Sample records for zhidkogo kristalla mbba

  1. Role of amphiphilic molecule on liquid crystal phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Kaustabh; Roy, Madhusudan; Datta, Alokmay


    We have studied the effect of an amphiphilic fatty acid, Stearic Acid (StA), on the phases, wetting and polarization properties of the liquid crystalline substance N-(4-Methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline (MBBA), through Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Optical Polarization Microscopy. Metastable and mesophases disappear for a MBBA:StA = 1:5 mixture. This mixture wets Si(111) and dewets Si(100) surfaces while pure MBBA dewets both. Films of this mixture also show better polarization than the pure sample.

  2. Detection of a new 'nematic-like' phase in liquid crystal-amphiphile mixture by differential scanning calorimetry


    Dan, Kaustabh, E-mail:; Roy, Madhusudan, E-mail:; Datta, Alokmay, E-mail:


    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) studies on phase transitions of the pure liquid crystalline material N-4-methoxybenzylidene-4-butylaniline (MBBA) and mixtures of MBBA and the amphiphile Stearic Acid (StA) show significant changes in the behavior of mixture from pure MBBA, as regards the nematic-isotropic (N-I) transition temperature (T{sub c}) and other thermodynamic parameters like enthalpy, specific heat and activation energy with concentration of StA. In particular, the convexity of the Arrhenius plot in pure MBBA vanishes with StA concentration pointing to the formation of a new, perhaps 'nematic-like', phase in the mixtures.

  3. Screening out the non-Arrhenius behaviour of nematic-isotropic transition by room temperature ionic liquid.


    Dan, K; Datta, A; Yoshida, Y; Saito, G; Yoshikawa, K; Roy, M


    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and optical polarization microscopy of a mixture of the liquid crystalline material (N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline, MBBA) and a Fe-based room temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroferrate ([Emim](+) [FeCl4](-), EMIF) indicate a decrease in the nematic-isotropic (N-I) phase transition temperature (T(NI)) with an increase in EMIF concentration, explained by a proposed model of Coulomb "screening" of MBBA quadrupoles by the EMIF ions along with ionic "self screening." DSC studies of EMIF-MBBA and pure EMIF and comparison with pure MBBA results show that the major transitions in pure EMIF have Arrhenius behaviour, but more importantly the previously found convex Arrhenius behaviour of the pristine MBBA [K. Dan et al., Europhys. Lett. 108, 36007 (2014)] becomes Arrhenius in the mixture, indicating a conversion of the entropic N-I activation barrier to an enthalpic one. In presence of EMIF, a drastic decrease in the intensity of out-of-plane distortions of benzene rings in MBBA is found from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, consistent with significant reduction in the conformational states of MBBA. This suppression of large amplitude motion is again consistent with a Coulomb screening and gives a molecular basis for the entropic-to-enthalpic conversion of the N-I activation barrier.

  4. ESR spectrum of Cr(V) with 2,3-dioxynaphthalene in a liquid crystal


    Novosadov, N.A.; Mukhtarov, A.S.; Usmanov, Z.I.


    Research has previously been reported on the complex formed by Cr(V) with 2,3-dioxynaphthalene (I) in solution in DMFA. An open question remaining is the mutual orientation of the molecular symmetry axes and the magnetic ones. The authors give results on the complex formed by Cr(V) with I obtained by ESR in 4-methoxy-benzylidene-n-4'-butylaniline (MBBA). The ESR spectrum of Cr(V) with I in the nematic phase of MBBA is a strong line due to /sup 52/Cr with g = 1.978 and four weak lines due to /sup 53/Cr at the natural content with HFI constant a* = 11.8 x 10/sup -4/ T;more » when the MBBA is converted to the isotropic phase, the observed HFI constant from /sup 53/Cr increases to 18 x 10/sup -4/ T, while the g factor is unaltered.« less

  5. An electrochemical study of a liquid crystal used in information displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglesby, D. M.; Kern, J. B.; Robertson, J. B.


    The operational lifetime of liquid crystal displays were investigated. Electrochemical reaction at the electrodes of the display can cause failure after 2000 to 3000 hours of operation. Studies using cyclic voltametry of electrochemical reactions of N (p-methoxybenzilidene p-butylaniline (MBBA), a nematic liquid crystal were made. These studies indicate the presence of a reversible reduction of MBBA at the cathode, and that the reduction product undergoes a further reaction leading to products which are not reversibly oxidized. It is concluded that the degradation of the liquid crystal in displays can be reduced with a suitable frequency of alternating voltage.

  6. SciT

    Dan, K.; Roy, M.; Datta, A.

    The present manuscript describes the role of entropic and enthalpic forces mediated by organic non-polar (hexane) and polar (methanol) solvents on the bulk and microscopic phase transition of a well known nematic liquid crystalline material MBBA (N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline) through Differential Scanning calorimetry (DSC), UV-Visible (UV–Vis), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. DSC study indicates continuous linear decreases in both nematic-isotropic (N-I) phase transition temperature and enthalpy of MBBA in presence of hexane while both these parameters show a saturation after an initial decay in methanol. These distinct transitional behaviours were explained in terms of the “depletion force” model for entropic screeningmore » in hexane and “screening-self-screening” model for methanol. Heating rate dependent DSC studies find that non-Arrhenius behaviour, characteristic of pristine MBBA and a manifestation of non-equilibrium nature [Dan et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 094501 (2015)], is preserved in presence of entropic screening in the hexane solution, while it changes to Arrhenius behaviour (signifying equilibrium behaviour) in presence of enthalpic screening in methanol solution. FTIR spectra show similar dependence on the solvent induced screening in the intensities of the imine (—C = N) stretch and the out-of-plane distortion vibrations of the benzene rings of MBBA with hexane and methanol as in DSC, further establishing our entropic and enthalpic screening models. UV–Vis spectra of the electronic transitions in MBBA as a function of temperature also exhibit different dependences of intensities on the solvent induced screening, and an exponential decrease is observed in presence of hexane while methanol completely changes the nature of interaction to follow a linear dependence.« less

  7. Calculation of unsteady aerodynamics for four AGARD standard aeroelastic configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, S. R.; Seidel, D. A.


    Calculated unsteady aerodynamic characteristics for four Advisory Group for Aeronautical Research Development (AGARD) standard aeroelastic two-dimensional airfoils and for one of the AGARD three-dimensional wings are reported. Calculations were made using the finite-difference codes XTRAN2L (two-dimensional flow) and XTRAN3S (three-dimensional flow) which solve the transonic small disturbance potential equations. Results are given for the 36 AGARD cases for the NACA 64A006, NACA 64A010, and NLR 7301 airfoils with experimental comparisons for most of these cases. Additionally, six of the MBB-A3 airfoil cases are included. Finally, results are given for three of the cases for the rectangular wing.

  8. Improved heteronuclear dipolar decoupling sequences for liquid-crystal NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Rajendra Singh; Kurur, Narayanan D.; Madhu, P. K.


    Recently we introduced a radiofrequency pulse scheme for heteronuclear dipolar decoupling in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning [R.S. Thakur, N.D. Kurur, P.K. Madhu, Swept-frequency two-pulse phase modulation for heteronuclear dipolar decoupling in solid-state NMR, Chem. Phys. Lett. 426 (2006) 459-463]. Variants of this sequence, swept-frequency TPPM, employing frequency modulation of different types have been further tested to improve the efficiency of heteronuclear dipolar decoupling. Among these, certain sequences that were found to perform well at lower spinning speeds are demonstrated here on a liquid-crystal sample of MBBA for application in static samples. The new sequences are compared with the standard TPPM and SPINAL schemes and are shown to perform better than them. These modulated schemes perform well at low decoupler radiofrequency power levels and are easy to implement on standard spectrometers.

  9. Optimization of Nanocomposite Solar Cell/Liquid Crystal Matrix to Diminish High Intensity Laser Light Relevant to Aviation Safety Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, James A.

    An increasing threat to the aviation industry is laser light illumination on airplanes during critical phases of flight. If a laser hits the cockpit, it not only distracts the pilots, but it can cause flash blindness or permanently damage the vision of the pilots. This research attempts to mitigate these lasers illuminations through the application of both liquid crystal (LC's) technologies and dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) technologies. The LC of choice is N-(4-Methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline, or MBBA, because it has special optical properties including the ability to undergo phase transitions when exposed to an electric field. By applying an external electric field, MBBA switches from its transparent nematic phase, to its non-transparent crystalline phase, blocking the laser light. This research optimized the application of MBBA by reducing the triggering voltage and relaxation time of the LC using spacer thicknesses and scratching techniques. The liquid to solid phase transition was reduced to a 3V differential, and the time required for the crystals to relax into its transparent liquid phase was reduced to less than ten seconds. The phase transition was studied using an external electric field generated by DSSCs constructed from a titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposite layer coated with dye. To maximize the voltage output by the DSSCs, layer thickness and dye sensitizer were studied to investigate their impact on the performance of the DSSC when illuminated by solar lamps and green light (532nm). Three different layer thicknesses and five different dyes were tested: Eosin Y, Eriochrome Black, Congo Red, Fast Green, and Alizarine Yellow. The experimental results showed a thin layer of nanocomposite sensitized with Eosin Y dye produced the most efficient DSSCs for the scope of this research. Experimental testing showed the DSSCs can generate 381 +/- 10mV under solar lamp exposure, 356 +/- 10mV under laser light exposure, and a voltage increase of 60 +/- 16m

  10. Nondisruptive Dissolution of Hyperpolarized 129 Xe into Viscous Aqueous and Organic Liquid Crystalline Environments


    Truxal, Ashley E.; Slack, Clancy C.; Gomes, Muller D.


    Studies of hyperpolarized xenon-129 in media such as liquid crystals and cell suspensions are in demand for applications ranging from biomedical imaging to materials engineering but have been hindered by the inability to bubble Xe through the desired media as a result of viscosity or perturbations caused by bubbles. This research reports on a device that can be reliably used to dissolve hp- 129 Xe into viscous aqueous and organic samples without bubbling. This method is robust, requires small sample volumes ( < 60 μL), is compatible with existing NMR hardware, and is made from readily available materials. Experiments showmore » that Xe can be introduced into viscous and aligned media without disrupting molecular order. We detected dissolved xenon in an aqueous liquid crystal that is disrupted by the shear forces of bubbling, and we observed liquid-crystal phase transitions in (MBBA). This tool allows an entirely new class of samples to be investigated by hyperpolarized-gas NMR spectroscopy. Blending into the crowd: A new device that facilitates the direct dissolution of hyperpolarized 129 Xe into viscous liquid-crystalline media is presented. 129 Xe and 2 H NMR spectra show the nondisruptive dissolution of xenon, the presence of ordered phases, and, in the case of the thermotropic liquid crystal N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline, a nematic-isotropic phase transition.« less

  11. Novel pulsed switched power supply for a fast field cycling NMR spectrometer.


    Sousa, D M; Fernandes, P A L; Marques, G D; Ribeiro, A C; Sebastião, P J


    In this paper, we outline the operating principles of a pulsed switched power supply for a fast field-cycling nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. The power supply uses a variant of a four-quadrant chopper with a duty cycle that defines the average output current. With this topology only two semiconductors are necessary to drive hundreds of amperes with an output power of several kilowatts. The output current ripple has a well-defined shape that can be reduced to acceptable values by a careful design of the semiconductors' controlling circuits and drivers. A power supply prototype was tested with a home build air-core magnet operating with fields between 0 and 0.21 T. The system is computer controlled using pulse generator and data acquisition PC cards, and specific user-friendly home-developed software. A comparative proton relaxometry study in two well-known liquid crystal compounds 5CB and MBBA was performed to check the reproducibility of the T1 measurements.

  12. Computing border bases using mutant strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, E.; Abbas Khan, S.


    Border bases, a generalization of Gröbner bases, have actively been addressed during recent years due to their applicability to industrial problems. In cryptography and coding theory a useful application of border based is to solve zero-dimensional systems of polynomial equations over finite fields, which motivates us for developing optimizations of the algorithms that compute border bases. In 2006, Kehrein and Kreuzer formulated the Border Basis Algorithm (BBA), an algorithm which allows the computation of border bases that relate to a degree compatible term ordering. In 2007, J. Ding et al. introduced mutant strategies bases on finding special lower degree polynomials in the ideal. The mutant strategies aim to distinguish special lower degree polynomials (mutants) from the other polynomials and give them priority in the process of generating new polynomials in the ideal. In this paper we develop hybrid algorithms that use the ideas of J. Ding et al. involving the concept of mutants to optimize the Border Basis Algorithm for solving systems of polynomial equations over finite fields. In particular, we recall a version of the Border Basis Algorithm which is actually called the Improved Border Basis Algorithm and propose two hybrid algorithms, called MBBA and IMBBA. The new mutants variants provide us space efficiency as well as time efficiency. The efficiency of these newly developed hybrid algorithms is discussed using standard cryptographic examples.

  13. Electric-field triggered controlled release of bioactive volatiles from imine-based liquid crystalline phases.


    Herrmann, Andreas; Giuseppone, Nicolas; Lehn, Jean-Marie


    Application of an electric field to liquid crystalline film forming imines with negative dielectric anisotropy, such as N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline (MBBA, 1), results in the expulsion of compounds that do not participate in the formation of the liquid crystalline phase. Furthermore, amines and aromatic aldehydes undergo component exchange with the imine by generating constitutional dynamic libraries. The strength of the electric field and the duration of its application to the liquid crystalline film influence the release rate of the expelled compounds and, at the same time, modulate the equilibration of the dynamic libraries. The controlled release of volatile organic molecules with different chemical functionalities from the film was quantified by dynamic headspace analysis. In all cases, higher headspace concentrations were detected in the presence of an electric field. These results point to the possibility of using imine-based liquid crystalline films to build devices for the controlled release of a broad variety of bioactive volatiles as a direct response to an external electric signal.

  14. Analysis of the phase solubility diagram of a phenacetin/competitor/beta-cyclodextrin ternary system, involving competitive inclusion complexation.


    Ono, N; Hirayama, F; Arima, H; Uekama, K


    The competitive inclusion complexations in the ternary phenacetin/competitors/beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CyD) systems were investigated by the solubility method, where m-bromobenzoic acid (m-BBA) and o-toluic acid (o-TA) were used as competitors. The solubility changes of the drug and competitors as a function of beta-CyD concentration in the ternary systems were formulated using their stability constants and intrinsic solubilities. The decrease in solubility of phenacetin by the addition of competitors could be quantitatively simulated by the formulation, when both drug and competitor give A(L) type solubility diagrams. On the other hand, when one of the guests gives a B(S) type solubility diagram, its solubility change was clearly reflected in that of the another guest, i.e., phenacetin gave an A(L) type solubility diagram in the binary phenacetin/beta-CyD system and o-TA gave a B(S) type diagram in the binary o-TA/beta-CyD system, but in the ternary phenacetin/o-TA/beta-CyD system, a new plateau region appeared in the original A(L) type diagram of phenacetin. This was explained by the solubilization theory of Higuchi and Connors. The solubility analysis of the ternary drug/competitor/CyD systems may be particularly useful for determination of the stability constant of a drug whose physicochemical and spectroscopic analyses are difficult, because they can be calculated by monitoring the solubility change of a competitor, without monitoring that of a drug. Furthermore, the present results suggest that attention should be paid to the type of the phase solubility diagram, as well as the magnitude of the stability constant and the solubility of the complex, for a rational formulation design of CyD complexes.

  15. I. Depolarized Light Scattering Studies of Rotational - Coupling in Liquids Composed of Small Anisotropic Molecules. I. Investigation of the Coupling Between Reorientation and Longitudinal Modes in the Brillouin Spectra of Liquids Composed of Anisotropic Molecules.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Steen, Byron Lance

    Part I. In an attempt to better understand the molecular interactions governing the behaviour of the coupling parameter R measured in light scattering experiments, the depolarized (I(,vh)) spectra for a series of liquids composed of small aromatic molecules, very similar in size and shape, have been measured. The molecules studied here were generally monosubstituted benzene and pyridine derivatives. All were found to exhibit the doublet structure indicative of dynamic coupling between molecular reorientation and shear modes, or more simply, rotational-translational coupling. The degree of this coupling is measured by a parameter R(O(LESSTHEQ) R(LESSTHEQ) 1) which is often though of as the fraction of the shear viscosity attributable to reorientational motion. From the depolarized spectra the coupling parameter R, collective reorientation frequency, and low frequency shear viscosity were determined. The values of R were found to vary from 0.24 to 0.55 for the liquids studied here. This range is nearly as broad as that observed in all previous studies, which have included such diverse molecules as carbon disulfide, tri-phenyl phosphite, and the highly anisotropic liquid crystal MBBA. This suggests that size and shape considerations, or steric forces, are not the primary factor in determining the degree of rotational-translational coupling as measured by light scattering. If this is indeed the case then other non-steric interactions must be producing the observed variation in R. With this in mind, we have examined possible electrostatic interactions. A simple correlation with dipole moment was not found to exist. Instead it appears that the variation in R can only be understood by consideration of the detailed molecular charge distribution. This is determined to a large extent by resonance interactions with the aromatic ring which are generally reflected in the change of dipole moment from the aliphatic compound (CH(,3)-R) to its aromatic analog (C(,6)H(,5)-R). Based