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Sample records for zhf endoplasmic reticulum

  1. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Erkan

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the world has seen an alarming increase in obesity and closely associated with insulin resistance which is a state of low-grade inflammation, the latter characterized by elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in blood and tissues. A shift in energy balance alters systemic metabolic regulation and the important role that chronic inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction, and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) play in this process.Why obesity is so closely associated with insulin resistance and inflammation is not understood well. This suggests that there are probably other causes for obesity-related insulin resistance and inflammation. One of these appears to be endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.The ER is a vast membranous network responsible for the trafficking of a wide range of proteins and plays a central role in integrating multiple metabolic signals critical in cellular homeostasis. Conditions that may trigger unfolded protein response activation include increased protein synthesis, the presence of mutant or misfolded proteins, inhibition of protein glycosylation, imbalance of ER calcium levels, glucose and energy deprivation, hypoxia, pathogens or pathogen-associated components and toxins. Thus, characterizing the mechanisms contributing to obesity and identifying potential targets for its prevention and treatment will have a great impact on the control of associated conditions, particularly T2D.

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Yang, Weng-Lang; Wang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is an enormous public health issue and the leading cause of death in critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICU). Overwhelming inflammation, characterized by cytokine storm, oxidative threats, and neutrophil sequestration is an underlying component of sepsis-associated organ failure. Despite recent advances in sepsis research, there is still no effective treatment available beyond the standard of care and supportive therapy. To reduce sepsis-related mortality, a better understanding of the biological mechanism associated with the sepsis is essential. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a subcellular organelle is responsible for the facilitation of protein folding and assembly and involved in several other physiological activities. Under the stress and inflammation condition, ER loses the homeostasis in its function, which is termed as ER stress. During ER stress, unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated to restore ER function to its normal balance. However, once the stress is beyond the compensatory capacity of UPR or protracted, the apoptosis would be initiated by triggering cell injuries, even to cell death. As such, ER stress and UPR are reported to be implicated in several pathological and inflammatory conditions. Although the detrimental role of ER stress during infections has been demonstrated, there is growing evidences that ER stress participate in the pathogenesis of sepsis. In this review, we summarize the current research in the context of ER stress and UPR signaling associated with sepsis and its related clinical conditions, such as trauma- hemorrhage, and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We also discuss the potential implication of ER stress as a novel therapeutic target and prognostic marker in patients with sepsis. PMID:26125088

  3. Cell death induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Iurlaro, Raffaella; Muñoz-Pinedo, Cristina

    2016-07-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum is an organelle with multiple functions. The synthesis of transmembrane proteins and proteins that are to be secreted occurs in this organelle. Many conditions that impose stress on cells, including hypoxia, starvation, infections and changes in secretory needs, challenge the folding capacity of the cell and promote endoplasmic reticulum stress. The cellular response involves the activation of sensors that transduce signaling cascades with the aim of restoring homeostasis. This is known as the unfolded protein response, which also intersects with the integrated stress response that reduces protein synthesis through inactivation of the initiation factor eIF2α. Central to the unfolded protein response are the sensors PERK, IRE1 and ATF6, as well as other signaling nodes such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK) and the downstream transcription factors XBP1, ATF4 and CHOP. These proteins aim to restore homeostasis, but they can also induce cell death, which has been shown to occur by necroptosis and, more commonly, through the regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins (Bim, Noxa and Puma) that leads to mitochondrial apoptosis. In addition, endoplasmic reticulum stress and proteotoxic stress have been shown to induce TRAIL receptors and activation of caspase-8. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is a common feature in the pathology of numerous diseases because it plays a role in neurodegeneration, stroke, cancer, metabolic diseases and inflammation. Understanding how cells react to endoplasmic reticulum stress can accelerate discovery of drugs against these diseases. © 2015 FEBS.

  4. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Associated ROS

    PubMed Central

    Zeeshan, Hafiz Maher Ali; Lee, Geum Hwa; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a fascinating network of tubules through which secretory and transmembrane proteins enter unfolded and exit as either folded or misfolded proteins, after which they are directed either toward other organelles or to degradation, respectively. The ER redox environment dictates the fate of entering proteins, and the level of redox signaling mediators modulates the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Accumulating evidence suggests the interrelation of ER stress and ROS with redox signaling mediators such as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)-endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin (ERO)-1, glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disuphide (GSSG), NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR), and calcium. Here, we reviewed persistent ER stress and protein misfolding-initiated ROS cascades and their significant roles in the pathogenesis of multiple human disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, inflammation, ischemia, and kidney and liver diseases. PMID:26950115

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Back, Sung Hoon; Kaufman, Randal J.

    2013-01-01

    Given the functional importance of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an organelle that performs folding, modification, and trafficking of secretory and membrane proteins to the Golgi compartment, the maintenance of ER homeostasis in insulin-secreting β-cells is very important. When ER homeostasis is disrupted, the ER generates adaptive signaling pathways, called the unfolded protein response (UPR), to maintain homeostasis of this organelle. However, if homeostasis fails to be restored, the ER initiates death signaling pathways. New observations suggest that both chronic hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, known as important causative factors of type 2 diabetes (T2D), disrupt ER homeostasis to induce unresolvable UPR activation and β-cell death. This review examines how the UPR pathways, induced by high glucose and free fatty acids (FFAs), interact to disrupt ER function and cause β-cell dysfunction and death. PMID:22443930

  6. Endoplasmic-Reticulum Calcium Depletion and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mekahli, Djalila; Bultynck, Geert; Parys, Jan B.; De Smedt, Humbert; Missiaen, Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as an intracellular Ca2+ store not only sets up cytosolic Ca2+ signals, but, among other functions, also assembles and folds newly synthesized proteins. Alterations in ER homeostasis, including severe Ca2+ depletion, are an upstream event in the pathophysiology of many diseases. On the one hand, insufficient release of activator Ca2+ may no longer sustain essential cell functions. On the other hand, loss of luminal Ca2+ causes ER stress and activates an unfolded protein response, which, depending on the duration and severity of the stress, can reestablish normal ER function or lead to cell death. We will review these various diseases by mainly focusing on the mechanisms that cause ER Ca2+ depletion. PMID:21441595

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article. PMID:28208663

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum: ER stress regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Roberto; Gutierrez, Tomás; Paredes, Felipe; Gatica, Damián; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Parra, Valentina; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for execution of the cell death program are relatively well characterized, but the metabolic events taking place during the adaptive phase of ER stress remain largely undefined. Here we discuss emerging evidence regarding the metabolic changes that occur during the onset of ER stress and how ER influences mitochondrial function through mechanisms involving calcium transfer, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation. Finally, we highlight how dysregulation of ER–mitochondrial calcium homeostasis during prolonged ER stress is emerging as a novel mechanism implicated in the onset of metabolic disorders. PMID:22064245

  9. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Plasma Membrane Contact Sites.

    PubMed

    Saheki, Yasunori; De Camilli, Pietro

    2017-06-20

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a broad localization throughout the cell and forms direct physical contacts with all other classes of membranous organelles, including the plasma membrane (PM). A number of protein tethers that mediate these contacts have been identified, and study of these protein tethers has revealed a multiplicity of roles in cell physiology, including regulation of intracellular Ca 2+ dynamics and signaling as well as control of lipid traffic and homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the cross talk between the ER and the PM mediated by direct contacts. We review factors that tether the two membranes, their properties, and their dynamics in response to the functional state of the cell. We focus in particular on the role of ER-PM contacts in nonvesicular lipid transport between the two bilayers mediated by lipid transfer proteins.

  10. Activation of autophagy by unfolded proteins during endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaochen; Srivastava, Renu; Howell, Stephen H; Bassham, Diane C

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress is defined as the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, and is caused by conditions such as heat or agents that cause endoplasmic reticulum stress, including tunicamycin and dithiothreitol. Autophagy, a major pathway for degradation of macromolecules in the vacuole, is activated by these stress agents in a manner dependent on inositol-requiring enzyme 1b (IRE1b), and delivers endoplasmic reticulum fragments to the vacuole for degradation. In this study, we examined the mechanism for activation of autophagy during endoplasmic reticulum stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. The chemical chaperones sodium 4-phenylbutyrate and tauroursodeoxycholic acid were found to reduce tunicamycin- or dithiothreitol-induced autophagy, but not autophagy caused by unrelated stresses. Similarly, over-expression of BINDING IMMUNOGLOBULIN PROTEIN (BIP), encoding a heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) molecular chaperone, reduced autophagy. Autophagy activated by heat stress was also found to be partially dependent on IRE1b and to be inhibited by sodium 4-phenylbutyrate, suggesting that heat-induced autophagy is due to accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Expression in Arabidopsis of the misfolded protein mimics zeolin or a mutated form of carboxypeptidase Y (CPY*) also induced autophagy in an IRE1b-dependent manner. Moreover, zeolin and CPY* partially co-localized with the autophagic body marker GFP-ATG8e, indicating delivery to the vacuole by autophagy. We conclude that accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum is a trigger for autophagy under conditions that cause endoplasmic reticulum stress. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum mediated signaling in cellular microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Biwer, Lauren; Isakson, Brant E

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a prime mediator of cellular signaling due to its functions as an internal cellular store for calcium, as well as a site for synthesis of proteins and lipids. Its peripheral network of sheets and tubules facilitate calcium and lipid signaling, especially in areas of the cell that are more distant to the main cytoplasmic network. Specific membrane proteins shape the peripheral ER architecture and influence the network stability in order to project into restricted spaces. The signaling microdomains are anatomically separate from the cytoplasm as a whole and exhibit localized protein, ion channel and cytoskeletal element expression. Signaling can also occur between the ER and other organelles, such as the Golgi or mitochondria. Lipids made in the ER membrane can be sent to the Golgi via specialized transfer proteins and specific phospholipid synthases are enriched at ER-mitochondria junctions to more efficiently expedite phospholipid transfer. As a hub for protein and lipid synthesis, a store for intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i, and a mediator of cellular stress, the ER is an important cellular organelle. Its ability to organize into tubules and project into restricted spaces allows for discrete and temporal signaling, which is important for cellular physiology and organism homeostasis. PMID:26973141

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum proteostasis impairment in aging.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Gabriela; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Cabral-Miranda, Felipe; Vivar, Juan P; Hetz, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    Perturbed neuronal proteostasis is a salient feature shared by both aging and protein misfolding disorders. The proteostasis network controls the health of the proteome by integrating pathways involved in protein synthesis, folding, trafficking, secretion, and their degradation. A reduction in the buffering capacity of the proteostasis network during aging may increase the risk to undergo neurodegeneration by enhancing the accumulation of misfolded proteins. As almost one-third of the proteome is synthetized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), maintenance of its proper function is fundamental to sustain neuronal function. In fact, ER stress is a common feature of most neurodegenerative diseases. The unfolded protein response (UPR) operates as central player to maintain ER homeostasis or the induction of cell death of chronically damaged cells. Here, we discuss recent evidence placing ER stress as a driver of brain aging, and the emerging impact of neuronal UPR in controlling global proteostasis at the whole organismal level. Finally, we discuss possible therapeutic interventions to improve proteostasis and prevent pathological brain aging. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum stress implicated in chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Turner, Ryan C; Logsdon, Aric F; Nguyen, Linda; Bailes, Julian E; Lee, John M; Robson, Matthew J; Omalu, Bennet I; Huber, Jason D; Rosen, Charles L

    2016-03-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by neurofibrillary tau tangles following repetitive neurotrauma. The underlying mechanism linking traumatic brain injury to chronic traumatic encephalopathy has not been elucidated. The authors investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress as a link between acute neurotrauma and chronic neurodegeneration. The authors used pharmacological, biochemical, and behavioral tools to assess the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in linking acute repetitive traumatic brain injury to the development of chronic neurodegeneration. Data from the authors' clinically relevant and validated rodent blast model were compared with those obtained from postmortem human chronic traumatic encephalopathy specimens from a National Football League player and World Wrestling Entertainment wrestler. The results demonstrated strong correlation of endoplasmic reticulum stress activation with subsequent tau hyperphosphorylation. Various endoplasmic reticulum stress markers were increased in human chronic traumatic encephalopathy specimens, and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response was associated with an increase in the tau kinase, glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Docosahexaenoic acid, an endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor, improved cognitive performance in the rat model 3 weeks after repetitive blast exposure. The data showed that docosahexaenoic acid administration substantially reduced tau hyperphosphorylation (t = 4.111, p < 0.05), improved cognition (t = 6.532, p < 0.001), and inhibited C/EBP homology protein activation (t = 5.631, p < 0.01). Additionally the data showed, for the first time, that endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in the pathophysiology of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Docosahexaenoic acid therefore warrants further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

  14. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Ischemic and Nephrotoxic Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mingjuan; Shu, Shaoqun; Guo, Chunyuan; Tang, Chengyuan; Dong, Zheng

    2018-06-12

    Acute kidney injury is a medical condition characterized by kidney damage with a rapid decline of renal function, which is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Recent research has further established an intimate relationship between acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. Perturbations of kidney cells in acute kidney injury result in the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to unfolded protein response or endoplasmic reticulum stress. In this review, we analyze the role and regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress in acute kidney injury triggered by renal ischemia-reperfusion and cisplatin nephrotoxicity. The balance between the two major components of unfolded protein response, the adaptive pathway and the apoptotic pathway, plays a critical role in determining the cell fate in endoplasmic reticulum stress. The adaptive pathway is evoked to attenuate translation, induce chaperones, maintain protein homeostasis, and promote cell survival. Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress activates the apoptotic pathway, resulting in the elimination of dysfunctional cells. Therefore, regulating ER stress in kidney cells may provide a therapeutic target in acute kidney injury.

  15. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and proteasomal system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Karademir, Betul; Corek, Ceyda; Ozer, Nesrin Kartal

    2015-11-01

    Protein processing including folding, unfolding and degradation is involved in the mechanisms of many diseases. Unfolded protein response and/or endoplasmic reticulum stress are accepted to be the first steps which should be completed via protein degradation. In this direction, proteasomal system and autophagy play important role as the degradation pathways and controlled via complex mechanisms. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease which is also known as the most catastrophic one. Mutation of many different genes are involved in the pathogenesis such as superoxide dismutase 1, chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 and ubiquilin 2. These genes are mainly related to the antioxidant defense systems, endoplasmic reticulum stress related proteins and also protein aggregation, degradation pathways and therefore mutation of these genes cause related disorders.This review focused on the role of protein processing via endoplasmic reticulum and proteasomal system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis which are the main players in the pathology. In this direction, dysfunction of endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation and related cell death mechanisms that are autophagy/apoptosis have been detailed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Isolation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Fractions from Mammary Epithelial Tissue.

    PubMed

    Chanat, Eric; Le Parc, Annabelle; Lahouassa, Hichem; Badaoui, Bouabid

    2016-06-01

    In the mammary glands of lactating animals, the mammary epithelial cells that surround the lumen of the acini produce and secrete copious amounts of milk. Functional differentiation of these mammary epithelial cells depends on the development of high-efficiency secretory pathways, notably for protein and lipid secretion. Protein secretion is a fundamental process common to all animal cells that involves a subset of cellular organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. In contrast, en masse secretion of triglycerides and cholesterol esters in the form of milk fat globules is a unique feature of the mammary epithelial cell. Cytoplasmic lipid droplets, the intracellular precursors of milk fat globules, originate from the endoplasmic reticulum, as do most milk-specific proteins. This organelle is therefore pivotal in the biogenesis of milk components. Fractionation of the cell into its subcellular parts is an approach that has proven very powerful for understanding organelle function and for studying the specific role of an organelle in a given cell activity. Here we describe a method for the purification of both smooth and rough microsomes, the membrane-bound endoplasmic reticulum fragments that form from endoplasmic reticulum domains when cells are broken up, from mammary gland tissue at lactation.

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum-dependent redox reactions control endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation and pathogen entry.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Christopher P; Bernardi, Kaleena M; Tsai, Billy

    2012-04-15

    Protein misfolding within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is managed by an ER quality control system that retro-translocates aberrant proteins into the cytosol for proteasomal destruction. This process, known as ER-associated degradation, utilizes the action of ER redox enzymes to accommodate the disulfide-bonded nature of misfolded proteins. Strikingly, various pathogenic viruses and toxins co-opt these redox components to reach the cytosol during entry. These redox factors thus regulate critical cellular homeostasis and host-pathogen interactions. Recent studies identify specific members of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family, which use their chaperone and catalytic activities, in engaging both misfolded ER proteins and pathogens. The precise molecular mechanism by which a dedicated PDI family member disrupts the disulfide bonds in the misfolded ER proteins and pathogens, as well as how they act to unfold these substrates to promote their ER-to-cytosol membrane transport, remain poorly characterized. How PDI family members distinguish folded versus misfolded ER substrates remains enigmatic. What physical characteristics surrounding a substrate's disulfide bond instruct PDI that it is mispaired or native? For the pathogens, as their disulfide bonds normally serve a critical role in providing physical support, what conformational changes experienced in the host enable their disulfide bonds to be disrupted? A combination of more rigorous biochemical and high-resolution structural studies should begin to address these questions.

  18. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response: A link with tuberculosis?

    PubMed

    Cui, Yongyong; Zhao, Deming; Barrow, Paul Andrew; Zhou, Xiangmei

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the worldwide. The endoplasmic-reticulum stress (ERS) response constitutes a cellular process that is triggered by mycobacterial infection that disturbs the folding of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The unfolded protein response (UPR) is induced to suspend the synthesis of early proteins and reduce the accumulation of unfolded- or misfolded proteins in the ER restoring normal physiological cell function. Prolonged or uncontrolled ERS leads to the activation of three signaling pathways (IRE1, PERK and ATF6) which directs the cell towards apoptosis. The absence of this process facilitates spread of the mycobacteria within the body. We summarize here recent advances in understanding the signaling pathway diversity governing ERS in relation to TB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Plasma Membrane Contacts Regulate Cellular Excitability.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Eamonn J

    2017-01-01

    Cells that have intrinsic electrical excitability utilize changes in membrane potential to communicate with neighboring cells and initiate cellular cascades. Excitable cells like neurons and myocytes have evolved highly specialized subcellular architectures to translate these electrical signals into cellular events. One such structural specialization is sarco-/endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites. These membrane contact sites are positioned by specific membrane-membrane tethering proteins and contain an ever-expanding list of additional proteins that organize information transfer across the junctional space (~ 15-25 nm distance) to shape membrane identity and control cellular excitability. In this chapter we discuss how contacts between the sarco-/endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane are essential for regulated excitation-contraction coupling in striated muscle and control of lipid-dependent ion channels.

  20. Prediction of endoplasmic reticulum resident proteins using fragmented amino acid composition and support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravindra; Kumari, Bandana; Kumar, Manish

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum plays an important role in many cellular processes, which includes protein synthesis, folding and post-translational processing of newly synthesized proteins. It is also the site for quality control of misfolded proteins and entry point of extracellular proteins to the secretory pathway. Hence at any given point of time, endoplasmic reticulum contains two different cohorts of proteins, (i) proteins involved in endoplasmic reticulum-specific function, which reside in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, called as endoplasmic reticulum resident proteins and (ii) proteins which are in process of moving to the extracellular space. Thus, endoplasmic reticulum resident proteins must somehow be distinguished from newly synthesized secretory proteins, which pass through the endoplasmic reticulum on their way out of the cell. Approximately only 50% of the proteins used in this study as training data had endoplasmic reticulum retention signal, which shows that these signals are not essentially present in all endoplasmic reticulum resident proteins. This also strongly indicates the role of additional factors in retention of endoplasmic reticulum-specific proteins inside the endoplasmic reticulum. This is a support vector machine based method, where we had used different forms of protein features as inputs for support vector machine to develop the prediction models. During training leave-one-out approach of cross-validation was used. Maximum performance was obtained with a combination of amino acid compositions of different part of proteins. In this study, we have reported a novel support vector machine based method for predicting endoplasmic reticulum resident proteins, named as ERPred. During training we achieved a maximum accuracy of 81.42% with leave-one-out approach of cross-validation. When evaluated on independent dataset, ERPred did prediction with sensitivity of 72.31% and specificity of 83.69%. We have also annotated six different

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy: a potential target for therapy

    PubMed Central

    Montague, Karli; Malik, Bilal; Gray, Anna L.; La Spada, Albert R.; Hanna, Michael G.; Szabadkai, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy is an X-linked degenerative motor neuron disease caused by an abnormal expansion in the polyglutamine encoding CAG repeat of the androgen receptor gene. There is evidence implicating endoplasmic reticulum stress in the development and progression of neurodegenerative disease, including polyglutamine disorders such as Huntington’s disease and in motor neuron disease, where cellular stress disrupts functioning of the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to induction of the unfolded protein response. We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum stress is also involved in the pathogenesis of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy mice that carry 100 pathogenic polyglutamine repeats in the androgen receptor, and develop a late-onset neuromuscular phenotype with motor neuron degeneration, were studied. We observed a disturbance in endoplasmic reticulum-associated calcium homeostasis in cultured embryonic motor neurons from spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy mice, which was accompanied by increased endoplasmic reticulum stress. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress reduced the endoplasmic reticulum-associated cell death pathway. Examination of spinal cord motor neurons of pathogenic mice at different disease stages revealed elevated expression of markers for endoplasmic reticulum stress, confirming an increase in this stress response in vivo. Importantly, the most significant increase was detected presymptomatically, suggesting that endoplasmic reticulum stress may play an early and possibly causal role in disease pathogenesis. Our results therefore indicate that the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway could potentially be a therapeutic target for spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy and related polyglutamine diseases. PMID:24898351

  2. Met receptor inhibitor SU11274 localizes in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Wiest, Edwin J; Smith, Heather Jensen; Hollingsworth, Michael A

    2018-07-02

    We discovered that SU11274, a class I c-Met inhibitor, fluoresces when excited by 488 nm laser light and showed rapid specific accumulation in distinct subcellular compartments. Given that SU11274 reduces cancer cell viability, we exploited these newly identified spectral properties to determine SU11274 intracellular distribution and accumulation in human pancreatic cancer cells. The aim of the studies reported here was to identify organelle(s) to which SU11274 is trafficked. We conclude that SU11274 rapidly and predominantly accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The role of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response following cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Gina; Neuhaus, Ain A; Couch, Yvonne; Beard, Daniel J; Adriaanse, Bryan A; Vekrellis, Kostas; DeLuca, Gabriele C; Papadakis, Michalis; Sutherland, Brad A; Buchan, Alastair M

    2018-06-01

    Background Cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) hippocampal neurons are resistant to global ischemia, whereas cornu ammonis (CA1) 1 neurons are vulnerable. Hamartin expression in CA3 neurons mediates this endogenous resistance via productive autophagy. Neurons lacking hamartin demonstrate exacerbated endoplasmic reticulum stress and increased cell death. We investigated endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in CA1 and CA3 regions following global cerebral ischemia, and whether pharmacological modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress or autophagy altered neuronal viability . Methods In vivo: male Wistar rats underwent sham or 10 min of transient global cerebral ischemia. CA1 and CA3 areas were microdissected and endoplasmic reticulum stress protein expression quantified at 3 h and 12 h of reperfusion. In vitro: primary neuronal cultures (E18 Wistar rat embryos) were exposed to 2 h of oxygen and glucose deprivation or normoxia in the presence of an endoplasmic reticulum stress inducer (thapsigargin or tunicamycin), an endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor (salubrinal or 4-phenylbutyric acid), an autophagy inducer ([4'-(N-diethylamino) butyl]-2-chlorophenoxazine (10-NCP)) or autophagy inhibitor (3-methyladenine). Results In vivo, decreased endoplasmic reticulum stress protein expression (phospho-eIF2α and ATF4) was observed at 3 h of reperfusion in CA3 neurons following ischemia, and increased in CA1 neurons at 12 h of reperfusion. In vitro, endoplasmic reticulum stress inducers and high doses of the endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitors also increased cell death. Both induction and inhibition of autophagy also increased cell death. Conclusion Endoplasmic reticulum stress is associated with neuronal cell death following ischemia. Neither reduction of endoplasmic reticulum stress nor induction of autophagy demonstrated neuroprotection in vitro, highlighting their complex role in neuronal biology following ischemia.

  4. Ghrelin Ameliorates Asthma by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Fu, Tian; Wang, Lei; Zeng, Qingdi; Zhang, Yan; Sheng, Baowei; Han, Liping

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to confirm the ameliorative effect of ghrelin on asthma and investigate its mechanism. The murine model of asthma was induced by ovalbumin (OVA) treatment and assessed by histological pathology and airway responsiveness to methacholine. The total and differential leukocytes were counted. Tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, interleukin-5 and interleukin-13 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were quantified by commercial kits. The protein levels in pulmonary tissues were measured by Western blot analysis. Ghrelin ameliorated the histological pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in the OVA-induced asthmatic mouse model. Consistently, OVA-increased total and differential leukocytes and levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, interleukin-5 and interleukin-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly attenuated by ghrelin. Ghrelin prevented the increased protein levels of the endoplasmic reticulum stress markers glucose regulated protein 78 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein and reversed the reduced levels of p-Akt in asthmatic mice. Ghrelin might prevent endoplasmic reticulum stress activation by stimulating the Akt signaling pathway, which attenuated inflammation and ameliorated asthma in mice. Ghrelin might be a new target for asthma therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Young, Colin N

    2017-08-01

    What is the topic of this review? This review highlights the emerging role of disruptions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function, namely ER stress, as a contributor to hypertension. What advances does it highlight? This review presents an integrative view of ER stress in cardiovascular control systems, including systems within the brain, kidney and peripheral vasculature, as related to development of hypertension. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular organelle specialized in the synthesis, folding, assembly and modification of proteins. In situations of increased protein demand, complex signalling pathways, termed the unfolded protein response, influence a series of cellular feedback loops to control ER function strictly. Although this is initially a compensatory attempt to maintain cellular homeostasis, chronic activation of the unfolded protein response, known as ER stress, leads to sustained changes in cellular function. A growing body of literature points to ER stress in diverse cardioregulatory systems, including the brain, kidney and vasculature, as central to the development of hypertension. Here, these recent findings from essential and obesity-related forms of hypertension are highlighted in an integrative manner, with discussion of the potential upstream causes and downstream consequences of ER stress. Given that hypertension is a leading medical and socio-economic global challenge, emerging findings suggest that targeting ER stress might represent a viable strategy for the treatment of hypertensive disease. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  6. Lon in maintaining mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jieyeqi; Chen, Wenying; Zhang, Boyang; Tian, Fengli; Zhou, Zheng; Liao, Xin; Li, Chen; Zhang, Yi; Han, Yanyan; Wang, Yan; Li, Yuzhe; Wang, Guo-Qing; Shen, Xiao Li

    2018-06-01

    As a vital member of AAA+ (ATPase associated with diverse cellular activities) protein superfamily, Lon, a homo-hexameric ring-shaped protein complex with a serine-lysine catalytic dyad, is highly conserved throughout almost all prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Lon protease (LONP) plays an important role in maintaining mitoproteostasis through selectively recognizing and degrading oxidatively modified mitoproteins within mitochondrial matrix, such as oxidized aconitase, phosphorylated mitochondrial transcription factor A, etc. Furthermore, the up-regulated LONP increased mitochondrial ROS generation to promote cell survival, cell proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and cell migration, which was attributed to the up-regulation of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit S8 via interaction with chaperone Lon under hypoxic or oxidative stress in tumorigenesis. In addition, Lon also participated in protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase signaling pathway under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In short, Lon, as a pivotal stress-responsive protein that involved in the crosstalks among mitochondria, ER and nucleus, participated in multifarious important cellular processes crucial for cell survival, such as the mitochondrial protein quality control system, the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, the mtDNA maintenance, and the ER unfolded protein response.

  7. Ricin A chain reaches the endoplasmic reticulum after endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Qiong; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ningbo University Medical School, Ningbo 315211; Zhan Jinbiao

    Ricin is a potent ribosome inactivating protein and now has been widely used for synthesis of immunotoxins. To target ribosome in the mammalian cytosol, ricin must firstly retrograde transport from the endomembrane system to reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where the ricin A chain (RTA) is recognized by ER components that facilitate its membrane translocation to the cytosol. In the study, the fusion gene of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-RTA was expressed with the pET-28a (+) system in Escherichia coli under the control of a T7 promoter. The fusion protein showed a green fluorescence. The recombinant protein can be purifiedmore » by metal chelated affinity chromatography on a column of NTA. The rabbit anti-GFP antibody can recognize the fusion protein of EGFP-RTA just like the EGFP protein. The cytotoxicity of EGFP-RTA and RTA was evaluated by the MTT assay in HeLa and HEP-G2 cells following fluid-phase endocytosis. The fusion protein had a similar cytotoxicity of RTA. After endocytosis, the subcellular location of the fusion protein can be observed with the laser scanning confocal microscopy and the immuno-gold labeling Electro Microscopy. This study provided important evidence by a visualized way to prove that RTA does reach the endoplasmic reticulum.« less

  8. Gating Behavior of Endoplasmic Reticulum Potassium Channels of Rat Hepatocytes in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Maedeh; Khodaei, Naser; Salari, Sajjad; Eliassi, Afsaneh; Saghiri, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Defects in endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis are common occurrences in different diseases, such as diabetes, in which the function of endoplasmic reticulum is disrupted. It is now well established that ion channels of endoplasmic reticulum membrane have a critical role in endoplasmic reticulum luminal homeostasis. Our previous studies showed the presence of an ATP-sensitive cationic channel in endoplasmic reticulum. Therefore, in this study, we examined and compared the activities of this channel in control and diabetic rats using single-channel recording techniques. Method: Male Wistar rats were made diabetic for 2 weeks with a single dose injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). Ion channel incorporation of rough endoplasmic reticulum of diabetic hepatocytes into the bilayer lipid membrane allowed the characterization of K+ channel. Results: Ion channel incorporation of rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicles into the bilayer lipid revealed that the channel current-voltage (I-V) relation with a mean slope conductance of 520 ± 19 pS was unaffected in diabetes. Interestingly, the channel Po-voltage relation was significantly lower in diabetic rats at voltages above +30 mV. Conclusion: We concluded that the endoplasmic reticulum cationic channel is involved in diabetes. Also, this finding could be considered as a goal for further therapeutic plans. PMID:24842143

  9. Gating behavior of endoplasmic reticulum potassium channels of rat hepatocytes in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Maedeh; Khodaei, Naser; Salari, Sajjad; Eliassi, Afsaneh; Saghiri, Reza

    2014-07-01

    Defects in endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis are common occurrences in different diseases, such as diabetes, in which the function of endoplasmic reticulum is disrupted. It is now well established that ion channels of endoplasmic reticulum membrane have a critical role in endoplasmic reticulum luminal homeostasis. Our previous studies showed the presence of an ATP-sensitive cationic channel in endoplasmic reticulum. Therefore, in this study, we examined and compared the activities of this channel in control and diabetic rats using single-channel recording techniques. Male Wistar rats were made diabetic for 2 weeks with a single dose injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). Ion channel incorporation of rough endoplasmic reticulum of diabetic hepatocytes into the bilayer lipid membrane allowed the characterization of K+ channel. Ion channel incorporation of rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicles into the bilayer lipid revealed that the channel current-voltage (I-V) relation with a mean slope conductance of 520 ± 19 pS was unaffected in diabetes. Interestingly, the channel Po-voltage relation was significantly lower in diabetic rats at voltages above +30 mV. We concluded that the endoplasmic reticulum cationic channel is involved in diabetes. Also, this finding could be considered as a goal for further therapeutic plans.

  10. Observation of endoplasmic reticulum tubules via TOF-SIMS tandem mass spectrometry imaging of transfected cells.

    PubMed

    Chini, Corryn E; Fisher, Gregory L; Johnson, Ben; Tamkun, Michael M; Kraft, Mary L

    2018-02-26

    Advances in three-dimensional secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging have enabled visualizing the subcellular distributions of various lipid species within individual cells. However, the difficulty of locating organelles using SIMS limits efforts to study their lipid compositions. Here, the authors have assessed whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Tracker Blue White DPX ® , which is a commercially available stain for visualizing the endoplasmic reticulum using fluorescence microscopy, produces distinctive ions that can be used to locate the endoplasmic reticulum using SIMS. Time-of-flight-SIMS tandem mass spectrometry (MS 2 ) imaging was used to identify positively and negatively charged ions produced by the ER-Tracker stain. Then, these ions were used to localize the stain and thus the endoplasmic reticulum, within individual human embryonic kidney cells that contained higher numbers of endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions on their surfaces. By performing MS 2 imaging of selected ions in parallel with the precursor ion (MS 1 ) imaging, the authors detected a chemical interference native to the cell at the same nominal mass as the pentafluorophenyl fragment from the ER-Tracker stain. Nonetheless, the fluorine secondary ions produced by the ER-Tracker stain provided a distinctive signal that enabled locating the endoplasmic reticulum using SIMS. This simple strategy for visualizing the endoplasmic reticulum in individual cells using SIMS could be combined with existing SIMS methodologies for imaging intracellular lipid distribution and to study the lipid composition within the endoplasmic reticulum.

  11. From Endoplasmic Reticulum to Mitochondria: Absence of the Arabidopsis ATP Antiporter Endoplasmic Reticulum Adenylate Transporter1 Perturbs Photorespiration[W

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Christiane; Plocharski, Bartolome; Haferkamp, Ilka; Leroch, Michaela; Ewald, Ralph; Bauwe, Hermann; Riemer, Jan; Herrmann, Johannes M.; Neuhaus, H. Ekkehard

    2013-01-01

    The carrier Endoplasmic Reticulum Adenylate Transporter1 (ER-ANT1) resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and acts as an ATP/ADP antiporter. Mutant plants lacking ER-ANT1 exhibit a dwarf phenotype and their seeds contain reduced protein and lipid contents. In this study, we describe a further surprising metabolic peculiarity of the er-ant1 mutants. Interestingly, Gly levels in leaves are immensely enhanced (26×) when compared with that of wild-type plants. Gly accumulation is caused by significantly decreased mitochondrial glycine decarboxylase (GDC) activity. Reduced GDC activity in mutant plants was attributed to oxidative posttranslational protein modification induced by elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). GDC activity is crucial for photorespiration; accordingly, morphological and physiological defects in er-ant1 plants were nearly completely abolished by application of high environmental CO2 concentrations. The latter observation demonstrates that the absence of ER-ANT1 activity mainly affects photorespiration (maybe solely GDC), whereas basic cellular metabolism remains largely unchanged. Since ER-ANT1 homologs are restricted to higher plants, it is tempting to speculate that this carrier fulfils a plant-specific function directly or indirectly controlling cellular ROS production. The observation that ER-ANT1 activity is associated with cellular ROS levels reveals an unexpected and critical physiological connection between the ER and other organelles in plants. PMID:23860249

  12. CaMKII-dependent endoplasmic reticulum fission by whisker stimulation and during cortical spreading depolarization.

    PubMed

    Kucharz, Krzysztof; Lauritzen, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Cortical spreading depolarization waves, the cause underlying migraine aura, are also the markers and mechanism of pathology in the acutely injured human brain. Propagation of spreading depolarization wave uniquely depends on the interaction between presynaptic and postsynaptic glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In the normally perfused brain, even a single wave causes a massive depolarization of neurons and glia, which results in transient loss of neuronal function and depression of the ongoing electrocorticographic activity. Endoplasmic reticulum is the cellular organelle of particular importance for modulation of neurotransmission. Neuronal endoplasmic reticulum structure is assumed to be persistently continuous in neurons, but is rapidly lost within 1 to 2 min of global cerebral ischaemia, i.e. the organelle disintegrates by fission. This phenomenon appears to be timed with the cardiac arrest-induced cortical spreading depolarizations, rather than ensuing cell death. To what extent NMDAR-dependent processes may trigger neuronal endoplasmic reticulum fission and whether fission is reversible in the normally perfused brain is unknown. We used two-photon microscopy to examine neuronal endoplasmic reticulum structural dynamics during whisker stimulation and cortical spreading depolarizations in vivo. Somatosensory stimulation triggered loss of endoplasmic reticulum continuity, a likely outcome of constriction and fission, in dendritic spines within less than 10 s of stimulation, which was spontaneously reversible and recovery to normal took 5 min. The endoplasmic reticulum fission was inhibited by blockade of NMDAR and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activated downstream of the NMDARs, whereas inhibition of guanosine triphosphate hydrolases hindered regain of endoplasmic reticulum continuity, i.e. fusion. In contrast to somatosensory stimulation, endoplasmic reticulum fission during spreading depolarization was widespread and

  13. Retrograde traffic from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Spang, Anne

    2013-06-01

    Proteins to be secreted are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus. The transport of these proteins requires the localization and activity of proteins that create ER exit sites, coat proteins to collect cargo and to reshape the membrane into a transport container, and address labels--SNARE proteins--to target the vesicles specifically to the Golgi apparatus. In addition some proteins may need export chaperones or export receptors to enable their exit into transport vesicles. ER export factors, SNAREs, and misfolded Golgi-resident proteins must all be retrieved from the Golgi to the ER again. This retrieval is also part of the organellar homeostasis pathway essential to maintaining the identity of the ER and of the Golgi apparatus. In this review, I will discuss the different processes in retrograde transport from the Golgi to the ER and highlight the mechanistic insights we have obtained in the last couple of years.

  14. Retrograde Traffic from the Golgi to the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Spang, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Proteins to be secreted are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus. The transport of these proteins requires the localization and activity of proteins that create ER exit sites, coat proteins to collect cargo and to reshape the membrane into a transport container, and address labels—SNARE proteins—to target the vesicles specifically to the Golgi apparatus. In addition some proteins may need export chaperones or export receptors to enable their exit into transport vesicles. ER export factors, SNAREs, and misfolded Golgi-resident proteins must all be retrieved from the Golgi to the ER again. This retrieval is also part of the organellar homeostasis pathway essential to maintaining the identity of the ER and of the Golgi apparatus. In this review, I will discuss the different processes in retrograde transport from the Golgi to the ER and highlight the mechanistic insights we have obtained in the last couple of years. PMID:23732476

  15. Plant Endoplasmic Reticulum-Plasma Membrane Contact Sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengwei; Hawes, Chris; Hussey, Patrick J

    2017-04-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) acts as a superhighway with multiple sideroads that connects the different membrane compartments including the ER to the plasma membrane (PM). ER-PM contact sites (EPCSs) are a common feature in eukaryotic organisms, but have not been studied well in plants owing to the lack of molecular markers and to the difficulty in resolving the EPCS structure using conventional microscopy. Recently, however, plant protein complexes required for linking the ER and PM have been identified. This is a further step towards understanding the structure and function of plant EPCSs. We highlight some recent studies in this field and suggest several hypotheses that relate to the possible function of EPCSs in plants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation Pathways of Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Thibault, Guillaume; Ng, Davis T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Protein misfolding is a common cellular event that can produce intrinsically harmful products. To reduce the risk, quality control mechanisms are deployed to detect and eliminate misfolded, aggregated, and unassembled proteins. In the secretory pathway, it is mainly the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathways that perform this role. Here, specialized factors are organized to monitor and process the folded states of nascent polypeptides. Despite the complex structures, topologies, and posttranslational modifications of client molecules, the ER mechanisms are the best understood among all protein quality-control systems. This is the result of convergent and sometimes serendipitous discoveries by researchers from diverse fields. Although major advances in ER quality control and ERAD came from all model organisms, this review will focus on the discoveries culminating from the simple budding yeast. PMID:23209158

  17. Form follows function: the importance of endoplasmic reticulum shape.

    PubMed

    Westrate, L M; Lee, J E; Prinz, W A; Voeltz, G K

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a remarkably complex structure, composed of a single bilayer that forms the nuclear envelope, along with a network of sheets and dynamic tubules. Our understanding of the biological significance of the complex architecture of the ER has improved dramatically in the last few years. The identification of proteins and forces required for maintaining ER shape, as well as more advanced imaging techniques, has allowed the relationship between ER shape and function to come into focus. These studies have also revealed unexpected new functions of the ER and novel ER domains regulating alterations in ER dynamics. The importance of ER structure has become evident as recent research has identified diseases linked to mutations in ER-shaping proteins. In this review, we discuss what is known about the maintenance of ER architecture, the relationship between ER structure and function, and diseases associated with defects in ER structure.

  18. The endoplasmic reticulum: structure, function and response to cellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Dianne S; Blower, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, dynamic structure that serves many roles in the cell including calcium storage, protein synthesis and lipid metabolism. The diverse functions of the ER are performed by distinct domains; consisting of tubules, sheets and the nuclear envelope. Several proteins that contribute to the overall architecture and dynamics of the ER have been identified, but many questions remain as to how the ER changes shape in response to cellular cues, cell type, cell cycle state and during development of the organism. Here we discuss what is known about the dynamics of the ER, what questions remain, and how coordinated responses add to the layers of regulation in this dynamic organelle.

  19. Arresting a Torsin ATPase Reshapes the Endoplasmic Reticulum*

    PubMed Central

    Rose, April E.; Zhao, Chenguang; Turner, Elizabeth M.; Steyer, Anna M.; Schlieker, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Torsins are membrane-tethered AAA+ ATPases residing in the nuclear envelope (NE) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we show that the induction of a conditional, dominant-negative TorsinB variant provokes a profound reorganization of the endomembrane system into foci containing double membrane structures that are derived from the ER. These double-membrane sinusoidal structures are formed by compressing the ER lumen to a constant width of 15 nm, and are highly enriched in the ATPase activator LULL1. Further, we define an important role for a highly conserved aromatic motif at the C terminus of Torsins. Mutations in this motif perturb LULL1 binding, reduce ATPase activity, and profoundly limit the induction of sinusoidal structures. PMID:24275647

  20. Modeling of axonal endoplasmic reticulum network by spastic paraplegia proteins.

    PubMed

    Yalçın, Belgin; Zhao, Lu; Stofanko, Martin; O'Sullivan, Niamh C; Kang, Zi Han; Roost, Annika; Thomas, Matthew R; Zaessinger, Sophie; Blard, Olivier; Patto, Alex L; Sohail, Anood; Baena, Valentina; Terasaki, Mark; O'Kane, Cahir J

    2017-07-25

    Axons contain a smooth tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network that is thought to be continuous with ER throughout the neuron; the mechanisms that form this axonal network are unknown. Mutations affecting reticulon or REEP proteins, with intramembrane hairpin domains that model ER membranes, cause an axon degenerative disease, hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). We show that Drosophila axons have a dynamic axonal ER network, which these proteins help to model. Loss of HSP hairpin proteins causes ER sheet expansion, partial loss of ER from distal motor axons, and occasional discontinuities in axonal ER. Ultrastructural analysis reveals an extensive ER network in axons, which shows larger and fewer tubules in larvae that lack reticulon and REEP proteins, consistent with loss of membrane curvature. Therefore HSP hairpin-containing proteins are required for shaping and continuity of axonal ER, thus suggesting roles for ER modeling in axon maintenance and function.

  1. Stacked endoplasmic reticulum sheets are connected by helicoidal membrane motifs

    PubMed Central

    Terasaki, Mark; Shemesh, Tom; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Klemm, Robin W.; Schalek, Richard; Hayworth, Kenneth J.; Hand, Arthur R.; Yankova, Maya; Huber, Greg; Lichtman, Jeff W.; Rapoport, Tom A.; Kozlov, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) often forms stacked membrane sheets, an arrangement that is likely required to accommodate a maximum of membrane-bound polysomes for secretory protein synthesis. How sheets are stacked is unknown. Here, we used novel staining and automated ultra-thin sectioning electron microscopy methods to analyze stacked ER sheets in neuronal cells and secretory salivary gland cells of mice. Our results show that stacked ER sheets form a continuous membrane system in which the sheets are connected by twisted membrane surfaces with helical edges of left- or right-handedness. The three-dimensional structure of tightly stacked ER sheets resembles a parking garage, in which the different levels are connected by helicoidal ramps. A theoretical model explains the experimental observations and indicates that the structure corresponds to a minimum of elastic energy of sheet edges and surfaces. The structure allows the dense packing of ER sheets in the restricted space of a cell. PMID:23870120

  2. Terasaki Spiral Ramps in the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guven, Jemal; Huber, Greg; Valencia, Dulce María

    2014-10-01

    We present a model describing the morphology as well as the assembly of "Terasaki ramps," the recently discovered helicoidal connections linking adjacent sheets of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The fundamental unit is a localized symmetric double-ramped "parking garage" formed by two separated gently pitched, approximately helicoidal, ramps of opposite chiralities. This geometry is stabilized by a short-range repulsive interaction between ramps associated with bending energy which opposes the long-range attraction associated with tension. The ramp inner boundaries are themselves stabilized by the condensation of membrane-shaping proteins along their length. A mechanism for parking garage self-assembly is proposed involving the nucleation of dipoles at the center of tubular three-way junctions within the smooth ER. Our predictions are compared with the experimental data.

  3. Inositol trisphosphate modification of ion transport in rough endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Muallem, S; Schoeffield, M; Pandol, S; Sachs, G

    1985-07-01

    The ion transport properties of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) from liver have been defined by using measurements of active and potential gradient-driven transport. The Ca2+ pump is shown to be electrogenic, and both ATP and potential difference is able to drive vanadate-inhibitable Ca2+ uptake into the RER. ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport into the RER depends on the presence of tetraethylammonium-sensitive cation conductance and a furosemide-inhibited cation/chloride cotransport pathway. Inositol trisphosphate does not affect either of the monovalent ion translocation systems but activates a Ca2+ conductance in the RER, allowing efflux of RER Ca2+ stores into the cytosol in exchange for K+ uptake.

  4. Inositol trisphosphate modification of ion transport in rough endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Muallem, S; Schoeffield, M; Pandol, S; Sachs, G

    1985-01-01

    The ion transport properties of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) from liver have been defined by using measurements of active and potential gradient-driven transport. The Ca2+ pump is shown to be electrogenic, and both ATP and potential difference is able to drive vanadate-inhibitable Ca2+ uptake into the RER. ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport into the RER depends on the presence of tetraethylammonium-sensitive cation conductance and a furosemide-inhibited cation/chloride cotransport pathway. Inositol trisphosphate does not affect either of the monovalent ion translocation systems but activates a Ca2+ conductance in the RER, allowing efflux of RER Ca2+ stores into the cytosol in exchange for K+ uptake. PMID:3874400

  5. Snapshot: implications for melatonin in endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Ma, Zhiqiang; Di, Shouyin; Jiang, Shuai; Li, Yue; Fan, Chongxi

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important intracellular membranous organelle. Previous studies have demonstrated that the ER is responsible for protein folding and trafficking, lipid synthesis and the maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Interestingly, the morphology and structure of the ER were recently found to be important. Melatonin is a hormone that anticipates the daily onset of darkness in mammals, and it is well known that melatonin acts as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the body. Notably, the existing evidence demonstrates that melatonin is involved in ER homeostasis, particularly in the morphology of the ER, indicating a potential protective role of melatonin. This review discusses the existing knowledge regarding the implications for the involvement of melatonin in ER homeostasis. PMID:27759160

  6. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Lipid Metabolism: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Basseri, Sana; Austin, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a crucial role in protein folding, assembly, and secretion. Disruption of ER homeostasis may lead to accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER lumen, a condition referred to as ER stress. In response to ER stress, a signal transduction pathway known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated. UPR activation allows the cell to cope with an increased protein-folding demand on the ER. Recent studies have shown that ER stress/UPR activation plays a critical role in lipid metabolism and homeostasis. ER-stress-dependent dysregulation of lipid metabolism may lead to dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. In this paper, we examine recent findings illustrating the important role ER stress/UPR signalling pathways play in regulation of lipid metabolism, and how they may lead to dysregulation of lipid homeostasis. PMID:22195283

  7. Biosynthesis and processing of ribophorins in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, M G; Marcantonio, E E; Hakimi, J; Ort, V M; Atkinson, P H; Sabatini, D; Kreibich, G

    1984-09-01

    Ribophorins are two transmembrane glycoproteins characteristic of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, which are thought to be involved in the binding of ribosomes. Their biosynthesis was studied in vivo using lines of cultured rat hepatocytes (clone 9) and pituitary cells (GH 3.1) and in cell-free synthesis experiments. In vitro translation of mRNA extracted from free and bound polysomes of clone 9 cells demonstrated that ribophorins are made exclusively on bound polysomes. The primary translation products of ribophorin messengers obtained from cultured hepatocytes or from regenerating livers co-migrated with the respective mature proteins, but had slightly higher apparent molecular weights (2,000) than the unglycosylated forms immunoprecipitated from cells treated with tunicamycin. This indicates that ribophorins, in contrast to all other endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins previously studied, contain transient amino-terminal insertion signals which are removed co-translationally. Kinetic and pulse-chase experiments with [35S]methionine and [3H]mannose demonstrated that ribophorins are not subjected to electrophoretically detectable posttranslational modifications, such as proteolytic cleavage or trimming and terminal glycosylation of oligosaccharide side chain(s). Direct analysis of the oligosaccharides of ribophorin l showed that they do not contain the terminal sugars characteristic of complex oligosaccharides and that they range in composition from Man8GlcNAc to Man5GlcNAc. These findings, as well as the observation that the mature proteins are sensitive to endoglycosidase H and insensitive to endoglycosidase D, are consistent with the notion that the biosynthetic pathway of the ribophorins does not require a stage of passage through the Golgi apparatus.

  8. Autophagy modulates endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death in podocytes: A protective role

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu-Chi; Chang, Jer-Ming; Chen, Chien-An

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress occurs in a variety of patho-physiological mechanisms and there has been great interest in managing this pathway for the treatment of clinical diseases. Autophagy is closely interconnected with endoplasmic reticulum stress to counteract the possible injurious effects related with the impairment of protein folding. Studies have shown that glomerular podocytes exhibit high rate of autophagy to maintain as terminally differentiated cells. In this study, podocytes were exposed to tunicamycin and thapsigargin to induce endoplasmic reticulum stress. Thapsigargin/tunicamycin treatment induced a significant increase in endoplasmic reticulum stress and of cell death, represented by higher GADD153 and GRP78 expression and propidium iodide flow cytometry, respectively. However, thapsigargin/tunicamycin stimulation also enhanced autophagy development, demonstrated by monodansylcadaverine assay and LC3 conversion. To evaluate the regulatory effects of autophagy on endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death, rapamycin (Rap) or 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was added to enhance or inhibit autophagosome formation. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death was decreased at 6 h, but was not reduced at 24 h after Rap+TG or Rap+TM treatment. In contrast, endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death increased at 6 and 24 h after 3-MA+TG or 3-MA+TM treatment. Our study demonstrated that thapsigargin/tunicamycin treatment induced endoplasmic reticulum stress which resulted in podocytes death. Autophagy, which counteracted the induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, was simultaneously enhanced. The salvational role of autophagy was supported by adding Rap/3-MA to mechanistically regulate the expression of autophagy and autophagosome formation. In summary, autophagy helps the podocytes from cell death and may contribute to sustain the longevity as a highly differentiated cell lineage. PMID:25322957

  9. The shape of things to come: regulation of shape changes in endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Paiement, J; Bergeron, J

    2001-01-01

    Shape changes in the endoplasmic reticulum control fundamental cell processes including nuclear envelope assembly in mitotic cells, calcium homeostasis in cytoplasmic domains of secreting and motile cells, and membrane traffic in the early secretion apparatus between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. Opposing forces of assembly (membrane fusion) and disassembly (membrane fragmentation) ultimately determine the size and shape of this organelle. This review examines some of the regulatory mechanisms involved in these processes and how they occur at specific sites or subcompartments of the endoplasmic reticulum.

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in chondrodysplasias caused by mutations in collagen types II and X.

    PubMed

    Gawron, Katarzyna

    2016-11-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum is primarily recognized as the site of synthesis and folding of secreted, membrane-bound, and some organelle-targeted proteins. An imbalance between the load of unfolded proteins and the processing capacity in endoplasmic reticulum leads to the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins and endoplasmic reticulum stress, which is a hallmark of a number of storage diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, a number of metabolic diseases, and cancer. Moreover, its contribution as a novel mechanistic paradigm in genetic skeletal diseases associated with abnormalities of the growth plates and dwarfism is considered. In this review, I discuss the mechanistic significance of endoplasmic reticulum stress, abnormal folding, and intracellular retention of mutant collagen types II and X in certain variants of skeletal chondrodysplasia.

  11. Toll-like receptor 4-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to endothelial dysfunction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Impairment of vasodilator action of insulin is associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated as one of the mechanisms for pathophysiology of various cardiometabolic syndromes, including insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. ...

  12. The Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Protein Calreticulin in Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0203 TITLE: The Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Protein Calreticulin in Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease PRINCIPAL...1 July 2015- 30 June 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Protein Calreticulin in Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease 5a... kidney targeted microbubble/ultrasound-mediated plasmid delivery. We will also examine non-targeted CRT knockdown in these mice. Aim 2.b: We will

  13. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Oxidative Stress: A Vicious Nexus Implicated in Bowel Disease Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Wai Chin; Shastri, Madhur D.; Eri, Rajaraman

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a complex protein folding and trafficking organelle. Alteration and discrepancy in the endoplasmic reticulum environment can affect the protein folding process and hence, can result in the production of misfolded proteins. The accumulation of misfolded proteins causes cellular damage and elicits endoplasmic reticulum stress. Under such stress conditions, cells exhibit reduced functional synthesis, and will undergo apoptosis if the stress is prolonged. To resolve the ER stress, cells trigger an intrinsic mechanism called an unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR is an adaptive signaling process that triggers multiple pathways through the endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane transducers, to reduce and remove misfolded proteins and improve the protein folding mechanism, in order to improve and maintain endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. An increasing number of studies support the view that oxidative stress has a strong connection with ER stress. During the protein folding process, reactive oxygen species are produced as by-products, leading to impaired reduction-oxidation (redox) balance conferring oxidative stress. As the protein folding process is dependent on redox homeostasis, the oxidative stress can disrupt the protein folding mechanism and enhance the production of misfolded proteins, causing further ER stress. It is proposed that endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress together play significant roles in the pathophysiology of bowel diseases. PMID:28379196

  14. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Oxidative Stress: A Vicious Nexus Implicated in Bowel Disease Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Chong, Wai Chin; Shastri, Madhur D; Eri, Rajaraman

    2017-04-05

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a complex protein folding and trafficking organelle. Alteration and discrepancy in the endoplasmic reticulum environment can affect the protein folding process and hence, can result in the production of misfolded proteins. The accumulation of misfolded proteins causes cellular damage and elicits endoplasmic reticulum stress. Under such stress conditions, cells exhibit reduced functional synthesis, and will undergo apoptosis if the stress is prolonged. To resolve the ER stress, cells trigger an intrinsic mechanism called an unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR is an adaptive signaling process that triggers multiple pathways through the endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane transducers, to reduce and remove misfolded proteins and improve the protein folding mechanism, in order to improve and maintain endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. An increasing number of studies support the view that oxidative stress has a strong connection with ER stress. During the protein folding process, reactive oxygen species are produced as by-products, leading to impaired reduction-oxidation (redox) balance conferring oxidative stress. As the protein folding process is dependent on redox homeostasis, the oxidative stress can disrupt the protein folding mechanism and enhance the production of misfolded proteins, causing further ER stress. It is proposed that endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress together play significant roles in the pathophysiology of bowel diseases.

  15. Determinant for Endoplasmic Reticulum Retention in the Luminal Domain of the Human Cytomegalovirus US3 Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungwook; Park, Boyoun; Ahn, Kwangseog

    2003-01-01

    US3 of human cytomegalovirus is an endoplasmic reticulum resident transmembrane glycoprotein that binds to major histocompatibility complex class I molecules and prevents their departure. The endoplasmic reticulum retention signal of the US3 protein is contained in the luminal domain of the protein. To define the endoplasmic reticulum retention sequence in more detail, we have generated a series of deletion and point mutants of the US3 protein. By analyzing the rate of intracellular transport and immunolocalization of the mutants, we have identified Ser58, Glu63, and Lys64 as crucial for retention, suggesting that the retention signal of the US3 protein has a complex spatial arrangement and does not comprise a contiguous sequence of amino acids. We also show that a modified US3 protein with a mutation in any of these amino acids maintains its ability to bind class I molecules; however, such mutated proteins are no longer retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and are not able to block the cell surface expression of class I molecules. These findings indicate that the properties that allow the US3 glycoprotein to be localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and bind major histocompatibility complex class I molecules are located in different parts of the molecule and that the ability of US3 to block antigen presentation is due solely to its ability to retain class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:12525649

  16. Modeling Endoplasmic Reticulum Network Maintenance in a Plant Cell.

    PubMed

    Lin, Congping; White, Rhiannon R; Sparkes, Imogen; Ashwin, Peter

    2017-07-11

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in plant cells forms a highly dynamic network of complex geometry. ER network morphology and dynamics are influenced by a number of biophysical processes, including filament/tubule tension, viscous forces, Brownian diffusion, and interactions with many other organelles and cytoskeletal elements. Previous studies have indicated that ER networks can be thought of as constrained minimal-length networks acted on by a variety of forces that perturb and/or remodel the network. Here, we study two specific biophysical processes involved in remodeling. One is the dynamic relaxation process involving a combination of tubule tension and viscous forces. The other is the rapid creation of cross-connection tubules by direct or indirect interactions with cytoskeletal elements. These processes are able to remodel the ER network: the first reduces network length and complexity whereas the second increases both. Using live cell imaging of ER network dynamics in tobacco leaf epidermal cells, we examine these processes on ER network dynamics. Away from regions of cytoplasmic streaming, we suggest that the dynamic network structure is a balance between the two processes, and we build an integrative model of the two processes for network remodeling. This model produces quantitatively similar ER networks to those observed in experiments. We use the model to explore the effect of parameter variation on statistical properties of the ER network. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Human Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Oakes, Scott A.; Papa, Feroz R.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous genetic and environmental insults impede the ability of cells to properly fold and posttranslationally modify secretory and transmembrane proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), leading to a buildup of misfolded proteins in this organelle—a condition called ER stress. ER-stressed cells must rapidly restore protein-folding capacity to match protein-folding demand if they are to survive. In the presence of high levels of misfolded proteins in the ER, an intracellular signaling pathway called the unfolded protein response (UPR) induces a set of transcriptional and translational events that restore ER homeostasis. However, if ER stress persists chronically at high levels, a terminal UPR program ensures that cells commit to self-destruction. Chronic ER stress and defects in UPR signaling are emerging as key contributors to a growing list of human diseases, including diabetes, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Hence, there is much interest in targeting components of the UPR as a therapeutic strategy to combat these ER stress–associated pathologies. PMID:25387057

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in kidney function and disease.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Mai; Yoshida, Hiderou

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a number of papers have reported that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in the onset of various kidney diseases, but the pathological mechanisms responsible have not been clarified. In this review, we summarize recent findings on this issue and try to clarify the pathology of ER stress-induced kidney diseases. ER stress is evoked in various kidney diseases, including diabetic nephropathy, renal fibrosis, inflammation or osmolar contrast-induced renal injury, ischemia-reperfusion, genetic mutations of renal proteins, proteinuria and cyclosporine A treatment. In some cases, chemical chaperones, such as 4-phenylbutyrate and taurodeoxycholic acid, relieve the symptoms, indicating that ER stress-induced apoptosis of renal cells is one of the major causes of certain kidney diseases. Actually, the ER stress response provides protection against some kidney diseases, although the PERK-ATF4-CHOP pathway of the ER stress response is proapoptotic in some kidney diseases. The disposal of unfolded proteins by autophagy is also protective for some ER stress-induced kidney diseases. Because ER stress is a major cause of some kidney diseases, the ER stress response and autophagy, which deal with unfolded proteins that accumulate in the ER, are promising therapeutic targets in acute and chronic kidney diseases.

  19. A Molecular Web: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Namrata; Talwar, Priti; Parimisetty, Avinash; Lefebvre d’Hellencourt, Christian; Ravanan, Palaniyandi

    2014-01-01

    Execution of fundamental cellular functions demands regulated protein folding homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an active organelle existing to implement this function by folding and modifying secretory and membrane proteins. Loss of protein folding homeostasis is central to various diseases and budding evidences suggest ER stress as being a major contributor in the development or pathology of a diseased state besides other cellular stresses. The trigger for diseases may be diverse but, inflammation and/or ER stress may be basic mechanisms increasing the severity or complicating the condition of the disease. Chronic ER stress and activation of the unfolded-protein response (UPR) through endogenous or exogenous insults may result in impaired calcium and redox homeostasis, oxidative stress via protein overload thereby also influencing vital mitochondrial functions. Calcium released from the ER augments the production of mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Toxic accumulation of ROS within ER and mitochondria disturbs fundamental organelle functions. Sustained ER stress is known to potentially elicit inflammatory responses via UPR pathways. Additionally, ROS generated through inflammation or mitochondrial dysfunction could accelerate ER malfunction. Dysfunctional UPR pathways have been associated with a wide range of diseases including several neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, metabolic disorders, cancer, inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and others. In this review, we have discussed the UPR signaling pathways, and networking between ER stress-induced inflammatory pathways, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial signaling events, which further induce or exacerbate ER stress. PMID:25120434

  20. Chlamydiae interaction with the endoplasmic reticulum: contact, function and consequences.

    PubMed

    Derré, Isabelle

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydiae and chlamydiae-related organisms are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens. They reside in a membrane-bound compartment termed the inclusion and have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to interact with cellular organelles. This review focuses on the nature, the function(s) and the consequences of chlamydiae-inclusion interaction with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The inclusion membrane establishes very close contact with the ER at specific sites termed ER-inclusion membrane contact sites (MCSs). These MCSs are constituted of a specific set of factors, including the C. trachomatis effector protein IncD and the host cell proteins CERT and VAPA/B. Because CERT and VAPA/B have a demonstrated role in the non-vesicular trafficking of lipids between the ER and the Golgi, it was proposed that Chlamydia establish MCSs with the ER to acquire host lipids. However, the recruitment of additional factors to ER-inclusion MCSs, such as the ER calcium sensor STIM1, may suggest additional functions unrelated to lipid acquisition. Finally, chlamydiae interaction with the ER appears to induce the ER stress response, but this response is quickly dampened by chlamydiae to promote host cell survival. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A molecular web: endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Namrata; Talwar, Priti; Parimisetty, Avinash; Lefebvre d'Hellencourt, Christian; Ravanan, Palaniyandi

    2014-01-01

    Execution of fundamental cellular functions demands regulated protein folding homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an active organelle existing to implement this function by folding and modifying secretory and membrane proteins. Loss of protein folding homeostasis is central to various diseases and budding evidences suggest ER stress as being a major contributor in the development or pathology of a diseased state besides other cellular stresses. The trigger for diseases may be diverse but, inflammation and/or ER stress may be basic mechanisms increasing the severity or complicating the condition of the disease. Chronic ER stress and activation of the unfolded-protein response (UPR) through endogenous or exogenous insults may result in impaired calcium and redox homeostasis, oxidative stress via protein overload thereby also influencing vital mitochondrial functions. Calcium released from the ER augments the production of mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Toxic accumulation of ROS within ER and mitochondria disturbs fundamental organelle functions. Sustained ER stress is known to potentially elicit inflammatory responses via UPR pathways. Additionally, ROS generated through inflammation or mitochondrial dysfunction could accelerate ER malfunction. Dysfunctional UPR pathways have been associated with a wide range of diseases including several neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, metabolic disorders, cancer, inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and others. In this review, we have discussed the UPR signaling pathways, and networking between ER stress-induced inflammatory pathways, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial signaling events, which further induce or exacerbate ER stress.

  2. Proteostasis: bad news and good news from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Noack, Julia; Brambilla Pisoni, Giorgia; Molinari, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an intracellular compartment dedicated to the synthesis and maturation of secretory and membrane proteins, totalling about 30% of the total eukaryotic cells proteome. The capacity to produce correctly folded polypeptides and to transport them to their correct intra- or extracellular destinations relies on proteostasis networks that regulate and balance the activity of protein folding, quality control, transport and degradation machineries. Nutrient and environmental changes, pathogen infection aging and, more relevant for the topics discussed in this review, mutations that impair attainment of the correct 3D structure of nascent polypeptide chains may compromise the activity of the proteostasis networks with devastating consequences on cells, organs and organisms' homeostasis. Here we present a review of mechanisms regulating folding and quality control of proteins expressed in the ER, and we describe the protein degradation and the ER stress pathways activated by the expression of misfolded proteins in the ER lumen. Finally, we highlight select examples of proteopathies (also known as conformational disorders or protein misfolding diseases) caused by protein misfolding in the ER and/or affecting cellular proteostasis and therapeutic interventions that might alleviate or cure the disease symptoms.

  3. Proteomic analysis of endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Qian, Dandan; Tian, Lihong; Qu, Leqing

    2015-09-23

    The defects in storage proteins secretion in the endosperm of transgenic rice seeds often leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which produces floury and shrunken seeds, but the mechanism of this response remains unclear. We used an iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis of ER-stressed rice seeds due to the endosperm-specific suppression of OsSar1 to identify changes in the protein levels in response to ER stress. ER stress changed the expression of 405 proteins in rice seed by >2.0- fold compared with the wild-type control. Of these proteins, 140 were upregulated and 265 were downregulated. The upregulated proteins were mainly involved in protein modification, transport and degradation, and the downregulated proteins were mainly involved in metabolism and stress/defense responses. A KOBAS analysis revealed that protein-processing in the ER and degradation-related proteasome were the predominant upregulated pathways in the rice endosperm in response to ER stress. Trans-Golgi protein transport was also involved in the ER stress response. Combined with bioinformatic and molecular biology analyses, our proteomic data will facilitate our understanding of the systemic responses to ER stress in rice seeds.

  4. Stacked endoplasmic reticulum sheets are connected by helicoidal membrane motifs.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, Mark; Shemesh, Tom; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Klemm, Robin W; Schalek, Richard; Hayworth, Kenneth J; Hand, Arthur R; Yankova, Maya; Huber, Greg; Lichtman, Jeff W; Rapoport, Tom A; Kozlov, Michael M

    2013-07-18

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) often forms stacked membrane sheets, an arrangement that is likely required to accommodate a maximum of membrane-bound polysomes for secretory protein synthesis. How sheets are stacked is unknown. Here, we used improved staining and automated ultrathin sectioning electron microscopy methods to analyze stacked ER sheets in neuronal cells and secretory salivary gland cells of mice. Our results show that stacked ER sheets form a continuous membrane system in which the sheets are connected by twisted membrane surfaces with helical edges of left- or right-handedness. The three-dimensional structure of tightly stacked ER sheets resembles a parking garage, in which the different levels are connected by helicoidal ramps. A theoretical model explains the experimental observations and indicates that the structure corresponds to a minimum of elastic energy of sheet edges and surfaces. The structure allows the dense packing of ER sheets in the restricted space of a cell. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Beta Cells and Development of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Sonya G.; Burcin, Mark; Gromada, Jesper; Urano, Fumihiko

    2009-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular compartment responsible for multiple important cellular functions including the biosynthesis and folding of newly synthesized proteins destined for secretion, such as insulin. A myriad of pathological and physiological factors perturb ER function and cause dysregulation of ER homeostasis, leading to ER stress. ER stress elicits a signaling cascade to mitigate stress, the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). As long as the UPR can relieve stress, cells can produce the proper amount of proteins and maintain ER homeostasis. If the UPR, however, fails to maintain ER homeostasis, cells will undergo apoptosis. Activation of the UPR is critical to the survival of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells with high secretory protein production. Any disruption of ER homeostasis in β-cells can lead to cell death and contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes. There are several models of ER stress-mediated diabetes. In this review, we outline the underlying molecular mechanisms of ER stress-mediated β-cell dysfunction and death during the progression of diabetes. PMID:19665428

  6. Modeling of axonal endoplasmic reticulum network by spastic paraplegia proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yalçın, Belgin; Zhao, Lu; Stofanko, Martin; O'Sullivan, Niamh C; Kang, Zi Han; Roost, Annika; Thomas, Matthew R; Zaessinger, Sophie; Blard, Olivier; Patto, Alex L; Sohail, Anood; Baena, Valentina; Terasaki, Mark; O'Kane, Cahir J

    2017-01-01

    Axons contain a smooth tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network that is thought to be continuous with ER throughout the neuron; the mechanisms that form this axonal network are unknown. Mutations affecting reticulon or REEP proteins, with intramembrane hairpin domains that model ER membranes, cause an axon degenerative disease, hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). We show that Drosophila axons have a dynamic axonal ER network, which these proteins help to model. Loss of HSP hairpin proteins causes ER sheet expansion, partial loss of ER from distal motor axons, and occasional discontinuities in axonal ER. Ultrastructural analysis reveals an extensive ER network in axons, which shows larger and fewer tubules in larvae that lack reticulon and REEP proteins, consistent with loss of membrane curvature. Therefore HSP hairpin-containing proteins are required for shaping and continuity of axonal ER, thus suggesting roles for ER modeling in axon maintenance and function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23882.001 PMID:28742022

  7. Hyperhomocysteinemia, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and alcoholic liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Cheng; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Deficiencies in vitamins or other factors (B6, B12, folic acid, betaine) and genetic disorders for the metabolism of the non-protein amino acid-homocysteine (Hcy) lead to hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy). HHcy is an integral component of several disorders including cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration, diabetes and alcoholic liver disease. HHcy unleashes mediators of inflammation such as NFκB, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, increases production of intracellular superoxide anion causing oxidative stress and reducing intracellular level of nitric oxide (NO), and induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress which can explain many processes of Hcy-promoted cell injury such as apoptosis, fat accumulation, and inflammation. Animal models have played an important role in determining the biological effects of HHcy. ER stress may also be involved in other liver diseases such as α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) deficiency and hepatitis C and/or B virus infection. Future research should evaluate the possible potentiative effects of alcohol and hepatic virus infection on ER stress-induced liver injury, study potentially beneficial effects of lowering Hcy and preventing ER stress in alcoholic humans, and examine polymorphism of Hcy metabolizing enzymes as potential risk-factors for the development of HHcy and liver disease. PMID:15188490

  8. Dietary toxins, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, Kalindi D; Zimmet, Paul Z; Myers, Mark A

    2008-05-01

    The incidence of Type 1 diabetes has been increasing at a rate too rapid to be due to changes in genetic risk. Instead changes in environmental factors are the likely culprit. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in the production of newly synthesized proteins and interference with these processes leads to ER stress. The insulin-producing beta cells are particularly prone to ER stress as a result of their heavy engagement in insulin production. Increasing evidence suggests ER stress is central to initiation and progression of Type 1 diabetes. An early environmental exposure, such as toxins and viral infections, can impart a significant physiological load on beta cells to initiate abnormal processing of proinsulin, ER stress and insulin secretory defects. Release of altered proinsulin from the beta cells early in life may trigger autoimmunity in those with genetic susceptibility leading to cytokine-induced nitric oxide production and so exacerbating ER stress in beta cells, ultimately leading to apoptosis of beta cells and diabetes. Here we suggest that ER stress is an inherent cause of beta cell dysfunction and environmental factors, in particular dietary toxins derived from Streptomyces in infected root vegetables, can impart additional stress that aggravates beta cell death and progression to diabetes. Furthermore, we propose that the increasing incidence of Type 1 diabetes may be accounted for by increased dietary exposure to ER-stress-inducing Streptomyces toxins.

  9. Terasaki Ramps in the Endoplasmic Reticulum: Structure, Function and Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Greg; Guven, Jemal; Valencia, Dulce-Maria

    2015-03-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has long been considered an exceedingly important and complex cellular organelle in eukaryotes (like you). It is a membrane structure, part folded lamellae, part tubular network, that both envelopes the nucleus and threads its way outward, all the way to the cell's periphery. Despite the elegant mechanics of bilayer membranes offered by the work of Helfrich and Canham, as far as the ER is concerned, theory has mostly sat on the sidelines. However, refined imaging of the ER has recently revealed beautiful and subtle geometrical forms - simple geometries, from the mathematical point of view - which some have called a ``parking garage for ribosomes.'' I'll review the discovery and physics of Terasaki ramps and discuss their relation to cell-biological questions, such as ER and nuclear-membrane re-organization during mitosis. Rather than being a footnote in a textbook on differential geometry, these structures suggest answers to a number of the ER's structure-function problems.

  10. Coordination of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Signaling During Maize Seed Development

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, Rebecca S.

    2010-11-20

    Seed storage reserves represent one of the most important sources of renewable fixed carbon and nitrogen found in nature. Seeds are well-adapted for diverting metabolic resources to synthesize storage proteins as well as enzymes and structural proteins needed for their transport and packaging into membrane bound storage protein bodies. Our underlying hypothesis is that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response provides the critical cellular control of metabolic flux required for optimal accumulation of storage reserves in seeds. This highly conserved response is a cellular mechanism to monitor the protein folding environment of the ER and restore homeostasis in the presencemore » of unfolded or misfolded proteins. In seeds, deposition of storage proteins in protein bodies is a highly specialized process that takes place even in the presence of mutant proteins that no longer fold and package properly. The capacity of the ER to deposit these aberrant proteins in protein bodies during a period that extends several weeks provides an excellent model for deconvoluting the ER stress response of plants. We have focused in this project on the means by which the ER senses and responds to functional perturbations and the underlying intracellular communication that occurs among biosynthetic, trafficking and degradative pathways for proteins during seed development.« less

  11. Lipid droplet formation on opposing sides of the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Sturley, Stephen L.; Hussain, M. Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    In animal cells, the primary repositories of esterified fatty acids and alcohols (neutral lipids) are lipid droplets that form on the lumenal and/or cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. A monolayer of amphipathic lipids, intermeshed with key proteins, serves to solubilize neutral lipids as they are synthesized and desorbed. In specialized cells, mobilization of the lipid cargo for delivery to other tissues occurs by secretion of lipoproteins into the plasma compartment. Serum lipoprotein assembly requires an obligate structural protein anchor (apolipoprotein B) and a dedicated chaperone, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. By contrast, lipid droplets that form on the cytoplasmic face of the ER lack an obligate protein scaffold or any required chaperone/lipid transfer protein. Mobilization of neutral lipids from the cytosol requires regulated hydrolysis followed by transfer of the products to different organelles or export from cells. Several proteins play a key role in controlling droplet number, stability, and catabolism; however, it is our premise that their formation initiates spontaneously, solely as a consequence of neutral lipid synthesis. This default pathway directs droplets into the cytoplasm where they accumulate in many lipid disorders. PMID:22701043

  12. Membrane glycerolipid equilibrium under endoplasmic reticulum stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao-Yuan; Nguyen, Van Cam; Chuang, Ling; Kanehara, Kazue

    2018-06-02

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an indispensable organelle for secretory protein synthesis as well as metabolism of phospholipids and their derivatives in eukaryotic cells. Various external and internal factors may cause an accumulation of aberrant proteins in the ER, which causes ER stress and activates cellular ER stress responses to cope with the stress. In animal research, molecular mechanisms for protein quality control upon ER stress are well documented; however, how cells maintain lipid homeostasis under ER stress is an emerging issue. The ratio of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), two major phospholipid classes, is important under ER stress in animal cells. However, in seed plants, no study has reported on the changes in membrane lipid content under ER stress, although a number of physiologically important environmental stresses, such as heat and salinity, induce ER stress. Here, we investigated membrane glycerolipid metabolism under ER stress in Arabidopsis. ER stress transcriptionally affected PC and PE biosynthesis pathways differentially, with no significant changes in membrane glycerolipid content. Our results suggest that higher plants maintain membrane lipid equilibrium during active transcription of phospholipid biosynthetic genes under ER stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Selective export of autotaxin from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Lin; Wang, Baolu; Xiong, Chaoyang; Zhang, Xiaotian; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Junjie

    2017-04-28

    Autotaxin (ATX) or ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (ENPP2) is a secretory glycoprotein and functions as the key enzyme for lysophosphatidic acid generation. The mechanism of ATX protein trafficking is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated that p23, a member of the p24 protein family, was the protein-sorting receptor required for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export of ATX. A di-phenylalanine (Phe-838/Phe-839) motif in the human ATX C-terminal region was identified as a transport signal essential for the ATX-p23 interaction. Knockdown of individual Sec24 isoforms by siRNA revealed that ER export of ATX was impaired only if Sec24C was down-regulated. These results suggest that ATX is selectively exported from the ER through a p23, Sec24C-dependent pathway. In addition, it was found that AKT signaling played a role in ATX secretion regulation to facilitate ATX ER export by enhancing the nuclear factor of activated T cell-mediated p23 expression. Furthermore, the di-hydrophobic amino acid motifs (FY) also existed in the C-terminal regions of human ENPP1 and ENPP3. Such a p23, Sec24C-dependent selective ER export mechanism is conserved among these ENPP family members. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. The endoplasmic reticulum in plant immunity and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Eichmann, Ruth; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a highly dynamic organelle in eukaryotic cells and a major production site of proteins destined for vacuoles, the plasma membrane, or apoplast in plants. At the ER, these secreted proteins undergo multiple processing steps, which are supervised and conducted by the ER quality control system. Notably, processing of secreted proteins can considerably elevate under stress conditions and exceed ER folding capacities. The resulting accumulation of unfolded proteins is defined as ER stress. The efficiency of cells to re-establish proper ER function is crucial for stress adaptation. Besides delivering proteins directly antagonizing and resolving stress conditions, the ER monitors synthesis of immune receptors. This indicates the significance of the ER for the establishment and function of the plant immune system. Recent studies point out the fragility of the entire system and highlight the ER as initiator of programed cell death (PCD) in plants as was reported for vertebrates. This review summarizes current knowledge on the impact of the ER on immune and PCD signaling. Understanding the integration of stress signals by the ER bears a considerable potential to optimize development and to enhance stress resistance of plants. PMID:22936941

  15. The endoplasmic reticulum in plant immunity and cell death.

    PubMed

    Eichmann, Ruth; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a highly dynamic organelle in eukaryotic cells and a major production site of proteins destined for vacuoles, the plasma membrane, or apoplast in plants. At the ER, these secreted proteins undergo multiple processing steps, which are supervised and conducted by the ER quality control system. Notably, processing of secreted proteins can considerably elevate under stress conditions and exceed ER folding capacities. The resulting accumulation of unfolded proteins is defined as ER stress. The efficiency of cells to re-establish proper ER function is crucial for stress adaptation. Besides delivering proteins directly antagonizing and resolving stress conditions, the ER monitors synthesis of immune receptors. This indicates the significance of the ER for the establishment and function of the plant immune system. Recent studies point out the fragility of the entire system and highlight the ER as initiator of programed cell death (PCD) in plants as was reported for vertebrates. This review summarizes current knowledge on the impact of the ER on immune and PCD signaling. Understanding the integration of stress signals by the ER bears a considerable potential to optimize development and to enhance stress resistance of plants.

  16. Receptor-mediated Drp1 oligomerization on endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Wei-Ke; Fan, Xintao; Strack, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Drp1 is a dynamin guanosine triphosphatase important for mitochondrial and peroxisomal division. Drp1 oligomerization and mitochondrial recruitment are regulated by multiple factors, including interaction with mitochondrial receptors such as Mff, MiD49, MiD51, and Fis. In addition, both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and actin filaments play positive roles in mitochondrial division, but mechanisms for their roles are poorly defined. Here, we find that a population of Drp1 oligomers is associated with ER in mammalian cells and is distinct from mitochondrial or peroxisomal Drp1 populations. Subpopulations of Mff and Fis1, which are tail-anchored proteins, also localize to ER. Drp1 oligomers assemble on ER, from which they can transfer to mitochondria. Suppression of Mff or inhibition of actin polymerization through the formin INF2 significantly reduces all Drp1 oligomer populations (mitochondrial, peroxisomal, and ER bound) and mitochondrial division, whereas Mff targeting to ER has a stimulatory effect on division. Our results suggest that ER can function as a platform for Drp1 oligomerization, and that ER-associated Drp1 contributes to mitochondrial division. PMID:29158231

  17. Regulation of endoplasmic reticulum turnover by selective autophagy.

    PubMed

    Khaminets, Aliaksandr; Heinrich, Theresa; Mari, Muriel; Grumati, Paolo; Huebner, Antje K; Akutsu, Masato; Liebmann, Lutz; Stolz, Alexandra; Nietzsche, Sandor; Koch, Nicole; Mauthe, Mario; Katona, Istvan; Qualmann, Britta; Weis, Joachim; Reggiori, Fulvio; Kurth, Ingo; Hübner, Christian A; Dikic, Ivan

    2015-06-18

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest intracellular endomembrane system, enabling protein and lipid synthesis, ion homeostasis, quality control of newly synthesized proteins and organelle communication. Constant ER turnover and modulation is needed to meet different cellular requirements and autophagy has an important role in this process. However, its underlying regulatory mechanisms remain unexplained. Here we show that members of the FAM134 reticulon protein family are ER-resident receptors that bind to autophagy modifiers LC3 and GABARAP, and facilitate ER degradation by autophagy ('ER-phagy'). Downregulation of FAM134B protein in human cells causes an expansion of the ER, while FAM134B overexpression results in ER fragmentation and lysosomal degradation. Mutant FAM134B proteins that cause sensory neuropathy in humans are unable to act as ER-phagy receptors. Consistently, disruption of Fam134b in mice causes expansion of the ER, inhibits ER turnover, sensitizes cells to stress-induced apoptotic cell death and leads to degeneration of sensory neurons. Therefore, selective ER-phagy via FAM134 proteins is indispensable for mammalian cell homeostasis and controls ER morphology and turnover in mice and humans.

  18. Protein Bodies in Leaves Exchange Contents through the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    DOE PAGES

    Saberianfar, Reza; Sattarzadeh, Amirali; Joensuu, Jussi J.; ...

    2016-05-23

    Protein bodies (PBs) are organelles found in seeds whose main function is the storage of proteins that are used during germination for sustaining growth. PBs can also be induced to form in leaves when foreign proteins are produced at high levels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and when fused to one of three tags: Zera®, elastin-like polypeptides (ELP), or hydrophobin-I (HFBI). Here in this study, we investigate the differences between ELP, HFBI and Zera PB formation, packing, and communication. Our results confirm the ER origin of all three fusion-tag-induced PBs. We show that secretory pathway proteins can be sequestered intomore » all types of PBs but with different patterns, and that different fusion tags can target a specific protein to different PBs. Zera PBs are mobile and dependent on actomyosin motility similar to ELP and HFBI PBs. We show in vivo trafficking of proteins between PBs using GFP photoconversion. We also show that protein trafficking between ELP or HFBI PBs is faster and proteins travel further when compared to Zera PBs. Our results indicate that fusion-tag-induced PBs do not represent terminally stored cytosolic organelles, but that they form in, and remain part of the ER, and dynamically communicate with each other via the ER. We hypothesize that the previously documented PB mobility along the actin cytoskeleton is associated with ER movement rather than independent streaming of detached organelles.« less

  19. Endoplasmic Reticulum - Plasma Membrane Crosstalk Mediated by the Extended Synaptotagmins.

    PubMed

    Saheki, Yasunori

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) possesses multiplicity of functions including protein synthesis, membrane lipid biogenesis, and Ca 2+ storage and has broad localization throughout the cell. While the ER and most other membranous organelles are highly interconnected via vesicular traffic that relies on membrane budding and fusion reactions, the ER forms direct contacts with virtually all other membranous organelles, including the plasma membrane (PM), without membrane fusion. Growing evidence suggests that these contacts play major roles in cellular physiology, including the regulation of Ca 2+ homeostasis and signaling and control of cellular lipid homeostasis. Extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts) are evolutionarily conserved family of ER-anchored proteins that tether the ER to the PM in PM PI(4,5)P 2 -dependent and cytosolic Ca 2+ -regulated manner. In addition, E-Syts possess a cytosolically exposed lipid-harboring module that confers the ability to transfer/exchange glycerolipids between the ER and the PM at E-Syts-mediated ER-PM contacts. In this chapter, the functions of ER-PM contacts and their role in non-vesicular lipid transport with special emphasis on the crosstalk between the two bilayers mediated by E-Syts will be discussed.

  20. STIM proteins and the endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Silvia; Meyer, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic organelles can interact with each other through stable junctions where the two membranes are kept in close apposition. The junction that connects the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane (ER-PM junction) is unique in providing a direct communication link between the ER and the PM. In a recently discovered signaling process, STIM (stromal-interacting molecule) proteins sense a drop in ER Ca(2+) levels and directly activate Orai PM Ca(2+) channels across the junction space. In an inverse process, a voltage-gated PM Ca(2+) channel can directly open ER ryanodine-receptor Ca(2+) channels in striated-muscle cells. Although ER-PM junctions were first described 50 years ago, their broad importance in Ca(2+) signaling, as well as in the regulation of cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol lipid transfer, has only recently been realized. Here, we discuss research from different fields to provide a broad perspective on the structures and unique roles of ER-PM junctions in controlling signaling and metabolic processes.

  1. Role of Flippases in Protein Glycosylation in the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Rush, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylation is essential to the synthesis, folding, and function of glycoproteins in eukaryotes. Proteins are co- and posttranslationally modified by a variety of glycans in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); modifications include C- and O-mannosylation, N-glycosylation, and the addition of glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchors. Protein glycosylation in the ER of eukaryotes involves enzymatic steps on both the cytosolic and lumenal surfaces of the ER membrane. The glycans are first assembled as precursor glycolipids, on the cytosolic surface of the ER, which are tethered to the membrane by attachment to a long-chain polyisoprenyl phosphate (dolichol) containing a reduced α-isoprene. The lipid-anchored building blocks then migrate transversely (flip) across the ER membrane to the lumenal surface, where final assembly of the glycan is completed. This strategy allows the cell to export high-energy biosynthetic intermediates as lipid-bound glycans, while constraining the glycosyl donors to the site of assembly on the membrane surface. This review focuses on the flippases that participate in protein glycosylation in the ER. PMID:26917968

  2. The Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Is Permeable to Small Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Le Gall, Sylvie; Neuhof, Andrea; Rapoport, Tom

    2004-01-01

    The lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) differs from the cytosol in its content of ions and other small molecules, but it is unclear whether the ER membrane is as impermeable as other membranes in the cell. Here, we have tested the permeability of the ER membrane to small, nonphysiological molecules. We report that isolated ER vesicles allow different chemical modification reagents to pass from the outside into the lumen with little hindrance. In permeabilized cells, the ER membrane allows the passage of a small, charged modification reagent that is unable to cross the plasma membrane or the lysosomal and trans-Golgi membranes. A larger polar reagent of ∼5 kDa is unable to pass through the ER membrane. Permeation of the small molecules is passive because it occurs at low temperature in the absence of energy. These data indicate that the ER membrane is significantly more leaky than other cellular membranes, a property that may be required for protein folding and other functions of the ER. PMID:14617815

  3. The Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Jyoti D.; Kaufman, Randal J.

    2009-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site where proteins enter the secretory pathway. Proteins are translocated into the ER lumen in an unfolded state and require protein chaperones and catalysts of protein folding to attain their final appropriate conformation. A sensitive surveillance mechanism exists to prevent misfolded proteins from transiting the secretory pathway and ensures that persistently misfolded proteins are directed towards a degradative pathway. In addition, those processes that prevent accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER lumen are highly regulated by an intracellular signaling pathway known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR provides a mechanism by which cells can rapidly adapt to alterations in client protein-folding load in the ER lumen by expanding the capacity for protein folding. In addition, a variety of insults that disrupt protein folding in the ER lumen also activate the UPR. These include changes in intralumenal calcium, altered glycosylation, nutrient deprivation, pathogen infection, expression of folding-defective proteins, and changes in redox status. Persistent protein misfolding initiates apoptotic cascades that are now known to play fundamental roles in the pathogenesis of multiple human diseases including diabetes, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:18023214

  4. Microdomains of endoplasmic reticulum within the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal myofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Kaakinen, Mika; Papponen, Hinni; Metsikkoe, Kalervo

    2008-01-15

    The relationship between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal muscle cells has remained obscure. In this study, we found that ER- and SR-specific membrane proteins exhibited diverse solubility properties when extracted with mild detergents. Accordingly, the major SR-specific protein Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase (SERCA) remained insoluble in Brij 58 and floated in sucrose gradients while typical ER proteins were partially or fully soluble. Sphingomyelinase treatment rendered SERCA soluble in Brij 58. Immunofluorescence staining for resident ER proteins revealed dispersed dots over I bands contrasting the continuous staining pattern of SERCA. Infection of isolated myofibers with enveloped virusesmore » indicated that interfibrillar protein synthesis occurred. Furthermore, we found that GFP-tagged Dad1, able to incorporate into the oligosaccharyltransferase complex, showed the dot-like structures but the fusion protein was also present in membranes over the Z lines. This behaviour mimics that of cargo proteins that accumulated over the Z lines when blocked in the ER. Taken together, the results suggest that resident ER proteins comprised Brij 58-soluble microdomains within the insoluble SR membrane. After synthesis and folding in the ER-microdomains, cargo proteins and non-incorporated GFP-Dad1 diffused into the Z line-flanking compartment which likely represents the ER exit sites.« less

  5. Sel1L is indispensable for mammalian endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation, endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis, and survival

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shengyi; Shi, Guojun; Han, Xuemei; Francisco, Adam B.; Ji, Yewei; Mendonça, Nuno; Liu, Xiaojing; Locasale, Jason W.; Simpson, Kenneth W.; Duhamel, Gerald E.; Kersten, Sander; Yates, John R.; Long, Qiaoming; Qi, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Suppressor/Enhancer of Lin-12-like (Sel1L) is an adaptor protein for the E3 ligase hydroxymethylglutaryl reductase degradation protein 1 (Hrd1) involved in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Sel1L’s physiological importance in mammalian ERAD, however, remains to be established. Here, using the inducible Sel1L knockout mouse and cell models, we show that Sel1L is indispensable for Hrd1 stability, ER homeostasis, and survival. Acute loss of Sel1L leads to premature death in adult mice within 3 wk with profound pancreatic atrophy. Contrary to current belief, our data show that mammalian Sel1L is required for Hrd1 stability and ERAD function both in vitro and in vivo. Sel1L deficiency disturbs ER homeostasis, activates ER stress, attenuates translation, and promotes cell death. Serendipitously, using a biochemical approach coupled with mass spectrometry, we found that Sel1L deficiency causes the aggregation of both small and large ribosomal subunits. Thus, Sel1L is an indispensable component of the mammalian Hrd1 ERAD complex and ER homeostasis, which is essential for protein translation, pancreatic function, and cellular and organismal survival. PMID:24453213

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment protein 3 knockdown suppresses lung cancer through endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seong-Ho; Chang, Seung-Hee; Cho, Kyung-Cho; Kim, Sanghwa; Park, Sungjin; Lee, Ah Young; Jiang, Hu-Lin; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Somin; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Seo, Hwi Won; Chae, Chanhee; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Park, Jongsun; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2016-10-04

    Trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus is elevated in cancer cells. Therefore, proteins of the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) attract significant attention as targets for cancer treatment. Enhanced cancer cell growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition by ERGICs correlates with poor-prognosis of lung cancer. This prompted us to assess whether knockdown of ERGIC3 may decrease lung cancer growth. To test the hypothesis, the effects of ERGIC3 short hairpin RNA (shERGIC3) on ER stress-induced cell death and lung tumorigenesis were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown of ERGIC3 led to ER stress-induced autophagic cell death and suppression of proliferation in the A549 human lung cancer cell-line. Moreover, non-invasive aerosol-delivery of shERGIC3 using the biocompatible carrier glycerol propoxylate triacrylate and spermine (GPT-SPE) inhibited lung tumorigenesis in the K-rasLA1 murine model of lung cancer. Our data suggest that suppression of ERGIC3 could provide a framework for the development of effective lung cancer therapies.

  7. Endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition reduces hypertension through the preservation of resistance blood vessel structure and function.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Rachel E; Werner, Kaitlyn E; Yum, Victoria; Lu, Chao; Tat, Victor; Memon, Muzammil; No, Yejin; Ask, Kjetil; Dickhout, Jeffrey G

    2016-08-01

    Our purpose was to determine if endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition lowers blood pressure (BP) in hypertension by correcting vascular dysfunction. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) was used as a model of human essential hypertension with its normotensive control, the Wistar Kyoto rat. Animals were subjected to endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition with 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA; 1 g/kg per day, orally) for 5 weeks from 12 weeks of age. BP was measured weekly noninvasively and at endpoint with carotid arterial cannulation. Small mesenteric arteries were removed for vascular studies. Function was assessed with a Mulvany-Halpern style myograph, and structure was assessed by measurement of medial-to-lumen ratio in perfusion fixed vessels as well as three-dimensional confocal reconstruction of vessel wall components. Endoplasmic reticulum stress was assessed by quantitative real time-PCR and western blotting; oxidative stress was assessed by 3-nitrotyrosine and dihydroethidium staining. 4-PBA significantly lowered BP in SHR (vehicle 206.1 ± 4.3 vs. 4-PBA 178.9 ± 3.1, systolic) but not Wistar Kyoto. 4-PBA diminished contractility and augmented endothelial-dependent vasodilation in SHR small mesenteric arteries, as well as reducing media-to-lumen ratio. 4-PBA significantly reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress in SHR resistance vessels. Normotensive resistance vessels, treated with the endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducing agent, tunicamycin, show decreased endothelial-dependent vasodilation; this was improved with 4-PBA treatment. 3-Nitrotyrosine and dihydroethidium staining indicated that endoplasmic reticulum stress leads to reactive oxygen species generation resolvable by 4-PBA treatment. Endoplasmic reticulum stress caused endothelial-mediated vascular dysfunction contributing to elevated BP in the SHR model of human essential hypertension.

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions: structure, function and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Emmanuel; Dingsdale, Hayley; Parker, Tony; Voronina, Svetlana; Tepikin, Alexei V

    2016-06-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) junctions are contact sites between the ER and the PM; the distance between the two organelles in the junctions is below 40 nm and the membranes are connected by protein tethers. A number of molecular tools and technical approaches have been recently developed to visualise, modify and characterise properties of ER-PM junctions. The junctions serve as the platforms for lipid exchange between the organelles and for cell signalling, notably Ca(2+) and cAMP signalling. Vice versa, signalling events regulate the development and properties of the junctions. Two Ca(2+) -dependent mechanisms of de novo formation of ER-PM junctions have been recently described and characterised. The junction-forming proteins and lipids are currently the focus of vigorous investigation. Junctions can be relatively short-lived and simple structures, forming and dissolving on the time scale of a few minutes. However, complex, sophisticated and multifunctional ER-PM junctions, capable of attracting numerous protein residents and other cellular organelles, have been described in some cell types. The road from simplicity to complexity, i.e. the transformation from simple 'nascent' ER-PM junctions to advanced stable multiorganellar complexes, is likely to become an attractive research avenue for current and future junctologists. Another area of considerable research interest is the downstream cellular processes that can be activated by specific local signalling events in the ER-PM junctions. Studies of the cell physiology and indeed pathophysiology of ER-PM junctions have already produced some surprising discoveries, likely to expand with advances in our understanding of these remarkable organellar contact sites. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  9. Chemical Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone Alleviates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hai Ying; Sanada, Shoji; Matsuzaki, Takashi; Liao, Yulin; Okuda, Keiji; Yamato, Masaki; Tsuchida, Shota; Araki, Ryo; Asano, Yoshihiro; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Asakura, Masanori; French, Brent A; Sakata, Yasushi; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Minamino, Tetsuo

    2016-03-04

    Doxorubicin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent for cancer, but its use is often limited by cardiotoxicity. Doxorubicin causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dilation in cardiomyocytes, and we have demonstrated that ER stress plays important roles in the pathophysiology of heart failure. We evaluated the role of ER stress in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and examined whether the chemical ER chaperone could prevent doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction. We confirmed that doxorubicin caused ER dilation in mouse hearts, indicating that doxorubicin may affect ER function. Doxorubicin activated an ER transmembrane stress sensor, activating transcription factor 6, in cultured cardiomyocytes and mouse hearts. However, doxorubicin suppressed the expression of genes downstream of activating transcription factor 6, including X-box binding protein 1. The decreased levels of X-box binding protein 1 resulted in a failure to induce the expression of the ER chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 which plays a major role in adaptive responses to ER stress. In addition, doxorubicin activated caspase-12, an ER membrane-resident apoptotic molecule, which can lead to cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction. Cardiac-specific overexpression of glucose-regulated protein 78 by adeno-associated virus 9 or the administration of the chemical ER chaperone 4-phenylbutyrate attenuated caspase-12 cleavage, and alleviated cardiac apoptosis and dysfunction induced by doxorubicin. Doxorubicin activated the ER stress-initiated apoptotic response without inducing the ER chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78, further augmenting ER stress in mouse hearts. Cardiac-specific overexpression of glucose-regulated protein 78 or the administration of the chemical ER chaperone alleviated the cardiac dysfunction induced by doxorubicin and may facilitate the safe use of doxorubicin for cancer treatment. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Loss of Mitofusin 2 Promotes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Ngoh, Gladys A.; Papanicolaou, Kyriakos N.; Walsh, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The outer mitochondrial membrane GTPase mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) is known to regulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) shape in addition to its mitochondrial fusion effects. However, its role in ER stress is unknown. We report here that induction of ER stress with either thapsigargin or tunicamycin in mouse embryonic fibroblasts leads to up-regulation of Mfn2 mRNA and protein levels with no change in the expression of the mitochondrial shaping factors Mfn1, Opa1, Drp1, and Fis1. Genetic deletion of Mfn2 but not Mfn1 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts or cardiac myocytes in mice led to an increase in the expression of the ER chaperone proteins. Genetic ablation of Mfn2 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts amplified ER stress and exacerbated ER stress-induced apoptosis. Deletion of Mfn2 delayed translational recovery through prolonged eIF2α phosphorylation associated with decreased GADD34 and p58IPK expression and elevated C/EBP homologous protein induction at late time points. These changes in the unfolded protein response were coupled to increased cell death reflected by augmented caspase 3/7 activity, lactate dehydrogenase release from cells, and an increase in propidium iodide-positive nuclei in response to thapsigargin or tunicamycin treatment. In contrast, genetic deletion of Mfn1 did not affect ER stress-mediated increase in ER chaperone synthesis or eIF2α phosphorylation. Additionally, ER stress-induced C/EBP homologous protein, GADD34, and p58IPK induction and cell death were not affected by loss of Mfn1. We conclude that Mfn2 but not Mfn1 is an ER stress-inducible protein that is required for the proper temporal sequence of the ER stress response. PMID:22511781

  11. Mobility of cytochrome P450 in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

    PubMed

    Szczesna-Skorupa, E; Chen, C D; Rogers, S; Kemper, B

    1998-12-08

    Cytochrome P450 2C2 is a resident endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein that is excluded from the recycling pathway and contains redundant retention functions in its N-terminal transmembrane signal/anchor sequence and its large, cytoplasmic domain. Unlike some ER resident proteins, cytochrome P450 2C2 does not contain any known retention/retrieval signals. One hypothesis to explain exclusion of resident ER proteins from the transport pathway is the formation of networks by interaction with other proteins that immobilize the proteins and are incompatible with packaging into the transport vesicles. To determine the mobility of cytochrome P450 in the ER membrane, chimeric proteins of either cytochrome P450 2C2, its catalytic domain, or the cytochrome P450 2C1 N-terminal signal/anchor sequence fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) were expressed in transiently transfected COS1 cells. The laurate hydroxylase activities of cytochrome P450 2C2 or the catalytic domain with GFP fused to the C terminus were similar to the native enzyme. The mobilities of the proteins in the membrane were determined by recovery of fluorescence after photobleaching. Diffusion coefficients for all P450 chimeras were similar, ranging from 2.6 to 6.2 x 10(-10) cm2/s. A coefficient only slightly larger (7.1 x 10(-10) cm2/s) was determined for a GFP chimera that contained a C-terminal dilysine ER retention signal and entered the recycling pathway. These data indicate that exclusion of cytochrome P450 from the recycling pathway is not mediated by immobilization in large protein complexes.

  12. Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum in hepatitis B virus replication.

    PubMed

    Xia, Weiliang; Shen, Yan; Xie, Haiyang; Zheng, Shusen

    2006-11-01

    The mitochondrial calcium and downstream proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2 (PyK2) signaling pathway are critical to hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in intracellular calcium regulation. To investigate the role of ER in HBV replication, the HBV genome transfected HepG2.2.15 cells were treated by cyclosporine A (CsA), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), ryanodine and U73122, which are all specific blockers of calcium channels located in either ER or mitochondria. The HBV replication level was evaluated by two methods: slot blot hybridization analysis of intracellular HBV DNA and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of secreted HBV DNA in supernatant; the activation of PyK2 kinase was detected by Western blot analysis. Results indicated that the HBV replication was inhibited when mitochondrial permeability transition pore, ER Ca2+ -ATPase and ER inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) were blocked by CsA, CPA and U73122, respectively; but not inhibited when ER ryanodine receptor was blocked by ryanodine. The PyK2 phosphorylation level declined after treatment of 2 microg/ml CsA, 5 microM CPA and 25 microM U73122, but not changed apparently after 50 microM ryanodine treatment. Compared with monotreatment, a more powerful inhibitory effect was achieved when the CsA, CPA and U73122 were combined used in twosome or triple manner, while the HBV replication level did not change apparently when ryanodine combined with CsA, CPA or U73122. In conclusion, besides the mitochondria, the ER also participates in the HBV replication through calcium-PyK2 signaling pathway; the calcium channels of ER Ca2+ -ATPase and ER IP3R are responsible for this role; during this complicated process, an interaction between ER and mitochondria maybe involved.

  13. Lipolysis Response to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Adipose Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jingna; Liu, Shangxin; Zou, Liangqiang; Xu, Chong; Geng, Bin; Xu, Guoheng

    2012-01-01

    In obesity and diabetes, adipocytes show significant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which triggers a series of responses. This study aimed to investigate the lipolysis response to ER stress in rat adipocytes. Thapsigargin, tunicamycin, and brefeldin A, which induce ER stress through different pathways, efficiently activated a time-dependent lipolytic reaction. The lipolytic effect of ER stress occurred with elevated cAMP production and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. Inhibition of PKA reduced PKA phosphosubstrates and attenuated the lipolysis. Although both ERK1/2 and JNK are activated during ER stress, lipolysis is partially suppressed by inhibiting ERK1/2 but not JNK and p38 MAPK and PKC. Thus, ER stress induces lipolysis by activating cAMP/PKA and ERK1/2. In the downstream lipolytic cascade, phosphorylation of lipid droplet-associated protein perilipin was significantly promoted during ER stress but attenuated on PKA inhibition. Furthermore, ER stress stimuli did not alter the levels of hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase but caused Ser-563 and Ser-660 phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and moderately elevated its translocation from the cytosol to lipid droplets. Accompanying these changes, total activity of cellular lipases was promoted to confer the lipolysis. These findings suggest a novel pathway of the lipolysis response to ER stress in adipocytes. This lipolytic activation may be an adaptive response that regulates energy homeostasis but with sustained ER stress challenge could contribute to lipotoxicity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance because of persistently accelerated free fatty acid efflux from adipocytes to the bloodstream and other tissues. PMID:22223650

  14. Sigma Receptor 1 Modulates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Retinal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Yonju; Dun, Ying; Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Duplantier, Jennifer; Dong, Zheng; Liu, Kebin; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the mechanism of σ receptor 1 (σR1) neuroprotection in retinal neurons. Methods. Oxidative stress, which is implicated in diabetic retinopathy, was induced in mouse primary ganglion cells (GCs) and RGC-5 cells, and the effect of the σR1 ligand (+)-pentazocine on pro- and anti-apoptotic and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress gene expression was examined. Binding of σR1 to BiP, an ER chaperone protein, and σR1 phosphorylation status were examined by immunoprecipitation. Retinas were harvested from Ins2Akita/+ diabetic mice treated with (+)-pentazocine, and the expression of ER stress genes and of the retinal transcriptome was evaluated. Results. Oxidative stress induced the death of primary GCs and RGC-5 cells. The effect was decreased by the application of (+)-pentazocine. Stress increased σR1 binding to BiP and enhanced σR1 phosphorylation in RGC-5 cells. BiP binding was prevented, and σR1 phosphorylation decreased in the presence of (+)-pentazocine. The ER stress proteins PERK, ATF4, ATF6, IRE1α, and CHOP were upregulated in RGC-5 cells during oxidative stress, but decreased in the presence of (+)-pentazocine. A similar phenomenon was observed in retinas of Ins2Akita/+ diabetic mice. Retinal transcriptome analysis of Ins2Akita/+ mice compared with wild-type revealed differential expression of the genes critically involved in oxidative stress, differentiation, and cell death. The expression profile of those genes was reversed when the Ins2Akita/+ mice were treated with (+)-pentazocine. Conclusions. In retinal neurons, the molecular chaperone σR1 binds BiP under stressful conditions; (+)-pentazocine may exert its effects by dissociating σR1 from BiP. As stress in retinal cells increases, phosphorylation of σR1 is increased, which is attenuated when agonists bind to the receptor. PMID:20811050

  15. Sigma receptor 1 modulates endoplasmic reticulum stress in retinal neurons.

    PubMed

    Ha, Yonju; Dun, Ying; Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Duplantier, Jennifer; Dong, Zheng; Liu, Kebin; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Smith, Sylvia B

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of σ receptor 1 (σR1) neuroprotection in retinal neurons. Oxidative stress, which is implicated in diabetic retinopathy, was induced in mouse primary ganglion cells (GCs) and RGC-5 cells, and the effect of the σR1 ligand (+)-pentazocine on pro- and anti-apoptotic and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress gene expression was examined. Binding of σR1 to BiP, an ER chaperone protein, and σR1 phosphorylation status were examined by immunoprecipitation. Retinas were harvested from Ins2Akita/+ diabetic mice treated with (+)-pentazocine, and the expression of ER stress genes and of the retinal transcriptome was evaluated. Oxidative stress induced the death of primary GCs and RGC-5 cells. The effect was decreased by the application of (+)-pentazocine. Stress increased σR1 binding to BiP and enhanced σR1 phosphorylation in RGC-5 cells. BiP binding was prevented, and σR1 phosphorylation decreased in the presence of (+)-pentazocine. The ER stress proteins PERK, ATF4, ATF6, IRE1α, and CHOP were upregulated in RGC-5 cells during oxidative stress, but decreased in the presence of (+)-pentazocine. A similar phenomenon was observed in retinas of Ins2Akita/+ diabetic mice. Retinal transcriptome analysis of Ins2Akita/+ mice compared with wild-type revealed differential expression of the genes critically involved in oxidative stress, differentiation, and cell death. The expression profile of those genes was reversed when the Ins2Akita/+ mice were treated with (+)-pentazocine. In retinal neurons, the molecular chaperone σR1 binds BiP under stressful conditions; (+)-pentazocine may exert its effects by dissociating σR1 from BiP. As stress in retinal cells increases, phosphorylation of σR1 is increased, which is attenuated when agonists bind to the receptor.

  16. Preconditioning with Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Ameliorates Endothelial Cell Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Antony; Paton, Adrienne W.; El-Quadi, Monaliza; Paton, James C.; Fazal, Fabeha

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress, caused by disturbance in ER homeostasis, has been implicated in several pathological conditions such as ischemic injury, neurodegenerative disorders, metabolic diseases and more recently in inflammatory conditions. Our present study aims at understanding the role of ER stress in endothelial cell (EC) inflammation, a critical event in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). We found that preconditioning human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC) to ER stress either by depleting ER chaperone and signaling regulator BiP using siRNA, or specifically cleaving (inactivating) BiP using subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB), alleviates EC inflammation. The two approaches adopted to abrogate BiP function induced ATF4 protein expression and the phosphorylation of eIF2α, both markers of ER stress, which in turn resulted in blunting the activation of NF-κB, and restoring endothelial barrier integrity. Pretreatment of HPAEC with BiP siRNA inhibited thrombin-induced IκBα degradation and its resulting downstream signaling pathway involving NF-κB nuclear translocation, DNA binding, phosphorylation at serine536, transcriptional activation and subsequent expression of adhesion molecules. However, TNFα-mediated NF-κB signaling was unaffected upon BiP knockdown. In an alternative approach, SubAB-mediated inactivation of NF-κB was independent of IκBα degradation. Mechanistic analysis revealed that pretreatment of EC with SubAB interfered with the binding of the liberated NF-κB to the DNA, thereby resulting in reduced expression of adhesion molecules, cytokines and chemokines. In addition, both knockdown and inactivation of BiP stimulated actin cytoskeletal reorganization resulting in restoration of endothelial permeability. Together our studies indicate that BiP plays a central role in EC inflammation and injury via its action on NF-κB activation and regulation of vascular permeability. PMID:25356743

  17. Preconditioning with endoplasmic reticulum stress ameliorates endothelial cell inflammation.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Antony; Paton, Adrienne W; El-Quadi, Monaliza; Paton, James C; Fazal, Fabeha

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress, caused by disturbance in ER homeostasis, has been implicated in several pathological conditions such as ischemic injury, neurodegenerative disorders, metabolic diseases and more recently in inflammatory conditions. Our present study aims at understanding the role of ER stress in endothelial cell (EC) inflammation, a critical event in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). We found that preconditioning human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC) to ER stress either by depleting ER chaperone and signaling regulator BiP using siRNA, or specifically cleaving (inactivating) BiP using subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB), alleviates EC inflammation. The two approaches adopted to abrogate BiP function induced ATF4 protein expression and the phosphorylation of eIF2α, both markers of ER stress, which in turn resulted in blunting the activation of NF-κB, and restoring endothelial barrier integrity. Pretreatment of HPAEC with BiP siRNA inhibited thrombin-induced IκBα degradation and its resulting downstream signaling pathway involving NF-κB nuclear translocation, DNA binding, phosphorylation at serine536, transcriptional activation and subsequent expression of adhesion molecules. However, TNFα-mediated NF-κB signaling was unaffected upon BiP knockdown. In an alternative approach, SubAB-mediated inactivation of NF-κB was independent of IκBα degradation. Mechanistic analysis revealed that pretreatment of EC with SubAB interfered with the binding of the liberated NF-κB to the DNA, thereby resulting in reduced expression of adhesion molecules, cytokines and chemokines. In addition, both knockdown and inactivation of BiP stimulated actin cytoskeletal reorganization resulting in restoration of endothelial permeability. Together our studies indicate that BiP plays a central role in EC inflammation and injury via its action on NF-κB activation and regulation of vascular permeability.

  18. Lactobacillus acidophilus suppresses intestinal inflammation by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da Hye; Kim, Soochan; Lee, Jin Ha; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Che, Xiumei; Ma, Hyun Woo; Seo, Dong Hyuk; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Kim, Seung Won; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2018-06-22

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling play significant roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Thus, we evaluated whether new therapeutic probiotics have anti-colitic effects and we investigated their mechanisms related to NF-κB and ER-stress pathways. Luciferase, nitric oxide (NO), and cytokine assays using HT-29 or RAW264.7 cells were conducted. Mouse colitis was induced using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and confirmed by disease activity index and histology. Macrophages and T-cell subsets in isolated peritoneal cavity cells (PCCs) and splenocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Gene and cytokine expression profiles were determined using RT-PCR. Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA1) and Pediococcus pentosaceus inhibited NO production in RAW264.7 cells, but only LA1 inhibited Tnfa and induced Il10 expression. LA1 increased the life span of DSS-treated mice and attenuated the severity of colitis by inducing M2 macrophages in PCCs and Th2 and Treg cells in splenocytes. The restoration of goblet cells in the colon was accompanied by the induction of Il10 expression and the suppression of proinflammatory cytokines. Additionally, we found that LA1 exerts an anti-colitic effect by improving ER stress in HT-29 cells as well as in vivo. We showed that LA1 significantly interferes with ER stress and suppresses NF-κB activation. Our findings suggest that LA1 can be used as a potent immunomodulator in IBD treatment and the regulation of ER stress may have significant implications in treating IBD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. The Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ying; Lee, Kyung; Wang, Niansong; He, John Cijiang

    2017-03-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Accumulating evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a major role in the development and progression of DN. Recent findings suggested that many attributes of DN, such as hyperglycemia, proteinuria, and increased advanced glycation end products and free fatty acids, can all trigger unfolded protein response (UPR) in kidney cells. Herein, we review the current knowledge on the role of ER stress in the setting of kidney injury with a specific emphasis on DN. As maladaptive ER stress response caused by excessively prolonged UPR will eventually cause cell death and increase kidney injury, several ER stress inhibitors have been shown to improve DN in animal models, albeit blocking both adaptive and maladaptive UPR. More recently, reticulon-1A (RTN1A), an ER-associated protein, was shown to be increased in both human and mouse diabetic kidneys. Its expression correlates with the progression of DN, and its polymorphisms are associated with kidney disease in people with diabetes. Increased RTN1A expression heightened the ER stress response and renal cell apoptosis, and conversely reduced RTN1A in renal cells decreased apoptosis and ameliorated kidney injury and DN progression, suggesting that RTN1A may be a novel target to specifically restrain the maladaptive UPR. These findings suggest that ER stress response in renal cells is a key driver of progression of DN and that the inhibition of the unchecked ER stress response in DN, such as by inhibition of RTN1A function, may be a promising therapeutic approach against DN.

  20. The role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in hippocampal insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Sims-Robinson, Catrina; Bakeman, Anna; Glasser, Rebecca; Boggs, Janet; Pacut, Crystal; Feldman, Eva L

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome, which includes hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, has a negative impact on cognitive health. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is activated during metabolic syndrome, however it is not known which factor associated with metabolic syndrome contributes to this stress. ER stress has been reported to play a role in the development of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. The role of ER stress in the development of insulin resistance in hippocampal neurons is not known. In the current study, we investigated ER stress in the hippocampus of 3 different mouse models of metabolic syndrome: the C57BL6 mouse on a high fat (HF) diet; apolipoprotein E, leptin, and apolipoprotein B-48 deficient (ApoE 3KO) mice; and the low density lipoprotein receptor, leptin, and apolipoprotein B-48 deficient (LDLR 3KO) mice. We demonstrate that ER stress is activated in the hippocampus of HF mice, and for the first time, in ApoE 3KO mice, but not LDLR 3KO mice. The HF and ApoE 3KO mice are hyperglycemic; however, the LDLR 3KO mice have normal glycemia. This suggests that hyperglycemia may play a role in the activation of ER stress in the hippocampus. Similarly, we also demonstrate that impaired insulin signaling is only present in the HF and ApoE 3KO mice, which suggests that ER stress may play a role in insulin resistance in the hippocampus. To confirm this we pharmacologically induced ER stress with thapsigargin in human hippocampal neurons. We demonstrate for the first time that thapsigargin leads to ER stress and impaired insulin signaling in human hippocampal neurons. Our results may provide a potential mechanism that links metabolic syndrome and cognitive health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ibutilide protects against cardiomyocytes injury via inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial stress pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yi-Li; Huang, Xia; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Ya-Jun; Wei, Cheng-Xi; Zhao, Ming

    2017-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a complex disease with multiple inter-relating causes culminating in rapid atrial activation and atrial structural remodeling. The contribution of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria stress to AF has been highlighted. As the class III antiarrhythmic agent, ibutilide are widely used to AF. This study was designed to explore whether ibutilide could treat AF by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways and mitochondria stress. The neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were isolated and exposed to H 2 O 2 , ibutilide was add to the culture medium 12 h. Then the cell viability, oxidative stress levels and apoptotic rate were analyzed. In addition, endoplasmic reticulum stress related protein (GRP78, GRP94, CHOP), mitochondria-dependent protein (Bax, Bcl-2) and caspase-3/9/12 were identified by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. In our results, remarkable decreased cell viability and oxidative stress levels were detected in cardiomyocytes after treating with H 2 O 2 . The apoptotic rate and the expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways increased. While ibutilide significantly inhibited these changes. These data suggested that ibutilide serves a protective role against H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, and the mechanism is related to suppression of mitochondrial stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  2. Organization of transport from endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, A V; Zheng, H; Saint-Jore, C M; Kutuzov, M A; Evans, D E; Hawes, C R

    2000-01-01

    In plant cells, the organization of the Golgi apparatus and its interrelationships with the endoplasmic reticulum differ from those in mammalian and yeast cells. Endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus can now be visualized in plant cells in vivo with green fluorescent protein (GFP) specifically directed to these compartments. This makes it possible to study the dynamics of the membrane transport between these two organelles in the living cells. The GFP approach, in conjunction with a considerable volume of data about proteins participating in the transport between endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi in yeast and mammalian cells and the identification of their putative plant homologues, should allow the establishment of an experimental model in which to test the involvement of the candidate proteins in plants. As a first step towards the development of such a system, we are using Sar1, a small G-protein necessary for vesicle budding from the endoplasmic reticulum. This work has demonstrated that the introduction of Sar1 mutants blocks the transport from endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi in vivo in tobacco leaf epidermal cells and has therefore confirmed the feasibility of this approach to test the function of other proteins that are presumably involved in this step of endomembrane trafficking in plant cells.

  3. Nodal endoplasmic reticulum, a specialized form of endoplasmic reticulum found in gravity-sensing root tip columella cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, H. Q.; Staehelin, L. A.

    2001-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of columella root cap cells has been postulated to play a role in gravity sensing. We have re-examined the ultrastructure of columella cells in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) root tips preserved by high-pressure freezing/freeze-substitution techniques to gain more precise information about the organization of the ER in such cells. The most notable findings are: the identification of a specialized form of ER, termed "nodal ER," which is found exclusively in columella cells; the demonstration that the bulk of the ER is organized in the form of a tubular network that is confined to a peripheral layer under the plasma membrane; and the discovery that this ER-rich peripheral region excludes Golgi stacks, vacuoles, and amyloplasts but not mitochondria. Nodal ER domains consist of an approximately 100-nm-diameter central rod composed of oblong subunits to which usually seven sheets of rough ER are attached along their margins. These domains form patches at the interface between the peripheral ER network and the ER-free central region of the cells, and they occupy defined positions within central and flanking columella cells. Over one-half of the nodal ER domains are located along the outer tangential walls of the flanking cells. Cytochalasin D and latrunculin A cause an increase in size and a decrease in numbers of nodal ER domains. We postulate that the nodal ER membranes locally modulate the gravisensing signals produced by the sedimenting amyloplasts, and that the confinement of all ER membranes to the cell periphery serves to enhance the sedimentability of the amyloplasts in the central region of columella cells.

  4. Melatonin reduces endoplasmic reticulum stress and corneal dystrophy-associated TGFBIp through activation of endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung-Il; Lee, Eunhee; Akuzum, Begum; Jeong, Jang Bin; Maeng, Yong-Sun; Kim, Tae-Im; Kim, Eung Kweon

    2017-10-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is emerging as a factor for the pathogenesis of granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2). This study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of melatonin on ER stress in GCD2. Our results showed that GCD2 corneal fibroblasts were more susceptible to ER stress-induced death than were wild-type cells. Melatonin significantly inhibited GCD2 corneal cell death, caspase-3 activation, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 cleavage caused by the ER stress inducer, tunicamycin. Under ER stress, melatonin significantly suppressed the induction of immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein (BiP) and activation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), and their downstream target, alternative splicing of X-box binding protein 1(XBP1). Notably, the reduction in BiP and IRE1α by melatonin was suppressed by the ubiquitin-proteasome inhibitor, MG132, but not by the autophagy inhibitor, bafilomycin A1, indicating involvement of the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) system. Melatonin treatment reduced the levels of transforming growth factor-β-induced protein (TGFBIp) significantly, and this reduction was suppressed by MG132. We also found reduced mRNA expression of the ERAD system components HRD1 and SEL1L, and a reduced level of SEL1L protein in GCD2 cells. Interestingly, melatonin treatments enhanced SEL1L levels and suppressed the inhibition of SEL1L N-glycosylation caused by tunicamycin. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the mechanisms by which melatonin confers its protective actions during ER stress. The results also indicate that melatonin might have potential as a therapeutic agent for ER stress-related diseases including GCD2. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) protects against pressure overload-induced heart failure and lung remodeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Kwak, Dongmin; Lu, Zhongbing; Xu, Xin; Fassett, John; Wang, Huan; Wei, Yidong; Cavener, Douglas R; Hu, Xinli; Hall, Jennifer; Bache, Robert J; Chen, Yingjie

    2014-10-01

    Studies have reported that development of congestive heart failure is associated with increased endoplasmic reticulum stress. Double stranded RNA-activated protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is a major transducer of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response and directly phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2α, resulting in translational attenuation. However, the physiological effect of PERK on congestive heart failure development is unknown. To study the effect of PERK on ventricular structure and function, we generated inducible cardiac-specific PERK knockout mice. Under unstressed conditions, cardiac PERK knockout had no effect on left ventricular mass, or its ratio to body weight, cardiomyocyte size, fibrosis, or left ventricular function. However, in response to chronic transverse aortic constriction, PERK knockout mice exhibited decreased ejection fraction, increased left ventricular fibrosis, enhanced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and exacerbated lung remodeling in comparison with wild-type mice. PERK knockout also dramatically attenuated cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase expression in response to aortic constriction. Our findings suggest that PERK is required to protect the heart from pressure overload-induced congestive heart failure. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. [Effect of endoplasmic reticulum stress in trophocytes on the pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Zhou, C L; Yu, T T; Han, X J; Shi, H Y; Wang, H Z; Shen, J J; He, J

    2017-06-25

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of endoplasmic reticulum stress in trophocytes, in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). Methods: Sixty-one pregnant women who were hospitalized in Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University from January to December 2015 were recruited. Thirty-one women who were diagnosed as ICP were defined as the ICP group and 30 healthy pregnant women were defined as the control group. The localization and expression intensity of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP-78) in placental tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry technique. Electronic microscope was used to observe ultra-microstructure change of the endoplasmic reticulum in trophocytes and cell line Swan71. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and western blot were used to investigate the expression of GRP-78 mRNA and protein in Swan 71 cell. Results: (1) GRP-78 protein was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm of cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. The protein expression of GRP-78 in placentas of the ICP group (13.2±2.4) was significantly higher than that in the control group (7.8±1.3, P< 0.01). (2) The volume of endoplasmie reticulum did not increase and the microvilli developed well, with no swelling and no expansion of endoplasmic reticulum in the control group.In the ICP group, microvilli injury, endoplasmic reticulum edema were found; the volume of endoplasmic reticulum increased, with dilation, vacuolation and significant degranulation. After treated with 100 μmol/L cholyglycine for 24 hours, universal dilatation of the endoplasmic reticulum were seen in the Swan71 cells. (3) In Swan71 cells, cholylglycine displayed a concentration-dependent up-regulation on the expression of GRP-78. The expressions of GRP-78 mRNA in 0, 25, 50, 100 μmol/L cholylglycine experimental group were 1.01±0.17, 2.17±0.16, 5.47±0.36, 5.65±0.82, respectively. The expression of GRP-78 protein in 0, 25, 50, 100 μmol/L cholylglycine experimental group were 1.01±0

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Homeostasis in Reproductive Physiology and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Guzel, Elif; Arlier, Sefa; Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Tabak, Mehmet Selcuk; Ekiz, Tugba; Semerci, Nihan; Larsen, Kellie; Schatz, Frederick; Lockwood, Charles Joseph; Kayisli, Umit Ali

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), comprises 60% of the total cell membrane and interacts directly or indirectly with several cell organelles i.e., Golgi bodies, mitochondria and proteasomes. The ER is usually associated with large numbers of attached ribosomes. During evolution, ER developed as the specific cellular site of synthesis, folding, modification and trafficking of secretory and cell-surface proteins. The ER is also the major intracellular calcium storage compartment that maintains cellular calcium homeostasis. During the production of functionally effective proteins, several ER-specific molecular steps sense quantity and quality of synthesized proteins as well as proper folding into their native structures. During this process, excess accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the ER lumen results in ER stress, the homeostatic coping mechanism that activates an ER-specific adaptation program, (the unfolded protein response; UPR) to increase ER-associated degradation of structurally and/or functionally defective proteins, thus sustaining ER homeostasis. Impaired ER homeostasis results in aberrant cellular responses, contributing to the pathogenesis of various diseases. Both female and male reproductive tissues undergo highly dynamic cellular, molecular and genetic changes such as oogenesis and spermatogenesis starting in prenatal life, mainly controlled by sex-steroids but also cytokines and growth factors throughout reproductive life. These reproductive changes require ER to provide extensive protein synthesis, folding, maturation and then their trafficking to appropriate cellular location as well as destroying unfolded/misfolded proteins via activating ER-associated degradation mediated proteasomes. Many studies have now shown roles for ER stress/UPR signaling cascades in the endometrial menstrual cycle, ovarian folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation, spermatogenesis, fertilization, pre-implantation embryo development and pregnancy and parturition

  8. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Homeostasis in Reproductive Physiology and Pathology.

    PubMed

    Guzel, Elif; Arlier, Sefa; Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Tabak, Mehmet Selcuk; Ekiz, Tugba; Semerci, Nihan; Larsen, Kellie; Schatz, Frederick; Lockwood, Charles Joseph; Kayisli, Umit Ali

    2017-04-08

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), comprises 60% of the total cell membrane and interacts directly or indirectly with several cell organelles i.e., Golgi bodies, mitochondria and proteasomes. The ER is usually associated with large numbers of attached ribosomes. During evolution, ER developed as the specific cellular site of synthesis, folding, modification and trafficking of secretory and cell-surface proteins. The ER is also the major intracellular calcium storage compartment that maintains cellular calcium homeostasis. During the production of functionally effective proteins, several ER-specific molecular steps sense quantity and quality of synthesized proteins as well as proper folding into their native structures. During this process, excess accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the ER lumen results in ER stress, the homeostatic coping mechanism that activates an ER-specific adaptation program, (the unfolded protein response; UPR) to increase ER-associated degradation of structurally and/or functionally defective proteins, thus sustaining ER homeostasis. Impaired ER homeostasis results in aberrant cellular responses, contributing to the pathogenesis of various diseases. Both female and male reproductive tissues undergo highly dynamic cellular, molecular and genetic changes such as oogenesis and spermatogenesis starting in prenatal life, mainly controlled by sex-steroids but also cytokines and growth factors throughout reproductive life. These reproductive changes require ER to provide extensive protein synthesis, folding, maturation and then their trafficking to appropriate cellular location as well as destroying unfolded/misfolded proteins via activating ER-associated degradation mediated proteasomes. Many studies have now shown roles for ER stress/UPR signaling cascades in the endometrial menstrual cycle, ovarian folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation, spermatogenesis, fertilization, pre-implantation embryo development and pregnancy and parturition

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated neuronal apoptosis by acrylamide exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Komoike, Yuta, E-mail: komoike@research.twmu.ac.jp

    Acrylamide (AA) is a well-known neurotoxic compound in humans and experimental animals. However, intracellular stress signaling pathways responsible for the neurotoxicity of AA are still not clear. In this study, we explored the involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in AA-induced neuronal damage in vitro and in vivo. Exposure of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells to AA increased the levels of phosphorylated form of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and its downstream effector, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), indicating the induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR) by AA exposure. Furthermore, AA exposure increased the mRNA level ofmore » c/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), the ER stress-dependent apoptotic factor, and caused the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in SH-SY5Y cells. Treatments of SH-SY5Y cells with the chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyric acid and the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine reduced the AA-induced expression of ATF4 protein and CHOP mRNA, and resulted in the suppression of apoptosis. In addition, AA-induced eIF2α phosphorylation was also suppressed by NAC treatment. In consistent with in vitro study, exposure of zebrafish larvae at 6-day post fertilization to AA induced the expression of chop mRNA and apoptotic cell death in the brain, and also caused the disruption of brain structure. These findings suggest that AA exposure induces apoptotic neuronal cell death through the ER stress and subsequent eIF2α–ATF4–CHOP signaling cascade. The accumulation of ROS by AA exposure appears to be responsible for this ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway. - Highlights: • Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to AA activates the eIF2α–ATF4 pathway of the UPR. • Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to AA induces the CHOP expression and apoptosis. • Exposure of zebrafish to AA induces the chop expression and apoptosis in the brain. • AA possibly induces apoptotic neuronal cell death through the

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum stress sensitizes human esophageal cancer cell to radiation.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xue-Li; He, Gang; Liu, Yang-Bo; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Bo

    2013-03-21

    To investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in cancer radiotherapy and its molecular mechanism. Tunicamycin (TM) was applied to induce ER stress in human esophageal cancer cell line EC109, and the radiosensitization effects were detected by acute cell death and clonogenic survival assay. Cell cycle arrest induced by TM was determined by flow cytometric analysis after the cellular DNA content was labeled with propidium iodide. Apoptosis of EC109 cells induced by TM was detected by annexin V staining and Western blotting of caspase-3 and its substrate poly ADP-ribose polymerase. Autophagic response was determined by acridine orange (AO) staining and Western blotting of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3 (LC3) and autophagy related gene 5 (ATG5). In order to test the biological function of autophagy, specific inhibitor or Beclin-1 knockdown was used to inhibit autophagy, and its effect on cell apoptosis was thus detected. Additionally, involvement of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was also detected by Western blotting. Finally, male nude mice inoculated subcutaneously with EC109 cells were used to confirm cell model observations. Our results showed that TM treatment enhanced cell death and reduced the colony survival fraction induced by ionizing radiation (IR), which suggested an obvious radiosensitization effect of TM. Moreover, TM and IR combination treatment led to a significant increase of G2/M phase and apoptotic cells, compared with IR alone. We also observed an increase of AO positive cells, and the protein level of LC3-II and ATG5 was induced by TM treatment, which suggested an autophagic response in EC109 cells. However, inhibition of autophagy by using a chemical inhibitor or Beclin-1 silencing led to increased cell apoptosis and decreased cell viability, which suggested a cytoprotective role of autophagy in stressed EC109 cells. Furthermore, TM treatment also

  11. Penfluridol induces endoplasmic reticulum stress leading to autophagy in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Alok; German, Nadezhda; Mikelis, Constantinos; Srivenugopal, Kalkunte; Srivastava, Sanjay K

    2017-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive and difficult to treat cancers. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that high basal state autophagy in pancreatic tumors could induce resistance to chemotherapy. Recently, we have demonstrated that penfluridol suppresses pancreatic tumor growth by autophagy-mediated apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo; however, the mechanism of autophagy induction by penfluridol was not clear. Several studies have established that endoplasmic reticulum stress could lead to autophagy and inhibit tumor progression. In this study, we demonstrated that penfluridol induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in BxPC-3, AsPC-1, and Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cell lines as indicated by upregulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers such as binding protein (BIP), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and inositol requiring 1α (IRE1α) after treatment with penfluridol in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress by pretreatment with pharmacological inhibitors such as sodium phenylbutyrate and mithramycin or by silencing CHOP using CHOP small interfering RNA, blocked penfluridol-induced autophagy. These results clearly indicate that penfluridol-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress lead to autophagy in our model. Western blot analysis of subcutaneously implanted AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 tumors as well as orthotopically implanted Panc-1 tumors demonstrated upregulation of BIP, CHOP, and IRE1α expression in the tumor lysates from penfluridol-treated mice as compared to tumors from control mice. Altogether, our study establishes that penfluridol-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress leads to autophagy resulting in reduced pancreatic tumor growth. Our study opens a new therapeutic target for advanced chemotherapies against pancreatic cancer.

  12. 4-Phenylbutyric Acid Reveals Good Beneficial Effects on Vital Organ Function via Anti-Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Septic Rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liangming; Wu, Huiling; Zang, JiaTao; Yang, Guangming; Zhu, Yu; Wu, Yue; Chen, Xiangyun; Lan, Dan; Li, Tao

    2016-08-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are the common complications in ICUs. Vital organ function disorder contributes a critical role in high mortality after severe sepsis or septic shock, in which endoplasmic reticulum stress plays an important role. Whether anti-endoplasmic reticulum stress with 4-phenylbutyric acid is beneficial to sepsis and the underlying mechanisms are not known. Laboratory investigation. State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury. Sprague-Dawley rats. Using cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic shock rats, lipopolysaccharide-treated vascular smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes, effects of 4-phenylbutyric acid on vital organ function and the relationship with endoplasmic reticulum stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress were observed. Conventional treatment, including fluid resuscitation, vasopressin, and antibiotic, only slightly improved the hemodynamic variable, such as mean arterial blood pressure and cardiac output, and slightly improved the vital organ function and the animal survival of septic shock rats. Supplementation of 4-phenylbutyric acid (5 mg/kg; anti-endoplasmic reticulum stress), especially administered at early stage, significantly improved the hemodynamic variables, vital organ function, such as liver, renal, and intestinal barrier function, and animal survival in septic shock rats. 4-Phenylbutyric acid application inhibited the endoplasmic reticulum stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein in vital organs, such as heart and superior mesenteric artery after severe sepsis. Further studies showed that 4-phenylbutyric acid inhibited endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated cytokine release, apoptosis, and oxidative stress via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB, caspase-3 and caspase-9, and increasing glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase expression, respectively. Anti-endoplasmic

  13. Regulation of calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum by the serine hydrolase ABHD2.

    PubMed

    Yun, Bogeon; Lee, HeeJung; Powell, Roger; Reisdorph, Nichole; Ewing, Heather; Gelb, Michael H; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Leslie, Christina C

    2017-09-02

    The serine hydrolase inhibitors pyrrophenone and KT195 inhibit cell death induced by A23187 and H 2 O 2 by blocking the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial calcium uptake. The effect of pyrrophenone and KT195 on these processes is not due to inhibition of their known targets, cytosolic phospholipase A 2 and α/β-hydrolase domain-containing (ABHD) 6, respectively, but represent off-target effects. To identify targets of KT195, fibroblasts were treated with KT195-alkyne to covalently label protein targets followed by click chemistry with biotin azide, enrichment on streptavidin beads and tryptic peptide analysis by mass spectrometry. Although several serine hydrolases were identified, α/β-hydrolase domain-containing 2 (ABHD2) was the only target in which both KT195 and pyrrophenone competed for binding to KT195-alkyne. ABHD2 is a serine hydrolase with a predicted transmembrane domain consistent with its pull-down from the membrane proteome. Subcellular fractionation showed localization of ABHD2 to the endoplasmic reticulum but not to mitochondria or mitochondrial-associated membranes. Knockdown of ABHD2 with shRNA attenuated calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial calcium uptake and cell death in fibroblasts stimulated with A23187. The results describe a novel mechanism for regulating calcium transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria that involves the serine hydrolase ABHD2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The endoplasmic reticulum is a hub to sort proteins toward unconventional traffic pathways and endosymbiotic organelles.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Michele; De Marchis, Francesca; Pompa, Andrea

    2017-12-18

    The discovery that much of the extracellular proteome in eukaryotic cells consists of proteins lacking a signal peptide, which cannot therefore enter the secretory pathway, has led to the identification of alternative protein secretion routes bypassing the Golgi apparatus. However, proteins harboring a signal peptide for translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum can also be transported along these alternative routes, which are still far from being well elucidated in terms of the molecular machineries and subcellular/intermediate compartments involved. In this review, we first try to provide a definition of all the unconventional protein secretion pathways in eukaryotic cells, as those pathways followed by proteins directed to an 'external space' bypassing the Golgi, where 'external space' refers to the extracellular space plus the lumen of the secretory route compartments and the inner space of mitochondria and plastids. Then, we discuss the role of the endoplasmic reticulum in sorting proteins toward unconventional traffic pathways in plants. In this regard, various unconventional pathways exporting proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the vacuole, plasma membrane, apoplast, mitochondria, and plastids are described, including the short routes followed by the proteins resident in the endoplasmic reticulum. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Chlorhexidine-induced apoptosis or necrosis in L929 fibroblasts: A role for endoplasmic reticulum stress

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, Gisele; Cardoso, Cristina R.B.; Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Minas Gerais

    Chlorhexidine (CHX), widely used as antiseptic and therapeutic agent in medicine and dentistry, has a toxic effect both in vivo and in vitro. The intrinsic mechanism underlying CHX-induced cytotoxicity in eukaryotic cells is, however, still unknown. A recent study from our laboratory has suggested that CHX may induce death in cultured L929 fibroblasts via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This hypothesis was further tested by means of light and electron microscopy, quantification of apoptosis and necrosis by flow cytometry, fluorescence visualization of the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum, and evaluation of the expression of 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), a marker ofmore » activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cultured L929 fibroblasts. Our finding showing increased Grp 78 expression in CHX-treated cells and the results of flow cytometry, cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum fluorescence visualization, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy allowed us to suggest that CHX elicits accumulation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, which causes ER overload, resulting in ER stress and cell death either by necrosis or apoptosis. It must be pointed out, however, that this does not necessarily mean that ER stress is the only way that CHX kills L929 fibroblasts, but rather that ER stress is an important target or indicator of cell death induced by this drug.« less

  16. Murine Intracisternal A Type Particles Fail to Separate from the Membrane of the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Perk, Kalman; Dahlberg, John E.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of serial sections of murine cells containing intracisternal A particles revealed that over 99% of all A particles remain in a budding configuration. This indicates that these particles fail to detach from the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. This observation explains how, despite their intracellular abundance in certain murine tumors, no extracellular A-type particles can be found. Images PMID:4431082

  17. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response in Cartilage Pathophysiology; Contributing Factors to Apoptosis and Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Alexandria; Oxford, Alexandra E; Tawara, Ken; Jorcyk, Cheryl L; Oxford, Julia Thom

    2017-03-20

    Chondrocytes of the growth plate undergo apoptosis during the process of endochondral ossification, as well as during the progression of osteoarthritis. Although the regulation of this process is not completely understood, alterations in the precisely orchestrated programmed cell death during development can have catastrophic results, as exemplified by several chondrodystrophies which are frequently accompanied by early onset osteoarthritis. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie chondrocyte apoptosis during endochondral ossification in the growth plate has the potential to impact the development of therapeutic applications for chondrodystrophies and associated early onset osteoarthritis. In recent years, several chondrodysplasias and collagenopathies have been recognized as protein-folding diseases that lead to endoplasmic reticulum stress, endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation, and the unfolded protein response. Under conditions of prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress in which the protein folding load outweighs the folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum, cellular dysfunction and death often occur. However, unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling is also required for the normal maturation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Understanding how UPR signaling may contribute to cartilage pathophysiology is an essential step toward therapeutic modulation of skeletal disorders that lead to osteoarthritis.

  18. Quantification of apolipoprotein B-48 and B-100 in rat liver endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi fractions.

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, I J; Higgins, J A

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a method for measurement of apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 and apo B-100 in blood and subcellular fractions of rat liver based on SDS/PAGE followed by quantitative immunoblotting using 125I-Protein A. Standard curves were prepared in each assay using apo B prepared from total rat lipoproteins by extraction with tetramethylurea. Subcellular fractions (rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi fractions) were prepared from rat liver and separated into membrane and cisternal-content fractions. For quantification, membrane fractions were solubilized in Triton X-100, and the apo B was immunoprecipitated before separation by SDS/PAGE and immunoblotting. Content fractions were concentrated by ultrafiltration and separated by SDS/PAGE without immunoprecipitation. Quantification of apo B in subcellular fractions and detection of apo B by immunoblotting yielded consistent results. In all fractions apo B-48 was the major form, accounting for approximately three-quarters of the total apo B. By using marker enzymes as internal standards, it was calculated that all of the apo B was recovered in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi fractions, with approximately 80% of each form of apo B in the endoplasmic reticulum. More than 90% of the apo B of the rough- and smooth-endoplasmic-reticulum fractions was membrane-bound, whereas approx. 33 and 15% of the apo B of the cis-enriched Golgi fractions and trans-enriched Golgi fractions respectively were membrane-bound. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1637294

  19. Caveolin-1 is a negative regulator of caveolae-mediated endocytosis to the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Le, Phuong U; Guay, Ginette; Altschuler, Yoram; Nabi, Ivan R

    2002-02-01

    Caveolae are flask-shaped invaginations at the plasma membrane that constitute a subclass of detergent-resistant membrane domains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids and that express caveolin, a caveolar coat protein. Autocrine motility factor receptor (AMF-R) is stably localized to caveolae, and the cholesterol extracting reagent, methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, inhibits its internalization to the endoplasmic reticulum implicating caveolae in this distinct receptor-mediated endocytic pathway. Curiously, the rate of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin-sensitive endocytosis of AMF-R to the endoplasmic reticulum is increased in ras- and abl-transformed NIH-3T3 cells that express significantly reduced levels of caveolin and few caveolae. Overexpression of the dynamin K44A dominant negative mutant via an adenovirus expression system induces caveolar invaginations sensitive to methyl-beta-cyclodextrin extraction in the transformed cells without increasing caveolin expression. Dynamin K44A expression further inhibits AMF-R-mediated endocytosis to the endoplasmic reticulum in untransformed and transformed NIH-3T3 cells. Adenoviral expression of caveolin-1 also induces caveolae in the transformed NIH-3T3 cells and reduces AMF-R-mediated endocytosis to the endoplasmic reticulum to levels observed in untransformed NIH-3T3 cells. Cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant membrane domains or glycolipid rafts therefore invaginate independently of caveolin-1 expression to form endocytosis-competent caveolar vesicles via rapid dynamin-dependent detachment from the plasma membrane. Caveolin-1 stabilizes the plasma membrane association of caveolae and thereby acts as a negative regulator of the caveolae-mediated endocytosis of AMF-R to the endoplasmic reticulum.

  20. Tributyltin induces apoptotic signaling in hepatocytes through pathways involving the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Grondin, Melanie; Marion, Michel; Denizeau, Francine

    2007-07-01

    Tri-n-butyltin is a widespread environmental toxicant, which accumulates in the liver. This study investigates whether tri-n-butyltin induces pro-apoptotic signaling in rat liver hepatocytes through pathways involving the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Tri-n-butyltin activated the endoplasmic reticulum pathway of apoptosis, which was demonstrated by the activation of the protease calpain, its translocation to the plasma membrane, followed by cleavage of the calpain substrates, cytoskeletal protein vinculin, and caspase-12. Caspase-12 is localized to the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in apoptosis mediated by the endoplasmic reticulum. Tri-n-butyltin also caused translocation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad frommore » the cytosol to mitochondria, as well as changes in mitochondrial membrane permeability, events which can activate the mitochondrial death pathway. Tri-n-butyltin induced downstream apoptotic events in rat hepatocytes at the nuclear level, detected by chromatin condensation and by confocal microscopy using acridine orange. We investigated whether the tri-n-butyltin-induced pro-apoptotic events in hepatocytes could be linked to perturbation of intracellular calcium homeostasis, using confocal microscopy. Tri-n-butyltin caused changes in intracellular calcium distribution, which were similar to those induced by thapsigargin. Calcium was released from a subcellular compartment, which is likely to be the endoplasmic reticulum, into the cytosol. Cytosolic acidification, which is known to trigger apoptosis, also occurred and involved the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3} {sup -} exchanger. Pro-apoptotic events in hepatocytes were inhibited by the calcium chelator, Bapta-AM, and by a calpain inhibitor, which suggests that changes in intracellular calcium homeostasis are involved in tri-n-butyltin-induced apoptotic signaling in rat hepatocytes.« less

  1. Sodium Butyrate Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagy in Colorectal Cells: Implications for Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jintao; Yi, Man; Zha, Longying; Chen, Siqiang; Li, Zhijia; Li, Cheng; Gong, Mingxing; Deng, Hong; Chu, Xinwei; Chen, Jiehua; Zhang, Zheqing; Mao, Limei; Sun, Suxia

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid derived from dietary fiber, inhibits proliferation and induces cell death in colorectal cancer cells. However, clinical trials have shown mixed results regarding the anti-tumor activities of butyrate. We have previously shown that sodium butyrate increases endoplasmic reticulum stress by altering intracellular calcium levels, a well-known autophagy trigger. Here, we investigated whether sodium butyrate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated autophagy, and whether there was crosstalk between autophagy and the sodium butyrate-induced apoptotic response in human colorectal cancer cells. Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-116 and HT-29) were treated with sodium butyrate at concentrations ranging from 0.5-5mM. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTT tetrazolium salt formation. Autophagy induction was confirmed through a combination of Western blotting for associated proteins, acridine orange staining for acidic vesicles, detection of autolysosomes (MDC staining), and electron microscopy. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry using standard annexinV/propidium iodide staining and by assessing PARP-1 cleavage by Western blot. Sodium butyrate suppressed colorectal cancer cell proliferation, induced autophagy, and resulted in apoptotic cell death. The induction of autophagy was supported by the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles and autolysosomes, and the expression of autophagy-associated proteins, including microtubule-associated protein II light chain 3 (LC3-II), beclin-1, and autophagocytosis-associated protein (Atg)3. The autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine inhibited sodium butyrate induced autophagy. Furthermore, sodium butyrate treatment markedly enhanced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated proteins, including BIP, CHOP, PDI, and IRE-1a. When endoplasmic reticulum stress was inhibited by pharmacological (cycloheximide and mithramycin) and genetic (si

  2. A turn-on fluorescent probe for endogenous formaldehyde in the endoplasmic reticulum of living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yonghe; Ma, Yanyan; Xu, An; Xu, Gaoping; Lin, Weiying

    2017-06-01

    As the simplest aldehyde compounds, formaldehyde (FA) is implicated in nervous system diseases and cancer. Endoplasmic reticulum is an organelle that plays important functions in living cells. Accordingly, the development of efficient methods for FA detection in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is of great biomedical importance. In this work, we developed the first ER-targeted fluorescent FA probe Na-FA-ER. The detection is based on the condensation reaction of the hydrazine group and FA to suppress the photo-induced electron transfer (PET) pathway, resulting in a fluorescence increase. The novel Na-FA-ER showed high sensitivity to FA. In addition, the Na-FA-ER enabled the bio-imaging of exogenous and endogenous FA in living HeLa cells. Most significantly, the new Na-FA-ER was employed to visualize the endogenous FA in the ER in living cells for the first time.

  3. Lack of an Efficient Endoplasmic Reticulum-localized Recycling System Protects Peroxiredoxin IV from Hyperoxidation*

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhenbo; Subramaniam, Suraj; Bulleid, Neil J.

    2014-01-01

    Typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins are required to remove hydrogen peroxide from several different cellular compartments. Their activity can be regulated by hyperoxidation and consequent inactivation of the active-site peroxidatic cysteine. Here we developed a simple assay to quantify the hyperoxidation of peroxiredoxins. Hyperoxidation of peroxiredoxins can only occur efficiently in the presence of a recycling system, usually involving thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. We demonstrate that there is a marked difference in the sensitivity of the endoplasmic reticulum-localized peroxiredoxin to hyperoxidation compared with either the cytosolic or mitochondrial enzymes. Each enzyme is equally sensitive to hyperoxidation in the presence of a robust recycling system. Our results demonstrate that peroxiredoxin IV recycling in the endoplasmic reticulum is much less efficient than in the cytosol or mitochondria, leading to the protection of peroxiredoxin IV from hyperoxidation. PMID:24403061

  4. Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Metabolic Disease and Other Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Lale; Tabas, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Perturbations in the normal functions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) trigger a signaling network that coordinates adaptive and apoptotic responses. There is accumulating evidence implicating prolonged ER stress in the development and progression of many diseases, including neurodegeneration, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, liver disease, and cancer. With the improved understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms, therapeutic interventions that target the ER stress response would be potential strategies to treat various diseases driven by prolonged ER stress. PMID:22248326

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in wake-active neurons progresses with aging.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Nirinjini; Zhu, Jingxu; Zhu, Yan; Fenik, Polina; Lian, Jie; Galante, Ray; Veasey, Sigrid

    2011-08-01

    Fragmentation of wakefulness and sleep are expected outcomes of advanced aging. We hypothesize that wake neurons develop endoplasmic reticulum dyshomeostasis with aging, in parallel with impaired wakefulness. In this series of experiments, we sought to more fully characterize age-related changes in wakefulness and then, in relevant wake neuronal populations, explore functionality and endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. We report that old mice show greater sleep/wake transitions in the active period with markedly shortened wake periods, shortened latencies to sleep, and less wake time in the subjective day in response to a novel social encounter. Consistent with sleep/wake instability and reduced social encounter wakefulness, orexinergic and noradrenergic wake neurons in aged mice show reduced c-fos response to wakefulness and endoplasmic reticulum dyshomeostasis with increased nuclear translocation of CHOP and GADD34. We have identified an age-related unfolded protein response injury to and dysfunction of wake neurons. It is anticipated that these changes contribute to sleep/wake fragmentation and cognitive impairment in aging. © 2011 The Authors. Aging Cell © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum stress: a novel mechanism and therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mei-qing; Chen, Zhe; Chen, Lin-xi

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum is a principal organelle responsible for folding, post-translational modifications and transport of secretory, luminal and membrane proteins, thus palys an important rale in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is a condition that is accelerated by accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins after endoplasmic reticulum environment disturbance, triggered by a variety of physiological and pathological factors, such as nutrient deprivation, altered glycosylation, calcium depletion, oxidative stress, DNA damage and energy disturbance, etc. ERS may initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore cellular homeostasis or lead to apoptosis. Numerous studies have clarified the link between ERS and cardiovascular diseases. This review focuses on ERS-associated molecular mechanisms that participate in physiological and pathophysiological processes of heart and blood vessels. In addition, a number of drugs that regulate ERS was introduced, which may be used to treat cardiovascular diseases. This review may open new avenues for studying the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and discovering novel drugs targeting ERS. PMID:26838072

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Mediates Methamphetamine-Induced Blood–Brain Barrier Damage

    PubMed Central

    Qie, Xiaojuan; Wen, Di; Guo, Hongyan; Xu, Guanjie; Liu, Shuai; Shen, Qianchao; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Wenfang; Cong, Bin; Ma, Chunling

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse causes serious health problems worldwide, and long-term use of METH disrupts the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Herein, we explored the potential mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in METH-induced BBB endothelial cell damage in vitro and the therapeutic potential of endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitors for METH-induced BBB disruption in C57BL/6J mice. Exposure of immortalized BMVEC (bEnd.3) cells to METH significantly decreased cell viability, induced apoptosis, and diminished the tightness of cell monolayers. METH activated ER stress sensor proteins, including PERK, ATF6, and IRE1, and upregulated the pro-apoptotic protein CHOP. The ER stress inhibitors significantly blocked the upregulation of CHOP. Knockdown of CHOP protected bEnd.3 cells from METH-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, METH elevated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced the dysfunction of mitochondrial characterized by a Bcl2/Bax ratio decrease, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, and cytochrome c. ER stress release was partially reversed by ROS inhibition, and cytochrome c release was partially blocked by knockdown of CHOP. Finally, PBA significantly attenuated METH-induced sodium fluorescein (NaFluo) and Evans Blue leakage, as well as tight junction protein loss, in C57BL/6J mice. These data suggest that BBB endothelial cell damage was caused by METH-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, which further induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and that PBA was an effective treatment for METH-induced BBB disruption. PMID:28959203

  8. Caspase-12 is involved in stretch-induced apoptosis mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Jianing; Chen, Shulan; Liu, Jing; Liu, Lijuan; Liu, Guirong; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Wenxin; Zhang, Caixia; Wang, Shuangyu; Yuan, Xiao

    2016-04-01

    It is well recognized that mandibular growth, which is caused by a variety of functional appliances, is considered to be the result of both neuromuscular and skeletal adaptations. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that apoptosis plays an important role in the adaptation of skeletal muscle function. However, the underlying mechanism of apoptosis that is induced by stretch continues to be incompletely understood. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), a newly defined signaling pathway, initiates apoptosis. This study seeks to determine if caspase-12 is involved in stretch-induced apoptosis mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in myoblast and its underlying mechanism. Apoptosis was assessed by Hochest staining, DAPI staining and annexin V binding and PI staining. ER chaperones, such as GRP78, CHOP and caspase-12, were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Furthermore, caspase-12 inhibitor was used to value the mechanism of the caspase-12 pathway. Apoptosis of myoblast, which is subjected to cyclic stretch, was observed in a time-dependent manner. We found that GRP78 mRNA and protein were significantly increased and CHOP and caspase-12 were activated in myoblast that was exposed to cyclic stretch. Caspase-12 inhibition reduced stretch-induced apoptosis, and caspase-12 activated caspase-3 to induce apoptosis. We concluded that caspase-12 played an important role in stretch-induced apoptosis that is associated by endoplasmic reticulum stress by activating caspase-3.

  9. Aging induced endoplasmic reticulum stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Marishka K; Chan, May T; Zimmerman, John E; Pack, Allan I; Jackson, Nicholas E; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2014-06-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity, and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response. The effectiveness of the adaptive unfolded protein response is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of X-box binding protein 1 and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α, in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged or sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep or sleep debt discharge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Agonist-activated Ca2+ influx occurs at stable plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum junctions

    PubMed Central

    Treves, Susan; Vukcevic, Mirko; Griesser, Johanna; Armstrong, Clara-Franzini; Zhu, Michael X.; Zorzato, Fancesco

    2010-01-01

    Junctate is a 33 kDa integral protein of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum membranes that forms a macromolecular complex with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] receptors and TRPC3 channels. TIRF microscopy shows that junctate enhances the number of fluorescent puncta on the plasma membrane. The size and distribution of these puncta are not affected by the addition of agonists that mobilize Ca2+ from Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive stores. Puncta are associated with a significantly larger number of peripheral junctions between endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane, which are further enhanced upon stable co-expression of junctate and TRPC3. The gap between the membranes of peripheral junctions is bridged by regularly spaced electron-dense structures of 10 nm. Ins(1,4,5)P3 inhibits the interaction of the cytoplasmic N-terminus of junctate with the ligand-binding domain of the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor. Furthermore, Ca2+ influx evoked by activation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors is increased where puncta are located. We conclude that stable peripheral junctions between the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum are the anatomical sites of agonist-activated Ca2+ entry. PMID:21062895

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and eIF2α phosphorylation: The Achilles heel of pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Cnop, Miriam; Toivonen, Sanna; Igoillo-Esteve, Mariana; Salpea, Paraskevi

    2017-09-01

    Pancreatic β cell dysfunction and death are central in the pathogenesis of most if not all forms of diabetes. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying β cell failure is important to develop β cell protective approaches. Here we review the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress and dysregulated endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling in β cell failure in monogenic and polygenic forms of diabetes. There is substantial evidence for the presence of endoplasmic reticulum stress in β cells in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Direct evidence for the importance of this stress response is provided by an increasing number of monogenic forms of diabetes. In particular, mutations in the PERK branch of the unfolded protein response provide insight into its importance for human β cell function and survival. The knowledge gained from different rodent models is reviewed. More disease- and patient-relevant models, using human induced pluripotent stem cells differentiated into β cells, will further advance our understanding of pathogenic mechanisms. Finally, we review the therapeutic modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and signaling in β cells. Pancreatic β cells are sensitive to excessive endoplasmic reticulum stress and dysregulated eIF2α phosphorylation, as indicated by transcriptome data, monogenic forms of diabetes and pharmacological studies. This should be taken into consideration when devising new therapeutic approaches for diabetes.

  12. [Endoplasmic reticulum stress in INS-1-3 cell associated with the expression changes of MODY gene pathway].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y T; Li, S R; Wang, Z; Xiao, J Z

    2016-09-13

    Objective: To profile the gene expression changes associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress in INS-1-3 cells induced by thapsigargin (TG) and tunicamycin (TM). Methods: Normal cultured INS-1-3 cells were used as a control. TG and TM were used to induce endoplasmic reticulum stress in INS-1-3 cells. Digital gene expression profiling technique was used to detect differentially expressed gene. The changes of gene expression were detected by expression pattern clustering analysis, gene ontology (GO) function and pathway enrichment analysis. Real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to verify the key changes of gene expression. Results: Compared with the control group, there were 57 (45 up-regulated, 12 down-regulated) and 135 (99 up-regulated, 36 down-regulated) differentially expressed genes in TG and TM group, respectively. GO function enrichment analyses indicated that the main enrichment was in the endoplasmic reticulum. In signaling pathway analysis, the identified pathways were related with endoplasmic reticulum stress, antigen processing and presentation, protein export, and most of all, the maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) pathway. Conclusion: Under the condition of endoplasmic reticulum stress, the related expression changes of transcriptional factors in MODY signaling pathway may be related with the impaired function in islet beta cells.

  13. Induction of endoplasmic reticulum calcium pump expression during early leukemic B cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Aït Ghezali, Lamia; Arbabian, Atousa; Roudot, Hervé; Brouland, Jean-Philippe; Baran-Marszak, Fanny; Salvaris, Evelyn; Boyd, Andrew; Drexler, Hans G; Enyedi, Agnes; Letestu, Remi; Varin-Blank, Nadine; Papp, Bela

    2017-06-26

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium storage and release play important roles in B lymphocyte maturation, survival, antigen-dependent cell activation and immunoglobulin synthesis. Calcium is accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPases (SERCA enzymes). Because lymphocyte function is critically dependent on SERCA activity, it is important to understand qualitative and quantitative changes of SERCA protein expression that occur during B lymphoid differentiation and leukemogenesis. In this work we investigated the modulation of SERCA expression during the pharmacologically induced differentiation of leukemic precursor B lymphoblast cell lines that carry the E2A-PBX1 fusion oncoprotein. Changes of SERCA levels during differentiation were determined and compared to those of established early B lymphoid differentiation markers. SERCA expression of the cells was compared to that of mature B cell lines as well, and the effect of the direct inhibition of SERCA-dependent calcium transport on the differentiation process was investigated. We show that E2A-PBX1 + leukemia cells simultaneously express SERCA2 and SERCA3-type calcium pumps; however, their SERCA3 expression is markedly inferior to that of mature B cells. Activation of protein kinase C enzymes by phorbol ester leads to phenotypic differentiation of the cells, and this is accompanied by the induction of SERCA3 expression. Direct pharmacological inhibition of SERCA-dependent calcium transport during phorbol ester treatment interferes with the differentiation process. These data show that the calcium pump composition of the ER is concurrent with increased SERCA3 expression during the differentiation of precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells, that a cross-talk exists between SERCA function and the control of differentiation, and that SERCA3 may constitute an interesting new marker for the study of early B cell phenotype.

  14. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response Pathways: Potential for Treating Age-related Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Haeri, Mohammad; Knox, Barry E

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and their aggregation impair normal cellular function and can be toxic, leading to cell death. Prolonged expression of misfolded proteins triggers ER stress, which initiates a cascade of reactions called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Protein misfolding is the basis for a variety of disorders known as ER storage or conformational diseases. There are an increasing number of eye disorders associated with misfolded proteins and pathologic ER responses, including retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Herein we review the basic cellular and molecular biology of UPR with focus on pathways that could be potential targets for treating retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:22737387

  15. Bacteria, the endoplasmic reticulum and the unfolded protein response: friends or foes?

    PubMed

    Celli, Jean; Tsolis, Renée M

    2015-02-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cytoprotective response that is aimed at restoring cellular homeostasis following physiological stress exerted on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which also invokes innate immune signalling in response to invading microorganisms. Although it has been known for some time that the UPR is modulated by various viruses, recent evidence indicates that it also has multiple roles during bacterial infections. In this Review, we describe how bacteria interact with the ER, including how bacteria induce the UPR, how subversion of the UPR promotes bacterial proliferation and how the UPR contributes to innate immune responses against invading bacteria.

  16. The Unfolded Protein Response: At the Intersection between Endoplasmic Reticulum Function and Mitochondrial Bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Carreras-Sureda, Amado; Pihán, Philippe; Hetz, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria communication has emerged in recent years as a signaling hub regulating cellular physiology with a relevant contribution to diseases including cancer and neurodegeneration. This functional integration is exerted through discrete interorganelle structures known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). At these domains, ER/mitochondria physically associate to dynamically adjust metabolic demands and the response to stress stimuli. Here, we provide a focused overview of how the ER shapes the function of the mitochondria, giving a special emphasis to the significance of local signaling of the unfolded protein response at MAMs. The implications to cell fate control and the progression of cancer are also discussed.

  17. Structural reorganization of the fungal endoplasmic reticulum upon induction of mycotoxin biosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Boenisch, Marike Johanne; Broz, Karen Lisa; Purvine, Samuel Owen; ...

    2017-03-13

    Eukaryotic cells routinely compartmentalize metabolic pathways to particular organelles for biosynthetic purposes. Relatively few studies have addressed the cellular localization of pathways for secondary metabolites synthesis. In this study, the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum reorganized its endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when triggered to produce mycotoxins, both in vitro and in planta. Fluorescence tagged biosynthetic proteins were found to co-localize with the modified ER as confirmed by co-fluorescence and co-purification with known ER proteins. Microscopy, cell sorting, and proteomics were applied in this FICUS collaborative effort.

  18. Regulation of Protein Secretion Through Controlled Aggregation in the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Victor M.; Wang, Xiurong; Wardwell, Scott; Courage, Nancy L.; Volchuk, Allen; Keenan, Terence; Holt, Dennis A.; Gilman, Michael; Orci, Lelio; Cerasoli, Frank; Rothman, James E.; Clackson, Tim

    2000-02-01

    A system for direct pharmacologic control of protein secretion was developed to allow rapid and pulsatile delivery of therapeutic proteins. A protein was engineered so that it accumulated as aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum. Secretion was then stimulated by a synthetic small-molecule drug that induces protein disaggregation. Rapid and transient secretion of growth hormone and insulin was achieved in vitro and in vivo. A regulated pulse of insulin secretion resulted in a transient correction of serum glucose concentrations in a mouse model of hyperglycemia. This approach may make gene therapy a viable method for delivery of polypeptides that require rapid and regulated delivery.

  19. The metabolomic signature of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy reveals endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Chao de la Barca, Juan Manuel; Simard, Gilles; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Safiedeen, Zainab; Prunier-Mirebeau, Delphine; Chupin, Stéphanie; Gadras, Cédric; Tessier, Lydie; Gueguen, Naïg; Chevrollier, Arnaud; Desquiret-Dumas, Valérie; Ferré, Marc; Bris, Céline; Kouassi Nzoughet, Judith; Bocca, Cinzia; Leruez, Stéphanie; Verny, Christophe; Miléa, Dan; Bonneau, Dominique; Lenaers, Guy; Martinez, M Carmen; Procaccio, Vincent; Reynier, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (MIM#535000), the commonest mitochondrial DNA-related disease, is caused by mutations affecting mitochondrial complex I. The clinical expression of the disorder, usually occurring in young adults, is typically characterized by subacute, usually sequential, bilateral visual loss, resulting from the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells. As the precise action of mitochondrial DNA mutations on the overall cell metabolism in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is unknown, we investigated the metabolomic profile of the disease. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify 188 metabolites in fibroblasts from 16 patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and eight healthy control subjects. Latent variable-based statistical methods were used to identify discriminating metabolites. One hundred and twenty-four of the metabolites were considered to be accurately quantified. A supervised orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis model separating patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy from control subjects showed good predictive capability (Q 2cumulated = 0.57). Thirty-eight metabolites appeared to be the most significant variables, defining a Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy metabolic signature that revealed decreased concentrations of all proteinogenic amino acids, spermidine, putrescine, isovaleryl-carnitine, propionyl-carnitine and five sphingomyelin species, together with increased concentrations of 10 phosphatidylcholine species. This signature was not reproduced by the inhibition of complex I with rotenone or piericidin A in control fibroblasts. The importance of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines in the Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy signature, together with the decreased amino acid pool, suggested an involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum. This was confirmed by the significantly increased phosphorylation of PERK and eIF2α, as well as

  20. Ticagrelor protects against AngII-induced endothelial dysfunction by alleviating endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Han, Xuejie; Li, Minghui; Han, Yu; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Shiqi; Li, Yue

    2018-05-16

    Ticagrelor has been reported to decrease cardiovascular mortality compared with clopidogrel. This benefit cannot be fully explained by the more efficient platelet inhibition. Many studies demonstrated that ticagrelor improved endothelial function, leaving the mechanism elusive though. The present study aims to investigate whether ticagrelor protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by angiotensinII (AngII) through alleviating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Male Sprague Dawley rats were infused with AngII or vehicle and administrated with ticagrelor or vehicle for 14 days. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected. Aortas from normal mice were incubated with endoplasmic reticulum stress inducer tunicamycin with or without ticagrelor. Vasorecactivity was measured on wire myography. Rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) were pretreated with ticagrelor followed by AngII or tunicamycin. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation and ER stress markers were determined by western blotting. Impaired endothelial function, induction of ER stress, reduced eNOS phosphorylation and elevated ROS generation was restored by ticagrelor treatment in vivo. In addition, tunicamycin induced endothelial dysfunction was improved by ticagrelor. In vitro, the induction of ER stress and inhibited eNOS phosphorylation in REACs exposed to AngII as well as tunicamycin was reversed by co-culturing with ticagrelor. In conclusion, ticagrelor protects against AngII-induced endothelial dysfunction via alleviating ER stress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Sch proteins are localized on endoplasmic reticulum membranes and are redistributed after tyrosine kinase receptor activation.

    PubMed Central

    Lotti, L V; Lanfrancone, L; Migliaccio, E; Zompetta, C; Pelicci, G; Salcini, A E; Falini, B; Pelicci, P G; Torrisi, M R

    1996-01-01

    The intracellular localization of Shc proteins was analyzed by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy in normal cells and cells expressing the epidermal growth factor receptor or the EGFR/erbB2 chimera. In unstimulated cells, the immunolabeling was localized in the central perinuclear area of the cell and mostly associated with the cytosolic side of rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Upon epidermal growth factor treatment and receptor tyrosine kinase activation, the immunolabeling became peripheral and was found to be associated with the cytosolic surface of the plasma membrane and endocytic structures, such as coated pits and endosomes, and with the peripheral cytosol. Receptor activation in cells expressing phosphorylation-defective mutants of Shc and erbB-2 kinase showed that receptor autophosphorylation, but not Shc phosphorylation, is required for redistribution of Shc proteins. The rough endoplasmic reticulum localization of Shc proteins in unstimulated cells and their massive recruitment to the plasma membrane, endocytic structures, and peripheral cytosol following receptor tyrosine kinase activation could account for multiple putative functions of the adaptor protein. PMID:8628261

  2. Relevance of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Cell Signaling in Liver Cold Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Folch-Puy, Emma; Panisello, Arnau; Oliva, Joan; Lopez, Alexandre; Castro Benítez, Carlos; Adam, René; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in calcium homeostasis, protein folding and lipid biosynthesis. Perturbations in its normal functions lead to a condition called endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). This can be triggered by many physiopathological conditions such as alcoholic steatohepatitis, insulin resistance or ischemia-reperfusion injury. The cell reacts to ERS by initiating a defensive process known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), which comprises cellular mechanisms for adaptation and the safeguarding of cell survival or, in cases of excessively severe stress, for the initiation of the cell death program. Recent experimental data suggest the involvement of ERS in ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) of the liver graft, which has been considered as one of major problems influencing outcome after liver transplantation. The purpose of this review is to summarize updated data on the molecular mechanisms of ERS/UPR and the consequences of this pathology, focusing specifically on solid organ preservation and liver transplantation models. We will also discuss the potential role of ERS, beyond the simple adaptive response and the regulation of cell death, in the modification of cell functional properties and phenotypic changes. PMID:27231901

  3. Cytochrome P450 Organization and Function Are Modulated by Endoplasmic Reticulum Phospholipid Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Brignac-Huber, Lauren M; Park, Ji Won; Reed, James R; Backes, Wayne L

    2016-12-01

    Cytochrome P450s (P450s) comprise a superfamily of proteins that catalyze numerous monooxygenase reactions in animals, plants, and bacteria. In eukaryotic organisms, these proteins not only carry out reactions necessary for the metabolism of endogenous compounds, but they are also important in the oxidation of exogenous drugs and other foreign compounds. Eukaryotic P450 system proteins generally reside in membranes, primarily the endoplasmic reticulum or the mitochondrial membrane. These membranes provide a scaffold for the P450 system proteins that facilitate interactions with their redox partners as well as other P450s. This review focuses on the ability of specific lipid components to influence P450 activities, as well as the role of the membrane in P450 function. These studies have shown that P450s and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase appear to selectively associate with specific phospholipids and that these lipid-protein interactions influence P450 activities. Finally, because of the heterogeneous nature of the endoplasmic reticulum as well as other biologic membranes, the phospholipids are not arranged randomly but associate to generate lipid microdomains. Together, these characteristics can affect P450 function by 1) altering the conformation of the proteins, 2) influencing the P450 interactions with their redox partners, and 3) affecting the localization of the proteins into specific membrane microdomains. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  4. Targeting the Endoplasmic Reticulum Unfolded Protein Response to Counteract the Oxidative Stress-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Moltedo, Ornella; Faraonio, Raffaella

    2018-01-01

    In endothelial cells, the tight control of the redox environment is essential for the maintenance of vascular homeostasis. The imbalance between ROS production and antioxidant response can induce endothelial dysfunction, the initial event of many cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies have revealed that the endoplasmic reticulum could be a new player in the promotion of the pro- or antioxidative pathways and that in such a modulation, the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways play an essential role. The UPR consists of a set of conserved signalling pathways evolved to restore the proteostasis during protein misfolding within the endoplasmic reticulum. Although the first outcome of the UPR pathways is the promotion of an adaptive response, the persistent activation of UPR leads to increased oxidative stress and cell death. This molecular switch has been correlated to the onset or to the exacerbation of the endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we highlight the multiple chances of the UPR to induce or ameliorate oxidative disturbances and propose the UPR pathways as a new therapeutic target for the clinical management of endothelial dysfunction. PMID:29725497

  5. THE DELICATE BALANCE BETWEEN SECRETED PROTEIN FOLDING AND ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM-ASSOCIATED DEGRADATION IN HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, Christopher J.; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Protein folding is a complex, error-prone process that often results in an irreparable protein by-product. These by-products can be recognized by cellular quality control machineries and targeted for proteasome-dependent degradation. The folding of proteins in the secretory pathway adds another layer to the protein folding “problem,” as the endoplasmic reticulum maintains a unique chemical environment within the cell. In fact, a growing number of diseases are attributed to defects in secretory protein folding, and many of these by-products are targeted for a process known as endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Since its discovery, research on the mechanisms underlying the ERAD pathway has provided new insights into how ERAD contributes to human health during both normal and diseases states. Links between ERAD and disease are evidenced from the loss of protein function as a result of degradation, chronic cellular stress when ERAD fails to keep up with misfolded protein production, and the ability of some pathogens to coopt the ERAD pathway. The growing number of ERAD substrates has also illuminated the differences in the machineries used to recognize and degrade a vast array of potential clients for this pathway. Despite all that is known about ERAD, many questions remain, and new paradigms will likely emerge. Clearly, the key to successful disease treatment lies within defining the molecular details of the ERAD pathway and in understanding how this conserved pathway selects and degrades an innumerable cast of substrates. PMID:22535891

  6. Multivesicular body formation enhancement and exosome release during endoplasmic reticulum stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kanemoto, Soshi; Nitani, Ryota; Murakami, Tatsuhiko

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a pivotal role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. However, numerous environmental and genetic factors give rise to ER stress by inducing an accumulation of unfolded proteins. Under ER stress conditions, cells initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR). Here, we demonstrate a novel aspect of the UPR by electron microscopy and immunostaining analyses, whereby multivesicular body (MVB) formation was enhanced after ER stress. This MVB formation was influenced by inhibition of ER stress transducers inositol required enzyme 1 (IRE1) and PKR-like ER kinase (PERK). Furthermore, exosome release was also increased during ER stress. However, in IRE1 ormore » PERK deficient cells, exosome release was not upregulated, indicating that IRE1- and PERK-mediated pathways are involved in ER stress-dependent exosome release. - Highlights: • Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces multivesicular body (MVB) formation. • ER stress transducers IRE1 and PERK mediate MVB formation. • Exosome release is enhanced after ER stress. • IRE1 or PERK deficiency blocks upregulation of ER stress-dependent exosome release.« less

  7. Early Neurodegeneration in the Brain of a Child Without Functional PKR-like Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase.

    PubMed

    Bruch, Julius; Kurz, Carolin; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Nicolino, Marc; Arzberger, Thomas; Höglinger, Günter U

    2015-08-01

    We report the first detailed examination of the brain of a patient with Wolcott-Rallison syndrome. Wolcott-Rallison syndrome is an extremely rare clinical manifestation of a lack of protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) function caused by mutations in the PERK gene EIF2AK3. Protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase is thought to play a significant pathogenetic role in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease, other tauopathies, and Parkinson disease. The brain of a male patient aged 4 years 7 months showed pathologic and immunohistochemical evidence that the absence of PERK for several years is sufficient to induce early changes reminiscent of various neurodegenerative conditions. These include neurofibrillary tangles (as in progressive supranuclear palsy), FUS-immunopositive and p62-immunopositive neurons, and reactive glial changes. We also detected an increased amount of p62-positive puncta coimmunostaining for LC3 and ubiquitin, suggesting changes in autophagic flux. Studying a human brain with absent PERK function presents the opportunity to assess the long-term consequences of nonfunctioning of PERK in the presence of all of the compensatory mechanisms that are normally active in a living human, thereby confirming the importance of PERK for autophagy in the brain and for neurodegeneration.

  8. Lysosome and endoplasmic reticulum quality control pathways in Niemann-Pick type C disease

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Mark L.; Krus, Kelsey L.; Lieberman, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases result from inherited deficiencies of lysosomal hydrolytic activities or lipid transport. Collectively, these disorders are a common cause of morbidity in the pediatric population and are often associated with severe neurodegeneration. Among this group of diseases is Niemann-Pick type C, an autosomal recessive disorder of lipid trafficking that causes cognitive impairment, ataxia and death, most often in childhood. Here, we review the current knowledge of disease pathogenesis, with particular focus on insights gleaned from genetics and the study of model systems. Critical advances in understanding mechanisms that regulate intracellular cholesterol trafficking have emerged from this work and are highlighted. We review effects of disease-causing mutations on quality control pathways involving the lysosome and endoplasmic reticulum, and discuss how they function to clear the most common mutant protein found in Niemann-Pick type C patients, NPC1-I1061T. Finally, we summarize insights into the mechanisms that degrade misfolded transmembrane proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum and how manipulating these quality control pathways may lead to the identification of novel targets for disease-modifying therapies. PMID:27026653

  9. p53 and Ca(2+) signaling from the endoplasmic reticulum: partners in anti-cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Bittremieux, Mart; Bultynck, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Ca(2+) transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the mitochondria critically controls cell survival and cell death decisions. Different oncogenes and deregulation of tumor suppressors exploit this mechanism to favor the survival of altered, malignant cells. Two recent studies of the Pinton team revealed a novel, non-transcriptional function of cytosolic p53 in cell death. During cell stress, p53 is recruited to the ER and the ER-mitochondrial contact sites. This results in augmented ER Ca(2+) levels by enhancing sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) activity, ultimately promoting mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload. The boosting of "toxic" Ca(2+) signaling by p53 appears to be a critical component of the cell death-inducing properties of chemotherapeutic agents and anti-cancer treatments, like photodynamic stress. Strikingly, the resistance of p53-deficient cancer cells to these treatments could be overcome by facilitating Ca(2+) transfer between the ER and the mitochondria via overexpression of SERCA or of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU). Importantly, these concepts have also been supported by in vivo Ca(2+) measurements in tumor masses in mice. Collectively, these studies link for the first time the major tumor suppressor, p53, to Ca(2+) signaling in dictating cell-death outcomes and by the success of anti-cancer treatments.

  10. Ermelin, an endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein, contains the novel HELP domain conserved in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akiko; Endo, Takeshi

    2002-02-06

    We have cloned a cDNA encoding a novel protein referred to as ermelin from mouse C2 skeletal muscle cells. This protein contained six hydrophobic amino acid stretches corresponding to transmembrane domains, two histidine-rich sequences, and a sequence homologous to the fusion peptides of certain fusion proteins. Ermelin also contained a novel modular sequence, designated as HELP domain, which was highly conserved among eukaryotes, from yeast to higher plants and animals. All these HELP domain-containing proteins, including mouse KE4, Drosophila Catsup, and Arabidopsis IAR1, possessed multipass transmembrane domains and histidine-rich sequences. Ermelin was predominantly expressed in brain and testis, and induced during neuronal differentiation of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells but downregulated during myogenic differentiation of C2 cells. The mRNA was accumulated in hippocampus and cerebellum of brain and central areas of seminiferous tubules in testis. Epitope-tagging experiments located ermelin and KE4 to a network structure throughout the cytoplasm. Staining with the fluorescent dye DiOC(6)(3) identified this structure as the endoplasmic reticulum. These results suggest that at least some, if not all, of the HELP domain-containing proteins are multipass endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins with functions conserved among eukaryotes.

  11. Blocking variant surface glycoprotein synthesis alters endoplasmic reticulum exit sites/Golgi homeostasis in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Cher-Pheng; Smith, Terry K; Gluenz, Eva; Wand, Nadina Vasileva; Vaughan, Sue; Rudenko, Gloria

    2018-06-01

    The predominant secretory cargo of bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei is variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), comprising ~10% total protein and forming a dense protective layer. Blocking VSG translation using Morpholino oligonucleotides triggered a precise pre-cytokinesis arrest. We investigated the effect of blocking VSG synthesis on the secretory pathway. The number of Golgi decreased, particularly in post-mitotic cells, from 3.5 ± 0.6 to 2.0 ± 0.04 per cell. Similarly, the number of endoplasmic reticulum exit sites (ERES) in post-mitotic cells dropped from 3.9 ± 0.6 to 2.7 ± 0.1 eight hours after blocking VSG synthesis. The secretory pathway was still functional in these stalled cells, as monitored using Cathepsin L. Rates of phospholipid and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis remained relatively unaffected, except for the level of sphingomyelin which increased. However, both endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi morphology became distorted, with the Golgi cisternae becoming significantly dilated, particularly at the trans-face. Membrane accumulation in these structures is possibly caused by reduced budding of nascent vesicles due to the drastic reduction in the total amount of secretory cargo, that is, VSG. These data argue that the total flux of secretory cargo impacts upon the biogenesis and maintenance of secretory structures and organelles in T. brucei, including the ERES and Golgi. © 2018 The Authors. Traffic published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Mitochondrial enzymes and endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores as targets of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Gary E; Huang, Hsueh-Meei

    2004-08-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that oxidative stress accompanies age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Specific mechanisms by which oxidative stress leads to neurodegeneration are unknown. Two targets of oxidative stress that are known to change in neurodegenerative diseases are the mitochondrial enzyme alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) and endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores. KGDHC activities are diminished in all common neurodegenerative diseases and the changes are particularly well documented in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A second change that occurs in cells from AD patients is an exaggerated endoplasmic reticulum calcium store [i.e., bombesin-releasable calcium stores (BRCS)]. H(2)O(2), a general oxidant, changes both variables in the same direction as occurs in disease. Other oxidants selectively alter these variables. Various antioxidants were used to help define the critical oxidant species that modifies these responses. All of the antioxidants diminish the oxidant-induced carboxy-dichlorofluorescein (cDCF) detectable reactive oxygen species (ROS), but have diverse actions on these cellular processes. For example, alpha-keto-beta-methyl-n-valeric acid (KMV) diminishes the H(2)O(2) effects on BRCS, while trolox and DMSO exaggerate the response. Acute trolox treatment does not alter H(2)O(2)-induced changes in KGDHC, whereas chronic treatment with trolox increases KGDHC almost threefold. The results suggest that KGDHC and BRCS provide targets by which oxidative stress may induce neurodegeneration and a useful tool for selecting antioxidants for reversing age-related neurodegeneration.

  13. A few positively charged residues slow movement of a polypeptide chain across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Marifu; Onishi, Yukiko; Yoshimura, Shotaro; Fujita, Hidenobu; Imai, Kenta; Kida, Yuichiro; Sakaguchi, Masao

    2014-08-26

    Many polypeptide chains are translocated across and integrated into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane through protein-conducting channels. During the process, amino acid sequences of translocating polypeptide chains are scanned by the channels and classified to be retained in the membrane or translocated into the lumen. We established an experimental system with which the kinetic effect of each amino acid residue on the polypeptide chain movement can be analyzed with a time resolution of tens of seconds. Positive charges greatly slow movement; only two lysine residues caused a remarkable slow down, and their effects were additive. The lysine residue was more effective than arginine. In contrast, clusters comprising three residues of each of the other 18 amino acids had little effect on chain movement. We also demonstrated that a four lysine cluster can exert the effect after being fully exposed from the ribosome. We concluded that as few as two to three residues of positively charged amino acids can slow the movement of the nascent polypeptide chain across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. This effect provides a fundamental basis of the topogenic function of positively charged amino acids.

  14. The Endoplasmic Reticulum Coat Protein II Transport Machinery Coordinates Cellular Lipid Secretion and Cholesterol Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, Lee G. D.; Jones, Bethan; Duncan, Emma J.; Hutchison, Claire E.; Ozkan, Tozen; Williams, Paul A.; Alder, Olivia; Nieuwdorp, Max; Townley, Anna K.; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Stephens, David J.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Shoulders, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    Triglycerides and cholesterol are essential for life in most organisms. Triglycerides serve as the principal energy storage depot and, where vascular systems exist, as a means of energy transport. Cholesterol is essential for the functional integrity of all cellular membrane systems. The endoplasmic reticulum is the site of secretory lipoprotein production and de novo cholesterol synthesis, yet little is known about how these activities are coordinated with each other or with the activity of the COPII machinery, which transports endoplasmic reticulum cargo to the Golgi. The Sar1B component of this machinery is mutated in chylomicron retention disorder, indicating that this Sar1 isoform secures delivery of dietary lipids into the circulation. However, it is not known why some patients with chylomicron retention disorder develop hepatic steatosis, despite impaired intestinal fat malabsorption, and why very severe hypocholesterolemia develops in this condition. Here, we show that Sar1B also promotes hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) B lipoprotein secretion and that this promoting activity is coordinated with the processes regulating apoB expression and the transfer of triglycerides/cholesterol moieties onto this large lipid transport protein. We also show that although Sar1A antagonizes the lipoprotein secretion-promoting activity of Sar1B, both isoforms modulate the expression of genes encoding cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes and the synthesis of cholesterol de novo. These results not only establish that Sar1B promotes the secretion of hepatic lipids but also adds regulation of cholesterol synthesis to Sar1B's repertoire of transport functions. PMID:24338480

  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induces Myostatin High Molecular Weight Aggregates and Impairs Mature Myostatin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Rishibha; Kappes-Horn, Karin; Paulsen, Lydia; Duernberger, Yvonne; Pleschka, Catharina; Denner, Philip; Kundu, Bishwajit; Reimann, Jens; Vorberg, Ina

    2018-03-15

    Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is the most prevalent acquired muscle disorder in the elderly with no defined etiology or effective therapy. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and deposition of myostatin, a secreted negative regulator of muscle growth, have been implicated in disease pathology. The myostatin signaling pathway has emerged as a major target for symptomatic treatment of muscle atrophy. Here, we systematically analyzed the maturation and secretion of myostatin precursor MstnPP and its metabolites in a human muscle cell line. We find that increased MsntPP protein levels induce ER stress. MstnPP metabolites were predominantly retained within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), also evident in sIBM histology. MstnPP cleavage products formed insoluble high molecular weight aggregates, a process that was aggravated by experimental ER stress. Importantly, ER stress also impaired secretion of mature myostatin. Reduced secretion and aggregation of MstnPP metabolites were not simply caused by overexpression, as both events were also observed in wildtype cells under ER stress. It is tempting to speculate that reduced circulating myostatin growth factor could be one explanation for the poor clinical efficacy of drugs targeting the myostatin pathway in sIBM.

  16. Thermal Shock Induces Host Proteostasis Disruption and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Model Symbiotic Cnidarian Aiptasia.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Clinton A; Durand, Elysanne; Wilkinson, Shaun P; Peng, Lifeng; Weis, Virginia M; Grossman, Arthur R; Davy, Simon K

    2017-06-02

    Coral bleaching has devastating effects on coral survival and reef ecosystem function, but many of the fundamental cellular effects of thermal stress on cnidarian physiology are unclear. We used label-free liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to compare the effects of rapidly (33.5 °C, 24 h) and gradually (30 and 33.5 °C, 12 days) elevated temperatures on the proteome of the model symbiotic anemone Aiptasia. We identified 2133 proteins in Aiptasia, 136 of which were differentially abundant between treatments. Thermal shock, but not acclimation, resulted in significant abundance changes in 104 proteins, including those involved in protein folding and synthesis, redox homeostasis, and central metabolism. Nineteen abundant structural proteins showed particularly reduced abundance, demonstrating proteostasis disruption and potential protein synthesis inhibition. Heat shock induced antioxidant mechanisms and proteins involved in stabilizing nascent proteins, preventing protein aggregation and degrading damaged proteins, which is indicative of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Host proteostasis disruption occurred before either bleaching or symbiont photoinhibition was detected, suggesting host-derived reactive oxygen species production as the proximate cause of thermal damage. The pronounced abundance changes in endoplasmic reticulum proteins associated with proteostasis and protein turnover indicate that these processes are essential in the cellular response of symbiotic cnidarians to severe thermal stress.

  17. Neuronal-specific endoplasmic reticulum Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) ATPase Ca(2+) sequestration in mixed primary hippocampal culture homogenates.

    PubMed

    Parsons, J Travis; Sun, David A; DeLorenzo, Robert J; Churn, Severn B

    2004-07-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) ATPase Ca(2+) sequestration is crucial for maintenance of neuronal Ca(2+) homeostasis. The use of cell culture in conjunction with modern Ca(2+) imaging techniques has been invaluable in elucidating these mechanisms. While imaging protocols evaluate endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) loads, measurement of Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) ATPase activity is indirect, comparing cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in the presence or absence of the Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin. Direct measurement of Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) ATPase by isolation of microsomes is impossible due to the minuscule amounts of protein yielded from cultures used for imaging. In the current study, endoplasmic reticulum Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) ATPase Ca(2+) sequestration was measured in mixed homogenates of neurons and glia from primary hippocampal cultures. It was demonstrated that Ca(2+) uptake was mediated by the endoplasmic reticulum Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) ATPase due to its dependence on ATP and Mg(2+), enhancement by oxalate, and inhibition by thapsigargin. It was also shown that neuronal Ca(2+) uptake, mediated by the type 2 sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase isoform, could be distinguished from glial Ca(2+) uptake in homogenates composed of neurons and glia. Finally, it was revealed that Ca(2+) uptake was sensitive to incubation on ice, extremely labile in the absence of protease inhibitors, and significantly more stable under storage conditions at -80 degrees C.

  18. Arabidopsis SYT1 maintains stability of cortical endoplasmic reticulum networks and VAP27-1-enriched endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites.

    PubMed

    Siao, Wei; Wang, Pengwei; Voigt, Boris; Hussey, Patrick J; Baluska, Frantisek

    2016-11-01

    Arabidopsis synaptotagmin 1 (SYT1) is localized on the endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane (ER-PM) contact sites in leaf and root cells. The ER-PM localization of Arabidopsis SYT1 resembles that of the extended synaptotagmins (E-SYTs) in animal cells. In mammals, E-SYTs have been shown to regulate calcium signaling, lipid transfer, and endocytosis. Arabidopsis SYT1 was reported to be essential for maintaining cell integrity and virus movement. This study provides detailed insight into the subcellular localization of SYT1 and VAP27-1, another ER-PM-tethering protein. SYT1 and VAP27-1 were shown to be localized on distinct ER-PM contact sites. The VAP27-1-enriched ER-PM contact sites (V-EPCSs) were always in contact with the SYT1-enriched ER-PM contact sites (S-EPCSs). The V-EPCSs still existed in the leaf epidermal cells of the SYT1 null mutant; however, they were less stable than those in the wild type. The polygonal networks of cortical ER disassembled and the mobility of VAP27-1 protein on the ER-PM contact sites increased in leaf cells of the SYT1 null mutant. These results suggest that SYT1 is responsible for stabilizing the ER network and V-EPCSs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Biochemical Requirements of Virus Wrapping by the Endoplasmic Reticulum: Involvement of ATP and Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Store during Envelopment of African Swine Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Cobbold, Christian; Brookes, Sharon M.; Wileman, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Enwrapment by membrane cisternae has emerged recently as a mechanism of envelopment for large enveloped DNA viruses, such as herpesviruses, poxviruses, and African swine fever (ASF) virus. For both ASF virus and the poxviruses, wrapping is a multistage process initiated by the recruitment of capsid proteins onto membrane cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or associated ER-Golgi intermediate membrane compartments. Capsid assembly induces progressive bending of membrane cisternae into the characteristic shape of viral particles, and envelopment provides virions with two membranes in one step. We have used biochemical assays for ASF virus capsid recruitment, assembly, and envelopment to define the cellular processes important for the enwrapment of viruses by membrane cisternae. Capsid assembly on the ER membrane, and envelopment by ER cisternae, were inhibited when cells were depleted of ATP or depleted of calcium by incubation with A23187 and EDTA or the ER calcium ATPase inhibitor, thapsigargin. Electron microscopy analysis showed that cells depleted of calcium were unable to assemble icosahedral particles. Instead, assembly sites contained crescent-shaped and bulbous structures and, in rare cases, empty closed five-sided particles. Interestingly, recruitment of the capsid protein from the cytosol onto the ER membrane did not require ATP or an intact ER calcium store. The results show that following recruitment of the virus capsid protein onto the ER membrane, subsequent stages of capsid assembly and enwrapment are dependent on ATP and are regulated by the calcium gradients present across the ER membrane cisternae. PMID:10666244

  20. ERManI (Endoplasmic Reticulum Class I α-Mannosidase) Is Required for HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Degradation via Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Protein Degradation Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Frabutt, Dylan A; Moremen, Kelley W; Zheng, Yong-Hui

    2015-09-04

    Previously, we reported that the mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO) induces HIV-1 envelope (Env) degradation via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway, but the mechanism was not clear. Here we investigated how the four ER-associated glycoside hydrolase family 47 (GH47) α-mannosidases, ERManI, and ER-degradation enhancing α-mannosidase-like (EDEM) proteins 1, 2, and 3, are involved in the Env degradation process. Ectopic expression of these four α-mannosidases uncovers that only ERManI inhibits HIV-1 Env expression in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, genetic knock-out of the ERManI gene MAN1B1 using CRISPR/Cas9 technology disrupts the TSPO-mediated Env degradation. Biochemical studies show that HIV-1 Env interacts with ERManI, and between the ERManI cytoplasmic, transmembrane, lumenal stem, and lumenal catalytic domains, the catalytic domain plays a critical role in the Env-ERManI interaction. In addition, functional studies show that inactivation of the catalytic sites by site-directed mutagenesis disrupts the ERManI activity. These studies identify ERManI as a critical GH47 α-mannosidase in the ER-associated protein degradation pathway that initiates the Env degradation and suggests that its catalytic domain and enzymatic activity play an important role in this process. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. [Effect and mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum stress on cisplatin resistance in ovarian carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Hu, Xiaoming; Qu, Quanxin

    2014-05-01

    The study intended to investigate the effect and mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum stress on cisplatin resistance in ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to test the expression of mTOR and Beclin1 mRNA and protein in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells after saquinavir induction. MTT assay was used to analyze the influence of saquinavir on cisplatin sensitivity in SKOV3 cells. The IC50 of SKOV3 cells was (5.490 ± 1.148) µg/ml. After induced by Saquinavair 10 µmol/L and 20 µmol/L, the IC50 of SKOV3 cells was increased to (11.199 ± 0.984) µg/ml and (14.906 ± 2.015) µg/ml, respectively. It suggested that the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin was decreased significantly (P = 0.001). The expression of mTOR and Beclin1 mRNA and protein was significantly different among the five groups: the (Saquinavair+DDP) group of, Saquinavair group, LY294002 group, DDP group and control group (P < 0.001) . The expressions of mTOR and Beclin1 mRNA were highest in the (Saquinavair+DDP) group, 0.684 ± 0.072 and 0.647 ± 0.047, respectively; Secondly, the Saquinavair group, 0.577 ± 0.016 and 0.565 ± 0.037, respectively. The expressions of mTOR and Beclin1 proteins were also highest in the (Saquinavair+DDP) group, 0.624 ± 0.058 and 0.924 ± 0.033, respectively, followed by the Saquinavair group, 0.544 ± 0.019 and 0.712 ± 0.024. 3-MA inhibited the autophagy and restored cisplatin sensitivity in the SKOV3 cells after Saquinavir induced ER stress (P < 0.001). Saquinavir can effectively induce endoplasmic reticulum stress in SKOV3 cells. Endoplasmic reticulum stress can decrease the sensitivity to cisplatin in SKOV3 cells. The mechanism of the decrease of sensitivity to cisplatin in SKOV3 cells may be that ERS regulates cell autophagy through the mTOR and Beclin1 pathways. ERS of tumor cells and autophagy may become a new target to improve the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy and to reverse the drug resistance in tumor treatment.

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum: The Favorite Intracellular Niche for Viral Replication and Assembly.

    PubMed

    Romero-Brey, Inés; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2016-06-07

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest intracellular organelle. It forms a complex network of continuous sheets and tubules, extending from the nuclear envelope (NE) to the plasma membrane. This network is frequently perturbed by positive-strand RNA viruses utilizing the ER to create membranous replication factories (RFs), where amplification of their genomes occurs. In addition, many enveloped viruses assemble progeny virions in association with ER membranes, and viruses replicating in the nucleus need to overcome the NE barrier, requiring transient changes of the NE morphology. This review first summarizes some key aspects of ER morphology and then focuses on the exploitation of the ER by viruses for the sake of promoting the different steps of their replication cycles.

  3. Friend or foe: Endoplasmic reticulum protein 29 (ERp29) in epithelial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Daohai

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein 29 (ERp29) is a molecular chaperone that plays a critical role in protein secretion from the ER in eukaryotic cells. Recent studies have also shown that ERp29 plays a role in cancer. It has been demonstrated that ERp29 is inversely associated with primary tumor development and functions as a tumor suppressor by inducing cell growth arrest in breast cancer. However, ERp29 has also been reported to promote epithelial cell morphogenesis, cell survival against genotoxic stress and distant metastasis. In this review, we summarize the current understanding on the biological and pathological functions of ERp29 in cancer and discuss the pivotal aspects of ERp29 as “friend or foe” in epithelial cancer. PMID:25709888

  4. Soluble forms of polyQ-expanded huntingtin rather than large aggregates cause endoplasmic reticulum stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitman, Julia; Ulrich Hartl, F.; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z.

    2013-11-01

    In Huntington’s disease, as in other neurodegenerative diseases, it was initially thought that insoluble protein aggregates are the toxic species. However, growing evidence implicates soluble oligomeric polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin in cytotoxicity. Here we show that pathogenic huntingtin inhibits endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation and induces ER stress before its aggregation into visible inclusions. All three branches of the unfolded protein response are activated. ER stress can be compensated by overexpression of p97/VCP, suggesting its sequestration by pathogenic huntingtin as a main cause. Stress correlates with the presence of huntingtin oligomers and is independent of continual huntingtin synthesis. Stress levels, measured in striatal neurons, are stabilized but only slowly subside on huntingtin aggregation into inclusions. Our results can be explained by the constant conversion of huntingtin monomers to toxic oligomers; large aggregates sequester the former, precluding further conversion, whereas pre-existing toxic oligomers are only gradually depleted.

  5. Electron probe microanalysis of calcium release and magnesium uptake by endoplasmic reticulum in bee photoreceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, O.; Walz, B.; Somlyo, A.V.

    Honey bee photoreceptors contain large sacs of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that can be located unequivocally in freeze-dried cryosections. The elemental compositon of the ER was determined by electron probe x-ray microanalysis and was visualized in high-resolution x-ray maps. In the ER of dark-adapted photoreceptors, the Ca concentration was 47.5 {plus minus} 1.1 mmol/kg (dry weight). During a 3-sec nonsaturating light stimulus, {approximately}50% of the Ca content was released from the ER. Light stimulation also caused a highly significant increase in the Mg content of the ER; the ratio of Mg uptake to Ca released was {approximately}0.7. Our results show unambiguouslymore » that the ER is the source of Ca{sup 2+} release during cell stimulation and suggest the Mg{sup 2+} can nearly balance the charge movement of Ca{sup 2+}.« less

  6. Structural reorganization of the fungal endoplasmic reticulum upon induction of mycotoxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Boenisch, Marike Johanne; Broz, Karen Lisa; Purvine, Samuel Owen; Chrisler, William Byron; Nicora, Carrie Diana; Connolly, Lanelle Reine; Freitag, Michael; Baker, Scott Edward; Kistler, Harold Corby

    2017-03-13

    Compartmentalization of metabolic pathways to particular organelles is a hallmark of eukaryotic cells. Knowledge of the development of organelles and attendant pathways under different metabolic states has been advanced by live cell imaging and organelle specific analysis. Nevertheless, relatively few studies have addressed the cellular localization of pathways for synthesis of fungal secondary metabolites, despite their importance as bioactive compounds with significance to medicine and agriculture. When triggered to produce sesquiterpene (trichothecene) mycotoxins, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum is reorganized both in vitro and in planta. Trichothecene biosynthetic enzymes accumulate in organized smooth ER with pronounced expansion at perinuclear- and peripheral positions. Fluorescence tagged trichothecene biosynthetic proteins co-localize with the modified ER as confirmed by co-fluorescence and co-purification with known ER proteins. We hypothesize that changes to the fungal ER represent a conserved process in specialized eukaryotic cells such as in mammalian hepatocytes and B-cells.

  7. Cytoplasmic destruction of p53 by the endoplasmic reticulum-resident ubiquitin ligase ‘Synoviolin'

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Satoshi; Yagishita, Naoko; Sasaki, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Minako; Kato, Yukihiro; Yamadera, Tadayuki; Bae, Eunkyung; Toriyama, Sayumi; Ikeda, Rie; Zhang, Lei; Fujitani, Kazuko; Yoo, Eunkyung; Tsuchimochi, Kaneyuki; Ohta, Tomohiko; Araya, Natsumi; Fujita, Hidetoshi; Aratani, Satoko; Eguchi, Katsumi; Komiya, Setsuro; Maruyama, Ikuro; Higashi, Nobuyo; Sato, Mitsuru; Senoo, Haruki; Ochi, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Amano, Tetsuya; Kim, Jaeseob; Gay, Steffen; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Nishioka, Kusuki; Tanaka, Keiji; Nakajima, Toshihiro

    2007-01-01

    Synoviolin, also called HRD1, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase and is implicated in endoplasmic reticulum -associated degradation. In mammals, Synoviolin plays crucial roles in various physiological and pathological processes, including embryogenesis and the pathogenesis of arthropathy. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of Synoviolin in these actions. To clarify these issues, we analyzed the profile of protein expression in synoviolin-null cells. Here, we report that Synoviolin targets tumor suppressor gene p53 for ubiquitination. Synoviolin sequestrated and metabolized p53 in the cytoplasm and negatively regulated its cellular level and biological functions, including transcription, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. Furthermore, these p53 regulatory functions of Synoviolin were irrelevant to other E3 ubiquitin ligases for p53, such as MDM2, Pirh2 and Cop1, which form autoregulatory feedback loops. Our results provide novel insights into p53 signaling mediated by Synoviolin. PMID:17170702

  8. Cytoplasmic destruction of p53 by the endoplasmic reticulum-resident ubiquitin ligase 'Synoviolin'.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Satoshi; Yagishita, Naoko; Sasaki, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Minako; Kato, Yukihiro; Yamadera, Tadayuki; Bae, Eunkyung; Toriyama, Sayumi; Ikeda, Rie; Zhang, Lei; Fujitani, Kazuko; Yoo, Eunkyung; Tsuchimochi, Kaneyuki; Ohta, Tomohiko; Araya, Natsumi; Fujita, Hidetoshi; Aratani, Satoko; Eguchi, Katsumi; Komiya, Setsuro; Maruyama, Ikuro; Higashi, Nobuyo; Sato, Mitsuru; Senoo, Haruki; Ochi, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Amano, Tetsuya; Kim, Jaeseob; Gay, Steffen; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Nishioka, Kusuki; Tanaka, Keiji; Nakajima, Toshihiro

    2007-01-10

    Synoviolin, also called HRD1, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase and is implicated in endoplasmic reticulum -associated degradation. In mammals, Synoviolin plays crucial roles in various physiological and pathological processes, including embryogenesis and the pathogenesis of arthropathy. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of Synoviolin in these actions. To clarify these issues, we analyzed the profile of protein expression in synoviolin-null cells. Here, we report that Synoviolin targets tumor suppressor gene p53 for ubiquitination. Synoviolin sequestrated and metabolized p53 in the cytoplasm and negatively regulated its cellular level and biological functions, including transcription, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. Furthermore, these p53 regulatory functions of Synoviolin were irrelevant to other E3 ubiquitin ligases for p53, such as MDM2, Pirh2 and Cop1, which form autoregulatory feedback loops. Our results provide novel insights into p53 signaling mediated by Synoviolin.

  9. Plasma membrane domains enriched in cortical endoplasmic reticulum function as membrane protein trafficking hubs.

    PubMed

    Fox, Philip D; Haberkorn, Christopher J; Weigel, Aubrey V; Higgins, Jenny L; Akin, Elizabeth J; Kennedy, Matthew J; Krapf, Diego; Tamkun, Michael M

    2013-09-01

    In mammalian cells, the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (cER) is a network of tubules and cisterns that lie in close apposition to the plasma membrane (PM). We provide evidence that PM domains enriched in underlying cER function as trafficking hubs for insertion and removal of PM proteins in HEK 293 cells. By simultaneously visualizing cER and various transmembrane protein cargoes with total internal reflectance fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that the majority of exocytotic delivery events for a recycled membrane protein or for a membrane protein being delivered to the PM for the first time occur at regions enriched in cER. Likewise, we observed recurring clathrin clusters and functional endocytosis of PM proteins preferentially at the cER-enriched regions. Thus the cER network serves to organize the molecular machinery for both insertion and removal of cell surface proteins, highlighting a novel role for these unique cellular microdomains in membrane trafficking.

  10. Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Unfolded Protein Response: Dynamics and Metabolic Integration

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Roberto; Parra, Valentina; Gatica, Damián; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Torrealba, Natalia; Paredes, Felipe; Wang, Zhao V.; Zorzano, Antonio; Hill, Joseph A.; Jaimovich, Enrique; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a dynamic intracellular organelle with multiple functions essential for cellular homeostasis, development, and stress responsiveness. In response to cellular stress, a well-established signaling cascade, the unfolded protein response (UPR), is activated. This intricate mechanism is an important means of reestablishing cellular homeostasis and alleviating the inciting stress. Now, emerging evidence has demonstrated that the UPR influences cellular metabolism through diverse mechanisms, including calcium and lipid transfer, raising the prospect of involvement of these processes in the pathogenesis of disease, including neurodegeneration, cancer, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Here, we review the distinct functions of the ER and UPR from a metabolic point of view, highlighting their association with prevalent pathologies. PMID:23317820

  11. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells: A Novel Regulator of Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Furmanik, Malgorzata; Shanahan, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in industrialised societies. The idea that the arterial smooth muscle cell (ASMC) plays a key role in regulating many vascular pathologies has been gaining importance, as has the realisation that not enough is known about the pathological cellular mechanisms regulating ASMC function in vascular remodelling. In the past decade endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) have been recognised as a stress response underlying many physiological and pathological processes in various vascular cell types. Here we summarise what is known about how ER stress signalling regulates phenotypic switching, trans/dedifferentiation and apoptosis of ASMCs and contributes to atherosclerosis, hypertension, aneurysms and vascular calcification.

  12. Targeting the hallmarks of cancer with therapy-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Abhishek D; Maes, Hannelore; van Vliet, Alexander R; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is at the center of a number of vital cellular processes such as cell growth, death, and differentiation, crosstalk with immune or stromal cells, and maintenance of proteostasis or homeostasis, and ER functions have implications for various pathologies including cancer. Recently, a number of major hallmarks of cancer have been delineated that are expected to facilitate the development of anticancer therapies. However, therapeutic induction of ER stress as a strategy to broadly target multiple hallmarks of cancer has been seldom discussed despite the fact that several primary or secondary ER stress-inducing therapies have been found to exhibit positive clinical activity in cancer patients. In the present review we provide a brief historical overview of the major discoveries and milestones in the field of ER stress biology with important implications for anticancer therapy. Furthermore, we comprehensively discuss possible strategies enabling the targeting of multiple hallmarks of cancer with therapy-induced ER stress. PMID:27308392

  13. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signaling in Mammalian Oocytes and Embryos: Life in the Balance

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian oocytes and embryos are exquisitely sensitive to a wide range of insults related to physical stress, chemical exposure, and exposures to adverse maternal nutrition or health status. Although cells manifest specific responses to various stressors, many of these stressors intersect at the endoplasmic reticulum, where disruptions in protein folding and production of reactive oxygen species initiate downstream signaling events. These signals modulate mRNA translation and gene transcription, leading to recovery, activation of autophagy, or with severe and prolonged stress, apoptosis. ER stress signaling has recently come to the fore as a major contributor to embryo demise. Accordingly, agents that modulate or inhibit ER stress signaling have yielded beneficial effects on embryo survival and long-term developmental potential. We review here the mechanisms of ER stress signaling, their connections to mammalian oocytes and embryos, and the promising indications that interventions in this pathway may provide new opportunities for improving mammalian reproduction and health. PMID:25805126

  14. Analysis of glycoprotein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum using synthetic oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yukishige; Takeda, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    Protein quality control (QC) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) comprises many steps, including folding and transport of nascent proteins as well as degradation of misfolded proteins. Recent studies have revealed that high-mannose-type glycans play a pivotal role in the QC process. To gain knowledge about the molecular basis of this process with well-defined homogeneous compounds, we achieved a convergent synthesis of high-mannose-type glycans and their functionalized derivatives. We focused on analyses of UDP-Glc: glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGGT) and ER Glucosidase II, which play crucial roles in glycoprotein QC; however, their specificities remain unclear. In addition, we established an in vitro assay system mimicking the in vivo condition which is highly crowded because of the presence of various biomacromolecules.

  15. Obesity-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress causes chronic inflammation in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Noritaka; Asada, Rie; Saito, Atsushi; Kanemoto, Soshi; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays a central role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis under normal conditions. Metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes are often accompanied by chronic inflammation and adipose tissue dysfunction. In this study, we observed that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the inflammatory response occurred in adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet for a period of 16 weeks. After 16 weeks of feeding, ER stress markers increased and chronic inflammation occurred in adipose tissue. We found that ER stress is induced by free fatty acid (FFA)-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and up-regulated gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Oral administration to obese mice of chemical chaperons, which alleviate ER stress, improved chronic inflammation in adipose tissue, followed by the suppression of increased body weight and improved insulin signaling. These results indicate that ER stress plays important pathophysiological roles in obesity-induced adipose tissue dysfunction.

  16. Renal endoplasmic reticulum stress is coupled to impaired autophagy in a mouse model of GSD Ia.

    PubMed

    Farah, Benjamin L; Landau, Dustin J; Wu, Yajun; Sinha, Rohit A; Loh, Alwin; Bay, Boon-Huat; Koeberl, Dwight D; Yen, Paul M

    2017-11-01

    GSD Ia (von Gierke Disease, Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia) is a devastating genetic disorder with long-term sequelae, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and renal failure. Down-regulated autophagy is involved in the development of hepatic metabolic dysfunction in GSD Ia; however, the role of autophagy in the renal pathology is unknown. Here we show that autophagy is impaired and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is increased in the kidneys of a mouse model of GSD Ia. Induction of autophagy by rapamycin also reduces this ER stress. Taken together, these results show an additional role for autophagy down-regulation in the pathogenesis of GSD Ia, and provide further justification for the use of autophagy modulators in GSD Ia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluorescence methods for analysis of interactions between Ca(2+) signaling, lysosomes, and endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Prole, David L; López-Sanjurjo, Cristina I; Tovey, Stephen C; Taylor, Colin W

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is both the major source of intracellular Ca(2+) for cell signaling and the organelle that forms the most extensive contacts with the plasma membrane and other organelles. Lysosomes fulfill important roles in degrading cellular materials and in cholesterol handling, but they also contribute to Ca(2+) signaling by both releasing and sequestering Ca(2+). Interactions between ER and other Ca(2+)-transporting membranes, notably mitochondria and the plasma membrane, often occur at sites where the two membranes are closely apposed, allowing local Ca(2+) signaling between them. These interactions are often facilitated by scaffold proteins. Recent evidence suggests similar local interactions between ER and lysosomes. We describe simple fluorescence-based methods that allow the interplay between Ca(2+) signals, the ER, and lysosomes to be examined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rheumatoid arthritis as a hyper-endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation disease.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Satoshi; Yagishita, Naoko; Tsuchimochi, Kaneyuki; Nishioka, Kusuki; Nakajima, Toshihiro

    2005-01-01

    We introduce Synoviolin as a novel pathogenic factor in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Experimental studies indicate that this endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident E3 ubiquitin ligase has important functions in the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) system, an essential system for ER homeostasis. Overexpression of Synoviolin in mice causes arthropathy with synovial hyperplasia, whereas heterozygous knockdown results in increased apoptosis of synovial cells and resistance to collagen-induced arthritis in mice. On the basis of these experimental data, we propose that excess elimination of unfolded proteins (that is, 'hyper-ERAD') by overexpression of Synoviolin triggers synovial cell overgrowth and hence a worsening of RA. Further analysis of the hyper-ERAD system may permit the complex pathomechanisms of RA to be uncovered.

  19. Sc65-Null Mice Provide Evidence for a Novel Endoplasmic Reticulum Complex Regulating Collagen Lysyl Hydroxylation

    PubMed Central

    Weis, MaryAnn; Rai, Jyoti; Hudson, David M.; Dimori, Milena; Zimmerman, Sarah M.; Hogue, William R.; Swain, Frances L.; Burdine, Marie S.; Mackintosh, Samuel G.; Tackett, Alan J.; Suva, Larry J.; Eyre, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is a major component of the extracellular matrix and its integrity is essential for connective tissue and organ function. The importance of proteins involved in intracellular collagen post-translational modification, folding and transport was recently highlighted from studies on recessive forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Here we describe the critical role of SC65 (Synaptonemal Complex 65, P3H4), a leprecan-family member, as part of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) complex with prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3. This complex affects the activity of lysyl-hydroxylase 1 potentially through interactions with the enzyme and/or cyclophilin B. Loss of Sc65 in the mouse results in instability of this complex, altered collagen lysine hydroxylation and cross-linking leading to connective tissue defects that include low bone mass and skin fragility. This is the first indication of a prolyl-hydroxylase complex in the ER controlling lysyl-hydroxylase activity during collagen synthesis. PMID:27119146

  20. CCPG1, a cargo receptor required for reticulophagy and endoplasmic reticulum proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew D; Wilkinson, Simon

    2018-06-19

    The importance of selective macroautophagy/autophagy in cellular health is increasingly evident. The selective degradation of portions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), or reticulophagy, is an emerging example but requires further mechanistic detail and broad evidence of physiological relevance. In a recent study, we identified CCPG1, an ER-resident transmembrane protein that can bind to Atg8-family proteins and, independently and discretely, to RB1CC1/FIP200. Both of these interactions are required to facilitate CCPG1's function as a reticulophagy cargo receptor. CCPG1 transcripts are inducible by ER stress, providing a direct link between ER stress and reticulophagy. In vivo, CCPG1 prevents the hyper-accumulation of insoluble protein within the ER lumen of pancreatic acinar cells and alleviates ER stress. Accordingly, CCPG1 loss sensitizes the exocrine pancreas to tissue injury.

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is induced in the human placenta during labour.

    PubMed

    Veerbeek, J H W; Tissot Van Patot, M C; Burton, G J; Yung, H W

    2015-01-01

    Placental endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been postulated in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), but its activation remains elusive. Oxidative stress induced by ischaemia/hypoxia-reoxygenation activates ER stress in vitro. Here, we explored whether exposure to labour represents an in vivo model for the study of acute placental ER stress. ER stress markers, GRP78, P-eIF2α and XBP-1, were significantly higher in laboured placentas than in Caesarean-delivered controls localised mainly in the syncytiotrophoblast. The similarities to changes observed in PE/IUGR placentas suggest exposure to labour can be used to investigate induction of ER stress in pathological placentas. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is induced in the human placenta during labour

    PubMed Central

    Veerbeek, J.H.W.; Tissot Van Patot, M.C.; Burton, G.J.; Yung, H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Placental endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been postulated in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), but its activation remains elusive. Oxidative stress induced by ischaemia/hypoxia-reoxygenation activates ER stress in vitro. Here, we explored whether exposure to labour represents an in vivo model for the study of acute placental ER stress. ER stress markers, GRP78, P-eIF2α and XBP-1, were significantly higher in laboured placentas than in Caesarean-delivered controls localised mainly in the syncytiotrophoblast. The similarities to changes observed in PE/IUGR placentas suggest exposure to labour can be used to investigate induction of ER stress in pathological placentas. PMID:25434970

  3. Dysfunctional tubular endoplasmic reticulum constitutes a pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sharoar, M G; Shi, Q; Ge, Y; He, W; Hu, X; Perry, G; Zhu, X; Yan, R

    2016-09-01

    Pathological features in Alzheimer's brains include mitochondrial dysfunction and dystrophic neurites (DNs) in areas surrounding amyloid plaques. Using a mouse model that overexpresses reticulon 3 (RTN3) and spontaneously develops age-dependent hippocampal DNs, here we report that DNs contain both RTN3 and REEPs, topologically similar proteins that can shape tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Importantly, ultrastructural examinations of such DNs revealed gradual accumulation of tubular ER in axonal termini, and such abnormal tubular ER inclusion is found in areas surrounding amyloid plaques in biopsy samples from Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Functionally, abnormally clustered tubular ER induces enhanced mitochondrial fission in the early stages of DN formation and eventual mitochondrial degeneration at later stages. Furthermore, such DNs are abrogated when RTN3 is ablated in aging and AD mouse models. Hence, abnormally clustered tubular ER can be pathogenic in brain regions: disrupting mitochondrial integrity, inducing DNs formation and impairing cognitive function in AD and aging brains.

  4. Endoplasmic Reticulum: The Favorite Intracellular Niche for Viral Replication and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Brey, Inés; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest intracellular organelle. It forms a complex network of continuous sheets and tubules, extending from the nuclear envelope (NE) to the plasma membrane. This network is frequently perturbed by positive-strand RNA viruses utilizing the ER to create membranous replication factories (RFs), where amplification of their genomes occurs. In addition, many enveloped viruses assemble progeny virions in association with ER membranes, and viruses replicating in the nucleus need to overcome the NE barrier, requiring transient changes of the NE morphology. This review first summarizes some key aspects of ER morphology and then focuses on the exploitation of the ER by viruses for the sake of promoting the different steps of their replication cycles. PMID:27338443

  5. Inhibition of protein translocation at the endoplasmic reticulum promotes activation of the unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    McKibbin, Craig; Mares, Alina; Piacenti, Michela; Williams, Helen; Roboti, Peristera; Puumalainen, Marjo; Callan, Anna C.; Lesiak-Mieczkowska, Karolina; Linder, Stig; Harant, Hanna; High, Stephen; Flitsch, Sabine L.; Whitehead, Roger C.; Swanton, Eileithyia

    2011-01-01

    Selective small-molecule inhibitors represent powerful tools for the dissection of complex biological processes. ESI (eeyarestatin I) is a novel modulator of ER (endoplasmic reticulum) function. In the present study, we show that in addition to acutely inhibiting ERAD (ER-associated degradation), ESI causes production of mislocalized polypeptides that are ubiquitinated and degraded. Unexpectedly, our results suggest that these non-translocated polypeptides promote activation of the UPR (unfolded protein response), and indeed we can recapitulate UPR activation with an alternative and quite distinct inhibitor of ER translocation. These results suggest that the accumulation of non-translocated proteins in the cytosol may represent a novel mechanism that contributes to UPR activation. PMID:22145777

  6. A Molecular Fluorescent Probe for Targeted Visualization of Temperature at the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Satoshi; Lee, Sung-Chan; Zhai, Duanting; Suzuki, Madoka; Chang, Young Tae

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of cellular heat production and propagation remains elusive at a subcellular level. Here we report the first small molecule fluorescent thermometer selectively targeting the endoplasmic reticulum (ER thermo yellow), with the highest sensitivity reported so far (3.9%/°C). Unlike nanoparticle thermometers, ER thermo yellow stains the target organelle evenly without the commonly encountered problem of aggregation, and successfully demonstrates the ability to monitor intracellular temperature gradients generated by external heat sources in various cell types. We further confirm the ability of ER thermo yellow to monitor heat production by intracellular Ca2+ changes in HeLa cells. Our thermometer anchored at nearly-zero distance from the ER, i.e. the heat source, allowed the detection of the heat as it readily dissipated, and revealed the dynamics of heat production in real time at a subcellular level. PMID:25330751

  7. Cyclosporine A-Sensitive, Cyclophilin B-Dependent Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Luban, Jeremy; Molinari, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIs) catalyze cis/trans isomerization of peptide bonds preceding proline residues. The involvement of PPI family members in protein refolding has been established in test tube experiments. Surprisingly, however, no data is available on the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident members of the PPI family in protein folding, quality control or disposal in the living cell. Here we report that the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A (CsA) selectively inhibits the degradation of a subset of misfolded proteins generated in the ER. We identify cyclophilin B (CyPB) as the ER-resident target of CsA that catalytically enhances disposal from the ER of ERAD-LS substrates containing cis proline residues. Our manuscript presents the first evidence for enzymatic involvement of a PPI in protein quality control in the ER of living cells. PMID:20927389

  8. Plasma membrane domains enriched in cortical endoplasmic reticulum function as membrane protein trafficking hubs

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Philip D.; Haberkorn, Christopher J.; Weigel, Aubrey V.; Higgins, Jenny L.; Akin, Elizabeth J.; Kennedy, Matthew J.; Krapf, Diego; Tamkun, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (cER) is a network of tubules and cisterns that lie in close apposition to the plasma membrane (PM). We provide evidence that PM domains enriched in underlying cER function as trafficking hubs for insertion and removal of PM proteins in HEK 293 cells. By simultaneously visualizing cER and various transmembrane protein cargoes with total internal reflectance fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that the majority of exocytotic delivery events for a recycled membrane protein or for a membrane protein being delivered to the PM for the first time occur at regions enriched in cER. Likewise, we observed recurring clathrin clusters and functional endocytosis of PM proteins preferentially at the cER-enriched regions. Thus the cER network serves to organize the molecular machinery for both insertion and removal of cell surface proteins, highlighting a novel role for these unique cellular microdomains in membrane trafficking. PMID:23864710

  9. Flurbiprofen ameliorated obesity by attenuating leptin resistance induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Hosoi, Toru; Yamaguchi, Rie; Noji, Kikuko; Matsuo, Suguru; Baba, Sachiko; Toyoda, Keisuke; Suezawa, Takahiro; Kayano, Takaaki; Tanaka, Shinpei; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, caused by the accumulation of unfolded proteins, is involved in the development of obesity. We demonstrated that flurbiprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), exhibited chaperone activity, which reduced protein aggregation and alleviated ER stress-induced leptin resistance, characterized by insensitivity to the actions of the anti-obesity hormone leptin. This result was further supported by flurbiprofen attenuating high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice. The other NSAIDs tested did not exhibit such effects, which suggested that this anti-obesity action is mediated independent of NSAIDs. Using ferriteglycidyl methacrylate beads, we identified aldehyde dehydrogenase as the target of flurbiprofen, but not of the other NSAIDs. These results suggest that flurbiprofen may have unique pharmacological properties that reduce the accumulation of unfolded proteins and may represent a new class of drug for the fundamental treatment of obesity. Subject Categories Metabolism; Pharmacology & Drug Discovery PMID:24421337

  10. Flurbiprofen ameliorated obesity by attenuating leptin resistance induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Toru; Yamaguchi, Rie; Noji, Kikuko; Matsuo, Suguru; Baba, Sachiko; Toyoda, Keisuke; Suezawa, Takahiro; Kayano, Takaaki; Tanaka, Shinpei; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2014-03-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, caused by the accumulation of unfolded proteins, is involved in the development of obesity. We demonstrated that flurbiprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), exhibited chaperone activity, which reduced protein aggregation and alleviated ER stress-induced leptin resistance, characterized by insensitivity to the actions of the anti-obesity hormone leptin. This result was further supported by flurbiprofen attenuating high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice. The other NSAIDs tested did not exhibit such effects, which suggested that this anti-obesity action is mediated independent of NSAIDs. Using ferriteglycidyl methacrylate beads, we identified aldehyde dehydrogenase as the target of flurbiprofen, but not of the other NSAIDs. These results suggest that flurbiprofen may have unique pharmacological properties that reduce the accumulation of unfolded proteins and may represent a new class of drug for the fundamental treatment of obesity.

  11. VCP and ATL1 regulate endoplasmic reticulum and protein synthesis for dendritic spine formation

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Yu-Tzu; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Imbalanced protein homeostasis, such as excessive protein synthesis and protein aggregation, is a pathogenic hallmark of a range of neurological disorders. Here, using expression of mutant proteins, a knockdown approach and disease mutation knockin mice, we show that VCP (valosin-containing protein), together with its cofactor P47 and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) morphology regulator ATL1 (Atlastin-1), regulates tubular ER formation and influences the efficiency of protein synthesis to control dendritic spine formation in neurons. Strengthening the significance of protein synthesis in dendritic spinogenesis, the translation blocker cyclohexamide and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin reduce dendritic spine density, while a leucine supplement that increases protein synthesis ameliorates the dendritic spine defects caused by Vcp and Atl1 deficiencies. Because VCP and ATL1 are the causative genes of several neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, we suggest that impaired ER formation and inefficient protein synthesis are significant in the pathogenesis of multiple neurological disorders. PMID:26984393

  12. VCP and ATL1 regulate endoplasmic reticulum and protein synthesis for dendritic spine formation.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yu-Tzu; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2016-03-17

    Imbalanced protein homeostasis, such as excessive protein synthesis and protein aggregation, is a pathogenic hallmark of a range of neurological disorders. Here, using expression of mutant proteins, a knockdown approach and disease mutation knockin mice, we show that VCP (valosin-containing protein), together with its cofactor P47 and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) morphology regulator ATL1 (Atlastin-1), regulates tubular ER formation and influences the efficiency of protein synthesis to control dendritic spine formation in neurons. Strengthening the significance of protein synthesis in dendritic spinogenesis, the translation blocker cyclohexamide and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin reduce dendritic spine density, while a leucine supplement that increases protein synthesis ameliorates the dendritic spine defects caused by Vcp and Atl1 deficiencies. Because VCP and ATL1 are the causative genes of several neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, we suggest that impaired ER formation and inefficient protein synthesis are significant in the pathogenesis of multiple neurological disorders.

  13. Inhibin beta E is upregulated by drug-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress as a transcriptional target gene of ATF4

    SciTech Connect

    Brüning, Ansgar, E-mail: ansgar.bruening@med.uni-muenchen.de; Matsingou, Christina; Brem, German Johannes

    2012-10-15

    Inhibins and activins are gonadal peptide hormones of the transforming growth factor-β super family with important functions in the reproductive system. By contrast, the recently identified inhibin βE subunit, primarily expressed in liver cells, appears to exert functions unrelated to the reproductive system. Previously shown downregulation of inhibin βE in hepatoma cells and anti-proliferative effects of ectopic inhibin βE overexpression indicated growth-regulatory effects of inhibin βE. We observed a selective re-expression of the inhibin βE subunit in HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells, MCF7 breast cancer cells, and HeLa cervical cancer cells under endoplasmic reticulum stress conditions induced by tunicamycin, thapsigargin, and nelfinavir.more » Analysis of XPB1 splicing and ATF4 activation revealed that inhibin βE re-expression was associated with induction of the endoplasmic reticulum stress reaction by these drugs. Transfection of an ATF4 expression plasmid specifically induced inhibin βE expression in HeLa cells and indicates inhibin βE as a hitherto unidentified target gene of ATF4, a key transcription factor of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Therefore, the inhibin βE subunit defines not only a new player but also a possible new marker for drug-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress. -- Highlights: ► Endoplasmic reticulum stress induces inhibin beta E expression. ► Inhibin beta E is regulated by the transcription factor ATF4. ► Inhibin beta E expression can be used as a marker for drug-induced ER stress.« less

  14. Tributyltin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and its Ca{sup 2+}-mediated mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Isomura, Midori; Kotake, Yaichiro, E-mail: yaichiro@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Masuda, Kyoichi

    2013-10-01

    Organotin compounds, especially tributyltin chloride (TBT), have been widely used in antifouling paints for marine vessels, but exhibit various toxicities in mammals. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional organelle that controls post-translational modification and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} signaling. When the capacity of the quality control system of ER is exceeded under stress including ER Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis disruption, ER functions are impaired and unfolded proteins are accumulated in ER lumen, which is called ER stress. Here, we examined whether TBT causes ER stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We found that 700 nM TBT induced ER stress markers suchmore » as CHOP, GRP78, spliced XBP1 mRNA and phosphorylated eIF2α. TBT also decreased the cell viability both concentration- and time-dependently. Dibutyltin and monobutyltin did not induce ER stress markers. We hypothesized that TBT induces ER stress via Ca{sup 2+} depletion, and to test this idea, we examined the effect of TBT on intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration using fura-2 AM, a Ca{sup 2+} fluorescent probe. TBT increased intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration in a TBT-concentration-dependent manner, and Ca{sup 2+} increase in 700 nM TBT was mainly blocked by 50 μM dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor antagonist (about 70% inhibition). Dantrolene also partially but significantly inhibited TBT-induced GRP78 expression and cell death. These results suggest that TBT increases intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration by releasing Ca{sup 2+} from ER, thereby causing ER stress. - Highlights: • We established that tributyltin induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. • Tributyltin induces ER stress markers in a concentration-dependent manner. • Tributyltin increases Ca{sup 2+} release from ER, thereby causing ER stress. • Dibutyltin and monobutyltin did not increase GRP78 or intracellular Ca{sup 2+}.« less

  15. ERdj5 sensitizes neuroblastoma cells to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christophoros G; Spyrou, Giannis

    2009-03-06

    Down-regulation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) can be therapeutically valuable in cancer treatment, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident chaperone proteins may thus be targets for developing novel chemotherapeutic strategies. ERdj5 is a novel ER chaperone that regulates the ER-associated degradation of misfolded proteins through its associations with EDEM and the ER stress sensor BiP. To investigate whether ERdj5 can regulate ER stress signaling pathways, we exposed neuroblastoma cells overexpressing ERdj5 to ER stress inducers. ERdj5 promoted apoptosis in tunicamycin, thapsigargin, and bortezomib-treated cells. To provide further evidence that ERdj5 induces ER stress-regulated apoptosis, we targeted Bcl-2 to ER of ERdj5-overexpressing cells. Targeting the Bcl-2 to ER prevented the apoptosis induced by ER stress inducers but not by non-ER stress apoptotic stimuli, suggesting induction of ER stress-regulated apoptosis by ERdj5. ERdj5 enhanced apoptosis by abolishing the ER stress-induced phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) and the subsequent translational repression. ERdj5 was found to inhibit the eIF2alpha phosphorylation under ER stress through inactivating the pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase. The compromised integrated stress response observed in ERdj5-overexpressing ER-stressed cells due to repressed eIF2alpha phosphorylation correlated with impaired neuroblastoma cell resistance under ER stress. These results demonstrate that ERdj5 decreases neuroblastoma cell survival by down-regulating the UPR, raising the possibility that this protein could be a target for anti-tumor approaches.

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane potassium channel dysfunction in high fat diet induced stress in rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Khodaee, Naser; Ghasemi, Maedeh; Saghiri, Reza; Eliassi, Afsaneh

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study we reported the presence of a large conductance K+ channel in the membrane of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from rat hepatocytes. The channel open probability (Po) appeared voltage dependent and reached to a minimum 0.2 at +50 mV. Channel activity in this case was found to be totally inhibited at ATP concentration 2.5 mM, glibenclamide 100 µM and tolbutamide 400 µM. Existing evidence indicates an impairment of endoplasmic reticulum functions in ER stress condition. Because ER potassium channels have been involved in several ER functions including cytoprotection, apoptosis and calcium homeostasis, a study was carried out to consider whether the ER potassium channel function is altered in a high fat diet model of ER stress. Male Wistar rats were made ER stress for 2 weeks with a high fat diet. Ion channel incorporation of ER stress model into the bilayer lipid membrane allowed the characterization of K+ channel. Our results indicate that the channel Po was significantly increased at voltages above +30 mV. Interestingly, addition of ATP 7.5 mM, glibenclamide 400 µM and tolbutamide 2400 µM totally inhibited the channel activities, 3-fold, 4-fold and 6-fold higher than that in the control groups, respectively. Our results thus demonstrate a modification in the ER K+ channel gating properties and decreased sensitivity to drugs in membrane preparations coming from ER high fat model of ER stress, an effect potentially linked to a change in ER K+ channel subunits in ER stress condition. Our results may provide new insights into the cellular mechanisms underlying ER dysfunctions in ER stress. PMID:26417322

  17. The Endoplasmic Reticulum: A Central Player in Cell Signalling and Protein Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llewelyn Roderick, H.; Berridge, Michael J.; Bootman, Martin D.

    In addition to being the principle intracellular Ca 2+ store, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the initial site of synthesis and folding of membrane and secretory proteins. These two roles of the ER are intimately linked. First, the function of many proteins involved in Ca 2+ handling are modulated by Ca 2+ and second, ER lumenal Ca 2+ modulates protein synthesis and folding. Within the ER, Ca 2+ is stored by low affinity high capacity Ca 2+ binding proteins and is maintained at a free concentration between 0.1 and 1 μM relative to 0.1 μM cytosolic Ca 2+. This concentration gradient is maintained by the action of the Sarco-Endoplasmic Reticulum ATPases (SERCa) which hydrolyse ATP to pump Ca 2+ into the ER. Following stimulation Ca 2+ is released from the ER through several classes of ligand gated channels. The most well characterized of these being the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor ( IP 3 R) and the Ryanodine receptor (RyR) families of proteins. This release of Ca 2+ results in a drop of ER free Ca 2+ to levels as low as 10 μM. This decrease in lumenal Ca 2+ inhibits further release through the channels and increases the rate of re-sequestration of Ca 2+ into the ER by the SERCa pumps. Under these conditions, in addition to effects on Ca 2+ handling proteins, protein synthesis is inhibited, chaperones dissociate from their substrates, secondary modifications of proteins are inhibited and the retention of many proteins within the ER is lost. Furthermore, a signalling cascade resulting in the up-regulation of many proteins involved in protein folding and Ca 2+ homeostasis is initiated. This review will focus on the proteins involved in the regulation ER lumenal Ca 2+ and the role of ER lumenal Ca 2+ in cell signalling and protein synthesis.

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum chaperone GRP78 regulates macrophage function and insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Eunjung; Friedline, Randall H; Suk, Sujin; Jung, Dae Young; Dagdeviren, Sezin; Hu, Xiaodi; Inashima, Kunikazu; Noh, Hye Lim; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Nambu, Aya; Huh, Jun R; Han, Myoung Sook; Davis, Roger J; Lee, Amy S; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Jason K

    2018-04-01

    Obesity-mediated inflammation is a major cause of insulin resistance, and macrophages play an important role in this process. The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) is a major endoplasmic reticulum chaperone that modulates unfolded protein response (UPR), and mice with GRP78 heterozygosity were resistant to diet-induced obesity. Here, we show that mice with macrophage-selective ablation of GRP78 (Lyz- GRP78 -/- ) are protected from skeletal muscle insulin resistance without changes in obesity compared with wild-type mice after 9 wk of high-fat diet. GRP78-deficient macrophages demonstrated adapted UPR with up-regulation of activating transcription factor (ATF)-4 and M2-polarization markers. Diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation was reduced, and bone marrow-derived macrophages from Lyz- GRP78 -/- mice demonstrated a selective increase in IL-6 expression. Serum IL-13 levels were elevated by >4-fold in Lyz- GRP78 -/- mice, and IL-6 stimulated the myocyte expression of IL-13 and IL-13 receptor. Lastly, recombinant IL-13 acutely increased glucose metabolism in Lyz- GRP78 -/- mice. Taken together, our data indicate that GRP78 deficiency activates UPR by increasing ATF-4, and promotes M2-polarization of macrophages with a selective increase in IL-6 secretion. Macrophage-derived IL-6 stimulates the myocyte expression of IL-13 and regulates muscle glucose metabolism in a paracrine manner. Thus, our findings identify a novel crosstalk between macrophages and skeletal muscle in the modulation of obesity-mediated insulin resistance.-Kim, J. H., Lee, E., Friedline, R. H., Suk, S., Jung, D. Y., Dagdeviren, S., Hu, X., Inashima, K., Noh, H. L., Kwon, J. Y., Nambu, A., Huh, J. R., Han, M. S., Davis, R. J., Lee, A. S., Lee, K. W., Kim, J. K. Endoplasmic reticulum chaperone GRP78 regulates macrophage function and insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity.

  19. The Herbal Medicine Cordyceps sinensis Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells from Streptozotocin-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Cao, Diyong; Liu, Hua; Liu, Xinghai; Mai, Wenli; Lan, Haitao; Huo, Wen; Zheng, Qian

    2016-08-01

    Our previous work found that Cordyceps sinensis (CS) improves the activity and secretory function of pancreatic islet beta cells. The objective was to observe a further possible role of CS in the protection of insulin-secreting cells. A rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus was developed with streptozotocin (STZ) and a high-energy fat diet (HFD). CS was administered in the successful model of rats with type 2 diabetes. After 4 weeks, the biochemistry index of blood samples was measured, and pathologic observation was performed by immunohistochemistry. In the rats with type 2 diabetes induced by a HFD and STZ, the levels of fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin were elevated, and the insulin sensitivity index was decreased. Pathologic examination found an increased number of apoptotic cells, an elevated protein expression of pro-apoptotic C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and an increased c-Jun level by means of JNK phosphorylation, responsive to the endoplasmic reticulum stress of islet beta cells. With treatment by CS for 4 weeks, the elevated levels of both fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin in the rats with type 2 diabetes were significantly lower, and the decreased insulin sensitivity index was reversed. Compared to the control rats with type 2 diabetes, CS application significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells and decreased protein expression of both CHOP and c-Jun. The herbal compound CS could protect pancreatic beta cells from the pro-apoptotic endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by HFD-STZ. This suggests an alternative approach to treating type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of N-linked polymannose oligosaccharides in targeting glycoproteins for endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation.

    PubMed

    Spiro, R G

    2004-05-01

    Misfolded or incompletely assembled multisubunit glycoproteins undergo endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) regulated in large measure by their N-linked polymannose oligosaccharides. In this quality control system lectin interaction with Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) glycans after trimming with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) alpha-glucosidases and alpha-mannosidases sorts out persistently unfolded glycoproteins for N-deglycosylation and proteolytic degradation. Monoglucosylated (Glc(1)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)) glycoproteins take part in the calnexin/calreticulin glucosylation-deglucosylation cycle, while the Man(8)GlcNAc(2) isomer B product of ER mannosidase I interacts with EDEM. Proteasomal degradation requires retrotranslocation into the cytosol through a Sec61 channel and deglycosylation by peptide: N-glycosidase (PNGase); in alternate models both PNGase and proteasomes may be either free in the cytosol or ER membrane-imbedded/attached. Numerous proteins appear to undergo nonproteasomal degradation in which deglycosylation and proteolysis take place in the ER lumen. The released free oligosaccharides (OS) are transported to the cytosol as OS-GlcNAc(2) along with similar components produced by the hydrolytic action of the oligosaccharyltransferase, where they together with OS from the proteasomal pathway are trimmed to Man(5)GlcNAc(1) by the action of cytosolic endo-beta- N-acetylglucosaminidase and alpha-mannosidase before entering the lysosomes. Some misfolded glycoproteins can recycle between the ER, intermediate and Golgi compartments, where they are further processed before ERAD. Moreover, properly folded glycoproteins with mannose-trimmed glycans can be deglucosylated in the Golgi by endomannosidase, thereby releasing calreticulin and permitting formation of complex OS. A number of regulatory controls have been described, including the glucosidase-glucosyltransferase shuttle, which controls the level of Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-P-P-Dol, and the unfolded protein

  1. Identification of Two Novel Endoplasmic Reticulum Body-Specific Integral Membrane Proteins1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kenji; Nagano, Atsushi J.; Nishina, Momoko; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Nishimura, Mikio

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) body, a large compartment specific to the Brassicales, accumulates β-glucosidase and possibly plays a role in the defense against pathogens and herbivores. Although the ER body is a subdomain of the ER, it is unclear whether any ER body-specific membrane protein exists. In this study, we identified two integral membrane proteins of the ER body in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and termed them MEMBRANE PROTEIN OF ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM BODY1 (MEB1) and MEB2. In Arabidopsis, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, NAI1, and an ER body component, NAI2, regulate ER body formation. The expression profiles of MEB1 and MEB2 are similar to those of NAI1, NAI2, and ER body β-glucosidase PYK10 in Arabidopsis. The expression of MEB1 and MEB2 was reduced in the nai1 mutant, indicating that NAI1 regulates the expression of MEB1 and MEB2 genes. MEB1 and MEB2 proteins localize to the ER body membrane but not to the ER network, suggesting that these proteins are specifically recruited to the ER body membrane. MEB1 and MEB2 physically interacted with ER body component NAI2, and they were diffused throughout the ER network in the nai2 mutant, which has no ER body. Heterologous expression of MEB1 and MEB2 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) suppresses iron and manganese toxicity, suggesting that MEB1 and MEB2 are metal transporters. These results indicate that the membrane of ER bodies has specific membrane proteins and suggest that the ER body is involved in defense against metal stress as well as pathogens and herbivores. PMID:23166355

  2. Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPases (SERCA) Contribute to GPCR-Mediated Taste Perception

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi, Naoko; Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Slack, Jay P.; Zhong, Ping; Huang, Liquan

    2011-01-01

    The sense of taste is important for providing animals with valuable information about the qualities of food, such as nutritional or harmful nature. Mammals, including humans, can recognize at least five primary taste qualities: sweet, umami (savory), bitter, sour, and salty. Recent studies have identified molecules and mechanisms underlying the initial steps of tastant-triggered molecular events in taste bud cells, particularly the requirement of increased cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) for normal taste signal transduction and transmission. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms controlling the removal of elevated [Ca2+]c from the cytosol of taste receptor cells (TRCs) and how the disruption of these mechanisms affects taste perception. To investigate the molecular mechanism of Ca2+ clearance in TRCs, we sought the molecules involved in [Ca2+]c regulation using a single-taste-cell transcriptome approach. We found that Serca3, a member of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) family that sequesters cytosolic Ca2+ into endoplasmic reticulum, is exclusively expressed in sweet/umami/bitter TRCs, which rely on intracellular Ca2+ release for signaling. Serca3-knockout (KO) mice displayed significantly increased aversive behavioral responses and greater gustatory nerve responses to bitter taste substances but not to sweet or umami taste substances. Further studies showed that Serca2 was mainly expressed in the T1R3-expressing sweet and umami TRCs, suggesting that the loss of function of Serca3 was possibly compensated by Serca2 in these TRCs in the mutant mice. Our data demonstrate that the SERCA family members play an important role in the Ca2+ clearance in TRCs and that mutation of these proteins may alter bitter and perhaps sweet and umami taste perception. PMID:21829714

  3. Melatonin protects brain against ischemia/reperfusion injury by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu Wen; Chen, Tsung Ying; Hung, Chia Yang; Tai, Shih Huang; Huang, Sheng Yang; Chang, Che Chao; Hung, Hsin Yi; Lee, E Jian

    2018-07-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a vital role in mediating ischemic reperfusion damage in brain. In this study, we evaluated whether melatonin inhibits ER stress in cultured neurons exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and in rats subjected to transient focal cerebral ischemia. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with melatonin (5 mg/kg) or control at reperfusion onset after transient occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) for 90 min. Brain infarction and hemorrhage within infarcts were measured. The expression of ER stress proteins of phosphorylation of PRKR‑like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK), phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were detected by western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis. The terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method, cleaved caspase-3 and cytochrome c were used to investigate cell apoptosis in OGD-induced cultured neurons. Our results demonstrated that animals treated with melatonin had significantly reduced infarction volumes and individual cortical lesion sizes as well as increased numbers of surviving neurons. Melatonin can significantly modulate protein levels by decreasing both p-PERK and p-eIF2α in the ischemic core and penumbra. Moreover, the expressions of ATF4 and CHOP were restrained in the ischemic core and penumbra, respectively. Furthermore, pretreatment with melatonin at 10-100 µM effectively reduced the levels of p-PERK and p-eIF2α in cultured neurons after OGD injury. Melatonin treatment also effectively decreased neuron apoptosis resulting from OGD-induced neuron injury. These results indicate that melatonin effectively attenuated post-ischemic ER stress after ischemic stroke.

  4. Phytosphingosine degradation pathway includes fatty acid α-oxidation reactions in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Takuya; Seki, Naoya; Kihara, Akio

    2017-03-28

    Although normal fatty acids (FAs) are degraded via β-oxidation, unusual FAs such as 2-hydroxy (2-OH) FAs and 3-methyl-branched FAs are degraded via α-oxidation. Phytosphingosine (PHS) is one of the long-chain bases (the sphingolipid components) and exists in specific tissues, including the epidermis and small intestine in mammals. In the degradation pathway, PHS is converted to 2-OH palmitic acid and then to pentadecanoic acid (C15:0-COOH) via FA α-oxidation. However, the detailed reactions and genes involved in the α-oxidation reactions of the PHS degradation pathway have yet to be determined. In the present study, we reveal the entire PHS degradation pathway: PHS is converted to C15:0-COOH via six reactions [phosphorylation, cleavage, oxidation, CoA addition, cleavage (C1 removal), and oxidation], in which the last three reactions correspond to the α-oxidation. The aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH3A2 catalyzes both the first and second oxidation reactions (fatty aldehydes to FAs). In Aldh3a2 -deficient cells, the unmetabolized fatty aldehydes are reduced to fatty alcohols and are incorporated into ether-linked glycerolipids. We also identify HACL2 (2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase 2) [previous name, ILVBL; ilvB (bacterial acetolactate synthase)-like] as the major 2-OH acyl-CoA lyase involved in the cleavage (C1 removal) reaction in the FA α-oxidation of the PHS degradation pathway. HACL2 is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Thus, in addition to the already-known FA α-oxidation in the peroxisomes, we have revealed the existence of FA α-oxidation in the endoplasmic reticulum in mammals.

  5. Depletion of Cyclophilins B and C Leads to Dysregulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Redox Homeostasis*

    PubMed Central

    Stocki, Pawel; Chapman, Daniel C.; Beach, Lori A.; Williams, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Protein folding within the endoplasmic reticulum is assisted by molecular chaperones and folding catalysts that include members of the protein-disulfide isomerase and peptidyl-prolyl isomerase families. In this report, we examined the contributions of the cyclophilin subset of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases to protein folding and identified cyclophilin C as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cyclophilin in addition to cyclophilin B. Using albumin and transferrin as models of cis-proline-containing proteins in human hepatoma cells, we found that combined knockdown of cyclophilins B and C delayed transferrin secretion but surprisingly resulted in more efficient oxidative folding and secretion of albumin. Examination of the oxidation status of ER protein-disulfide isomerase family members revealed a shift to a more oxidized state. This was accompanied by a >5-fold elevation in the ratio of oxidized to total glutathione. This “hyperoxidation” phenotype could be duplicated by incubating cells with the cyclophilin inhibitor cyclosporine A, a treatment that triggered efficient ER depletion of cyclophilins B and C by inducing their secretion to the medium. To identify the pathway responsible for ER hyperoxidation, we individually depleted several enzymes that are known or suspected to deliver oxidizing equivalents to the ER: Ero1αβ, VKOR, PRDX4, or QSOX1. Remarkably, none of these enzymes contributed to the elevated oxidized to total glutathione ratio induced by cyclosporine A treatment. These findings establish cyclophilin C as an ER cyclophilin, demonstrate the novel involvement of cyclophilins B and C in ER redox homeostasis, and suggest the existence of an additional ER oxidative pathway that is modulated by ER cyclophilins. PMID:24990953

  6. Astragalus polysaccharides attenuate PCV2 infection by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hongxia; Gan, Fang; Qian, Gang; Hu, Junfa; Hao, Shu; Xu, Jing; Chen, Xingxiang; Huang, Kehe

    2017-01-10

    This study explored the effects of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections and its mechanism in vivo and vitro. First, fifty 2-week-old mice were randomly divided into five groups: a group without PCV2 infection and groups with PCV2 infections at 0, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg APS treatments. The trial lasted for 28 days. The results showed that APS treatments at 200 and 400 mg/kg reduced the pathological injury of tissues, inhibited PCV2 infection and decreased glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and GADD153/CHOP gene mRNA and protein expression significantly (P < 0.05). Second, a study on endoplasmic reticulum stress mechanism was carried out in PK15 cells. APS treatments at 15 and 45 μg/mL significantly reduced PCV2 infection and GRP78 mRNA and protein expression (P < 0.05). Tunicamycin supplementation increased GRP78 mRNA and protein expression and significantly attenuated the APS-induced inhibition of PCV2 infection (P < 0.05). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid supplementation decreased GRP78 mRNA and protein expression and significantly inhibited PCV2 infection (P < 0.05). In addition, fifty 2-week-old mice were randomly divided into five groups: Con, PCV2, APS + PCV2, TM + PCV2 and TM + APS + PCV2. The results were similar to those in PK15 cells. Taken together, it could be concluded that APS suppresses PCV2 infection by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  7. Astragalus polysaccharides attenuate PCV2 infection by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hongxia; Gan, Fang; Qian, Gang; Hu, Junfa; Hao, Shu; Xu, Jing; Chen, Xingxiang; Huang, Kehe

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the effects of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections and its mechanism in vivo and vitro. First, fifty 2-week-old mice were randomly divided into five groups: a group without PCV2 infection and groups with PCV2 infections at 0, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg APS treatments. The trial lasted for 28 days. The results showed that APS treatments at 200 and 400 mg/kg reduced the pathological injury of tissues, inhibited PCV2 infection and decreased glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and GADD153/CHOP gene mRNA and protein expression significantly (P < 0.05). Second, a study on endoplasmic reticulum stress mechanism was carried out in PK15 cells. APS treatments at 15 and 45 μg/mL significantly reduced PCV2 infection and GRP78 mRNA and protein expression (P < 0.05). Tunicamycin supplementation increased GRP78 mRNA and protein expression and significantly attenuated the APS-induced inhibition of PCV2 infection (P < 0.05). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid supplementation decreased GRP78 mRNA and protein expression and significantly inhibited PCV2 infection (P < 0.05). In addition, fifty 2-week-old mice were randomly divided into five groups: Con, PCV2, APS + PCV2, TM + PCV2 and TM + APS + PCV2. The results were similar to those in PK15 cells. Taken together, it could be concluded that APS suppresses PCV2 infection by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:28071725

  8. The glutathione mimic ebselen inhibits oxidative stress but not endoplasmic reticulum stress in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ahwach, Salma Makhoul; Thomas, Melanie; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Mooradian, Arshag D; Haas, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species are associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, yet the use of antioxidants in clinical trials has been ineffective at improving outcomes. In endothelial cells, high-dextrose-induced oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress promote endothelial dysfunction leading to the recruitment and activation of peripheral blood lymphocytes and the breakdown of barrier function. Ebselen, a glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) mimic, has been shown to improve β-cell function in diabetes and prevent atherosclerosis. To determine if ebselen inhibits both oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in endothelial cells, we examined its effects in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with and without high-dextrose. Oxidative stress and ER stress were measured by 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride chemiluminescence and ER stress alkaline phosphatase assays, respectively. GPX1 over-expression and knockdown were performed by transfecting cells with a GPX1 expression construct or a GPX1-specific siRNA, respectively. Ebselen inhibited dextrose-induced oxidative stress but not ER stress in both HUVEC and HCAEC. Ebselen also had no effect on tunicamycin-induced ER stress in HCAEC. Furthermore, augmentation of GPX1 activity directly by sodium selenite supplementation or transfection of a GPX1 expression plasmid decreased dextrose-induced oxidative stress but not ER stress, while GPX1 knockout enhanced oxidative stress but had no effect on ER stress. These results suggest that ebselen targets only oxidative stress but not ER stress. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Ebselen alters cellular oxidative status and induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat hippocampal astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Santofimia-Castaño, Patricia; Izquierdo-Alvarez, Alicia; de la Casa-Resino, Irene; Martinez-Ruiz, Antonio; Perez-Lopez, Marcos; Portilla, Juan C; Salido, Gines M; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2016-05-16

    Ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one) is an organoselenium radical scavenger compound, which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Because of its properties, it may be protective against injury to the nervous tissue. However, evidence suggests that its glutathione peroxidase activity could underlie certain deleterious actions on cell physiology. In this study we have analyzed the effect of ebselen on rat hippocampal astrocytes in culture. Cellular oxidative status, cytosolic free-Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c), setting of endoplasmic reticulum stress and phosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein and major mitogen-activated protein kinases were analyzed. Our results show that ebselen induced a concentration-dependent increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria. We observed a concentration-dependent increase in global cysteine oxidation and in the level of malondialdehyde in the presence of ebselen. We also detected increases in catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase activity. Ebselen also evoked a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca(2+)]c. Moreover, we observed a concentration-dependent increase in the phosphorylation of the unfolded protein response markers, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α and X-box binding protein 1. Finally, ebselen also induced an increase in the phosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein, SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK. Our results provide strong evidence that implicate endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of crucial mitogen-activated protein kinases in an oxidative damage of cells in the presence of ebselen. The compound thus might exert deleterious actions on astrocyte physiology that could compromise their function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A physical/psychological and biological stress combine to enhance endoplasmic reticulum stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Emeny, Rebecca T.; Gao, Donghong

    The generation of an immune response against infectious and other foreign agents is substantially modified by allostatic load, which is increased with chemical, physical and/or psychological stressors. The physical/psychological stress from cold-restraint (CR) inhibits host defense against Listeria monocytogenes (LM), due to early effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerves on β1-adrenoceptors (β1AR) of immune cells. Although CR activates innate immunity within 2 h, host defenses against bacterial growth are suppressed 2–3 days after infection (Cao and Lawrence 2002). CR enhances inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production. The early innate activation leads to cellular reduction-oxidationmore » (redox) changes of immune cells. Lymphocytes from CR-treated mice express fewer surface thiols. Splenic and hepatic immune cells also have fewer proteins with free thiols after CR and/or LM, and macrophages have less glutathione after the in vivo CR exposure or exposure to NE in vitro. The early induction of CR-induced oxidative stress elevates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which could interfere with keeping phagocytized LM within the phagosome or re-encapsuling LM by autophagy once they escape from the phagosome. ER stress-related proteins, such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), have elevated expression with CR and LM. The results indicate that CR enhances the unfolded protein response (UPR), which interferes with host defenses against LM. Thus, it is postulated that increased stress, as exists with living conditions at low socioeconomic conditions, can lower host defenses against pathogens because of oxidative and ER stress processes. - Highlights: • Cold-restraint (physical/psychological stress) induces early oxidative stress. • The oxidative stress relates to catecholamine signaling beta-adrenoceptors. • Physical/psychological stress combines infection enhancing inflammation. • Endoplasmic

  11. Gene regulatory network of unfolded protein response genes in endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Sayuri; Fukuda, Riga; Takeuchi, Yuuki; Tsukada, Sakiko; Yoshida, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), secretory and membrane proteins are properly folded and modified, and the failure of these processes leads to ER stress. At the same time, unfolded protein response (UPR) genes are activated to maintain homeostasis. Despite the thorough characterization of the individual gene regulation of UPR genes to date, further investigation of the mutual regulation among UPR genes is required to understand the complex mechanism underlying the ER stress response. In this study, we aimed to reveal a gene regulatory network formed by UPR genes, including immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein (BiP), X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), C/EBP [CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein]-homologous protein (CHOP), PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring 1 (IRE1), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), and ATF4. For this purpose, we focused on promoter-luciferase reporters for BiP, XBP1, and CHOP genes, which bear an ER stress response element (ERSE), and p5 × ATF6-GL3, which bears an unfolded protein response element (UPRE). We demonstrated that the luciferase activities of the BiP and CHOP promoters were upregulated by all the UPR genes, whereas those of the XBP1 promoter and p5 × ATF6-GL3 were upregulated by all the UPR genes except for BiP, CHOP, and ATF4 in HeLa cells. Therefore, an ERSE- and UPRE-centered gene regulatory network of UPR genes could be responsible for the robustness of the ER stress response. Finally, we revealed that BiP protein was degraded when cells were treated with DNA-damaging reagents, such as etoposide and doxorubicin; this finding suggests that the expression level of BiP is tightly regulated at the post-translational level, rather than at the transcriptional level, in the presence of DNA damage.

  12. Identification of a calmodulin-regulated Ca2+-ATPase in the endoplasmic reticulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, B.; Ichida, A.; Wang, Y.; Gens, J. S.; Pickard, B. G.; Harper, J. F.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    A unique subfamily of calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-ATPases was recently identified in plants. In contrast to the most closely related pumps in animals, plasma membrane-type Ca2+-ATPases, members of this new subfamily are distinguished by a calmodulin-regulated autoinhibitor located at the N-terminal instead of a C-terminal end. In addition, at least some isoforms appear to reside in non-plasma membrane locations. To begin delineating their functions, we investigated the subcellular localization of isoform ACA2p (Arabidopsis Ca2+-ATPase, isoform 2 protein) in Arabidopsis. Here we provide evidence that ACA2p resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In buoyant density sucrose gradients performed with and without Mg2+, ACA2p cofractionated with an ER membrane marker and a typical "ER-type" Ca2+-ATPase, ACA3p/ECA1p. To visualize its subcellular localization, ACA2p was tagged with a green fluorescence protein at its C terminus (ACA2-GFPp) and expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis. We collected fluorescence images from live root cells using confocal and computational optical-sectioning microscopy. ACA2-GFPp appeared as a fluorescent reticulum, consistent with an ER location. In addition, we observed strong fluorescence around the nuclei of mature epidermal cells, which is consistent with the hypothesis that ACA2p may also function in the nuclear envelope. An ER location makes ACA2p distinct from all other calmodulin-regulated pumps identified in plants or animals.

  13. Potential Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Chávez, Gustavo; Hernández-Ramírez, Ernesto; Osorio-Paz, Ixchel; Hernández-Espinosa, Claudia; Salceda, Rocío

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that leads to several complications which include retinopathy. Multiple biochemical abnormalities have been proposed to explain the development of retinopathy, including oxidative stress. Although the existence of oxidative stress has been established in the retina from long standing diabetic animals, pathogenesis and progression of retinopathy remain unclear. In order to gain insight into the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, we analyzed the levels of different oxidative stress biomarkers in the retina at early stages during the progress of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. No significant changes in glutathione content, expression of NADPH-oxidase, levels of lipid peroxidation, nor production of free radicals were observed in the retina up to 45 days of diabetes induction. Likewise, a transient decrease in aconitase activity, parallel to an increase in the superoxide dismutase activity was observed at 20 days of hyperglycemia, suggesting a high capacity of retina to maintain its redox homeostasis, at least at early stages of diabetes. Nonetheless, we found an early and time-dependent increase in the levels of oxidized proteins, which was not affected by the administration of the antioxidant quercetin. Also, positive immunoreactivity to the reticulum stress protein CHOP was found in glial Müller cells of diabetic rat retinas. These findings suggest the occurrence of endoplasmic reticulum stress as a primary event in retina pathogenesis in diabetes.

  14. HMGB1 induces an inflammatory response in endothelial cells via the RAGE-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Ying; Li, Shu-Jun; Yang, Jian

    Highlights: •Mechanisms of inflammatory response induced by HMGB1 are incompletely understood. •We found that endoplasmic reticulum stress mediate the inflammatory response induced by HMGB1. •RAGE-mediated ERS pathways are involved in those processes. •We reported a new mechanism for HMGB1 induced inflammatory response. -- Abstract: The high mobility group 1B protein (HMGB1) mediates chronic inflammatory responses in endothelial cells, which play a critical role in atherosclerosis. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. The goal of our study was to identify the effects of HMGB1 on the RAGE-induced inflammatory response in endothelial cells and test the possible involvement of the endoplasmic reticulummore » stress pathway. Our results showed that incubation of endothelial cells with HMGB1 (0.01–1 μg/ml) for 24 h induced a dose-dependent activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress transducers, as assessed by PERK and IRE1 protein expression. Moreover, HMGB1 also promoted nuclear translocation of ATF6. HMGB1-mediated ICAM-1 and P-selectin production was dramatically suppressed by PERK siRNA or IRE1 siRNA. However, non-targeting siRNA had no such effects. HMGB1-induced increases in ICAM-1 and P-selectin expression were also inhibited by a specific eIF2α inhibitor (salubrinal) and a specific JNK inhibitor (SP600125). Importantly, a blocking antibody specifically targeted against RAGE (anti-RAGE antibody) decreased ICAM-1, P-selectin and endoplasmic reticulum stress molecule (PERK, eIF2α, IRE1 and JNK) protein expression levels. Collectively, these novel findings suggest that HMGB1 promotes an inflammatory response by inducing the expression of ICAM-1 and P-selectin via RAGE-mediated stimulation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.« less

  15. Type 2 diabetes mellitus induces congenital heart defects in murine embryos by increasing oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanqing; Reece, E Albert; Zhong, Jianxiang; Dong, Daoyin; Shen, Wei-Bin; Harman, Christopher R; Yang, Peixin

    2016-09-01

    Maternal type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus are strongly associated with high rates of severe structural birth defects, including congenital heart defects. Studies in type 1 diabetic embryopathy animal models have demonstrated that cellular stress-induced apoptosis mediates the teratogenicity of maternal diabetes leading to congenital heart defect formation. However, the mechanisms underlying maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus-induced congenital heart defects remain largely unknown. We aim to determine whether oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and excessive apoptosis are the intracellular molecular mechanisms underlying maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus-induced congenital heart defects. A mouse model of maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus was established by feeding female mice a high-fat diet (60% fat). After 15 weeks on the high-fat diet, the mice showed characteristics of maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus. Control dams were either fed a normal diet (10% fat) or the high-fat diet during pregnancy only. Female mice from the high-fat diet group and the 2 control groups were mated with male mice that were fed a normal diet. At E12.5, embryonic hearts were harvested to determine the levels of lipid peroxides and superoxide, endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, cleaved caspase 3 and 8, and apoptosis. E17.5 embryonic hearts were harvested for the detection of congenital heart defect formation using India ink vessel patterning and histological examination. Maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus significantly induced ventricular septal defects and persistent truncus arteriosus in the developing heart, along with increasing oxidative stress markers, including superoxide and lipid peroxidation; endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, including protein levels of phosphorylated-protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, phosphorylated-IRE1α, phosphorylated-eIF2α, C/EBP homologous protein, and binding immunoglobulin protein; endoplasmic reticulum chaperone gene

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum degradation-enhancing α-mannosidase-like protein 1 targets misfolded HLA-B27 dimers for endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation.

    PubMed

    Guiliano, David B; Fussell, Helen; Lenart, Izabela; Tsao, Edward; Nesbeth, Darren; Fletcher, Adam J; Campbell, Elaine C; Yousaf, Nasim; Williams, Sarah; Santos, Susana; Cameron, Amy; Towers, Greg J; Kellam, Paul; Hebert, Daniel N; Gould, Keith G; Powis, Simon J; Antoniou, Antony N

    2014-11-01

    HLA-B27 forms misfolded heavy chain dimers, which may predispose individuals to inflammatory arthritis by inducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). This study was undertaken to define the role of the UPR-induced ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway in the disposal of HLA-B27 dimeric conformers. HeLa cell lines expressing only 2 copies of a carboxy-terminally Sv5-tagged HLA-B27 were generated. The ER stress-induced protein ER degradation-enhancing α-mannosidase-like protein 1 (EDEM1) was overexpressed by transfection, and dimer levels were monitored by immunoblotting. EDEM1, the UPR-associated transcription factor X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1), the E3 ubiquitin ligase hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase degradation 1 (HRD1), and the degradation-associated proteins derlin 1 and derlin 2 were inhibited using either short hairpin RNA or dominant-negative mutants. The UPR-associated ERAD of HLA-B27 was confirmed using ER stress-inducing pharamacologic agents in kinetic and pulse chase assays. We demonstrated that UPR-induced machinery can target HLA-B27 dimers and that dimer formation can be controlled by alterations to expression levels of components of the UPR-induced ERAD pathway. HLA-B27 dimers and misfolded major histocompatibility complex class I monomeric molecules bound to EDEM1 were detected, and overexpression of EDEM1 led to inhibition of HLA-B27 dimer formation. EDEM1 inhibition resulted in up-regulation of HLA-B27 dimers, while UPR-induced ERAD of dimers was prevented in the absence of EDEM1. HLA-B27 dimer formation was also enhanced in the absence of XBP-1, HRD1, and derlins 1 and 2. The present findings indicate that the UPR ERAD pathway can dispose of HLA-B27 dimers, thus presenting a potential novel therapeutic target for modulation of HLA-B27-associated inflammatory disease. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  17. [Effect of endoplasmic reticulum stress on the expression and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells].

    PubMed

    Xue, Peng; Li, Bei; Tan, Jun; An, Ying; Jin, Yan; Wang, Qintao

    2015-09-01

    To determine the activity of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and its effect on osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) in inflammatory microenvironment. PDLSC were obtained from the primary culture of the human tooth and cloned with limited diluted method. Real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used to examine the different expression of thapsigargin (TG) treated PDLSC and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated PDLSC. Real-time RT-PCR, alizarin red staining and cetyl pyridine chloride quantitative analyze were used to examine the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSC, TG + PDLSC, LPS + PDLSC and LPS + PDLSC + 4-PBA. Protein kinase receptor like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), transcription activation factor 4(ATF4), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP) mRNA expression in group PDLSC + TG in 6 h were respectively 1.49 ± 0.24, 2.77 ± 0.60, 1.75 ± 0.16, 2.16 ± 0.32, which were all greater than that in group PDLSC (P < 0.05). PERK, CHOP mRNA expression reached the peak at 6 h (1.76 ± 0.08, 2.31 ± 0.17) and were greater than group PDLSC (P < 0.05). ERS could suppress osteogenic differentiation of TG + PDLSC and LPS + PDLSC. The runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA expression of group TG + PDLSC was respectively 0.73 ± 0.06, 0.01 ± 0.00, 0.20 ± 0.06 (P < 0.05). The RUNX2, ALP, OCN mRNA expression of group LPS + PDLSC was respectively 0.80 ± 0.06, 0.48 ± 0.05, 0.29 ± 0.04 (P < 0.05). The RUNX2, ALP, OCN mRNA expression of group PDLSC + TG + 4-PBA was respectively 1.10 ± 0.09, 0.74 ± 0.05, 0.67 ± 0.13, which were greater higher than that of group LPS + PDLSC (P < 0.05). ERS was activated in PDLSC and suppressed osteogenic differentiation of PDLSC, which can simulate inflammatory microenvironment in vitro. This effect can be recovered by using ERS inhibitor 4-PBA.

  18. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress improves coronary artery function in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Kyoung; Lim, Mihwa; Yeon, Soo-In; Lee, Young-Ho

    2016-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been reported to be involved in type 2 diabetes; however, the role of exacerbated ER stress in vascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetes remains unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? The main findings of this study are that ER stress is increased in the coronary arteries in type 2 diabetes, and inhibition of ER stress using taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid improves vascular function, which is associated with normalization of the myogenic response and endothelium-dependent relaxation. Vascular dysfunction is a major complication in type 2 diabetes. Although endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been suggested to be a contributory factor in cardiovascular diseases, the relationship between ER stress and vascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. Thus, in the present study, we examined whether ER stress contributes to coronary artery dysfunction and whether inhibition of ER stress ameliorates vascular function in type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetic mice and their control counterparts were treated with an ER stress inhibitor (taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid, 150 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) , by i.p. injection) for 2 weeks or not treated. The myogenic response and endothelium-dependent relaxation were measured in pressurized coronary arteries. In type 2 diabetic mice, blood glucose and body weight were elevated compared with control mice. The myogenic response was potentiated and endothelium-dependent relaxation impaired in coronary arteries from the type 2 diabetic mice. Interestingly, treatment with the ER stress inhibitor normalized the myogenic responses and endothelium-dependent relaxation. These data were associated with an increase in ER stress marker expression or phosphorylation (IRE1-XBP-1 and PERK-eIF2α) in type 2 diabetic mice, which were reduced by treatment with the ER stress inhibitor. Inhibition of ER stress normalizes the myogenic

  19. Cationic polystyrene nanospheres induce autophagic cell death through the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Hui-Wen; Xia, Tian; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Chun-Wan; Tsai, Jui-Chen; Wang, Ying-Jan

    2014-12-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been used to produce a wide range of products that have applications in imaging and drug delivery in medicine. Due to their chemical stability, well-controlled sizes and surface charges, polystyrene (PS) NPs have been developed as biosensors and drug delivery carriers. However, the possible adverse biological effects and underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Recently, autophagy has been implicated in the regulation of cell death. In this study, we evaluated a library of PS NPs with different surface charges. We found that NH2-labeled polystyrene (NH2-PS) nanospheres were highly toxic with enhanced uptake in macrophage (RAW 264.7) and lung epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. Furthermore, NH2-PS could induce autophagic cell death. NH2-PS increased autophagic flux due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused by misfolded protein aggregation. The inhibition of ER stress decreased cytotoxicity and autophagy in the NH2-PS-treated cells. In addition, the Akt/mTOR and AMPK signaling pathways were involved in the regulation of NH2-PS-triggered autophagic cell death. These results suggest an important role of autophagy in cationic NP-induced cell death and provide mechanistic insights into the inhibition of the toxicity and safe material design.Nanoparticles (NPs) have been used to produce a wide range of products that have applications in imaging and drug delivery in medicine. Due to their chemical stability, well-controlled sizes and surface charges, polystyrene (PS) NPs have been developed as biosensors and drug delivery carriers. However, the possible adverse biological effects and underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Recently, autophagy has been implicated in the regulation of cell death. In this study, we evaluated a library of PS NPs with different surface charges. We found that NH2-labeled polystyrene (NH2-PS) nanospheres were highly toxic with enhanced uptake in macrophage (RAW 264.7) and lung

  20. Fluoride-elicited developmental testicular toxicity in rats: Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shun; Jiang, Chunyang; Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tianjin Union Medicine Centre, 190 Jieyuan Road, Hongqiao District, Tianjin 300121, Tianjin

    Long-term excessive fluoride intake is known to be toxic and can damage a variety of organs and tissues in the human body. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fluoride-induced male reproductive toxicity are not well understood. In this study, we used a rat model to simulate the situations of human exposure and aimed to evaluate the roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammatory response in fluoride-induced testicular injury. Sprague–Dawley rats were administered with sodium fluoride (NaF) at 25, 50 and 100 mg/L via drinking water from pre-pregnancy to gestation, birth and finally to post-puberty. And then the testes of malemore » offspring were studied at 8 weeks of age. Our results demonstrated that fluoride treatment increased MDA accumulation, decreased SOD activity, and enhanced germ cell apoptosis. In addition, fluoride elevated mRNA and protein levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), inositol requiring ER-to-nucleus signal kinase 1 (IRE1), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), indicating activation of ER stress signaling. Furthermore, fluoride also induced testicular inflammation, as manifested by gene up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent manner. These were associated with marked histopathological lesions including injury of spermatogonia, decrease of spermatocytes and absence of elongated spermatids, as well as severe ultrastructural abnormalities in testes. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence that ER stress and inflammation would be novel and significant mechanisms responsible for fluoride-induced disturbance of spermatogenesis and germ cell loss in addition to oxidative stress. - Highlights: • We used a rat model to simulate the situations of human fluoride (F) exposure. • Developmental F exposure induces testicular damage related with oxidative

  1. Vascular Nox (NADPH Oxidase) Compartmentalization, Protein Hyperoxidation, and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Livia L; Harvey, Adam P; Rios, Francisco J; Tsiropoulou, Sofia; Da Silva, Renée de Nazaré Oliveira; Cao, Zhenbo; Graham, Delyth; McMaster, Claire; Burchmore, Richard J; Hartley, Richard C; Bulleid, Neil; Montezano, Augusto C; Touyz, Rhian M

    2018-07-01

    Vascular Nox (NADPH oxidase)-derived reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been implicated in hypertension. However, relationships between these processes are unclear. We hypothesized that Nox isoforms localize in a subcellular compartment-specific manner, contributing to oxidative and ER stress, which influence the oxidative proteome and vascular function in hypertension. Nox compartmentalization (cell fractionation), O 2 - (lucigenin), H 2 O 2 (amplex red), reversible protein oxidation (sulfenylation), irreversible protein oxidation (protein tyrosine phosphatase, peroxiredoxin oxidation), and ER stress (PERK [protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase], IRE1α [inositol-requiring enzyme 1], and phosphorylation/oxidation) were studied in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VSMC proliferation was measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and vascular reactivity assessed in stroke-prone SHR arteries by myography. Noxs were downregulated by short interfering RNA and pharmacologically. In SHR, Noxs were localized in specific subcellular regions: Nox1 in plasma membrane and Nox4 in ER. In SHR, oxidative stress was associated with increased protein sulfenylation and hyperoxidation of protein tyrosine phosphatases and peroxiredoxins. Inhibition of Nox1 (NoxA1ds), Nox1/4 (GKT137831), and ER stress (4-phenylbutyric acid/tauroursodeoxycholic acid) normalized SHR vascular reactive oxygen species generation. GKT137831 reduced IRE1α sulfenylation and XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1) splicing in SHR. Increased VSMC proliferation in SHR was normalized by GKT137831, 4-phenylbutyric acid, and STF083010 (IRE1-XBP1 disruptor). Hypercontractility in the stroke-prone SHR was attenuated by 4-phenylbutyric acid. We demonstrate that protein hyperoxidation in hypertension is associated with oxidative and ER stress through upregulation of plasmalemmal-Nox1 and ER-Nox4. The IRE1-XBP1 pathway of the ER stress

  2. Prodigiosin activates endoplasmic reticulum stress cell death pathway in human breast carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Mu-Yun; Shen, Yuh-Chiang; National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan

    Prodigiosin is a bacterial tripyrrole pigment with potent cytotoxicity against diverse human cancer cell lines. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is initiated by accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen and may induce cell death when irremediable. In this study, the role of ER stress in prodigiosin-induced cytotoxicity was elucidated for the first time. Comparable to the ER stress inducer thapsigargin, prodigiosin up-regulated signature ER stress markers GRP78 and CHOP in addition to activating the IRE1, PERK and ATF6 branches of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in multiple human breast carcinoma cell lines, confirming prodigiosin as an ERmore » stress inducer. Prodigiosin transcriptionally up-regulated CHOP, as evidenced by its promoting effect on the CHOP promoter activity. Of note, knockdown of CHOP effectively lowered prodigiosin's capacity to evoke PARP cleavage, reduce cell viability and suppress colony formation, highlighting an essential role of CHOP in prodigiosin-induced cytotoxic ER stress response. In addition, prodigiosin down-regulated BCL2 in a CHOP-dependent manner. Importantly, restoration of BCL2 expression blocked prodigiosin-induced PARP cleavage and greatly enhanced the survival of prodigiosin-treated cells, suggesting that CHOP-dependent BCL2 suppression mediates prodigiosin-elicited cell death. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of JNK by SP600125 or dominant-negative blockade of PERK-mediated eIF2α phosphorylation impaired prodigiosin-induced CHOP up-regulation and PARP cleavage. Collectively, these results identified ER stress-mediated cell death as a mode-of-action of prodigiosin's tumoricidal effect. Mechanistically, prodigiosin engages the IRE1–JNK and PERK–eIF2α branches of the UPR signaling to up-regulate CHOP, which in turn mediates BCL2 suppression to induce cell death. Highlights: ► Prodigiosin is a bacterial tripyrrole pigment with potent anticancer effect. ► Prodigiosin is herein identified

  3. Mouse VAP33 is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Skehel, P. A.; Fabian-Fine, R.; Kandel, E. R.

    2000-01-01

    VAMP/synaptobrevin is a synaptic vesicle protein that is essential for neurotransmitter release. Intracellular injection of antisera against the Aplysia californica VAMP/synaptobrevin-binding protein ApVAP33 inhibited evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in cultured cells, suggesting that this association may regulate the function of VAMP/synaptobrevin. We have identified and characterized a mouse homologue of ApVAP33, mVAP33. The overall domain structure of the proteins is conserved, and they have similar biochemical properties. mVAP33 mRNA is detectable in all mouse tissues examined, in contrast to the more restricted expression seen in A. californica. We analyzed the cellular distribution of mVAP33 protein in brain slices and cultured cortical cells by light and electron microscopy. Although present at higher levels in neurons, immunoreactivity was detected throughout both neurons and glia in a reticular pattern similar to that of endoplasmic reticulum-resident proteins. mVAP33 does not colocalize with VAMP/synaptobrevin at synaptic structures, but expression overlaps with lower levels of VAMP/synaptobrevin in the soma. Ultrastructural analysis revealed mVAP33 associated with microtubules and intracellular vesicles of heterogeneous size. In primary neuronal cultures, large aggregates of mVAP33 are also detected in short filamentous structures, which are occasionally associated with intracellular membranes. There is no evidence for accumulation of mVAP33 on synaptic vesicles or at the plasma membrane. These data suggest that mVAP33 is an endoplasmic-reticulum–resident protein that associates with components of the cytoskeleton. Any functional interaction between mVAP33 and VAMP/synaptobrevin, therefore, most likely involves the delivery of components to synaptic terminals rather than a direct participation in synaptic vesicle exocytosis. PMID:10655491

  4. Protein-accumulating cells and dilated cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum in three glucosinolate-containing genera: Armoracia, Capparis, Drypetes.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, L B; Behnke, H D; Mabry, T J

    1977-01-01

    Three glucosinolate-containing species, Armoracia rusticana Gaertner, Meyer et Scherbius (Brassicaceae), Capparis cynophallophora L. (Capparaceae) and Drypetes roxburghii (Wall.) Hurusawa (Euphorbiaceae), are shown by both light and electron microscopy to contain protein-accumulating cells (PAC). The PAC of Armoracia and Copparis (former "myrosin cells") occur as idioblasts. The PAC of Drypetes are usual members among axial phloem parenchyma cells rather than idioblasts. In Drypetes the vacuoles of the PAC are shown ultrastructurally to contain finely fibrillar material and to originate from local dilatations of the endoplasmic reticulum. The vacuoles in PAC of Armoracia and Capparis seem to originate in the same way; but ultrastructurally, their content is finely granular. In addition, Armoracia and Capparis are shown by both light and electron microscopy to contain dilated cisternae (DC) of the endoplasmic reticulum in normal parenchyma cells, in accord with previous findings for several species within Brassicaceae. The relationship of PAC and DC to glucosinolates and the enzyme myrosinase is discussed.

  5. Ovalbumin-derived precursor peptides are transferred sequentially from gp96 and calreticulin to MHC I in the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Kropp, Laura E.; Garg, Manish; Binder, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular peptides generated by proteasomal degradation of proteins in the cytosol and destined for presentation by MHC I are associated with several chaperones. Hsp70, hsp90 and the TCP1-ring complex have been implicated as important cytosolic players for chaperoning these peptides. In this study we report that gp96 and calreticulin are essential for chaperoning peptides in the endoplasmic reticulum. Importantly we demonstrate that cellular peptides are transferred sequentially from gp96 to calreticulin and then to MHC I forming a relay line. Disruption of this relay line by removal of gp96 or calreticulin prevents the binding of peptides by MHC I and hence presentation of the MHC I-peptide complex on the cell surface. Our results are important for understanding how peptides are processed and trafficked within the endoplasmic reticulum before exiting in association with MHC I heavy chains and β2-microglobulin as a trimolecular complex. PMID:20410492

  6. Interaction of Mitochondria with the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Plasma Membrane in Calcium Homeostasis, Lipid Trafficking and Mitochondrial Structure.

    PubMed

    Szymański, Jędrzej; Janikiewicz, Justyna; Michalska, Bernadeta; Patalas-Krawczyk, Paulina; Perrone, Mariasole; Ziółkowski, Wiesław; Duszyński, Jerzy; Pinton, Paolo; Dobrzyń, Agnieszka; Więckowski, Mariusz R

    2017-07-20

    Studying organelles in isolation has been proven to be indispensable for deciphering the underlying mechanisms of molecular cell biology. However, observing organelles in intact cells with the use of microscopic techniques reveals a new set of different junctions and contact sites between them that contribute to the control and regulation of various cellular processes, such as calcium and lipid exchange or structural reorganization of the mitochondrial network. In recent years, many studies focused their attention on the structure and function of contacts between mitochondria and other organelles. From these studies, findings emerged showing that these contacts are involved in various processes, such as lipid synthesis and trafficking, modulation of mitochondrial morphology, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, apoptosis, autophagy, inflammation and Ca 2 + handling. In this review, we focused on the physical interactions of mitochondria with the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane and summarized present knowledge regarding the role of mitochondria-associated membranes in calcium homeostasis and lipid metabolism.

  7. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response in aging and age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Marishka K.; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum(ER) is a multifunctional organelle within which protein folding, lipid biosynthesis, and calcium storage occurs. Perturbations such as energy or nutrient depletion, disturbances in calcium or redox status that disrupt ER homeostasis lead to the misfolding of proteins, ER stress and up-regulation of several signaling pathways coordinately called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is characterized by the induction of chaperones, degradation of misfolded proteins and attenuation of protein translation. The UPR plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and thus is central to normal physiology. However, sustained unresolved ER stress leads to apoptosis. Aging linked declines in expression and activity of key ER molecular chaperones and folding enzymes compromise proper protein folding and the adaptive response of the UPR. One mechanism to explain age associated declines in cellular functions and age-related diseases is a progressive failure of chaperoning systems. In many of these diseases, proteins or fragments of proteins convert from their normally soluble forms to insoluble fibrils or plaques that accumulate in a variety of organs including the liver, brain or spleen. This group of diseases, which typically occur late in life includes Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, type II diabetes and a host of less well known but often equally serious conditions such as fatal familial insomnia. The UPR is implicated in many of these neurodegenerative and familial protein folding diseases as well as several cancers and a host of inflammatory diseases including diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease and arthritis. This review will discuss age-related changes in the ER stress response and the role of the UPR in age-related diseases. PMID:22934019

  8. circHIPK2-mediated σ-1R promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress in human pulmonary fibroblasts exposed to silica.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhouli; Xiao, Qingling; Dai, Xiaoniu; Zhou, Zewei; Jiang, Rong; Cheng, Yusi; Yang, Xiyue; Guo, Huifang; Wang, Jing; Xi, Zhaoqing; Yao, Honghong; Chao, Jie

    2017-12-13

    Silicosis is characterized by fibroblast accumulation and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. Although the roles of SiO 2 -induced chemokines and cytokines released from alveolar macrophages have received significant attention, the direct effects of SiO 2 on protein production and functional changes in pulmonary fibroblasts have been less extensively studied. Sigma-1 receptor, which has been associated with cell proliferation and migration in the central nervous system, is expressed in the lung, but its role in silicosis remains unknown. To elucidate the role of sigma-1 receptor in fibrosis induced by silica, both the upstream molecular mechanisms and the functional effects on cell proliferation and migration were investigated. Both molecular biological assays and pharmacological techniques, combined with functional experiments, such as migration and proliferation, were applied in human pulmonary fibroblasts from adults to analyze the molecular and functional changes induced by SiO 2 . SiO 2 induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in association with enhanced expression of sigma-1 receptor. Endoplasmic reticulum stress promoted migration and proliferation of human pulmonary fibroblasts-adult exposed to SiO 2 , inducing the development of silicosis. Inhibition of sigma-1 receptor ameliorated endoplasmic reticulum stress and fibroblast functional changes induced by SiO 2 . circHIPK2 is involved in the regulation of sigma-1 receptor in human pulmonary fibroblasts-adult exposed to SiO 2 . Our study elucidated a link between SiO 2 -induced fibrosis and sigma-1 receptor signaling, thereby providing novel insight into the potential use of sigma-1 receptor/endoplasmic reticulum stress in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for silicosis treatment.

  9. Influence of resveratrol on endoplasmic reticulum stress and expression of adipokines in adipose tissues/adipocytes induced by high-calorie diet or palmitic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Wang, Ting; Chen, Guanjun; Wang, Nuojin; Gui, Li; Dai, Fang; Fang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Qiu; Lu, Yunxia

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine whether resveratrol treatment alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes the expression of adipokines in adipose tissues and cells. 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-calorie diet (HCD group) or high-calorie diet supplemented with resveratrol (high-calorie diet  + resveratrol group) for 3 months. Insulin resistance, serum lipids and proinflammatory indices, the size and inflammatory cell infiltration in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were analyzed. The gene expressions of endoplasmic reticulum stress, adipokines, and inflammatory cytokines were determined. The induced mature 3T3-L1 cells were pretreated with resveratrol and then palmitic acid, and the gene expressions of endoplasmic reticulum stress, adipokines, and inflammatory cytokines were determined. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in the high-calorie diet-fed mice exhibited adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammatory activation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Resveratrol alleviated high-calorie diet-induced insulin resistance and endoplasmic reticulum stress, increased expression of SIRT1, and reversed expression of adipokines in varying degrees in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. The effects of resveratrol on palmitic acid-treated adipocytes were similar to those shown in the tissues. Resveratrol treatment obviously reversed adipocyte hypertrophy and insulin resistance by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation, thus increasing the expression of SIRT1 and inverting the expression of adipokines in vivo and in vitro.

  10. AN ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDY OF MATURE AND DIFFERENTIATING PANETH CELLS IN THE RAT, ESPECIALLY OF THEIR ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM AND LYSOSOMES

    PubMed Central

    Behnke, O.; Moe, H.

    1964-01-01

    In an electron microsope study, the morphology of mature Paneth cells from the small intestine of adult rats is compared with that of differentiating Paneth cells from young rats 2 to 4 weeks old. All mature cells exhibit a marked polarity similar to that of other exocrine gland cells and contain a well developed endoplasmic reticulum, an elaborate Golgi complex, and numerous large secretory granules; they also possess an abundance of lysosomes. The most conspicuous occurrence in the process of differentiation is the development of the endoplasmic reticulum. The most immature Paneth cells possess an endoplasmic reticulum of the vesicular type, which, during maturation, is replaced by the characteristic lamellated ergastoplasm of the mature cell. At a certain stage of differentiation the cavities of the developing cisternae show numerous communications with the perinuclear space, suggesting an outgrowth of the ergastoplasm from the nuclear envelope. Furthermore, the cavities and the perinuclear space at this particular stage contain a material which shows a remarkable intrinsic periodicity. An identical periodicity was exhibited by material contained in Golgi cisternae and secretory granules. Lysosomes are also present in the differentiating cells. PMID:14206428

  11. Selective modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers in prostate cancer cells by a standardized mangosteen fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Li, Gongbo; Petiwala, Sakina M; Pierce, Dana R; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2013-01-01

    The increased proliferation of cancer cells is directly dependent on the increased activity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) machinery which is responsible for protein folding, assembly, and transport. In fact, it is so critical that perturbations in the endoplasmic reticulum can lead to apoptosis. This carefully regulated organelle represents a unique target of cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. In this study, a standardized mangosteen fruit extract (MFE) was evaluated for modulating ER stress proteins in prostate cancer. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells (PrECs) procured from two patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with MFE. Flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU and Western blot were used to evaluate cell apoptosis, viability, proliferation and ER stress. Next, we evaluated MFE for microsomal stability and anti-cancer activity in nude mice. MFE induced apoptosis, decreased viability and proliferation in prostate cancer cells. MFE increased the expression of ER stress proteins. Interestingly, MFE selectively promotes ER stress in prostate cancer cells while sparing PrECs. MFE suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model without obvious toxicity. Mangosteen fruit extract selectively promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress in cancer cells while sparing non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells. Furthermore, in an in vivo setting mangosteen fruit extract significantly reduces xenograft tumor formation.

  12. Selective Modulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Markers in Prostate Cancer Cells by a Standardized Mangosteen Fruit Extract

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gongbo; Petiwala, Sakina M.; Pierce, Dana R.; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J.

    2013-01-01

    The increased proliferation of cancer cells is directly dependent on the increased activity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) machinery which is responsible for protein folding, assembly, and transport. In fact, it is so critical that perturbations in the endoplasmic reticulum can lead to apoptosis. This carefully regulated organelle represents a unique target of cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. In this study, a standardized mangosteen fruit extract (MFE) was evaluated for modulating ER stress proteins in prostate cancer. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells (PrECs) procured from two patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with MFE. Flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU and Western blot were used to evaluate cell apoptosis, viability, proliferation and ER stress. Next, we evaluated MFE for microsomal stability and anti-cancer activity in nude mice. MFE induced apoptosis, decreased viability and proliferation in prostate cancer cells. MFE increased the expression of ER stress proteins. Interestingly, MFE selectively promotes ER stress in prostate cancer cells while sparing PrECs. MFE suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model without obvious toxicity. Mangosteen fruit extract selectively promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress in cancer cells while sparing non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells. Furthermore, in an in vivo setting mangosteen fruit extract significantly reduces xenograft tumor formation. PMID:24367485

  13. TANGO1 recruits ERGIC membranes to the endoplasmic reticulum for procollagen export

    PubMed Central

    Santos, António JM; Raote, Ishier; Scarpa, Margherita; Brouwers, Nathalie; Malhotra, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Previously we showed that membrane fusion is required for TANGO1-dependent export of procollagen VII from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (Nogueira, et al., 2014). Along with the t-SNARE Syntaxin 18, we now reveal the complete complement of SNAREs required in this process, t-SNAREs BNIP1 and USE1, and v-SNARE YKT6. TANGO1 recruits YKT6-containing ER Golgi Intermediate Compartment (ERGIC) membranes to procollagen VII-enriched patches on the ER. Moreover residues 1214-1396, that include the first coiled coil of TANGO1, specifically recruit ERGIC membranes even when targeted to mitochondria. TANGO1 is thus pivotal in concentrating procollagen VII in the lumen and recruiting ERGIC membranes on the cytoplasmic surface of the ER. Our data reveal that growth of a mega transport carrier for collagen export from the ER is not by acquisition of a larger patch of ER membrane, but instead by addition of ERGIC membranes to procollagen-enriched domains of the ER by a TANGO1-mediated process. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10982.001 PMID:26568311

  14. Folding of a single domain protein entering the endoplasmic reticulum precedes disulfide formation.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Philip J; Pringle, Marie Anne; Woolhead, Cheryl A; Bulleid, Neil J

    2017-04-28

    The relationship between protein synthesis, folding, and disulfide formation within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is poorly understood. Previous studies have suggested that pre-existing disulfide links are absolutely required to allow protein folding and, conversely, that protein folding occurs prior to disulfide formation. To address the question of what happens first within the ER, that is, protein folding or disulfide formation, we studied folding events at the early stages of polypeptide chain translocation into the mammalian ER using stalled translation intermediates. Our results demonstrate that polypeptide folding can occur without complete domain translocation. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) interacts with these early intermediates, but disulfide formation does not occur unless the entire sequence of the protein domain is translocated. This is the first evidence that folding of the polypeptide chain precedes disulfide formation within a cellular context and highlights key differences between protein folding in the ER and refolding of purified proteins. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Evidence that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and caspase-4 activation occur in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Binet, Francois; Chiasson, Sonia; Girard, Denis, E-mail: denis.girard@iaf.inrs.ca

    2010-01-01

    Apoptosis can result from activation of three major pathways: the extrinsic, the intrinsic, and the most recently identified endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated pathway. While the two former pathways are known to be operational in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), the existence of the ER stress-mediated pathway, generally involving caspase-4, has never been reported in these cells. Recently, we have documented that arsenic trioxide (ATO) induced apoptosis in human PMNs by a mechanism that needs to be further investigated. In this study, using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, we present evidence of ER alterations in PMNs activated by the ER stress inducer arsenicmore » trioxide (ATO). Several key players of the unfolded protein response, including GRP78, GADD153, ATF6, XBP1 and eIF2{alpha} are expressed and activated in PMNs treated with ATO or other ER stress inducers. Although caspase-4 is expressed and activated in neutrophils, treatment with a caspase-4 inhibitor did not attenuate the pro-apoptotic effect of ATO at a concentration that reverses caspase-4 processing and activation. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway operates in human neutrophils.« less

  16. Endothelin receptor-specific control of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in the kidney

    PubMed Central

    De Miguel, Carmen; Hamrick, William C.; Hobbs, Janet L.; Pollock, David M.; Carmines, Pamela K.; Pollock, Jennifer S.

    2017-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) promotes renal damage during cardiovascular disease; yet, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, triggered by unfolded protein accumulation in the ER, contributes to apoptosis and organ injury. These studies aimed to determine whether the ET-1 system promotes renal ER stress development in response to tunicamycin. ETB deficient (ETB def) or transgenic control (TG-con) rats were used in the presence or absence of ETA receptor antagonism. Tunicamycin treatment similarly increased cortical ER stress markers in both rat genotypes; however, only ETB def rats showed a 14–24 fold increase from baseline for medullary GRP78, sXBP-1, and CHOP. Pre-treatment of TG-con rats with the ETA blocker ABT-627 for 1 week prior to tunicamycin injection significantly reduced the ER stress response in cortex and medulla, and also inhibited renal apoptosis. Pre-treatment with ABT-627 failed to decrease renal ER stress and apoptosis in ETB def rats. In conclusion, the ET-1 system is important for the development of tunicamycin-induced renal ER stress and apoptosis. ETA receptor activation induces renal ER stress genes and apoptosis, while functional activation of the ETB receptor has protective effects. These results highlight targeting the ETA receptor as a therapeutic approach against ER stress-induced kidney injury. PMID:28230089

  17. Endothelin receptor-specific control of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in the kidney.

    PubMed

    De Miguel, Carmen; Hamrick, William C; Hobbs, Janet L; Pollock, David M; Carmines, Pamela K; Pollock, Jennifer S

    2017-02-23

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) promotes renal damage during cardiovascular disease; yet, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, triggered by unfolded protein accumulation in the ER, contributes to apoptosis and organ injury. These studies aimed to determine whether the ET-1 system promotes renal ER stress development in response to tunicamycin. ET B deficient (ET B def) or transgenic control (TG-con) rats were used in the presence or absence of ET A receptor antagonism. Tunicamycin treatment similarly increased cortical ER stress markers in both rat genotypes; however, only ET B def rats showed a 14-24 fold increase from baseline for medullary GRP78, sXBP-1, and CHOP. Pre-treatment of TG-con rats with the ET A blocker ABT-627 for 1 week prior to tunicamycin injection significantly reduced the ER stress response in cortex and medulla, and also inhibited renal apoptosis. Pre-treatment with ABT-627 failed to decrease renal ER stress and apoptosis in ET B def rats. In conclusion, the ET-1 system is important for the development of tunicamycin-induced renal ER stress and apoptosis. ET A receptor activation induces renal ER stress genes and apoptosis, while functional activation of the ET B receptor has protective effects. These results highlight targeting the ET A receptor as a therapeutic approach against ER stress-induced kidney injury.

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in amelogenesis imperfecta and phenotypic rescue using 4-phenylbutyrate

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Steven J.; Barron, Martin J.; Boot-Handford, Ray; Kirkham, Jennifer; Dixon, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Inherited diseases caused by genetic mutations can arise due to loss of protein function. Alternatively, mutated proteins may mis-fold, impairing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) trafficking, causing ER stress and triggering the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR attempts to restore proteostasis but if unsuccessful drives affected cells towards apoptosis. Previously, we reported that in mice, the p.Tyr64His mutation in the enamel extracellular matrix (EEM) protein amelogenin disrupts the secretory pathway in the enamel-forming ameloblasts, resulting in eruption of malformed tooth enamel that phenocopies human amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Defective amelogenin post-secretory self-assembly and processing within the developing EEM has been suggested to underlie the pathogenesis of X chromosome-linked AI. Here, we challenge this concept by showing that AI pathogenesis associated with the p.Tyr64His amelogenin mutation involves ameloblast apoptosis induced by ER stress. Furthermore, we show that 4-phenylbutyrate can rescue the enamel phenotype in affected female mice by promoting cell survival over apoptosis such that they are able to complete enamel formation despite the presence of the mutation, offering a potential therapeutic option for patients with this form of AI and emphasizing the importance of ER stress in the pathogenesis of this inherited conformational disease. PMID:24362885

  19. Atf6 plays protective and pathologic roles in fatty liver disease due to endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Cinaroglu, Ayca; Gao, Chuan; Imrie, Dru; Sadler, Kirsten C.

    2011-01-01

    Many etiologies of fatty liver disease (FLD) are associated with hyper-activation of one of the three pathways that comprise the unfolded protein response (UPR), a harbinger of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The UPR is mediated by pathways initiated by PERK, IRE1a/XBP1and ATF6, and each of these pathways have been implicated as either protective or pathological in FLD. We use zebrafish with FLD and hepatic ER stress to explore the relationship between Atf6 and steatosis. Mutation of the foie gras (foigr) gene causes FLD and hepatic ER stress. Prolonged treatment of wild-type larvae with a dose of tunicamycin that causes chronic ER stress phenocopies foigr. In contrast, acute exposure to a high dose of tunicamycin robustly activates the UPR but is less effective at inducing steatosis. The Srebp transcription factors are not required for steatosis in any of these models. Instead, depleting larvae of active Atf6 either through mbtps1 mutation or atf6 morpholino injection protects against steatosis caused by chronic ER stress whereas it exacerbates steatosis caused by acute tunicamycin treatment. Conclusion ER stress causes FLD. Loss of Atf6 prevents steatosis caused by chronic ER stress but can also potentiate steatosis caused by acute ER stress. This demonstrates that Atf6 can play both protective and pathological roles in FLD. PMID:21538441

  20. Simultaneous Fluorescence Visualization of Endoplasmic Reticulum Superoxide Anion and Polarity in Myocardial Cells and Tissue.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Haibin; Wu, Chuanchen; Li, Ping; Tang, Bo

    2018-05-15

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a critical complication of diabetes, the accurate pathogenesis of which remains elusive. It is widely accepted that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and abnormal fluctuations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be closely associated with progress of DCM. In addition, DCM-induced changes of myocardial tissue and ROS-derived oxidation of proteins will cause changes of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains and may further seriously alter the myocardial cell polarity. Thus, real-time detection of ROS and polarity in ER of live cells and in tissue will contribute to revealing the exact molecular mechanisms of DCM. In this article, we first present an ER-targetable fluorogenic probe termed ER-NAPC for sensitive and selective detection of superoxide anion (O 2 •- ). ER-NAPC can precisely target ER and visualize the increase of O 2 •- level in a live H9c2 cardiomyocyte cell during ER stress. Meanwhile, by combining ER-NAPC with a polarity-sensitive probe, ER-P, we accomplish the simultaneous fluorescence visualization of O 2 •- and polarity in ER of live cells and diabetic myocardial tissue. The dual-color fluorescence imaging results indicate that the O 2 •- level and polarity will synergistically rise during ER stress in live cells and diabetic myocardial tissue. The proposed dual-color imaging strategy may offer a proven methodology for studying coordinated variation of different parameters during ER stress oriented disease.

  1. ATAD3 proteins: brokers of a mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum connection in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Baudier, Jacques

    2018-05-01

    In yeast, a sequence of physical and genetic interactions termed the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria organizing network (ERMIONE) controls mitochondria-ER interactions and mitochondrial biogenesis. Several functions that characterize ERMIONE complexes are conserved in mammalian cells, suggesting that a similar tethering complex must exist in metazoans. Recent studies have identified a new family of nuclear-encoded ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA+-ATPase) mitochondrial membrane proteins specific to multicellular eukaryotes, called the ATPase family AAA domain-containing protein 3 (ATAD3) proteins (ATAD3A and ATAD3B). These proteins are crucial for normal mitochondrial-ER interactions and lie at the heart of processes underlying mitochondrial biogenesis. ATAD3A orthologues have been studied in flies, worms, and mammals, highlighting the widespread importance of this gene during embryonic development and in adulthood. ATAD3A is a downstream effector of target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling in Drosophila and exhibits typical features of proteins from the ERMIONE-like complex in metazoans. In humans, mutations in the ATAD3A gene represent a new link between altered mitochondrial-ER interaction and recognizable neurological syndromes. The primate-specific ATAD3B protein is a biomarker of pluripotent embryonic stem cells. Through negative regulation of ATAD3A function, ATAD3B supports mitochondrial stemness properties. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  2. Astaxanthin attenuates glutamate-induced apoptosis via inhibition of calcium influx and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaotong; Zhao, Yan; Li, Shanhe

    2017-07-05

    Astaxanthin (AST) is a carotenoid that has been shown to have neuroprotective effects. In this study, it was found that AST significantly inhibited glutamate-induced loss of cell viability and apoptosis. AST pretreatment attenuated glutamate-induced activation of caspase-3, reduction of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and increase of pro-apoptotic protein Bak. In addition, AST pretreatment suppressed the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species. AST treatment also prevented glutamate-induced increase of the level of activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which has been shown to promote apoptotic events. Furthermore, AST treatment greatly reduced the elevation of intracellular calcium level induced by glutamate and inhibited the activity of calpain, a calcium-dependent protease that plays an important role in mediating apoptosis stimulated by calcium overload in cytoplasm. Both oxidative stress and calcium overload can lead to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) is a bZIP transcription factor that can be activated by ER stress and promotes apoptosis. Here we found that AST attenuated glutamate-induced elevation of CHOP and ER chaperone glucose-regulated protein (GRP78). Overall, these results suggested that AST might protect cells against glutamate-induced apoptosis through maintaining redox balance and inhibiting glutamate-induced calcium influx and ER stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Activation of endoplasmic reticulum calcium leak by 2-APB depends on the luminal calcium concentration.

    PubMed

    Leon-Aparicio, Daniel; Chavez-Reyes, Jesus; Guerrero-Hernandez, Agustin

    2017-07-01

    It has been shown that 2-APB is a nonspecific modulator of ion channel activity, while most of the channels are inhibited by this compound, there are few examples of channels that are activated by 2-APB. Additionally, it has been shown that, 2-APB leads to a reduction in the luminal endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ level ([Ca 2+ ] ER ) and we have carried out simultaneous recordings of both [Ca 2+ ] i and the [Ca 2+ ] ER in HeLa cell suspensions to assess the mechanism involved in this effect. This approach allowed us to determine that 2-APB induces a reduction in the [Ca 2+ ] ER by activating an ER-resident Ca 2+ permeable channel more than by inhibiting the activity of SERCA pumps. Interestingly, this effect of 2-APB of reducing the [Ca 2+ ] ER is auto-limited because depends on a replete ER Ca 2+ store; a condition that thapsigargin does not require to decrease the [Ca 2+ ] ER . Additionally, our data indicate that the ER Ca 2+ permeable channel activated by 2-APB does not seem to participate in the ER Ca 2+ leak revealed by inhibiting SERCA pump with thapsigargin. This work suggests that, prolonged incubations with even low concentrations of 2-APB (5μM) would lead to the reduction in the [Ca 2+ ] ER that might explain the inhibitory effect of this compound on those signals that require Ca 2+ release from the ER store. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trinitrotoluene Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Apoptosis in HePG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Li; Wang, Yue; Wang, Jun; Yang, Fan; Li, Xiaojun; Wu, Yonghui

    2015-11-09

    This study aims to describe trinitrotoluene (TNT)-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and apoptosis in HePG2 cells. HePG2 cells were cultured in vitro with 0, 6, 12, or 24 μg/ml TNT solution for 12, 24, and 48 h. Western blotting was performed to detect intracellular ERS-related proteins, including glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78, GRP94, Caspase 4, p-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA expression from the respective genes. The expressions of ERS-related proteins GRP78 and GRP94 as well as mRNA and protein expression of ERS signaling apoptotic CHOP in the TNT treatment group were significantly increased. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of ERS-induced apoptotic protein Caspase-4 were significantly increased. Flow cytometry revealed that after TNT treatment, the apoptosis rate also significantly increased. TNT could increase the expression levels of GRP78, GRP94, Caspase-4, and CHOP in HePG2 cells; this increase in protein expression might be involved in HePG2 apoptosis through the induction of the ERS pathway.

  5. Trinitrotoluene Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Apoptosis in HePG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Li; Wang, Yue; Wang, Jun; Yang, Fan; Li, Xiaojun; Wu, Yonghui

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to describe trinitrotoluene (TNT)-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and apoptosis in HePG2 cells. Material/Methods HePG2 cells were cultured in vitro with 0, 6, 12, or 24 μg/ml TNT solution for 12, 24, and 48 h. Western blotting was performed to detect intracellular ERS-related proteins, including glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78, GRP94, Caspase 4, p-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA expression from the respective genes. Results The expressions of ERS-related proteins GRP78 and GRP94 as well as mRNA and protein expression of ERS signaling apoptotic CHOP in the TNT treatment group were significantly increased. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of ERS-induced apoptotic protein Caspase-4 were significantly increased. Flow cytometry revealed that after TNT treatment, the apoptosis rate also significantly increased. Conclusions TNT could increase the expression levels of GRP78, GRP94, Caspase-4, and CHOP in HePG2 cells; this increase in protein expression might be involved in HePG2 apoptosis through the induction of the ERS pathway. PMID:26551326

  6. BiP clustering facilitates protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Griesemer, Marc; Young, Carissa; Robinson, Anne S; Petzold, Linda

    2014-07-01

    The chaperone BiP participates in several regulatory processes within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER): translocation, protein folding, and ER-associated degradation. To facilitate protein folding, a cooperative mechanism known as entropic pulling has been proposed to demonstrate the molecular-level understanding of how multiple BiP molecules bind to nascent and unfolded proteins. Recently, experimental evidence revealed the spatial heterogeneity of BiP within the nuclear and peripheral ER of S. cerevisiae (commonly referred to as 'clusters'). Here, we developed a model to evaluate the potential advantages of accounting for multiple BiP molecules binding to peptides, while proposing that BiP's spatial heterogeneity may enhance protein folding and maturation. Scenarios were simulated to gauge the effectiveness of binding multiple chaperone molecules to peptides. Using two metrics: folding efficiency and chaperone cost, we determined that the single binding site model achieves a higher efficiency than models characterized by multiple binding sites, in the absence of cooperativity. Due to entropic pulling, however, multiple chaperones perform in concert to facilitate the resolubilization and ultimate yield of folded proteins. As a result of cooperativity, multiple binding site models used fewer BiP molecules and maintained a higher folding efficiency than the single binding site model. These insilico investigations reveal that clusters of BiP molecules bound to unfolded proteins may enhance folding efficiency through cooperative action via entropic pulling.

  7. Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Montagnani Marelli, Marina; Marzagalli, Monica; Moretti, Roberta M.; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Casati, Lavinia; Comitato, Raffaella; Gravina, Giovanni L.; Festuccia, Claudio; Limonta, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin cancer. Drug toxicity and resistance represent a serious challange for melanoma treatments. Evidence demonstrates that natural compounds may play a crucial role in cancer prevention, growth and progression. Vitamin E tocotrienols (TT) were shown to possess antitumor activity. Here, we analyzed the effects of δ-TT on melanoma cell growth and the involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in this activity. The experiments were performed on human melanoma cell lines, BLM and A375. δ-TT exerted a significant proapoptotic effect on both cell lines, involving the intrinsic apoptosis pathway; importantly, this compound did not affect the viability of normal human melanocytes. In melanoma cells, δ-TT exerted its antitumor effect through activation of the PERK/p-eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP, IRE1α and caspase-4 ER stress-related branches. Salubrinal, an inhibitor of the ER stress, counteracted the cytotoxic activity of δ-TT. In vivo experiments performed in nude mice bearing A375 xenografts evidenced that δ-TT reduces tumor volume and tumor mass; importantly, tumor progression was significantly delayed by δ-TT treatment. In conclusion, δ-TT exerts a proapoptotic activity on melanoma cells, through activation of the ER stress-related pathways. δ-TT might represent an effective option for novel chemopreventive/therapeutic strategies for melanoma. PMID:27461002

  8. The Arabidopsis endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation pathways are involved in the regulation of heat stress response

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lin-Mao; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Lü, Shi-You

    Abstracts: The Cytosolic Protein Response (CPR) in the cytosol and the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) and ER-associated degradation (ERAD) in the endoplasmic reticulum are major pathways of the cellular proteostasis network. However, despite years of effort, how these protein quality control systems coordinated in vivo remains largely unknown, particularly in plants. In this study, the roles of two evolutionarily conserved ERAD pathways (DOA10 and HRD1) in heat stress response were investigated through reverse genetic approaches in Arabidopsis. Phenotypic analysis of the mutants showed that the two ERAD pathways additively play negative roles in heat tolerance, which was demonstrated by higher survivalmore » rate and lower electrolyte leakage in the loss of function mutants compared to the wild type plants. Importantly, gene expression analysis revealed that the mutant plants showed elevated transcriptional regulation of several downstream genes, including those encoding CPR and UPR marker genes, under both basal and heat stress conditions. Finally, multiple components of ERAD genes exhibited rapid response to increasing temperature. Taken together, our data not only unravels key insights into the crosstalk between different protein quality control processes, but also provides candidate genes to genetically improve plant heat tolerance in the future. - Highlights: • ERAD pathways cooperatively regulate plant thermotolerance. • ERAD pathways cooperatively regulate UPR and CPR. • ERAD components gene expression are upregulated by heat stress.« less

  9. Tribbles 3 Mediates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Ho-Jin; Toyoda, Taro; Didesch, Michelle M.; Lee, Min-Young; Sleeman, Mark W.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Musi, Nicolas; Hirshman, Michael F.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2013-01-01

    Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress has been linked to insulin resistance in multiple tissues but the role of ER stress in skeletal muscle has not been explored. ER stress has also been reported to increase tribbles 3 (TRB3) expression in multiple cell lines. Here, we report that high fat feeding in mice, and obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans significantly increases TRB3 and ER stress markers in skeletal muscle. Overexpression of TRB3 in C2C12 myotubes and mouse tibialis anterior muscles significantly impairs insulin signaling. Incubation of C2C12 cells and mouse skeletal muscle with ER stressors thapsigargin and tunicamycin increases TRB3 and impairs insulin signaling and glucose uptake, effects reversed in cells overexpressing RNAi for TRB3 and in muscles from TRB3 knockout mice. Furthermore, TRB3 knockout mice are protected from high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. These data demonstrate that TRB3 mediates ER stress-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. PMID:23695665

  10. Thioredoxin-interacting protein regulates protein disulfide isomerases and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Samuel; Min Kim, Soo; Dotimas, James; Li, Letitia; Feener, Edward P; Baldus, Stephan; Myers, Ronald B; Chutkow, William A; Patwari, Parth; Yoshioka, Jun; Lee, Richard T

    2014-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is responsible for protein folding, modification, and trafficking. Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins represents the condition of ER stress and triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR), a key mechanism linking supply of excess nutrients to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in obesity. The ER harbors proteins that participate in protein folding including protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs). Changes in PDI activity are associated with protein misfolding and ER stress. Here, we show that thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip), a member of the arrestin protein superfamily and one of the most strongly induced proteins in diabetic patients, regulates PDI activity and UPR signaling. We found that Txnip binds to PDIs and increases their enzymatic activity. Genetic deletion of Txnip in cells and mice led to increased protein ubiquitination and splicing of the UPR regulated transcription factor X-box-binding protein 1 (Xbp1s) at baseline as well as under ER stress. Our results reveal Txnip as a novel direct regulator of PDI activity and a feedback mechanism of UPR signaling to decrease ER stress. © 2014 Brigham and Women's Hospital. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  11. Transport of phosphatidylserine from the endoplasmic reticulum to the site of phosphatidylserine decarboxylase2 in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Muthukumar; Riekhof, Wayne R; Voelker, Dennis R

    2015-02-01

    Over the past two decades, most of the genes specifying lipid synthesis and metabolism in yeast have been identified and characterized. Several of these biosynthetic genes and their encoded enzymes have provided valuable tools for the genetic and biochemical dissection of interorganelle lipid transport processes in yeast. One such pathway involves the synthesis of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and its non-vesicular transport to the site of phosphatidylserine decarboxylase2 (Psd2p) in membranes of the Golgi and endosomal sorting system. In this review, we summarize the identification and characterization of the yeast phosphatidylserine decarboxylases, and examine their role in studies of the transport-dependent pathways of de novo synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn). The emerging picture of the Psd2p-specific transport pathway is one in which the enzyme and its non-catalytic N-terminal domains act as a hub to nucleate the assembly of a multiprotein complex, which facilitates PtdSer transport at membrane contact sites between the ER and Golgi/endosome membranes. After transport to the catalytic site of Psd2p, PtdSer is decarboxylated to form PtdEtn, which is disseminated throughout the cell to support the structural and functional needs of multiple membranes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates hippocampus endoplasmic reticulum stress after cardiac arrest in rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Gui, Qinfang; Jin, Li; Yu, Pan; Wu, Lin; Cao, Liangbin; Wang, Qiang; Duan, Manlin

    2017-02-15

    Hydrogen-rich saline can selectively scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protect brain against ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) has been implicated in the pathological process of cerebral ischemia. However, very little is known about the role of hydrogen-rich saline in mediating pathophysiological reactions to ERS after I/R injury caused by cardiac arrest. The rats were randomly divided into three groups, sham group (n=30), ischemia/reperfusion group (n=40) and hydrogen-rich saline group (n=40). The rats in experimental groups were subjected to 4min of cardiac arrest and followed by resuscitation. Then they were randomized to receive 5ml/kg of either hydrogen-rich saline or normal saline. Hydrogen-rich saline significantly improves survival rate and neurological function. The beneficial effects of hydrogen-rich saline were associated with decreased levels of oxidative products, as well as the increased levels of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, the protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline were accompanied by the increased activity of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), the decreased activity of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-12 (caspase-12) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates brain I/R injury may through inhibiting hippocampus ERS after cardiac arrest in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Parkin regulation of CHOP modulates susceptibility to cardiac endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Han, Kim; Hassanzadeh, Shahin; Singh, Komudi; Menazza, Sara; Nguyen, Tiffany T; Stevens, Mark V; Nguyen, An; San, Hong; Anderson, Stasia A; Lin, Yongshun; Zou, Jizhong; Murphy, Elizabeth; Sack, Michael N

    2017-05-18

    The regulatory control of cardiac endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is incompletely characterized. As ER stress signaling upregulates the E3-ubiquitin ligase Parkin, we investigated the role of Parkin in cardiac ER stress. Parkin knockout mice exposed to aortic constriction-induced cardiac pressure-overload or in response to systemic tunicamycin (TM) developed adverse ventricular remodeling with excessive levels of the ER regulatory C/EBP homologous protein CHOP. CHOP was identified as a Parkin substrate and its turnover was Parkin-dose and proteasome-dependent. Parkin depletion in cardiac HL-1 cells increased CHOP levels and enhanced susceptibility to TM-induced cell death. Parkin reconstitution rescued this phenotype and the contribution of excess CHOP to this ER stress injury was confirmed by reduction in TM-induced cell death when CHOP was depleted in Parkin knockdown cardiomyocytes. Isogenic Parkin mutant iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes showed exaggerated ER stress induced CHOP and apoptotic signatures and myocardium from subjects with dilated cardiomyopathy showed excessive Parkin and CHOP induction. This study identifies that Parkin functions to blunt excessive CHOP to prevent maladaptive ER stress-induced cell death and adverse cardiac ventricular remodeling. Additionally, Parkin is identified as a novel post-translational regulatory moderator of CHOP stability and uncovers an additional stress-modifying function of this E3-ubiquitin ligase.

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria interplay mediates apoptotic cell death: relevance to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Arduíno, Daniela Moniz; Esteves, A Raquel; Cardoso, Sandra M; Oliveira, Catarina R

    2009-09-01

    Sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Many cellular mechanisms are thought to be involved in the death of these specific neurons in PD, including oxidative stress, changes of intracellular calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Since recent studies have revealed that also endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in conjunction with abnormal protein degradation can contribute to the PD pathophysiology, we investigated here the molecular mechanisms underlying the interplay between ER and mitochondria and its relevance in the control of neuronal cell death in PD. We observed that MPP+ induced changes in the mitochondrial function, affecting mitochondrial membrane potential and electron transport chain function. Likewise, it was also evident the unfolded protein response activation by an overexpression of GRP78 protein. Moreover, stress stimuli caused the release of Ca2+ from the ER that consistently induced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, with a rise of mitochondrial matrix free Ca2+. Besides, Ca2+ release inhibition prevented MPP+ mediated mitochondria-dependent caspases activation. Our findings show that ER and mitochondria are in a close communication, establishing a dynamic ER-Ca2+-mitochondria interconnection that can play a prominent role in the neuronal cell death induction under particular stressful circumstances of PD pathology.

  15. [Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocyte].

    PubMed

    Ji, Ying-Lei; Yan, Jun; Wang, Yan-Sha; Liu, Yi-Chang; Gu, Zhen-Yong

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Cells of the rat hepatocyte line BRL were cultured. The hepatocytes were treated with LPS, ERS inducer thapsigargin (TG), and ERS inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), respectively or in their different combination. The cell viability was measured by MTT assay. The cyto-nuclear morphological changes of apoptosis cells were detected by the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33258. The apoptosis rate was assessed by flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining. Expressions of GRP78 as ERS marker protein, CHOP, caspase-12 and cleaved-caspase-3 as ERS related protein were detected by Western blotting. LPS could cause a decrease in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis rate in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The expression of GRP78, CHOP, caspase-12 and cleaved-caspase-3 proteins were significantly increased with LPS treatment. TG led to a marked decrease in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis rate, which aggravated the hepatocyte injury induced by LPS; whereas 4-PBA alleviated LPS-induced apoptosis. ERS mediates LPS-induced hepatocyte injuries, indicating that ERS may play a vital role in the pathogenesis of LPS-induced hepatocyte injuries.

  16. The Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Neuroprogressive Diseases: Emerging Pathophysiological Role and Translational Implications.

    PubMed

    Morris, Gerwyn; Puri, Basant K; Walder, Ken; Berk, Michael; Stubbs, Brendon; Maes, Michael; Carvalho, André F

    2018-03-29

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the main cellular organelle involved in protein synthesis, assembly and secretion. Accumulating evidence shows that across several neurodegenerative and neuroprogressive diseases, ER stress ensues, which is accompanied by over-activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Although the UPR could initially serve adaptive purposes in conditions associated with higher cellular demands and after exposure to a range of pathophysiological insults, over time the UPR may become detrimental, thus contributing to neuroprogression. Herein, we propose that immune-inflammatory, neuro-oxidative, neuro-nitrosative, as well as mitochondrial pathways may reciprocally interact with aberrations in UPR pathways. Furthermore, ER stress may contribute to a deregulation in calcium homoeostasis. The common denominator of these pathways is a decrease in neuronal resilience, synaptic dysfunction and even cell death. This review also discusses how mechanisms related to ER stress could be explored as a source for novel therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative and neuroprogressive diseases. The design of randomised controlled trials testing compounds that target aberrant UPR-related pathways within the emerging framework of precision psychiatry is warranted.

  17. Nuclear pore complex integrity requires Lnp1, a regulator of cortical endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Amanda K.; Chen, Shuliang; Novick, Peter; Ferro-Novick, Susan; Wente, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear envelope (NE) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are components of the same contiguous membrane system and yet have distinct cellular functions. Mounting evidence suggests roles for some ER proteins in the NE for proper nuclear pore complex (NPC) structure and function. In this study, we identify a NE role in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Lnp1 and Sey1, proteins required for proper cortical ER formation. Both lnp1Δ and sey1Δ mutants exhibit synthetic genetic interactions with mutants in genes encoding key NPC structural components. Both Lnp1 and Sey1 physically associate with other ER components that have established NPC roles, including Rtn1, Yop1, Pom33, and Per33. Of interest, lnp1Δ rtn1Δ mutants but not rtn1Δ sey1Δ mutants exhibit defects in NPC distribution. Furthermore, the essential NPC assembly factor Ndc1 has altered interactions in the absence of Sey1. Lnp1 dimerizes in vitro via its C-terminal zinc finger motif, a property that is required for proper ER structure but not NPC integrity. These findings suggest that Lnp1's role in NPC integrity is separable from functions in the ER and is linked to Ndc1 and Rtn1 interactions. PMID:26041935

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates withaferin A-induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Jung; Park, Eun Jung; Min, Kyoung Jin; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2011-04-01

    The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in cellular stress that initiates a specialized response designated as the unfolded protein response. ER stress has been implicated in a variety of common diseases, such as diabetes, ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Withaferin A, a major chemical constituent of Withania somnifera, has been reported to inhibit tumor cell growth. We show that withaferin A induced a dose-dependent apoptotic cell death in several types of human cancer cells, as measured by FACS analysis and PARP cleavage. Treatment of Caki cells with withaferin A induced a number of signature ER stress markers, including phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF-2 α), ER stress-specific XBP1 splicing, and up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein (GRP)-78. In addition, withaferin A caused up-regulation of CAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP), suggesting the induction of ER stress. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) significantly inhibited withaferin A-mediated ER stress proteins and cell death, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate withaferin A-induced ER stress. Furthermore, CHOP siRNA or inhibition of caspase-4 activity attenuated withaferin A-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the present study provides strong evidence supporting an important role of the ER stress response in mediating withaferin A-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Aminopeptidases in Health and Disease: from Infection to Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cifaldi, Loredana; Romania, Paolo; Lorenzi, Silvia; Locatelli, Franco; Fruci, Doriana

    2012-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) aminopeptidases ERAP1 and ERAP2 (ERAPs) are essential for the maturation of a wide spectrum of proteins involved in various biological processes. In the ER, these enzymes work in concert to trim peptides for presentation on MHC class I molecules. Loss of ERAPs function substantially alters the repertoire of peptides presented by MHC class I molecules, critically affecting recognition of both NK and CD8+ T cells. In addition, these enzymes are involved in the modulation of inflammatory responses by promoting the shedding of several cytokine receptors, and in the regulation of both blood pressure and angiogenesis. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified common variants of ERAP1 and ERAP2 linked to several human diseases, ranging from viral infections to autoimmunity and cancer. More recently, inhibition of ER peptide trimming has been shown to play a key role in stimulating innate and adaptive anti-tumor immune responses, suggesting that inhibition of ERAPs might be exploited for the establishment of innovative therapeutic approaches against cancer. This review summarizes data currently available for ERAP enzymes in ER peptide trimming and in other immunological and non-immunological functions, paying attention to the emerging role played by these enzymes in human diseases. PMID:22942706

  20. Amino Acid Residues Critical for Endoplasmic Reticulum Export and Trafficking of Platelet-activating Factor Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, Nobuaki; Yasuda, Daisuke; Hashidate, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Teruyasu; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Nagamune, Teruyuki; Nagase, Takahide; Shimizu, Takao; Nakamura, Motonao

    2010-01-01

    Several residues are conserved in the transmembrane domains (TMs) of G-protein coupled receptors. Here we demonstrate that a conserved proline, Pro247, in TM6 of platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) is required for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export and trafficking after agonist-induced internalization. Alanine-substituted mutants of the conserved residues of PAFRs, including P247A, were retained in the ER. Because a PAFR antagonist, Y-24180, acted as a pharmacological chaperone to rescue ER retention, this retention is due to misfolding of PAFR. Methylcarbamyl (mc)-PAF, a PAFR agonist, did not increase the cell surface expression of P247A, even though another ER-retained mutant, D63A, was effectively trafficked. Signaling and accumulation of the receptors in the early endosomes were observed in the mc-PAF-treated P247A-expressing cells, suggesting that P247A was trafficked to the cell surface by mc-PAF, and thereafter disappeared from the surface due to aberrant trafficking, e.g. enhanced internalization, deficiency in recycling, and/or accelerated degradation. The aberrant trafficking was confirmed with a sortase-A-mediated method for labeling cell surface proteins. These results demonstrate that the conserved proline in TM6 is crucial for intracellular trafficking of PAFR. PMID:20007715

  1. Parallel analysis of tagged deletion mutants efficiently identifies genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Robin; Parrish, Mark L; Cadera, Emily; Larson, Lynnelle; Matson, Clinton K; Garrett-Engele, Philip; Armour, Chris; Lum, Pek Yee; Shoemaker, Daniel D

    2003-07-30

    Increased levels of HMG-CoA reductase induce cell type- and isozyme-specific proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum. In yeast, the ER proliferations induced by Hmg1p consist of nuclear-associated stacks of smooth ER membranes known as karmellae. To identify genes required for karmellae assembly, we compared the composition of populations of homozygous diploid S. cerevisiae deletion mutants following 20 generations of growth with and without karmellae. Using an initial population of 1,557 deletion mutants, 120 potential mutants were identified as a result of three independent experiments. Each experiment produced a largely non-overlapping set of potential mutants, suggesting that differences in specific growth conditions could be used to maximize the comprehensiveness of similar parallel analysis screens. Only two genes, UBC7 and YAL011W, were identified in all three experiments. Subsequent analysis of individual mutant strains confirmed that each experiment was identifying valid mutations, based on the mutant's sensitivity to elevated HMG-CoA reductase and inability to assemble normal karmellae. The largest class of HMG-CoA reductase-sensitive mutations was a subset of genes that are involved in chromatin structure and transcriptional regulation, suggesting that karmellae assembly requires changes in transcription or that the presence of karmellae may interfere with normal transcriptional regulation. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Oxidative Processing of Latent Fas in the Endoplasmic Reticulum Controls the Strength of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Anathy, Vikas; Roberson, Elle; Cunniff, Brian; Nolin, James D.; Hoffman, Sidra; Spiess, Page; Guala, Amy S.; Lahue, Karolyn G.; Goldman, Dylan; Flemer, Stevenson; van der Vliet, Albert; Heintz, Nicholas H.; Budd, Ralph C.; Tew, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that S-glutathionylation of the death receptor Fas (Fas-SSG) amplifies apoptosis (V. Anathy et al., J. Cell Biol. 184:241–252, 2009). In the present study, we demonstrate that distinct pools of Fas exist in cells. Upon ligation of surface Fas, a separate pool of latent Fas in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) underwent rapid oxidative processing characterized by the loss of free sulfhydryl content (Fas-SH) and resultant increases in S-glutathionylation of Cys294, leading to increases of surface Fas. Stimulation with FasL rapidly induced associations of Fas with ERp57 and glutathione S-transferase π (GSTP), a protein disulfide isomerase and catalyst of S-glutathionylation, respectively, in the ER. Knockdown or inhibition of ERp57 and GSTP1 substantially decreased FasL-induced oxidative processing and S-glutathionylation of Fas, resulting in decreased death-inducing signaling complex formation and caspase activity and enhanced survival. Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis was accompanied by increased interactions between Fas-ERp57-GSTP1 and S-glutathionylation of Fas. Importantly, fibrosis was largely prevented following short interfering RNA-mediated ablation of ERp57 and GSTP. Collectively, these findings illuminate a regulatory switch, a ligand-initiated oxidative processing of latent Fas, that controls the strength of apoptosis. PMID:22751926

  3. Curcumin inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haiying; Fan, Yanxia; Sun, Hongyu; Chen, Liyan; Man, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the dynamic changes of the growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 153 (GADD153) gene and caspase-12 in the brain tissue of rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) and the impact of curcumin pretreatment. A total of 60 rats were randomly divided into the normal group (N), the sham operation group (S), the dimethyl sulfoxide control group (D) and the curcumin treatment group (C). For group D and C, 12 (T1), 24 (T2) and 72 h (T3) of reperfusion were performed after 2 h ischemia. The expression levels of GADD153 and caspase-12 in the brain tissue were detected and compared among the groups by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence double staining and western blotting. The expression levels of GADD153 and caspase-12 were increased at T1compared with groups N and S, and the expression of caspase-12 peaked at T2 in group D, while GADD153 was increased until T3 in group D. Compared with group D, the expression levels of GADD153 and caspase-12 in group C at T2 and T3 were significantly decreased (P<0.05). Endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in the pathological process of CIRI. Curcumin may decrease the expression levels of the above two factors, thus exhibiting protective effects against CIRI in rats. PMID:29067098

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension via attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Zhong, Wei; Shao, Chen; Liu, Peijing; Wang, Cuiping; Wang, Zhongqun; Jiang, Meiping; Lu, Yi; Yan, Jinchuan

    2018-02-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation contribute to pulmonary hypertension (PH) pathogenesis. Previously, we confirmed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could improve hypoxia-induced PH. However, little is known about the link between DHA and monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH. Our aims were, therefore, to evaluate the effects and molecular mechanisms of DHA on MCT-induced PH in rats. Rat PH was induced by MCT. Rats were treated with DHA daily in the prevention group (following MCT injection) and the reversal group (after MCT injection for 2 wk) by gavage. After 4 wk, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy index, and morphological and immunohistochemical analyses were evaluated. Rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were used to investigate the effects of DHA on cell proliferation stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB. DHA decreased mPAP and attenuated pulmonary vascular remodeling and RV hypertrophy, which were associated with suppressed ER stress. DHA blocked the mitogenic effect of PDGF-BB on PASMCs and arrested the cell cycle via inhibiting nuclear factor of activated T cells-1 (NFATc1) expression and activation and regulating cell cycle-related proteins. Moreover, DHA ameliorated inflammation in lung and suppressed macrophage and T lymphocyte accumulation in lung and adventitia of resistance pulmonary arteries. These findings suggest that DHA could protect against MCT-induced PH by reducing ER stress, suppressing cell proliferation and inflammation.

  5. Cannabidiol protects oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from inflammation-induced apoptosis by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Mecha, M; Torrao, A S; Mestre, L; Carrillo-Salinas, F J; Mechoulam, R; Guaza, C

    2012-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is the most abundant cannabinoid in Cannabis sativa that has no psychoactive properties. CBD has been approved to treat inflammation, pain and spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), of which demyelination and oligodendrocyte loss are hallmarks. Thus, we investigated the protective effects of CBD against the damage to oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) mediated by the immune system. Doses of 1 μM CBD protect OPCs from oxidative stress by decreasing the production of reactive oxygen species. CBD also protects OPCs from apoptosis induced by LPS/IFNγ through the decrease of caspase 3 induction via mechanisms that do not involve CB1, CB2, TRPV1 or PPARγ receptors. Tunicamycin-induced OPC death was attenuated by CBD, suggesting a role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the mode of action of CBD. This protection against ER stress-induced apoptosis was associated with reduced phosphorylation of eiF2α, one of the initiators of the ER stress pathway. Indeed, CBD diminished the phosphorylation of PKR and eiF2α induced by LPS/IFNγ. The pro-survival effects of CBD in OPCs were accompanied by decreases in the expression of ER apoptotic effectors (CHOP, Bax and caspase 12), and increased expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. These findings suggest that attenuation of the ER stress pathway is involved in the ‘oligoprotective' effects of CBD during inflammation. PMID:22739983

  6. GABAB receptor cell surface export is controlled by an endoplasmic reticulum gatekeeper

    PubMed Central

    Doly, Stéphane; Shirvani, Hamasseh; Gäta, Gabriel; Meye, Frank; Emerit, Michel-Boris; Enslen, Hervé; Achour, Lamia; Pardo-Lopez, Liliana; Kwon, Yang Seung; Armand, Vincent; Gardette, Robert; Giros, Bruno; Gassmann, Martin; Bettler, Bernhard; Mameli, Manuel; Darmon, Michèle; Marullo, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Summary Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) release and cell surface export of many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), are tightly regulated. For GABAB receptors of GABA, the major mammalian inhibitory neurotransmitter, the ligand-binding GB1 subunit is maintained in the ER by unknown mechanisms in the absence of hetero-dimerization with the GB2 subunit. We report that GB1 retention is regulated by a specific gatekeeper, PRAF2. This ER resident transmembrane protein binds to GB1, preventing its progression in the biosynthetic pathway. GB1 release occurs upon competitive displacement from PRAF2 by GB2. PRAF2 concentration, relative to that of GB1 and GB2, tightly controls cell surface receptor density and controls GABAB function in neurons. Experimental perturbation of PRAF2 levels in vivo caused marked hyperactivity disorders in mice. These data reveal an unanticipated major impact of specific ER gate-keepers on GPCR function and identify PRAF2 as a new molecular target with therapeutic potential for psychiatric and neurological diseases involving GABAB function. PMID:26033241

  7. Photodynamic therapy with redaporfin targets the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Gomes-da-Silva, Lígia C; Zhao, Liwei; Bezu, Lucillia; Zhou, Heng; Sauvat, Allan; Liu, Peng; Durand, Sylvère; Leduc, Marion; Souquere, Sylvie; Loos, Friedemann; Mondragón, Laura; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur; Rekdal, Øystein; Boncompain, Gaelle; Perez, Franck; Arnaut, Luis G; Kepp, Oliver; Kroemer, Guido

    2018-05-28

    Preclinical evidence depicts the capacity of redaporfin (Redp) to act as potent photosensitizer, causing direct antineoplastic effects as well as indirect immune-dependent destruction of malignant lesions. Here, we investigated the mechanisms through which photodynamic therapy (PDT) with redaporfin kills cancer cells. Subcellular localization and fractionation studies based on the physicochemical properties of redaporfin revealed its selective tropism for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus (GA). When activated, redaporfin caused rapid reactive oxygen species-dependent perturbation of ER/GA compartments, coupled to ER stress and an inhibition of the GA-dependent secretory pathway. This led to a general inhibition of protein secretion by PDT-treated cancer cells. The ER/GA play a role upstream of mitochondria in the lethal signaling pathway triggered by redaporfin-based PDT Pharmacological perturbation of GA function or homeostasis reduces mitochondrial permeabilization. In contrast, removal of the pro-apoptotic multidomain proteins BAX and BAK or pretreatment with protease inhibitors reduced cell killing, yet left the GA perturbation unaffected. Altogether, these results point to the capacity of redaporfin to kill tumor cells via destroying ER/GA function. © 2018 The Authors.

  8. Regulation of mitochondrial function and endoplasmic reticulum stress by nitric oxide in pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Caballano-Infantes, Estefania; Terron-Bautista, José; Beltrán-Povea, Amparo; Cahuana, Gladys M; Soria, Bernat; Nabil, Hajji; Bedoya, Francisco J; Tejedo, Juan R

    2017-02-26

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) are global processes that are interrelated and regulated by several stress factors. Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional biomolecule with many varieties of physiological and pathological functions, such as the regulation of cytochrome c inhibition and activation of the immune response, ERS and DNA damage; these actions are dose-dependent. It has been reported that in embryonic stem cells, NO has a dual role, controlling differentiation, survival and pluripotency, but the molecular mechanisms by which it modulates these functions are not yet known. Low levels of NO maintain pluripotency and induce mitochondrial biogenesis. It is well established that NO disrupts the mitochondrial respiratory chain and causes changes in mitochondrial Ca 2+ flux that induce ERS. Thus, at high concentrations, NO becomes a potential differentiation agent due to the relationship between ERS and the unfolded protein response in many differentiated cell lines. Nevertheless, many studies have demonstrated the need for physiological levels of NO for a proper ERS response. In this review, we stress the importance of the relationships between NO levels, ERS and mitochondrial dysfunction that control stem cell fate as a new approach to possible cell therapy strategies.

  9. NELL2 function in the protection of cells against endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Yeol; Kim, Han Rae; Kim, Kwang Kon; Park, Jeong Woo; Lee, Byung Ju

    2015-01-01

    Continuous intra- and extracellular stresses induce disorder of Ca(2+) homeostasis and accumulation of unfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which results in ER stress. Severe long-term ER stress triggers apoptosis signaling pathways, resulting in cell death. Neural epidermal growth factor-like like protein 2 (NELL2) has been reported to be important in protection of cells from cell death-inducing environments. In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effect of NELL2 in the context of ER stress induced by thapsigargin, a strong ER stress inducer, in Cos7 cells. Overexpression of NELL2 prevented ER stress-mediated apoptosis by decreasing expression of ER stress-induced C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and increasing ER chaperones. In this context, expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL was increased by NELL2, whereas NELL2 decreased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, such as cleaved caspases 3 and 7. This anti-apoptotic effect of NELL2 is likely mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, because its inhibitor, U0126, inhibited effects of NELL2 on the expression of anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins and on the protection from ER stress-induced cell death.

  10. Chronic Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia Improves Cardiac Function through Inhibition of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Li; Li, Yan-Qing; Teng, Xu; Tian, Si-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Ran; Zhang, Yi

    2017-08-11

    We investigated the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH)-induced cardiac protection. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CIHH treatment simulating 5000 m altitude for 28 days, 6 hours per day. The heart was isolated and perfused with Langendorff apparatus and subjected to 30-min ischemia followed by 60-min reperfusion. Cardiac function, infarct size, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were assessed. Expression of ERS molecular chaperones (GRP78, CHOP and caspase-12) was assayed by western blot analysis. CIHH treatment improved the recovery of left ventricular function and decreased cardiac infarct size and activity of LDH after I/R compared to control rats. Furthermore, CIHH treatment inhibited over-expression of ERS-related factors including GRP78, CHOP and caspase-12. CIHH-induced cardioprotection and inhibition of ERS were eliminated by application of dithiothreitol, an ERS inducer, and chelerythrine, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor. In conclusion CIHH treatment exerts cardiac protection against I/R injury through inhibition of ERS via PKC signaling pathway.

  11. PIGN prevents protein aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum independently of its function in the GPI synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Shinji; Nakayama, Sohei; Murakami, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Emiko; Asakawa, Masayo; Kinoshita, Taroh; Sawa, Hitoshi

    2017-02-01

    Quality control of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is essential for ensuring the integrity of secretory proteins before their release into the extracellular space. Secretory proteins that fail to pass quality control form aggregates. Here we show the PIGN-1/PIGN is required for quality control in Caenorhabditis elegans and in mammalian cells. In C. elegans pign-1 mutants, several proteins fail to be secreted and instead form abnormal aggregation. PIGN-knockout HEK293 cells also showed similar protein aggregation. Although PIGN-1/PIGN is responsible for glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis in the ER, certain mutations in C. elegans pign-1 caused protein aggregation in the ER without affecting GPI-anchor biosynthesis. These results show that PIGN-1/PIGN has a conserved and non-canonical function to prevent deleterious protein aggregation in the ER independently of the GPI-anchor biosynthesis. PIGN is a causative gene for some human diseases including multiple congenital seizure-related syndrome (MCAHS1). Two pign-1 mutations created by CRISPR/Cas9 that correspond to MCAHS1 also cause protein aggregation in the ER, implying that the dysfunction of the PIGN non-canonical function might affect symptoms of MCAHS1 and potentially those of other diseases. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Unfolded Protein Response of the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Tumor Progression and Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yoon Seon; Han, Hye Gyeong

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a pivotal regulator of folding, quality control, trafficking, and targeting of secreted and transmembrane proteins, and accordingly, eukaryotic cells have evolved specialized machinery to ensure that the ER enables these proteins to acquire adequate folding and maturation in the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic insults. This adaptive capacity of the ER to intrinsic and extrinsic perturbations is important for maintaining protein homeostasis, which is termed proteostasis. Failure in adaptation to these perturbations leads to accumulation of misfolded or unassembled proteins in the ER, which is termed ER stress, resulting in the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) of the ER and the execution of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) to restore homeostasis. Furthermore, both of the two axes play key roles in the control of tumor progression, inflammation, immunity, and aging. Therefore, understanding UPR of the ER and subsequent ERAD will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of many human diseases and contribute to therapeutic intervention in these diseases. PMID:29430279

  13. Angiogenin Mediates Cell-Autonomous Translational Control under Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Attenuates Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mami, Iadh; Bouvier, Nicolas; El Karoui, Khalil; Gallazzini, Morgan; Rabant, Marion; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Li, Shuping; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis; Beaune, Philippe; Thervet, Eric; Chevet, Eric; Hu, Guo-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in the pathophysiology of kidney disease and aging, but the molecular bases underlying the biologic outcomes on the evolution of renal disease remain mostly unknown. Angiogenin (ANG) is a ribonuclease that promotes cellular adaptation under stress but its contribution to ER stress signaling remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the ANG-mediated contribution to the signaling and biologic outcomes of ER stress in kidney injury. ANG expression was significantly higher in samples from injured human kidneys than in samples from normal human kidneys, and in mouse and rat kidneys, ANG expression was specifically induced under ER stress. In human renal epithelial cells, ER stress induced ANG expression in a manner dependent on the activity of transcription factor XBP1, and ANG promoted cellular adaptation to ER stress through induction of stress granules and inhibition of translation. Moreover, the severity of renal lesions induced by ER stress was dramatically greater in ANG knockout mice (Ang−/−) mice than in wild-type mice. These results indicate that ANG is a critical mediator of tissue adaptation to kidney injury and reveal a physiologically relevant ER stress-mediated adaptive translational control mechanism. PMID:26195817

  14. SGK3 sustains ERα signaling and drives acquired aromatase inhibitor resistance through maintaining endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanzhong; Zhou, Dujin; Phung, Sheryl; Warden, Charles; Rashid, Rumana; Chan, Nymph; Chen, Shiuan

    2017-02-21

    Many estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-positive breast cancers initially respond to aromatase inhibitors (AIs), but eventually acquire resistance. Here, we report that serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 3 (SGK3), a kinase transcriptionally regulated by ERα in breast cancer, sustains ERα signaling and drives acquired AI resistance. SGK3 is up-regulated and essential for endoplasmic reticulum (EnR) homeostasis through preserving sarcoplasmic/EnR calcium ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) function in AI-resistant cells. We have further found that EnR stress response down-regulates ERα expression through the protein kinase RNA-like EnR kinase (PERK) arm, and SGK3 retains ERα expression and signaling by preventing excessive EnR stress. Our study reveals regulation of ERα expression mediated by the EnR stress response and the feed-forward regulation between SGK3 and ERα in breast cancer. Given SGK3 inhibition reduces AI-resistant cell survival by eliciting excessive EnR stress and also depletes ERα expression/function, we propose SGK3 inhibition as a potential effective treatment of acquired AI-resistant breast cancer.

  15. Inhibition of TFG function causes hereditary axon degeneration by impairing endoplasmic reticulum structure.

    PubMed

    Beetz, Christian; Johnson, Adam; Schuh, Amber L; Thakur, Seema; Varga, Rita-Eva; Fothergill, Thomas; Hertel, Nicole; Bomba-Warczak, Ewa; Thiele, Holger; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Altmüller, Janine; Saxena, Renu; Chapman, Edwin R; Dent, Erik W; Nürnberg, Peter; Audhya, Anjon

    2013-03-26

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of gait disorders. Their pathological hallmark is a length-dependent distal axonopathy of nerve fibers in the corticospinal tract. Involvement of other neurons can cause additional neurological symptoms, which define a diverse set of complex hereditary spastic paraplegias. We present two siblings who have the unusual combination of early-onset spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy, and neuropathy. Genome-wide SNP-typing, linkage analysis, and exome sequencing revealed a homozygous c.316C>T (p.R106C) variant in the Trk-fused gene (TFG) as the only plausible mutation. Biochemical characterization of the mutant protein demonstrated a defect in its ability to self-assemble into an oligomeric complex, which is critical for normal TFG function. In cell lines, TFG inhibition slows protein secretion from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and alters ER morphology, disrupting organization of peripheral ER tubules and causing collapse of the ER network onto the underlying microtubule cytoskeleton. The present study provides a unique link between altered ER architecture and neurodegeneration.

  16. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Obesity and Obesity-Related Disorders: An Expanded View

    PubMed Central

    Pagliassotti, M.J.; Kim, P. Y.; Estrada, A.L.; Stewart, C.M.; Gentile, C.L.

    2016-01-01

    The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is most notable for its central roles in calcium ion storage, lipid biosynthesis, and protein sorting and processing. By virtue of its extensive membrane contact sites that connect the ER to most other organelles and to the plasma membrane, the ER can also regulate diverse cellular processes including inflammatory and insulin signaling, nutrient metabolism, and cell proliferation and death via a signaling pathway called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Chronic UPR activation has been observed in liver and/or adipose tissue of dietary and genetic murine models of obesity, and in human obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Activation of the UPR in obesity and obesity-related disorders likely has two origins. One linked to classic ER stress involving the ER lumen and one linked to alterations to the ER membrane environment. This review discusses both of these origins and also considers the role of post-translational protein modifications, such as acetylation and palmitoylation, and ER-mitochondrial interactions to obesity-mediated impairments in the ER and activation of the UPR. PMID:27506731

  17. The reticulons: Guardians of the structure and function of the endoplasmic reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Di Sano, Federica; Bernardoni, Paolo; Piacentini, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.piacentini@uniroma2.it

    2012-07-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) consists of the nuclear envelope and a peripheral network of tubules and membrane sheets. The tubules are shaped by a specific class of curvature stabilizing proteins, the reticulons and DP1; however it is still unclear how the sheets are assembled. The ER is the cellular compartment responsible for secretory and membrane protein synthesis. The reducing conditions of ER lead to the intra/inter-chain formation of new disulphide bonds into polypeptides during protein folding assessed by enzymatic or spontaneous reactions. Moreover, ER represents the main intracellular calcium storage site and it plays an important role in calcium signalingmore » that impacts many cellular processes. Accordingly, the maintenance of ER function represents an essential condition for the cell, and ER morphology constitutes an important prerogative of it. Furthermore, it is well known that ER undergoes prominent shape transitions during events such as cell division and differentiation. Thus, maintaining the correct ER structure is an essential feature for cellular physiology. Now, it is known that proper ER-associated proteins play a fundamental role in ER tubules formation. Among these ER-shaping proteins are the reticulons (RTN), which are acquiring a relevant position. In fact, beyond the structural role of reticulons, in very recent years new and deeper functional implications of these proteins are emerging in relation to their involvement in several cellular processes.« less

  18. Neuronal dystonin isoform 2 is a mediator of endoplasmic reticulum structure and function.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Scott D; Ferrier, Andrew; Sato, Tadasu; O'Meara, Ryan W; De Repentigny, Yves; Jiang, Susan X; Hou, Sheng T; Kothary, Rashmi

    2012-02-01

    Dystonin/Bpag1 is a cytoskeletal linker protein whose loss of function in dystonia musculorum (dt) mice results in hereditary sensory neuropathy. Although loss of expression of neuronal dystonin isoforms (dystonin-a1/dystonin-a2) is sufficient to cause dt pathogenesis, the diverging function of each isoform and what pathological mechanisms are activated upon their loss remains unclear. Here we show that dt(27) mice manifest ultrastructural defects at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in sensory neurons corresponding to in vivo induction of ER stress proteins. ER stress subsequently leads to sensory neurodegeneration through induction of a proapoptotic caspase cascade. dt sensory neurons display neurodegenerative pathologies, including Ca(2+) dyshomeostasis, unfolded protein response (UPR) induction, caspase activation, and apoptosis. Isoform-specific loss-of-function analysis attributes these neurodegenerative pathologies to specific loss of dystonin-a2. Inhibition of either UPR or caspase signaling promotes the viability of cells deficient in dystonin. This study provides insight into the mechanism of dt neuropathology and proposes a role for dystonin-a2 as a mediator of normal ER structure and function.

  19. Unfolded protein response activation compensates endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation deficiency in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingliang; Wei, Hai; Liu, Lijing; Yang, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Xiansheng; Xie, Qi

    2017-07-01

    Abiotic stresses often disrupt protein folding and induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. There is a sophisticated ER quality control (ERQC) system to mitigate the effects of malfunctioning proteins and maintain ER homeostasis. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to enhance ER protein folding and the degradation of misfolded proteins mediate by ER-associated degradation (ERAD). That ERQC reduces abiotic stress damage has been well studied in mammals and yeast. However, in plants, both ERAD and UPR have been studied separately and found to be critical for plant abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, we discovered that UPR-associated transcription factors AtbZIP17, AtbZIP28 and AtbZIP60 responded to tunicamycin (TM) and NaCl induced ER stress and subsequently enhanced Arabidopsis thaliana abiotic stress tolerance. They regulated the expression level of ER chaperones and the HRD1-complex components. Moreover, overexpression of AtbZIP17, AtbZIP28 and AtbZIP60 could restore stress tolerance via ERAD in the HRD1-complex mutant hrd3a-2, which suggested that UPR and ERAD have an interactive mechanism in Arabidopsis. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Peroxisomes, lipid droplets, and endoplasmic reticulum “hitchhike” on motile early endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Guimaraes, Sofia C.; Schuster, Martin; Bielska, Ewa; Dagdas, Gulay; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Meadows, Ben R.A.; Schrader, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular transport is mediated by molecular motors that bind cargo to be transported along the cytoskeleton. Here, we report, for the first time, that peroxisomes (POs), lipid droplets (LDs), and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) rely on early endosomes (EEs) for intracellular movement in a fungal model system. We show that POs undergo kinesin-3– and dynein-dependent transport along microtubules. Surprisingly, kinesin-3 does not colocalize with POs. Instead, the motor moves EEs that drag the POs through the cell. PO motility is abolished when EE motility is blocked in various mutants. Most LD and ER motility also depends on EE motility, whereas mitochondria move independently of EEs. Covisualization studies show that EE-mediated ER motility is not required for PO or LD movement, suggesting that the organelles interact with EEs independently. In the absence of EE motility, POs and LDs cluster at the growing tip, whereas ER is partially retracted to subapical regions. Collectively, our results show that moving EEs interact transiently with other organelles, thereby mediating their directed transport and distribution in the cell. PMID:26620910

  1. The Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone GRP170: From Immunobiology to Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongxia; Pezeshki, Abdul Mohammad; Yu, Xiaofei; Guo, Chunqing; Subjeck, John R.; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Glucose-regulated protein 170 (GRP170) is the largest member of glucose-regulated protein family that resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). As a component of the ER chaperone network, GRP170 assists in protein folding, assembly, and transportation of secretory or transmembrane proteins. The well documented cytoprotective activity of intracellular GRP170 due to its intrinsic chaperoning property has been shown to provide a survival benefit in cancer cells during tumor progression or metastasis. Accumulating evidence shows that extracellular GRP170 displays a superior capacity in delivering tumor antigens to specialized antigen-presenting cells for cross-presentation, resulting in generation of an anti-tumor immune response dependent on cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. This unique feature of GRP170 provides a molecular basis for using GRP170 as an immunostimulatory adjuvant to develop a recombinant vaccine for therapeutic immunization against cancers. This review summarizes the latest findings in understanding the biological effects of GRP170 on cell functions and tumor progression. The immunomodulating activities of GRP170 during interactions with the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system as well as its therapeutic applications in cancer immunotherapy will be discussed. PMID:25629003

  2. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress of nuclear donor cells under serum starvation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Qu, Pengxiang; Ma, Xiaonan; Qiao, Fang; Ma, Yefei; Qing, Suzhu; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Yongsheng; Cui, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Serum starvation is a routine protocol for synchronizing nuclear donor cells to G0/G1 phase during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, abrupt serum deprivation can cause serious stress to the cells cultured in vitro, which might result in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, chromosome damage, and finally reduce the success rate of SCNT. In the present study, the effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an effective ER stress-relieving drug, on the nuclear donor cells under serum deprivation condition as well as following SCNT procedures were first assessed in the bovine. The results showed that TUDCA significantly reduced ER stress and cell apoptosis in those nuclear donor cells. Moreover, it significantly decreased the expression of Hdac1 and Dnmt1, and increased the level of H3K9 acetylation in nuclear donor cells compared with control group. SCNT reconstructed embryos cloned from TUDCA-treated donor cells showed significantly higher fusion, cleavage, blastocyst formation rate, total cell number in day 7 blastocysts, and lower apoptotic index than that from control group. In addition, the expression of Hdac1, Dnmt1 and Bax was significantly lower in blastocysts derived from TUDCA-treated donor cells than that from control group. In conclusion, TUDCA significantly reduced the ER stress of nuclear donor cells under serum starvation condition, and significantly improved the developmental competence of following SCNT reconstructed embryos when these TUDCA-treated cells were used as the nuclear donors.

  3. Trichodermin induces cell apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress in human chondrosarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Chen-Ming; Wang, Shih-Wei; Lee, Tzong-Huei

    2013-10-15

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary bone tumor, and it responds poorly to both chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Nalanthamala psidii was described originally as Myxosporium in 1926. This is the first study to investigate the anti-tumor activity of trichodermin (trichothec-9-en-4-ol, 12,13-epoxy-, acetate), an endophytic fungal metabolite from N. psidii against human chondrosarcoma cells. We demonstrated that trichodermin induced cell apoptosis in human chondrosarcoma cell lines (JJ012 and SW1353 cells) instead of primary chondrocytes. In addition, trichodermin triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress protein levels of IRE1, p-PERK, GRP78, and GRP94, which were characterized by changes in cytosolic calcium levels. Furthermore,more » trichodermin induced the upregulation of Bax and Bid, the downregulation of Bcl-2, and the dysfunction of mitochondria, which released cytochrome c and activated caspase-3 in human chondrosarcoma. In addition, animal experiments illustrated reduced tumor volume, which led to an increased number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells and an increased level of cleaved PARP protein following trichodermin treatment. Together, this study demonstrates that trichodermin is a novel anti-tumor agent against human chondrosarcoma cells both in vitro and in vivo via mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress. - Highlights: • Trichodermin induces chondrosarcoma apoptosis. • ER stress is involved in trichodermin-induced cell death. • Trichodermin induces chondrosarcoma death in vivo.« less

  4. Glucosylated free oligosaccharides are biomarkers of endoplasmic- reticulum alpha-glucosidase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Alonzi, Dominic S; Neville, David C A; Lachmann, Robin H; Dwek, Raymond A; Butters, Terry D

    2008-01-15

    The inhibition of ER (endoplasmic reticulum) alpha-glucosidases I and II by imino sugars, including NB-DNJ (N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin), causes the retention of glucose residues on N-linked oligosaccharides. Therefore, normal glycoprotein trafficking and processing through the glycosylation pathway is abrogated and glycoproteins are directed to undergo ERAD (ER-associated degradation), a consequence of which is the production of cytosolic FOS (free oligosaccharides). Following treatment with NB-DNJ, FOS were extracted from cells, murine tissues and human plasma and urine. Improved protocols for analysis were developed using ion-exchange chromatography followed by fluorescent labelling with 2-AA (2-aminobenzoic acid) and purification by lectin-affinity chromatography. Separation of 2-AA-labelled FOS by HPLC provided a rapid and sensitive method that enabled the detection of all FOS species resulting from the degradation of glycoproteins exported from the ER. The generation of oligosaccharides derived from glucosylated protein degradation was rapid, reversible, and time- and inhibitor concentration-dependent in cultured cells and in vivo. Long-term inhibition in cultured cells and in vivo indicated a slow rate of clearance of glucosylated FOS. In mouse and human urine, glucosylated FOS were detected as a result of transrenal excretion and provide unique and quantifiable biomarkers of ER-glucosidase inhibition.

  5. Free oligosaccharides to monitor glycoprotein endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Hiroto; Seino, Junichi; Kitajima, Toshihiko; Jigami, Yoshifumi; Suzuki, Tadashi

    2010-04-16

    In eukaryotic cells, N-glycosylation has been recognized as one of the most common and functionally important co- or post-translational modifications of proteins. "Free" forms of N-glycans accumulate in the cytosol of mammalian cells, but the precise mechanism for their formation and degradation remains unknown. Here, we report a method for the isolation of yeast free oligosaccharides (fOSs) using endo-beta-1,6-glucanase digestion. fOSs were undetectable in cells lacking PNG1, coding the cytoplasmic peptide:N-glycanase gene, suggesting that almost all fOSs were formed from misfolded glycoproteins by Png1p. Structural studies revealed that the most abundant fOS was M8B, which is not recognized well by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD)-related lectin, Yos9p. In addition, we provide evidence that some of the ERAD substrates reached the Golgi apparatus prior to retrotranslocation to the cytosol. N-Glycan structures on misfolded glycoproteins in cells lacking the cytosol/vacuole alpha-mannosidase, Ams1p, was still quite diverse, indicating that processing of N-glycans on misfolded glycoproteins was more complex than currently envisaged. Under ER stress, an increase in fOSs was observed, whereas levels of M7C, a key glycan structure recognized by Yos9p, were unchanged. Our method can thus provide valuable information on the molecular mechanism of glycoprotein ERAD in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  6. Free Oligosaccharides to Monitor Glycoprotein Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Hiroto; Seino, Junichi; Kitajima, Toshihiko; Jigami, Yoshifumi; Suzuki, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, N-glycosylation has been recognized as one of the most common and functionally important co- or post-translational modifications of proteins. “Free” forms of N-glycans accumulate in the cytosol of mammalian cells, but the precise mechanism for their formation and degradation remains unknown. Here, we report a method for the isolation of yeast free oligosaccharides (fOSs) using endo-β-1,6-glucanase digestion. fOSs were undetectable in cells lacking PNG1, coding the cytoplasmic peptide:N-glycanase gene, suggesting that almost all fOSs were formed from misfolded glycoproteins by Png1p. Structural studies revealed that the most abundant fOS was M8B, which is not recognized well by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD)-related lectin, Yos9p. In addition, we provide evidence that some of the ERAD substrates reached the Golgi apparatus prior to retrotranslocation to the cytosol. N-Glycan structures on misfolded glycoproteins in cells lacking the cytosol/vacuole α-mannosidase, Ams1p, was still quite diverse, indicating that processing of N-glycans on misfolded glycoproteins was more complex than currently envisaged. Under ER stress, an increase in fOSs was observed, whereas levels of M7C, a key glycan structure recognized by Yos9p, were unchanged. Our method can thus provide valuable information on the molecular mechanism of glycoprotein ERAD in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:20150426

  7. Demonstration that endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of glycoproteins can occur downstream of processing by endomannosidase.

    PubMed

    Kukushkin, Nikolay V; Alonzi, Dominic S; Dwek, Raymond A; Butters, Terry D

    2011-08-15

    During quality control in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum), nascent glycoproteins are deglucosylated by ER glucosidases I and II. In the post-ER compartments, glycoprotein endo-α-mannosidase provides an alternative route for deglucosylation. Previous evidence suggests that endomannosidase non-selectively deglucosylates glycoproteins that escape quality control in the ER, facilitating secretion of aberrantly folded as well as normal glycoproteins. In the present study, we employed FOS (free oligosaccharides) released from degrading glycoproteins as biomarkers of ERAD (ER-associated degradation), allowing us to gain a global rather than single protein-centred view of ERAD. Glucosidase inhibition was used to discriminate between glucosidase- and endomannosidase-mediated ERAD pathways. Endomannosidase expression was manipulated in CHO (Chinese-hamster ovary)-K1 cells, naturally lacking a functional version of the enzyme, and HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293T cells. Endomannosidase was shown to decrease the levels of total FOS, suggesting decreased rates of ERAD. However, following pharmacological inhibition of ER glucosidases I and II, endomannosidase expression resulted in a partial switch between glucosylated FOS, released from ER-confined glycoproteins, to deglucosylated FOS, released from endomannosidase-processed glycoproteins transported from the Golgi/ERGIC (ER/Golgi intermediate compartment) to the ER. Using this approach, we have identified a previously unknown pathway of glycoprotein flow, undetectable by the commonly employed methods, in which secretory cargo is targeted back to the ER after being processed by endomannosidase. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum stress increases AT1R mRNA expression via TIA-1-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Backlund, Michael; Paukku, Kirsi; Kontula, Kimmo K.; Lehtonen, Jukka Y.A.

    2016-01-01

    As the formation of ribonucleoprotein complexes is a major mechanism of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) regulation, we sought to identify novel AT1R mRNA binding proteins. By affinity purification and mass spectroscopy, we identified TIA-1. This interaction was confirmed by colocalization of AT1R mRNA and TIA-1 by FISH and immunofluorescence microscopy. In immunoprecipitates of endogenous TIA- 1, reverse transcription-PCR amplified AT1R mRNA. TIA-1 has two binding sites within AT1R 3′-UTR. The binding site proximal to the coding region is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-dependent whereas the distal binding site is not. TIA-1 functions as a part of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response leading to stress granule (SG) formation and translational silencing. We and others have shown that AT1R expression is increased by ER stress-inducing factors. In unstressed cells, TIA-1 binds to AT1R mRNA and decreases AT1R protein expression. Fluorescence microscopy shows that ER stress induced by thapsigargin leads to the transfer of TIA-1 to SGs. In FISH analysis AT1R mRNA remains in the cytoplasm and no longer colocalizes with TIA-1. Thus, release of TIA-1-mediated suppression by ER stress increases AT1R protein expression. In conclusion, AT1R mRNA is regulated by TIA-1 in a ER stress-dependent manner. PMID:26681690

  9. Estrogen reduces endoplasmic reticulum stress to protect against glucotoxicity induced-pancreatic β-cell death.

    PubMed

    Kooptiwut, Suwattanee; Mahawong, Pitchnischa; Hanchang, Wanthanee; Semprasert, Namoiy; Kaewin, Suchada; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-Thai

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen can improve glucose homeostasis not only in diabetic rodents but also in humans. However, the molecular mechanism by which estrogen prevents pancreatic β-cell death remains unclear. To investigate this issue, INS-1 cells, a rat insulinoma cell line, were cultured in medium with either 11.1mM or 40mM glucose in the presence or the absence of estrogen. Estrogen significantly reduced apoptotic β-cell death by decreasing nitrogen-induced oxidative stress and the expression of the ER stress markers GRP 78, ATF6, P-PERK, PERK, uXBP1, sXBP1, and CHOP in INS-1 cells after prolonged culture in medium with 40mM glucose. In contrast, estrogen increased the expression of survival proteins, including sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA-2), Bcl-2, and P-p38, in INS-1 cells after prolonged culture in medium with 40mM glucose. The cytoprotective effect of estrogen was attenuated by addition of the estrogen receptor (ERα and ERβ) antagonist ICI 182,780 and the estrogen membrane receptor inhibitor G15. We showed that estrogen decreases not only oxidative stress but also ER stress to protect against 40mM glucose-induced pancreatic β-cell death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol cytotoxicity involves oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Xiaona; Niu, Zhidan; Qi, Yongmei; Huang, Dejun; Zhang, Yingmei

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the cytotoxicity and potential mechanisms of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Our results show that 2,4,6-TCP causes morphological changes and reduces cell viability. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species, the upregulation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions, and the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 protein demonstrate that 2,4,6-TCP induces oxidative stress, and the Nrf2/HMOX1 pathway might be involved in 2,4,6-TCP-induced antioxidative response. Simultaneously, our data also demonstrate that 2,4,6-TCP upregulates the expressions of binding immunoglobulin protein, inositol-requiring enzyme/endonuclease 1α, and C/EBP homologous protein; stimulates α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 phosphorylation; and induces the splicing of Xbp1 mRNA, suggesting that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is triggered. Moreover, 2,4,6-TCP alters the mitochondrial membrane potential and increases the apoptosis rate, the caspase 3 activity, and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, demonstrating that the mitochondrial pathway is involved in the 2,4,6-TCP-induced apoptosis. Thus, these results show that 2,4,6-TCP induces oxidative stress, ER stress, and apoptosis, which together contribute to its cytotoxicity in vitro. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. The Specificity of Trimming of MHC Class I-Presented Peptides in the Endoplasmic Reticulum1

    PubMed Central

    Hearn, Arron; York, Ian A.; Rock, Kenneth L.

    2010-01-01

    Aminopeptidases in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can cleave antigenic peptides and in so doing either create or destroy MHC class I-presented epitopes. However the specificity of this trimming process overall and of the major ER aminopeptidase ERAP1 in particular is not well understood. This issue is important because peptide trimming influences the magnitude and specificity of CD8 T cell responses. By systematically varying the N-terminal flanking sequences of peptides in a cell free biochemical system and in intact cells, we elucidated the specificity of ERAP1 and of ER trimming overall. ERAP1 can cleave after many amino acids on the N-terminus of epitope precursors but does so at markedly different rates. The specificity seen with purified ERAP1 is similar to that observed for trimming and presentation of epitopes in the ER of intact cells. We define N-terminal sequences that are favorable or unfavorable for antigen presentation in ways that are independent from the epitopes core sequence. When databases of known presented peptides were analyzed, the residues that were preferred for the trimming of model peptide precursors were found to be overrepresented in N-terminal flanking sequences of epitopes generally. These data define key determinants in the specificity of antigen processing. PMID:19828632

  12. Retention of CXCR4 in the endoplasmic reticulum blocks dissemination of a T cell hybridoma

    PubMed Central

    Zeelenberg, Ingrid S.; Stalle, Lisette Ruuls-Van; Roos, Ed

    2001-01-01

    The dissemination of T cell hybridomas to multiple nonhematopoietic tissues is blocked by pertussis toxin, suggesting the involvement of a chemokine. To study whether this chemokine is SDF-1, we employed a strategy proposed previously for gene therapy of AIDS, whereby the SDF-1 receptor CXCR4 (also a coreceptor for HIV) is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and fails to reach the cell surface. We transfected SDF-1, carrying an ER retention sequence, into a T cell hybridoma. This altered chemokine is retained in the ER, where it binds CXCR4 and prevents the latter protein from reaching the surface. These cells failed to migrate toward SDF-1 or to invade fibroblast monolayers, although they could still migrate toward thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and invade TARC-treated monolayers. Furthermore, the ability of the transfected cells to disseminate to multiple organs upon intravenous injection into mice was abolished. This dissemination reflects the in vivo migration patterns of activated and memory T cells into nonhematopoietic tissues, which is thus likely to depend on CXCR4. Attempts to block CXCR4 function as a therapy for AIDS may affect this migration with consequences for T cell function. Our results also suggest a decisive role for CXCR4 in the dissemination of hematopoietic malignancies expressing this receptor. PMID:11457880

  13. Retention of CXCR4 in the endoplasmic reticulum blocks dissemination of a T cell hybridoma.

    PubMed

    Zeelenberg, I S; Ruuls-Van Stalle, L; Roos, E

    2001-07-01

    The dissemination of T cell hybridomas to multiple nonhematopoietic tissues is blocked by pertussis toxin, suggesting the involvement of a chemokine. To study whether this chemokine is SDF-1, we employed a strategy proposed previously for gene therapy of AIDS, whereby the SDF-1 receptor CXCR4 (also a coreceptor for HIV) is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and fails to reach the cell surface. We transfected SDF-1, carrying an ER retention sequence, into a T cell hybridoma. This altered chemokine is retained in the ER, where it binds CXCR4 and prevents the latter protein from reaching the surface. These cells failed to migrate toward SDF-1 or to invade fibroblast monolayers, although they could still migrate toward thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and invade TARC-treated monolayers. Furthermore, the ability of the transfected cells to disseminate to multiple organs upon intravenous injection into mice was abolished. This dissemination reflects the in vivo migration patterns of activated and memory T cells into nonhematopoietic tissues, which is thus likely to depend on CXCR4. Attempts to block CXCR4 function as a therapy for AIDS may affect this migration with consequences for T cell function. Our results also suggest a decisive role for CXCR4 in the dissemination of hematopoietic malignancies expressing this receptor.

  14. NETWORKED 3B: a novel protein in the actin cytoskeleton-endoplasmic reticulum interaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengwei; Hussey, Patrick J

    2017-03-01

    In plants movement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. However little is known about proteins that link the ER membrane and the actin cytoskeleton. Here we identified a novel protein, NETWORKED 3B (NET3B), which is associated with the ER and actin cytoskeleton in vivo. NET3B belongs to a superfamily of plant specific actin binding proteins, the NETWORKED family. NET3B associates with the actin cytoskeleton in vivo through an N-terminal NET actin binding (NAB) domain, which has been well-characterized in other members of the NET family. A three amino acid insertion, Val-Glu-Asp, in the NAB domain of NET3B appears to lower its ability to localize to the actin cytoskeleton compared with NET1A, the founding member of the NET family. The C-terminal domain of NET3B links the protein to the ER. Overexpression of NET3B enhanced the association between the ER and the actin cytoskeleton, and the extent of this association was dependent on the amount of NET3B available. Another effect of NET3B overexpression was a reduction in ER membrane diffusion. In conclusion, our results revealed that NET3B modulates ER and actin cytoskeleton interactions in higher plants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum Transport of Glutathione by Sec61 Is Regulated by Ero1 and Bip.

    PubMed

    Ponsero, Alise J; Igbaria, Aeid; Darch, Maxwell A; Miled, Samia; Outten, Caryn E; Winther, Jakob R; Palais, Gael; D'Autréaux, Benoit; Delaunay-Moisan, Agnès; Toledano, Michel B

    2017-09-21

    In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Ero1 catalyzes disulfide bond formation and promotes glutathione (GSH) oxidation to GSSG. Since GSSG cannot be reduced in the ER, maintenance of the ER glutathione redox state and levels likely depends on ER glutathione import and GSSG export. We used quantitative GSH and GSSG biosensors to monitor glutathione import into the ER of yeast cells. We found that glutathione enters the ER by facilitated diffusion through the Sec61 protein-conducting channel, while oxidized Bip (Kar2) inhibits transport. Increased ER glutathione import triggers H 2 O 2 -dependent Bip oxidation through Ero1 reductive activation, which inhibits glutathione import in a negative regulatory loop. During ER stress, transport is activated by UPR-dependent Ero1 induction, and cytosolic glutathione levels increase. Thus, the ER redox poise is tuned by reciprocal control of glutathione import and Ero1 activation. The ER protein-conducting channel is permeable to small molecules, provided the driving force of a concentration gradient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intact protein folding in the glutathione-depleted endoplasmic reticulum implicates alternative protein thiol reductants

    PubMed Central

    Tsunoda, Satoshi; Avezov, Edward; Zyryanova, Alisa; Konno, Tasuku; Mendes-Silva, Leonardo; Pinho Melo, Eduardo; Harding, Heather P; Ron, David

    2014-01-01

    Protein folding homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires efficient protein thiol oxidation, but also relies on a parallel reductive process to edit disulfides during the maturation or degradation of secreted proteins. To critically examine the widely held assumption that reduced ER glutathione fuels disulfide reduction, we expressed a modified form of a cytosolic glutathione-degrading enzyme, ChaC1, in the ER lumen. ChaC1CtoS purged the ER of glutathione eliciting the expected kinetic defect in oxidation of an ER-localized glutathione-coupled Grx1-roGFP2 optical probe, but had no effect on the disulfide editing-dependent maturation of the LDL receptor or the reduction-dependent degradation of misfolded alpha-1 antitrypsin. Furthermore, glutathione depletion had no measurable effect on induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR); a sensitive measure of ER protein folding homeostasis. These findings challenge the importance of reduced ER glutathione and suggest the existence of alternative electron donor(s) that maintain the reductive capacity of the ER. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03421.001 PMID:25073928

  17. Coxsackievirus protein 2B modifies endoplasmic reticulum membrane and plasma membrane permeability and facilitates virus release.

    PubMed Central

    van Kuppeveld, F J; Hoenderop, J G; Smeets, R L; Willems, P H; Dijkman, H B; Galama, J M; Melchers, W J

    1997-01-01

    Digital-imaging microscopy was performed to study the effect of Coxsackie B3 virus infection on the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration and the Ca2+ content of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). During the course of infection a gradual increase in the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration was observed, due to the influx of extracellular Ca2+. The Ca2+ content of the ER decreased in time with kinetics inversely proportional to those of viral protein synthesis. Individual expression of protein 2B was sufficient to induce the influx of extracellular Ca2+ and to release Ca2+ from ER stores. Analysis of mutant 2B proteins showed that both a cationic amphipathic alpha-helix and a second hydrophobic domain in 2B were required for these activities. Consistent with a presumed ability of protein 2B to increase membrane permeability, viruses carrying a mutant 2B protein exhibited a defect in virus release. We propose that 2B gradually enhances membrane permeability, thereby disrupting the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and ultimately causing the membrane lesions that allow release of virus progeny. PMID:9218794

  18. The endoplasmic reticulum, not the pH gradient, drives calcium refilling of lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Garrity, Abigail G; Wang, Wuyang; Collier, Crystal MD; Levey, Sara A; Gao, Qiong; Xu, Haoxing

    2016-01-01

    Impaired homeostasis of lysosomal Ca2+ causes lysosome dysfunction and lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), but the mechanisms by which lysosomes acquire and refill Ca2+ are not known. We developed a physiological assay to monitor lysosomal Ca2+ store refilling using specific activators of lysosomal Ca2+ channels to repeatedly induce lysosomal Ca2+ release. In contrast to the prevailing view that lysosomal acidification drives Ca2+ into the lysosome, inhibiting the V-ATPase H+ pump did not prevent Ca2+ refilling. Instead, pharmacological depletion or chelation of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Ca2+ prevented lysosomal Ca2+ stores from refilling. More specifically, antagonists of ER IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) rapidly and completely blocked Ca2+ refilling of lysosomes, but not in cells lacking IP3Rs. Furthermore, reducing ER Ca2+ or blocking IP3Rs caused a dramatic LSD-like lysosome storage phenotype. By closely apposing each other, the ER may serve as a direct and primary source of Ca2+for the lysosome. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15887.001 PMID:27213518

  19. A novel protein involved in heart development in Ambystoma mexicanum is localized in endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Jia, P; Zhang, C; Huang, X P; Poda, M; Akbas, F; Lemanski, S L; Erginel-Unaltuna, N; Lemanski, L F

    2008-11-01

    The discovery of the naturally occurring cardiac non-function (c) animal strain in Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl) provides a valuable animal model to study cardiomyocyte differentiation. In homozygous mutant animals (c/c), rhythmic contractions of the embryonic heart are absent due to a lack of organized myofibrils. We have previously cloned a partial sequence of a peptide cDNA (N1) from an anterior-endoderm-conditioned-medium RNA library that had been shown to be able to rescue the mutant phenotype. In the current studies we have fully cloned the N1 full length cDNA sequence from the library. N1 protein has been detected in both adult heart and skeletal muscle but not in any other adult tissues. GFP-tagged expression of the N1 protein has revealed localization of the N1 protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Results from in situ hybridization experiments have confirmed the dramatic decrease of expression of N1 mRNA in mutant (c/c) embryos indicating that the N1 gene is involved in heart development.

  20. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress and protects the liver from chronic intermittent hypoxia induced injury.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yanpeng; Yang, Huai'an; Cui, Zeshi; Tai, Xuhui; Chu, Yanling; Guo, Xing

    2017-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea that characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) has been reported to associate with chronic liver injury. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) exerts liver-protective effects in various liver diseases. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that TUDCA could protect liver against CIH injury. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to intermittent hypoxia for eight weeks and applied with TUDCA by intraperitoneal injection. The effect of TUDCA on liver histological changes, liver function, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, hepatocyte apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were investigated. The results showed that administration of TUDCA attenuated liver pathological changes, reduced serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase level, suppressed reactive oxygen species activity, decreased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β level and inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis induced by CIH. TUDCA also inhibited CIH-induced ER stress in liver as evidenced by decreased expression of ER chaperone 78 kDa glucose-related protein, unfolded protein response transducers and ER proapoptotic proteins. Altogether, the present study described a liver-protective effect of TUDCA in CIH mice model, and this effect seems at least partly through the inhibition of ER stress.

  1. Astrocytes and endoplasmic reticulum stress: A bridge between obesity and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Martin-Jiménez, Cynthia A; García-Vega, Ángela; Cabezas, Ricardo; Aliev, Gjumrakch; Echeverria, Valentina; González, Janneth; Barreto, George E

    2017-11-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a subcellular organelle involved in protein folding and processing. ER stress constitutes a cellular process characterized by accumulation of misfolded proteins, impaired lipid metabolism and induction of inflammatory responses. ER stress has been suggested to be involved in several human pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases and obesity. Different studies have shown that both neurodegenerative diseases and obesity trigger similar cellular responses to ER stress. Moreover, both diseases are assessed in astrocytes as evidences suggest these cells as key regulators of brain homeostasis. However, the exact contributions to the effects of ER stress in astrocytes in the various neurodegenerative diseases and its relation with obesity are not well known. Here, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of molecular mechanisms that regulate ER stress-related disorders in astrocytes such as obesity and neurodegeneration. Moreover, we outline the correlation between the activated proteins of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in these pathological conditions in order to identify possible therapeutic targets for ER stress in astrocytes. We show that ER stress in astrocytes shares UPR activation pathways during both obesity and neurodegenerative diseases, demonstrating that UPR related proteins like ER chaperone GRP 78/Bip, PERK pathway and other exogenous molecules ameliorate UPR response and promote neuroprotection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in obesity and obesity-related disorders: An expanded view.

    PubMed

    Pagliassotti, Michael J; Kim, Paul Y; Estrada, Andrea L; Stewart, Claire M; Gentile, Christopher L

    2016-09-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is most notable for its central roles in calcium ion storage, lipid biosynthesis, and protein sorting and processing. By virtue of its extensive membrane contact sites that connect the ER to most other organelles and to the plasma membrane, the ER can also regulate diverse cellular processes including inflammatory and insulin signaling, nutrient metabolism, and cell proliferation and death via a signaling pathway called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Chronic UPR activation has been observed in liver and/or adipose tissue of dietary and genetic murine models of obesity, and in human obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Activation of the UPR in obesity and obesity-related disorders likely has two origins. One linked to classic ER stress involving the ER lumen and one linked to alterations to the ER membrane environment. This review discusses both of these origins and also considers the role of post-translational protein modifications, such as acetylation and palmitoylation, and ER-mitochondrial interactions to obesity-mediated impairments in the ER and activation of the UPR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. YD277 Suppresses Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Partially Through Activating the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zekun; Wu, Qiuju; Ding, Ye; Zhou, Wenhui; Liu, Rong; Chen, Haiying; Zhou, Jia; Feng, Jing; Chen, Ceshi

    2017-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive malignancy with poor clinical outcomes. YD277 is a novel small molecule derived from ML264, a KLF5 inhibitor that elicits cytotoxic effects in colon cancer cell lines. Our previous studies suggest that Krüpple-like factor 5 (KLF5) is a promising therapeutic target for TNBC. In this study, we demonstrated that YD277 significantly induced G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 TNBC cells, independent of KLF5 inhibition. YD277 also reduced the protein expression levels of Cyclin D1, Bcl2 and Bclxl and promoted the expression of p21 and p27. Moreover, the pro-apoptotic activity of YD277 in TNBC was mediated by the transcription of IRE1α, a key molecule in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. Finally, YD277 (15 mg/kg) significantly suppressed the growth of MDA-MB-231 tumor xenografts in nude mice. These findings indicate that YD277 is a promising chemotherapeutic candidate for TNBC. PMID:28740556

  4. Seawater inhalation induces acute lung injury via ROS generation and the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong-Cong; Lu, Xi; Qian, Wei-Sheng; Li, Yu-Juan; Jin, Fa-Guang; Mu, De-Guang

    2018-01-01

    Seawater (SW) inhalation can induce acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In the present study, SW induced apoptosis of rat alveolar epithelial cells and histopathological alterations to lung tissue. Furthermore, SW administration increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas pretreatment with the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), significantly decreased ROS generation, apoptosis and histopathological alterations. In addition, SW exposure upregulated the expression levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), which are critical proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, thus indicating that SW may activate ER stress. Conversely, blocking ER stress with 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) significantly improved SW-induced apoptosis and histopathological alterations, whereas an ER stress inducer, thapsigargin, had the opposite effect. Furthermore, blocking ROS with NAC inhibited SW-induced ER stress, as evidenced by the downregulation of GRP78, phosphorylated (p)-protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK), p-inositol-requiring kinase 1α (IRE1α), p-50 activating transcription factor 6α and CHOP. In addition, blocking ER stress with 4-PBA decreased ROS generation. In conclusion, the present study indicated that ROS and ER stress pathways, which are involved in alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis, are important in the pathogenesis of SW-induced ALI. PMID:29436612

  5. Changes in ribbon synapses and rough endoplasmic reticulum of rat utricular macular hair cells in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    This study combined ultrastructural and statistical methods to learn the effects of weightlessness on rat utricular maculae. A principle aim was to determine whether weightlessness chiefly affects ribbon synapses of type II cells, since the cells communicate predominantly with branches of primary vestibular afferent endings. Maculae were microdissected from flight and ground control rat inner ears collected on day 13 of a 14-day spaceflight (F13), landing day (R0) and day 14 postflight (R14) and were prepared for ultrastructural study. Ribbon synapses were counted in hair cells examined in a Zeiss 902 transmission electron microscope. Significance of synaptic mean differences was determined for all hair cells contained within 100 section series, and for a subset of complete hair cells, using SuperANOVA software. The synaptic mean for all type II hair cells of F13 flight rats increased by 100%, and that for complete cells by 200%. Type I cells were less affected, with synaptic mean differences statistically insignificant in complete cells. Synapse deletion began within 8 h upon return to Earth. Additionally, hair cell laminated rough endoplasmic reticulum of flight rats was reversibly disorganized on R0. Results support the thesis that synapses in type II hair cells are uniquely affected by altered gravity. Type II hair cells may be chiefly sensors of gravitational and type I cells of translational linear accelerations.

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum stress preconditioning attenuates methylmercury-induced cellular damage by inducing favorable stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Usuki, Fusako; Fujimura, Masatake; Yamashita, Akio

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that methylmercury (MeHg)-susceptible cells preconditioned with an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+-ATPase, thapsigargin, showed resistance to MeHg cytotoxicity through favorable stress responses, which included phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (Eif2α), accumulation of activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4), upregulation of stress-related proteins, and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase pathway. In addition, ER stress preconditioning induced suppression of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) mainly through the phospho-Eif2α-mediated general suppression of translation initiation and possible combined effects of decreased several NMD components expression. Atf4 accumulation was not mediated by NMD inhibition but translation inhibition of its upstream open reading frame (uORF) and translation facilitation of its protein-coding ORF by the phospho-Eif2α. These results suggested that ER stress plays an important role in MeHg cytotoxicity and that the modulation of ER stress has therapeutic potential to attenuate MeHg cytotoxicity, the underlying mechanism being the induction of integrated stress responses. PMID:23907635

  7. Endoplasmic reticulum stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko, E-mail: ntkhs@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp; Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1, Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510; Yoshizaki, Takayuki

    Highlights: ► Lipin-1 involves lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and inflammation. ► Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. ► ER stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► Activation of PPAR-γ recovers ER stress-induced lipin-1 reduction. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays crucial roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. In obesity, adipose lipin-1 mRNA expression is decreased and positively correlated with systemic insulin sensitivity. Amelioration of the lipin-1 depletion might be improved dysmetabolism. Although some cytokines such as TNF-α and interleukin-1β reduces adipose lipin-1 expression, the mechanism of decreased adipose lipin-1 expression in obesity remains unclear.more » Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we investigated the role of ER stress on the lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We demonstrated that lipin-1 expression was suppressed by the treatment with ER stress inducers (tunicamycin and thapsigargin) at transcriptional level. We also showed that constitutive lipin-1 expression could be maintained by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ recovered the ER stress-induced lipin-1 suppression. These results suggested that ER stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity through lipin-1 depletion.« less

  8. Protein Folding and the Challenges of Maintaining Endoplasmic Reticulum Proteostasis in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Romero, Freddy; Summer, Ross

    2017-11-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells are "professional" secretory cells that synthesize and secrete massive quantities of proteins to produce pulmonary surfactant and maintain airway immune defenses. To facilitate this high level of protein synthesis, AEII cells are equipped with an elaborate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) structure and possess an abundance of the machinery needed to fold, assemble, and secrete proteins. However, conditions that suddenly increase the quantity of new proteins entering the ER or that impede the capacity of the ER to fold proteins can cause misfolded or unfolded proteins to accumulate in the ER lumen, also called ER stress. To minimize this stress, AEII cells adapt by (1) reducing the quantity of proteins entering the ER, (2) increasing the amount of protein-folding machinery, and (3) removing misfolded proteins when they accumulate. Although these adaptive responses, aptly named the unfolded protein response, are usually effective in reducing ER stress, chronic aggregation of misfolded proteins is recognized as a hallmark feature of AEII cells in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Although mutations in surfactant proteins are linked to the development of ER stress in some rare IPF cases, the mechanisms causing protein misfolding in most cases are unknown. In this article, we review the mechanisms regulating ER proteostasis and highlight specific aspects of protein folding and the unfolded protein response that are most vulnerable to failure. Then, we postulate mechanisms other than genetic mutations that might contribute to protein aggregation in the alveolar epithelium of IPF lung.

  9. Plant Virus Infection and the Ubiquitin Proteasome Machinery: Arms Race along the Endoplasmic Reticulum.

    PubMed

    Verchot, Jeanmarie

    2016-11-19

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is central to plant virus replication, translation, maturation, and egress. Ubiquitin modification of ER associated cellular and viral proteins, alongside the actions of the 26S proteasome, are vital for the regulation of infection. Viruses can arrogate ER associated ubiquitination as well as cytosolic ubiquitin ligases with the purpose of directing the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) to new targets. Such targets include necessary modification of viral proteins which may stabilize certain complexes, or modification of Argonaute to suppress gene silencing. The UPS machinery also contributes to the regulation of effector triggered immunity pattern recognition receptor immunity. Combining the results of unrelated studies, many positive strand RNA plant viruses appear to interact with cytosolic Ub-ligases to provide novel avenues for controlling the deleterious consequences of disease. Viral interactions with the UPS serve to regulate virus infection in a manner that promotes replication and movement, but also modulates the levels of RNA accumulation to ensure successful biotrophic interactions. In other instances, the UPS plays a central role in cellular immunity. These opposing roles are made evident by contrasting studies where knockout mutations in the UPS can either hamper viruses or lead to more aggressive diseases. Understanding how viruses manipulate ER associated post-translational machineries to better manage virus-host interactions will provide new targets for crop improvement.

  10. The yeast p5 type ATPase, spf1, regulates manganese transport into the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yifat; Megyeri, Márton; Chen, Oscar C W; Condomitti, Giuseppe; Riezman, Isabelle; Loizides-Mangold, Ursula; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Rimon, Nitzan; Riezman, Howard; Platt, Frances M; Futerman, Anthony H; Schuldiner, Maya

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, multifunctional and essential organelle. Despite intense research, the function of more than a third of ER proteins remains unknown even in the well-studied model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One such protein is Spf1, which is a highly conserved, ER localized, putative P-type ATPase. Deletion of SPF1 causes a wide variety of phenotypes including severe ER stress suggesting that this protein is essential for the normal function of the ER. The closest homologue of Spf1 is the vacuolar P-type ATPase Ypk9 that influences Mn(2+) homeostasis. However in vitro reconstitution assays with Spf1 have not yielded insight into its transport specificity. Here we took an in vivo approach to detect the direct and indirect effects of deleting SPF1. We found a specific reduction in the luminal concentration of Mn(2+) in ∆spf1 cells and an increase following it's overexpression. In agreement with the observed loss of luminal Mn(2+) we could observe concurrent reduction in many Mn(2+)-related process in the ER lumen. Conversely, cytosolic Mn(2+)-dependent processes were increased. Together, these data support a role for Spf1p in Mn(2+) transport in the cell. We also demonstrate that the human sequence homologue, ATP13A1, is a functionally conserved orthologue. Since ATP13A1 is highly expressed in developing neuronal tissues and in the brain, this should help in the study of Mn(2+)-dependent neurological disorders.

  11. Exercise ameliorates endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated vascular dysfunction in mesenteric arteries in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Junyoung; Kim, Kwangchan; Park, Eunkyung; Lee, Jonghae; Markofski, Melissa M; Marrelli, Sean P; Park, Yoonjung

    2018-05-21

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is closely associated with atherosclerosis, but the effects of exercise on ER stress-mediated endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis is not yet fully understood. We assessed endothelium-dependent vasodilation in isolated mesenteric arteries from wild type (WT), WT with exercise (WT-EX), ApoE knockout (ApoE KO), and ApoE KO mice with exercise (ApoE KO-EX). Vasodilation to acetylcholine (ACh) was elicited in the presence of inhibitors of ER stress, eNOS, caspase-1, and UCP-2 (Tudca, L-NAME, AC-YVARD-cmk, and Genipin, respectively) and the ER stress inducer (Tunicamycin). Immunofluorescence was used to visualize the expression of CHOP, as an indicator of ER stress, in superior mesenteric arteries (SMA). Dilation to ACh was attenuated in ApoE KO but was improved in ApoE KO-EX. Incubation of Tudca and AC-YVARD-cmk improved ACh-induced vasodilation in ApoE KO. L-NAME, tunicamycin, and Genipin attenuated vasodilation in WT, WT-EX and ApoE KO-EX, but not in ApoE KO. Exercise training reversed the increase in CHOP expression in the endothelium of SMA of ApoE KO mice. We conclude that ER stress plays a significant role in endothelial dysfunction of resistance arteries in atherosclerosis and that exercise attenuates ER stress and regulates its critical downstream signaling pathways including eNOS, UCP-2 and caspase-1.

  12. Drosophila melanogaster activating transcription factor 4 regulates glycolysis during endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Eun; Oney, McKenna; Frizzell, Kimberly; Phadnis, Nitin; Hollien, Julie

    2015-02-13

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress results from an imbalance between the load of proteins entering the secretory pathway and the ability of the ER to fold and process them. The response to ER stress is mediated by a collection of signaling pathways termed the unfolded protein response, which plays important roles in development and disease. Here we show that in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, ER stress induces a coordinated change in the expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism. Genes encoding enzymes that carry out glycolysis were up-regulated, whereas genes encoding proteins in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiratory chain complexes were down-regulated. The unfolded protein response transcription factor Atf4 was necessary for the up-regulation of glycolytic enzymes and Lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh). Furthermore, Atf4 binding motifs in promoters for these genes could partially account for their regulation during ER stress. Finally, flies up-regulated Ldh and produced more lactate when subjected to ER stress. Together, these results suggest that Atf4 mediates a shift from a metabolism based on oxidative phosphorylation to one more heavily reliant on glycolysis, reminiscent of aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect observed in cancer and other proliferative cells. Copyright © 2015 Lee et al.

  13. Drosophila melanogaster Activating Transcription Factor 4 Regulates Glycolysis During Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Eun; Oney, McKenna; Frizzell, Kimberly; Phadnis, Nitin; Hollien, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress results from an imbalance between the load of proteins entering the secretory pathway and the ability of the ER to fold and process them. The response to ER stress is mediated by a collection of signaling pathways termed the unfolded protein response, which plays important roles in development and disease. Here we show that in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, ER stress induces a coordinated change in the expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism. Genes encoding enzymes that carry out glycolysis were up-regulated, whereas genes encoding proteins in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiratory chain complexes were down-regulated. The unfolded protein response transcription factor Atf4 was necessary for the up-regulation of glycolytic enzymes and Lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh). Furthermore, Atf4 binding motifs in promoters for these genes could partially account for their regulation during ER stress. Finally, flies up-regulated Ldh and produced more lactate when subjected to ER stress. Together, these results suggest that Atf4 mediates a shift from a metabolism based on oxidative phosphorylation to one more heavily reliant on glycolysis, reminiscent of aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect observed in cancer and other proliferative cells. PMID:25681259

  14. Emodin induces apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cells via mitochondria- and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related pathways.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jinhe; Xu, Huan; Wu, Dhua; Wu, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    Emodin showed anti-cancer activity against multiple human malignant tumors by inducing apoptosis. However, the apoptotic inducing effect against human osteosarcoma and related mechanism are still not studied. This study was aimed to investigate them. Emodin was used to incubate human OS cell U2OS cells at serially diluted concentrations. Hoechst staining was used to evaluate apoptosis; flow cytometry was applied to assess the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP); intracellular ROS generation was detected by DCFH-DA staining; endoplasmic reticulum stress activation was examined by western blotting. Cell apoptosis of U2OS cells was induced by emodin incubation in a concentration-dependent manner; MMP collapse and ROS generation were identified at starting concentration of 80 μmol/L of emodin in a concentration-dependent manner. ER stress activation was found at beginning concentration of 40 μmol/L of emodin. The MMP collapse was inhibited while the ER stress was not inhibited by NAC administration. Emodin induces death of human osteosarcoma cells by initiating ROS-dependent mitochondria-induced and ROS-independent ER stress-induced apoptosis.

  15. Emodin induces apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cells via mitochondria- and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Jinhe; Xu, Huan; Wu, Dhua; Wu, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Emodin showed anti-cancer activity against multiple human malignant tumors by inducing apoptosis. However, the apoptotic inducing effect against human osteosarcoma and related mechanism are still not studied. This study was aimed to investigate them. Methods: Emodin was used to incubate human OS cell U2OS cells at serially diluted concentrations. Hoechst staining was used to evaluate apoptosis; flow cytometry was applied to assess the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP); intracellular ROS generation was detected by DCFH-DA staining; endoplasmic reticulum stress activation was examined by western blotting. Results: Cell apoptosis of U2OS cells was induced by emodin incubation in a concentration-dependent manner; MMP collapse and ROS generation were identified at starting concentration of 80 μmol/L of emodin in a concentration-dependent manner. ER stress activation was found at beginning concentration of 40 μmol/L of emodin. The MMP collapse was inhibited while the ER stress was not inhibited by NAC administration. Conclusions: Emodin induces death of human osteosarcoma cells by initiating ROS-dependent mitochondria-induced and ROS-independent ER stress-induced apoptosis. PMID:26722474

  16. Attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum stress by caffeine ameliorates hyperoxia-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Xigang; Michalkiewicz, Teresa; Afolayan, Adeleye J.; Wu, Tzong-Jin; Konduri, Girija G.

    2017-01-01

    Rodent pups exposed to hyperoxia develop lung changes similar to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature infants. Oxidative stress from hyperoxia can injure developing lungs through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Early caffeine treatment decreases the rate of BPD, but the mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that caffeine attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung injury through its chemical chaperone property. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were raised either in 90 (hyperoxia) or 21% (normoxia) oxygen from postnatal day 1 (P1) to postnatal day 10 (P10) and then recovered in 21% oxygen until P21. Caffeine (20 mg/kg) or normal saline (control) was administered intraperitoneally daily starting from P2. Lungs were inflation-fixed for histology or snap-frozen for immunoblots. Blood caffeine levels were measured in treated pups at euthanasia and were found to be 18.4 ± 4.9 μg/ml. Hyperoxia impaired alveolar formation and increased ER stress markers and downstream effectors; caffeine treatment attenuated these changes at P10. Caffeine also attenuated the hyperoxia-induced activation of cyclooxygenase-2 and markers of apoptosis. In conclusion, hyperoxia-induced alveolar growth impairment is mediated, in part, by ER stress. Early caffeine treatment protects developing lungs from hyperoxia-induced injury by attenuating ER stress. PMID:28213471

  17. 3-Bromopyruvate induces endoplasmic reticulum stress, overcomes autophagy and causes apoptosis in human HCC cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy-Kanniappan, Shanmugasundaram; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H; Kunjithapatham, Rani; Buijs, Manon; Syed, Labiq H; Rao, Pramod P; Ota, Shinichi; Kwak, Byung Kook; Loffroy, Romaric; Vali, Mustafa

    2010-03-01

    Autophagy, a cellular response to stress, plays a role in resistance to chemotherapy in cancer cells. Resistance renders systemic chemotherapy generally ineffective against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, we reported that the pyruvate analog 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) promoted tumor cell death by targeting GAPDH. In continuance, we investigated the intracellular response of two human HCC cell lines (Hep3B and SK-Hep1) that differ in their status of key apoptotic regulators, p53 and Fas. 3-BrPA treatment induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, translation inhibition and apoptosis based on Western blot and qPCR, pulse labeling, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and active caspase-3 in both the cell lines. However, electron microscopy revealed that 3-BrPA treated SK-Hep1 cells underwent classical apoptotic cell death while Hep3B cells initially responded with the protective autophagy that failed to prevent eventual apoptosis. 3-BrPA treatment promotes apoptosis in human HCC cell lines, irrespective of the intracellular response.

  18. Monitoring Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Homeostasis Using a Gaussia Luciferase SERCaMP.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Mark J; Wires, Emily S; Trychta, Kathleen A; Yan, Xiaokang; Harvey, Brandon K

    2015-09-06

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contains the highest level of intracellular calcium, with concentrations approximately 5,000-fold greater than cytoplasmic levels. Tight control over ER calcium is imperative for protein folding, modification and trafficking. Perturbations to ER calcium can result in the activation of the unfolded protein response, a three-prong ER stress response mechanism, and contribute to pathogenesis in a variety of diseases. The ability to monitor ER calcium alterations during disease onset and progression is important in principle, yet challenging in practice. Currently available methods for monitoring ER calcium, such as calcium-dependent fluorescent dyes and proteins, have provided insight into ER calcium dynamics in cells, however these tools are not well suited for in vivo studies. Our lab has demonstrated that a modification to the carboxy-terminus of Gaussia luciferase confers secretion of the reporter in response to ER calcium depletion. The methods for using a luciferase based, secreted ER calcium monitoring protein (SERCaMP) for in vitro and in vivo applications are described herein. This video highlights hepatic injections, pharmacological manipulation of GLuc-SERCaMP, blood collection and processing, and assay parameters for longitudinal monitoring of ER calcium.

  19. High Glucose Inhibits Neural Stem Cell Differentiation Through Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Shen, Wei-Bin; Yang, Penghua; Dong, Daoyin; Sun, Winny; Yang, Peixin

    2018-06-01

    Maternal diabetes induces neural tube defects by suppressing neurogenesis in the developing neuroepithelium. Our recent study further revealed that high glucose inhibited embryonic stem cell differentiation into neural lineage cells. However, the mechanism whereby high glucose suppresses neural differentiation is unclear. To investigate whether high glucose-induced oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress lead to the inhibition of neural differentiation, the effect of high glucose on neural stem cell (the C17.2 cell line) differentiation was examined. Neural stem cells were cultured in normal glucose (5 mM) or high glucose (25 mM) differentiation medium for 3, 5, and 7 days. High glucose suppressed neural stem cell differentiation by significantly decreasing the expression of the neuron marker Tuj1 and the glial cell marker GFAP and the numbers of Tuj1 + and GFAP + cells. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase mimetic Tempol reversed high glucose-decreased Tuj1 and GFAP expression and restored the numbers of neurons and glial cells differentiated from neural stem cells. Hydrogen peroxide treatment imitated the inhibitory effect of high glucose on neural stem cell differentiation. Both high glucose and hydrogen peroxide triggered ER stress, whereas Tempol blocked high glucose-induced ER stress. The ER stress inhibitor, 4-phenylbutyrate, abolished the inhibition of high glucose or hydrogen peroxide on neural stem cell differentiation. Thus, oxidative stress and its resultant ER stress mediate the inhibitory effect of high glucose on neural stem cell differentiation.

  20. Ero1-α and PDIs constitute a hierarchical electron transfer network of endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductases

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Kazutaka; Iemura, Shun-ichiro; Kamiya, Yukiko; Ron, David; Kato, Koichi; Natsume, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    Ero1-α and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oxidoreductases of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family promote the efficient introduction of disulfide bonds into nascent polypeptides in the ER. However, the hierarchy of electron transfer among these oxidoreductases is poorly understood. In this paper, Ero1-α–associated oxidoreductases were identified by proteomic analysis and further confirmed by surface plasmon resonance. Ero1-α and PDI were found to constitute a regulatory hub, whereby PDI induced conformational flexibility in an Ero1-α shuttle cysteine (Cys99) facilitated intramolecular electron transfer to the active site. In isolation, Ero1-α also oxidized ERp46, ERp57, and P5; however, kinetic measurements and redox equilibrium analysis revealed that PDI preferentially oxidized other oxidoreductases. PDI accepted electrons from the other oxidoreductases via its a′ domain, bypassing the a domain, which serves as the electron acceptor from reduced glutathione. These observations provide an integrated picture of the hierarchy of cooperative redox interactions among ER oxidoreductases in mammalian cells. PMID:24043701

  1. Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Attenuates Lipid Accumulation in Endoplasmic Reticulum-Stressed Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yinan; Kandadi, Machender R.; Zhu, Meijun; Ren, Jun; Sreejayan, Nair

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim Recent evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress provoked under diabetic conditions augments the expression of scavenger receptors on macrophages, promoting the uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) uptake and atherogenesis. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the chemical chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) attenuates lipid accumulation in macrophages subjected to ER stress. Methods Cultured human macrophages were subjected to ER-stress by treating them with tunicamycin. Lipid-uptake by macrophages subjected to ER-stress in the presence or absence of TUDCA was assessed by oil red O staining and by assessing the cellular uptake of Dil-ox-LDL by fluorescence measurement. Protein levels and phosphorylation status of ER stress markers, insulin-signalling molecules and scavenger receptor were assessed by Western blotting. Results Treatment of cultured human macrophages with the ER-stressor tunicamycin caused an increase in the protein levels of CD-36, and augmentation of lipid-uptake both of which were inhibited by TUDCA. TUDCA-treatment inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER-stress as evidenced by the attenuation of phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α and glucose reactive protein-78. In addition, TUDCA improved insulin signaling in macrophages by augmenting Akt-phosphorylation and blunting c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity. Conclusion Inhibition of macrophage ER-stress may represent a potential strategy in preventing atherogenesis under diabetic conditions. PMID:19834331

  2. Induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress under endotoxin tolerance increases inflammatory responses and decreases Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sena; Joe, Yeonsoo; Park, Se-Ung; Jeong, Sun Oh; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, Seong Hoon; Pae, Hyun-Ock; Surh, Young-Joon; Shin, Jaekyoon; Chung, Hun Taeg

    2018-06-20

    Endotoxin tolerance develops in the late phase of sepsis to protect cells from an early hyperinflammatory response. Nonetheless, because it induces an immunosuppressive environment, patients with sepsis in its late phase are affected by secondary infections, particularly bacterial pneumonia. Here, we showed that induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leads to activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) and X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP-1) in an inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α)-mediated manner, which in turn restores the inflammatory response in endotoxin-tolerant macrophages. Animal and in vitro models of endotoxin tolerance were studied along with a model of LPS-induced endotoxin tolerance and a model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced endotoxin tolerance. To detect the suppressed inflammatory response during endotoxin tolerance, inflammatory-cytokine expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and an ELISA. Our research revealed that induction of ER stress alleviated lung injury in a septic host infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa via the activation of GSK-3β and XBP-1 in an IRE1α-mediated manner. Consequently, in the lungs of the septic host infected with P. aeruginosa, symptoms of pneumonia improved and the infecting bacteria were cleared. Thus, for septic patients, determination of immune status may guide the selection of appropriate immunomodulation, and ER stress can be a novel therapeutic strategy restoring the immune response in patients with endotoxin tolerance. ©2018 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  3. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid dampens oncogenic apoptosis induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress during hepatocarcinogen exposure

    PubMed Central

    Vandewynckel, Yves-Paul; Laukens, Debby; Devisscher, Lindsey; Paridaens, Annelies; Bogaerts, Eliene; Verhelst, Xavier; Van den Bussche, Anja; Raevens, Sarah; Van Steenkiste, Christophe; Van Troys, Marleen; Ampe, Christophe; Descamps, Benedicte; Vanhove, Chris; Govaere, Olivier; Geerts, Anja; Van Vlierberghe, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). However, the role of ER stress in tumor initiation and progression is controversial. To determine the impact of ER stress, we applied tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a bile acid with chaperone properties. The effects of TUDCA were assessed using a diethylnitrosamine-induced mouse HCC model in preventive and therapeutic settings. Cell metabolic activity, proliferation and invasion were investigated in vitro. Tumor progression was assessed in the HepG2 xenograft model. Administration of TUDCA in the preventive setting reduced carcinogen-induced elevation of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase levels, apoptosis of hepatocytes and tumor burden. TUDCA also reduced eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIf2α) phosphorylation, C/EBP homologous protein expression and caspase-12 processing. Thus, TUDCA suppresses carcinogen-induced pro-apoptotic UPR. TUDCA alleviated hepatic inflammation by increasing NF-κB inhibitor IκBα. Furthermore, TUDCA altered the invasive phenotype and enhanced metabolic activity but not proliferation in HCC cells. TUDCA administration after tumor development did not alter orthotopic tumor or xenograft growth. Taken together, TUDCA attenuates hepatocarcinogenesis by suppressing carcinogen-induced ER stress-mediated cell death and inflammation without stimulating tumor progression. Therefore, this chemical chaperone could represent a novel chemopreventive agent. PMID:26293671

  4. Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperon Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Attenuates Aldosterone-Infused Renal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Honglei; Li, Hongmei; Ling, Lilu

    2016-01-01

    Aldosterone (Aldo) is critically involved in the development of renal injury via the production of reactive oxygen species and inflammation. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is also evoked in Aldo-induced renal injury. In the present study, we investigated the role of ER stress in inflammation-mediated renal injury in Aldo-infused mice. C57BL/6J mice were randomized to receive treatment for 4 weeks as follows: vehicle infusion, Aldo infusion, vehicle infusion plus tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), and Aldo infusion plus TUDCA. The effect of TUDCA on the Aldo-infused inflammatory response and renal injury was investigated using periodic acid-Schiff staining, real-time PCR, Western blot, and ELISA. We demonstrate that Aldo leads to impaired renal function and inhibition of ER stress via TUDCA attenuates renal fibrosis. This was indicated by decreased collagen I, collagen IV, fibronectin, and TGF-β expression, as well as the downregulation of the expression of Nlrp3 inflammasome markers, Nlrp3, ASC, IL-1β, and IL-18. This paper presents an important role for ER stress on the renal inflammatory response to Aldo. Additionally, the inhibition of ER stress by TUDCA negatively regulates the levels of these inflammatory molecules in the context of Aldo. PMID:27721575

  5. Mangiferin suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress in perivascular adipose tissue and prevents insulin resistance in the endothelium.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoshan; Chen, Yupeng; Song, Junna; Hou, Fangjie; Ma, Xuelian; Liu, Baolin; Huang, Fang

    2018-06-01

    Mangiferin is a naturally occurring glucosylxanthone with beneficial effects on glucose and lipid homeostasis. This study investigates the potential therapeutic effect of Mangiferin in perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) and whether it contributes to regulating insulin action in the endothelium. Palmitate challenge evoked ROS-associated endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in PVAT. The conditioned medium from PA-stimulated PVAT was prepared to induce endothelial insulin resistance, and improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to insulin was detected in vitro and in vivo. Mangiferin treatment enhanced LKB1-dependent AMPK activity and suppressed ER stress with downregulation of TXNIP induction, leading to the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation evidenced by attenuated NLRP3 and cleaved caspase-1 expression as well as reduced IL-1β secretion. Moreover, Mangiferin restored insulin-mediated Akt and eNOS phosphorylations with increased NO production, immunohistochemistry examination of adipocytes, and endothelial tissue in high-fat diet-fed mice also showed that oral administration of Mangiferin inhibited ER stress and NLRP3 induction in PVAT, and then effectively prevented insulin resistance in the vessel endothelium. Taken together, these results revealed that Mangiferin suppressed ER stress-associated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in PVAT through regulation of AMPK activity, which prevented endothelial insulin resistance. These findings suggested that the amelioration of PVAT dysfunction may be a therapeutic strategy for the prevention of endothelial insulin resistance.

  6. Valsartan protects HK-2 cells from contrast media-induced apoptosis by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ping-An; Wang, Le; Ma, Qian; Xin, Yi; Zhang, Ou; Han, Hong-Ya; Liu, Xiao-Li; Ji, Qing-Wei; Zhou, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ying-Xin

    2015-12-01

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is associated with increasing in-hospital and long-term adverse clinical outcomes in high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Contrast media (CM)-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis is reported to participate in this process by activating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. An angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist can alleviate ER stress-induced renal apoptosis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and can reduce CM-induced renal apoptosis by reducing oxidative stress and reversing the enhancement of bax mRNA and the reduction of bcl-2 mRNA, but the effect of the AT1R blocker on ER stress in the pathogenesis of CI-AKI is still unknown. In this study, we explored the effect of valsartan on meglumine diatrizoate-induced human renal tubular cell apoptosis by measuring changes in ER stress-related biomarkers. The results showed that meglumine diatrizoate caused significant cell apoptosis by up-regulating the expression of ER stress markers, including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase 12, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which could be alleviated by preincubation with valsartan. In conclusion, valsartan had a potential nephroprotective effect on meglumine diatrizoate-induced renal cell apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  7. Identification of MOSPD2, a novel scaffold for endoplasmic reticulum membrane contact sites.

    PubMed

    Di Mattia, Thomas; Wilhelm, Léa P; Ikhlef, Souade; Wendling, Corinne; Spehner, Danièle; Nominé, Yves; Giordano, Francesca; Mathelin, Carole; Drin, Guillaume; Tomasetto, Catherine; Alpy, Fabien

    2018-06-01

    Membrane contact sites are cellular structures that mediate interorganelle exchange and communication. The two major tether proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), VAP-A and VAP-B, interact with proteins from other organelles that possess a small VAP-interacting motif, named FFAT [two phenylalanines (FF) in an acidic track (AT)]. In this study, using an unbiased proteomic approach, we identify a novel ER tether named motile sperm domain-containing protein 2 (MOSPD2). We show that MOSPD2 possesses a Major Sperm Protein (MSP) domain which binds FFAT motifs and consequently allows membrane tethering in vitro MOSPD2 is an ER-anchored protein, and it interacts with several FFAT-containing tether proteins from endosomes, mitochondria, or Golgi. Consequently, MOSPD2 and these organelle-bound proteins mediate the formation of contact sites between the ER and endosomes, mitochondria, or Golgi. Thus, we characterized here MOSPD2, a novel tethering component related to VAP proteins, bridging the ER with a variety of distinct organelles. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  8. AGR2, an Endoplasmic Reticulum Protein, Is Secreted into the Gastrointestinal Mucus

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Joakim H.; Berg, Katarina A.; Rodríguez-Piñeiro, Ana M.; Stecher, Bärbel; Johansson, Malin E. V.; Hansson, Gunnar C.

    2014-01-01

    The MUC2 mucin is the major constituent of the two mucus layers in colon. Mice lacking the disulfide isomerase-like protein Agr2 have been shown to be more susceptible to colon inflammation. The Agr2−/− mice have less filled goblet cells and were now shown to have a poorly developed inner colon mucus layer. We could not show AGR2 covalently bound to recombinant MUC2 N- and C-termini as have previously been suggested. We found relatively high concentrations of Agr2 in secreted mucus throughout the murine gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that Agr2 may play extracellular roles. In tissue culture (CHO-K1) cells, AGR2 is normally not secreted. Replacement of the single Cys in AGR2 with Ser (C81S) allowed secretion, suggesting that modification of this Cys might provide a mechanism for circumventing the KTEL endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. In conclusion, these results suggest that AGR2 has both intracellular and extracellular effects in the intestine. PMID:25111734

  9. A Large and Intact Viral Particle Penetrates the Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane to Reach the Cytosol

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Takamasa; Tsai, Billy

    2011-01-01

    Non-enveloped viruses penetrate host membranes to infect cells. A cell-based assay was used to probe the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-cytosol membrane transport of the non-enveloped SV40. We found that, upon ER arrival, SV40 is released into the lumen and undergoes sequential disulfide bond disruptions to reach the cytosol. However, despite these ER-dependent conformational changes, SV40 crosses the ER membrane as a large and intact particle consisting of the VP1 coat, the internal components VP2, VP3, and the genome. This large particle subsequently disassembles in the cytosol. Mutant virus and inhibitor studies demonstrate VP3 and likely the viral genome, as well as cellular proteasome, control ER-to-cytosol transport. Our results identify the sequence of events, as well as virus and host components, that regulate ER membrane penetration. They also suggest that the ER membrane supports passage of a large particle, potentially through either a sizeable protein-conducting channel or the lipid bilayer. PMID:21589906

  10. Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ Handling in Excitable Cells in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a morphologically and functionally diverse organelle capable of integrating multiple extracellular and internal signals and generating adaptive cellular responses. It plays fundamental roles in protein synthesis and folding and in cellular responses to metabolic and proteotoxic stress. In addition, the ER stores and releases Ca2+ in sophisticated scenarios that regulate a range of processes in excitable cells throughout the body, including muscle contraction and relaxation, endocrine regulation of metabolism, learning and memory, and cell death. One or more Ca2+ ATPases and two types of ER membrane Ca2+ channels (inositol trisphosphate and ryanodine receptors) are the major proteins involved in ER Ca2+ uptake and release, respectively. There are also direct and indirect interactions of ER Ca2+ stores with plasma membrane and mitochondrial Ca2+-regulating systems. Pharmacological agents that selectively modify ER Ca2+ release or uptake have enabled studies that revealed many different physiological roles for ER Ca2+ signaling. Several inherited diseases are caused by mutations in ER Ca2+-regulating proteins, and perturbed ER Ca2+ homeostasis is implicated in a range of acquired disorders. Preclinical investigations suggest a therapeutic potential for use of agents that target ER Ca2+ handling systems of excitable cells in disorders ranging from cardiac arrhythmias and skeletal muscle myopathies to Alzheimer disease. PMID:21737534

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in amelogenesis imperfecta and phenotypic rescue using 4-phenylbutyrate.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Steven J; Barron, Martin J; Boot-Handford, Ray; Kirkham, Jennifer; Dixon, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Inherited diseases caused by genetic mutations can arise due to loss of protein function. Alternatively, mutated proteins may mis-fold, impairing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) trafficking, causing ER stress and triggering the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR attempts to restore proteostasis but if unsuccessful drives affected cells towards apoptosis. Previously, we reported that in mice, the p.Tyr64His mutation in the enamel extracellular matrix (EEM) protein amelogenin disrupts the secretory pathway in the enamel-forming ameloblasts, resulting in eruption of malformed tooth enamel that phenocopies human amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Defective amelogenin post-secretory self-assembly and processing within the developing EEM has been suggested to underlie the pathogenesis of X chromosome-linked AI. Here, we challenge this concept by showing that AI pathogenesis associated with the p.Tyr64His amelogenin mutation involves ameloblast apoptosis induced by ER stress. Furthermore, we show that 4-phenylbutyrate can rescue the enamel phenotype in affected female mice by promoting cell survival over apoptosis such that they are able to complete enamel formation despite the presence of the mutation, offering a potential therapeutic option for patients with this form of AI and emphasizing the importance of ER stress in the pathogenesis of this inherited conformational disease.

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum stress regulates inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle from pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Liong, Stella; Lappas, Martha

    2016-04-15

    Sterile inflammation and infection are key mediators of inflammation and peripheral insulin resistance associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Studies have shown endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress to induce inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, however is paucity of studies investigating the effects of ER stress in skeletal muscle on inflammation and insulin resistance associated with GDM. ER stress proteins IRE1α, GRP78 and XBP-1s were upregulated in skeletal muscle of obese pregnant women, whereas IRE1α was increased in GDM women. Suppression of ER stress, using ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) or siRNA knockdown of IRE1α and GRP78, significantly downregulated LPS-, poly(I:C)- or IL-1β-induced production of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and MCP-1. Furthermore, LPS-, poly(I:C)- or TNF-α-induced insulin resistance was improved following suppression of ER stress, by increasing insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IR-β, IRS-1, GLUT-4 expression and glucose uptake. In summary, our inducible obesity and GDM-like models suggests that the development of GDM may be involved in activating ER stress-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Celecoxib enhances radiosensitivity of hypoxic glioblastoma cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kenshi; Gerelchuluun, Ariungerel; Hong, Zhengshan; Sun, Lue; Zenkoh, Junko; Moritake, Takashi; Tsuboi, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Background Refractoriness of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) largely depends on its radioresistance. We investigated the radiosensitizing effects of celecoxib on GBM cell lines under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Methods Two human GBM cell lines, U87MG and U251MG, and a mouse GBM cell line, GL261, were treated with celecoxib or γ-irradiation either alone or in combination under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Radiosensitizing effects were analyzed by clonogenic survival assays and cell growth assays and by assessing apoptosis and autophagy. Expression of apoptosis-, autophagy-, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress–related genes was analyzed by immunoblotting. Results Celecoxib significantly enhanced the radiosensitivity of GBM cells under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. In addition, combined treatment with celecoxib and γ-irradiation induced marked autophagy, particularly in hypoxic cells. The mechanism underlying the radiosensitizing effect of celecoxib was determined to be ER stress loading on GBM cells. Conclusion Celecoxib enhances the radiosensitivity of GBM cells by a mechanism that is different from cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition. Our results indicate that celecoxib may be a promising radiosensitizing drug for clinical use in patients with GBM. PMID:23658321

  14. Silibinin induces mitochondrial NOX4-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress response and its subsequent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Hun; Kim, Kwang-Youn; Yu, Sun-Nyoung; Seo, Young-Kyo; Chun, Sung-Sik; Yu, Hak-Sun; Ahn, Soon-Cheol

    2016-07-12

    Silibinin, a biologically active compound of milk thistle, has chemopreventive effects on cancer cell lines. Recently it was reported that silibinin inhibited tumor growth through activation of the apoptotic signaling pathway. Although various evidences showed multiple signaling pathways of silibinin in apoptosis, there were no reports to address the clear mechanism of ROS-mediated pathway in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Several studies suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in various signaling cascades, but the primary source of ROS was currently unclear. The effect of silibinin was investigated on cell growth of prostate cell lines by MTT assay. We examined whether silibinin induced apoptosis through production of ROS using flow cytometry. Expression of apoptosis-, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related protein and gene were determined by western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. Results showed that silibinin triggered mitochondrial ROS production through NOX4 expression and finally led to induce apoptosis. In addition, mitochondrial ROS caused ER stress through disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis. Co-treatment of ROS inhibitor reduced the silibinin-induced apoptosis through the inhibition of NOX4 expression, resulting in reduction of both Ca(2+) level and ER stress response. Taken together, silibinin induced mitochondrial ROS-dependent apoptosis through NOX4, which is associated with disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis and ER stress response. Therefore, the regulation of NOX4, mitochondrial ROS producer, could be a potential target for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  15. Oncogenic Kit signals on endolysosomes and endoplasmic reticulum are essential for neoplastic mast cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Obata, Yuuki; Toyoshima, Shota; Wakamatsu, Ei; Suzuki, Shunichi; Ogawa, Shuhei; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Abe, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Kit is a receptor-type tyrosine kinase found on the plasma membrane. It can transform mast cells through activating mutations. Here, we show that a mutant Kit from neoplastic mast cells from mice, Kit(D814Y), is permanently active and allows cells to proliferate autonomously. It does so by activating two signalling pathways from different intracellular compartments. Mutant Kit from the cell surface accumulates on endolysosomes through clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which requires Kit’s kinase activity. Kit(D814Y) is constitutively associated with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, but the complex activates Akt only on the cytoplasmic surface of endolysosomes. It resists destruction because it is under-ubiquitinated. Kit(D814Y) also appears in the endoplasmic reticulum soon after biosynthesis, and there, can activate STAT5 aberrantly. These mechanisms of oncogenic signalling are also seen in rat and human mast cell leukemia cells. Thus, oncogenic Kit signalling occurs from different intracellular compartments, and the mutation acts by altering Kit trafficking as well as activation. PMID:25493654

  16. Regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 protein stability by gp78-associated endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kwangman; Kim, Hyeongki; Kang, Hyunju; Lee, So-Young; Lee, Sang Jun; Back, Sung Hoon; Lee, Seo Hyun; Kim, M Sun; Lee, Jeong Eun; Park, Ju Young; Kim, Jiye; Kim, Sunhong; Song, Jae-Hyung; Choi, Yura; Lee, Suui; Lee, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Jong Heon; Cho, Sungchan

    2014-07-01

    Triacylglycerol (TG) is the major form of stored energy in eukaryotic organisms and is synthesized by diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). DGAT2, one of the two DGAT enzymes, is barely detectable in cells, even though its mRNA transcripts are maintained at considerable levels. However, little is known about how DGAT2 expression is altered by protein stability. DGAT2 was highly unstable in cells and was rapidly degraded by proteasomes in an ubiquitin-dependent manner. Deletion mutation analysis identified transmembrane domain 1 (TMD1) as a protein degradation signal. TMD1 is also important for ER localization of DGAT2. Moreover, DGAT2 interacted with p97/VCP, a crucial component of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway, and polyubiquitinated DGAT2 accumulated following treatment with an ERAD inhibitor. Furthermore, gp78, an E3 ligase involved in ERAD, regulates the degradation of DGAT2 through direct interactions and ubiquitination. Consequently, the stabilization of DGAT2 increased the number of lipid droplets in hepatic cells. Therefore, DGAT2 is regulated by gp78-associated ERAD at the post-translational level. © 2014 FEBS.

  17. Regulation of mitochondrial function and endoplasmic reticulum stress by nitric oxide in pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Caballano-Infantes, Estefania; Terron-Bautista, José; Beltrán-Povea, Amparo; Cahuana, Gladys M; Soria, Bernat; Nabil, Hajji; Bedoya, Francisco J; Tejedo, Juan R

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) are global processes that are interrelated and regulated by several stress factors. Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional biomolecule with many varieties of physiological and pathological functions, such as the regulation of cytochrome c inhibition and activation of the immune response, ERS and DNA damage; these actions are dose-dependent. It has been reported that in embryonic stem cells, NO has a dual role, controlling differentiation, survival and pluripotency, but the molecular mechanisms by which it modulates these functions are not yet known. Low levels of NO maintain pluripotency and induce mitochondrial biogenesis. It is well established that NO disrupts the mitochondrial respiratory chain and causes changes in mitochondrial Ca2+ flux that induce ERS. Thus, at high concentrations, NO becomes a potential differentiation agent due to the relationship between ERS and the unfolded protein response in many differentiated cell lines. Nevertheless, many studies have demonstrated the need for physiological levels of NO for a proper ERS response. In this review, we stress the importance of the relationships between NO levels, ERS and mitochondrial dysfunction that control stem cell fate as a new approach to possible cell therapy strategies. PMID:28289506

  18. 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' Accumulates inside Endoplasmic Reticulum Associated Vacuoles in the Gut Cells of Diaphorina citri.

    PubMed

    Ghanim, Murad; Achor, Diann; Ghosh, Saptarshi; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Lebedev, Galina; Levy, Amit

    2017-12-05

    Citrus greening disease known also as Huanglongbing (HLB) caused by the phloem-limited bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas) has resulted in tremendous losses and the death of millions of trees worldwide. CLas is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. The closely-related bacteria 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (CLso), associated with vegetative disorders in carrots, is transmitted by the carrot psyllid Bactericera trigonica. A promising approach to prevent the transmission of these pathogens is to interfere with the vector-pathogen interactions, but our understanding of these processes is limited. It was recently reported that CLas induced changes in the nuclear architecture, and activated programmed cell death, in D. citri midgut cells. Here, we used electron and fluorescent microscopy and show that CLas induces the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated bodies. The bacterium recruits those ER structures into Liberibacter containing vacuoles (LCVs), in which bacterial cells seem to propagate. ER- associated LCV formation was unique to CLas, as we could not detect these bodies in B. trigonica infected with CLso. ER recruitment is hypothesized to generate a safe replicative body to escape cellular immune responses in the insect gut. Understanding the molecular interactions that undelay these responses will open new opportunities for controlling CLas.

  19. Stress-induced self-cannibalism: on the regulation of autophagy by endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Shane; Saveljeva, Svetlana; Gorman, Adrienne M; Samali, Afshin

    2013-07-01

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is a cellular catabolic process which can be described as a self-cannibalism. It serves as an essential protective response during conditions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through the bulk removal and degradation of unfolded proteins and damaged organelles; in particular, mitochondria (mitophagy) and ER (reticulophagy). Autophagy is genetically regulated and the autophagic machinery facilitates removal of damaged cell components and proteins; however, if the cell stress is acute or irreversible, cell death ensues. Despite these advances in the field, very little is known about how autophagy is initiated and how the autophagy machinery is transcriptionally regulated in response to ER stress. Some three dozen autophagy genes have been shown to be required for the correct assembly and function of the autophagic machinery; however; very little is known about how these genes are regulated by cellular stress. Here, we will review current knowledge regarding how ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) induce autophagy, including description of the different autophagy-related genes which are regulated by the UPR.

  20. EGFR inhibition attenuates diabetic nephropathy through decreasing ROS and endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Peng; Wang, Jingying; Weng, Qiaoyou; Qian, Yuanyuan; Han, Jibo; Zou, Chunpeng; Liang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a progressive kidney disease due to glomerular capillary damage in diabetic patients. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with DN progression. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediates oxidative stress and damage of cardiomyocytes in diabetic mice. Here we demonstrated that AG1478, a specific inhibitor of EGFR, blocked EGFR and AKT phosphorylation in diabetic mice. Oxidative stress and ER stress markers were eliminated after AG1478 administration. AG1478 decreased pro-fibrotic genes TGF-β and collagen IV. Furthermore, we found that high glucose (HG) induced oxidative stress and ER stress, and subsequently increased ATF4 and CHOP. These changes were eliminated by either AG1478 or ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) administration. These results were confirmed by knock-down approaches in renal mesangial SV40 cells. However, AG1478, not NAC, reversed HG induced EGFR and AKT phosphorylation. These results suggest that EGFR/AKT/ROS/ER stress signaling plays an essential role in DN development and inhibiting EGFR may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy in diabetic kidney diseases. PMID:28427241

  1. UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGGT1) promotes substrate solubility in the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Sean P.; Jaber, Nikita S.; Molinari, Maurizio; Arvan, Peter; Kaufman, Randal J.

    2013-01-01

    Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is error prone, and ER quality control (ERQC) processes ensure that only correctly folded proteins are exported from the ER. Glycoproteins can be retained in the ER by ERQC, and this retention contributes to multiple human diseases, termed ER storage diseases. UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGGT1) acts as a central component of glycoprotein ERQC, monoglucosylating deglucosylated N-glycans of incompletely folded glycoproteins and promoting subsequent reassociation with the lectin-like chaperones calreticulin and calnexin. The extent to which UGGT1 influences glycoprotein folding, however, has only been investigated for a few selected substrates. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking UGGT1 or those with UGGT1 complementation, we investigated the effect of monoglucosylation on the soluble/insoluble distribution of two misfolded α1-antitrypsin (AAT) variants responsible for AAT deficiency disease: null Hong Kong (NHK) and Z allele. Whereas substrate solubility increases directly with the number of N-linked glycosylation sites, our results indicate that additional solubility is conferred by UGGT1 enzymatic activity. Monoglucosylation-dependent solubility decreases both BiP association with NHK and unfolded protein response activation, and the solubility increase is blocked in cells deficient for calreticulin. These results suggest that UGGT1-dependent monoglucosylation of N-linked glycoproteins promotes substrate solubility in the ER. PMID:23864712

  2. Characterization of Russell bodies accumulating mutant antithrombin derived from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Koji; Kawaguchi, Kosuke; Ueda, Yumiko; Arai, Seisuke; Morita, Masashi; Imanaka, Tsuneo; Wada, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) adjusts its size and architecture to adapt to change in the surrounding environment. Russell bodies (RBs) were originally described as dilated structures of the ER cisternae containing large amounts of mutant immunoglobulin. Similar structures are observed in a wide variety of mutant proteins accumulated in the ER. We previously prepared Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in which the expression of mutant antithrombin (AT) (C95R) was controlled with a Tet-On system and showed that RBs can be conditionally formed. However the precise architecture and intracellular behavior of RBs have been as yet only poorly characterized. To characterize the properties of RB, we prepared the same system using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused mutant and measured the dynamics and architecture of RBs. We observed the mobile nature of the molecule in the RB lumen and RBs were separated from the rest of the ER network by narrow tubes. Furthermore, we found that the RBs were not simply expanded ER membranes. The RB lumen is filled with misfolded proteins that are surrounded by ER membranes. In addition, RBs mostly maintain their structure during cell division, possess ribosomes on their membranes and synthesize AT(C95R)-GFP. Based on the characterization of the hydrodynamic radius of AT(C95R)-GFP and the effect of DP1, an ER-shaping protein, we propose that RBs are spontaneously formed as a result of the partitioning of the misfolded AT with the shaping protein.

  3. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Activates the Inflammasome via NLRP3- and Caspase-2-Driven Mitochondrial Damage.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Denise N; Abuaita, Basel H; Chen, Xiaoyun; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Nuñez, Gabriel; He, Yongqun; Yin, Xiao-Ming; O'Riordan, Mary X D

    2015-09-15

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is observed in many human diseases, often associated with inflammation. ER stress can trigger inflammation through nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing (NLRP3) inflammasome, which might stimulate inflammasome formation by association with damaged mitochondria. How ER stress triggers mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammasome activation is ill defined. Here we have used an infection model to show that the IRE1α ER stress sensor regulates regulated mitochondrial dysfunction through an NLRP3-mediated feed-forward loop, independently of ASC. IRE1α activation increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, promoting NLRP3 association with mitochondria. NLRP3 was required for ER stress-induced cleavage of caspase-2 and the pro-apoptotic factor, Bid, leading to subsequent release of mitochondrial contents. Caspase-2 and Bid were necessary for activation of the canonical inflammasome by infection-associated or general ER stress. These data identify an NLRP3-caspase-2-dependent mechanism that relays ER stress to the mitochondria to promote inflammation, integrating cellular stress and innate immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Sensor IRE1α Enhances IL-23 Expression by Human Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Saioa; Fernández, José Javier; Terán-Cabanillas, Eli; Herrero, Carmen; Alonso, Sara; Azogil, Alicia; Montero, Olimpio; Iwawaki, Takao; Cubillos-Ruiz, Juan R; Fernández, Nieves; Crespo, Mariano Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) undergo bioenergetic changes that influence the immune response. We found that stimulation with PAMPs enhanced glycolysis in DCs, whereas oxidative phosphorylation remained unaltered. Glucose starvation and the hexokinase inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) modulated cytokine expression in stimulated DCs. Strikingly, IL23A was markedly induced upon 2-DG treatment, but not during glucose deprivation. Since 2-DG can also rapidly inhibit protein N-glycosylation, we postulated that this compound could induce IL-23 in DCs via activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Indeed, stimulation of DCs with PAMPs in the presence of 2-DG robustly activated inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α) signaling and to a lesser extent the PERK arm of the unfolded protein response. Additional ER stressors such as tunicamycin and thapsigargin also promoted IL-23 expression by PAMP-stimulated DCs. Pharmacological, biochemical, and genetic analyses using conditional knockout mice revealed that IL-23 induction in ER stressed DCs stimulated with PAMPs was IRE1α/X-box binding protein 1-dependent upon zymosan stimulation. Interestingly, we further evidenced PERK-mediated and CAAT/enhancer-binding protein β-dependent trans -activation of IL23A upon lipopolysaccharide treatment. Our findings uncover that the ER stress response can potently modulate cytokine expression in PAMP-stimulated human DCs.

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Sensor IRE1α Enhances IL-23 Expression by Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Márquez, Saioa; Fernández, José Javier; Terán-Cabanillas, Eli; Herrero, Carmen; Alonso, Sara; Azogil, Alicia; Montero, Olimpio; Iwawaki, Takao; Cubillos-Ruiz, Juan R.; Fernández, Nieves; Crespo, Mariano Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) undergo bioenergetic changes that influence the immune response. We found that stimulation with PAMPs enhanced glycolysis in DCs, whereas oxidative phosphorylation remained unaltered. Glucose starvation and the hexokinase inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) modulated cytokine expression in stimulated DCs. Strikingly, IL23A was markedly induced upon 2-DG treatment, but not during glucose deprivation. Since 2-DG can also rapidly inhibit protein N-glycosylation, we postulated that this compound could induce IL-23 in DCs via activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Indeed, stimulation of DCs with PAMPs in the presence of 2-DG robustly activated inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α) signaling and to a lesser extent the PERK arm of the unfolded protein response. Additional ER stressors such as tunicamycin and thapsigargin also promoted IL-23 expression by PAMP-stimulated DCs. Pharmacological, biochemical, and genetic analyses using conditional knockout mice revealed that IL-23 induction in ER stressed DCs stimulated with PAMPs was IRE1α/X-box binding protein 1-dependent upon zymosan stimulation. Interestingly, we further evidenced PERK-mediated and CAAT/enhancer-binding protein β-dependent trans-activation of IL23A upon lipopolysaccharide treatment. Our findings uncover that the ER stress response can potently modulate cytokine expression in PAMP-stimulated human DCs. PMID:28674530

  6. Golgi enzymes do not cycle through the endoplasmic reticulum during protein secretion or mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Julien; Duran, Juan; Scarpa, Margherita; Bassaganyas, Laia; Van Galen, Josse; Malhotra, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Golgi-specific sialyltransferase (ST) expressed as a chimera with the rapamycin-binding domain of mTOR, FRB, relocates to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in cells exposed to rapamycin that also express invariant chain (Ii)-FKBP in the ER. This result has been taken to indicate that Golgi-resident enzymes cycle to the ER constitutively. We show that ST-FRB is trapped in the ER even without Ii-FKBP upon rapamycin addition. This is because ER-Golgi–cycling FKBP proteins contain a C-terminal KDEL-like sequence, bind ST-FRB in the Golgi, and are transported together back to the ER by KDEL receptor–mediated retrograde transport. Moreover, depletion of KDEL receptor prevents trapping of ST-FRB in the ER by rapamycin. Thus ST-FRB cycles artificially by binding to FKBP domain–containing proteins. In addition, Golgi-specific O-linked glycosylation of a resident ER protein occurs only upon artificial fusion of Golgi membranes with ER. Together these findings support the consensus view that there is no appreciable mixing of Golgi-resident enzymes with ER under normal conditions. PMID:27807044

  7. Polysome Profiling in Liver Identifies Dynamic Regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Translatome by Obesity and Fasting

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Suneng; Fan, Jason; Blanco, Joshua; Gimenez-Cassina, Alfredo; Danial, Nika N.; Watkins, Steve M.; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity-associated metabolic complications are generally considered to emerge from abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, whereas the status of protein metabolism is not well studied. Here, we performed comparative polysome and associated transcriptional profiling analyses to study the dynamics and functional implications of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–associated protein synthesis in the mouse liver under conditions of obesity and nutrient deprivation. We discovered that ER from livers of obese mice exhibits a general reduction in protein synthesis, and comprehensive analysis of polysome-bound transcripts revealed extensive down-regulation of protein synthesis machinery, mitochondrial components, and bile acid metabolism in the obese translatome. Nutrient availability also plays an important but distinct role in remodeling the hepatic ER translatome in lean and obese mice. Fasting in obese mice partially reversed the overall translatomic differences between lean and obese nonfasted controls, whereas fasting of the lean mice mimicked many of the translatomic changes induced by the development of obesity. The strongest examples of such regulations were the reduction in Cyp7b1 and Slco1a1, molecules involved in bile acid metabolism. Exogenous expression of either gene significantly lowered plasma glucose levels, improved hepatic steatosis, but also caused cholestasis, indicating the fine balance bile acids play in regulating metabolism and health. Together, our work defines dynamic regulation of the liver translatome by obesity and nutrient availability, and it identifies a novel role for bile acid metabolism in the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. PMID:22927828

  8. Polysome profiling in liver identifies dynamic regulation of endoplasmic reticulum translatome by obesity and fasting.

    PubMed

    Fu, Suneng; Fan, Jason; Blanco, Joshua; Gimenez-Cassina, Alfredo; Danial, Nika N; Watkins, Steve M; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S

    2012-08-01

    Obesity-associated metabolic complications are generally considered to emerge from abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, whereas the status of protein metabolism is not well studied. Here, we performed comparative polysome and associated transcriptional profiling analyses to study the dynamics and functional implications of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein synthesis in the mouse liver under conditions of obesity and nutrient deprivation. We discovered that ER from livers of obese mice exhibits a general reduction in protein synthesis, and comprehensive analysis of polysome-bound transcripts revealed extensive down-regulation of protein synthesis machinery, mitochondrial components, and bile acid metabolism in the obese translatome. Nutrient availability also plays an important but distinct role in remodeling the hepatic ER translatome in lean and obese mice. Fasting in obese mice partially reversed the overall translatomic differences between lean and obese nonfasted controls, whereas fasting of the lean mice mimicked many of the translatomic changes induced by the development of obesity. The strongest examples of such regulations were the reduction in Cyp7b1 and Slco1a1, molecules involved in bile acid metabolism. Exogenous expression of either gene significantly lowered plasma glucose levels, improved hepatic steatosis, but also caused cholestasis, indicating the fine balance bile acids play in regulating metabolism and health. Together, our work defines dynamic regulation of the liver translatome by obesity and nutrient availability, and it identifies a novel role for bile acid metabolism in the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity.

  9. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Localized Two-Photon-Absorbing Boron Dipyrromethenes as Advanced Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yimin; Cheung, Ying-Kit; Ma, Chao; Zhao, Shirui; Gao, Di; Lo, Pui-Chi; Fong, Wing-Ping; Wong, Kam Sing; Ng, Dennis K P

    2018-05-10

    Two advanced boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) based photosensitizers have been synthesized and characterized. With a glibenclamide analogous moiety, these compounds can localize in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells and HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells. The BODIPY π skeleton is conjugated with two styryl or carbazolylethenyl groups, which can substantially red-shift the Q-band absorption and fluorescence emission and impart two-photon absorption (TPA) property to the chromophores. The TPA cross section of the carbazole-containing analogue reaches a value of 453 GM at 1010 nm. These compounds also behave as singlet oxygen generators with high photostability. Upon irradiation at λ > 610 nm, these photosensitizers cause photocytotoxicity to these two cell lines with IC 50 values down to 0.09 μM, for which the cell death is triggered mainly by ER stress. The two-photon photodynamic activity of the distyryl derivative upon excitation at λ = 800 nm has also been demonstrated.

  10. Diet-induced obesity induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance in the amygdala of rats☆

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Gisele; C. Areias, Maria Fernanda; Weissmann, Lais; Quaresma, Paula G.F.; Katashima, Carlos K.; Saad, Mario J.A.; Prada, Patricia O.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin acts in the hypothalamus, decreasing food intake (FI) by the IR/PI3K/Akt pathway. This pathway is impaired in obese animals and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and low-grade inflammation are possible mechanisms involved in this impairment. Here, we highlighted the amygdala as an important brain region for FI regulation in response to insulin. This regulation was dependent on PI3K/AKT pathway similar to the hypothalamus. Insulin was able to decrease neuropeptide Y (NPY) and increase oxytocin mRNA levels in the amygdala via PI3K, which may contribute to hypophagia. Additionally, obese rats did not reduce FI in response to insulin and AKT phosphorylation was decreased in the amygdala, suggesting insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was associated with ER stress and low-grade inflammation in this brain region. The inhibition of ER stress with PBA reverses insulin action/signaling, decreases NPY and increases oxytocin mRNA levels in the amygdala from obese rats, suggesting that ER stress is probably one of the mechanisms that induce insulin resistance in the amygdala. PMID:24251109

  11. Competitive Inhibition of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Signal Peptidase by Non-cleavable Mutant Preprotein Cargos*

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jingqiu; Chen, Wei; Sun, Jinhong; Guo, Huan; Madley, Rachel; Xiong, Yi; Pan, Xingyi; Wang, Hongliang; Tai, Andrew W.; Weiss, Michael A.; Arvan, Peter; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Upon translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, secretory proteins are proteolytically processed to remove their signal peptide by signal peptidase (SPase). This process is critical for subsequent folding, intracellular trafficking, and maturation of secretory proteins. Prokaryotic SPase has been shown to be a promising antibiotic target. In contrast, to date, no eukaryotic SPase inhibitors have been reported. Here we report that introducing a proline immediately following the natural signal peptide cleavage site not only blocks preprotein cleavage but also, in trans, impairs the processing and maturation of co-expressed preproteins in the ER. Specifically, we find that a variant preproinsulin, pPI-F25P, is translocated across the ER membrane, where it binds to the catalytic SPase subunit SEC11A, inhibiting SPase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Similar findings were obtained with an analogous variant of preproparathyroid hormone, demonstrating that inhibition of the SPase does not depend strictly on the sequence or structure of the downstream mature protein. We further show that inhibiting SPase in the ER impairs intracellular processing of viral polypeptides and their subsequent maturation. These observations suggest that eukaryotic SPases (including the human ortholog) are, in principle, suitable therapeutic targets for antiviral drug design. PMID:26446786

  12. A Developmentally Regulated Chaperone Complex for the Endoplasmic Reticulum of Male Haploid Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    van Lith, Marcel; Karala, Anna-Riikka; Bown, Dave; Gatehouse, John A.; Ruddock, Lloyd W.; Saunders, Philippa T.K.

    2007-01-01

    Glycoprotein folding is mediated by lectin-like chaperones and protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) in the endoplasmic reticulum. Calnexin and the PDI homologue ERp57 work together to help fold nascent polypeptides with glycans located toward the N-terminus of a protein, whereas PDI and BiP may engage proteins that lack glycans or have sugars toward the C-terminus. In this study, we show that the PDI homologue PDILT is expressed exclusively in postmeiotic male germ cells, in contrast to the ubiquitous expression of many other PDI family members in the testis. PDILT is induced during puberty and represents the first example of a PDI family member under developmental control. We find that PDILT is not active as an oxido-reductase, but interacts with the model peptide Δ-somatostatin and nonnative bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor in vitro, indicative of chaperone activity. In vivo, PDILT forms a tissue-specific chaperone complex with the calnexin homologue calmegin. The identification of a redox-inactive chaperone partnership defines a new system of testis-specific protein folding with implications for male fertility. PMID:17507649

  13. Visualization of reticulophagy in living cells using an endoplasmic reticulum-targeted p62 mutant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Lei; Qin, Lingsong; Luo, Qingming; Zhang, Zhihong

    2017-04-01

    Reticulophagy is a type of selective autophagy in which protein aggregate-containing and/or damaged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) fragments are engulfed for lysosomal degradation, which is important for ER homeostasis. Several chemical drugs and mutant proteins that promote protein aggregate formation within the ER lumen can efficiently induce reticulophagy in mammalian cells. However, the exact mechanism and cellular localization of reticulophagy remain unclear. In this report, we took advantage of the self-oligomerization property of p62/SQSTM1, an adaptor for selective autophagy, and developed a novel reticulophagy system based on an ER-targeted p62 mutant to investigate the process of reticulophagy in living cells. LC3 conversion analysis via western blot suggested that p62 mutant aggregate-induced ER stress triggered a cellular autophagic response. Confocal imaging showed that in cells with moderate aggregation conditions, the aggregates of ER-targeted p62 mutants were efficiently sequestered by autophagosomes, which was characterized by colocalization with the autophagosome precursor marker ATG16L1, the omegasome marker DFCP1, and the late autophagosomal marker LC3/GATE-16. Moreover, time-lapse imaging data demonstrated that the LC3- or DFCP1-positive protein aggregates are tightly associated with the reticular structures of the ER, thereby suggesting that reticulophagy occurs at the ER and that omegasomes may be involved in this process.

  14. Rkr1/Ltn1 Ubiquitin Ligase-mediated Degradation of Translationally Stalled Endoplasmic Reticulum Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Justin J.; Geigges, Marco; Gibson, Ryan T.; Fults, Eric S.; Buchanan, Bryce W.; Sachs, Nadine; Schink, Andrea; Kreft, Stefan G.; Rubenstein, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant nonstop proteins arise from translation of mRNA molecules beyond the coding sequence into the 3′-untranslated region. If a stop codon is not encountered, translation continues into the poly(A) tail, resulting in C-terminal appendage of a polylysine tract and a terminally stalled ribosome. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ubiquitin ligase Rkr1/Ltn1 has been implicated in the proteasomal degradation of soluble cytosolic nonstop and translationally stalled proteins. Rkr1 is essential for cellular fitness under conditions associated with increased prevalence of nonstop proteins. Mutation of the mammalian homolog causes significant neurological pathology, suggesting broad physiological significance of ribosome-associated quality control. It is not known whether and how soluble or transmembrane nonstop and translationally stalled proteins targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are detected and degraded. We generated and characterized model soluble and transmembrane ER-targeted nonstop and translationally stalled proteins. We found that these proteins are indeed subject to proteasomal degradation. We tested three candidate ubiquitin ligases (Rkr1 and ER-associated Doa10 and Hrd1) for roles in regulating abundance of these proteins. Our results indicate that Rkr1 plays the primary role in targeting the tested model ER-targeted nonstop and translationally stalled proteins for degradation. These data expand the catalog of Rkr1 substrates and highlight a previously unappreciated role for this ubiquitin ligase at the ER membrane. PMID:26055716

  15. Decreased MORF leads to prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress in periodontitis-associated chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Peng; Li, Bei; An, Ying; Sun, Jin; He, Xiaoning; Hou, Rui; Dong, Guangying; Fei, Dongdong; Jin, Fang; Wang, Qintao; Jin, Yan

    2016-11-01

    The association between inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been described in many diseases. However, if and how chronic inflammation governs the unfolded protein response (UPR) and promotes ER homeostasis of chronic inflammatory disease remains elusive. In this study, chronic inflammation resulted in ER stress in mesenchymal stem cells in the setting of periodontitis. Long-term proinflammatory cytokines induced prolonged ER stress and decreased the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). Interestingly, we showed that chronic inflammation decreases the expression of lysine acetyltransferase 6B (KAT6B, also called MORF), a histone acetyltransferase, and causes the upregulation of a key UPR sensor, PERK, which lead to the persistent activation of the UPR in PDLSCs. Furthermore, we found that the activation of UPR mediated by MORF in chronic inflammation contributes to the PERK-related deterioration of the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs both in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest that chronic inflammation compromises UPR function through MORF-mediated-PERK transcription, which is a previously unrecognized mechanism that contributes to impaired ER function, prolonged ER stress and defective osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs in periodontitis.

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation by promoting endocytosis in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Ailian; Huang, Shiqian; Zhao, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Lixun; Ding, Ji; Xu, Congfeng

    2016-01-15

    After binding by acetylcholine released from a motor neuron, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction produces a localized end-plate potential, which leads to muscle contraction. Improper turnover and renewal of acetylcholine receptors contributes to the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. In the present study, we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation in C2C12 myocytes. We further show that ER stress promotes acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and lysosomal degradation, which was dampened by blocking endocytosis or treating with lysosome inhibitor. Knockdown of ER stress proteins inhibited acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and degradation, while rescue assay restored its endocytosis and degradation, confirming the effects of ER stress on promoting endocytosis-mediated degradation of junction acetylcholine receptors. Thus, our studies identify ER stress as a factor promoting acetylcholine receptor degradation through accelerating endocytosis in muscle cells. Blocking ER stress and/or endocytosis might provide a novel therapeutic approach for myasthenia gravis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Atg9 establishes Atg2-dependent contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum and phagophores.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Rose, Jaqueline; Guimarães, Rodrigo; Mari, Muriel; Papinski, Daniel; Rieter, Ester; Geerts, Willie J; Hardenberg, Ralph; Kraft, Claudine; Ungermann, Christian; Reggiori, Fulvio

    2018-05-30

    The autophagy-related (Atg) proteins play a key role in the formation of autophagosomes, the hallmark of autophagy. The function of the cluster composed by Atg2, Atg18, and transmembrane Atg9 is completely unknown despite their importance in autophagy. In this study, we provide insights into the molecular role of these proteins by identifying and characterizing Atg2 point mutants impaired in Atg9 binding. We show that Atg2 associates to autophagosomal membranes through lipid binding and independently from Atg9. Its interaction with Atg9, however, is key for Atg2 confinement to the growing phagophore extremities and subsequent association of Atg18. Assembly of the Atg9-Atg2-Atg18 complex is important to establish phagophore-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contact sites. In turn, disruption of the Atg2-Atg9 interaction leads to an aberrant topological distribution of both Atg2 and ER contact sites on forming phagophores, which severely impairs autophagy. Altogether, our data shed light in the interrelationship between Atg9, Atg2, and Atg18 and highlight the possible functional relevance of the phagophore-ER contact sites in phagophore expansion. © 2018 Gómez-Sánchez et al.

  18. Dystonin/Bpag1 is a necessary endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope protein in sensory neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Kevin G.; University of Ottawa Center for Neuromuscular Disease, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario; Kothary, Rashmi

    2008-09-10

    Dystonin/Bpag1 proteins are cytoskeletal linkers whose loss of function in mice results in a hereditary sensory neuropathy with a progressive loss of limb coordination starting in the second week of life. These mice, named dystonia musculorum (dt), succumb to the disease and die of unknown causes prior to sexual maturity. Previous evidence indicated that cytoskeletal defects in the axon are a primary cause of dt neurodegeneration. However, more recent data suggests that other factors may be equally important contributors to the disease process. In the present study, we demonstrate perikaryal defects in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons at stages precedingmore » the onset of loss of limb coordination in dt mice. Abnormalities include alterations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein expression, indicative of an ER stress response. Dystonin in sensory neurons localized in association with the ER and nuclear envelope (NE). A fusion protein ofthe dystonin-a2 isoform, which harbors an N-terminal transmembrane domain, associated with and reorganized the ER in cell culture. This isoform also interacts with the NE protein nesprin-3{alpha}, but not nesprin-3{beta}. Defects in dt mice, as demonstrated here, may ultimately result in pathogenesis involving ER dysfunction and contribute significantly to the dt phenotype.« less

  19. Acetic Acid Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Induces the Unfolded Protein Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kawazoe, Nozomi; Kimata, Yukio; Izawa, Shingo

    2017-01-01

    Since acetic acid inhibits the growth and fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is one of the practical hindrances to the efficient production of bioethanol from a lignocellulosic biomass. Although extensive information is available on yeast response to acetic acid stress, the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and unfolded protein response (UPR) has not been addressed. We herein demonstrated that acetic acid causes ER stress and induces the UPR. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of Ire1p and Hac1p, an ER-stress sensor and ER stress-responsive transcription factor, respectively, were induced by a treatment with acetic acid stress (>0.2% v/v). Other monocarboxylic acids such as propionic acid and sorbic acid, but not lactic acid, also induced the UPR. Additionally, ire1Δ and hac1Δ cells were more sensitive to acetic acid than wild-type cells, indicating that activation of the Ire1p-Hac1p pathway is required for maximum tolerance to acetic acid. Furthermore, the combination of mild acetic acid stress (0.1% acetic acid) and mild ethanol stress (5% ethanol) induced the UPR, whereas neither mild ethanol stress nor mild acetic acid stress individually activated Ire1p, suggesting that ER stress is easily induced in yeast cells during the fermentation process of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. It was possible to avoid the induction of ER stress caused by acetic acid and the combined stress by adjusting extracellular pH. PMID:28702017

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum stress related molecular mechanisms in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifeng; Chen, J; Ning, C; Lei, D; Ren, Jun

    2018-05-16

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a common public health problem and a common cause of chronic liver diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to the development and progression of NAFLD remain elusive. Accumulating evidence has depicted an essential role for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the development of steatosis and later progression into nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocarcinoma. With the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER lumen, ER stress is provoked to turn on the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress triggers a cascade reaction of transcriptional and translational events that restore ER homeostasis, promoting cell survival and adaptation. However, prolonged ER stress may be transit physiological mechanisms to pathological consequences, including insulin resistance, fat accumulation, inflammation, apoptosis, and autophagy, all of which with important roles in the development of NAFLD. Therefore, understanding the role of ER stress in the onset and pathogenesis of NAFLD is pertinent to the management of this devastating metabolic disease. Here we will summarize available information on recent findings linking ER stress to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. The evolving role of ubiquitin modification in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation

    PubMed Central

    Preston, G. Michael; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) serves as a warehouse for factors that augment and control the biogenesis of nascent proteins entering the secretory pathway. In turn, this compartment also harbors the machinery that responds to the presence of misfolded proteins by targeting them for proteolysis via a process known as ER-associated degradation (ERAD). During ERAD, substrates are selected, modified with ubiquitin, removed from the ER, and then degraded by the cytoplasmic 26S proteasome. While integral membrane proteins can directly access the ubiquitination machinery that resides in the cytoplasm or on the cytoplasmic face of the ER membrane, soluble ERAD substrates within the lumen must be retrotranslocated from this compartment. In either case, nearly all ERAD substrates are tagged with a polyubiquitin chain, a modification that represents a commitment step to degrade aberrant proteins. However, increasing evidence indicates that the polyubiquitin chain on ERAD substrates can be further modified, serves to recruit ERAD-requiring factors, and may regulate the ERAD machinery. Amino acid side chains other than lysine on ERAD substrates can also be modified with ubiquitin, and post-translational modifications that affect substrate ubiquitination have been observed. Here, we summarize these data and provide an overview of questions driving this field of research. PMID:28159894

  2. The evolving role of ubiquitin modification in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation.

    PubMed

    Preston, G Michael; Brodsky, Jeffrey L

    2017-02-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) serves as a warehouse for factors that augment and control the biogenesis of nascent proteins entering the secretory pathway. In turn, this compartment also harbors the machinery that responds to the presence of misfolded proteins by targeting them for proteolysis via a process known as ER-associated degradation (ERAD). During ERAD, substrates are selected, modified with ubiquitin, removed from the ER, and then degraded by the cytoplasmic 26S proteasome. While integral membrane proteins can directly access the ubiquitination machinery that resides in the cytoplasm or on the cytoplasmic face of the ER membrane, soluble ERAD substrates within the lumen must be retrotranslocated from this compartment. In either case, nearly all ERAD substrates are tagged with a polyubiquitin chain, a modification that represents a commitment step to degrade aberrant proteins. However, increasing evidence indicates that the polyubiquitin chain on ERAD substrates can be further modified, serves to recruit ERAD-requiring factors, and may regulate the ERAD machinery. Amino acid side chains other than lysine on ERAD substrates can also be modified with ubiquitin, and post-translational modifications that affect substrate ubiquitination have been observed. Here, we summarize these data and provide an overview of questions driving this field of research. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  3. Arsenic induces cell apoptosis in cultured osteoblasts through endoplasmic reticulum stress

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, C.-H., E-mail: chtang@mail.cmu.edu.t; Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung Taiwan; Chiu, Y.-C.

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass resulting from an imbalance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Therefore, decreased bone formation by osteoblasts may lead to the development of osteoporosis, and rate of apoptosis is responsible for the regulation of bone formation. Arsenic (As) exists ubiquitously in our environment and increases the risk of neurotoxicity, liver injury, peripheral vascular disease and cancer. However, the effect of As on apoptosis of osteoblasts is mostly unknown. Here, we found that As induced cell apoptosis in osteoblastic cell lines (including hFOB, MC3T3-E1 and MG-63) and mouse bone marrow stromalmore » cells (M2-10B4). As also induced upregulation of Bax and Bak, downregulation of Bcl-2 and dysfunction of mitochondria in osteoblasts. As also triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as indicated by changes in cytosolic-calcium levels. We found that As increased the expression and activities of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and calpain. Transfection of cells with GRP78 or calpain siRNA reduced As-mediated cell apoptosis in osteoblasts. Therefore, our results suggest that As increased cell apoptosis in cultured osteoblasts and increased the risk of osteoporosis.« less

  4. The role of endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance in the occurrence of goose fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Geng, Tuoyu; Xia, Lili; Li, Fuyuan; Xia, Jing; Zhang, Yihui; Wang, Qianqian; Yang, Biao; Montgomery, Sean; Cui, Hengmi; Gong, Daoqing

    2015-09-11

    In mammals, insulin resistance (IR) is required for the occurrence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) contributes to IR. As geese have physiological and metabolic characteristics different from mammals, it is unclear whether these mechanisms also underlie the occurrence of goose fatty liver. To address this, 70-day-old geese were treated with an ERS inducer or overfed, and variables associated with ERS or IR were subsequently determined. The data indicated that the group of geese treated with the ERS inducer for 20d appeared to be more intolerant to blood glucose than the control group, and their livers showed features of hepatic steatosis, suggesting ERS can induce IR and hepatic steatosis in geese. In contrast, overfeeding did not induce ERS, probably due to the upregulated expression of fatty acid desaturases, but induced higher fasting/postprandial blood glucose as well as glucose intolerance in geese, which was accompanied by a dramatic increase of liver weight. Taken together, these findings delineated the role of ERS and IR in the occurrence of goose fatty liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. From the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane: mechanisms of CFTR folding and trafficking.

    PubMed

    Farinha, Carlos M; Canato, Sara

    2017-01-01

    CFTR biogenesis starts with its co-translational insertion into the membrane of endoplasmic reticulum and folding of the cytosolic domains, towards the acquisition of a fully folded compact native structure. Efficiency of this process is assessed by the ER quality control system that allows the exit of folded proteins but targets unfolded/misfolded CFTR to degradation. If allowed to leave the ER, CFTR is modified at the Golgi and reaches the post-Golgi compartments to be delivered to the plasma membrane where it functions as a cAMP- and phosphorylation-regulated chloride/bicarbonate channel. CFTR residence at the membrane is a balance of membrane delivery, endocytosis, and recycling. Several adaptors, motor, and scaffold proteins contribute to the regulation of CFTR stability and are involved in continuously assessing its structure through peripheral quality control systems. Regulation of CFTR biogenesis and traffic (and its dysregulation by mutations, such as the most common F508del) determine its overall activity and thus contribute to the fine modulation of chloride secretion and hydration of epithelial surfaces. This review covers old and recent knowledge on CFTR folding and trafficking from its synthesis to the regulation of its stability at the plasma membrane and highlights how several of these steps can be modulated to promote the rescue of mutant CFTR.

  6. Selenoprotein K Binds Multiprotein Complexes and Is Involved in the Regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Homeostasis*

    PubMed Central

    Shchedrina, Valentina A.; Everley, Robert A.; Zhang, Yan; Gygi, Steven P.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Selenoprotein K (SelK) is an 11-kDa endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein of unknown function. Herein, we defined a new eukaryotic protein family that includes SelK, selenoprotein S (SelS), and distantly related proteins. Comparative genomics analyses indicate that this family is the most widespread eukaryotic selenoprotein family. A biochemical search for proteins that interact with SelK revealed ER-associated degradation (ERAD) components (p97 ATPase, Derlins, and SelS). In this complex, SelK showed higher affinity for Derlin-1, whereas SelS had higher affinity for Derlin-2, suggesting that these selenoproteins could determine the nature of the substrate translocated through the Derlin channel. SelK co-precipitated with soluble glycosylated ERAD substrates and was involved in their degradation. Its gene contained a functional ER stress response element, and its expression was up-regulated by conditions that induce the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER. Components of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex (ribophorins, OST48, and STT3A) and an ER chaperone, calnexin, were found to bind SelK. A glycosylated form of SelK was also detected, reflecting its association with the oligosaccharyltransferase complex. These data suggest that SelK is involved in the Derlin-dependent ERAD of glycosylated misfolded proteins and that the function defined by the prototypic SelK is the widespread function of selenium in eukaryotes. PMID:22016385

  7. Expanded polyglutamine embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum causes membrane distortion and coincides with Bax insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Masashi; Li, Shimo; Itoh, Masanori

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is important in various cellular functions, such as secretary and membrane protein biosynthesis, lipid synthesis, and calcium storage. ER stress, including membrane distortion, is associated with many diseases such as Huntington's disease. In particular, nuclear envelope distortion is related to neuronal cell death associated with polyglutamine. However, the mechanism by which polyglutamine causes ER membrane distortion remains unclear. We used electron microscopy, fluorescence protease protection assay, and alkaline treatment to analyze the localization of polyglutamine in cells. We characterized polyglutamine embedded in the ER membrane and noted an effect on morphology, including the dilation of ERmore » luminal space and elongation of ER-mitochondria contact sites, in addition to the distortion of the nuclear envelope. The polyglutamine embedded in the ER membrane was observed at the same time as Bax insertion. These results demonstrated that the ER membrane may be a target of polyglutamine, which triggers cell death through Bax. -- Highlights: •We characterized polyglutamine embedded in the ER membrane. •The polyglutamine embedded in the ER membrane was observed at the same time as Bax insertion. •The ER membrane may be a target of polyglutamine, which triggers cell death.« less

  8. Characterization of wheat endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1 and its application in Chinese steamed bread.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang; Wang, JingJing; Hou, Yi; Huang, Yan-Bo; Wang, JiaJia; Li, Cunzhi; Guo, ShiJun; Li, Lin; Hu, Song-Qing

    2018-08-01

    This study investigated characteristics of recombinant wheat Endoplasmic Reticulum Oxidoreductin 1 (wEro1) and its influence on Chinese steamed bread (CSB) qualities. The purified wEro1 monomer, which contained two conserved redox active motif sites, bound to flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor with a molecular weight of ∼47 kDa. wEro1 catalyzed the reduction of both bound and free FAD, and its reduction activity of free FAD reached 7.8 U/mg. Moreover, wEro1 catalyzed the oxidation of dithiothreitol and wheat protein disulfide isomerase (wPDI). Both glutathione and the reduced ribonuclease could work as electron donors for wEro1 in catalyzing the oxidation of wPDI. Additionally, wEro1 supplementation improved the CSB qualities with an increased specific volume of CSB and decreased crumb hardness, which was attributed to water-insoluble wheat proteins increasing and gluten network strengthening. The results give an understanding of the properties and function of wEro1 to facilitate its application especially in the flour-processing industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Caused by Lipoprotein Accumulation Suppresses Immunity against Bacterial Pathogens and Contributes to Immunosenescence

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jogender

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a stress response pathway that is activated upon increased unfolded and/or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and enhanced ER stress response prolongs life span and improves immunity. However, the mechanism by which ER stress affects immunity remains poorly understood. Using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we show that mutations in the lipoproteins vitellogenins, which are homologs of human apolipoprotein B-100, resulted in upregulation of the UPR. Lipoprotein accumulation in the intestine adversely affects the immune response and the life span of the organism, suggesting that it could be a contributing factor to immunosenescence. We show that lipoprotein accumulation inhibited the expression of several immune genes encoding proteins secreted by the intestinal cells in an IRE-1-independent manner. Our studies provide a mechanistic explanation for adverse effects caused by protein aggregation and ER stress on immunity and highlight the role of an IRE-1-independent pathway in the suppression of the expression of genes encoding secreted proteins. PMID:28559483

  10. Acid Sphingomyelinase Mediates Oxidized-LDL Induced Apoptosis in Macrophage via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Min; Pan, Wei; Shi, Rui-zheng; Bai, Yong-ping; You, Bo-yang; Zhang, Kai; Fu, Qiong-mei; Schuchman, Edward H.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Macrophage apoptosis is a vital event in advanced atherosclerosis, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a major contributor to this process. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) and ceramide are also involved in the induction of apoptosis, particularly in macrophages. Our current study focuses on ASM and investigates its role in ox-LDL-induced macrophage apoptosis. Methods: Human THP-1 and mouse peritoneal macrophages were cultured in vitro and treated with ox-LDL. ASM activity and ceramide levels were quantified using ultra performance liquid chromatography. Protein and mRNA levels were analyzed using Western blot analysis and quantitative realtime PCR, respectively. Cell apoptosis was determined using Hoechst staining and flow cytometry. Results: Ox-LDL-induced macrophage apoptosis was triggered by profound endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to an upregulation of ASM activity and ceramide levels at an early stage. ASM was inhibited by siRNA or desipramine (DES), and/or ceramide was degraded by recombinant acid ceramidase (AC). These events attenuated the effect of ox-LDL on ER stress. In contrast, recombinant ASM upregulated ceramide and ER stress. ASM siRNA, DES, recombinant AC, and ER stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid were blocked by elevated levels of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP); ox-LDL induced elevated levels of CHOP. These events attenuated macrophage apoptosis. Conclusion: These results indicate that ASM/ceramide signaling pathway is involved in ox-LDL-induced macrophage apoptosis via ER stress pathway. PMID:26923251

  11. Selective Targeting of Proteins within Secretory Pathway for Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Vecchi, Lara; Petris, Gianluca; Bestagno, Marco; Burrone, Oscar R.

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) is a cellular quality control mechanism to dispose of misfolded proteins of the secretory pathway via proteasomal degradation. SEL1L is an ER-resident protein that participates in identification of misfolded molecules as ERAD substrates, therefore inducing their ER-to-cytosol retrotranslocation and degradation. We have developed a novel class of fusion proteins, termed degradins, composed of a fragment of SEL1L fused to a target-specific binding moiety located on the luminal side of the ER. The target-binding moiety can be a ligand of the target or derived from specific mAbs. Here, we describe the ability of degradins with two different recognition moieties to promote degradation of a model target. Degradins recognize the target protein within the ER both in secretory and membrane-bound forms, inducing their degradation following retrotranslocation to the cytosol. Thus, degradins represent an effective technique to knock-out proteins within the secretory pathway with high specificity. PMID:22523070

  12. Erlotinib promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated injury in the intestinal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Lu; Hu, Lingna; Yang, Baofang

    Erlotinib, a popular drug for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), causes diarrhea in approximately 55% of patients receiving this drug. In the present study, we found that erlotinib induced barrier dysfunction in rat small intestine epithelial cells (IEC-6) by increasing epithelial permeability and down-regulating E-cadherin. The mRNA levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-6, Il-25 and Il-17f) were increased after erlotinib treatment in IEC-6 cells. Erlotinib concentration- and time-dependently induced apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in both IEC-6 and human colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoN). Intestinal epithelial injury was also observed in male C57BL/6J mice administrated with erlotinib.more » Knockdown of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) with small interference RNA partially reversed erlotinib-induced apoptosis, production of IL-6 and down-regulation of E-cadherin in cultured intestinal epithelial cells. In conclusion, erlotinib caused ER stress-mediated injury in the intestinal epithelium, contributing to its side effects of diarrhea in patients. - Highlights: • Erlotinib destroyed barrier integrity both in vitro and in vivo. • Erlotinib induced inflammation both in vitro and in vivo. • Erlotinib induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. • ER stress contributed to erlotinib-induced barrier dysfunction.« less

  13. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Diabetic Kidney, the Good, the Bad and the Ugly.

    PubMed

    Cunard, Robyn

    2015-04-20

    Diabetic kidney disease is the leading worldwide cause of end stage kidney disease and a growing public health challenge. The diabetic kidney is exposed to many environmental stressors and each cell type has developed intricate signaling systems designed to restore optimal cellular function. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a homeostatic pathway that regulates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane structure and secretory function. Studies suggest that the UPR is activated in the diabetic kidney to restore normal ER function and viability. However, when the cell is continuously stressed in an environment that lies outside of its normal physiological range, then the UPR is known as the ER stress response. The UPR reduces protein synthesis, augments the ER folding capacity and downregulates mRNA expression of genes by multiple pathways. Aberrant activation of ER stress can also induce inflammation and cellular apoptosis, and modify signaling of protective processes such as autophagy and mTORC activation. The following review will discuss our current understanding of ER stress in the diabetic kidney and explore novel means of modulating ER stress and its interacting signaling cascades with the overall goal of identifying therapeutic strategies that will improve outcomes in diabetic nephropathy.

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-regulated CXCR3 pathway mediates inflammation and neuronal injury in acute glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Y; Liu, H; Xu, Z; Yokota, H; Narayanan, S P; Lemtalsi, T; Smith, S B; Caldwell, R W; Caldwell, R B; Zhang, W

    2015-01-01

    Acute glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in East Asia. The mechanisms underlying retinal neuronal injury induced by a sudden rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) remain obscure. Here we demonstrate that the activation of CXCL10/CXCR3 axis, which mediates the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells, has a critical role in a mouse model of acute glaucoma. The mRNA and protein expression levels of CXCL10 and CXCR3 were significantly increased after IOP-induced retinal ischemia. Blockade of the CXCR3 pathway by deleting CXCR3 gene significantly attenuated ischemic injury-induced upregulation of inflammatory molecules (interleukin-1β and E-selectin), inhibited the recruitment of microglia/monocyte to the superficial retina, reduced peroxynitrite formation, and prevented the loss of neurons within the ganglion cell layer. In contrast, intravitreal delivery of CXCL10 increased leukocyte recruitment and retinal cell apoptosis. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with chemical chaperones partially blocked ischemic injury-induced CXCL10 upregulation, whereas induction of ER stress with tunicamycin enhanced CXCL10 expression in retina and primary retinal ganglion cells. Interestingly, deleting CXCR3 attenuated ER stress-induced retinal cell death. In conclusion, these results indicate that ER stress-medicated activation of CXCL10/CXCR3 pathway has an important role in retinal inflammation and neuronal injury after high IOP-induced ischemia. PMID:26448323

  15. The Ca2+-ATPase pump facilitates bidirectional proton transport across the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Fonseca, L Michel

    2017-03-28

    Ca 2+ transport across the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR) plays an essential role in intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis, signalling, cell differentiation and muscle contractility. During SR Ca 2+ uptake and release, proton fluxes are required to balance the charge deficit generated by the exchange of Ca 2+ and other ions across the SR. During Ca 2+ uptake by the SR Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA), two protons are countertransported from the SR lumen to the cytosol, thus partially compensating for the charge moved by Ca 2+ transport. Studies have shown that protons are also transported from the cytosol to the lumen during Ca 2+ release, but a transporter that facilitates proton transport into the SR lumen has not been described. In this article we propose that SERCA forms pores that facilitate bidirectional proton transport across the SR. We describe the location and structure of water-filled pores in SERCA that form cytosolic and luminal pathways for protons to cross the SR membrane. Based on this structural information, we suggest mechanistic models for proton translocation to the cytosol during active Ca 2+ transport, and into the SR lumen during SERCA inhibition by endogenous regulatory proteins. Finally, we discuss the physiological consequences of SERCA-mediated bidirectional proton transport across the SR membrane of muscle and non-muscle cells.

  16. Characterization of aromatic residue-controlled protein retention in the endoplasmic reticulum of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mei, Meng; Zhai, Chao; Li, Xinzhi; Zhou, Yu; Peng, Wenfang; Ma, Lixin; Wang, Qinhong; Iverson, Brent L; Zhang, Guimin; Yi, Li

    2017-12-15

    An endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention sequence (ERS) is a characteristic short sequence that mediates protein retention in the ER of eukaryotic cells. However, little is known about the detailed molecular mechanism involved in ERS-mediated protein ER retention. Using a new surface display-based fluorescence technique that effectively quantifies ERS-promoted protein ER retention within Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, we performed comprehensive ERS analyses. We found that the length, type of amino acid residue, and additional residues at positions -5 and -6 of the C-terminal HDEL motif all determined the retention of ERS in the yeast ER. Moreover, the biochemical results guided by structure simulation revealed that aromatic residues (Phe-54, Trp-56, and other aromatic residues facing the ER lumen) in both the ERS (at positions -6 and -4) and its receptor, Erd2, jointly determined their interaction with each other. Our studies also revealed that this aromatic residue interaction might lead to the discriminative recognition of HDEL or KDEL as ERS in yeast or human cells, respectively. Our findings expand the understanding of ERS-mediated residence of proteins in the ER and may guide future research into protein folding, modification, and translocation affected by ER retention. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Protein disulfide isomerases: Redox connections in and out of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Soares Moretti, Ana Iochabel; Martins Laurindo, Francisco Rafael

    2017-03-01

    Protein disulfide isomerases are thiol oxidoreductase chaperones from thioredoxin superfamily. As redox folding catalysts from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), their roles in ER-related redox homeostasis and signaling are well-studied. PDIA1 exerts thiol oxidation/reduction and isomerization, plus chaperone effects. Also, substantial evidence indicates that PDIs regulate thiol-disulfide switches in other cell locations such as cell surface and possibly cytosol. Subcellular PDI translocation routes remain unclear and seem Golgi-independent. The list of signaling and structural proteins reportedly regulated by PDIs keeps growing, via thiol switches involving oxidation, reduction and isomerization, S-(de)nytrosylation, (de)glutathyonylation and protein oligomerization. PDIA1 is required for agonist-triggered Nox NADPH oxidase activation and cell migration in vascular cells and macrophages, while PDIA1-dependent cytoskeletal regulation appears a converging pathway. Extracellularly, PDIs crucially regulate thiol redox signaling of thrombosis/platelet activation, e.g., integrins, and PDIA1 supports expansive caliber remodeling during injury repair via matrix/cytoskeletal organization. Some proteins display regulatory PDI-like motifs. PDI effects are orchestrated by expression levels or post-translational modifications. PDI is redox-sensitive, although probably not a mass-effect redox sensor due to kinetic constraints. Rather, the "all-in-one" organization of its peculiar redox/chaperone properties likely provide PDIs with precision and versatility in redox signaling, making them promising therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Homocysteine activates T cells by enhancing endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria coupling and increasing mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Feng, Juan; Lü, Silin; Ding, Yanhong; Zheng, Ming; Wang, Xian

    2016-06-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) accelerates atherosclerosis by increasing proliferation and stimulating cytokine secretion in T cells. However, whether homocysteine (Hcy)-mediated T cell activation is associated with metabolic reprogramming is unclear. Here, our in vivo and in vitro studies showed that Hcy-stimulated splenic T-cell activation in mice was accompanied by increased levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium, mitochondrial mass and respiration. Inhibiting mitochondrial ROS production and calcium signals or blocking mitochondrial respiration largely blunted Hcy-induced T-cell interferon γ (IFN-γ) secretion and proliferation. Hcy also enhanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in T cells, and inhibition of ER stress with 4-phenylbutyric acid blocked Hcy-induced T-cell activation. Mechanistically, Hcy increased ER-mitochondria coupling, and uncoupling ER-mitochondria by the microtubule inhibitor nocodazole attenuated Hcy-stimulated mitochondrial reprogramming, IFN-γ secretion and proliferation in T cells, suggesting that juxtaposition of ER and mitochondria is required for Hcy-promoted mitochondrial function and T-cell activation. In conclusion, Hcy promotes T-cell activation by increasing ER-mitochondria coupling and regulating metabolic reprogramming.

  19. Chronic enrichment of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contact leads to mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Ana Paula; Pers, Benedicte M; Parlakgül, Güneş; Güney, Ekin; Inouye, Karen; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S

    2014-12-01

    Proper function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria is crucial for cellular homeostasis, and dysfunction at either site has been linked to pathophysiological states, including metabolic diseases. Although the ER and mitochondria play distinct cellular roles, these organelles also form physical interactions with each other at sites defined as mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs), which are essential for calcium, lipid and metabolite exchange. Here we show that in the liver, obesity leads to a marked reorganization of MAMs resulting in mitochondrial calcium overload, compromised mitochondrial oxidative capacity and augmented oxidative stress. Experimental induction of ER-mitochondria interactions results in oxidative stress and impaired metabolic homeostasis, whereas downregulation of PACS-2 or IP3R1, proteins important for ER-mitochondria tethering or calcium transport, respectively, improves mitochondrial oxidative capacity and glucose metabolism in obese animals. These findings establish excessive ER-mitochondrial coupling as an essential component of organelle dysfunction in obesity that may contribute to the development of metabolic pathologies such as insulin resistance and diabetes.

  20. The Role of p58IPK in Protecting the Stressed Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowski, D. Thomas; Kang, Sang-Wook; Goodman, Alan G.; Garrison, Jennifer L.; Taunton, Jack; Katze, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    The preemptive quality control (pQC) pathway protects cells from acute endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by attenuating translocation of nascent proteins despite their targeting to translocons at the ER membrane. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that the DnaJ protein p58IPK plays an essential role in this process via HSP70 recruitment to the cytosolic face of translocons for extraction of translocationally attenuated nascent chains. Our analyses revealed that the heightened stress sensitivity of p58−/− cells was not due to an impairment of the pQC pathway or elevated ER substrate burden during acute stress. Instead, the lesion was in the protein processing capacity of the ER lumen, where p58IPK was found to normally reside in association with BiP. ER lumenal p58IPK could be coimmunoprecipitated with a newly synthesized secretory protein in vitro and stimulated protein maturation upon overexpression in cells. These results identify a previously unanticipated location for p58IPK in the ER lumen where its putative function as a cochaperone explains the stress-sensitivity phenotype of knockout cells and mice. PMID:17567950

  1. Cadmium supplement triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress response and cytotoxicity in primary chicken hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Shao, Cheng-Cheng; Li, Nan; Zhang, Zi-Wei; Su, Jian; Li, Shu; Li, Jin-Long; Xu, Shi-Wen

    2014-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a potent hepatotoxin, has been reported to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in various cell types. However, whether such effect exists in bird is still unclear. To delineate the effects of Cd exposure on ER stress response, we examined the expression of 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and alteration in calcium homeostasis in primary chicken hepatocytes treated with 2-22 µM Cd for 24 h. A significant decrease of cell viability was observed in chicken hepatocytes following Cd administration. In cells treated with Cd, GRP78 protein levels increased in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, GRP78 and GRP94mRNA levels were elevated in response to Cd exposure. The increase of the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in chicken hepatocytes was found during Cd exposure. Cd significantly decreased the CaM mRNA levels in hepatocytes. These results show that Cd regulates the expression of GRP78 and calcium homeostasis in chicken hepatocytes, suggesting that ER stress induced by Cd plays an important role in the mechanisms of Cd cytotoxicity to the bird hepatocytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dehydroascorbic acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and leptin resistance in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Thon, Mina; Hosoi, Toru; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2016-09-16

    Due to its anti-obesity effects, an adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, has become important for the treatment of obesity. However, most obese subjects are in a state of leptin resistance, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of leptin resistance. Dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA), an oxidized form of vitamin C, was found to be increased in diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the possible effects of DHAA on the activation of ER stress and leptin resistance. A human neuroblastoma cell line, stably transfected with the Ob-Rb leptin receptor (SH-SY5Y-ObRb), was treated with DHAA. We found that DHAA upregulated ER stress-related genes such as GRP78, CHOP, and spliced XBP1. Moreover, leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation was hindered by DHAA. These results suggested that increases in the levels of DHAA might be harmful to neurons, contributing to defective leptin-responsive signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi Intermediate Compartment Membranes and Vimentin Filaments Participate in Vaccinia Virus Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Risco, Cristina; Rodríguez, Juan R.; López-Iglesias, Carmen; Carrascosa, José L.; Esteban, Mariano; Rodríguez, Dolores

    2002-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VV) has a complex morphogenetic pathway whose first steps are poorly characterized. We have studied the early phase of VV assembly, when viral factories and spherical immature viruses (IVs) form in the cytoplasm of the infected cell. After freeze-substitution numerous cellular elements are detected around assembling viruses: membranes, ribosomes, microtubules, filaments, and unidentified structures. A double membrane is clearly resolved in the VV envelope for the first time, and freeze fracture reveals groups of tubules interacting laterally on the surface of the viroplasm foci. These data strongly support the hypothesis of a cellular tubulovesicular compartment, related to the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), as the origin of the first VV envelope. Moreover, the cytoskeletal vimentin intermediate filaments are found around viral factories and inside the viroplasm foci, where vimentin and the VV core protein p39 colocalize in the areas where crescents protrude. Confocal microscopy showed that ERGIC elements and vimentin filaments concentrate in the viral factories. We propose that modified cellular ERGIC membranes and vimentin intermediate filaments act coordinately in the construction of viral factories and the first VV form through a unique mechanism of viral morphogenesis from cellular elements. PMID:11799179

  4. Targeting autophagy enhances apatinib-induced apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum stress for human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xi; Feng, Haoran; Wu, Haoxuan; Jin, Zhijian; Shen, Xiaonan; Kuang, Jie; Huo, Zhen; Chen, Xianze; Gao, Haoji; Ye, Feng; Ji, Xiaopin; Jing, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Yaqi; Zhang, Tao; Qiu, Weihua; Zhao, Ren

    2018-05-30

    Apatinib, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has been confirmed for its efficacy and safety in the treatment of advanced gastric carcinoma and some other solid tumors. However, the direct functional mechanisms of tumor lethality mediated by apatinib have not yet been fully characterized, and the precise mechanisms of drug resistance are largely unknown. Here, in this study, we demonstrated that apatinib could induce both apoptosis and autophagy in human colorectal cancer (CRC) via a mechanism that involved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Moreover, activation of the IRE1α pathway from apatinib-induced ER stress is responsible for the induction of autophagy; however, blocking autophagy could enhance the apoptosis in apatinib-treated human CRC cell lines. Furthermore, the combination of apatinib with autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) tends to have the most significant anti-tumor effect of CRC both in vitro and in vivo. Overall, our data show that because apatinib treatment could induce ER stress-related apoptosis and protective autophagy in human CRC cell lines, targeting autophagy is a promising therapeutic strategy to relieve apatinib drug resistance in CRC. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrogen Gas Attenuates Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Independent of Postconditioning in Rats by Attenuating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yunan; Yang, Hongxiao; Chi, Jing; Xu, Qiannan; Zhao, Luqi; Yang, Weijia; Liu, Weifan; Yang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    To study the effect of inhaling hydrogen gas on myocardial ischemic/reperfusion(I/R) injury in rats. Seventy male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups at random as the sham group (Sham). The I/R group (I/R), The ischemic postconditioning group (IPo), The I/R plus hydrogen group (IH2) and the ischemic postconditioning plus hydrogen group (IPoH2). The Sham group was without coronary occlusion. In I/R group, Ischemic/reperfusion injury was induced by coronary occlusion for 1 hour. Followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. In the IPo and IPoH2 group, four cycles of 1 min reperfusion/1 min ischemia was given at the end of 1 hour coronary occlusion. While 2% hydrogen was administered by inhalation 5 min before reperfusion till 2 hours after reperfusion in both the IPoH2 and IH2 group. The heart and blood samples were harvested at the end of the surgical protocol. Then the myocardium cell endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress and autophagy was observed by electron microscope. In addition, the cardiac ER stress and autophagy related proteins expression were detected by Western blotting analysis. Both inhaling 2% hydrogen and ischemic postconditioning treatment reduced the ischemic size and serum troponin I level in rats with I/R injury, and inhaling hydrogen showed a more curative effect compared with ischemic postconditioning treatment. Meanwhile inhaling hydrogen showed a better protective effect in attenuating tissue reactive oxygen species. Malondialdehyde levels and immunoreactivities against 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and inhibiting cardiac endoplasmic reticulum stress and down-regulating autophagy as compared with ischemic postconditioning treatment. These results revealed a better protective effect of hydrogen on myocardial ischemic/reperfusion injury in rats by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress and down-regulating autophagy compared with ischemic postconditioning treatment. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Ghrelin ameliorates acute lung injury induced by oleic acid via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiuli; Liu, Zhijun; Yu, Ting; Yang, Haitao; Feng, Linlin

    2018-03-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with excessive mortality and lacks appropriate therapy. Ghrelin is a novel peptide that protects the lung against ALI. This study aimed to investigate whether endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) mediates the protective effect of ghrelin on ALI. We used a rat oleic acid (OA)-induced ALI model. Pulmonary impairment was detected by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, lung mechanics, wet/dry weight ratio, and arterial blood gas analysis. Plasma and lung content of ghrelin was examined by ELISA, and mRNA expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Protein levels were detected by western blot. Rats with OA treatment showed significant pulmonary injury, edema, inflammatory cellular infiltration, cytokine release, hypoxia and CO 2 retention as compared with controls. Plasma and pulmonary content of ghrelin was reduced in rats with ALI, and mRNA expression was downregulated. Ghrelin (10nmol/kg) treatment ameliorated the above symptoms, but treatment with the ghrelin antagonists D-Lys 3 GHRP-6 (1μmol/kg) and JMV 2959 (6mg/kg) exacerbated the symptoms. ERS induced by OA was prevented by ghrelin and augmented by ghrelin antagonist treatment. The ERS inducer, tunicamycin (Tm) prevented the ameliorative effect of ghrelin on ALI. The decreased ratio of p-Akt and Akt induced by OA was improved by ghrelin treatment, and was further exacerbated by ghrelin antagonists. Ghrelin protects against ALI by inhibiting ERS. These results provide a new target for prevention and therapy of ALI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. CHBPR: ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM STRESS CONTRIBUTES TO AORTIC STIFFENING VIA PRO-APOPTOTIC AND FIBROTIC SIGNALING MECHANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Spitler, Kathryn M.; Webb, R. Clinton

    2014-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis and collagen synthesis contributes to aortic stiffening. A cellular signaling mechanism contributing to apoptotic and fibrotic events is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In this study we tested the hypothesis that induction of ER stress in a normotensive rat would cause pro-fibrotic and apoptotic signaling contributing to aortic stiffening. Furthermore, we hypothesized that inhibition of ER stress in an angiotensin II (Ang II) model of hypertension would improve aortic stiffening. Induction of ER stress with tunicamycin (TM) in normotensive Sprague Dawley rats (SD, 10 µg/kg/day, osmotic pump, 28 days) caused an increase in systolic blood pressure (mmHg; 160 ± 5) compared to vehicle-treated (127 ± 3) or TM-treated rats that were co-treated with ER stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyic acid (PBA, 100 mg/kg/day, 28 days, (124 ± 6)). There was an increase in aortic apoptosis (fold; 3.0±0.3), collagen content (1.4±0.1) and fibrosis (2.0±0.1) in the TM-treated rats compared to vehicle-treated rats. Inhibition of ER stress in male SD rats given Ang II (60 ng/min, osmotic pump, 28 days) and treated with either tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) or PBA (100 mg/kg/day, i.p., 28 days) led to a 20 mmHg decrease in blood pressure with either inhibitor, compared to Ang II treatment alone. Aortic apoptosis, increased collagen content and fibrosis in Ang II-treated rats were attenuated with ER stress inhibition. We conclude that ER stress is a new signaling mechanism contributing to aortic stiffening via promoting apoptosis and fibrosis. PMID:24379182

  8. Protective effects of 4-phenylbutyrate derivatives on the neuronal cell death and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Mimori, Seisuke; Okuma, Yasunobu; Kaneko, Masayuki; Kawada, Koichi; Hosoi, Toru; Ozawa, Koichiro; Nomura, Yasuyuki; Hamana, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) is a terminal aromatic substituted fatty acid that has been used for the treatment of urea cycle disorders. 4-PBA possesses in vitro chemical chaperone activity and reduces the accumulation of Parkin-associated endothelin receptor-like receptor (Pael-R), which is involved in autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP). In this study, we show that terminal aromatic substituted fatty acids, including 3-phenylpropionate (3-PPA), 4-PBA, 5-phenylvaleric acid, and 6-phenylhexanoic acid, prevented the aggregation of lactalbumin and bovine serum albumin. Aggregation inhibition increased relative to the number of carbons in the fatty acids. Moreover, these compounds protected cells against ER stress-induced neuronal cell death. The cytoprotective effect correlated with the in vitro chemical chaperone activity. Similarly, cell viability decreased on treatment with tunicamycin, an ER stress inducer, and was dependent on the number of carbons in the fatty acids. Moreover, the expression of glucose-regulated proteins 94 and 78 (GRP94, 78) decreased according to the number of carbons in the fatty acids. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of these compounds on the accumulation of Pael-R in neuroblastoma cells. 3-PPA and 4-PBA significantly suppressed neuronal cell death caused by ER stress induced by the overexpression of Pael-R. Overexpressed Pael-R accumulated in the ER of cells. With 3-PPA and 4-PBA treatment, the localization of the overexpressed Pael-R shifted away from the ER to the cytoplasmic membrane. These results suggest that terminal aromatic substituted fatty acids are potential candidates for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Murine but not human basophil undergoes cell-specific proteolysis of a major endoplasmic reticulum chaperone.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bei; Staron, Matthew; Li, Zihai

    2012-01-01

    Basophil has been implicated in anti-parasite defense, allergy and in polarizing T(H)2 response. Mouse model has been commonly used to study basophil function although the difference between human and mouse basophils is underappreciated. As an essential chaperone for multiple Toll-like receptors and integrins in the endoplasmic reticulum, gp96 also participates in general protein homeostasis and in the ER unfolded protein response to ensure cell survival during stress. The roles of gp96 in basophil development are unknown. We genetically delete gp96 in mice and examined the expression of gp96 in basophils by Western blot and flow cytometry. We compared the expression pattern of gp96 between human and mouse basophils. We found that gp96 was dispensable for murine basophil development. Moreover, gp96 was cleaved by serine protease(s) in murine but not human basophils leading to accumulation of a nun-functional N-terminal ∼50 kDa fragment and striking induction of the unfolded protein response. The alteration of gp96 was unique to basophils and was not observed in any other cell types including mast cells. We also demonstrated that the ectopic expression of a mouse-specific tryptase mMCP11 does not lead to gp96 cleavage in human basophils. Our study revealed a remarkable biochemical event of gp96 silencing in murine but not human basophils, highlighting the need for caution in using mouse models to infer the function of basophils in human immune response. Our study also reveals a novel mechanism of shutting down gp96 post-translationally in regulating its function.

  10. Fluoride-elicited developmental testicular toxicity in rats: roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shun; Jiang, Chunyang; Liu, Hongliang; Guan, Zhizhong; Zeng, Qiang; Zhang, Cheng; Lei, Rongrong; Xia, Tao; Gao, Hui; Yang, Lu; Chen, Yihu; Wu, Xue; Zhang, Xiaofei; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Wang, Zhenglun; Wang, Aiguo

    2013-09-01

    Long-term excessive fluoride intake is known to be toxic and can damage a variety of organs and tissues in the human body. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fluoride-induced male reproductive toxicity are not well understood. In this study, we used a rat model to simulate the situations of human exposure and aimed to evaluate the roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammatory response in fluoride-induced testicular injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with sodium fluoride (NaF) at 25, 50 and 100mg/L via drinking water from pre-pregnancy to gestation, birth and finally to post-puberty. And then the testes of male offspring were studied at 8weeks of age. Our results demonstrated that fluoride treatment increased MDA accumulation, decreased SOD activity, and enhanced germ cell apoptosis. In addition, fluoride elevated mRNA and protein levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), inositol requiring ER-to-nucleus signal kinase 1 (IRE1), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), indicating activation of ER stress signaling. Furthermore, fluoride also induced testicular inflammation, as manifested by gene up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent manner. These were associated with marked histopathological lesions including injury of spermatogonia, decrease of spermatocytes and absence of elongated spermatids, as well as severe ultrastructural abnormalities in testes. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence that ER stress and inflammation would be novel and significant mechanisms responsible for fluoride-induced disturbance of spermatogenesis and germ cell loss in addition to oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Excessive fluoride induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and interferes enamel proteinases secretion.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Cheng; Zhao, Lijun; Sun, Dianjun

    2013-06-01

    Protein retention in the enamel layer during tooth formation is well known to be associated with dental fluorosis but the underlying mechanism is unclear. The functions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) correlate directly with secreted protein metabolism. We used an ameloblast-derived cell line to determine whether excessive amounts of fluoride cause ER stress, and whether this interferes with the secretion of enamel matrix proteinases. ER stress activates a signaling network called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Here, we used real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence to study the effect of fluoride on the expression, translation, and secretion of UPR transcription factors in ameloblast-like cells. Measurement of both the gene and protein expression of UPR transcription factors indicated that high-dose fluoride increases the expression of UPR transcription factors in a dose-dependent manner. We also used ELISA to detect and quantify the enamel proteinases secreted by ameloblasts. We found a corresponding decrease in extracellular secretion of the enamel proteinases matrix metalloproteinase-20 and kallikrein-4, after exposure to fluoride. Furthermore, correlation analysis indicated that the expression of UPR transcription factors showed a strong inverse correlation with that of enamel proteinases. The results suggest that high-dose fluoride initiates an ER stress response in ameloblasts and induces the UPR, which interferes with the synthesis and secretion of enamel proteinases. Taken together, these results suggest that excessive ingestion of fluoride during tooth formation can decrease the secretion of proteinases, thus causing protein retention in the enamel layer, indicating that the ER stress response may be responsible for dental fluorosis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Fluoride induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibits protein synthesis and secretion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ramaswamy; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Bartlett, John D

    2008-09-01

    Exposure to excessive amounts of fluoride (F(-)) causes dental fluorosis in susceptible individuals; however, the mechanism of F(-)-induced toxicity is unclear. Previously, we have shown that high-dose F(-) activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) in ameloblasts that are responsible for dental enamel formation. The UPR is a signaling pathway responsible for either alleviating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress or for inducing apoptosis of the stressed cells. In this study we determined if low-dose F(-) causes ER stress and activates the UPR, and we also determined whether F(-) interferes with the secretion of proteins from the ER. We stably transfected the ameloblast-derived LS8 cell line with secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) and determined activity and localization of SEAP and F(-)-mediated induction of UPR proteins. Also, incisors from mice given drinking water containing various concentrations of F(-) were examined for eucaryotic initiation factor-2, subunit alpha (eIF2alpha) phosphorylation. We found that F(-) decreases the extracellular secretion of SEAP in a linear, dose-dependent manner. We also found a corresponding increase in the intracellular accumulation of SEAP after exposure to F(-). These changes are associated with the induction of UPR proteins such as the molecular chaperone BiP and phosphorylation of the UPR sensor PKR-like ER kinase, and its substrate, eIF2alpha. Importantly, F(-)-induced phosphorylation of eIF2alphawas confirmed in vivo. These data suggest that F(-) initiates an ER stress response in ameloblasts that interferes with protein synthesis and secretion. Consequently, ameloblast function during enamel development may be impaired, and this may culminate in dental fluorosis.

  13. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Mediates the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ethyl Pyruvate in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Wei; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Dajun; Yang, Honggang; Geng, Ting; Xing, Jianzhou; Zhang, Yu; Tan, Songtao; Yi, Dinghua

    2014-01-01

    Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a simple aliphatic ester of the metabolic intermediate pyruvate that has been demonstrated to be a potent anti-inflammatory agent in a variety of in vivo and in vitro model systems. However, the protective effects and mechanisms underlying the actions of EP against endothelial cell (EC) inflammatory injury are not fully understood. Previous studies have confirmed that endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) plays an important role in regulating the pathological process of EC inflammation. In this study, our aim was to explore the effects of EP on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced inflammatory injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore the role of ERS in this process. TNF-α treatment not only significantly increased the adhesion of monocytes to HUVECs and inflammatory cytokine (sICAM1, sE-selectin, MCP-1 and IL-8) production in cell culture supernatants but it also increased ICAM and MMP9 protein expression in HUVECs. TNF-α also effectively increased the ERS-related molecules in HUVECs (GRP78, ATF4, caspase12 and p-PERK). EP treatment effectively reversed the effects of the TNF-α-induced adhesion of monocytes on HUVECs, inflammatory cytokines and ERS-related molecules. Furthermore, thapsigargin (THA, an ERS inducer) attenuated the protective effects of EP against TNF-α-induced inflammatory injury and ERS. The PERK siRNA treatment not only inhibited ERS-related molecules but also mimicked the protective effects of EP to decrease TNF-α-induced inflammatory injury. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time that EP can effectively reduce vascular endothelial inflammation and that this effect at least in part depends on the attenuation of ERS. PMID:25470819

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum stress as a novel mechanism in amiodarone-induced destructive thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Angela; Inabnet, William Barlow; Owen, Randall; Farenholtz, Kaitlyn Ellen; Tomer, Yaron

    2015-01-01

    Amiodarone (AMIO) is one of the most effective antiarrhythmic drugs available; however, its use is limited by a serious side effect profile, including thyroiditis. The mechanisms underlying AMIO thyroid toxicity have been elusive; thus, identification of novel approaches in order to prevent thyroiditis is essential in patients treated with AMIO. Our aim was to evaluate whether AMIO treatment could induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in human thyroid cells and the possible implications of this effect in AMIO-induced destructive thyroiditis. Here we report that AMIO, but not iodine, significantly induced the expression of ER stress markers including Ig heavy chain-binding protein (BiP), phosphoeukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and spliced X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1) in human thyroid ML-1 cells and human primary thyrocytes. In both experimental systems AMIO down-regulated thyroglobulin (Tg) protein but had little effect on Tg mRNA levels, suggesting a mechanism involving Tg protein degradation. Indeed, pretreatment with the specific proteasome inhibitor MG132 reversed AMIO-induced down-regulation of Tg protein levels, confirming a proteasome-dependent degradation of Tg protein. Corroborating our findings, pretreatment of ML-1 cells and human primary thyrocytes with the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid completely prevented the effect of AMIO on both ER stress induction and Tg down-regulation. We identified ER stress as a novel mechanism contributing to AMIO-induced destructive thyroiditis. Our data establish that AMIO-induced ER stress impairs Tg expression via proteasome activation, providing a valuable therapeutic avenue for the treatment of AMIO-induced destructive thyroiditis.

  15. Bortezomib initiates endoplasmic reticulum stress, elicits autophagy and death in Echinococcus granulosus larval stage.

    PubMed

    Nicolao, María Celeste; Loos, Julia A; Rodriguez Rodrigues, Christian; Beas, Viviana; Cumino, Andrea C

    2017-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a worldwide distributed helminthic zoonosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Benzimidazole derivatives are currently the only drugs for chemotherapeutic treatment of CE. However, their low efficacy and the adverse effects encourage the search for new therapeutic targets. We evaluated the in vitro efficacy of Bortezomib (Bz), a proteasome inhibitor, in the larval stage of the parasite. After 96 h, Bz showed potent deleterious effects at a concentration of 5 μM and 0.5 μM in protoscoleces and metacestodes, respectively (P < 0.05). After 48 h of exposure to this drug, it was triggered a mRNA overexpression of chaperones (Eg-grp78 and Eg-calnexin) and of Eg-ire2/Eg-xbp1 (the conserved UPR pathway branch) in protoscoleces. No changes were detected in the transcriptional expression of chaperones in Bz-treated metacestodes, thus allowing ER stress to be evident and viability to highly decrease in comparison with protoscoleces. We also found that Bz treatment activated the autophagic process in both larval forms. These facts were evidenced by the increase in the amount of transcripts of the autophagy related genes (Eg-atg6, Eg-atg8, Eg-atg12, Eg-atg16) together with the increase in Eg-Atg8-II detected by western blot and by in toto immunofluorescence labeling. It was further confirmed by direct observation of autophagic structures by electronic microscopy. Finally, in order to determine the impact of autophagy induction on Echinococcus cell viability, we evaluated the efficacy of Bz in combination with rapamycin and a synergistic cytotoxic effect on protoscolex viability was observed when both drugs were used together. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that Bz induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy and subsequent death allowing to identify unstudied parasite-host pathways that could provide a new insight for control of parasitic diseases.

  16. Impact of scavenging hydrogen peroxide in the endoplasmic reticulum for β cell function.

    PubMed

    Lortz, S; Lenzen, S; Mehmeti, I

    2015-08-01

    Oxidative folding of nascent proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), catalysed by one or more members of the protein disulfide isomerase family and the sulfhydryl oxidase ER oxidoreductin 1 (ERO1), is accompanied by generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Because of the high rate of insulin biosynthesis and the low expression of H2O2-inactivating enzymes in pancreatic β cells, it has been proposed that the luminal H2O2 concentration might be very high. As the role of this H2O2 in ER stress and proinsulin processing is still unsolved, an ER-targeted and luminal-active catalase variant, ER-Catalase N244, was expressed in insulin-secreting INS-1E cells. In these cells, the influence of ER-specific H2O2 removal on cytokine-mediated cytotoxicity and ER stress, insulin gene expression, insulin content and secretion was analysed. The expression of ER-Catalase N244 reduced the toxicity of exogenously added H2O2 significantly with a threefold increase of the EC50 value for H2O2. However, the expression of cytokine-induced ER stress genes and viability after incubation with β cell toxic cytokines (IL1β alone or together with TNFα+IFNγ) was not affected by ER-Catalase N244. In control and ER-Catalase N244 expressing cells, insulin secretion and proinsulin content was identical, while removal of luminal H2O2 reduced insulin gene expression and insulin content in ER-Catalase N244 expressing cells. These data show that ER-Catalase N244 reduced H2O2 toxicity but did not provide protection against pro-inflammatory cytokine-mediated toxicity and ER stress. Insulin secretion was not affected by decreasing H2O2 in the ER in spite of a reduced insulin transcription and processing. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. The Batten disease gene CLN3 confers resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by tunicamycin

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Dan, E-mail: danw@bjmu.edu.cn; Liu, Jing; Wu, Baiyan

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • The work reveals a protective properties of CLN3 towards TM-induced apoptosis. • CLN3 regulates expression of the GRP78 and the CHOP in response to the ER stress. • CLN3 plays a specific role in the ERS response. - Abstract: Mutations in CLN3 gene cause juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL or Batten disease), an early-onset neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by the accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin within lysosomes. The function of the CLN3 protein remains unclear and is presumed to be related to Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To investigate the function of CLN3 in the ER stress signaling pathway,more » we measured proliferation and apoptosis in cells transfected with normal and mutant CLN3 after treatment with the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (TM). We found that overexpression of CLN3 was sufficient in conferring increased resistance to ER stress. Wild-type CLN3 protected cells from TM-induced apoptosis and increased cell proliferation. Overexpression of wild-type CLN3 enhanced expression of the ER chaperone protein, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), and reduced expression of the proapoptotic protein CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). In contrast, overexpression of mutant CLN3 or siRNA knockdown of CLN3 produced the opposite effect. Together, our data suggest that the lack of CLN3 function in cells leads to a failure of management in the response to ER stress and this may be the key deficit in JNCL that causes neuronal degeneration.« less

  18. Modulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Controls CD4+ T-cell Activation and Antitumor Function.

    PubMed

    Thaxton, Jessica E; Wallace, Caroline; Riesenberg, Brian; Zhang, Yongliang; Paulos, Chrystal M; Beeson, Craig C; Liu, Bei; Li, Zihai

    2017-08-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an energy-sensing organelle with intimate ties to programming cell activation and metabolic fate. T-cell receptor (TCR) activation represents a form of acute cell stress and induces mobilization of ER Ca 2+ stores. The role of the ER in programming T-cell activation and metabolic fate remains largely undefined. Gp96 is an ER protein with functions as a molecular chaperone and Ca 2+ buffering protein. We hypothesized that the ER stress response may be important for CD4 + T-cell activation and that gp96 may be integral to this process. To test our hypothesis, we utilized genetic deletion of the gp96 gene Hsp90b1 in a CD4 + T cell-specific manner. We show that gp96-deficient CD4 + T cells cannot undergo activation-induced glycolysis due to defective Ca 2+ mobilization upon TCR engagement. We found that activating naïve CD4 + T cells while inhibiting ER Ca 2+ exchange, through pharmacological blockade of the ER Ca 2+ channel inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP 3 R), led to a reduction in cytosolic Ca 2+ content and generated a pool of CD62L high /CD44 low CD4 + T cells compared with wild-type (WT) matched controls. In vivo IP 3 R-inhibited CD4 + T cells exhibited elevated tumor control above WT T cells. Together, these data show that ER-modulated cytosolic Ca 2+ plays a role in defining CD4 + T-cell phenotype and function. Factors associated with the ER stress response are suitable targets for T cell-based immunotherapies. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(8); 666-75. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Hormone regulates endometrial function via cooperation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and mTOR-autophagy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Diqi; Jiang, Tingting; Liu, Jianguo; Hong, Jin; Lin, Pengfei; Chen, Huatao; Zhou, Dong; Tang, Keqiong; Wang, Aihua; Jin, Yaping

    2017-12-05

    In ruminant, the receptive endometrium and the elongation of the hatched blastocyst are required to complete the process of implantation. However, the mechanisms regulating goat endometrial function during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy are still unclear. In this study, EECs were treated with progesterone, estradiol, and interferon-tau (IFNT). We have found that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was activated under hormones treatment. To identify the cellular mechanism of regulation of endometrial function, we investigated the effect of ER stress activator thapsigargin (TG) and inhibitor 4 phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA) on EECs. We found that TG, which activated the three branches of UPR, increased the expression of genes associated with promoting conceptus elongation and cellular attachment, significantly up-regulated the spheroid attachment rate and PGE 2 /PGF 2α ratio. 4-PBA pre-treatment inhibited UPR and inhibited promoting conceptus elongation and cellular attachment related genes, but the spheroid attachment rate and PGE 2 /PGF 2α ratio were not changed significantly. Moreover, knockdown of ATF6 via shATF6 promoted the conceptus elongation related genes, but increased the dissolution of the corpus luteum. Besides, blocking ATF6 attenuated autophagy by activating mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Moreover, rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) pre-treatment inhibited the expression of promoting conceptus elongation and increased PGE 2 /PGF 2α ratio. Taken together, our study indicated that physiological level of ER stress may contribute to early pregnancy success, and ATF6 signaling pathway cooperated with autophagy to regulate endometrial function by modulating mTOR pathway. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Protrudin regulates endoplasmic reticulum morphology and function associated with the pathogenesis of hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yutaka; Shirane, Michiko; Matsuzaki, Fumiko; Saita, Shotaro; Ohnishi, Takafumi; Nakayama, Keiichi I

    2014-05-09

    Protrudin is a membrane protein that regulates polarized vesicular trafficking in neurons. The protrudin gene (ZFYVE27) is mutated in a subset of individuals with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), and protrudin is therefore also referred to as spastic paraplegia (SPG) 33. We have now generated mice that express a transgene for dual epitope-tagged protrudin under control of a neuron-specific promoter, and we have subjected highly purified protrudin-containing complexes isolated from the brain of these mice to proteomics analysis to identify proteins that associate with protrudin. Protrudin was found to interact with other HSP-related proteins including myelin proteolipid protein 1 (SPG2), atlastin-1 (SPG3A), REEP1 (SPG31), REEP5 (similar to REEP1), Kif5A (SPG10), Kif5B, Kif5C, and reticulon 1, 3, and 4 (similar to reticulon 2, SPG12). Membrane topology analysis indicated that one of three hydrophobic segments of protrudin forms a hydrophobic hairpin domain similar to those of other SPG proteins. Protrudin was found to localize predominantly to the tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and forced expression of protrudin promoted the formation and stabilization of the tubular ER network. The protrudin(G191V) mutant, which has been identified in a subset of HSP patients, manifested an increased intracellular stability, and cells expressing this mutant showed an increased susceptibility to ER stress. Our results thus suggest that protrudin contributes to the regulation of ER morphology and function, and that its deregulation by mutation is a causative defect in HSP.

  1. In Vivo Visualization of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Retina Using the ERAI Reporter Mouse.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Marcel V; Chiang, Wei-Chieh; Kroeger, Heike; Yasumura, Douglas; Matthes, Michael T; Iwawaki, Takao; LaVail, Matthew M; Gould, Douglas B; Lin, Jonathan H

    2015-10-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates inositol requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), a key regulator of the unfolded protein response. The ER stress activated indicator (ERAI) transgenic mouse expresses a yellow fluorescent GFP variant (Venus) when IRE1 is activated by ER stress. We tested whether ERAI mice would allow for real-time longitudinal studies of ER stress in living mouse eyes. We chemically and genetically induced ER stress, and qualitatively and quantitatively studied the Venus signal by fluorescence ophthalmoscopy. We determined retinal cell types that contribute to the signal by immunohistology, and we performed molecular and biochemical assays using whole retinal lysates to assess activity of the IRE1 pathway. We found qualitative increase in vivo in fluorescence signal at sites of intravitreal tunicamycin injection in ERAI eyes, and quantitative increase in ERAI mice mated to RhoP23H mice expressing ER stress-inducing misfolded rhodopsin protein. As expected, we found that increased Venus signal arose primarily from photoreceptors in RhoP23H/+;ERAI mice. We found increased Xbp1S and XBP1s transcriptional target mRNA levels in RhoP23H/+;ERAI retinas compared to Rho+/+;ERAI retinas, and that Venus signal increased in ERAI retinas as a function of age. Fluorescence ophthalmoscopy of ERAI mice enables in vivo visualization of retinas undergoing ER stress. ER stress activated indicator mice enable identification of individual retinal cells undergoing ER stress by immunohistochemistry. ER stress activated indicator mice show higher Venus signal at older ages, likely arising from amplification of basal retinal ER stress levels by GFP's inherent stability.

  2. Non-Endoplasmic Reticulum-Based Calr (Calreticulin) Can Coordinate Heterocellular Calcium Signaling and Vascular Function.

    PubMed

    Biwer, Lauren A; Good, Miranda E; Hong, Kwangseok; Patel, Rahul K; Agrawal, Neha; Looft-Wilson, Robin; Sonkusare, Swapnil K; Isakson, Brant E

    2018-01-01

    In resistance arteries, endothelial cell (EC) extensions can make contact with smooth muscle cells, forming myoendothelial junction at holes in the internal elastic lamina (HIEL). At these HIEL, calcium signaling is tightly regulated. Because Calr (calreticulin) can buffer ≈50% of endoplasmic reticulum calcium and is expressed throughout IEL holes in small arteries, the only place where myoendothelial junctions form, we investigated the effect of EC-specific Calr deletion on calcium signaling and vascular function. We found Calr expressed in nearly every IEL hole in third-order mesenteric arteries, but not other ER markers. Because of this, we generated an EC-specific, tamoxifen inducible, Calr knockout mouse (EC Calr Δ/Δ). Using this mouse, we tested third-order mesenteric arteries for changes in calcium events at HIEL and vascular reactivity after application of CCh (carbachol) or PE (phenylephrine). We found that arteries from EC Calr Δ/Δ mice stimulated with CCh had unchanged activity of calcium signals and vasodilation; however, the same arteries were unable to increase calcium events at HIEL in response to PE. This resulted in significantly increased vasoconstriction to PE, presumably because of inhibited negative feedback. In line with these observations, the EC Calr Δ/Δ had increased blood pressure. Comparison of ER calcium in arteries and use of an ER-specific GCaMP indicator in vitro revealed no observable difference in ER calcium with Calr knockout. Using selective detergent permeabilization of the artery and inhibition of Calr translocation, we found that the observed Calr at HIEL may not be within the ER. Our data suggest that Calr specifically at HIEL may act in a non-ER dependent manner to regulate arteriolar heterocellular communication and blood pressure. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Impairment of endoplasmic reticulum is involved in β-cell dysfunction induced by microcystin-LR.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyan; Cao, Qing; He, Yaojia; Xue, Qingju; Xie, Liqiang; Yan, Yunjun

    2017-04-01

    Microcystins (MCs) widely distributed in freshwaters have posed a significant risk to human health. Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to MC-LR impairs pancreatic islet function, however, the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. In the present study, we explored the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) impairment in β-cell dysfunction caused by MC-LR. The result showed that MC-LR modified ER morphology evidenced by increased ER amount and size at low doses (15, 30 or 60 μM) and vacuolar and dilated ER ultrastructure at high doses (100 or 200 μM). Also, insulin content showed increased at 15 or 30 μM but declined at 60, 100, or 200 μM, which was highly accordant with ER morphological alteration. Transcriptomic analysis identified a number of factors and several pathways associated with ER protein processing, ER stress, apoptosis, and diabetes mellitus in the cells treated with MC-LR compared with non-treated cells. Furthermore, MC-LR-induced ER stress significantly promoted the expression of PERK/eIF2α and their downstream targets (ATF4, CHOP, and Gadd34), which indicates that PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 pathway is involved in MC-LR-induced insulin deficiency. These results suggest that ER impairment is an important contributor to MC-LR-caused β-cell failure and provide a new insight into the association between MCs contamination and the occurrence of human diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Oxidative Stress in Cell Fate Decision and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Stewart Siyan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a specialized organelle for the folding and trafficking of proteins, which is highly sensitive to changes in intracellular homeostasis and extracellular stimuli. Alterations in the protein-folding environment cause accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER that profoundly affect a variety of cellular signaling processes, including reduction–oxidation (redox) homeostasis, energy production, inflammation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a collection of adaptive signaling pathways that evolved to resolve protein misfolding and restore an efficient protein-folding environment. Recent Advances: Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been linked to ER stress and the UPR. ROS play a critical role in many cellular processes and can be produced in the cytosol and several organelles, including the ER and mitochondria. Studies suggest that altered redox homeostasis in the ER is sufficient to cause ER stress, which could, in turn, induce the production of ROS in the ER and mitochondria. Critical Issues: Although ER stress and oxidative stress coexist in many pathologic states, whether and how these stresses interact is unknown. It is also unclear how changes in the protein-folding environment in the ER cause oxidative stress. In addition, how ROS production and protein misfolding commit the cell to an apoptotic death and contribute to various degenerative diseases is unknown. Future Directions: A greater fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that preserve protein folding homeostasis and redox status will provide new information toward the development of novel therapeutics for many human diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 396–413. PMID:24702237

  5. Neuronal calcium wave propagation varies with changes in endoplasmic reticulum parameters: a computer model

    PubMed Central

    Neymotin, Samuel A.; McDougal, Robert A.; Sherif, Mohamed A.; Fall, Christopher P.; Hines, Michael L.; Lytton, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) waves provide a complement to neuronal electrical signaling, forming a key part of a neuron’s second messenger system. We developed a reaction-diffusion model of an apical dendrite with diffusible inositol triphosphate (IP3), diffusible Ca2+, IP3 receptors (IP3Rs), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ leak, and ER pump (SERCA) on ER. Ca2+ is released from ER stores via IP3Rs upon binding of IP3 and Ca2+. This results in Ca2+-induced-Ca2+-release (CICR) and increases Ca2+ spread. At least two modes of Ca2+ wave spread have been suggested: a continuous mode based on presumed relative homogeneity of ER within the cell; and a pseudo-saltatory model where Ca2+ regeneration occurs at discrete points with diffusion between them. We compared the effects of three patterns of hypothesized IP3R distribution: 1. continuous homogeneous ER, 2. hotspots with increased IP3R density (IP3R hotspots), 3. areas of increased ER density (ER stacks). All three modes produced Ca2+ waves with velocities similar to those measured in vitro (~50–90µm /sec). Continuous ER showed high sensitivity to IP3R density increases, with time to onset reduced and speed increased. Increases in SERCA density resulted in opposite effects. The measures were sensitive to changes in density and spacing of IP3R hotspots and stacks. Increasing the apparent diffusion coefficient of Ca2+ substantially increased wave speed. An extended electrochemical model, including voltage gated calcium channels and AMPA synapses, demonstrated that membrane priming via AMPA stimulation enhances subsequent Ca2+ wave amplitude and duration. Our modeling suggests that pharmacological targeting of IP3Rs and SERCA could allow modulation of Ca2+ wave propagation in diseases where Ca2+ dysregulation has been implicated. PMID:25734493

  6. Ablation of PGC1 beta prevents mTOR dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress response

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Alberto; Rodriguez-Cuenca, Sergio; Blount, Margaret; Prieur, Xavier; Barbarroja, Nuria; Fuller, Maria; Hardingham, Giles E.; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria dysfunction contributes to the pathophysiology of obesity, diabetes, neurodegeneration and ageing. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1β (PGC-1β) coordinates mitochondrial biogenesis and function as well as fatty acid metabolism. It has been suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may be one of the mechanisms linking mitochondrial dysfunction and these pathologies. Here we investigate whether PGC-1β ablation affects the ER stress response induced by specific nutritional and pharmacological challenges in the CNS. By using flow cytometry, western blot, real time PCR and several pharmacological and nutritional interventions in PGC-1β knock out and WT mice, we confirmed that PGC-1β coordinates mitochondria function in brain and reported for the first time that a) ablation of PGC-1β is associated with constitutive activation of mTORC1 pathway associated with increased basal GRP78 protein levels in hypothalamus and cortex of animals fed chow diet; and b) in animals fed chronically with high fat diet (HFD) or high protein diet (HPD), we observed a failure to appropriately induce ER stress response in the absence of PGC-1β, associated with an increase in mTOR pathway phosphorylation. This contrasted with the appropriate upregulation of ER stress response observed in wild type littermates. Additionally, inefficient in vitro induction of ER stress by thapsigargin seems result in apoptotic neuronal cell death in PGC-1β KO. Our data indicate that PGC-1β is required for a neuronal ER response to nutritional stress imposed by HFD and HPD diets and that genetic ablation of PGC-1β might increase the susceptibility to neuronal damage and cell death. PMID:22771762

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: Its Role in Disease and Novel Prospects for Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Schönthal, Axel H.

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional organelle required for lipid biosynthesis, calcium storage, and protein folding and processing. A number of physiological and pathological conditions, as well as a variety of pharmacological agents, are able to disturb proper ER function and thereby cause ER stress, which severely impairs protein folding and therefore poses the risk of proteotoxicity. Specific triggers for ER stress include, for example, particular intracellular alterations (e.g., calcium or redox imbalances), certain microenvironmental conditions (e.g., hypoglycemia, hypoxia, and acidosis), high-fat and high-sugar diet, a variety of natural compounds (e.g., thapsigargin, tunicamycin, and geldanamycin), and several prescription drugs (e.g., bortezomib/Velcade, celecoxib/Celebrex, and nelfinavir/Viracept). The cell reacts to ER stress by initiating a defensive process, called the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is comprised of cellular mechanisms aimed at adaptation and safeguarding cellular survival or, in cases of excessively severe stress, at initiation of apoptosis and elimination of the faulty cell. In recent years, this dichotomic stress response system has been linked to several human diseases, and efforts are underway to develop approaches to exploit ER stress mechanisms for therapy. For example, obesity and type 2 diabetes have been linked to ER stress-induced failure of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells, and current research efforts are aimed at developing drugs that ameliorate cellular stress and thereby protect beta cell function. Other studies seek to pharmacologically aggravate chronic ER stress in cancer cells in order to enhance apoptosis and achieve tumor cell death. In the following, these principles will be presented and discussed. PMID:24278747

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum stress increases AT1R mRNA expression via TIA-1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Backlund, Michael; Paukku, Kirsi; Kontula, Kimmo K; Lehtonen, Jukka Y A

    2016-04-20

    As the formation of ribonucleoprotein complexes is a major mechanism of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) regulation, we sought to identify novel AT1R mRNA binding proteins. By affinity purification and mass spectroscopy, we identified TIA-1. This interaction was confirmed by colocalization of AT1R mRNA and TIA-1 by FISH and immunofluorescence microscopy. In immunoprecipitates of endogenous TIA- 1, reverse transcription-PCR amplified AT1R mRNA. TIA-1 has two binding sites within AT1R 3'-UTR. The binding site proximal to the coding region is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-dependent whereas the distal binding site is not. TIA-1 functions as a part of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response leading to stress granule (SG) formation and translational silencing. We and others have shown that AT1R expression is increased by ER stress-inducing factors. In unstressed cells, TIA-1 binds to AT1R mRNA and decreases AT1R protein expression. Fluorescence microscopy shows that ER stress induced by thapsigargin leads to the transfer of TIA-1 to SGs. In FISH analysis AT1R mRNA remains in the cytoplasm and no longer colocalizes with TIA-1. Thus, release of TIA-1-mediated suppression by ER stress increases AT1R protein expression. In conclusion, AT1R mRNA is regulated by TIA-1 in a ER stress-dependent manner. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Protein disulfide isomerases in the endoplasmic reticulum promote anchorage-independent growth of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wise, Randi; Duhachek-Muggy, Sara; Qi, Yue; Zolkiewski, Michal; Zolkiewska, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Metastatic breast cancer cells are exposed to stress of detachment from the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cultured breast cancer cells that survive this stress and are capable of anchorage-independent proliferation form mammospheres. The purpose of this study was to explore a link between mammosphere growth, ECM gene expression, and the protein quality control system in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We compared the mRNA and protein levels of ER folding factors in SUM159PT and MCF10DCIS.com breast cancer cells grown as mammospheres versus adherent conditions. Publicly available gene expression data for mammospheres formed by primary breast cancer cells and for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were analyzed to assess the status of ECM/ER folding factor genes in clinically relevant samples. Knock-down of selected protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family members was performed to examine their roles in SUM159PT mammosphere growth. We found that cells grown as mammospheres had elevated expression of ECM genes and ER folding quality control genes. CTC gene expression data for an index patient indicated that upregulation of ECM and ER folding factor genes occurred at the time of acquired therapy resistance and disease progression. Knock-down of PDI, ERp44, or ERp57, three members of the PDI family with elevated protein levels in mammospheres, in SUM159PT cells partially inhibited the mammosphere growth. Thus, breast cancer cell survival and growth under detachment conditions require enhanced assistance of the ER protein folding machinery. Targeting ER folding factors, in particular members of the PDI family, may improve the therapeutic outcomes in metastatic breast cancer.

  10. Protective effect of catechin in type I Gaucher disease cells by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yea-Jin; Kim, Sung-Jo, E-mail: sungjo@hoseo.edu; Heo, Tae-Hwe, E-mail: thhur92@catholic.ac.kr

    Highlights: {yields} Catechin reduces the expression level of ER stress marker protein in type I Gaucher disease cells. {yields} Catechin induces the proliferation rate of GD cells similar levels to normal cells. {yields} Catechin improves wound healing activity. {yields} Catechin-mediated reductions in ER stress may be associated with enhanced cell survival. {yields} We identified catechin as a protective agent against ER stress in GD cells. -- Abstract: Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) and is divided into three phenotypes, I, II, and III. Type I is the most prevalent form and has its onset inmore » adulthood. The degree of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is one of the factors that determine GD severity. It has recently been reported that antioxidants reduce ER stress and apoptosis by scavenging the oxidants that cause oxidative stress. For this report, we investigated the possibility that catechin can act on type I GD patient cells to alleviate the pathogenic conditions of GD. We treated GD cells with catechin and examined the expression level of GRP78/BiP (an ER stress marker) by western blots and fluorescence microscopy, the proliferation rate of GD cells, and scratch-induced wound healing activity. Our results show that catechin reduces the expression level of GRP78/BiP, leads to cell proliferation rates of GD cells similar levels to normal cells, and improves wound healing activity. We conclude that catechin protects against ER stress in GD cells and catechin-mediated reductions in ER stress may be associated with enhanced cell survival.« less

  11. XBP-1 Regulates a Subset of Endoplasmic Reticulum Resident Chaperone Genes in the Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ann-Hwee; Iwakoshi, Neal N.; Glimcher, Laurie H.

    2003-01-01

    The mammalian unfolded protein response (UPR) protects the cell against the stress of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have investigated here the contribution of the UPR transcription factors XBP-1, ATF6α, and ATF6β to UPR target gene expression. Gene profiling of cell lines lacking these factors yielded several XBP-1-dependent UPR target genes, all of which appear to act in the ER. These included the DnaJ/Hsp40-like genes, p58IPK, ERdj4, and HEDJ, as well as EDEM, protein disulfide isomerase-P5, and ribosome-associated membrane protein 4 (RAMP4), whereas expression of BiP was only modestly dependent on XBP-1. Surprisingly, given previous reports that enforced expression of ATF6α induced a subset of UPR target genes, cells deficient in ATF6α, ATF6β, or both had minimal defects in upregulating UPR target genes by gene profiling analysis, suggesting the presence of compensatory mechanism(s) for ATF6 in the UPR. Since cells lacking both XBP-1 and ATF6α had significantly impaired induction of select UPR target genes and ERSE reporter activation, XBP-1 and ATF6α may serve partially redundant functions. No UPR target genes that required ATF6β were identified, nor, in contrast to XBP-1 and ATF6α, did the activity of the UPRE or ERSE promoters require ATF6β, suggesting a minor role for it during the UPR. Collectively, these results suggest that the IRE1/XBP-1 pathway is required for efficient protein folding, maturation, and degradation in the ER and imply the existence of subsets of UPR target genes as defined by their dependence on XBP-1. Further, our observations suggest the existence of additional, as-yet-unknown, key regulators of the UPR. PMID:14559994

  12. Obesity-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress suppresses nuclear factor-Y expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yulan; Zhang, Yuwei; Zhang, Yanjie; Zhang, Jinlong; Liu, Yin; Feng, Peiqun; Su, Zhiguang

    2017-02-01

    Nuclear transcription factor Y (NF-Y) is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor composed of three subunits, NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC. NF-Y plays crucial roles in pre-adipocyte maintenance and/or commitment to adipogenesis. NF-YA dysfunction in adipocyte resulted in an age-dependent progressive loss of adipose tissue associated with metabolic complications. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as an important mediator in the pathogenesis of obesity. However, it is not known if NF-YA is involved in the ER stress-mediated pathogenesis of obesity. We first examined the effects of ER stress on the NF-YA expression in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes; then in ob/ob genetic obesity mice, we tested the effect of chemical chaperones alleviating ER stress on the expression levels of NF-YA. Subsequently, we inhibited the new mRNA synthesis using actinomycin D in 3T3-L1 cells to explore the mechanism modulating NF-YA expression. Finally, we evaluated the involvement of PPARg in the regulation of NF-YA expression by ER stress. We demonstrated that both obesity- and chemical chaperone -induced ER stress suppressed NF-YA expression and alleviation of ER stress by chemical chaperone could recover NF-YA expression in ob/ob mice. Moreover, we showed that ER stress suppressed NF-YA mRNA transcription through the involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARg). Activation of PPARg ameliorates the ER stress-induced NF-YA suppression. Our findings may point to a possible role of NF-YA in stress conditions that occur in chronic obesity, ER stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity through NF-YA depletion.

  13. Revisiting PC1/3 Mutants: Dominant-Negative Effect of Endoplasmic Reticulum-Retained Mutants.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Elias H; Ramos-Molina, Bruno; Lindberg, Iris

    2015-10-01

    Prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3), encoded by the gene PCSK1, is critical for peptide hormone synthesis. An increasing number of studies have shown that inactivating mutations in PCSK1 are correlated with endocrine pathologies ranging from intestinal dysfunction to morbid obesity, whereas the common nonsynonymous polymorphisms rs6232 (N221D) and rs6234-rs6235 (Q665E-S690T) are highly associated with obesity risk. In this report, we revisited the biochemical and cellular properties of PC1/3 variants in the context of a wild-type PC1/3 background instead of the S357G hypermorph background used for all previous studies. In the wild-type background the PC1/3 N221D variant exhibited 30% lower enzymatic activity in a fluorogenic assay than wild-type PC1/3; this inhibition was greater than that detected in an equivalent experiment using the PC1/3 S357G background. A PC1/3 variant with the linked carboxyl-terminal polymorphisms Q665E-S690T did not show this difference. We also analyzed the biochemical properties of 2 PC1/3 mutants, G209R and G593R, which are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and studied their effects on wild-type PC1/3. The expression of ER-retained mutants induced ER stress markers and also resulted in dominant-negative blockade of wild-type PC1/3 prodomain cleavage and decreased expression of wild-type PC1/3, suggesting facilitation of the entry of wild-type protein to a degradative proteasomal pathway. Dominant-negative effects of PC1/3 mutations on the expression and maturation of wild-type protein, with consequential effects on PC1/3 availability, add a new element which must be considered in population and clinical studies of this gene.

  14. ASMASE IS REQUIRED FOR CHRONIC ALCOHOL INDUCED HEPATIC ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM STRESS AND MITOCHONDRIAL CHOLESTEROL LOADING

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Anna; Matias, Núria; Fucho, Raquel; Ribas, Vicente; Von Montfort, Claudia; Nuño, Natalia; Baulies, Anna; Martinez, Laura; Tarrats, Núria; Mari, Montserrat; Colell, Anna; Morales, Albert; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Mathurin, Philippe; Bataller, Ramón; Caballeria, Joan; Elena, Montserrat; Balsinde, Jesus; Kaplowitz, Neil; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernandez-Checa, Jose C.

    2013-01-01

    Background & aims The pathogenesis of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) is poorly understood. Here, we examined the role of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) in alcohol induced hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a key mechanism of ALD Methods We examined ER stress, lipogenesis, hyperhomocysteinemia, mitochondrial cholesterol (mChol) trafficking and susceptibility to LPS and concanavalin-A in ASMase−/− mice fed alcohol. Results Alcohol feeding increased SREBP-1c, DGAT-2 and FAS mRNA in ASMase+/+ but not in ASMase−/− mice. Compared to ASMase+/+ mice, ASMase−/− mice exhibited decreased expression of ER stress markers induced by alcohol, but the level of tunicamycin-mediated upregulation of ER stress markers and steatosis was similar in both types of mice. The increase in homocysteine levels induced by alcohol feeding was comparable in both ASMase+/+ mice and ASMase−/− mice. Exogenous ASMase, but not neutral SMase, induced ER stress by perturbing ER Ca2+ homeostasis. Moreover, alcohol-induced mChol loading and StARD1 overexpression were blunted in ASMase−/− mice. Tunicamycin upregulated StARD1 expression and this outcome was abrogated by tauroursodeoxycholic acid. Alcohol-induced liver injury and sensitization to LPS and concanavalin-A were prevented in ASMase−/− mice. These effects were reproduced in alcohol-fed TNFR1/R2−/− mice. Moreover, ASMase does not impair hepatic regeneration following partial hepatectomy. Of relevance, liver samples from patients with alcoholic hepatitis exhibited increased expression of ASMase, StARD1 and ER stress markers. Conclusion Our data indicate that ASMase is critical for alcohol-induced ER stress, and provide a rationale for further clinical investigation in ALD. PMID:23707365

  15. Endoplasmic reticulum factor ERLIN2 regulates cytosolic lipid content in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guohui; Zhang, Xuebao; Lee, Jin-Sook; Wang, Xiaogang; Yang, Zeng-Quan; Zhang, Kezhong

    2013-01-01

    Increased de novo lipogenesis is a hallmark of aggressive cancers. Lipid droplets, the major form of cytosolic lipid storage, have been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Recently, we identified the ERLIN2 [ER (endoplasmic reticulum) lipid raft-associated 2) gene that is amplified and overexpressed in aggressive human breast cancer. Previous studies demonstrated that ERLIN2 plays a supporting oncogenic role by facilitating the transformation of human breast cancer cells. In the present study, we found that ERLIN2 supports cancer cell growth by regulating cytosolic lipid droplet production. ERLIN2 is preferably expressed in human breast cancer cells or hepatoma cells and is inducible by insulin signalling or when cells are cultured in lipoprotein-deficient medium. Increased expression of ERLIN2 promotes the accumulation of cytosolic lipid droplets in breast cancer cells or hepatoma cells in response to insulin or overload of unsaturated fatty acids. ERLIN2 regulates activation of SREBP (sterol regulatory element-binding protein) 1c, the key regulator of de novo lipogenesis, in cancer cells. ERLIN2 was found to bind to INSIG1 (insulin-induced gene 1), a key ER membrane protein that blocks SREBP activation. Consistent with the role of ERLIN2 in regulating cytosolic lipid content, down-regulation of ERLIN2 in breast cancer or hepatoma cells led to lower cell proliferation rates. The present study revealed a novel role for ERLIN2 in supporting cancer cell growth by promoting the activation of the key lipogenic regulator SREBP1c and the production of cytosolic lipid droplets. The identification of ERLIN2 as a regulator of cytosolic lipid content in cancer cells has important implications for understanding the molecular basis of tumorigenesis and the treatment of cancer. PMID:22690709

  16. Inhibition of Nogo-B promotes cardiac hypertrophy via endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Junli; Wu, Wenchao; Xin, Yanguo; Zhao, Mingyue; Liu, Xiaojing

    2018-05-14

    Nogo-B is a key endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein that regulates ER stress signaling. However, its role in cardiac hypertrophy remains poorly understood. ER stress is interrelated with autophagy in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. Therefore, we aimed to test the hypothesis that both ER stress and autophagy signaling mediate the function of Nogo-B in cardiac hypertrophy. Rat models of transverse aortic constriction (TAC), neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) stimulated with norepinephrine (Ne) and primary cardiac fibroblasts treated with transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) were used in this study. The expression of Nogo-B and markers of ER stress were determined by quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence. Autophagy was measured by monitoring autophagic flux. Specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) of Nogo-B was transfected to investigate the role of Nogo-B in regulating cardiac hypertrophy. In TAC-induced hypertrophic heart tissues, Ne-treated hypertrophic cardiomyocytes and TGF-β1-stimulated cardiac fibroblasts, the expression of Nogo-B, and markers of ER stress were significantly elevated. Impairment of autophagic flux was observed in the activated cardiac fibroblasts. Down-regulation of Nogo-B by siRNA further exacerbated Ne-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and TGF-β1-induced cardiac fibroblast activation. Gene silencing of Nogo-B promoted the activation of the ER stress pathway and the impairment of autophagic flux. Moreover, inhibition of Nogo-B activated the protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK)/activating transcriptional factor 4 (ATF4) and activating transcriptional factor 6 (ATF6) branches of ER stress pathways. These findings suggest that inhibition of Nogo-B promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiac fibroblast activation by activating the PERK/ATF4 signaling pathway and defects of autophagic flux. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Do inositol supplements enhance phosphatidylinositol supply and thus support endoplasmic reticulum function?

    PubMed

    Michell, Robert H

    2018-06-03

    This review attempts to explain why consuming extra myoinositol (Ins), an essential component of membrane phospholipids, is often beneficial for patients with conditions characterised by insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. For decades we assumed that most human diets provide an adequate Ins supply, but newer evidence suggests that increasing Ins intake ameliorates several disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome, gestational diabetes, metabolic syndrome, poor sperm development and retinopathy of prematurity. Proposed explanations often suggest functional enhancement of minor facets of Ins Biology such as insulin signalling through putative inositol-containing 'mediators', but offer no explanation for this selectivity. It is more likely that eating extra Ins corrects a deficiency of an abundant Ins-containing cell constituent, probably phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns). Much of a cell's PtdIns is in ER membranes, and an increase in ER membrane synthesis, enhancing the ER's functional capacity, is often an important part of cell responses to ER stress. This review: (a) reinterprets historical information on Ins deficiency as describing a set of events involving a failure of cells adequately to adapt to ER stress; (b) proposes that in the conditions that respond to dietary Ins there is an overstretching of Ins reserves that limits the stressed ER's ability to make the 'extra' PtdIns needed for ER membrane expansion; and (c) suggests that eating Ins supplements increases the Ins supply to Ins-deficient and ER-stressed cells, allowing them to make more PtdIns and to expand the ER membrane system and sustain ER functions.

  18. Obesity-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Causes Lung Endothelial Dysfunction and Promotes Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Guo, Zhi; Sun, Jianxin; Li, Jonathan; Kallen, Caleb B; Naik, Ulhas P; Summer, Ross

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. We recently showed that diet-induced obese mice exhibit pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced acute lung injury. Here, we demonstrate that lung endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice coincides with increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Specifically, we observed enhanced expression of the major sensors of misfolded proteins, including protein kinase R-like ER kinase, inositol-requiring enzyme α, and activating transcription factor 6, in whole lung and in primary lung endothelial cells isolated from diet-induced obese mice. Furthermore, we found that primary lung endothelial cells exposed to serum from obese mice, or to saturated fatty acids that mimic obese serum, resulted in enhanced expression of markers of ER stress and the induction of other biological responses that typify the lung endothelium of diet-induced obese mice, including an increase in expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and a decrease in expression of endothelial cell-cell junctional proteins. Similar changes were observed in lung endothelial cells and in whole-lung tissue after exposure to tunicamycin, a compound that causes ER stress by blocking N-linked glycosylation, indicating that ER stress causes endothelial dysfunction in the lung. Treatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical protein chaperone that reduces ER stress, restored vascular endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules and protected against LPS-induced acute lung injury in diet-induced obese mice. Our work indicates that fatty acids in obese serum induce ER stress in the pulmonary endothelium, leading to pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction. Our work suggests that reducing protein load in the ER of pulmonary endothelial cells might protect against acute respiratory distress syndrome in obese

  19. Chemical chaperones reduce endoplasmic reticulum stress and prevent mutant HFE aggregate formation.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Sérgio F; Picarote, Gonçalo; Fleming, John V; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria; Azevedo, Jorge E; de Sousa, Maria

    2007-09-21

    HFE C282Y, the mutant protein associated with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), fails to acquire the correct conformation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is targeted for degradation. We have recently shown that an active unfolded protein response (UPR) is present in the cells of patients with HH. Now, by using HEK 293T cells, we demonstrate that the stability of HFE C282Y is influenced by the UPR signaling pathway that promotes its degradation. Treatment of HFE C282Y-expressing cells with tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a bile acid derivative with chaperone properties, or with the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA) impeded the UPR activation. However, although TUDCA led to an increased stability of the mutant protein, 4PBA contributed to a more efficient disposal of HFE C282Y to the degradation route. Fluorescence microscopy and biochemical analysis of the subcellular localization of HFE revealed that a major portion of the C282Y mutant protein forms intracellular aggregates. Although neither TUDCA nor 4PBA restored the correct folding and intracellular trafficking of HFE C282Y, 4PBA prevented its aggregation. These data suggest that TUDCA hampers the UPR activation by acting directly on its signal transduction pathway, whereas 4PBA suppresses ER stress by chemically enhancing the ER capacity to cope with the expression of misfolded HFE, facilitating its degradation. Together, these data shed light on the molecular mechanisms involved in HFE C282Y-related HH and open new perspectives on the use of orally active chemical chaperones as a therapeutic approach for HH.

  20. Seawater inhalation induces acute lung injury via ROS generation and the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng-Cheng; Wang, Bo-Rong; Li, Cong-Cong; Lu, Xi; Qian, Wei-Sheng; Li, Yu-Juan; Jin, Fa-Guang; Mu, De-Guang

    2018-05-01

    Seawater (SW) inhalation can induce acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In the present study, SW induced apoptosis of rat alveolar epithelial cells and histopathological alterations to lung tissue. Furthermore, SW administration increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas pretreatment with the ROS scavenger, N‑acetyl‑L‑cysteine (NAC), significantly decreased ROS generation, apoptosis and histopathological alterations. In addition, SW exposure upregulated the expression levels of glucose‑regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), which are critical proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, thus indicating that SW may activate ER stress. Conversely, blocking ER stress with 4‑phenylbutyric acid (4‑PBA) significantly improved SW‑induced apoptosis and histopathological alterations, whereas an ER stress inducer, thapsigargin, had the opposite effect. Furthermore, blocking ROS with NAC inhibited SW‑induced ER stress, as evidenced by the downregulation of GRP78, phosphorylated (p)‑protein kinase R‑like ER kinase (PERK), p‑inositol‑requiring kinase 1α (IRE1α), p‑50 activating transcription factor 6α and CHOP. In addition, blocking ER stress with 4‑PBA decreased ROS generation. In conclusion, the present study indicated that ROS and ER stress pathways, which are involved in alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis, are important in the pathogenesis of SW‑induced ALI.

  1. Chronic Kidney Disease Exacerbates Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junjie; Zhu, Jianbing; Ma, Leilei; Shi, Hongtao; Hu, Jiachang; Zhang, Shuning; Hou, Lei; Xu, Fengqiang; An, Yi; Yu, Haichu; Ge, Junbo

    2018-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is known to exacerbate myocardial ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. Despite various strategies for cardioprotection, limited studies have been focused on the prevention of CKD-induced myocardial susceptibility to IR injury. Here, we hypothesized that excessive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis involved in myocardial IR injury in CKD mice and pretreatment with chemical ER chaperone rendered the heart resistant to myocardial IR injury in the setting of CKD. CKD was induced by 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy (SN) in mice, whereas sham-operated mice served as control (Sham). CKD significantly aggravated the cardiac injury after IR in SN group than Sham group as reflected by more severe cardiac dysfunction, increased myocardial infarct size and the ratio of myocardial apoptosis. The expression of ER stress-mediated apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), caspase-12) was markedly upregulated after IR injury in SN group than Sham group, whereas the expression of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, was obviously downregulated. In addition, the chemical ER chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA) pretreatment ameliorated cardiac dysfunction and lessened the infarct size and myocardial apoptosis after IR injury in mice with CKD. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that excessive activation of ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway involved in the CKD-induced myocardial susceptibility to IR injury, and chemical ER chaperone 4PBA alleviated myocardial IR injury in mice with CKD.

  2. Bortezomib initiates endoplasmic reticulum stress, elicits autophagy and death in Echinococcus granulosus larval stage

    PubMed Central

    Nicolao, María Celeste; Loos, Julia A.; Rodriguez Rodrigues, Christian; Beas, Viviana

    2017-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a worldwide distributed helminthic zoonosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Benzimidazole derivatives are currently the only drugs for chemotherapeutic treatment of CE. However, their low efficacy and the adverse effects encourage the search for new therapeutic targets. We evaluated the in vitro efficacy of Bortezomib (Bz), a proteasome inhibitor, in the larval stage of the parasite. After 96 h, Bz showed potent deleterious effects at a concentration of 5 μM and 0.5 μM in protoscoleces and metacestodes, respectively (P < 0.05). After 48 h of exposure to this drug, it was triggered a mRNA overexpression of chaperones (Eg-grp78 and Eg-calnexin) and of Eg-ire2/Eg-xbp1 (the conserved UPR pathway branch) in protoscoleces. No changes were detected in the transcriptional expression of chaperones in Bz-treated metacestodes, thus allowing ER stress to be evident and viability to highly decrease in comparison with protoscoleces. We also found that Bz treatment activated the autophagic process in both larval forms. These facts were evidenced by the increase in the amount of transcripts of the autophagy related genes (Eg-atg6, Eg-atg8, Eg-atg12, Eg-atg16) together with the increase in Eg-Atg8-II detected by western blot and by in toto immunofluorescence labeling. It was further confirmed by direct observation of autophagic structures by electronic microscopy. Finally, in order to determine the impact of autophagy induction on Echinococcus cell viability, we evaluated the efficacy of Bz in combination with rapamycin and a synergistic cytotoxic effect on protoscolex viability was observed when both drugs were used together. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that Bz induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy and subsequent death allowing to identify unstudied parasite-host pathways that could provide a new insight for control of parasitic diseases. PMID:28817601

  3. Fluoride Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Inhibits Protein Synthesis and Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ramaswamy; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Bartlett, John D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Exposure to excessive amounts of fluoride (F−) causes dental fluorosis in susceptible individuals; however, the mechanism of F−-induced toxicity is unclear. Previously, we have shown that high-dose F− activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) in ameloblasts that are responsible for dental enamel formation. The UPR is a signaling pathway responsible for either alleviating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress or for inducing apoptosis of the stressed cells. Objectives In this study we determined if low-dose F− causes ER stress and activates the UPR, and we also determined whether F− interferes with the secretion of proteins from the ER. Methods We stably transfected the ameloblast-derived LS8 cell line with secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) and determined activity and localization of SEAP and F−-mediated induction of UPR proteins. Also, incisors from mice given drinking water containing various concentrations of F− were examined for eucaryotic initiation factor-2, subunit alpha (eIF2α) phosphorylation. Results We found that F− decreases the extracellular secretion of SEAP in a linear, dose-dependent manner. We also found a corresponding increase in the intracellular accumulation of SEAP after exposure to F−. These changes are associated with the induction of UPR proteins such as the molecular chaperone BiP and phosphorylation of the UPR sensor PKR-like ER kinase, and its substrate, eIF2α. Importantly, F−-induced phosphorylation of eIF2αwas confirmed in vivo. Conclusions These data suggest that F− initiates an ER stress response in ameloblasts that interferes with protein synthesis and secretion. Consequently, ameloblast function during enamel development may be impaired, and this may culminate in dental fluorosis. PMID:18795154

  4. γ-Oryzanol protects pancreatic β-cells against endoplasmic reticulum stress in male mice.

    PubMed

    Kozuka, Chisayo; Sunagawa, Sumito; Ueda, Rei; Higa, Moritake; Tanaka, Hideaki; Shimizu-Okabe, Chigusa; Ishiuchi, Shogo; Takayama, Chitoshi; Matsushita, Masayuki; Tsutsui, Masato; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Shimabukuro, Michio; Masuzaki, Hiroaki

    2015-04-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is profoundly involved in dysfunction of β-cells under high-fat diet and hyperglycemia. Our recent study in mice showed that γ-oryzanol, a unique component of brown rice, acts as a chemical chaperone in the hypothalamus and improves feeding behavior and diet-induced dysmetabolism. However, the entire mechanism whereby γ-oryzanol improves glucose metabolism throughout the body still remains unclear. In this context, we tested whether γ-oryzanol reduces ER stress and improves function and survival of pancreatic β-cells using murine β-cell line MIN6. In MIN6 cells with augmented ER stress by tunicamycin, γ-oryzanol decreased exaggerated expression of ER stress-related genes and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α, resulting in restoration of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and prevention of apoptosis. In islets from high-fat diet-fed diabetic mice, oral administration of γ-oryzanol improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion on following reduction of exaggerated ER stress and apoptosis. Furthermore, we examined the impact of γ-oryzanol on low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, where exaggerated ER stress and resultant apoptosis in β-cells were observed. Also in this model, γ-oryzanol attenuated mRNA level of genes involved in ER stress and apoptotic signaling in islets, leading to amelioration of glucose dysmetabolism. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that γ-oryzanol directly ameliorates ER stress-induced β-cell dysfunction and subsequent apoptosis, highlighting usefulness of γ-oryzanol for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  5. Sigmar1 regulates endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced C/EBP-homologous protein expression in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Alam, Shafiul; Abdullah, Chowdhury S; Aishwarya, Richa; Orr, A Wayne; Traylor, James; Miriyala, Sumitra; Panchatcharam, Manikandan; Pattillo, Christopher B; Bhuiyan, Md Shenuarin

    2017-08-31

    C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) is a ubiquitously expressed stress-inducible transcription factor robustly induced by maladaptive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses in a wide variety of cells. Here, we examined a novel function of Sigma 1 receptor (Sigmar1) in regulating CHOP expression under ER stress in cardiomyocytes. We also defined Sigmar1-dependent activation of the adaptive ER-stress pathway in regulating CHOP expression. We used adenovirus-mediated Sigmar1 overexpression as well as Sigmar1 knockdown by siRNA in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRCs); to induce ER stress, cardiomyocytes were treated with tunicamycin. Sigmar1-siRNA knockdown significantly increased the expression of CHOP and significantly induced cellular toxicity by sustained activation of ER stress in cardiomyocytes. Sigmar1 overexpression decreased the expression of CHOP and significantly decreased cellular toxicity in cells. Using biochemical and immunocytochemical experiments, we also defined the specific ER-stress pathway associated with Sigmar1-dependent regulation of CHOP expression and cellular toxicity. We found that Sigmar1 overexpression significantly increased inositol requiring kinase 1α (IRE1α) phosphorylation and increased spliced X-box-binding proteins (XBP1s) expression as well as nuclear localization. In contrast, Sigmar1 knockdown significantly decreased IRE1α phosphorylation and decreased XBP1s expression as well as nuclear transport. Taken together, these results indicate that Sigmar1-dependent activation of IRE1α-XBP1s ER-stress response pathways are associated with inhibition of CHOP expression and suppression of cellular toxicity. Hence, Sigmar1 is an essential component of the adaptive ER-stress response pathways eliciting cellular protection in cardiomyocytes. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Sigmar1 regulates endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced C/EBP-homologous protein expression in cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Shafiul; Abdullah, Chowdhury S.; Aishwarya, Richa; Orr, A. Wayne; Traylor, James; Miriyala, Sumitra; Panchatcharam, Manikandan; Pattillo, Christopher B.

    2017-01-01

    C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) is a ubiquitously expressed stress-inducible transcription factor robustly induced by maladaptive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses in a wide variety of cells. Here, we examined a novel function of Sigma 1 receptor (Sigmar1) in regulating CHOP expression under ER stress in cardiomyocytes. We also defined Sigmar1-dependent activation of the adaptive ER-stress pathway in regulating CHOP expression. We used adenovirus-mediated Sigmar1 overexpression as well as Sigmar1 knockdown by siRNA in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRCs); to induce ER stress, cardiomyocytes were treated with tunicamycin. Sigmar1-siRNA knockdown significantly increased the expression of CHOP and significantly induced cellular toxicity by sustained activation of ER stress in cardiomyocytes. Sigmar1 overexpression decreased the expression of CHOP and significantly decreased cellular toxicity in cells. Using biochemical and immunocytochemical experiments, we also defined the specific ER-stress pathway associated with Sigmar1-dependent regulation of CHOP expression and cellular toxicity. We found that Sigmar1 overexpression significantly increased inositol requiring kinase 1α (IRE1α) phosphorylation and increased spliced X-box-binding proteins (XBP1s) expression as well as nuclear localization. In contrast, Sigmar1 knockdown significantly decreased IRE1α phosphorylation and decreased XBP1s expression as well as nuclear transport. Taken together, these results indicate that Sigmar1-dependent activation of IRE1α-XBP1s ER-stress response pathways are associated with inhibition of CHOP expression and suppression of cellular toxicity. Hence, Sigmar1 is an essential component of the adaptive ER-stress response pathways eliciting cellular protection in cardiomyocytes. PMID:28667101

  7. Hepatic ZIP14-mediated zinc transport is required for adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Hyun; Aydemir, Tolunay B.; Kim, Jinhee; Cousins, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress damages the liver, causing apoptosis and steatosis despite the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Restriction of zinc from cells can induce ER stress, indicating that zinc is essential to maintain normal ER function. However, a role for zinc during hepatic ER stress is largely unknown despite important roles in metabolic disorders, including obesity and nonalcoholic liver disease. We have explored a role for the metal transporter ZIP14 during pharmacologically and high-fat diet–induced ER stress using Zip14−/− (KO) mice, which exhibit impaired hepatic zinc uptake. Here, we report that ZIP14-mediated hepatic zinc uptake is critical for adaptation to ER stress, preventing sustained apoptosis and steatosis. Impaired hepatic zinc uptake in Zip14 KO mice during ER stress coincides with greater expression of proapoptotic proteins. ER stress-induced Zip14 KO mice show greater levels of hepatic steatosis due to higher expression of genes involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis, which are suppressed in ER stress-induced WT mice. During ER stress, the UPR-activated transcription factors ATF4 and ATF6α transcriptionally up-regulate Zip14 expression. We propose ZIP14 mediates zinc transport into hepatocytes to inhibit protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) activity, which acts to suppress apoptosis and steatosis associated with hepatic ER stress. Zip14 KO mice showed greater hepatic PTP1B activity during ER stress. These results show the importance of zinc trafficking and functional ZIP14 transporter activity for adaptation to ER stress associated with chronic metabolic disorders. PMID:28673968

  8. Focal calcium monitoring with targeted nanosensors at the cytosolic side of endoplasmic reticulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yanyan; Arai, Satoshi; Takei, Yoshiaki; Murata, Atsushi; Takeoka, Shinji; Suzuki, Madoka

    2016-01-01

    Ca2+ distribution is spatially and temporally non-uniform inside cells due to cellular compartmentalization. However, Ca2+ sensing with small organic dyes, such as fura-2 and fluo-4, has been practically applied at a single cell level where the averaged signal from freely diffusing dye molecules is acquired. In this study, we aimed to target azide-functionalized fura-2 (N3-fura-2) to a specific site of subcellular compartments to realize focal Ca2+ sensing. Using scAVD (single-chain avidin)-biotin interaction and a copper-free click reaction system, we linked N3-fura-2 to specifically-targeted scAVD protein fused with a red fluorescent protein mCherry, so that Ca2+ sensors conjugated with four N3-fura-2 dyes with dibenzocyclooctyne (DBCO)-PEG4-biotin as a linker were generated at subcellular compartments in living cells. In cytoplasm, N3-fura-2 showed a prolonged retention period after binding to scAVD. Furthermore, the reacted N3-fura-2 was retained inside cells even after free dyes were washed out by methanol fixation. When scAVD was overexpressed on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, N3-fura-2 was accumulated on ER membranes. Upon histamine stimulation, which increases cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, ER-localized N3-fura-2 successfully sensed the Ca2+ level changes at the cytosolic side of ER membrane. Our study demonstrated specific targeting of N3-fura-2 to subcellular compartments and the ability of sensing focal Ca2+ level changes with the specifically targeted Ca2+ sensors.

  9. Regulated Degradation of an Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Protein in a Tubular Lysosome in Leishmania mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Mullin, Kylie A.; Foth, Bernardo J.; Ilgoutz, Steven C.; Callaghan, Judy M.; Zawadzki, Jody L.; McFadden, Geoffrey I.; McConville, Malcolm J.

    2001-01-01

    The cell surface of the human parasite Leishmania mexicana is coated with glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored macromolecules and free GPI glycolipids. We have investigated the intracellular trafficking of green fluorescent protein- and hemagglutinin-tagged forms of dolichol-phosphate-mannose synthase (DPMS), a key enzyme in GPI biosynthesis in L. mexicana promastigotes. These functionally active chimeras are found in the same subcompartment of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as endogenous DPMS but are degraded as logarithmically growing promastigotes reach stationary phase, coincident with the down-regulation of endogenous DPMS activity and GPI biosynthesis in these cells. We provide evidence that these chimeras are constitutively transported to and degraded in a novel multivesicular tubule (MVT) lysosome. This organelle is a terminal lysosome, which is labeled with the endocytic marker FM 4-64, contains lysosomal cysteine and serine proteases and is disrupted by lysomorphotropic agents. Electron microscopy and subcellular fractionation studies suggest that the DPMS chimeras are transported from the ER to the lumen of the MVT via the Golgi apparatus and a population of 200-nm multivesicular bodies. In contrast, soluble ER proteins are not detectably transported to the MVT lysosome in either log or stationary phase promastigotes. Finally, the increased degradation of the DPMS chimeras in stationary phase promastigotes coincides with an increase in the lytic capacity of the MVT lysosome and changes in the morphology of this organelle. We conclude that lysosomal degradation of DPMS may be important in regulating the cellular levels of this enzyme and the stage-dependent biosynthesis of the major surface glycolipids of these parasites. PMID:11514622

  10. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Shilpa; Sreenivasaiah, Pradeep Kumar; Kim, Jin Ock; Lee, Mi Young; Kang, Wan Seok; Kim, Yong Sook; Ahn, Youngkeun; Park, Woo Jin; Cho, Chunghee

    2017-01-01

    Pressure overload in the heart induces pathological hypertrophy and is associated with cardiac dysfunction. Apoptosis and fibrosis signaling initiated by the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is known to contribute to these maladaptive effects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether reduction of ERS by a known chemical chaperone, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) can attenuate pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling in a mouse model of transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Oral administration of TUDCA at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight (BW) in the TUDCA-TAC group reduced ERS markers (GRP78, p-PERK, and p-eIf2α), compared to the Vehicle (Veh)-TAC group. TUDCA administration, for 4 weeks after TAC significantly reduced cardiac hypertrophy as shown by the reduced heart weight (HW) to BW ratio, and expression of hypertrophic marker genes (ANF, BNP, and α-SKA). Masson's trichrome staining showed that myocardial fibrosis and collagen deposition were also significantly reduced in the TUDCA-TAC group. We also found that TUDCA significantly decreased expression of TGF-β signaling proteins and collagen isoforms. TUDCA administration also reduced cardiac apoptosis and the related proteins in the TUDCA-TAC group. Microarray analysis followed by gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis demonstrated that extracellular matrix genes responsible for hypertrophy and fibrosis, and mitochondrial genes responsible for apoptosis and fatty acid metabolism were significantly altered in the Veh-TAC group, but the alterations were normalized in the TUDCA-TAC group, suggesting potential of TUDCA in treatment of heart diseases related to pressure-overload. PMID:28426781

  11. Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in the necroptosis of microglia/macrophages after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Fan, H; Tang, H-B; Kang, J; Shan, L; Song, H; Zhu, K; Wang, J; Ju, G; Wang, Y-Z

    2015-12-17

    Microglia/macrophages play a crucial role in inflammation after spinal cord injury (SCI). Although extensive studies have been performed on the mechanisms of microglia/macrophage activation and recruitment, how microglia/macrophages are eliminated remains unclear. In the present study, we observed a high-level expression of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), a key molecule in the execution of necroptosis, in microglia/macrophages after SCI in mice. In vivo PI-labeling and Necrostatin-1 treatment confirmed the necroptosis of microglia/macrophages. Interestingly, our electronic microscopic (EM) study revealed that MLKL localized not only at the membrane but also on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of necroptotic microglia/macrophages. Furthermore, receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3), another necrosome component, was also found on the ER of necroptotic microglia/macrophages. And Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), an ER stress sensor, was up-regulated in MLKL-positive microglia/macrophages after SCI, suggesting a possible link between necroptosis and ER stress. In vitro, oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) stress induced ER stress and necroptosis in microglia. Inhibiting ER stress by 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) significantly blocked the OGD-induced necroptosis of microglia. In the end, our data showed that, GRP78 and phosphorylated MLKL were co-expressed by the microglia/macrophages in the injured human spinal cord. Taken together, these results suggested that microglia/macrophages undergo an ER-stress involved necroptosis after SCI, implying that ER stress and necroptosis could be manipulated for modulating inflammation post-SCI. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transport and processing of the Rous sarcoma virus Gag protein in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, N K; Weldon, R A; Wills, J W

    1996-01-01

    The Gag proteins of replication-competent retroviruses direct budding at the plasma membrane and are cleaved by the viral protease (PR) just before or very soon after particle release. In contrast, defective retroviruses that bud into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) have been found, and morphologically these appear to contain uncleaved Gag proteins. From this, it has been proposed that activation of PR may depend upon a host factor found only at the plasma membrane. However, if Gag proteins were cleaved by PR before the particle could pinch off the ER membrane, then the only particles that would remain visible are those that packaged smaller-than-normal amounts of PR, and these would have an immature morphology. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, we made use of the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Gag protein, the PR of RSV IS included on each Gag molecule. To target Gag to the ER, a signal peptide was installed at its amino terminus in place of the plasma membrane-binding domain. An intervening, hydrophobic, transmembrane anchor was included to keep Gag extended into the cytoplasm. We found that PR-mediated processing occurred, although the cleavage products were rapidly degraded. When the anchor was removed, allowing the entire protein to be inserted into the lumen of the ER, Gag processing occurred with a high level of efficiency, and the cleavage products were quite stable. Thus, PR activation does not require targeting of Gag molecules to the plasma membrane. Unexpectedly, molecules lacking the transmembrane anchor were rapidly secreted from the cell in a nonmembrane-enclosed form and in a manner that was very sensitive to brefeldin A and monensin. In contrast, the wild-type RSV and Moloney murine leukemia virus Gag proteins were completely insensitive to these inhibitors, suggesting that the normal mechanism of transport to the plasma membrane does not require interactions with the secretory pathway. PMID:8627676

  13. Exposure to tributyltin induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Komoike, Yuta; Matsuoka, Masato

    2013-10-15

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a major marine contaminant and causes endocrine disruption, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of TBT have not been fully elucidated. We examined whether exposure to TBT induces the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in zebrafish, a model organism. Zebrafish-derived BRF41 fibroblast cells were exposed to 0.5 or 1 μM TBT for 0.5-16 h and subsequently lysed and immunoblotted to detect ER stress-related proteins. Zebrafish embryos, grown until 32 h post fertilization (hpf), were exposed to 1 μM TBT for 16 h and used in whole mount in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to visualize the expression of ER chaperones and an ER stress-related apoptosis factor. Exposure of the BRF41 cells to TBT caused phosphorylation of the zebrafish homolog of protein kinase RNA-activated-like ER kinase (PERK), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α), and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), characteristic splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA, and enhanced expression of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) protein. In TBT-exposed zebrafish embryos, ectopic expression of the gene encoding zebrafish homolog of the 78 kDa glucose-regulating protein (GRP78) and gene encoding CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) was detected in the precursors of the neuromast, which is a sensory organ for detecting water flow and vibration. Our in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that exposure of zebrafish to TBT induces the ER stress response via activation of both the PERK-eIF2α and IRE1-XBP1 pathways of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in an organ-specific manner. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tributyltin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and its Ca(2+)-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Isomura, Midori; Kotake, Yaichiro; Masuda, Kyoichi; Miyara, Masatsugu; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Samizo, Shigeyoshi; Sanoh, Seigo; Hosoi, Toru; Ozawa, Koichiro; Ohta, Shigeru

    2013-10-01

    Organotin compounds, especially tributyltin chloride (TBT), have been widely used in antifouling paints for marine vessels, but exhibit various toxicities in mammals. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional organelle that controls post-translational modification and intracellular Ca(2+) signaling. When the capacity of the quality control system of ER is exceeded under stress including ER Ca(2+) homeostasis disruption, ER functions are impaired and unfolded proteins are accumulated in ER lumen, which is called ER stress. Here, we examined whether TBT causes ER stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We found that 700nM TBT induced ER stress markers such as CHOP, GRP78, spliced XBP1 mRNA and phosphorylated eIF2α. TBT also decreased the cell viability both concentration- and time-dependently. Dibutyltin and monobutyltin did not induce ER stress markers. We hypothesized that TBT induces ER stress via Ca(2+) depletion, and to test this idea, we examined the effect of TBT on intracellular Ca(2+) concentration using fura-2 AM, a Ca(2+) fluorescent probe. TBT increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in a TBT-concentration-dependent manner, and Ca(2+) increase in 700nM TBT was mainly blocked by 50μM dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor antagonist (about 70% inhibition). Dantrolene also partially but significantly inhibited TBT-induced GRP78 expression and cell death. These results suggest that TBT increases intracellular Ca(2+) concentration by releasing Ca(2+) from ER, thereby causing ER stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Secretagogues differentially activate endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Kubisch, Constanze H; Logsdon, Craig D

    2007-06-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leads to the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER lumen and initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR). Components of the UPR are important in pancreatic development, and recent studies have indicated that the UPR is activated in the arginine model of acute pancreatitis. However, the effects of secretagogues on UPR components in the pancreas are unknown. The present study aimed to examine the effects of different types and concentrations of secretagogues on acinar cell function and specific components of the UPR. Rat pancreatic acini were stimulated with the CCK analogs CCK8 (10 pM-10 nM) or JMV-180 (10 nM-10 microM) or with bombesin (1-100 nM). Components of the UPR, including chaperone BiP expression, PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) phosphorylation, X box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) splicing, and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) expression, were measured, as were effects on amylase secretion and intracellular trypsin activation. CCK8 generated a biphasic secretion dose-response curve, and high concentrations increased intracellular active trypsin levels. In contrast, JMV-180 and bombesin secretion dose-response curves were monophasic, and high concentrations did not increase intracellular trypsin activity. All three secretagogues increased BiP levels and XBP1 splicing. However, only supraphysiological levels of CCK8 associated with inhibited amylase secretion and trypsin activation stimulated PERK phosphorylation and expression of CHOP. The effects of CCK8 on UPR components were rapid, occurring within 5-20 min. In conclusion, ER stress response mechanisms appear to be involved in both pancreatic physiology and pathophysiology, and future efforts should be directed at understanding the roles of these mechanisms in the pancreas.

  16. Brain ACE2 overexpression reduces DOCA-salt hypertension independently of endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    de Queiroz, Thyago Moreira; Sriramula, Srinivas; Feng, Yumei; Johnson, Tanya; Mungrue, Imran N.; Lazartigues, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was previously reported to contribute to neurogenic hypertension while neuronal angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2) overexpression blunts the disease. To assess which brain regions are important for ACE2 beneficial effects and the contribution of ER stress to neurogenic hypertension, we first used transgenic mice harboring a floxed neuronal hACE2 transgene (SL) and tested the impact of hACE2 knockdown in the subfornical organ (SFO) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) on deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. SL and nontransgenic (NT) mice underwent DOCA-salt or sham treatment while infected with an adenoassociated virus (AAV) encoding Cre recombinase (AAV-Cre) or a control virus (AAV-green fluorescent protein) to the SFO or PVN. DOCA-salt-induced hypertension was reduced in SL mice, with hACE2 overexpression in the brain. This reduction was only partially blunted by knockdown of hACE2 in the SFO or PVN, suggesting that both regions are involved but not essential for ACE2 regulation of blood pressure (BP). DOCA-salt treatment did not increase the protein levels of ER stress and autophagy markers in NT mice, despite a significant increase in BP. In addition, these markers were not affected by hACE2 overexpression in the brain, despite a significant reduction of hypertension in SL mice. To further assess the role of ER stress in neurogenic hypertension, NT mice were infused intracerebroventricularlly with tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an ER stress inhibitor, during DOCA-salt treatment. However, TUDCA infusion failed to blunt the development of hypertension in NT mice. Our data suggest that brain ER stress does not contribute to DOCA-salt hypertension and that ACE2 blunts neurogenic hypertension independently of ER stress. PMID:25519733

  17. Acrolein cytotoxicity in hepatocytes involves endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Mohammad K; Avila, Diana; Zhang, Jingwen; Barve, Shirish; Arteel, Gavin; McClain, Craig; Joshi-Barve, Swati

    2012-11-15

    Acrolein is a common environmental, food and water pollutant and a major component of cigarette smoke. Also, it is produced endogenously via lipid peroxidation and cellular metabolism of certain amino acids and drugs. Acrolein is cytotoxic to many cell types including hepatocytes; however the mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined the molecular mechanisms underlying acrolein hepatotoxicity in primary human hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. Acrolein, at pathophysiological concentrations, caused a dose-dependent loss of viability of hepatocytes. The death was apoptotic at moderate and necrotic at high concentrations of acrolein. Acrolein exposure rapidly and dramatically decreased intracellular glutathione and overall antioxidant capacity, and activated the stress-signaling MAP-kinases JNK, p42/44 and p38. Our data demonstrate for the first time in human hepatocytes, that acrolein triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activated eIF2α, ATF-3 and -4, and Gadd153/CHOP, resulting in cell death. Notably, the protective/adaptive component of ER stress was not activated, and acrolein failed to up-regulate the protective ER-chaperones, GRP78 and GRP94. Additionally, exposure to acrolein disrupted mitochondrial integrity/function, and led to the release of pro-apoptotic proteins and ATP depletion. Acrolein-induced cell death was attenuated by N-acetyl cysteine, phenyl-butyric acid, and caspase and JNK inhibitors. Our data demonstrate that exposure to acrolein induces a variety of stress responses in hepatocytes, including GSH depletion, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress (without ER-protective responses) which together contribute to acrolein toxicity. Our study defines basic mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by reactive aldehyde pollutants such as acrolein. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Metabolic Interplay between Peroxisomes and Other Subcellular Organelles Including Mitochondria and the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Waterham, Hans R.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are unique subcellular organelles which play an indispensable role in several key metabolic pathways which include: (1.) etherphospholipid biosynthesis; (2.) fatty acid beta-oxidation; (3.) bile acid synthesis; (4.) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) synthesis; (5.) fatty acid alpha-oxidation; (6.) glyoxylate metabolism; (7.) amino acid degradation, and (8.) ROS/RNS metabolism. The importance of peroxisomes for human health and development is exemplified by the existence of a large number of inborn errors of peroxisome metabolism in which there is an impairment in one or more of the metabolic functions of peroxisomes. Although the clinical signs and symptoms of affected patients differ depending upon the enzyme which is deficient and the extent of the deficiency, the disorders involved are usually (very) severe diseases with neurological dysfunction and early death in many of them. With respect to the role of peroxisomes in metabolism it is clear that peroxisomes are dependent on the functional interplay with other subcellular organelles to sustain their role in metabolism. Indeed, whereas mitochondria can oxidize fatty acids all the way to CO2 and H2O, peroxisomes are only able to chain-shorten fatty acids and the end products of peroxisomal beta-oxidation need to be shuttled to mitochondria for full oxidation to CO2 and H2O. Furthermore, NADH is generated during beta-oxidation in peroxisomes and beta-oxidation can only continue if peroxisomes are equipped with a mechanism to reoxidize NADH back to NAD+, which is now known to be mediated by specific NAD(H)-redox shuttles. In this paper we describe the current state of knowledge about the functional interplay between peroxisomes and other subcellular compartments notably the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum for each of the metabolic pathways in which peroxisomes are involved. PMID:26858947

  19. Fluorescence Dynamics in the Endoplasmic Reticulum of a Live Cell: Time-Resolved Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shirsendu; Nandi, Somen; Ghosh, Catherine; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2016-09-19

    Fluorescence dynamics in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of a live non-cancer lung cell (WI38) and a lung cancer cell (A549) are studied by using time-resolved confocal microscopy. To selectively study the organelle, ER, we have used an ER-Tracker dye. From the emission maximum (λmaxem) of the ER-Tracker dye, polarity (i.e. dielectric constant, ϵ) in the ER region of the cells (≈500 nm in WI38 and ≈510 nm in A549) is estimated to be similar to that of chloroform (λmaxem =506 nm, ϵ≈5). The red shift by 10 nm in λmaxem in the cancer cell (A549) suggests a slightly higher polarity compared to the non-cancer cell (WI38). The fluorescence intensity of the ER-Tracker dye exhibits prolonged intermittent oscillations on a timescale of 2-6 seconds for the cancer cell (A549). For the non-cancer cell (WI38), such fluorescence oscillations are much less prominent. The marked fluorescence intensity oscillations in the cancer cell are attributed to enhanced calcium oscillations. The average solvent relaxation time (<τs >) of the ER region in the lung cancer cell (A549, 250±50 ps) is about four times faster than that in the non-cancer cell (WI38, 1000±50 ps). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Clofibric acid increases the formation of oleic acid in endoplasmic reticulum of the liver of rats.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Akihiko; Yamazaki, Tohru; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Sunaga, Katsuyoshi; Tsuda, Tadashi; Mitsumoto, Atsushi; Kudo, Naomi; Kawashima, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    The effects of 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid (clofibric acid) on the formation of oleic acid (18:1) from stearic acid (18:0) and utilization of the 18:1 formed for phosphatidylcholine (PC) formation in endoplasmic reticulum in the liver of rats were studied in vivo. [¹⁴C]18:0 was intravenously injected into control Wistar male rats and rats that had been fed on a diet containing 0.5% (w/w) clofibric acid for 7 days; and the distribution of radiolabeled fatty acids among subcellular organelles, microsomes, peroxisomes, and mitochondria, was estimated on the basis of correction utilizing the yields from homogenates of marker enzymes for these organelles. The radioactivity was mostly localized in microsomes and the radiolabeled fatty acids present in microsomes were significantly increased by the treatment of rats with clofibric acid. The formation of radiolabeled 18:1 in microsomes markedly increased and incorporations of the formed [¹⁴C]18:1 into PC and phosphatidylethanolamine in microsomes were augmented in response to clofibric acid. The [¹⁴C]18:1 incorporated into PC was mostly located at the C-2 position, but not the C-1 position, of PC, and the radioactivity in 18:1 at the C-2 position of PC was strikingly increased by clofibric acid. These results obtained from the in vivo experiments directly link the findings that clofibric acid treatment induces microsomal stearoyl-CoA desaturase and 1-acylglycerophosphocholine acyltransferase in the liver and the findings that the treatment with the drug elevated absolute mass and mass proportion of 18:1 at the C-2 position, but not the C-1 position, of PC in the liver together.

  1. Apicoplast and Endoplasmic Reticulum Cooperate in Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in Apicomplexan Parasite Toxoplasma gondii*

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Srinivasan; Docampo, Melissa D.; MacRae, James I.; Pujol, François M.; Brooks, Carrie F.; van Dooren, Giel G.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Kastaniotis, Alexander J.; McConville, Malcolm J.; Striepen, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Apicomplexan parasites are responsible for high impact human diseases such as malaria, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis. These obligate intracellular pathogens are dependent on both de novo lipid biosynthesis as well as the uptake of host lipids for biogenesis of parasite membranes. Genome annotations and biochemical studies indicate that apicomplexan parasites can synthesize fatty acids via a number of different biosynthetic pathways that are differentially compartmentalized. However, the relative contribution of each of these biosynthetic pathways to total fatty acid composition of intracellular parasite stages remains poorly defined. Here, we use a combination of genetic, biochemical, and metabolomic approaches to delineate the contribution of fatty acid biosynthetic pathways in Toxoplasma gondii. Metabolic labeling studies with [13C]glucose showed that intracellular tachyzoites synthesized a range of long and very long chain fatty acids (C14:0–26:1). Genetic disruption of the apicoplast-localized type II fatty-acid synthase resulted in greatly reduced synthesis of saturated fatty acids up to 18 carbons long. Ablation of type II fatty-acid synthase activity resulted in reduced intracellular growth that was partially restored by addition of long chain fatty acids. In contrast, synthesis of very long chain fatty acids was primarily dependent on a fatty acid elongation system comprising three elongases, two reductases, and a dehydratase that were localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The function of these enzymes was confirmed by heterologous expression in yeast. This elongase pathway appears to have a unique role in generating very long unsaturated fatty acids (C26:1) that cannot be salvaged from the host. PMID:22179608

  2. Pulsed Infrared Releases Ca2+ from the Endoplasmic Reticulum of Cultured Spiral Ganglion Neurons.

    PubMed

    Barrett, John N; Rincon, Samantha; Singh, Jayanti; Matthewman, Cristina; Pasos, Julio; Barrett, Ellen F; Rajguru, Suhrud M

    2018-04-18

    We investigated the effects of pulsed infrared radiation (IR, 1863 nm) stimulation on cytosolic [Ca 2+ ] in inner ear spiral ganglion neurons cultured from day 4 postnatal mice and loaded with a fluorescent Ca 2+ indicator (fluo-4, -5F or -5N). IR pulse trains (200 µs, 200-250 Hz, 2-5 s) delivered via an optical fiber coupled to IR source produced a rapid, transient temperature increase of 6-11ºC (above a baseline of 24-30 ºC) and evoked transient increases in both nuclear and cytosolic [Ca 2+ ] of 0.20 - 1.4 µM, with a simultaneous reduction of [Ca 2+ ] in regions containing endoplasmic reticulum (ER). IR-induced increases in cytosolic [Ca 2+ ] continued in medium containing no added Ca 2+ ({plus minus} Ca 2+ buffers) and low [Na + ], indicating that the [Ca 2+ ] increase was mediated by release from intracellular stores. Consistent with this hypothesis, the IR-induced [Ca 2+ ] response was prolonged and eventually blocked by inhibition of ER Ca-ATPase with cyclopiazonic acid, and was also inhibited by a high concentration of ryanodine and by inhibitors of IP 3 -mediated Ca 2+ release (xestospongin C and 2-APB). The thermal sensitivity of the response suggested involvement of warm-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) receptors. Immunostaining of the spiral ganglion demonstrated the presence of intracellular TRPV4 and TRPM2, and the IR-induced [Ca 2+ ] increase was inhibited by TRPV4 inhibitors (HC067047 and GSK2193874). These results suggest that the temperature-sensitivity of IR-induced [Ca 2+ ] elevations is conferred by TRP channels on ER membranes, which facilitate Ca 2+ efflux into the cytosol and initiate Ca 2+ -induced Ca 2+ -release via IP 3 and ryanodine receptors.

  3. A transgenic zebrafish model for monitoring xbp1 splicing and endoplasmic reticulum stress in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Junling; Chen, Zhiliang; Gao, Lian-Yong; Colorni, Angelo; Ucko, Michal; Fang, Shengyun; Du, Shao Jun

    2015-08-01

    Accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers ER stress that initiates unfolded protein response (UPR). XBP1 is a transcription factor that mediates one of the key signaling pathways of UPR to cope with ER stress through regulating gene expression. Activation of XBP1 involves an unconventional mRNA splicing catalyzed by IRE1 endonuclease that removes an internal 26 nucleotides from xbp1 mRNA transcripts in the cytoplasm. Researchers have taken advantage of this unique activation mechanism to monitor XBP1 activation, thereby UPR, in cell culture and transgenic models. Here we report a Tg(ef1α:xbp1δ-gfp) transgenic zebrafish line to monitor XBP1 activation using GFP as a reporter especially in zebrafish oocytes and developing embryos. The Tg(ef1α:xbp1δ-gfp) transgene was constructed using part of the zebrafish xbp1 cDNA containing the splicing element. ER stress induced splicing results in the cDNA encoding a GFP-tagged partial XBP1 without the transactivation activation domain (XBP1Δ-GFP). The results showed that xbp1 transcripts mainly exist as the spliced active isoform in unfertilized oocytes and zebrafish embryos prior to zygotic gene activation at 3 hours post fertilization. A strong GFP expression was observed in unfertilized oocytes, eyes, brain and skeletal muscle in addition to a weak expression in the hatching gland. Incubation of transgenic zebrafish embryos with (dithiothreitol) DTT significantly induced XBP1Δ-GFP expression. Collectively, these studies unveil the presence of maternal xbp1 splicing in zebrafish oocytes, fertilized eggs and early stage embryos. The Tg(ef1α:xbp1δ-gfp) transgenic zebrafish provides a useful model for in vivo monitoring xbp1 splicing during development and under ER stress conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Is Associated With Autophagy and Cardiomyocyte Remodeling in Experimental and Human Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, Marit; Meijering, Roelien A M; Qi, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Deli; Liu, Tao; Hoogstra-Berends, Femke; Sibon, Ody C M; Henning, Robert H; Nattel, Stanley; Brundel, Bianca J J M

    2017-10-24

    Derailment of proteostasis, the homeostasis of production, function, and breakdown of proteins, contributes importantly to the self-perpetuating nature of atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common heart rhythm disorder in humans. Autophagy plays an important role in proteostasis by degrading aberrant proteins and organelles. Herein, we investigated the role of autophagy and its activation pathway in experimental and clinical AF. Tachypacing of HL-1 atrial cardiomyocytes causes a gradual and significant activation of autophagy, as evidenced by enhanced LC3B-II expression, autophagic flux and autophagosome formation, and degradation of p62, resulting in reduction of Ca 2+ amplitude. Autophagy is activated downstream of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress: blocking ER stress by the chemical chaperone 4-phenyl butyrate, overexpression of the ER chaperone-protein heat shock protein A5, or overexpression of a phosphorylation-blocked mutant of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) prevents autophagy activation and Ca 2+ -transient loss in tachypaced HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of ER stress in tachypaced Drosophila confirms its role in derailing cardiomyocyte function. In vivo treatment with sodium salt of phenyl butyrate protected atrial-tachypaced dog cardiomyocytes from electrical remodeling (action potential duration shortening, L-type Ca 2+ -current reduction), cellular Ca 2+ -handling/contractile dysfunction, and ER stress and autophagy; it also attenuated AF progression. Finally, atrial tissue from patients with persistent AF reveals activation of autophagy and induction of ER stress, which correlates with markers of cardiomyocyte damage. These results identify ER stress-associated autophagy as an important pathway in AF progression and demonstrate the potential therapeutic action of the ER-stress inhibitor 4-phenyl butyrate. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  5. The Role of Nogo and the Mitochondria–Endoplasmic Reticulum Unit in Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sutendra, Gopinath; Dromparis, Peter; Wright, Paulette; Bonnet, Sébastien; Haromy, Alois; Hao, Zhengrong; McMurtry, M. Sean; Michalak, Marek; Vance, Jean E.; Sessa, William C.; Michelakis, Evangelos D.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is caused by excessive proliferation of vascular cells, which occlude the lumen of pulmonary arteries (PAs) and lead to right ventricular failure. The cause of the vascular remodeling in PAH remains unknown, and the prognosis of PAH remains poor. Abnormal mitochondria in PAH PA smooth muscle cells (SMCs) suppress mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and contribute to the vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that early endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is associated with clinical triggers of PAH including hypoxia, bone morphogenetic protein receptor II mutations, and HIV/herpes simplex virus infections, explains the mitochondrial abnormalities and has a causal role in PAH. We showed in SMCs from mice that Nogo-B, a regulator of ER structure, was induced by hypoxia in SMCs of the PAs but not the systemic vasculature through activation of the ER stress–sensitive transcription factor ATF6. Nogo-B induction increased the distance between the ER and mitochondria and decreased ER-to-mitochondria phospholipid transfer and intramitochondrial calcium. In addition, we noted inhibition of calcium-sensitive mitochondrial enzymes, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and decreased mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Lack of Nogo-B in PASMCs from Nogo-A/B−/− mice prevented these hypoxia-induced changes in vitro and in vivo, resulting in complete resistance to PAH. Nogo-B in the serum and PAs of PAH patients was also increased. Therefore, triggers of PAH may induce Nogo-B, which disrupts the ER-mitochondria unit and suppresses apoptosis. This could rescue PASMCs from death during ER stress but enable the development of PAH through overproliferation. The disruption of the ER-mitochondria unit may be relevant to other diseases in which Nogo is implicated, such as cancer and neurodegeneration. PMID:21697531

  6. Calcium Handling by Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondria in a Cell Model of Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    De Mario, Agnese; Scarlatti, Chiara; Costiniti, Veronica; Primerano, Simona; Lopreiato, Raffaele; Calì, Tito; Brini, Marisa; Giacomello, Marta; Carafoli, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by the CAG (Q) expansion in exon 1 of the IT15 gene encoding a polyglutamine (poly-Q) stretch of the Huntingtin protein (Htt). In the wild type protein, the repeats specify a stretch of up 34 Q in the N-terminal portion of Htt. In the pathological protein (mHtt) the poly-Q tract is longer. Proteolytic cleavage of the protein liberates an N-terminal fragment containing the expanded poly-Q tract becomes harmful to cells, in particular to striatal neurons. The fragments cause the transcriptional dysfunction of genes that are essential for neuronal survival. Htt, however, could also have non-transcriptional effects, e.g. it could directly alter Ca2+ homeostasis and/or mitochondrial morphology and function. Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction are considered important in the molecular aetiology of the disease. Here we have analyzed the effect of the overexpression of Htt fragments (18Q, wild type form, wtHtt and 150Q mutated form, mHtt) on Ca2+ homeostasis in striatal neuronal precursor cells (Q7/7). We have found that the transient overexpression of the Htt fragments increases Ca2+ transients in the mitochondria of cells stimulated with Ca2+-mobilizing agonists. The bulk Ca2+ transients in the cytosol were unaffected, but the Ca2+ content of the endoplasmic reticulum was significantly decreased in the case of mHtt expression. To rule out possible transcriptional effects due to the presence of mHtt, we have measured the mRNA level of a subunit of the respiratory chain complex II, whose expression is commonly altered in many HD models. No effects on the mRNA level was found suggesting that, in our experimental condition, transcriptional action of Htt is not occurring and that the effects on Ca2+ homeostasis were dependent to non-transcriptional mechanisms. PMID:26819834