Sample records for zgs

  1. SciT

    Pewitt, E.G.

    The ZGS community made basic contributions to the applications of superconducting magnets to high energy physics as well as to other technological areas. ZGS personnel pioneered many significant applications until the time the ZGS was shutdown in 1979. After the shutdown, former ZGS personnel developed magnets for new applications in high energy physics, fusion, and industrial uses. The list of superconducting magnet accomplishments of ZGS personnel is impressive.

  2. SciT

    Krisch, A.D.

    The author discusses research involving polarized proton beams since the ZGS`s demise. He begins by reminding the attendee that in 1973 the ZGS accelerated the world`s first high energy polarized proton beam; all in attendance at this meeting can be proud of this accomplishment. A few ZGS polarized proton beam experiments were done in the early 1970`s; then from about 1976 until 1 October 1979, the majority of the ZGS running time was polarized running. A great deal of fundamental physics was done with the polarized beam when the ZGS ran as a dedicated polarized proton beam from about Fallmore » 1977 until it shut down on 1 October 1979. The newly created polarization enthusiats then dispersed; some spread polarized seeds al over the world by polarizing beams elsewhere; some wound up running the High Energy and SSC programs at DOE.« less

  3. SciT

    Jones, L.W.; Krisch, A.D.

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Kent M Terwilliger; Graduate School at Berkeley and Early Years at Michigan, 1949--1959; Terwilliger and the Group'': A Chronicle of MURA; Reflections on the MURA Years; The Evolution of High Energy Accelerators; Some Frontiers of Accelerator Physics; Reflections on the ZGS: Terwilliger's Contributions; Spark Chambers and Early Experiments; Strong Interaction Experiments at the ZGS; Polarized Beams at the ZGS and the AGS; Terwilliger and Spin Physics; Siberian Snakes and Future Polarized Beams; Washington and High Energy Physics; and Terwilliger in the Department and University. These papers have been cataloged separately. (LSP)

  4. SciT

    Lipkin, H.J.

    Overwhelming experimental evidence for quarks as real physical constituents of hadrons along with the QCD analogs of the Balmer Formula, Bohr Atom and Schroedinger Equation already existed in 1966 but was dismissed as heresy. ZGS experiments played an important role in the quark revolution. This role is briefly reviewed and subsequent progress in quark physics is described.

  5. SciT

    Derrick, M.

    These proceedings document a number of aspects of a big science facility and its impact on science, on technology, and on the continuing program of a major US research institution. The Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS) was a 12.5 GeV weak focusing proton accelerator that operated at Argonne for fifteen years--from 1964 to 1979. It was a major user facility which led to new close links between the Laboratory and university groups: in the research program; in the choice of experiments to be carried out; in the design and construction of beams and detectors; and even in the Laboratory management. Formore » Argonne, it marked a major move from being a Laboratory dominated by nuclear reactor development to one with a stronger basic research orientation. The present meeting covered the progress in accelerator science, in the applications of technology pioneered or developed by people working at the ZGS, as well as in physics research and detector construction. At this time, when the future of the US research programs in science is being questioned as a result of the ending of the Cold War and plans to balance the Federal budget, the specific place of the National Laboratories in the spectrum of research activities is under particular examination. This Symposium highlights one case history of a major science program that was completed more than a decade ago--so that the further developments of both the science and the technology can be seen in some perspective. The subsequent activities of the people who had worked in the ZGS program as well as the redeployment of the ZGS facilities were addressed. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.« less

  6. Jumping in simulated and true microgravity: response to maximal efforts with three landing types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Andrea, Susan E.; Perusek, Gail P.; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Perry, Julie; Davis, Brian L.


    BACKGROUND: Exercise is a promising countermeasure to the physiological deconditioning experienced in microgravity, but has not proven effective in eliminating the ongoing loss of bone mineral, most likely due to the lack of high-impact forces and loading rates during in-flight activity. We wanted to determine lower-extremity response to high-impact jumping exercises in true and simulated microgravity and establish if 1-G force magnitudes can be achieved in a weightless environment. METHODS: Jumping experiments were performed in a ground-based zero-gravity simulator (ZGS) in 1 G, and during parabolic flight with a gravity-replacement system. There were 12 subjects who participated in the study, with 4 subjects common to both conditions. Force, loading rates, jump height, and kinematics were analyzed during jumps with three distinct landings: two-footed toe-heel, one-footed toe-heel, and flat-footed. Gravity replacement loads of 45%, 60%, 75%, and 100% bodyweight were used in the ZGS; because of time constraints, these loads were limited to 60% and 75% bodyweight in parabolic flight. RESULTS: Average peak ground-reaction forces during landing ranged between 1902+/-607 and 2631+/-663 N in the ZGS and between 1683+/-807 and 2683+/-1174 N in the KC-135. No significant differences were found between the simulated and true microgravity conditions, but neither condition achieved the magnitudes found in 1 G. CONCLUSION: Data support the hypothesis that jumping exercises can impart high-impact forces during weightlessness and that the custom-designed ZGS will replicate what is experienced in true microgravity.

  7. SciT

    Yokosawa, A.

    Spin physics activities at medium and high energies became significantly active when polarized targets and polarized beams became accessible for hadron-hadron scattering experiments. My overview of spin physics will be inclined to the study of strong interaction using facilities at Argonne ZGS, Brookhaven AGS (including RHIC), CERN, Fermilab, LAMPF, an SATURNE. In 1960 accelerator physicists had already been convinced that the ZGS could be unique in accelerating a polarized beam; polarized beams were being accelerated through linear accelerators elsewhere at that time. However, there was much concern about going ahead with the construction of a polarized beam because (i) themore » source intensity was not high enough to accelerate in the accelerator, (ii) the use of the accelerator would be limited to only polarized-beam physics, that is, proton-proton interaction, and (iii) p-p elastic scattering was not the most popular topic in high-energy physics. In fact, within spin physics, [pi]-nucleon physics looked attractive, since the determination of spin and parity of possible [pi]p resonances attracted much attention. To proceed we needed more data beside total cross sections and elastic differential cross sections; measurements of polarization and other parameters were urgently needed. Polarization measurements had traditionally been performed by analyzing the spin of recoil protons. The drawbacks of this technique are: (i) it involves double scattering, resulting in poor accuracy of the data, and (ii) a carbon analyzer can only be used for a limited region of energy.« less

  8. SciT

    Swallow, E.C.

    This paper discusses developments in light collection which had their origin in efforts to construct high performance gas Cerenkov detectors for precision studies of hyperon beta decays at the ZGS. The resulting devices, know generally as {open_quotes}compound parabolic concentrators,{close_quotes} have found applications ranging from nuclear and particle physics experiments to solar energy concentration, instrument illumination, and understanding the optics of visual receptors. Interest in these devices and the ideas underlying them stimulated the development of a substantial new subfield of physics: nonimaging optics. This progression provides an excellent example of some ways in which unanticipated - and often unanticipatable -more » applied science and {open_quotes}practical{close_quotes} devices naturally emerge from first-rate basic science. The characteristics of this process suggest that the term {open_quotes}spinoff{close_quotes} commonly used to denote it is misleading and in need of replacement.« less

  9. SciT

    Paris, E.

    Argonne National Laboratory's efforts toward researching, proposing and then building a high-energy proton accelerator have been discussed in a handful of studies. In the main, these have concentrated on the intense maneuvering amongst politicians, universities, government agencies, outside corporations, and laboratory officials to obtain (or block) approval and/or funds or to establish who would have control over budgets and research programs. These ''top-down'' studies are very important but they can also serve to divorce such proceedings from the individuals actually involved in the ground-level research which physically served to create theories, designs, machines, and experiments. This can lead to amore » skewed picture, on the one hand, of a lack of effect that so-called scientific and technological factors exert and, on the other hand, of the apparent separation of the so-called social or political from the concrete practice of doing physics. An exception to this approach can be found in the proceedings of a conference on ''History of the ZGS'' held at Argonne at the time of the Zero Gradient Synchrotron's decommissioning in 1979. These accounts insert the individuals quite literally as they are, for the most part, personal reminiscences of those who took part in these efforts on the ground level. As such, they are invaluable raw material for historical inquiry but generally lack the rigor and perspective expected in a finished historical work. The session on ''Constructing Cold War Physics'' at the 2002 annual History of Science Society Meeting served to highlight new approaches circulating towards history of science and technology in the post-WWII period, especially in the 1950s. There is new attention towards the effects of training large numbers of scientists and engineers as well as the caution not to equate ''national security'' with military preparedness, but rather more broadly--at certain points--with the explicit ''struggle for the hearts and