He, Zhehao; Zeng, Liping; Zhang, Chong; Wang, Luming; Wang, Zhitian; Rustam, Azmat; Du, Chengli; Lv, Wang
Robot-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) is a relatively new but rapidly adopted technique, pioneered by the urological and gynecological departments. The primary objective of this study is to present the current status, a series of improvement and innovation of Da Vinci robotic surgery in the Department of Thoracic Surgery at First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University. In addition, we discuss the prospect of robotic surgical technology. PMID:29302429
Teng, Shizhu; Jia, Qiaojuan; Huang, Yijian; Chen, Liangcao; Fei, Xufeng; Wu, Jiaping
Sporadic cases occurring in mall geographic unit could lead to extreme value of incidence due to the small population bases, which would influence the analysis of actual incidence. This study introduced a method of hierarchy clustering and partitioning regionalization, which integrates areas with small population into larger areas with enough population by using Geographic Information System (GIS) based on the principles of spatial continuity and geographical similarity (homogeneity test). This method was applied in spatial epidemiology by using a data set of thyroid cancer incidence in Yiwu, Zhejiang province, between 2010 and 2013. Thyroid cancer incidence data were more reliable and stable in the new regionalized areas. Hotspot analysis (Getis-Ord) on the incidence in new areas indicated that there was obvious case clustering in the central area of Yiwu. This method can effectively solve the problem of small population base in small geographic units in spatial epidemiological analysis of thyroid cancer incidence and can be used for other diseases and in other areas.
Chen, Bin; Liu, Min; Gu, Hua; Wang, Xiaomeng; Qiu, Wei; Shen, Jian; Jiang, Jianmin
Tuberculosis (TB) infection control measures are very important to prevent nosocomial transmission and protect healthcare workers (HCWs) in hospitals. The TB infection control situation in TB treatment institutions in southeastern China has not been studied previously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the implementation of TB infection control measures in TB-designated hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China. Cross-sectional survey using observation and interviews. All TB-designated hospitals (n=88) in Zhejiang Province, China in 2014. Managerial, administrative, environmental and personal infection control measures were assessed using descriptive analyses and univariate logistic regression analysis. The TB-designated hospitals treated a median of 3030 outpatients (IQR 764-7094) and 279 patients with confirmed TB (IQR 154-459) annually, and 160 patients with TB (IQR 79-426) were hospitalised in the TB wards. Most infection control measures were performed by the TB-designated hospitals. Measures including regular monitoring of TB infection control in high-risk areas (49%), shortening the wait times (42%), and providing a separate waiting area for patients with suspected TB (46%) were sometimes neglected. N95 respirators were available in 85 (97%) hospitals, although only 44 (50%) hospitals checked that they fit. Hospitals with more TB staff and higher admission rates of patients with TB were more likely to set a dedicated sputum collection area and to conduct annual respirator fit testing. TB infection control measures were generally implemented by the TB-designated hospitals. Measures including separation of suspected patients, regular monitoring of infection control practices, and regular fit testing of respirators should be strengthened. Infection measures for sputum collection and respirator fit testing should be improved in hospitals with lower admission rates of patients with TB. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to
Chen, Bin; Liu, Min; Gu, Hua; Wang, Xiaomeng; Qiu, Wei; Shen, Jian; Jiang, Jianmin
Objectives Tuberculosis (TB) infection control measures are very important to prevent nosocomial transmission and protect healthcare workers (HCWs) in hospitals. The TB infection control situation in TB treatment institutions in southeastern China has not been studied previously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the implementation of TB infection control measures in TB-designated hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China. Design Cross-sectional survey using observation and interviews. Setting All TB-designated hospitals (n=88) in Zhejiang Province, China in 2014. Primary and secondary outcome measures Managerial, administrative, environmental and personal infection control measures were assessed using descriptive analyses and univariate logistic regression analysis. Results The TB-designated hospitals treated a median of 3030 outpatients (IQR 764–7094) and 279 patients with confirmed TB (IQR 154–459) annually, and 160 patients with TB (IQR 79–426) were hospitalised in the TB wards. Most infection control measures were performed by the TB-designated hospitals. Measures including regular monitoring of TB infection control in high-risk areas (49%), shortening the wait times (42%), and providing a separate waiting area for patients with suspected TB (46%) were sometimes neglected. N95 respirators were available in 85 (97%) hospitals, although only 44 (50%) hospitals checked that they fit. Hospitals with more TB staff and higher admission rates of patients with TB were more likely to set a dedicated sputum collection area and to conduct annual respirator fit testing. Conclusions TB infection control measures were generally implemented by the TB-designated hospitals. Measures including separation of suspected patients, regular monitoring of infection control practices, and regular fit testing of respirators should be strengthened. Infection measures for sputum collection and respirator fit testing should be improved in hospitals with lower admission
Jiang, X Y; Hu, Y Q; Ye, D; Li, Q L; Chen, K; Jin, M J
Objective: This study aimed to describe the sex disparities on cancer incidence and mortality in Jiashan population. Methods: All data concerning incident and death cases of cancers were gathered from the database of Cancer Registry in Jiashan county. Data from the 2010 China census was used as the standard population. Sex-specific age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs), mortality rates (ASMRs) per 100 000 persons for all cancers and types of each cancer were calculated for the years of 1990 to 1999, 2000 to 2009, 2010 to 2014, and 1990 to 2014. In addition, the corresponding male-to-female incidence rate ratios ( IRRs ) and mortality rate ratios ( MRRs ) were also calculated. Results: The ASIR of all cancers was 226.13/10(5) for the whole period of 1990 to 2014, with 266.04/10(5) for males and 187.22/10(5) for females, respectively. The corresponding IRR was 1.42 (95 %CI : 1.39-1.46), with significant difference noticed in the incidence rates between males and females ( P <0.05). The ASMR of all cancers was 155.39/10(5), with 206.55/10(5) for males and 104.98/10(5) for females, respectively. The corresponding MRR was 1.97 (95 % CI : 1.91-2.03), with significant difference between males and females ( P <0.05). Among all the cancer types, only gallbladder cancer and thyroid cancer showed female predominance in both incidence and mortality, with male predominance in all the remaining cancers. Conclusion: Finding from our study suggested that a male predominance in both incidence and mortality for a majority of cancers in Jiashan population.
Wu, Dan; Lam, Tai Pong; Lam, Kwok Fai; Zhou, Xu Dong; Sun, Kai Sing
Objective China is engaged in promoting community health services (CHS) nationwide. This study examines the public’s views towards CHS and their utilisation of community-based and hospital-based outpatient services. Design A mixed methods study using qualitative interviews and a cross-sectional survey. Study setting and participants The study was conducted among the public between September 2014 and September 2015 in Zhejiang province, China. Six focus groups and 13 individuals were interviewed. The questionnaire was completed by 1248 respondents (response rate: 83%). Primary outcome measures Utilisation of community-based and hospital-based outpatient services. Results Functions of CHS perceived by the public included provision of minor illness management, coordination, drug dispensing, follow-up care and patient education. However, many also showed a distrust in primary care providers’ (PCPs) competence for confirming the initial diagnosis and management plan. As coordinators, PCPs’ integrity was challenged, and PCPs were thought to be potential ‘tuo er’ (cunning agents who tried to lead patients to some notorious hospitals to make money). Survey results showed that 800 (64.1%) respondents visited hospital-based clinics and 688 (55.1%) visited CHS at least once in the past year. Compared with the uninsured group, those covered by Urban Resident Medical Insurance (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.95, 95% CI 1.24 to 3.07) and Urban Employee Medical Insurance (AOR=2.59, 95% CI 1.59 to 4.24) were more likely to use hospital-based services. Respondents who had a chronic condition were more likely than their counterparts to use both hospital-based services (AOR=1.72, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.49) and CHS (AOR=1.66, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.32). Income levels were positively associated with the likelihood of visiting hospital-based clinics (AOR=1.67, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.42) but negatively associated with the likelihood of using CHS (AOR=0.68, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.96). Conclusions
NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left), during a visit at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, discussed how NASA's special lighting technology may soon treat cancer. Goldin talked with Dr.Harry Whelan (right) and Dr. Kerneth Reichert (center left), both pediatric neurologists with the Hospital and professors at the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Accompanied by Astronaut Mary Ellen Weber, Goldin was shown this innovative treatment, called Photodynamic Therapy, a method used to destroy the tumor without damaging the delicate brain tissue around it. The treatment uses tiny pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) developed for Space Product Development plant growth experiments.
Goldstein, Jeffery A.; Prasad, Vinay
Context Research-oriented cancer hospitals in the United States treat and study patients with a range of diseases. Measures of disease specific research productivity, and comparison to overall productivity, are currently lacking. Hypothesis Different institutions are specialized in research of particular diseases. Objective To report disease specific productivity of American cancer hospitals, and propose a summary measure. Method We conducted a retrospective observational survey of the 50 highest ranked cancer hospitals in the 2013 US News and World Report rankings. We performed an automated search of PubMed and Clinicaltrials.gov for published reports and registrations of clinical trials (respectively) addressing specific cancers between 2008 and 2013. We calculated the summed impact factor for the publications. We generated a summary measure of productivity based on the number of Phase II clinical trials registered and the impact factor of Phase II clinical trials published for each institution and disease pair. We generated rankings based on this summary measure. Results We identified 6076 registered trials and 6516 published trials with a combined impact factor of 44280.4, involving 32 different diseases over the 50 institutions. Using a summary measure based on registered and published clinical trails, we ranked institutions in specific diseases. As expected, different institutions were highly ranked in disease-specific productivity for different diseases. 43 institutions appeared in the top 10 ranks for at least 1 disease (vs 10 in the overall list), while 6 different institutions were ranked number 1 in at least 1 disease (vs 1 in the overall list). Conclusion Research productivity varies considerably among the sample. Overall cancer productivity conceals great variation between diseases. Disease specific rankings identify sites of high academic productivity, which may be of interest to physicians, patients and researchers. PMID:25781329
Goldstein, Jeffery A; Prasad, Vinay
Research-oriented cancer hospitals in the United States treat and study patients with a range of diseases. Measures of disease specific research productivity, and comparison to overall productivity, are currently lacking. Different institutions are specialized in research of particular diseases. To report disease specific productivity of American cancer hospitals, and propose a summary measure. We conducted a retrospective observational survey of the 50 highest ranked cancer hospitals in the 2013 US News and World Report rankings. We performed an automated search of PubMed and Clinicaltrials.gov for published reports and registrations of clinical trials (respectively) addressing specific cancers between 2008 and 2013. We calculated the summed impact factor for the publications. We generated a summary measure of productivity based on the number of Phase II clinical trials registered and the impact factor of Phase II clinical trials published for each institution and disease pair. We generated rankings based on this summary measure. We identified 6076 registered trials and 6516 published trials with a combined impact factor of 44280.4, involving 32 different diseases over the 50 institutions. Using a summary measure based on registered and published clinical trails, we ranked institutions in specific diseases. As expected, different institutions were highly ranked in disease-specific productivity for different diseases. 43 institutions appeared in the top 10 ranks for at least 1 disease (vs 10 in the overall list), while 6 different institutions were ranked number 1 in at least 1 disease (vs 1 in the overall list). Research productivity varies considerably among the sample. Overall cancer productivity conceals great variation between diseases. Disease specific rankings identify sites of high academic productivity, which may be of interest to physicians, patients and researchers.
Hernández-Ávila, Juan Eugenio; Palacio-Mejía, Lina Sofía; González-González, Leonel; Morales-Carmona, Evangelina; Espín-Arellano, Lucino Iván; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Mohar-Betancourt, Alejandro; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio
To analyze the utilization of hospital services for cancer care by location, sex, age group and care institution in Mexico from 2004-2013. Time series study from 2004-2013, based on administrative records of hospital discharges for cancer in the health sector, including the private sector. The utilization rate increased significantly from 290 to 360 per 100 000 inhabitants. A total of 62% of hospital discharges related to malignant tumors were concentrated in eight types of cancer. Leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers almost doubled in the period. While lung cancer showed a decline among men, it increased among women. A total of 63.1% of cancer patients were women, and 81% of cases occurred in the public sector. From 2011, the Ministry of Health was the main provider of hospital services for cancer care. Increases in utilization were mainly found in the Ministry of Health, quite possibly as a result of the implementation of universal insurance.
Dodgion, Christopher M; Neville, Bridget A; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Schrag, Deborah; Breen, Elizabeth; Zinner, Michael J; Greenberg, Caprice C
The primary goal of an operation for rectal cancer is to cure cancer and, where possible, preserve continence. A wide range of sphincter preservation rates have been reported. This study evaluated hospital variation in the use of low anterior resection (LAR), local excision (LE), and abdominoperineal resection (APR) in the treatment of elderly rectal cancer patients. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked data, we identified 4959 patients older than 65 y with stage I-III rectal cancer diagnosed from 2000-2005 who underwent operative intervention at one of 370 hospitals. We evaluated the distribution of hospital-specific procedure rates and used generalized mixed models with random hospital effects to examine the influence of patient characteristics and hospital on operation type, using APR as a reference. The median hospital performed APR on 33% of elderly patients with rectal cancer. Hospital was a stronger predictor of LAR receipt than any patient characteristic, explaining 32% of procedure choice, but not a strong predictor of LE, explaining only 3.8%. Receipt of LE was primarily related to tumor size and tumor stage, which combined explained 31% of procedure variation. Receipt of LE is primarily determined by patient characteristics. In contrast, the hospital where surgery is performed significantly influences whether a patient undergoes an LAR or APR. Understanding the factors that cause this institutional variation is crucial to ensuring equitable availability of sphincter preservation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Akinyemiju, Tomi F; Galea, Sandro; Bovbjerg, Dana H
To document the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders, and their associations with mortality among hospitalized breast cancer patients. We examined the associations between breast cancer diagnosis and the diagnoses of anxiety or depression among 4,164 hospitalized breast cancer cases matched with 4,164 non-breast cancer controls using 2006-2009 inpatient data obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. Conditional logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between breast cancer diagnosis and diagnoses of anxiety or depression. We also used binary logistic regression models to examine the association between diagnoses of depression or anxiety, and in-hospital mortality among breast cancer patients. We observed that breast cancer cases were less likely to have a diagnosis of depression (OR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.52-0.77), and less likely to have a diagnosis of anxiety (OR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.90) compared with controls. This association remained after controlling for race/ethnicity, residential income, insurance and residential region. Breast cancer patients with a depression diagnosis also had lower mortality (OR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.52-0.89) compared with those without a depression diagnosis, but there was no significant difference in mortality among those with and without anxiety diagnoses. Diagnoses of depression and anxiety in breast cancer patients were less prevalent than expected based on our analysis of hospitalized breast cancer patients and matched non-breast cancer controls identified in the NIS dataset using ICD-9 diagnostic codes. Results suggest that under-diagnosis of mental health problems may be common among hospitalized women with a primary diagnosis of breast cancer. Future work may fruitfully explore reasons for, and consequences of, inappropriate identification of the mental health needs of breast cancer patients.
Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Galea, Sandro; Bovbjerg, Dana H.
Purpose To document the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders, and their associations with mortality among hospitalized breast cancer patients. Methods We examined the associations between breast cancer diagnosis and the diagnoses of anxiety or depression among 4,164 hospitalized breast cancer cases matched with 4,164 non-breast cancer controls using 2006-2009 inpatient data obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. Conditional logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between breast cancer diagnosis and diagnoses of anxiety or depression. We also used binary logistic regression models to examine the association between diagnoses of depression or anxiety, and in-hospital mortality among breast cancer patients. Results We observed that breast cancer cases were less likely to have a diagnosis of depression (OR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.52-0.77), and less likely to have a diagnosis of anxiety (OR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.90) compared with controls. This association remained after controlling for race/ethnicity, residential income, insurance and residential region. Breast cancer patients with a depression diagnosis also had lower mortality (OR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.52-0.89) compared with those without a depression diagnosis, but there was no significant difference in mortality among those with and without anxiety diagnoses. Conclusion Diagnoses of depression and anxiety in breast cancer patients were less prevalent than expected based on our analysis of hospitalized breast cancer patients and matched non-breast cancer controls identified in the NIS dataset using ICD-9 diagnostic codes. Results suggest that under-diagnosis of mental health problems may be common among hospitalized women with a primary diagnosis of breast cancer. Future work may fruitfully explore reasons for, and consequences of, inappropriate identification of the mental health needs of breast cancer patients. PMID
Wong, Sandra L; Revels, ShaʼShonda L; Yin, Huiying; Stewart, Andrew K; McVeigh, Andrea; Banerjee, Mousumi; Birkmeyer, John D
To elucidate clinical mechanisms underlying variation in hospital mortality after cancer surgery : Thousands of Americans die every year undergoing elective cancer surgery. Wide variation in hospital mortality rates suggest opportunities for improvement, but these efforts are limited by uncertainty about why some hospitals have poorer outcomes than others. Using data from the 2006-2007 National Cancer Data Base, we ranked 1279 hospitals according to a composite measure of perioperative mortality after operations for bladder, esophagus, colon, lung, pancreas, and stomach cancers. We then conducted detailed medical record review of 5632 patients at 1 of 19 hospitals with low mortality rates (2.1%) or 30 hospitals with high mortality rates (9.1%). Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were used to compare risk-adjusted complication incidence and case-fatality rates among patients experiencing serious complications. The 7.0% absolute mortality difference between the 2 hospital groups could be attributed to higher mortality from surgical site, pulmonary, thromboembolic, and other complications. The overall incidence of complications was not different between hospital groups [21.2% vs 17.8%; adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-1.94]. In contrast, case-fatality after complications was more than threefold higher at high mortality hospitals than at low mortality hospitals (25.9% vs 13.6%; adjusted OR = 3.23, 95% CI: 1.56-6.69). Low mortality and high mortality hospitals are distinguished less by their complication rates than by how frequently patients die after a complication. Strategies for ensuring the timely recognition and effective management of postoperative complications will be essential in reducing mortality after cancer surgery.
Robertson, M. A.; Harington, J. S.; Bradshaw, Evelyn
Material on African cancer cases admitted to Baragwanath Hospital, Johannesburg, over the years 1948-64 has been analysed, and it has been possible to obtain a useful incidence rate, a ratio study and a tribal analysis for purposes of comparison. The incidence rate, when compared to an earlier Johannesburg survey, showed a rise in oesophageal cancers for males and females. Both lung and prostate cancers showed rising rates in the men, while the female breast and cervix cancer rates remained relatively constant. Liver cancers had decreased in both sexes. PMID:5144511
Dodgion, Christopher M.; Neville, Bridget A; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Schrag, Deborah; Breen, Elizabeth; Zinner, Michael J.; Greenberg, Caprice C.
Purpose To evaluate hospital variation in the use of low anterior resection (LAR), local excision (LE) and abdominoperineal resection (APR) in the treatment of rectal cancer in elderly patients. Methods Using SEER-Medicare linked data, we identified 4,959 stage I–III rectal cancer patients over age 65 diagnosed from 2000–2005 who underwent operative intervention at one of 370 hospitals. We evaluated the distribution of hospital-specific procedure rates and used generalized mixed models with random hospital effects to examine the influence of patient characteristics and hospital on operation type, using APR as a reference. Results The median hospital performed APR on 33% of elderly rectal cancer patients. Hospital was a stronger predictor of LAR receipt than any patient characteristic, explaining 32% of procedure choice, but not a strong predictor of LE, explaining only 3.8%. Receipt of LE was primarily related to tumor size and tumor stage, which, combined, explained 31% of procedure variation. Conclusions Receipt of local excision is primarily determined by patient characteristics. In contrast, the hospital where surgery is performed significantly influences whether a patient undergoes an LAR or APR. Understanding the factors that cause this institutional variation is crucial to ensuring equitable availability of sphincter preservation. PMID:24750983
Background Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. Methods We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. Results The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93). For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83) and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74) for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61) and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47) for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94) and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82) for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63) and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79) for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. Conclusions The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting. PMID:22171783
Li, Lin; Zhang, Min; Holman, D'Arcy
Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93). For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83) and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74) for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61) and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47) for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94) and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82) for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63) and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79) for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting.
Sun, Xueshan; Zhang, Hao; Hu, Xiaoqian; Gu, Shuyan; Zhen, Xuemei; Gu, Yuxuan; Huang, Minzhuo; Wei, Jingming; Dong, Hengjin
Equity is the core of primary care. The issue of equity in health has become urgent, and China has attached increasing attention to it. With rapid economic development and great changes in medical insurance policy, the pattern of equity in health has changed tremendously. The reform of healthcare in Zhejiang Province is at the forefront in China, and studies on Zhejiang Province are of great significance to the entire country. This paper aimed to measure health equity from the perspectives of health needs and health-seeking behavior and to provide suggestions for the next policy formulations, with respect to timeliness. The investigator's household survey was conducted in August 2016. A sample of 1000 households, which included2807 individuals in Zhejiang, China, was obtained with the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Descriptive analysis and chi-square tests were adopted in the analysis. The value of the concentration index was used to measure the equity. This study found that the poor have more urgent health needs and poorer health situations than the rich. Through studies on health-seeking behavior, the utilization of outpatient services was almost equitable, while the utilization of hospitalization showed a pro-rich inequity (i.e., the rich use more services). Individuals with employer-based medical insurance used more outpatient services than those with rural and urban medical insurance. More people in the poorer income groups did not use inpatient services due to financial difficulties. Absolute medical prices and medical insurance may explain the equity in the utilization of outpatient services and the inequity in the utilization of hospitalization. In view of the pro-rich inequity of hospitalization, more financial protection should be provided for the poor.
Community Hospitals Indianapolis raises the public's awareness of the importance of breast self-examination and mammography as the best tools for early detection of breast cancer. The health system has designed a program called Buddy Check 6 to partner with a local television station.
Lindahl-Jacobsen, Line; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen; la Cour, Karen; Søndergaard, Jens
Many cancer patients report unmet rehabilitation needs. Rehabilitation may include activities of daily living (ADL) tasks, but little is known about how cancer patients perform these tasks and how they prioritize their daily activities. Hence, this study aims to identify and characterize ADL task performance problems among a group of adult disabled hospitalized cancer patients using interview and questionnaire data. Cross-sectional study on prevalence of ADL task performance problems experienced by disabled hospitalized cancer patients using the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADL-Q) (n = 118) and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) (n = 55). All 118 patients reported problems with ADL task performance. Based on the ADL-Q patients reported more problems within instrumental (I-)ADL than personal (P-)ADL. In both I-ADL and P-ADL the results differed between women and men. There was significant overlap between problems identified using the COPM and the ADL-Q instruments. RESULTS from the COPM showed that 65% of problems were related to self-care, 25% to leisure, and 19% to productivity. Using both instruments identified more ADL problems than when using only one of the instruments. Adult hospitalized disabled cancer patients experience a high degree and variation in difficulties performing ADL, illustrating the need for a comprehensively planned assessment of problems and needs.
Yan, Li-Xing; Xu, Yan; Meng, Zhong-Hua; Kong, Chang-Hong; Wang, Jian-Min; Jin, Zhen-Liang; Wu, Shi-Ding; Chen, Chang-Shui; Luo, Ling-Fei
This research was aimed to develop the first level blood information centralized database and real time communication network at a province area in China. Multiple technology like local area network database separate operation, real time data concentration and distribution mechanism, allopatric backup, and optical fiber virtual private network (VPN) were used. As a result, the blood information centralized database and management system were successfully constructed, which covers all the Zhejiang province, and the real time exchange of blood data was realised. In conclusion, its implementation promote volunteer blood donation and ensure the blood safety in Zhejiang, especially strengthen the quick response to public health emergency. This project lays the first stone of centralized test and allotment among blood banks in Zhejiang, and can serve as a reference of contemporary blood bank information systems in China.
Zhang, Wei Fang; Xu, Yan Hua; Yang, Ru Lai; Zhao, Zheng Yan
To investigate the levels of primary health care services for children and their changes in Zhejiang Province, China from 1998 to 2011. The data were drawn from Zhejiang maternal and child health statistics collected under the supervision of the Health Bureau of Zhejiang Province. Primary health care coverage, hospital deliveries, low birth weight, postnatal visits, breastfeeding, underweight, early neonatal (<7 days) mortality, neonatal mortality, infant mortality and under-5 mortality were investigated. The coverage rates for children under 3 years old and children under 7 years old increased in the last 14 years. The hospital delivery rate was high during the study period, and the overall difference narrowed. There was a significant difference (P<0.001) between the prevalence of low birth weight in 1998 (2.03%) and the prevalence in 2011 (2.71%). The increase in low birth weight was more significant in urban areas than in rural areas. The postnatal visit rate increased from 95.00% to 98.45% with a significant difference (P<0.001). The breastfeeding rate was the highest in 2004 at 74.79% and lowest in 2008 at 53.86%. The prevalence of underweight in children under 5 years old decreased from 1.63% to 0.65%, and the prevalence was higher in rural areas. The early neonatal, neonatal, infant and under-5 mortality rates decreased from 6.66‰, 8.67‰, 11.99‰ and 15.28‰ to 1.69‰, 2.36‰, 3.89‰ and 5.42‰, respectively (P<0.001). The mortality rates in rural areas were slightly higher than those in urban areas each year, and the mortality rates were lower in Ningbo, Wenzhou, and Jiaxing regions and higher in Quzhou and Lishui regions. Primary health care services for children in Zhejiang Province improved from 1998 to 2011. Continued high rates of low birth weight in urban areas and mortality in rural areas may be addressed with improvements in health awareness and medical technology.
Hamajima, N; Tajima, K; Morishita, M; Hyodo, C; Sakakibara, N; Kawai, C; Moritaka, S
In order to survey patients' views on disease and treatment information that should be provided at hospitals, an anonymous self-administered questionnaire was distributed to patients at Aichi Cancer Center Hospital in 1995. All eligible first-visit outpatients (97 persons), randomly selected revisit outpatients (99 persons; about one in ten refused), and all except six eligible inpatients in good condition at discharge (97 persons) responded. Out of 293 patients (115 males, 174 females and 4 unspecified), 74% answered that they wanted to be informed of their diagnosis irrespective of circumstances, 20% answered that they would want to be informed only in certain circumstances, and 2% did not want to be informed at all. There were no significant differences in response among the three sources of patients. Inpatients wanted more (81%) to be explained about recommended therapy than either first-visit outpatients (67%) or revisit outpatients (67%). The majority considered that about a 30-minute explanation was needed using pamphlet-like written materials or video. When asked what information was needed when choosing a cancer hospital, 71% specified information on the specialty of the hospital, 57% the content of the care provided, 23% the name and specialty of the doctors, 20% the waiting period before scheduled admission, 13% the average admission period, 11% the number of patients with the same disease, 10% the waiting time at the outpatient clinic, 6% the meal menu, and 4% the number of private wards. Forty-three percent wanted an information service covering all hospitals in the region through an information center. The results revealed that patients at this cancer hospital required information on their disease, treatment, and hospital specialty.
Tai, Eric; Guy, Gery P; Dunbar, Angela; Richardson, Lisa C
Neutropenia and subsequent infections are life-threatening treatment-related toxicities of chemotherapy. Among patients with cancer, hospitalizations related to neutropenic complications result in substantial medical costs, morbidity, and mortality. Previous estimates for the cost of cancer-related neutropenia hospitalizations are based on older and limited data. This study provides nationally representative estimates of the cost of cancer-related neutropenia hospitalizations. We examined data from the 2012 National Inpatient Sample and Kids' Inpatient Database. Hospitalizations for cancer-related neutropenia were defined as those with a primary or secondary diagnosis of cancer and a diagnosis of neutropenia or a fever of unknown origin. We examined characteristics of cancer-related neutropenia hospitalizations among children (age < 18 years) and adults (age ≥ 18 years). Adjusted predicted margins were used to estimate length of stay and cost per stay. There were 91,560 and 16,859 cancer-related neutropenia hospitalizations among adults and children, respectively. Total cost of cancer-related neutropenia hospitalizations was $2.3 billion for adults and $439 million for children. Cancer-related neutropenia hospitalizations accounted for 5.2% of all cancer-related hospitalizations and 8.3% of all cancer-related hospitalization costs. For adults, the mean length of stay for cancer-related neutropenia hospitalizations was 9.6 days, with a mean hospital cost of $24,770 per stay. For children, the mean length of stay for cancer-related neutropenia hospitalizations was 8.5 days, with a mean hospital cost of $26,000 per stay. We found the costs of cancer-related neutropenia hospitalizations to be substantially high. Efforts to prevent and minimize neutropenia-related complications among patients with cancer may decrease hospitalizations and associated costs.
Guy, Gery P.; Dunbar, Angela; Richardson, Lisa C.
Purpose: Neutropenia and subsequent infections are life-threatening treatment-related toxicities of chemotherapy. Among patients with cancer, hospitalizations related to neutropenic complications result in substantial medical costs, morbidity, and mortality. Previous estimates for the cost of cancer-related neutropenia hospitalizations are based on older and limited data. This study provides nationally representative estimates of the cost of cancer-related neutropenia hospitalizations. Methods: We examined data from the 2012 National Inpatient Sample and Kids’ Inpatient Database. Hospitalizations for cancer-related neutropenia were defined as those with a primary or secondary diagnosis of cancer and a diagnosis of neutropenia or a fever of unknown origin. We examined characteristics of cancer-related neutropenia hospitalizations among children (age < 18 years) and adults (age ≥ 18 years). Adjusted predicted margins were used to estimate length of stay and cost per stay. Results: There were 91,560 and 16,859 cancer-related neutropenia hospitalizations among adults and children, respectively. Total cost of cancer-related neutropenia hospitalizations was $2.3 billion for adults and $439 million for children. Cancer-related neutropenia hospitalizations accounted for 5.2% of all cancer-related hospitalizations and 8.3% of all cancer-related hospitalization costs. For adults, the mean length of stay for cancer-related neutropenia hospitalizations was 9.6 days, with a mean hospital cost of $24,770 per stay. For children, the mean length of stay for cancer-related neutropenia hospitalizations was 8.5 days, with a mean hospital cost of $26,000 per stay. Conclusion: We found the costs of cancer-related neutropenia hospitalizations to be substantially high. Efforts to prevent and minimize neutropenia-related complications among patients with cancer may decrease hospitalizations and associated costs. PMID:28437150
Zhejiang Province in China has promoted a new family planning program since April 1993. The program stresses delayed marriage and childbearing, fewer and healthier births, modernization of family life, and prosperity through hard work. The people are receptive to the new program out of a desire for an improved standard of living. The objective is to build small, modern families who 1) practice deferred marriage and childbearing; 2) voluntarily practice family planning and have no unplanned births; 3) practice avoidance of consanguineous marriage, become sterilized if a carrier of a hereditary disease of chromosomal abnormality, and use premarital education and counseling and proper prenatal care; 4) uphold the laws and maintain discipline in action to avoid criminal behavior; 5) establish families that respect the old, care for children, and help their neighbors; 6) complete 9 years of compulsory education; and 7) create well being through hard work. The program is compatible with the strategy of the "three stresses" and an integrated approach. IEC and service provision are important components in program implementation. The target population are the masses and grassroots cadres, particularly those in the childbearing ages. IEC will be directed in different ways to different groups. Those aged 18-35 years will receive education. Face to face interaction with family planning workers and lectures will be directed to grassroots cadres. The mass media will be employed to reach the masses. The messages will include information and persuasion to adopt new families, accept family planning regulations, and learn about contraceptive use, healthy births and childrearing, education, health care, sex education, and income generation skills. Classes will be conducted for groups, such as teenagers, unmarried youth, pregnant women, and lactating women. Priority will be given to couples that accept the certificates for one child; favoritism will be granted for allocation of
Yen, Tina W F; Pezzin, Liliana E; Li, Jianing; Sparapani, Rodney; Laud, Purushuttom W; Nattinger, Ann B
The purpose of this study was to examine variations in delivery of several breast cancer processes of care that are correlated with lower mortality and disease recurrence, and to determine the extent to which hospital volume explains this variation. Women who were diagnosed with stage I-III unilateral breast cancer between 2007 and 2011 were identified within the National Cancer Data Base. Multiple logistic regression models were developed to determine whether hospital volume was independently associated with each of 10 individual process of care measures addressing diagnosis and treatment, and 2 composite measures assessing appropriateness of systemic treatment (chemotherapy and hormonal therapy) and locoregional treatment (margin status and radiation therapy). Among 573,571 women treated at 1755 different hospitals, 38%, 51%, and 10% were treated at high-, medium-, and low-volume hospitals, respectively. On multivariate analysis controlling for patient sociodemographic characteristics, treatment year and geographic location, hospital volume was a significant predictor for cancer diagnosis by initial biopsy (medium volume: odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.25; high volume: OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.14-1.49), negative surgical margins (medium volume: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.06-1.24; high volume: OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.13-1.44), and appropriate locoregional treatment (medium volume: OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.07-1.17; high volume: OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.09-1.24). Diagnosis of breast cancer before initial surgery, negative surgical margins and appropriate use of radiation therapy may partially explain the volume-survival relationship. Dissemination of these processes of care to a broader group of hospitals could potentially improve the overall quality of care and outcomes of breast cancer survivors. Cancer 2017;123:957-66. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Shulman, Lawrence N; Palis, Bryan E; McCabe, Ryan; Mallin, Kathy; Loomis, Ashley; Winchester, David; McKellar, Daniel
Survival is considered an important indicator of the quality of cancer care, but the validity of different methodologies to measure comparative survival rates is less well understood. We explored whether the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) could serve as a source of unadjusted and risk-adjusted cancer survival data and whether these data could be used as quality indicators for individual hospitals or in the aggregate by hospital type. The NCDB, an aggregate of > 1,500 hospital cancer registries, was queried to analyze unadjusted and risk-adjusted hazards of death for patients with stage III breast cancer (n = 116,787) and stage IIIB or IV non-small-cell lung cancer (n = 252,392). Data were analyzed at the individual hospital level and by hospital type. At the hospital level, after risk adjustment, few hospitals had comparative risk-adjusted survival rates that were statistically better or worse. By hospital type, National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer centers had risk-adjusted survival ratios that were statistically significantly better than those of academic cancer centers and community hospitals. Using the NCDB as the data source, survival rates for patients with stage III breast cancer and stage IIIB or IV non-small-cell lung cancer were statistically better at National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer centers when compared with other hospital types. Compared with academic hospitals, risk-adjusted survival was lower in community hospitals. At the individual hospital level, after risk adjustment, few hospitals were shown to have statistically better or worse survival, suggesting that, using NCDB data, survival may not be a good metric to determine relative quality of cancer care at this level.
Qiu, Liqian; Lin, Jun; Ma, Yuanying; Wu, Weiwei; Qiu, Ling; Zhou, Aizhen; Shi, Wenjun; Lee, Andy; Binns, Colin
maternal mortality remains a major public health problem in many countries. The aim of this paper is to describe the progress made in maternal health care in Zhejiang Province, China over 20 years in reducing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR). Zhejiang Province is located on the mid-east coast of China, approximately 180km south of Shanghai, and has a population of 49 million. Almost all mothers give birth in hospitals or maternal and infant health institutes. the annual maternal death audit reports from 1988 to 2008 were analysed. These reports were prepared annually by the Zhejiang Prenatal Health Committee after auditing each individual case. China has made considerable progress in reducing the MMR. Zhejiang has one of fastest developing economies in China, and since the 86 economic reforms of 1978, health care has improved rapidly and the MMR has declined. During the 1988-2008 period, 2258 maternal deaths were reported from 8,880,457 live births. During these two decades, the MMR decreased dramatically from 48.50 in 1988 to 6.57 per 100,000 in 2008. The MMR in migrant women dropped from 66.87 in 2003 to 21.67 per 100,000 in 2008. The rate of decline was more rapid in rural areas than in the city. There has been a decline in the proportion of deaths with direct obstetric causes and a corresponding increase in the proportion of indirect causes. The proportion of deaths classified as preventable has declined in the past two decades. Social factors are important in maternal safety, and on average 26.8% of maternal deaths were influenced by these factors. as the economy was developing, maternal safety was made a priority health issue by the Government and health workers. The provincial MMR has dropped rapidly and is now similar to the rates in developed countries and lower than that in the USA. However, more work is still needed to ensure that all mothers, including migrant workers, continue to have these low rates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Vellone, Ercole; Sinapi, Nadia; Piria, Paola; Bernardi, Francesca M; Dario, Lucia; Brunetti, Annarita
The aim of this study was to investigate the anxiety and depression of cancer patients hospitalized and at home. Using a descriptive, correlational and comparative design and the Roy Adaptation Model, a sample of 80 oncologic patients was studied. Several instruments were used to measure anxiety and depression (HADS), quality of life and symptoms (RSCL), sociodemographic factors, variables connected to the hospitalization, quality of the relationship with health practitioners, family members and friends and the degree of satisfaction for the received information and support. The examined variables were measured on the same patients at hospital and at home. About the 30% of the patients were anxious and depressed. Statistical analysis showed that while anxiety did not change from the hospital to home, depression increased soon after the discharge and decreased over time and after the increasing of the number of hospital access. Anxiety and depression were positively correlated to boredom during the hospitalization, physical symptoms, number of the patients children, and previous anxious and depressive problems. Anxiety and depression were negatively correlated to the ward comfort, the support of health practitioners, family members and friends and the satisfaction for the received information. Differences between this study and the international literature are discussed. Recommendations for the future research and nursing practice are given.
Hanson, Hazel; Schroeter, Kathryn; Hanson, Andrew; Asmus, Kathryn; Grossman, Azure
To determine the preferences of patients with cancer for viewing photographic art in an inpatient hospital setting and to evaluate the impact of viewing photographic art. Quantitative, exploratory, single-group, post-test descriptive design incorporating qualitative survey questions. An academic medical center in the midwestern United States. 80 men (n = 44) and women (n = 36) aged 19-85 years (X = 49) and hospitalized for cancer treatment. Participants viewed photographs via computers and then completed a five-instrument electronic survey. Fatigue, quality of life, performance status, perceptions of distraction and restoration, and content categories of photographs. Ninety-six percent of participants enjoyed looking at the study photographs. The photographs they preferred most often were lake sunset (76%), rocky river (66%), and autumn waterfall (66%). The most rejected photographs were amusement park (54%), farmer's market vegetable table (51%), and kayakers (49%). The qualitative categories selected were landscape (28%), animals (15%), people (14%), entertainment (10%), imagery (10%), water (7%), spiritual (7%), flowers (6%), and landmark (3%). Some discrepancy between the quantitative and qualitative sections may be related to participants considering water to be a landscape. The hypothesis that patients' preferences for a category of photographic art are affected by the psychophysical and psychological qualities of the photographs, as well as the patients' moods and characteristics, was supported. Nurses can play an active role in helping patients deal with the challenges of long hospital stays and life-threatening diagnoses through distraction and restoration interventions such as viewing photographic images of nature. Nurses can use photographic imagery to provide a restorative intervention during the hospital experience. Photographic art can be used as a distraction from the hospital stay and the uncertainty of a cancer diagnosis. Having patients view
Sposito, Amanda Mota Pacciulio; Silva-Rodrigues, Fernanda Machado; Sparapani, Valéria de Cássia; Pfeifer, Luzia Iara; de Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira
To analyze coping strategies used by children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy during hospitalization. This was an exploratory study to analyze qualitative data using an inductive thematic analysis. Semistructured interviews using puppets were conducted with 10 children with cancer, between 7 and 12 years old, who were hospitalized and undergoing chemotherapy. The coping strategies to deal with chemotherapy were: understanding the need for chemotherapy; finding relief for the chemotherapy's side effects and pain; seeking pleasure in nourishment; engaging in entertaining activities and having fun; keeping the hope of cure alive; and finding support in religion. Children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy need to cope with hospitalizations, pain, medication side effects, idle time, and uncertainty regarding the success of treatment. These challenges motivated children to develop their own coping strategies, which were effective while undergoing chemotherapy. By gaining knowledge and further understanding about valid coping strategies during chemotherapy treatment, health professionals can mobilize personal and material resources from the children, health teams, and institutions aiming to potentiate the use of these strategies to make treatments the least traumatic. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Zhang, Wen-Li; Wang, Yan; Han, Cun-Zhi
To observe and analyze the characteristic trend of cancer patients hospitalized for the first time in Shanxi Tumor Hospital from 2001 to 2010, clinical data including case number, age, gender, and frequency of different tumor occurrences were collected and statistically analyzed. (i) From 2001 to 2010, the number of cancer patients hospitalized for the first time increased by 1.3-fold; (ii) The patient overall average age also increased from 51.8 to 54.4, for males from 55.5 to 58.7 and females from 48.4 to 51.1, respectively. (iii) Male patients accounted for 43-48% and females accounted for 52-57% of the total. The percentage of female patients was higher than that of male patients in every year and showed an upward trend over the years, while that of the males showed a downward trend (χ2 =7.031, p=0.008); (iv) Among the top 6 most common cancers, lung, cervical, esophageal, colorectal and breast cancers tended to increase over the years (p<0.05), but not gastric cancer (p=0.423). (i) The number of cancer patients hospitalized for the first time during the past 10 years increased year by year, and was higher for female than male; (ii) the average age of patients increased year after year and was greater for male than female; (iii) the number of patients with lung cancer, cervical cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer and breast cancer increased over years.
Hoshino, Nobuaki; Hasegawa, Suguru; Hida, Koya; Kawada, Kenji; Okamura, Ryosuke; Hamada, Madoka; Munemoto, Yoshinori; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Watanabe, Masahiko
Hospital factors along with various patient and surgeon factors are considered to affect the prognosis of colorectal cancer. Hospital volume is well known, but little is known regarding other hospital factors. We reviewed data on 853 patients with stage IV colorectal cancer who underwent elective palliative primary tumor resection between January 2006 and December 2007. To detect the hospital factors that could influence the prognosis of incurable colorectal cancer, the relationships between patient/hospital factors and overall survival were analyzed. Among hospital factors, hospital type (Group A: university hospital or cancer center; Group B: community hospital), hospital volume, and number of colorectal surgeons were examined. In univariate analysis, Group A hospitals showed significantly better prognosis than Group B hospitals (p = 0.034), while hospital volume and number of colorectal surgeons were not associated with overall survival. After adjustment for patient factors in multivariate analysis, hospital type was significantly associated with overall survival (hazard ratio: 1.31; 95 % confidence interval: 1.05-1.63; p = 0.016). However, there was no significant difference in short-term outcomes between hospital types. Hospital type was identified as a hospital factor that possibly affects the prognosis of stage IV colorectal cancer patients.
Debey, C; Meert, A-P; Berghmans, T; Thomas, J M; Sculier, J P
Febrile neutropenia is an important cause of fever in the cancer patient. When he/she is undergoing chemotherapy, the priority is to exclude that complication because it requires rapid administration of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics. We have studied the rate and characteristics of febrile neutropenia in cancer patients consulting in a emergency department. We have conducted a retrospective study in the emergency department of a cancer hospital over the year 2008. Every patient with cancer and fever > or = 38 degrees C was included. Over 2.130 consultations, 408 were selected (313 patients) including 21.6% (88) for febrile neutropenia. A focal symptom or physical sign was present in the majority of the cases. 88% were assessed as low risk for severe complications and about half of them received oral antibiotics. There were only a few patients with a nude fever for which it was difficult to make a hypothetical diagnosis in order to administer a probabilistic treatment. The majority of the consultations lead to hospital admission. Over the 80 hospitalisations, 6 deaths occurred. There was no death among the patients who remained ambulatory. In conclusion, our study shows that febrile neutropenia is frequent in ambulatory cancer patients presenting with fever and that in the majority of the cases, it is associated with a low risk. In such a situation, ambulatory management is more and more often considered or, at least, a rapid discharge after a short admission in case of low risk febrile neutropenia. In that context, the role of the general practioner has to be emphasised and to facilitate the outpatient management, we propose an algorithm that requires validation.
Corral, Julieta; Borràs, Josep Maria; Chiarello, Pietro; García-Alzorriz, Enric; Macià, Francesc; Reig, Anna; Mateu de Antonio, Javier; Castells, Xavier; Cots, Francesc
To assess the hospital cost associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment by stage at diagnosis, type of cost and disease phase in a public hospital. A retrospective analysis was conducted of the hospital costs associated with a cohort of 699 patients diagnosed with CRC and treated for this disease between 2000 and 2006 in a teaching hospital and who had a 5-year follow-up from the time of diagnosis. Data were collected from clinical-administrative databases. Mean costs per patient were analysed by stage at diagnosis, cost type and disease phase. The mean cost per patient ranged from 6,573 Euros for patients with a diagnosis of CRC in situ to 36,894 € in those diagnosed in stage III. The main cost components were surgery-inpatient care (59.2%) and chemotherapy (19.4%). Advanced disease stages were associated with a decrease in the relative weight of surgical and inpatient care costs and an increase in chemotherapy costs. This study provides the costs of CRC treatment based on clinical practice, with chemotherapy and surgery accounting for the major cost components. This cost analysis is a baseline study that will provide a useful source of information for future studies on cost-effectiveness and on the budget impact of different therapeutic innovations in Spain. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Dedey, Florence; Wu, Lily; Ayettey, Hannah; Sanuade, Olutobi A.; Akingbola, Titilola S.; Hewlett, Sandra A.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Cole, Helen V.; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Adanu, Richard
Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in Ghana. Data are limited on the predictors of poor outcomes in breast cancer patients in low-income countries; however, prolonged waiting time has been implicated. Among breast cancer patients who received treatment at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, this study…
Zaidi, Adnan A; Ansari, Tayyaba Z; Khan, Aziz
The emotional burden associated with the diagnosis of cancer is sometimes overshadowed by financial burden sustained by patient and the family. This is especially relevant for a developing country as there is limited state support for cancer treatment. We conducted this study to estimate the cost of cancer care for two major types of cancer and to assess the perception of patients and families regarding the burden of the cost for undergoing cancer treatment at a private tertiary care hospital. This cross-sectional study was conducted at day care and radiotherapy unit of Aga Khan University, Hospital (AKUH) Karachi, Pakistan. All adult patients with breast and head & neck cancers diagnosed for 3 months or more were included. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and analysed using SPSS. Sixty seven patients were interviewed during the study period. The mean and median monthly income of these patients was 996.4 USD and 562.5 USD respectively. Comparatively the mean and median monthly cost of cancer care was 1093.13 USD and 946.42 USD respectively. The cost of the treatment either fully or partially was borne by the family in most cases (94%). The financial burden of cancer was perceived as significant by 28 (42%) patients and unmanageable by 18 (27%) patients. This perceived level of burden was associated significantly with average monthly income (p = <0.001). Our study indicates that the financial burden of cancer care is substantial and can be overwhelming. There is a desperate need for treatment support programs either by the government or other welfare organisations to support individuals and families who are already facing a difficult and challenging situation.
Casazza, Franco; Becattini, Cecilia; Rulli, Eliana; Pacchetti, Ilaria; Floriani, Irene; Biancardi, Marco; Scardovi, Angela Beatrice; Enea, Iolanda; Bongarzoni, Amedeo; Pignataro, Luigi; Agnelli, Giancarlo
Cancer is one of the most common risk factors for acute pulmonary embolism (PE), but only few studies report on the short-term outcome of patients with PE and a history of cancer. The aim of the study was to assess whether a cancer diagnosis affects the clinical presentation and short-term outcome in patients hospitalized for PE who were included in the Italian Pulmonary Embolism Registry. All-cause and PE-related in-hospital deaths were also analyzed. Out of 1702 patients, 451 (26.5 %) of patients had a diagnosis of cancer: cancer was known at presentation in 365, or diagnosed during the hospital stay for PE in 86 (19 % of cancer patients). Patients with and without cancer were similar concerning clinical status at presentation. Patients with cancer less commonly received thrombolytic therapy, and more often had an inferior vena cava filter inserted. Major or intracranial bleeding was not different between groups. In-hospital all-cause death occurred in 8.4 and 5.9 % of patients with and without cancer, respectively. At multivariate analysis, cancer (OR 2.24, 95 % CI 1.27-3.98; P = 0.006) was an independent predictor of in-hospital death. Clinical instability, PE recurrence, age ≥75 years, recent bed rest ≥3 days, but not cancer, were independent predictors of in-hospital death due to PE. Cancer seems a weaker predictor of all-cause in-hospital death compared to other factors; the mere presence of cancer, without other risk factors, leads to a probability of early death of 2 %. In patients with acute PE, cancer increases the probability of in-hospital all-cause death, but does not seem to affect the clinical presentation or the risk of in-hospital PE-related death.
Sateren, Warren B; Trimble, Edward L; Abrams, Jeffrey; Brawley, Otis; Breen, Nancy; Ford, Leslie; McCabe, Mary; Kaplan, Richard; Smith, Malcolm; Ungerleider, Richard; Christian, Michaele C
We chose to examine the impact of socioeconomic factors on accrual to National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored cancer treatment trials. We estimated the geographic and demographic cancer burden in the United States and then identified 24,332 patients accrued to NCI-sponsored cancer treatment trials during a 12-month period. Next, we examined accrual by age, sex, geographic residence, health insurance status, health maintenance organization market penetration, several proxy measures of socioeconomic status, the availability of an oncologist, and the presence of a hospital with an approved multidisciplinary cancer program. Pediatric patients were accrued to clinical trials at high levels, whereas after adolescence, only a small percentage of cancer patients were enrolled onto clinical trials. There were few differences by sex. Black males as well as Asian-American and Hispanic adults were accrued to clinical trials at lower rates than white cancer patients of the same age. Overall, the highest observed accrual was in suburban counties. Compared with the United States population, patients enrolled onto clinical trials were significantly less likely to be uninsured and more like to have Medicare health insurance. Geographic areas with higher socioeconomic levels had higher levels of clinical trial accruals. The number of oncologists and the presence of approved cancer programs both were significantly associated with increased accrual to clinical trials. We must work to increase the number of adults who enroll onto trials, especially among the elderly. Ongoing partnership with professional societies may be an effective approach to strengthen accrual to clinical trials.
Oyarte, Marcela; Delgado, Iris; Pedrero, Víctor; Agar, Lorenzo; Cabieses, Báltica
To compare cancer hospital morbidity among the local population and the immigrant population in Chile. This is a prevalence study based on the analysis of hospital discharges of all the health centers of Chile. Cancer hospital discharges were characterized in 2012 according to the migratory status. The crude and specific rates of hospital morbidity for this cause were estimated for the analysis of their association with migratory status using zero-inflated negative binomial regression, adjusted for sociodemographic variables. The neoplasms were the third cause of hospital discharges for immigrants and the seventh one for Chileans. The adjusted rate of cancer hospital discharges was higher for Chileans than immigrants, and the latter had fewer days of hospitalization and greater proportion of surgical interventions. In the group of immigrants, cancer hospital discharges mainly corresponded to patients belonging to the private system (46%), and in the group of Chileans they mainly corresponded to patients in the public system (71.1%). We observed a large difference in the proportion of cancer hospital discharges for patients with no health insurance between the two populations (22.6%: immigrants, 1.0%: Chileans). In both populations, the three most frequent types of cancer were: (i) lymphoid tissue, hematopoietic organs, and related tissues, (ii) digestive organs, and (iii) breast cancer. Models of differentiated care should be considered for immigrants, with the creation of specific programs of information, coverage, and protection against cancer. More information on this problem must be generated at the local and international level.
Higashi, Takahiro; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Shibata, Akiko; Emori, Yoshiko; Nishimoto, Hiroshi
Monitoring the current status of cancer care is essential for effective cancer control and high-quality cancer care. To address the information needs of patients and physicians in Japan, hospital-based cancer registries are operated in 397 hospitals designated as cancer care hospitals by the national government. These hospitals collect information on all cancer cases encountered in each hospital according to precisely defined coding rules. The Center for Cancer Control and Information Services at the National Cancer Center supports the management of the hospital-based cancer registry by providing training for tumor registrars and by developing and maintaining the standard software and continuing communication, which includes mailing lists, a customizable web site and site visits. Data from the cancer care hospitals are submitted annually to the Center, compiled, and distributed as the National Cancer Statistics Report. The report reveals the national profiles of patient characteristics, route to discovery, stage distribution, and first-course treatments of the five major cancers in Japan. A system designed to follow up on patient survival will soon be established. Findings from the analyses will reveal characteristics of designated cancer care hospitals nationwide and will show how characteristics of patients with cancer in Japan differ from those of patients with cancer in other countries. The database will provide an infrastructure for future clinical and health services research and will support quality measurement and improvement of cancer care. Researchers and policy-makers in Japan are encouraged to take advantage of this powerful tool to enhance cancer control and their clinical practice.
Mao, Guangming; Ding, Gangqiang; Lou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Ronghua; Zheng, Pai; Mo, Zhe; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Wenming; Zhou, Jinshui; Gu, Fang
Universal salt iodization (USI) was introduced in China in 1995, but whether the iodine status is optimal is questionable. This study was conducted to assess the iodine nutrition among Zhejiang population in coastal regions in China. A cross-sectional survey for iodine nutritional status was conducted with general population (n=10,350), including pregnant and lactating women (n=450 each) selected by stratified multistage sampling. Iodine content in drinking water, table salt and urine, were determined using arsenic-cerium catalytic spectrophotometry, the direct titration and the arsenic-cerium catalytic spectrophotometry, respectively, and daily iodine intake was estimated by 3 days of 24-hour recall method. The median iodine content in drinking water was 2.46 μg/L, Zhejiang belonged to the region of iodine deficiency in outer environment according to China standard. The median iodine content in table salt was 27.9 mg/kg, conforming to the standard requirements; the household coverage rate of qualified iodized salt reached 76.8%, which does not reach the standard requirement of WHO >90%. The dietary iodine intake of a reference individual averaged 379 μg/d, which indicated that the current iodine intake in diet was appropriate. In addition, the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 162 μg/L in general population, and 130 μg/L in pregnant women, which didn't reach the standard requirements. The current dietary iodine intake in Zhejiang was generally sufficient and safe, but there is a risk of iodine deficiency among pregnant women and the population who do not consume iodized salt.
Cultivating university students' entrepreneurial skills has become a worldwide common interest. Taking Zhejiang Province, China as a case, this paper firstly analyses the push and the pull forces of cultivating innovative and entrepreneurial talents. Then the contents of Zhejiang's entrepreneurship policy for university students are systematically…
Tan, Teck Wei; Chia, Sing Joo; Chong, Kian Tai
To present our experience of managing penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in a tertiary hospital in Singapore and to evaluate the prognostic value of the inflammatory markers neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR). We reviewed our prospectively maintained Institutional Review Board-approved urological cancer database to identify men treated for penile SCC at our centre between January 2007 and December 2015. For all the patients identified, we collected epidemiological and clinical data. In all, 39 patients were identified who were treated for penile SCC in our centre. The median [interquartile range (IQR)] follow-up was 34 (16.5-66) months. Although very few (23%) of our patients with high-risk clinical node-negative underwent prophylactic inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND), they still had excellent 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS; 90%) and cancer-specific survival (CSS; 90%). At multivariate analysis, higher N stage was significantly associated with worse RFS and CSS. Patients with a high NLR (≥2.8) had significantly higher T-stage ( P = 0.006) and worse CSS ( P < 0.001) than those with a low NLR. Patients with a low LMR (<3.3) had significantly higher T-stage ( P = 0.013) and worse RFS ( P = 0.009) and CSS ( P < 0.022) than those with a high LMR. Although very few of our patients with intermediate- and high-risk clinical node-negative SCC underwent prophylactic ILND, they still had excellent 5-year RFS and CSS. However, survival was poor in patients with node-positive disease. The pre-treatment NLR and LMR could serve as biomarkers to predict the prognosis of patients with penile cancer.
Chen, Hualiang; Yao, Linong; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Qiaoyi; Yu, Kegen; Ruan, Wei
To summarize the changing epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, we collected data on malaria from the Chinese Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and analyzed them. A total of 2,738 malaria cases were identified in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2014, of which 2,018 were male and 720 were female. Notably, only 7% of malaria cases were indigenous and the other cases were all imported. The number of malaria cases increased from 2005 to 2007, peaked in 2007, and then decreased from 2007 to 2011. There were no indigenous cases from 2012 to 2014. Of all cases, 68% of cases contracted Plasmodium vivax, 27% of cases contracted P. falciparum, and two cases contracted P. malariae. About 88% of malaria cases during 2005–2011 occurred yearly between May and October, but the number of malaria cases in different months during 2012–2014 was similar. The median age was 33 years, and 1,892 cases occurred in persons aged 20–50 years. The proportion of businessmen increased and the proportion of migrant laborers decreased in recent years. The median time from illness onset to confirmation of malaria cases was 5 days and it decreased from 2005 to 2014. Some epidemiological characteristics of malaria have changed, and businessmen are the emphases to surveillance in every month. PMID:26078321
Jin, Zhi-Feng; Ye, Jian-Gang; Yang, Zai-Qiang; Sun, Rui; Hu, Bo; Li, Ren-Zhong
It is important to quantitatively assess the climate suitability of tea and its response to climate change. Based on meteorological indices of tea growth and daily meteorological data from 1971 to 2010 in Zhejiang Province, three climate suitability models for single climate factors, including temperature, precipitation and sunshine, were established at a 10-day scale by using the fuzzy mathematics method, and a comprehensive climate suitability model was established with the geometric average method. The results indicated that the climate suitability was high in the tea growth season in Zhejiang Province, and the three kinds of climate suitability were all higher than 0.6. As for the single factor climate suitability, temperature suitability was the highest and sunshine suitability was the lowest. There were obvious inter-annual variations of tea climate suitability, with a decline trend in the 1970s, less variation in the 1980s, and an obvious incline trend after the 1990s. The change tendency of climate suitability for spring tea was similar with that of annual climate suitability, lower in the 1980s, higher in the 1970s and after the 1990s. However, the variation amplitude of the climate suitability for spring tea was larger. The climate suitability for summer tea and autumn tea showed a decline trend from 1971 to 2010.
Kirsch, Logan J; Patterson, Angela; Lipscomb, Joseph
In Georgia, there are more than 356,000 cancer survivors. Although many encounter challenges as a result of treatment, there is limited data on the availability of survivorship programming. This paper highlights findings from two surveys assessing survivorship care in Commission on Cancer (CoC)-accredited hospitals in Georgia. In 2010, 38 CoC-accredited hospitals were approached to complete a 36-item survey exploring knowledge of national standards and use of survivorship care plans (SCPs), treatment summaries (TSs), and psychosocial assessment tools. In 2012, 37 CoC-accredited hospitals were asked to complete a similar 21-item survey. Seventy-nine percent (n = 30) of cancer centers completed the 2010 survey. Sixty percent (n = 18) reported having a cancer survivorship program in place or in development. Forty-three percent (n = 13) provided survivors with a SCP and 40% (n = 12) a TS. Sixty percent (n = 18) reported either never or rarely using a psychosocial assessment tool. Sixty-two percent (n = 23) completed the 2012 survey. Ninety-six percent (n = 22) were aware of the new CoC guideline 3.3. Thirty-nine percent (n = 9) provided a SCP and/or TS. Eighty-seven percent (n = 20) stated they were very confident or somewhat confident their organization could implement a SCP and/or TS by 2015. The data indicated the importance of collaboration and shared responsibility for survivorship care. Broad implementation of SCPs and TSs can help address the late and long-term effects of treatment. Increasing knowledge on survivorship care is imperative as the Georgia oncology community engages oncologists and primary care providers to achieve higher quality of life for all survivors.
Daniel, Divya; Waddell, Aubrey
Nausea and vomiting are common adverse events exhibited by patients receiving chemotherapy. Prophylactic use of anti-emetic agents has been shown to reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Compliance with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network anti-emesis guidelines (Version 1.2013) by practitioners in a community out-patient hospital (Blount Memorial Hospital) has been reviewed and the results are presented herein. Retrospective study of patients receiving their first cycle of chemotherapy. A total of 487 patients were reviewed from January 2005 to July 2012. In total, 70 patients were categorized in the high-risk category, 292 patients were categorized in the moderate-risk category, 60 patients were categorized in the low-risk category, and 65 patients were categorized in the minimal-risk category as per the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Included patients were being administered the first cycle of their first treatment at Blount Memorial Hospital. Data were collected retrospectively from patient chemotherapy dispensing folders. In all, 63% of the patients received appropriate anti-emetic prophylaxis medications as per the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Post-comparison between outcomes based on the risk category showed that patients in the moderate-risk category were most likely (91%) and patients in the low-risk category were least likely (6.67%) to receive appropriate anti-emetic prophylaxis as per the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Overall compliance with guidelines is acceptable. Patients in the moderate risk category are most likely to receive appropriate anti-emetic prophylaxis. © The Author(s) 2014.
Shiki, Naomi; Ohno, Yuko; Fujii, Ayumi; Murata, Taizo; Matsumura, Yasushi
Hospital-based cancer registry involves complex processing steps that span across multiple departments. In addition, management techniques and registration procedures differ depending on each medical facility. Establishing processes for hospital-based cancer registry requires clarifying specific functions and labor needed. In recent years, the business modeling technique, in which management evaluation is done by clearly spelling out processes and functions, has been applied to business process analysis. However, there are few analytical reports describing the applications of these concepts to medical-related work. In this study, we initially sought to model hospital-based cancer registration processes using the Unified Modeling Language (UML), to clarify functions. The object of this study was the cancer registry of Osaka University Hospital. We organized the hospital-based cancer registration processes based on interview and observational surveys, and produced an As-Is model using activity, use-case, and class diagrams. After drafting every UML model, it was fed-back to practitioners to check its validity and improved. We were able to define the workflow for each department using activity diagrams. In addition, by using use-case diagrams we were able to classify each department within the hospital as a system, and thereby specify the core processes and staff that were responsible for each department. The class diagrams were effective in systematically organizing the information to be used for hospital-based cancer registries. Using UML modeling, hospital-based cancer registration processes were broadly classified into three separate processes, namely, registration tasks, quality control, and filing data. An additional 14 functions were also extracted. Many tasks take place within the hospital-based cancer registry office, but the process of providing information spans across multiple departments. Moreover, additional tasks were required in comparison to using a
Prolla, Carmen Maria Dornelles; da Silva, Patrícia Santos; Netto, Cristina Brinckmann Oliveira; Goldim, José Roberto; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia
OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge of nurses involved in the care of oncology patients in a public university hospital, regarding breast cancer and hereditary breast cancer, and to verify the use of such knowledge in their daily practice. METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Data were obtained through a structured, self-administered questionnaire. Out of 154 nurses, 137 (88.9%) agreed to participate in the study. Two questionnaires were excluded such that 135 questionnaires were analyzed. RESULTS: The global percentage of correct answers was not associated with age (p=0.173) or degree/specialization (p=0.815). Questions were classified into categories. In categories involving knowledge of established breast cancer risk factors and indicators of hereditary breast cancer, the rate of correct answers was 65.8% and 66.4%, respectively. On the practice of genetic counseling, 40.7% of those interviewed were not sure about the definition of genetic counseling and 78.5% reported never having identified or referred a patient at genetic risk for specialized risk assessment. Practice of educational actions regarding this subject was reported by 48.5% of those interviewed. CONCLUSION: This study reinforces the need to develop qualifying actions for nurses, so that strategies to control breast cancer become effective in their health care practice. PMID:25806636
Hendren, Samantha; McKeown, Ellen; Morris, Arden M; Wong, Sandra L; Oerline, Mary; Poe, Lyndia; Campbell, Darrell A; Birkmeyer, Nancy J
Quality improvement programs in Europe have had a markedly beneficial effect on the processes and outcomes of rectal cancer care. The quality of rectal cancer care in the United States is not as well understood, and scalable quality improvement programs have not been developed. The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation of a hospital-based quality assessment program for rectal cancer, targeting both community and academic hospitals. We recruited 10 hospitals from a surgical quality improvement organization. Nurse reviewers were trained to abstract rectal cancer data from hospital medical records, and abstracts were assessed for accuracy. We conducted two surveys to assess the training program and limitations of the data abstraction. We validated data completeness and accuracy by comparing hospital medical record and tumor registry data. Nine of 10 hospitals successfully performed abstractions with ≥ 90% accuracy. Experienced nurse reviewers were challenged by the technical details in operative and pathology reports. Although most variables had less than 10% missing data, outpatient testing information was lacking from some hospitals' inpatient records. This implementation project yielded a final quality assessment program consisting of 20 medical records variables and 11 tumor registry variables. An innovative program linking tumor registry data to quality-improvement data for rectal cancer quality assessment was successfully implemented in 10 hospitals. This data platform and training program can serve as a template for other organizations that are interested in assessing and improving the quality of rectal cancer care. Copyright © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Perlow, Haley K; Ramey, Stephen J; Silver, Ben; Kwon, Deukwoo; Chinea, Felix M; Samuels, Stuart E; Samuels, Michael A; Elsayyad, Nagy; Yechieli, Raphael
Objective To examine the impact of treatment setting and demographic factors on oropharyngeal and laryngeal cancer time to treatment initiation (TTI). Study Design Retrospective case series. Setting Safety net hospital and adjacent private academic hospital. Subjects and Methods Demographic, staging, and treatment details were retrospectively collected for 239 patients treated from January 1, 2014, to June 30, 2016. TTI was defined as days between diagnostic biopsy and initiation of curative treatment (defined as first day of radiotherapy [RT], surgery, or chemotherapy). Results On multivariable analysis, safety net hospital treatment (vs private academic hospital treatment), initial diagnosis at outside hospital, and oropharyngeal cancer (vs laryngeal cancer) were all associated with increased TTI. Surgical treatment, severe comorbidity, and both N1 and N2 status were associated with decreased TTI. Conclusion Safety net hospital treatment was associated with increased TTI. No differences in TTI were found when language spoken and socioeconomic status were examined in the overall cohort.
Gu, Hua; Jiang, Zhenggang; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jueman Mandy; Wang, Zhengting; Wang, Xinyi; Cai, Jian; Chen, Yongdi; Zheng, Dawei; Jiang, Jianmin
Understanding people's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding a new infectious disease is crucial to the prevention and control of it. Human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) was first identified on March 31, 2013 in China. Out of the total number of 134 cases confirmed from March to September 2013 in China, Zhejiang Province saw the greatest number (46 cases). This study employed a mobile Internet survey to assess KAP regarding H7N9 among mobile phone users in Zhejiang Province. This study intended to examine KAP by region and the association between sociodemographic variables and KAP. An anonymous questionnaire was designed by Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). A cross-sectional survey was executed through a mobile Internet application platform of China Unicom in 5 regions in Zhejiang Province. Stratified and clustered sampling methods were applied and mobile phone users were invited to participate in the study voluntarily. A total of 9582 eligible mobile phone users participated in the survey with a response rate of 1.92% (9582/5,000,000). A total of 9105 valid responses (95.02%) were included for statistical analysis. Generally, more than three-quarters of the participants had some basic knowledge of H7N9 and held the attitude recommended by the Zhejiang CDC toward eating cooked poultry (77.55%, 7061/9105) and visiting a hospital at the occurrence of symptoms (78.51%, 7148/9105). Approximately half of the participants worried about contracting H7N9, and took preventive practices recommended by the Zhejiang CDC. But only 14.29% (1301/9105) of participants kept eating cooked poultry as usual. Although worry about H7N9 infection did not differ by region, Hangzhou saw the largest proportion of participants with knowledge of H7N9, which was probably because Hangzhou had the greatest number of H7N9 cases. KAP varied by some sociodemographic variables. Female participants were more likely to know about symptoms of H
Hung, Yen-Ni; Liu, Tsang-Wu; Tang, Siew Tzuh
Factors influencing pediatric cancer patients' place of death may have evolved with advances in medical and hospice care since earlier studies were done. To comprehensively analyze factors associated with hospital death in an unbiased population of pediatric cancer patients in Taiwan. This was a retrospective cohort study using administrative data for 1603 Taiwanese pediatric cancer patients who died in 2001-2010. Place of death was hypothesized to be associated with 1) patient sociodemographics and disease characteristics, 2) primary physician's specialty, 3) characteristics and health care resources at both the hospital and regional levels, and 4) historical trends. Most Taiwanese pediatric cancer patients (87.4%) died in an acute care hospital. The probability of dying in hospital increased slightly over time, reaching significance only in 2009 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 95% CI: 2.84 [1.32-6.11]). Children were more likely to die in an acute care hospital if they resided in the most urbanized area, were diagnosed with leukemia or lymphoma (2.32 [1.39-3.87]), and received care from a pediatrician (1.58 [1.01-2.47]) in a nonprofit proprietary hospital (1.50 [1.01-2.24]) or large hospital, reaching significance for the third quartile (2.57 [1.28-5.18]) of acute care hospital beds. Taiwanese pediatric cancer patients predominantly died in an acute care hospital with a slightly increasing trend of shifting place of death from home to hospital. Propensity for hospital death was determined by residential urbanization level, diagnosis, primary physician's specialty, and the primary hospital's characteristics and health care resources. Clinical interventions and health policies should ensure that resources are allocated to allow pediatric cancer patients to die in the place they and their parents prefer to achieve a good death and promote their parents' bereavement adjustment. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier
Dinegde, Negalign Getahun; Xuying, Li
Objective: Breast cancer is a worldwide public health issue and most common cancer diagnosed among women including China, where advanced stages at diagnosis appears to be increasing and an ever-rising incidence twice as fast as global rates. The study was conducted to describe the awareness of breast cancer and associated factors among care giver women in tertiary Cancer Hospital, China. Methods: Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted among 261 women selected by systematic random sampling. Information provided by the participants was converted into awareness scores for analysis using SPSS version 23. Awareness scores were dichotomized in to ‘good awareness and ‘poor awareness’ taking median score=11 as the cut-off point. Data analysis was performed using the binary logistic regression. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: The study showed that 46.7% of the respondents had good awareness. Breast lump was the most commonly known symptom of cancer by 61.7% of the respondents. Slightly more than half of the study participants acknowledged having a past history of breast cancer, drinking alcohol and having close relative with breast cancer as potential risk factors for breast cancer (63.6%, 58.6%, and 55.6% respectively). Nevertheless, a vast majority of the study participants were unable to appreciate modifiable risk factors of the disease. More than half of the participants had never/rarely checked their breasts and all of the participants wrongly answered breast cancer knowledge age related risk. Awareness level was significantly associated with entertainment preference (OR=3.57; 95%CI=1.71, 7.44) and residence setting areas (OR=2.4; 95%CI=1.04, 5.69). Conclusion: The study indicated suboptimal awareness while entertainment preference and residence setting were significantly associated with awareness level. Public awareness campaigns should be made by dissemination of information about breast cancer through
Xu, Yue; Wu, QingQing; Xu, ShuiYang; Xu, JinHang; Wan, Xia; Guo, YuJie
The objective of this study was to assess environmental secondhand smoke exposure and tobacco control policy at 5 venues. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 134 settings and 2727 adults in Zhejiang, China. The results show that the proportions of venues that had complete smoking ban were as follows: health administrative organizations (71.9%), hospitals (70.0%), schools (66.7%), public transportation vehicles (24.0%), and government agencies (11.8%). The proportions of venues where smoking was noticed were as follows: public transportation vehicles (88.0%), government agencies (47.1%), hospitals (46.7%), health administrative organizations (40.6%), and schools (30.0%). Venues with completely indoor smoking ban were 5 times more likely to be smoke-free at the time of survey than other venues without smoking ban (odds ratio = 5.39, 95% confidence interval = 1.92-15.14). It indicated that implementation of indoor smoking ban can reduce indoor secondhand smoke exposure. © 2013 APJPH.
Tanneberger, S; Pannuti, F; Mirri, R; Panetta, A; Mariano, P; Giordani, S; Strocchni, E; Farabegoli, G
15,290 patients have been treated in the Bologna home hospital (BHH) until June 30, 1996. The average daily costs in BHH were estimated as 118789 Liras (ranging from 108 569-129027 Lire depending on the nursing category). Care intensity and patient's quality of life in the BHH are high. 98% of patients were content with the setting in which they were nursed. A questionnaire on the degree of satisfaction with the care was completed by 134 BHH patients and 102 patients of Division Oncologia Medica. Azienda Ospedaliera Sant, Orsola Malpighi, Bologna. Satisfaction with respect to sleeping, meals and family communications was expressed more often by BHH patients. Less patients of the BHH evaluated "quality of life" reduced or bad (51% vs. 67%) or requested a transfer to the alternative setting (03% vs. 47%). Advocating step by step introduction of home care, quality of life aspects have priority. Certainly, home care deserves greatest attention providing care during the life with cancer. However the final decision about the settings of nursing has to be made by the patients themselves in accordance with his understanding of quality of life.
Strother, R M; Fitch, Margaret; Kamau, Peter; Beattie, Kathy; Boudreau, Angela; Busakhalla, N; Loehrer, P J
Cancer is a rising cause of morbidity and mortality in resource-constrained settings. Few places in the developing world have cancer care experts and infrastructure for caring for cancer patients; therefore, it is imperative to develop this infrastructure and expertise. A critical component of cancer care, rarely addressed in the published literature, is cancer nursing. This report describes an effort to develop cancer nursing subspecialty knowledge and skills in support of a growing resource-constrained comprehensive cancer care program in Western Kenya. This report highlights the context of cancer care delivery in a resource-constrained setting, and describes one targeted intervention to further develop the skill set and knowledge of cancer care providers, as part of collaboration between developed world academic institutions and a medical school and governmental hospital in Western Kenya. Based on observations of current practice, practice setting, and resource limitations, a pragmatic curriculum for cancer care nursing was developed and implemented.
Oyarte, Marcela; Delgado, Iris; Pedrero, Víctor; Agar, Lorenzo; Cabieses, Báltica
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To compare cancer hospital morbidity among the local population and the immigrant population in Chile. METHODS This is a prevalence study based on the analysis of hospital discharges of all the health centers of Chile. Cancer hospital discharges were characterized in 2012 according to the migratory status. The crude and specific rates of hospital morbidity for this cause were estimated for the analysis of their association with migratory status using zero-inflated negative binomial regression, adjusted for sociodemographic variables. RESULTS The neoplasms were the third cause of hospital discharges for immigrants and the seventh one for Chileans. The adjusted rate of cancer hospital discharges was higher for Chileans than immigrants, and the latter had fewer days of hospitalization and greater proportion of surgical interventions. In the group of immigrants, cancer hospital discharges mainly corresponded to patients belonging to the private system (46%), and in the group of Chileans they mainly corresponded to patients in the public system (71.1%). We observed a large difference in the proportion of cancer hospital discharges for patients with no health insurance between the two populations (22.6%: immigrants, 1.0%: Chileans). In both populations, the three most frequent types of cancer were: (i) lymphoid tissue, hematopoietic organs, and related tissues, (ii) digestive organs, and (iii) breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS Models of differentiated care should be considered for immigrants, with the creation of specific programs of information, coverage, and protection against cancer. More information on this problem must be generated at the local and international level. PMID:29641660
Abel, Gary A; Saunders, Catherine L; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios
This study aims to explore differences between crude and case mix-adjusted estimates of hospital performance with respect to the experience of cancer patients. This study analyzed the English 2011/2012 Cancer Patient Experience Survey covering all English National Health Service hospitals providing cancer treatment (n = 160). Logistic regression analysis was used to predict hospital performance for each of the 64 evaluative questions, adjusting for age, gender, ethnic group and cancer diagnosis. The degree of reclassification was explored across three categories (bottom 20%, middle 60% and top 20% of hospitals). There was high concordance between crude and adjusted ranks of hospitals (median Kendall's τ = 0.84; interquartile range: 0.82-0.88). Across all questions, a median of 5.0% (eight) of hospitals (interquartile range: 3.8-6.4%; six to ten hospitals) moved out of the extreme performance categories after case mix adjustment. In this context, patient case mix has only a small impact on measured hospital performance for cancer patient experience.
He, Han-Qing; Ling, Luo-Ya; Xu, Xu-Qing
To know the status of Immunization program in Zhejiang Province. The investigation on immunization program in zhejiang province was conducted, and the SWOT analysis was corducted to make a comprehensive evaluation. 11 cities, 22 counties and 44 towns were investigated in this study, and the current immunization program in Zhejiang province were explored by SWOT analysis. The SWOT Matrix, includes SO (strength-opportunity), ST (strength-threat), WO (weakness-opportunity) and WT (weakness-threat) can apply to make optimal strategy for the development of expanded program on immunization.
Wang, W. H.; Kuan, T. H.
Issues regarding water pollution in rural areas of China have garnered increased attention over the years. Further discussion on the circumstances and results of existing domestic sewage treatment methods may serve as an appropriate reference in solving these important issues. This article explored the current conditions of water contamination in rural areas of China, introduced the characteristics and effects of applicable sewage treatment technology, and summarized the results of the planning, installation, and operation of rural sewage treatment facilities in Yongjia County in Zhejiang Province. However, relying on a single technical design rule is not adequate for solving the practical problems that these villages face. Instead, methods of planning rural sewage treatment should be adapted to better suit local conditions and different residential forms. It is crucial, ultimately, for any domestic sewage treatment system in a rural area to be commissioned, engineered, and maintained by a market-oriented professional company.
This article presents some findings from a 1996 survey on reproductive issues among farmers in Zhejiang province in eastern China. Zhejiang province is an economically well-developed province south of Shanghai province. The total fertility rate in 1990 was 1.59 children/woman. The male/female sex ratio at birth was 117.14:100, even though in the mid-1980s the single daughter household policy was promoted. Women's economic status has improved in more developed areas of the province. Women are recruited to work in township and village enterprises and as farming laborers. Women are wives, mothers, and income earners. Daughters play an important role in supporting their aged parents. Rural China does not have any social security system. The elderly must receive help from their children or sons-in-law. 30% of women aged 30-34 years, 28% of women aged 35-39 years, 23% of women aged 40-44 years, and 20% of women aged 45-49 years did not have a son. Daughters are more reliable caretakers of their elderly parents. Traditional beliefs still prevail about the importance of children for carrying on the family name. Childless couples are not welcome. People believe that it is a societal duty to have at least 1 child. Most Chinese farmers expect to have 2 children; a son and a daughter. There is still a strong preference for sons. Reproductive needs have changed and many more farmers are willing to accept family planning and a small family norm.
Williams, Mark D; Braun, Lee Ann; Cooper, Liesl M; Johnston, Joseph; Weiss, Richard V; Qualy, Rebecca L; Linde-Zwirble, Walter
Introduction Infection is an important complication in cancer patients, which frequently leads to or prolongs hospitalization, and can also lead to acute organ dysfunction (severe sepsis) and eventually death. While cancer patients are known to be at higher risk for infection and subsequent complications, there is no national estimate of the magnitude of this problem. Our objective was to identify cancer patients with severe sepsis and to project these numbers to national levels. Methods Data for all 1999 hospitalizations from six states (Florida, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Virginia, and Washington) were merged with US Census data, Centers for Disease Control vital statistics and National Cancer Institute, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results initiative cancer prevalence data. Malignant neoplasms were identified by International Classification of Disease (ninth revision, clinical modification) (ICD-9-CM) codes (140–208), and infection and acute organ failure were identified from ICD-9-CM codes following Angus and colleagues. Cases were identified as a function of age and were projected to national levels. Results There were 606,176 cancer hospitalizations identified, with severe sepsis present in 29,795 (4.9%). Projecting national estimates for the US population, cancer patients account for 126,209 severe sepsis cases annually, or 16.4 cases per 1000 people with cancer per year. The inhospital mortality for cancer patients with severe sepsis was 37.8%. Compared with the overall population, cancer patients are much more likely to be hospitalized (relative risk, 2.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.77–2.78) and to be hospitalized with severe sepsis (relative risk, 3.96; 95% confidence interval, 3.94–3.99). Overall, severe sepsis is associated with 8.5% (46,729) of all cancer deaths at a cost of $3.4 billion per year. Conclusion Severe sepsis is a common, deadly, and costly complication in cancer patients. PMID:15469571
Williams, Mark D; Braun, Lee Ann; Cooper, Liesl M; Johnston, Joseph; Weiss, Richard V; Qualy, Rebecca L; Linde-Zwirble, Walter
Infection is an important complication in cancer patients, which frequently leads to or prolongs hospitalization, and can also lead to acute organ dysfunction (severe sepsis) and eventually death. While cancer patients are known to be at higher risk for infection and subsequent complications, there is no national estimate of the magnitude of this problem. Our objective was to identify cancer patients with severe sepsis and to project these numbers to national levels. Data for all 1999 hospitalizations from six states (Florida, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Virginia, and Washington) were merged with US Census data, Centers for Disease Control vital statistics and National Cancer Institute, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results initiative cancer prevalence data. Malignant neoplasms were identified by International Classification of Disease (ninth revision, clinical modification) (ICD-9-CM) codes (140-208), and infection and acute organ failure were identified from ICD-9-CM codes following Angus and colleagues. Cases were identified as a function of age and were projected to national levels. There were 606,176 cancer hospitalizations identified, with severe sepsis present in 29,795 (4.9%). Projecting national estimates for the US population, cancer patients account for 126,209 severe sepsis cases annually, or 16.4 cases per 1000 people with cancer per year. The inhospital mortality for cancer patients with severe sepsis was 37.8%. Compared with the overall population, cancer patients are much more likely to be hospitalized (relative risk, 2.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.77-2.78) and to be hospitalized with severe sepsis (relative risk, 3.96; 95% confidence interval, 3.94-3.99). Overall, severe sepsis is associated with 8.5% (46,729) of all cancer deaths at a cost of 3.4 billion dollars per year. Severe sepsis is a common, deadly, and costly complication in cancer patients.
Shirk, Joseph D; Tan, Hung-Jui; Hu, Jim C; Saigal, Christopher S; Litwin, Mark S
Care interactions as perceived by patients and families are increasingly viewed as both an indicator and lever for high-value care. To promote patient-centeredness and motivate quality improvement, payers have begun tying reimbursement with related measures of patient experience. Accordingly, the authors sought to determine whether such data correlate with outcomes among patients undergoing surgery for genitourinary cancer. The authors used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) data from 2009 through 2011. They identified hospital admissions for cancer-directed prostatectomy, nephrectomy, and cystectomy, and measured mortality, hospitalization length, discharge disposition, and complications. Mixed effects models were used to compare the likelihood of selected outcomes between the top and bottom tercile hospitals adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Among a sample of 46,988 encounters, the authors found small differences in patient age, race, income, comorbidity, cancer type, receipt of minimally invasive surgery, and procedure acuity according to HCAHPS tercile (P<.001). Hospital characteristics also varied with respect to ownership, teaching status, size, and location (P<.001). Compared with patients treated in low-performing hospitals, patients treated in high-performing hospitals less often faced prolonged hospitalization (odds ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.92) or nursing-sensitive complications (odds ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-0.99). No difference was found with regard to inpatient mortality, other complications, and discharge disposition (P>.05). Using Nationwide Inpatient Sample and HCAHPS data, the authors found a limited association between patient experience and surgical outcomes. For urologic cancer surgery, patient experience may be optimally viewed as an independent quality domain rather than a mechanism with which to improve surgical
Brooks, Gabriel A; Stuver, Sherri O; Zhang, Yichen; Gottsch, Stephanie; Fraile, Belen; McNiff, Kristen; Dodek, Anton; Jacobson, Joseph O
A majority of patients with poor-prognosis cancer express a preference for in-home death; however, in-hospital deaths are common. We sought to identify characteristics associated with in-hospital death. Case series. Commercially insured patients with cancer who died between July 2010 and December 2013 and who had at least two outpatient visits at a tertiary cancer center during the last six months of life. Patient characteristics, healthcare utilization, and in-hospital death (primary outcome) were ascertained from institutional records and healthcare claims. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were used to evaluate the association of in-hospital death with patient characteristics and end-of-life outcome measures. We identified 904 decedents, with a median age of 59 years at death. In-hospital death was observed in 254 patients (28%), including 110 (12%) who died in an intensive care unit. Hematologic malignancy was associated with a 2.57 times increased risk of in-hospital death (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.91-3.45, p < 0.001), and nonenrollment in hospice was associated with a 14.5 times increased risk of in-hospital death (95% CI 9.81-21.4, p < 0.001). Time from cancer diagnosis to death was also associated with in-hospital death (p = 0.003), with the greatest risk among patients dying within six months of cancer diagnosis. All significant associations persisted in multivariable analyses that were adjusted for baseline characteristics. In-hospital deaths are common among commercially insured cancer patients. Patients with hematologic malignancy and patients who die without receiving hospice services have a substantially higher incidence of in-hospital death.
Clarke, Christina A; Asch, Steven M; Baker, Laurence; Bilimoria, Karl; Dudley, R Adams; Fong, Niya; Holliday-Hanson, Merry L; Hopkins, David S P; Imholz, Elizabeth M; Malin, Jennifer; Moy, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Maryann; Parker, Joseph P; Saigal, Christopher S; Spurlock, Bruce; Teleki, Stephanie; Zingmond, David; Lang, Lance
Most patients, providers, and payers make decisions about cancer hospitals without any objective data regarding quality or outcomes. We developed two online resources allowing users to search and compare timely data regarding hospital cancer surgery volumes. Hospital cancer surgery volumes for all California hospitals were calculated using ICD-9 coded hospital discharge summary data. Cancer surgeries included (bladder, brain, breast, colon, esophagus, liver, lung, pancreas, prostate, rectum, and stomach) were selected on the basis of a rigorous literature review to confirm sufficient evidence of a positive association between volume and mortality. The literature could not identify threshold numbers of surgeries associated with better or worse outcomes. A multidisciplinary working group oversaw the project and ensured sound methodology. In California in 2014, about 60% of surgeries were performed at top-quintile-volume hospitals, but the per-hospital median numbers of surgeries for esophageal, pancreatic, stomach, liver, or bladder cancer surgeries were four or fewer. At least 670 patients received cancer surgery at hospitals that performed only one or two surgeries for a particular cancer type; 72% of those patients lived within 50 miles of a top-quintile-volume hospital. There is clear potential for more readily available information about hospital volumes to help patient, providers, and payers choose cancer surgery hospitals. Our successful public reporting of hospital volumes in California represents an important first step toward making publicly available even more provider-specific data regarding cancer care quality, costs, and outcomes, so those data can inform decision-making and encourage quality improvement.
Ahmed, Nabil; El-Mahallawy, Hadir A; Ahmed, Ibrahim A; Nassif, Shimaa; El-Beshlawy, Aamal; El-Haddad, Alaa
Hospitalization with single or multi-agent antibiotic therapy has been the standard of care for treatment of febrile neutropenia in cancer patients. We hypothesized that an empiric antibiotic regimen that is effective and that can be administered once-daily will allow for improved hospital utilization by early transition to outpatient care. Febrile pediatric cancer patients with anticipated prolonged neutropenia were randomized between a regimen of once-daily ceftriaxone plus amikacin (C + A) and imipenem monotherapy (control). Afebrile patients on C + A satisfying "Early Discharge Criteria" at 72 hr continued treatment as outpatients. We compared the outcome, adverse events, duration of hospitalization, and cost between both groups. A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 129 febrile episodes in pediatric cancer patients with prolonged neutropenia. No adverse events were seen in 32 children (84% of study arm) treated on an outpatient basis. We found a statistically significant difference between the duration of hospitalization of the C + A group [median 5 days] and control [median 9 days](P < 0.001), per episode antibiotic cost (P < 0.001) and total episode cost (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the response to treatment at 72 hr or after necessary antimicrobial modifications. We conclude that pediatric febrile cancer patients initially considered at risk for sepsis due to prolonged neutropenia can be re-evaluated at 72 hr for outpatient therapy. The convenience, low incidence of adverse effects, and cost benefit of the once-daily regimen of C + A may be particularly useful to reduce the overall treatment costs and duration of hospitalization. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Huang, Lyen C; Tran, Thuy B; Ma, Yifei; Ngo, Justine V; Rhoads, Kim F
Previous studies suggest that minorities cluster in low-quality hospitals despite living close to better performing hospitals. This may contribute to persistent disparities in cancer outcomes. The purpose of this work was to examine how travel distance, insurance status, and neighborhood socioeconomic factors influenced minority underuse of high-volume hospitals for colorectal cancer. The study was a retrospective, cross-sectional, population-based study. All hospitals in California from 1996 to 2006 were included. Patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed and treated in California between 1996 and 2006 were identified using California Cancer Registry data. Multivariable logistic regression models predicting high-volume hospital use were adjusted for age, sex, race, stage, comorbidities, insurance status, and neighborhood socioeconomic factors. A total of 79,231 patients treated in 417 hospitals were included in the study. High-volume hospitals were independently associated with an 8% decrease in the hazard of death compared with other settings. A lower proportion of minorities used high-volume hospitals despite a higher proportion living nearby. Although insurance status and socioeconomic factors were independently associated with high-volume hospital use, only socioeconomic factors attenuated differences in high-volume hospital use of black and Hispanic patients compared with white patients. The use of cross-sectional data and racial and ethnic misclassifications were limitations in this study. Minority patients do not use high-volume hospitals despite improved outcomes and geographic access. Low socioeconomic status predicts low use of high-volume settings in select minority groups. Our results provide a roadmap for developing interventions to increase the use of and access to higher quality care and outcomes. Increasing minority use of high-volume hospitals may require community outreach programs and changes in physician referral practices.
Goytia, Elliott J; Lounsbury, David W; McCabe, Mary S; Weiss, Elisa; Newcomer, Meghan; Nelson, Deena J; Brennessel, Debra; Rapkin, Bruce D; Kemeny, M Margaret
Many cancer centers and community hospitals are developing novel models of survivorship care. However, few are specifically focused on services for socio-economically disadvantaged cancer survivors. To describe a new model of survivorship care serving culturally diverse, urban adult cancer patients and to present findings from a feasibility evaluation. Adult cancer patients treated at a public city hospital cancer center. The clinic provides comprehensive medical and psychosocial services for patients within a public hospital cancer center where they receive their oncology care. Longitudinal data collected over a 3-year period were used to describe patient demographics, patient needs, and services delivered. Since inception, 410 cancer patients have been served. Demand for services has grown steadily. Hypertension was the most frequent comorbid condition treated. Pain, depression, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, and bowel dysfunction were the most common post-treatment problems experienced by the patients. Financial counseling was an important patient resource. This new clinical service has been well-integrated into its public urban hospital setting and constitutes an innovative model of health-care delivery for socio-economically challenged, culturally diverse adult cancer survivors.
A study examined how self-efficacy beliefs influenced motivation, affect, and adjustment in five students aged 9-13 with cancer, receiving educational services in a hospital setting. Education was an effective vehicle through which children with cancer could experience control and autonomy and also achieve many necessary developmental outcomes for…
Parish, Susan L.; Son, Esther; Powell, Robyn M.; Igdalsky, Leah
There is a dearth of existing research on the treatment of reproductive cancers among women with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). This study analyzed the 2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample and compared the prevalence of reproductive cancer treatment hospitalization discharges among women with…
van Putten, M; Verhoeven, R H A; van Sandick, J W; Plukker, J T M; Lemmens, V E P P; Wijnhoven, B P L; Nieuwenhuijzen, G A P
Gastric cancer surgery is increasingly being centralized in the Netherlands, whereas the diagnosis is often made in hospitals where gastric cancer surgery is not performed. The aim of this study was to assess whether hospital of diagnosis affects the probability of undergoing surgery and its impact on overall survival. All patients with potentially curable gastric cancer according to stage (cT1/1b-4a, cN0-2, cM0) diagnosed between 2005 and 2013 were selected from The Netherlands Cancer Registry. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the probability of undergoing surgery according to hospital of diagnosis. The effect of variation in probability of undergoing surgery among hospitals of diagnosis on overall survival during the intervals 2005-2009 and 2010-2013 was examined by using Cox regression analysis. A total of 5620 patients with potentially curable gastric cancer, diagnosed in 91 hospitals, were included. The proportion of patients who underwent surgery ranged from 53.1 to 83.9 per cent according to hospital of diagnosis (P < 0.001); after multivariable adjustment for patient and tumour characteristics it ranged from 57.0 to 78.2 per cent (P < 0.001). Multivariable Cox regression showed that patients diagnosed between 2010 and 2013 in hospitals with a low probability of patients undergoing curative treatment had worse overall survival (hazard ratio 1.21; P < 0.001). The large variation in probability of receiving surgery for gastric cancer between hospitals of diagnosis and its impact on overall survival indicates that gastric cancer decision-making is suboptimal. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kimata, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Narusi; Onoda, Satoshi; Sakuraba, Minoru
The risk of surgical site infection (SSI) remains high after major reconstructive surgery of the head and neck. Clinical data regarding SSI in microsurgical tongue reconstruction are described at National Cancer Hospital in Japan, including discussions of unfavorable representative cases, the relationship between SSI and preoperative irradiation at Okayama University Hospital in Japan, and strategies for SSI control in head and neck reconstruction. Local complications are inevitable in patients undergoing reconstruction in the head and neck areas. The frequency of major complications can be decreased, and late postoperative complications can be prevented with the help of appropriate methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Whitney, Robin L; Bell, Janice F; Tancredi, Daniel J; Romano, Patrick S; Bold, Richard J; Joseph, Jill G
Purpose Among individuals with advanced cancer, frequent hospitalization increasingly is viewed as a hallmark of poor-quality care. We examined hospitalization rates and individual- and hospital-level predictors of rehospitalization among individuals with advanced cancer in the year after diagnosis. Methods Individuals diagnosed with advanced breast, colorectal, non-small-cell lung, or pancreatic cancer from 2009 to 2012 (N = 25,032) were identified with data from the California Cancer Registry (CCR). After linkage with inpatient discharge data, multistate and log-linear Poisson regression models were used to calculate hospitalization rates and to model rehospitalization in the year after diagnosis, accounting for survival. Results In the year after diagnosis, 71% of individuals with advanced cancer were hospitalized, 16% had three or more hospitalizations, and 64% of hospitalizations originated in the emergency department. Rehospitalization rates were significantly associated with black non-Hispanic (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.29; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.42) and Hispanic (IRR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.20) race/ethnicity; public insurance (IRR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.47) and no insurance (IRR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.35); lower socioeconomic status quintiles (IRRs, 1.09 to 1.29); comorbidities (IRRs, 1.13 to 1.59); and pancreatic (IRR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.95 to 2.20) and non-small-cell lung (IRR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.54 to 1.86) cancers versus colorectal cancer. Rehospitalization rates were significantly lower after discharge from a hospital that had an outpatient palliative care program (IRR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.97) and were higher after discharge from a for-profit hospital (IRR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.56). Conclusion Individuals with advanced cancer experience a heavy burden of hospitalization in the year after diagnosis. Efforts to reduce hospitalization and provide care congruent with patient preferences might target individuals at higher risk. Future work might
Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Mao, Zhengzhong; Rechel, Bernd; Liu, Chaojie; Jiang, Jialin; Zhang, Yinying
Since 2003, China has experimented in some of the country's counties with the private administration of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS), a publicly subsidized health insurance scheme for rural populations. Our study compared the effectiveness and efficiency of private vs public administration in four counties in one of China's most affluent provinces in the initial stage of the NCMS's implementation. The study was undertaken in Ningbo city of Zhejiang province. Out of 10 counties in Ningbo, two counties with private administration for the NCMS (Beilun and Ninghai) were compared with two others counties with public administration (Zhenhai and Fenghua), using the following indicators: (1) proportion of enrollees who were compensated for inpatient care; (2) average reimbursement-expense ratio per episode of inpatient care; (3) overall administration cost; (4) enrollee satisfaction. Data from 2004 to 2006 were collected from the local health authorities, hospitals and the contracted insurance companies, supplemented by a randomized household questionnaire survey covering 176 households and 479 household members. In our sample counties, private administration of the NCMS neither reduced transaction costs, nor improved the benefits of enrollees. Enrollees covered by the publicly administered NCMS were more likely to be satisfied with the insurance scheme than those covered by the privately administered NCMS. Experience in the selected counties suggests that private administration of the NCMS did not deliver the hoped-for results. We conclude that caution needs to be exercised in extending private administration of the NCMS.
Fischel, Richard J; Dillman, Robert O
Lung cancer remains the number one cause of cancer-based mortality in men and women. The importance of proper lung cancer care outside of major academic centers cannot be overemphasized because the vast majority of lung cancer care occurs in community hospital settings. We have had the opportunity to develop a highly successful community hospital-based lung cancer program. Utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, we have achieved steadily improving survival rates that are much higher than those observed nationally for patients diagnosed with lung cancer. Key components of this successful program include: (1) a weekly multidisciplinary lung cancer case conference with medical doctor representatives from medical oncology, thoracic surgery, pulmonary medicine, radiology, radiation oncology, and nuclear medicine who discuss patient presentation, test results, treatment history, and plans for therapy; (2) thoracic surgeons skilled in minimally invasive video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery; (3) nurse navigator/coordinators to help patients through the process from detection to recovery and provide a personal bond that greatly improves patient satisfaction; (4) utilization of treatment guidelines for patient-specific treatment strategies; (5) formal continuing medical education; (6) an emphasis on early detection that includes consideration of computed tomography screening of former smokers; (6) a cancer center that allows for many services to be offered at a single location for patient convenience and to promote interdisciplinary care; and (7) access to research protocols. These components have helped us provide a quality lung cancer program in a community hospital setting that is associated with excellent clinical outcomes.
Background Hospital homepages should provide comprehensive information on the hospital's services, such as departments and treatments available, prices, waiting time, leisure facilities, and other information important for patients and their relatives. Norway, with its population of approximately 4.3 million, ranks among the top countries globally for its ability to absorb and use technology. It is unclear to what degree Norwegian hospitals and patients use the Internet for information about health services. Objectives This study was undertaken to evaluate the quality of the biggest Norwegian cancer hospitals' Web sites and to gather some preliminary data on patients' use of the Internet. Methods In January 2001, we analyzed Web sites of 5 of the 7 biggest Norwegian hospitals treating cancer patients using a scoring system. The scoring instrument was based on recommendations developed by the Norwegian Central Information Service for Web sites and reflects the scope and depth of service information offered on hospital Web pages. In addition, 31 cancer patients visiting one hospital-based medical oncologist were surveyed about their use of the Internet. Results Of the 7 hospitals, 5 had a Web site. The Web sites differed markedly in quality. Types of information included - and number of Web sites that included each type of information - were, for example: search option, 1; interpreter service, 2; date of last update, 2; postal address, phone number, and e-mail service, 3; information in English, 2. None of the Web sites included information on waiting time or prices. Of the 31 patients surveyed, 12 had personal experience using the Internet and 4 had searched for medical information. The Internet users were significantly younger (mean age 47.8 years, range 28.4-66.8 years) than the nonusers (mean age 61.8 years, range 33.1-90.0 years) ( P= 0.007). Conclusions The hospitals' Web sites offer cancer patients and relatives useful information, but the Web sites were not
Weed-Pfaff, Samantha H; Nutter, Benjamin; Bena, James F; Forney, Jennifer; Field, Rosemary; Szoka, Lynn; Karius, Diana; Akins, Patti; Colvin, Christina M; Albert, Nancy M
A seven-item cancer-specific fall risk tool (Cleveland Clinic Capone-Albert [CC-CA] Fall Risk Score) was shown to have a strong concordance index for predicting falls; however, validation of the model is needed. The aims of this study were to validate that the CC-CA Fall Risk Score, made up of six factors, predicts falls in patients with cancer and to determine if the CC-CA Fall Risk Score performs better than the Morse Fall Tool. Using a prospective, comparative methodology, data were collected from electronic health records of patients hospitalized for cancer care in four hospitals. Risk factors from each tool were recorded, when applicable. Multivariable models were created to predict the probability of a fall. A concordance index for each fall tool was calculated. The CC-CA Fall Risk Score provided higher discrimination than the Morse Fall Tool in predicting fall events in patients hospitalized for cancer management.
Beck, Naomi; Hoeijmakers, Fieke; van der Willik, Esmee M; Heineman, David J; Braun, Jerry; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Schreurs, Wilhelmina H; Wouters, Michel W J M
When comparing hospitals on outcome indicators, proper adjustment for casemix (a combination of patient- and disease characteristics) is indispensable. This study examines the need for casemix adjustment in evaluating hospital outcomes for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) surgery. Data from the Dutch Lung Cancer Audit for Surgery was used to validate factors associated with postoperative 30-day mortality and complicated course with multivariable logistic regression models. Between-hospital variation in casemix was studied by calculating medians and interquartile ranges for separate factors on hospital level and the 'expected' outcomes per hospital as a composite measure. 8040 patients, distributed over 51 Dutch hospitals were included for analysis. Mean observed postoperative mortality and complicated course were 2.2% and 13.6% respectively. Age, ASA-classification, ECOG performance score, lung function, extent of resection, tumor stage and postoperative histopathology were individual significant predictors for both outcomes of postoperative mortality and complicated course. A considerable variation of these casemix factors between hospital-populations was observed, with the expected mortality and complicated course per hospital ranging from 1.4 to 3.2% and 11.5 to 17.1%. The between-hospital variation in casemix of patients undergoing surgery for NSCLC emphasizes the importance of proper adjustment when comparing hospitals on outcome indicators. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
El-Jawahri, Areej; Lau-Min, Kelsey; Nipp, Ryan D; Greer, Joseph A; Traeger, Lara N; Moran, Samantha M; D'Arpino, Sara M; Hochberg, Ephraim P; Jackson, Vicki A; Cashavelly, Barbara J; Martinson, Holly S; Ryan, David P; Temel, Jennifer S
Although hospitalized patients with advanced cancer have a low chance of surviving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the processes by which they change their code status from full code to do not resuscitate (DNR) are unknown. We conducted a mixed-methods study on a prospective cohort of hospitalized patients with advanced cancer. Two physicians used a consensus-driven medical record review to characterize processes that led to code status order transitions from full code to DNR. In total, 1047 hospitalizations were reviewed among 728 patients. Admitting clinicians did not address code status in 53% of hospitalizations, resulting in code status orders of "presumed full." In total, 275 patients (26.3%) transitioned from full code to DNR, and 48.7% (134 of 275 patients) of those had an order of "presumed full" at admission; however, upon further clarification, the patients expressed that they had wished to be DNR before the hospitalization. We identified 3 additional processes leading to order transition from full code to DNR acute clinical deterioration (15.3%), discontinuation of cancer-directed therapy (17.1%), and education about the potential harms/futility of CPR (15.3%). Compared with discontinuing therapy and education, transitions because of acute clinical deterioration were associated with less patient involvement (P = .002), a shorter time to death (P < .001), and a greater likelihood of inpatient death (P = .005). One-half of code status order changes among hospitalized patients with advanced cancer were because of full code orders in patients who had a preference for DNR before hospitalization. Transitions due of acute clinical deterioration were associated with less patient engagement and a higher likelihood of inpatient death. Cancer 2017;123:4895-902. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Dhar, Vikrom K; Hoehn, Richard S; Kim, Young; Xia, Brent T; Jung, Andrew D; Hanseman, Dennis J; Ahmad, Syed A; Shah, Shimul A
Due to disparities in access to care, patients with Medicaid or no health insurance are at risk of not receiving appropriate adjuvant treatment following resection of pancreatic cancer. We have previously shown inferior short-term outcomes following surgery at safety-net hospitals. Subsequently, we hypothesized that safety-net hospitals caring for these vulnerable populations utilize less adjuvant chemoradiation, resulting in inferior long-term outcomes. The American College of Surgeons National Cancer Data Base was queried for patients diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 32,296) from 1998 to 2010. Hospitals were grouped according to safety-net burden, defined as the proportion of patients with Medicaid or no insurance. The highest quartile, representing safety-net hospitals, was compared to lower-burden hospitals with regard to patient demographics, disease characteristics, surgical management, delivery of multimodal systemic therapy, and survival. Patients at safety-net hospitals were less often white, had lower income, and were less educated. Safety-net hospital patients were just as likely to undergo surgical resection (OR 1.03, p = 0.73), achieving similar rates of negative surgical margins when compared to patients at medium and low burden hospitals (70% vs. 73% vs. 66%). Thirty-day mortality rates were 5.6% for high burden hospitals, 5.2% for medium burden hospitals, and 4.3% for low burden hospitals. No clinically significant differences were noted in the proportion of surgical patients receiving either chemotherapy (48% vs. 52% vs. 52%) or radiation therapy (26% vs. 30% vs. 29%) or the time between diagnosis and start of systemic therapy (58 days vs. 61 days vs. 53 days). Across safety-net burden groups, no difference was noted in stage-specific median survival (all p > 0.05) or receipt of adjuvant as opposed to neoadjuvant systemic therapy (82% vs. 85% vs. 85%). Multivariate analysis adjusting for cancer stage revealed no difference in
Tarver, Will L; Menachemi, Nir
Although recent literature has explored the relationship between various environmental market characteristics and the adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) among general, acute care hospitals, no such research currently exists for specialty hospitals, including those providing cancer care. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between market characteristics and the adoption of EHRs among Commission on Cancer (CoC)-accredited hospitals. Secondary data on EHR adoption combined with hospital and environmental market characteristics were analyzed using logistic regression. Using the resource dependence theory, we examined how measures of munificence, complexity, and dynamism are related to the adoption of EHRs among CoC-accredited hospitals and, separately, hospitals not CoC-accredited. In a sample of 2,670 hospitals, 141 (0.05%) were academic-based CoC-accredited hospitals and 562 (21%) were community-based CoC-accredited hospitals. Measures of munificence such as cancer incidence rates (OR = 0.99, CI [0.99, 1.00], p = .020) and percentage population aged 65+ (OR = 0.99, CI [0.99, 1.00], p = .001) were negatively associated with basic EHR adoption, whereas urban location was positively associated with comprehensive EHR adoption (OR = 3.07, CI [0.89, 10.61], p = .076) for community-based CoC-accredited hospitals. Measures of complexity such as hospitals in areas with less competition were less likely to adopt a basic EHR (OR = 0.33, CI [0.19, 0.96], p = .005), whereas Medicare Managed Care penetration was positively associated with comprehensive EHR adoption (OR = 1.02, CI [1.00, 1.05], p = .070) among community-based CoC-accredited hospitals. Lastly, dynamism, measured as population change, was negatively associated with the adoption of comprehensive EHRs (OR = 0.99, CI [0.99, 1.00], p = .070) among academic-based CoC-accredited hospitals. A greater understanding of the environment's relationship to health information technology adoption in
Jaquet, Antoine; Odutola, Michael; Ekouevi, Didier K; Tanon, Aristophane; Oga, Emmanuel; Akakpo, Jocelyn; Charurat, Manhattan; Zannou, Marcel D; Eholie, Serge P; Sasco, Annie J; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Adebamowo, Clement; Dabis, Francois
The consequences of the HIV epidemic on cancer epidemiology are sparsely documented in Africa. We aimed to estimate the association between HIV infection and selected types of cancers among patients hospitalized for cancer in four West African countries. A case-referent study was conducted in referral hospitals of Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Nigeria and Togo. Each participating clinical ward included all adult patients seeking care with a confirmed diagnosis of cancer. All patients were systematically screened for HIV infection. HIV prevalence of AIDS-defining and some non-AIDS defining cancers (Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, liver, lung, skin, pharynx, larynx, oral cavity and anogenital cancers) were compared to a referent group of cancers reported in the literature as not associated with HIV. Odds ratios adjusted on age, gender and lifetime number of sexual partners (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Among the 1644 cancer patients enrolled, 184 (11.2%) were identified as HIV-infected. The HIV prevalence in the referent group (n=792) was 4.4% [CI 3.0-5.8]. HIV infection was associated with Kaposi sarcoma (aOR 34.6 [CI: 17.3-69.0]), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (aOR 3.6 [CI 1.9-6.8]), cervical cancer (aOR 4.3 [CI 2.2-8.3]), anogenital cancer (aOR 17.7 [CI 6.9-45.2]) and squamous cell skin carcinoma (aOR 5.2 [CI 2.0-14.4]). A strong association is now reported between HIV infection and Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers including cervical cancer and anogenital cancer. As these cancers are amenable to prevention strategies, screening of HPV-related cancers among HIV-infected persons is of paramount importance in this African context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
López, M José; Nebot, Manel; Juárez, Olga; Ariza, Carles; Salles, Joan; Serrahima, Eulàlia
To estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with environmental tobacco (ETS) smoke exposure among hospitality workers. The estimation was done using objective measures in several hospitality settings in Barcelona. Vapour phase nicotine was measured in several hospitality settings. These measurements were used to estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure for a 40 year working life, using the formula developed by Repace and Lowrey. Excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure was higher than 145 deaths per 100,000 workers in all places studied, except for cafeterias in hospitals, where excess lung cancer mortality risk was 22 per 100,000. In discoteques, for comparison, excess lung cancer mortality risk is 1,733 deaths per 100,000 workers. Hospitality workers are exposed to ETS levels related to a very high excess lung cancer mortality risk. These data confirm that ETS control measures are needed to protect hospital workers.
Castillo-Guzmán, Sandra; Palacios-Ríos, Dionicio; Nava-Obregón, Teresa Adriana; Torres-Pérez, Juan Francisco; González-Santiago, Omar
To analyze the place of death from cancer in México from 1999 to 2009 and find the associated factors. We collected data on mortality by cancer from the national database including age, gender, area of residence, level of education, place of death, and type of cancer. The proportion of deaths at home and hospital was 55.67% and 39%, respectively. Factors associated with home deaths were old age, female gender, rural area of residence, and lack of formal education. There was a short but significant decrease in home deaths for cervical cancer and leukemia. In México, mortality in home is greater than in hospital for patients with cancer. Our results have important implications for palliative care professionals and health services of México.
Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Holtgrave, David R; Duffin, Renea A; Feltner, Frances; Funderburk, William; Freeman, Harold P
The Ralph Lauren Cancer Center implemented patient navigation programs in sites across the United States building on the model pioneered by Harold P. Freeman, MD. Patient navigation targets medically underserved with the objective of reducing the time interval between an abnormal cancer finding, diagnostic resolution, and treatment initiation. In this study, the authors assessed the incremental cost effectiveness of adding patient navigation to standard cancer care in 3 community hospitals in the United States. A decision-analytic model was used to assess the cost effectiveness of a colorectal and breast cancer patient navigation program over the period of 1 year compared with standard care. Data sources included published estimates in the literature and primary costs, aggregate patient demographics, and outcome data from 3 patient navigation programs. After 1 year, compared with standard care alone, it was estimated that offering patient navigation with standard care would allow an additional 78 of 959 individuals with an abnormal breast cancer screening and an additional 21 of 411 individuals with abnormal colonoscopies to reach timely diagnostic resolution. Without including medical treatment costs saved, the cost-effectiveness ratio ranged from $511 to $2080 per breast cancer diagnostic resolution achieved and from $1192 to $9708 per colorectal cancer diagnostic resolution achieved. The current results indicated that implementing breast or colorectal cancer patient navigation in community hospital settings in which low-income populations are served may be a cost-effective addition to standard cancer care in the United States. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.
Kowalski, Christoph; Lee, Shoou-Yih D; Ansmann, Lena; Wesselmann, Simone; Pfaff, Holger
Breast cancer patients are confronted with a serious diagnosis that requires them to make important decisions throughout the journey of the disease. For these decisions to be made it is critical that the patients be well informed. Previous studies have been consistent in their findings that breast cancer patients have a high need for information on a wide range of topics. This paper investigates (1) how many patients feel they have unmet information needs after initial surgery, (2) whether the proportion of patients with unmet information needs varies between hospitals where they were treated and (3) whether differences between the hospitals account for some of these variation. Data from 5,024 newly-diagnosed breast cancer patients treated in 111 breast center hospitals in Germany were analyzed and combined with data on hospital characteristics. Multilevel linear regression models were calculated taking into account hospital characteristics and adjusting for patient case mix. Younger patients, those receiving mastectomy, having statutory health insurance, not living with a partner and having a foreign native language report higher unmet information needs. The data demonstrate small between-hospital variation in unmet information needs. In hospitals that provide patient-specific information material and that offer health fairs as well as those that are non-teaching or have lower patient-volume, patients are less likely to report unmet information needs. We found differences in proportions of patients with unmet information needs between hospitals and that hospitals' structure and process-related attributes of the hospitals were associated with these differences to some extent. Hospitals may contribute to reducing the patients' information needs by means that are not necessarily resource-intensive.
Hsu, Po-Kuei; Chen, Hui-Shan; Wang, Bing-Yen; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Liu, Chao-Yu; Shih, Chih-Hsun; Liu, Chia-Chuan
To study the "hospital type-outcome" and "volume-outcome" relationships in patients with esophageal cancer who receive non-surgical treatments. A total of 6106 patients with esophageal cancer diagnosed between 2008 and 2011 were identified from a national population-based cancer registry in Taiwan. The hospital types were defined as medical center and non-medical center. The threshold for high-volume hospitals was based on a median volume of 225 cases between 2008 and 2011 (annual volume, >56 cases) or an upper quartile (>75%) volume of 377 cases (annual volume>94 cases). Cox regression analyses were used to determine the effects of hospital type and volume outcome on patient survival. A total of 3955 non-surgically treated patients were included in the survival analysis. In the unadjusted analysis, the significant prognostic factors included cT, cN, cM stage, hospital type and hospital volume (annual volume, >94 vs ≤94). The 1- and 3-year overall survival rates in the non-medical centers (36.2% and 13.2%, respectively) were significantly higher than those in the medical centers (33.5% and 11.3%, respectively; P=0.027). The 1- and 3-year overall survival rates in hospitals with an annual volume of ≤94 (35.3% and 12.6%, respectively) were significantly higher than those with an annual volume of >94 (31.1% and 9.4%, respectively; P=0.001). However, in the multivariate analysis, the hospital type was not statistically significant. Only cT, cN, and cM stages and hospital volume (annual volume>94 vs ≤94) were independent prognostic factors. Whether the treatment occurs in medical centers is not a significant prognostic factor. High-volume hospitals were not associated with better survival rates compared with low-volume hospitals.
Rhoads, Kim F; Ackerson, Leland K; Jha, Ashish K; Dudley, R Adams
There is evidence that patients with Medicaid insurance suffer worse outcomes from surgical conditions; but there is little research about whether this reflects clustering of such patients at hospitals with worse outcomes. We assess the outcomes of patients with colon and rectal cancers at hospitals with a high proportion of Medicaid patients. California Cancer Registry patient-level records were linked to discharge abstracts from California's Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. All operative California Cancer Registry patients from 1998 and 1999 were included. Hospitals with > 40% Medicaid patients were labeled high Medicaid hospitals (HMH). We analyzed the odds of mortality at 30 days, 1, and 5 years for colon cancer and rectal cancer separately. Multilevel logistic regression models were constructed, using MLwiN 2.0, to include patient and hospital-level characteristics. Thirty-day mortality after colon operation was worse in HMH (1% versus 0.6%; p = 0.04); as was 1-year mortality (3.4% versus 2.4%; p = 0.001). There was no substantial difference in rates of 5-year mortality. Individuals who were insured by Medicaid had worse outcomes at 5 years. Adjustment for surgical volume eliminated the effect of HMH at 30 days (1% versus 0.7%; p = 0.45) but not at 1 year (3.4% versus 2.5%; p = 0.01). Adjustment for academic affiliation did not alter these results. There were an insufficient number of rectal cancer patients to detect any differences by hospital type. HMH have higher postoperative colon cancer mortality rates at 30 days and 1 year but not at 5 years. The early effect can be explained by surgical volume, but additional research is needed to determine which factors contribute to differences in intermediate outcomes after operations in HMH settings.
Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue
Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government.
Ji, Chen; Guo, Hongdong; Jin, Songqing; Yang, Jin
China has recorded positive growth rates of grain production for the past eleven consecutive years. This is a remarkable accomplishment given that China’s rapid industrialization and urbanization has led to a vast reduction of arable land and agricultural labor to non-agricultural sectors. While there are many factors contributing to this happy outcome, one potential contributing factor that has received increasing attention is the emergence of agricultural production outsourcing, a new rural institution that has emerged in recent years. This study aims to contribute to the limited but growing literature on agricultural production outsourcing in China. Specifically, this study analyzes factors affecting farmers’ decisions to outsource any or some production tasks using data from rice farmers in Zhejiang province. Results from a logistic model show that farm size and government subsidy encourages farmers to outsource while ownership of agricultural machines and land fragmentation have negative effects on farmers’ decisions to outsource production tasks. Results also showed that determinants of outsourcing decisions vary with the production tasks that farmers outsourced. PMID:28129362
Ji, Chen; Guo, Hongdong; Jin, Songqing; Yang, Jin
China has recorded positive growth rates of grain production for the past eleven consecutive years. This is a remarkable accomplishment given that China's rapid industrialization and urbanization has led to a vast reduction of arable land and agricultural labor to non-agricultural sectors. While there are many factors contributing to this happy outcome, one potential contributing factor that has received increasing attention is the emergence of agricultural production outsourcing, a new rural institution that has emerged in recent years. This study aims to contribute to the limited but growing literature on agricultural production outsourcing in China. Specifically, this study analyzes factors affecting farmers' decisions to outsource any or some production tasks using data from rice farmers in Zhejiang province. Results from a logistic model show that farm size and government subsidy encourages farmers to outsource while ownership of agricultural machines and land fragmentation have negative effects on farmers' decisions to outsource production tasks. Results also showed that determinants of outsourcing decisions vary with the production tasks that farmers outsourced.
Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue
Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government. PMID:25019266
Rococo, E; Mazouni, C; Or, Z; Mobillion, V; Koon Sun Pat, M; Bonastre, J
Minimum volume thresholds were introduced in France in 2008 to improve the quality of cancer care. We investigated whether/how the quality of treatment decisions in breast cancer surgery had evolved before and after this policy was implemented. We used Hospital Episode Statistics for all women having undergone breast conserving surgery (BCS) or mastectomy in France in 2005 and 2012. Three surgical procedures considered as better treatment options were analyzed: BCS, immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). We studied the mean rates and variation according to the hospital profile and volume. Between 2005 and 2012, the volume of breast cancer surgery increased by 11% whereas one third of the hospitals no longer performed this type of surgery. In 2012, the mean rate of BCS was 74% and similar in all hospitals whatever the volume. Conversely, IBR and SLNB rates were much higher in cancer centers (CC) and regional teaching hospitals (RTH) [IBR: 19% and 14% versus 8% on average; SLNB: 61% and 47% versus 39% on average]; the greater the hospital volume, the higher the IBR and SLNB rates (p < 0.0001). Overall, whatever the surgical procedure considered, inter-hospital variation in rates declined substantially in CC and RTH. We identified considerable variation in IBR and SLNB rates between French hospitals. Although more complex and less standardized than BCS, most clinical guidelines recommended these procedures. This apparent heterogeneity suggests unequal access to high-quality procedures for women with breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sharma, Munesh K; Singh, Tarundeep; Pandey, Avdesh K; Kankaria, Ankita
Cancer has become an epidemic disease. Nearly ten million new cancer cases are diagnosed annually in the world and out of these about half are from the developing world. To appropriately plan for treatment, management and prevention of the disease, it becomes necessary to study the trends about morbidity caused by cancers. Data for patients diagnosed with any form of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers was extracted from records maintained in the outpatient department registers of the Oncology Department of Government Medical College and Hospital in Chandigarh from 1999 to 2012. Trends were analysed for different categories of GI cancers for the period of 12 years. In present study GI cancers accounted for 23 % of all registered cases (n-9603) of carcinomas. Males predominated for all GI cancers except in the gall bladder. Gastrointestinal cancers as a proportion of total cancers increased from 21% in 1999 to 25.9% in 2012 with a significant increasing trend in our series (χ2 for linear trend=9.36, p<0.003). Cancers of the tonsil, oral cavity and pharynx taken together showed an increasing trend over the years (χ2 for trend=55.2, p<0.001) whereas cancers of the lower GI (χ2=19.6, p<0.0001) and gall bladder (χ2=19.5, p<0.0001) showed a declining trend in our series. GI cancers form a significant proportion of all cancers reporting to our data. In depth studies to ascertain the reasons for the changing trends are required to design intervention programs. Further information is necessary from cancer registries and from the hospital records of oncology departments.
Background Aboriginal people in Australia experience higher mortality from cancer compared with non-Aboriginal Australians, despite an overall lower incidence. A notable contributor to this disparity is that many Aboriginal people do not take up or continue with cancer treatment which almost always occurs within major hospitals. Thirty in-depth interviews with urban, rural and remote Aboriginal people affected by cancer were conducted between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews explored participants' beliefs about cancer and experiences of cancer care and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Information from interviews relevant to hospital services including and building design was extracted. Findings Relationships and respect emerged as crucial considerations of participants although many aspects of the hospital environment were seen as influencing the delivery of care. Five themes describing concerns about the hospital environment emerged: (i) being alone and lost in a big, alien and inflexible system; (ii) failure of open communication, delays and inefficiency in the system; (iii) practicalities: costs, transportation, community and family responsibilities; (iv) the need for Aboriginal support persons; and (v) connection to the community. Conclusions Design considerations and were identified but more important than the building itself was the critical need to build trust in health services. Promotion of cultural safety, support for Aboriginal family structures and respecting the importance of place and community to Aboriginal patients are crucial in improving cancer outcomes. PMID:21401923
Cao, Luodan; Li, Jialin; Ye, Mengyao; Pu, Ruiliang; Liu, Yongchao; Guo, Qiandong; Feng, Baixiang; Song, Xiayun
Gains and losses in ecosystem service values (ESV) in coastal zones in Zhejiang Province during rapid urbanization were analyzed in terms of land-use changes. Decision-making on coastal development based on ESV estimation is significant for the sustainable utilization of coastal resource. In this study, coastal land-use changes in Zhejiang Province during rapid urbanization were discussed based on remote-sensing derived land-use maps created in the years 1990, 2000 and 2010. The ESV changes in coastal zones in Zhejiang Province from 1990 to 2010 were estimated by using the established ESV estimation model. The analysis results demonstrate the following: (1) with the continuous acceleration of urbanization, land-use types in coastal zones in Zhejiang Province changed significantly from 1990 to 2010, demonstrated by considerable growth of urban construction land and reduction of forest land and farmland; (2) in the study period, the total ESV in coastal zones in Zhejiang Province continuously decreased in value from RMB 35.278 billion to 29.964 billion, a reduction of 15.06%; (3) in terms of the spatial distribution of ESV, the ESVs in coastal zones in Zhejiang Province were generally converted from a higher ESV to a lower ESV; (4) estimates of ESV for the three years 1990, 2000 and 2010 appear to be relatively stable; and (5) land-use intensity in coastal zones in Zhejiang Province continuously increased during the 20 years. The spatial distribution of land-use intensity was consistent with that of the ESV change rate. Disordered land-use changes from forestland and farmland to urban construction land was a major cause of ESV loss.
... the doctor accepts your plan. Your Cancer Care Team You may already have a primary care doctor. ... doctors. Often, these doctors work together as a team, so you will likely work with more than ...
Ketkaew, Chaninun; Kiatying-Angsulee, Niyada
Medication policy development in Thailand is continually promoting rational drug use. Letrozole, an endocrine therapy drug, is usually prescribed for post-menopausal status early and advanced stage breast cancer. After Ministry of Public Health announced Letrozole as compulsory licensed drug in 2009, more breast cancer patients can access to this drug at low cost especially those within universal coverage schemes. To ensure that Letrozole is rationally prescribed, the drug utilization study was conducted. The aim of this study was to describe the appropriate use of Letrozole in breast cancer and the relationship between appropriate use and health benefit schemes. A retrospective study to evaluate use of Letrozole in breast cancer patients was performed for six months between January - June 2010 in seven regional cancer hospitals, Thailand. All prescriptions of Letrozole were identified from pharmacy dispensing databases and prescription papers. A medical record review was also performed to evaluate appropriate use referring to the drug use evaluation criteria. The approved criterion of this study was referred from the guideline of Thai National Formulary version 2010. There were 681 prescriptions of Letrozole for 254 breast cancer patients with an average age of 58.6 ± 10.0 years. The patients in universal coverage scheme (UCS), civil servant medication benefit scheme (CSMBS) and social security scheme (SSS) were 77.7%, 18.5% and 8.7% respectively. 10.6% were prescribed Letrozole for the first time. Letrozole were prescribed by oncologists (82.8%). The average number of tablets per prescription was 58 ± 10. Calcium supplements were prescribed concomitant with Letrozole for 19.4%. To assess drug use evaluation criteria, 45 prescriptions were excluded because of uncompleted clinical data, 636 prescriptions were evaluated. The study showed 86 prescriptions (13.5%) with inappropriate use including 6 (0.9%) not prescribed for estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone
Freedman, Rachel A; Kouri, Elena M; West, Dee W; Keating, Nancy L
Racial differences in breast cancer treatment may result in part from differences in the surgeons and hospitals from whom patients receive their care. However, little is known about differences in patients' selection of surgeons and hospitals. To examine racial/ethnic differences in how women selected their surgeons and hospitals for breast cancer surgery. We surveyed 500 women (222 non-Hispanic white, 142 non-Hispanic black, 89 English-speaking Hispanic, and 47 Spanish-speaking Hispanic) from northern California cancer registries with stage 0 to III breast cancer diagnosed during 2010 through 2011. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the reasons for surgeon and hospital selection by race/ethnicity, adjusting for other patient characteristics. We also assessed the association between reasons for physician selection and patients' ratings of their surgeon and hospital. Reasons for surgeon and hospital selection and ratings of surgeon and hospital. The 500 participants represented a response rate of 47.8% and a participation rate of 69%. The most frequently reported reason for surgeon selection was referral by another physician (78%); the most frequently reported reason for hospital selection was because it was a part of a patient's health plan (58%). After adjustment, 79% to 87% of black and Spanish-speaking Hispanic women reported selecting their surgeon based on a physician's referral vs 76% of white women (P = .007). Black and Hispanic patients were less likely than white patients to report selecting their surgeon based on reputation (adjusted rates, 18% and 22% of black and Hispanic women, respectively, vs 32% of white women; P = .02). Black and Hispanic women were also less likely than white women to select their hospital based on reputation (adjusted rates, 7% and 15% vs 23%, respectively; P = .003). Women who selected their surgeon based on reputation more often rated the care from their surgeon as excellent (adjusted odds ratio, 2
Ye, Chunjiang; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yuanhai; Ni, Liangfang; Jiang, Ruiming; Liu, Liping; Han, Chunmao
Chemical burns occur frequently in western Zhejiang Province. This study documents the epidemiology of chemical burns in the region using burn data from a local specialized hospital. Results from this analysis will assist in the planning of prevention strategies for high-risk occupations and groups. A 10-year retrospective analysis was conducted for all patients with chemical burns admitted to the Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery from January 2004 to December 2013. Information obtained for each patient included demographics (gender, age, occupation and education), location of the burn, cause of the burn, and categories of chemicals. Data regarding the season of admittance, prehospital treatment, wound site/size (area, region, and depth), accompanying injuries, operations, length of hospital stay and mortality were also assessed. A total of 690 patients (619 males, 71 females; average age: 30.6±12.4 years) were admitted to the department for chemical burns. Over the 10-year period, the incidence of chemical burns showed an increasing tendency. Chemical burns occurred most frequently in patients aged 20-59 years (94.79%). Most of the chemical burns were work-related, primarily in private enterprises (47.97%) and state-owned enterprises (24.93%). Operations (68.99%) and machine problems (17.26%) were the main causes of chemical burns in the workplace. With regard to burns caused by chemicals, most were caused by acids (72.01%), with hydrofluoric acid and sulphuric acid causing 51.45%. Most chemical burns occurred in the summer and autumn seasons (61.02%). The burn size was <10% of the total body surface area (TBSA) for 445 patients (64.49%), while only 26 patients (3.76%) had burns covering >40% TBSA. The most common burn sites were the upper extremities (31.57%), lower extremities (19.86%), and head and neck (28.83%). Most patients (581 (84.20%)) received water washing treatment on site immediately after exposure. The most common accompanying injuries included
Mueller, Emily L; Croop, James; Carroll, Aaron E
Fever and neutropenia (FN) is a common precipitant for hospitalization among children with cancer, but hospital utilization trends are not well described. This study describes national trends for hospital discharges for FN among children with cancer for the year 2012, compared with the authors' previous analysis from 2009. Data were analyzed from the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID), an all-payer US hospital database, for 2012. Pediatric patients with cancer who had a discharge for FN were identified using age ≤19 years, urgent or emergent admit type, nontransferred, and a combination of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for fever and neutropenia. The authors evaluated factors associated with a "short length of stay" (SLOS). Sampling weights were used to permit national inferences. In 2012, children with cancer accounted for 1.8% of pediatric hospital discharges (n = 120,675), with 12.2% (n = 13,456) of cancer-related discharges meeting FN criteria. Two fifths of FN discharges had a SLOS, which accounted for $91 million (2015 US$) in hospital charges. The majority had no serious infections; most common infections were viral infection (9.6%) or upper respiratory infection (9.6%). Factors significantly associated with SLOS included having a diagnosis of ear infection (odds ratio [OR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-2.03), soft tissue sarcoma (OR = 1.47, CI: 1.10-1.95), and Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 1.51, CI: 1.09-2.10), as compared with not having those diagnoses. SLOS admissions continue to be rarely associated with serious infections, but contribute substantially to the burden of hospitalization for pediatric FN. Implementation of risk stratification schemas to identify patients who meet low-risk criteria may decrease financial burden.
Adachi, Shinichi; Endo, Shunji; Chinen, Yoshinao; Itakura, Hiroaki; Takayama, Hirotoshi; Tsuda, Yujiro; Ueda, Masami; Nakashima, Shinsuke; Ohta, Katsuya; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Yamada, Terumasa
Perforated gastric cancer is relatively rare and the incidence is reported about 1% of all the cases of gastric cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of the consecutive 12 patients with perforated gastric cancer who underwent operation in our hospital between January 2005 and December 2016. There were 5 men and 7 women, with an average age of 65.8 years old(34-87). Perforated gastric cancer occurred in the region U(1 cases), M(6 cases), L(5 cases). There were 11 cases with distant metastasis. We could successfully diagnosed as perforated gastric cancer in 8 cases before emergency operation. Gastrectomy was performed in 5 cases. However, the curative resection was performed only 1 case. Prognosis of perforated gastric cancer is poor. We considered as an appropriate two-step surgical strategy that the first step of surgery is an acute peritonitis treatment followed by radical gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy.
Castaldi, Maria; Safadjou, Saman; Elrafei, Tarek; McNelis, John
Cancer health disparities affecting low-income and minority patients have been well documented to lead to poor outcomes. This report examines the impact of patient navigation on adherence to prescribed adjuvant breast cancer treatment. A multidisciplinary patient navigation program was initiated at a public safety net hospital to improve compliance with 3 National Quality Forum measures: (1) administration of combination chemotherapy for women with Stage (defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC]) T1c, II, or III hormone receptor-negative breast cancer within 120 days; (2) administration of endocrine therapy for women with AJCC Stage T1c, II, or III hormone receptor-positive breast cancer within 365 days; and (3) radiation therapy for women receiving breast-conserving surgery within one year. Implementation of a multidisciplinary patient navigation program reduced time to treatment and improved compliance with adjuvant therapy for breast cancer in an underserved minority community.
Argiolas, F; Marras, V; Porcu, S; Senis, G; Saderi, L; Spada, L; Santus, S; Coppola, R C; Cocco, P; Campagna, M; Steri, G
Based on hospital discharges in 1001-2010, we calculated risk of tumours with an elevated occupational and environmental etiological fraction by health district of residence within the Local Health Unit (LHU) N. 8 of Sardinia. With reference to the age and gender-specific hospitalization rates of the whole LHU, residents in the urban Cagliari health district showed an excess risk of haemolymphopoietic cancer (RR = 1.07; 95% CI 1.03-1.12) and bladder cancer (RR = 1.10; 95% CI 1.05-1.16); in both instances, risks were higher among female residents. The highest excess risk for lung cancer was observed among residents in the Quartu-Parteolla health district (RR = 1.13; 95% CI 1.05-1.21), and it was slightly higher among male residents. The results appear to confirm the role of urban factors in increasing cancer risk.
Chang, K H; McAnena, O J; Smith, M J; Salman, R R; Khan, M F; Lowe, D
Surgical volume and outcome remain controversial in the management of oesophageal cancer. To assess the outcome of oesophagectomy for cancer at Galway University Hospital (GUH). Between 1994 and 2008, patients who underwent oesophagectomy were analysed. During the study period, 126 oesophagectomies were performed for cancer. The average surgeon volume was 9 cases per year. The 30-day and overall in-hospital mortality rates were 6.3 and 7.9%, respectively. Restructuring of our critical care services has led to a reduction in 30-day mortality from 8.2 to 5.1%. The use of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy has increased from 17 to 35% during the study period. In patients who underwent resection, the 3 and 5-year overall survival rates were 45 and 29%, respectively. Operative morbidity and mortality at GUH are comparable with worldwide outcomes. Improved resources and national restructuring of cancer services have significantly improved the quality of care and outcomes of patients.
Fischer, C; Lingsma, H F; van Leersum, N; Tollenaar, R A E M; Wouters, M W; Steyerberg, E W
When comparing performance across hospitals it is essential to consider the noise caused by low hospital case volume and to perform adequate case-mix adjustment. We aimed to quantify the role of noise and case-mix adjustment on standardized postoperative mortality and anastomotic leakage (AL) rates. We studied 13,120 patients who underwent colon cancer resection in 85 Dutch hospitals. We addressed differences between hospitals in postoperative mortality and AL, using fixed (ignoring noise) and random effects (incorporating noise) logistic regression models with general and additional, disease specific, case-mix adjustment. Adding disease specific variables improved the performance of the case-mix adjustment models for postoperative mortality (c-statistic increased from 0.77 to 0.81). The overall variation in standardized mortality ratios was similar, but some individual hospitals changed considerably. For the standardized AL rates the performance of the adjustment models was poor (c-statistic 0.59 and 0.60) and overall variation was small. Most of the observed variation between hospitals was actually noise. Noise had a larger effect on hospital performance than extended case-mix adjustment, although some individual hospital outcome rates were affected by more detailed case-mix adjustment. To compare outcomes between hospitals it is crucial to consider noise due to low hospital case volume with a random effects model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eyigor, S; Karapolat, H; Korkmaz, O K; Eyigor, C; Durmaz, B; Uslu, R; Uyar, M
To explore the frequency of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) among hospitalized cancer patients and address the relationships between pain, fatigue and quality of life with regard to the extent of pain, a cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out in the Oncology Supportive Care Unit on 122 hospitalized cancer patients. Pain, sleep, disease impact (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire), fatigue (Brief Fatigue Inventory), quality of life (Short Form 36 and European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer questionnaires Quality of Life-C30) were gathered using standardized measures. Thirteen of the hospitalized cancer patients (10.7%) included in the study were diagnosed with FMS. There were no statistically significant differences among three pain groups with respect to demographic characteristics (P > 0.05). There were significant differences among groups with regard to the presence of metastasis, fatigue, sleep disorder, pain, Brief Fatigue Inventory, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, most of subscores of Short Form 36 and European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer questionnaires Quality of Life-C30 scores (P < 0.05). In the present study, we have calculated the frequency of FMS among patients admitted to the oncology hospital in addition to establishing the relationships between pain, fatigue and quality of life with regard to the extent of pain. We believe that the descriptive data presented in this study would be helpful in future studies and therapeutic approaches.
Mo, Zhe; Lou, Xiao-ming; Zhu, Wen-ming; Wang, Xiao-feng; Mao, Guang-ming; Zhou, Jin-shui; Ding, Gang-qiang
To understand the current status of iodine nutrition among the community residents to compare the level of iodine nutrition in different areas and groups of populations in Zhejiang province. Stratified cluster sampling method was adopted and residents from twenty-two communities in Zhejiang province were selected. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, using questionnaires, laboratory tests, on urinary iodine, water iodine and the concentration of the iodine in salt, which had played positive roles in the calculation of the level of iodine nutrition. of the iodine nutrition in this cross-sectional survey were as follows: the median water iodine and salt iodine of Zhejiang were 2.42 µg/L and 28.8 mg/kg, respectively. The coverage of iodized salts was 79.54%, with the ingesting rate of qualified iodized-salt as 76.65% and the median content of urinary iodine in the population of Zhejiang was 161 µg/L. The average iodine content among pregnant women was 138 µg/L, with the percentage of samples less than 100 µg/L as 25.92%, more than 300 µg/L as 15.30%. The proportions of iodine intake through water, salt and other foods were 1.70%, 76.41% and 21.89%, respectively. The status of iodine nutrition in Zhejiang province in general seemed to be appropriate, but the level of iodine nutrition in pregnant women was less than the requirement, which should call for attention.
Rosa, Regis G.; Goldani, Luciano Z.
Purpose This study sought to evaluate factors associated with hospital length of stay in cancer patients with febrile neutropenia. Methods A prospective cohort study was performed at a single tertiary referral hospital in southern Brazil from October 2009 to August 2011. All adult cancer patients with febrile neutropenia admitted to the hematology ward were evaluated. Stepwise random-effects negative binomial regression was performed to identify risk factors for prolonged length of hospital stay. Results In total, 307 cases of febrile neutropenia were evaluated. The overall median length of hospital stay was 16 days (interquartile range 18 days). According to multiple negative binomial regression analysis, hematologic neoplasms (P = 0.003), high-dose chemotherapy regimens (P<0.001), duration of neutropenia (P<0.001), and bloodstream infection involving Gram-negative multi-drug-resistant bacteria (P = 0.003) were positively associated with prolonged hospital length of stay in patients with febrile neutropenia. The condition index showed no evidence of multi-collinearity effect among the independent variables. Conclusions Hematologic neoplasms, high-dose chemotherapy regimens, prolonged periods of neutropenia, and bloodstream infection with Gram-negative multi-drug-resistant bacteria are predictors of prolonged length hospital of stay among adult cancer patients with febrile neutropenia. PMID:25285790
Jack, B; Hillier, V; Williams, A; Oldham, J
Pain is reported to occur in the majority of patients with advanced cancer and is one of the main reasons for referral to a hospital specialist palliative care team. Yet despite this, there is a paucity of research into the impact the hospital specialist palliative care team has on pain control in patients. A non-equivalent control group design using a quota sample investigated 100 cancer patients who had been admitted to hospital for symptom control. Fifty patients received specialist hospital palliative care team intervention compared with 50 patients receiving traditional care. Outcome was assessed using the Palliative Care Assessment (PACA) tool on three occasions. There was no difference between the groups on the initial assessment and the results indicated that all cancer patients admitted to hospital had a significant improvement in their pain control. However, the patients who had the additional input of the palliative care team demonstrated a statistically significant greater improvement than the control group (P<0.001). Potential explanations are made for the results including the enhanced knowledge and skills of the hospital specialist palliative care team.
Govaert, Johannes A; Govaert, Marc J P M; Fiocco, Marta; van Dijk, Wouter A; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Wouters, Michel W J M
Background Due to increasing healthcare costs, discussions regarding increased hospital costs when operating on high-risk patients is rising. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze if oldest-old colorectal cancer patients have a greater impact on hospital costs than their younger counterparts. All colorectal cancer procedures performed in 29 Dutch hospitals between 2010 and 2012 and listed in the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit were analyzed. Oldest-old patients (≥85 years) were compared to patients <85 years. Ninety-day hospital costs were measured uniformly in all hospitals based on time-driven activity-based costs. Compared to <85-year-old patients (n = 9130), the oldest old (n = 783) had longer hospital stays (LOS) (11.3 vs. 13.2, P < 0.001), more severe complications (21.8% vs. 29.0%, P < 0.001), more failure to rescue (13.9% vs. 37.0%, P < 0.001) and higher mortality (3.0% vs. 10.7%, P < 0.001). Deceased oldest-old patients had significantly less LOS and less LOS ICU. Total hospital costs were 3% lower for oldest-old patients (€13,168) than for <85-year-old patients (€13,644, P < 0.001). In cases of severe complications or death, hospital costs for the oldest old were 25% and 31% lower than those of <85-year-old patients (both P < 0.001). Although frequently assumed to be more expensive, operating on oldest-old patients with colorectal cancer does not increase hospital costs compared to younger patients. This was most likely due to faster deterioration or less aggressive treatment of oldest-old patients when (severe) complications occurred. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:1009-1015. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Liu, Xiao-bin; Cui, Biao; Zhang, Bing-jian
The components of ancient mortars have always been an important research field in historic building conservation. It has been well known that using traditional mortars in conservation projects have many advantages, such as compatibility and stability. So, developing new binding materials based on traditional mortar has become an international study hotspot. With China's economic development, the protection of ancient buildings also began to put on the agenda, but the understanding on Chinese traditional mortar is limited, and rare literatures are reported. In the present work, the authors investigate seven ancient city wall sites in Zhejiang Province in situ, and subsequently laboratory analysis were carried out on collected mortar samples. The characterizations of mortar samples were made by multi-density gauge, XRD, FTIR, TG-DSC and wet chemical analysis. The experimental results showed that: the main component of masonry mortars is calcium carbonate, the content between 75% - 90%, and they should be made from relatively pure lime mortar. The raw materials of mortar samples were mainly calcareous quick lime, and sample from Taizhou city also contained magnesium quick lime. There are four city walls were built by sticky-rice mortars. It suggests that the technology of adding the sticky rice soup into mortar was universal in the Ming Dynasties. These mortars have lower density between 1.2 and 1.9 g x cm(-3); this outcome should be the result of long-term natural erosion. We have also analyzed other chemical and physical characteristics of these masonry mortars. The results can afford the basic data for the future repairmen programs, development of new protective materials, and comparative study of mortars.
Kilsdonk, Melvin J; Siesling, Sabine; Otter, Rene; van Harten, Wim H
External peer review was introduced in general hospitals in the Netherlands in 1994 to assess and improve the multidisciplinary team approach in cancer care. This paper aims to explore the value, perceived impact, and (future) role of external peer review in cancer care. Semistructured interviews were held with clinicians, oncology nurses, and managers from fifteen general hospitals that participated in three rounds of peer review over a period of 16 years. Interviewees reflected on the goals and expectations, experiences, perceived impact, and future role of external peer review. Transcriptions of the interviews were coded to discover recurrent themes. Improving clinical care and organization were the main motives for participation. Positive impact was perceived on multiple aspects of care such as shared responsibilities, internal prioritization of cancer care, improved communication, and a clear structure and position of cancer care within general hospitals. Establishing a direct relationship between the external peer review and organizational or clinical impact proved to be difficult. Criticism was raised on the content of the program being too theoretical and organization-focussed after three rounds. According to most stakeholders, external peer review can improve multidisciplinary team work in cancer care; however, the acceptance is threatened by a perceived disbalance between effort and visible clinical impact. Leaner and more clinically focused programs are needed to keep repeated peer reviews challenging and worthwhile. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zafar, Waleed; Ghafoor, Irum; Jamshed, Arif; Gul, Sabika; Hafeez, Haroon
To review all episodes where an emergency code was called in a cancer-specialized hospital in Pakistan and to assess survival to discharge among patients who received a cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We reviewed demographic and clinical data related to all "code blue" calls over 3 years. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test the association of clinical characteristics with the primary outcome of survival to discharge. A total of 646 code blue calls were included in the analysis. The CPR was performed in 388 (60%) of these calls. For every 20 episodes of CPR among patients with cancer of all ages, only 1 resulted in a patient's survival to discharge, even though in 52.2% episodes there was a return of spontaneous circulation. No association was found between the type of rhythm at initiation of CPR and likelihood of survival to discharge. The proportion of patients with advanced cancer surviving to discharge after in-hospital CPR in a low-income country was in line with the reported international experience. Most patients with cancer who received in-hospital CPR did not survive to discharge and did not appear to benefit from resuscitation. Advance directives by patients with cancer limiting aggressive interventions at end of life and proper documentation of these directives will help in provision of care that is humane and consonant with patients' wishes for a dignified death. Patients' early appreciation of the limited benefits of CPR in advanced cancer is likely to help them formulate such advance directives.
Nathan, Hari; Atoria, Coral L; Bach, Peter B; Elkin, Elena B
Hospital surgical volume has been shown to correlate with short-term outcomes after cancer surgery, but the relationship between volume and cost of care is unclear. We sought to characterize variation in payments for cancer surgery and assess the relationship between hospital volume and payments. Using 2000 to 2007 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data, we assessed risk-adjusted 30-day episode Medicare payments for elderly patients undergoing one of six procedures for resection of cancer. Payments for the index hospitalization, readmissions, physician services, emergency room visits, and postdischarge ancillary care were analyzed, as were data on 30-day mortality and complications. The analysis included 31,191 colectomies, 2,670 cystectomies, 1,514 pancreatectomies, 2,607 proctectomies, 12,228 prostatectomies, and 10,151 pulmonary lobectomies. There was substantial variation in cost; differences between the first and third terciles of cost varied from 27% for cystectomy to 40% for colectomy. The majority of variation (66% to 82%) was attributable to payments for the index admission rather than readmissions or physician services. There were no meaningful associations between total risk-adjusted payments and hospital volume. Surgical mortality was low, but complication rates ranged from 10% (prostatectomy) to 56% (lobectomy). Complication rates were not correlated with hospital volume, but occurrence of complications was associated with 47% to 70% higher costs. We found substantial variation in Medicare payments for these six cancer procedures. Cost was strongly associated with postoperative complications and primarily driven by differences in the cost of the index hospitalization. Efforts to prevent and cost-effectively manage complications are more likely to reduce costs than volume-based referral of cancer surgery alone. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Liao, Kai-Ping; Krause, Trudy M.; Giordano, Sharon H.
Purpose The Affordable Care Act expanded access to health insurance in the United States, but concerns have arisen about access to specialized cancer care within narrow provider networks. To characterize the scope and potential impact of this problem, we assessed rates of inclusion of Commission on Cancer (CoC) –accredited hospitals and National Cancer Institute (NCI) –designated cancer centers within federal exchange networks. Methods We downloaded publicly available machine-readable network data and public use files for individual federal exchange plans from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for the 2016 enrollment year. We linked this information to National Provider Identifier data, identified a set of distinct provider networks, and assessed the rates of inclusion of CoC-accredited hospitals and NCI-designated centers. We measured variation in these rates according to geography, plan type, and metal level. Results Of 4,058 unique individual plans, network data were available for 3,637 (90%); hospital information was available for 3,531 (87%). Provider lists for these plans reduced into 295 unique networks for analysis. Ninety-five percent of networks included at least one CoC-accredited hospital, but just 41% of networks included NCI-designated centers. States and counties each varied substantially in the proportion of networks listed that included NCI-designated centers (range, 0% to 100%). The proportion of networks that included NCI-designated centers also varied by plan type (range, 31% for health maintenance organizations to 49% for preferred provider organizations; P = .04) but not by metal level. Conclusion A large majority of federal exchange networks contain CoC-accredited hospitals, but most do not contain NCI-designated cancer centers. These results will inform policy regarding access to cancer care, and they reinforce the importance of promoting access to clinical trials and specialized care through community sites. PMID:28068172
Wei, J P; Sherry, R M; Baisden, B L; Peckel, J; Lala, G
Breast-conserving surgery is equivalent to total mastectomy in the treatment of breast cancer. The Southern part of the United States has a low rate of breast conservation. We surveyed 300 women: 100 hospital personnel, 100 cancer clinic patients, and 100 non-cancer clinic patients. The women were asked about their attitudes toward breast cancer, surgery preferences, and factors that might influence their decisions. One hundred eighty-nine chose mastectomy as the best operation, 106 women chose lumpectomy, and five women were undecided. There was no difference in mean age, racial distribution, education level, income level, percentage of women who considered themselves Southern women, concerns about breast cancer, recent mammograms, previous breast surgery, previous breast cancer treatment, or acquaintances with breast cancer between the mastectomy and the lumpectomy groups. Women interested in saving the breast were more likely to pick lumpectomy (35 vs. 84%, p = 0.001). A fear of cancer recurrence played a role in the decision (88 vs. 40%, p = 0.001). Fear of radiation therapy (76 vs. 57%, p = 0.002) and of the side effects (80 vs. 63%, p = 0.005) was a significant factor. The choice of surgery for breast cancer is an individual process between a woman and her surgeon. Attitudes and fears regarding cancer recurrence and radiation therapy may make women select mastectomy over lumpectomy.
Shin, Hai-Rim; Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo
Purpose To estimate the number of cancer cases during 2002 in Korea through a nationwide hospital based cancer registration by the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR). Materials and Methods One hundred and thirty nine hospitals participated in the KCCR program in 2002. Cancer cases were coded and classified according to the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology 2nd edition (ICD-O-2). The software program "IARC Check" was used to evaluate the quality of registered cancer cases. Of the 122,770 malignancies registered, 11,732 (9.6%) duplicated malignancies were excluded. Among the remaining 102,677 malignancies, 3,652 (3.6%) cases with carcinoma in situ (Morphology code/2) were separated. Finally, 99,025 malignancies were analyzed. Results Of the total of 99,025 malignancies, 55,398 (55.9%) cases were males and 43,627 (44.1%) were females. More than one third of cases were from the elderly (65 years old and more). The six leading primary cancer sites in the order of their relative frequency, were stomach (24.0%), followed by the lung (16.0%), the liver (15.4%), the colorectum (11.6%), the bladder (3.2%), and the prostate (3.0%) among males. In females, the breast (16.8%) was the common cancer site, followed by the stomach (15.3%), the colorectum (10.7%), the thyroid gland (9.5%), the cervix uteri (9.1%), and the lung (6.6%). Conclusion With the continued increase in cancer cases especially prostate cancer among males and thyroid cancer among females, the total number of registered cancer cases in Korea continues to rapidly increase. PMID:20396549
Shavi, Girish R; Thakur, Bhanupriya; Bhambal, Ajay; Jain, Swapnil; Singh, Vani; Shukla, Ankita
To assess the oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) of head and neck cancer patients and to find association between QoL, demographic and disease variables. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 153 patients diagnosed and being treated for head and neck cancer in Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital, India. Data collected from the survey included demographic details and OHRQoL, which was measured by European Organization of Research for Treatment of Cancer QoL questionnaire head & neck-35. Cancer measurements (location of tumor, stages of cancer, treatment type) were collected from the patient's hospital records. The majority of the population 84 (54.9%) belonged to 41-60 years age group and most of them were male (78.4%). The most frequent site of the primary tumor was the oral cavity (71.3%) and the majority of patients had Stage II and III cancer. Main factors affecting QoL were loss of weight, use of painkillers, sticky saliva, reduced mouth opening and problems in social eating. Significant association found between pain (P = 0.044), swallowing (P = 0.018), sense (P = 0.001), Social eating (P = 0.003), social contact (P = 0.008), reduced mouth opening (P = 0.008) with respect to type of treatment. We conclude that there was a significant reduction in the QoL in cancer patients resulting from myriad forms of cancers. An assessment of the QoL and symptoms can help the dentist to direct attention to most important symptoms and provide counseling for appropriate interventions towards improving QoL outcomes and the response to the treatment.
Yu, Daxiong; Ma, Ruijie; Fang, Jianqiao
There are many eminent acupuncture masters in modern times in the regions of Zhejiang province, which has developed the acupuncture schools of numerous characteristics and induces the important impacts at home and abroad. Through the literature collection on the acupuncture schools in Zhejiang and the interviews to the parties involved, it has been discovered that the acupuncture manipulation techniques of acupuncture masters in modern times are specifically featured. Those techniques are developed on the basis of Neijing (Internal Classic), Jinzhenfu (Ode to Gold Needle) and Zhenjiu Dacheng (Great Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion). No matter to obey the old maxim or study by himself, every master lays the emphasis on the research and interpretation of classical theories and integrates the traditional with the modern. In the paper, the acupuncture manipulation techniques of Zhejiang acupuncture masters in modern times are stated from four aspects, named needling techniques in Internal Classic, feijingzouqi needling technique, penetrating needling technique and innovation of acupuncture manipulation.
Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang
Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.
Ismail, A.; Hassan, Noor I.
Cancer is one of the principal causes of death in Malaysia. This study was performed to determine the pattern of rate of cancer deaths at a public hospital in Malaysia over an 11 year period from year 2001 to 2011, to determine the best fitted model of forecasting the rate of cancer deaths using Univariate Modeling and to forecast the rates for the next two years (2012 to 2013). The medical records of the death of patients with cancer admitted at this Hospital over 11 year's period were reviewed, with a total of 663 cases. The cancers were classified according to 10th Revision International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Data collected include socio-demographic background of patients such as registration number, age, gender, ethnicity, ward and diagnosis. Data entry and analysis was accomplished using SPSS 19.0 and Minitab 16.0. The five Univariate Models used were Naïve with Trend Model, Average Percent Change Model (ACPM), Single Exponential Smoothing, Double Exponential Smoothing and Holt's Method. The overall 11 years rate of cancer deaths showed that at this hospital, Malay patients have the highest percentage (88.10%) compared to other ethnic groups with males (51.30%) higher than females. Lung and breast cancer have the most number of cancer deaths among gender. About 29.60% of the patients who died due to cancer were aged 61 years old and above. The best Univariate Model used for forecasting the rate of cancer deaths is Single Exponential Smoothing Technique with alpha of 0.10. The forecast for the rate of cancer deaths shows a horizontally or flat value. The forecasted mortality trend remains at 6.84% from January 2012 to December 2013. All the government and private sectors and non-governmental organizations need to highlight issues on cancer especially lung and breast cancers to the public through campaigns using mass media, media electronics, posters and pamphlets in the attempt to decrease the rate of cancer deaths in Malaysia.
Zhou, Anju; Wu, Weiwei; Liu, Qiuling; Wu, Yeda; Lu, Dejian
Genetic variations of the 17 NGM SElect STR loci in Chinese Han samples from the Zhejiang region were analyzed. The results show that the NGM SElect is a highly genetic informative system in Zhejiang Han, and this population shows quite different genetic data from other major populations in the world with the exception of the Fujian Han.
Manzanares-Laya, S; Burón, A; Murta-Nascimento, C; Servitja, S; Castells, X; Macià, F
Hospital cancer registries and hospital databases are valuable and efficient sources of information for research into cancer recurrences. The aim of this study was to develop and validate algorithms for the detection of breast cancer recurrence. A retrospective observational study was conducted on breast cancer cases from the cancer registry of a third level university hospital diagnosed between 2003 and 2009. Different probable cancer recurrence algorithms were obtained by linking the hospital databases and the construction of several operational definitions, with their corresponding sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. A total of 1,523 patients were diagnosed of breast cancer between 2003 and 2009. A request for bone gammagraphy after 6 months from the first oncological treatment showed the highest sensitivity (53.8%) and negative predictive value (93.8%), and a pathology test after 6 months after the diagnosis showed the highest specificity (93.8%) and negative predictive value (92.6%). The combination of different definitions increased the specificity and the positive predictive value, but decreased the sensitivity. Several diagnostic algorithms were obtained, and the different definitions could be useful depending on the interest and resources of the researcher. A higher positive predictive value could be interesting for a quick estimation of the number of cases, and a higher negative predictive value for a more exact estimation if more resources are available. It is a versatile and adaptable tool for other types of tumors, as well as for the needs of the researcher. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
As the quantity of elderly Americans requiring oncologic care grows, and as cancer treatment and medicine become more advanced, assessing quality of cancer care becomes a necessary and advantageous practice for any facility.' Such analysis is especially practical in small community hospitals, which may not have the resources of their larger academic counterparts to ensure that the care being provided is current and competitive in terms of both technique and outcome. This study is a comparison of the colorectal cancer care at one such center, Falmouth Community Hospital (FCH)--located in Falmouth, Massachusetts, about an hour and a half away from the nearest metropolitan center--to the care provided at a major nearby Boston Tertiary Center (BTC) and at teaching and research facilities across New England and the United States. The metrics used to measure performance encompass both outcome (survival rate data) as well as technique, including quality of surgery (number of lymph nodes removed) and the administration of adjuvant treatments, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, as per national guidelines. All data for comparison between FCH and BTC were culled from those hospitals' tumor registries. Data for the comparison between FCH and national tertiary/referral centers were taken from the American College of Surgeons' Commission on Cancer, namely National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) statistics, Hospital Benchmark Reports and Practice Profile Reports. The results showed that, while patients at FCH were diagnosed at both a higher age and at a more advanced stage of colorectal cancer than their BTC counterparts, FCH stands up favorably to BTC and other large centers in terms of the metrics referenced above. Quality assessment such as the analysis conducted here can be used at other community facilities to spotlight, and ultimately eliminate, deficiencies in cancer programs.
Rowlands, S; Callen, J
The aim of the study was to explore how patient information is communicated between health professionals within a multidisciplinary hospital-based lung cancer team and to identify mechanisms to improve these communications. A qualitative method was employed using semi-structured in-depth interviews with a representative sample (n = 22) of members of a multidisciplinary hospital-based lung cancer team including medical, nursing and allied health professionals. Analysis was undertaken using a thematic grounded theory approach to derive key themes to describe communication patterns within the team and how communication could be improved. Two themes with sub-themes were identified: (1) characteristics of communication between team members including the impact of role on direction of communications, and doctors' dominance in communications; and (2) channels of communication including, preference for face-to-face and the suboptimal roles of the Multidisciplinary Team Meeting and the hospital medical record as mediums for communication. Traditional influences of role delineation and the dominance of doctors were found to impact on communication within the multidisciplinary hospital-based lung cancer team. Existing guidelines on implementation of multidisciplinary cancer care fail to address barriers to effective team communication. The paper-based medical record does not support team communications and alternative electronic solutions need to be used. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Bickell, Nina A; Moss, Alexandra DeNardis; Castaldi, Maria; Shah, Ajay; Sickles, Alan; Pappas, Peter; Lewis, Theophilus; Kemeny, Margaret; Arora, Shalini; Schleicher, Lori; Fei, Kezhen; Franco, Rebeca; McAlearney, Ann Scheck
To identify key organizational approaches associated with underuse of breast cancer care. Nine New York City area safety-net hospitals. Mixed qualitative-quantitative, cross-sectional cohort. We used qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) of key stakeholder interviews, defined organizational "conditions," calibrated conditions, and identified solution pathways. We defined underuse as no radiation after lumpectomy in women <75 years or mastectomy in women with ≥4 positive nodes, or no systemic therapy in women with tumors ≥1 cm. We used hierarchical models to assess organizational and patient factors' impact on underuse. Underuse varied by hospital (8-29 percent). QCA found lower underuse sites designated individuals to track and follow-up no-shows; shared clinical information during handoffs; had fully integrated electronic medical records enabling transfer of responsibility across specialties; had strong system support; allocated resources to cancer clinics; had a patient-centered culture paying close organizational attention to clinic patients. High underuse sites lacked these characteristics. Multivariate modeling found that hospitals with strong approaches to follow-up had low underuse rates (RR = 0.28; 0.08-0.95); individual patient characteristics were not significant. At safety-net hospitals, underuse of needed cancer therapies is associated with organizational approaches to track and follow-up treatment. Findings provide varying approaches to safety nets to improve cancer care delivery. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Tapan, Umit; Lee, Shin Yin; Weinberg, Janice; Kolachalama, Vijaya B; Francis, Jean; Charlot, Marjory; Hartshorn, Kevan; Chitalia, Vipul
While racial disparity in colorectal cancer survival have previously been studied, whether this disparity exists in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer receiving care at safety net hospitals (and therefore of similar socioeconomic status) is poorly understood. We examined racial differences in survival in a cohort of patients with stage IV colorectal cancer treated at the largest safety net hospital in the New England region, which serves a population with a majority (65%) of non-Caucasian patients. Data was extracted from the hospital's electronic medical record. Survival differences among different racial and ethnic groups were examined graphically using Kaplan-Meier analysis. A univariate cox proportional hazards model and a multivariable adjusted model were generated. Black patients had significantly lower overall survival compared to White patients, with median overall survival of 1.9 years and 2.5 years respectively. In a multivariate analysis, Black race posed a significant hazard (HR 1.70, CI 1.01-2.90, p=0.0467) for death. Though response to therapy emerged as a strong predictor of survival (HR=0.4, CI=0.2-0.7, p=0.0021), it was comparable between Blacks and Whites. Despite presumed equal access to healthcare and socioeconomic status within a safety-net hospital system, our results reinforce findings from previous studies showing lower colorectal cancer survival in Black patients, and also point to the importance of investigating other factors such as genetic and pathologic differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jacobs, Shana; Mowbray, Catriona; Cates, Lauren Muser; Baylor, Allison; Gable, Christopher; Skora, Elizabeth; Estrada, Monica; Cheng, Yao; Wang, Jichuan; Lewin, Daniel; Hinds, Pamela
Adolescents with cancer experience many troubling symptoms, including sleep disruptions that can affect mood and quality of life. Massage is a safe and popular intervention that has demonstrated efficacy in pediatric and adult patients with cancer. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of conducting a massage intervention to help with sleep in hospitalized adolescent oncology patients. Adolescents ages 12-21 with cancer who were expected to be hospitalized for at least four consecutive nights were recruited from the inpatient unit at Children's National Health System and randomized to either massage intervention or a waitlist control. Patients in the intervention group received one massage per night, for two or three nights. Sleep was measured with actigraphy and patient and proxy reported instruments were used to measure fatigue, mood, and anxiety. The majority (78%) of patients approached for the study consented, and almost all patients in the intervention group (94%) received at least one massage, 69% received two, and rates of completion of instruments among adolescents were high demonstrating feasibility. There were trends toward increased night time and overall sleep in the intervention group compared with standard of care, but no differences between groups in the patient reported outcome measures. Participant and parent feedback on the intervention was positive and was the impetus for starting a clinical massage service at the hospital. Massage for hospitalized adolescents with cancer is feasible, well received, and can potentially improve patients' sleep. A randomized multicenter efficacy study is warranted. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Timmermann, C; Uhrenfeldt, L; Birkelund, R
This study explores how cancer patients experience the meaning of positive sensory impressions in the hospital environment such as architecture, decoration and the interior. Data were obtained at a general hospital in Denmark by interviewing six cancer patients at two different wards. The analysis process was guided by the hermeneutical-phenomenological theory of interpretation as presented by the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur. Two main themes were identified: to preserve identity and positive thoughts and feelings. The participants experienced that positive sensory impressions in the hospital environment had a significant impact on their mood, generating positive thoughts and feelings. A view to nature also helped them to forget their negative thoughts for a while. The possibility of having a view helped some cancer patients to connect with good memories and personal life stories that enabled them to recall some of their feelings of identity. This paper adds knowledge about how cancer patients experience sensory impressions in the hospital environment. An environment that provides homeliness and offers a view to nature seems to help some patients to preserve their identity. Furthermore, positive sensory impressions and the opportunity for recreation through environmental facilities strengthen the patient's positive thoughts and feelings. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Saunders, Neil David; Nichols, Shawnn D; Antiporda, Michael Alfredo; Johnson, Kristen; Walker, Kerri; Nilsson, Rhonda; Graham, Lisa; Old, Matt; Klisovic, Rebecca B; Penza, Sam; Schmidt, Carl R
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), under the Hospitals Readmissions Reductions Program, may withhold regular reimbursements for excessive 30-day readmissions for select diagnoses. Such penalties imply that some readmissions reflect poor clinical decision making or care during the initial hospitalization. We examined factors related to potentially preventable readmissions in CMS patients at a tertiary cancer hospital. The medical records of all CMS patients with unplanned readmissions within 30 days of index admission were reviewed over 6 months (October 15, 2011-April 15, 2012). Each readmission was classified as not preventable or potentially preventable. Factors associated with potentially preventable readmissions were sought. Of 2,531 inpatient admissions in CMS patients over 6 months, 185 patients experienced at least one readmission for 282 total readmissions (11%). Median time to readmission was 9 days (range, 0 to 30 days). The most common causes for first readmission were new diagnoses not present at first admission (n = 43, 23%), new or worsening symptoms due to cancer progression (n = 40, 21%) and complications of procedures (n = 25, 13%). There were 38 (21%) initial readmissions classified as potentially preventable. Use of total parenteral nutrition at the time of discharge was associated with potentially preventable readmission (P = .028). Most unplanned readmissions to a tertiary cancer hospital are related to progression of disease, new diagnoses, and procedure complications. Minimizing readmissions in complex cancer patients is challenging. Larger multi-institutional datasets are needed to determine a reasonable standard for expected readmission rates. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Maire, Frédérique; Cibot, Jean-Olivier; Compagne, Catherine; Hentic, Olivia; Hammel, Pascal; Muller, Nelly; Ponsot, Philippe; Levy, Philippe; Ruszniewski, Philippe
Although indirect evidence suggests that the incidence of pancreatic adenocarcinoma has increased in the last decade, few data are available in European countries. The aim of the present study was to update the epidemiology of pancreatic cancer in France in 2014 from the French national hospital database (Programme de Médicalisation des Systèmes d'Information). All patients hospitalized for pancreatic cancer in France in 2014 in public or private institutions were included. Patient and stays (length, type of support, institutions) characteristics were studied. The results were compared with those observed in 2010. A total of 13 346 (52% men, median age 71 years) new patients were treated for pancreatic cancer in 2014, accounting for a 12.5% increase compared with 2010. Overall, 22% of patients were operated on. Liver metastases were present in 60% of cases. The disease accounted for 146 680 hospital stays (+24.8% compared with 2010), 76% of which were related to chemotherapy (+32%). The average annual number and length of stay were 7 and 2.6 days, respectively. In 2014, 11 052 deaths were reported (+15.8%). Approximately 13 350 new cases of pancreatic cancer were observed in France in 2014. The increase in incidence was associated with a marked increase in hospital stays for chemotherapy.
Aldiss, Susie; Horstman, Maire; O'Leary, Chris; Richardson, Alison; Gibson, Faith
This paper reports on a participatory research project exploring children's experiences and views of cancer care services. It focusses on findings from interviews conducted with 10 children aged four and five years old. Play and puppets were used to help children express their views. The themes elicited reveal important aspects of hospital care…
Goyal, Sandeep; Tiwari, Vijay Kumar; Nair, Kesavan Sreekantan; Raj, Sherin
The present study conducted with 100 oral cancer patients at a private tertiary care hospital in Delhi demonstrated that stage III cancer was associated with longer use of tobacco and poor oral hygiene. There was also statistically significant association (p<.05) between consumption of tobacco and alcohol. More than 60% treatment expenditure was on surgery followed by accommodation (9%) and investigations (8%). The effect of tobacco was well known among patients as 76% of the patients knew that common cancer in tobacco chewer is 'oral cancer', 22% of the patients however responded that they did not know which cancer is common in tobacco chewers. 58% said that they learnt about ill effects of tobacco from media while 24% said they learnt from family and friends. Out of 78 tobacco users, 60 (77%) said that they never received help to quit tobacco while 18(23%) have received help to quit.
Johnson, R; Horne, B; Feltbower, R; Butler, G; Glaser, A
Aims: To identify attendance patterns in a childhood cancer long term follow up clinic, in order to inform decision making strategies for efficient, cost effective local and national surveillance of survivors. Methods: Cross-sectional review of 385 individuals >5 years from completion of cancer therapy in childhood or adolescence, attending a regional paediatric oncology and haematology centre. Results: Attenders were younger than non-attenders in the <18 age group; no differences were found for ⩾18 year age group. Those attending clinic were more recently off treatment; no significant difference existed for those <7 years from completion of therapy. A greater proportion of attenders were in the most affluent socioeconomic groups with a greater proportion of non-attenders in the lower groups. Those in full time education or training were more likely to attend and those unemployed were less likely. Multiple regression analysis confirmed a significant trend in reduction in attendance with increasing social deprivation, and that attenders were more than twice as likely to be in full time education or training. Conclusions: Following cancer treatment in childhood and adolescence, attendance at long term follow up programmes is determined by social factors including education, employment, and deprivation. PMID:15033851
Kandel, Bishnu Prasad; Singh, Yogendra; Singh, Keshav Prasad; Khakurel, Mahesh
Gastric cancer perforation can occurs in advanced stage of the disease and is often associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Peritonitis due to perforation needs emergency laparotomy and different surgical procedures can be performed for definitive treatment. Surgical procedures largely depend on the stage of the disease and general condition of the patient. This study was carried out to evaluate the outcome and role of different surgical procedures in gastric cancer perforation. Medical record of patients with gastric perforation, who were treated during ten years period, was reviewed retrospectively. Data regarding clinical presentation, surgical procedures, staging and survival of patients were obtained. Features suggestive of diffuse peritonitis were evident in all cases. The majority of the patients underwent emergency surgery except one who died during resuscitation. The majority of patients were in stage III and stage IV. Surgical procedure includes simple closure and omental patch in five patients, simple closure and gastrojejunostomy in nine patients, gastrectomy in six patients and Devine's antral exclusion in one patient. Surgical site infection was the most common (45.5%) postoperative complication. Four patients died within one month of the surgery. Three patients who underwent gastrectomy survived for one year and one patient survived for five years. Although gastric cancer perforation usually occurs in advanced stage of the disease, curative resection should be considered as far as possible.
Feng, Yan; Zhong, Shu-ling; Xu, Chang-ping; Shi, Wen; Lu, Yi-yu
To analyze the molecular epidemiological characteristic of rubella virus strains isolated in Zhejiang province from 2005 to 2010, to provide basic data for rubella prevention and control. Rubella virus strains were isolated on Vero cells from the suspected patients' specimens collected in Zhejiang province during 2005 to 2010. Partial fragments of the structural gene of Zhejiang rubella strains were amplified, using nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The amplified products were sequences and analyzed. In total, 7 rubella strains were isolated from 52 clinical specimens, of which six were classified as genotype 1E and only one was characterized as genotype 2B. In the phylogenetic tree, the Zhejiang 1E genotype rubella strains were located in the same branches with Hongkong or Hainan isolates respectively, but the Zhejiang 2B genotype strain were located in the same branch with oversea strain BuenosAires. ARG/46.08. Through p-distance analysis, results also showed that the Zhejiang 2B genotype strain was closer to the 2B strains isolated from overseas (0.011) than those strains from other provinces of China (0.023). Compared with Chinese vaccine strain BRD II, the homology on three structural genes was C > E2 > E1, but the homology of deduced amino acid sequence was E1 > C > E2, with corresponding 3, 11 and 23 amino acid mutations. There was only one amino acid on E1 gene with entropy value higher than 0.600, but seven sites on E2 gene with entropy value appeared higher than 0.600 and one with entropy value higher than 1.000. Two genotypes of rubella virus had circulated in Zhejiang province during 2005 to 2010. Genotype 1E appeared to be the predominant genotype and 2B being an imported one. Amino acid sequence of E1 gene from Zhejiang rubella strains was comparatively conserved, but E2 gene was hypervariable. Study on rubella virus E2 and C gene should be conducted in the epidemiological surveillance program of rubella.
Chen, Wen; Zhu, Ming-Dong; Yan, Xiao-Lan; Lin, Li-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Feng; Li, Li; Wen, Li-Yong
To understand and evaluate the quality of feces examination for schistosomiasis in province-level laboratories of Zhejiang Province. With the single-blind method, the stool samples were detected by the stool hatching method and sediment detection method. In the 3 quality control assessments in 2006, 2008 and 2009, most laboratories finished the examinations on time. The accordance rates of detections were 88.9%, 100% and 93.9%, respectively. The province-level laboratories for schistosomiasis feces examination of Zhejiang Province is coming into standardization, and the techniques of schistosomiasis feces examination are optimized gradually.
Newton, Ashley N; Ewer, Sid R
This study uses longitudinal data of inpatient treatment from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's (AHRQ's) Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) to examine the differences in historical trends and build future projections of charges, costs, and lengths of stay (LOS) for inpatient treatment of four of the most prevalent cancer types: breast, colon, lung, and prostate. We stratify our data by hospital ownership type and for the aforementioned four major cancer types. We use the Kruskal Wallis (nonparametric ANOVA) Test and time series models to analyze variance and build projections, respectively, for mean charges per discharge, mean costs per discharge, mean LOS per discharge, mean charges per day, and mean costs per day. We find that significant differences exist in both the mean charges per discharge and mean charges per day for breast, colon, lung, and prostate cancers and in the mean LOS per discharge for breast cancer. Additionally, we find that both mean charges and mean costs are forecast to continue increasing while mean LOS are forecast to continue decreasing over the forecast period 2008 to 2012. The methodologies we employ may be used by individual hospital systems, and by health care policy-makers, for various financial planning purposes. Future studies could examine additional financial and nonfinancial variables for these and other cancer types, test for geographic disparities, or focus on procedural-level hospital measures.
Mason, Meredith C; Chang, George J; Petersen, Laura A; Sada, Yvonne H; Tran Cao, Hop S; Chai, Christy; Berger, David H; Massarweh, Nader N
To evaluate the impact of care at high-performing hospitals on the National Quality Forum (NQF) colon cancer metrics. The NQF endorses evaluating ≥12 lymph nodes (LNs), adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) for stage III patients, and AC within 4 months of diagnosis as colon cancer quality indicators. Data on hospital-level metric performance and the association with survival are unclear. Retrospective cohort study of 218,186 patients with resected stage I to III colon cancer in the National Cancer Data Base (2004-2012). High-performing hospitals (>75% achievement) were identified by the proportion of patients achieving each measure. The association between hospital performance and survival was evaluated using Cox shared frailty modeling. Only hospital LN performance improved (15.8% in 2004 vs 80.7% in 2012; trend test, P < 0.001), with 45.9% of hospitals performing well on all 3 measures concurrently in the most recent study year. Overall, 5-year survival was 75.0%, 72.3%, 72.5%, and 69.5% for those treated at hospitals with high performance on 3, 2, 1, and 0 metrics, respectively (log-rank, P < 0.001). Care at hospitals with high metric performance was associated with lower risk of death in a dose-response fashion [0 metrics, reference; 1, hazard ratio (HR) 0.96 (0.89-1.03); 2, HR 0.92 (0.87-0.98); 3, HR 0.85 (0.80-0.90); 2 vs 1, HR 0.96 (0.91-1.01); 3 vs 1, HR 0.89 (0.84-0.93); 3 vs 2, HR 0.95 (0.89-0.95)]. Performance on metrics in combination was associated with lower risk of death [LN + AC, HR 0.86 (0.78-0.95); AC + timely AC, HR 0.92 (0.87-0.98); LN + AC + timely AC, HR 0.85 (0.80-0.90)], whereas individual measures were not [LN, HR 0.95 (0.88-1.04); AC, HR 0.95 (0.87-1.05)]. Less than half of hospitals perform well on these NQF colon cancer metrics concurrently, and high performance on individual measures is not associated with improved survival. Quality improvement efforts should shift focus from individual measures to defining composite measures
He, Ting-Ting; Zuo, An-Jun; Wang, Ji-Gang; Zhao, Peng
The aim of this study is to detect the accumulation status of organochlorine pesticides in breast cancer patients and to explore the relationship between organochlorine pesticides contamination and breast cancer development. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in 56 patients with breast cancer and 46 patients with benign breast disease. We detected the accumulation level of several organochlorine pesticides products (β-hexachlorocyclohexane, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, polychlorinated biphenyls-28, polychlorinated biphenyls-52, pentachlorothioanisole, and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) in breast adipose tissues of all 102 patients using gas chromatography. Thereafter, we examined the expression status of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), and Ki-67 in 56 breast cancer cases by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we analyzed the risk of breast cancer in those patients with organochlorine pesticides contamination using a logistic regression model. Our data showed that breast cancer patients suffered high accumulation levels of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52. However, the concentrations of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52 were not related to clinicopathologic parameters of breast cancer. Further logistic regression analysis showed polychlorinated biphenyls-52 and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane were risk factors for breast cancer. Our results provide new evidence on etiology of breast cancer.
Boisen, Kirsten A; Boisen, Anne; Thomsen, Stine Legarth; Matthiesen, Simon Meggers; Hjerming, Maiken; Hertz, Pernille Grarup
There is a need for youth-friendly hospital environments as the ward environment may affect both patient satisfaction and health outcomes. To involve young people in designing youth-friendly ward environment. We arranged a design competition lasting 42 h (Hackathon). Students in architecture, design, engineering, communication and anthropology participated (27 young adults) - forming eight groups. Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with current or former cancer experience participated as sparring partners. We provided workspace and food during the weekend. The groups presented their products to a jury and relevant stakeholders. The groups created eight unique design concepts. The young designers were extremely flexible listening to ideas and experiences from the young patients, which led to common features including individual and flexible design, privacy in two-bed wardrooms and social contact with other hospitalized AYA. The winning project included an integrated concept for both wardrooms and the AYA day room, including logos and names for the rooms and an 'energy wall' in the day room. A hackathon event was an effective mode of youth participation. The design concepts and ideas were in line with current evidence regarding pleasing hospital environment and youth-friendly inpatient facilities and may be applicable to other young patients.
van Putten, Margreet; Koëter, Marijn; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Lemmens, Valery E P P; Siersema, Peter D; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Verhoeven, Rob H A; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P
The aim of this article was to study the influence of hospital of diagnosis on the probability of receiving curative treatment and its impact on survival among patients with esophageal cancer (EC). Although EC surgery is centralized in the Netherlands, the disease is often diagnosed in hospitals that do not perform this procedure. Patients with potentially curable esophageal or gastroesophageal junction tumors diagnosed between 2005 and 2013 who were potentially curable (cT1-3,X, any N, M0,X) were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Multilevel logistic regression was performed to examine the probability to undergo curative treatment (resection with or without neoadjuvant treatment, definitive chemoradiotherapy, or local tumor excision) according to hospital of diagnosis. Effects of variation in probability of undergoing curative treatment among these hospitals on survival were investigated by Cox regression. All 13,017 patients with potentially curable EC, diagnosed in 91 hospitals, were included. The proportion of patients receiving curative treatment ranged from 37% to 83% and from 45% to 86% in the periods 2005-2009 and 2010-2013, respectively, depending on hospital of diagnosis. After adjustment for patient- and hospital-related characteristics these proportions ranged from 41% to 77% and from 50% to 82%, respectively (both P < 0.001). Multivariable survival analyses showed that patients diagnosed in hospitals with a low probability of undergoing curative treatment had a worse overall survival (hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.20; hazard ratio = 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.24). The variation in probability of undergoing potentially curative treatment for EC between hospitals of diagnosis and its impact on survival indicates that treatment decision making in EC may be improved.
Mueller, Emily L; Walkovich, Kelly J; Mody, Rajen; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Davis, Matthew M
Fever and neutropenia (FN) is a common complication of pediatric cancer treatment, but hospital utilization patterns for this condition are not well described. Data were analyzed from the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID), an all-payer US hospital database, for 2009. Pediatric FN patients were identified using: age ≤19 years, urgent or emergent admit type, non-transferred, and a combination of ICD-9-CM codes for fever and neutropenia. Sampling weights were used to permit national inferences. Pediatric cancer patients accounted for 1.5 % of pediatric hospital discharges in 2009 (n = 110,967), with 10.1 % of cancer-related discharges meeting FN criteria (n = 11,261). Two-fifths of FN discharges had a "short length of stay" (SLOS) of ≤3 days, which accounted for approximately $65.5 million in hospital charges. Upper respiratory infection (6.0 %) and acute otitis media (AOM) (3.7 %) were the most common infections associated with SLOS. Factors significantly associated with SLOS included living in the Midwest region (OR = 1.65, 1.22-2.24) or West region (OR 1.54, 1.11-2.14) versus Northeast, having a diagnosis of AOM (OR = 1.39, 1.03-1.87) or viral infection (OR = 1.63, 1.18-2.25) versus those without those comorbidities, and having a soft tissue sarcoma (OR = 1.47, 1.05-2.04), Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 2.33, 1.62-3.35), or an ovarian/testicular tumor (OR = 1.76, 1.05-2.95) compared with patients without these diagnoses. FN represents a common precipitant for hospitalizations among pediatric cancer patients. SLOS admissions are rarely associated with serious infections, but contribute substantially to the burden of hospitalization for pediatric FN.
Geddie, Patricia I; Wochna Loerzel, Victoria; Norris, Anne E
To explore factors related to unplanned hospital admissions and determine if one or more factors are predictive of unplanned hospital admissions for older adults with cancer. . A prospective longitudinal design and a retrospective chart review. . Adult oncology outpatient infusion centers and inpatient units at Orlando Regional Medical Center in Florida. . A convenience sample of 129 dyads of older adults with cancer and their family caregivers. . Family caregiver demographic and side effect knowledge data were collected prospectively during interviews with family caregivers using a newly developed tool, the Nurse Assessment of Family Caregiver Knowledge and Action Tool. Patient demographic and clinical data were obtained through a retrospective chart review. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate data and examine relationships among variables. . Patient illness characteristics; impaired function; side effects, such as infection, fever, vomiting, and diarrhea; family caregiver knowledge; and unplanned hospital admissions. . Unplanned hospital admissions were more likely to occur when older adults had impaired function and side effects, such as infection, fever, vomiting, and diarrhea. Impaired function and family caregiver knowledge did not moderate the effects of these side effects on unplanned hospital admissions. . Findings suggest that the presence of impaired function and side effects, such as infection, fever, vomiting, and diarrhea, predict unplanned hospital admissions in older adults with cancer during the active treatment phase. Side effects may or may not be related to chemotherapy and may be related to preexisting comorbidities. . Nurses can conduct targeted assessments to identify older adults and their family caregivers who will need additional follow-up and support during the cancer treatment trajectory. Information gained from these assessments will assist nurses to provide practical and
Uppal, Shitanshu; Chapman, Christina; Spencer, Ryan J; Jolly, Shruti; Maturen, Kate; Rauh-Hain, J Alejandro; delCarmen, Marcela G; Rice, Laurel W
To evaluate racial-ethnic disparities in guideline-based care in locally advanced cervical cancer and their relationship to hospital case volume. Using the National Cancer Database, we performed a retrospective cohort study of women diagnosed between 2004 and 2012 with locally advanced squamous or adenocarcinoma of the cervix undergoing definitive primary radiation therapy. The primary outcome was the race-ethnicity-based rates of adherence to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guideline-based care. The secondary outcome was the effect of guideline-based care on overall survival. Multivariable models and propensity matching were used to compare the hospital risk-adjusted rates of guideline-based adherence and overall survival based on hospital case volume. The final cohort consisted of 16,195 patients. The rate of guideline-based care was 58.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 57.4-59.4%) for non-Hispanic white, 53% (95% CI 51.4-54.9%) for non-Hispanic black, and 51.5% (95% CI 49.4-53.7%) for Hispanic women (P<.001). From 2004 to 2012, the rate of guideline-based care increased from 49.5% (95% CI 47.1-51.9%) to 59.1% (95% CI 56.9-61.2%) (Ptrend<.001). Based on a propensity score-matched analysis, patients receiving guideline-based care had a lower risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 0.65, 95% CI 0.62-0.68). Compared with low-volume hospitals, the increase in adherence to guideline-based care in high-volume hospitals was 48-63% for non-Hispanic white, 47-53% for non-Hispanic black, and 41-54% for Hispanic women. Racial and ethnic disparities in the delivery of guideline-based care are the highest in high-volume hospitals. Guideline-based care in locally advanced cervical cancer is associated with improved survival.
McCaughan, Dorothy; Roman, Eve; Smith, Alexandra G; Garry, Anne; Johnson, Miriam; Patmore, Russell; Howard, Martin
Objectives Current UK health policy promotes enabling people to die in a place they choose, which for most is home. Despite this, patients with haematological malignancies (leukaemias, lymphomas and myeloma) are more likely to die in hospital than those with other cancers, and this is often considered a reflection of poor quality end-of-life care. This study aimed to explore the experiences of clinicians and relatives to determine why hospital deaths predominate in these diseases. Methods The study was set within the Haematological Malignancy Research Network (HMRN—www.hmrn.org), an ongoing population-based cohort that provides infrastructure for evidence-based research. Qualitative interviews were conducted with clinical staff in haematology, palliative care and general practice (n=45) and relatives of deceased HMRN patients (n=10). Data were analysed for thematic content and coding and classification was inductive. Interpretation involved seeking meaning, salience and connections within the data. Results Five themes were identified relating to: the characteristics and trajectory of haematological cancers, a mismatch between the expectations and reality of home death, preference for hospital death, barriers to home/hospice death and suggested changes to practice to support non-hospital death, when preferred. Conclusions Hospital deaths were largely determined by the characteristics of haematological malignancies, which included uncertain trajectories, indistinct transitions and difficulties predicting prognosis and identifying if or when to withdraw treatment. Advance planning (where possible) and better communication between primary and secondary care may facilitate non-hospital death. PMID:28663341
Klassen, A C; Celentano, D D; Weisman, C S
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of the study was to examine the efficacy of a Maryland law requiring Pap testing to be offered during hospital admissions. "In-reach" strategies emphasize cancer screening within existing health care contacts (such as inpatient stays) rather than additional visits solely for screening. METHODS. Data from a 1986 telephone survey of Maryland women were used to examine the effect of hospitalization on self-reported Pap testing in a 3-year period. The effect of hospitalization on screening was examined by age and income to assess whether inpatient screening was more prevalent among certain subgroups of women. RESULTS. For the group as a whole, the odds of Pap screening did not vary with hospitalization. However, among women aged 45 to 54 years with annual household incomes over $20,000, hospitalized women were more likely than nonhospitalized women to report recent Pap tests. For low-income women aged 75 years and older, hospitalization actually decreased the likelihood of reporting Pap tests. CONCLUSIONS. Despite legislation, inpatient cervical cancer screening appears to mirror outpatient patterns, leaving elderly and low-income women unscreened. Methods for increasing inpatient Pap testing for underscreened women are discussed. PMID:8363009
Ansmann, Lena; Wirtz, Markus; Kowalski, Christoph; Pfaff, Holger; Visser, Adriaan; Ernstmann, Nicole
Research on determinants of a good patient-physician interaction mainly disregards systemic factors, such as the work environment in healthcare. This study aims to identify stressors and resources within the work environment of hospital physicians that enable or hinder the physicians' provision of social support to patients. Four data sources on 35 German breast cancer center hospitals were matched: structured hospital quality reports and surveys of 348 physicians, 108 persons in hospital leadership, and 1844 patients. Associations between hospital structures, physicians' social resources as well as job demands and control and patients' perceived support from physicians have been studied in multilevel models. Patients feel better supported by their physicians in hospitals with high social capital, a high percentage of permanently employed physicians, and less physically strained physicians. The results highlight the importance of the work environment for a good patient-physician interaction. They can be used to develop interventions for redesigning the hospital work environment, which in turn may improve physician satisfaction, well-being, and performance and consequently the quality of care. Health policy and hospital management could create conditions conducive to better patient-physician interaction by strengthening the social capital and by increasing job security for physicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rama, Ranganathan; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Venkatesan, Perumal
Research on cancer survival is enriched by development and application of innovative analytical approaches in relation to standard methods. The aim of the present paper is to document the utility of a mixture model to estimate the cure fraction and compare it with other approaches. The data were for 1,107 patients with locally advanced breast cancer, who completed the neo-adjuvant treatment protocol during 1990-99 at the Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai, India. Tumour stage, post-operative pathological node (PN) and tumour residue (TR) status were studied. Event free survival probability was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cure models under proportional and non-proportional hazard assumptions following log normal distribution for survival time were used to estimate both the cure fraction and the survival function for the uncured. Event free survival at 5 and 10 years were 64.2% and 52.6% respectively and cure fraction was 47.5% for all cases together. Follow up ranged between 0-15 years and survival probabilities showed minimal changes after 7 years of follow up. TR and PN emerged as independent prognostic factors using Cox and proportional hazard (PH) cure models. Proportionality condition was violated when tumour stage was considered and it was statistically significant only under PH and not under non PH cure models. However, TR and PN continued to be independent prognostic factors after adjusting for tumour stage using the non PH cure model. A consistent ordering of cure fractions with respect to factors of PN and TR was forthcoming across tumour stages using PH and non PH cure models, but perceptible differences in survival were observed between the two. If PH conditions are violated, analysis using a non PH model is advocated and mixture cure models are useful in estimating the cure fraction and constructing survival curves for non-cures.
Meghdari, Ali; Shariati, Azadeh; Alemi, Minoo; Vossoughi, Gholamreza R; Eydi, Abdollah; Ahmadi, Ehsan; Mozafari, Behrad; Amoozandeh Nobaveh, Ali; Tahami, Reza
This article presents the thorough design procedure, specifications, and performance of a mobile social robot friend Arash for educational and therapeutic involvement of children with cancer based on their interests and needs. Our research focuses on employing Arash in a pediatric hospital environment to entertain, assist, and educate children with cancer who suffer from physical pain caused by both the disease and its treatment process. Since cancer treatment causes emotional distress, which can reduce the efficiency of medications, using social robots to interact with children with cancer in a hospital environment could decrease this distress, thereby improving the effectiveness of their treatment. Arash is a 15 degree-of-freedom low-cost humanoid mobile robot buddy, carefully designed with appropriate measures and developed to interact with children ages 5-12 years old. The robot has five physical subsystems: the head, arms, torso, waist, and mobile-platform. The robot's final appearance is a significant novel concept; since it was selected based on a survey taken from 50 children with chronic diseases at three pediatric hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Founded on these measures and desires, Arash was designed, built, improved, and enhanced to operate successfully in pediatric cancer hospitals. Two experiments were devised to evaluate the children's level of acceptance and involvement with the robot, assess their feelings about it, and measure how much the robot was similar to the favored conceptual sketch. Both experiments were conducted in the form of storytelling and appearance/performance evaluations. The obtained results confirm high engagement and interest of pediatric cancer patients with the constructed robot.
Fiva, Jon H; Haegeland, Torbjørn; Rønning, Marte
Survival rates are widely used to compare the quality of cancer care. However, the extent to which cancer survivors regain full physical or cognitive functioning is not captured by this statistic. To address this concern we introduce post-diagnosis employment as a supplemental measure of the quality of cancer care. This study is based on individual level data from the Norwegian Cancer Registry (n = 46,720) linked with data on labor market outcomes and socioeconomic status from Statistics Norway. We study variation across Norwegian hospital catchment areas (n = 55) with respect to survival and employment five years after cancer diagnosis. To handle the selection problem, we exploit the fact that cancer patients in Norway (until 2001) have been allocated to local hospitals based on their place of residence. We document substantial differences across catchment areas with respect to patients' post-diagnosis employment rates. Conventional quality indicators based on survival rates indicate smaller differences. The two sets of indicators are only moderately correlated. This analysis shows that indicators based on survival and post-diagnosis employment may capture different parts of the health status distribution, and that using only one of them to capture quality of care may be insufficient.
Background Survival rates are widely used to compare the quality of cancer care. However, the extent to which cancer survivors regain full physical or cognitive functioning is not captured by this statistic. To address this concern we introduce post-diagnosis employment as a supplemental measure of the quality of cancer care. Methods This study is based on individual level data from the Norwegian Cancer Registry (n = 46,720) linked with data on labor market outcomes and socioeconomic status from Statistics Norway. We study variation across Norwegian hospital catchment areas (n = 55) with respect to survival and employment five years after cancer diagnosis. To handle the selection problem, we exploit the fact that cancer patients in Norway (until 2001) have been allocated to local hospitals based on their place of residence. Results We document substantial differences across catchment areas with respect to patients' post-diagnosis employment rates. Conventional quality indicators based on survival rates indicate smaller differences. The two sets of indicators are only moderately correlated. Conclusions This analysis shows that indicators based on survival and post-diagnosis employment may capture different parts of the health status distribution, and that using only one of them to capture quality of care may be insufficient. PMID:20626866
Shin, Hai-Rim; Won, Young-Joo; Jung, Kyu-Won
Purpose To estimate the number of cancer cases during 2001, in Korea, through a nationwide hospital based cancer registration by the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR). Materials and Methods One hundred and thirty four hospitals participated in the KCCR program in 2001. Cancer cases were coded and classified according to the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology 2nd edition (ICD-O-2). The software program "IARC Check" was used to evaluate the quality of the registered cancer cases. Of the 111,816 malignancies registered, 10,106 (9.0%) duplicated malignancies were excluded. Among the remaining 95,542 malignancies, 3,598 (3.8%) cases with carcinoma in situ (Morphology code/2) were separated. Finally, 91,944 malignancies were analyzed. Results Of the total 91,944 malignancies, 51,753 (56.3%) cases were males and 40,191 (43.7%) were females. More than one third of cases were from the elderly (65 years old and more). The six leading primary cancer sites, in the order of their relative frequency, were stomach (24.1%), followed by the lung (16.0%), the liver (16.0%), the colorectum (10.5%), the bladder (3.4%), and the prostate (2.8%) among males. In females, the breast (16.1%) was the common cancer site, followed by the stomach (15.3%), the colorectum (10.5%), the cervix uteri (10.1%), the thyroid gland (8.3%) and the lung (6.6%). Conclusion With the continued increase in cancer cases, the total number of registered cancer cases in Korea continues to rapidly increase. PMID:20396562
Muñoz-Largacha, Juan A; Steiling, Katrina A; Kathuria, Hasmeena; Charlot, Marjory; Fitzgerald, Carmel; Suzuki, Kei; Litle, Virginia R
Safety net hospitals provide care mostly to low-income, uninsured, and vulnerable populations, in whom delays in cancer screening are established barriers. Socioeconomic barriers might pose important challenges to the success of a lung cancer screening program at a safety net hospital. We aimed to determine screening follow-up compliance, rates of diagnostic and treatment procedures, and the rate of cancer diagnosis in patients classified as category 4 by the Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS 4). We conducted a retrospective review of all patients enrolled in our multidisciplinary lung cancer screening program between March 2015 and July 2016. Demographics, smoking status, Lung-RADS score, and number of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions and cancer diagnoses were captured. A total of 554 patients were screened over a 16-month period. The mean patient age was 63 years (range, 47-85 years), and 60% were male. The majority (92%; 512 of 554) were classified as Lung-RADS 1 to 3, and 8% (42 of 554) were classified as Lung-RADS 4. Among the Lung-RADS 4 patients, 98% (41 of 42) completed their recommended follow-up; 29% (12 of 42) underwent a diagnostic procedure, for an overall diagnostic intervention rate of 2% (12 of 554). Eleven of these 12 patients had cancer, and 1 patient had sarcoidosis. The overall rate of surgical resection was 0.9% (5 of 554), and the rate of diagnostic intervention for noncancer diagnosis was 0.1% (1 of 554). Implementation of a multidisciplinary lung cancer screening program at a safety net hospital is feasible. Compliance with follow-up and interventional recommendations in Lung-RADS 4 patients was high despite anticipated social challenges. Overall diagnostic and surgical resection rates and interventions for noncancer diagnosis were low in our initial experience. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kohler, Racquel E; Tang, Jennifer; Gopal, Satish; Chinula, Lameck; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Liomba, N George; Chiudzu, Grace
Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malawi. National guidelines recommend screening women aged 30-45 years every five years; however, no specific recommendations exist for women with HIV. We aimed to assess the frequency of high-grade dysplasia (CIN 2 or CIN3) and cervical cancer among women in central Malawi and to examine associations with CIN2+ (CIN2/3 or cancer). We extracted cervical Pap smear, biopsy, loop electrosurgical excision procedure and uterine specimen reports from a hospital pathology database from November 2012 to November 2013. We used logistic regression to estimate associations with CIN2+. We reviewed specimens from 824 women; we excluded 194 with unknown HIV status, leaving 630 in the analytic sample. Twelve percent had high-grade dysplasia and 109 women (17%) had cancer. Twenty-five percent of high-grade dysplasia cases and 35% of cancers occurred among women outside recommended screening ages. The odds of having CIN2+ were 6.55 times (95% CI 4.44-9.67) greater for HIV+ women. High-grade dysplasia and cervical cancer are very common among Malawian women, especially HIV+ women. HIV infection was strongly associated with CIN2+. Expanding screening to women not covered by current guidelines could avert a substantial proportion of cervical cancer cases in Malawi. © The Author(s) 2016.
Despite substantial strides to improve cancer control in India, challenges to deliver oncology services persist. One major challenge is the provision and accessibility of adequate infrastructure. This paper offers ethnographic insight on the conceptual and material conditions that are currently shaping the delivery of oncology in Mumbai, focusing specifically on the way India's socio-economic context necessitates non-biomedical acts of voluntarism or 'seva' (selfless service). Developing the premise that hospitals are not identical clones of a biomedical model, detailed attention is paid to the way 'care' emerges through 'praxis of place' (Casey, 2003) within the cancer hospital as a multi-scalar 'heterotopic' (Street and Coleman, 2012) site. Such a perspective enables global/local tensions to come into view, together with the heterogeneous confluence of juxtaposing materialities, imaginations, social practices and values that both propels and constrains the everyday delivery of care. The paper reflects on the theoretical implications of hospital seva in Mumbai in light of social science studies of hospital ethnography and health activism and contributes important ethnographic insight into the current global health debates regarding effective implementation of cancer services in India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Paillaud, E; Caillet, P; Campillo, B; Bories, P N
Malnutrition is common in patients with advanced cancer and is associated with worse prognosis. The aim of this study was to follow-up the nutritional status of elderly patients with advanced cancer in comparison with that of younger ones, in the course of hospitalization. Eighty-eight (44 males and 44 females) patients with advanced cancer entered the study. Two groups were defined according to age : superior 70 y (n = 45) and < 70 y (n = 43). Nutritional status by means of anthropometric variables and daily intake were assessed on Day 0, Day 30 and Day 60. A blood sample was collected on Day 0 for determination of serum proteins. The two groups of patients did not differ in terms of anthropometry and biological variables on admission to our department ; only bicipital skinfold thickness and energy intake were lower in the elderly patients. After one month hospitalization, tricipital skinfold thickness and fat mass decreased in these patients. After two months, mid-arm circumference also decreased. Unlike the older group, the younger patients increased their daily energy and protein intakes. During hospitalization, older persons with advanced cancer cannot improve their energy intake and therefore, are at particular risk of aggravating their nutritional status.
Kee, F; Wilson, R H; Harper, C; Patterson, C C; McCallion, K; Houston, R F; Moorehead, R J; Sloan, J M; Rowlands, B J
To determine whether clinician or hospital caseload affects mortality from colorectal cancer. Cohort study of cases ascertained between 1990 and 1994 by a region-wide colorectal cancer register. Mortality within a median follow up period of 54 months after diagnosis. Of the 3217 new patients registered over the period, 1512 (48%) died before 31 December 1996. Strong predictors of survival both in a logistic regression (fixed follow up) and in a Cox's proportional hazards model (variable follow up) were Duke's stage, the degree of tumour differentiation, whether the liver was deemed clear of cancer by the surgeon at operation, and the type of intervention (elective or emergency and curative or palliative intent). In a multilevel model, surgeon's caseload had no significant effect on mortality at 2 years. Hospital workload, however, had a significant impact on survival. The odds ratio for death within 2 years for cases managed in a hospital with a caseload of between 33 and 46 cases per year, 47 and 54 cases per year, and >/=55 cases per year (compared to one with =23 cases per year) were respectively 1.48 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 2.13), 1.52 (1.08 to 2.13), and 1.18 (0.83 to 1.68). There was no detectable caseload effect for surgeons managing colorectal cancer, but survival of patients treated in hospitals with caseloads above 33 cases per year was slightly worse than for those treated in hospitals with fewer caseloads. Imprecise measurement of clinician specific "events rates" and the lack of routinely collected case mix data present major challenges for clinical audit and governance in the years ahead.
van Poelgeest, Rube; van Groningen, Julia T; Daniels, John H; Roes, Kit C; Wiggers, Theo; Wouters, Michel W; Schrijvers, Guus
A substantial amount of research has been published on the association between the use of electronic medical records (EMRs) and quality outcomes in U.S. hospitals, while limited research has focused on the Western European experience. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between the use of EMR technologies in Dutch hospitals and length of stay after colorectal cancer surgery. Two data sets were leveraged for this study; the HIMSS Analytics Electronic Medical Record Adoption Model (EMRAM SM ) and the Dutch surgical colorectal audit (DSCA). The HIMSS Analytics EMRAM score was used to define a Dutch hospital's electronic medical records (EMR) capabilities while the DSCA was used to profile colorectal surgery quality outcomes (specifically total length of stay (LOS) in the hospital and the LOS in ICU). A total of 73 hospitals with a valid EMRAM score and associated DSCA patients (n = 30.358) during the study period (2012-2014) were included in the comparative set. A multivariate regression method was used to test differences adjusted for case mix, year of surgery, surgical technique and for complications, as well as stratifying for academic affiliated hospitals and general hospitals. A significant negative association was observed to exist between the total LOS (relative median LOS 0,974, CI 95% 0.959-0,989) of patients treated in advanced EMR hospitals (high EMRAM score cohort) versus patients treated at less advanced EMR care settings, once the data was adjusted for the case mix, year of surgery and type of surgery (laparoscopy or laparotomy). Adjusting for complications in a subgroup of general hospitals (n = 39) yielded essentially the same results (relative median LOS 0,934, CI 95% 0,915-0,954). No consistent significant associations were found with respect to LOS on the ICU. The findings of this study suggest advanced EMR capabilities support a healthcare provider's efforts to achieve desired quality outcomes and efficiency in Western
Chinese Education and Society, 2005
This article describes the contract signing of a cooperation proposal between Shanghai and Suzhou, and between Shanghai and Zhejiang to build a "Yangzi delta" cooperative system that would mutually benefit the three cities. The contract signing was carried out to push ahead the sharing of education resources in the Yangzi delta, to…
Liu, Xiao-Tong; Chen, Guang-Yu; Sun, Bi-Xuan; Qiu, Xiao-Feng; He, Zhu-Qing
Six species of genus Atlanticus have been recorded from Zhejiang, China prior to this study. We describe 2 new species, A. fallax sp. nov. and A. interval. sp. nov. Their morphology, songs, COI genes and distributions are compared. The type specimens are deposited in East China Normal University, Biology of History Museum (ECNU).
Chen, Yin; Sun, Yi; Yan, Juying; Miao, Ziping; Xu, Changping; Zhang, Yanjun; Mao, Haiyan; Gong, Liming
Echovirus serotype 30 (ECHO30) has been responsible for several recent worldwide outbreaks of viral meningitis. In Zhejiang Province, China, ECHO30 has been one of the main causes of viral meningitis for years. This study, using phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene, was performed to investigate the general molecular epidemiology and genetic patterns of ECHO30 circulating in Zhejiang Province between the years 2002 and 2015. The nucleotide sequences of ECHO30 VP1 showed that they were 64.8% identical with the prototype strain, Bastianni, while the amino acids were 84.9% identical. Phylogenetic analyses showed that ECHO30 in the Zhejiang area has diverged into two genotypes. Genotype I consists of strains isolated since 2002, whereas genotype II includes strains that were mainly isolated during the 2002 to 2004 outbreak. ECHO30 has been endemically circulating in both humans and the environment for a long period of time. Additionally, we evaluated the significance of recombination presented during the years 2005 to 2007 to demonstrate that recombination plays an important role in the prevalence of ECHO30 in the Zhejiang area.
Gang, Cheng; Tao, Lin; Qiaozhen, Lin; Qinghuan, Zhu
Education equity is an important means for achieving social equity, but there are few empirical studies on education equity in Chinese academia owing to method limitations. This paper applies a new measurement method to the 2005/6 data of the elementary schools in Zhejiang province and argues that education finance reform in the province has…
Wang, Kai-ying; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xiao-xia; Dai, Xiao-rong; Feng, Shang-lian
Based on the investigation of pollutant production and discharge from a typical scale pig farm in Zhejiang Province at three pig growth stages (piglets, fattening pigs, and sows) in the autumn and winter 2007 and the spring and summer 2008, the coefficients of pollutant production and discharge from the pigs as well as the total annual pollutant production and discharge from the farm were estimated. In the meantime, the annual application amount of animal manure to the farmlands in Zhejiang Province was estimated by using these coefficients and the livestock and poultry inventories in Zhejiang Province in 2007. It was estimated that the total amount of applied animal manure in the Province in 2007 was 2106.8 x 10(4) t x a(-1), containing 13.57 x 10(4) t x a(-1) of N, 6.7 x 10(4) t x a(-1) of P, 0.11 x 10(4) t x a(-1) of Cu, and 0.20 x 10(4) t x a(-1) of Zn. The pig-manure-equivalent farmland carrying capacity in the Province was 16.66 t x hm(-2) a(-1), and the average alarm limit was 0. 37. The application of animal manure in some areas of Zhejiang Province had exceeded the alarm limit for the land carrying capacity, and made a potential environmental threat.
Loehrer, Andrew P; Chang, David C; Song, Zirui; Chang, George J
Underinsured patients are less likely to receive complex cancer operations at hospitals with high surgical volumes (high-volume hospitals, or HVHs), which contributes to disparities in care. To date, the impact of insurance coverage expansion on site of complex cancer surgery remains unknown. Using the 2006 Massachusetts coverage expansion as a natural experiment, we searched the Hospital Cost and Utilization Project state inpatient databases for Massachusetts and control states (New York, New Jersey, and Florida) between 2001 and 2011 to evaluate changes in the utilization of HVHs for resections of bladder, esophageal, stomach, pancreatic, rectal, or lung cancer after the expansion of insurance coverage. We studied nonelderly, adult patients with private insurance and those with government-subsidized or self-pay (GSSP) coverage with a difference-in-differences framework. We studied 11,687 patients in Massachusetts and 56,300 patients in control states. Compared with control states, the 2006 Massachusetts insurance expansion was associated with a 14% increased rate of surgical intervention for GSSP patients (incident rate ratio, 1.14; P = .015), but there was no significant change in the probability of GSSP patients undergoing surgery at an HVH (1.0 percentage-point increase; P = .710). The reform was associated with no change in the uninsured payer-mix at HVHs (0.6 percentage-point increase; P = .244) and with a 5.1 percentage-point decrease for the uninsured payer mix at low-volume hospitals ( P < .001). The 2006 Massachusetts insurance expansion, a model for the Affordable Care Act, was associated with increased rates of complex cancer operations and increased insurance coverage but with no change in utilization of HVH for complex cancer operations.
Wani, Mohammad Ashraf; Tabish, S A; Jan, Farooq A; Khan, Nazir A; Wafai, Z A; Pandita, K K
Cancer remains a major health problem in all communities worldwide. Rising healthcare costs associated with treating advanced cancers present a significant economic challenge. It is a need of the hour that the health sector should devise cost-effective measures to be put in place for better affordability of treatments. To achieve this objective, information generation through indigenous hospital data on unit cost of in-patient cancer chemotherapy in medical oncology became imperative and thus hallmark of this study. The present prospective hospital based study was conducted in Medical Oncology Department of tertiary care teaching hospital. After permission from the Ethical Committee, a prospective study of 6 months duration was carried out to study the cost of treatment provided to in-patients in Medical Oncology. Direct costs that include the cost of material, labor and laboratory investigations, along with indirect costs were calculated, and data analyzed to compute unit cost of treatment. The major cost components of in-patient cancer chemotherapy are cost of drugs and materials as 46.88% and labor as 48.45%. The average unit cost per patient per bed day for in-patient chemotherapy is Rs. 5725.12 ($125.96). This includes expenditure incurred both by the hospital and the patient (out of pocket). The economic burden of cancer treatment is quite high both for the patient and the healthcare provider. Modalities in the form of health insurance coverage need to be established and strengthened for pooling of resources for the treatment and transfer of risks of these patients.
Jonna, Sushma; Chiang, Leslie; Liu, Jingxia; Carroll, Maria B; Flood, Kellie; Wildes, Tanya M
Survival in older adults with cancer varies given differences in functional status, comorbidities, and nutrition. Prediction of factors associated with mortality, especially in hospitalized patients, allows physicians to better inform their patients about prognosis during treatment decisions. Our objective was to analyze factors associated with survival in older adults with cancer following hospitalization. Through a retrospective cohort study, we reviewed 803 patients who were admitted to Barnes-Jewish Hospital's Oncology Acute Care of Elders (OACE) unit from 2000 to 2008. Data collected included geriatric assessments from OACE screening questionnaires as well as demographic and medical history data from chart review. The primary end point was time from index admission to death. The Cox proportional hazard modeling was performed. The median age was 72.5 years old. Geriatric syndromes and functional impairment were common. Half of the patients (50.4 %) were dependent in one or more activities of daily living (ADLs), and 74 % were dependent in at least one instrumental activity of daily living (IADLs). On multivariate analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with worse overall survival: male gender; a total score <20 on Lawton's IADL assessment; reason for admission being cardiac, pulmonary, neurologic, inadequate pain control, or failure to thrive; cancer type being thoracic, hepatobiliary, or genitourinary; readmission within 30 days; receiving cancer treatment with palliative rather than curative intent; cognitive impairment; and discharge with hospice services. In older adults with cancer, certain geriatric parameters are associated with shorter survival after hospitalization. Assessment of functional status, necessity for readmission, and cognitive impairment may provide prognostic information so that oncologists and their patients make more informed, individualized decisions.
Govaert, J A; Fiocco, M; van Dijk, W A; Scheffer, A C; de Graaf, E J R; Tollenaar, R A E M; Wouters, M W J M
Healthcare providers worldwide are struggling with rising costs while hospitals budgets are under stress. Colorectal cancer surgery is commonly performed, however it is associated with a disproportionate share of adverse events in general surgery. Since adverse events are associated with extra hospital costs it seems important to explicitly discuss the costs of complications and the risk factors for high-costs after colorectal surgery. Retrospective analysis of clinical and financial outcomes after colorectal cancer surgery in 29 Dutch hospitals (6768 patients). Detailed clinical data was derived from the 2011-2012 population-based Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit database. Costs were measured uniform in all participating hospitals and based on Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing. Of total hospital costs in this study, 31% was spent on complications and the top 5% most expensive patients were accountable for 23% of hospitals budgets. Minor and severe complications were respectively associated with a 26% and 196% increase in costs as compared to patients without complications. Independent from other risk factors, ASA IV, double tumor, ASA III, short course preoperative radiotherapy and TNM-4 stadium disease were the top-5 attributors to high costs. This article shows that complications after colorectal cancer surgery are associated with a substantial increase in costs. Although not all surgical complications can be prevented, reducing complications will result in considerable cost savings. By providing a business case we show that investments made to develop targeted quality improvement programs will pay off eventually. Results based on this study should encourage healthcare providers to endorse quality improvement efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Corrigan, Neil; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Finan, Paul J; Thomas, James D; Chapman, Michael; Hamilton, Russell; Campbell, Helen; Cameron, David; Kaplan, Richard; Parmar, Mahesh; Stephens, Richard; Seymour, Matt; Gregory, Walter; Selby, Peter
Objective In 2001, the National Institute for Health Research Cancer Research Network (NCRN) was established, leading to a rapid increase in clinical research activity across the English NHS. Using colorectal cancer (CRC) as an example, we test the hypothesis that high, sustained hospital-level participation in interventional clinical trials improves outcomes for all patients with CRC managed in those research-intensive hospitals. Design Data for patients diagnosed with CRC in England in 2001–2008 (n=209 968) were linked with data on accrual to NCRN CRC studies (n=30 998). Hospital Trusts were categorised by the proportion of patients accrued to interventional studies annually. Multivariable models investigated the relationship between 30-day postoperative mortality and 5-year survival and the level and duration of study participation. Results Most of the Trusts achieving high participation were district general hospitals and the effects were not limited to cancer ‘centres of excellence’, although such centres do make substantial contributions. Patients treated in Trusts with high research participation (≥16%) in their year of diagnosis had lower postoperative mortality (p<0.001) and improved survival (p<0.001) after adjustment for casemix and hospital-level variables. The effects increased with sustained research participation, with a reduction in postoperative mortality of 1.5% (6.5%–5%, p<2.2×10−6) and an improvement in survival (p<10−19; 5-year difference: 3.8% (41.0%–44.8%)) comparing high participation for ≥4 years with 0 years. Conclusions There is a strong independent association between survival and participation in interventional clinical studies for all patients with CRC treated in the hospital study participants. Improvement precedes and increases with the level and years of sustained participation. PMID:27797935
Downing, Amy; Morris, Eva Ja; Corrigan, Neil; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Finan, Paul J; Thomas, James D; Chapman, Michael; Hamilton, Russell; Campbell, Helen; Cameron, David; Kaplan, Richard; Parmar, Mahesh; Stephens, Richard; Seymour, Matt; Gregory, Walter; Selby, Peter
In 2001, the National Institute for Health Research Cancer Research Network (NCRN) was established, leading to a rapid increase in clinical research activity across the English NHS. Using colorectal cancer (CRC) as an example, we test the hypothesis that high, sustained hospital-level participation in interventional clinical trials improves outcomes for all patients with CRC managed in those research-intensive hospitals. Data for patients diagnosed with CRC in England in 2001-2008 (n=209 968) were linked with data on accrual to NCRN CRC studies (n=30 998). Hospital Trusts were categorised by the proportion of patients accrued to interventional studies annually. Multivariable models investigated the relationship between 30-day postoperative mortality and 5-year survival and the level and duration of study participation. Most of the Trusts achieving high participation were district general hospitals and the effects were not limited to cancer 'centres of excellence', although such centres do make substantial contributions. Patients treated in Trusts with high research participation (≥16%) in their year of diagnosis had lower postoperative mortality (p<0.001) and improved survival (p<0.001) after adjustment for casemix and hospital-level variables. The effects increased with sustained research participation, with a reduction in postoperative mortality of 1.5% (6.5%-5%, p<2.2×10 -6 ) and an improvement in survival (p<10 -19 ; 5-year difference: 3.8% (41.0%-44.8%)) comparing high participation for ≥4 years with 0 years. There is a strong independent association between survival and participation in interventional clinical studies for all patients with CRC treated in the hospital study participants. Improvement precedes and increases with the level and years of sustained participation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Grenda, Tyler R; Revels, Sha'Shonda L; Yin, Huiying; Birkmeyer, John D; Wong, Sandra L
Wide variations in mortality rates exist across hospitals following lung cancer resection; however, the factors underlying these differences remain unclear. To evaluate perioperative outcomes in patients who underwent lung cancer resection at hospitals with very high and very low mortality rates (high-mortality hospitals [HMHs] and low-mortality hospitals [LMHs]) to better understand the factors related to differences in mortality rates after lung cancer resection. In this retrospective cohort study, 1279 hospitals that were accredited by the Commission on Cancer were ranked on a composite measure of risk-adjusted mortality following major cancer resections performed from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2006. We collected data from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2007, on 645 lung resections in 18 LMHs and 25 HMHs. After adjusting for patient characteristics, we used hierarchical logistic regression to examine differences in the incidence of complications and "failure-to-rescue" rates (defined as death following a complication). Rates of adherence to processes of care, incidence of complications, and failure to rescue following complications. Among 645 patients who received lung resections (441 in LMHs and 204 in HMHs), the overall unadjusted mortality rates were 1.6% (n = 7) vs 10.8% (n = 22; P < .001) for LMHs and HMHs, respectively. Following risk adjustment, the difference in mortality rates was attenuated (1.8% vs 8.1%; P < .001) but remained significant. Overall, complication rates were higher in HMHs (23.3% vs 15.6%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.79; 95% CI, 0.99-3.21), but this difference was not significant. The likelihood of any surgical (aOR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.26-2.00) or cardiopulmonary (aOR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.70-2.16) complications was similar between LMHs and HMHs. However, failure-to-rescue rates were significantly higher in HMHs (25.9% vs 8.7%; aOR, 6.55; 95% CI, 1.44-29.88). Failure-to-rescue rates are higher at HMHs, which may
Clark, Jeremy; Cooper, Colin S; Mills, Robert; Rayward-Smith, Victor J; de la Iglesia, Beatriz
Background Routinely collected data in hospitals is complex, typically heterogeneous, and scattered across multiple Hospital Information Systems (HIS). This big data, created as a byproduct of health care activities, has the potential to provide a better understanding of diseases, unearth hidden patterns, and improve services and cost. The extent and uses of such data rely on its quality, which is not consistently checked, nor fully understood. Nevertheless, using routine data for the construction of data-driven clinical pathways, describing processes and trends, is a key topic receiving increasing attention in the literature. Traditional algorithms do not cope well with unstructured processes or data, and do not produce clinically meaningful visualizations. Supporting systems that provide additional information, context, and quality assurance inspection are needed. Objective The objective of the study is to explore how routine hospital data can be used to develop data-driven pathways that describe the journeys that patients take through care, and their potential uses in biomedical research; it proposes a framework for the construction, quality assessment, and visualization of patient pathways for clinical studies and decision support using a case study on prostate cancer. Methods Data pertaining to prostate cancer patients were extracted from a large UK hospital from eight different HIS, validated, and complemented with information from the local cancer registry. Data-driven pathways were built for each of the 1904 patients and an expert knowledge base, containing rules on the prostate cancer biomarker, was used to assess the completeness and utility of the pathways for a specific clinical study. Software components were built to provide meaningful visualizations for the constructed pathways. Results The proposed framework and pathway formalism enable the summarization, visualization, and querying of complex patient-centric clinical information, as well as the
McBride, M E; Duncan, W C; Bodey, G P; McBride, C M
The bacterial flora of the skin from five anatomical sites on 10 leukemia patients, 10 patients with malignant melanoma, and a control group of 10 medical personnel was examined quantitatively and qualitatively. This was done to determine whether malignant disease results in changes in skin flora and to establish carrier rates of gram-negative bacteria on the skin of personnel in hospital environments. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated more frequently (74 isolates from 100 cultures) from the skin of leukemia patients than from either patients with malignant melanoma (8 isolates from 100 cultures) or the medical personnel (9 isolates from 100 cultures). Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated exclusively from leukemia patients. Relative proportions of gram-negative bacteria in total populations were determined. The axilla was the only site with a uniformly high proportion of gram-negative bacteria. From all other sites cultured, gram-negative populations were low (1 to 5 bacteria/cm2 of skin), although a high proportion of gram-negative populations occurred randomly throughout all subject groups. It was concluded that leukemia patients tend to carry gram-negative bacteria on the skin. The factors permitting colonization of skin by gram-negative bacteria are discussed. PMID:943418
Zhou, Li-Fang; Zhang, Mao-Xin; Kong, Ling-Qian; Lyman, Gary H; Wang, Ke; Lu, Wei; Feng, Qi-Ming; Wei, Bo; Zhao, Lue Ping
Lung cancer is a common disease with high mortality in China. Recent economic advances have led to improved medical capabilities, while costs associated with treating this disease have increased. Such change contributes to a commonly held belief that healthcare costs are out of control. However, few studies have examined this issue. Here, we use 34,678 hospitalization summary reports from 67 Guangxi hospitals (period 2013-2016) to document costs, temporal trends, and associated factors. Findings from this study are surprising in that they debunk the myth of uncontrolled healthcare costs. In addition, results and experiences from Guangxi are informative for other comparable regions.
Barber, Emma L; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Stitzenberg, Karyn B; Rossi, Emma C; Gehrig, Paola A; Boggess, John F; Garrett, Joanne M
Objective To estimate variation in the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy by high volume hospitals and to determine the association between hospital utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival. Methods We identified incident cases of stage IIIC or IV epithelial ovarian cancer in the National Cancer Database from 2006–2012. Inclusion criteria were treatment at a high volume hospital (>20 cases/yr) and treatment with both chemotherapy and surgery. A logistic regression model was used to predict receipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on case-mix predictors (age, comorbidities, stage etc). Hospitals were categorized by the observed-to-expected ratio for neoadjuvant chemotherapy use as low, average, or high utilization hospitals. Survival analysis was performed. Results We identified 11,574 patients treated at 55 high volume hospitals. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was used for 21.6% (n=2494) of patients and use varied widely by hospital, from 5%–55%. High utilization hospitals (n=1910, 10 hospitals) had a median neoadjuvant chemotherapy rate of 39% (range 23–55%), while low utilization hospitals (n=2671, 14 hospitals) had a median rate of 10% (range 5–17%). For all ovarian cancer patients adjusting for clinical and socio-demographic factors, treatment at a hospital with average or high neoadjuvant chemotherapy utilization was associated with a decreased rate of death compared to treatment at a low utilization hospital (HR 0.90 95%CI 0.83–0.97 and HR 0.85 95%CI 0.75–0.95). Conclusions Wide variation exists in the utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to treat stage IIIC and IV epithelial ovarian cancer even among high volume hospitals. Patients treated at hospitals with low rates of neoadjuvant chemotherapy utilization experience decreased survival. PMID:28366545
Barber, Emma L; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Stitzenberg, Karyn B; Rossi, Emma C; Gehrig, Paola A; Boggess, John F; Garrett, Joanne M
To estimate variation in the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy by high volume hospitals and to determine the association between hospital utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival. We identified incident cases of stage IIIC or IV epithelial ovarian cancer in the National Cancer Database from 2006 to 2012. Inclusion criteria were treatment at a high volume hospital (>20 cases/year) and treatment with both chemotherapy and surgery. A logistic regression model was used to predict receipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on case-mix predictors (age, comorbidities, stage etc). Hospitals were categorized by the observed-to-expected ratio for neoadjuvant chemotherapy use as low, average, or high utilization hospitals. Survival analysis was performed. We identified 11,574 patients treated at 55 high volume hospitals. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was used for 21.6% (n=2494) of patients and use varied widely by hospital, from 5%-55%. High utilization hospitals (n=1910, 10 hospitals) had a median neoadjuvant chemotherapy rate of 39% (range 23-55%), while low utilization hospitals (n=2671, 14 hospitals) had a median rate of 10% (range 5-17%). For all ovarian cancer patients adjusting for clinical and socio-demographic factors, treatment at a hospital with average or high neoadjuvant chemotherapy utilization was associated with a decreased rate of death compared to treatment at a low utilization hospital (HR 0.90 95% CI 0.83-0.97 and HR 0.85 95% CI 0.75-0.95). Wide variation exists in the utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to treat stage IIIC and IV epithelial ovarian cancer even among high volume hospitals. Patients treated at hospitals with low rates of neoadjuvant chemotherapy utilization experience decreased survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huang, Xin-Wen; Yang, Ru-Lai
Objective By analyzing the under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) and its contributors in Zhejiang Province of China from 2000 to 2009, we tried to understand the trend of U5MR change in Zhejiang Province and thus propose strategies to reduce child mortality. Methods Thirty cities/counties/districts from Zhejiang Province were selected using stratified cluster sampling approach. Children under five years in these areas were enrolled as the subjects. The U5MR and its contributors were analyzed in terms of age, migration status of mothers, and other indicators using classic descriptive methods and Chi square test. Results The U5MR in Zhejiang Province showed a declining trend from 14.83‰ in 2000 to 9.49‰ in 2009. In 2009, the U5MR was significantly higher in the rural areas than in the urban areas (9.14‰ vs.6.50‰, P<0.01) and among floating populations than among local residents (12.12‰ vs. 6.42‰, P<0.01). Preterm birth/low birth weight was the leading cause of U5MR in 2009. More specifically, preterm birth/low birth weight, congenital heart disease, and birth asphyxia were the top three causes of deaths among infants (<1 year), while drowning, traffic accidents, and accidental falls were the leading causes of deaths among children (1-4 years). Conclusion The U5MR in Zhejiang Province in 2009 differed between urban areas and rural areas and between floating populations and local residents. The main causes of death differ between infants and young children. Prevention of preterm birth/low birth weight and congenital anomalies will reduce infant death, while the main intervention for young children is to avoid accidental injuries. PMID:26835282
Gotlib Conn, L; Hammond Mobilio, M; Rotstein, O D; Blacker, S
Cancer patient navigators are increasingly present on the oncology health care team. The positive impact of navigation on cancer care is recognised, yet a clear understanding of what the patient navigator does and how he/she executes the role continues to emerge. This study aimed to understand cancer patients' perceptions of, and experiences with patient navigation, exploring how navigation may enhance the patient experience in an urban hospital setting where patients with varying needs are treated. A qualitative study using a constructionist approach was conducted. Fifteen colorectal cancer patients participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Data were analyzed inductively and iteratively. Findings provide insight into two central aspects of cancer navigation: navigation as patient-centred coordination and explanation of clinical care, and navigation as individualised, holistic support. Within these themes, the key benefits of navigation from the patients' perspective were demystifying the system; ensuring comprehension, managing expectations; and, delivering patient-centred care. The navigator provided individualised and extended family support; a holistic approach; and, addressed emotional and psychological needs. These findings provide a means to operationalise and validate an emerging role description and competency framework for the cancer navigator who must identify and adapt to patients' varying needs throughout the cancer care continuum. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Galukande, Moses; Wabinga, Henry; Mirembe, Florence; Karamagi, Charles; Asea, Alexzander
Background Although East Africa, like other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, has a lower incidence of breast cancer than high-income countries, the disease rate is rising steeply in Africa; it has nearly tripled in the past few decades in Uganda. There is a paucity of studies that have examined the relation between reproductive factors and breast cancer risk factors in Ugandan women. Objective To determine breast cancer risk factors among indigenous Ugandan women. Methods This is a hospital-based unmatched case-control study. Interviews were conducted between 2011 and 2012 using structured questionnaires. Patients with histologyproven breast cancer were recruited over a 2-year period. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 350 women were recruited; 113 were cases and 237 were controls. The mean age was 47.5 years (SD 14) for the cases and 45.5 years (SD 14.1) for the controls. The odds of breast cancer risk seemed lower for those who breastfed (adjusted OR = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.18). There was no significance for early age at first full-term birth (adjusted OR = 1.96; 95% CI: 0.97, 3.96; p = 0.061), and urban residence carried no increased odds of breast cancer either (p = 0.201). Conclusion Breastfeeding seems to be associated with reduced odds of breast cancer. PMID:27104645
Galukande, Moses; Wabinga, Henry; Mirembe, Florence; Karamagi, Charles; Asea, Alexzander
Although East Africa, like other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, has a lower incidence of breast cancer than high-income countries, the disease rate is rising steeply in Africa; it has nearly tripled in the past few decades in Uganda. There is a paucity of studies that have examined the relation between reproductive factors and breast cancer risk factors in Ugandan women. To determine breast cancer risk factors among indigenous Ugandan women. This is a hospital-based unmatched case-control study. Interviews were conducted between 2011 and 2012 using structured questionnaires. Patients with histology-proven breast cancer were recruited over a 2-year period. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 350 women were recruited; 113 were cases and 237 were controls. The mean age was 47.5 years (SD 14) for the cases and 45.5 years (SD 14.1) for the controls. The odds of breast cancer risk seemed lower for those who breastfed (adjusted OR = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.18). There was no significance for early age at first full-term birth (adjusted OR = 1.96; 95% CI: 0.97, 3.96; p = 0.061), and urban residence carried no increased odds of breast cancer either (p = 0.201). Breastfeeding seems to be associated with reduced odds of breast cancer. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Rémy, Vanessa; Mathevet, Patrice; Vainchtock, Alexandre
Literature on the epidemiology of vulvar and vaginal cancers is scarce. The incidence of these diseases seems to be increasing. It has been reported that about 40% of vulvar and 70% of vaginal cancers may be linked to human papillomavirus (HPV). This study aimed to assess the medical burden associated with hospitalizations and management of vulvar and vaginal cancers and dysplasia (VIN and VaIN) in France. A retrospective analysis using the French national hospital database (PMSI) was performed to assess the annual number of patients hospitalized for vulvar and vaginal cancers and VIN/VaIN, based on hospital admissions in 2006. Data for all stays and chemotherapy/radiotherapy sessions were extracted. SAE database (Statistiques annuelles des établissements de santé) was used to take into account patients who had radiotherapy sessions performed in the private sector which are not reported in the PMSI. In 2006, 1237 and 623 patients were hospitalized for vulvar cancer and VIN, respectively. There were also 728 and 244 patients hospitalized for vaginal cancer and VaIN, respectively. Overall, about 35% of all patients were hospitalized in the private setting. For all lesions except vaginal cancer, surgery was the most common type of management. For vaginal cancer, medical care was the most prevalent (52%), followed by surgery (31%). The burden of hospitalizations due to vulvar and vaginal cancers is substantial. Further research is needed to assess the outpatient burden due to these diseases especially for precancerous dysplasia which may be mostly managed in an outpatient setting.
Shih, Sophy T F; Carter, Rob; Heward, Sue; Sinclair, Craig
While skin cancer is still the most common cancer in Australia, important information gaps remain. This paper addresses two gaps: i) the cost impact on public hospitals; and ii) an up-to-date assessment of economic credentials for prevention. A prevalence-based cost approach was undertaken in public hospitals in Victoria. Costs were estimated for inpatient admissions, using State service statistics, and outpatient services based on attendance at three hospitals in 2012-13. Cost-effectiveness for prevention was estimated from 'observed vs expected' analysis, together with program expenditure data. Combining inpatient and outpatient costs, total annual costs for Victoria were $48 million to $56 million. The SunSmart program is estimated to have prevented more than 43,000 skin cancers between 1988 and 2010, a net cost saving of $92 million. Skin cancer treatment in public hospitals ($9.20∼$10.39 per head/year) was 30-times current public funding in skin cancer prevention ($0.37 per head/year). At about $50 million per year for hospitals in Victoria alone, the cost burden of a largely preventable disease is substantial. Skin cancer prevention remains highly cost-effective, yet underfunded. Implications for public health: Increased funding for skin cancer prevention must be kept high on the public health agenda. Hospitals would also benefit from being able to redirect resources to non-preventable conditions. © 2017 The Authors.
Kwak, Ye Eun; Stein, Stacy M; Lim, Joseph K
Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy face an increased risk of reactivation of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. To determine the HBV screening rate in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy in various clinical settings. We identified 11,959 adult cancer patients (age ≥ 18 years) receiving parenteral chemotherapy between 2012 and 2015 within a major US hospital network, including a large university hospital, community teaching hospitals, and community oncology clinics. Two thousand and forty-five patients (17.1%) were screened for either HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) or HBV core antibody (HBcAb) before chemotherapy, and 1850 patients (15.5%) had both HBsAg and HBcAb tested before chemotherapy. 8.4% were exposed to HBV, and 0.9% had chronic HBV infection (both HBsAg/HBcAb positive). Patients with hematologic tumor were more often screened than with solid tumor (55.6 vs. 8.3%, p < 0.001). Patients receiving chemotherapy with higher HBV reactivation risk had higher yet suboptimal HBV screening rate (41.1% B-depleting agents, 21.5% anthracycline, 14.9% steroid, 64.7% anti-TNF alpha and 18.6% other chemotherapy, p < 0.001). Patients with age ≥ 50 years (old 16.2% vs. young 23.9%, p < 0.001) and Asian ethnicity (Asian 13.6 vs. Caucasian 16.6%, p < 0.001) were screened less for HBV despite higher prevalence of HBV exposure (old 9.3% vs. young 4.3%, p < 0.001 and Asian 27.8% vs. Caucasian 6.4%, p < 0.001). Patients receiving chemotherapy in community oncology clinics were less screened versus community teaching hospitals or university hospital (12.7 vs. 19.1 vs. 19.7%, p < 0.001), despite similar prevalence of HBV infection. On multivariate analysis, receiving chemotherapy at a community oncology clinic [odds ratio (OR) 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-0.72, p < 0.001] was independently associated with less HBV screening compared to receiving chemotherapy at a university or community teaching hospital. HBV screening among patients
Mariano, Caroline; Williams, Grant; Deal, Allison; Alston, Shani; Bryant, Ashley Leak; Jolly, Trevor; Muss, Hyman B
Geriatric assessment (GA) is an important tool for management of older cancer patients; however, GA research has been performed primarily in the outpatient setting. The primary objective of this study was to determine feasibility of GA during an unplanned hospital stay. Secondary objectives were to describe deficits found with GA, to assess whether clinicians recognized and addressed deficits, and to determine 30-day readmission rates. The study was designed as an extension of an existing registry, "Carolina Senior: Registry for Older Patients." Inclusion criteria were age 70 and older and biopsy-proven solid tumor, myeloma, or lymphoma. Patients had to complete the GA within 7 days of nonelective admission to University of North Carolina Hospital. A total of 142 patients were approached, and 90 (63%) consented to participation. All sections of GA had at least an 83% completion rate. Overall, 53% of patients reported problems with physical function, 63% had deficits in instrumental activities of daily living, 34% reported falls, 12% reported depression, 31% had ≥10% weight loss, and 12% had abnormalities in cognition. Physician documentation of each deficit ranged from 20% to 46%. Rates of referrals to allied health professionals were not significantly different between patients with and without deficits. The 30-day readmission rate was 29%. GA was feasible in this population. Hospitalized older cancer patients have high levels of functional and psychosocial deficits; however, clinician recognition and management of deficits were poor. The use of GA instruments to guide referrals to appropriate services is a way to potentially improve outcomes in this vulnerable population. Geriatric assessment (GA) is an important tool in the management of older cancer patients; however, its primary clinical use has been in the outpatient setting. During an unplanned hospitalization, patients are extremely frail and are most likely to benefit from GA. This study demonstrates
Naik, Gurudatta; Akinyemiju, Tomi
This paper aims to determine whether racial disparities exist in hospitalization outcomes among African-American and White hospitalized prostate cancer patients in the United States. We evaluated racial differences among matched groups of patients in post-operative complications, hospital length of stay and in-hospital mortality. We identified a total of 183,856 men aged 40 years and older with a primary diagnosis of prostate cancer, of which 58,701 underwent prostatectomy, through the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, and matched all African-American patients with White patients on: 1) Demographics, 2) Demographics+Clinical presentation and 3) Demographics+Clinical presentation+Treatment. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted in SAS and estimates were reported with 95% confidence intervals. African-American patients were more likely to be admitted with metastatic disease (24.8%) compared with White patients matched on demographics (17.9%), and demographics+presentation (23.6%). However, 23.9% of African-American patients received surgery compared with 38.2% and 34.2% of Whites matched on demographics and demographics+presentation, respectively. White patients had lower in-hospital mortality compared with African-American patients matched on demographics (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.66-0.79), demographics+presentation (OR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.81-0.96), but was no longer significantly lower when matched on demographics, presentation and treatment (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.85-1.00). There were significant racial differences in outcomes among prostate cancer patients within the inpatient setting, even after accounting for demographic and presentation differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Lent, Wineke A M; de Beer, Relinde D; van Harten, Wim H
Benchmarking is one of the methods used in business that is applied to hospitals to improve the management of their operations. International comparison between hospitals can explain performance differences. As there is a trend towards specialization of hospitals, this study examines the benchmarking process and the success factors of benchmarking in international specialized cancer centres. Three independent international benchmarking studies on operations management in cancer centres were conducted. The first study included three comprehensive cancer centres (CCC), three chemotherapy day units (CDU) were involved in the second study and four radiotherapy departments were included in the final study. Per multiple case study a research protocol was used to structure the benchmarking process. After reviewing the multiple case studies, the resulting description was used to study the research objectives. We adapted and evaluated existing benchmarking processes through formalizing stakeholder involvement and verifying the comparability of the partners. We also devised a framework to structure the indicators to produce a coherent indicator set and better improvement suggestions. Evaluating the feasibility of benchmarking as a tool to improve hospital processes led to mixed results. Case study 1 resulted in general recommendations for the organizations involved. In case study 2, the combination of benchmarking and lean management led in one CDU to a 24% increase in bed utilization and a 12% increase in productivity. Three radiotherapy departments of case study 3, were considering implementing the recommendations.Additionally, success factors, such as a well-defined and small project scope, partner selection based on clear criteria, stakeholder involvement, simple and well-structured indicators, analysis of both the process and its results and, adapt the identified better working methods to the own setting, were found. The improved benchmarking process and the success
Background Benchmarking is one of the methods used in business that is applied to hospitals to improve the management of their operations. International comparison between hospitals can explain performance differences. As there is a trend towards specialization of hospitals, this study examines the benchmarking process and the success factors of benchmarking in international specialized cancer centres. Methods Three independent international benchmarking studies on operations management in cancer centres were conducted. The first study included three comprehensive cancer centres (CCC), three chemotherapy day units (CDU) were involved in the second study and four radiotherapy departments were included in the final study. Per multiple case study a research protocol was used to structure the benchmarking process. After reviewing the multiple case studies, the resulting description was used to study the research objectives. Results We adapted and evaluated existing benchmarking processes through formalizing stakeholder involvement and verifying the comparability of the partners. We also devised a framework to structure the indicators to produce a coherent indicator set and better improvement suggestions. Evaluating the feasibility of benchmarking as a tool to improve hospital processes led to mixed results. Case study 1 resulted in general recommendations for the organizations involved. In case study 2, the combination of benchmarking and lean management led in one CDU to a 24% increase in bed utilization and a 12% increase in productivity. Three radiotherapy departments of case study 3, were considering implementing the recommendations. Additionally, success factors, such as a well-defined and small project scope, partner selection based on clear criteria, stakeholder involvement, simple and well-structured indicators, analysis of both the process and its results and, adapt the identified better working methods to the own setting, were found. Conclusions The improved
McGrady, Meghan E; Peugh, James L; Brown, Gabriella A; Pai, Ahna L H
To examine the relationship between need-based pediatric psychology service use and spending on hospital care among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer. Billing data were obtained from 48 AYAs with cancer receiving need-based pediatric psychology services and a comparison cohort of 48 AYAs with cancer not receiving services. A factorial analysis of covariance examined group differences in spending for hospital care. Pending significant findings, a multivariate analysis of covariance was planned to examine the relationship between need-based pediatric psychology service use and spending for inpatient admissions, emergency department (ED) visits, and outpatient visits. Spending for hospital care was higher among AYAs receiving need-based pediatric psychology services than in the comparison cohort (p < .001, ωPartial2 = .11). Group differences were driven by significantly higher spending for inpatient admissions and ED visits among AYAs receiving need-based pediatric psychology services. The behavioral and psychosocial difficulties warranting need-based pediatric psychology services may predict higher health care spending. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Liu, Yong; Liu, Fei; Yu, Yang; Li, Qing; Jin, Xin; Li, Jin
To explore the frequencies and intensities of depressive symptoms associated with hospitalized patients with advanced cancer. A total of 196 hospitalized patients with advanced cancer were surveyed with the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). The χ 2 test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used to compare the frequency and intensity of symptoms between patients with and without depressive disorders. Spearman rank correlation was used to test the correlation between depression and symptoms. Of the 196 enrolled patients, 115 (59%) were males. The median age of the patients was 58 (19-80) years. Seventy-six (39%) patients were diagnosed with depression (SDS ≥ 53). Patients with depressive disorders exhibited pain, drowsiness, and nausea along with a higher frequency and intensity of poor self-perception, appetite loss, anxiety, dyspnea, and fatigue. Depressive symptoms were positively correlated with the symptoms. Depressive disorders are very common and severe in hospitalized patients with advanced cancer. Identifying the frequencies and intensities of the symptoms enables early intervention to improve patients' quality of life.
Jitkunnatumkul, Aurapin; Tantipalakorn, Charuwan; Charoenkwan, Kittipat; Srisomboon, Jatupol
This study was undertaken to determine the incidence of subsequent oophorectomy due to ovarian pathology or ovarian cancer in women with prior hysterectomy for benign gynecologic conditions at Chiang Mai University Hospital. Medical records of women who underwent hysterectomy for benign gynecologic diseases and pre-cancerous lesions between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2013 at Chiang Mai University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The incidence and indications of oophorectomy following hysterectomy were analyzed. During the study period, 1,035 women had hysterectomy for benign gynecologic conditions. Of these, 590 women underwent hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and 445 hysterectomy with bilateral ovarian preservation or unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The median age was 47 years (range, 11-75 years). Ten women (2.45 %) had subsequent oophorectomy for benign ovarian cysts. No case of ovarian cancer was found. The mean time interval between hysterectomy and subsequent oophorectomy was 43.1 months (range, 2-97 months) and the mean follow-up time for this patient cohort was 51 months (range, 1.3-124.9 months). According to our hospital-based data, the incidence of subsequent oophorectomy in women with prior hysterectomy for benign gynecologic conditions is low and all present with benign conditions.
Ramani, K V
Aims to give an overview of the re-engineering of processes and structures at Gujarat Cancer Research Institute (GCRI), Ahmedabad. A general review of the design, development and implementation of reengineered systems in order to address concerns about the existing systems. Findings GCRI is a comprehensive cancer care center with 550 beds and well equipped with modern diagnostic and treatment facilities. It serves about 200,000 outpatients and 16,000 inpatients annually. The approach to a better management of hospital supplies led to the design, development, and implementation of an IT-based reengineered and integrated purchase and inventory management system. The new system has given GCRI a saving of about 8 percent of its annual costs of purchases, and improved the availability of materials to the user departments. Shows that the savings obtained are used not only for buying more hospital supplies, but also to buy better quality of hospital supplies, and thereby satisfactorily address the GCRI responsibility towards meeting its social obligations for cancer care.
Shrestha, Smita; Dhakal, Prativa
Objective: To find out the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding cervical cancer screening among women. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used to collect data from 96 women. Each woman was selected alternately from Gynae Out-Patient Department of Teaching Hospital. Data was collected by using semi-structured interview schedule to find out knowledge and practice and Likert scale to find out the attitude regarding cervical cancer screening. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0 and interpreted in terms of descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Out of 96 women, mean age was 38.83 ± 6.57 and 90.6% respondents followed Hinduism. More than three fourth (85.4%) were literate and 59.4% were housewife. Only 9.4% were involved in cervical cancer prevention and screening awareness programme and 2.1% had family history of cervical cancer. As per the findings, only 34.4% and 27.8% had adequate knowledge and practice respectively whereas cent percent women had favorable attitude. Only education level of women was statistically significant with level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer screening (p = 0.041). There was strong negative correlation between knowledge score and practice score regarding cervical cancer screening among women (r = -0.194). Conclusion: Considerable proportions of women have inadequate knowledge and practice regarding cervical cancer screening. Therefore cervical cancer screening health camps and awareness program should be conducted at community level for women to increase the level of knowledge and practice regarding cervical cancer screening.
Katalambula, Leonard K.; Ntwenya, Julius Edward; Ngoma, Twalib; Buza, Joram; Mpolya, Emmanuel
Background. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a growing public health concern with increasing rates in countries with previously known low incidence. This study determined pattern and distribution of CRC in Tanzania and identified hot spots in case distribution. Methods. A retrospective chart audit reviewed hospital registers and patient files from two national institutions. Descriptive statistics, Chi square (χ 2) tests, and regression analyses were employed and augmented by data visualization to display risk variable differences. Results. CRC cases increased sixfold in the last decade in Tanzania. There was a 1.5% decrease in incidences levels of rectal cancer and 2% increase for colon cancer every year from 2005 to 2015. Nearly half of patients listed Dar es Salaam as their primary residence. CRC was equally distributed between males (50.06%) and females (49.94%), although gender likelihood of diagnosis type (i.e., rectal or colon) was significantly different (P = 0.027). More than 60% of patients were between 40 and 69 years. Conclusions. Age (P = 0.0183) and time (P = 0.004) but not gender (P = 0.0864) were significantly associated with rectal cancer in a retrospective study in Tanzania. Gender (P = 0.0405), age (P = 0.0015), and time (P = 0.0075) were all significantly associated with colon cancer in this study. This retrospective study found that colon cancer is more prevalent among males at a relatively younger age than rectal cancer. Further, our study showed that although more patients were diagnosed with rectal cancer, the trend has shown that colon cancer is increasing at a faster rate. PMID:27965709
Shrestha, Smita; Dhakal, Prativa
Objective: To find out the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding cervical cancer screening among women. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used to collect data from 96 women. Each woman was selected alternately from Gynae Out-Patient Department of Teaching Hospital. Data was collected by using semi-structured interview schedule to find out knowledge and practice and Likert scale to find out the attitude regarding cervical cancer screening. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0 and interpreted in terms of descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Out of 96 women, mean age was 38.83 ± 6.57 and 90.6% respondents followed Hinduism. More than three fourth (85.4%) were literate and 59.4% were housewife. Only 9.4% were involved in cervical cancer prevention and screening awareness programme and 2.1% had family history of cervical cancer. As per the findings, only 34.4% and 27.8% had adequate knowledge and practice respectively whereas cent percent women had favorable attitude. Only education level of women was statistically significant with level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer screening (p = 0.041). There was strong negative correlation between knowledge score and practice score regarding cervical cancer screening among women (r = -0.194). Conclusion: Considerable proportions of women have inadequate knowledge and practice regarding cervical cancer screening. Therefore cervical cancer screening health camps and awareness program should be conducted at community level for women to increase the level of knowledge and practice regarding cervical cancer screening. PMID:29114264
McCaughan, Dorothy; Roman, Eve; Smith, Alexandra G; Garry, Anne; Johnson, Miriam; Patmore, Russell; Howard, Martin; Howell, Debra A
Current UK health policy promotes enabling people to die in a place they choose, which for most is home. Despite this, patients with haematological malignancies (leukaemias, lymphomas and myeloma) are more likely to die in hospital than those with other cancers, and this is often considered a reflection of poor quality end-of-life care. This study aimed to explore the experiences of clinicians and relatives to determine why hospital deaths predominate in these diseases. The study was set within the Haematological Malignancy Research Network (HMRN-www.hmrn.org), an ongoing population-based cohort that provides infrastructure for evidence-based research. Qualitative interviews were conducted with clinical staff in haematology, palliative care and general practice (n=45) and relatives of deceased HMRN patients (n=10). Data were analysed for thematic content and coding and classification was inductive. Interpretation involved seeking meaning, salience and connections within the data. Five themes were identified relating to: the characteristics and trajectory of haematological cancers, a mismatch between the expectations and reality of home death, preference for hospital death, barriers to home/hospice death and suggested changes to practice to support non-hospital death, when preferred. Hospital deaths were largely determined by the characteristics of haematological malignancies, which included uncertain trajectories, indistinct transitions and difficulties predicting prognosis and identifying if or when to withdraw treatment. Advance planning (where possible) and better communication between primary and secondary care may facilitate non-hospital death. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
de Barros Reis, Carla; Knust, Renata Erthal; de Aguiar Pereira, Claudia Cristina; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo
The present study estimated the cost of advanced non-small cell lung cancer care for a cohort of 251 patients enrolled in a Brazilian public hospital and identified factors associated with the cost of treating the disease, considering sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of patients, service utilization patterns and survival time. Estimates were obtained from the survey of direct medical cost per patient from the hospital's perspective. Data was collected from medical records and available hospital information systems. The ordinary least squares (OLS) method with logarithmic transformation of the dependent variable for the analysis of cost predictors was used to take into account the positive skewness of the costs distribution. The average cost of NSCLC was US$ 5647 for patients, with 71% of costs being associated to outpatient care. The main components of cost were daily hospital bed stay (22.6%), radiotherapy (15.5%) and chemotherapy (38.5%). The OLS model reported that, with 5% significance level, patients with higher levels of education, with better physical performance and less advanced disease have higher treatment costs. After controlling for the patient's survival time, only education and service utilization patterns were statistically significant. Individuals who were hospitalized or made use of radiotherapy or chemotherapy had higher costs. The use of these outpatient and hospital services explained most of the treatment cost variation, with a significant increase of the adjusted R 2 of 0.111 to 0.449 after incorporation of these variables in the model. The explanatory power of the complete model reached 62%. Inequities in disease treatment costs were observed, pointing to the need for strategies that reduce lower socioeconomic status and population's hurdles to accessing cancer care services.
Daida, Atsuro; Yoshihara, Hiroki; Inai, Ikuko; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Ishida, Yasushi; Urayama, Kevin Y; Manabe, Atsushi
Hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) may cause life-threatening colitis for children with cancer, making identification of risk factors important. We described characteristics of pediatric cancer patients with primary and recurring CDI, and evaluated potential risk factors. Among 189 cancer patients, 51 cases (27%) of CDI and 94 matched controls of cancer patients without CDI were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between CDI and several potential risk factors. Median age of CDI cases was lower (3.3 y; 0.60 to 16.2) than controls (7.7 y; 0.4 to 20.5). Median duration of neutropenia before CDI was longer for CDI cases (10.0 d; 0.0 to 30.0) compared with duration calculated from reference date in controls (6.0 d; 0.0 to 29.0). Multivariable analysis showed that older age was associated with reduced risk (≥7 vs. 0 to 3 y, odds ratio=0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.54), and prolonged neutropenia was associated with increased risk (odds ratio=1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.22). CDI recurred in 26% of cases. Younger age and prolonged neutropenia were risk factors for CDI in children with cancer. Increasing awareness to these risk factors will help to identify opportunities for CDI prevention in cancer patients.
Amiel, Philippe; Dauchy, Sarah; Bodin, Julie; Cerf, Céline; Zenasni, Franck; Pezant, Elisabeth; Teller, Anne-Marie; André, Fabrice; DiPalma, Mario
Cancer patients are offered more and more access to beauty care during their stay in the hospital. This kind of intervention has not been evaluated yet. Primary objective of our research was to determine what type of evaluation strategy to be implemented (as a supportive care with quality of life and/or medical benefits; as a service providing immediate comfort); intermediate objective was to investigate in scientific terms (psychological, sociological) the experience of beauty care by patients. Sixty patients (all users of beauty care provided by hospital, 58 female, most of them treated for breast cancer, two male, mean age 53 years) and 11 nurses and physicians, from four French cancer centres were included. We used direct observation and semi-structured interviews, conducted by a sociologist and a psychologist; different types of beauty care were concerned. All the interviewed patients were satisfied. Patients appreciated acquiring savoir-faire on how to use make-up and on personal image enhancement. Psychological and social well-being benefits were mentioned. The beauty care was not alleged to be reducing the side effects of the treatments, but it had helped patients to accept or bear the burden of them. Providing care beyond that which is directly curative was appreciated by the patients as a sign that they were treated as a "whole" person. The survey brings valuable clues concerning beauty care experience by cancer patients; it suggests the relevance of quantitative evaluation of the immediate and long-term effects on the quality of life.
Purmonen, Timo T; Auvinen, Päivi K; Martikainen, Janne A
Adjuvant trastuzumab is widely used in HER2-positive (HER2+) early breast cancer, and despite its cost-effectiveness, it causes substantial costs for health care. The purpose of the study was to develop a tool for estimating the budget impact of new cancer treatments. With this tool, we were able to estimate the budget impact of adjuvant trastuzumab, as well as the probability of staying within a given budget constraint. The created model-based evaluation tool was used to explore the budget impact of trastuzumab in early breast cancer in a single Finnish hospital district with 250,000 inhabitants. The used model took into account the number of patients, HER2+ prevalence, length and cost of treatment, and the effectiveness of the therapy. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis and alternative case scenarios were performed to ensure the robustness of the results. Introduction of adjuvant trastuzumab caused substantial costs for a relatively small hospital district. In base-case analysis the 4-year net budget impact was 1.3 million euro. The trastuzumab acquisition costs were partially offset by the reduction in costs associated with the treatment of cancer recurrence and metastatic disease. Budget impact analyses provide important information about the overall economic impact of new treatments, and thus offer complementary information to cost-effectiveness analyses. Inclusion of treatment outcomes and probabilistic sensitivity analysis provides more realistic estimates of the net budget impact. The length of trastuzumab treatment has a strong effect on the budget impact.
Leak, Ashley; Davis, Ellen D.; Houchin, Laura B.; Mabrey, Melanie
Managing diabetes can be a daunting task for patients with cancer. Empowerment-based diabetes education and motivational interviewing are complementary approaches. Oncology nurses may feel unprepared to teach patients and their families about self-care for diabetes, but they provide individualized information on symptom management of cancer throughout hospitalization and at discharge. The essential self-care issues include food, exercise, medication, blood glucose monitoring, prevention, recognition and treatment of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and when and how to get additional medical and educational support. This patient-centered model of diabetes education differs from the older “compliance” model that covers many universal rules for all patients, which are predetermined by the nurse. Informing nurses about their role in care of patients with cancer and diabetes is critical. PMID:19349267
Betty; Laksmi, L. I.; Siregar, K. B.
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are a type of breast cancer that does not have any or lack expression of the three receptors of estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2). This cross-sectional study was performed on patients TNBC in HAM hospital Medan from 2013 to 2016 by immunohistochemistry stained. A total 60 invasive breast cancer samples with TNBC. The more frequent in TNBC group were 51-60 years (19 cases, 31.66%) and pre-menopause (34 cases, 57%). Tumor size T3 and T4 with staging IIIA and IIIB, histology sub-type IC-NOS and ILC with grade 2 and grade 3 of histologic was more common in TNBC.
Lapointe-Shaw, Lauren; Abushomar, Hani; Chen, Xi-Kuan; Gapanenko, Katerina; Taylor, Chelsea; Krzyzanowska, Monika K; Bell, Chaim M
Patients admitted to the hospital on weekends experience worse outcomes than those admitted on weekdays. Patients with cancer may be especially vulnerable to the effects of weekend care. Our objective was to compare the care and outcomes of patients with cancer admitted urgently to the hospital on weekends and holidays versus those of patients with cancer admitted at other times. This was a retrospective study of all adult patients with cancer having an urgent hospitalization in Canada from 2010 to 2013. Patients admitted to hospital on weekends/holidays were compared with those admitted on weekdays. The primary outcome was 7-day in-hospital mortality. We also compared performance of procedures in the first 2 days of hospital admission and admission to critical care after the first 24 hours. 290,471 hospital admissions were included. Patients admitted to hospital on weekends/holidays had an increased risk of 7-day in-hospital mortality (4.8% vs 4.3%; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.17), corresponding to 137 excess deaths per year compared with the weekday group. This risk persisted after restricting the analysis to patients arriving by ambulance (7.1% vs 6.4%; adjusted OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.18). Among those who had procedures in the first 4 days of admission, fewer weekend/holiday-admitted patients had them performed in the first 2 days, for 8 of 9 common procedure groups. There was no difference in critical care admission risk after the first 24 hours. Patients with cancer admitted to the hospital on weekends/holidays experience higher mortality relative to patients admitted on weekdays. This may result from different care processes for weekend/holiday patients, including delayed procedures. Future research is needed to identify key outcome-driving procedures, and ensure timely access to these on all days of the week. Copyright © 2016 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.
Li, XueLian; Zheng, SaiHua; Chen, ShangJie; Qin, Feng; Lau, Sandy; Chen, Qi
The incidence and the trend of gynaecological cancers have been suggested to vary by ethnicity and geographical regions. Whether the incidence and type of gynaecological cancers in China is different have not been fully investigated. In this study, we reported the trend of gynaecological cancers in China. Data on 13,518 women with gynaecological cancers were collected from the largest obstetrics and gynaecology hospital in China from 2003 to 2013. Data included age at diagnosis and the annual number of women with diagnosed endometrial, ovarian, cervical cancer and other gynaecological cancers. The number of women with diagnosed gynaecological cancers increased by almost sixfold in 2013 compared to that in 2003. It was largely due to the increase of women with newly diagnosed cervical cancer. The percentage of women with endometrial and ovarian cancer within total gynaecological cancers was decreased, whilst the percentage of cervical cancer significantly increased between 2003 and 2013. The mean age of women with endometrial or ovarian cancer at diagnosis was 53 or 48 years, respectively, which was no difference over 11 years. However, the mean age of women with cervical cancer at diagnosis was significantly delayed from 42 years in 2003 to 46 years since 2011. This was also confirmed by the age-specific distribution of gynaecological cancers over 11 years. Our study found that the age onset of endometrial and ovarian cancer has not changed over 11 years. But the age onset of cervical cancer is delayed since 2011 in China.
Zöller, Bengt; Palmer, Karolina; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina
The importance of family history of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients is unclear. We conducted a nationwide study to determine whether family history of VTE is a risk factor for hospitalized VTE in cancer patients. The Swedish Multi-Generation Register was linked to the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and the Swedish Cancer Registry. Familial (sibling/parent history of VTE) hazard ratios (HRs) for VTE in 20 cancer types were determined by cause-specific Cox regression for 258877 cancer patients in 1987-2010 without previous VTE. Familial HRs were also determined in 7644203 individuals without cancer or VTE before 1987, with follow-up in 1987-2010. Significant familial HRs for VTE in cancer patients were observed for the following cancer types: cancers of the breast (HR=1.79), lung (HR=1.21), colon (HR=1.30), prostate (HR=1.46), testis (HR=2.02), nervous system (HR=1.31), stomach (HR=1.73), and rectum (HR=1.77), as well as melanoma (HR=1.71), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (HR=1.32), myeloma (HR=1.69), and leukemia (HR=1.44). In a time-dependent analysis the familial HRs for VTE were significant before diagnosis of cancer (p-values <0.0001). After diagnosis of cancer the familial HRs VTE were weaker, with significant HRs for 12 cancer types. On an additive scale, the joint effect of cancer and family history was significantly increased compared to separate effects in four cancer types. However, for certain cancers the familial VTE cases were limited. Family history of VTE is a risk factor for VTE in several cancer types. However, familial factors are relatively more important in non-cancer than in cancer patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Viney, Linda L.; And Others
Compared quality of life of terminal cancer patients (n=182) in two palliative care units with that of those in general hospital. Patients in specialized palliative care units were found to differ from those dying in hospital, showing less indirectly expressed anger but more positive feelings. They also reported more anxiety about death but less…
Liu, Sheng-Nan; Tang, Liang; Luo, Rong-Ting
Two new Stenus species of the cirrus group collected from Zhejiang Province, East China, are described, S. wuyanlingus Liu, Tang & Luo, sp. n. , S. yuyimingi Liu, Tang & Luo, sp. n. and a new distributional locality for S. ovalis Tang, Li & Zhao, 2005 was discovered. The diagnostic characters of the new species are illustrated, and a key to species of the group from Zhejiang Province is provided.
Liu, Sheng-Nan; Tang, Liang; Luo, Rong-Ting
Abstract Two new Stenus species of the cirrus group collected from Zhejiang Province, East China, are described, S. wuyanlingus Liu, Tang & Luo, sp. n., S. yuyimingi Liu, Tang & Luo, sp. n. and a new distributional locality for S. ovalis Tang, Li & Zhao, 2005 was discovered. The diagnostic characters of the new species are illustrated, and a key to species of the group from Zhejiang Province is provided. PMID:28769734
Yan, R; He, B; Yao, F Y; Xiang, Z L; He, H Q; Xie, S Y; Feng, Y
Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of measles outbreak caused by genotype D8 virus in Pinghu city of Zhejiang province, and provide evidence for the control of the outbreak. Methods: The measles outbreak data were collected through National Measles Surveillance System. The outpatient records and admission records were checked, field investigation and outbreak response were conducted. Blood samples in acute phase and swab specimens were collected from the patients for laboratory testing, including serology test, RNA extraction and amplification, measles virus isolation and genotype identification. Software SPSS 17.0 and Excel 2016 were used for data analysis. Results: A total of 10 confirmed measles cases were reported in Pinghu city, and 8 cases were aged >40 years. Six blood samples were collected, in which 5 were measles D8 virus positive and 1 was negative in measles virus detection. There were epidemiological links among 10 cases which occurred in a factory, a hospital and a family at the same time. There was no statistical difference in symptoms among cases caused by D8 virus and H1a virus. After the emergent measles vaccination, the measles outbreak was effectively controlled. Conclusion: Untimely response due to the uneasy detection of measles cases in the early stage, nosocomial infection and weak barrier of measles immunity in adults might be the main reasons for this outbreak. Measles vaccination is effective in the prevention of measles D8 virus infection. It is necessary to strengthen measles genotype monitoring for the tracing of infection source and control of outbreaks.
Bejarano, M; Fuchs, V; Fernández, N; Amancio, O
Uterine cervical cancer represents a public health problem in Mexico; the patients suffer physical and psychological stress leading to depression and weight loss. Eating with a relative has positive effects in food ingestion and depressive status in hospitalized patients. In our society, food is the closest way that family members have to bring care and to show affection to the patient that has less appetite as disease goes on. To establish the relationship between presence of the family during the meals and depresion, food intake, and weight variation during hospitalization. 106 women admitted to the Oncology Department at the General Hospital of Mexico with a diagnosis of CUCA clinical stage II and III were studied in order to improve their condition. Weight and height, diet by means of 24 hour recalls were assessed both at hospital admission and discharge, and Beck's depression inventory was applied; the frequency with which the relatives escorted the patient was recorded. Patients were classified in two groups according to the frequency of family escorting; it was found that 43 patients (40.6%) were accompanied, and 63 patients (59.4%) were not. We did not find significant differences in age and days of hospital stay between the groups (p > 0.05). The escorted patients had more foods available during hospitalization (p < 0.05). Energy consumption (kcal) in escorted patients was higher by 12.7% as compared to non-escorted patients. 76.7% of the escorted patients were depressed, as compared to 55% in the non-escorted group. Significant differences were found with regards to clinical status and presence of depression (p < 0.05) between the study groups. Family escorting does not have an influence on the amount of foods consumed during hospitalization or body weight variation; however, it does have an influence on the presence of depression.
Nipp, Ryan D; El-Jawahri, Areej; Moran, Samantha M; D'Arpino, Sara M; Johnson, P Connor; Lage, Daniel E; Wong, Risa L; Pirl, William F; Traeger, Lara; Lennes, Inga T; Cashavelly, Barbara J; Jackson, Vicki A; Greer, Joseph A; Ryan, David P; Hochberg, Ephraim P; Temel, Jennifer S
Patients with advanced cancer often experience frequent and prolonged hospitalizations; however, the factors associated with greater health care utilization have not been described. We sought to investigate the relation between patients' physical and psychological symptom burden and health care utilization. We enrolled patients with advanced cancer and unplanned hospitalizations from September 2014-May 2016. Upon admission, we assessed physical (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System [ESAS]) and psychological symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire 4 [PHQ-4]). We examined the relationship between symptom burden and healthcare utilization using linear regression for hospital length of stay (LOS) and Cox regression for time to first unplanned readmission within 90 days. We adjusted all models for age, sex, marital status, comorbidity, education, time since advanced cancer diagnosis, and cancer type. We enrolled 1,036 of 1,152 (89.9%) consecutive patients approached. Over one-half reported moderate/severe fatigue, poor well being, drowsiness, pain, and lack of appetite. PHQ-4 scores indicated that 28.8% and 28.0% of patients had depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The mean hospital LOS was 6.3 days, and the 90-day readmission rate was 43.1%. Physical symptoms (ESAS: unstandardized coefficient [B], 0.06; P < .001), psychological distress (PHQ-4 total: B, 0.11; P = .040), and depression symptoms (PHQ-4 depression: B, 0.22; P = .017) were associated with longer hospital LOS. Physical (ESAS: hazard ratio, 1.01; P < .001), and anxiety symptoms (PHQ-4 anxiety: hazard ratio, 1.06; P = .045) were associated with a higher likelihood for readmission. Hospitalized patients with advanced cancer experience a high symptom burden, which is significantly associated with prolonged hospitalizations and readmissions. Interventions are needed to address the symptom burden of this population to improve health care delivery and utilization. Cancer 2017;123:4720-4727. © 2017 American
Parra Palacio, Santiago; Giraldo Hoyos, Clara Elisa; Arias Rodríguez, Camilo; Mejía Arrieta, Daniel; Vargas Gómez, John Jairo; Krikorian, Alicia
To describe the practice of palliative sedation (PS) in patients with advanced cancer in a specialized palliative care (PC) unit in Colombia. Descriptive prospective study including all adults with cancer hospitalized under PS in a cancer institute between January and July 2015 in Colombia. Variables examined were diagnosis, physical functioning, symptoms at the start of sedation, medications and dosages used, and type, level, and time of sedation. Descriptive and correlational statistics were obtained. Sixty-six patients were included, 70% of which were women. The patients had an average age of 61 years (range 24-87), and 74% had a Karnofsky Index (KI) of 50% or less. The most frequent diagnosis was breast cancer (22%), and 82% had metastatic cancer. The prevalence of palliative sedation was 2% and the most common symptoms indicating it were dyspnea (59%), delirium (45%), and pain (32%). All patients received midazolam as a sedative. The average time between the interval start and culmination of sedation was 44 h. There was a significant and inverse relationship between functionality and time under sedation. Palliative sedation is a valid therapeutic option for refractory symptoms causing suffering. The results correspond to international reports and guidelines, which suggests that PS is tailored to the needs of the individual patient while maintaining a high scientific standard, even in a context where PC is under development. However, further development of strategies and clear indications towards the use of PS in Colombia are needed, given its still scarce use.
Zhang, Hai-dong; Yu, Dong-sheng; Shi, Xue-zheng; Liu, Ying-an; Wang, Shi-hang; Zhang, Guang-xing; Liu, Yang
Through the human-computer interactive interpretation of the 2000, 2005, and 2008 remote sensing images of Zhejiang Province with the help of RS and GIS techniques, the dynamic database of cultivated land change in the province in, 2000-2008 was established, and the driving factors of the cultivated land change were analyzed by ridge regression analysis. There was a notable cultivated land change in the province in 2000-2008. In 2000-2005 and 2005-2008, the annual cultivated land change in the province arrived -1.42% and -1.46%, respectively, and most of the cultivated land was changed into residential and industrial land. Non-agricultural population rate, real estate investment, urban green area, and orchard area were thought to be the main driving factors of the cultivated land change in Zhejiang Province, and even, in the developed areas of east China.
Wang, Hua; Chu, Yixuan; Fang, Chengran
The occurrence and distribution of five sulfonamides and three tetracyclines in swine manure sampled from large-scale feedlots in different areas of Zhejiang Province, China were detected using solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. All eight test antibiotics were detected in most of the manure samples. The dominant antibiotics in swine manure were sulfadiazine, sulfamerazine, sulfadimidine, tetracycline, and chlortetracycline. The maximum concentration of residual antibiotic reached up to 57.95 mg/kg (chlortetracycline). The concentrations and distribution of both types of antibiotics in swine manure of different areas varied greatly. Relatively higher concentrations of sulfonamides were found in swine manure from the Zhejiang area in this experiment compared with previous studies. The results revealed that antibiotics were extensively used in feedlots in this district and that animal manure might act as a non-specific source of antibiotic residues in farmlands and aquatic environments.
Lal, Sonal Tina; Banipal, Raja Paramjeet Singh; Bhatti, Deepak John; Yadav, Hanuman Prasad
Skin cancer constitutes a small but significant proportion of patients with cancer. Although the presence of eumelanin in dark skin is protective against the development of skin cancer, it is increasingly being diagnosed in the Indian population. To study the profile of skin cancer patients presenting to a tertiary hospital in Malwa area of Punjab, India. Retrospective study was done to analyse the profile of skin cancer patients who attended the institution over one year from 1(st) December 2013 to 30(th) November 2014. A comprehensive review of aetiology and related risk factors was done to correlate the environmental factors with high skin cancer prevalence in this region. Skin cancer constituted (3.18%) 84 out of 2638 patients registered with cancer of all types. The age of the patients was 62±14.2 years and ranged from 27 to 92 yrs. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) was the most common histological type(46/84, 54.76%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (31/84, 36.91%) and malignant melanoma (MM) (7/84, 8.33%). Male: female ratio was found to be 0.79:1. BCC showed higher female preponderance (p<0.05). Head and Neck was the commonest site involved (p<0.05). Majority (88%) of patients were from rural area. 92% of patients were directly into the profession of agriculture with history of prolonged exposure to sunlight. Skin cancer constitutes a small but significant proportion of patients with cancers. This study highlights a paradoxically increasing trend of BCC and female preponderance. Head and neck is the most common site involved. Exposure to Ultra Violet B (UVB) radiation and higher levels of arsenic in drinking water has been reported to be associated with skin cancers. Limited studies show that levels of arsenic and pesticides were higher in the samples of drinking water in Malwa area of Punjab. Therefore a multipronged strategy to provide safe drinking water supply and discouraging the indiscriminate use of pesticides is recommended.
Droste, J. H.; Weyler, J. J.; Van Meerbeeck, J. P.; Vermeire, P. A.; van Sprundel, M. P.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relation between lung cancer and exposure to occupational carcinogens in a highly industrialised region in western Europe. METHODS: In a case-control study 478 cases and 536 controls, recruited from 10 hospitals in the Antwerp region, were interviewed. Cases were male patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer; controls were male patients without cancer or primary lung diseases. Data were collected by questionnaires to obtain information on occupations, exposures, and smoking history. Job titles were coded with the Office of Populations, Censuses and Surveys industrial classification. Exposure was assessed by self report and by job-task exposure matrix. Exposure odds ratios were calculated with logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, smoking history, and marital and socio-economic status. RESULTS: A job history in the categories manufacturing of transport equipment other than automobiles (for example, shipyard workers), transport support services (for example, dockers), and manufacturing of metal goods (for example, welders) was significantly associated with lung cancer (odds ratios (ORs) 2.3, 1.6, and 1.6 respectively). These associations were independent of smoking, education, civil, and economic status. Self reported exposure to potential carcinogens did not show significant associations with lung cancer, probably due to nondifferential misclassification. When assessed by job-task exposure matrix, exposure to molybdenum, mineral oils, and chromium were significantly associated with lung cancer. A strong association existed between smoking and lung cancer: OR of ex- smokers 4.2, OR of current smokers 14.5 v non-smokers. However, smoking did not confound the relation between occupational exposure and lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The study has shown a significant excess risk of lung cancer among workers in manufacturing of metal goods, manufacturing of transport equipment (other than automobiles), and transport support
Carré, N; Uhry, Z; Velten, M; Trétarre, B; Schvartz, C; Molinié, F; Maarouf, N; Langlois, C; Grosclaude, P; Colonna, M
Cancer registries have a complete recording of new cancer cases occurring among residents of a specific geographic area. In France, they cover only 13% of the population. For thyroid cancer, where incidence rate is highly variable according to the district conversely to mortality, national incidence estimates are not accurate. A nationwide database, such as hospital discharge system, could improve this estimate but its positive predictive value and sensibility should be evaluated. The positive predictive value and the sensitivity for thyroid cancer case ascertainment (ICD-10) of the national hospital discharge system in 1999 and 2000 were estimated using the cancer registries database of 10 French districts as gold standard. The linkage of the two databases required transmission of nominative information from the health facilities of the study. From the registries database, a logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors related to being missed by the hospital discharge system. Among the 973 standardized discharge charts selected from the hospital discharge system, 866 were considered as true positive cases, and 107 as false positive. Forty five of the latter group were prevalent cases. The predictive positive value was 89% (95% confidence interval (CI): 87-91%) and did not differ according to the district (p=0,80). According to the cancer registries, 322 thyroid cancer cases diagnosed in 1999 or 2000 were missed by the hospital discharge system. Thus, the sensitivity of this latter system was 73% (70-76%) and varied significantly from 62% to 85% across districts (p<0.001) and according to the type of health facility (p<0.01). Predictive positive value of the French hospital discharge system for ascertainment of thyroid cancer cases is high and stable across districts. Sensitivity is lower and varies significantly according to the type of health facility and across districts, which limits the interest of this database for a national estimate of
Lou, Fangli; Shang, Shaomei
Objective To investigate patients’ attitudes towards cancer pain management and analyze the factors influencing these attitudes. Methods The self-developed Demographic and Disease-Related Information Questionnaires, Pain Management Barriers Questionnaire-Taiwan form (BQT), and Pain Knowledge Questionnaire were administered to 363 pairs of hospitalized cancer patients and their caregivers from the oncology departments of 7 hospitals in Beijing, China. Results The average patient score for attitudes towards pain management was 2.96±0.49. The dimension scores indicated good attitudes in three areas (scores <2.5), “Desire to be good” (2.22±1.04), “Fatalism” (2.08±0.81) and “Religious fatalism” (1.86±1.00), and poor attitudes in six areas (scores ≥2.5), “Tolerance” (3.83±0.96), “Use of analgesics as needed (p.r.n.)” (3.73±1.01), “Addiction” (3.44±1.05), “Disease progression” (3.28±1.26), “Distraction of physicians” (3.16±1.07) and “Side effects” (2.99±0.68). Two factors were entered into the regression equation: the caregivers’ attitudes towards cancer pain management and the patients’ pain knowledge. These two factors explained 23.2% of the total variance in the patients’ average scores for their attitudes towards cancer pain management. Conclusions The patients’ attitudes towards cancer pain management were poor and could be influenced by the caregivers’ attitudes and the patients’ pain knowledge, and thus need to be improved. PMID:28373756
Mor, V; Stalker, M Z; Gralla, R; Scher, H I; Cimma, C; Park, D; Flaherty, A M; Kiss, M; Nelson, P; Laliberte, L
A stratified, random-assignment trial of 442 cancer patients was conducted to evaluate medical, psychosocial, and financial outcomes of day hospital treatment as an alternative to inpatient care for certain cancer patients. Eligible patients required: a 4- to 8-hour treatment plan, including chemotherapy and other long-term intravenous (i.v.) treatment; a stable cardiovascular status; mental competence; no skilled overnight nursing; and a helper to assist with home care. Patients were ineligible if standard outpatient treatment was possible. No statistically significant (p less than 0.05) differences were found between the Adult Day Hospital (ADH) and Inpatient care in medical or psychosocial outcomes over the 60-day study period. The major difference was in medical costs--approximately one-third lower for ADH patients (p less than 0.001) than for the Inpatient group. The study demonstrates that day hospital care of medical oncology patients is clinically equivalent to Inpatient care, causes no negative psychosocial effects, and costs less than Inpatient care. Findings support the trend toward dehospitalization of medical treatment.
Bickell, Nina A; Shah, Ajay; Castaldi, Maria; Lewis, Theophilus; Sickles, Alan; Arora, Shalini; Clarke, Kevin; Kemeny, Margaret; Srinivasan, Anitha; Fei, Kezhen; Franco, Rebeca; Parides, Michael; Pappas, Peter; McAlearney, Ann Scheck
To implement and test a Web-based tracking and feedback (T&F) tool to close referral loops and reduce adjuvant breast cancer treatment underuse in safety-net hospitals (SNHs). We randomly assigned 10 SNHs, identified patients with new stage 1 to stage 3 breast cancer, assessed their connection with the oncologist, and relayed this information to surgeons for follow-up. We interviewed key informants about the tool's usefulness. We conducted intention-to-treat and pre- and poststudy analyses to assess the T&F tool and implementation effectiveness, respectively. Between the study start and intervention implementation, several hospitals reorganized care delivery and 49% of patients scheduled to undergo breast cancer surgery were ineligible because they already were in contact with an oncologist. One high-volume hospital closed. Despite randomization of hospitals, intervention (INT) hospitals had fewer white patients (5% v 16%; P = .0005), and more underuse (28% v 15%; P = .002) compared with usual care (UC) hospitals. Over time, INT hospitals with poorer follow-up significantly reduced underuse compared with UC hospitals (INT hospitals, from 33% to 9%, P = .001 v UC hospitals, from 15% to 11%, P = .5). There was no difference in underuse (9% at INT hospitals, 11% at UC hospitals; P = .8). Hospitals with better follow-up (odds ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.98) had less underuse. In settings with poor follow-up and tracking approaches, key informants found the tool useful. The rapidly changing delivery landscape posed significant challenges to this implementation research. A T&F tool did not significantly reduce adjuvant underuse but may help reduce underuse in SNHs with poor follow-up capabilities. Inability to discern T&F effectiveness is likely due to encountered challenges that inform lessons for future implementation research.
Yang, J Z; Chen, W J; Zhang, W J; He, L; Zhang, J F; Pan, X H
Objective: To understand the distribution of HIV-1 subtype diversity and its transmission characteristics in Zhejiang province. Methods: A total of 302 newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive patients were selected through stratified random sampling in Zhejiang in 2015. HIV-1 pol genes were sequenced successfully with reverse transcription PCR/nested PCR and phylogenetic analysis was conducted for 276 patients. Then a molecular epidemiologic study was performed combined with field epidemiological investigation. Results: Of 276 sequence samples analyzed, 122 CRF07_BC strains (44.2%), 103 CRF01_AE strains (37.3%), 17 CRF08_BC strains (6.1%), 9 B strains (3.2%), 6 CRF55_01B strains (2.2%), 5 C strains (1.8%), 1 CRF59_01B strain (0.4%), 1 CRF67_01B strain (0.4%), 1 A1 strain (0.4%), and 11 URFs strains (4.0%) were identified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 16 clusters with only 15.1% (34/225) sequences involved among CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE strains. The clustered cases in MSM were higher than that in populations with other transmission routes. And clusters existed between the populations with different transmission routes. Conclusion: The major strains of HIV-1 in Zhejiang are CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE. The HIV subtypes showed more complexity in Zhejiang. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance for HIV subtypes, carry out classified management and conduct effective prevention and control in the population at high risk.
Zhou, Qing; Mao, Chong-Feng; Hou, Lin
Industry-university-institute cooperation is an important means to accelerate technical development and achievements for high-tech enterprises. Considering that Zhejiang high-tech enterprises existed some problems which included low cooperative level, single distribution, weak secondary R&D ability, obvious risk and so on, government should play an guiding role on improving information service system, enhancing cooperative level, promoting scientific intermediary service organization system construction, and building better environment for Industry-university-institute cooperation.
Kennedy, Martyn P T; Hall, Peter S; Callister, Matthew E J
Rising healthcare costs and financial constraints are increasing pressure on healthcare budgets. There is little published data on the healthcare costs of lung cancer in the UK, with international studies mostly small and limited by data collection methods. Accurate assessment of healthcare costs is essential for effective service planning. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive cohort study linking clinical data from a local electronic database of lung cancer patients at a large UK teaching hospital with recorded hospital income. Costs were adjusted to 2013-2014 prices. The study analysed secondary care costs of 3274 patients. Mean cumulative costs were £5852 (95% CI, £5694 to £6027) at 90 days and £10,009 (95% CI, £9717 to £10,278) at one year. The majority of costs (58.5%) were accumulated within the first 90 days, with acute inpatient costs the largest contributor at one year (42.1%). The strongest predictor of costs was active treatment, especially surgery. Costs were also affected by age, route to diagnosis, clinical stage and cell type. Successful early diagnosis initiatives that increase radical treatment rates and improve outcomes may significantly increase the secondary care costs of lung cancer management. The use of routine NHS clinical and financial data can enable efficient and effective analyses of large cohort health economic data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ledford, Christy J W; Gawrys, Breanna L; Wall, Jessica L; Saas, Patrick D; Seehusen, Dean A
In December 2013 the US Preventive Services Task Force issued a recommendation for lung cancer screening with annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). As screening guidelines emerge and change, this creates an environment for studying the translation of these guidelines into practice. This study assessed how these guidelines were implemented in a community hospital setting and the resulting radiologic findings. This observational study examined the radiologic outcomes of LDCT lung cancer screening guidelines and the resulting notification. During the first year after publication of the guidelines, 94 screening LDCT scans were ordered. Of these, 21 (22.3%) did not meet the criteria outlined by the US Preventive Services Task Force. Among the 72 cases that did met published criteria, 65.3% of scans detected nodules, and among the remaining 35.6%, half had another clinically significant finding. This study shows that new lung cancer screening guidelines, as implemented at a community hospital, resulted in radiologic findings that required follow-up in more than half of patients. Clinicians must be aware of these potential incidental findings when talking to patients about the decision to order screenings. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
García-Sáenz, José Angel; Martín, Miguel; Maestro, Marisa; Vidaurreta, Marta; Veganzones, Silvia; Villalobos, Laura; Rodríguez-Lajusticia, Laura; Rafael, Sara; Sanz-Casla, María Teresa; Casado, Antonio; Sastre, Javier; Arroyo, Manuel; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo
The relationship between breast cancer and circadian rhythm variation has been extensively studied. Increased breast tumorigenesis has been reported in melatonin-suppressed experimental models and in observational studies. Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) circadian- rhythm may optimize the timing of therapies. This is a prospective experimental study to ascertain the day-time and night-time CTC levels in hospitalized metastasic breast cancer (MBC) patients. CTC are isolated and enumerated from a 08:00 AM and 08:00 PM blood collections. 23 MBC and 23 healthy volunteers entered the study. 69 samples were collected (23 samples at 08:00 AM and 23 samples at 08:00 PM from MBC; 23 samples from healthy volunteers). Results from two patients were rejected due to sample processing errors. No CTC were isolated from healthy-volunteers. No-differences between daytime and night-time CTC were observed. Therefore, we could not ascertain CTC circadian-rhythm in hospitalized metastasic breast cancer patients.
Hong, Young; Zheng, Chaoyi; Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth; Johnson, Lynt B; Shara, Nawar; Al-Refaie, Waddah B
Penalties from the Hospital Readmission Reduction Program can push financially strained, vulnerable patient-serving hospitals into additional hardship. In this study, we quantified the association between vulnerable hospitals and readmissions and examined the respective contributions of patient- and hospital-related factors. A total of 110,857 patients who underwent major cancer operations were identified from the 2004-2011 State Inpatient Database of California. Vulnerable hospitals were defined as either self-identified safety net hospitals (SNHs) or hospitals with a high percentage of Medicaid patients (high Medicaid hospitals [HMHs]). We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the association between vulnerable hospitals and readmission. Patient and hospital contributions to the elevation in odds of readmission were assessed by comparing estimates from models with different subsets of predictors. Of the 355 hospitals, 13 were SNHs and 31 were HMHs. After adjusting for Hospital Readmission Reduction Program variables, SNHs had higher 30-day (odds ratio [OR] = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.18-1.47), 90-day (OR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.18-1.38), and repeated readmissions (OR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.18-1.49); HMHs also had higher 30-day (OR = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.32), 90-day (OR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.16-1.42), and repeated readmissions (OR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.54). Compared with patient characteristics, hospital factors accounted for a larger proportion of the increase in odds of readmission among SNHs (60% to 93% vs 24% to 39%), but a smaller proportion among HMHs (9% to 15% vs 60% to 115%). Vulnerable status of hospitals is associated with higher readmission rates after major cancer surgery. These findings reinforce the call to account for socioeconomic variables in risk adjustments for hospitals who serve a disproportionate share of disadvantaged patients. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gao, Lei; Fan, Daidu; Li, Daoji; Cai, Jingong
Twenty-eight surface water samples from rivers, muddy intertidal flats, sand shores, and bedrock coasts were collected along the Zhejiang coastline in southeast China. In addition, three samples from the Changjiang (Yangtze River) were collected for comparison. CDOM (chromophoric dissolved organic matter) absorption and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy, as well as nutrients and DOC were measured in these samples. According to salinity, nutrient, and DOC constituents, the 28 Zhejiang samples were categorized into four groups, i.e. highly-polluted, river derived, muddy-flat derived, and saltwater dominated ones. Among the six parameters (two humic-like and two protein-like peak intensities in fluorescence EEM contours, absorption at 300 nm, and DOC concentration) for the Zhejiang samples, any two of them were positively correlated. The submarine groundwater discharge, rather than local rivers, might have provided most of the freshwater that interacted with the saltwater during the mixing process. The high protein-like EEM peaks in samples from muddy salt marshes and rivers were probably caused by terrestrial inputs, land-based pollution, and local biological activities in combination. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Yang, Lili; Yin, Huaiming; Yang, Rongwang; Huang, Xinwen
Summary Background Glutaric aciduria type I (GA I; MIM 231670) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. This article reports our experience in the diagnosis, treatment and outcome of GA I patients in Zhejiang Province, China. Material/Methods A total of 129,415 newborns (accounting for approximately one-tenth of the annual births in Zhejiang Province) and 9640 high-risk infants were screened for inborn errors of metabolism in the Neonatal Screening Center of Zhejiang Province during a 3-year period. Tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for diagnosis of the patients. Dietary modification, carnitine supplementation and aggressive treatment of intercurrent illnesses were adapted for GA I patients. Results Three infants were diagnosed with GA I by high-risk screening (detection rate: 1/3,213) and 2 were diagnosed by newborn screening (incidence: 1/64,708). Four patients (3 by high-risk screening and 1 by neonatal screening) undergoing MRI examination showed remarkable changes on T2-weighted image. Four patients accepted timely treatment, and in the patient diagnosed by neonatal screening, treatment was delayed until hypotonia appeared 3 months later. Neuropsychological assessment showed mental and motor retardation in 3 patients after treatment, including the patient diagnosed by neonatal screening. Conclusions Individualized timely treatment and close monitoring of GA I patients needs to be optimized in China. Appropriate communication with parents may help to achieve successful management of GA I patients. PMID:21709643
Yimaer, Aziguli; Chen, Guangdi; Zhang, Meibian; Zhou, Lifang; Fang, Xinglin; Jiang, Wei
Pesticide poisoning in children has been a serious public health issue around the world, especially in the developing countries where agriculture is still one of the largest economic sectors. The purpose of this study was to analyze epidemiological characteristics of acute pesticide poisoning in children from Zhejiang province, China. The pesticide poisoning cases for children were retrieved from Occupational Disease Surveillance and Reporting System, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China. The incident cases, deaths, and fatality rate of child pesticide poisoning from 2006 through 2015 were calculated. During the study period, totally 2952 children were poisoned by pesticides, with 66 deaths, resulting in a fatality rate of 2.24%. Among them, there were 1607 male cases with 28 deaths, and 1345 female cases with 38 deaths. Most of the cases occurred in preschool children (1349) and adolescent age group (1269). Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides were the cause of most poisonings (1130), leading to 34 deaths. The highest fatality rate (3.13%) was due to poisoning by herbicides and fungicides, causing 14 deaths out of 448 cases. Poisoning occurred mostly in rural areas (78%). And most pesticide poisoning occurred in the summer (896) and fall (811), while fewest poisoning cases in the winter (483) but with the highest fatality rate (3.52%). This study shows that pesticide poisoning of children is a major health problem in Zhejiang, suggesting preventive strategies should be conducted to control childhood pesticide poisoning.
Zhu, D M
From January 2003 to October 2008, the Zhejiang Provincial Department of Culture, together with the Intangible Cultural Heritage Management Department of 11 cities and counties, including Hangzhou, Ningbo, Wenzhou, Huzhou, Jiaxing, Shaoxing, Jinhua, Quzhou, Zhoushan, Taizhou, Lishui, surveyed the Province's intangible cultural heritage in traditional medicine, with a total of 7849 items, including 7 kinds of traditional medicine in 8 major categories: living Chinese medicine culture, ethnic medicine, acu-moxibustion, osteopathic therapy, unique therapies, and Chinese crude drugs, herbal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine preparation, TCM processing.Among them, 9 items have been included in the Representative Project List of National Traditional Medicine Intangible Cultural Heritage, 18 items were listed in Representative Project Directory of Zhejiang Traditional Medicine Intangible Cultural Heritage.Theprotection and inheritance of traditional of the intangible heritage of traditional medicine in Zhejiang province are mainly through the 4 batches of master guidance apprentices.In addition, protection is carried out through organizational support, literature systematization and other measures.
LI, Xianghui; CHEN, Sidun; CAO, Ke; CHEN, Yunhua; XU, Baoliang; JI, Yannan
An investigation on the mid-Cretaceous continental sediments was recently conducted in both SW Zhejiang and SW Fujian Provinces, SE China. It is the first time the Cretaceous paleosols in mainland China have been reported. Three types of paleosols are recognized, such as, argillisol, calcisol, and oxisol on the basis of observation on eleven cross sections and stops in the field. The argillisol is characterized by burrow and root trace within reddish (silty) mudrock, the calcisol marks by pedogenic carbonate concretion within pale purple calcareous mudrock, and the oxisol is the association of ferric tegument and concretion within reddish purple, grayish orange siltstone, and mudrock. According to climate direction of paleosol types, it is proposed that it could have been in aridity or semiaridity of subtropic climate during the Aptian-Albian epoch of the mid-Cretaceous in SW Zhejiang, where the calcisols were recorded in the Hengshan Formation, Zhongdai Formation, Jinhua Formation, Guantou Formation, and Chaochuan Formation; at the same time, it was in semiaridity of tropic climate in SW Fujian which was recorded by oxisols within the Bantou Formation, Junkou Formation, and Shaxian Formation. In the Cenomanian, it could become more moist in SW Zhejiang as evidenced by the production of the argillisol within the Quxian Formation with abundant organic activities, whereas the paleoclimate in SW Fujian in the Cenomanian might be similar with that in the Aptian-Albian even if the sediments were transformed to huge thick conglomerates (so-called "Danxia Landform") by tectonic uplift processes.
Calderón Guzmán, David; Juarez Olguín, Hugo; Guevara Zempoalteca, Angeles; Juárez Jacobo, Arturo; Segura Abarca, Lourdes; Barragán Mejía, Gerardo; Hernández García, Ernestina
We have compared the frequency and types of cancer chemotherapies used in a private hospital and in a government-based hospital in Mexico City. A retrospective study was conducted from January 2005 to December 2007, and therapeutic management determined in 415 cases reviewed by the attending physicians of the oncology service. In the government-based hospital, 60 different types of cancer were found among 273 patients diagnosed. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had the greatest incidence (30%), followed by Hodgkin's lymphoma (9%), retinoblastoma (7%), neuroblastoma (6%), and osteosarcoma (6%). The entire number of chemotherapy sessions was 7575. Drugs most frequently employed included etoposide (577), followed by methotrexate (575), vincristine (483), cyclophosphamide (312), and cytarabine (277). The economic status among these patients was mainly of limited resources and represented 80% of the total number of patients. The types of cancer found in the private hospital were similar, however the drugs used were predominantly cyclophosphamide (416), doxorubicin (382), 5-fluorouracil (368), paclitaxel (237) and cisplatin (128). The types of cancer were similar in both hospitals and reflected the incidence among the entire population in Mexico, since acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma and retinoblastoma, were the types most represented. However, the treatment schemes differed; the chemotherapeutic agents used in the private hospital were rather more specific but significantly more expensive than those employed in the government hospital.
Sari, Ali Akbari; Rezaei, Satar; Arab, Mohammad; Majdzadeh, Reza; Matin, Behzad Karami; Zandian, Hamed
Smoking is recognized as a main leading preventable cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. It is responsible for a considerable nancial burden both on the health system and in society. This study aimed to examine the effect of smoking on cost of hospitalization and length of stay (LoS) among patients with lung cancer in Iran in 2014. A total of 415 patients were included in the study. Data on age, sex, insurance status, type of hospitals, type of insurance, geographic local, length of stay and cost of hospitalization was extracted by medical records and smoking status was obtained from a telephone survey. To compare cost of hospitalization and LoS for different smoking groups, current smokers, former smokers, and never smokers, a gamma regression model and zero-truncated poisson regression were used, respectively. Compared with never smokers, current and former smokers showed a 48% and 35% increase in hospitalization costs, respectively. Also, hospital LoS for current and former smokers was 72% and 31% higher than for never smokers, respectively. Our study indicated that cigarette smoking imposes a signi cant nancial burden on hospitals in Iran. It is, however, recommended that more research should be done to implement and evaluate hospital based smoking cessation interventions to better increase cessation rates in these settings.
Nuemi, G; Afonso, F; Roussot, A; Billard, L; Cottenet, J; Combier, E; Diday, E; Quantin, C
The evaluation of national cancer plans is an important aspect of their implementation. For this evaluation, the principal actors in the field (doctors, nurses, etc.) as well as decision-makers must have access to information that is reliable, synthetic and easy to interpret, and which reflects the implementation process in the field. We propose here a methodology to make this type of information available in the context of reducing inequalities with regard to access to healthcare for patients with lung cancer in the region of Burgundy. We used the national medico-administrative DRG-type database, which gathers together all hospital stays. By using this database, it was possible to identify and reconstruct the care management history of these patients. That is, by linking together all attended hospitals, sorted chronologically. Eligible patients were at least 18 years old, whatever the gender and had undergone surgery for their lung cancer. They had to be residents of Burgundy at the time of the first operation between 2006 and 2008. Patient's pathway was defined as the sequence of all attended hospitals (hospital stays) during the year of follow up linked together using an anonymised patient identifier. We then constructed a pathway typology of pathway using an unsupervised clustering method, and conducted a spatial analysis of this typology. Between 2006 and 2008, we selected 495 patients in the 4 administrative departments of the Burgundy region. They accounted for a total of 3821 stays during the year of follow-up. There were 393 men (79%) and the mean age was 64 (95% confidence interval: 63-65) years. We reconstructed 94 pathways (about five per patient). Here, neighbourhood's cares accounted for 41% of them, while 44% included a surgical intervention outside the region of Burgundy. We constructed a pathway typology with five classes. Spatial analysis showed that the vast majority of initial surgeries took place in the major regional centres. The construction
Pate, Scott C; Uhlman, Matthew A; Rosenthal, Jaime A; Cram, Peter; Erickson, Bradley A
To examine variation in the open market cost of a radical prostatectomy (RP) procedure in the US hospitals for an uninsured patient, as many proposals for health care reform highlight the importance of individuals actively participating in selecting care. However, reports suggest that obtaining procedure prices remains challenging and highly variable. We used 2011-2012 US News and World Report rankings to identify a cohort of 100 hospitals making an effort to include an equal distribution of both academic and private centers, city size, and geographic region. Each hospital was called and the essence of the script included a caller stating he was a healthy, uninsured 55-year-old man recently diagnosed with Gleason 3 + 4 prostatic adenocarcinoma with no metastases. Facility, surgeon, and anesthesia fees were solicited. Seventy hospitals provided facility prices. Facility estimates averaged $34,720 (±20,335; range, $10,100-$135,000), which was statistically higher at academics centers. No significant differences were seen by region, population, or hospital ranking. Surgeon and anesthesia fees were provided by 10%, averaging $8280 (±$4282; range, $4028-$18,720). Thirty-three hospitals provided discounted fees for prompt payment averaging 34% (±16%; range, 10%-80%). There is wide variation in pricing for RP, with higher rates found in academic centers. Wide variation in facility costs were observed, and nearly all were unable to provide surgeon and/or anesthesia fees. Currently, it appears to be unacceptably difficult for men with prostate cancer without insurance to obtain prices for an RP procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Karostik, D. V.; Kamyshanskaya, I. G.; Cheremisin, V. M.; Drozdov, A. A.; Vodovatov, A. V.
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the possibility of the implementation of LDCT for the screening for lung cancer and tuberculosis in a typical general hospital practice. Diagnostic and economic effectiveness, patient doses and the corresponding radiation risks for LDCT were compared with the existing digital chest screening radiography. The results of the study indicate that the implementation of LDCT allowed verifying false-positive cases or providing additional excessive diagnostic information, but did not significantly improve the sensitivity of screening. Per capita costs for LDCT were higher compared to digital radiography up to a factor of 12; corresponding radiation risk - by a factor of 4. Hence, it was considered unjustified to implement LDCT in a general practice hospital.
Tonnonchiang, Siriporn; Sritongkul, Nopamon; Chaudakshetrin, Pachee; Tuntawiroon, Malulee
Thyroid cancer patients treated with 1-131 are potential source of radiation exposure to relatives who are knowingly and willingly exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of providing comfort to patients undergoing I-131 therapy. This study aims to determine radiation dose received by relatives who care for non self-supporting 1-131 patients at Siriraj Hospital. Twenty caregivers of 20 patients underwent I-131 therapy for thyroid cancer with a standard protocol were given specific instructions with regard to radiation safety and provided with electronic digital dosimeter to continuously measure radiation dose received on daily basis, three days in the hospital. On the day patient is released, thyroid uptake estimates were performed to assess internal radiation dose received by caregivers. The 3-day accumulative doses to caregivers to patients receiving 150 mCi (n = 11) and 200 mCi (n = 9) of I-131 ranged from 37 to 333 uSv and 176 to 1,920 pSv respectively depending on the level of supports required. Thyroid uptake estimates in all caregivers were undetectable. Dosimeter indicated a maximum whole-body dose of1.92 mSv was more than the public dose limit of] mSv but within the dose constraint of 5 mSv for caregivers. Radiation dose to caregivers of a non self-supporting hospitalized patient undergoing 1-131 therapy were well below the limits recommended by the ICRP. The patients can be comforted with confidence that dose to caregivers will be less than the limit. This study provides guidance for medical practitioners to obtain practical radiation safety concerns associated with hospitalized patients receiving I-131 therapy especially when patient needs assistance.
Savio, Christian; Garaventa, Alberto; Gremmo, Marina; Camoriano, Riccardo; Manfredini, Luca; Fieramosca, Sara; Dini, Giorgio; Miano, Maurizio
Children suffering from cancer often have to undergo physiotherapy that either extends the duration of in-patient hospitalisation or requires more frequent visits to the outpatient clinic. To improve care and to decrease the length of hospitalisation of children being treated at the Dept. of Haematoloy/Oncology of the Gaslini Children's Hospital, a programme of Home Care was set up in April 2000. In June 2003, rehabilitation was added to the procedures that were feasible at home and included i.v. therapy administration, blood examinations, transfusion and/or psychological support, as well as palliative care for terminally ill children. The physiotherapy sessions were done in the ward, in the Rehabilitation Unit Gym, or at home, depending on the clinical conditions and the needs of the child and the family. Between June 2003 and May 2005, 46 children, whose median age was 7 years (range 6 months-21 years) suffering from CNS tumours (13), leukaemia (13), neuroblastoma (7), bone tumours (6), sarcoma (4) and lymphoma (3), underwent 1,398 physiotherapy sessions for neuro-motor re-education (534), motor rehabilitation (485), strain re-education and training (250), respiratory care (79), or to improve comfort during the terminal phase of the disease (50). To maintain continuity of care, the treatments were performed at home (931), in the hospital ward (282), or in the gymnasium of our Physiotherapy Service (185). The physiotherapist was able to start or to continue assistance at home or in the hospital, and to keep up the programme based on the child's needs. Integrated home/hospital physiotherapy for children suffering from cancer is feasible and is useful for maintaining continuity of treatment without lengthening hospitalisation.
Siegel, Pamela; da Motta, Pedro Mourão Roxo; da Silva, Luis G; Stephan, Celso; Lima, Carmen Silvia Passos; de Barros, Nelson Filice
The purpose of this pilot study was to explore whether individualized Reiki given to cancer patients at a Brazilian hospital improved symptoms and well-being. Data from 36 patients who received 5 Reiki sessions were collected using the MYMOP and were compared before and after their treatment and also with 14 patients who did not receive Reiki and who acted as a comparison group. Twenty-one patients reported feeling better, 12 felt worse, and 3 reported no change. Of the comparison group, 6 patients reported feeling better and 8 felt worse. The Reiki practice delivered as part of the integrative care in oncology did produce clinically significant effects, although not statistically significant results, for more than half of the patients undergoing cancer treatment.
De Carvalho Parahym, Ana Maria Rabelo; De Melo, Luciana Resende Bandeira; De Morais, Vera Lúcia Lins; Neves, Rejane Pereira
Fungi are common causes of infection in immunocompromised patients. Candida species are frequently involved in these cases. In order to investigate candidiasis in pediatric patients with cancer, clinical samples were collected from one hundred and twenty two patients interned in the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital in Recife, Brazil. Yeasts were isolated from thirty-four clinical samples. The species isolated were: Candida albicans (fourteen isolates), C. parapsilosis (nine isolates), C. guilliermondii (two isolates) and C. tropicalis (two isolates). We found that candidemia was most frequent in patients with malignant hematology and that C. parapsilosis infections caused the highest mortality. PMID:24031365
Tuca-Rodriguez, Albert; Gómez-Batiste, Xavier; Espinosa-Rojas, Jose; Martínez-Muñoz, Marisa; Codorniu, Nuria; Porta-Sales, Josep
To describe the structure, characteristics of patients and basic clinical outcomes in cancer patients receiving care from palliative care hospital support teams (HSTs) in Spain. A multi-centre observational two phase study. Phase I: A descriptive survey of all HSTs in Spain. Phase II: A quasi-experimental prospective cohort study to describe the clinical outcomes, symptom severity and survival. 60 HSTs in Spain met the inclusion criteria. All HSTs were multidisciplinary with wide experience (mean 6.8 years). HSTs coverage was 21.5% of all cancer deaths in Spain. A total number of 364 advanced cancer patients were included in the cohort study; 76% were classified as moderate or high complexity. Overall, 64% were male subjects and the most frequent primary cancer site was lung (26%). Half of the patients had no detailed information about cancer staging and only 19% knew their short-term prognosis. The mean length of intervention was 6.5 days (mean three visits per patient). Outcomes were: 34% deaths during the admission process; 38% were discharged home; and 28% were transferred to another medium-term-stay specialist unit. The main symptoms were pain (68%), dyspnoea (43%), vomiting (24%), anorexia (72%), asthenia (78%), insomnia (50%), anxiety (45%) and depression (35%). After the HSTs intervention, the symptom severity was significantly reduced (p<0.001) for all symptoms, except for weakness and anorexia. The mean survival from inclusion was 111 days. Palliative intervention of HSTs is characterised by being adjusted to patient needs and short duration. Their care was focused on the preterminal phase of cancer patients of moderate-high complexity.
Lunda, Samy; Fernandez, Leticia
Abstract Background Breast (and cervical) cancer affects a growing proportion of women in South Africa. Although treatable, where health literacy is low, women typically seek medical attention only when their condition is at an advanced stage and difficult to contain. Objectives To understand the sociodemographic characteristics of women who present with advanced breast cancer in order to intervene proactively in primary care. Method A retrospective analysis of women with advanced breast cancer (Stage IIb and higher) at a Level 2 regional hospital in South Africa (2007–2010). Results The average age amongst the 103 women enrolled in this study was 59. One-third of the women had secondary education, 35% were unemployed and two-thirds were not married. Nearly 11% (n = 11) of the women had previously had cancer. Lumps (n = 87) were the most common reason for seeking healthcare and were, together with axillary lymph node abnormalities (84.5% and 19.4% respectively), the most common clinical symptoms. Symptoms were noticed by 52% (n = 54) of the women more than six months prior to their first consultation. A personal history of cancer increased threefold the odds of presenting within three months. Middle-aged women were twice as likely as those < 45 and > 65 to report within three to six months. Secondary education increased the odds of presenting within three to six months by 56%. Employment and marital status were not significant. Conclusion The women most at risk for delayed detection and treatment were those without a history of breast cancer, aged < 45 and > 65, with low education. They can best be reached through low-cost community-orientated primary care that proactively provides health education and promotes self- and clinical examination at the individual, family, clinic and general practitioner level.
Sonke, Gabe S; Chang, Shine; Strom, Sara S; Sweeney, Anne M; Annegers, J Fred; Sigurdson, Alice J
Some evidence exists to support the hypothesis that elevated levels of circulating maternal estrogens during early pregnancy may increase risk of testicular germ cell cancer. However, the results from studies evaluating maternal factors have been mixed. We evaluated maternal factors, particularly those associated with excess estrogen levels, as risk factors for testicular cancer. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas of 144 testicular cancer patients diagnosed between 1990 and 1996 and 86 friend controls matched to cases on age, race, and state of residence. Risk factor data about the mother, the son, and the pregnancy were obtained from the mothers by telephone interviews and from the sons by self-administered questionnaires. Extreme nausea during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with an elevated risk of testicular cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-3.9]. Adjustment for potential confounders slightly lowered this risk (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 0.9-3.8). Risks were modestly increased for other factors that are proxy measures for maternal estrogens, including preterm delivery (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 0.4-12.9), birth weight <3000 g (OR = 2.4: 95% CI = 0.7-8.1), and birth weight >4000 g (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.9-3.2), albeit nonsignificantly so. Our finding that severe nausea was associated with increased testicular cancer risk adds evidence to support the in utero estrogen exposure hypothesis because nausea early in pregnancy is related to rising levels of circulating estrogens. For other factors, which are less direct measures of maternal estrogens, the modest associations found indicate a suggestive pattern in support of the excess estrogen hypothesis.
Chairat, Rungnapa; Puttisri, Adisom; Pamarapa, Asani; Wongrach, Nongnoot; Tawichasri, Chamaiporn; Patumanond, Jayanton; Tantraworasin, Apichat; Charoentum, Chaiyut
To describe the pattern of disease progression and to describe locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence, and death rates in breast cancer patients after complete treatment. Medical records of women diagnosed with breast cancer at two university affiliated tertiary care hospitals in the Northern Thailand that had complete treatments between 2006 and 2010 were traced. Extracted key information included patient clinical profiles and documented recurrence of cancer The causes of death were verified from breast cancer case registration database, death certificates through The Ministry of Internal Affairs'civil registration, by direct telephone contact, or by distributed prepaid postcards. Medical records of 829 women diagnosed with breast cancer without prior evidence ofdistant metastasis, and had complete recommended treatment were included. Six hundred thirty seven women had not experienced any events up to the end of the follow-up (76.8%). The first occurring events were focused and categorized into three distinct types, locoregional recurrence (n = 83, median follow-up time = 34.2 months), distant recurrence (n = 78, median follow-up time = 35.4 months), and death without any evidences of locoregional or distant recurrences (n = 12, median follow-up time = 36.7 months). Distant recurrence after locoregional recurrence was reported (n = 33). There were 109 patient who had died (breast cancer related death) up to the end of the follow-up (13.2%). The three types of consecutively occurring deaths were death after locoregional recurrence without any distant recurrences (n = 15), death after distant recurrence with locoregional recurrence (n = 21), and death after documenited distant recurrence without any locoregional recurrences (n = 61). The trend was that the rate of the first occurring locoregional recurrence was slightly higher than that of distant recurrence, The death rate in patients without any recurrences was much lower than in those experiencing prior
Cheah, Whye Lian; Dollah, Nurul Bahariah; Chang, Ching Thon
Background: This study aimed to determine the perceptions and expectations of bone cancer patients with respect to their doctors and the breaking of bad news as well as the environment in which the news was delivered. Methods: A cross-sectional study using a pretested 41-item questionnaire was conducted using convenience sampling among bone cancer patients in Sarawak General Hospital. Face-to-face interviews were conducted after consent was obtained. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., IL, US). Results: A total of 30 patients were interviewed. The majority of the respondents were younger than 40-years-old, Malays, and female. All of the respondents perceived that they received news in a comfortable place, agreed that the doctor used simple language and appropriate words during the interaction, and believed that the way the doctor delivered the news might influence their life. The majority of the respondents reported that their news was received without interruption, that the doctor was sitting close but without making physical contact, and time was given for patient to ask questions and they were informed accordingly. Conclusion: Delivering bad news regarding cancer is an important communication skill and a complex task that can be learned and acquired. Specially tailored training is proposed to improve medical practice in this area. PMID:23610548
Cheah, Whye Lian; Dollah, Nurul Bahariah; Chang, Ching Thon
This study aimed to determine the perceptions and expectations of bone cancer patients with respect to their doctors and the breaking of bad news as well as the environment in which the news was delivered. A cross-sectional study using a pretested 41-item questionnaire was conducted using convenience sampling among bone cancer patients in Sarawak General Hospital. Face-to-face interviews were conducted after consent was obtained. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., IL, US). A total of 30 patients were interviewed. The majority of the respondents were younger than 40-years-old, Malays, and female. All of the respondents perceived that they received news in a comfortable place, agreed that the doctor used simple language and appropriate words during the interaction, and believed that the way the doctor delivered the news might influence their life. The majority of the respondents reported that their news was received without interruption, that the doctor was sitting close but without making physical contact, and time was given for patient to ask questions and they were informed accordingly. Delivering bad news regarding cancer is an important communication skill and a complex task that can be learned and acquired. Specially tailored training is proposed to improve medical practice in this area.
Sieswerda, Elske; Font-Gonzalez, Anna; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Heinen, Richard C.; Jaspers, Monique W.; van der Pal, Helena J.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Caron, Huib N.
Hospitalization rates over time of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) provide insight into the burden of unfavorable health conditions on CCS and health care resources. The objective of our study was to examine trends in hospitalizations of CCS and risk factors in comparison with the general population. We performed a medical record linkage study of a cohort of 1564 ≥five-year CCS with national registers. We obtained a random sample of the general population matched on year of birth, gender and calendar year per CCS retrieved. We quantified and compared hospitalization rates of CCS and reference persons from 1995 until 2005, and we analyzed risk factors for hospitalization within the CCS cohort with multivariable Poisson models. We retrieved hospitalization information from 1382 CCS and 25583 reference persons. The overall relative hospitalization rate (RHR) was 2.2 (95%CI:1.9–2.5) for CCS compared to reference persons. CCS with central nervous system and solid tumors had highest RHRs. Hospitalization rates in CCS were increased compared to reference persons up to at least 30 years after primary diagnosis, with highest rates 5–10 and 20–30 years after primary cancer. RHRs were highest for hospitalizations due to neoplasms (10.7; 95%CI:7.1–16.3) and endocrine/nutritional/metabolic disorders (7.3; 95%CI:4.6–11.7). Female gender (P<0.001), radiotherapy to head and/or neck (P<0.001) or thorax and/or abdomen (P = 0.03) and surgery (P = 0.01) were associated with higher hospitalization rates in CCS. In conclusion, CCS have increased hospitalization rates compared to the general population, up to at least 30 years after primary cancer treatment. These findings imply a high and long-term burden of unfavorable health conditions after childhood cancer on survivors and health care resources. PMID:27433937
Sieswerda, Elske; Font-Gonzalez, Anna; Reitsma, Johannes B; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Heinen, Richard C; Jaspers, Monique W; van der Pal, Helena J; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Caron, Huib N; Geskus, Ronald B; Kremer, Leontien C
Hospitalization rates over time of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) provide insight into the burden of unfavorable health conditions on CCS and health care resources. The objective of our study was to examine trends in hospitalizations of CCS and risk factors in comparison with the general population. We performed a medical record linkage study of a cohort of 1564 ≥five-year CCS with national registers. We obtained a random sample of the general population matched on year of birth, gender and calendar year per CCS retrieved. We quantified and compared hospitalization rates of CCS and reference persons from 1995 until 2005, and we analyzed risk factors for hospitalization within the CCS cohort with multivariable Poisson models. We retrieved hospitalization information from 1382 CCS and 25583 reference persons. The overall relative hospitalization rate (RHR) was 2.2 (95%CI:1.9-2.5) for CCS compared to reference persons. CCS with central nervous system and solid tumors had highest RHRs. Hospitalization rates in CCS were increased compared to reference persons up to at least 30 years after primary diagnosis, with highest rates 5-10 and 20-30 years after primary cancer. RHRs were highest for hospitalizations due to neoplasms (10.7; 95%CI:7.1-16.3) and endocrine/nutritional/metabolic disorders (7.3; 95%CI:4.6-11.7). Female gender (P<0.001), radiotherapy to head and/or neck (P<0.001) or thorax and/or abdomen (P = 0.03) and surgery (P = 0.01) were associated with higher hospitalization rates in CCS. In conclusion, CCS have increased hospitalization rates compared to the general population, up to at least 30 years after primary cancer treatment. These findings imply a high and long-term burden of unfavorable health conditions after childhood cancer on survivors and health care resources.
Sowunmi, A C; Ajekigbe, A T; Alabi, A O; Popoola, A O; Fatiregun, O A; Akinyanju, A M
Cervical cancer is still a global health challenge that affects women of reproductive age group and consequently causes a drawback on the social and economic stability of nations. Developing countries suffer a greater burden of the disease because of several factors such as poverty, multiple sexual partners, unbalanced diet, poor knowledge and attitude to prevention of diseases and late-presentation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of hydronephrosis in cervical cancer patients in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria for the period of 3 years (2010-2012). This study is a cross sectional study carried out among cervical cancer patients seeking treatment in the Radiotherapy department of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), between the year 2010 and 2012, to find out the incidence of hydronephrosis using abdominopelvic ultrasonography. The incidence of hydronephrosis during the 3years period studied was 43.7%. A rise in the incidence of hydronephrosis of 5.4% in 2011 and 13.3% in 2012 was noted. The mean age of the patients was 55.5 years. 122 (56.7%) were grand multiparous and 123 (57.2%) had multiple sexual partners. An increase of 8.3% in 2011 and 9.3% in 2012 was noted in the incidence of cervical cancer cases studied. 107 (49.8%) presented at stages III and IV. Late presentation of patients is still a major challenge affecting treatment outcomes. The presence of hydronephrosis was noticed at staging, during or after treatment, resulting in the need to separate this population from current Stage IIIB classification. The presence of hydronephrosis may or may not be related to the disease and so adequate staging is important.
Izquierdo, Giannina; Zubieta, Marcela; Martínez G, María J; Alvarez, Ana M; Aviles, Carmen L; Becker, Ana; Peña, Mónica; Salgado, Carmen; Silva, Pamela; Topelberg, Santiago; Tordecilla, Juan; Varas, Mónica; Villarroel, Milena; Viviani, Tamara; Santolaya, María E
Infections with varicella-zoster virus (VVZ) in immunocompromised children imply a high mortality. There is no data about VVZ seroprevalence in children with cancer in our country. To determine the prevalence of VVZ antibodies in children with cancer who have undergone chemotherapy or have undergone a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. collaborative, multicenter study. Serum samples were collected from 281 children with cancer and episodes of febrile neutropenia from 6 hospitals belonging to the public health network in the Metropolitan Region between June 2004 and August 2006. These samples were stored at -70 ° C, and 200 of them were randomly chosen and analyzed to determine VVZ IgG (ELISA). 179 samples from 179 children, 65% male. Ninety eighth/179 (55%) were positive, 72/179 (40%) negative and 9/179 (5%) indeterminate. Stratified by age, seropositive percentage was: 1 to 4 years 32%, 5-9 years 42%, 10-14 years 78%, over 15 years 88%. Forty percent of children treated for cancer are seronegative to VVZ infection, a frequency that decreases with age. These results support the adoption of preventive measures to avoid infection in this population of children at risk of developing a serious and possibly fatal illness.
Palmero, Edenir I; Galvão, Henrique C R; Fernandes, Gabriela C; Paula, André E de; Oliveira, Junea C; Souza, Cristiano P; Andrade, Carlos E; Romagnolo, Luis G C; Volc, Sahlua; C Neto, Maximiliano; Sabato, Cristina; Grasel, Rebeca; Mauad, Edmundo; Reis, Rui M; Michelli, Rodrigo A D
The identification of families at-risk for hereditary cancer is extremely important due to the prevention potential in those families. However, the number of Brazilian genetic services providing oncogenetic care is extremely low for the continental dimension of the country and its population. Therefore, at-risk patients do not receive appropriate assistance. This report describes the creation, structure and management of a cancer genetics service in a reference center for cancer prevention and treatment, the Barretos Cancer Hospital (BCH). The Oncogenetics Department (OD) of BCH offers, free of charge, to all patients/relatives with clinical criteria, the possibility to perform i) genetic counseling, ii) preventive examinations and iii) genetic testing with the best quality standards. The OD has a multidisciplinary team and is integrated with all specialties. The genetic counseling process consists (mostly) of two visits. In 2014, 614 individuals (371 families) were seen by the OD. To date, over 800 families were referred by the OD for genetic testing. The support provided by the Oncogenetics team is crucial to identify at-risk individuals and to develop preventive and personalized behaviors for each situation, not only to the upper-middle class population, but also to the people whose only possibility is the public health system.
Parillo Durand, Lilian Brenda
The endoscopic and pathological characteristics of gastric cancer in Luis N. Sáenz National Hospital between 2008 and 2013. retrospective cross-sectional observational study. We reviewed the endoscopic reports of patients older than 30 years, we studied the histological diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma, pathological variables such as histological type, presence of H. pylori and complete and incomplete intestinal metaplasia. 92 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma were identified. Average prevalence 0.6%, 0.34% in 2009 and 0.82% in 2013; 62% male, 38% female, age less than 55 years 16%, greater than 76 years 42%; endoscopic presentation Borrmann III 57%, II 16.3%, IV 15%, V 7.6%, I 3.3%; 8 times most frequent presentations distal the proximal v, 75% histologic intestinal type, H. pylori in 50% cases, intestinal metaplasia in 40% of cases of gastric cancer. We found high prevalence of gastric cancer. Common in males, and in people over 76, more frequent endoscopic presentation was Borrmann III, the presence of H. pylori and incomplete intestinal metaplasia associated with intestinal cancer type.
Ortiz-Mendoza, Carlos Manuel; de-la-Fuente-Vera, Tania Angélica; Pérez-Chávez, Ernesto
ABSTRACT Introduction: According to developed countries’ studies, in breast cancer survivors there is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome; however, in Mexico data is lacking about this issue. Goal: To explore if metabolic syndrome occurs in Mexican women survivors of breast cancer. Material and methods: At a second-level general hospital, women with breast cancer with a surviving >2 years were studied. The analysis involved their demographic and anthropometric features, blood pressure measurement, time of surviving, besides fasting blood levels of lipids and glucose. Results: The sample consisted of 100 women; 42% were obese (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2). The sample´s mean age was 60 years with a mean surviving time of 6.5 years. Their mean glucose level was 122 mg/dL and triglycerides 202 mg/dL. There were 33% with blood pressure ≥130/85mm Hg or diagnosis of hypertension. Fifty-seven percent had glucose >99 mg/dL or diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and 58% had triglycerides >149 mg/dL. Metabolic syndrome occurred in 57% of obese women. Conclusion: Our results suggest that metabolic syndrome occurs in more than 50% of obese Mexican women survivors of breast cancer. PMID:24783905
Ortiz-Mendoza, Carlos Manuel; de-la-Fuente-Vera, Tania Angélica; Pérez-Chávez, Ernesto
According to developed countries' studies, in breast cancer survivors there is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome; however, in Mexico data is lacking about this issue. To explore if metabolic syndrome occurs in Mexican women survivors of breast cancer. At a second-level general hospital, women with breast cancer with a surviving > 2 years were studied. The analysis involved their demographic and anthropometric features, blood pressure measurement, time of surviving, besides fasting blood levels of lipids and glucose. The sample consisted of 100 women; 42% were obese (body mass index > or = 30 kg/m2). The sample's mean age was 60 years with a mean surviving time of 6.5 years. Their mean glucose level was 122 mg/dL and triglycerides 202 mg/dL. There were 33% with blood pressure > or = 130/85mm Hg or diagnosis of hypertension. Fifty-seven percent had glucose > 99 mg/dL or diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and 58% had triglycerides > 149 mg/dL. Metabolic syndrome occurred in 57% of obese women. Our results suggest that metabolic syndrome occurs in more than 50% of obese Mexican women survivors of breast cancer.
Opara, Kingsley O; Jiburum, Bernard C
Albinism is a genetic disorder characterized by lack of skin pigmentation. It has a worldwide distribution but is commoner in areas close to the equator like Nigeria. Skin cancers are a major risk associated with albinism and are thought to be a major cause of death in African albinos. Challenges faced in the care of these patients need to be highlighted in order to develop a holistic management approach with a significant public health impact. The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of skin cancers seen in Albinos, and to highlight problems encountered in their management. Case records of albinos managed in Imo state University teaching Hospital from June 2007 to May 2009 were reviewed. The data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics. In the period under review, albinos accounted for 67% of patients managed for primary skin cancers. There were twenty patients with thirty eight (38) lesions. Sixty one percent of the patients were below 40 years. Average duration of symptoms at presentation was 26 months. The commonest reason for late presentation was the lack of funds. Squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest histologic variant. Most patients were unable to complete treatment due to lack of funds. Albinism appears to be the most important risk factor in the development of skin cancers in our environment. Late presentation and poor rate of completion of treatment due to poverty are major challenges.
Choi, Mi-Ri; Jeon, Sang-Wan; Yi, Eun-Surk
The purpose of this study is to analyze the differences among the hospitalized cancer patients on their perception of exercise and physical activity constraints based on their medical history. The study used questionnaire survey as measurement tool for 194 cancer patients (male or female, aged 20 or older) living in Seoul metropolitan area (Seoul, Gyeonggi, Incheon). The collected data were analyzed using frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis t -test, and one-way distribution using statistical program SPSS 18.0. The following results were obtained. First, there was no statistically significant difference between cancer stage and exercise recognition/physical activity constraint. Second, there was a significant difference between cancer stage and sociocultural constraint/facility constraint/program constraint. Third, there was a significant difference between cancer operation history and physical/socio-cultural/facility/program constraint. Fourth, there was a significant difference between cancer operation history and negative perception/facility/program constraint. Fifth, there was a significant difference between ancillary cancer treatment method and negative perception/facility/program constraint. Sixth, there was a significant difference between hospitalization period and positive perception/negative perception/physical constraint/cognitive constraint. In conclusion, this study will provide information necessary to create patient-centered healthcare service system by analyzing exercise recognition of hospitalized cancer patients based on their medical history and to investigate the constraint factors that prevents patients from actually making efforts to exercise.
Yan, Ju-Ying; Lu, Yi-Yu; Xu, Chang-Ping; Yu, Zhao; Gong, Li-Ming; Chen, Yin; Zhang, Yan-Jun
In order to confirm the cause of the outbreak of aseptic meningitis in Zhejiang Province in 2002-2004, trace the pathogen and analyze the molecular characteristics, 271 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and faeces specimens were collected from suspected patients. The virus strains from the specimens were isolated with RD and Hep-2 cell lines. The VP1 and VP4/VP2 genes of the isolated viruses were sequenced, and their phylogenetic and homology trees were also constructed. Of the total 271 samples, 78 Echovirus type 30 (E30) strains were isolated. All of the complete VP1 genes in 31 sequenced virus isolates of E30 were composed of 876 nt without any insertion or deletion, encoding 292 amino acids (aa). The identity of nucleotide and amino acid in VP1 gene were 84.7%-86.3% and 92.1%-94.2% between the 31 Zhejiang strains and the prototype strain Bastianni of E30, and 87.1%-99.4% and 96.2%-100% among the 31 Zhejiang strains, respectively. The Zhejiang strains of E30 in the phylogenetic tree of the VP1 gene were attributed into two branches of the G and H genotype, respectively. In G genotype, the Shangdong and Jiangsu E30 strains in 2003 among domestic strains and Ukraine E30 strain in 1999 among overseas strains had maximum similarity with the Zhejiang strains, while H genotype had maximum similarity with the Korea E30 strains in 2008. The phylogenetic tree of the VP4/VP2 genes was similar to that of VP1 gene. The results indicated that the outbreak of aseptic meningitis in Zhejiang Provinec in 2002-2004 was caused by the G and H genotypes of E30 strains existing simultaneously. The H genotype was a new variant strain, which was first isolated in Zhejiang Province in 2002.
Hu, Chin; Liu, Chun-Peng; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Chiu, Yu-Li; Chan, Hung-Pin; Peng, Nan-Jing
Whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography with the glucose analog 2-[F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET/CT) has been extensively used to screen for underlying malignancies in asymptomatic individuals. We were able to survey a cohort of hospital employees using FDG-PET/CT and to report the results herein.A total of 116 hospital employees older than 55 years old were offered whole-body FDG-PET in our hospital. Ninety-seven employees (83.6%) completed the assessment from February 2014 to August 2014 in our PET center. The final confirmation of cancer was based on pathologic examination and follow-up after more than 1 year.Among the 97 participants, 92 were asymptomatic and 5 presented with previously diagnosed cancers. Six of the 92 asymptomatic participants (6.6%) with significant nodular lesions were referred for histological or cytological evaluation of the possibility of malignancy, and 1 case was considered clinically important and required surgical resection. The cancer discovery rate was 3.3% (3/92) with positive predictive value of 50% (3/6). In the 5 participants with previously identified cancers, no recurrence or metastasis was detected.The offer of whole-body FDG-PET for cancer screening was welcomed with enthusiasm by most of the hospital employees. PET/CT combines the merits of PET and CT and can be administered to and provide benefits to a select group of hospital employees.
Effendy, Christantie; Vissers, Kris; Tejawinata, Sunaryadi; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Engels, Yvonne
Patients with cancer often face physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and emotional symptoms. Our aim was to study symptoms and issues of hospitalized patients with cancer in Indonesia, a country with strong family ties, and how family members, nurses, and physicians deal with them. In 2011, 150 hospitalized cancer patients in 3 general hospitals in Indonesia were invited to fill in a questionnaire, which was based on the validated Problems and Needs of Palliative Care (short version) questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were performed. Of 119 patients (79%) who completed the questionnaire, 85% stated that their symptoms and issues were addressed. According to these patients, financial (56%), autonomy (36%), and psychosocial (34%) issues were most often addressed by the family alone. Physical symptoms (52%) and spiritual issues (33%) were addressed mainly by a combination of family, nurses, and physicians. Hospitalized patients with cancer in Indonesia felt that most of their symptoms and issues had been addressed, and the family was highly involved. The strong family ties in Indonesian culture may have contributed to this family role. More research is needed to clarify how this influences patient outcome, quality of care, and quality of life of both the patients and their families, along with the degree of partnership between families and professionals. This information might help answer the question what advantages and disadvantages the family role in caring for a hospitalized patient with cancer generates for the patient, the family, and professional caregivers. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.
Colonna, Marc; Mitton, Nicolas; Schott, Anne-Marie; Remontet, Laurent; Olive, Frédéric; Gomez, Frédéric; Iwaz, Jean; Polazzi, Stéphanie; Bossard, Nadine; Trombert, Béatrice
Estimate complete, limited-duration, and hospital prevalence of breast cancer in a French Département covered by a population-based cancer registry and in whole France using complementary information sources. Incidence data from a cancer registry, national incidence estimations for France, mortality data, and hospital medico-administrative data were used to estimate the three prevalence indices. The methods included a modelling of epidemiological data and a specific process of data extraction from medico-administrative databases. Limited-duration prevalence at 33 years was a proxy for complete prevalence only in patients aged less than 70 years. In 2007 and in women older than 15 years, the limited-duration prevalence at 33 years rate per 100,000 women was estimated at 2372 for Département Isère and 2354 for whole France. The latter rate corresponded to 613,000 women. The highest rate corresponded to women aged 65-74 years (6161 per 100,000 in whole France). About one third of the 33-year limited-duration prevalence cases were diagnosed five years before and about one fourth were hospitalized for breast-cancer-related care (i.e., hospital prevalence). In 2007, the rate of hospitalized women was 557 per 100,000 in whole France. Among the 120,310 women hospitalized for breast-cancer-related care in 2007, about 13% were diagnosed before 2004. Limited-duration prevalence (long- and short-term), and hospital prevalence are complementary indices of cancer prevalence. Their efficient direct or indirect estimations are essential to reflect the burden of the disease and forecast median- and long-term medical, economic, and social patient needs, especially after the initial treatment. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schreuder, K; van Bommel, A C M; de Ligt, K M; Maduro, J H; Vrancken Peeters, M T F D; Mureau, M A M; Siesling, S
Significant hospital variation in the use of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) after mastectomy exists in the Netherlands. Aims of this study were to identify hospital organizational factors affecting the use of IBR after mastectomy for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive breast cancer (BC) and to analyze whether these factors explain the variation. Patients with DCIS or primary invasive BC treated with mastectomy between 2011 and 2013 were selected from the national NABON Breast Cancer Audit. Hospital and organizational factors were collected with an online web-based survey. Regression analyses were performed to determine whether these factors accounted for the hospital variation. In total, 78% (n = 72) of all Dutch hospitals participated in the survey. In these hospitals 16,471 female patients underwent a mastectomy for DCIS (n = 1,980) or invasive BC (n = 14,491) between 2011 and 2014. IBR was performed in 41% of patients with DCIS (hospital range 0-80%) and in 17% of patients with invasive BC (hospital range 0-62%). Hospital type, number of plastic surgeons available and attendance of a plastic surgeon at the MDT meeting increased IBR rates. For invasive BC, higher percentage of mastectomies and more weekly MDT meetings also significantly increased IBR rates. Adjusted data demonstrated decreased IBR rates for DCIS (average 35%, hospital range 0-49%) and invasive BC (average 15%, hospital range 0-18%). Hospital organizational factors affect the use of IBR in the Netherlands. Although only partly explaining hospital variation, optimization of these factors could lead to less variation in IBR rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Türk, Murat; Yıldırım, Fatma; Yurdakul, Ahmet Selim; Öztürk, Can
To establish the direct costs of diagnosing lung cancer in hospitalized patients. Hospital data of patients who were hospitalized and diagnosed as lung cancer between September 2013 and August 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients who underwent surgery for diagnosis and who were initiated with cancer treatment during the same hospital stay were excluded from study. Histological types and stages of lung cancer were determined. Expenses were grouped as laboratory costs, pathology costs, diagnostic imaging costs, overnight room charges, medication costs, blood center costs, consumable expenditures' costs and inpatient service charges (including consultants' service, electrocardiogram, follow-up, nursing services, diagnostic interventions). Of the 68 patients, 55 (81%) had non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 13 (19%) had small cell lung cancer (SCLC). 47% of patients with NSCLC had stage 4 disease and 86% of patients with SCLC had extensive stage disease. Median total cost per patient was 910 (95% CI= 832-1291) Euros (€). Of all costs, 37% were due to inpatient service charges and 22% were medication costs. Median total cost per patient was 912 (95% CI= 783-1213) € in NSCLC patients and 908 (95% CI= 456-2203) € in SCLC patients (p> 0.05). In NSCLC group, total cost per patient was 873 (95% CI= 591-1143) € in stage 1-2-3 diseases and 975 (95% CI= 847-1536) € in stage 4 disease (p> 0.05). In SCLC group total cost per patient was 937 € in limited stage and 502 (95% CI= 452-2508) € in extensive stage (p> 0.05). There is no significant difference between costs related to diagnosis of different lung cancer types and stages in patients hospitalized in a university hospital.
Wakefield, C E; Fardell, J E; Doolan, E L; Drew, D; De Abreu Lourenco, R; Young, A L; Cohn, R J
Grandparents can play a crucial role of providing emotional and practical support for families facing childhood cancer. Yet, many have their own healthcare needs. This controlled study systematically assesses the impact of childhood cancer on grandparents' quality of life (QOL). Our objective was to compare QOL in grandparents of children with and without cancer and to identify factors associated with grandparents' QOL. Grandparents (N = 222) completed two patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures assessing QOL: EQ-5D-5L and WHOQOL-BREF. Secondary endpoints included sleep, medications and hospitalizations. We used independent samples t-tests and multivariate linear regression to assess between-group differences and identify predictors. Grandparents of children with cancer (n = 89) reported significantly worse QOL than controls (n = 133) [mean WHOQOL-BREF score: 75.6 (SD = 17.6) vs. 81.5 (15.6), P = 0.007; mean EQ-5D-5L index value: 0.777 (0.20) vs. 0.874 (0.14), P < 0.001)]. They also reported more problems with anxiety and depression (47.2 vs. 21.8%, P < 0.001) and pain (64.8 vs. 49.6%, P = 0.031). Grandparents of children with cancer reported taking longer to fall asleep [mean: 30.4 min (55.6) vs. 18.2 (20.2), P = 0.011] and taking more medications in the last 4 weeks [mean: 2.9 (SD = 3.8) vs. 1.8 (SD = 2.3), P = 0.012]. Hospitalizations were comparable across groups. Grandmothers, those living in urban locations, and retired/unemployed grandparents experienced reduced QOL. Grandparents are significantly affected by childhood cancer. The impact appears across many domains of life and results in meaningful QOL differences. Given that four or more individuals may be affected per child, and that grandparent well-being can influence the whole family, interventions targeting at-risk grandparents are needed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mathoulin-Pélissier, Simone; Bécouarn, Yves; Belleannée, Geneviève; Pinon, Elodie; Jaffré, Anne; Coureau, Gaëlle; Auby, Dominique; Renaud-Salis, Jean-Louis; Rullier, Eric
Colorectal cancer (CRC) care has improved considerably, particularly since the implementation of a quality of care program centered on national evidence-based guidelines. Formal quality assessment is however still needed. The aim of this research was to identify factors associated with practice variation in CRC patient care. CRC patients identified from all cancer centers in South-West France were included. We investigated variations in practices (from diagnosis to surgery), and compliance with recommended guidelines for colon and rectal cancer. We identified factors associated with three colon cancer practice variations potentially linked to better survival: examination of ≥ 12 lymph nodes (LN), non-use and use of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II and stage III patients, respectively. We included 1,206 patients, 825 (68%) with colon and 381 (32%) with rectal cancer, from 53 hospitals. Compliance was high for resection, pathology report, LN examination, and chemotherapy use for stage III patients. In colon cancer, 26% of stage II patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and 71% of stage III patients. 84% of stage US T3T4 rectal cancer patients received pre-operative radiotherapy. In colon cancer, factors associated with examination of ≥ 12 LNs were: lower ECOG score, advanced stage and larger hospital volume; factors negatively associated were: left sided tumor location and one hospital district. Use of chemotherapy in stage II patients was associated with younger age, advanced stage, emergency setting and care structure (private and location); whereas under-use in stage III patients was associated with advanced age, presence of comorbidities and private hospitals. Although some changes in practices may have occurred since this observational study, these findings represent the most recent report on practices in CRC in this region, and offer a useful methodological approach for assessing quality of care. Guideline compliance was high, although some
Qureshi, Fawad; Shafi, Azhar; Ali, Sheeraz; Siddiqui, Neelam
To determine the clinical predictors of anticipatory emesis in patients treated with chemotherapy at a tertiary care cancer hospital. This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 200 patients undergoing first line chemotherapy with minimum of two cycles at inpatient department and chemotherapy bay of Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre Pakistan. Anticipatory nausea and vomiting develops before administration of chemotherapy. Clinical signs and symptoms in patients with or without anticipatory emesis were compared using chi square test statistics. The mean age of the study participants was 36.68 years (SD±12.23). The mean numbers of chemotherapy cycles administered were 3.23 (SD±1.2). Chemotherapy related nausea and vomiting was experienced by 188 (94%) patients and anticipatory nausea vomiting was reported in 90 (45%) of patients. Greater proportions of patients with anticipatory emesis were females. Fourteen (15.5%) p-value=0.031 patients with anticipatory emesis had history of anxiety and depression. Fifty nine (65.5%) p-value =< 0.0001 patients with anticipatory emesis had severe nausea after last chemotherapy cycle. Forty six (51.11%) p=<0.0001 patients had motion sickness. Female gender, history of motion sickness, anxiety and depression, severe nausea and vomiting experienced in pervious cycle of chemotherapy were clinical predictors of anticipatory nausea and vomiting.
Pande, Mala; Wei, Chongjuan; Chen, Jinyun; Amos, Christopher I; Lynch, Patrick M; Lu, Karen H; Lucio, Laura A; Boyd-Rogers, Stephanie G; Bannon, Sarah A; Mork, Maureen E; Frazier, Marsha L
The spectrum of cancers seen in a hospital based Lynch syndrome registry of mismatch repair gene mutation carriers was examined to determine the distribution of cancers and examine excess cancer risk. Overall there were 504 cancers recorded in 368 mutation carriers from 176 families. These included 236 (46.8 %) colorectal and 268 (53.2 %) extracolonic cancers. MLH1 mutation carriers had a higher frequency of colorectal cancers whereas MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 mutation carriers had more extracolonic cancers although these differences were not statistically significant. Men had fewer extracolonic cancers than colorectal (45.3 vs. 54.7 %), whereas women had more extracolonic than colorectal cancers (59.0 vs. 41.0 %). The mean age at diagnosis overall for extracolonic cancers was older than for colorectal, 49.1 versus 44.8 years (P ≤ 0.001). As expected, the index cancer was colorectal in 58.1 % of patients and among the extracolonic index cancers, endometrial was the most common (13.8 %). A significant number of non-Lynch syndrome index cancers were recorded including breast (n = 5) prostate (n = 3), thyroid (n = 3), cervix (n = 3), melanoma (n = 3), and 1 case each of thymoma, sinus cavity, and adenocarcinoma of the lung. However, standardized incidence ratios calculated to assess excess cancer risk showed that only those cancers known to be associated with Lynch syndrome were significant in our sample. We found that Lynch syndrome patients can often present with cancers that are not considered part of Lynch syndrome. This has clinical relevance both for diagnosis of Lynch syndrome and surveillance for cancers of different sites during follow-up of these patients.
Pande, Mala; Wei, Chongjuan; Chen, Jinyun; Amos, Christopher I.; Lynch, Patrick M.; Lu, Karen H.; Lucio, Laura A.; Boyd-Rogers, Stephanie G.; Bannon, Sarah A.; Mork, Maureen E.
The spectrum of cancers seen in a hospital based Lynch syndrome registry of mismatch repair gene mutation carriers was examined to determine the distribution of cancers and examine excess cancer risk. Overall there were 504 cancers recorded in 368 mutation carriers from 176 families. These included 236 (46.8 %) colorectal and 268 (53.2 %) extracolonic cancers. MLH1 mutation carriers had a higher frequency of colorectal cancers whereas MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 mutation carriers had more extracolonic cancers although these differences were not statistically significant. Men had fewer extracolonic cancers than colorectal (45.3 vs. 54.7 %), whereas women had more extracolonic than colorectal cancers (59.0 vs. 41.0 %). The mean age at diagnosis overall for extracolonic cancers was older than for colorectal, 49.1 versus 44.8 years (P ≤ 0.001). As expected, the index cancer was colorectal in 58.1 % of patients and among the extracolonic index cancers, endometrial was the most common (13.8 %). A significant number of non-Lynch syndrome index cancers were recorded including breast (n = 5) prostate (n = 3), thyroid (n = 3), cervix (n = 3), melanoma (n = 3), and 1 case each of thymoma, sinus cavity, and adenocarcinoma of the lung. However, standardized incidence ratios calculated to assess excess cancer risk showed that only those cancers known to be associated with Lynch syndrome were significant in our sample. We found that Lynch syndrome patients can often present with cancers that are not considered part of Lynch syndrome. This has clinical relevance both for diagnosis of Lynch syndrome and surveillance for cancers of different sites during follow-up of these patients. PMID:22714864
Miyoshi, Yoko; Ohta, Hideaki; Hashii, Yoshiko; Tokimasa, Sadao; Namba, Noriyuki; Mushiake, Sotaro; Hara, Junichi; Ozono, Keiichi
With recent improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, the number of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) has been increasing in Japan. The importance of quality of life during the lifetime of CCSs has now been recognized, and the late effects of cancer treatments are essential and important issues. In this study we analyzed the endocrinological abnormalities of CCSs by retrospectively evaluating 122 outpatients (62 males and 60 females) who had been referred from pediatric oncologists to our follow-up clinic among 151 CCSs attending our hospital more than two years after their cancer treatment. Follow-up duration varied from 2 to 30 (median 8.0) years. Their average age was 17.3 (range 4-36, median 17.0) years, and 38 patients (31.1%) reached adulthood. Endocrinological abnormalities were found in 82 (67%) of 122 survivors. Gonadal dysfunction was observed in 60 patients (49%). Thirty-nine patients (32%) were short or grew at a slower rate. Twenty-six patients (21%) showed thyroid dysfunction. Other abnormalities were as follows: obesity in 20 patients (16%), leanness in 10 (8%), central diabetes insipidus in 11 (9%) and adrenocortical dysfunction in 9 (7%). Low bone mineral density was observed in 41 (42%) of 98 patients evaluated. These endocrinological abnormalities were caused by the combined effects of cancer itself and various treatments (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation). Lifetime medical surveillance and continuous follow-up are necessary for CCSs, because treatment-related complications may occur during childhood and many years after the therapy as well. Endocrinologists should participate in long-term follow-up of these survivors in collaboration with pediatric oncologists.
Herrera-Torre, Analy; García-Rodríguez, Francisco Mario; García, Rebeca Gil; Jiménez-Villanueva, Xicoténcatl; Hernández-Rubio, Angela; Aboharp-Hasan, Ziad
Cancer is the second cause of death in Mexico. The Juarez Hospital of Mexico is a highly specialized general hospital in which the frequency of cancer treated at the Oncology Unit is a representative sample of the frequency of cancer in the country. To learn about the frequency of presentation of tumors diagnosed in a third level hospital. We reviewed all the biopsies and surgical specimens diagnosed as cancer or malignant tumors registered in the pathology unit during the years 2006 to 2010. We grouped the cases by age, sex, and anatomic site. We identified the 10 most common cancers for both sexes, age groups and sex affected, raising the chances of early detection campaigns reinforce for the most common cancers and try to increase control and cure rates and improve coverage of the economically weak, for their integration into health systems. Information obtained reflects the reality of the country to the general population without entitlements. That in our country women suffer more than men of cancer that breast neoplasms and genital tract are the most frequent, and timely detection systems exist and should be strengthened to achieve greater eligible for early identification of cases in our population.
Ataman, Gülsen; Erbaydar, Tugrul
Home healthcare services in Turkey are provided primarily to patients that are bedridden or seriously disabled. There are no such services integrated with hospital services that are specifically designed for cancer patients. The present study aimed to explore the home healthcare needs of cancer patients and their experiences related to unmet home healthcare needs. The study included 394 adult cancer patients who were followed up at the surgical oncology department of a university hospital. A 37-item, study-specific questionnaire and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire for cancer patients (EORTC-QLQ-C30) were administered, and patient clinical records were evaluated. Home healthcare was provided primarily by the patients' immediate family members; the professional home healthcare usage rate was only 2.8%. Patient quality of life (QoL) was negatively affected by cancer, especially those with stage three and four disease. The frequency of the need for home healthcare services due to disease-related health problems during the 30 days prior to administration of the questionnaires was as follows: pain (62.9%), surgical wound care (44.9%), injection of therapeutics (52.3%), gastrointestinal complaints (51.8%), anxiety (87.1%), psychosocial assistance (77.2%) and information about cancer (94.4%). In the absence of home healthcare services, the patients primarily used institutional healthcare services to meet their needs; otherwise, their needs were not met. The physical and psychosocial problems that cancer patients experience could be solved in most cases by professional home healthcare services. Hospital-integrated home healthcare services might not only improve cancer patient QoL but might also increase the effectiveness of hospital-based healthcare services. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mendes, J; Alves, P; Amaral, T F
Undernutrition has been associated with an increased length of hospital stay which may reflect the patient prognosis. The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the association between nutritional status and handgrip strength at hospital admission with time to discharge in cancer patients. An observational prospective study was conducted in an oncology center. Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 and handgrip strength were conducted in a probabilistic sample of 130 cancer patients. The association between baseline nutritional status, handgrip strength and time to discharge was evaluated using survival analysis with discharge alive as the outcome. Nutritional risk ranged from 42.3 to 53.1% depending on the tool used. According to Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment severe undernutrition was present in 22.3% of the sample. The association between baseline data and time to discharge was stronger in patients with low handgrip strength (adjusted hazard ratio, low handgrip strength: 0.33; 95% confidence interval: 0.19-0.55), compared to undernourished patients evaluated by the other tools; Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment: (adjusted hazard ratio, severe undernutrition: 0.45; 95% confidence interval: 0.27-0.75) and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002: (adjusted hazard ratio, with nutritional risk: 0.55; 95% confidence interval: 0.37-0.80). An approximate 3-fold decrease in probability of discharge alive was observed in patients with low handgrip strength. Decreasing handgrip strength tertiles allowed to discriminate between patients who will have longer hospital stay, as well as undernutrition and nutritional risk assessed by Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Gong, Dao-Jun; Miao, Chao-Feng; Bao, Qi; Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Li-Fang; Tong, Xiao-Tao; Chen, Li
AIM: To study the risk factors for morbidity and mortality following total gastrectomy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 125 consecutive patients who underwent total gastrectomy for gastric cancer at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine between January 2003 and March 2008. RESULTS: The overall morbidity rate was 20.8% (27 patients) and the mortality rate was 3.2% (4 patients). Morbidity rates were higher in patients aged over 60 [odds ratio (OR) 4.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09 to 12.05)], with preoperative comorbidity [with vs without, OR 1.25 (95% CI 1.13 to 8.12)], when the combined resection was performed [combined resection vs total gastrectomy only, OR 2.67 (95% CI 1.58 to 5.06)]. CONCLUSION: Age, preoperative comorbidity and combined resection were independently associated with the rate of morbidity after total gastrectomy for gastric cancer. PMID:19030212
Zou, Jing; Xu, Xingxiang; Wang, Daxin; Xu, Jin; Gu, Wenju
To explore the impacts of the multidisciplinary team model on the average length of stay and hospital expenses of patients with lung cancer. After the multidisciplinary team discussion, 97 patients with lung cancer were selected as the lung cancer group according to the enrollment and elimination criteria the control group was 97 patients with lung cancer managed without team discussion during the same period. All the patients were firstly diagnosed to have lung cancer from December 2011 to December 2013 in Subei People's Hospital. The length of stay, hospital expenses, stages of tumor, types of tumor, Zubrod-ECOG-WHO score, the form of payment, smoking history, sex and age of all the patients were collected. The difference in the average length of stay and hospital expenses between the 2 groups and the associated factors were analyzed by using χ² test, t test and multi-factor stepwise regression analysis. There were 68 males and 29 females with a mean age of (61 ± 9) years in the lung cancer group, while there were 73 males and 24 females with a mean age of (63 ± 10) years in the control group. There were no differences between the 2 groups in tumor staging, tumor types, Zubrod-ECOG-WHO score, the form of payment, smoking history, sex and age (χ² = 4.854, P = 0.563, χ² = 4.248, P = 0.097; χ² = 0.395, P = 0.821; χ² = 1.191, P = 0.554; χ² = 0.108, P = 0.977; χ² = 1.011, P = 0.389; χ² = 0.649, P = 0.519; P = 0.474, P = 0.845, respectively). The average hospital expenses (13 303 vs 16 553, Yuan) were lower and the length of stay (10.33 vs 12.49, days) was shorter in the lung cancer group as compared to the control group (t = 2.616, P = 0.010; t = 2.730, P = 0.007), especially so for the first clinical hospitalization (15 953 vs 19 485 yuan, t = 2.315, P = 0.022; 12.71 vs 14.75 days, t = 1.979, P = 0.049). The average length of stay and the tumor stages were the main factors associated with the average hospital expenses. Except for patients with the
Sun, Gordon H.; Aliu, Oluseyi; Moloci, Nicholas M.; Mondschein, Joshua K.; Burke, James F.; Hayward, Rodney A.
Background There are no clinical guidelines on best practices for the use of bronchoscopy and esophagoscopy in diagnosing head and neck cancer. This retrospective cohort study examined variation in the use of bronchoscopy and esophagoscopy across hospitals in Michigan. Patients and Methods We identified 17,828 head and neck cancer patients in the 2006–2010 Michigan State Ambulatory Surgery Databases. We used hierarchical, mixed-effect logistic regression to examine whether a hospital’s risk-adjusted rate of concurrent bronchoscopy or esophagoscopy was associated with its case volume (<100, 100–999, or ≥1000 cases/hospital) for those undergoing diagnostic laryngoscopy. Results Of 9,218 patients undergoing diagnostic laryngoscopy, 1,191 (12.9%) received concurrent bronchoscopy and 1,675 (18.2%) underwent concurrent esophagoscopy. The median hospital rate of bronchoscopy was 2.7% (range 0–61.1%), and low-volume (OR 27.1 [95% CI 1.9, 390.7]) and medium-volume (OR 28.1 [95% CI 2.0, 399.0]) hospitals were more likely to perform concurrent bronchoscopy compared to high-volume hospitals. The median hospital rate of esophagoscopy was 5.1% (range 0–47.1%), and low-volume (OR 9.8 [95% CI 1.5, 63.7]) and medium-volume (OR 8.5 [95% CI 1.3, 55.0]) hospitals were significantly more likely to perform concurrent esophagoscopy relative to high-volume hospitals. Conclusions Head and neck cancer patients undergoing diagnostic laryngoscopy are much more likely to undergo concurrent bronchoscopy and esophagoscopy at low- and medium-volume hospitals than at high-volume hospitals. Whether this represents over-use of concurrent procedures or appropriate care that leads to earlier diagnosis and better outcomes merits further investigation. PMID:24114146
Norsa' adah, Bachok; Nur-Zafira, Azemi; Knight, Aishah
Pancreatic cancer is usually detected late and has a high mortality rate. Since little is known about this cancer in Malaysia, a review of all cases admitted to Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital was conducted to identify the epidemiological distribution and assess survival. A list of pancreatic cancer patients in 2001-2008 was obtained from the Hospital Record Department. Only cases confirmed by radio-imaging or histo-pathology examination were included. We excluded those with incomplete medical records. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard approaches were used for data analysis. Only 56 cases were included with a mean (SD) age of 49.6 (16.0) years, with 60.7% males and 82.1% of Malay ethnicity. Previous history included cholelithiasis in 23.2%, diabetes mellitus in 16.1%, previous laparotomy in 10.7%, chronic pancreatitis in 7.1%, alcohol drinking in 5.4% and positive family history in 3.6%. The common presenting history included 67.9% loss of appetite, 66.1% loss of weight, 58.9% jaundice and 46.4% abdominal pain. Tumour staging was: 21.5% stage l, 17.8% stage ll, 3.6% stage lll and 57.1% stage lV. The median (95% CI) survival time was 3.4 (0.5, 6.3) months and significant prognostic factors were duration of symptoms (HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95, 0.99; p value 0.013), ascites (HR 2.64; 95% CI: 1.28, 5.44; p value 0.008) and Whipple surgery (HR 4.20; 95% CI: 2.27, 7.76; p value <0.001). The history of presenting complaints was short and the majority presented at late stages of the disease, thus the median survival time was very poor.
Curtis, N J; Noble, E; Salib, E; Hipkiss, R; Meachim, E; Dalton, R; Allison, A; Ockrim, J; Francis, N K
Hospital readmission is undesirable for patients and care providers as this can affect short-term recovery and carries financial consequences. It is unknown if readmission has long-term implications. We aimed to investigate the impact of 30-day readmission on long-term overall survival (OS) following colorectal cancer resection within enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) care and explore the reasons for and the severity and details of readmission episodes. A dedicated, prospectively populated database was reviewed. All patients were managed within an established ERAS programme. Five-year OS was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The number, reason for and severity of 30-day readmissions were classified according to the Clavien-Dindo (CD) system, along with total (initial and readmission) length of stay (LoS). Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors predicting readmission. A total of 1023 consecutive patients underwent colorectal cancer resection between 2002 and 2015. Of these, 166 (16%) were readmitted. Readmission alone did not have a significant impact on 5-year OS (59% vs 70%, P = 0.092), but OS was worse in patients with longer total LoS (20 vs 14 days, P = 0.04). Of the readmissions, 121 (73%) were minor (CD I-II) and 27 (16%) required an intervention of which 16 (10%) were returned to theatre. Gut dysfunction 32 (19%) and wound complications 23 (14%) were the most frequent reasons for readmission. Prolonged initial LoS, rectal cancer and younger age predicted for hospital readmission. Readmission does not have a significant impact on 5-year OS. A broad range of conditions led to readmission, with the majority representing minor complications. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Rouhollahi, Mohammad Reza; Saghafinia, Masoud; Zandehdel, Kazem; Motlagh, Ali Ghanbari; Kazemian, Ali; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Tahmasebi, Mamak
The first hospital palliative care unit (HPCU) in Iran (FARS-HPCU) has been established in 2008 in the Cancer Institute, which is the largest referral cancer center in the country. We attempted to assess the performance of the HPCU based on a comprehensive conceptual framework. The main aim of this study was to develop a conceptual framework for assessment of the HPCU performances through designing a value chain in line with the goals and the main processes (core and support). We collected data from a variety of sources, including international guidelines, international best practices, and expert opinions in the country and compared them with national policies and priorities. We also took into consideration the trend of the HPCU development in the Cancer Institute of Iran. Through benchmarking the gap area with the performance standards, some recommendations for better outcome are proposed. The framework for performance assessment consisted of 154 process indicators (PIs), based on which the main stakeholders of the HPCU (including staff, patients, and families) offered their scoring. The outcome revealed the state of the processes as well as the gaps. Despite a significant improvement in many processes and indicators, more development in the comprehensive and integrative aspects of FARS-HPCU performance is required. Consideration of all supportive and palliative requirements of the patients through interdisciplinary and collaborative approaches is recommended.
Miklavcic, Ilonka Vucko; Snoj, Zvezdana; Mlakar, Janez; Pregelj, Peter
The present study describes the translation process of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) into the Slovenian language and the testing of its reliability and validity on the psychological morbidity in female cancer patients. The English version of the HADS was translated into the Slovene language using the 'forward-backward' procedure. The questionnaire was used in a study of 202 female cancer patients together with a clinical structured interview (CSI) to measure psychological state. A biserial correlation coefficient was calculated. The value of biserial correlation coefficient was 0.81 for the depression scale and 0.91 for the anxiety scale. The validation process of the Slovenian HADS score version shows metric properties similar to those in international studies, suggesting that it measures the same constructs, in the same way, as the original HADS score form. This validation study of the Slovenian version of the HADS proved that it is an acceptable and valid measure of psychological distress among female cancer patients.
Hamano, Jun; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Maeda, Isseki; Suga, Akihiko; Hisanaga, Takayuki; Ishihara, Tatsuhiko; Iwashita, Tomoyuki; Kaneishi, Keisuke; Kawagoe, Shohei; Kuriyama, Toshiyuki; Maeda, Takashi; Mori, Ichiro; Nakajima, Nobuhisa; Nishi, Tomohiro; Sakurai, Hiroki; Shimoyama, Satofumi; Shinjo, Takuya; Shirayama, Hiroto; Yamada, Takeshi; Morita, Tatsuya
Although the place of death has a great influence on the quality of death and dying for cancer patients, whether the survival time differs according to the place of death is unclear. The primary aim of this study was to explore potential differences in the survival time of cancer patients dying at home or in a hospital. This multicenter, prospective cohort study was conducted in Japan from September 2012 through April 2014 and involved 58 specialist palliative care services. Among the 2426 patients recruited, 2069 patients were analyzed for this study: 1582 receiving hospital-based palliative care and 487 receiving home-based palliative care. A total of 1607 patients actually died in a hospital, and 462 patients died at home. The survival of patients who died at home was significantly longer than the survival of patients who died in a hospital in the days' prognosis group (estimated median survival time, 13 days [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.3-15.7 days] vs 9 days [95% CI, 8.0-10.0 days]; P = .006) and in the weeks' prognosis group (36 days [95% CI, 29.9-42.1 days] vs 29 days [95% CI, 26.5-31.5 days]; P = .007) as defined by Prognosis in Palliative Care Study predictor model A. No significant difference was identified in the months' prognosis group. Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that the place of death had a significant influence on the survival time in both unadjusted (hazard ratio [HR], 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.96; P < .01) and adjusted models (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.77-0.97; P = .01). In comparison with cancer patients who died in a hospital, cancer patients who died at home had similar or longer survival. Cancer 2016;122:1453-1460. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
Symonds, Erin L; Simpson, Kalindra; Coats, Michelle; Chaplin, Angela; Saxty, Karen; Sandford, Jayne; Young Am, Graeme P; Cock, Charles; Fraser, Robert; Bampton, Peter A
To examine the compliance of colorectal cancer surveillance decisions for individuals at greater risk with current evidence-based guidelines and to determine whether compliance differs between surveillance models. Prospective auditing of compliance of surveillance decisions with evidence-based guidelines (NHMRC) in two decision-making models: nurse coordinator-led decision making in public academic hospitals and physician-led decision making in private non-academic hospitals. Selected South Australian hospitals participating in the Southern Co-operative Program for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer (SCOOP). Proportions of recall recommendations that matched NHMRC guideline recommendations (March-May 2015); numbers of surveillance colonoscopies undertaken more than 6 months ahead of schedule (January-December 2015); proportions of significant neoplasia findings during the 15 years of SCOOP operation (2000-2015). For the nurse-led/public academic hospital model, the recall interval recommendation following 398 of 410 colonoscopies (97%) with findings covered by NHMRC guidelines corresponded to the guideline recommendations; for the physician-led/private non-academic hospital model, this applied to 257 of 310 colonoscopies (83%) (P < 0.001). During 2015, 27% of colonoscopies in public academic hospitals (mean, 27 months; SD, 13 months) and 20% of those in private non-academic hospitals (mean, 23 months; SD, 12 months) were performed more than 6 months earlier than scheduled, in most cases because of patient-related factors (symptoms, faecal occult blood test results). The ratio of the numbers of high risk adenomas to cancers increased from 6.6:1 during 2001-2005 to 16:1 during 2011-2015. The nurse-led/public academic hospital model for decisions about colorectal cancer surveillance intervals achieves a high degree of compliance with guideline recommendations, which should relieve burdening of colonoscopy resources.
St. Germain, Diane; Nacpil, Lianne M; Zaren, Howard A; Swanson, Sandra M; Minnick, Christopher; Carrigan, Angela; Denicoff, Andrea M; Igo, Kathleen E; Acoba, Jared D; Gonzalez, Maria M; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta
Background The value of community-based cancer research has long been recognized. In addition to the National Cancer Institute’s Community Clinical and Minority-Based Oncology Programs established in 1983, and 1991 respectively, the National Cancer Institute established the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program in 2007 with an aim of enhancing access to high-quality cancer care and clinical research in the community setting where most cancer patients receive their treatment. This article discusses strategies utilized by the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program to build research capacity and create a more entrenched culture of research at the community hospitals participating in the program over a 7-year period. Methods To facilitate development of a research culture at the community hospitals, the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program required leadership or chief executive officer engagement; utilized a collaborative learning structure where best practices, successes, and challenges could be shared; promoted site-to-site mentoring to foster faster learning within and between sites; required research program assessments that spanned clinical trial portfolio, accrual barriers, and outreach; increased identification and use of metrics; and, finally, encouraged research team engagement across hospital departments (navigation, multidisciplinary care, pathology, and disparities) to replace the traditionally siloed approach to clinical trials. Limitations The health-care environment is rapidly changing while complexity in research increases. Successful research efforts are impacted by numerous factors (e.g. institutional review board reviews, physician interest, and trial availability). The National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program sites, as program participants, had access to the required resources and support to develop and implement the strategies described. Metrics are an important
Dimond, Eileen P; St Germain, Diane; Nacpil, Lianne M; Zaren, Howard A; Swanson, Sandra M; Minnick, Christopher; Carrigan, Angela; Denicoff, Andrea M; Igo, Kathleen E; Acoba, Jared D; Gonzalez, Maria M; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta
The value of community-based cancer research has long been recognized. In addition to the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical and Minority-Based Oncology Programs established in 1983, and 1991 respectively, the National Cancer Institute established the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program in 2007 with an aim of enhancing access to high-quality cancer care and clinical research in the community setting where most cancer patients receive their treatment. This article discusses strategies utilized by the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program to build research capacity and create a more entrenched culture of research at the community hospitals participating in the program over a 7-year period. To facilitate development of a research culture at the community hospitals, the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program required leadership or chief executive officer engagement; utilized a collaborative learning structure where best practices, successes, and challenges could be shared; promoted site-to-site mentoring to foster faster learning within and between sites; required research program assessments that spanned clinical trial portfolio, accrual barriers, and outreach; increased identification and use of metrics; and, finally, encouraged research team engagement across hospital departments (navigation, multidisciplinary care, pathology, and disparities) to replace the traditionally siloed approach to clinical trials. The health-care environment is rapidly changing while complexity in research increases. Successful research efforts are impacted by numerous factors (e.g. institutional review board reviews, physician interest, and trial availability). The National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program sites, as program participants, had access to the required resources and support to develop and implement the strategies described. Metrics are an important component yet often challenging to
Wang, Zhifang; Chen, Yaping; Xie, Shuyun; Lv, Huakun
Hepatitis A is a common acute hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). Annually, it affects 1.4 million people worldwide. Between 1991 and 1994, HAV infections were highly endemic in Zhejiang Province (China), with 78,720 reported HAV infections per year. Hepatitis A vaccine came on the market in 1995 and was implemented for voluntary immunization. Since 2008, hepatitis A vaccine has been integrated into the national childhood routine immunization program. To understand the current epidemiological profile of hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province since hepatitis A vaccine has been available for nearly two decades. This study used the 2005-2014 National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System data to evaluate the incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases in Zhejiang Province. The overall trend of incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases significantly decreased from 2005 to 2014 (P< 0.001). During the study period, the reported incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years declined to the historically lowest record in 2014. Compared with individuals aged ≤19 years, those aged ≥20 years showed the highest incidence rate (P< 0.001). Majority of HAV infected cases were Laborers, accounting for approximately 70% of reported cases. Childhood immunization strategy with hepatitis A vaccine seemed to be effective in decreasing notified hepatitis A incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years. Those aged ≥20 years were observed to be the most susceptible population. The vast majority of hepatitis A cases were notified among Laborers. Therefore, we strongly suggest that future preventive and control measures should focus more on adults, particularly Laborers, in addition to the current childhood hepatitis A vaccination programme.
Wang, Zhifang; Chen, Yaping; Xie, Shuyun; Lv, Huakun
Background Hepatitis A is a common acute hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). Annually, it affects 1.4 million people worldwide. Between 1991 and 1994, HAV infections were highly endemic in Zhejiang Province (China), with 78,720 reported HAV infections per year. Hepatitis A vaccine came on the market in 1995 and was implemented for voluntary immunization. Since 2008, hepatitis A vaccine has been integrated into the national childhood routine immunization program. Objective To understand the current epidemiological profile of hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province since hepatitis A vaccine has been available for nearly two decades. Methods This study used the 2005–2014 National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System data to evaluate the incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases in Zhejiang Province. Results The overall trend of incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases significantly decreased from 2005 to 2014 (P< 0.001). During the study period, the reported incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years declined to the historically lowest record in 2014. Compared with individuals aged ≤19 years, those aged ≥20 years showed the highest incidence rate (P< 0.001). Majority of HAV infected cases were Laborers, accounting for approximately 70% of reported cases. Conclusions Childhood immunization strategy with hepatitis A vaccine seemed to be effective in decreasing notified hepatitis A incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years. Those aged ≥20 years were observed to be the most susceptible population. The vast majority of hepatitis A cases were notified among Laborers. Therefore, we strongly suggest that future preventive and control measures should focus more on adults, particularly Laborers, in addition to the current childhood hepatitis A vaccination programme. PMID:27093614
Moesinger, Robert C.; Davis, Jan W.; Hill, Britani; Johnston, W. Cory; Gray, Carl; Johnson, Harold; Ingersoll, Leslye; Whipple, Gary; Reilly, Mark; Harris, Robert; Hansen, Vincent
Background. The treatment of pancreatic cancer and other periampullary neoplasms is complex and challenging. Major high-volume cancer centers can provide excellent multidisciplinary care of these patients but almost two-thirds of pancreatic cancer patients are treated at low volume centers. There is very little published data from low volume community cancer programs in regards to the treatment of periampullary cancer. In this study, a review of comprehensive periampullary cancer care at two low volume hospitals with comparison to national standards is presented. Methods. This is a retrospective review of 70 consecutive patients with periampullary neoplasms who underwent surgery over a 5-year period (2006–2010) at two community hospitals. Results. There were 51 successful resections of 70 explorations (73%) including 34 Whipple procedures. Mortality rate was 2.9%. Comparison of these patients to national standards was made in terms of operative mortality, resectability rate, administration of adjuvant therapy, clinical trial participation and overall survival. The results in these patients were comparable to national standards. Conclusions. With adequate commitment of resources and experienced surgical and oncologic practitioners, community cancer centers can meet national tertiary care standards in terms of pancreatic and periampullary cancer care. PMID:22312532
Lee, Simon J Craddock; Grobe, James E; Tiro, Jasmin A
Measurement of patient race/ethnicity in electronic health records is mandated and important for tracking health disparities. Characterize the quality of race/ethnicity data collection efforts. For all cancer patients diagnosed (2007-2010) at two hospitals, we extracted demographic data from five sources: 1) a university hospital cancer registry, 2) a university electronic medical record (EMR), 3) a community hospital cancer registry, 4) a community EMR, and 5) a joint clinical research registry. The patients whose data we examined (N = 17 834) contributed 41 025 entries (range: 2-5 per patient across sources), and the source comparisons generated 1-10 unique pairs per patient. We used generalized estimating equations, chi-squares tests, and kappas estimates to assess data availability and agreement. Compared to sex and insurance status, race/ethnicity information was significantly less likely to be available (χ(2 )> 8043, P < .001), with variation across sources (χ(2 )> 10 589, P < .001). The university EMR had a high prevalence of "Unknown" values. Aggregate kappa estimates across the sources was 0.45 (95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.45; N = 31 276 unique pairs), but improved in sensitivity analyses that excluded the university EMR source (κ = 0.89). Race/ethnicity data were in complete agreement for only 6988 patients (39.2%). Pairs with a "Black" data value in one of the sources had the highest agreement (95.3%), whereas pairs with an "Other" value exhibited the lowest agreement across sources (11.1%). Our findings suggest that high-quality race/ethnicity data are attainable. Many of the "errors" in race/ethnicity data are caused by missing or "Unknown" data values. To facilitate transparent reporting of healthcare delivery outcomes by race/ethnicity, healthcare systems need to monitor and enforce race/ethnicity data collection standards. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American
Cui, Qiyuan; Wang, Difeng; Gong, Fang; Pan, Delu; Hao, Zengzhou; Wang, Tianyu; Zhu, Qiankun
With its broad spatial coverage and fine temporal resolution, ocean color remote sensing data represents an effective tool for monitoring large areas of ocean, and has the potential to provide crucial information in coastal waters where routine monitoring is either lacking or unsatisfactory. The semi-analytical or empirical algorithms that work well in Case 1 waters encounter many problems in offshore areas where the water is often optically complex and presents difficulties for atmospheric correction. Zhejiang is one of the most developed provinces in eastern China, and its adjacent seas have been greatly affected by recent rapid economic development. Various islands and semi-closed bays along the Zhejiang coast promote the formation of muddy tidal flats. Moreover, large quantities of terrestrial substances coming down with the Yangtze River and other local rivers also have a great impact on the coastal waters of the province. MODIS, VIIRS and GOCI are three commonly used ocean color sensors covering the East China Sea. Several ocean color products such as remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) and the concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and total suspended matter (TSM) of the above three sensors on the Zhejiang coast have been evaluated. Cloud-free satellite images with synchronous field measurements taken between 2012 and 2015 were used for comparison. It is shown that there is a good correlation between the MODIS and GOCI spectral data, while some outliers were found in the VIIRS images. The low signal-to-noise ratio at short wavelengths in highly turbid waters also reduced the correlation between different sensors. In addition, it was possible to obtain more valid data with GOCI in shallow waters because of the use of an appropriate atmospheric correction algorithm. The standard Chl-a and TSM products of the three satellites were also evaluated, and it was found that the Chl-a and TSM concentrations calculated by the OC3G and Case 2 algorithms, respectively
Chen, Daqiang; Shen, Xiahong; Tong, Bing; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Feng, Tao
With the increasing competition in logistics industry and promotion of lower logistics costs requirements, the construction of logistics information matching platform for highway transportation plays an important role, and the accuracy of platform design is the key to successful operation or not. Based on survey results of logistics service providers, customers and regulation authorities to access to information and in-depth information demand analysis of logistics information matching platform for highway transportation in Zhejiang province, a survey analysis for framework of logistics information matching platform for highway transportation is provided.
Liu, Dong; Zhu, Qiankun; Li, Yan; Gong, Fang
Built-up areas are the results of human activities. Not only are they the real reflection of human and society activities, but also one of the most important input parameters for the simulation of biogeochemical cycle. Therefore, it is very necessary to map the distribution of built-up areas and monitor their changes by using new technologies and methods at high spatiotemporal resolution. By combining technologies of GIS (Geographic Information System) and RS (Remote Sensing), this study mainly explored the expansion and driving factors of built-up areas at the beginning of the 21st century in Zhejiang Province, China. Firstly, it introduced the mapping processes of LULC (Land Use and Land Cover) based on the method which combined object-oriented method and binary decision tree. Then, it analyzed the expansion features of built-up areas in Zhejiang from 2000 to 2005 and 2005 to 2010. In addition to these, potential driving factors on the expansion of built-up areas were also explored, which contained physical geographical factors, railways, highways, rivers, urban centers, elevation, and slop. Results revealed that the expansions of built-up areas in Zhejiang from 2000 to 2005 and from 2005 to 2010 were very obvious and they showed high levels of variation in spatial heterogeneity. Except those, increased built-up areas with distance to railways, highways, rivers, and urban centers could be fitted with power function (y = a*xb ), with minimum R2 of 0.9507 for urban centers from 2000 to 2005; the increased permillages of built-up areas to mean elevation and mean slop could be fitted with exponential functions (y = a*ebx), with minimum R2 of 0.6657 for mean slop from 2005 to 2010. Besides, government policy could also impact expansion of built-up areas. In a nutshell, a series of conclusions were obtained through this study about the spatial features and driving factors of evolution of built-up areas in Zhejiang from 2000 to 2010.
Raine, Rosalind; Wong, Wun; Scholes, Shaun; Ashton, Charlotte; Obichere, Austin; Ambler, Gareth
To determine the extent to which type of hospital admission (emergency compared with elective) and surgical procedure varied by socioeconomic circumstances, age, sex, and year of admission for colorectal, breast, and lung cancer. Repeated cross sectional study with data from individual patients, 1 April 1999 to 31 March 2006. Hospital episode statistics (HES) dataset. 564 821 patients aged 50 and over admitted with a diagnosis of colorectal, breast, or lung cancer. Proportion of patients admitted as emergencies, and the proportion receiving the recommended surgical treatment. Patients from deprived areas, older people, and women were more likely to be admitted as emergencies. For example, the adjusted odds ratio for patients with breast cancer in the least compared with most deprived fifth of deprivation was 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.60 to 0.66) and the adjusted odds ratio for patients with lung cancer aged 80-89 compared with those aged 50-59 was 3.13 (2.93 to 3.34). There were some improvements in disparities between age groups but not for patients living in deprived areas over time. Patients from deprived areas were less likely to receive preferred procedures for rectal, breast, and lung cancer. These findings did not improve with time. For example, 67.4% (3529/5237) of patients in the most deprived fifth of deprivation had anterior resection for rectal cancer compared with 75.5% (4497/5959) of patients in the least deprived fifth (1.34, 1.22 to 1.47). Over half (54.0%, 11 256/20 849) of patients in the most deprived fifth of deprivation had breast conserving surgery compared with 63.7% (18 445/28 960) of patients in the least deprived fifth (1.21, 1.16 to 1.26). Men were less likely than women to undergo anterior resection and lung cancer resection and older people were less likely to receive breast conserving surgery and lung cancer resection. For example, the adjusted odds ratio for lung cancer patients aged 80-89 compared with those aged 50-59 was 0
Hu, Yu; Wang, Ying; Liang, Hui; Chen, Yaping
Background: Reasons for acceptance of seasonal influenza vaccine (SIV) vaccination among pregnant women in China are poorly understood. We assessed the intention to accept SIV among pregnant women in Zhejiang province, by using a self-administrated structured questionnaire developed on the basis of health belief model (HBM). Methods: From 1 January to 31 March 2014, pregnant women with ≥12 gestational weeks who attended antenatal clinics (ANCs) at public hospitals in 6 out of 90 districts were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire that covered knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs related to SIV vaccination and influenza infection. We examined the associations between the acceptance of SIV vaccination and the demographic factors and HBM constructs using the logistic regression model, calculating the adjusted odds ratio (AOR). Results: Of the 1252 participants, 76.28% were willing to receive the SIV vaccination during their current pregnancy. High levels of perceived susceptibility of influenza (AOR = 1.75 (95%CI: 1.36-2.08)), high levels of perceived severity of influenza (AOR = 1.62 (95%CI: 1.25-1.95)), high level of perceived benefits of vaccination (AOR = 1.97 (95%CI: 1.76-2.21)), and high levels of cues to action were positively associated with the acceptance of SIV vaccination among pregnant women (AOR = 2.03 (95%CI: 1.70-2.69)), while high level of perceived barriers of vaccination was a negative determinant (AOR = 0.76 (95%CI: 0.62-0.94)). Conclusions: Poor knowledge and negative attitude towards SIV were associated with the poor acceptance of SIV. Health providers' recommendations were important to pregnant women's acceptance of SIV. Health education and direct communication strategies on SIV vaccination and influenza infection are necessary to improve the acceptance of SIV vaccination among pregnant women.
Lilley, Lisa; Lodrigues, William; Dreadin-Pulliam, Julie; Xie, Xian-Jin; Mathur, Sakshi; Rao, Madhu; Harvey, Valorie; Leitch, Ann Marilyn; Rao, Roshni
Background Cancer is one of the most common diseases that patients research on the Internet. The Commission on Cancer (CoC) recommended that Parkland Memorial Hospital (PMH) improve the oncology services website. PMH is Dallas County’s public health care facility, serving a largely uninsured, minority population. Most research regarding patient Internet use has been conducted in insured, Caucasian populations, raising concerns that the needs of PMH patients may not be extrapolated from available data. The PMH Cancer Committee, therefore, adopted a quality improvement initiative to understand patients’ Internet usage. Objective The objective of the study was to obtain and analyze data regarding patients’ Internet usage in order to make targeted improvements to the oncology services section of the institutional website. Methods A task force developed an 11-question survey to ascertain what proportion of our patients have Internet access and use the Internet to obtain medical information as well as determine the specific information sought. Between April 2011 and August 2011, 300 surveys were administered to newly diagnosed cancer patients. Multivariate analyses were performed. Results Of 300 surveys, 291 were included. Minorities, primarily African-American and Hispanic, represented 78.0% (227/291) of patients. Only 37.1% (108/291) of patients had Internet access, most (256/291, 87.9%) having access at home. Younger patients more commonly had Internet access, with a mean age of 47 versus 58 years for those without (P<.001). Education beyond high school was associated with Internet access (P<.001). The most common reason for Internet research was to develop questions for discussion with one’s physician. Patients most frequently sought information regarding cancer treatment options, outcomes, and side effects. Conclusions Less than one-half of PMH oncology patients have Internet access. This is influenced by age, educational level, and ethnicity. Those with
Jain, S M; Bagde, M N; Bagde, N D
Cancer cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths in females in developing countries and one in five women suffering from cervical cancer lives in India. The aim of this study is to determine the awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear among nurses working in a tertiary care institute. Study Setting and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a tertiary care institute. Nurses working at our institute excluding those who have worked or working in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department were provided with a pre-designed questionnaire testing their knowledge about cervical cancer. Approximately, 86% were aware about cancer cervix and 69% were aware of a pre-cancerous stage. 42.3% were not aware of any risk factor and 27.6% were not aware of any symptom of cancer cervix. 86.2% were aware about Pap smear, but only 58.6% were aware that facilities of Pap smear were available at our hospital. Knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness of Pap smear as screening test was inadequate in nursing staff. Awareness programs about cervical cancer and screening are needed to increase awareness for this preventable condition. There is a need to arrange reorientation programs to sensitize nurses and establish cytology clinics to offer facilities for easily accessible and affordable screening.
Lemlem, Semarya Berhe; Sinishaw, Worknish; Hailu, Mignote; Abebe, Mesfin; Aregay, Alemseged
Background. According to the American Cancer Society, about 1.3 million women will be diagnosed with breast cancer annually worldwide and about 465,000 will die from the disease. In Ethiopia breast cancer is the second most often occurring cancer among women. Early diagnosis is especially important for breast cancer because the disease responds best to treatment before it has spread. Objective. To assess knowledge of breast cancer and screening methods among nurses in university hospitals. Method. This cross-sectional descriptive study used simple random sampling on sample of 281 nurses. Structured questionnaires draw out responses about knowledge and screening method of nurses in regard to breast cancer. Bivariate analysis was used principally and variables were then entered to multiple logistic regressions model for controlling the possible effect of confounders and the variables which have significant association were identified on the basis of OR, with 95% CI and P value. Results. The findings of this study revealed that only 156 (57.8%) of them were knowledgeable about breast cancer and its screening and 114 (42.2%) were not. Knowledge of breast cancer was found to be significantly associated with regular course in nursing, family history of respondents, and unit of work. Conclusion and Recommendation. The results of this study indicate that the knowledge of nurses is not satisfying and highlight the need to improve the content in the nursing curriculum and to undergo more workplace training in the area of breast cancer and screening methods. PMID:23986873
Paice, J A; Mahon, S M; Faut-Callahan, M
The inadequate management of pain continues to be a significant problem for persons with cancer. Experts suggest that contributing factors include discrepancies in pain assessment, inadequate administration of opiate therapy, and insufficient documentation of the patient's pain experience. This study, part of a multidepartmental investigation into the adequacy of pain management in hospitalized patients, describes the pain experience of surgical oncology patients. Its correlational ex post facto design (n = 34) was guided by Loeser's model of pain. Randomly selected surgical oncology patients were interviewed using a structured format. The patient's primary nurse and physician simultaneously completed brief assessments of their perceptions of the patient's pain intensity. Data were analyzed using descriptive and correlational statistics, and implications for nursing practice and future nursing research are discussed.
Kim, Sun Jung; Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol
Previous studies found that hospice and palliative care reduces healthcare costs for end-of-life cancer patients. To investigate hospital inpatient charges and length-of-stay differences by availability of hospice care beds within hospitals using nationwide data from end-of-life inpatients with lung cancer. A retrospective cohort study was performed using nationwide lung cancer health insurance claims from 2002 to 2012 in Korea. Descriptive and multi-level (patient-level and hospital-level) mixed models were used to compare inpatient charges and lengths of stay. Using 673,122 inpatient health insurance claims, we obtained aggregated hospital inpatient charges and lengths of stay from a total of 114,828 inpatients and 866 hospital records. Hospital inpatient charges and length of stay drastically increased as patients approached death; a significant portion of hospital inpatient charges and lengths of stay occurred during the end-of-life period. According to our multi-level analysis, hospitals with hospice care beds tend to have significantly lower end-of-life hospital inpatient charges; however, length of stay did not differ. Hospitals with more hospice care beds were associated with reduction in hospital inpatient charges within 3 months before death. Higher end-of-life healthcare hospital charges were found for lung cancer inpatients who were admitted to hospitals without hospice care beds. This study suggests that health policy-makers and the National Health Insurance program need to consider expanding the use of hospice care beds within hospitals and hospice care facilities for end-of-life patients with lung cancer in South Korea, where very limited numbers of resources are currently available. © The Author(s) 2015.
Rubio-Briones, J; Ramírez-Backhaus, M; Gómez-Ferrer, A; Mir, C; Domínguez-Escrig, J; Collado, A; Iborra, I; Casanova, J; Solsona, E; Mascarós, J M; Calatrava, A
To analyse the most relevant oncologic results of treatment using radical prostatectomy (RP) for high-risk prostate cancer (HRPC) in a specialist cancer hospital. A descriptive retrospective study of RP was conducted at our centre from 1986 to 2017 on HRPC whose primary objective was to determine overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). The study's secondary objectives were to determine biochemical progression-free survival (BPFS), metastasis-free survival (MFS), rescue therapy-free survival (RTFS), hormone therapy-free survival (HTFS) and the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer. We performed a Cox regression analysis to establish predictive models and to better understand the weight of each variable that defines high risk. A total of 2093 RPs were performed, 480 (22.9%) of which were for HRPC. The median follow-up for the overall series was 79.57 months (P 25-75 37.92-135.16). Lymphadenectomy was not performed in 6.5% of the cases. The lymphadenectomy was of the obturator type in 51.2% of the cases and extended in 42.3%. Overall survival at 5, 10 and 15 years was 89.8% (95% CI 86.7-92.9%), 73.3% (95% CI 68-78.6%) and 51.4% (95% CI 43.8-59%), respectively. CSS at 5, 10 and 15 years was 94.8% (95% CI 92.4-97.2%), 84.0% (95% CI 79.3-88.7%) and 75.5% (95% CI 68.8-82.2%), respectively. MFS at 5, 10 and 15 years was 87.4% (95% CI 84.1-90.7%), 72.2% (95% CI 66.7-77.7%) and 61.7% (95% CI 54.3-69.1%), respectively. A total of 120 patients of 477 analysed (25.1%) required rescue radiation therapy, and 293/477 never required hormone therapy (61.4%). Of the 93 pN1 patients, 33 (35.5%) did not require hormone therapy. The time from RP to biochemical progression was the variable with the greatest prognostic weight for MFS, CSS and overall survival. RP plus extended lymphadenectomy should be the first therapeutic manoeuvre when feasible within a multimodal strategy. A longer follow-up of the series is needed to validate the hypothesis of better
Williams, R; Laing, A E; Demenais, F; Kissling, G; Gause, B L; Chen, V; Bonney, G
This article describes breast cancer cases seen at the Howard University Hospital from 1960 through 1987 using information from the database of the Tumor Registry, established in 1960. Clinical information at presentation is presented as well as a description of reproductive and demographic characteristics. Pre- and postmenopausal women are compared, revealing differences in reproductive experience. This may contribute to the increasing incidence of breast cancer seen among younger women in recent years. This is of particular interest because the classic excess of nulliparous women among breast cancer cases is not seen among the population described here.
Williams, R.; Laing, A. E.; Demenais, F.; Kissling, G.; Gause, B. L.; Chen, V.; Bonney, G.
This article describes breast cancer cases seen at the Howard University Hospital from 1960 through 1987 using information from the database of the Tumor Registry, established in 1960. Clinical information at presentation is presented as well as a description of reproductive and demographic characteristics. Pre- and postmenopausal women are compared, revealing differences in reproductive experience. This may contribute to the increasing incidence of breast cancer seen among younger women in recent years. This is of particular interest because the classic excess of nulliparous women among breast cancer cases is not seen among the population described here. PMID:8107157
Barrera, Maru E; Rykov, Mary H; Doyle, Sandra L
The use of music therapy with children in health settings has been documented, but its effectiveness has not yet been well established. This pilot study is a preliminary exploration of the effectiveness of interactive music therapy in reducing anxiety and increasing the comfort of hospitalized children with cancer. Pre- and post-music therapy measures were obtained from children (N = 65) and parents. The measures consisted of children's ratings of mood using schematic faces, parental ratings of the child's play performance, and satisfaction questionnaires completed by parents, children and staff. There was a significant improvement in children's ratings of their feelings from pre- to post-music therapy. Parents perceived an improved play performance after music therapy in pre-schoolers and adolescents but not in school-aged children. Qualitative analyses of children's and parents' comments suggested a positive impact of music therapy on the child's well-being. These preliminary findings are encouraging and suggest beneficial effects of interactive music therapy with hospitalized pediatric hematology/oncology patients. In future studies replicating these findings should be conducted in a randomized control trial. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Raber, Margaret; Crawford, Karla; Chandra, Joya
Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) have been shown to practise suboptimal dietary intake and may benefit from nutrition interventions during and after treatment. Cooking classes have become popular for encouraging healthy eating behaviours in community-based programming and academic research; however, literature on teaching cooking classes in CCS is limited. The purpose of the present study was to address the development and implementation of classes for CCS based on a recently developed framework of healthy cooking behaviour. A conceptual framework was developed from a systematic literature review and used to guide healthy cooking classes for CCS in different settings. One paediatric cancer hospital inpatient unit, one paediatric cancer in-hospital camp programme and two off-site paediatric cancer summer camp programmes. One hundred and eighty-nine CCS of varying ages and thirteen parents of CCS. Seventeen classes were taught at camps and seven classes in the hospital inpatient unit. Healthy cooking classes based on the conceptual framework are feasible and were well received by CCS. Cooking classes for CCS, both at the hospital and at camp, reinforced the principles of the conceptual framework. Future trials should assess the dietary and anthropometric impact of evidence-based healthy cooking classes in CCS.
Raber, Margaret; Crawford, Karla; Chandra, Joya
Objective Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) have been shown to practice sub-optimal dietary intake and may benefit from nutrition interventions during and after treatment. Cooking classes have become popular for encouraging healthy eating behaviors in community-based programming and academic research, however, literature on teaching cooking classes in CCS is limited. The purpose of this study is to address the development and implementation of classes for CCS based on a recently developed framework of healthy cooking behavior. Design A conceptual framework was developed from a systematic literature review and used to guide healthy cooking classes for CCS in different settings. Setting One pediatric cancer hospital inpatient unit, one pediatric cancer in-hospital camp program and two off-site pediatric cancer summer camp programs. Subjects One hundred and eighty nine CCS of varying ages and thirteen parents of CCS. Results Seventeen classes were taught at camps and seven classes in the hospital inpatient unit. Healthy cooking classes based on the conceptual framework are feasible and were well received by CCS. Conclusions Cooking classes for CCS, both at the hospital and at camp, reinforced the principles of the conceptual framework. Future trials should assess the dietary and anthropometric impact of evidence-based healthy cooking classes in CCS. PMID:28463101
There may be a new, more effective method for treating high-risk neuroblastoma, according to scientists at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and collaborators in the Cancer and Inflammation Program at NCI at Frederick. Together, the groups published a study describing a previously unrecognized protein on neuroblastoma cells, called GPC2, as well as the creation of a
Ortiz, Héctor; Biondo, Sebastiano; Codina, Antonio; Ciga, Miguel Á; Enríquez-Navascués, José; Espín, Eloy; García-Granero, Eduardo; Roig, José Vicente
This multicentre observational study aimed to determine the anastomotic leak rate in the hospitals included in the Rectal Cancer Project of the Spanish Society of Surgeons and examine whether hospital volume may contribute to any variation between hospitals. Hospital variation was quantified using a multilevel approach on prospective data derived from the multicentre database of all adenocarcinomas of the rectum operated by an anterior resection at 84 surgical departments from 2006 to 2013. The following variables were included in the analysis; demographics, American Society of Anaesthesiologists classification, use of defunctioning stoma, tumour location and stage, administration of neoadjuvant treatment, and annual volume of elective surgical procedures. A total of 7231 consecutive patients were included. The rate of anastomotic leak was 10.0%. Stratified by annual surgical volume hospitals varied from 9.9 to 11.3%. In multilevel regression analysis, the risk of anastomotic leak increased in male patients, in patients with tumours located below 12 cm from the anal verge, and advanced tumour stages. However, a defunctioning stoma seemed to prevent this complication. Hospital surgical volume was not associated with anastomotic leak (OR: 0.852, [0.487-1.518]; P=.577). Furthermore, there was a statistically significant variation in anastomotic leak between all departments (MOR: 1.475; [1.321-1.681]; P<0.001). Anastomotic leak varies significantly among hospitals included in the project and this difference cannot be attributed to the annual surgical volume. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ido, Akiko; Hiromori, Youhei; Meng, Liping; Usuda, Haruki; Nagase, Hisamitsu; Yang, Min; Hu, Jianying; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi
Fibrates, which are widely used lipidaemic-modulating drugs, are emerging environmental pollutants. However, fibrate concentrations in the environment have not been thoroughly surveyed. Here, we determined concentrations of the most commonly used fibrates and their metabolites in source water and drinking water samples from ten drinking water treatment plants in Shanghai and Zhejiang, China, using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. All the target compounds were detected in at least some of the source water samples, at concentrations ranging from 0.04 ng/L (fenofibrate) to 1.53 ng/L (gemfibrozil). All the compounds except fenofibrate were also detected in at least some of the drinking water samples, at recoveries ranging from 35.5% to 91.7%, suggesting that these compounds are poorly removed by typical drinking water treatment processes. In a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonistic activity assay, the target compounds showed no significant activity at nanogram per litre concentrations; therefore, our results suggest that the fibrate concentrations in drinking water in Shanghai and Zhejiang, China do not significantly affect human health. However, because of the increasing westernization of the Chinese diet, fibrate use may increase, and thus monitoring fibrate concentrations in aquatic environments and drinking water in China will become increasingly important. PMID:28401920
Ido, Akiko; Hiromori, Youhei; Meng, Liping; Usuda, Haruki; Nagase, Hisamitsu; Yang, Min; Hu, Jianying; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi
Fibrates, which are widely used lipidaemic-modulating drugs, are emerging environmental pollutants. However, fibrate concentrations in the environment have not been thoroughly surveyed. Here, we determined concentrations of the most commonly used fibrates and their metabolites in source water and drinking water samples from ten drinking water treatment plants in Shanghai and Zhejiang, China, using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All the target compounds were detected in at least some of the source water samples, at concentrations ranging from 0.04 ng/L (fenofibrate) to 1.53 ng/L (gemfibrozil). All the compounds except fenofibrate were also detected in at least some of the drinking water samples, at recoveries ranging from 35.5% to 91.7%, suggesting that these compounds are poorly removed by typical drinking water treatment processes. In a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonistic activity assay, the target compounds showed no significant activity at nanogram per litre concentrations; therefore, our results suggest that the fibrate concentrations in drinking water in Shanghai and Zhejiang, China do not significantly affect human health. However, because of the increasing westernization of the Chinese diet, fibrate use may increase, and thus monitoring fibrate concentrations in aquatic environments and drinking water in China will become increasingly important.
Ido, Akiko; Hiromori, Youhei; Meng, Liping; Usuda, Haruki; Nagase, Hisamitsu; Yang, Min; Hu, Jianying; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi
Fibrates, which are widely used lipidaemic-modulating drugs, are emerging environmental pollutants. However, fibrate concentrations in the environment have not been thoroughly surveyed. Here, we determined concentrations of the most commonly used fibrates and their metabolites in source water and drinking water samples from ten drinking water treatment plants in Shanghai and Zhejiang, China, using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All the target compounds were detected in at least some of the source water samples, at concentrations ranging from 0.04 ng/L (fenofibrate) to 1.53 ng/L (gemfibrozil). All the compounds except fenofibrate were also detected in at least some of the drinking water samples, at recoveries ranging from 35.5% to 91.7%, suggesting that these compounds are poorly removed by typical drinking water treatment processes. In a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonistic activity assay, the target compounds showed no significant activity at nanogram per litre concentrations; therefore, our results suggest that the fibrate concentrations in drinking water in Shanghai and Zhejiang, China do not significantly affect human health. However, because of the increasing westernization of the Chinese diet, fibrate use may increase, and thus monitoring fibrate concentrations in aquatic environments and drinking water in China will become increasingly important.
Hu, Yu; Chen, Yaping
Vaccination coverage in Zhejiang province, east China, is evaluated through repeated coverage surveys. The Zhejiang provincial immunization information system (ZJIIS) was established in 2004 with links to all immunization clinics. ZJIIS has become an alternative to quickly assess the vaccination coverage. To assess the current completeness and accuracy on the vaccination coverage derived from ZJIIS, we compared the estimates from ZJIIS with the estimates from the most recent provincial coverage survey in 2014, which combined interview data with verified data from ZJIIS. Of the enrolled 2772 children in the 2014 provincial survey, the proportions of children with vaccination cards and registered in ZJIIS were 94.0% and 87.4%, respectively. Coverage estimates from ZJIIS were systematically higher than the corresponding estimates obtained through the survey, with a mean difference of 4.5%. Of the vaccination doses registered in ZJIIS, 16.7% differed from the date recorded in the corresponding vaccination cards. Under-registration in ZJIIS significantly influenced the coverage estimates derived from ZJIIS. Therefore, periodic coverage surveys currently provide more complete and reliable results than the estimates based on ZJIIS alone. However, further improvement of completeness and accuracy of ZJIIS will likely allow more reliable and timely estimates in future. PMID:28696387
Li, Kun; Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou; Lin, Xian-Dan
To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acidmore » (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not.« less
Hu, Yu; Chen, Yaping
Vaccination coverage in Zhejiang province, east China, is evaluated through repeated coverage surveys. The Zhejiang provincial immunization information system (ZJIIS) was established in 2004 with links to all immunization clinics. ZJIIS has become an alternative to quickly assess the vaccination coverage. To assess the current completeness and accuracy on the vaccination coverage derived from ZJIIS, we compared the estimates from ZJIIS with the estimates from the most recent provincial coverage survey in 2014, which combined interview data with verified data from ZJIIS. Of the enrolled 2772 children in the 2014 provincial survey, the proportions of children with vaccination cards and registered in ZJIIS were 94.0% and 87.4%, respectively. Coverage estimates from ZJIIS were systematically higher than the corresponding estimates obtained through the survey, with a mean difference of 4.5%. Of the vaccination doses registered in ZJIIS, 16.7% differed from the date recorded in the corresponding vaccination cards. Under-registration in ZJIIS significantly influenced the coverage estimates derived from ZJIIS. Therefore, periodic coverage surveys currently provide more complete and reliable results than the estimates based on ZJIIS alone. However, further improvement of completeness and accuracy of ZJIIS will likely allow more reliable and timely estimates in future.
Ru, Qiao-Mei; Feng, Qiang; He, Jin-Zhe
The levels of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg) in eight types of honey collected in China were determined. The average concentrations of the six heavy metals in the honey samples were 46.18, 1329.5, 1.34, 33.98, 13.44, and 1.65 μg kg(-1), respectively. All these values were below the maximum allowable contaminant levels in foods (GB2762-2005) and honey (GB14963-2011) in China. The hazard quotients of individual heavy metals and the hazard index of all six heavy metals were far below one, indicating no chronic-toxic risk from these metals for the inhabitants of Zhejiang under the current consumption rates of honey. However, the carcinogenic risk of As for the female inhabitants in Zhejiang exceeded the acceptable level of 10(-4). Therefore, As is the most concerning heavy metal in honey. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Habibullah, Gulzar; Gul, Raisa; Cassum, Shanaz; Elahi, Rehana
Objective: This study aimed to explore the experiences of female breast cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) in a public hospital in Peshawar, Pakistan. Methods: This study employed a descriptive exploratory method. A purposive sample of 14 breast cancer women undergoing RT was selected for this study. Data were collected over the period of 5 months, using a semi-structured interview guide and conducting in-depth face-to-face interviews. These interviews were audio taped and transcribed by a bilingual transcriber. The translated version of the interview was coded, and the analysis was done manually. Results: Four main categories emerged from data analysis, which were: feelings and perceptions of the patients, their challenges, coping strategies, and teaching and informational needs. Conclusions: Women undergoing RT in this culture experience more intense psychological effects, as compared to the physical effects. Keeping in mind, the magnitude of the emotional stress experienced by the participants, recommendations for policy reforms, and training for female RT staff are suggested based on findings of this research. PMID:29607379
López-Cima, María Felicitas; García-Pérez, Javier; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Tardón, Adonina; Pollán, Marina
Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. This was a hospital-based case-control study covering 626 lung cancer patients and 626 controls recruited in Asturias and matched by ethnicity, hospital, age, and sex. Distances from the respective participants' residential locations to industrial facilities and city centers were computed. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to urban and industrial pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for sex, age, hospital area, tobacco consumption, family history of cancer, and occupation. Whereas individuals living near industries displayed an excess risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.49; 95%CI = 0.93-2.39), which attained statistical significance for small cell carcinomas (OR = 2.23; 95%CI = 1.01-4.92), residents in urban areas showed a statistically significant increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92; 95%CI = 1.09-3.38). In the Gijon health area, residents in the urban area registered a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.25-3.76), whereas in the Aviles health area, no differences in risk were found by area of exposure. This study provides further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor for lung cancer.
Background Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. Methods This was a hospital-based case-control study covering 626 lung cancer patients and 626 controls recruited in Asturias and matched by ethnicity, hospital, age, and sex. Distances from the respective participants' residential locations to industrial facilities and city centers were computed. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to urban and industrial pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for sex, age, hospital area, tobacco consumption, family history of cancer, and occupation. Results Whereas individuals living near industries displayed an excess risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.49; 95%CI = 0.93-2.39), which attained statistical significance for small cell carcinomas (OR = 2.23; 95%CI = 1.01-4.92), residents in urban areas showed a statistically significant increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92; 95%CI = 1.09-3.38). In the Gijon health area, residents in the urban area registered a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.25-3.76), whereas in the Aviles health area, no differences in risk were found by area of exposure. Conclusions This study provides further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor for lung cancer. PMID:21266041
Chen, Gang; Qiao, Ting-ting; Ding, Hao; Li, Chen-xi; Zheng, Hui-ling; Chen, Xiao-ling; Hu, Shao-ming; Yu, Shi-ying
Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), as the largest application category of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely accepted among cancer patients in China. Herbal slice (HS) and Chinese patent drug (CPD) are commonly used CHM in China. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of CHM among clinicians and cancer patients in central China. Five hundred and twenty-five patients and 165 clinicians in 35 comprehensive hospitals in central China were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire that was designed to evaluate the use of CHM. The results showed that 90.74% clinicians and 72.24% cancer patients used CHM during cancer treatment. The educational backgrounds of the clinicians and the age, education level, annual income, and cancer stage of the cancer patients were related to use of CHM. More than 90% clinicians and cancer patients had used CPD. Comparatively, the percentage of HS use was 10% lower than that of CPD use among clinicians and cancer patients. More clinicians preferred to use CHM after surgery than cancer patients did (20.41% vs. 5.37%). Enhancing physical fitness and improving performance status were regarded as the most potential effect of CHM on cancer treatment (85.71% among clinicians and 94.07% among cancer patients), in comparison with directly killing tumor cells (24.49% among clinicians and 31.36% among patients). As for refusal reasons, imprecise efficacy was the unanimous (100%) reason for clinicians' rejection of CHM, and 95.58% patients objected to using CHM also for this reason. Furthermore, the side effects of CHM were more concerned by clinicians than by patients (33.33% vs. 15.81%). In conclusion, our survey revealed that CHM was popularly accepted by clinicians and cancer patients in central China. The reasons of use and rejection of CHM were different between clinicians and cancer patients.
Bruckel, Jeffrey T; Wong, Sandra L; Chan, Paul S; Bradley, Steven M; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K
Little is known regarding patterns of resuscitation care in patients with advanced cancer who suffer in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). In the Get With The Guidelines - Resuscitation registry, 47,157 adults with IHCA with and without advanced cancer (defined as the presence of metastatic or hematologic malignancy) were identified at 369 hospitals from April 2006 through June 2010. We compared rates of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival to discharge between groups using multivariable models. We also compared duration of resuscitation effort and resuscitation quality measures. Overall, 6,585 patients with IHCA (14.0%) had advanced cancer. Patients with advanced cancer had lower multivariable-adjusted rates of ROSC (52.3% [95% CI, 49.5% to 55.3%] v 56.6% [95% CI, 53.8% to 59.5%]; P < .001) and survival to discharge (7.4% [95% CI, 6.6% to 8.4%] v 13.4% [95% CI, 12.1% to 14.8%]; P < .001). Among nonsurvivors who died during resuscitation, patients with advanced cancer had better performance on most resuscitation quality measures. Among patients with ROSC, patients with advanced cancer were made Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR) more frequently within 48 hours (adjusted relative risk, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.24 to 1.37]; P < .001). Adjustment for DNAR status explained some of the immediate effect of advanced cancer on survival; however, survival remained significantly lower in patients with cancer. Patients with advanced cancer can expect lower survival rates after IHCA compared with those without advanced cancer, and they are more frequently made DNAR within 48 hours of ROSC. These findings have important implications for discussions of resuscitation care wishes with patients and can better inform end-of-life discussions.
El Malla, Hanan; Kreicbergs, Ulrika; Steineck, Gunnar; Wilderäng, Ulrica; Elborai, Yasser El Sayed; Ylitalo, Nathalie
Patient-physician communication and patient satisfaction are important elements of cancer care. Trust is considered to be crucial for the patient-physician relationship, yet little is to be found in the literature regarding what factors may influence trust. We assessed predictors of trust in health-care professionals and in the medical care by administering two questionnaires, one at start of chemotherapy treatment and one at the time of the third chemotherapy cycle, to 304 parents of children with newly diagnosed cancer at the Children's Cancer Hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Parents' trust in the medical care at the time of the child's third chemotherapy cycle was significantly associated with the following at the start of treatment: having received at least moderate information about the disease (relative risk (RR) 13.2; 95% CI 7.8-22.3) and the treatment (RR 17.2; 95% CI 9.5-31.4), having the opportunity to communicate with the child's physicians (RR 21.3; 95% CI 11.7-38.8), being satisfied with the physicians conversation style (RR 30.6; 95% CI 14.4-64.9), having the emotional needs met (RR 22.2; 95% CI 11.8-41.9), and being met with care by the child's physicians (RR 32.0; 95% CI 15.2-67.7). After multivariable model selection, the strongest predictor of trust at the time of the third chemotherapy cycle was to be met with care at the start of treatment. Parents being met with care by the child's physicians at the beginning of the child's chemotherapy treatment develop an increased trust in the medical care. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Brokalaki, Eirini I; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Tsaras, Konstantinos; Brokalaki, Hero
The goal of our study was to evaluate the extent of disease-related knowledge and the need for further information of cancer patients in Greece. We evaluated 203 mentally competent adult cancer patients hospitalized in general and oncological hospitals in the city of Athens and its suburbs. Data were collected by means of semistructured interviews. Patients were evaluated as to whether they had awareness of their diagnosis. Those who did so (n = 83) were further questioned about additional disease-related information. The majority of patients (59%) claimed to have no knowledge of their diagnosis. Women (p = 0.004) as well as high school and university graduates (p = 0.024) showed significantly superior levels of information when compared to men and graduates of elementary schools, respectively. Age was also a factor that influenced the level of the awareness of the diagnosis and the request for additional information: patients who were informed about the diagnosis and patients who asked for more information were significantly younger than their counterparts who ignored the diagnosis (p < 0.001) and those who didn't ask for further information, respectively (p = 0.03). Hospital specialization (oncological versus general, p < 0.001) and department specialization (medical versus surgical, p = 0.004) were associated with significantly increased levels of information. The patient's educational level was associated with increased request for additional information (p = 0.006). Most patients with knowledge of their diagnosis requested detailed information about severity of their disease and prognosis. Only 13% of those in the informed group claimed they would have benefited psychologically by having been unaware of their diagnosis. Although Greek patients with diagnoses of malignancies want and need to be adequately informed, the amount of information they receive is inadequate. Over half of those patients evaluated were not aware of their diagnosis. Attitudes of health
Kalsekar, Iftekhar; Hsiao, Chia-Wen; Cheng, Hang; Yadalam, Sashi; Chen, Brian Po-Han; Goldstein, Laura; Yoo, Andrew
To determine hospital resource utilization, associated costs and the risk of complications during hospitalization for four types of surgical resections and to estimate the incremental burden among patients with cancer compared to those without cancer. Patients (≥18 years old) were identified from the Premier Research Database of US hospitals if they had any of the following types of elective surgical resections between 1/2008 and 12/2014: lung lobectomy, lower anterior resection of the rectum (LAR), liver wedge resection, or total hysterectomy. Cancer status was determined based on ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. Operating room time (ORT), length of stay (LOS), and total hospital costs, as well as frequency of bleeding and infections during hospitalization were evaluated. The impact of cancer status on outcomes (from a hospital perspective) was evaluated using multivariable generalized estimating equation models; analyses were conducted separately for each resection type. Among the identified patients who underwent surgical resection, 23 858 (87.9% with cancer) underwent lung lobectomy, 13 522 (63.8% with cancer) underwent LAR, 2916 (30.0% with cancer) underwent liver wedge resection and 225 075 (11.3% with cancer) underwent total hysterectomy. After adjusting for patient, procedural, and hospital characteristics, mean ORT, LOS, and hospital cost were statistically higher by 3.2%, 8.2%, and 9.2%, respectively for patients with cancer vs. no cancer who underwent lung lobectomy; statistically higher by 6.9%, 9.4%, and 9.6%, respectively for patients with cancer vs. no cancer who underwent LAR; statistically higher by 4.9%, 14.8%, and 15.7%, respectively for patients with cancer vs. no cancer who underwent liver wedge resection; and statistically higher by 16.0%, 27.4%, and 31.3%, respectively for patients with cancer vs. no cancer who underwent total hysterectomy. Among patients who underwent each type of resection, risks for bleeding and infection were generally higher
Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Press, David J.; Lichtensztajn, Daphne; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Shema, Sarah J.; Le, Gem M.; Kurian, Allison W.
Background Clinical guidelines recommend breast conserving surgery (BCS) with radiation as a viable alternative to mastectomy for treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Yet, Asian Americans (AA) are more likely than other groups to have mastectomy or omit radiation after BCS. Methods We applied polytomous logistic regression and recursive partitioning (RP) to analyze factors associated with mastectomy, or BCS without radiation, among 20,987 California AAs diagnosed with stage 0–II breast cancer from 1990–2007. Results The percentage receiving mastectomy ranged from 40% among US-born Chinese to 58% among foreign-born Vietnamese. Factors associated with mastectomy included tumor characteristics such as larger tumor size, patient characteristics such as older age and foreign birthplace among some AA ethnicities, and additional factors including hospital (smaller hospital size, not NCI cancer center, low socioeconomic status (SES) patient composition, and high hospital AA patient composition) and neighborhood characteristics (ethnic enclaves of low SES). These hospital and neighborhood characteristics were also associated with BCS without radiation. Through RP, the highest mastectomy subgroups were defined by tumor characteristics such as size and anatomic location, in combination with diagnosis year and nativity. Conclusions Tumor characteristics and, secondarily, patient, hospital and neighborhood factors, are predictors of mastectomy and omission of radiation following BCS among AAs. Impact By focusing on interactions among patient, hospital, and neighborhood factors in the differential receipt of breast cancer treatment, our study identifies subgroups of interest for further study, and translation into public health and patient-focused initiatives to ensure that all women are fully informed about treatment options. PMID:22402290
Sultan, Dawood H; Gishe, Jemal; Hanciles, Angella; Comins, Meg M; Norris, Claire M
To examine cancer treatment disparities at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center (NCI-CCC) and non-specialty hospitals. Florida hospital discharge datasets were used. ICD9-CM codes were used to define patients with female reproductive organ cancers (FROC), male reproductive organ cancers (MROC), and OTHER cancer diagnoses. A total of 7462 NCI-CCC patients and 21,875 non-specialty hospital patients were included in the statistical analysis. Data analysis was conducted in SAS 9.2. Increases in age reduced the odds of receiving treatment at the NCI-CCC. Male patients were more likely than female patients to be treated at the NCI-CCC. Age-adjusted odds of African American and Hispanic out/inpatients being treated at the NCI-CCC were significantly lower than those of White out/inpatients. Only patients with workers' compensation, charity, or other insurance had higher odds of being treated at the NCI-CCC. The odds of minority patients receiving outpatient treatment at the NCI-CCC declined after 2005. The odds of receiving inpatient treatment at the NCI-CCC significantly increased after 2006. More targeted outreach by the NCI-CCC is required. However, we expect the creation of local Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) to reduce the numbers of minority and older patients at the NCI-CCC. Coordinated quality care at ACOs implies a potential for retaining the patient market share held by non-specialty hospitals and a potential for increased demand for ACO care by minority and older patients.
Nguyen, Katherine D; Hara, Belinda; Chlebowski, Rowan T
While information websites have been developed by major cancer organizations, their appropriateness for patients in multiethnic, multilingual public hospital settings has received limited attention. The objective of the study was to determine the utility of cancer information websites for a public hospital patient population. A 70-item questionnaire was developed to evaluate cancer information seeking behavior, Internet access and use, and content appropriateness of two cancer information websites: People Living with Cancer from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and Breast Cancer Info from the Susan Komen Breast Cancer Foundation (SKF). Interviews were conducted with consecutive consenting oncology patients seen in a public hospital oncology clinic. Fifty-nine persons participated in the survey. The response rate was 80%. Participants were Caucasian (25%), African American (19%), Hispanic (42%), and Asian/Pacific Islander (11%). English was the primary language in 53% of participants, 56% had a high school education or less, and 74% had an annual income less than US 35000 dollars. With respect to computer and Internet use, 71% had computer access, and 44% searched for cancer information online, with more being interested in obtaining online information in the future (63%). Participants who had computer access were likely to be English speaking (P = .04). Those less likely to have previously used a computer tended to have a lower annual income (P = .02) or to be males aged 55 years or older (P < .05). When shown sample content from the two websites, almost all participants stated that it was "easy to understand" (ASCO 96%, SKF 96%) and had "easy to understand terms" (ASCO 94%, SKF 92%). Somewhat fewer respondents agreed that the websites provided "information they could use" (ASCO 88%, SKF 80%) or that they would return to these websites (ASCO 73%, SKF 68%). The majority planned to "discuss website information with their oncologists" (ASCO 82%, SKF 70
Cannioto, Rikki; Etter, John Lewis; Guterman, Lauren Beryl; Joseph, Janine M; Gulati, Nicholas R; Schmitt, Kristina L; LaMonte, Michael J; Nagy, Ryan; Minlikeeva, Albina; Szender, James Brian; Moysich, Kirsten B
Recreational physical inactivity has been gaining recognition as an independent epidemiological exposure of interest in relation to cancer endpoints due to evidence suggesting that it may associate with cancer independent of obesity. In the current analyses, we examined the associations of lifetime recreational physical inactivity with renal and bladder cancer risk. In this hospital-based case-control study, we identified N=160 renal cancer patients, N=208 bladder cancer patients, and N=766 age frequency-matched controls without cancer. Participants self-reporting never participating in any regular/weekly recreational physical activity throughout their lifetime were classified as physically inactive. Utilizing unconditional multivariable logistic regression analyses, we estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to represent the associations between lifetime physical inactivity and renal and bladder cancer risk. In multivariable logistic regression models, we observed significant positive associations between lifetime recreational physical inactivity and renal cancer and bladder cancer risk: odds ratio=1.77 (95% CI: 1.10-2.85) and odds ratio=1.73 (95% CI: 1.13-2.63), respectively. Similar associations also persisted among individuals who were not obese for both renal and bladder cancer: odds ratio=1.75 (95% CI: 1.03-2.98) and odds ratio=1.70 (95% CI: 1.08-2.69), respectively. In this case-control study, we observed evidence of a positive association between renal and bladder cancer with lifetime recreational physical inactivity. These data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that physical inactivity may be an important independent risk factor for cancer. However, additional studies using a larger sample and prospectively collected data are needed to substantiate the current findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Respect experiences are poorly understood despite respect being central to professionalism in health care and patient well-being, and needed for optimal patient care. This study explores which patient-perceived communication behaviours from hospital staff contribute most to cancer patients' respect experiences and account for variation in their experience by socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. We present a secondary analysis of data from the 2012-2013 National Cancer Patient Experience Survey of 45,191 patients with a primary cancer diagnosis treated in English National Health Service trusts providing adult acute cancer services who provided data on experienced respect and dignity. Both autonomy-supportive and caring/emotionally sensitive behaviours were associated with reported respect, although the latter showed stronger associations and accounted for most differences in reports of respect between patient groups. Differences in respect were found by gender, race/ethnicity, age, the presence of long-standing conditions, treatment response, time since first treated for cancer (p < .001), employment and type of cancer (p < .05). The study questions the tendency to conceptualise respect primarily in terms of autonomy-supportive behaviours and shows the relative contribution of autonomy-supportive and caring/emotionally sensitive behaviours in explaining disparities in respect experiences. More attention should be paid to affective communication behaviours from hospital staff to reduce disparities in respect experiences.
Ortiz, Héctor; Biondo, Sebastiano; Codina, Antonio; Ciga, Miguel Á; Enríquez-Navascués, José M; Espín, Eloy; García-Granero, Eduardo; Roig, José Vicente
This multicentre observational study examines variation between hospitals in postoperative mortality after elective surgery in the Rectal Cancer Project of the Spanish Society of Surgeons and explores whether hospital volume and patient characteristics contribute to any variation between hospitals. Hospital variation was quantified using a multilevel approach on prospective data derived from the multicentre database of all rectal adenocarcinomas operated by an anterior resection or an abdominoperineal excision at 84 surgical departments from 2006 to 2013. The following variables were included in the analysis; demographics, American Society of Anaesthesiologists classification, tumour location and stage, administration of neoadjuvant treatment, and annual volume of surgical procedures. A total of 9809 consecutive patients were included. The rate of 30-day postoperative mortality was 1.8% Stratified by annual surgical volume hospitals varied from 1.4 to 2.0 in 30-day mortality. In the multilevel regression analysis, male gender (OR 1.623 [1.143; 2.348]; P<.008), increased age (OR: 5.811 [3.479; 10.087]; P<.001), and ASA score (OR 10.046 [3.390; 43.185]; P<.001) were associated with 30-day mortality. However, annual surgical volume was not associated with mortality (OR 1.309 [0.483; 4.238]; P=.619). Besides, there was a statistically significant variation in mortality between all departments (MOR 1.588 [1.293; 2.015]; P<.001). Postoperative mortality varies significantly among hospitals included in the project and this difference cannot be attributed to the annual surgical volume. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Wang, Yinkui; Li, Ziyu; Jin, Chenggen; Ying, Xiangji; Gao, Chao; Wang, Yuchen; Xiao, Qiyan; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Yufan; Zhang, Lianhai; Ji, Jiafu
To investigate the interval time to canceration, clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic factors of carcinoma in remnant stomach (CRS) in patients with primary benign diseases or primary malignant tumors. Based on the criteria of the definition of CRS proposed by Japanese Gastric Cancer Association in 2017, a retrospective analysis was conducted on clinicopathological characteristics of patients diagnosed with CRS at Peking University Cancer Hospital from March 1992 to March 2017. Between patients with primary benign diseases (CBS-B group) and primary malignant tumors (CBS-M group), continuous variables were compared using the Student's t-test or the Mann-Whitney U test; categorical variables were compared using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Spearmen-Rho was used to examine correlation. Survival was estimated and compared using Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional hazards regression was applied to identify independent prognostic factors. Area under ROC curve(AUC) was used to evaluate and compare prediction accuracy. A total of 89 patients were included in the study with a male: female ratio of 5.4 to 1.0. The male: female ratio in CRS-B (n=46) and CRS-M (n=43) group was 14.3 to 1.0 and 2.9 to 1.0 respectively with significant difference (χ 2 =6.091, P=0.019). The interval time to canceration in CRS-B and CRS-M group was 342(36-576) months and 47(12-360) months respectively with significant difference (t=8.887, P=0.000). The interval time to canceration was correlated with the first operative procedure in CRS-B group (r=0.398, P=0.006), while interval time to canceration was correlated with the age at the first operation in CRS-M group (r=0.337, P=0.027). After differentiating the pathological findings of the first operative sample and the second operative sample, 27 patients presented recurrence and 15 patients had new cancer, and the corresponding interval time to canceration was 46(12-132) months and 60(12-360) months respectively with
Knust, Renata Erthal; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Pereira, Claudia Cristina de Aguiar; Fortes, Guilherme Bastos
To estimate the direct medical costs of advanced non-small cell lung cancer care. We assessed a cohort of 277 patients treated in the Brazilian National Cancer Institute in 2011. The costs were estimated from the perspective of the hospital as a service provider of reference for the Brazilian Unified Health System. The materials and procedures used were identified and quantified, per patient, and we assigned to them monetary values, consolidated in phases of the assistance defined. The analyses had a descriptive character with costs in Real (R$). Overall, the cohort represented a cost of R$2,473,559.91, being 71.5% related to outpatient care and 28.5% to hospitalizations. In the outpatient care, costs with radiotherapy (34%) and chemotherapy (22%) predominated. The results pointed to lower costs in the initial phase of treatment (7.2%) and very high costs in the maintenance phase (61.6%). Finally, we identified statistically significant differences of average cost by age groups, education levels, physical performance, and histological type. This study provides a current, useful, and relevant picture of the costs of patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated in a public hospital of reference and it provides information on the magnitude of the problem of cancer in the context of public health. The results confirm the importance of radiation treatment and hospitalizations as the main components of the cost of treatment. Despite some losses of follow-up, we assess that, for approximately 80% of the patients included in the study, the estimates presented herein are satisfactory for the care of the disease, from the perspective of a service provider of reference of the Brazilian Unified Health System, as it provides elements for the management of the service, as well as for studies that result in more rational forms of resource allocation. Estimar os custos médicos diretos da assistência ao câncer de pulmão não pequenas células avançado. Foi avaliada uma
Hamaker, Marije E; Buurman, Bianca M; van Munster, Barbara C; Kuper, Ingeborg M J A; Smorenburg, Carolien H; de Rooij, Sophia E
A comprehensive geriatric assessment systematically collects information on geriatric conditions and is propagated in oncology as a useful tool when assessing older cancer patients. The objectives were: (a) to study the prevalence of geriatric conditions in cancer patients aged ≥ 65 years, acutely admitted to a general medicine ward; (b) to determine functional decline and mortality within 12 months after admission; and (c) to assess which geriatric conditions and cancer-related variables are associated with 12-month mortality. This was an observational cohort study of 292 cancer patients aged ≥ 65 years, acutely admitted to the general medicine and oncology wards of two university hospitals and one secondary teaching hospital. Baseline assessments included patient characteristics, reason for admission, comorbidity, and geriatric conditions. Follow-up at 3 and 12 months was aimed at functional decline (loss of one or more activities of daily living [ADL]) and mortality. The median patient age was 74.9 years, and 95% lived independently; 126 patients (43%) had metastatic disease. A high prevalence of geriatric conditions was found for instrumental ADL impairment (78%), depressive symptoms (65%), pain (65%), impaired mobility (48%), malnutrition (46%), and ADL impairment (38%). Functional decline was observed in 8% and 33% of patients at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Mortality rates were 38% at 3 months and 64% at 12 months. Mortality was associated with cancer-related factors only. In these acutely hospitalized older cancer patients, mortality was only associated with cancer-related factors. The prevalence of geriatric conditions in this population was high. Future research is needed to elucidate if addressing these conditions can improve quality of life.
Buurman, Bianca M.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Kuper, Ingeborg M.J.A.; Smorenburg, Carolien H.; de Rooij, Sophia E.
Introduction. A comprehensive geriatric assessment systematically collects information on geriatric conditions and is propagated in oncology as a useful tool when assessing older cancer patients. Objectives. The objectives were: (a) to study the prevalence of geriatric conditions in cancer patients aged ≥65 years, acutely admitted to a general medicine ward; (b) to determine functional decline and mortality within 12 months after admission; and (c) to assess which geriatric conditions and cancer-related variables are associated with 12-month mortality. Methods. This was an observational cohort study of 292 cancer patients aged ≥65 years, acutely admitted to the general medicine and oncology wards of two university hospitals and one secondary teaching hospital. Baseline assessments included patient characteristics, reason for admission, comorbidity, and geriatric conditions. Follow-up at 3 and 12 months was aimed at functional decline (loss of one or more activities of daily living [ADL]) and mortality. Results. The median patient age was 74.9 years, and 95% lived independently; 126 patients (43%) had metastatic disease. A high prevalence of geriatric conditions was found for instrumental ADL impairment (78%), depressive symptoms (65%), pain (65%), impaired mobility (48%), malnutrition (46%), and ADL impairment (38%). Functional decline was observed in 8% and 33% of patients at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Mortality rates were 38% at 3 months and 64% at 12 months. Mortality was associated with cancer-related factors only. Conclusion. In these acutely hospitalized older cancer patients, mortality was only associated with cancer-related factors. The prevalence of geriatric conditions in this population was high. Future research is needed to elucidate if addressing these conditions can improve quality of life. PMID:21914699
Sun, Xiao-Jie; Shi, Ju-Fang; Guo, Lan-Wei; Huang, Hui-Yao; Yao, Neng-Liang; Gong, Ji-Yong; Sun, Ya-Wen; Liu, Guo-Xiang; Mao, A-Yan; Liao, Xian-Zhen; Bai, Ya-Na; Ren, Jian-Song; Zhu, Xin-Yu; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Mai, Ling; Song, Bing-Bing; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhu, Lin; Du, Ling-Bin; Zhou, Qi; Xing, Xiao-Jing; Lou, Pei-An; Sun, Xiao-Hua; Qi, Xiao; Wang, Yuanzheng; Cao, Rong; Ren, Ying; Lan, Li; Zhang, Kai; He, Jie; Wang, Jia-Lin; Dai, Min
In China, stomach cancer is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death. Few studies have examined Chinese stomach cancer patients' medical expenses and their associated trends. The Cancer Screening Program in Urban China (CanSPUC) is a Major Public Health Project funded by the central government. Through this project, we have extracted patients' medical expenses from hospital billing data to examine the costs of the first course treatments (which refers to 2 months before and 10 months after the date of cancer diagnosis) in Chinese patients with stomach cancer and the associated trends. The expense data of 14,692 urban Chinese patients with stomach cancer were collected from 40 hospitals in 13 provinces. We estimated the inflation-adjusted medical expenses per patient during 2002-2011. We described the time trends of medical expenses at the country-level, and those trends by subgroup, and analyzed the compositions of medical expenses. We constructed the Generalized Linear Mixed (GLM) regression model with Poisson distribution to examine the factors that were associated with medical expenses per patient. The average medical expenses of the first course treatments were about 43,249 CNY (6851 USD) in 2011, more than twice of that in 2002. The expenses increased by an average annual rate of 7.4%. Longer stay during hospitalization and an increased number of episodes of care are the two main contributors to the expense increase. The upward trend of medical expenses was observed in almost all patient subgroups. Drug expenses accounted for over half of the medical expenses. The average medical expenses of the first course (2 months before and 10 months after the date of cancer diagnosis) treatments per stomach cancer patient in urban China in 2011 were doubled during the previous 10 years, and about twice as high as the per capita disposable income of urban households in the same year. Such high expenses indicate that it makes economic
Othman, Nor Hayati; Omar, Effat; Naing, Nyi Nyi
Endemic goitre is a major concern in many nations including Malaysia. Seven states in the country have been identified by Ministry of Health of Malaysia to have high incidence of goitre and one of these is Kelantan. This is a retrospective study over an 11-year period from 1994 to 2004 on all thyroid specimens submitted to the Pathology Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), in Kelantan. Epidemiological data were retrieved from the patients' records and pathology findings from the pathology reports. During this period, Department of Pathology HUSM received a total of 1,486 thyroid specimens. The female to male ratio was 6:1 and the median age was 40.0 years. The duration of goitre ranged from one to 15 years. Histopathological examination showed 71.9 percent were non-neoplastic and 28.1 percent neoplastic lesions. The hospital-based incidence of nodular hyperplasia was 9.9 per 100,000 admitted patients per year. The hospital-based incidence of all types of malignant thyroid cancers was 3.5 per 100,000. The most common malignancy was papillary carcinoma 76.6 percent. The majority of the cancers (59.5 percent) occurred in a background of nodular hyperplasia. Thyroid cancers made up 4.9 percent of all cancers seen in HUSM. This study suggests that malignant thyroid lesions arising from multi-nodular goitre are high in a population living in an iodine-deficiency area.
Kipsang, Susan; Gramelspacher, Gregory; Choi, Eunyoung; Brown, Colleen; Hill, Adam B.; Loehrer, Patrick J.; Busakhala, Naftali; Chite Asirwa, F.
Purpose The prognosis for the majority of patients with cancer in Kenya is poor, with most patients presenting with advanced disease. In addition, many patients are unable to afford the optimal therapies required. Therefore, palliative care is an essential part of comprehensive cancer care. This study reviews the implementation of a palliative care service based at the Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Eldoret, Kenya, and describes the current scope and challenges of providing palliative care services in an East African tertiary public referral hospital. Methods This is a review of the palliative care clinical services at the only tertiary public referral hospital in western Kenya from January 2012 through September 2014. Palliative care team members documented each patient's encounter on standardized palliative care assessment forms; data were then entered into the Academic Model Providing Access to Health Care (AMPATH)-Oncology database. Interviews were also conducted to identify current challenges and opportunities for program improvement. Results This study documents the implementation of a palliative care service line in Eldoret, Kenya. Barriers to providing optimal palliative cancer care include distance to pharmacies that stock opioids, limited selection of opioid preparations, education of health care workers in palliative care, access to palliative chemoradiation, and limited availability of outpatient and inpatient hospice services. Conclusion Palliative care services in Eldoret, Kenya, have become a key component of its comprehensive cancer treatment program. PMID:28804768
Cornetta, Kenneth; Kipsang, Susan; Gramelspacher, Gregory; Choi, Eunyoung; Brown, Colleen; Hill, Adam B; Loehrer, Patrick J; Busakhala, Naftali; Chite Asirwa, F
The prognosis for the majority of patients with cancer in Kenya is poor, with most patients presenting with advanced disease. In addition, many patients are unable to afford the optimal therapies required. Therefore, palliative care is an essential part of comprehensive cancer care. This study reviews the implementation of a palliative care service based at the Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Eldoret, Kenya, and describes the current scope and challenges of providing palliative care services in an East African tertiary public referral hospital. This is a review of the palliative care clinical services at the only tertiary public referral hospital in western Kenya from January 2012 through September 2014. Palliative care team members documented each patient's encounter on standardized palliative care assessment forms; data were then entered into the Academic Model Providing Access to Health Care (AMPATH)-Oncology database. Interviews were also conducted to identify current challenges and opportunities for program improvement. This study documents the implementation of a palliative care service line in Eldoret, Kenya. Barriers to providing optimal palliative cancer care include distance to pharmacies that stock opioids, limited selection of opioid preparations, education of health care workers in palliative care, access to palliative chemoradiation, and limited availability of outpatient and inpatient hospice services. Palliative care services in Eldoret, Kenya, have become a key component of its comprehensive cancer treatment program.
Huang, Yu; Zhong, Jie-ming; Chen, Song-hua; Chen, Bin; Wang, Xiao-meng
To investigate the status of awareness on tuberculosis (TB) in the public and its impact factors in Zhejiang province. A multi-stage sampling was applied. Around 6600 subjects were enrolled for questionnaire survey from December 2010 to January 2011 in Zhejiang province. Survey data were input by EpiData 3.0 software, and the the status of awareness on tuberculosis (TB) in the public and impact factors were analyzed by SPSS 13.0 software package. A total of 6546 subjects were investigated, the response rate was 99.18% (6546/6600), 3306 were male and 3240 were female, the age of subjects was (44.90 ± 12.40) year-old. The total key information awareness rate of TB was 45.66% (14 944/32 730). 65.70% (4301/6546) knowing the transmission route, 33.30% (2180/6546) knowing the symptom of TB, 39.21% (2567/6546) knowing where to go when suspected suffering TB, 38.28% (2506, 6546) knowing national free anti-TB drug supply and examination of infectious TB patients, 51.79% (3390/6546) knowing TB is curable in most case. As for the the key information awareness rate, among senior high school or above, primary high school, primary school or below were 57.19% (3257/5695), 52.07% (6 066/11 650), 36.54% (5 621/15 385), respectively; among birthplace in city, rural areas were 54.70 (1745/3190), 44.68% (13 199/29 540), respectively; Amone male, female were 47.11% (7 788/16 530), 44.17% (7 156/16 200); among different occupations, cadre or staff was highest (59.43%, 1 563/2 630), whereas students was lowest (40.33%, 492/1220); among different age groups, subjects aged beyond 50 years was lowest (39.75%, 5 189/13 055). The total key information awareness rate among above different population groups showed statistically difference (all P values < 0.01). Awareness of knowledge for prevention and therapy of tuberculosis in Zhejiang public was insufficient and imbalanced among subjects with different social demographic characteristics.
Shen, Xiang-hong; Wu, Ping-gu; Wang, Li-yuan; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Ying; Ying, Ying; Ma, Bing-jie
To understand the content status of ethyl carbamate (EC) in yellow rice wine and the changes in storage period and shelf life in Zhejiang province. A total of 475 samples of yellow rice wine purchased randomly from supermarkets and food stores in Zhejiang province during 2008-2012, and 49 samples collected from manufacturers were measured for EC content. The sample collected from manufacturers by filter sterilization was placed at 4 °C, room temperature and 37 °C for 400 d, respectively;a bottled wine and a wine in bag were bought from market were placed for 400 d in room temperature to conduct shelf life storage test, and measure the content in every point in 2011. The EC of the samples was determinated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after the samples were diluted with D5-EC isotope dilution technique, and purified by alkaline diatomite solid phase extraction column. The overall detection rate of EC was 99% (472/475) in yellow rice wine of Zhejiang province in 2008-2012, the median value was 70-112 µg/kg, the 90th percentile was 190-333 µg/kg, the 95th percentile was 214-393 µg/kg, and the maximum value was 430-515 µg/kg. The content of EC was increased gradually along with the increasing of storage age in commercially yellow rice wine, and the average content of EC were positively correlated with storage age(r = 0.988). The contents of EC in yellow rice wine after sterilization increased from 74 µg/kg to 86 µg/kg, 127 µg/kg and 509 µg/kg at 4 °C, room temperature and 37°C, respectively for 400 d storage, the differences had statistical significance (F = 14.73, P < 0.01). The content of EC in yellow rice wines in shelf life, which stored in room temperature with bottle and bag package, was decreased slightly with increasing storage time in the beginning, from 215 to 184 µg/kg and 196 to 158 µg/kg, respectively, and increased again with increasing storage time after 250 d, with 252 µg/kg and 210 µg/kg in bottle and bag package after 400 d
Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Xuehai; Yang, Jun; Bao, Junzhe; Dear, Keith; Liu, Qiyong; Lin, Shao; Lin, Aihua; Huang, Cunrui
Background: The evidence of increased mortality attributable to extreme temperatures is widely characterized in climate-health studies. However, few of these studies have examined the role of humidity on temperature-mortality association. We investigated the joint effect between temperature and humidity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in Zhejiang Province, China. Methods: We collected data on daily meteorological and CVD mortality from 11 cities in Zhejiang Province during 2010–2013. We first applied time-series Poisson regression analysis within the framework of distributed lag non-linear models to estimate the city-specific effect of temperature and humidity on CVD mortality, after controlling for temporal trends and potential confounding variables. We then applied a multivariate meta-analytical model to pool the effect estimates in the 11 cities to generate an overall provincial estimate. The joint effects between them were calculated by the attributable fraction (AF). The analyses were further stratified by gender, age group, education level, and location of cities. Results: In total, 120,544 CVD deaths were recorded in this study. The mean values of temperature and humidity were 17.6 °C and 72.3%. The joint effect between low temperature and high humidity had the greatest impact on the CVD death burden over a lag of 0–21 days with a significant AF of 31.36% (95% eCI: 14.79–38.41%), while in a condition of low temperature and low humidity with a significant AF of 16.74% (95% eCI: 0.89, 24.44). The AFs were higher at low temperature and high humidity in different subgroups. When considering the levels of humidity, the AFs were significant at low temperature and high humidity for males, youth, those with a low level of education, and coastal area people. Conclusions: The combination of low temperature and high humidity had the greatest impact on the CVD death burden in Zhejiang Province. This evidence has important implications for developing CVD
Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Xuehai; Yang, Jun; Bao, Junzhe; Xiang, Hao; Dear, Keith; Liu, Qiyong; Lin, Shao; Lawrence, Wayne R; Lin, Aihua; Huang, Cunrui
Background : The evidence of increased mortality attributable to extreme temperatures is widely characterized in climate-health studies. However, few of these studies have examined the role of humidity on temperature-mortality association. We investigated the joint effect between temperature and humidity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in Zhejiang Province, China. Methods : We collected data on daily meteorological and CVD mortality from 11 cities in Zhejiang Province during 2010-2013. We first applied time-series Poisson regression analysis within the framework of distributed lag non-linear models to estimate the city-specific effect of temperature and humidity on CVD mortality, after controlling for temporal trends and potential confounding variables. We then applied a multivariate meta-analytical model to pool the effect estimates in the 11 cities to generate an overall provincial estimate. The joint effects between them were calculated by the attributable fraction (AF). The analyses were further stratified by gender, age group, education level, and location of cities. Results : In total, 120,544 CVD deaths were recorded in this study. The mean values of temperature and humidity were 17.6 °C and 72.3%. The joint effect between low temperature and high humidity had the greatest impact on the CVD death burden over a lag of 0-21 days with a significant AF of 31.36% (95% eCI: 14.79-38.41%), while in a condition of low temperature and low humidity with a significant AF of 16.74% (95% eCI: 0.89, 24.44). The AFs were higher at low temperature and high humidity in different subgroups. When considering the levels of humidity, the AFs were significant at low temperature and high humidity for males, youth, those with a low level of education, and coastal area people. Conclusions : The combination of low temperature and high humidity had the greatest impact on the CVD death burden in Zhejiang Province. This evidence has important implications for developing CVD
van Vugt, Jeroen L A; Buettner, Stefan; Levolger, Stef; Coebergh van den Braak, Robert R J; Suker, Mustafa; Gaspersz, Marcia P; de Bruin, Ron W F; Verhoef, Cornelis; van Eijck, Casper H C; Bossche, Niek; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; IJzermans, Jan N M
Low skeletal muscle mass is associated with poor postoperative outcomes in cancer patients. Furthermore, it is associated with increased healthcare costs in the United States. We investigated its effect on hospital expenditure in a Western-European healthcare system, with universal access. Skeletal muscle mass (assessed on CT) and costs were obtained for patients who underwent curative-intent abdominal cancer surgery. Low skeletal muscle mass was defined based on pre-established cut-offs. The relationship between low skeletal muscle mass and hospital costs was assessed using linear regression analysis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. 452 patients were included (median age 65, 61.5% males). Patients underwent surgery for colorectal cancer (38.9%), colorectal liver metastases (27.4%), primary liver tumours (23.2%), and pancreatic/periampullary cancer (10.4%). In total, 45.6% had sarcopenia. Median costs were €2,183 higher in patients with low compared with patients with high skeletal muscle mass (€17,144 versus €14,961; P<0.001). Hospital costs incrementally increased with lower sex-specific skeletal muscle mass quartiles (P = 0.029). After adjustment for confounders, low skeletal muscle mass was associated with a cost increase of €4,061 (P = 0.015). Low skeletal muscle mass was independently associated with increased hospital costs of about €4,000 per patient. Strategies to reduce skeletal muscle wasting could reduce hospital costs in an era of incremental healthcare costs and an increasingly ageing population.
Conner, J Michael; Aviles-Robles, Martha J; Asdahl, Peter H; Zhang, Fang Fang; Ojha, Rohit P
The prevalence of malnourishment among paediatric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in developing countries is poorly documented despite greater potential for malnourishment in such settings. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of malnourishment among paediatric cancer patients in Mexico City, and assess the association between malnourishment and length of hospital stay. Individuals eligible for this study were paediatric cancer patients (aged <18 years) admitted to Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez (Mexico City) with febrile neutropaenia. Our exposure of interest, malnourishment, was defined as an age-adjusted and sex-adjusted z-score<-2 (ie, 2 SDs below the expected mean of the WHO reference population). We estimated time ratios (TRs) and 95% confidence limits (CLs) for the association between malnourishment and length of hospital stay. Our study population comprised 111 paediatric cancer patients with febrile neutropaenia, of whom 71% were aged <10 years and 52% were males. The prevalence of malnourishment was 14%, equal to a 530% (standardised morbidity ratio=6.3; 95% CL 3.7, 10) excess of malnourishment compared with the world reference population. The median length of hospital stay for malnourished patients was 15 days, which corresponded with a 50% (TR=1.5, 95% CL 1.0, 2.3) relative increase in length of stay compared with patients who were not malnourished. Patients with body mass indices equal to the mean of the world reference population had the shortest length of stay. Future studies should explore potential interventions for malnourishment to reduce the length of hospital stay or other established adverse consequences of malnourishment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Bekelman, Justin E; Halpern, Scott D; Blankart, Carl Rudolf; Bynum, Julie P; Cohen, Joachim; Fowler, Robert; Kaasa, Stein; Kwietniewski, Lukas; Melberg, Hans Olav; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje; Oosterveld-Vlug, Mariska; Pring, Andrew; Schreyögg, Jonas; Ulrich, Connie M; Verne, Julia; Wunsch, Hannah; Emanuel, Ezekiel J
Differences in utilization and costs of end-of-life care among developed countries are of considerable policy interest. To compare site of death, health care utilization, and hospital expenditures in 7 countries: Belgium, Canada, England, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and the United States. Retrospective cohort study using administrative and registry data from 2010. Participants were decedents older than 65 years who died with cancer. Secondary analyses included decedents of any age, decedents older than 65 years with lung cancer, and decedents older than 65 years in the United States and Germany from 2012. Deaths in acute care hospitals, 3 inpatient measures (hospitalizations in acute care hospitals, admissions to intensive care units, and emergency department visits), 1 outpatient measure (chemotherapy episodes), and hospital expenditures paid by insurers (commercial or governmental) during the 180-day and 30-day periods before death. Expenditures were derived from country-specific methods for costing inpatient services. The United States (cohort of decedents aged >65 years, N = 211,816) and the Netherlands (N = 7216) had the lowest proportion of decedents die in acute care hospitals (22.2.% and 29.4%, respectively). A higher proportion of decedents died in acute care hospitals in Belgium (N = 21,054; 51.2%), Canada (N = 20,818; 52.1%), England (N = 97,099; 41.7%), Germany (N = 24,434; 38.3%), and Norway (N = 6636; 44.7%). In the last 180 days of life, 40.3% of US decedents had an intensive care unit admission compared with less than 18% in other reporting nations. In the last 180 days of life, mean per capita hospital expenditures were higher in Canada (US $21,840), Norway (US $19,783), and the United States (US $18,500), intermediate in Germany (US $16,221) and Belgium (US $15,699), and lower in the Netherlands (US $10,936) and England (US $9342). Secondary analyses showed similar results. Among patients older than 65 years who
Ortiz, Héctor; Codina, Antonio; Ciga, Miguel Á; Biondo, Sebastiano; Enríquez-Navascués, José M; Espín, Eloy; García-Granero, Eduardo; Roig, José V
INTRODUCCIóN: The purpose of this prospective multicentre multilevel study was to investigate the influence of hospital caseload on long-term outcomes following standardization of rectal cancer surgery in the Rectal Cancer Project of the Spanish Society of Surgeons. Data relating to 2910 consecutive patients with rectal cancer treated for cure between March 2006 and March 2010 were recorded in a prospective database. Hospitals were classified according to number of patients treated per year as low-volume, intermediate-volume, or high volume hospitals (12-23, 24-35, or ≥36 procedures per year). After a median follow-up of 5 years, cumulative rates of local recurrence, metastatic recurrence and overall survival were 6.6 (CI95% 5.6-7.6), 20.3 (CI95% 18.8-21.9) and 73.0 (CI95% 74.7 - 71.3) respectively. In the multilevel regression analysis overall survival was higher for patients treated at hospitals with an annual caseload of 36 or more patients (HR 0,727 [CI95% 0,556-0,951]; P=.02). The risk of local recurrence and metastases were not related to the caseload. Moreover, there was a statistically significant variation in overall survival (median hazard ratio [MHR] 1.184 [CI95% 1.071-1,333]), local recurrence (MHR 1.308 [CI95% 1.010-1.668]) and metastases (MHR 1.300 [CI95% 1.181; 1.476]) between all hospitals. Overall survival was higher for patients treated at hospitals with an annual caseload of 36 or more patients. However, local recurrence was not influenced by caseload. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Elzomor, Hossam; Ahmed, Gehad; Elmenawi, Salma; Elkinaai, Naglaa; Refaat, Amal; Soliman, Sonya; Abdelwahab, Mai Amr; Zaghloul, Mohamed Saad; Fawzy, Mohamed
The study aims to evaluate survival outcome in newly diagnosed pediatric intermediate risk neuroblastoma patients treated at the Children Cancer Hospital - Egypt and their relation to various clinical and pathological factors. The study included stage 3 patients <1.5 years, children 1.5 years or older with stage 3 disease and favorable histopathological features, infants (<1 year) with International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage 4 disease, stage 4 children 1-1.5 years with favorable biology, and infants stage 4 s (with unfavorable biologic features). Patients received systemic chemotherapy, in the form of etoposide and carboplatin alternating with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and vincristine, administered at 3-week intervals, with a total of 6 or 8 cycles guided by reaching objective overall response (complete/very good partial/partial response). The study included 136 patients, 67 males and 69 females. 101 patients had abdominal primary tumors, 28 had mediastinal masss and 7 with masses in the neck; 68% were stage 3 and the remaining (n = 44) had metastatic disease. The three-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) estimates were 94% ± 2% and 90.9% ± 2.5%, respectively. OS and EFS by gender, age, pathology and INPC were all statistically not significantly different. Moreover, OS for patients having surgery versus no surgery (inoperable residual only) was statistically significant (98.4% ± 1.6% & 88.7% ± 5.3%, respectively, p = .034). A very high rate of survival is currently achievable in patients with intermediate risk neuroblastoma by chemotherapy or chemotherapy and surgery. In addition to response, our plan is to adopt biologically-based treatment to reduce treatment-induced complications among survivors. Copyright © 2018 National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chapman, Suzannah J; McKavanagh, Daniel; Burge, Matthew E; McPherson, Ian; Walpole, Euan; Hollingworth, Samantha A
Metastatic colorectal cancer has a large burden of disease in Australia. Medical therapy is fundamental to extending survival and improving quality of life. The benefits of two costly medicines, bevacizumab and cetuximab, used in Australia remain unclear. The aim of this study was to retrospectively examine the use of these two medicines in metastatic colorectal cancer across five public hospitals in south east Queensland and to compare clinical outcomes to those of published clinical trials. We extracted data from the chemotherapy prescribing database for patients planned for bevacizumab or cetuximab therapy between 2009 and 2013. Median overall survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. There were 490 bevacizumab-containing protocols planned and 292 patients received at least one dose of bevacizumab. Median overall survival was 17.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.4-19.3). Of 208 planned cetuximab-containing protocols, 134 patients received at least one dose of cetuximab. Median overall survival was 9.1 months (95% CI, 7.6-12.0). Thirty-day mortality rates from date of first dose were 0.7% for bevacizumab and 7.5% for cetuximab. Overall survival of patients receiving bevacizumab and cetuximab was consistent with clinical trials, providing some assurance that benefits seen in trials are observed in usual practice. This study provides a methodology of using routinely collected health data for clinical monitoring and research. Because of the high cost of these medicines and the lack of toxicity data in this study, further analysis in the postmarketing setting should be explored. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Zwicker, Jeffrey I.; Rojan, Adam; Campigotto, Federico; Rehman, Nadia; Funches, Renee; Connolly, Gregory; Webster, Jonathan; Aggarwal, Anita; Mobarek, Dalia; Faselis, Charles; Neuberg, Donna; Rickles, Frederick R.; Wun, Ted; Streiff, Michael B.; Khorana, Alok A.
Purpose Hospitalized patients with cancer are considered to be at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Despite strong recommendations in numerous clinical practice guidelines, retrospective studies have shown that pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis is underutilized in hospitalized patients with cancer. Patients and Methods We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study of hospitalized patients with cancer at five academic hospitals to determine prescription rates of thromboprophylaxis and factors influencing its use during hospitalization. Results A total of 775 patients with cancer were enrolled across five academic medical centers. Two hundred forty-seven patients (31.9%) had relative contraindications to pharmacologic prophylaxis. Accounting for contraindications to anticoagulation, the overall rate of pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis was 74.2% (95% CI, 70.4% to 78.0%; 392 of 528 patients). Among the patients with cancer without contraindications for anticoagulation, individuals hospitalized with nonhematologic malignancies were significantly more likely to receive pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis than those with hematologic malignancies (odds ratio [OR], 2.34; 95% CI, 1.43 to 3.82; P = .007). Patients with cancer admitted for cancer therapy were significantly less likely to receive pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis than those admitted for other reasons (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.61; P < .001). Sixty-three percent of patients with cancer classified as low risk, as determined by the Padua Scoring System, received anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis. Among the 136 patients who did not receive anticoagulation, 58.8% were considered to be high risk by the Padua Scoring System. Conclusion We conclude that pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis is frequently administered to hospitalized patients with cancer but that nearly one third of patients are considered to have relative contraindications for prophylactic anticoagulation. Pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis in
Li, Lin; Zhang, Min; Holman, C D'Arcy J
To investigate the internal validity of a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed for use in Chinese women and to compare habitual dietary intakes between population and hospital controls measured by the FFQ. A quantitative FFQ and a short food habit questionnaire (SFHQ) were developed and adapted for cancer and nutritional studies. Habitual dietary intakes were assessed in 814 Chinese women aged 18-81 years (407 outpatients and 407 population controls) by face-to-face interview using the FFQ in Shenyang, Northeast China in 2009-2010. The Goldberg formula (ratio of energy intake to basal metabolic rate, EI/BMR) was used to assess the validity of the FFQ. Correlation analyses compared the SFHQ variables with those of the quantitative FFQ. Differences in dietary intakes between hospital and population controls were investigated. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. The partial correlation coefficients were moderate to high (0.42 to 0.80; all p<0.05) for preserved food intake, fat consumption and tea drinking variables between the SFHQ and the FFQ. The average EI/BMR was 1.93 with 88.5% of subjects exceeding the Goldberg cut-off value of 1.35. Hospital controls were comparable to population controls in consumption of 17 measured food groups and mean daily intakes of energy and selected nutrients. The FFQ had reasonable validity to measure habitual dietary intakes of Chinese women. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group for food consumption and intakes of energy and nutrients measured by the FFQ in a Chinese hospital setting.
Sanford, Stacy D; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Snyder, Mallory A; Reichek, Jennifer; Salsman, John M
Minimal clinical trial participation among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer limits scientific progress and ultimately their clinical care and outcomes. These analyses examine the current state of AYA clinical research participation at a Midwestern comprehensive cancer center and affiliated pediatric hospital to advise program development and increase availability of trials and AYA participation. Enrollment is examined across all diagnoses, the entire AYA age spectrum (15-39), and both cancer therapeutic and supportive care protocols. his study was a retrospective review of electronic medical records via existing databases and registries for all AYAs. Data were collected for AYAs seen by an oncologist at the adult outpatient cancer center or at the pediatric hospital between the years 2010 and 2014. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted to characterize this sample. In the pediatric setting, 42.3% of AYAs were enrolled in a study compared to 11.2% in the adult setting. Regression analyses in the pediatric setting revealed that AYAs with private insurance or Caucasian race were more likely to participate. Within the adult setting, ethnicity, race, insurance, and diagnosis were associated with study participation; 54.8% of study enrollments were for cancer therapeutic and 43.4% for supportive care studies. These results are comparable to previously published data and support the need for new local and national AYA initiatives to increase the availability of and enrollment in therapeutic clinical trials. The same is true for supportive care studies which play a crucial role in improving quality of life.
Jin, Yan; Huang, Jing-feng; Peng, Dai-liang
Ecological compensation is becoming one of key and multidiscipline issues in the field of resources and environmental management. Considering the change relation between gross domestic product (GDP) and ecological capital (EC) based on remote sensing estimation, we construct a new quantitative estimate model for ecological compensation, using county as study unit, and determine standard value so as to evaluate ecological compensation from 2001 to 2004 in Zhejiang Province, China. Spatial differences of the ecological compensation were significant among all the counties or districts. This model fills up the gap in the field of quantitative evaluation of regional ecological compensation and provides a feasible way to reconcile the conflicts among benefits in the economic, social, and ecological sectors.
Xie, Liu; Zhang, Jing-ze; Wan, Yao; Hu, Dong-wei
Strawberry anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is a major disease of cultivated strawberry. This study identifies 31 isolates of Colletotrichum spp. which cause strawberry anthracnose in Zhejiang Province and Shanghai City, China. Eleven isolates were identified as C. acutatum, 10 as C. gloeosporioides and 10 as C. fragariae based on morphological characteristics, phylogenetic and sequence analyses. Species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme digestion further confirmed the identification of the Colletotrichum spp., demonstrating that these three species are currently the causal agents of strawberry anthracnose in the studied regions. Based on analysis of rDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS) sequences, sequences of all C. acutatum were identical, and little genetic variability was observed between C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. However, the conservative nature of the MvnI specific site from isolates of C. gloeosporioides was confirmed, and this site could be used to differentiate C. gloeosporioides from C. fragariae. PMID:20043353
Jin, Yan; Huang, Jing-feng; Peng, Dai-liang
Ecological compensation is becoming one of key and multidiscipline issues in the field of resources and environmental management. Considering the change relation between gross domestic product (GDP) and ecological capital (EC) based on remote sensing estimation, we construct a new quantitative estimate model for ecological compensation, using county as study unit, and determine standard value so as to evaluate ecological compensation from 2001 to 2004 in Zhejiang Province, China. Spatial differences of the ecological compensation were significant among all the counties or districts. This model fills up the gap in the field of quantitative evaluation of regional ecological compensation and provides a feasible way to reconcile the conflicts among benefits in the economic, social, and ecological sectors. PMID:19353749
The stonefly genus Neoperla Needham (1905) is primarily distributed in eastern North America, Tropical and Temperate Asia and central Africa, with at least 297 species known (Illies 1966, Zwick 1973, Stark & Gaufin 1976, DeWalt et al. 2016). Contributions to Chinese species of Neoperla were made by Chu (1929), Wu & Claassen (1934), Wu (1935, 1938, 1948, 1962, 1973), Yang & Yang (1992, 1995, 1998), Du (1999, 2000a, 2000b), Du et al. (1999, 2001), Du & Sivec (2004, 2005), Du & Wang (2005, 2007), Sivec & Zwick (1987), Li & Wang (2011), Li et al. (2011a, 2011b, 2012a, 2012b, 2013a, 2013b, 2014a, 2014b), Qin et al. (2013), Wang et al. (2013a, 2013b), Li & Zhang (2014), Kong et al. (2014), Wang et al. (2014), Chen & Du (2015). Herein, a new species of this genus is described from Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, of eastern coastal China.
Zhou, H.; Chen, B.; Han, Z. X.; Zhang, F. Q.
The study on probability density function and distribution function of electricity prices contributes to the power suppliers and purchasers to estimate their own management accurately, and helps the regulator monitor the periods deviating from normal distribution. Based on the assumption of normal distribution load and non-linear characteristic of the aggregate supply curve, this paper has derived the distribution of electricity prices as the function of random variable of load. The conclusion has been validated with the electricity price data of Zhejiang market. The results show that electricity prices obey normal distribution approximately only when supply-demand relationship is loose, whereas the prices deviate from normal distribution and present strong right-skewness characteristic. Finally, the real electricity markets also display the narrow-peak characteristic when undersupply occurs.
Mao, Guang-ming; Ding, Gang-qiang; Huang, Li-chun; Lou, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Rong-hua; Zhu, Wen-ming; Wang, Xiao-feng; Mo, Zhe; Zhou, Jin-shui
To assess the level of dietary iodine intake and its contribution in Zhejiang. A total of 9798 subjects were recruited in this survey with multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in April, 2010, the 24-hours dietary recall method and the "food composition table" were used to obtain the dietary iodine intake, and edible salt and drinking water samples were collected to detect the content of iodine. A total of 9798 subjects were included in this survey. The mean intake of dietary iodine in Zhejiang residents per standard man-days was (395.13 ± 78.16) µg/d, which in between of Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) 150 µg/d and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) 1000 µg/d; the iodine intake of 18.40% (1803/9798) subjects was lower than estimated average requirement of iodine (EAR), 4.68% (459/9798) subjects was higher than the UL. The means of dietary iodine intake in various areas were (498.85 ± 96.77) µg/d, (384.50 ± 88.76) µg/d and (326.33 ± 78.32)µg/d in inland areas, sub-coastal areas and coastal areas, successively (F = 27.17, P < 0.05); the proportions of dietary iodine intake lower than EAR were 34.89% (1239/3551), 10.48% (370/3530) and 7.14% (197/2717) in coastal areas, sub-coastal area and inland areas, successively (χ(2) = 62.87, P < 0.01) , while those higher than UL were 5.10% (180/3530), 4.86% (132/2717) and 4.14% (147/3551) in sub-coastal area, inland areas and coastal areas.In the condition of ignoring cooking loss, the mean contribution of dietary iodine intake in edible salt, all kinds of food and drinking water were 74.92% (296.03/395.13), 23.85% (94.24/395.13) and 1.23% (4.86/395.13), successively; the contributions of edible salt in inland areas, sub-coastal areas and coastal areas were 83.72% (417.64/498.85), 73.05% (280.88/384.50) and 66.83% (280.09/326.33), successively; the contributions of drinking water in sub-coastal areas, coastal areas and inland areas were 1.61% (6.19/384.50) , 1.44% (4.70/326.33) and 0.65% (3
Shi, Guoxiang; Ju, Cheng; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Zheng; Sun, Jimin; Wang, Miaoruo; Zhang, Xiaohe; Ye, Xianming; Zhu, Zhihong; Xing, Jianguang; Liao, Xiaowei; Chen, Zhiping
To analyze the epidemiology data on plague in five counties in Zhejiang province and to evaluate the risk of plague in theses areas. We selected five monitoring stations as a risk assessment (Qingyuan county, Longquan city, Yiwu city, Wencheng county, and Ruian city) in Zhejiang province where the plague epidemic more serious in the history. At least one constant site and 1-4 variable sites where plague occurred in history were selected for monitoring. We collected the five counties (cities) surveillance data of indoor rat density, indoor Rattus flavipectus density, the Xenopsylla cheopis index of rat, the Xenopsylla cheopis index of Rattus flavipectus in 1995-2014. Isolation of Yersinia pestis was conducted among 171,201 liver samples and F1 antibody were detected among 228,775 serum samples. Risk matrix, Borda count method, and Delphi approach were conducted to assess risk of the plague of five counties (cities) in Zhejiang province. Indoor rat density in Qingyuan county, Longquan city, Yiwu city, Wencheng county, Ruian city was 1.58%-5.50%, 1.13%-9.76%, 0.56%-3.67%, 2.83%-16.08%, 7.16%-15.96%, respectively; Indoor Rattus flavipectus density of five counties (cities) was 0.08%-2.23%, 0-2.02%, 0-0.54%, 0.71%-5.58%, 0.55%-4.92%, respectively. The Xenopsylla cheopis index of rat in Qingyuan county and Wencheng county was 0.011-0.500 and 0.015-0.227, respectively; The Xenopsylla cheopis index of Rattus flavipectus of Qingyuan county and Wencheng county was 0.119-3.412 and 0.100-1.430, respectively; Ruian City and Yiwu city cannot collected Xenopsylla cheopis, Long quan city only collected the Xenopsylla cheopis index of rat in the five years. Yersinia pestis were not isolated in five counties (cities).There were 3 Apodemus agrarius samples positive of plague F1 antibody test, in Longquan city and Yiwu city in 2005. Borda count method to assess the Longquan city, Yiwu (Borda point were both 321) plague risk was higher than three other regions; Delphi approach to
A music therapy research study aimed at understanding patients', visitors' and staff members' experiences of a music therapy program in a cancer hospital over a three-month period is described. Respondents' answers to brief open-ended questions, as well as the music therapist researcher's interpretations of the program's relevance, were examined using thematic analysis based on grounded theory. ATLAS.ti software supported data management and analysis. Themes encapsulating 128 patients' reflections about music therapy were delineated and substantiate how music therapy can support palliative care aims throughout the cancer illness trajectory.
Gupta, Shalini; Singh, Rajender; Gupta, O. P.; Tripathi, Anurag
Background: Oral cancer is one of the most common life-threatening diseases all over the world. Developing countries face several challenges to identify and remove potential risk factors. Chewing tobacco/pan masala is considered to be the most potent risk factor for oral precancerous lesions and oral cancer. Objectives: To investigate the relative occurrence of different oral pre-cancerous lesions and oral cancer in North India and to identify the associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based study was conducted and 471 subjects were recruited in the study. The subjects comprised patients with squamous cell carcinoma (n = 85), oral submucous fibrosis (n = 240), leukoplakia (n = 32), lichen planus (n = 15), and controls (n = 99). Statistical analysis of the data was done using Chi-square and regression analysis. Results: A strong correlation was observed between the presence of the chewing habit in all the oral precancerous lesions and oral cancer. Duration of the habit and intensity of habit ware also strongly correlated with the risk of oral precancerous lesions and oral cancer. Other factors such as alcohol and smoking were found to be less important in concern with oral cancer and precancerous lesions. PMID:25937723
Costa, Dayane de Melo; Kipnis, André; Leão-Vasconcelos, Lara Stefânia Netto de Oliveira; Rocha-Vilefort, Larissa Oliveira; Telles, Sheila Araújo; André, Maria Cláudia Dantas Porfírio Borges; Tipple, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; Lima, Ana Beatriz Mori; Ribeiro, Nádia Ferreira Gonçalves; Pereira, Mayara Regina; Prado-Palos, Marinésia Aparecida
The aim of the study was to analyze epidemiological and microbiological aspects of oral colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus of health care workers in a cancer hospital. Interview and saliva sampling were performed with 149 health care workers. Antimicrobial resistance was determined by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration. Polymerase Chain Reaction, Internal Transcribed Spacer-Polymerase Chain Reaction and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis were performed for genotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus. Risk factors were determined by logistic regression. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus colonization prevalence was 19.5%, denture wearing (p = 0.03), habit of nail biting (p = 0.04) and preparation and administration of antimicrobial (p = 0.04) were risk factors identified. All methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus were S. epidermidis, 94.4% of them had mecA gene. Closely related and indistinguishable methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis were detected. These results highlight that HCWs which have contact with patient at high risk for developing infections were identified as colonized by MRSE in the oral cavity, reinforcing this cavity as a reservoir of these bacteria and the risk to themselves and patients safety, because these microorganisms may be spread by coughing and talking. PMID:25477910
Dasch, Burkhard; Kalies, Helen; Feddersen, Berend; Ruderer, Caecilie; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Bausewein, Claudia
Cancer care including aggressive treatment procedures during the last phase of life in patients with incurable cancer has increasingly come under scrutiny, while integrating specialist palliative care at an early stage is regarded as indication for high quality end-of-life patient care. To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics and the medical care provided at the end of life of cancer patients who died in a German university hospital. Retrospective cross-sectional study on the basis of anonymized hospital data for cancer patients who died in the Munich University Hospital in 2014. Descriptive analysis and multivariate logistic regression analyses for factors influencing the administration of aggressive treatment procedures at the end of life. Overall, 532 cancer patients died. Mean age was 66.8 years, 58.5% were men. 110/532 (20.7%) decedents had hematologic malignancies and 422/532 (79.3%) a solid tumor. Patients underwent the following medical interventions in the last 7/30 days: chemotherapy (7.7%/38.3%), radiotherapy (2.6%/6.4%), resuscitation (8.5%/10.5%), surgery (15.2%/31.0%), renal replacement therapy (12.0%/16.9%), blood transfusions (21.2%/39.5%), CT scan (33.8%/60.9%). In comparison to patients with solid tumors, patients with hematologic malignancies were more likely to die in intensive care (25.4% vs. 49.1%; p = 0.001), and were also more likely to receive blood transfusions (OR 2.21; 95% CI, 1.36 to 3.58; p = 0.001) and renal replacement therapy (OR 2.65; 95% CI, 1.49 to 4.70; p = 0.001) in the last 7 days of life. Contact with the hospital palliative care team had been initiated in 161/532 patients (30.3%). In 87/161 cases (54.0%), the contact was initiated within the last week of the patient's life. Overambitious treatments are still reality at the end of life in cancer patients in hospital but patients with solid tumors and hematologic malignancies have to be differentiated. More efforts are necessary for the timely inclusion of
Dasch, Burkhard; Kalies, Helen; Feddersen, Berend; Ruderer, Caecilie; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Bausewein, Claudia
Background Cancer care including aggressive treatment procedures during the last phase of life in patients with incurable cancer has increasingly come under scrutiny, while integrating specialist palliative care at an early stage is regarded as indication for high quality end-of-life patient care. Aim To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics and the medical care provided at the end of life of cancer patients who died in a German university hospital. Methods Retrospective cross-sectional study on the basis of anonymized hospital data for cancer patients who died in the Munich University Hospital in 2014. Descriptive analysis and multivariate logistic regression analyses for factors influencing the administration of aggressive treatment procedures at the end of life. Results Overall, 532 cancer patients died. Mean age was 66.8 years, 58.5% were men. 110/532 (20.7%) decedents had hematologic malignancies and 422/532 (79.3%) a solid tumor. Patients underwent the following medical interventions in the last 7/30 days: chemotherapy (7.7%/38.3%), radiotherapy (2.6%/6.4%), resuscitation (8.5%/10.5%), surgery (15.2%/31.0%), renal replacement therapy (12.0%/16.9%), blood transfusions (21.2%/39.5%), CT scan (33.8%/60.9%). In comparison to patients with solid tumors, patients with hematologic malignancies were more likely to die in intensive care (25.4% vs. 49.1%; p = 0.001), and were also more likely to receive blood transfusions (OR 2.21; 95% CI, 1.36 to 3.58; p = 0.001) and renal replacement therapy (OR 2.65; 95% CI, 1.49 to 4.70; p = 0.001) in the last 7 days of life. Contact with the hospital palliative care team had been initiated in 161/532 patients (30.3%). In 87/161 cases (54.0%), the contact was initiated within the last week of the patient’s life. Conclusions Overambitious treatments are still reality at the end of life in cancer patients in hospital but patients with solid tumors and hematologic malignancies have to be differentiated. More efforts
Wu, Eijean; Rogers, Anna; Ji, Lingyun; Sposto, Richard; Church, Terry; Roman, Lynda; Tripathy, Debu; Lin, Yvonne G.
Purpose: Use of oncology-related services is increasingly scrutinized, yet precisely which services are actually rendered to patients, particularly at the end of life, is unknown. This study characterizes the end-of-life use of medical services by patients with gynecologic cancer at a safety-net hospital. Methods: Oncologic history and metrics of medical use (eg, hospitalizations, chemotherapy infusions, procedures) for patients with gynecologic oncology who died between December 2006 and February 2012 were evaluated. Mixed-effect regression models were used to test time effects and construct usage summaries. Results: Among 116 subjects, cervical cancer accounted for the most deaths (42%). The median age at diagnosis was 55 years; 63% were Hispanic, and 65% had advanced disease. Only 34% died in hospice care. The median times from do not resuscitate/do not intubate documentation and from last therapeutic intervention to death were 9 days and 55 days, respectively. Significant time effects for all services (eg, hospitalizations, diagnostics, procedures, treatments, clinic appointments) were detected during the patient's final year (P < .001), with the most dramatic changes occurring during the last 2 months. Patients with longer duration of continuity of care used significantly fewer resources toward the end of life. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report enumerating medical services obtained by patients with gynecologic cancer in a large, public hospital during the end of life. Marked changes in interventions in the patient's final 2 months highlight the need for cost-effective, evidence-based metrics for delivering cancer care. Our data emphasize continuity of care as a significant determinant of oncologic resource use during this critical period. PMID:25604595
Wu, Eijean; Rogers, Anna; Ji, Lingyun; Sposto, Richard; Church, Terry; Roman, Lynda; Tripathy, Debu; Lin, Yvonne G
Use of oncology-related services is increasingly scrutinized, yet precisely which services are actually rendered to patients, particularly at the end of life, is unknown. This study characterizes the end-of-life use of medical services by patients with gynecologic cancer at a safety-net hospital. Oncologic history and metrics of medical use (eg, hospitalizations, chemotherapy infusions, procedures) for patients with gynecologic oncology who died between December 2006 and February 2012 were evaluated. Mixed-effect regression models were used to test time effects and construct usage summaries. Among 116 subjects, cervical cancer accounted for the most deaths (42%). The median age at diagnosis was 55 years; 63% were Hispanic, and 65% had advanced disease. Only 34% died in hospice care. The median times from do not resuscitate/do not intubate documentation and from last therapeutic intervention to death were 9 days and 55 days, respectively. Significant time effects for all services (eg, hospitalizations, diagnostics, procedures, treatments, clinic appointments) were detected during the patient's final year (P < .001), with the most dramatic changes occurring during the last 2 months. Patients with longer duration of continuity of care used significantly fewer resources toward the end of life. To our knowledge, this is the first report enumerating medical services obtained by patients with gynecologic cancer in a large, public hospital during the end of life. Marked changes in interventions in the patient's final 2 months highlight the need for cost-effective, evidence-based metrics for delivering cancer care. Our data emphasize continuity of care as a significant determinant of oncologic resource use during this critical period. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Kao, Chi-Yin; Hu, Wen-Yu; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Chen, Ching-Yu
The hospital-based palliative care team model has been implemented in most Western countries, but this model is new in Taiwan and there is little research to evaluate its outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the hospital-based palliative care team on the care for cancer patients. The design was a quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest design. A medical center, National Taiwan University Hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. Cancer patients were excluded after the hospital-based palliative care team visited if they were unable to give informed consent, were not well enough to finish the baseline assessment, were likely to die within 24h or would be discharged within 24h, or could not communicate in Mandarin or Taiwanese. A sample of 60 patients who consulted the hospital-based palliative care team was recruited. Patients recruited to the study were divided to receive the usual care only (control group, n=30) or the usual care plus visits from the hospital-based palliative care team (intervention group, n=30). Data were collected using questionnaires including the Symptom Distress Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Spiritual Well-Being Scale, and Social Support Scale at the initial assessment and one week later. Comparison between groups revealed that the degree change for edema, fatigue, dry mouth, abdominal distention, and spiritual well-being in the intervention group showed significant improvement compared to the control group (p<0.05). However, there was no difference between groups on measures of anxiety, depression and feeling of social support. Within group analysis showed patients' pain score, dyspnea, and dysphagia improved in both groups (p<0.05). In addition, the average degree of constipation and insomnia in the control group declined from baseline (p<0.05), while the degree of edema, fatigue, dry mouth, appetite loss, abdominal distention, and dizziness decreased significantly in the intervention group (p<0
Mohammadi, Ahmad; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani; Damavandi, Shahla A
Cancer is one of the four leading causes of death in children. Its courses of diagnosis and treatment can cause physiologic symptoms and psychological distress that secondarily affect children's quality of life and participation in daily activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of play-based occupational therapy on pain, anxiety, and fatigue in hospitalized children with cancer who were receiving chemotherapy. Two hospitalized children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at least 4 months after diagnoses who received two courses of chemotherapy participated in this pilot study. Takata Play History and Iranian Children Participation Assessment Scale were used to develop intervention protocol. Nine, 30-45 min play-based occupational therapy sessions took place for each child. Children filled out the Faces Pain Scale, Visual Fatigue Scale, and Faces Anxiety Scale before and after each intervention session. Pain, anxiety, and fatigue levels decreased in both participants. Furthermore, the results showed a relationship between pain, anxiety, and fatigue variables in these children. Play-based occupational therapy can be effective in improving pain, anxiety, and fatigue levels in hospitalized children with cancer receiving chemotherapy.
Mohammadi, Ahmad; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani; Damavandi, Shahla A.
Objective: Cancer is one of the four leading causes of death in children. Its courses of diagnosis and treatment can cause physiologic symptoms and psychological distress that secondarily affect children's quality of life and participation in daily activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of play-based occupational therapy on pain, anxiety, and fatigue in hospitalized children with cancer who were receiving chemotherapy. Methods: Two hospitalized children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at least 4 months after diagnoses who received two courses of chemotherapy participated in this pilot study. Takata Play History and Iranian Children Participation Assessment Scale were used to develop intervention protocol. Nine, 30–45 min play-based occupational therapy sessions took place for each child. Children filled out the Faces Pain Scale, Visual Fatigue Scale, and Faces Anxiety Scale before and after each intervention session. Results: Pain, anxiety, and fatigue levels decreased in both participants. Furthermore, the results showed a relationship between pain, anxiety, and fatigue variables in these children. Conclusions: Play-based occupational therapy can be effective in improving pain, anxiety, and fatigue levels in hospitalized children with cancer receiving chemotherapy. PMID:28503651
Ventura-Alfaro, Carmelita Elizabeth; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia Del Socorro
To compare trends in hospital discharges and mortality due to breast cancer (BC) in Mexico from 2004 to 2012 by insurance condition before and after incorporating BC comprehensive treatment into the System of Social Protection in Health (Sistema de Protrección Social en Salud, SPSS) in 2007. Data on BC hospital discharges and mortality reported in women aged 25 years and over were obtained from the National Health Information System. Mortality rates were adjusted by age and state. At the national level, a growing tendency in hospital discharges was observed, mainly for women without social security, while mortality rate remained constant. Mortality rates by state show that lower marginalization index corresponded to higher mortality. A differential behavior was observed among women according to insurance condition, partly due to the inclusion of BC treatment in the SPSS.
Sive, Jonathan; Ardeshna, Kirit M; Cheesman, Simon; le Grange, Franel; Morris, Stephen; Nicholas, Claire; Peggs, Karl; Statham, Paula; Goldstone, Anthony H
Since 2005, University College London Hospital (UCLH) has operated a hotel-based Ambulatory Care Unit (ACU) for hematology and oncology patients requiring intensive chemotherapy regimens and hematopoietic stem cell transplants. Between January 2005 and 2011 there were 1443 patient episodes, totaling 9126 patient days, with increasing use over the 6-year period. These were predominantly for hematological malignancy (82%) and sarcoma (17%). Median length of stay was 5 days (range 1-42), varying according to treatment. Clinical review and treatment was provided in the ACU, with patients staying in a local hotel at the hospital's expense. Admission to the inpatient ward was arranged as required, and there was close liaison with the inpatient team to preempt emergency admissions. Of the 523 unscheduled admissions, 87% occurred during working hours. An ACU/hotel-based treatment model can be safely used for a wide variety of cancers and treatments, expanding hospital treatment capacity, and freeing up inpatient beds for those patients requiring them.
Salvador, Iván; Mercado, Andrés; Bravo, Gabriela Liliana; Baldeón, Manuel; Fornasini, Marco
worldwide, stomach cancer is the fifth most frequent cancer, with 952 000 new cases diagnosed in 2012. Ecuador currently holds the 15th place of countries with the highest incidence of stomach cancer for both sexes. the objective of this study was to evaluate risk and protective factors for gastric cancer/metaplasia. a hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Quito, Ecuador. Cases were defined as patients with histological confirmation of gastric cancer (N = 60) or incomplete gastric metaplasia (N = 53). Controls were defined as patients free of gastric cancer or premalignant lesions (N = 144). All participants were personally interviewed using a structured questionnaire to collect data about dietary habits, lifestyle and medical history. risk factors significantly associated to the presence of gastric cancer/metaplasia were the consumption of reheated foods at least 3 times per week (AOR: 4.57; CI: 2.2 - 9.5) and adding salt to more than 50% of foods (AOR: 1.32; CI: 1.04 - 1.67). Protective factors for gastric cancer/metaplasia were the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (AOR: 0.39; CI 0.19 - 0.83), age less than 58 years old (AOR: 0.38; CI: 0.18 - 0.79) and have received treatment for H. Pylori infection (AOR: 0.33; CI: 0.16 - 0.71). this study reports for the first time, the risk and protective factors associated with gastric cancer and metaplasia in Ecuador. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Kowalski, Christoph; Nitzsche, Anika; Scheibler, Fueloep; Steffen, Petra; Albert, Ute-Susann; Pfaff, Holger
To examine whether patients' perception of a hospital's organizational climate has an impact on their trust in physicians after accounting for physicians' communication behaviors as perceived by the patients and patient characteristics. Patients undergoing treatment in breast centers in the German state of North Rhein-Westphalia in 2006 were asked to complete a standardized postal questionnaire. Disease characteristics were then added by the medical personnel. Multiple linear regressions were performed. 80.5% of the patients responded to the survey. 37% of the variance in patients' trust in physicians can be explained by the variables included in our final model (N=2226; R(2) adj.=0.372; p<0.001). Breast cancer patients' trust in their physicians is strongly associated with their perception of a hospital's organizational climate. The impact of their perception of physicians' communication behaviors persists after introducing hospital organizational characteristics. Perceived physician accessibility shows the strongest association with trust. A trusting physician-patient relationship among breast cancer patients is associated with both the perceived quality of the hospital organizational climate and perceived physicians' communication behaviors. With regard to clinical organization, efforts should be put into improving the organizational climate and making physicians more accessible to patients.
Yan, Ju-ying; Lu, Yi-yu; Xu, Chang-ping; Gong, Li-ming; Chen, Yin; Zhang, Yan-jun; Zhu, Jian-sheng
In order to confirm the causes of viral meningitis outbreaks in Linhai county, Zhejiang province in 2004, and to analyze the relationship between hereditary variation and evolution of the pathogen. 60 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected from the suspected patients. Virus strains from the specimens were isolated with RD and Hep-2 cell lines, and identified through neutralization test. VP1 and VP4/VP2 genes of the isolated viruses were sequenced. Both phylogenetic and homological trees were also constructed. 19 Echovirus type 30 (E30) strains were isolated from 60 CSFs, in which E30 accounted for 31.7%. All of the complete VP1 genes in 4 sequenced virus isolates of E30 were composed of 876 nt, encoding 292 amino acids (aa). The identity of nucleotide and amino acid in VP1 gene were 82.4% - 84.1% and 93.5% - 94.2% between the 4 Linhai strains and the prototype strain Bastianni of E30, were 87.1% - 99.9% and 97.9% - 100.0% among the 4 virus strains of E30 from Linhai, respectively. The 4 Linhai strains could be classified into two classes. The diversity of nt and aa was minimal in the same class but obvious between the two classes, with the range of diversities as 12.9% and 2.1%, respectively. The Linhai E30 strains had maximum similarity with the Zhejiang E30 strains in 2002 - 2003. The 4 Linhai strains of E30 in the phylogenetic tree of the VP1 gene were attributed into two branches of the G and H genotype, respectively. The G branch also included the E30 strains from Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Shangdong in 2003, while the H branch including E30 strains from Zhuji, Zhejiang in 2002. The phylogenetic tree of VP4/VP2 genes was similar to that of VP1 gene. The outbreak of viral meningitis in Linhai county in 2004 was caused by the two classes of E30 strains with G and H genotype existed simultaneously. The Linhai E30 strains had maximum genetic relations to the Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Shangdong strains of E30. The H genotype was inferred to be a new variant
Walter, Leora; Vidaurre, Tatiana; Gilman, Robert H.; Poquioma, Ebert; Olaechea, Carlos; Gravitt, Patti E.; Marks, Morgan A.
Background Few studies have evaluated the trends in head and neck cancer in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in incidence of human papillomavirus–related (HPV-R) and HPV-unrelated (HPV-U) head and neck cancer in Lima, Peru, from 1987 to 2008. Methods Registry data from a single public cancer hospital were used to estimate age and sex-specific incidence rates. Annualized percent change was estimated using Poisson regression. Results The rate of total head and neck cancers, HPV-U, and HPV-R was 11.9, 10.9, and 0.8, respectively, per 100,000 person-years. Significant increases in HPV-U head and neck cancer were observed in men aged 30 to 44 (2.5%/year) and women 15 to 29 (4.2%/year), 30 to 44 (3.4%/ year), and 60 to 74 (2.0%/year). Significant increases in HPV-R head and neck cancer were observed only among men aged 45 to 59 (9.6%/year). Conclusion Although increased exposure to tobacco, occupational carcinogens, and changing sexual behaviors could be influencing these trends, additional analyses to assess generalizability of these findings to other regions of Peru are needed. PMID:23616366
Rodgers, Jacqui; Martin, Colin R; Morse, Rachel C; Kendell, Kate; Verrill, Mark
Background To determine the psychometric properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in patients with breast cancer and determine the suitability of the instrument for use with this clinical group. Methods A cross-sectional design was used. The study used a pooled data set from three breast cancer clinical groups. The dependent variables were HADS anxiety and depression sub-scale scores. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on the HADS to determine its psychometric properties in 110 patients with breast cancer. Seven models were tested to determine model fit to the data. Results Both factor analysis methods indicated that three-factor models provided a better fit to the data compared to two-factor (anxiety and depression) models for breast cancer patients. Clark and Watson's three factor tripartite and three factor hierarchical models provided the best fit. Conclusion The underlying factor structure of the HADS in breast cancer patients comprises three distinct, but correlated factors, negative affectivity, autonomic anxiety and anhedonic depression. The clinical utility of the HADS in screening for anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients may be enhanced by using a modified scoring procedure based on a three-factor model of psychological distress. This proposed alternate scoring method involving regressing autonomic anxiety and anhedonic depression factors onto the third factor (negative affectivity) requires further investigation in order to establish its efficacy. PMID:16018801
Chou, Wen-Chi; Lai, Yu-Te; Huang, Yun-Chin; Chang, Chen-Ling; Wu, Wei-Shan; Hung, Yu-Shin
When it comes to end-of-life care, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are often treated differently from lung cancer patients. However, few reports have compared end-of-life care between these two groups. We investigated the differences between patients with end-stage COPD and end-stage lung cancer based on end-of-life symptoms and clinical practice patterns using a retrospective study of COPD and lung cancer patients who died in an acute care hospital in Taiwan. End-stage COPD patients had more comorbidities and spent more days in the intensive care unit (ICU) than end-stage lung cancer patients. They were more likely to die in the ICU and less likely to receive hospice care. COPD patients also had more invasive procedures, were less likely to use narcotic and sedative drugs, and were less likely to have given do-not-resuscitate consent. Symptoms were similar between these two groups. Differences in treatment management suggest that COPD patients receive more care aimed at prolonging life than care aimed at relieving symptoms and providing end-of-life support. It may be more difficult to determine when COPD patients are at the end-of-life stage than it is to identify when lung cancer patients are at that stage. Our findings indicate that in Taiwan, more effort should be made to give end-stage COPD patients the same access to hospice care as end-stage lung cancer patients.
Smyth, Andrew; Teo, Koon K; Rangarajan, Sumathy; O'Donnell, Martin; Zhang, Xiaohe; Rana, Punam; Leong, Darryl P; Dagenais, Gilles; Seron, Pamela; Rosengren, Annika; Schutte, Aletta E; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Oguz, Ayetkin; Chifamba, Jephat; Diaz, Rafael; Lear, Scott; Avezum, Alvaro; Kumar, Rajesh; Mohan, Viswanathan; Szuba, Andrzej; Wei, Li; Yang, Wang; Jian, Bo; McKee, Martin; Yusuf, Salim
Alcohol consumption is proposed to be the third most important modifiable risk factor for death and disability. However, alcohol consumption has been associated with both benefits and harms, and previous studies were mostly done in high-income countries. We investigated associations between alcohol consumption and outcomes in a prospective cohort of countries at different economic levels in five continents. We included information from 12 countries participating in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study, a prospective cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to study associations with mortality (n=2723), cardiovascular disease (n=2742), myocardial infarction (n=979), stroke (n=817), alcohol-related cancer (n=764), injury (n=824), admission to hospital (n=8786), and for a composite of these outcomes (n=11,963). We included 114,970 adults, of whom 12,904 (11%) were from high-income countries (HICs), 24,408 (21%) were from upper-middle-income countries (UMICs), 48,845 (43%) were from lower-middle-income countries (LMICs), and 28,813 (25%) were from low-income countries (LICs). Median follow-up was 4.3 years (IQR 3.0-6.0). Current drinking was reported by 36,030 (31%) individuals, and was associated with reduced myocardial infarction (hazard ratio [HR] 0.76 [95% CI 0.63-0.93]), but increased alcohol-related cancers (HR 1.51 [1.22-1.89]) and injury (HR 1.29 [1.04-1.61]). High intake was associated with increased mortality (HR 1.31 [1.04-1.66]). Compared with never drinkers, we identified significantly reduced hazards for the composite outcome for current drinkers in HICs and UMICs (HR 0.84 [0.77-0.92]), but not in LMICs and LICs, for which we identified no reductions in this outcome (HR 1.07 [0.95-1.21]; pinteraction<0.0001). Current alcohol consumption had differing associations by clinical outcome, and differing associations by income region. However, we identified sufficient commonalities to support
Wild, Sarah H; Walker, Jeremy J; Morling, Joanne R; McAllister, David A; Colhoun, Helen M; Farran, Bassam; McGurnaghan, Stuart; McCrimmon, Rory; Read, Stephanie H; Sattar, Naveed; Byrne, Christopher D
To describe associations between alcoholic liver disease (ALD) or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) hospital admission and cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We performed a retrospective cohort study by using linked population-based routine data from diabetes registry, hospital, cancer, and death records for people aged 40-89 years diagnosed with T2DM in Scotland between 2004 and 2013 who had one or more hospital admission records. Liver disease and outcomes were identified by using ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) from Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusting for key risk factors. A total of 134,368 people with T2DM (1,707 with ALD and 1,452 with NAFLD) were studied, with a mean follow-up of 4.3 years for CVD and 4.7 years for mortality. Among those with ALD, NAFLD, or without liver disease hospital records 378, 320, and 21,873 CVD events; 268, 176, and 15,101 cancers; and 724, 221, and 16,203 deaths were reported, respectively. For ALD and NAFLD, respectively, adjusted HRs (95% CIs) compared with the group with no record of liver disease were 1.59 (1.43, 1.76) and 1.70 (1.52, 1.90) for CVD, 40.3 (28.8, 56.5) and 19.12 (11.71, 31.2) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 1.28 (1.12, 1.47) and 1.10 (0.94, 1.29) for non-HCC cancer, and 4.86 (4.50, 5.24) and 1.60 (1.40, 1.83) for all-cause mortality. Hospital records of ALD or NAFLD are associated to varying degrees with an increased risk of CVD, cancer, and mortality among people with T2DM. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.
Lichtenberg, Frank R
In Slovenia during the period 2000-2010, the number of years of potential life lost before the age of 70 years per 100,000 population under 70 years of age declined 25 %. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that pharmaceutical innovation played a key role in reducing premature mortality from all diseases in Slovenia, and to examine the effects of pharmaceutical innovation on the age-standardized number of cancer deaths and on hospitalization from all diseases. Estimates and other data were used to calculate the incremental cost effectiveness of pharmaceutical innovation in Slovenia. Longitudinal disease-level data was analyzed to determine whether diseases for which there was greater pharmaceutical innovation-a larger increase in the number of new chemical entities (NCEs) previously launched-had larger declines in premature mortality, the age-standardized number of cancer deaths, and the number of hospital discharges. My methodology controls for the effects of macroeconomic trends and overall changes in the healthcare system. Premature mortality from a disease is inversely related to the number of NCEs launched more than 5 years earlier. On average, the introduction of an additional NCE for a disease reduced premature mortality from the disease by 2.4 % 7 years later. The age-standardized number of cancer deaths is inversely related to the number of NCEs launched 1-6 years earlier, conditional on the age-standardized number of new cancer cases diagnosed 0-2 years earlier. On average, the launch of an NCE reduced the number of hospital discharges 1 year later by approximately 1.5 %. The estimates imply that approximately two-thirds of the 2000-2010 decline in premature mortality was due to pharmaceutical innovation. If no NCEs had been launched in Slovenia during 1992-2003, the age-standardized number of cancer deaths in 2008 would have been 12.2 % higher. The NCEs launched in Slovenia during 2003-2009 are estimated to have reduced the number of
He, Fan; Chen, En-Fu; Li, Fu-Dong; Wang, Xin-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Lin, Jun-Fen
The third wave of H7N9 cases in China emerged in the second half of 2014. This study was conducted to identify the risk trends of H7N9 virus in human infections and environment contamination. A surveillance program for H7N9 virus has been conducted in all 90 counties in Zhejiang since March 2013. All H7N9 cases were reported by hospitals through the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. Sampling sites for environment specimens were randomly selected by a multi-stage sampling strategy. Poultry-related workers for serological surveillance were randomly selected from the sampling sites for environmental specimens in the first quarter of each year. rRT-PCR and viral isolation were performed to identify H7N9 virus. A hemagglutination inhibition assay was conducted to detect possible H7N9 infection among poultry-related workers. A total of 170 H7N9 cases were identified in Zhejiang from 20 March 2013 to 28 February 2015. The proportion of rural cases increased from 42.2% (19/45) to 67.7% (21/31) with progression of the three epidemics (P < 0.05). In 32% (161/503) of towns and 16.0% (238/1488) of surveyed premises, H7N9 virus was detected in the environment. The positive rate of environmental specimens was 6.1% (868/14207). In addition, 912 poultry-related workers were recruited and 3.7% (34) of them tested positive for H7N9 antibodies. Positive detection of H7N9 virus during environmental surveillance increased from the first to third wave (P < 0.05). Almost all positive rates of environmental surveillance were higher in urban than rural in the second wave (P < 0.05), however they were higher in rural area in the third wave (P < 0.05). Our study highlights that the severity of poultry-related environmental contamination by H7N9 virus is intensifying. We strongly recommend that the local government stop illegal trading immediately and close live poultry markets in the territory. Poultry operations in slaughtering plants must be
Zin, Che S; Rahman, Norny A; Ismail, Che R; Choy, Leong W
There are currently limited data available on the patterns of opioid prescribing in Malaysia. This study investigated the patterns of opioid prescribing and characterized the dosing and duration of opioid use in patients with noncancer and cancer pain. This retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at an outpatient hospital setting in Malaysia. All prescriptions for opioids (dihydrocodeine, fentanyl, morphine, and oxycodone) issued between January 2013 and December 2014 were examined. The number of prescriptions and patients, the distribution of mean daily dose, annual total days covered with opioids, and annual total opioid dose at the individual level were calculated and stratified by noncancer and cancer groups. A total of 1015 opioid prescriptions were prescribed for 347 patients from 2013 to 2014. Approximately 41.5% of patients (N = 144/347) and 58.5% (N = 203/347) were associated with noncancer and cancer diagnosis, respectively. Oxycodone (38.0%) was the highest prescribed primarily for the noncancer group. The majority of patients in both noncancer (74.3%) and cancer (60.4%) groups were receiving mean daily doses of < 50 mg morphine equivalents. The chronic use of opioids (> 90 days per year) was associated with 21.8% of patients in the noncancer group and 17.5% in the cancer group. The finding from this study showed that 41.5% of opioid users at an outpatient hospital setting in Malaysia received opioids for noncancer pain and 21.8% of these users were using opioids for longer than 90 days. The average daily dose in the majority of patients in both groups of noncancer and cancer was modest. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.
Abdul-Razak, Muzib; Chung, Hsiang; Wong, Eva; Palme, Carsten; Veness, Michael; Farlow, David; Coleman, Hedley; Morgan, Gary
Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become an alternative option to elective neck dissection (END) for early oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) outside of Australia. We sought to assess the technical feasibility of SLNB and validate its accuracy against that of END in an Australian setting. We performed a prospective cohort study consisting of 30 consecutive patients with cT 1 - 2 N 0 OCSCC referred to the Head and Neck Cancer Service, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, between 2011 and 2014. All patients underwent SLNB followed by immediate selective neck dissection (levels I-III). A total of 30 patients were diagnosed with an early clinically node-negative OCSCC (seven cT1 and 23 cT2), with the majority located on the oral tongue. A median of three (range: 1-14) sentinel nodes were identified on lymphoscintigraphy, and all sentinel nodes were successfully retrieved, with 50% having a pathologically positive sentinel node. No false-negative sentinel nodes were identified using selective neck dissection as the gold standard. The negative predictive value (NPV) of SLNB was 100%, with 40% having a sentinel node identified outside the field of planned neck dissection on lymphoscintigraphy. Of these, one patient had a positive sentinel node outside of the ipsilateral supraomohyoid neck dissection template. SLNB for early OCSCC is technically feasible in an Australian setting. It has a high NPV and can potentially identify at-risk lymphatic basins outside the traditional selective neck dissection levels even in well-lateralized lesions. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong; Li, Haomin; Zhao, Chenhui; An, Jiye
Because of the complexity of the hospital environment, there exist a lot of medical information systems from different vendors with incompatible structures. In order to establish an enterprise hospital information system, the integration among these heterogeneous systems must be considered. Complete integration should cover three aspects: data integration, function integration and workflow integration. However most of the previous design of architecture did not accomplish such a complete integration. This article offers an architecture design of the enterprise hospital information system based on the concept of digital neural network system in hospital. It covers all three aspects of integration, and eventually achieves the target of one virtual data center with Enterprise Viewer for users of different roles. The initial implementation of the architecture in the 5-year Digital Hospital Project in Huzhou Central hospital of Zhejiang Province is also described.
Wu, Dan; Wang, Yun; Lam, Kwok Fai; Hesketh, Therese
Objective To explore the factors influencing doctors’ job satisfaction and morale in China, in the context of the ongoing health system reforms and the deteriorating doctor–patient relationship. Design Cross-sectional survey using self-completion questionnaires. Study setting The survey was conducted from March to May 2012 among doctors at the provincial, county and primary care levels in Zhejiang Province, China. Results The questionnaire was completed by 202 doctors. Factors which contributed most to low job satisfaction were low income and long working hours. Provincial level doctors were most dissatisfied while primary care doctors were the least dissatisfied. Three per cent of doctors at high-level hospitals and 27% of those in primary care were satisfied with the salary. Only 7% at high-level hospitals were satisfied with the work hours, compared to 43% in primary care. Less than 10% at high levels were satisfied with the amount of paid vacation time (3%) and paid sick leave (5%), compared with 38% and 41%, respectively, in primary care. Overall, 87% reported that patients were more likely to sue and that patient violence against doctors was increasing. Only 4.5% wanted their children to be doctors. Of those 125 who provided a reason, 34% said poor pay, 17% said it was a high-risk profession, and 9% expressed concerns about personal insecurity or patient violence. Conclusions Doctors have low job satisfaction overall. Recruitment and retention of doctors have become major challenges for the Chinese health system. Measures must be taken to address this, in order to ensure recruitment and retention of doctors in the future. These measures must first include reduction of doctors’ workload, especially at provincial hospitals, partly through incentivisation of appropriate utilisation of primary care, increase in doctors’ salary and more effective measures to tackle patient violence against doctors. PMID:25552614
Wu, Dan; Wang, Yun; Lam, Kwok Fai; Hesketh, Therese
To explore the factors influencing doctors' job satisfaction and morale in China, in the context of the ongoing health system reforms and the deteriorating doctor-patient relationship. Cross-sectional survey using self-completion questionnaires. The survey was conducted from March to May 2012 among doctors at the provincial, county and primary care levels in Zhejiang Province, China. The questionnaire was completed by 202 doctors. Factors which contributed most to low job satisfaction were low income and long working hours. Provincial level doctors were most dissatisfied while primary care doctors were the least dissatisfied. Three per cent of doctors at high-level hospitals and 27% of those in primary care were satisfied with the salary. Only 7% at high-level hospitals were satisfied with the work hours, compared to 43% in primary care. Less than 10% at high levels were satisfied with the amount of paid vacation time (3%) and paid sick leave (5%), compared with 38% and 41%, respectively, in primary care. Overall, 87% reported that patients were more likely to sue and that patient violence against doctors was increasing. Only 4.5% wanted their children to be doctors. Of those 125 who provided a reason, 34% said poor pay, 17% said it was a high-risk profession, and 9% expressed concerns about personal insecurity or patient violence. Doctors have low job satisfaction overall. Recruitment and retention of doctors have become major challenges for the Chinese health system. Measures must be taken to address this, in order to ensure recruitment and retention of doctors in the future. These measures must first include reduction of doctors' workload, especially at provincial hospitals, partly through incentivisation of appropriate utilisation of primary care, increase in doctors' salary and more effective measures to tackle patient violence against doctors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence
Stathopoulos, Panagiotis; Smith, William P
The aim of this study is to present the survival rates in patients treated for oral cancer with primary surgery in a large district general hospital. We discuss the influence of the most significant prognostic factors on survival and compare our results with larger centres specializing in the management of oral cancer. All patients diagnosed with oral cancer from 1995 to 2006 and were treated in the Department had their details entered prospectively onto a computerized database. Demographic details of patients, type of treatment, pathological stage of tumor (TNM), local and regional recurrence rate, overall survival, disease specific survival and incidence of involved margins were recorded and calculated. Of the 178 patients, 96 (54 %) were alive and free of oral cancer 5 years after surgery. Forty-four patients died of oral cancer (24.7 %) but 38 (21.3 %) died of other causes. The overall survival rate after primary surgery in relation to stage was: I 84 %, II 71 %, III 36 % and IV 28 %. As almost half of our patients presented with advanced cancer and had discouraging survival rates, we emphasize the need for early recognition of the disease. Advanced disease signifies difficulty in obtaining clear margins which actually indicates a higher recurrence rate. 25 % of our patients died of oral cancer within 5 years of surgery which highlights the poor prognosis that recurrence carries after treatment. Effective educational campaign with purpose to raise oral cancer awareness and earlier referral may result in improvement of survival.
Asuzu, Chioma Christie; Elumelu, Theresa Nchekube
Cancer is often associated with a lot of pain and suffering. These suggest that coping with the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of cancer is a major life stressor that is capable of influencing patients' quality of life (QoL). The purpose of the study is to assess the relationship between cancer patients' QoL dimensions and coping strategies in the Radiotherapy Department of the University College Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria. Data were collected on clinic days from all available and consenting cancer patients who were receiving treatment at the radiotherapy department. Participants were informed of their right to decline to fill the questionnaires. In this study, 237 cancer patients participated. They had an age range of 15 to 95 years with a mean age of 49.91 years. There was significant inverse relationship between physical well-being with behavioural disengagement, venting, planning and self-blame (p < 0.05); social/family well-being has significant linear relationship with active coping, emotional support, positive reframing, instrumental support, acceptance and religion (p < 0.05); emotional well-being has significant inverse relationship with behavioural disengagement and self-blame (p < 0.05); functional well-being has significant linear relationship with active coping, instrumental support and acceptance (p < 0.05). It is important to assess cancer patients for the kind of coping strategies they are adopting to use in coping with their cancer burden, thereby guiding against lower QoL due to negative coping strategies. Intervention programmes could be developed to help cancer patients adopt more positive and effective coping strategies to improve patients' QoL. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hüscher, Cristiano G S; Lirici, Marco Maria; Ponzano, Cecilia
Natural orifice specimen extraction - NOSE laparoscopy is a promising technique that avoids mini-laparotomy, possibly reducing postoperative pain, wound infections and hospital stay. Recent systematic reviews have shown that postoperative morbidity associated with laparoscopically assisted gastrectomies is similar to that after open gastrectomies. More specifically, there is no difference in wound infection rate. The study objective was to evaluate whether postoperative morbidity and hospital stay may be reduced by transoral specimen extraction after laparoscopically assisted gastrectomy for early gastric cancer (EGC). A prospective, nonrandomized study was carried out starting in August 2012. Data from all patients operated on during the first year, with minimum 18 months follow-up, were collected to assess feasibility, oncologic results, postoperative morbidity, hospital stay and functional results. Overall, 14 patients were included and followed-up. After gastric resection, a 3 cm opening was created on the gastric stump, and the specimen, divided into three segments stitched one to each other, was sutured to the gastric tube and retrieved through the mouth. Postoperative morbidity was 7.14% (1/14): one case of pneumonia. No wound infection occurred. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 4.7 ± 1.0 days. NOSE laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy is feasible and safe, with similar oncologic results as LAG, but decreased morbidity and hospital stay.
Lindgren, Lea H; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Helms, Anne Sofie; Thorsteinsson, Troels; Larsen, Hanne B
Extended hospitalization for school-aged cancer patients increases their risk of social marginalization. School-aged children mature through peer-interaction, but healthcare providers fail to incorporate this in rehabilitation efforts. The RESPECT study offers classmates to cancer patients to become ambassadors during hospital stays. This study explores classmate decision-making patterns about ambassadorship. An open-ended question was prospectively and consecutively provided to classmates (N = 221) (and parents) of 10 children diagnosed with cancer in 2014 and enrolled in the RESPECT study. Statements were analysed using thematic content analysis. Of 221 classmates, 140 responded (63%). Of these, 81 applied for ambassadorship (median 8/patient), 58 declined, one was undecided. Nine forms were incomplete; leaving 131 in total that revealed 303 statements for analysis. Five major themes emerged: existing friendship (132/303 statements), personal resources (academic, emotional and social) (107/303), attitudes towards the ambassadorship (34/303), hospital environment (18/303) and logistics (12/303). Of the classmates with pre-existing friendships, 77% applied for ambassadorship and 80% with a surplus of personal resources applied. These were predominant predictors for ambassadorship application. Classmate motives were condensed into four archetypes: pre-existing friendship with a surplus of resources (100% applied), non-friend classmates with a surplus of resources (63% applied), pre-existing friendship with limited resources (22% applied) and non-friend classmates with limited resources (0% applied). Classmates are highly motivated to support patients during serious illness, irrespective of pre-existing friendships. Ambassadors offer a novel in-hospital approach to promote rehabilitation in children with severe/chronic diseases. Results need validation in other settings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Gramling, Robert; Stanek, Susan; Han, Paul K J; Duberstein, Paul; Quill, Tim E; Temel, Jennifer S; Alexander, Stewart C; Anderson, Wendy G; Ladwig, Susan; Norton, Sally A
Prognostic uncertainty is common in advanced cancer and frequently addressed during palliative care consultation, yet we know little about its impact on quality of life (QOL). We describe the prevalence and distribution of distress due to prognostic uncertainty among hospitalized patients with advanced cancer before palliative care consultation. We evaluate the association between this type of distress and overall QOL before and after palliative care consultation. Observational cohort study. Hospitalized patients with advanced cancer who receive a palliative care consultation at two geographically distant academic medical centers. At the time of enrollment, before palliative care consultation, we asked participants: "Over the past two days, how much have you been bothered by uncertainty about what to expect from the course of your illness?" (Not at all/Slightly/Moderately/Quite a Bit/Extremely). We defined responses of "Quite a bit" and "Extremely" to be indicative of substantial distress. Two hundred thirty-six participants completed the baseline assessment. Seventy-seven percent reported being at least moderately bothered by prognostic uncertainty and half reported substantial distress. Compared with others, those who were distressed by prognostic uncertainty (118/236) reported poorer overall QOL before palliative care consultation (mean QOL 3.8 out of 10 vs. 5.3 out of 10, p = < 0.001) and greater improvement in QOL following consultation (Adjusted difference in mean QOL change = 1.1; 95% confidence interval = 0.2, 2.0). Prognostic uncertainty is a prevalent source of distress among hospitalized patients with advanced cancer at the time of initial palliative care consultation. Distress from prognostic uncertainty is associated with lower levels of preconsultation QOL and with greater pre-post consultation improvement in the QOL.
Wang, Lei; Zhao, Yushui; Liu, He; Yao, Dingming; Xu, Yue; Lv, Qiaohong; Hao, Gang; Xu, Yan
Background As public access to the Internet increases, many health workers prefer to carry out health education online, reducing the use of traditional community-based health education methods. Since March 2016, four Zika cases have been confirmed in Zhejiang, China. Rapid assessment of people’s knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding Zika is crucial to its prevention and control. Web-based surveys to assess public KAP may be a growing trend; however, we had little experience with this method. Objectives The aim of this study was to explore KAP regarding Zika in residents of Zhejiang using both traditional paper- and innovative Internet-based investigations. Methods A questionnaire was designed by Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. A paper-based version of the survey was used in a cross-sectional community study following multistage cluster random sampling, and an Internet-based survey was promoted through a local health education site. Data were interpreted via univariate and multivariate analyses. Results A total of 447 community residents participated in the paper-based survey, with a response rate of 89.4% (447/500), and 621 eligible Internet users participated in the Internet-based survey, with a response rate of 36.92% (621/1682). Age, education level, and occupation differed significantly between participants in the paper- and Internet-based surveys. Participants completing the Internet-based survey were much younger (χ22=144.7, P<.001) and had a higher level of education (χ22=423.5, P<.001) than those completing the paper-based survey. Among participants completing the paper-based survey, there were more farmers, housewives, and unemployed people (χ23=413.7, P<.001). Overall, 83.52% of participants (892/1068) knew the transmission route for Zika, 76.12% (813/1068) knew that pregnant women were at high risk of severe complications, 66.39% (709/1068) knew that contracting Zika during pregnancy could lead to newborn
Li, Runhua; Pan, Xiaohong; Ma, Qiaoqin; Wang, Hui; He, Lin; Jiang, Tingting; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xingliang; Xia, Shichang
Men who have sex with men (MSM) have become one of high-risk population for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, due to their multiple sex partners and unprotected anal intercourse. Promoting HIV testing is an effective strategy for the prevention and control of HIV infection. We assessed the factors associated with a prior HIV testing history, which could provide guidance for implementation of future HIV intervention programs. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three cities of Zhejiang Province, namely, Hangzhou, Ningbo and Wenzhou, using respondent-driven sampling, between December 2013 and June 2014. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was employed to collect relevant information about HIV testing. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors associated with a prior HIV testing history. The adjusted rate of prior HIV testing among MSM in Zhejiang Province was 55.9 %. The adjusted rates of HIV and syphilis infections among MSM in Zhejiang Province were 14.0 % and 11.4 %, respectively. A weighted multivariate analysis showed that MSM of older age were more likely to be tested, as were MSM with higher level of education, self-reported homosexuality and a higher frequency of receiving AIDS/sexually transmitted infections educational intervention in the past year. MSM with suicidal inclination and self-perceived lower possibility of HIV infection were less likely to report ever having undergone an HIV test. The prevalence of prior HIV testing among MSM in Zhejiang Province, China is low. Effective and more frequent interventional measures should be adopted to improve risk awareness and psychosocial support for younger, less educated MSM, and to encourage more MSM to undergo HIV testing.
Kennedy, K; Auret, K
Neutropenic fever is a life-threatening complication of chemotherapy. The widely dispersed population of Australia creates challenges for rural patients in accessing healthcare services. Cancer treatment is particularly, burdensome with patients being forced to relocate to the city for treatment or to endure long and repeated journeys to the city. This study aimed to assess the safety of chemotherapy in a rural centre with a general physician-led model, by analysing neutropenic fever in Albany Hospital, a regional cancer centre in Western Australia. A prospective audit of patients undergoing parenteral chemotherapy was undertaken from March 2014 to March 2015. Cases of neutropenic fever as a consequence of parenteral chemotherapy were analysed and recorded by the Albany Hospital medical registrar. There were 1294 cycles of chemotherapy administered to 192 patients during the study period. There were 19 cases of neutropenic fever in 16 patients, meaning 8.33% of patients undergoing parenteral chemotherapy had their treatment complicated by neutropenic fever (n = 16/192). The incidence of neutropenic fever was 1.47% per cycle of chemotherapy (n = 19/1294). There were no deaths in the study period. As per guidelines, antibiotics were given within 60 min of arrival in 73.68% of cases (n = 14/19). The rate of neutropenic fever observed was similar to rates in other centres worldwide, and the mortality rate was lower than average, with no deaths in the study population. These results provide reassurance with regards to the safe delivery of parenteral chemotherapy in this rural centre with a general physician-led model. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Meeuse, Jan J; van der Linden, Yvette M; Post, Wendy J; Wanders, Rinus; Gans, Rijk O B; Leer, Jan Willem H; Reyners, Anna K L
To describe health care utilization (HCU) at the end of life in cancer patients. These data are relevant to plan palliative care services, and to develop training programs for involved health care professionals. The Dutch Bone Metastasis Study (DBMS) was a nationwide study proving equal effectiveness of single fraction palliative radiotherapy compared with multiple fractions for painful bone metastases in 1157 patients. The 860 (74%) patients who died during follow-up were included in the current analysis. The main outcome was the frequency of hospital-based (outpatient contact or admission) and/or general practitioner (GP) contact during the last 12 weeks of life. Changes in HCU towards death were related to data on quality of life and pain intensity using a multilevel regression model. Hospital-based HCU was reported in 1801 (63%) returned questionnaires, whereas GP contact was stated in 1246 (43%). In 573 (20%) questionnaires, both types of HCU were reported. In multilevel regression analyses, the frequency of outpatient contacts remained constant during the weeks towards death, whereas the frequency of GP contacts increased. Lower valuation of quality of life was related to both GP- and hospital-based HCU. There was a high consumption of hospital-based HCU in the last 12 weeks of life of cancer patients with bone metastases. Hospital-based HCU did not decrease during the weeks towards death, despite an increase in GP contacts. Future planning of palliative care and training programs should encompass close collaboration between medical specialists and GPs to optimize end-of-life care.
Zhang, Jia-feng; Pan, Xiao-hong; Ding, Xiao-bei; Chen, Lin; Guo, Zhi-hong; Xu, Yun; Huang, Jing-jing
To analyze the molecular epidemiological characteristics on HIV infectors/AIDS patients (HIV/AIDS) under a follow-up program in Zhejiang province in 2009. 303 cases were randomly sampled. Information on the cases was collected and followed by genomic DNA extraction. Gag gene fragments were amplified by nested PCR, followed by sequencing and bio-informatic analysis. The rate of success for sequence acquisition was 74.3% (225/303). Distributions of HIV subtypes were as follows: CRF01_AE (58.7%), CRF07_BC (13.8%), CRF08_BC (9.8%), B' (15.1%), C (1.8%), G (0.4%) and unassigned BC (unique recombinant form 0.4%). from the HIV BLAST analysis showed that the sources of strains with the highest homology involved in 10 provinces/municipalities (Liaoning, Guangxi, Yunnan, Henan, etc.) and five other countries (Thailand, Vietnam, India, South Africa and Libya). The CRF01_AE phylogenetic tree was divided into four clusters. The sequences of HIV/AIDS with homosexual transmission showed a gather in cluster 1, and mix with those infected through heterosexual contact. Circulating recombinant forms of HIV seemed to play a dominant role in Zhejiang province. Unique recombinant form and new subtype of HIV were found. People living with HIV under homosexual transmission and heterosexual transmission had a trend of interwoven with each other. Increase of both the diversity and complexity of HIV strains were also noticed in Zhejiang province.
Bian, Dongju; Zhang, Yue; Ji, Lanzhu
An excursion to Zhejiang, China was made in August 2014, and two species of Microdytes J. Balfour-Browne, 1946 (M. uenoi Satô, 1972 and M. huangyongensis sp. n.) and two species of Allopachria Zimmermann, 1924 (A. miaowangi Wewalka, 2010, and A. schoenmanni Wewalka, 2000) were collected. Only one species of Microdytes (M. uenoi Satô, 1972) was recorded from Zhejiang before. The genus Allopachria is reported from Zhejiang for the first time. The genus Microdytes occurs throughout southern and south-eastern Asia. Since the revision of Microdytes by Wewalka (1997), sixteen new species and one new synonymy have been reported (Wewalka 1998; Wewalka & Wang 1998; Wewalka et al. 2007; Bian & Ji 2009; Miller & Wewalka 2010; Wewalka 2011). Including the new species the genus Microdytes comprises 46 species. Specimens were examined with a Leica M205c stereomicroscope. Further details were studied under an Olympus BX51 compound microscope. The photograph of the holotype (Fig 1) was made with a KEYENCE VHX-2000 C digital microscope. All specimens studied were deposited in the Institute of Applied Ecology, Shenyang, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAECAS).
Scheller-Kreinsen, David; Quentin, Wilm; Geissler, Alexander; Busse, Reinhard
Researchers from eleven countries (i.e. Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden) compared how their DRG systems deal with breast cancer surgery patients. DRG algorithms and indicators of resource consumption were assessed for those DRGs that individually contain at least 1% of all breast cancer surgery patients. Six standardised case vignettes were defined and quasi prices according to national DRG-based hospital payment systems were ascertained. European DRG systems classify breast cancer surgery patients according to different sets of classification variables into three to seven DRGs. Quasi prices for an index case treated with partial mastectomy range from €577 in Poland to €5780 in the Netherlands. Countries award their highest payments for very different kinds of patients. Breast cancer specialists and national DRG authorities should consider how other countries' DRG systems classify breast cancer patients in order to identify potential scope for improvement and to ensure fair and appropriate reimbursement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hu, Yu; Chen, Yaping; Zhang, Bing; Li, Qian
In 2014 a 2-doses varicella vaccine (VarV) schedule was recommended by the Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. We aimed to assess the coverage of the 1st dose of VarV (VarV₁) and the 2nd dose of VarV (VarV₂) among children aged 2-6 years through the Zhejiang Provincial Immunization Information System (ZJIIS) and to explore the determinants associated with the VarV coverage. Children aged 2-6 years (born from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2013) registered in ZJIIS were enrolled. Anonymized individual records of target children were extracted from the ZJIIS database on 1 January 2016, including their VarV and (measles-containing vaccine) MCV vaccination information. The VarV₁ and VarV₂ coverage rates were evaluated for each birth cohorts. The coverage of VarV also was estimated among strata defined by cities, gender and immigration status. We also evaluated the difference in coverage between VarV and MCV. A total of 3,028,222 children aged 2-6 years were enrolled. The coverage of VarV₁ ranged from 84.8% to 87.9% in the 2009-2013 birth cohorts, while the coverage of VarV₂ increased from 31.8% for the 2009 birth cohort to 48.7% for the 2011 birth cohort. Higher coverage rates for both VarV₁ and VarV₂ were observed among resident children in relevant birth cohorts. The coverage rates of VarV₁ and VarV₂ were lower than those for the 1st and 2nd dose of MCV, which were above 95%. The proportion of children who were vaccinated with VarV₁ at the recommended age increased from 34.6% for the 2009 birth cohort to 75.2% for the 2013 birth cohort, while the proportion of children who were vaccinated with VarV₂ at the recommended age increased from 19.7% for the 2009 birth cohort to 48.7% for the 2011 birth cohort. Our study showed a rapid increasing VarV₂ coverage of children, indicating a growing acceptance of the 2-doses VarV schedule among children's caregivers and physicians after the new recommendation released. We
Xu, Y; Xu, S Y; Wu, Q Q; Lyu, Q G; Hao, G; Zhao, Y S
To describe the prevalence of tobacco use among teenagers in different populations by sex and grades at school, and to provide evidence for the development of smoking control and health promotion programs. A total of 4 797 teenagers selected from 36 schools through stratified multi-stage cluster sampling in Zhejiang province and were surveyed by using a questionnaire with 3 886 eligible ones for analysis. Indicators as tried smoking, current smoking, and secondhand smoke exposure, etc., were calculated by weight on age proportions from the numbers of juniors in Zhejiang province. Prevalence rates of tried smoking and current smoking among teenagers were 10.91% and 2.07%, respectively. 7.72% of the juniors were susceptible to future tobacco use. The prevalence rates of tried smoking were 15.65% for boys and 5.58% for girls, 12.13% in rural and 9.24% in urban areas. Students from the 9(th) grade showed the highest rate (15.15%) while the 7(th) graders appeared the lowest level of susceptibility to future tobacco use (5.22%). The highest level of current smoking was seen in the group of " weekly allowance more than 30 Yuan, from parents"(4.07%). The prevalence of secondhand exposure to smoke in outdoor and indoor places, public transport, or at home were 57.60%, 54.45%, 46.97%, and 43.16%, respectively, among the teenagers. 3 071 juniors (77.33%) saw the smoking scenes in the past 30 days but only 1 367 juniors (28.30%) were aware of the basic knowledge on tobaccos in class, in the past 12 months. There were juniors who tried to smoke or were current smokers. The rate of secondhand exposure to smoking was high. A large number of the juniors were lack of education on knowledge related to tobacco control, in the classroom. It was important to promote and publicize the knowledge on tobacco so as to reduce the number of teenagers who were susceptible to future tobacco use.
Li, Qiuping; Lin, Yi; Hu, Caiping; Xu, Yinghua; Zhou, Huiya; Yang, Liping; Xu, Yongyong
The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) acts as one of the most frequently used self-reported measures in cancer practice. The evidence for construct validity of HADS, however, remains inconclusive. The objective of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version HADS (C-HADS) in terms of construct validity, internal consistency reliability, and concurrent validity in dyads of Chinese cancer patients and their family caregivers. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in multiple centers: one hospital in each of the seven different administrative regions in China from October 2014 to May 2015. A total of 641 dyads, consisting of cancer patients and family caregivers, completed a survey assessing their demographic and background information, anxiety and depression using C-HADS, and quality of life (QOL) using Chinese version SF-12. Data analysis methods included descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and Pearson correlations. Both the two-factor and one-factor models offered the best and adequate fit to the data in cancer patients and family caregivers respectively. The comparison of the two-factor and single-factor models supports the basic assumption of two-factor construct of C-HADS. The overall and two subscales of C-HADS in both cancer patients and family caregivers had good internal consistency and acceptable concurrent validity. The Chinese version of the HADS may be a reliable and valid screening tool, as indicated by its original two-factor structure. The finding supports the basic assumption of two-factor construct of HADS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Little is known about the quality of life of cancer patients in the Ethiopian context. This study evaluated quality of life of cancer patients in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa University Tikur Anbessa Specialized Referral Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (TASRH) from March to May 2013. A total of 388 cancer patients were included. Translated in to Amharic, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QOL C-30) was used to measure Quality of life (QoL). The data was analyzed with SPSS Version 17.0. Among the participants, 251(64.7%) were men and 138(35.6%) were below the age of 40 years. Large proportion of patients were diagnosed with breast cancer, 114(29.4%), and cervical cancer, 102(26.3%), and the clinical stages during the beginning of therapy were at stage II a 133(34.3%). The mean of global health status/QoL was 57.28 (SD= 25.28). Quality of life was found to be associated with some functional scales as role functioning, P≤0.001, social function, P=0.00, and symptom scales as pain, P=0.00, loss of appetite, P=0.004, and financial impact, P=0.02, but no associations were noted in relation to socio demographic characteristics. Quality of life assessments should be included in patient treatment protocols to improve their quality of life since being a cancer patient may be associated with a high level of impairment in different aspects of life.
... cancer the three most common cancers are: Prostate cancer Lung cancer Colorectal cancer In US women, other than ... cancer the three most common cancers are: Breast cancer Lung cancer Colorectal cancer Some cancers are more common ...
Pathy, Nirmala Bhoo; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah; Hartman, Mikael; Saxena, Nakul; Iau, Philip; Bulgiba, Awang M; Lee, Soo Chin; Lim, Siew Eng; Wong, John E L; Verkooijen, Helena M
Two hospital-based breast cancer databases (University Malaya Medical Center, Malaysia [n = 1513] and National University Hospital, Singapore [n = 2545]) were merged into a regional registry of breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2007. A review of the data found 51% of patients diagnosed before the age of 50 years. and 72% percent of the women were Chinese followed by Malays (16%), Indians (8%), and other races (4%). Median tumor size at presentation was 26 mm and about 25% of patients presented with TNM stage III or IV disease. Most tumors were of ductal histology (87%). Fifty-seven percent of tumors were estrogen receptor positive and 40% were poorly differentiated. Of those patients who had surgery, 70% had mastectomy while 30% had breast conserving surgery. Overall, chemotherapy was administered to 56% of patients and hormonal treatment to 60%. Five-year overall survival was 82.5% in patients with TNM stage 0 to stage II cancer, and 30.2% in those with later stages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brooks, Gabriel A.; Li, Ling; Uno, Hajime; Hassett, Michael J.; Landon, Bruce E.; Schrag, Deborah
The root causes of regional variation in medical spending are poorly understood and vary by clinical condition. To identify drivers of regional spending variation for Medicare patients with advanced cancer, we used linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program–Medicare data from 2004–10. We broke down Medicare spending into thirteen cancer-relevant service categories. We then calculated the contribution of each category to spending and regional spending variation. Acute hospital care was the largest component of spending and the chief driver of regional spending variation, accounting for 48 percent of spending and 67 percent of variation. In contrast, chemotherapy accounted for 16 percent of spending and 10 percent of variation. Hospice care comprised 5 percent of spending; however variation in hospice spending was fully offset by opposing variation in other categories. Our analysis suggests that the strategy with the greatest potential to improve the value of care for patients with advanced cancer is to reduce reliance on acute hospital care for this patient population. PMID:25288424
Dickens, Caroline; Joffe, Maureen; Jacobson, Judith; Venter, Francois; Schüz, Joachim; Cubasch, Herbert; McCormack, Valerie
Advanced stage at diagnosis contributes to low breast cancer survival rates in sub-Saharan Africa. Living far from health services is known to delay presentation, but the effect of distance, the radius at which the effect sets in and the women most affected has not been quantified. In a peri-urban South African setting, we examined the effect of a GIS-measured straight-line distance, from a patient’s residence to diagnostic hospital, on stage at diagnosis in 1071 public-sector breast cancer patients diagnosed during 2006–12. Generalized linear models were used to estimate risk ratios for late stage (stage III/IV vs stage I/II) associated with distance, adjusting for year of diagnosis, age, race and socioeconomic indicators. Mean age of patients was 55 years, 90% were Black African, and diagnoses were at stages I (5%), II (41%), III (46%) and IV (8%). 62% of patients with distances >20 km (n=347) had a late stage at diagnosis compared to 50% with distances <20 km (n=724, p=0.02). Risk of late stage at diagnosis was 1.25-fold higher (95% CI: 1.09, 1.42) per 30 km. Effects were pronounced in an under-represented group of patients over age 70. This positive stage-distance association held to 40 km, and plateaued or slightly reversed in patients (9%) living beyond this distance. Studies of woman and the societal and healthcare-level influences on these delays and on the late stage at diagnosis distribution are needed to inform interventions that improve diagnostic stage and breast cancer survival rates in this and similar settings. PMID:24658866
Helfrich, O; Crouzet, S; Ruffion, A; Houlgatte, A; Cavillon, C; Gerard, C; Villers, A
The main objective is the study of the evolution of the number of incident cases of prostate cancer in France from 2001 to 2012 from 5 hospital centers of urology. The secondary objective is to describe the characteristics of the incident cases and to compare them to those of the patients of the national registers of cancer for the period. Prospective observational multicentric study from 01/01/2001 to 31/12/2012 of databases in 5 French, public and private hospital centers of urology. The inclusive centers were selected outside departments with cancer register. The collected data were the prostatic biopsies performed in every center and the number of positive biopsies. The biopsies in cases of already known cancer and in re-evaluation were excluded. The data of age and stage (PSA and Gleason grade) were collected. The estimation of the incidence standardized in France is established after a period of observation of 3 years. The data updated in 2009 show a peak of incidence in 2005 then a decrease from 2006 (64,518 cases) until 2009 (53,465 cases). The median age in the diagnosis was of 70 years in 2005. Overall, 18,392 prostatic biopsies were included in the analysis. The average rate of positive biopsies was stable over the period 51.41% (IQR 0,02). The total number of cases of positive biopsies increased from 2001 to 2007 (482 cases in 1028 cases) in 2007, then decreased from 2008 to 2012 (649 cases). There was no difference in this variation between the centers. The median age in the diagnosis was of 70 years (EIQ=1.5) in 2001 and 68 years (EIQ=2.75) in 2012. PSA at diagnosis was<10ng/mL in 65% of cases and 10 to 20ng/mL in 22% of cases in 2012. The population of patients of the study differed significantly from that of FRANCIM on the distribution by age ranges (year 2005, P<0.0001 and year 2009, P<0.001), which explains the gap of one year (on 2007 instead of 2006) of the peak of incidental cases. The evolution of the number of incidental cases of prostate
Kaye, Deborah R; Norton, Edward C; Ellimoottil, Chad; Ye, Zaojun; Dupree, James M; Herrel, Lindsey A; Miller, David C
Both the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' (CMS) Hospital Compare star rating and surgical case volume have been publicized as metrics that can help patients to identify high-quality hospitals for complex care such as cancer surgery. The current study evaluates the relationship between the CMS' star rating, surgical volume, and short-term outcomes after major cancer surgery. National Medicare d