; Azar, Leila Nahidi; Hoebe, Ron A.; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik M.M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new super-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), based on standard confocal microscopy extended with an optical (re-scanning) unit that projects the image directly on a CCD-camera. This new microscope has improved lateral resolution and strongly improved sensitivity while maintaining the sectioning capability of a standard confocal microscope. This simple technology is typically useful for biological applications where the combination high-resolution and high-sensitivity is required. PMID:24298422

  8. Re-scan confocal microscopy: scanning twice for better resolution.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Giulia M R; Breedijk, Ronald M P; Brandt, Rick A J; Zeelenberg, Christiaan H C; de Jong, Babette E; Timmermans, Wendy; Azar, Leila Nahidi; Hoebe, Ron A; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik M M

    2013-01-01

    We present a new super-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), based on standard confocal microscopy extended with an optical (re-scanning) unit that projects the image directly on a CCD-camera. This new microscope has improved lateral resolution and strongly improved sensitivity while maintaining the sectioning capability of a standard confocal microscope. This simple technology is typically useful for biological applications where the combination high-resolution and high-sensitivity is required.

  9. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.; Brown, G.

    2015-10-01

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine power performance analysis and annual energy production. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30 % of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. Large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation when arc scans are used for wind resource assessment.

  10. Generalized zeta function representation of groups and 2-dimensional topological Yang-Mills theory: The example of GL(2, #Mathematical Double-Struck Capital F#{sub q}) and PGL(2, #Mathematical Double-Struck Capital F#{sub q})

    SciTech Connect

    Roche, Ph., E-mail: philippe.roche@univ-montp2.fr

    We recall the relation between zeta function representation of groups and two-dimensional topological Yang-Mills theory through Mednikh formula. We prove various generalisations of Mednikh formulas and define generalization of zeta function representations of groups. We compute some of these functions in the case of the finite group GL(2, #Mathematical Double-Struck Capital F#{sub q}) and PGL(2, #Mathematical Double-Struck Capital F#{sub q}). We recall the table characters of these groups for any q, compute the Frobenius-Schur indicator of their irreducible representations, and give the explicit structure of their fusion rings.

  11. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... take a ventilation and perfusion scan and then evaluate it with a chest x-ray. All parts ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  12. Scan of recent travel surveys

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-06-01

    A specific objective of this scan of recent travel surveys is to facilitate the exchange of information among agencies and individuals having an interest in the design and conduct of household and other types of travel surveys. The information contai...

  13. Gallium scans in myasthenia gravis

    SciTech Connect

    Swick, H.M.; Preston, D.F.; McQuillen, M.P.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether /sup 67/Ga scans could be used for the detection of thymomas and to investigate the activity of the thymus gland in patients with myasthenia gravis. Scans of the anterior mediastinum proved to be a reliable way to detect thymomas. The scans were positive in eight patients including three with myasthenia gravis and histologically proved thymomas, three others with severe myasthenia gravis and thymic tumors, and two with histologically proved thymomas not associated with myasthenia. Activity on /sup 67/Ga scans was not directly related to the increased activity of the thymus gland that ismore » presumed to be associated with myasthenia gravis. (HLW)« less

  14. Establishing an Environmental Scanning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.

    1985-01-01

    A formal environmental scanning system designed to identify emerging issues, events, or trends threatening or bringing opportunity to an institution is discussed that uses a committee to systematically collect and analyze data from a variety of sources. (MSE)

  15. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences.

  16. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Kuhl, David E.; Edwards, Roy Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three-dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program.

  17. Antiretroviral Drugs-Loaded Nanoparticles Fabricated by Dispersion Polymerization with Potential for HIV/AIDS Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ogunwuyi, Oluwaseun; Kumari, Namita; Smith, Kahli A.; Bolshakov, Oleg; Adesina, Simeon; Gugssa, Ayele; Anderson, Winston A.; Nekhai, Sergei; Akala, Emmanuel O.

    2016-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (HAART) for chronic suppression of HIV replication has revolutionized the treatment of HIV/AIDS. HAART is no panacea; treatments must be maintained for life. Although great progress has been made in ARV therapy, HIV continues to replicate in anatomical and intracellular sites where ARV drugs have restricted access. Nanotechnology has been considered a platform to circumvent some of the challenges in HIV/AIDS treatment. Dispersion polymerization was used to fabricate two types (PMM and ECA) of polymeric nanoparticles, and each was successfully loaded with four ARV drugs (zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine, and raltegravir), followed by physicochemical characterization: scanning electron microscope, particle size, zeta potential, drug loading, and in vitro availability. These nanoparticles efficiently inhibited HIV-1 infection in CEM T cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells; they hold promise for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. The ARV-loaded nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol on the corona may facilitate tethering ligands for targeting specific receptors expressed on the cells of HIV reservoirs. PMID:27013886

  18. Scanning probe microscopy of biomedical interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vansteenkiste, S. O.; Davies, M. C.; Roberts, C. J.; Tendler, S. J. B.; Williams, P. M.

    1998-02-01

    The development of the scanning probe microscopes over the past decade has provided a number of exciting new surface analytical techniques making a significant progress in the characterisation of biomedical interfaces. In this review, several examples are presented to illustrate that SPM is a powerful and promising tool for surface investigations including biomolecules, cell membranes, polymers and even living cells. The ability of the SPM instrument to monitor adhesion phenomena and provide quantitative information about intermolecular interactions is also described. Moreover, the huge potential of the scanning probe microscopes to study dynamic processes at interfaces under nearly physiological conditions is highlighted. Novel applications in the field of biochemistry, microbiology, biomaterial engineering, drug delivery and even medicine are discussed.

  19. Copying of holograms by spot scanning approach.

    PubMed

    Okui, Makoto; Wakunami, Koki; Oi, Ryutaro; Ichihashi, Yasuyuki; Jackin, Boaz Jessie; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2018-05-20

    To replicate holograms, contact copying has conventionally been used. In this approach, a photosensitive material is fixed together with a master hologram and illuminated with a coherent beam. This method is simple and enables high-quality copies; however, it requires a large optical setup for large-area holograms. In this paper, we present a new method of replicating holograms that uses a relatively compact optical system even for the replication of large holograms. A small laser spot that irradiates only part of the hologram is used to reproduce the hologram by scanning the spot over the whole area of the hologram. We report on the results of experiments carried out to confirm the copy quality, along with a guide to design scanning conditions. The results show the potential effectiveness of the large-area hologram replication technology using a relatively compact apparatus.

  20. AlaScan: A Graphical User Interface for Alanine Scanning Free-Energy Calculations.

    PubMed

    Ramadoss, Vijayaraj; Dehez, François; Chipot, Christophe

    2016-06-27

    Computation of the free-energy changes that underlie molecular recognition and association has gained significant importance due to its considerable potential in drug discovery. The massive increase of computational power in recent years substantiates the application of more accurate theoretical methods for the calculation of binding free energies. The impact of such advances is the application of parent approaches, like computational alanine scanning, to investigate in silico the effect of amino-acid replacement in protein-ligand and protein-protein complexes, or probe the thermostability of individual proteins. Because human effort represents a significant cost that precludes the routine use of this form of free-energy calculations, minimizing manual intervention constitutes a stringent prerequisite for any such systematic computation. With this objective in mind, we propose a new plug-in, referred to as AlaScan, developed within the popular visualization program VMD to automate the major steps in alanine-scanning calculations, employing free-energy perturbation as implemented in the widely used molecular dynamics code NAMD. The AlaScan plug-in can be utilized upstream, to prepare input files for selected alanine mutations. It can also be utilized downstream to perform the analysis of different alanine-scanning calculations and to report the free-energy estimates in a user-friendly graphical user interface, allowing favorable mutations to be identified at a glance. The plug-in also assists the end-user in assessing the reliability of the calculation through rapid visual inspection.

  1. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Pryor, Sara C.; Brown, Gareth.

    2016-04-01

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine power performance analysis and annual energy production prediction. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30 % of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. Large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation.

  2. Collagen type I from bovine bone. Effect of animal age, bone anatomy and drying methodology on extraction yield, self-assembly, thermal behaviour and electrokinetic potential.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Gaillard-Martinie, Brigitte; Sayd, Thierry; Chambon, Christophe; Anton, Marc; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2017-04-01

    Natural collagen is easily available from animal tissues such as bones. Main limitations reported in the use of natural collagen are heterogeneity and loss of integrity during recovery. However, its natural complexity, functionality and bioactivity still remain to be achieved through synthetic and recombinant ways. Variability of physicochemical properties of collagen extracted from bovine bone by acetic acid was then investigated taking into account endogenous and exogenous factors. Endogenous: bovine's bones age (4 and 7 years) and anatomy (femur and tibia); exogenous: thermal treatments (spray-drying and lyophilisation). Scanning electron microscopy, spectroscopy (EDS, FTIR, UV/Vis and CD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), centesimal composition, mass spectrometry, amino acids and zeta-potential analysis were used for the purpose. Age correlated negatively with yield of recovery and positively with minerals and proteoglycans content. Comparing the anatomy, higher yields were found for tibias, and higher stability of tibias collagen in solution was noticed. Whatever the age and the anatomy, collagens were able to renature and to self-assemble into tri-dimensional structures. Nonetheless thermal stability and kinetics of renaturation were different. Variability of natural collagen with bone age and anatomy, and drying methodology, may be a crucial advantage to conceive tailor-made applications in either the biological or technical sector. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Immersion ultrasonography: simultaneous A-scan and B-scan.

    PubMed

    Coleman, D J; Dallow, R L; Smith, M E

    1979-01-01

    In eyes with opaque media, ophthalmic ultrasound provides a unique source of information that can dramatically affect the course of patient management. In addition, when an ocular abnormality can be visualized, ultrasonography provides information that supplements and complements other diagnostic testing. It provides documentation and differentiation of abnormal states, such as vitreous hemorrhage and intraocular tumor, as well as differentiation of orbital tumors from inflammatory causes of exophthalmos. Additional capabilities of ultrasound are biometric determinations for calculation of intraocular lens implant powers and drug-effectiveness studies. Maximal information is derived from ultrasonography when A-scan and B-scan techniques are employed simultaneously. Flexibility of electronics, variable-frequency transducers, and the use of several different manual scanning patterns aid in detection and interpretation of results. The immersion system of ultrasonography provides these features optimally.

  4. StarScan: a web server for scanning small RNA targets from degradome sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shun; Li, Jun-Hao; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Ke-Ren; Zhou, Hui; Yang, Jian-Hua; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2015-07-01

    Endogenous small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), including microRNAs, PIWI-interacting RNAs and small interfering RNAs, play important gene regulatory roles in animals and plants by pairing to the protein-coding and non-coding transcripts. However, computationally assigning these various sRNAs to their regulatory target genes remains technically challenging. Recently, a high-throughput degradome sequencing method was applied to identify biologically relevant sRNA cleavage sites. In this study, an integrated web-based tool, StarScan (sRNA target Scan), was developed for scanning sRNA targets using degradome sequencing data from 20 species. Given a sRNA sequence from plants or animals, our web server performs an ultrafast and exhaustive search for potential sRNA-target interactions in annotated and unannotated genomic regions. The interactions between small RNAs and target transcripts were further evaluated using a novel tool, alignScore. A novel tool, degradomeBinomTest, was developed to quantify the abundance of degradome fragments located at the 9-11th nucleotide from the sRNA 5' end. This is the first web server for discovering potential sRNA-mediated RNA cleavage events in plants and animals, which affords mechanistic insights into the regulatory roles of sRNAs. The StarScan web server is available at http://mirlab.sysu.edu.cn/starscan/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Environmental Scanning and the Information Manager.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsome, James; McInerney, Claire

    1990-01-01

    Discusses nine components of an environmental scanning model: selecting the scanning team; selecting resources to scan; choosing criteria for scanning; scanning the resources; identifying signals of new issues; selecting key events/issues; monitoring and analyzing events/issues; disseminating information; and deciding on appropriate organizational…

  6. Obstacles to Industrial Implementation of Scanning Systems

    Treesearch

    Anders Astrom; Olog Broman; John Graffman; Anders Gronlund; Armas Jappinene; Jari Luostarinen; Jan Nystrom; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1998-01-01

    Initially the group discussed what is meant by scanning systems. An operational definition was adopted to consider scanning system in the current context to be nontraditional scanning. Where, traditional scanning is defined as scanning that has been industrially operational and relatively common for several years-a mature technology. For example,...

  7. The structure of a zeta class glutathione S-transferase from Arabidopsis thaliana: characterisation of a GST with novel active-site architecture and a putative role in tyrosine catabolism.

    PubMed

    Thom, R; Dixon, D P; Edwards, R; Cole, D J; Lapthorn, A J

    2001-05-18

    The cis-trans isomerisation of maleylacetoacetate to fumarylacetoacetate is the penultimate step in the tyrosine/phenylalanine catabolic pathway and has recently been shown to be catalysed by glutathione S-transferase enzymes belonging to the zeta class. Given this primary metabolic role it is unsurprising that zeta class glutathione S-transferases are well conserved over a considerable period of evolution, being found in vertebrates, plants, insects and fungi. The structure of this glutathione S-transferase, cloned from Arabidopsis thaliana, has been solved by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering and refined to a final crystallographic R-factor of 19.6% using data from 25.0 A to 1.65 A. The zeta class enzyme adopts the canonical glutathione S-transferase fold and forms a homodimer with each subunit consisting of 221 residues. In agreement with structures of glutathione S-transferases from the theta and phi classes, a serine residue (Ser17) is present in the active site, at a position that would allow it to stabilise the thiolate anion of glutathione. Site-directed mutagenesis of this residue confirms its importance in catalysis. In addition, the role of a highly conserved cysteine residue (Cys19) present in the active site of the zeta class glutathione S-transferase enzymes is discussed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Cyclen-based lipidic oligomers as potential gene delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Yi, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Qin-Fang; Zhang, Ji; Liu, Qiang; Ren, Laifeng; Chen, Qian-Ming; Guo, Liandi; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2014-03-01

    A series of cyclen-based linear oligomers bearing hydrophobic long chains (lipopolymers Cy-LC, where Cy and LC represent cyclen-based linear backbone and hydrophobic long chain substituents, respectively) were designed and synthesized. The effects of type and degree of substitution (DS) of hydrophobic long chains on the transfection efficiency were systematically studied. The nitrogen atoms with relatively strong basicity on the cyclen ensure their good DNA binding ability, which was confirmed by gel retardation and ethidium bromide exclusion assays. Lipopolyplexes could be formed as nanoparticles with suitable sizes and zeta potentials for gene transfection. In vitro gene delivery experiments revealed that the linoleic acid (LIN) substituted material Cy-LIN has better transfection efficiency than 25 kDa polyethylenimine in the absence or in the presence of serum. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and hemolysis assays showed low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility of the lipopolyplexes. Fluorescent labeled DNA was used to study the cellular uptake and intracellular distribution of transfected DNA. Flow cytometry results suggested that a long chain is necessary for efficient cellular uptake, and images from confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that after 4h transfection, most of the fluorescent labeled DNA accumulated in the perinuclear region, which was required for efficient gene expression. Moreover, it was also found that the DS of the hydrophobic moiety can adjust the balance between DNA binding ability and dissociation of polyplexes, significantly affecting the transfection efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Scanning Terahertz Heterodyne Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter; Dengler, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging systems are now at an early stage of development. In a basic scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging system, (see Figure 1) two far-infrared lasers generate beams denoted the local-oscillator (LO) and signal that differ in frequency by an amount, denoted the intermediate frequency (IF), chosen to suit the application. The LO beam is sent directly to a mixer as one of two inputs. The signal beam is focused to a spot on or in the specimen. After transmission through or reflection from the specimen, the beams are focused to a spot on a terahertz mixer, which extracts the IF outputs. The specimen is mounted on a translation stage, by means of which the focal spot is scanned across the specimen to build up an image.

  10. Device-independent color scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Rudolph E.

    1993-08-01

    Color calibration technology is being incorporated into both Apple and Microsoft's operating systems. These color savvy operating systems will produce a market pull towards 'smart color' scanners and printers which, in turn, will lead towards a distributed architecture for color management systems (CMS). Today's desktop scanners produce red-green-blue color signals that do not accurately describe the color of the object being scanned. Future scanners will be self-calibrating and communicate their own 'device profile' to the operating system based CMS. This paper describes some of the key technologies required for this next generation of smart color scanners. Topics covered include a comparison of colorimetric and conventional scanning technologies, and the impact of metamerism, dye fluorescence and chromatic adaptation on device independent color scanning.

  11. Footwear scanning systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Fernandes, Justin L.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.

    2017-07-25

    Methods and apparatus for scanning articles, such as footwear, to provide information regarding the contents of the articles are described. According to one aspect, a footwear scanning system includes a platform configured to contact footwear to be scanned, an antenna array configured to transmit electromagnetic waves through the platform into the footwear and to receive electromagnetic waves from the footwear and the platform, a transceiver coupled with antennas of the antenna array and configured to apply electrical signals to at least one of the antennas to generate the transmitted electromagnetic waves and to receive electrical signals from at least another of the antennas corresponding to the electromagnetic waves received by the others of the antennas, and processing circuitry configured to process the received electrical signals from the transceiver to provide information regarding contents within the footwear.

  12. The combination of scanning electron and scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sapozhnikov, I. D.; Gorbenko, O. M., E-mail: gorolga64@gmail.com; Felshtyn, M. L.

    2016-06-17

    We suggest the SPM module to combine SEM and SPM methods for studying surfaces. The module is based on the original mechanical moving and scanning system. The examples of studies of the steel surface microstructure in both SEM and SPM modes are presented.

  13. Multitip scanning bio-Kelvin probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baikie, I. D.; Smith, P. J. S.; Porterfield, D. M.; Estrup, P. J.

    1999-03-01

    We have developed a novel multitip scanning Kelvin probe which can measure changes in biological surface potential ΔVs to within 2 mV and, quasisimultaneously monitor displacement to <1 μm. The control and measurement subcomponents are PC based and incorporate a flexible user interface permitting software control of each individual tip, measurement, and scan parameters. We review the mode of operation and design features of the scanning bio-Kelvin probe including tip steering, signal processing, tip calibration, and novel tip tracking/dithering routines. This system uniquely offers both tip-to-sample spacing control (which is essential to avoid spurious changes in ΔVs due to variations in mean spacing) and a dithering routine to maintain tip orientation to the biological specimen, irrespective of the latter's movement. These features permit long term (>48 h) "active" tracking of the displacement and biopotentials developed along and around a plant shoot in response to an environmental stimulus, e.g., differential illumination (phototropism) or changes in orientation (gravitropism).

  14. Automated planning of MRI scans of knee joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystrov, Daniel; Pekar, Vladimir; Young, Stewart; Dries, Sebastian P. M.; Heese, Harald S.; van Muiswinkel, Arianne M.

    2007-03-01

    A novel and robust method for automatic scan planning of MRI examinations of knee joints is presented. Clinical knee examinations require acquisition of a 'scout' image, in which the operator manually specifies the scan volume orientations (off-centres, angulations, field-of-view) for the subsequent diagnostic scans. This planning task is time-consuming and requires skilled operators. The proposed automated planning system determines orientations for the diagnostic scan by using a set of anatomical landmarks derived by adapting active shape models of the femur, patella and tibia to the acquired scout images. The expert knowledge required to position scan geometries is learned from previous manually planned scans, allowing individual preferences to be taken into account. The system is able to automatically discriminate between left and right knees. This allows to use and merge training data from both left and right knees, and to automatically transform all learned scan geometries to the side for which a plan is required, providing a convenient integration of the automated scan planning system in the clinical routine. Assessment of the method on the basis of 88 images from 31 different individuals, exhibiting strong anatomical and positional variability demonstrates success, robustness and efficiency of all parts of the proposed approach, which thus has the potential to significantly improve the clinical workflow.

  15. Wide-field reflective scanning optical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, I. R.

    1973-01-01

    Catoptric optical scanning system provides relatively fast line-scan rate for two-dimensional coverage. Rapid scan rates require low focal ratios between components and smallest possible masses. System is relatively free from monochromatic defects and chromatic aberrations.

  16. Application of scanning acoustic microscopy to advanced structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex; Klima, Stanley J.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presentod of research investigations of several acoustic microscopy techniques for application to structural ceramics for advanced heat engines. Results obtained with scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM), scanning electron acoustic microscopy (SEAM), and photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) are compared. The techniques were evaluated on research samples of green and sintered monolithic silicon nitrides and silicon carbides in the form of modulus-of-rupture bars containing deliberately introduced flaws. Strengths and limitations of the techniques are described with emphasis on statistics of detectability of flaws that constitute potential fracture origins.

  17. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hui; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Pryor, Sara C.; ...

    2016-04-13

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine power performance analysis and annualmore » energy production prediction. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30% of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. As a result, large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation.« less

  18. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hui; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Pryor, Sara C.

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine power performance analysis and annualmore » energy production prediction. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30% of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. As a result, large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation.« less

  19. [Computer modeling the dependences of the membrane potential for polymeric membrane separated non-homogeneous electrolyte solutions on concentration Rayleigh number].

    PubMed

    Slezak, Izabella H; Jasik-Slezak, Jolanta; Bilewicz-Wyrozumska, Teresa; Slezak, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of model equation describing the membrane potential delta psi(s) on concentration Rayleigh number (R(C)), mechanical pressure difference (deltaP), concentration polarization coefficient (zeta s) and ratio concentration of solutions separated by membrane (Ch/Cl), the characteristics delta psi(s) = f(Rc)(delta P, zeta s, Ch/Cl) for steady values of zeta s, R(C) and Ch/Cl in single-membrane system were calculated. In this system neutral and isotropic polymeric membrane oriented in horizontal plane, the non-homogeneous binary electrolytic solutions of various concentrations were separated. Nonhomogeneity of solutions is results from creations of the concentration boundary layers on both sides of the membrane. Calculations were made for the case where on a one side of the membrane aqueous solution of NaCl at steady concentration 10(-3) mol x l(-1) (Cl) was placed and on the other aqueous solutions of NaCl at concentrations from 10(-3) mol x l(-1) to 2 x 10(-2) mol x l(-1) (Ch). Their densities were greater than NaCl solution's at 10(-3) mol x l(-1). It was shown that membrane potential depends on hydrodynamic state of a complex concentration boundary layer-membrane-concentration boundary layer, what is controlled by deltaP, Ch/Cl, Rc and Zeta(s).

  20. Detailed study of the water trimer potential energy surface

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.E.; Schaefer, H.F. III

    The potential energy surface of the water trimer has been studied through the use of ab initio quantum mechanical methods. Five stationary points were located, including one minimum and two transition states. All geometries were optimized at levels up to the double-[Zeta] plus polarization plus diffuse (DZP + diff) single and double excitation coupled cluster (CCSD) level of theory. CCSD single energy points were obtained for the minimum, two transition states, and the water monomer using the triple-[Zeta] plus double polarization plus diffuse (TZ2P + diff) basis at the geometries predicted by the DZP + diff CCSD method. Reported aremore » the following: geometrical parameters, total and relative energies, harmonic vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities for the minimum, and zero point vibrational energies for the minimum, two transition states, and three separated water molecules. 27 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.« less

  1. Pseudocalcification on chest CT scan.

    PubMed

    Tiruvoipati, R; Balasubramanian, S K; Entwisle, J J; Firmin, R K; Peek, G J

    2007-07-01

    Liquid ventilation with perfluorocarbons is used in severe respiratory failure that cannot be managed by conventional methods. Very little is known about the use of liquid ventilation in paediatric patients with respiratory failure and there are no reports describing the distribution and excretion of perfluorocarbons in paediatric patients with severe respiratory failure. The aim of this report is to highlight the prolonged retention of perfluorocarbons in a paediatric patient, mimicking pulmonary calcification and misleading the interpretation of the chest CT scan. A 10-year-old girl was admitted to our intensive care unit with severe respiratory failure due to miliary tuberculosis. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was used to support gas exchange and partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with perfluorodecalin was used to aid in oxygenation, lavage the lungs and clear thick secretions. The patient developed a pneumothorax (fluorothorax) on the next day and PLV was discontinued. Multiple bronchoalveolar lavages were performed to clear thick secretions. With no improvement in lung function over the next month a CT scan of the chest was performed. This revealed extensive pulmonary fibrosis and multiple high attenuation lesions suggestive of pulmonary calcification. To exclude perfluorodecalin as the cause for high attenuation lesions, a sample of perfluorodecalin was scanned to estimate the Hounsfield unit density, which was similar to the density of high attenuation lesions on chest CT scan. High-density opacification should be interpreted with caution, especially following liquid ventilation.

  2. Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yun-Zhong; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Andres, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

  3. Infrared Scanning For Electrical Maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbath, Steven E.

    1983-03-01

    Given the technological age that we have now entered, the purpose of this paper is to relate how infrared scanning can be used for an electrical preventative maintenance program. An infrared scanner is able to produce an image because objects give off infrared radiation in relationship to their temperature. Most electrical problems will show up as an increase in temperature, thereby making the infrared scanner a useful preventative maintenance tool. Because of the sensitivity of most of the scanners, .1 to .2 of a degree, virtually all electrical problems can be pinpointed long before they become a costly failure. One of the early uses of infrared scanning was to check the power company's electrical distribution system. Most of this was performed via aircraft or truck mounted scanning devices which necessitated its semi-permanent mounting. With the advent of small hand held infrared imagers, along with more portability of the larger systems, infrared scanning has gained more popularity in checking electrical distribution systems. But the distribution systems are now a scaled down model, mainly the in-plant electrical systems. By in-plant, I mean any distribution of electricity; once it leaves the power company's grid. This can be in a hospital, retail outlet, warehouse or manufacturing facility.

  4. Environmental Scanning, Vancouver Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Min

    This 1994 environmental scanning report from Vancouver Community College (VCC) reviews the expected effects of the separation of VCC into a new Vancouver Community College and Langara College (LC). The report examines the projected service area student-intake capacity; student characteristics; population growth trends; other postsecondary…

  5. Thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wilde, Yannick; Formanek, Florian; Carminati, Rémi; Gralak, Boris; Lemoine, Paul-Arthur; Joulain, Karl; Mulet, Jean-Philippe; Chen, Yong; Greffet, Jean-Jacques

    2006-12-01

    In standard near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM), a subwavelength probe acts as an optical `stethoscope' to map the near field produced at the sample surface by external illumination. This technique has been applied using visible, infrared, terahertz and gigahertz radiation to illuminate the sample, providing a resolution well beyond the diffraction limit. NSOM is well suited to study surface waves such as surface plasmons or surface-phonon polaritons. Using an aperture NSOM with visible laser illumination, a near-field interference pattern around a corral structure has been observed, whose features were similar to the scanning tunnelling microscope image of the electronic waves in a quantum corral. Here we describe an infrared NSOM that operates without any external illumination: it is a near-field analogue of a night-vision camera, making use of the thermal infrared evanescent fields emitted by the surface, and behaves as an optical scanning tunnelling microscope. We therefore term this instrument a `thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscope' (TRSTM). We show the first TRSTM images of thermally excited surface plasmons, and demonstrate spatial coherence effects in near-field thermal emission.

  6. Electronically-Scanned Pressure Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, C. F.; Parra, G. T.; Kauffman, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sensors not pneumatically switched. Electronic pressure-transducer scanning system constructed in modular form. Pressure transducer modules and analog to digital converter module small enough to fit within cavities of average-sized wind-tunnel models. All switching done electronically. Temperature controlled environment maintained within sensor modules so accuracy maintained while ambient temperature varies.

  7. A CAT scan for cells

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a team of scientists from Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and the University of California, San Francisco used Berkeley Lab's National Center for X-ray Tomography to capture the changes that occur when Candida albicans is exposed to a new and promising antifungal therapy. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/12/10/cat-scan-cells/

  8. Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Kollár, Alicia J.; Taylor, Stephen F.; Turner, Richard W.; Lev, Benjamin L.

    2017-03-01

    Microscopic imaging of local magnetic fields provides a window into the organizing principles of complex and technologically relevant condensed-matter materials. However, a wide variety of intriguing strongly correlated and topologically nontrivial materials exhibit poorly understood phenomena outside the detection capability of state-of-the-art high-sensitivity high-resolution scanning probe magnetometers. We introduce a quantum-noise-limited scanning probe magnetometer that can operate from room-to-cryogenic temperatures with unprecedented dc-field sensitivity and micron-scale resolution. The Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) employs a magnetically levitated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), thereby providing immunity to conductive and blackbody radiative heating. The SQCRAMscope has a field sensitivity of 1.4 nT per resolution-limited point (approximately 2 μ m ) or 6 nT /√{Hz } per point at its duty cycle. Compared to point-by-point sensors, the long length of the BEC provides a naturally parallel measurement, allowing one to measure nearly 100 points with an effective field sensitivity of 600 pT /√{Hz } for each point during the same time as a point-by-point scanner measures these points sequentially. Moreover, it has a noise floor of 300 pT and provides nearly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in magnetic flux sensitivity (down to 10-6 Φ0/√{Hz } ) over previous atomic probe magnetometers capable of scanning near samples. These capabilities are carefully benchmarked by imaging magnetic fields arising from microfabricated wire patterns in a system where samples may be scanned, cryogenically cooled, and easily exchanged. We anticipate the SQCRAMscope will provide charge-transport images at temperatures from room temperature to 4 K in unconventional superconductors and topologically nontrivial materials.

  9. Essential role of protein kinase C zeta in transducing a motility signal induced by superoxide and a chemotactic peptide, fMLP.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Kageaki; Nakamura, Kiminori; Tanaka, Maki; Sato, Tsutomu; Kato, Junji; Sasaki, Katsunori; Takimoto, Rishu; Kogawa, Katsuhisa; Terui, Takeshi; Takayama, Tetsuji; Onuma, Takayuki; Matsunaga, Takuya; Niitsu, Yoshiro

    2007-03-26

    Under various pathological conditions, including infection, malignancy, and autoimmune diseases, tissues are incessantly exposed to reactive oxygen species produced by infiltrating inflammatory cells. We show augmentation of motility associated with morphological changes of human squamous carcinoma SASH1 cells, human peripheral monocytes (hPMs), and murine macrophage-like cell line J774.1 by superoxide stimulation. We also disclose that motility of hPMs and J774.1 induced by a chemotactic peptide (N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine [fMLP]) was inhibited by superoxide dismutase or N-acetylcystein, indicating stimulation of motility by superoxide generated by fMLP stimulation. In these cells, protein kinase C (PKC) zeta was activated to phosphorylate RhoGDI-1, which liberated RhoGTPases, leading to their activation. These events were inhibited by dominant-negative PKCzeta in SASH1 cells, myristoylated PKCzeta peptides in hPMs and J774.1, or a specific inhibitor of RhoGTPase in SASH1, hPMs, and J774.1. These results suggest a new approach for manipulation of inflammation as well as tumor cell invasion by targeting this novel signaling pathway.

  10. Aprotinin stimulates angiogenesis and human endothelial cell migration through the growth factor pleiotrophin and its receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta.

    PubMed

    Koutsioumpa, Marina; Hatziapostolou, Maria; Mikelis, Constantinos; Koolwijk, Pieter; Papadimitriou, Evangelia

    2009-01-14

    Pleiotrophin is an 18 kDa secreted polypeptide growth factor with direct pro-angiogenic and tumorigenic properties. Pleiotrophin is a substrate for proteolytic enzymes, such as plasmin, leading to proteolytic fragments with distinct activities on endothelial cell activation in vitro or angiogenesis in vivo. Aprotinin is a naturally occurring broad spectrum protease inhibitor, used widely in cardiac surgery due to its ability to inhibit plasmin and reduce perioperative bleeding. Since we have seen that aprotinin inhibits proteolysis of pleiotrophin by plasmin, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible role of pleiotrophin in the effects of aprotinin on angiogenesis and human endothelial cell migration. Our data demonstrate that aprotinin, in a concentration-dependent manner, is angiogenic in the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay in vivo and induces human endothelial cell migration in vitro. Aprotinin inhibits pleiotrophin proteolysis and induces expression and secretion of pleiotrophin through an AP-1-dependent transcriptional activation of the pleiotrophin gene, and pleiotrophin seems to mediate the stimulatory effects of aprotinin on cell migration through its receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta. The stimulatory effect of aprotinin on pleiotrophin expression and cell migration may explain, at least partly, the problems observed with the clinical use of aprotinin.

  11. Structural analysis of intermolecular interactions in the kinesin adaptor complex fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1/ short coiled-coil protein (FEZ1/SCOCO).

    PubMed

    Alborghetti, Marcos Rodrigo; Furlan, Ariane da Silva; da Silva, Júlio César; Sforça, Maurício Luís; Honorato, Rodrigo Vargas; Granato, Daniela Campos; dos Santos Migueleti, Deivid Lucas; Neves, Jorge L; de Oliveira, Paulo Sergio Lopes; Paes-Leme, Adriana Franco; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos; de Torriani, Iris Concepcion Linares; Kobarg, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Cytoskeleton and protein trafficking processes, including vesicle transport to synapses, are key processes in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth. The human protein FEZ1 (fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1 / UNC-76, in C. elegans), SCOCO (short coiled-coil protein / UNC-69) and kinesins (e.g. kinesin heavy chain / UNC116) are involved in these processes. Exploiting the feature of FEZ1 protein as a bivalent adapter of transport mediated by kinesins and FEZ1 protein interaction with SCOCO (proteins involved in the same path of axonal growth), we investigated the structural aspects of intermolecular interactions involved in this complex formation by NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) and molecular modelling. The topology of homodimerization was accessed through NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) studies of the region involved in this process, corresponding to FEZ1 (92-194). Through studies involving the protein in its monomeric configuration (reduced) and dimeric state, we propose that homodimerization occurs with FEZ1 chains oriented in an anti-parallel topology. We demonstrate that the interaction interface of FEZ1 and SCOCO defined by MS and computational modelling is in accordance with that previously demonstrated for UNC-76 and UNC-69. SAXS and literature data support a heterotetrameric complex model. These data provide details about the interaction interfaces probably involved in the transport machinery assembly and open perspectives to understand and interfere in this assembly and its involvement in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth.

  12. Structural Analysis of Intermolecular Interactions in the Kinesin Adaptor Complex Fasciculation and Elongation Protein Zeta 1/ Short Coiled-Coil Protein (FEZ1/SCOCO)

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Júlio César; Sforça, Maurício Luís; Honorato, Rodrigo Vargas; Granato, Daniela Campos; dos Santos Migueleti, Deivid Lucas; Neves, Jorge L.; de Oliveira, Paulo Sergio Lopes; Paes-Leme, Adriana Franco; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos; de Torriani, Iris Concepcion Linares; Kobarg, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Cytoskeleton and protein trafficking processes, including vesicle transport to synapses, are key processes in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth. The human protein FEZ1 (fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1 / UNC-76, in C. elegans), SCOCO (short coiled-coil protein / UNC-69) and kinesins (e.g. kinesin heavy chain / UNC116) are involved in these processes. Exploiting the feature of FEZ1 protein as a bivalent adapter of transport mediated by kinesins and FEZ1 protein interaction with SCOCO (proteins involved in the same path of axonal growth), we investigated the structural aspects of intermolecular interactions involved in this complex formation by NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) and molecular modelling. The topology of homodimerization was accessed through NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) studies of the region involved in this process, corresponding to FEZ1 (92-194). Through studies involving the protein in its monomeric configuration (reduced) and dimeric state, we propose that homodimerization occurs with FEZ1 chains oriented in an anti-parallel topology. We demonstrate that the interaction interface of FEZ1 and SCOCO defined by MS and computational modelling is in accordance with that previously demonstrated for UNC-76 and UNC-69. SAXS and literature data support a heterotetrameric complex model. These data provide details about the interaction interfaces probably involved in the transport machinery assembly and open perspectives to understand and interfere in this assembly and its involvement in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth. PMID:24116125

  13. Green engineering of biomolecule-coated metallic silver nanoparticles and their potential cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasannaraj, Govindaraj; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2017-06-01

    This report describes the synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using extracts of four medicinal plants (Aegle marmelos (A. marmelos), Alstonia scholaris (A. scholaris), Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) and Centella asiatica (C. asiatica)). The bio-conjugates were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and zeta potential. This analysis confirmed that UV-Vis spectral peaks at 375 nm, 380 nm, 420 nm and 380 nm are corresponding to A. marmelos, A. scholaris, A. paniculata and C. asiatica mediated AgNPs, respectively. SEM images revealed that all the obtained four AgNPs are predominantly spherical, fibres and rectangle in shape with an average size of 36-97 nm. SEM-EDS and XRD analysis confirmed the presence of elemental AgNPs in crystalline form for all the four nanoparticle samples. The phytochemicals of various medicinal plant extracts with different functional groups were responsible for reduction of Ag+ to AgNPs, which act as capping and stabilizing agent. Among four types of AgNPs tested for anticancer activity, the Ap mediated AgNPs had shown enhanced activity against HepG2 cells (27.01 µg ml-1) and PC3 cells (32.15 µg ml-1).

  14. Preparation and physico-chemical characterization of β-cyclodextrin incorporated chitosan biosorbent beads with potential environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munim, Somayyah Abdul; Tahir Saddique, Muhammad; Raza, Zulfiqar Ali; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan

    2018-06-01

    Biosorption is one of the most efficient and feasible methods for eliminating noxious wastes from the aqueous systems. The use of non-hazardous, low-cost and biodegradable chitosan as a biosorbent is of significant importance in the above context. Present study was aimed to develop a β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) incorporated chitosan biosorbent in the form of beads. The prepared biosorbent beads were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The values of point of zero charge (PZC) of chitosan and β-CD incorporated chitosan beads were determined in the presence of an electrolyte by means of different methods including mass titration, salt addition and zeta potential ones. The SEM images exhibited roughened and porous morphologies which could enhance the adsorption of metal ions. The values of PZC of chitosan and β-CD incorporated chitosan biosorbent beads were found to be 6.38 and 7.12, respectively.

  15. Preparation and characterization of potato starch-thymol dispersion and film as potential antioxidant and antibacterial materials.

    PubMed

    Davoodi, Mina; Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Shakeri, Raheleh

    2017-11-01

    The antioxidant/antimicrobial capacity and physical properties of potato starch dispersions enriched with polysorbate-thymol micelle were investigated. Results showed that potato starch have radical scavenging and antibacterial activities only in the presence of polysorbate-thymol but with lower level than polysorbate-thymol alone. The decrease in the antioxidant and antibacterial activities may be attributed to the encapsulation of thymol in the starch chain. Polysorbate-thymol caused a decrease in the particle size and viscosity and an increase in the zeta potential of the starch dispersions. Futhermore, polysorbate-thymol leads to a decrease in the tensile strength, rigidity and swelling, and an increase in the flexibility, solubility and water vapour permeability of the starch films. Atomic force microscopy revealed polysorbate-thymol micelles in the film matrix enclosed by polysaccharide crystal. Scanning electron microscope analysis indicated that polysorbate-thymol caused a coarse film microstructure with the distributed crack in the film matrix. Based on the results, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the starch-polysorbate-thymol make starch film suitable for food packaging and preservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential scanning calorimetry of coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, P. I.

    1978-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry studies performed during the first year of this project demonstrated the occurrence of exothermic reactions associated with the production of volatile matter in or near the plastic region. The temperature and magnitude of the exothermic peak were observed to be strongly affected by the heating rate, sample mass and, to a lesser extent, by sample particle size. Thermal properties also were found to be influenced by oxidation of the coal sample due to weathering effects.

  17. Scanned Laser Illuminator/Receiver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    0.21/cm | | Optical Power 20 Watts i input I Optical Power 100 Watts | output ! Input Power 10 kW The oscillator ...8217.rectional due to the oscillating mirror. Again, con- siderable optical magnification is provided between object space and the scan mirror to minimize the...for a 100W (14) R. A. McClatchey, et al, " Optical Properties of the Atmosphere (Third Edition)," Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Tech

  18. Environmental scanning for Social Services.

    PubMed

    Russell, S; Prince, M J

    1992-10-01

    This article describes the development of a process of systematic regional environmental scanning as part of strategic planning in the Ministry of Social Services (MSS) in British Columbia, over the 1987-1990 period. Social Services, a large regionalized social service organization, adopted a formal strategic planning process in early 1988. Ministry services are delivered in ten regions with widely varying characteristics. To ensure that this diversity is reflected in the planning process, it is essential that regional environmental information receive consideration. A simple format was developed and regional directors asked to consult with their staff and to scan their regions for issues that may impact the ministry over the medium term. The information obtained was presented by regional directors at a Senior Management Committee meeting and included in the ministry's annual Business Plan, a document which informs staff, contractors, stakeholders, and the community at large of the ministry's values, objectives, and operational goals. The inclusion of regional analyses adds useful information to the Plan. A second output of the planning process is the ministry budget. The systematic regional scans were found to be extremely useful to regional staff, other directors, and to the ministry executives while setting priorities.

  19. Mechanically scanned deployable antenna study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The conceptual design of a Mechanically Scanned Deployable Antenna which is launched by the STS (Space Shuttle) to provide radiometric brightness temperature maps of the Earth and oceans at selected frequency bands in the frequency range of 1.4 GHz to 11 GHz is presented. Unlike previous scanning radiometric systems, multiple radiometers for each frequency are required in order to fill in the resolution cells across the swath created by the 15 meter diameter spin stabilized system. This multiple beam radiometric system is sometimes designated as a ""whiskbroom'' system in that it combines the techniques of the scanning and ""pushbroom'' type systems. The definition of the feed system including possible feed elements and location, determination of the fundamental reflector feed offset geometry including offset angles and f/D ratio, preliminary estimates of the beam efficiency of the feed reflector system, a summary of reflector mesh losses at the proposed radiometric frequency bands, an overall conceptual configuration design and preliminary structural and thermal analyses are included.

  20. Soft control of scanning probe microscope with high flexibility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenghui; Guo, Yuzheng; Zhang, Zhaohui; Zhu, Xing

    2007-01-01

    Most commercial scanning probe microscopes have multiple embedded digital microprocessors and utilize complex software for system control, which is not easily obtained or modified by researchers wishing to perform novel and special applications. In this paper, we present a simple and flexible control solution that just depends on software running on a single-processor personal computer with real-time Linux operating system to carry out all the control tasks including negative feedback, tip moving, data processing and user interface. In this way, we fully exploit the potential of a personal computer in calculating and programming, enabling us to manipulate the scanning probe as required without any special digital control circuits and related technical know-how. This solution has been successfully applied to a homemade ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope and a multiprobe scanning tunneling microscope.

  1. Bone scanning in the detection of occult fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Batillas, J.; Vasilas, A.; Pizzi, W.F.

    1981-07-01

    The potential role of bone scanning in the early detection of occult fractures following acute trauma was investigated. Technetium 99m pyrophosphate bone scans were obtained in patients with major clinical findings and negative or equivocal roentgenograms following trauma. Bone scanning facilitated the prompt diagnosis of occult fractures in the hip, knee, wrist, ribs and costochondral junctions, sternum, vertebrae, sacrum, and coccyx. Several illustrative cases are presented. Roentgenographic confirmation occurred following a delay of days to weeks and, in some instances, the roentgenographic findings were subtle and could be easily overlooked. This study demonstrates bone scanning to be invaluable and definitivemore » in the prompt detection of occult fractures.« less

  2. Transcript levels of the soluble sperm factor protein phospholipase C zeta 1 (PLCζ1) increase through induced spermatogenesis in European eel.

    PubMed

    Morini, Marina; Peñaranda, David S; Vílchez, María C; Gallego, Víctor; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Asturiano, Juan F; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Pérez, Luz

    2015-09-01

    Activation at fertilization of the vertebrate egg is triggered by Ca(2+) waves. Recent studies suggest the phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein, triggers egg activation by an IP3-mediated Ca(2+) release and allow Ca(2+) waves at fertilization. In the present study we cloned, characterized, and phylogenetically positioned the European eel PLCζ (PLCζ1). It is 1521 bp long, with 10 exons encoding an open reading frame of 506 amino acids. The amino acid sequence contains an EF-hand domain, X and Y catalytic domains, and a carboxy-terminal C2 domain, all typical of other PLCζ orthologous. The tissue distribution was studied, and the gene expression was determined in testis during induced sexual maturation at three different thermal regimes. Also, brain and pituitary expression was studied through sex maturation at constant temperature. plcζ1 was expressed in brain of male and female, in testis but not in ovaries. By first time in vertebrates, it is reported plcζ1 expression in the pituitary gland. Testis plcζ1 expression increased through spermatogenesis under all the thermal regimes, but being significantly elevated at lower temperatures. It was very low when testis contained only spermatogonia or spermatocytes, while maximum expression was found during spermiogenesis. These results support the hypothesis for an eel sperm-specific PLCζ1 inducing egg activation, similarly to mammals and some teleosts, but different from some other teleost species, which express this protein in ovaries, but not in testes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genome-wide association study identifies phospholipase C zeta 1 (PLCz1) as a stallion fertility locus in Hanoverian warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Schrimpf, Rahel; Dierks, Claudia; Martinsson, Gunilla; Sieme, Harald; Distl, Ottmar

    2014-01-01

    A consistently high level of stallion fertility plays an economically important role in modern horse breeding. We performed a genome-wide association study for estimated breeding values of the paternal component of the pregnancy rate per estrus cycle (EBV-PAT) in Hanoverian stallions. A total of 228 Hanoverian stallions were genotyped using the Equine SNP50 Beadchip. The most significant association was found on horse chromosome 6 for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within phospholipase C zeta 1 (PLCz1). In the close neighbourhood to PLCz1 is located CAPZA3 (capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 3). The gene PLCz1 encodes a protein essential for spermatogenesis and oocyte activation through sperm induced Ca2+-oscillation during fertilization. We derived equine gene models for PLCz1 and CAPZA3 based on cDNA and genomic DNA sequences. The equine PLCz1 had four different transcripts of which two contained a premature termination codon. Sequencing all exons and their flanking sequences using genomic DNA samples from 19 Hanoverian stallions revealed 47 polymorphisms within PLCz1 and one SNP within CAPZA3. Validation of these 48 polymorphisms in 237 Hanoverian stallions identified three intronic SNPs within PLCz1 as significantly associated with EBV-PAT. Bioinformatic analysis suggested regulatory effects for these SNPs via transcription factor binding sites or microRNAs. In conclusion, non-coding polymorphisms within PLCz1 were identified as conferring stallion fertility and PLCz1 as candidate locus for male fertility in Hanoverian warmblood. CAPZA3 could be eliminated as candidate gene for fertility in Hanoverian stallions.

  4. Zeta Inhibitory Peptide Disrupts Electrostatic Interactions That Maintain Atypical Protein Kinase C in Its Active Conformation on the Scaffold p62.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Li-Chun Lisa; Xie, Lei; Dore, Kim; Xie, Li; Del Rio, Jason C; King, Charles C; Martinez-Ariza, Guillermo; Hulme, Christopher; Malinow, Roberto; Bourne, Philip E; Newton, Alexandra C

    2015-09-04

    Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) enzymes signal on protein scaffolds, yet how they are maintained in an active conformation on scaffolds is unclear. A myristoylated peptide based on the autoinhibitory pseudosubstrate fragment of the atypical PKCζ, zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP), has been extensively used to inhibit aPKC activity; however, we have previously shown that ZIP does not inhibit the catalytic activity of aPKC isozymes in cells (Wu-Zhang, A. X., Schramm, C. L., Nabavi, S., Malinow, R., and Newton, A. C. (2012) J. Biol. Chem. 287, 12879-12885). Here we sought to identify a bona fide target of ZIP and, in so doing, unveiled a novel mechanism by which aPKCs are maintained in an active conformation on a protein scaffold. Specifically, we used protein-protein interaction network analysis, structural modeling, and protein-protein docking to predict that ZIP binds an acidic surface on the Phox and Bem1 (PB1) domain of p62, an interaction validated by peptide array analysis. Using a genetically encoded reporter for PKC activity fused to the p62 scaffold, we show that ZIP inhibits the activity of wild-type aPKC, but not a construct lacking the pseudosubstrate. These data support a model in which the pseudosubstrate of aPKCs is tethered to the acidic surface on p62, locking aPKC in an open, signaling-competent conformation. ZIP competes for binding to the acidic surface, resulting in displacement of the pseudosubstrate of aPKC and re-engagement in the substrate-binding cavity. This study not only identifies a cellular target for ZIP, but also unveils a novel mechanism by which scaffolded aPKC is maintained in an active conformation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Phospholipase C-zeta deficiency as a cause for repetitive oocyte fertilization failure during ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization with ICSI: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chithiwala, Zahabiya H; Lee, Hoi Chang; Hill, David L; Jellerette-Nolan, Teru; Fissore, Rafael; Grow, Daniel; Dumesic, Daniel A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe impaired oocyte fertilization from phospholipase C-zeta (PLC-ζ) deficiency in normal-appearing sperm that was successfully treated using calcium (Ca(2+)) ionophore with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of oocytes matured in vitro. An infertile couple undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) experienced failed oocyte fertilization following ICSI with normal-appearing sperm. A semen sample collected from the patient was used to assess the expression of sperm PLC- ζ protein by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence and PLC-ζ bioactivity by an in vitro model of Ca(2+) release. A second IVF cycle was performed using Ca(2+) ionophore with ICSI to enhance Ca(2+)-induced oocyte activation of oocytes matured in vitro. Sperm PLC-ζ protein deficiency was demonstrated by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence and confirmed by reduced PLC-ζ bioactivity using an in vitro model of Ca(2+) release. Nevertheless, with this sperm and supplementation of Ca(2+) ionophore following ICSI, fertilization of four of six oocytes matured in vitro was obtained. In addition, four embryos underwent cleavage and two of them reached the blastocyst stage. Transfer of these blastocysts into the uterus led to a single pregnancy and live birth. Deficiency of PLC-ζ in normal-appearing human sperm is associated with impaired Ca(2+)-dependent oocyte activation during ICSI. Under this condition, use of Ca(2+) ionophore following ICSI of oocytes matured in vitro improves embryo developmental competence, possibly through the activation of Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms governing fertilization and preimplantation embryogenesis.

  6. Effects of mechanical loading on the expression of pleiotrophin and its receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta in a rat spinal deformity model.

    PubMed

    Kaspiris, Angelos; Chronopoulos, Efstathios; Grivas, Theodoros B; Vasiliadis, Elias; Khaldi, Lubna; Lamprou, Margarita; Lelovas, Pavlos P; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Dontas, Ismene A; Papadimitriou, Evangelia

    2016-02-01

    Mechanical loading of the spine is a major causative factor of degenerative changes and causes molecular and structural changes in the intervertebral disc (IVD) and the vertebrae end plate (EP). Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a growth factor with a putative role in bone remodeling through its receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta (RPTPβ/ζ). The present study investigates the effects of strain on PTN and RPTPβ/ζ protein expression in vivo. Tails of eight weeks old Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to mechanical loading using a mini Ilizarov external apparatus. Rat tails untreated (control) or after 0 degrees of compression and 10°, 30° and 50° of angulation (groups 0, I, II and III respectively) were studied. PTN and RPTPβ/ζ expression were evaluated using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. In the control group, PTN was mostly expressed by the EP hypertrophic chondrocytes. In groups 0 to II, PTN expression was increased in the chondrocytes of hypertrophic and proliferating zones, as well as in osteocytes and osteoblast-like cells of the ossification zone. In group III, only limited PTN expression was observed in osteocytes. RPTPβ/ζ expression was increased mainly in group 0, but also in group I, in all types of cells. Low intensity RPTPβ/ζ immunostaining was observed in groups II and III. Collectively, PTN and RPTPβ/ζ are expressed in spinal deformities caused by mechanical loading, and their expression depends on the type and severity of the applied strain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Phospholipase C zeta 1 (PLCz1) as a Stallion Fertility Locus in Hanoverian Warmblood Horses

    PubMed Central

    Schrimpf, Rahel; Dierks, Claudia; Martinsson, Gunilla; Sieme, Harald; Distl, Ottmar

    2014-01-01

    A consistently high level of stallion fertility plays an economically important role in modern horse breeding. We performed a genome-wide association study for estimated breeding values of the paternal component of the pregnancy rate per estrus cycle (EBV-PAT) in Hanoverian stallions. A total of 228 Hanoverian stallions were genotyped using the Equine SNP50 Beadchip. The most significant association was found on horse chromosome 6 for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within phospholipase C zeta 1 (PLCz1). In the close neighbourhood to PLCz1 is located CAPZA3 (capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 3). The gene PLCz1 encodes a protein essential for spermatogenesis and oocyte activation through sperm induced Ca2+-oscillation during fertilization. We derived equine gene models for PLCz1 and CAPZA3 based on cDNA and genomic DNA sequences. The equine PLCz1 had four different transcripts of which two contained a premature termination codon. Sequencing all exons and their flanking sequences using genomic DNA samples from 19 Hanoverian stallions revealed 47 polymorphisms within PLCz1 and one SNP within CAPZA3. Validation of these 48 polymorphisms in 237 Hanoverian stallions identified three intronic SNPs within PLCz1 as significantly associated with EBV-PAT. Bioinformatic analysis suggested regulatory effects for these SNPs via transcription factor binding sites or microRNAs. In conclusion, non-coding polymorphisms within PLCz1 were identified as conferring stallion fertility and PLCz1 as candidate locus for male fertility in Hanoverian warmblood. CAPZA3 could be eliminated as candidate gene for fertility in Hanoverian stallions. PMID:25354211

  8. Intraoral scanning systems - a current overview.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, M; Mehl, A; Mörmann, W H; Reich, S

    2015-01-01

    There is no doubt today about the possibilities and potential of digital impression-taking with the aid of intraoral optical impression systems, and the past few years have seen a considerable increase in the range of optical intraoral scanners available on the market. On the strength of numerous innovations and a wider range of indications in orthodontics and implantology, intraoral scanning systems appear to be a highly promising development for the future. Digital impression-taking with intraoral scanners has already shown itself in some respects to be clearly superior to conventional impression- taking. Particularly worthy of mention is the versatile integration of digital impressions into diagnostic and treatment concepts to provide a customizable healthcare solution for the patient. It remains exciting to look forward to future developments that will allow us to observe digital impression-taking--as with other digital applications already established in everyday life--becoming firmly established in the routine of dentistry and dental technology. This article presents an overview of the benefits and limitations of digital impression-taking using intraoral scanning systems, and includes a summary of all the relevant intraoral scanners available on the market at present.

  9. Angiography with a multifunctional line scanning ophthalmoscope

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, R. Daniel; Patel, Ankit H.; Vazquez, Vanessa; Husain, Deeba

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. A multifunctional line scanning ophthalmoscope (mLSO) was designed, constructed, and tested on human subjects. The mLSO could sequentially acquire wide-field, confocal, near-infrared reflectance, fluorescein angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) retinal images. The system also included a retinal tracker (RT) and a photodynamic therapy laser treatment port. The mLSO was tested in a pilot clinical study on human subjects with and without retinal disease. The instrument exhibited robust retinal tracking and high-contrast line scanning imaging. The FA and ICGA angiograms showed a similar appearance of hyper- and hypo-pigmented disease features and a nearly equivalent resolution of fine capillaries compared to a commercial flood-illumination fundus imager. An mLSO-based platform will enable researchers and clinicians to image human and animal eyes with a variety of modalities and deliver therapeutic beams from a single automated interface. This approach has the potential to improve patient comfort and reduce imaging session times, allowing clinicians to better diagnose, plan, and conduct patient procedures with improved outcomes. PMID:22463040

  10. Laser scanning endoscope for diagnostic medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouimette, Donald R.; Nudelman, Sol; Spackman, Thomas; Zaccheo, Scott

    1990-07-01

    A new type of endoscope is being developed which utilizes an optical raster scanning system for imaging through an endoscope. The optical raster scanner utilizes a high speed, multifaceted, rotating polygon mirror system for horizontal deflection, and a slower speed galvanometer driven mirror as the vertical deflection system. When used in combination, the optical raster scanner traces out a raster similar to an electron beam raster used in television systems. This flying spot of light can then be detected by various types of photosensitive detectors to generate a video image of the surface or scene being illuminated by the scanning beam. The optical raster scanner has been coupled to an endoscope. The raster is projected down the endoscope, thereby illuminating the object to be imaged at the distal end of the endoscope. Elemental photodetectors are placed at the distal or proximal end of the endoscope to detect the reflected illumination from the flying spot of light. This time sequenced signal is captured by an image processor for display and processing. This technique offers the possibility for very small diameter endoscopes since illumination channel requirements are eliminated. Using various lasers, very specific spectral selectivity can be achieved to optimum contrast of specific lesions of interest. Using several laser lines, or a white light source, with detectors of specific spectral response, multiple spectrally selected images can be acquired simultaneously. The potential for co-linear therapy delivery while imaging is also possible.

  11. Scanning mirror for infrared sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. H.; Bernstein, S. B.

    1972-01-01

    A high resolution, long life angle-encoded scanning mirror, built for application in an infrared attitude sensor, is described. The mirror uses a Moire' fringe type optical encoder and unique torsion bar suspension together with a magnetic drive to meet stringent operational and environmental requirements at a minimum weight and with minimum power consumption. Details of the specifications, design, and construction are presented with an analysis of the mirror suspension that allows accurate prediction of performance. The emphasis is on mechanical design considerations, and brief discussions are included on the encoder and magnetic drive to provide a complete view of the mirror system and its capabilities.

  12. Statistical dependency in visual scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Stark, Lawrence

    1986-01-01

    A method to identify statistical dependencies in the positions of eye fixations is developed and applied to eye movement data from subjects who viewed dynamic displays of air traffic and judged future relative position of aircraft. Analysis of approximately 23,000 fixations on points of interest on the display identified statistical dependencies in scanning that were independent of the physical placement of the points of interest. Identification of these dependencies is inconsistent with random-sampling-based theories used to model visual search and information seeking.

  13. Scanning Miniature Microscopes without Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts some alternative designs of proposed compact, lightweight optoelectronic microscopes that would contain no lenses and would generate magnified video images of specimens. Microscopes of this type were described previously in Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO - 20218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 43 and Reflective Variants of Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO 20610), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 1999), page 6a. To recapitulate: In the design and construction of a microscope of this type, the focusing optics of a conventional microscope are replaced by a combination of a microchannel filter and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector. Elimination of focusing optics reduces the size and weight of the instrument and eliminates the need for the time-consuming focusing operation. The microscopes described in the cited prior articles contained two-dimensional CCDs registered with two-dimensional arrays of microchannels and, as such, were designed to produce full two-dimensional images, without need for scanning. The microscopes of the present proposal would contain one-dimensional (line image) CCDs registered with linear arrays of microchannels. In the operation of such a microscope, one would scan a specimen along a line perpendicular to the array axis (in other words, one would scan in pushbroom fashion). One could then synthesize a full two-dimensional image of the specimen from the line-image data acquired at one-pixel increments of position along the scan. In one of the proposed microscopes, a beam of unpolarized light for illuminating the specimen would enter from the side. This light would be reflected down onto the specimen by a nonpolarizing beam splitter attached to the microchannels at their lower ends. A portion of the light incident on the specimen would be reflected upward, through the beam splitter and along the microchannels, to form an image on the CCD. If the

  14. Lysine N[superscript zeta]-Decarboxylation Switch and Activation of the [beta]-Lactam Sensor Domain of BlaR1 Protein of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Borbulevych, Oleg; Kumarasiri, Malika; Wilson, Brian

    The integral membrane protein BlaR1 of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus senses the presence of {beta}-lactam antibiotics in the milieu and transduces the information to the cytoplasm, where the biochemical events that unleash induction of antibiotic resistance mechanisms take place. We report herein by two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR experiments of the sensor domain of BlaR1 in solution and by determination of an x-ray structure for the apo protein that Lys-392 of the antibiotic-binding site is posttranslationally modified by N{sup {zeta}}-carboxylation. Additional crystallographic and NMR data reveal that on acylation of Ser-389 by antibiotics, Lys-392 experiences N{sup {zeta}}-decarboxylation. This unique process, termed themore » lysine N{sup {zeta}}-decarboxylation switch, arrests the sensor domain in the activated ('on') state, necessary for signal transduction and all the subsequent biochemical processes. We present structural information on how this receptor activation process takes place, imparting longevity to the antibiotic-receptor complex that is needed for the induction of the antibiotic-resistant phenotype in methicillin-resistant S. aureus.« less

  15. [Computer modeling the hydrostatic pressure characteristics of the membrane potential for polymeric membrane, separated non-homogeneous electrolyte solutions].

    PubMed

    Slezak, Izabella H; Jasik-Slezak, Jolanta; Rogal, Mirosława; Slezak, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of model equation depending the membrane potential deltapsis, on mechanical pressure difference (deltaP), concentration polarization coefficient (zetas), concentration Rayleigh number (RC) and ratio concentration of solutions separated by membrane (Ch/Cl), the characteristics deltapsis = f(deltaP)zetas,RC,Ch/Cl for steady values of zetas, RC and Ch/Cl in single-membrane system were calculated. In this system neutral and isotropic polymeric membrane oriented in horizontal plane, the non-homogeneous binary electrolytic solutions of various concentrations were separated. Nonhomogeneity of solutions is results from creations of the concentration boundary layers on both sides of the membrane. Calculations were made for the case where on a one side of the membrane aqueous solution of NaCl at steady concentration 10(-3) mol x l(-1) (Cl) was placed and on the other aqueous solutions of NaCl at concentrations from 10(-3) mol x l(-1) to 2 x 10(-2) mol x l(-1) (Ch). Their densities were greater than NaCl solution's at 10(-3) mol x l(-1). It was shown that membrane potential depends on hydrodynamic state of a complex concentration boundary layer-membrane-concentration boundary layer, what is controlled by deltaP, Ch/Cl, RC and zetas.

  16. Multifunctional scanning ion conductance microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Page, Ashley; Unwin, Patrick R.

    2017-01-01

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a nanopipette-based technique that has traditionally been used to image topography or to deliver species to an interface, particularly in a biological setting. This article highlights the recent blossoming of SICM into a technique with a much greater diversity of applications and capability that can be used either standalone, with advanced control (potential–time) functions, or in tandem with other methods. SICM can be used to elucidate functional information about interfaces, such as surface charge density or electrochemical activity (ion fluxes). Using a multi-barrel probe format, SICM-related techniques can be employed to deposit nanoscale three-dimensional structures and further functionality is realized when SICM is combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), with simultaneous measurements from a single probe opening up considerable prospects for multifunctional imaging. SICM studies are greatly enhanced by finite-element method modelling for quantitative treatment of issues such as resolution, surface charge and (tip) geometry effects. SICM is particularly applicable to the study of living systems, notably single cells, although applications extend to materials characterization and to new methods of printing and nanofabrication. A more thorough understanding of the electrochemical principles and properties of SICM provides a foundation for significant applications of SICM in electrochemistry and interfacial science. PMID:28484332

  17. Effectiveness and usability of Scanning Wizard software: a tool for enhancing switch scanning.

    PubMed

    Koester, Heidi Horstmann; Simpson, Richard C

    2017-11-24

    Scanning Wizard software helps scanning users improve the setup of their switch and scanning system. This study evaluated Scanning Wizard's effectiveness and usability. Ten people who use switch scanning and ten practitioners used Scanning Wizard in the initial session. Usability was high, based on survey responses averaging over 4.5 out of 5, and qualitative feedback was very positive. Five switch users were able to complete the multi-week protocol, using settings on their own scanning system that were recommended from the Scanning Wizard session. Using these revised settings, text entry rates improved by an average of 71%, ranging from 29% to 172% improvement. Results suggest that Scanning Wizard is a useful tool for improving the configuration of scanning systems for people who use switch scanning to communicate. Implications for Rehabilitation Some individuals with severe physical impairments use switch scanning for spoken and written communication. Scanning Wizard software helps scanning users improve the setup of their switch and scanning system. This study demonstrated high usability of Scanning Wizard (with 10 switch userpractitioner teams) and increased text entry rate by an average of 71% (for five switch users). Results suggest that Scanning Wizard is a useful tool for improving the configuration of scanning systems for people who use switch scanning to communicate.

  18. Scanning the conceptual horizons of citizenship.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Ruth

    2016-05-01

    This article scans recent developments within citizenship studies and relates them to the field of dementia, specifically the 'dementia friendly communities' agenda. The dementia friendly communities agenda is selected for several reasons, most notably because, it is an area of practice in the field of dementia where citizenship is perhaps most clearly enacted. The aim of the article is to help with the advancement of social citizenship as a key concept for dementia studies, by using two of the latest ideas within citizenship studies; namely, understandings of citizenship as (a) occurring in ordinary places and (b) potentially enacted within the domestic sphere to explore dementia friendly communities. It is argued that the interplay between these two developments pave the way for deeper consideration and realisation of social citizenship in the context of people with dementia. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Environmental Scanning: Charting Your Way through the Data Explosion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieshoff, Sylvia

    This paper examines the use of environmental scanning for institutions of higher education to achieve the following objectives: (1) provide early warning of changes that will have an impact on education; (2) define potential threats and opportunities to the institution or department; (3) promote a future orientation in faculty; and (4) alert…

  20. Cancer Information Seeking and Scanning: Sources and Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Laura L. B.; Khojasteh, Jam J.; Wheeler, Denna

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to identify predominant search patterns in a recent search for health information and a potential search for strongly needed cancer information, to identify the commonly scanned sources of information that may represent stable elements of the information fields characteristic of these patterns, and to evaluate whether…

  1. Partial growth plate closure: apex view on bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Howman-Giles, R.; Trochei, M.; Yeates, K.

    1985-01-01

    A new technique of using /sup 99m/Tc bone scan to assess partial closure of the growth plate is described. The site and degree of osseous fusion can be obtained by using the apex view. The technique has the potential of assessing serially the growth of a plate before and after surgery.

  2. PREFACE: Time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy Time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Lin, Nian

    2010-07-01

    out the potential landscape of the system (often a molecule or an atom) under study [4, 5]. However, the dynamical processes might also be induced by the tunnelling process itself [6, 7]. In the field of molecular science, excited single molecule experiments have been especially performed [8]. As a nice example, we refer to the work of Sykes' group [9] on thioether molecular rotors. In addition, several groups explore the possibility of combining time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy with optical techniques [10, 11]. Although the majority of studies that have been performed so far focus on rather simple systems under nearly ideal and well-defined conditions, we anticipate that time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy can also be applied in other research areas, such as biology and soft condensed matter, where the experimental conditions are often less ideal. We hope that readers will enjoy this collection of papers and that it will trigger them to further explore the possibilities of this simple, but powerful technique. References [1] Besenbacher F, Laegsgaard E and Stengaard I 2005 Mater. Today 8 26 [2] van Houselt A and Zandvliet H J W 2010 Rev. Mod. Phys. 82 1593 [3] Tringides M C and Hupalo M 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 264002 [4] Ronci F, Colonna S, Cricenti A and Le Lay G 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 264003 [5] van Houselt A, Poelsema B and Zandvliet H J W 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 264004 [6] Sprodowski C, Mehlhorn M and Morgenstern K 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 264005 [7] Saedi A, Poelsema B and Zandvliet H J W 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 264007 [8] Sloan P A 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 264001 [9] Jewell A D, Tierney H L, Baber A E, Iski E V, Laha M M and Sykes E C H 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 264006 [10] Riedel D 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 264009 [11] Terada Y, Yoshida S, Takeuchi O and Shigekawa H 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 264008

  3. Using Environmental Scans in Educational Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Terry F.; Pearson, Thomas G.

    1998-01-01

    Presents advantages and disadvantages of environmental scanning for assessing the context of professional continuing education. Provides a checklist for evaluating the quality and usefulness of information sources. Addresses the ethics of scanning. (SK)

  4. Rapid-scan EPR of immobilized nitroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhelin; Quine, Richard W.; Rinard, George A.; Tseitlin, Mark; Elajaili, Hanan; Kathirvelu, Velavan; Clouston, Laura J.; Boratyński, Przemysław J.; Rajca, Andrzej; Stein, Richard; Mchaourab, Hassane; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2014-10-01

    X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of immobilized nitroxides were obtained by rapid scan at 293 K. Scan widths were 155 G with 13.4 kHz scan frequency for 14N-perdeuterated tempone and for T4 lysozyme doubly spin labeled with an iodoacetamide spirocyclohexyl nitroxide and 100 G with 20.9 kHz scan frequency for 15N-perdeuterated tempone. These wide scans were made possible by modifications to our rapid-scan driver, scan coils made of Litz wire, and the placement of highly conducting aluminum plates on the poles of a Bruker 10″ magnet to reduce resistive losses in the magnet pole faces. For the same data acquisition time, the signal-to-noise for the rapid-scan absorption spectra was about an order of magnitude higher than for continuous wave first-derivative spectra recorded with modulation amplitudes that do not broaden the lineshapes.

  5. Three-dimensional scanning confocal laser microscope

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R. Rox; Webb, Robert H.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    1999-01-01

    A confocal microscope for generating an image of a sample includes a first scanning element for scanning a light beam along a first axis, and a second scanning element for scanning the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis. A third scanning element scans the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a third axis perpendicular to an imaging plane defined by the first and second axes. The second and third scanning element are synchronized to scan at the same frequency. The second and third predetermined amplitudes are percentages of their maximum amplitudes. A selector determines the second and third predetermined amplitudes such that the sum of the percentages is equal to one-hundred percent.

  6. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    mode by collecting the EDS and EELS signals point-by-point as one scans the electron probe across the . Examples of Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Capabilities Z-contrast image microphoto taken by

  7. Defect scanning technology in the works

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman; R. Conners

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the defect scanning technology being developed by Virginia Tech and U.S. Forest Service scientists in Blacksburg, Virginia to scan full sized hardwood lumber at industrial speeds.

  8. [Optimal scan parameters for a method of k-space trajectory (radial scan method) in evaluation of carotid plaque characteristics].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Manami; Makabe, Takeshi; Tezuka, Hideomi; Miura, Takahiro; Umemura, Takuma; Sugimori, Hiroyuki; Sakata, Motomichi

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize scan parameters for evaluation of carotid plaque characteristics by k-space trajectory (radial scan method), using a custom-made carotid plaque phantom. The phantom was composed of simulated sternocleidomastoid muscle and four types of carotid plaque. The effect of chemical shift artifact was compared using T1 weighted images (T1WI) of the phantom obtained with and without fat suppression, and using two types of k-space trajectory (the radial scan method and the Cartesian method). The ratio of signal intensity of simulated sternocleidomastoid muscle to the signal intensity of hematoma, blood (including heparin), lard, and mayonnaise was compared among various repetition times (TR) using T1WI and T2 weighted imaging (T2WI). In terms of chemical shift artifacts, image quality was improved using fat suppression for both the radial scan and Cartesian methods. In terms of signal ratio, the highest values were obtained for the radial scan method with TR of 500 ms for T1WI, and TR of 3000 ms for T2WI. For evaluation of carotid plaque characteristics using the radial scan method, chemical shift artifacts were reduced with fat suppression. Signal ratio was improved by optimizing the TR settings for T1WI and T2WI. These results suggest the potential for using magnetic resonance imaging for detailed evaluation of carotid plaque.

  9. Optical scanning tests of complex CMOS microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, M. E.; Erickson, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The new test method was based on the use of a raster-scanned optical stimulus in combination with special electrical test procedures. The raster-scanned optical stimulus was provided by an optical spot scanner, an instrument that combines a scanning optical microscope with electronic instrumentation to process and display the electric photoresponse signal induced in a device that is being tested.

  10. Issue Scanning: Finding the Future...Maybe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plog, Michael; Sweeney, Jim; Weiss, Barry

    Issue Scanning, sometimes called Environmental Scanning, is used in many business, government, educational, and nonprofit organizations. The technique is supposed to monitor the "pulse" of the external environment. The scanning process should lessen the randomness of the information used in decision making, and it should alert managers…

  11. Three-dimensional ultrasonic scanning.

    PubMed

    Fredfeldt, K E; Holm, H H; Pedersen, J F

    1984-01-01

    Simple experiments which form the basis for a true 3-D demonstration of sectional images are presented and a method for genuine 3-D display of dynamic ultrasound images is described. Eight ultrasound images are recorded with a slightly different angulation of the transducer. The images are extracted from the video signal from a conventional ultrasound scanner and stored in eight digital memories. After recording, each image is displayed on an oscilloscope screen, which is viewed via a fast oscillating mirror. The position of the mirror determines which of the eight images are to be displayed and thereby ensures a correct spatial relationship of the images, resulting in a true 3-D scan presentation.

  12. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and Northmore » Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.« less

  13. Scanning laser polarimetry in glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Dada, Tanuj; Sharma, Reetika; Angmo, Dewang; Sinha, Gautam; Bhartiya, Shibal; Mishra, Sanjay K; Panda, Anita; Sihota, Ramanjit

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is an acquired progressive optic neuropathy which is characterized by changes in the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). White-on-white perimetry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of glaucoma. However, it can detect defects in the visual field only after the loss of as many as 40% of the ganglion cells. Hence, the measurement of RNFL thickness has come up. Optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) are the techniques that utilize the evaluation of RNFL for the evaluation of glaucoma. SLP provides RNFL thickness measurements based upon the birefringence of the retinal ganglion cell axons. We have reviewed the published literature on the use of SLP in glaucoma. This review elucidates the technological principles, recent developments and the role of SLP in the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, in the light of scientific evidence so far. PMID:25494244

  14. Scanning laser polarimetry in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Dada, Tanuj; Sharma, Reetika; Angmo, Dewang; Sinha, Gautam; Bhartiya, Shibal; Mishra, Sanjay K; Panda, Anita; Sihota, Ramanjit

    2014-11-01

    Glaucoma is an acquired progressive optic neuropathy which is characterized by changes in the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). White-on-white perimetry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of glaucoma. However, it can detect defects in the visual field only after the loss of as many as 40% of the ganglion cells. Hence, the measurement of RNFL thickness has come up. Optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) are the techniques that utilize the evaluation of RNFL for the evaluation of glaucoma. SLP provides RNFL thickness measurements based upon the birefringence of the retinal ganglion cell axons. We have reviewed the published literature on the use of SLP in glaucoma. This review elucidates the technological principles, recent developments and the role of SLP in the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, in the light of scientific evidence so far.

  15. UAVSAR Active Electronically Scanned Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowy, Gregory, A.; Chamberlain, Neil F.; Zawadzki, Mark S.; Brown, Kyle M.; Fisher, Charles D.; Figueroa, Harry S.; Hamilton, Gary A.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Vorperian, Vatche; Grando, Maurio B.

    2011-01-01

    The Uninhabited Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is a pod-based, L-band (1.26 GHz), repeatpass, interferometric, synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) used for Earth science applications. Repeat-pass interferometric radar measurements from an airborne platform require an antenna that can be steered to maintain the same angle with respect to the flight track over a wide range of aircraft yaw angles. In order to be able to collect repeat-pass InSAR data over a wide range of wind conditions, UAVSAR employs an active electronically scanned array (AESA). During data collection, the UAVSAR flight software continuously reads the aircraft attitude state measured by the Embedded GPS/INS system (EGI) and electronically steers the beam so that it remains perpendicular to the flight track throughout the data collection

  16. Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy in Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Albert; Nebel, Michaela; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews recent work involving the application of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to the study of individual cultured living cells, with an emphasis on topographical and functional imaging of neuronal and secretory cells of the nervous and endocrine system. The basic principles of biological SECM and associated negative amperometric-feedback and generator/collector-mode SECM imaging are discussed, and successful use of the methodology for screening soft and fragile membranous objects is outlined. The drawbacks of the constant-height mode of probe movement and the benefits of the constant-distance mode of SECM operation are described. Finally, representative examples of constant-height and constant-distance mode SECM on a variety of live cells are highlighted to demonstrate the current status of single-cell SECM in general and of SECM in neuroscience in particular.

  17. Comparison of ZetaPlus 60S and nitrocellulose membrane filters for the simultaneous concentration of F-RNA coliphages, porcine teschovirus and porcine adenovirus from river water.

    PubMed

    Jones, T H; Muehlhauser, V; Thériault, G

    2014-09-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the impact of agricultural activities on water quality to understand the impact on public health. F-RNA coliphages have been proposed as viral indicators of fecal contamination while porcine teschovirus (PTV) and porcine adenovirus (PAdV) are proposed indicators of fecal contamination of swine origin. Viruses and coliphages are present in water in very low concentrations and must be concentrated to permit their detection. There is little information comparing the effectiveness of the methods for concentrating F-RNA coliphages with concentration methods for other viruses and vice versa. The objective of this study was to compare 5 current published methods for recovering F-RNA coliphages, PTV and PAdV from river water samples concentrated by electronegative nitrocellulose membrane filters (methods A and B) or electropositive Zeta Plus 60S filters (methods C-E). Method A is used routinely for the detection of coliphages (Méndez et al., 2004) and method C (Brassard et al., 2005) is the official method in Health Canada's compendium for the detection of viruses in bottled mineral or spring water. When river water was inoculated with stocks of F-RNA MS2, PAdV, and PTV to final concentrations of 1×10(6) PFU/100 mL, 1×10(5) gc/100 mL and 3×10(5) gc/100 mL, respectively, a significantly higher recovery for each virus was consistently obtained for method A with recoveries of 52% for MS2, 95% for PAdV, and 1.5% for PTV. When method A was compared with method C for the detection of F-coliphages, PAdV and PTV in river water samples, viruses were detected with higher frequencies and at higher mean numbers with method A than with method C. With method A, F-coliphages were detected in 11/12 samples (5-154 PFU/100 mL), PTV in 12/12 samples (397-10,951 gc/100 mL), PAdV in 1/12 samples (15 gc/100 mL), and F-RNA GIII in 1/12 samples (750 gc/100 mL) while F-RNA genotypes I, II, and IV were not detected by qRT-PCR. Crown Copyright © 2014

  18. Tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Magill, John C.; White, Michael A.; Elsner, Ann E.; Webb, Robert H.

    2003-07-01

    The effectiveness of image stabilization with a retinal tracker in a multi-function, compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO) was demonstrated in initial human subject tests. The retinal tracking system uses a confocal reflectometer with a closed loop optical servo system to lock onto features in the fundus. The system is modular to allow configuration for many research and clinical applications, including hyperspectral imaging, multifocal electroretinography (MFERG), perimetry, quantification of macular and photo-pigmentation, imaging of neovascularization and other subretinal structures (drusen, hyper-, and hypo-pigmentation), and endogenous fluorescence imaging. Optical hardware features include dual wavelength imaging and detection, integrated monochromator, higher-order motion control, and a stimulus source. The system software consists of a real-time feedback control algorithm and a user interface. Software enhancements include automatic bias correction, asymmetric feature tracking, image averaging, automatic track re-lock, and acquisition and logging of uncompressed images and video files. Normal adult subjects were tested without mydriasis to optimize the tracking instrumentation and to characterize imaging performance. The retinal tracking system achieves a bandwidth of greater than 1 kHz, which permits tracking at rates that greatly exceed the maximum rate of motion of the human eye. The TSLO stabilized images in all test subjects during ordinary saccades up to 500 deg/sec with an inter-frame accuracy better than 0.05 deg. Feature lock was maintained for minutes despite subject eye blinking. Successful frame averaging allowed image acquisition with decreased noise in low-light applications. The retinal tracking system significantly enhances the imaging capabilities of the scanning laser ophthalmoscope.

  19. Fast scanning mode and its realization in a scanning acoustic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Bing-Feng; Bai, Xiaolong; Chen, Jian

    2012-03-01

    The scanning speed of the two-dimensional stage dominates the efficiency of mechanical scanning measurement systems. This paper focused on a detailed scanning time analysis of conventional raster and spiral scan modes and then proposed two fast alternative scanning modes. Performed on a self-developed scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), the measured images obtained by using the conventional scan mode and fast scan modes are compared. The total scanning time is reduced by 29% of the two proposed fast scan modes. It will offer a better solution for high speed scanning without sacrificing the system stability, and will not introduce additional difficulties to the configuration of scanning measurement systems. They can be easily applied to the mechanical scanning measuring systems with different driving actuators such as piezoelectric, linear motor, dc motor, and so on. The proposed fast raster and square spiral scan modes are realized in SAM, but not specially designed for it. Therefore, they have universal adaptability and can be applied to other scanning measurement systems with two-dimensional mechanical scanning stages, such as atomic force microscope or scanning tunneling microscope.

  20. Electron beams scanning: A novel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askarbioki, M.; Zarandi, M. B.; Khakshournia, S.; Shirmardi, S. P.; Sharifian, M.

    2018-06-01

    In this research, a spatial electron beam scanning is reported. There are various methods for ion and electron beam scanning. The best known of these methods is the wire scanning wherein the parameters of beam are measured by one or more conductive wires. This article suggests a novel method for e-beam scanning without the previous errors of old wire scanning. In this method, the techniques of atomic physics are applied so that a knife edge has a scanner role and the wires have detector roles. It will determine the 2D e-beam profile readily when the positions of the scanner and detectors are specified.

  1. Bone scanning in severe external otitis

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, W.J.; Shary, J.H. 3d.; Nichols, L.T.

    1986-11-01

    Technetium99 Methylene Diphosphate bone scanning has been considered an early valuable tool to diagnose necrotizing progressive malignant external otitis. However, to our knowledge, no formal studies have actually compared bone scans of otherwise young, healthy patients with severe external otitis to scans of patients with clinical presentation of malignant external otitis. Twelve patients with only severe external otitis were studied with Technetium99 Diphosphate and were compared to known cases of malignant otitis. All scans were evaluated by two neuroradiologists with no prior knowledge of the clinical status of the patients. Nine of the 12 patients had positive bone scans withmore » many scans resembling those reported with malignant external otitis. Interestingly, there was no consistent correlation between the severity of clinical presentation and the amount of Technetium uptake. These findings suggest that a positive bone scan alone should not be interpreted as indicative of malignant external otitis.« less

  2. Scanning Probe Microscopy of Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Obadiah G.

    Nanostructured composites of organic semiconductors are a promising class of materials for the manufacture of low-cost solar cells. Understanding how the nanoscale morphology of these materials affects their efficiency as solar energy harvesters is crucial to their eventual potential for large-scale deployment for primary power generation. In this thesis we describe the use of optoelectronic scanning-probe based microscopy methods to study this efficiency-structure relationship with nanoscale resolution. In particular, our objective is to make spatially resolved measurements of each step in the power conversion process from photons to an electric current, including charge generation, transport, and recombination processes, and correlate them with local device structure. We have achieved two aims in this work: first, to develop and apply novel electrically sensitive scanning probe microscopy experiments to study the optoelectronic materials and processes discussed above; and second, to deepen our understanding of the physics underpinning our experimental techniques. In the first case, we have applied conductive-, and photoconductive atomic force (cAFM & pcAFM) microscopy to measure both local photocurrent collection and dark charge transport properties in a variety of model and novel organic solar cell composites, including polymer/fullerene blends, and polymer-nanowire/fullerene blends, finding that local heterogeneity is the rule, and that improvements in the uniformity of specific beneficial nanostructures could lead to large increases in efficiency. We have used scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) and time resolved-electrostatic force microscopy (trEFM) to characterize all-polymer blends, quantifying their sensitivity to photochemical degradation and the subsequent formation of local charge traps. We find that while trEFM provides a sensitive measure of local quantum efficiency, SKPM is generally unsuited to measurements of efficiency, less sensitive than tr

  3. Scanning Tunneling Optical Resonance Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Wilt, Dave; Raffaelle, Ryne; Gennett, Tom; Tin, Padetha; Lau, Janice; Castro, Stephanie; Jenkins, Philip; Scheiman, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Scanning tunneling optical resonance microscopy (STORM) is a method, now undergoing development, for measuring optoelectronic properties of materials and devices on the nanoscale by means of a combination of (1) traditional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with (2) tunable laser spectroscopy. In STORM, an STM tip probing a semiconductor is illuminated with modulated light at a wavelength in the visible-to-near-infrared range and the resulting photoenhancement of the tunneling current is measured as a function of the illuminating wavelength. The photoenhancement of tunneling current occurs when the laser photon energy is sufficient to excite charge carriers into the conduction band of the semiconductor. Figure 1 schematically depicts a proposed STORM apparatus. The light for illuminating the semiconductor specimen at the STM would be generated by a ring laser that would be tunable across the wavelength range of interest. The laser beam would be chopped by an achromatic liquid-crystal modulator. A polarization-maintaining optical fiber would couple the light to the tip/sample junction of a commercial STM. An STM can be operated in one of two modes: constant height or constant current. A STORM apparatus would be operated in the constant-current mode, in which the height of the tip relative to the specimen would be varied in order to keep the tunneling current constant. In this mode, a feedback control circuit adjusts the voltage applied to a piezoelectric actuator in the STM that adjusts the height of the STM tip to keep the tunneling current constant. The exponential relationship between the tunneling current and tip-to-sample distance makes it relatively easy to implement this mode of operation. The choice of method by which the photoenhanced portion of the tunneling current would be measured depends on choice of the frequency at which the input illumination would be modulated (chopped). If the frequency of modulation were low enough (typically < 10 Hz) that the

  4. Scanning probes for lithography: Manipulation and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolandi, Marco

    2005-11-01

    Scanning probes are relatively low cost equipment that can push the limit of lithography in the nanometer range, with the advantages of high resolution, accuracy in the positioning of the overlayers and no proximity aberrations. We have developed three novel scanning probe lithography (SPL) resists based on thin films of Titanium, Molybdenum and Tungsten and we have manipulated single walled carbon nanotubes using the sharp tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) for the fabrication of nanostructures. A dendrimer-passivated Ti film was imaged in the positive and the negative tone using SPL. This is the first example of SPL imaging in both tones using a unique resist. Positive tone patterning was obtained by locally scribing the dendrimer molecules and subsequent acid etch of the deprotected Ti film. Local anodic oxidation transforms Ti into TiO2 and deposits a thin layer of amorphous carbon on the patterned areas. This is very resistive to base etch and affords negative tone imaging of the Ti surface. Molybdenum and Tungsten were patterned using local anodic oxidation. This scheme is particularly flexible thanks to the solubility in water of the fully oxidized states of the two metals. We will present the facile fabrication of several nanostructures such as of trenches, dots wires and nanoelectrodes and show the potential of this scheme for competing with conventional lithographic techniques based on radiation. Quasi one dimensional electrodes for molecular electronics applications were also fabricated by creating nanogaps in single walled carbon nanotubes. The tubes, connected to microscopic contacts, were controllably cut via local anodic oxidation using the tip of the AFM. This technique leads to nanoscopic carboxyl terminated wires to which organic molecules can be linked using covalent chemistry. This geometry is particularly useful for the high gate efficiency without the need of a thin gate dielectric and the stability of the junction. Room temperature and

  5. A horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2012.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, William J; Aveling, Ros; Bennun, Leon; Chapman, Eleanor; Clout, Mick; Côté, Isabelle M; Depledge, Michael H; Dicks, Lynn V; Dobson, Andrew P; Fellman, Liz; Fleishman, Erica; Gibbons, David W; Keim, Brandon; Lickorish, Fiona; Lindenmayer, David B; Monk, Kathryn A; Norris, Kenneth; Peck, Lloyd S; Prior, Stephanie V; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Spalding, Mark; Watkinson, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    Our aim in conducting annual horizon scans is to identify issues that, although currently receiving little attention, may be of increasing importance to the conservation of biological diversity in the future. The 15 issues presented here were identified by a diverse team of 22 experts in horizon scanning, and conservation science and its application. Methods for identifying and refining issues were the same as in two previous annual scans and are widely transferable to other disciplines. The issues highlight potential changes in climate, technology and human behaviour. Examples include warming of the deep sea, increased cultivation of perennial grains, burning of Arctic tundra, and the development of nuclear batteries and hydrokinetic in-stream turbines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Scan-Based Implementation of JPEG 2000 Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rountree, Janet C.; Webb, Brian N.; Flohr, Thomas J.; Marcellin, Michael W.

    2001-01-01

    JPEG 2000 Part 2 (Extensions) contains a number of technologies that are of potential interest in remote sensing applications. These include arbitrary wavelet transforms, techniques to limit boundary artifacts in tiles, multiple component transforms, and trellis-coded quantization (TCQ). We are investigating the addition of these features to the low-memory (scan-based) implementation of JPEG 2000 Part 1. A scan-based implementation of TCQ has been realized and tested, with a very small performance loss as compared with the full image (frame-based) version. A proposed amendment to JPEG 2000 Part 2 will effect the syntax changes required to make scan-based TCQ compatible with the standard.

  7. Scanning wind-vector scatterometers with two pencil beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirimoto, T.; Moore, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    A scanning pencil-beam scatterometer for ocean windvector determination has potential advantages over the fan-beam systems used and proposed heretofore. The pencil beam permits use of lower transmitter power, and at the same time allows concurrent use of the reflector by a radiometer to correct for atmospheric attenuation and other radiometers for other purposes. The use of dual beams based on the same scanning reflector permits four looks at each cell on the surface, thereby improving accuracy and allowing alias removal. Simulation results for a spaceborne dual-beam scanning scatterometer with a 1-watt radiated power at an orbital altitude of 900 km is described. Two novel algorithms for removing the aliases in the windvector are described, in addition to an adaptation of the conventional maximum likelihood algorithm. The new algorithms are more effective at alias removal than the conventional one. Measurement errors for the wind speed, assuming perfect alias removal, were found to be less than 10%.

  8. Characterization of core/shell Cu/Ag nanopowders synthesized by electrochemistry and assessment of their impact on hemolysis, platelet aggregation, and coagulation on human blood for potential wound dressing use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laloy, Julie; Haguet, Hélène; Alpan, Lutfiye; Mancier, Valérie; Mejia, Jorge; Levi, Samuel; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Lucas, Stéphane; Rousse, Céline; Fricoteaux, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Copper/silver core/shell nanopowders with different metal ratio have been elaborated by electrochemistry (ultrasound-assisted electrolysis followed by a displacement reaction). Characterization was performed by several methods (X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, centrifugal liquid sedimentation, and zeta potential measurements). The mean diameter of all nanoparticles is around 10 nm. The impact of each nanopowder on hemolysis, platelet aggregation, and coagulation has been studied on whole human blood. Hemolysis assays were performed with spectrophotometric measurement and platelet aggregation, with light transmission aggregometry and was compared to Cu/Pt core/shell nanoparticles with similar size as negative control. Calibrated thrombin generation test has been used for a coagulation study. They neither impact platelet aggregation nor hemolysis and have a procoagulant effect whatever their composition (i.e., metal ratio). These results highlight that such nanopowders have a potential use in medical applications (e.g., wound dressing).

  9. CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR SCANNING MODALITY TO DIAGNOSE FOCAL LIVER LESIONS.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Jennifer; Filby, Alexandra; Smith, Adam B; Carr, Louise M

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the process of using liver imaging technologies might be important to patients. This study aimed to investigate preferences for scanning modalities used in diagnosing focal liver lesions. A discrete choice experiment was administered to 504 adults aged 25 ≥years. Respondents made repeated choices between two hypothetical scans, described according to waiting time for scan and results, procedure type, the chance of minor side-effects, and whether further scanning procedures were likely to be required. Choice data were analyzed using mixed-logit models with respondent characteristics used to explain preference heterogeneity. Respondents preferred shorter waiting times, the procedure to be undertaken with a handheld scanner on a couch instead of within a body scanner, no side-effects, and no follow–up scans (p≤.01). The average respondent was willing to wait an additional 2 weeks for the scan if it resulted in avoiding side-effects, 1.5 weeks to avoid further procedures or to be told the results immediately, and 1 week to have the scan performed on a couch with a handheld scanner. However, substantial heterogeneity was observed in the strength of preference for desirable imaging characteristics. An average individual belonging to a general population sub–group most likely to require imaging to characterize focal liver lesions in the United Kingdom would prefer contrast–enhanced ultrasound over magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. Insights into the patient perspective around differential characteristics of imaging modalities have the potential to be used to guide recommendations around the use of these technologie

  10. Vacuum scanning capillary photoemission microscopy.

    PubMed

    Aseyev, S A; Cherkun, A P; Mironov, B N; Petrunin, V V; Chekalin, S V

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of a conical capillary in a scanning probe microscopy for surface analysis. The probe can measure photoemission from a substrate by transmitting photoelectrons along the capillary as a function of probe position. The technique is demonstrated on a model substrate consisting of a gold reflecting layer on a compact disc which has been illuminated by an unfocused laser beam with a wavelength 400nm, from a femtosecond laser with a beam size of 4mm. A quartz capillary with a 2-µm aperture has been used in the experiments. The period of gold microstructure, shown to be 1.6µ, was measured by the conical probe operating in shear force mode. In shear force regime, the dielectric capillary has been used as a "classical" SPM tip, which provided images reflecting the surface topology. In a photoelectron regime photoelectrons passed through hollow tip and entered a detector. The spatial distribution of the recorded photoelectrons consisted of periodic mountain-valley strips, resembling the surface profile of the sample. Submicron spatial resolution has been achieved. This approach paves the way to study pulsed photodesorption of large organic molecular ions with high spatial and element resolution using the combination of a hollow-tip scanner with time-of-flight technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Scanning electron microscopy of bone.

    PubMed

    Boyde, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This chapter described methods for Scanning Electron Microscopical imaging of bone and bone cells. Backscattered electron (BSE) imaging is by far the most useful in the bone field, followed by secondary electrons (SE) and the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analytical modes. This chapter considers preparing and imaging samples of unembedded bone having 3D detail in a 3D surface, topography-free, polished or micromilled, resin-embedded block surfaces, and resin casts of space in bone matrix. The chapter considers methods for fixation, drying, looking at undersides of bone cells, and coating. Maceration with alkaline bacterial pronase, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium or potassium hydroxide to remove cells and unmineralised matrix is described in detail. Attention is given especially to methods for 3D BSE SEM imaging of bone samples and recommendations for the types of resin embedding of bone for BSE imaging are given. Correlated confocal and SEM imaging of PMMA-embedded bone requires the use of glycerol to coverslip. Cathodoluminescence (CL) mode SEM imaging is an alternative for visualising fluorescent mineralising front labels such as calcein and tetracyclines. Making spatial casts from PMMA or other resin embedded samples is an important use of this material. Correlation with other imaging means, including microradiography and microtomography is important. Shipping wet bone samples between labs is best done in glycerol. Environmental SEM (ESEM, controlled vacuum mode) is valuable in eliminating -"charging" problems which are common with complex, cancellous bone samples.

  12. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope

    PubMed Central

    Favreau, Peter F.; Hernandez, Clarissa; Heaster, Tiffany; Alvarez, Diego F.; Rich, Thomas C.; Prabhat, Prashant; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Hyperspectral imaging is a versatile tool that has recently been applied to a variety of biomedical applications, notably live-cell and whole-tissue signaling. Traditional hyperspectral imaging approaches filter the fluorescence emission over a broad wavelength range while exciting at a single band. However, these emission-scanning approaches have shown reduced sensitivity due to light attenuation from spectral filtering. Consequently, emission scanning has limited applicability for time-sensitive studies and photosensitive applications. In this work, we have developed an excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope that overcomes these limitations by providing high transmission with short acquisition times. This is achieved by filtering the fluorescence excitation rather than the emission. We tested the efficacy of the excitation-scanning microscope in a side-by-side comparison with emission scanning for detection of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing endothelial cells in highly autofluorescent lung tissue. Excitation scanning provided higher signal-to-noise characteristics, as well as shorter acquisition times (300  ms/wavelength band with excitation scanning versus 3  s/wavelength band with emission scanning). Excitation scanning also provided higher delineation of nuclear and cell borders, and increased identification of GFP regions in highly autofluorescent tissue. These results demonstrate excitation scanning has utility in a wide range of time-dependent and photosensitive applications. PMID:24727909

  13. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope.

    PubMed

    Favreau, Peter F; Hernandez, Clarissa; Heaster, Tiffany; Alvarez, Diego F; Rich, Thomas C; Prabhat, Prashant; Leavesley, Silas J

    2014-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a versatile tool that has recently been applied to a variety of biomedical applications, notably live-cell and whole-tissue signaling. Traditional hyperspectral imaging approaches filter the fluorescence emission over a broad wavelength range while exciting at a single band. However, these emission-scanning approaches have shown reduced sensitivity due to light attenuation from spectral filtering. Consequently, emission scanning has limited applicability for time-sensitive studies and photosensitive applications. In this work, we have developed an excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope that overcomes these limitations by providing high transmission with short acquisition times. This is achieved by filtering the fluorescence excitation rather than the emission. We tested the efficacy of the excitation-scanning microscope in a side-by-side comparison with emission scanning for detection of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing endothelial cells in highly autofluorescent lung tissue. Excitation scanning provided higher signal-to-noise characteristics, as well as shorter acquisition times (300  ms/wavelength band with excitation scanning versus 3  s/wavelength band with emission scanning). Excitation scanning also provided higher delineation of nuclear and cell borders, and increased identification of GFP regions in highly autofluorescent tissue. These results demonstrate excitation scanning has utility in a wide range of time-dependent and photosensitive applications.

  14. Correcting nonlinear drift distortion of scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies from image pairs with orthogonal scan directions

    DOE PAGES

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Nelson, Chris T.

    2015-12-10

    Unwanted motion of the probe with respect to the sample is a ubiquitous problem in scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies, causing both linear and nonlinear artifacts in experimental images. We have designed a procedure to correct these artifacts by using orthogonal scan pairs to align each measurement line-by-line along the slow scan direction, by fitting contrast variation along the lines. We demonstrate the accuracy of our algorithm on both synthetic and experimental data and provide an implementation of our method.

  15. Correcting nonlinear drift distortion of scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies from image pairs with orthogonal scan directions

    SciTech Connect

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Nelson, Chris T.

    Unwanted motion of the probe with respect to the sample is a ubiquitous problem in scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies, causing both linear and nonlinear artifacts in experimental images. We have designed a procedure to correct these artifacts by using orthogonal scan pairs to align each measurement line-by-line along the slow scan direction, by fitting contrast variation along the lines. We demonstrate the accuracy of our algorithm on both synthetic and experimental data and provide an implementation of our method.

  16. Exploring the Potential of Mesquite Gum-Nopal Mucilage Mixtures: Physicochemical and Functional Properties.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Camargo, Stefani; Gallardo-Rivera, Raquel; Barragán-Huerta, Blanca E; Dublán-García, Octavio; Román-Guerrero, Angélica; Pérez-Alonso, César

    2018-01-01

    In this work the physicochemical and functional properties of mesquite gum (MG) and nopal mucilage (NM) mixtures (75-25, 50-50, 25-75) were evaluated and compared with those of the individual biopolymers. MG-NM mixtures exhibited more negative zeta potential (ZP) values than those displayed by MG and NM, with 75-25 MG-NM showing the most negative value (-14.92 mV at pH = 7.0), indicative that this biopolymer mixture had the highest electrostatic stability in aqueous dispersions. Viscosity curves and strain amplitude sweep of aqueous dispersions (30% w/w) of the individual gums and their mixtures revealed that all exhibited shear thinning behavior, with NM having higher viscosity than MG, and all displaying fluid-like viscoelastic behavior where the loss modulus predominated over the storage modulus (G″>G'). Differential Scanning Calorimetry revealed that MG, NM, and MG-NM mixtures were thermally stable with decomposition peaks in a range from 303.1 to 319.6 °C. From the functional properties viewpoint, MG (98.4 ± 0.7%) had better emulsifying capacity than NM (51.9 ± 2.0%), while NM (43.0 ± 1.4%) had better foaming capacity than MG. MG-NM mixtures acquired additional functional properties (emulsifying and foaming) regarding the individual biopolymers. Therefore, MG-NM mixtures represent interesting alternatives for their application as emulsifying and foaming agents in food formulations. Mesquite gum (MG) and nopal mucilage (NM) are promising raw materials with excellent functional properties whose use has been largely neglected by the food industry. This work demonstrates MG-NM mixtures acquired additional functional properties regarding the individual biopolymers, making these mixtures multifunctional ingredients for the food industry. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. General Mode Scanning Probe Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Somnath, Suhas; Jesse, Stephen

    A critical part of SPM measurements is the information transfer from the probe-sample junction to the measurement system. Current information transfer methods heavily compress the information-rich data stream by averaging the data over a time interval, or via heterodyne detection approaches such as lock-in amplifiers and phase-locked loops. As a consequence, highly valuable information at the sub-microsecond time scales or information from frequencies outside the measurement band is lost. We have developed a fundamentally new approach called General Mode (G-mode), where we can capture the complete information stream from the detectors in the microscope. The availability of the complete informationmore » allows the microscope operator to analyze the data via information-theory analysis or comprehensive physical models. Furthermore, the complete data stream enables advanced data-driven filtering algorithms, multi-resolution imaging, ultrafast spectroscropic imaging, spatial mapping of multidimensional variability in material properties, etc. Though we applied this approach to scanning probe microscopy, the general philosophy of G-mode can be applied to many other modes of microscopy. G-mode data is captured by completely custom software written in LabVIEW and Matlab. The software generates the waveforms to electrically, thermally, or mechanically excite the SPM probe. It handles real-time communications with the microscope software for operations such as moving the SPM probe position and also controls other instrumentation hardware. The software also controls multiple variants of high-speed data acquisition cards to excite the SPM probe with the excitation waveform and simultaneously measure multiple channels of information from the microscope detectors at sampling rates of 1-100 MHz. The software also saves the raw data to the computer and allows the microscope operator to visualize processed or filtered data during the experiment. The software performs all these

  18. Laser line scan performance prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, Kevin L.; Schofield, Oscar; Kerfoot, John; Giddings, Tom; Shirron, Joe; Twardowski, Mike

    2007-09-01

    The effectiveness of sensors that use optical measurements for the laser detection and identification of subsurface mines is directly related to water clarity. The primary objective of the work presented here was to use the optical data collected by UUV (Slocum Glider) surveys of an operational areas to estimate the performance of an electro-optical identification (EOID) Laser Line Scan (LLS) system during RIMPAC 06, an international naval exercise off the coast of Hawaii. Measurements of optical backscattering and beam attenuation were made with a Wet Labs, Inc. Scattering Absorption Meter (SAM), mounted on a Rutgers University/Webb Research Slocum glider. The optical data universally indicated extremely clear water in the operational area, except very close to shore. The beam-c values from the SAM sensor were integrated to three attenuation lengths to provide an estimate of how well the LLS would perform in detecting and identifying mines in the operational areas. Additionally, the processed in situ optical data served as near-real-time input to the Electro-Optic Detection Simulator, ver. 3 (EODES-3; Metron, Inc.) model for EOID performance prediction. Both methods of predicting LLS performance suggested a high probability of detection and probability of identification. These predictions were validated by the actual performance of the LLS as the EOID system yielded imagery from which reliable mine identification could be made. Future plans include repeating this work in more optically challenging water types to demonstrate the utility of pre-mission UUV surveys of operational areas as a tactical decision aid for planning EOID missions.

  19. Implantable automatic scanning pacemaker for termination of supraventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Spurrell, R A; Nathan, A W; Bexton, R S; Hellestrand, K J; Nappholz, T; Camm, A J

    1982-03-01

    Thirteen patients suffering from reentrant supraventricular tachycardia have undergone implantation of a scanning extrastimulus pacemaker. This pacemaker is fully implanted and automatic, and it requires no external control device to activate or control it. The pacemaker is activated when tachycardia occurs. After four cycles an extrastimulus is induced with a preset coupling time from a sensed intracardiac potential, and every four cycles thereafter a further extrastimulus occurs, but on each occasion there is a decrement in coupling cycle by 6 ms until 90 ms of the cardiac cycle has been scanned by extrastimuli. When necessary, two extrastimuli can be introduced with a fixed but preset coupling time between them. Every four beats two extrastimuli are induced but the coupling time between the spontaneous cardiac potential and the first stimulus is decreased by 6 ms until 90 ms of the cardiac cycle has been scanned. The coupling time between the two stimuli is fixed throughout the scan. When termination of tachycardia occurs the successful timing variables are retained in the pacemaker memory so that at the onset of the next episode of tachycardia these settings are used first. Pacemaker pulse width, sensitivity, tachycardia trigger rate, coupling intervals for both stimuli and the use of single or double extrastimuli are all programmable transcutaneously. Three patients required single, and seven patients double ventricular premature stimuli; three patients required double atrial premature stimuli for termination of tachycardia. Despite frequent attacks of tachycardia before implantation, only two patients had a sustained attack of tachycardia after pacemaker implantation.

  20. Establishing an Environmental Scanning/Forecasting System to Augment College and University Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.

    1987-01-01

    The major benefit of an environmental scanning/forecasting system is in providing critical information for strategic planning. Such a system allows the institution to detect social, technological, economic, and political trends and potential events. The environmental scanning database developed by United Way of America is described. (MLW)