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Sample records for zhou moti yung

  1. Matthew M. Yung | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    M. Yung Photo of Matthew M. Yung Matthew Yung Senior Engineer, Catalysis & Reaction Engineering comprehensive reaction testing and materials characterization (e.g., kinetic experiments, spectroscopy

  2. Improvements of mechanical fatigue reliability of Cu interconnects on flexible substrates through MoTi alloy under-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Joo; Shin, Hae-A.-Seul; Nam, Dae-Hyun; Yeon, Han-Wool; Nam, Boae; Woo, Kyoohee; Joo, Young-Chang

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical fatigue of Cu films and lines on flexible substrates was investigated, and an improvement in the structures through the use of a MoTi alloy under-layer was proposed. Fatigue reliability was decreased by 3-fold in lines compared with films in the tensile condition and by 6-fold in the compressive condition. Crack formation was observed to be more detrimental for lines than for films. With a MoTi under-layer, the fatigue limit was increased by 2 times that of a structure without MoTi in the tensile condition and by 15 times in the compressive bending condition. The suppression of delamination through the use of a MoTi under-layer improved the fatigue reliability under compressive bending.

  3. Teaching World History through Symbolic Figures: Zhou Enlai, an Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorantas, Raymond

    Use of symbolic figures in the college level world history course can provide a vehicle for studying social organization, political movements, and economic institutions of a given period. For example, Zhou Enlai, an activist and leader throughout much of the 20th century, symbolizes the major themes and forces of this era: change,…

  4. Beyond Belief: Zhou Zuoren's Rationalist Writings and the Chinese Enlightenment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Tonglu

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is situated in the current scholarly reflection on the problems of Chinese modernity, especially its "initial phase," the Chinese Enlightenment (1910s-1920s). It examines the thought of the highly controversial thinker and writer Zhou Zuoren (1885-1967), whose work had been profoundly influential during the…

  5. Weijia Zhou Inspects the Advanced Astroculture plant growth unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Dr. Weijia Zhou, director of the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, inspects the Advanced Astroculture(tm) plant growth unit before its first flight last spring. Coating technology is used inside the miniature plant greenhouse to remove ethylene, a chemical produced by plant leaves that can cause plants to mature too quickly. This same coating technology is used in a new anthrax-killing device. The Space Station experiment is managed by the Space Product Development Program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. DuPont is partnering with NASA and the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to grow soybeans aboard the Space Station to find out if they have improved oil, protein, carbohydrates or secondary metabolites that could benefit farmers and consumers. Principal Investigators: Dr. Tom Corbin, Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., a Dupont Company, with headquarters in Des Moines, Iowa, and Dr. Weijia Zhou, Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  6. Developing the Moti-4 intervention, assessing its feasibility and pilot testing its effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Hans B; Lemmens, Paul; Adriana, Gerald; van de Mheen, Dike; de Vries, Nanne K

    2015-05-21

    The Moti-4 intervention was developed to prevent addiction and other health problems among vulnerable adolescent cannabis users. The aims of Moti-4 are to reduce the use of cannabis among adolescents and to encourage their motivation to change their behavior. Intervention Mapping, a systematic approach to developing theory- and evidence-based interventions, was used to develop a protocol for the intervention. The process of developing the intervention also used the method of responsive evaluation to explore the opinions of the immediate target group and intermediaries (N = 31). Feasibility was assessed in 9 interviews and analyzed in grids. A quantitative pilot analysis involving a pre- and post-assessment in 31 subjects assessed whether the intervention was able to reduce drug use and would change intentions to change drug use behavior. Using Intervention Mapping resulted in the development of a substantial four-session intervention with a clear manual and training for prevention workers. The choice of 12 consecutive steps was based on the Trans Theoretical Model of Behavior Change, Motivational Interviewing, Theory of Planned Behavior and the Self Determination Theory. Positive aspects of working with Moti-4 were assessed in a feasibility study. Criticism by users has led to improvements to the manual. In the pilot study, the average weekly amount spent on cannabis decreased significantly from an average € 17.77 to € 11,95 in the period after the intervention, with a medium effect size (d = 0.36). Likewise, a significant decrease was found in the frequency of use during the past week, from 4.3 to 2.4 (d = .52). As to motivation to change, a statistically significant increase was found in planning (d = .44) and a large increase in the desire to stop (d = .76). The change in the motivation to smoke less cannabis was small. Intervention Mapping proved to be a useful approach for the development of the intervention, using a productive combination of theory and

  7. Assessing the Efficacy of MOTI-4 for Reducing the Use of Cannabis Among Youth in the Netherlands: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Hans B; Candel, Math J J M; Kaplan, Charles D; van de Mheen, Dike; de Vries, Nanne K

    2016-06-01

    The Moti-4 intervention, in which motivational interviewing, self-monitoring, and strengthening behavioral control are used, was developed in the Netherlands in response to several rapid assessments of problematic use of cannabis among vulnerable adolescents. The main goal of the study reported in this article was to determine whether the Moti-4 intervention was able to reduce two outcome measures pertaining to the level of cannabis use; the amount of Euros spent a week on cannabis and the mean number of cannabis joints (cigarettes) smoked in a week. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a 6-month follow-up, 27 trained Dutch prevention workers recruited 71 Moti-4 participants and 60 controls assigned to usual care. Participants were Dutch youth aged 14-24 years who had used cannabis during the preceding month. At baseline (T0), post-test (T1) and 6-month follow-up (T2), participants completed a questionnaire with 51 items. The 27 prevention workers also completed a checklist to assess the fidelity of delivering each item to each participant in the Moti-4 protocol. Multilevel and binary logistic regression was used to assess the impact of the prevention worker and 14 participant variables on the likelihood of drop-out. Mean scores for cannabis use outcome measures by Moti-4 participants and controls at baseline, T1 and T2 were compared using paired sample t-tests. Top-down multiple regression was used to assess relationships between Moti-4 and 13 other variables on the one hand and changes in weekly cannabis use at T1 and T2 on the other. The Moti-4 experimental condition had a significant and positive influence in reducing the level of expenditure on cannabis (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in outcome, neither for the 4 participating institutes nor for the professionals implementing the intervention. Baseline cannabis use was the strongest predictor (p<0.001) of weekly cannabis expenditure at posttest and 6-month follow-up. This effect was still

  8. MotI (DgrA) acts as a molecular clutch on the flagellar stator protein MotA in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sundharraman; Gao, Xiaohui; Dann, Charles E.; Kearns, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    Stator elements consisting of MotA4MotB2 complexes are anchored to the cell wall, extend through the cell membrane, and interact with FliG in the cytoplasmic C ring rotor of the flagellum. The cytoplasmic loop of MotA undergoes proton-driven conformational changes that drive flagellar rotation. Functional regulators inhibit motility by either disengaging or jamming the stator–rotor interaction. Here we show that the YcgR homolog MotI (formerly DgrA) of Bacillus subtilis inhibits motility like a molecular clutch that disengages MotA. MotI-inhibited flagella rotated freely by Brownian motion, and suppressor mutations in MotA that were immune to MotI inhibition were located two residues downstream of the critical force generation site. The 3D structure of MotI bound to c-di-GMP was solved, and MotI-fluorescent fusions localized as transient MotA-dependent puncta at the membrane when induced at subinhibitory levels. Finally, subinhibitory levels of MotI expression resulted in incomplete inhibition and proportional decreases in swimming speed. We propose a model in which flagellar stators are disengaged and sequestered from the flagellar rotor when bound by MotI. PMID:29196522

  9. Characterization of icebergs and floating sea ice in the Yung Sund fjord in Greenland from satellite radar and optical images.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaso, Stephane; Gay, Michel; Gervaise, Cedric

    2017-04-01

    At the Zackenberg site, sea ice starts to move between June and September resulting in icebergs flowing freely on the sea. Splitting into smaller parts, they reduce in size. Icebergs represent a risk for maritime transport and needs to be studied. In order to determine iceberg density per surface unit, size distribution, and movement of icebergs, we need to observe, detect, range and track them. The use of SAR images is particularly well adapted in regions where cloud cover is very present. We focused our study on the Yung Sund fjord in Greenland, where lots of icebergs and sea ice are generated during the summer. In the beginning of July, sea ice breaks up first, followed by icebergs created by the different glaciers based in the ocean. During our investigation, we noticed that the iceberg and sea ice were drifting very fast and thus, we needed to adapt our methodology. To achieve our goal, we collected all remote sensing data available in the region, principally Sentinel 1/2 and LandSAT 8 during one ice free season (from July 1st 2016 to September 30th, 2016). We developed an original approach in order to detect, characterize and track icebergs and sea ice independently from data. The iceberg detection was made using a watershed technique. The advantage of this technique is that it can be applied to both optical and radar images. For the latter, calibrated intensity is transformed into an image using a scaling function, in order to make ice brighter. Land data is masked using a topographic map. When data is segmented, a statistical test derived from the CFAR approach is performed to isolate an iceberg and floating sea ice from the ocean. Finally, a method, such SIFT or BRISK is used to identify and track the different segmented object. These approaches give a representation of the object and make the tracking easier and independent of the scale and rotation, which can occur because icebergs are dependent on ocean currents and wind. Finally, to fill in the gap

  10. A randomized pilot study of MOtiVation and Enhancement (MOVE) Training for negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Velligan, Dawn I; Roberts, David; Mintz, Jim; Maples, Natalie; Li, Xueying; Medellin, Elisa; Brown, Matt

    2015-07-01

    Among individuals with schizophrenia, those who have persistent and clinically significant negative symptoms (PNS) have the poorest functional outcomes and quality of life. The NIMH-MATRICS Consensus Statement indicated that these symptoms represent an unmet therapeutic need for large numbers of individuals with schizophrenia. No psychosocial treatment model addresses the entire constellation of PNS. 51 patients with PNS were randomized into one of two groups for a period of 9 months: 1) MOtiVation and Enhancement (MOVE) or 2) treatment as usual. MOVE is a home based, manual-driven, multi-modal treatment that employs a number of cognitive and behavioral principles to address the broad range of factors contributing to PNS and their functional consequences. The components of MOVE include: Environmental supports to prompt initiation and persistence, in-vivo skills training to ameliorate deficits and encourage interaction, cognitive behavioral techniques to address self-defeating attitudes, in-vivo training in emotional processing to address affective blunting and problems in identifying emotions, and specific techniques to address the deficits in anticipatory pleasure. Patients were assessed at baseline and each 3 months with multiple measures of negative symptoms. Repeated measures analyses of variance for mixed models indicated significant Group by Time effects for the Negative Symptom Assessment (NSA; p<.02) and the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS; p<.04). Group differences were not significant until 9 months of treatment and were not significant for the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS). Further investigation of a comprehensive treatment for PNS, such as MOVE, is warranted. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. A randomized pilot study of MOtiVation and Enhancement training (MOVE) for negative symptoms in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Velligan, Dawn I.; Roberts, David; Mintz, Jim; Maples, Natalie; Li, Xueying; Medellin, Elisa; Brown, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Among individuals with schizophrenia, those who have persistent and clinically significant negative symptoms (PNS) have the poorest functional outcomes and quality of life. The NIMH-MATRICS Consensus Statement indicated that these symptoms represent an unmet therapeutic need for large numbers of individuals with schizophrenia. No psychosocial treatment model addresses the entire constellation of PNS. Method 51 patients with PNS were randomized into one of two groups for a period of 9 months: 1) MOtiVation and Engagement (MOVE) or 2) Treatment as usual. MOVE is a home based, manual-driven, multi-modal treatment that employs a number of cognitive and behavioral principles to address the broad range of factors contributing to PNS and their functional consequences. Components of MOVE include: Environmental supports to prompt initiation and persistence, in-vivo skills training to ameliorate deficits and encourage interaction, cognitive behavioral techniques to address self-defeating attitudes, in-vivo training in emotional processing to address affective blunting and problems in identifying emotions, and specific techniques to address the deficits in anticipatory pleasure. Patients were assessed at baseline and each 3 months with multiple measures of negative symptoms. Results Repeated measures analyses of variance for mixed models indicated significant Group by Time effects for the Negative Symptom Assessment (NSA; p<.02) and the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS p<.04). Group differences were not significant until 9 months of treatment and were not significant for the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS). Conclusion Further investigation of a comprehensive treatment for PNS, such as MOVE, is warranted. PMID:25937461

  12. Nuclear stopping and collective flow in CSR/LanZhou energy region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X.-F.; Dong, X.; Shao, M.; Li, C.; Chen, H.-F.; Wu, K.-J.; Xu, H.-S.

    2011-06-01

    Nuclear stopping and collective flow for two pairs of symmetric colliding nuclei: 238U+238U and 129Xe+129Xe, which are proposed to be accelerated on Cooling Storage Ring (CSR), External Target Facility (ETF), LanZhou, China, are studied by a hadronic transport model ART1.0. The incident beam energy of Uranium and Xenon can be delivered up to 520 MeV/nucleon and 900MeV/nucleon, respectively. At this CSR energy region, the hot, dense nuclear matter are thought to be obtained in the lab, which is an idea circumstance to study the nuclear equation of state (EoS). As deformation of the Uranium nuclei, it is predicted that significant large baryon density in the tip-tip U+U collision patterns and the large elliptic flow in body-body collision pattern are both avail to study the nuclear EoS.

  13. Shifting diets and the rise of male-biased inequality on the Central Plains of China during Eastern Zhou.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu; Morgan, Chelsea; Chinenov, Yurii; Zhou, Ligang; Fan, Wenquan; Ma, Xiaolin; Pechenkina, Kate

    2017-01-31

    Farming domesticated millets, tending pigs, and hunting constituted the core of human subsistence strategies during Neolithic Yangshao (5000-2900 BC). Introduction of wheat and barley as well as the addition of domesticated herbivores during the Late Neolithic (∼2600-1900 BC) led to restructuring of ancient Chinese subsistence strategies. This study documents a dietary shift from indigenous millets to the newly introduced cereals in northcentral China during the Bronze Age Eastern Zhou Dynasty (771-221 BC) based on stable isotope analysis of human and animal bone samples. Our results show that this change affected females to a greater degree than males. We find that consumption of the newly introduced cereals was associated with less consumption of animal products and a higher rate of skeletal stress markers among females. We hypothesized that the observed separation of dietary signatures between males and females marks the rise of male-biased inequality in early China. We test this hypothesis by comparing Eastern Zhou human skeletal data with those from Neolithic Yangshao archaeological contexts. We find no evidence of male-female inequality in early farming communities. The presence of male-biased inequality in Eastern Zhou society is supported by increased body height difference between the sexes as well as the greater wealth of male burials.

  14. Shifting diets and the rise of male-biased inequality on the Central Plains of China during Eastern Zhou

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yu; Morgan, Chelsea; Chinenov, Yurii; Zhou, Ligang; Fan, Wenquan; Ma, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    Farming domesticated millets, tending pigs, and hunting constituted the core of human subsistence strategies during Neolithic Yangshao (5000–2900 BC). Introduction of wheat and barley as well as the addition of domesticated herbivores during the Late Neolithic (∼2600–1900 BC) led to restructuring of ancient Chinese subsistence strategies. This study documents a dietary shift from indigenous millets to the newly introduced cereals in northcentral China during the Bronze Age Eastern Zhou Dynasty (771–221 BC) based on stable isotope analysis of human and animal bone samples. Our results show that this change affected females to a greater degree than males. We find that consumption of the newly introduced cereals was associated with less consumption of animal products and a higher rate of skeletal stress markers among females. We hypothesized that the observed separation of dietary signatures between males and females marks the rise of male-biased inequality in early China. We test this hypothesis by comparing Eastern Zhou human skeletal data with those from Neolithic Yangshao archaeological contexts. We find no evidence of male–female inequality in early farming communities. The presence of male-biased inequality in Eastern Zhou society is supported by increased body height difference between the sexes as well as the greater wealth of male burials. PMID:28096406

  15. The Integration of Chuji Calendars in the Late Western Zhou Dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate 23 four-element-materials contained Chuji (characters usually on bronze vessels, perhaps represent the moon phase) in the late Western Zhou Dynasty. It is assumed that all 5 elder-year data (kings' year>25 yr) should belong to the periods of king Li or king Xuan. At the same time, in order to guarantee the completeness, compatibility, and objectivity of these kinds of calendars, in the paper we build up them respectively according to the 24 characters of Chinese ancient calendar. We use the transformation platform for Chinese ancient dates to finish the calendars, consider the five different first years when both kings took their powers, set the moon age of Chuji cover any day in a lunar month, and as far as possible give every result for each material as in different kings' period. As a result, we totally derive 13 calendars according to different combinations of the characters of ancient calendars. When subdivided by the different combinations of the kings' periods, 33 solutions are obtained, but the moon phases of Chuji are usually in the second half month. The best result, with Jian Mao and the leap month in the end of the year, is related with the BC878 (BC827) as the first year of king Li (king Xuan). The coincidence rate of 23 data is 100%, and average moon phases are 19.84 days. The suboptimum choices have four solutions; the coincidence rate is 95.7%, respectively with Jian Chen and the leap month in the middle of the year; together with Jian Wu and the leap month in the middle or end of the year. We point out that these results may constitute and link respectively with other materials (even with other moon phases) as long as have the same calendar features. After adopting more materials and higher qualification, the scope of the solutions can be further limited and narrow. In addition, the different researchers can easily obtain or intercept their needed results respectively from this paper.

  16. Modeling constitutive behavior of a 15Cr-15Ni-2.2Mo-Ti modified austenitic stainless steel under hot compression using artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Sumantra

    2006-11-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) model has been suggested to predict the constitutive flow behavior of a 15Cr-15Ni-2.2Mo-Ti modified austenitic stainless steel under hot deformation. Hot compression tests in the temperature range 850°C- 1250°C and strain rate range 10-3-102 s-1 were carried out. These tests provided the required data for training the neural network and for subsequent testing. The inputs of the neural network are strain, log strain rate and temperature while flow stress is obtained as output. A three layer feed-forward network with ten neurons in a single hidden layer and back-propagation learning algorithm has been employed. A very good correlation between experimental and predicted result has been obtained. The effect of temperature and strain rate on flow behavior has been simulated employing the ANN model. The results have been found to be consistent with the metallurgical trend. Finally, a monte carlo analiysis has been carried out to find out the noise sensitivity of the developed model.

  17. Mapping and validation of a new QTL for adult-plant resistance to powdery mildew in Chinese elite bread wheat line Zhou8425B.

    PubMed

    Jia, Aolin; Ren, Yan; Gao, Fengmei; Yin, Guihong; Liu, Jindong; Guo, Lu; Zheng, Jizhou; He, Zhonghu; Xia, Xianchun

    2018-05-01

    Four QTLs for adult-plant resistance to powdery mildew were mapped in the Zhou8425B/Chinese Spring population, and a new QTL on chromosome 3B was validated in 103 wheat cultivars derived from Zhou8425B. Zhou8425B is an elite wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) line widely used as a parent in Chinese wheat breeding programs. Identification of genes for adult-plant resistance (APR) to powdery mildew in Zhou8425B is of high importance for continued controlling the disease. In the current study, the high-density Illumina iSelect 90K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for APR to powdery mildew in 244 recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross Zhou8425B/Chinese Spring. Inclusive composite interval mapping identified QTL on chromosomes 1B, 3B, 4B, and 7D, designated as QPm.caas-1BL.1, QPm.caas-3BS, QPm.caas-4BL.2, and QPm.caas-7DS, respectively. Resistance alleles at the QPm.caas-1BL.1, QPm.caas-3BS, and QPm.caas-4BL.2 loci were contributed by Zhou8425B, whereas that at QPm.caas-7DS was from Chinese Spring. QPm.caas-3BS, likely to be a new APR gene for powdery mildew resistance, was detected in all four environments. One SNP marker closely linked to QPm.caas-3BS was transferred into a semi-thermal asymmetric reverse PCR (STARP) marker and tested on 103 commercial wheat cultivars derived from Zhou8425B. Cultivars with the resistance allele at the QPm.caas-3BS locus had averaged maximum disease severity reduced by 5.3%. This STARP marker can be used for marker-assisted selection in improvement of the level of powdery mildew resistance in wheat breeding.

  18. Supersymmetrizing the Gorsky-Shifman-Yung soliton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireson, E.; Shifman, M.; Yung, A.

    2018-05-01

    We supersymmetrize the Hopfion studied by Gorsky et al. [Phys. Rev. D 88, 045026 (2013)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.88.045026]. This soliton represents a closed semilocal vortex string in U(1) gauge theory. It carries nonzero Hopf number due to the additional winding of a phase modulus as one moves along the closed string. We study this solution in N =2 supersymmetric QED with two flavors. As a preliminary exercise, we compactify one space dimension and consider a straight vortex with periodic boundary conditions. It turns out to be 1 /2 -BPS saturated. An additional winding along the string can be introduced and it does not spoil the BPS nature of the object. Next, we consider a ringlike vortex in a non-compact space and show that the circumference of the ring L can be stabilized once the previously mentioned winding along the string is introduced. Of course, the ringlike vortex is not BPS but its energy becomes close to the BPS bound if L is large, which can be guaranteed in the case that we have a large value of the angular momentum J . Thus we arrive at the concept of asymptotically BPS-saturated solitons. BPS saturation is achieved in the limit J →∞ .

  19. Ella Zhou | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    . 2015. Methods for Analyzing the Economic Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy in the United States, Potential Lessons for ChinaPDF. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy . Renewable Electricity: Insights for the Coming DecadePDF. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  20. On sound transmission through double-walled cylindrical shells lined with poroelastic material: Comparison with Zhou's results and further effect of external mean flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; He, Chuanbo

    2015-12-01

    In this discussion, the corrections to the errors found in the derivations and the numerical code of a recent analytical study (Zhou et al. Journal of Sound and Vibration 333 (7) (2014) 1972-1990) on sound transmission through double-walled cylindrical shells lined with poroelastic material are presented and discussed, as well as the further effect of the external mean flow on the transmission loss. After applying the corrections, the locations of the characteristic frequencies of thin shells remain unchanged, as well as the TL results above the ring frequency where BU and UU remain the best configurations in sound insulation performance. In the low-frequency region below the ring frequency, however, the corrections attenuate the TL amplitude significantly for BU and UU, and hence the BB configuration exhibits the best performance which is consistent with previous observations for flat sandwich panels.

  1. Rebuttal to "On the distribution of the modulus of Gabor wavelet coefficients and the upper bound of the dimensionless smoothness index in the case of additive Gaussian noises: Revisited" by Dong Wang, Qiang Zhou, and Kwok-Leung Tsui

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani Bozchalooi, Iman; Liang, Ming

    2018-04-01

    A discussion paper entitled "On the distribution of the modulus of Gabor wavelet coefficients and the upper bound of the dimensionless smoothness index in the case of additive Gaussian noises: revisited" by Dong Wang, Qiang Zhou, Kwok-Leung Tsui has been brought to our attention recently. This discussion paper (hereafter called Wang et al. paper) is based on arguments that are fundamentally incorrect and which we rebut within this commentary. However, as the flaws in the arguments proposed by Wang et al. are clear, we will keep this rebuttal as brief as possible.

  2. Mo/Ti Diffusion Bonding for Making Thermoelectric Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Kisor, Adam; Caillat, Thierry; Lara, Liana; Ravi, Vilupanur; Firdosy, Samad; Fleuiral, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    An all-solid-state diffusion bonding process that exploits the eutectoid reaction between molybdenum and titanium has been developed for use in fabricating thermoelectric devices based on skutterudite compounds. In essence, the process is one of heating a flat piece of pure titanium in contact with a flat piece of pure molybdenum to a temperature of about 700 C while pushing the pieces together with a slight pressure [a few psi (of the order of 10 kPa)]. The process exploits the energy of mixing of these two metals to form a strong bond between them. These two metals were selected partly because the bonds formed between them are free of brittle intermetallic phases and are mechanically and chemically stable at high temperatures. The process is a solution of the problem of bonding hot-side metallic interconnections (denoted hot shoes in thermoelectric jargon) to titanium-terminated skutterudite n and p legs during the course of fabrication of a unicouple, which is the basic unit cell of a thermoelectric device (see figure). The hot-side operating temperature required for a skutterudite thermoelectric device is 700 C. This temperature precludes the use of brazing to attach the hot shoe; because brazing compounds melt at lower temperatures, the hot shoe would become detached during operation. Moreover, the decomposition temperature of one of the skutterudite compounds is 762 C; this places an upper limit on the temperature used in bonding the hot shoe. Molybdenum was selected as the interconnection metal because the eutectoid reaction between it and the titanium at the ends of the p and n legs has characteristics that are well suited for this application. In addition to being suitable for use in the present bonding process, molybdenum has high electrical and thermal conductivity and excellent thermal stability - characteristics that are desired for hot shoes of thermoelectric devices. The process takes advantage of the chemical potential energy of mixing between molybdenum and titanium. These metals have a strong affinity for each other. They are almost completely soluble in each other and remain in the solid state at temperatures above the eutectoid temperature of 695 C. As a result, bonds formed by interdiffusion of molybdenum and titanium are mechanically stable at and well above the original bonding temperature of about 700 C. Inasmuch as the bonds are made at approximately the operating temperature, thermomechanical stresses associated with differences in thermal expansion are minimized.

  3. The epidemiological characteristics of measles and difficulties of measles elimination in Hang Zhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shijun; Xu, Erping; Zhang, Xiaoping; Liu, Yan; Du, Jian; Wang, Jun; Che, Xinren; Gu, Wenwen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Following the national proclaim of Measles Elimination 2012, plenty of activities for controlling the incidence had practiced in Hangzhou. However, the incidence did not decrease to low degree and remained perform as gap to the elimination target. The present study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics of measles, and proposed reasonable method to the target in Hangzhou.  Method: Cases were collected by the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) from 2004 to 2011. The descriptive epidemiology was employed to analyze characteristics of measles.  Results: A total of 4712 confirmed cases were enrolled by the NNDSS with 7.87 per 100,000 people of incidence rate on average from 2004 to 2011. Individuals lived urban districts had higher risk of measles than counties. Infants aged <1 year observed the highest incidence rate with 239.35/100,000, and the age-specific incidence rate declined along with aged-group but reversed at adults. 52.20% of cases were floating cases and the measles vaccination was significantly different from the local cases (χ2=51.65,p <0.001). February to June was the epidemic period for measles incidence with 81.88% of cases reported in cluster.  Conclusion: The descriptive characteristics of measles suggested that factors included infant and adult individual, floating population, and living urban area might be relate to the elimination target. More efforts were need to ensure susceptible population had accepted qualified measles vaccination.  PMID:23732896

  4. One new species of the genus Nigrimacula Shi, Bian & Zhou, 2016 (Orthoptera: Meconematinae) from Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Jian; Shi, Fu-Ming

    2016-07-01

    The paper describels one new species, i.e. Nigrimacula sichuanensis Wang & Shi, sp. nov. from Sichuan, China, and provides photographs of morphological characters. The type material is deposited in the Museum of Hebei University.

  5. NCEP Air Quality Forecast(AQF). Web designed by Binbin Zhou,

    Science.gov Websites

    NOAA/NWS/NCEP/EMC 2D Fields 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Select speed: normal 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Select Cycle: 12Z

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Follow-up photometry and spectroscopy of KELT-17 (Zhou+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, G.; Rodriguez, J. E.; Collins, K. A.; Beatty, T.; Oberst, T.; Heintz, T. M.; Stassun, K. G.; Latham, D. W.; Kuhn, R. B.; Bieryla, A.; Lund, M. B.; Labadie-Bartz, J.; Siverd, R. J.; Stevens, D. J.; Gaudi, B. S.; Pepper, J.; Buchhave, L. A.; Eastman, J.; Colon, K.; Cargile, P.; James, D.; Gregorio, J.; Reed, P. A.; Jensen, E. L. N.; Cohen, D. H.; McLeod, K. K.; Tan, T. G.; Zambelli, R.; Bayliss, D.; Bento, J.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Berlind, P.; Calkins, M. L.; Blancato, K.; Manner, M.; Samulski, C.; Stockdale, C.; Nelson, P.; Stephens, D.; Curtis, I.; Kielkopf, J.; Fulton, B. J.; Depoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.; Pogge, R.; Gould, A.; Trueblood, M.; Trueblood, P.

    2017-05-01

    KELT-17, the first exoplanet host discovered through the combined observations of both the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT)-North and KELT-South, is located in KELT-South field 06 (KS06) and KELT-North field 14 (KN14), which are both centered on α=07h39m36s δ=+03°00'00'' (J2000). At the time of identification, the post-processed KELT data set included 2092 images from KN14, taken between UT 2011 October 11 and UT 2013 March 26 and 2636 images from KS06 taken between UT 2010 March 02 and 2013 May 10. The discovery light curves from both KELT-North and KELT-South are shown in Figure1. We obtained higher spatial resolution and precision photometric follow-up observations of KELT-17b in multiple filters. An I-band transit was observed on UT 2015 March 05 at the Canela's Robotic Observatory (CROW) with the 0.3m SCT12 telescope, remotely operated from Portalegre, Portugal. Observations were acquired with the ST10XME CCD camera, with a 30'*20' field of view and a 0.86'' pixel scale. A full multi-color (V and I) transit of KELT-17b was observed on UT 2015 March 12 at Kutztown University Observatory (KUO), located on the campus of Kutztown University in Kutztown, Pennsylvania. KUO's main instrument is the 0.6 m Ritchey-Chretien optical telescope with a focal ratio of f/8. The imaging CCD (KAF-6303E) camera has an array of 3K*2K (9μm) pixels and covers a field of view of 19.5'*13.0'. The Peter van de Kamp Observatory (PvdK) at Swarthmore College (near Philadelphia) houses a 0.62m Ritchey-Chretien reflector with a 4K*4K pixel Apogee CCD. The telescope and camera together have a 26'*26' field of view and a 0.61'' pixel scale. PvdK observed KELT-17b on UT 2015 March 12 in the SDSS z' filter. KELT-17b was observed in both g' and i' on UT 2015 March 12 at Wellesley College's Whitin Observatory in Massachusetts. The telescope is a 0.6m Boller and Chivens with a DFM focal reducer yielding an effective focal ratio of f/9.6. We used an Apogee U230 2K*2K camera with a 0.58''/pixel scale and a 20'*20' field of view. One full transit of KELT-17b was observed from the Westminster College Observatory (WCO), PA, on UT 2015 November 4 in the z' filter. The observations employed a 0.35m f/11 Celestron C14 Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope and SBIG STL-6303E CCD with a ~3K*2K array of 9μm pixels, yielding a 24'*16' field of view and 1.4''/pixel image scale at 3*3 pixel binning. The stellar FWHM was seeing-limited with a typical value of ~3.2''. Three full transits of KELT-17b were observed on UT 2016 February 26 (g' and i') and UT 2016 March 31 (r') using the Manner-Vanderbilt Ritchie-Chrtien (MVRC) telescope located at the Mt. Lemmon summit of Steward Observatory, AZ. The observations employed a 0.6m f/8 RC Optical Systems Ritchie-Chretien telescope and SBIG STX-16803 CCD with a 4K*4K array of 9μm pixels, yielding a 26'*26' field of view and 0.39''/pixel image scale. The telescope was heavily defocused for all three observations resulting in a typical stellar FWHM of ~17''. The Perth Exoplanet Survey Telescope (PEST) observatory is a backyard observatory owned and operated by ThiamGuan (TG) Tan, located in Perth, Australia. It is equipped with a 0.3m Meade LX200 SCT f/10 telescope with focal reducer yielding f/5 and an SBIG ST-8XME CCD camera. The telescope and camera combine to have a 31'*21' field of view and a 1.2'' pixel scale. PEST observed KELT-17b on UT 2016 March 06 in the B band. A series of spectroscopic follow-up observations were performed to characterize the KELT-17 system. We performed low-resolution, high-signal-to-noise reconnaissance spectroscopic follow-up of KELT-17 using the Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS) on the Australian National University (ANU) 2.3m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory, Australia in 2015 February. In-depth spectroscopic characterization of KELT-17 was performed by the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES) on the 1.5m telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Mount Hopkins, Arizona, USA. TRES has a wavelength coverage of 3900-9100Å over 51 echelle orders, with a resolving power of λ/Δλ R=44000. A total of 12 out-of-transit observations were taken to characterize the radial velocity orbital variations exhibited by KELT-17. In addition, we also observed spectroscopic transits of KELT-17b with TRES on 2016 February 23 and 2016 February 26 UT, gathering 33 and 29 sets of spectra, respectively. (4 data files).

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Differential photometry of the F-subgiant HAT-P-67 (Zhou+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, G.; Bakos, G. A.; Hartman, J. D.; Latham, D. W.; Torres, G.; Bhatti, W.; Penev, K.; Buchhave, L.; Kovacs, G.; Bieryla, A.; Quinn, S.; Isaacson, H.; Fulton, B. J.; Falco, E.; Csubry, Z.; Everett, M.; Szklenar, T.; Esquerdo, G.; Berlind, P.; Calkins, M. L.; Beky, B.; Knox, R. P.; Hinz, P.; Horch, E. P.; Hirsch, L.; Howell, S. B.; Noyes, R. W.; Marcy, G.; de Val-Borro, M.; Lazar, J.; Papp, I.; Sari, P.

    2018-04-01

    The transits of HAT-P-67b were first detected with the HATNet survey (Bakos et al. 2004PASP..116..266B). HATNet employs a network of small, wide field telescopes, located at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory (FLWO) in Arizona and at the Mauna Kea Observatory (MKO) in Hawaii, to photometrically monitor selected 8x8° fields of the sky. A total of 4050 I band observations were taken by HAT-5 and HAT-8 from 2005 January to July, and an additional 4518 observations were obtained in the Cousins R band using HAT-5, HAT-7, and HAT-8 telescopes between 2008 February and August. To better characterize the planetary properties, follow-up photometry of the transits were obtained using the KeplerCam on the FWLO 1.2 m telescope. KeplerCam is a 4Kx4K CCD camera with a pixel scale of 0.672"/pixel at 2x2 pixel binning. The photometry was reduced as per Bakos et al. (2010, J/ApJ/710/1724). A full transit was observed in the Sloan-i band on 2012 May 28, and five partial transits were observed on 2011 April 15, May 19, June 07, and 2013 April 25 in the Sloan-i band, and 2013 May 24 in the Sloan-z band. (1 data file).

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Differential photometry of the EB* HATS551-027 (Zhou+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, G.; Bayliss, D.; Hartman, J. D.; Rabus, M.; Bakos, G. A.; Jordan, A.; Brahm, R.; Penev, K.; Csubry, Z.; Mancini, L.; Espinoza, N.; de Val-Borro, M.; Bhatti, W.; Ciceri, S.; Henning, T.; Schmidt, B.; Murphy, S. J.; Butler, R. P.; Arriagada, P.; Shectman, S.; Crane, J.; Thompson, I.; Suc, V.; Noyes, R. W.

    2017-11-01

    The eclipses of HATS551-027 were first identified by observations from the HATSouth survey (Bakos et al. 2013PASP..125..154B). HATSouth is a global network of identical, fully robotic telescopes, providing continuous monitoring of selected 128 deg2 fields of the southern sky. A total of 16622 observations of HATS551-027 were obtained from HATSouth units HS-1, HS-2 in Chile, HS-3, HS-4 in Namibia, and HS-6 in Australia from 2009 September to 2010 September. Two secondary eclipses of HATS551-027 were observed by the Merope camera on 2-m Faulkes Telescope South (FTS), at Siding Spring Observatory, on 2012 December 12 and 2013 March 20. A near-complete primary eclipse of HATS551-027 was observed by the SITe#3 camera on the Swope 1 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, on 2013 February 26. (1 data file).

  9. Melt Extrusion of High-Dose Co-Amorphous Drug-Drug Combinations : Theme: Formulation and Manufacturing of Solid Dosage Forms Guest Editors: Tony Zhou and Tonglei Li.

    PubMed

    Arnfast, Lærke; Kamruzzaman, Md; Löbmann, Korbinian; Aho, Johanna; Baldursdottir, Stefania; Rades, Thomas; Rantanen, Jukka

    2017-12-01

    Many future drug products will be based on innovative manufacturing solutions, which will increase the need for a thorough understanding of the interplay between drug material properties and processability. In this study, hot melt extrusion of a drug-drug mixture with minimal amount of polymeric excipient was investigated. Using indomethacin-cimetidine as a model drug-drug system, processability of physical mixtures with and without 5% (w/w) of polyethylene oxide (PEO) were studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Small Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (SAOS) rheometry. Extrudates containing a co-amorphous glass solution were produced and the solid-state composition of these was studied with DSC. Rheological analysis indicated that the studied systems display viscosities higher than expected for small molecule melts and addition of PEO decreased the viscosity of the melt. Extrudates of indomethacin-cimetidine alone displayed amorphous-amorphous phase separation after 4 weeks of storage, whereas no phase separation was observed during the 16 week storage of the indomethacin-cimetidine extrudates containing 5% (w/w) PEO. Melt extrusion of co-amorphous extrudates with low amounts of polymer was found to be a feasible manufacturing technique. Addition of 5% (w/w) polymer reduced melt viscosity and prevented phase separation.

  10. A Study of Moisture Sorption and Dielectric Processes of Starch and Sodium Starch Glycolate : Theme: Formulation and Manufacturing of Solid Dosage Forms Guest Editors: Tony Zhou and Tonglei Li.

    PubMed

    Hiew, Tze Ning; Huang, Rongying; Popov, Ivan; Feldman, Yuri; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2017-12-01

    This study explored the potential of combining the use of moisture sorption isotherms and dielectric relaxation profiles of starch and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) to probe the location of moisture in dried and hydrated samples. Starch and SSG samples, dried and hydrated, were prepared. For hydrated samples, their moisture contents were determined. The samples were probed by dielectric spectroscopy using a frequency band of 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz to investigate their moisture-related relaxation profiles. The moisture sorption and desorption isotherms of starch and SSG were generated using a vapor sorption analyzer, and modeled using the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer equation. A clear high frequency relaxation process was detected in both dried and hydrated starches, while for dried starch, an additional slower low frequency process was also detected. The high frequency relaxation processes in hydrated and dried starches were assigned to the coupled starch-hydrated water relaxation. The low frequency relaxation in dried starch was attributed to the local chain motions of the starch backbone. No relaxation process associated with water was detected in both hydrated and dried SSG within the frequency and temperature range used in this study. The moisture sorption isotherms of SSG suggest the presence of high energy free water, which could have masked the relaxation process of the bound water during dielectric measurements. The combined study of moisture sorption isotherms and dielectric spectroscopy was shown to be beneficial and complementary in probing the effects of moisture on the relaxation processes of starch and SSG.

  11. A Multiparticulate Delivery System for Potential Colonic Targeting Using Bovine Serum Albumin as a Model Protein : Theme: Formulation and Manufacturing of Solid Dosage Forms Guest Editors: Tony Zhou and Tonglei Li.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bowen; Yu, Hua; Zhang, Yongrong; Feng, Hanping; Hoag, Stephen W

    2017-12-01

    There are many important diseases whose treatment could be improved by delivering a therapeutic protein to the colon, for example, Clostridium difficile infection, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's Disease. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of colonic delivery of proteins using multiparticulate beads. In this work, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was adopted as a model protein. BSA was spray layered onto beads, followed by coating of an enteric polymer EUDRAGIT® FS 30 D to develop a colonic delivery system. The secondary and tertiary structure change and aggregation of BSA during spray layering process was examined. The BSA layered beads were then challenged in an accelerated stability study using International Council for Harmonization (ICH) conditions. The in vitro release of BSA from enteric coated beads was examined using United States Pharmacopeia (USP) dissolution apparatus 1. No significant changes in the secondary and tertiary structure or aggregation profile of BSA were observed after the spray layering process. Degradation of BSA to different extents was detected after storing at 25°C and 40°C for 38 days. Enteric coated BSA beads were intact in acidic media while released BSA in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer. We showed the feasibility of delivering proteins to colon in vitro using multiparticulate system.

  12. Predicting Site Index in Young Black Walnut Plantations

    Treesearch

    Craig K. Losche; Richard C. Schlesinger

    1975-01-01

    Prediction of black walnut height at age 25 is graphically represented for two soil-site groups. The landowner or manager can use this growth prediction to assess the productivity of yung black walnut plantations.

  13. Nanoscale Imaging Technology for THz Frequency Transmission Microscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-16

    potential assays, Lab on a Chip, (04 2012): 2719. doi : 10.1039/c2lc40086c Peter J. Burke, Nima Rouhi, Yung Yu Wang. Ultrahigh conductivity of large area...suspended few layer graphene films, Applied Physics Letters, (12 2012): 0. doi : 10.1063/1.4772797 Peter J. Burke, Yung Yu Wang. A large-area and...contamination-free graphene transistor for liquid-gated sensing applications, Applied Physics Letters, (07 2013): 0. doi : 10.1063/1.4816764

  14. Long Term δ17O, δ18O measurements of tropospheric carbon dioxide and potential application to the global carbon cycle. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemens, M. H.

    2009-12-01

    .H. (2006). Annual Rev. earth Planet Sci. 34, 217 (2006). 2.Luz, B., Bender, M.L., Thiemens, M.H., Boering, K. Nature 400, 547 (2002). 3.Bao, H., Lyons, J.R., Zhou, Chuanming. Nature 453, 504 (2008). 4.Hoag, K.J., Still, C.J., Fung, I.Y., Boering, K.A. Geophys. Res. Lett 32, L02802 (2005). 5.Liang, M-C., Blake, G.A., Yung, Y.L. J. Geophys. Res 113, D12305 (2008).

  15. Mortality and Its Risk Factors in Patients with Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junying; Zhang, Jihui; Lam, Siu Ping; Mok, Vincent; Chan, Anne; Li, Shirley Xin; Liu, Yaping; Tang, Xiangdong; Yung, Wing Ho; Wing, Yun Kwok

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the mortality and its risk factors in patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Methods: A total of 205 consecutive patients with video-polysomnography confirmed RBD (mean age = 66.4 ± 10.0 y, 78.5% males) were recruited. Medical records and death status were systematically reviewed in the computerized records of the health care system. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was used to calculate the risk ratio of mortality in RBD with reference to the general population. Results: Forty-three patients (21.0%) died over a mean follow-up period of 7.1 ± 4.5 y. The SMR was not increased in the overall sample, SMR (95% confidence interval [CI]) = 1.00 (0.73–1.33). However, SMR (95% CI) increased to 1.80 (1.21–2.58) and 1.75 (1.11–2.63) for RBD patients in whom neurodegenerative diseases and dementia, respectively, eventually developed. In the Cox regression model, mortality risk was significantly associated with age (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01–1.10), living alone (HR = 2.04; 95% CI, 1.39–2.99), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR = 3.38; 95% CI, 1.21–9.46), cancer (HR = 10.09; 95% CI, 2.65–38.42), periodic limb movements during sleep (HR = 3.06; 95% CI, 1.50–6.24), and development of neurodegenerative diseases (HR = 2.84; 95% CI, 1.47–5.45) and dementia (HR = 2.66; 95% CI, 1.39–5.08). Conclusions: Patients with RBD have a higher mortality rate than the general population only if neurodegenerative diseases develop. Several risk factors on clinical and sleep aspects are associated with mortality in RBD patients. Our findings underscore the necessity of timely neuroprotective interventions in the early phase of RBD before the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Citation: Zhou J, Zhang J, Lam SP, Mok V, Chan A, Li SX, Liu Y, Tang X, Yung WH, Wing YK. Mortality and its risk factors in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. SLEEP 2016;39(8):1543–1550

  16. Developing corridor-level truck travel time estimates and other freight performance measures from archived ITS data.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this research were to retrospectively study the feasibility for using truck transponder data to produce freight corridor performance measures (travel times) and real-time traveler information. To support this analysis, weigh-in-moti...

  17. New data on the Paederus biacutus species group from mainland China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae).

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhong; Li, Li-Zhen; Zhao, Mei-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Paederus jianyueae Peng & Li, sp. n. (Zhejiang: Qingliangfeng) is described and illustrated. Additional records of P. biacutus Li, Zhou & Solodovnikov, 2014 and P. parvidenticulatus Li, Zhou & Solodovnikov, 2014 are reported.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hayflick SJ, Westaway SK, Levinson B, Zhou B, Johnson MA, Ching KH, Gitschier J. Genetic, clinical, and ... on PubMed Zhou B, Westaway SK, Levinson B, Johnson MA, Gitschier J, Hayflick SJ. A novel pantothenate ...

  19. CHAPTER: In-Situ Characterization of Stimulating Microelectrode Arrays: Study of an Idealized Structure Based on Argus II Retinal implantsBOOK TITLE: Implantable Neural Prostheses 2: Techniques and Engineering Approaches, D.M. Zhou and E. Greenbaum, Eds., Springer, NY 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A; Kandagor, Vincent

    The development of a retinal prosthesis for artificial sight includes a study of the factors affecting the structural and functional stability of chronically implanted microelectrode arrays. Although neuron depolarization and propagation of electrical signals have been studied for nearly a century, the use of multielectrode stimulation as a proposed therapy to treat blindness is a frontier area of modern ophthalmology research. Mapping and characterizing the topographic information contained in the electric field potentials and understanding how this information is transmitted and interpreted in the visual cortex is still very much a work in progress. In order to characterize the electricalmore » field patterns generated by the device, an in vitro prototype that mimics several of the physical and chemical parameters of the in vivo visual implant device was fabricated. We carried out multiple electrical measurements in a model 'eye,' beginning with a single electrode, followed by a 9-electrode array structure, both idealized components based on the Argus II retinal implants. Correlating the information contained in the topographic features of the electric fields with psychophysical testing in patients may help reduce the time required for patients to convert the electrical patterns into graphic signals.« less

  20. Effects of ice storm on forest ecosystem of southern China in 2008 Shaoqiang Wang1, Lei Zhou1, Weimin Ju2, Kun Huang1 1Key Lab of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Beijing, 10010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaoqiang

    2014-05-01

    Evidence is mounting that an increase in extreme climate events has begun to occur worldwide during the recent decades, which affect biosphere function and biodiversity. Ecosystems returned to its original structures and functions to maintain its sustainability, which was closely dependent on ecosystem resilience. Understanding the resilience and recovery capacity of ecosystem to extreme climate events is essential to predicting future ecosystem responses to climate change. Given the overwhelming importance of this region in the overall carbon cycle of forest ecosystems in China, south China suffered a destructive ice storm in 2008. In this study, we used the number of freezing day and a process-based model (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator, BEPS) to characterize the spatial distribution of ice storm region in southeastern China and explore the impacts on carbon cycle of forest ecosystem over the past decade. The ecosystem variables, i.e. Net primary productivity (NPP), Evapotranspiration (ET), and Water use efficiency (WUE, the ratio of NPP to ET) from the outputs of BEPS models were used to detect the resistance and resilience of forest ecosystem in southern China. The pattern of ice storm-induced forest productivity widespread decline was closely related to the number of freezing day during the ice storm period. The NPP of forest area suffered heavy ice storm returned to normal status after five months with high temperature and ample moisture, indicated a high resilience of subtropical forest in China. The long-term changes of forest WUE remain stable, behaving an inherent sensitivity of ecosystem to extreme climate events. In addition, ground visits suggested that the recovery of forest productivity was attributed to rapid growth of understory. Understanding the variability and recovery threshold of ecosystem following extreme climate events help us to better simulate and predict the variability of ecosystem structure and function under current and future climate change.

  1. A Computational Wireless Network Backplane: Performance in a Distributed Speaker Identification Application Postprint

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    AUTHOR(S) H.T. Kung, Chit-Kwan Lin, Chia-Yung Su, Dario Vlah, John Grieco, Mark Huggins, and Bruce Suter 5d. PROJECT NUMBER WCNA 5e. TASK NUMBER...APPLICATION H. T. Kung, Chit-Kwan Lin, Chia-Yung Su, Dario Vlah John Grieco†, Mark Huggins‡, Bruce Suter† Harvard University Air Force Research Lab†, Oasis...contributing its C7 processors used in our wireless testbed. REFERENCES [1] R. North, N. Browne, and L. Schiavone , “Joint tactical radio system - connecting

  2. Taxonomic study of subgenus Plastus s. str. (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Osoriinae) in China, with descriptions of five new species

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper treats Chinese species of the rove beetle genus Plastus Bernhauer, 1903, subgenus Plastus s. str. (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Osoriinae). None of the 87 previously described species of this subgenus are known from China. The following five new species are described and illustrated: Plastus Plastus amplus Wu & Zhou, sp. n. from Xizang, Plastus Plastus rhombicus Wu & Zhou, sp. n. from Guangxi, Plastus Plastus rhombicus Wu & Zhou, sp. n. from Yunnan, Plastus Plastus shanghaiensis Wu & Zhou, sp. n. from Shanghai, and Plastus Plastus tuberculatus Wu & Zhou, sp. n. from Hainan. A key to adults of the five known Chinese species is provided. PMID:21594120

  3. New Visions in Asian American Studies. Diversity, Community, Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Franklin, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of essays from the eighth national conference of the Association for Asian American Studies is organized into four sections: history and women's studies; social science; literature; and Hawaiian studies. The following papers are included: (1) "History and Women Studies" (Yung); (2) "From Old to New Plantations: Labor's Growing…

  4. Education, Training and Contexts: Studies and Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauglo, Jon

    This volume provides an overview of some of the outstanding features of the work of the Norwegian sociologist and comparative educationist, Jon Lauglo. After an introduction, "'It Ain't Necessarily So!': Theories and Observations in Jon Lauglo's World of Education and Training" (Se-Yung Lim and Klaus Schaack), essays and studies are…

  5. Parameter Estimation for Real Filtered Sinusoids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    Statistical Signal Processing: Detection, Estimation and Time Series Analysis. New York: Addison-Wesley, 1991. 74. Serway , Raymond A . Physics for...Dr. Yung Kee Yeo, Dean’s Representative Dr. Robert A . Calico, Jr., Dean Table of Contents Page List of Abbreviations...Contributions ....... ...................... 5-4 5.4 Summary ........ ............................. 5-6 Appendix A . Vector-Matrix Differentiation

  6. Security Implications of Third-Party Accelerators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-11

    G. Wheeler, “Undocumented M6800 instructions,” BYTE Magazine, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 46–47, Dec. 1977. [20] x0r1, “ jellyfish ,” https://github.com/x0r1... jellyfish , 2015. [21] A. Young and M. Yung, Malicious Cryptography: Exposing Cryptovi- rology. John Wiley & Sons, 2004.

  7. First Results From the Spatial Heterodyne Imager for Mesospheric Radicals (SHIMMER): Diurnal Variation of Mesospheric Hydroxyl

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-08

    L01808, doi:10.1029/ 2005GL024048. Pickett, H. M., W. G. Read, K. K. Lee , and Y. L. Yung (2006b), Observa- tion of night OH in the mesosphere, Geophys. Res...Offermann, M. Riese, P. Preusse, D. F. Strobel , and J. M. Russell III (1997), Implica- tions of satellite OH observations for middle atmospheric H2O

  8. Pro-lipogenic Action of Lysophosphatidic Acid in Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Function. IUBMB Life. 2008. 60: 347-354. 11. Tse C, Shoemaker AR, Adickes J, Anderson MG, Chen J, Jin S, Johnson EF, Marsh KC , Mitten MJ, Nimmer P...Ann. Oncol. 9, 437–442 14. Choi, J. W., Herr, D. R., Noguchi, K., Yung, Y. C., Lee, C. W., Mutoh, T., Lin, M. E., Teo , S. T., Park, K. E., Mosley, A

  9. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. 1985 Ship Production Symposium. Volume 1, Paper No. 13: Engineering Management for Zone Construction of Ships.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    steadily developed along with the better understanding of human relations, moti- vation and worklife sciences. That this is so, is clear from a review of...accomplish its goals effectively and efficiently if it is not staffed with the correct number of people with the correct balance of education, training and

  10. Engineering Management for Zone Construction of Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    Theory has steadily developed along with the better understanding of human relations, moti- vation and worklife sciences. That this is so, is clear from a...will not accomplish its goals effectively and efficiently if it is not staffed with the correct number of people with the correct balance of education

  11. Stages of Change Model has Limited Value in Explaining the Change in Use of Cannabis among Adolescent Participants in an Efficacious Motivational Interviewing Intervention.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Hans B; Candel, Math J J M; Lemmens, Paul; Kaplan, Charles D; van de Mheen, Dike; De Vries, Nanne K

    2017-01-01

    Previously, a Dutch randomized controlled trial evaluating an intervention aimed at changing adolescents' cannabis use, called Moti-4, has shown its efficacy. A secondary analysis of the Moti-4 data investigated the process of change specified by the Stage of Change (SOC) model in cannabis use during the trial. Seventy-one Moti-4 participants and 60 controls were recruited for the study with a pre-test, post-test (T1), and six-month follow-up (T2). All participants showed signs of problematic cannabis use. No contribution of the Moti-4 intervention to a change in SOC between T1 and T2 was found. Although motivation for treatment and motivation for change can be conceived as independent predictors of treatment outcome, the SOC a person is in does not mediate the effect of the intervention on change in cannabis use. However, a reduction in cannabis use was associated with a positive change in "action willingness," in line with the SOC model. In contrast to model expectations, a higher score on "contemplation" is associated with a higher cannabis consumption. Results highlight both the limitations and usefulness of the SOC model. Future interventions may focus more on the stage of "action willingness," as well as on perceived social norms.

  12. Properties of Aerosols during a Dust Storm over the Beijing Area,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-12

    THE BEIJING AREA by Zhou Mingyu , Qu Shaohou, et al DTIC S ELECTE JAN 04 1984 N Lum E Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 84 01 04 015...STORM OVER THE BEIJING AREA By: Zhou Mingyu , Qu Shaohou, et al. English~ pages: 22 Source: Huanjing Kexue Xuebao, Vol. 1, Nr. 3, September 1981, pp... Mingyu , Qu Shaohou, Song Ximing, Li Yuying, Yang Shaojin and Qian Qinfang Zhou, Qu, Song and Li of Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy

  13. 77 FR 38845 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Health, Two Democracy Plaza, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Ruixia Zhou, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Democracy Two Building...

  14. Microfluidically supported biochip design for culture of endothelial cell layers with improved perfusion conditions.

    PubMed

    Raasch, Martin; Rennert, Knut; Jahn, Tobias; Peters, Sven; Henkel, Thomas; Huber, Otmar; Schulz, Ingo; Becker, Holger; Lorkowski, Stefan; Funke, Harald; Mosig, Alexander

    2015-03-02

    Hemodynamic forces generated by the blood flow are of central importance for the function of endothelial cells (ECs), which form a biologically active cellular monolayer in blood vessels and serve as a selective barrier for macromolecular permeability. Mechanical stimulation of the endothelial monolayer induces morphological remodeling in its cytoskeleton. For in vitro studies on EC biology culture devices are desirable that simulate conditions of flow in blood vessels and allow flow-based adhesion/permeability assays under optimal perfusion conditions. With this aim we designed a biochip comprising a perfusable membrane that serves as cell culture platform multi-organ-tissue-flow (MOTiF biochip). This biochip allows an effective supply with nutrition medium, discharge of catabolic cell metabolites and defined application of shear stress to ECs under laminar flow conditions. To characterize EC layers cultured in the MOTiF biochip we investigated cell viability, expression of EC marker proteins and cell adhesion molecules of ECs dynamically cultured under low and high shear stress, and compared them with an endothelial culture in established two-dimensionally perfused flow chambers and under static conditions. We show that ECs cultured in the MOTiF biochip form a tight EC monolayer with increased cellular density, enhanced cell layer thickness, presumably as the result of a rapid and effective adaption to shear stress by remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Moreover, endothelial layers in the MOTiF biochip express higher amounts of EC marker proteins von-Willebrand-factor and PECAM-1. EC layers were highly responsive to stimulation with TNFα as detected at the level of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression and modulation of endothelial permeability in response to TNFα/IFNγ treatment under flow conditions. Compared to static and two-dimensionally perfused cell culture condition we consider MOTiF biochips as a valuable tool for studying EC biology in vitro under

  15. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. China: Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-28

    Industry, National Economy Urged [Zhou Xiaping, Qu Shiyuan , et al; KEJI RIBAO, 4 Nov 91] 14 Inner Mongolia: Another Future Energy Base Targeted...KEJIRIBAO [SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DAILY] in Chinese 4 Nov 91 p 3 [Article by Zhou Xiaping [0719 0204 1627], Qu Shiyuan 3255 2514 6678], Han Wenke

  16. Taxonomy of Stenus tenuimargo group (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Steninae) with descriptions of two new species from China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wei-Xiang; Zhao, Cai-Yun; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2018-03-16

    This paper treats the Stenus tenuimargo group (Coleoptera: Steninae) from China and includes descriptions of two new species: Stenus nabanhensis Lv et Zhou, sp. nov., from Yunnan Province and Stenus zhangyejunianus Lv et Zhou, sp. nov., from Sichuan Province. Their diagnostic characters are illustrated and a key to all Chinese species of the group is provided.

  17. Microevolution and History of the Plague Bacillus, Yersinia pestis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-21

    Nichols, R. A., Oyston, P. C., Hinds, J., Titball, R. W. & Wren, B. W. (2003) Genome Res. 13, 2018 –2029. 7. Zhou, D., Han, Y., Song, Y., Tong, Z., Wang...Res. 11, 179–197. 29. Deng, W., Burland, V., Plunkett, G., III, Boutin , A., Mayhew, G. F., Liss, P., Perna, N. T., Rose, D. J., Mau, B., Zhou, S., et

  18. Journal of Chinese Society of Astronautics (Selected Articles),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-10

    Graphics Disclaimer...................... ..... .. . .. .. . . ... Calculation of Minimum Entry Heat Transfer Shape of a Space * Vehicle , by, Zhou Qi...the best quality copy available. ..- ii CALCULATION OF MINIMUM ENTRY HEAT TRANSFER SHAPE OF A SPACE VEHICLE Zhou Qi cheng ABSTRACT This paper dealt...entry heat transfer shape under specified fineness ratio and total vehicle weight conditions could be obtained using a variational method. Finally, the

  19. Limitations on Design Principles for Public Key Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    preserves nonrepudiation|assuming, as in the last example, that signatures are added to each message. Note that for all the messages save one, the...digital money must be put up against any bid in their auction, the attack requires the active partic- ipation of a bank. Second, since they protect...ACM Press, New York, November 1993. [5] R. Bird, I. Gopal, A. Herzberg , P. Janson, S. Kut- ten, R. Molva, and M. Yung. Systematic Design of a Family

  20. A Record Book of Open Heart Surgical Cases between 1959 and 1982, Hand-Written by a Cardiac Surgeon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Gon

    2016-08-01

    A book of brief records of open heart surgery underwent between 1959 and 1982 at Seoul National University Hospital was recently found. The book was hand-written by the late professor and cardiac surgeon Yung Kyoon Lee (1921-1994). This book contains valuable information about cardiac patients and surgery at the early stages of the establishment of open heart surgery in Korea, and at Seoul National University Hospital. This report is intended to analyze the content of the book.

  1. South Korea’s Commercial Liberal Approach to Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    Won -Keun Choi . “New Challenges Of The Korean Economy.” The Journal of East Asian Affairs. Vol.XIV, No.2, Fall/Winter 2000,pp...of Defense Analysis, Vol. VIII, No.2, Winter 1996, pp 223-268. Ko, Jong-Moon, Yung-Il So, Won -Keun Choi . “New Challenges Of The... Seung , Ho Joo and Tae Hwan Kwak, eds. Huntington: Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 2001, pp 185. 5 made by the South Korean

  2. Hydrological Work in Communist China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-03-01

    and Yen -ho in Kueichou Province, at Hsin - ning and Ta-yung in Hunan Province and at Ts’un-chi, Hsi Hsien and Ho- li-chi in...hydro- logical information and a control over hydrological fluctuations. Early in 1955 and 1956, in gathering data for irrigation planning, the Hsin ...organi- zation established to service the translation and research needs of the various government departments. JPRS: W27 CSO: 13iO-S/a

  3. Performance-Based Design for Arson Threats: Policy Analysis of the Physical Security for Federal Facilities Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    2012.0002- IR -EP7-A 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE A...extremist web forums is directed at Western audiences and supports Homeland attacks. (U.S. Department of Homeland Security Office of Intelligence and...23 In this context, “before the event.” 24 Yung and Benichou’s paper originally was presented at the 5th Fire

  4. Translations on Western Europe, Number 1129.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-16

    Professor Dr W. Albeda started his consultative work, a little boy fell in the water in Rotterdam. He wore a CDA [Christian Democratic Appeal] T...political party. The little boy , who rapidly managed to scramble onto the side, was the 10-year old Christiaan Albeda, the youngest son of the...the South Korean intelligence service KCIA. They are: Ambassador Kim Se Won, Counselor Song Young Won and Dr. Han Yung -Woo who is connected with the

  5. Molybdenum-titanium phase diagram evaluated from ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzilai, Shmuel; Toher, Cormac; Curtarolo, Stefano; Levy, Ohad

    2017-07-01

    The design of next generation β -type titanium implants requires detailed knowledge of the relevant stable and metastable phases at temperatures where metallurgical heat treatments can be performed. Recently, a standard specification for surgical implant applications was established for Mo-Ti alloys. However, the thermodynamic properties of this binary system are not well known and two conflicting descriptions of the β -phase stability have been presented in the literature. In this study, we use ab initio calculations to investigate the Mo-Ti phase diagram. These calculations predict that the β phase is stable over a wide concentration range, in qualitative agreement with one of the reported phase diagrams. In addition, they predict stoichiometric compounds, stable at temperatures below 300 ∘C , which have not yet been detected by experiments. The resulting solvus, which defines the transition to the β -phase solid solution, therefore occurs at lower temperatures and is more complex than previously anticipated.

  6. More Freedom, Less Terror? Liberalization and Political Violence in the Arab World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    financial services, offshore banking, tourism , and some heavy industry; many of these sources have proven volatile in times of unrest. Moreover, the...orientation of its ideologues and the moti- vation of its members, it is unlikely that improvements in Saudi gover - nance would have affected QAP terrorism...Algerian analyst, Algiers, Algeria, August 27, 2006. 14 The journalist ventured that “human rights do not exist for the Islamists. God’s gover - nance comes

  7. A Compendium of Sexual Assault Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    2007; Klaw et al., 2005; Lonsway et al., 1998). Typically, participants completed a pretest and a posttest evaluation, and studies sometimes included...Determine whether theatrical sexual assault prevention programs induce long-term attitude change Selected Results: Posttest scores were lower than pretest ...more moti- vated the participants were to see the program, the greater the effect of the program. The researchers also found that pretesting

  8. Gas in the Terrestrial Planet Region of Disks: CO Fundamental Emission from T Tauri Stars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    planetary systems: protoplanetary disks — stars: variables: other 1. INTRODUCTION As the likely birthplaces of planets, the inner regions of young...both low column density regions, such as disk gaps , and temperature inversion regions in disk atmospheres can produce significant emission. The esti...which planetary systems form. The moti- vation to study inner disks is all the more intense today given the discovery of planets outside the solar system

  9. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River, Upper and Lower St. Anthony Falls Pool.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-11-01

    willow, locust and staghorn sumac. Honeysuckle, wild grape and jewelweed are found as well as other shrubs , vines and herbs. For this environmental...Prosent Distribution Indiana Bat Midwest and eastern United States from the M~otis sodalis western edge of Ozark egion in Okiahoma Status endangcrcd with...wildlife habitat in the area as well ar plans ]or attractive spoil "recycl ilg’" areas, screened by an assortment of native trees, vines , hurbs and shrubs

  10. Learning and Memory Enhancement by Neuropeptides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-31

    organometal neurotoxin , ,• trimethyl n (TMT) oon I autoshaping model, it which rats learn to touch a lever to obtain f . Trialkyltins are used as stabilizers... Autoshaped Behavior Caused by Low E oses of Trimethyltin: No Evidence of Storage or Retrieval Deficits"). This study separates ’non-specific" behavioral...TMT does not i mpair performance of easy versions of the autoshaping task with identical sensorimotor ," - and moti ational requirements, but when a

  11. Optimal Regulation of Structural Systems with Uncertain Parameters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-02

    been addressed, in part, by Statistical Energy Analysis . Moti- vated by a concern with high frequency vibration and acoustical- structural...Parameter Systems," AFOSR-TR-79-0753 (May, 1979). 25. R. H. Lyon, Statistical Energy Analysis of Dynamical Systems: Theory and Applications, (M.I.T...Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1975). 26. E. E. Ungar, " Statistical Energy Analysis of Vibrating Systems," Trans. ASME, J. Eng. Ind. 89, 626 (1967). 139 27

  12. The Hobbesian Notion of Self-Preservation Concerning Human Behavior during an Insurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    The Hobbesian Notion of Self -Preservation Concerning Human Behavior during an Insurgency RAYMOND MILLEN S cholars generally reference Thomas Hobbes’s...the idea that individual self -preservation is the primary moti- vating factor behind the formation of society and not, as Aristotle contends, be...2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Hobbesian Notion of Self -Preservation Concerning Human Behavior during an Insurgency 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  13. Wave Characteristics of Temperature Inversion Process of Nighttime Radiation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-09

    CHARACTERISTICS OF TEMPERATURE INVERSION PROCESS OF NIGHTTIME RADIATION By: Zhou Mingyu and Zhang ¥i English pages: 8 Source: Kexue Tongbao, 1982, pp. 156...lJournal of Meteorology], 39 (1981), 1:70-81. 3. Drazin, P. G., J. Fluid. Mech., 4 (1958), 214-224. 4. Zhou Mingyu et al., QIXIANG XUEBAO, 38 (1980), 3: 250...258. 5. Emnanuel, C. B., B-L. Meteor., 5(1973), N(1/2)8 19-27. 6. Zhou Mingyu et al., J. Acoust. Soc., A. m., 68 (1980), 1: 303-308. 8 I iI

  14. 75 FR 45663 - In the Matter of: Certain Inkjet Ink Supplies and Components Thereof; Corrected Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... International, 10 C, Garden Building, No. 1083 JiuZhou Road, Jida, Zhuhai, Guangdong, China 519015; Ourway Image... 20436; and (3) For the investigation so instituted, the Honorable Paul J. Luckern, Chief Administrative...

  15. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-29

    KEJIRIBAO, 23 Mar 92] 11 Guangdong’s Strategy of Internationalizing High-Tech Industries [Wei Xulin, Qiu Rongsheng, et al.; KEJIGUANLI YANJIU, Mar...Apr 92] 14 Zhou Guangzhao Urges Cooperation Between Research Institutes and Industry [Zhou Guangzhao; ZHONGGUO KEXUE BAO, 6 Mar 92] 19 Liu...of Developing a Modern Cruise Missile for China [Xu Ande; XIANDAIHUA, Apr 92] 24 Discussion of Strategic Shifts in National Defense Industry

  16. Shallow-Water Reverberation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-30

    Shallow- Water Reverberation J. X. Zhou School of Mechanical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405 phone: (404) 894...6793 fax: (404) 894-7790 e-mail: jixun.zhou@me.gatech.edu Award Number: N00014-97-1-0170 Thrust Category: Shallow- Water Acoustics LONG-TERM GOALS...The long-term goals of this work are: to develop a theoretical model for predicting the reverberation in shallow water , to derive both small-angle

  17. Software Package on Integrated Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling and Field Oriented Control (FOC) of Permanent Magnet (PM) Motor for High Performance Electromechanical Actuators (EMAs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Louis Chow, David Woodburn, Lei Zhou, Jared Bindl, Yang Hu, and Wendell Brokaw University of Central Florida JANUARY 2011 Interim Report...Magnet (PM) Motor % % Written in SI or MKS Unit System. % % Authors: % David Woodburn % Dr. Lei Zhou % Dr. Thomas X. Wu clear all...Initial phase winding resistance [ ohm ] id = 0; % Phase d current [A] iq = 0; % Phase q current [A] did_dt = 0

  18. Sintering, Thermal Conductivity, Optical and Lasing Properties of Doped-Lu2O3 Fiberous Transparent Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-26

    5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Georgia Institute of Technology , School of Materials...Report Submitted by: Robert F. Speyer Professor School of Materials Science and Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology 771 Ferst Drive Atlanta, GA...Bellato group [23] at Clemson and the Zhou group [14] at the Shanghai Inst. of Technology . For the Zhou group, sintering at 1720◦C for 15 min was followed

  19. The Formation and Fate of Internal Waves in the South China Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-05

    FOf’miiiiiiM and Fate at Internal Waves In the South •C:hln;~t Sea --- --------· . _.,.. --- -------Author(s) Name{s) (Firsi,MI,La$t), Code, Atfi(iation...Tswen-Yung (David) Tang7 Internal gravity waves , the subsurface analogue of the familiar surface gravity waves that break on beaches, are ubiquitous in...for man-made structures in the ocean4. Generated primarily by the wind and the tides, internal waves can travel thousands of kilometres from their

  20. The Restricted Stackelberg Problem.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    CONTROL LABORATORY W- THE RESTRICTED -STACKELBERG PROBLEM *JOHN TING-YUNG WEN DTIC FEB 1 8 1983D E tab, APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE. DISTRIBUTION...P A G E ,’W lben D ata E n tered) R E ADIN S T R U C TI O N S REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE FORE MsPUTIORS.::! -BEF oRE COMPLETINmG F’ORM I. REPORT...STACKELBERG PROBLEM 7 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER _ _._ _ _ _ _-944DC-46) :UILU-ENG-81-2242 7. AUTHOR( e ) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(@) NSF ECS-79

  1. Total to withdraw from Qatar methanol - MTBE?

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    Total is rumored to be withdrawing from the $700-million methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) Qatar Fuel Additives Co., (Qafac) project. The French company has a 12.5% stake in the project. Similar equity is held by three other foreign investors: Canada`s International Octane, Taiwan`s Chinese Petroleum Corp., and Lee Change Yung Chemical Industrial Corp. Total is said to want Qafac to concentrate on methanol only. The project involves plant unit sizes of 610,000 m.t./year of MTBE and 825,000 m.t./year of methanol. Total declines to comment.

  2. Japan’s Emerging Role as an Asian-Pacific Power.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    34Nakasone’s External Policy." Asia Pacfic Community 25 (Summer 1984): 28-40. 114. Colbert , Evelyn. "Japan and the Republic of Korea." Asian Survey 3...129. The Korea Herald, May 7, 1985. 129 130. Jo, Yung-hwan. "Two Koreas Unification." Asia Pacific Community 23 (Winter 1984): 75-85. 131. Colbert ...Pacific Community 25 (Summer 1984): 51-57. 179. Reischauer, Edwin 0. The United States and Japan. New York: The Viking Press, Inc., 1968. 133 . r

  3. Gallium Arsenide Pilot Line for High Performance Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-02

    shown in Figure 4. A complete functional and timing verification was performed by GOALIE , MOTIS, and ADVICE tools. GOALIE was used to convert the...using LTX2 and was verified using GOALIE , and ADVICE. S The performance of the circuits was measured using 256 test-vectors on an Advantest T3340...cycling per MIL STD 883C, Method 1010.7 Condition C. No evidence of damage was found. A sample of fifteen leads were pull tested per MIL STD 883C. Method

  4. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Risser, Arthur C.; Todd, Frank S.

    1983-01-01

    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  5. Temperature sensitivity (Q10), and dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition in permafrost soils with different carbon quality and under experimental warming. R. Bracho1, E.A.G Schuur1, E. Pegoraro1, K.G. Crummer1, S. Natali2, J. Zhou, Y Luo3, J. L. Wu3, M. Tiedje4, K. Konstantinidis5 1Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. 2Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, MA. 3Institute for Environmental Genomics and Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 4Center for Microbial Ecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI; 5Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Genomics and School of Biology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracho, R. G.; Schuur, E. A.; Pegoraro, E.; Crummer, K. G.; Natali, S.; Zhou, J.; Wu, L.; Luo, Y.; Tiedje, J. M.; Konstantinidis, K.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost soils contain approximately1700 Pg of carbon (C), twice the amount of C in the atmosphere. Temperatures in higher latitudes are increasing, inducing permafrost thaw and subsequent microbial decomposition of previously frozen C. This process is one of the most likely positive feedbacks to climate change. Understanding the temperature sensitivity (Q10) and dynamics of SOM decomposition under warming is essential to predict the future state of the earth - climate system. Alaskan tundra soils were exposed to two winter warming (WW) seasons in the field, which warmed the soils by 4°C to 40 cm depth. Soils were obtained from three depths (0 - 15, 15 - 25 and 45 - 55 cm) and differed in initial amounts of labile and recalcitrant C. Soils were incubated in the lab under aerobic conditions, at 15 and 25°C over 365 days. Q10 was estimated at 14, 100 & 280 days of incubation (DOI); C fluxes were measured periodically and dynamics of SOM decomposition (C pool sizes and decay rates) were estimated by fitting a two pool C model to cumulative respired C (Ccum, mgC/ginitialC). After two WW seasons, initial C content tended to decrease through the soil profile and C:N ratio was significantly decreased in the top 15 cm. After one year of incubation, Ccum was twice as high at 25°C as at 15°C and significantly decreased with depth. No significant WW field treatment was detected, although Ccum tended to be lower in warmed soils. Labile C accounted for up to 5% of initial soil C content in the top 15 cm and decreased with depth. Soils exposed to WW had smaller labile C pools, and higher labile C decay rates in the top 25 cm. Q10 significantly decreased with time and depth as labile pool decreased, especially for WW. This decrease with time indicates a lower temperature sensitivity of the most recalcitrant C pool. The deepest WW soil layer, where warming was more pronounced, had significantly lower Q10 compared to control soils at the same depth. After two seasons, the warming treatment affected decomposition by reducing labile C pools and increasing its decay rates. Warming also reduced temperature sensitivity, showing acclimation of the most recalcitrant C pool in the tundra ecosystem.

  6. An algorithm for encryption of secret images into meaningful images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanso, A.; Ghebleh, M.

    2017-03-01

    Image encryption algorithms typically transform a plain image into a noise-like cipher image, whose appearance is an indication of encrypted content. Bao and Zhou [Image encryption: Generating visually meaningful encrypted images, Information Sciences 324, 2015] propose encrypting the plain image into a visually meaningful cover image. This improves security by masking existence of encrypted content. Following their approach, we propose a lossless visually meaningful image encryption scheme which improves Bao and Zhou's algorithm by making the encrypted content, i.e. distortions to the cover image, more difficult to detect. Empirical results are presented to show high quality of the resulting images and high security of the proposed algorithm. Competence of the proposed scheme is further demonstrated by means of comparison with Bao and Zhou's scheme.

  7. Assessment of physiological performance and perception of pushing different wheelchairs on indoor modular units simulating a surface roughness often encountered in under-resourced settings.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kotaro; Rispin, Karen

    2017-01-01

    In under-resourced settings where motorized wheelchairs are rarely available, manual wheelchair users with limited upper-body strength and functionalities need to rely on assisting pushers for their mobility. Because traveling surfaces in under-resourced settings are often unpaved and rough, wheelchair pushers could experience high physiological loading. In order to evaluate pushers' physiological loading and to improve wheelchair designs, we built indoor modular units that simulate rough surface conditions, and tested a hypothesis that pushing different wheelchairs would result in different physiological performances and pushers' perception of difficulty on the simulated rough surface. Eighteen healthy subjects pushed two different types of pediatric wheelchairs (Moti-Go manufactured by Motivation, and KidChair by Hope Haven) fitted with a 50-kg dummy on the rough and smooth surfaces at self-selected speeds. Oxygen uptake, traveling distance for 6 minutes, and the rating of difficulty were obtained. The results supported our hypothesis, showing that pushing Moti-Go on the rough surface was physiologically less loading than KidChair, but on the smooth surface, the two wheelchairs did not differ significantly. These results indicate wheelchair designs to improve pushers' performance in under-resourced settings should be evaluated on rough surfaces.

  8. Targeted Delivery of Carbon Nanotubes to Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Taylor S, Li HP, Fernando KAS, Qu LW, Wang W, Gu LR, Zhou B, Sun YP. Advances toward bioapplications of carbon nanotubes. J Mater Chem. 14: 527...respectively. For car- boxylated-CNTs and RFB4-coupled CNTs, 20 ll of the dispersion was spun cast on to freshly cleaved mica at 3500 rpm for 30 sec...Lin Y, Taylor S, Li HP, Fernando KAS, Qu LW, Wang W, Gu LR, Zhou B, Sun YP. Advances toward bioapplications of carbon nano- tubes. J Mater Chem

  9. BHC80 is Critical in Suppression of Snail-LSD1 Interaction and Breast Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in development and disease . Cell 2009; 139:871-90. 9. Wu Y, Zhou BP. Snail: More than EMT. Cell Adh Migr 2010; 4:199...Huang RY, Nieto MA. Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in development and disease . Cell 2009; 139:871-90. 9. Wu Y, Zhou BP. Snail: More than EMT. Cell...QSRKAFNCKYC Snail ( Canine ) QTRKAFNCKYC Snail (Monkey) QSRKAFNCKYC Snail (Opossum) QPRKAFICKVC A D E F CHX 0 1 3 5 7 0 1 3 5 7 WT Snail

  10. The Earth Synchronous Satellite Carrier Rocket,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-26

    FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION 0 - THE EARTH SYNCHRONOUS SATELLITE CARRIER ROCKET jJ by Zhou Yiyun ’% AR 2 1984 Approved for public-release; 84 03 01 071...I - FTD-ID(RS)T-1787-83 EDITED TRANSLATION FTD-IDCRS)T-1787-83 26 January 1984 MICROFICHE NR: FTD-84-C-000094 THE EARTH SYNCHRONOUS SATELLITE CARRIER...quality copy available. / THE EARTH SYNCHRONOUS SATELLITE CARRIER ROCKET by Zhou Yiyun Last September, the fight for the champion of the Women’s World

  11. Solubility Report of 1-Methyl-3,5-Dinitro-1H-1,2,4-Triazole (MDNT) and 2-Methyl-4,5-Dinitro-2H-1,2,3-Triazole 1-Oxide (MDNTO) for Co-Crystallization Screen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    New Co-Crystals,” Crystal Growth & Design, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 1531-1537, 2009. 2 Landenberger, K., Matzger, A., “ Cocrystal Engineering of a...Y., Li, H., Zhou, Y., Zhou, J., Geo, T., Zhang, H., Jiang, G., “Toward Low- Sensitive and High-Energetic Cocrystal 1: Evaluation of the Power and the...Safety of Observed Energetic Cocrystals ,” CrystEngComm, 15, 4003-4014, 2013. 4 Levinthal, M.L., “Propellant Made With Cocrystals of

  12. Histone Methylation and Epigenetic Silencing in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    Chen, S., Bohrer, L.R., Nair-Rai, A., Pan , Y., Gan, L., Zhou, X., Bagchi, A., Simon, J.A. and Huang, H. (2010). Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate...EZH2 suppresses methylation of lysine 27 in histone H3. Science 310(5746): 306-310. Chen, S., Bohrer, L.R., Rai, A.N., Pan , Y., Gan, L., Zhou, X...recent study finds that ri-methyl-H3-K27 levels are decreased in breast, ovarian and pan - reatic cancer samples [65], which could reflect a shift in

  13. IMPACT (Imaging and Molecular Markers for Patients with Lung Cancer: Approaches with Molecular Targets and Complementary, Innovative and Therapeutic Modalities)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    preparation by Ximing Tang et al. b.3. NOTCH3 /JAGGED1 pathway. Notch3 (N3) is a member of the family of Notch transmembrane receptors, which are...Prudkin L, Liu D, Tchinda J, Woods D, Behrens C, Bekele BN, Moran C, Lee C, Aster JC, Zhou B-B, Wistuba II. NOTCH3 /JAGGED1 pathway is involved in non...Behrens C, Bekele BN, Moran C, Lee C, Aster JC, Zhou B-B, Wistuba II. NOTCH3 /JAGGED1 pathway is involved in non-small cell lung cancer pathogenesis

  14. RETRACTED: Association of the ACE I/D gene polymorphism with sepsis susceptibility and sepsis progression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Hua; Zhou, Tian-Biao

    2015-12-01

    This article has been included in a multiple retraction: Chun-Hua Yang and Tian-Biao Zhou Association of the ACE I/D gene polymorphism with sepsis susceptibility and sepsis progression Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314568521, first published on February 3, 2015 doi: 10.1177/1470320314568521 This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors and the Publisher. After conducting a thorough investigation, SAGE found that the submitting authors of a number of papers published in the Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System ( JRAAS) (listed below) had supplied fabricated contact details for their nominated reviewers. The Editors accepted these papers based on the reports supplied by the individuals using these fake reviewer email accounts. After concluding that the peer review process was therefore seriously compromised, SAGE and the journal Editors have decided to retract all affected articles. Online First articles (these articles will not be published in an issue) Wenzhuang Tang, Tian-Biao Zhou, and Zongpei Jiang Association of the angiotensinogen M235T gene polymorphism with risk of diabetes mellitus developing into diabetic nephropathy Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314563426, first published on December 18, 2014 doi: 10.1177/1470320314563426 Tian-Biao Zhou, Hong-Yan Li, Zong-Pei Jiang, Jia-Fan Zhou, Miao-Fang Huang, and Zhi-Yang Zhou Role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in radiation nephropathy Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314563424, first published on December 18, 2014 doi: 10.1177/1470320314563424 Weiqiang Zhong, Zongpei Jiang, and Tian-Biao Zhou Association between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and T2DN susceptibility: The risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in the Asian population Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314566019, first published on January 26, 2015 doi: 10.1177/1470320314566019 Tian-Biao Zhou, Xue-Feng Guo, Zongpei

  15. RETRACTED: Relationship between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and T1DN susceptibility/risk of T1DM developing into T1DN in the Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tian-Biao; Guo, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Zongpei; Li, Hong-Yan

    2015-12-01

    The following article has been included in a multiple retraction: Tian-Biao Zhou, Xue-Feng Guo, Zongpei Jiang, and Hong-Yan Li Relationship between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and T1DN susceptibility/risk of T1DM developing into T1DN in the Caucasian population Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314563425, first published on February 1, 2015 doi: 10.1177/1470320314563425 This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors and the Publisher. After conducting a thorough investigation, SAGE found that the submitting authors of a number of papers published in the Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System ( JRAAS) (listed below) had supplied fabricated contact details for their nominated reviewers. The Editors accepted these papers based on the reports supplied by the individuals using these fake reviewer email accounts. After concluding that the peer review process was therefore seriously compromised, SAGE and the journal Editors have decided to retract all affected articles. Online First articles (these articles will not be published in an issue) Wenzhuang Tang, Tian-Biao Zhou, and Zongpei Jiang Association of the angiotensinogen M235T gene polymorphism with risk of diabetes mellitus developing into diabetic nephropathy Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314563426, first published on December 18, 2014 doi: 10.1177/1470320314563426 Tian-Biao Zhou, Hong-Yan Li, Zong-Pei Jiang, Jia-Fan Zhou, Miao-Fang Huang, and Zhi-Yang Zhou Role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in radiation nephropathy Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314563424, first published on December 18, 2014 doi: 10.1177/1470320314563424 Weiqiang Zhong, Zongpei Jiang, and Tian-Biao Zhou Association between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and T2DN susceptibility: The risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in the Asian population Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314566019, first published on January

  16. RETRACTED: Association between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and T2DN susceptibility: The risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in the Asian population.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weiqiang; Jiang, Zongpei; Zhou, Tian-Biao

    2015-12-01

    This article has been included in a multiple retraction: Weiqiang Zhong, Zongpei Jiang, and Tian-Biao Zhou Association between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and T2DN susceptibility: The risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in the Asian population Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314566019, first published on January 26, 2015 doi: 10.1177/1470320314566019 This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors and the Publisher. After conducting a thorough investigation, SAGE found that the submitting authors of a number of papers published in the Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System ( JRAAS) (listed below) had supplied fabricated contact details for their nominated reviewers. The Editors accepted these papers based on the reports supplied by the individuals using these fake reviewer email accounts. After concluding that the peer review process was therefore seriously compromised, SAGE and the journal Editors have decided to retract all affected articles. Online First articles (these articles will not be published in an issue) Wenzhuang Tang, Tian-Biao Zhou, and Zongpei Jiang Association of the angiotensinogen M235T gene polymorphism with risk of diabetes mellitus developing into diabetic nephropathy Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314563426, first published on December 18, 2014 doi: 10.1177/1470320314563426 Tian-Biao Zhou, Hong-Yan Li, Zong-Pei Jiang, Jia-Fan Zhou, Miao-Fang Huang, and Zhi-Yang Zhou Role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in radiation nephropathy Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314563424, first published on December 18, 2014 doi: 10.1177/1470320314563424 Weiqiang Zhong, Zongpei Jiang, and Tian-Biao Zhou Association between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and T2DN susceptibility: The risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in the Asian population Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314566019, first published on January 26, 2015 doi: 10

  17. Academic Achievement of Children in China: The 2002 Fulbright Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, LeAdelle

    2005-01-01

    The 2002 Fulbright team, led by Zheng Zhou of St. John's University, consisted of 12 professionals in the fields of education, counseling psychology, and school psychology. Spending one month visiting elementary schools, universities, governmental bodies, hospitals, and private schools throughout China, the Fulbright team had an opportunity to…

  18. 78 FR 13626 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... have subsequently made changes, including, but not limited to, changes to corporate structure... Yes. Furniture Co., (PTE) Ltd. Fine Furniture (Shanghai) Ltd......... Yes. Fortune Furniture Ltd....). Transworld (Zhang Zhou) Furniture Co., Yes. Ltd. Tube-Smith Enterprise (Zhangzhou) Co., Yes. Ltd., Tube-Smith...

  19. 75 FR 9869 - Initiation of Administrative Review of the Antidumping Duty Order on Wooden Bedroom Furniture...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... proceeding that have subsequently made changes, including, but not limited to, changes to corporate structure...) * Evershine Enterprise Co. Fine Furniture (Shanghai) Ltd.* Fleetwood Fine Furniture LP Fortune Glory... of Yangchun * Yeh Brothers World Trade Inc.* Yuexing Group Co., Ltd. Zhang Zhou Sanlong Wood Product...

  20. Self-Concept of Gifted Children Aged 9 to 13 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Jiannong; Li, Ying; Zhang, Xingli

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-four gifted children and 200 nongifted children (aged 9 to 13 years old) were involved in the present study. Their self-concept was assessed by the Revised Song-Hattie Self-Concept Inventory (Zhou & He, 1996). Academic self-concepts pertaining to abilities, school achievements, and grade concepts and nonacademic self-concepts pertaining…

  1. Extraordinary magnetoresistance in shunted chemical vapor deposition grown graphene devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Lett. 10, 3962 (2010). 9Z. Jiang, Y. Zhang, Y.-W. Tan, H. L. Stormer , and P. Kim, Solid State Commun. 143 14 (2007). 10A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov...L. Stormer , U. Zeitler, J. C. Maan, G. S. Boebinger, P. Kim, and A. K. Geim, Science 9, 1379 (2007). 20F. Meier, L. Zhou, J. Wiebe, and R

  2. Hole and Electron Extraction Layers Based on Graphene Oxide Derivatives for High-Performance Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Yuhua Xue , Yunxiang Gao , Dingshan Yu , Michael Durstock , and Liming Dai * Hole and Electron Extraction Layers Based on Graphene Oxide...H. Wu , L. Chen , S. Su , Y. Cao , Adv. Mater. 2011 , 23 , 4636 . [ 29 ] T.-Y. Chu , S.-W. Tsang , J. Zhou , P. G. Verly , J

  3. Proactive and Preventive Coping in Adjustment to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Yiqun; Hu, Yueqin; Zhang, Yiwen

    2010-01-01

    The current study compared the relative importance of proactive coping and preventive coping in the adjustment to university life among 403 freshmen at a Chinese university and evaluated the function of proactive coping in the stress process. Participants completed the Future-Oriented Coping Inventory (Gan, Yang, Zhou, & Zhang, 2007), the…

  4. Early Chinese History: The Hundred Schools Period. China's Golden Age of Philosophy. A Unit of Study for Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Lehn; Dube, Clayton

    In this unit students examine the four most influential Chinese philosophical traditions developed during the Zhou period (roughly 6th-3rd centuries B.C.E.). The four philosophies students study include: (1) Confucianism; (2) Mohism; (3) Daoism (Taoism); and (4) Legalism. In three lessons, students compare the ideas of these schools and explore…

  5. The Mechanism by which Neurofibromin Suppresses Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    et al., 2011; Taichman et al., 2002; Zeelenberg et al., 2003; Zhou et al., 2002), as well as non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (Bertolini et al., 2002), and...underlie the unique pattern of optic glioma growth in neurofibromatosis type Cancer Res 67, 8588-8595. Zeelenberg , I.S., Ruuls-Van Stalle, L., and

  6. Potential Partners in the Pacific? Soft Power and the SINO-NATO Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    non-threatening manner. While both NATO and China have interests in Afghanistan, the most fertile ground for a future relationship lies in mutual...Soviet Card’ in the U.S. Opening to China, 1971-1974” Diplomatic History, Vol. 29, No. 3 (June 2005): 487. 22 Zhou-Ye Jianying -Kissinger memcon, 20/6

  7. Combinatorial Strategies and Hypothesis-Based Drug Design in Drug Discovery Targeted to the Protease and Channel Activities of Botulinum Toxin A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-01

    62. Naibar, L. V., Craik , D. J., Wade, J. D., Salvatore, D., and McLeish, M. j. 74. Zhou, N. E., Kay, C. M., and Hodges, R. S. (1992) J. Biol. Chem...Salvador Viniegrab, Jennifer A. Biserc, Michael Adler’, Mauricio Montala,* aDepartment of Biology, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, La

  8. p63 in Development and Maintenance of the Prostate Epithelium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    S Signoretti, J Simko ,G Thomas , P Troncoso, T Tsuzuki, G JLH van Leenders, XJ Yang, M Zhou, W D Figg, A Hoque and M S Lucia. A working group...cell proliferation and cancer progression. Cancer Cell. 2008;14(2):146-55. 8. Sabbisetti V, Di Napoli A, Seeley A, Amato AM, O’Regan E, Ghebremichael

  9. Implicit-shifted Symmetric QR Singular Value Decomposition of 3x3 Matrices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Graph 33, 4, 138:1– 138:11. TREFETHEN, L. N., AND BAU III, D. 1997. Numerical linear algebra , vol. 50. Siam. XU, H., SIN, F., ZHU, Y., AND BARBIČ, J...matrices with minimal branching and elementary floating point operations. Tech. rep., University of Wisconsin- Madison. SAITO, S., ZHOU, Z.-Y., AND

  10. Small Talk: A Missing Skill in the Chinese Communicative Repertoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Xia

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that social interactions at work with local colleagues present a real challenge for Chinese immigrants to Australia (e.g. Tomazin, 2009; Zhou, Windsor, Coyer, & Theobald, 2010), often leaving them feeling defeated and despairing, and the Australians puzzled or affronted. Seeking to understand the nature, origin, and…

  11. Targeted Gene Therapy for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-08-01

    recognizing conformational and polysaccharide epitopes, cell ELISA using NIH3T3 and NIH/189 cells was employed to detect such clones. Cells (lxl04/well...77T 541-542, 1997. 26. Zhou, Y. and Lee, A. S. Mechanism for the suppression of the mammalian stress response by genistein, an anticancer

  12. 50th Annual Technical Meeting of the Society of Engineering Science (SES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-15

    McDowell (Gerogia Tech), Min Zhou () Virtual Characterization of composites with Lamination Defects for wind turbine spar cap MUKUNDAN SRINIVASAN...Zhang (IHCP Singapore) Damage Mechanisms in Irradiated Metallic Glasses Richard Baumer (MIT), Michael Demkowicz (MIT) Slip Avalanches in Amorphous...Michigan, 48090) Atomistic Simulations of c+a Pyramidal Slip in Magnesium Single Crystal under Compression Xiaozhi Tang (MIT & BJTU), Yafang Guo

  13. Membrane Reflector Vertical Cavity Lasers at Near- and Midwave-Infrared

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-30

    independent broadband reflectors based on cross-stacked gratings, Optics Express, (04 2011): 9050. doi: 10.1364/OE.19.009050 Tapas Kumar Saha, Mingyu Lu... Mingyu Lu, Huiqing Zhai, Deyin Zhao, Weidong Zhou. Design of a compact grating coupler with controllable linewidths via transverse resonance and

  14. Fast Electromagnetic Solvers for Large-Scale Naval Scattering Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-27

    IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 2141–2146, 2004. [12] R. J. Burkholder and J. F. Lee, “Fast dual-MGS block-factorization algorithm...Golub and C. F. V. Loan, Matrix Computations. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. [20] W. D. Li, W. Hong, and H. X. Zhou, “Integral

  15. A Synthetical Two-Component Model with Peakon Solutions: One More Bi-Hamiltonian Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengxia, Zhang; Xiaomin, Yang

    2018-05-01

    Compatible pairs of Hamiltonian operators for the synthetical two-component model of Xia, Qiao, and Zhou are derived systematically by means of the spectral gradient method. A new two-component system, which is bi-Hamiltonian, is presented. For this new system, the construction of its peakon solutions is considered.

  16. The Flynn Effect and Its Critics: Rusty Linchpins and "Lookin' for g and Gf in Some of the Wrong Places"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Kevin S.

    2010-01-01

    The consensus of most intelligence scholars is that the Flynn effect (FE) is real, IQ test batteries are now routinely restandardized on a regular basis. A cornerstone in Flynn's explanation of the FE is his analysis of select Wechsler subtest scores across time. The featured articles by Kaufman and Zhou, Zhu, and Weiss question whether Flynn's…

  17. The Potential Link Between High Angle Grain Boundary Morphology and Grain Boundary Deformation in a Nickel-Based Superalloy (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Ghosh, M.K. Samal , Multiscale Crystal Plasticity Modeling of Microtwinning Induced Deformation in Gamma–Gamma Prime Nickel Based Superalloys, Shanghai...University, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China, 2011, pp. 487–488. [3] H. Deuchman, P.J. Phillips, N. Zhou, M. Samal , S. Ghosh, Y. Wang, M.J. Mills

  18. 77 FR 31624 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... Institutes of Health, Two Democracy Plaza, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Rm. 951, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Ruixia Zhou, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Democracy Two Building, Suite 957, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-496-4773, [email protected] . Dated: May 21...

  19. 76 FR 28055 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Two Democracy Plaza, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Ruixia Zhou, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Democracy Two Building, Suite 957, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-496-4773, [email protected

  20. 77 FR 71605 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... Institutes of Health, Two Democracy Plaza, 951, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Ruixia Zhou, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Democracy Two Building, Suite 957, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-496-4773, [email protected] . Name of Committee...

  1. 78 FR 6126 - National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Notice of Closed Meeting.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... Institutes of Health, Two Democracy Plaza, Suite 920, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Ruixia Zhou, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Democracy Two Building, Suite 957, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-496-4773, [email protected] . Dated...

  2. 2011 FIRST Robotics Championship

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-07

    Chris Collins (l to r), Andy Zhou and Rachel Holladay from Northshore High School in Slidell place FIRST logo pieces during a Jan. 7, 2011 kickoff event for the 2011 FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics Competition season. Thirty teams from four states attended the kickoff event at Stennis Space Center.

  3. Material for "Substrate temperature controls molecular orientation in two-component vapor- deposited glasses." Soft Matter, 2016, 12, 3265.

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jiang, Jing [Nanjing University; Walters, Diane M [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Zhou, Dongshan [Nanjing University; Ediger, Mark D [University of Wisconsin-Madison

    2016-08-18

    Data set for work presented in Jiang, J.; Walters, D. M.; Zhou, D.; Ediger, M. D. “Substrate Temperature Controls Molecular Orientation in Two -Component Vapor-deposited Glasses.” Soft Matt. 2016, 12, 3265. Includes all data presented in the manuscript as well as example raw data and analysis.

  4. On the contributions of photorespiration and compartmentation to the contrasting intramolecular 2H profiles of C3 and C4 plant sugars

    Treesearch

    Youping Zhou; Benli Zhang; Hilary Stuart-Williams; Kliti Grice; Charles H. Hocart; Arthur Gessler; Zachary E. Kayler; Graham D. Farquhar

    2018-01-01

    Compartmentation of C4 photosynthetic biochemistry into bundle sheath (BS) and mesophyll (M) cells, and photorespiration in C3 plants is predicted to have hydrogen isotopic consequences for metabolites at both molecular and site-specific levels. Molecular-level evidence was recently reported (Zhou et al., 2016), but...

  5. Using steady-state equations for transient flow calculation in natural gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, R.N.; Zhou, P.

    1984-04-02

    Maddox and Zhou have extended their technique for calculating the unsteady-state behavior of straight gas pipelines to complex pipeline systems and networks. After developing the steady-state flow rate and pressure profile for each pipe in the network, analysts can perform the transient-state analysis in the real-time step-wise manner described for this technique.

  6. Education and Social Selection in Ancient China: Semantics, Conceptual Transformation and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Meiyao

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the transformation in the Zhou dynasty China (1046-256 BC) of the concept of education in relation to the process of social selection, which concerns the distribution both of knowledge and of social ranks. An approach in terms of historical semantics, mainly influenced by Luhmannian sociological theory with some reference…

  7. Hypo-Fractionated Conformal Radiation Therapy to the Tumor Bed After Segmental Mastectomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    conserving surgery for breast cancer were first offered slan- speed helical CT scanner . CT images were transferred to dard conventional 6-week RT. Only...Zhou S, Prosnitz RG, et al. The impact of breast cancer treated with breast conserving therapy. J Surg im, diated left ventricular volume on the

  8. Demand Forecasting and Revenue Requirements, with Implications for Consideration in British Columbia,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    future financing obligations will be 782 largely determined by the conditions of the financial 783 markets , the amount of construction activity that is...L 4 w- MM t 14 * 0 00 M00 0 0 0nU M4 C? 0C 4 4 ’C) * 0 3 0 0N% AI 0 % M 41 C 0 MNl -4 N4 -4-4 0 6. n ad 4 LI L 1 4p % N 61-4 I 01 -54- t: 1% r.a -4 "E...34Residential Demand for Electricity," Quarterly Review of Economics and Business , Vol. 11, Spring 1971, pp. 7-22. Yang, Yung Y., "Temporal Stability

  9. Recovery of Weak Factor Loadings When Adding the Mean Structure in Confirmatory Factor Analysis: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Ximénez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This article extends previous research on the recovery of weak factor loadings in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) by exploring the effects of adding the mean structure. This issue has not been examined in previous research. This study is based on the framework of Yung and Bentler (1999) and aims to examine the conditions that affect the recovery of weak factor loadings when the model includes the mean structure, compared to analyzing the covariance structure alone. A simulation study was conducted in which several constraints were defined for one-, two-, and three-factor models. Results show that adding the mean structure improves the recovery of weak factor loadings and reduces the asymptotic variances for the factor loadings, particularly for the models with a smaller number of factors and a small sample size. Therefore, under certain circumstances, modeling the means should be seriously considered for covariance models containing weak factor loadings. PMID:26779071

  10. Pituitary volume increase during emerging psychosis.

    PubMed

    Büschlen, Jeannine; Berger, Gregor E; Borgwardt, Stefan J; Aston, Jacqueline; Gschwandtner, Ute; Pflueger, Marlon O; Kuster, Pascal; Radü, Ernst Wilhem; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Riecher-Rössler, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Morphologic abnormalities of the pituitary gland volume (PV) have been reported in schizophrenia, but at what point in time they occur remains unclear. This study determines PV across different stages of emerging psychotic disorders compared to healthy controls. We compared PV of 36 individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis, 23 patients with a first episode psychosis (FEP) and 20 healthy controls (HC). Transition to psychosis was monitored using the BPRS transition criteria according to Yung et al. (Yung, A.R. et al., 1998. Prediction of psychosis. A step towards indicated prevention of schizophrenia. Br. J. Psychiatry Suppl. 172 (33), 14-20). Applying these transition criteria, 16 of the 36 ARMS individuals made the transition to psychosis (ARMS-T) and 20 did not (ARMS-NT). We traced PV manually on 1mm slices of magnetic resonance images in three dimensions (coronal, sagittal and axial) blind to group status. We used univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with PV as dependent variable, group and sex as between-subject factors and whole brain volume as covariate. PV increased from HC to ARMS-NT to ARMS-T/FEP. ANCOVA revealed a significant effect of group (F(3,78)=3.0; p=.036) and a sex × group interaction (F(3,78)=6.5; p=.001). Over all groups, women had considerably larger PV than men (F(1,78)=9.8; p=.003). Our findings provide further evidence that PV is increased in emerging psychotic disorders, and suggest that this is due to a stress-associated activation of the pituitary gland. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Large-N solution of the heterotic CP(N-1) model with twisted masses

    SciTech Connect

    Bolokhov, Pavel A.; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 1A1; Shifman, Mikhail

    2010-07-15

    We address a number of unanswered questions in the N=(0,2)-deformed CP(N-1) model with twisted masses. In particular, we complete the program of solving the CP(N-1) model with twisted masses in the large-N limit. In A. Gorsky, M. Shifman, and A. Yung, Phys. Rev. D 73, 065011 (2006), a nonsupersymmetric version of the model with the Z{sub N} symmetric twisted masses was analyzed in the framework of Witten's method. In M. Shifman and A. Yung, Phys. Rev. D 77, 125017 (2008), this analysis was extended: the large-N solution of the heterotic N=(0,2) CP(N-1) model with no twisted masses was found. Heremore » we solve this model with the twisted masses switched on. Dynamical scenarios at large and small m are studied (m is the twisted-mass scale). We found three distinct phases and two phase transitions on the m plane. Two phases with the spontaneously broken Z{sub N} symmetry are separated by a phase with unbroken Z{sub N}. This latter phase is characterized by a unique vacuum and confinement of all U(1) charged fields (''quarks''). In the broken phases (one of them is at strong coupling) there are N degenerate vacua and no confinement, similarly to the situation in the N=(2,2) model. Supersymmetry is spontaneously broken everywhere except a circle |m|={Lambda} in the Z{sub N}-unbroken phase. Related issues are considered. In particular, we discuss the mirror representation for the heterotic model in a certain limiting case.« less

  12. Multiple Vibrio fischeri genes are involved in biofilm formation and host colonization

    PubMed Central

    Chavez-Dozal, Alba; Hogan, David; Gorman, Clayton; Quintanal-Villalonga, Alvaro; Nishiguchi, Michele K.

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms are increasingly recognized as the predominant form for survival in the environment for most bacteria. The successful colonization of Vibrio fischeri in its squid host Euprymna tasmanica, involves complex microbe-host interactions mediated by specific genes that are essential for biofilm formation and colonization. In the present investigation, structural and regulatory genes were selected to study their role in biofilm formation and host colonization. We have mutated several genes (pilT, pilU, flgF, motY, ibpA and mifB) by an insertional inactivation strategy. Results demonstrate that structural genes responsible for synthesis of type IV pili and flagella are crucial for biofilm formation and host infection. Moreover, regulatory genes affect colony aggregation by various mechanisms including alteration of synthesis of transcriptional factors and regulation of extracellular polysaccharide production. These results reflect the significance of how genetic alterations influence communal behavior, which is important in understanding symbiotic relationships. PMID:22486781

  13. Monitoring of magnetic nano-particles in EOR by using the CSEM modeling and inversion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, J. Y.; KIM, S.; Jeong, G.; Hwang, J.; Min, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    EOR, which injects water, CO2, or other chemical components into reservoirs to increase the production rate of oil and gas, has widely been used. To promote efficiency of EOR, it is important to monitor distribution of injected materials in reservoirs. Using nano-particles in EOR has advantages that the size of particles is smaller than the pore and particles can be characterized by various physical properties. Specifically, if we use magnetic nano-particles, we can effectively monitor nano-particles by using the electromagnetic survey. CSEM, which can control the frequency range of source, is good to monitor magnetic nano-particles under various reservoir circumstances. In this study, we first perform numerical simulation of 3D CSEM for reservoir under production. In general, two wells are used for EOR: one is for injection, and the other is for extraction. We assume that sources are applied inside the injection well, and receivers are deployed inside the extraction well. To simulate the CSEM survey, we decompose the total fields into primary and secondary fields in Maxwell's equations. For the primary fields, we calculate the analytic solutions of the layered earth. With the calculated primary fields, we compute the secondary fields due to anomalies using the edge-based finite-element method. Finally, we perform electromagnetic inversion for both conductivity and permeability to trace the distribution of magnetic nano-particles. Since these two parameters react differently according to the frequency range of sources, we can effectively describe the distribution of magnetic nano-particles by considering two parameters at the same time. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning(KETEP) and the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy(MOTIE) of the Republic of Korea (No. 20168510030830), and by the International Cooperation (No. 2012-8510030010) of KETEP, and by the Dual Use Technology Program, granted

  14. Improvement of One Quantum Encryption Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhengjun; Liu, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    Zhou et al. proposed a quantum encryption scheme based on quantum computation in 2006 [N. Zhou et al., Physica A362 (2006) 305]. Each qubit of the ciphertext is constrained to two pairs of conjugate states. So, its implementation is feasible with the existing technology. But it is inefficient since it entails six key bits to encrypt one message bit, and the resulting ciphertext for one message bit consists of three qubits. In addition, its security cannot be directly reduced to the well-known BB84 protocol. In this paper, we improve it using the technique developed in BB84 protocol. The new scheme entails only two key bits to encrypt one message bit. The resulting ciphertext is just composed of two qubits. It saves about a half cost without the loss of security. Moreover, the new scheme is probabilistic instead of deterministic.

  15. Comments on the status of Xiphidiopsis quadrinotata Bey-Bienko, 1971 and related species with one new genus and species (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Meconematinae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Fuming; Bian, Xun; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-04-21

    Based on the collections of the Museum of Hebei University, the paper comments Xiphidiopsis quadrinotata Bey-Bienko, 1971 status and reinstates Xizicus (Axizicus) xizangensis Jiao & Shi, 2013 as a valid species. Meanwhile, Alloteratura (Meconemopsis) Karny, 1924 is redefined and one new genus of Meconematinae, Nigrimacula Shi, Bian & Zhou gen. nov., mainly distributed in South China, is erected. The new genus includes three previously known species: Xiphidiopsis quadrinotata Bey-Bienko, 1971, Xizicus (Axizicus) xizangensis Jiao & Shi, 2013 and Meconemopsis paraquadrinotata Wang, Liu & Li, 2015 and one new species, Nigrimacula binotata Shi, Bian & Zhou sp. nov. The male of Xiphidiopsis quadrinotata Bey-Bienko, 1971 and female of Xizicus (Axizicus) xizangensis Jiao & Shi, 2013 are described for the first time. A key to the species based on the morphology and a distribution map are included.

  16. Simulation of periodically focused, adiabatic thermal beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.; Akylas, T. R.; Barton, T. J.

    2012-12-21

    Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are performed to verify earlier theoretical predictions of adiabatic thermal beams in a periodic solenoidal magnetic focusing field [K.R. Samokhvalova, J. Zhou and C. Chen, Phys. Plasma 14, 103102 (2007); J. Zhou, K.R. Samokhvalova and C. Chen, Phys. Plasma 15, 023102 (2008)]. In particular, results are obtained for adiabatic thermal beams that do not rotate in the Larmor frame. For such beams, the theoretical predictions of the rms beam envelope, the conservations of the rms thermal emittances, the adiabatic equation of state, and the Debye length are verified in the simulations. Furthermore, the adiabatic thermal beam ismore » found be stable in the parameter regime where the simulations are performed.« less

  17. China Report, Red Flag, Number 2, 16 January 1985

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-06

    the frustrations we experienced, look at the boom in the film industry and the new situation of unprecedented prosperity since the 3d Plenary...carrying out reforms, and continue to create a new situation in China’s socialist film industry !" At present, reforms are being positively... film industry with Chinese characteristics. This was Comrade Zhou Enlai’s ardent expectation for, faith in, and demand on film artists in his life. We

  18. Ocean Variability Effects on Underwater Acoustic Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    2000. [2] B. Li, J. Huang, S. Zhou, K. Ball, M. Stojanovic, L. Freitag, and P. Willett. MIMO - OFDM for high rate underwater acoustic...alternative to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing ( OFDM ) [2], we developed a multiband transceiver, where a wide frequency band is divided into...multiple separated sub-bands. These sub- bands are several kilohertz in width, much wider than OFDM sub-carriers used in underwater channels

  19. A Single Crystalline Porphyrinic Titanium MetalOrganic Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-28

    22, which was synthesized from preformed titanium -oxo carboxylate clusters and porphyrinic ligands. PCN-22 possesses high porosity and photocatalytic...DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00916b www.rsc.org/chemicalscience 3926 | Chem. Sci., 2015, 6, 3926–3930e porphyrinic titanium metal– organic framework† Shuai Yuan...Scott J. Dalgarnoc and Hong-Cai Zhou*a We successfully assembled the photocatalytic titanium -oxo cluster and photosensitizing porphyrinic linker into a

  20. International Congress on the History of Oceanography (5th) Held in La Jolla, California on July 7-14, 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-26

    Shang and Zhou Dynasties (21-11 centuries B.C.) fishing gear and marine fishing boats were created and fishing laws initiated. Considerable progress was...secure enactment of fishery reform laws . As the reconstruction effort went forward, the degree to which fisheries effort should be studied...Known as a sensitive reagent since the sixteenth century this test was not regarded as quantitative until Gay- Lussac in 1832 who also introduced a

  1. The Infrastructure of Command Information Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    Coordinator: Jan Prins RAs: Ed Biagioni (ONR fellow, FYgo-91) Quan Zhou SOFTLAB (infrastructure) Coordinator: Staff: Susanna Schwab (director of...engineer 2 Research Assistants: John Alspaugh * Murray Anderegg mp* Ron Azuma * Mike Bajura mp* David Becker Andrew Bell mp Ed Biagioni ...Jan Prins *Ed Biagioni (ONR fellow, FY90-91), *fall 90 *Dan Poirier *John A. Smith 3 CLOCS (ONR Fellow) Coordinator: RA: Donald F. Stanat *Mark Davis

  2. Places and Bases: The Chinese Navy’s Emerging Support Network in the Indian Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    year, public statements by Chinese academics and government of- ficials have indicated that there is a debate going on in China over the need to...establish some sort of overseas infrastructure to support deployed naval forces. Rear Admiral Yin Zhou (Retired), chairman of the Chinese Navy...excitement, although in reality he did not say anything that has not already been said by other Chinese government offi- cials and academics. Despite an

  3. Male description and intraspecific variations of Cyrtopsis t-sigillata (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Meconematinae).

    PubMed

    Song, Qiong; Du, Bao-Jie; Shi, Fu-Ming

    2015-07-16

    The paper describes the male of Cyrtopsis t-sigillata Liu, Zhou & Bi, 2010 for the first time, and discusses individual variations in the species. It provides the photos of important morphological features, and offers a distribution map about the genus Cyrtopsis Bey-Bienko, 1962. The examined material is deposited in the Museum of Hebei University. Morphological images were acquired using Leica M205 A digital imaging system.

  4. New Acosmetura species (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Meconematinae) from China, with notes on their distribution.

    PubMed

    Bian, Xun; Shi, Fu-Ming

    2015-11-12

    One new species of Acosmetura (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Meconematinae) is described from China, namely Acosmetura listrica Bian & Shi, sp. nov. and distinctive characters are illustrated. In addition, a key to the known species with morphological photographs of Acosmetura longicercata Liu, Zhou & Bi, 2008 from Tianmushan, Zhejiang is provided in this paper. Based on the comprehensive physical geographical regionalization, Acosmetura listrica sp. nov. is distributed in Huinan and the middle and lower reaches of Changjiang River, which belongs to the Northern Subtropical Humid Climate Zone.

  5. Identification of a Gene on Chromosome 18q21 Involved in Suppressing Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    manuscript: Padalecki SS, Weldon KS, Reveles XT, Buller CL, Grubbs B, Cui Y, Yin JJ, Hall DC, Hummer BT, Weissman BE, Dallas M , Guise TA, Leach RJ...B, Cui Y, Yin JJ, Hall DC, Hummer BT, Weissman BE, Dallas M , Guise TA, Leach RJ, Johnson-Pais TL 2003. Chromosome 18 suppresses prostate cancer...Postdoctoral Fellow Devon C. Hall – Graduate Student References Chen J, Sun M , Lee S, Zhou G, Rowley JD, Wang SM 2002. Identifying novel

  6. Laser Journal (Selected Articles),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-10

    temperature CO2 branch selection laser with a lifetime already exceeding 6500 hours which may be even longer. HIGH POWER LONG LIFE HeCd LASER Qu Shipu...method of plating single crystal gold film in a vacuum with the foreign material extension method. First mica is used as the substrate. Then a special...Hospital) Chen Zhasping Zhou Yiping et al (Eye, Ear, Nose, Throat Hospital, Examination Department, Shanghai Medical School Number 1.) Qu Zhipu et al

  7. Polyaminoacid-Induced Growth of Metal Nanoparticles on Layer-by-Layer Templates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-21

    15,17 In another study, Zhou et al. used tyrosine residues of silk fibroin for growth of 45 nm core-shell colloidal gold- silk fibroin biocongugates at...fungus,28 or silk fiber-templated29 reduction of gold and silver nanostructures. However, despite the increas- ing interest in using organic substrates...not show any particles on the surface after the identical exposure (Figure 2c). (44) Senior, M.; Gorrell, S.; Hamori, E. Biopolymers 1971, 10, 2387

  8. Civil-Military Change in China: Elites, Institutes, and Ideas After the 16th Party Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Xiliang, Lang Longxi, Zhou Xupeng, Zhang Hong, Fang Junzhong, Fang Lufeng, Guo Weihu, Zhu Guangzheng, Zhao Heng, Quan Zhixue, Yu Hongtao , Hou Xiaoqin...Deng Hongtao , and Lei Ziyuan, "Vast Numbers of Officers and Men of All Armed Forces and Armed Police Corps Resolutely Support New CPC Central Committee...and Central Military Commission," Jiefangjun bao, November 17, 2002, p. 1. 14. Jiefangjun bao, November 20, 2002. 15. Qian Xiaohu, Xia Hongqing, Han

  9. Role of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Thermal Activation of Lymphocyte Recruitment in Breast Tumor Microvessels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    bacterial peritonitis (8), chicken pox (9), and rhinovirus infection (10). In contrast, some studies have shown harmful effects of fever in animal models...March 1 - 6, 2005, Taos, New Mexico . 5. Chen, Q., Passanese, J., Fisher, D., Kucinska, S., Clancy, K., Wang, W.-C., Appenheimer, M., Zhou, L., Repasky...Travel award to attend Keystone Symposium, Leukocyte Trafficking: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms, March 1 - 6, 2005, Taos, New Mexico . 2. Travel

  10. Safety, Codes, and Standards | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    to develop and test hydrogen sensor technologies. In addition to partnering with organizations in the and Validation of Prototype Hydrogen Sensors, P.K. Sekhar, J. Zhou, M.B. Post, L. Woo, W.J. Buttner , M.B. Post, C. Rivkin, R. Burgess, and W.J. Buttner, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (March

  11. Graph-cut Based Interactive Segmentation of 3D Materials-Science Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-26

    which is available to authorized users. J . Waggoner · Y. Zhou · S. Wang (B) University of South Carolina, Columbia, USA e-mail: songwang@cec.sc.edu... J . Waggoner e-mail: waggonej@email.sc.edu J . Simmons Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Labs, Dayton, USA M. De Graef...sample slices 123 Author’s personal copy J . Waggoner et al. Fig. 1 Two adjacent slices of a titanium image volume [40]. Image intensity inverted for

  12. Jordan Macknick | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    . Change 7, 793-798. Macknick, J., Zhou, E., O'Connell, M., Brinkman, G., Miara, A., Ibanez, E., Hummon, M . Arent, D, J. Logan, J. Macknick, W. Boyd, K. Medlock, F. O'Sullivan, J. Edmonds, L. Clarke, H unconventional natural gas development in the United States. MRS Energy & Sustainability. 2. Macknick, J

  13. Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Prevent Type 1 Diabetes in Murine Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    participating in anti-CD28- mediated tolerance in allo-kidney transplantation ( 15), and ame- lioration of symptoms in the inflammatory bowel disease ...Zhou,* George X. Wang,* Celia M. Divino/ Sofia Casares,§ Shu-Hsia Chen,*’, Wen-Chin Yang/’* and Ping-Ying Pan* Effective immunotherapy for type 1...cell-based tolerogenic therapy in the control of TID and other autoimmune diseases . The Journal of Immunology, 2010, 185: 5828-5834. T ype I

  14. tRNA and Its Activation Targets as Biomarkers and Regulators of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    linked tRNA misregulation to cancer. We have previously reported that tRNA levels are significantly elevated in breast cancer and multiple myeloma ...significantly elevated in breast cancer and multiple myeloma cells. To further investigate the cellular and physiological effects of tRNA overexpression, we...tRNA levels are elevated in breast cancer and multiple myeloma cell lines (Pavon-Eternod et al. 2009; Zhou et al. 2009). Though abnormal RNA polymerase

  15. Trust Relationships, Naming, and Secure Communication In Large Distributed Computer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Hemek, Harry Rubin, Keshav Srinivasan, Mark Sullivan, Dinesh Verma and Songnian Zhou for their friend- ship and help. I cannot think of a more dynamic...parents, Nagarathnamma and Prasanna Kumar , who are models of perfection in every walk of life, whose teaching and training have brought me where I...the driving force through out my life. My brother, Sreerang Rajan, has been a source of wisdom, and, my little brother, Srihari Sampath Kumar , has

  16. N-Cadherin in Prostate Cancer: Downstream Pathways and their Translational Application for Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    2008). 22. Mason , M.J., Fan, G ., Plath, K., Zhou, Q. & Horvath , S. Signed weighted gene co-expression network analysis of transcriptional regulation... G , Gimond C. The dual-specificity MAP kinase phosphatases: critical roles in development and cancer. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol.299:C189-202. 9...Tanaka H. KE, Tran C. P., Miyazaki H., Yamashiro J., Shimomura T., Lada F., Wada R., Juang J., Vessella R. L., An J., Horvath S., Gleave M., Rettig M

  17. Acquire an Bruker Dimension FastScan (trademark) Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) for Materials, Physical and Biological Science Research and Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-14

    two super users, Drs. Biswajit Sannigrahi and Guangchang Zhou were trained by the Senior Engineer for Product Service, Dr. Teddy Huang from the... Engineering : The number of undergraduates funded by your agreement who graduated during this period and intend to work for the Department of Defense The...science, mathematics, engineering or technology fields: Student Metrics This section only applies to graduating undergraduates supported by this

  18. Lysimachia tianmaensis (Primulaceae), a new species from Anhui, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Ma, Wen; Zhou, Shoubiao; Liu, Kun

    2018-01-01

    A new species of Lysimachia (Primulaceae), Lysimachia tianmaensis K. Liu, S.B. Zhou & Ying Wang sp. nov. , is described and illustrated from Jinzhai County, Anhui, China. It is endemic to Dabieshan Mountain, China. The new species has yellow flowers and belongs to the subgenus Lysimachia section Nummularia series Grammicae . It is very easily distinguishable from other related species by having alternate leaves with brown patches beneath and an auriculated leaf base.

  19. Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano-Photonics Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Unlimited Final Report: Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano -Photonics Research The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this...reviewed journals: Final Report: Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano -Photonics Research Report Title With this equipment funding support...Assembly and Characterization System for Nano -Photonics Research PI: Prof. Weidong Zhou, University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) 500 S. Cooper St

  20. Parallel Computing in Protein Structure Topology Determination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    model, B) dynamic model. A B 6. REFERENCES Baker, M. L., W. Jiang, et al. (2006). "Ab initio modeling of the herpesvirus VP26 core...skeletons of secondary structures." J Mol Biol 350(3): 571-86. Zhou, Z. H., M. Dougherty, et al. (2000). "Seeing the herpesvirus capsid at 8.5 Å." Science 288(5467): 877-880.

  1. Worldwide Report, Nuclear Development and Proliferation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-09

    Union’s Nuclear Disaster ? This reporter asked Vice Minister Zhou Ping: In your opinion, how should we view the Soviet Union’s recent nuclear accident...statement on Thurs- day announced that Bangladesh environment remained free from pullution follow- ing recent nuclear disaster at Chernobyl Nuclear...Chernobyl were based largely on nuclear disaster . American practice. However, a statement Mr Semark said de- issued yesterday by Es- tailed plans

  2. Quantum Algorithms Based on Physical Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-03

    quantum walks with hard-core bosons and the graph isomorphism problem,” American Physical Society March meeting, March 2011 Kenneth Rudinger, John...King Gamble, Mark Wellons, Mark Friesen, Dong Zhou, Eric Bach, Robert Joynt, and S.N. Coppersmith, “Quantum random walks of non-interacting bosons on...and noninteracting Bosons to distinguish nonisomorphic graphs. 1) We showed that quantum walks of two hard-core Bosons can distinguish all pairs of

  3. Quantum Algorithms Based on Physical Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-02

    quantum walks with hard-core bosons and the graph isomorphism problem,” American Physical Society March meeting, March 2011 Kenneth Rudinger, John...King Gamble, Mark Wellons, Mark Friesen, Dong Zhou, Eric Bach, Robert Joynt, and S.N. Coppersmith, “Quantum random walks of non-interacting bosons on...and noninteracting Bosons to distinguish nonisomorphic graphs. 1) We showed that quantum walks of two hard-core Bosons can distinguish all pairs of

  4. Chemical Polymerization and Langmuir-Blodgett Techniques. 2. The Polymerization of Monolayers of 3-Substituted Pyrroles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-12

    the liquid -air interface could be monitored by changes in the surface area. Deposition of monolayers by Langmuir - Blodgett technique is possible and...polymerization product from the LB trough in chloroform solution. Figure 10 Langmuir - Blodgett transfer of poly (3-hexadecyl pyrrole) onto hydrophobized glass... Langmuir - Blodgett Techniques, 2: The Polymerization of Monolayers of 3-Substituted Pyrroles by W.M. Sigmund, C. Marestin, S. Keil, H. Zhou and R.S

  5. Probing Nanoparticle Reactivity at the Single-Molecule Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-15

    nanorod hetero - nuclear particle (top) and a bime- tallic nanorod with two metal components (bottom). Both sys- tems have a metal-metal junction . Au...catalysts for co oxidation . J Am Chem Soc 133, 1978–1986 (2011). 32 F. Liu, J. Y. Lee & W. Zhou. Template preparation of multisegment ptni nanorods as...reactivity at nanoscale metal?metal junctions . (a) Papers published in peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) Enter List of papers submitted or

  6. Military Nutrition Research: Eight Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    a procedure and staging area; b) a new transgenic laboratory with seven adjacent animal rooms; c) seven additional animal rooms for other breeding ...Effect of Dietary Amino Acids on Spatial Memory in Rats Sleep deprived by the Flower -Pot Technique - Bradley Youngblood, David Elkins, Gennady Smagin...1997. 132. Youngblood BD, Zhou J, Smagin GN, Ryan DH, Harris RBS. Sleep deprivation by the " flower pot" technique and spatial reference memory

  7. Polymerization of Conducting Polymers Confined to Free Surfaces: A comparison of the Langmuir-Blodgett Polymerization of 3-Alkyl Pyrroles and 2- Alkyl Anilines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-19

    Confined to Free Surfaces: A Comparison of the Langmuir-Blodgett Polymerization of 3- Alkyl Pyrroles and 2- Alkyl Anilines Submitted for Publication in...Surfaces: A Comparison of the Langmuir Blodgett Polymerizations of 3- alkyl pyrroles and 2- alkyl anilines R. S. Duran and H.C. Zhou Dept. of Chemistry...polymerization reactions in more detail and compare them. To do this, the polymerization reactions were run under two conditions. In the first case

  8. m6A and eIF2α-ⓟ Team Up to Tackle ATF4 Translation during Stress.

    PubMed

    Powers, Emily Nicole; Brar, Gloria Ann

    2018-02-15

    While m 6 A modification of mRNAs is now known to be widespread, the cellular roles of this modification remain largely mysterious. In this issue of Molecular Cell, Zhou et al. (2018) show that m 6 A modification unexpectedly contributes to the established uORF- and eIF2α-ⓟ-dependent mechanism of ATF4 translational regulation in response to stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Coherent Structures and Chaos Control in High-Power Microwave and Charged-Particle Beam Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-31

    34Equilibrium Theory of an Intense Elliptic Beam for High - Power Ribbon-Beam Klystron Applications," Proc. 2007 Part. Accel. Conf. p. 2316. Courant...34Equilibrium Theory of an Intense Elliptic Beam for High - Power Ribbon-Beam Klystron Applications," C. Chen and J. Zhou, Proc. 2007 Part. Accel. Conf. (2007...accelerator focusing systems. Over 600 high - power , high -efficiency klystrons , for example, may be needed to provide rf power for the acceleration

  10. Active Structural Fibers for Multifunctional Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-06

    capacitors. Lastly, a cathodic electrolytic deposition process has been investigated for the coating of carbon fibers with a PZT shell. The...results have demonstrated the ability to use the process to coat fibers with a thin shell of PZT . The results thus far have demonstrated the feasibility...Journal of Composite Materials, In Review. 2. Zhou, Z., Lin, Y. and Sodano, H.A., Synthesis and Characterization of Textured BaTiO3 Thin Films

  11. Targeting Transcription Elongation Machinery for Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    Zhou CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94704 REPORT DATE: May 2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual Report...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER AND ADDRESS(ES) University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA ...without affecting the Brd4 or PTEFb molecules. We have employed the CRISPR /Cas9 genome-editing tool to knock out the gene encoding the SEC component AFF4

  12. Identification of Two New Protective Pre-erythrocytic Malaria Vaccine Antigen Candidates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Anthony R, Grainger M, Haynes J, Moch J, Muster N, Sacci J, Tabb D, Witney A, Wolters D, Wu Y, Gardner M, Holder A, Sinden R, Yates J, Carucci D: A...proteomic view of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle. Nature 2002, 419:520-526. 16. LeRoch D, Zhou Y, Blair P, Grainger M, Moch J, Haynes J, De La Vega P

  13. Madness and disability in contemporary Chinese film.

    PubMed

    Knight, Deirdre Sabina

    2006-01-01

    This article draws on recent research in the medical humanities to analyze two contemporary Chinese films: Zhang Yuan's Sons (1996) and Zhou Xiaowen's The Common People (1998). By portraying psychic and physical anguish in ways that refuse to divorce biology from culture, such films offer rare moral dialogues on biomedical issues and contribute a cross-cultural perspective invaluable to the task of responding to illness and suffering.

  14. Cancer and Stroma-Targeted Immunotherapy with a Genetically Modified DC Vaccine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    targeting the tumor stroma in addition to breast cancer cells may produce the desired increase in antitumor activity of DC vaccines for breast cancer...vaccination inhibits 4T1-neu progression. We investigated whether DC-shA20-FAP- HER2 may induce more potent anti- stroma and anti-tumor immunity with the...the immunosuppressive tumor microenviroment resulting in potent antitumor activity. Zhu W, Zhou X, Rollins L , Rooney CM, Gottschalk S, Song XT

  15. RNA Chimeras as a Gene Signature of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    respectively, migrated as expected from their formula molecular weight (FMW), when a 10% divergence, i.e 36-44 kD or 23-29 kD, is considered as the wild...yang2, Hai-hong Shen3, Gung-wei Chirn4, Jian-hua Zhou5, Emily Weiss2, Emily Pauline Holman2, D. Joshua Liao2* 1 Guangxi Veterinary Research Institute

  16. Effects of Enhanced Oxygen Delivery by Perfluorocarbons in Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    spinal cord ischemia. Acta Med Okayama 1997; 51:71–77. 10. Daugherty WP, Levasseur JE, Sun D, Spiess BD, Bullock MR: Perfluorocarbon emulsion improves...cerebral oxygenation and mitochondrial function after fluid percussion brain injury in rats. Neurosurgery 2004; 54:1223–1230. 11. Spiess B...2008; 2: 213-20. 13. Zhou Z, Sun D, Levasseur JE, Merenda A, Hamm RJ, Zhu J, Spiess BD, Bullock MR. Perfluorocarbon emulsions improve cognitive

  17. Interaction of Synuclein and Inflammation in Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    synuclein in cell culture. Specific Aim II In vivo studies: we are now optimizing immunostaining for human -synuclein in order to distinguish...responsible for this response. Recent cell culture experiments seem to point us in the right direction for the answer as it has been shown that human BE-M17...synuclein. Furthermore, Zhou et al (2002) showed that, in primary cell cultures derived from the embryonic human mesencephalon overexpressing either

  18. Modeling Concept Dependencies for Event Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-04

    Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). Jiang et al . [8] provide a summary of experiments for TRECVID MED 2010 . They employ low-level features such as SIFT and...event detection literature. Ballan et al . [2] present a method to introduce temporal information for video event detection with a BoW (bag-of-words...approach. Zhou et al . [24] study video event detection by encoding a video with a set of bag of SIFT feature vectors and describe the distribution with a

  19. Short-Sighted Probabilistic Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    2005). The 1st Probabilistic Track of the International Planning Competition. Journal of Artificial Intelli - gence Research, 24(1):851–887. [Zhou and...A short-sighted problem is a relaxed problem in which the state space of the original problem is pruned and artificial goals are added to...A short-sighted problem is a relaxed problem in which the state space of the original problem is pruned and artificial goals are added to heuris

  20. The IEEE International Conference on Data Mining (10th) Held in Sydney, Australia on 14-17 December 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-17

    Approach to Modeling Personalized Contexts of Mobile Users Tengfei Bao, Happia Cao, Enhong Chen, Jilei Tian, and Hui Xiong q Fast and Flexible...Kutsuna q Detecting Blackhole and Volcano Patterns in Directed Networks Zhongmou Li, Hui Xiong , Yanchi Liu, and Aoying Zhou q Exploiting Local Data...Density-Based Network Clustering via Structure-Connected Tree Division or Agglomeration Heli Sun, Jianbin Huang, Jiawei Han, Hongbo Deng, Peixiang Zhao

  1. DAB2IP-Coordinated miRNA Biogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    been implicated to play a tumor suppressor role in nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma 11, hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal cancer...the EMT process in several cancer cell lines including PCa, hepatocellular carcinoma and renal cancer (Fig. 1). Most importantly, we elucidated a...blood-2011-07- 364224 (2011). 12 Zhou, P. et al. MicroRNA-363-mediated downregulation of S1PR1 suppresses the proliferation of hepatocellular

  2. Dheepak Krishnamurthy | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    . doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2015.2399171 D. Krishnamurthy; C. Uckun; Z. Zhou; P. Thimmapuram; A. Botterud Systems, vol.PP, no.99, pp.1-1 doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2017.2685347 A. Pratt, D. Krishnamurthy, M. Ruth, H. Wu : 10.1109/MELE.2016.2614188 D. Krishnamurthy, psst: An open-source power system simulation toolbox in Python

  3. Type II Superlattice as Low-Temperature Peltier Refrigerator (4K-150K)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-29

    SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT...Chuanle  Zhou,  Seda  Ogrenci  Memik,  M.  Grayson,  " IOTA :  Towards   an  integrated  on-­‐chip  thermocouple  array

  4. On the Global Regularity for the 3D Magnetohydrodynamics Equations Involving Partial Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Chenyin

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we study the regularity criteria of the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics system in terms of some components of the velocity field and the magnetic field. With a decomposition of the four nonlinear terms of the system, this result gives an improvement of some corresponding previous works (Yamazaki in J Math Fluid Mech 16: 551-570, 2014; Jia and Zhou in Nonlinear Anal Real World Appl 13: 410-418, 2012).

  5. Molecular cloning, polymorphisms, and expression analysis of the RERG gene in indigenous Chinese goats.

    PubMed

    Sui, M X; Wang, H H; Wang, Z W

    2015-11-24

    The current study aimed to investigate the coding sequence, polymorphisms, and expression of the RERG gene in indigenous Chinese goats. cDNA of RERG, obtained through reverse transcription PCR was analyzed using bioinformatic techniques. Polymorphisms in the exon regions of the RERG gene were identified and their associations with growth traits in three varieties of indigenous Chinese goats were investigated. Expression of the RERG gene in three goat breeds of the same age was detected using real-time quantitative PCR. The results revealed that the cDNA of RERG, which contained a complete open reading frame of 20-620 bp, was 629 bp in length. The associated accession numbers in GenBank are JN672576, JQ917222, and JN580309 for the QianBei Ma goat, the GuiZhou white goat, and the GuiZhou black goat, respectively. Four consistent SNP sites were found in the exon regions of the RERG gene for the three goat breeds. mRNA expression of the RERG gene differed between different tissues in adult goats of same age. The highest expression was observed in lung and spleen tissues, while the lowest expression was recorded in thymus gland tissue. In addition, the expression of the RERG gene in the muscle of Guizhou white goat, GuiZhou black goat, and QianBei Ma goat decreased sequentially. Our results lay the foundations for further investigation into the role of the RERG gene in goat growth traits.

  6. Technical Knowledge, Cultural Practices and Social Boundaries: Wan-Nan Scholars and the Recasting of Jesuit Astronomy, 1600-1800

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ping-Yi.

    Taking four Wan-nan Confucian scholars--Yang Kuang -hsien, Mei Wen-ting, Chiang Yung and Tai Chen--as examples, this dissertation studies how an immigrant Jesuit scientific community built and defended itself in a specialized institutional niche located at the Ch'ing court and how a defeated Chinese scientific tradition successfully survived by occupying a broader cultural space, with the Manchu emperor in between. Special attention is paid to how these four Confucian scholars constructed social boundaries between the Chinese and the Westerners in their astronomical discourses and how they domesticated Western astronomy in order to fit the Chinese cultural conditions situated in the power structure built by the Manchus. This inquiry begins with a brief introduction of Wan-nan and the Wan-nan school. I then discuss how the Jesuits legitimated their knowledge during the Ming -Ch'ing transition, and how Jesuit astronomy was situated within the power nexus between the Confucian literati and the emperors. The next chapter focuses on Yang Kuang-hsien and his challenges to the Jesuits. I examine his strategies and the power structure in which Yang carried out his challenge to the Jesuits. The fourth and fifth chapters investigate how Mei Wen-ting restructured the relationship between Confucianism and astronomy. The former chapter focuses on Mei's social networking and his ambivalence towards the Ming and Ch'ing dynasties, on the one hand, and towards Chinese and Western learning on the other. The latter chapter deals with how Mei Wen-ting recast Chinese astronomical tradition and Confucianism. In the sixth chapter, I will compare the fame of Chiang Yung and Tai Chen in order to demonstrate how astronomy was practiced in evidential studies after Mei Wen-ting, and how evidential studies itself conveyed an ideological construction of the other. Through integrating Western astronomy with indigenous tradition while exorcising the otherness contained within the cultural package

  7. Helical Majorana fermions in d+id'-wave topological superconductivity of doped correlated quantum spin Hall insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chung-Hou; Sun, Shih-Jye; Chang, Yung-Yeh; Tsai, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Fuchun

    Large Hubbard U limit of the Kane-Mele model on a zigzag ribbon of honeycomb lattice near half-filling is studied via a renormalized mean-field theory. The ground state exhibits time-reversal symmetry (TRS) breaking dx2 -y2 + idxy -wave superconductivity. At large spin-orbit coupling, the Z2 topological phase with non-trivial spin Chern number in the pure Kane-Mele model is persistent into the TRS broken state (called ``spin-Chern phase''), and has two pairs of counter-propagating helical Majorana modes at the edges. As the spin-orbit coupling is reduced, the system undergoes a topological quantum phase transition from the spin-Chern to chiral superconducting states. Possible relevance of our results to adatom-doped graphene and irridate compounds is discussed.Ref.:Shih-Jye Sun, Chung-Hou Chung, Yung-Yeh Chang, Wei-Feng Tsai, and Fu-Chun Zhang, arXiv:1506.02584. CHC acknowledges support from NSC Grant No. 98-2918-I-009-06, No. 98-2112-M-009-010-MY3, the NCTU-CTS, the MOE-ATU program, the NCTS of Taiwan, R.O.C.

  8. Mars atmospheric D/H - Consistent with polar volatile theory?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.

    1990-01-01

    Current theories on the Martian water history are discussed on the basis of data for the D/H ratio in the Martian atmosphere (which was found to be enhanced by a factor of 6 + or - relative to the value on earth). In particular, the calculations of Yung et al. (1988), on the basis of their photochemical model, are found to be inconsistent with current theories for the evolution of the polar deposits on Mars. While the photochemical model predicts that about 95 percent of the Martian water has escaped over geologic time and the nonatmospheric reservoir is now only 02 m thick, the polar volatile theory suggest that polar deposits contain the equivalent of tens of meters of water, requiring a more rapid escape of H and D to space than predicted by the photochemical model to match the observed D/H ratio. The paper examines the behavior of the polar caps and the atmospheric water vapor over geologic time and the loss of H and D to space. It is concluded that, at present, it is premature to accept a specific history for water on Mars.

  9. A first application of marine-controlled source method on gas-hydrate study off SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, C.; Hsu, S.; Chen, C.; Evans, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Bottom simulating reflector (BSR), high methane flux, shallow sulfide/methane interface, fluid gushed from the seafloor, self-carbonate within sediment, methane reef, and self-biome are widely distributed in the offshore of the southwestern Taiwan. These geophysical and geochemistry signatures imply a high gas hydrate reservoir area. However, the upper bound of the gas hydrate and shallow section of the sediment are still unclear. This study shows the results of our first marine controlled-source electromagnetic survey in 2010 and provides the information of shallow sediment around the offshore of southwestern Taiwan. Three target areas were conducted: the southeast of Small Ryukyu Islands (seepage, G96), west of Yung-An Ridge (YAR) and northwest of Good Weather Ridge (GWR). In total, fourteen survey lines have been carried out, and the total survey length is about 72 km. Our preliminary result shows that the resistivity/porosity anomalies within pockmarks and seepages correspond to the features from the sub-bottom profilers. The range of porosity change is 4 % in G96 and YAR sites, while in the GWR site there is up to 8 % of porosity change and implies a high gas hydrate potential area.

  10. The Validity of the 16-Item Version of the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ-16) to Screen for Ultra High Risk of Developing Psychosis in the General Help-Seeking Population

    PubMed Central

    Ising, Helga K.; Veling, Wim; Loewy, Rachel L.; Rietveld, Marleen W.; Rietdijk, Judith; Dragt, Sara; Klaassen, Rianne M. C.; Nieman, Dorien H.; Wunderink, Lex; Linszen, Don H.; van der Gaag, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In order to bring about implementation of routine screening for psychosis risk, a brief version of the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ; Loewy et al., 2005) was developed and tested in a general help-seeking population. We assessed a consecutive patient sample of 3533 young adults who were help-seeking for nonpsychotic disorders at the secondary mental health services in the Hague with the PQ. We performed logistic regression analyses and CHi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector decision tree analysis to shorten the original 92 items. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to examine the psychometric properties of the PQ-16. In the general help-seeking population, a cutoff score of 6 or more positively answered items on the 16-item version of the PQ produced correct classification of Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental State (Yung et al., 2005) psychosis risk/clinical psychosis in 44% of the cases, distinguishing Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) diagnosis from no CAARMS diagnosis with high sensitivity (87%) and specificity (87%). These results were comparable to the PQ-92. The PQ-16 is a good self-report screen for use in secondary mental health care services to select subjects for interviewing for psychosis risk. The low number of items makes it quite appropriate for screening large help-seeking populations, thus enhancing the feasibility of detection and treatment of ultra high-risk patients in routine mental health services. PMID:22516147

  11. The bioethical principles and Confucius' moral philosophy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, D F-C

    2005-03-01

    This paper examines whether the modern bioethical principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice proposed by Beauchamp and Childress are existent in, compatible with, or acceptable to the leading Chinese moral philosophy-the ethics of Confucius. The author concludes that the moral values which the four prima facie principles uphold are expressly identifiable in Confucius' teachings. However, Confucius' emphasis on the filial piety, family values, the "love of gradation", altruism of people, and the "role specified relation oriented ethics" will inevitably influence the "specification" and application of these bioethical principles and hence tend to grant "beneficence" a favourable position that diminishes the respect for individual rights and autonomy. In contrast, the centrality of respect for autonomy and its stance of "first among equals" are more and more stressed in Western liberal viewpoints. Nevertheless, if the Confucian "doctrine of Mean" (chung-yung) and a balanced "two dimensional personhood" approach are properly employed, this will require both theorists and clinicians, who are facing medical ethical dilemmas, of searching to attain due mean out of competing moral principles thus preventing "giving beneficence a priority" or "asserting autonomy must triumph".

  12. Study of Tropospheric Ozone and UV Reflectivity Using TOMS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, Yuk L.

    2002-01-01

    Perhaps the single most important result from the study of Chuang and Yung is that the interannual variability of the Earth's albedo (especially in Spring) on land is dominated by snow/ice, and not by clouds. This interannual variability could be the major driver of changes in the atmosphere and the biosphere. It is plausible that the interannual variability of snow/ice, through interactions with the atmosphere and biosphere, is responsible for the interannual variability of atmospheric CO2. By carefully studying the albedo variations off the Peru coast, we found evidence for indirect aerosol effect on clouds. Based on a detailed analysis of the cloud data obtained by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (SCCP) in the years 1983-1991, we show that besides the reported 3 % variation in global cloudiness, the global mean cloud optical thickness (MCOT) also has significant variation which is out of phase with that of the global cloudiness. The combined effect of the two opposing variations may be a null effect on the cloud reflectivity. These results are consistent with the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) reflectively measurements. The MCOT variation is further shown to be correlated with both the solar cycle and the ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) cycle. Our present analysis cannot distinguish which of the above two provides better correlation, although independent data from the High resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) from 1990 to 1996 favor the solar cycle. Future data are needed to identify the true cause of these changes.

  13. Description of the heterotic string solutions in U(N) supersymmetric QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bolokhov, P. A.; Theoretical Physics Department, St. Petersburg State University, Ulyanovskaya 1, Peterhof, St. Petersburg, 198504; Shifman, M.

    2009-04-15

    We continue the study of heterotic non-Abelian Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield-saturated flux tubes (strings). Previously, such solutions were obtained [M. Shifman and A. Yung, Phys. Rev. D 77, 125016 (2008).] in a particular U(2) gauge theory: N=2 supersymmetric QCD deformed by superpotential terms of a special type breaking N=2 supersymmetry down to N=1. Here we generalize the previous results to U(N) gauge theories. As was suggested by Edalati and Tong [M. Edalati and D. Tong, J. High Energy Phys. 05 (2007) 005.], the string world-sheet theory is a heterotic N=(0,2) sigma model, with the CP(N-1) target space for bosonic fields and an extramore » right-handed fermion which couples to the fermion fields of the N=(2,2) CP(N-1) model. We derive the heterotic N=(0,2) world-sheet model directly from the U(N) bulk theory. Parameters of the bulk theory are related to those of the world-sheet theory. Qualitatively this relation turns out to be the same as in the U(2) case.« less

  14. Non-Abelian vortices of higher winding numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Minoru; Konishi, Kenichi; Vinci, Walter

    2006-09-15

    We make a detailed study of the moduli space of winding number two (k=2) axially symmetric vortices (or equivalently, of coaxial composite of two fundamental vortices), occurring in U(2) gauge theory with two flavors in the Higgs phase, recently discussed by Hashimoto and Tong and by Auzzi, Shifman, and Yung. We find that it is a weighted projective space WCP{sub (2,1,1)}{sup 2}{approx_equal}CP{sup 2}/Z{sub 2}. This manifold contains an A{sub 1}-type (Z{sub 2}) orbifold singularity even though the full moduli space including the relative position moduli is smooth. The SU(2) transformation properties of such vortices are studied. Our results are thenmore » generalized to U(N) gauge theory with N flavors, where the internal moduli space of k=2 axially symmetric vortices is found to be a weighted Grassmannian manifold. It contains singularities along a submanifold.« less

  15. Documentation & Condition Mapping for Restoration & Revitalisation of Historic Sheesh Mahal & Char Bagh Complex in Patiala (punjab), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, S.

    2017-08-01

    Located in the Northern State of Punjab, the historic city of Patiala has always been a centre of culture in north India, and has seen the evolution of its own distinct style of architecture with Rajput and Mughal influences. The city is renowned for its rich architectural heritage, Music, Craft, Sports and Cuisine. The fourth Maharaja Narinder Singh was a great patron of art, architecture and music and it was during his time that several palaces like the Moti Bagh Palace, Sheesh Mahal and Banasur Bagh were designed followed by Baradari Palace. Later it was Maharaja Bhupinder Singh (1900-1938) who made Patiala State famous with his lavish lifestyle.This paper describes the process followed for Documentation and condition assessment of the historic Sheesh Mahal & Char Bagh Complex in order to restore and revitalise the palace building and the Mughal garden. The exercise included Archival research, Field surveys, Condition Mapping, inventories using traditional methods as well as GIS and preparation of restoration & conservation solutions along with post conservation management manual. The Major challenges encountered were identifying the correct documentation methodology for mapping as well as managing the large database generated on site. The Documentation and Mapping was used as a significant tool to guide towards the conservation and Management strategy of the complex.

  16. NASA Tech Briefs, July 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Topics covered include: Miniature Intelligent Sensor Module; "Smart" Sensor Module; Portable Apparatus for Electrochemical Sensing of Ethylene; Increasing Linear Dynamic Range of a CMOS Image Sensor; Flight Qualified Micro Sun Sensor; Norbornene-Based Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Cells; Making Single-Source Precursors of Ternary Semiconductors; Water-Free Proton-Conducting Membranes for Fuel Cells; Mo/Ti Diffusion Bonding for Making Thermoelectric Devices; Photodetectors on Coronagraph Mask for Pointing Control; High-Energy-Density, Low-Temperature Li/CFx Primary Cells; G4-FETs as Universal and Programmable Logic Gates; Fabrication of Buried Nanochannels From Nanowire Patterns; Diamond Smoothing Tools; Infrared Imaging System for Studying Brain Function; Rarefying Spectra of Whispering-Gallery-Mode Resonators; Large-Area Permanent-Magnet ECR Plasma Source; Slot-Antenna/Permanent-Magnet Device for Generating Plasma; Fiber-Optic Strain Gauge With High Resolution And Update Rate; Broadband Achromatic Telecentric Lens; Temperature-Corrected Model of Turbulence in Hot Jet Flows; Enhanced Elliptic Grid Generation; Automated Knowledge Discovery From Simulators; Electro-Optical Modulator Bias Control Using Bipolar Pulses; Generative Representations for Automated Design of Robots; Mars-Approach Navigation Using In Situ Orbiters; Efficient Optimization of Low-Thrust Spacecraft Trajectories; Cylindrical Asymmetrical Capacitors for Use in Outer Space; Protecting Against Faults in JPL Spacecraft; Algorithm Optimally Allocates Actuation of a Spacecraft; and Radar Interferometer for Topographic Mapping of Glaciers and Ice Sheets.

  17. Visualization of bacterial flagella dynamics in a viscous shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jamel; Kim, Minjun

    2016-11-01

    We report on the dynamics of tethered bacterial flagella in an applied viscous shear flow and analyze their behavior using image processing. Flagellin proteins were repolymerized into flagellar filaments functionalized with biotin at their proximal end, and allowed to self-assemble within a micro channel coated with streptavidin. It was observed that all attached flagellar filaments aligned with the steady shear flow of various polymeric solutions. Furthermore it was observed that many of the filaments were stretched, and at elevated flow rates began to undergo polymorphic transformations, which were initiated at one end of the flagellum. When undergoing a change to a different helical form the flagellum was observed to transform to an oppositely handed helix, as to counteract the viscous torque imparted by the shear flow. It was also observed that some flagellar filaments did not undergo polymorphic transformations, but rotated about their helical axis. The rate of this rotation appears to be a function of the applied flow rate. These results expand on previous experimental work and aid in the development of a novel platform that harnesses the autonomic response of a 'forest' of bacterial flagella for engineering applications. This work was funded by NSF Grant CMMI-1000255, KEIT MOTIE Grant No. 10052980, and with Government support under and awarded by DoD, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowship, 32 CFR 168a.

  18. Authenticity, Best Interest, and Clinical Nudging.

    PubMed

    Holm, Søren

    2017-03-01

    In this issue of the Hastings Center Report, Moti Gorin, Steven Joffe, Neal Dickert, and Scott Halpern offer a comprehensive defense of the use of nudging techniques in the clinical context, with the aim of promoting the best interests of patients. Their argument is built on three important claims: Nudging is ubiquitous and inescapable in clinical choice situations, and there is no neutral way of informing patients about their treatment choices; many patients do not have authentic (preexisting) preferences concerning their treatment choices, and those that do can easily resist nudging; and, finally, since many people lack authentic preferences and those that do can still act on their preferences, nudging in the patients' best interest is justified. I agree with the authors that if these three claims stand up to scrutiny, then they will provide a justification for many types of clinical nudging. I am, however, skeptical as to whether the claims can be sustained, despite the valiant efforts of Gorin and colleagues. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  19. Free-surface turbulent wake of a surface-piercing slender body at various Froude numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeonghwa; Samad, Abdus; Rhee, Shin Hyung

    2016-11-01

    Free-surface effects on the near-wake around a surface-piercing slender body were investigated through flow field and wave elevation measurements. The near-wake flow field was measured by a towed underwater stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) system. The measured flow field was analyzed to obtain coherent turbulence structures by using the Reynolds and proper orthogonal decomposition methods. Three different Froude numbers (Fr) - 0.126, 0.282, and 0.400 - were selected to represent mild, intermediate, and violent free-surface motions. At Fr = 0.126, the wave was hardly visible, although the turbulence strength and isotropy increased near the free-surface. At Fr = 0.282, though it was steady and smooth, wave-induced separation was clearly observed near the juncture of the free-surface and model trailing edge. At Fr = 0.400, wave breaking and the resulting bubbly free-surface were developed with an expanded wave-induced separation region. The wave-induced separation stimulated momentum transfer and turbulence dissipation, resulting in a significant change in the frequency of dominant free-surface motion in the downstream. This research was supported by the IT R&D program of MOTIE/KEIT (Grant No. 100660329) and the National Research Foundation of Korea, Grant funded by the Korean government (Grant No. 2013R1A1A2012597).

  20. Comparison of a Simple Patched Conic Trajectory Code to Commercially Available Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    AndersonPark, Brooke M.; Wright, Henry S.

    2007-01-01

    Often in spaceflight proposal development, mission designers must eva luate numerous trajectories as different design factors are investiga ted. Although there are numerous commercial software packages availab le to help develop and analyze trajectories, most take a significant amount of time to develop the trajectory itself, which isn't effectiv e when working on proposals. Thus a new code, PatCon, which is both q uick and easy to use, was developed to aid mission designers to condu ct trade studies on launch and arrival times for any given target pla net. The code is able to run quick analyses, due to the incorporation of the patched conic approximation, to determine the trajectory. PatCon provides a simple but accurate approximation of the four body moti on problem that would be needed to solve any planetary trajectory. P atCon has been compared to a patched conic test case for verification, with limited validation or comparison with other COTS software. This paper describes the patched conic technique and its implementation i n PatCon. A description of the results and comparison of PatCon to ot her more evolved codes such as AGI#s Satellite Tool Kit and JAQAR As trodynamics# Swingby Calculator is provided. The results will include percent differences in values such as C3 numbers, and Vinfinity at a rrival, and other more subjective results such as the time it takes to build the simulation, and actual calculation time.

  1. A Modified Normalization Technique for Frequency-Domain Full Waveform Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.; Jeong, G.; Min, D. J.; KIM, S.; Heo, J. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a technique to estimate subsurface material properties minimizing the misfit function built with residuals between field and modeled data. To achieve computational efficiency, FWI has been performed in the frequency domain by carrying out modeling in the frequency domain, whereas observed data (time-series data) are Fourier-transformed.One of the main drawbacks of seismic FWI is that it easily gets stuck in local minima because of lacking of low-frequency data. To compensate for this limitation, damped wavefields are used, as in the Laplace-domain waveform inversion. Using damped wavefield in FWI plays a role in generating low-frequency components and help recover long-wavelength structures. With these newly generated low-frequency components, we propose a modified frequency-normalization technique, which has an effect of boosting contribution of low-frequency components to model parameter update.In this study, we introduce the modified frequency-normalization technique which effectively amplifies low-frequency components of damped wavefields. Our method is demonstrated for synthetic data for the SEG/EAGE salt model. AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning(KETEP) and the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy(MOTIE) of the Republic of Korea (No. 20168510030830) and by the Dual Use Technology Program, granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea.

  2. "Tinni" Rice ( Oryza rufipogon Griff.) Production: An Integrated Sociocultural Agroecosystem in Eastern Uttar Pradesh of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ranjay K.; Turner, Nancy J.; Pandey, C. B.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports how Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and informal cultural institutions have conserved key varieties of the wildgrowing rice, ` tinni' (red rice, or brownbeard rice, Oriza rufipogon Griff.), within the Bhar community of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The study was conducted, using conventional and participatory methods, in 10 purposively selected Bhar villages. Two distinct varieties of tinni (` tinni patali' and ` tinni moti') with differing habitats and phenotypic characters were identified. Seven microecosystems (Kari, Badaila, Chammo, Karmol, Bhainsiki, Bhainsala and Khodailia) were found to support these varieties in differing proportions. Tinni rice can withstand more extreme weather conditions (the highest as well as lowest temperatures and rainfall regimes) than the `genetically improved' varieties of rice ( Oriza sativa L.) grown in the region. Both tinni varieties are important bioresources for the Bhar's subsistence livelihoods, and they use distinctive conservation approaches in their maintenance. Bhar women are the main custodians of tinni rice agrobiodiversity, conserving tinni through an institution called Sajha. Democratic decision-making at meetings organized by village elders determines the market price of the tinni varieties. Overall, the indigenous institutions and women's participation seem to have provided safeguards from excessive exploitation of tinni rice varieties. The maintenance of tinni through cultural knowledge and institutions serves as an example of the importance of locally maintained crop varieties in contributing to people's resilience and food security in times of rapid social and environmental change.

  3. Magnetic Actuation of Self-assembled Bacteria Inspired Nanoswimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jamel; Cheang, U. Kei; Martindale, James D.; Jabbarzadeh, Mehdi; Fu, Henry C.; Kim, Min Jun

    2017-11-01

    Currently, there is growing interest in developing nanoscale swimmers for biological and biomedical tasks. Of particular interest is the development of soft stimuli-responsive nanorobots to probe cellular and sub-cellular environments. While there have been a few reports of nanoscale robotic swimmers, which have shown potential to be used for these tasks, they often lack multifuctionality. In particular, no man-made soft nanoscale material has been able to match the ability of natural bacterial flagella to undergo rapid and reversible morphological changes in response to multiple forms of environmental stimuli. Towards this end, we report self-assembled stimuli-responsive nanoscale robotic swimmers composed of single or multiple bacterial flagella and attached to magnetic nanoparticles. We visualize the movement of flagella using high resolution fluorescence microscopy while controlling these swimmers via a magnetic control system. Differences in in propulsion before and after the change in flagellar form are observed. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ability to induce flagellar bundling in multiflagellated nanoswimmers. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation (DMR 1712061 and CMMI 1737682 to M.J.K. and DMR 1650970 and CBET 1651031 to H.C.F.), and the Korea Evaluation Institute of Industrial Technology (MOTIE) (NO. 10052980) award to M.J.K.

  4. Zernike phase contrast cryo-electron tomography of sodium-driven flagellar hook-basal bodies from Vibrio alginolyticus.

    PubMed

    Hosogi, Naoki; Shigematsu, Hideki; Terashima, Hiroyuki; Homma, Michio; Nagayama, Kuniaki

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio alginolyticus use flagella to swim. A flagellum consists of a filament, hook and basal body. The basal body is made up of a rod and several ring structures. This study investigates the structure of the T ring which is a unique component of the V. alginolyticus sodium ion-driven flagellar basal body. Using Zernike phase contrast (ZPC) cryo-electron tomography, we compared the 3D structures of purified hook-basal bodies (HBB) from a wild-type strain (KK148) and a deletion mutant lacking MotX and MotY (TH3), which are thought to form the T ring. ZPC images of HBBs had highly improved signal-to-noise ratio compared to conventional phase contrast images. We observed the outline of the HBBs from strains KK148 and TH3, and the TH3 mutant was missing its T ring. In the wild-type strain, the T ring was beneath the LP ring and seemed to form a ring shape with diameter of 32 nm. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Deduction and Analysis of the Interacting Stress Response Pathways of Metal/Radionuclide-reducing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jizhong; He, Zhili

    2010-02-28

    Project Title: Deduction and Analysis of the Interacting Stress Response Pathways of Metal/Radionuclide-reducing Bacteria DOE Grant Number: DE-FG02-06ER64205 Principal Investigator: Jizhong (Joe) Zhou (University of Oklahoma) Key members: Zhili He, Aifen Zhou, Christopher Hemme, Joy Van Nostrand, Ye Deng, and Qichao Tu Collaborators: Terry Hazen, Judy Wall, Adam Arkin, Matthew Fields, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, and David Stahl Summary Three major objectives have been conducted in the Zhou group at the University of Oklahoma (OU): (i) understanding of gene function, regulation, network and evolution of Desulfovibrio vugaris Hildenborough in response to environmental stresses, (ii) development of metagenomics technologies for microbial community analysis,more » and (iii) functional characterization of microbial communities with metagenomic approaches. In the past a few years, we characterized four CRP/FNR regulators, sequenced ancestor and evolved D. vulgaris strains, and functionally analyzed those mutated genes identified in salt-adapted strains. Also, a new version of GeoChip 4.0 has been developed, which also includes stress response genes (StressChip), and a random matrix theory-based conceptual framework for identifying functional molecular ecological networks has been developed with the high throughput functional gene array hybridization data as well as pyrosequencing data from 16S rRNA genes. In addition, GeoChip and sequencing technologies as well as network analysis approaches have been used to analyze microbial communities from different habitats. Those studies provide a comprehensive understanding of gene function, regulation, network, and evolution in D. vulgaris, and microbial community diversity, composition and structure as well as their linkages with environmental factors and ecosystem functioning, which has resulted in more than 60 publications.« less

  6. Publisher Correction: Protein-altering variants associated with body mass index implicate pathways that control energy intake and expenditure in obesity.

    PubMed

    Turcot, Valérie; Lu, Yingchang; Highland, Heather M; Schurmann, Claudia; Justice, Anne E; Fine, Rebecca S; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Esko, Tõnu; Giri, Ayush; Graff, Mariaelisa; Guo, Xiuqing; Hendricks, Audrey E; Karaderi, Tugce; Lempradl, Adelheid; Locke, Adam E; Mahajan, Anubha; Marouli, Eirini; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Young, Kristin L; Alfred, Tamuno; Feitosa, Mary F; Masca, Nicholas G D; Manning, Alisa K; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Mudgal, Poorva; Ng, Maggie C Y; Reiner, Alex P; Vedantam, Sailaja; Willems, Sara M; Winkler, Thomas W; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Aben, Katja K; Alam, Dewan S; Alharthi, Sameer E; Allison, Matthew; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Auer, Paul L; Balkau, Beverley; Bang, Lia E; Barroso, Inês; Bastarache, Lisa; Benn, Marianne; Bergmann, Sven; Bielak, Lawrence F; Blüher, Matthias; Boehnke, Michael; Boeing, Heiner; Boerwinkle, Eric; Böger, Carsten A; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Bots, Michiel L; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bowden, Donald W; Brandslund, Ivan; Breen, Gerome; Brilliant, Murray H; Broer, Linda; Brumat, Marco; Burt, Amber A; Butterworth, Adam S; Campbell, Peter T; Cappellani, Stefania; Carey, David J; Catamo, Eulalia; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Chen, Yii-Der I; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Cramer; Chu, Audrey Y; Cocca, Massimiliano; Collins, Francis S; Cook, James P; Corley, Janie; Corominas Galbany, Jordi; Cox, Amanda J; Crosslin, David S; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; D'Eustacchio, Angela; Danesh, John; Davies, Gail; Bakker, Paul I W; Groot, Mark C H; Mutsert, Renée; Deary, Ian J; Dedoussis, George; Demerath, Ellen W; Heijer, Martin; Hollander, Anneke I; Ruijter, Hester M; Dennis, Joe G; Denny, Josh C; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Drenos, Fotios; Du, Mengmeng; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F; Edwards, Todd L; Ellinghaus, David; Ellinor, Patrick T; Elliott, Paul; Evangelou, Evangelos; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Faul, Jessica D; Fauser, Sascha; Feng, Shuang; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrieres, Jean; Florez, Jose C; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Franco, Oscar H; Franke, Andre; Franks, Paul W; Friedrich, Nele; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Galesloot, Tessel E; Gan, Wei; Gandin, Ilaria; Gasparini, Paolo; Gibson, Jane; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gjesing, Anette P; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Gorski, Mathias; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Grant, Struan F A; Grarup, Niels; Griffiths, Helen L; Grove, Megan L; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haessler, Jeff; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hammerschlag, Anke R; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Have, Christian T; Hayward, Caroline; He, Liang; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Heath, Andrew C; Heid, Iris M; Helgeland, Øyvind; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Hewitt, Alex W; Holmen, Oddgeir L; Hovingh, G Kees; Howson, Joanna M M; Hu, Yao; Huang, Paul L; Huffman, Jennifer E; Ikram, M Arfan; Ingelsson, Erik; Jackson, Anne U; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Jarvik, Gail P; Jensen, Gorm B; Jia, Yucheng; Johansson, Stefan; Jørgensen, Marit E; Jørgensen, Torben; Jukema, J Wouter; Kahali, Bratati; Kahn, René S; Kähönen, Mika; Kamstrup, Pia R; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kaprio, Jaakko; Karaleftheri, Maria; Kardia, Sharon L R; Karpe, Fredrik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kee, Frank; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kim, Eric; Kitajima, Hidetoshi; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Korhonen, Tellervo; Kovacs, Peter; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Kutalik, Zoltán; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lamparter, David; Lange, Ethan M; Lange, Leslie A; Langenberg, Claudia; Larson, Eric B; Lee, Nanette R; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lewis, Cora E; Li, Huaixing; Li, Jin; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lin, Honghuang; Lin, Keng-Hung; Lin, Li-An; Lin, Xu; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Ching-Ti; Liu, Dajiang J; Liu, Yongmei; Lo, Ken S; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Lotery, Andrew J; Loukola, Anu; Luan, Jian'an; Lubitz, Steven A; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Männistö, Satu; Marenne, Gaëlle; Mazul, Angela L; McCarthy, Mark I; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Medland, Sarah E; Meidtner, Karina; Milani, Lili; Mistry, Vanisha; Mitchell, Paul; Mohlke, Karen L; Moilanen, Leena; Moitry, Marie; Montgomery, Grant W; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Moore, Carmel; Mori, Trevor A; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Munroe, Patricia B; Nalls, Mike A; Narisu, Narisu; Nelson, Christopher P; Neville, Matt; Nielsen, Sune F; Nikus, Kjell; Njølstad, Pål R; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nyholt, Dale R; O'Connel, Jeffrey R; O'Donoghue, Michelle L; Olde Loohuis, Loes M; Ophoff, Roel A; Owen, Katharine R; Packard, Chris J; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Palmer, Colin N A; Palmer, Nicholette D; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Patel, Aniruddh P; Pattie, Alison; Pedersen, Oluf; Peissig, Peggy L; Peloso, Gina M; Pennell, Craig E; Perola, Markus; Perry, James A; Perry, John R B; Pers, Tune H; Person, Thomas N; Peters, Annette; Petersen, Eva R B; Peyser, Patricia A; Pirie, Ailith; Polasek, Ozren; Polderman, Tinca J; Puolijoki, Hannu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rasheed, Asif; Rauramaa, Rainer; Reilly, Dermot F; Renström, Frida; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ridker, Paul M; Rioux, John D; Rivas, Manuel A; Roberts, David J; Robertson, Neil R; Robino, Antonietta; Rolandsson, Olov; Rudan, Igor; Ruth, Katherine S; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Sapkota, Yadav; Sattar, Naveed; Schoen, Robert E; Schreiner, Pamela J; Schulze, Matthias B; Scott, Robert A; Segura-Lepe, Marcelo P; Shah, Svati H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Sim, Xueling; Slater, Andrew J; Small, Kerrin S; Smith, Albert V; Southam, Lorraine; Spector, Timothy D; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Starr, John M; Stefansson, Kari; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen E; Strauch, Konstantin; Stringham, Heather M; Stumvoll, Michael; Sun, Liang; Surendran, Praveen; Swift, Amy J; Tada, Hayato; Tansey, Katherine E; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Taylor, Kent D; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, Deborah J; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thuesen, Betina H; Tönjes, Anke; Tromp, Gerard; Trompet, Stella; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Uher, Rudolf; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; Laan, Sander W; Duijn, Cornelia M; Leeuwen, Nienke; van Setten, Jessica; Vanhala, Mauno; Varbo, Anette; Varga, Tibor V; Varma, Rohit; Velez Edwards, Digna R; Vermeulen, Sita H; Veronesi, Giovanni; Vestergaard, Henrik; Vitart, Veronique; Vogt, Thomas F; Völker, Uwe; Vuckovic, Dragana; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Walker, Mark; Wallentin, Lars; Wang, Feijie; Wang, Carol A; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yiqin; Ware, Erin B; Wareham, Nicholas J; Warren, Helen R; Waterworth, Dawn M; Wessel, Jennifer; White, Harvey D; Willer, Cristen J; Wilson, James G; Witte, Daniel R; Wood, Andrew R; Wu, Ying; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Yao, Jie; Yao, Pang; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Young, Robin; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Wei; Zondervan, Krina T; Rotter, Jerome I; Pospisilik, John A; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Frayling, Timothy M; Lettre, Guillaume; North, Kari E; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Loos, Ruth J F

    2018-05-01

    In the version of this article originally published, one of the two authors with the name Wei Zhao was omitted from the author list and the affiliations for both authors were assigned to the single Wei Zhao in the author list. In addition, the ORCID for Wei Zhao (Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA) was incorrectly assigned to author Wei Zhou. The errors have been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.

  7. Pondering the Pulvinar.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Peter; O'Connell, Monica N; Barczak, Annamaria

    2016-01-06

    While the function of the pulvinar remains one of the least explored among the thalamic nuclei despite occupying the most thalamic volume in primates, it has long been suspected to play a crucial role in attentive stimulus processing. In this issue of Neuron, Zhou et al. (2016) use simultaneous pulvinar-visual cortex recordings and pulvinar inactivation to provide evidence that the pulvinar is essential for intact stimulus processing, maintenance of neuronal oscillatory dynamics, and mediating the effects of attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of IKKalpha in the EGFR Signaling Regulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Stem Cell Biology Epithelial– Mesenchymal Transition Induced by TNF-a Requires NF-kB–Mediated Transcriptional Upregulation of Twist1 Chia-Wei Li1, Weiya... mesenchymal markers in MCF10A-p65 cells with Twist1 siRNA. D, abrogation of p65- mediated cancer stem cell population by Twist1 suppression. E...Mani SA, Guo W, Liao MJ, Eaton EN, Ayyanan A, Zhou AY, et al. The epithelial- mesenchymal transition generates cells with properties of stem cells . Cell

  9. The Role of Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN) in Hormone Signaling Transduction and Prostate Tumorigenes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    S, Zhang W, Zhou J, Wang J, Ertel A, Li Z, Rui H, Quong A, Lisanti MP, Tozeren A, Tanes C, Addya S, Gormley M, Wang C, McMahon SB, Pestell RG...MP, Wang C, Pestell RG. Acetylation of the cell-fate factor dachshund determines p53 binding and signaling modules in breast cancer. Oncotarget...MP, Quong A, Ertel A, Pestell RG. Cell fate factor DACH1 represses YB-1-mediated oncogenic transcription and translation. Cancer Res. 2014;74(3):829

  10. Synthesis of Si Nanowires for an Anode Material of Li Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-04

    Zhou, H. Li, H.P. Sun , D.P. Yu, Y.Q. Wang, X.J. Huang, L.Q. Chen, Z. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75 (16) (1999) 2447 6. A.M. Wilson, B.M. Way, J.R. Dahn...Y. Liu, Electrochem. Commun. 5 (2003) 165 12. Tatsuo Umeno, Kenji Fukuda, Hongyu Wang, Nikolay Dimov, Takashi Iwao, Masaki Yoshio, Chem. Lett...Hansu Kim, Junghee Choi, Hun-Joon Sohn and Tak Kang, J. Electrochem. Soc. 146 (12) (1999) 4401 18. G.X. Wang, L. Sun , D.H. Bradhurst, S. Zhong, S.X. Dou

  11. A Method to Measure the Amount of Battlefield Situation Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    log)( 20 atS  3.2 Measurement of trends information Kierkegaard once said “Life can only be understood backwards, but it must be lived forwards” [8...Towards a theory of s 10 11 , “The Journals of Soren Kierkegaard ”, A selection and translated by Alexander chun, “Formal Description of Command...and 37(2), pp32-64, 1995. [8] Kierkegaard , Soren – Dru , Oxford: Oxford University Press (1938). pp465 [9] ZHOU Dao-an, ZHANG Dong-ge, CHANG Shu

  12. New data on brachypterous Paederus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) of mainland China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi-Li; Li, Li-Zhen; Gu, Fuang-Kang; Peng, Zhong

    2016-11-07

    Material of the brachypterous Paederus of the Chinese provinces Henan, Anhui, Zhejiang, Hunan, Fujian, Guizhou, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Yunnan, Guangdong and Guangxi was examined. In total, twelve species are recognized, among which two are described here as new: P. daicongchaoi sp. n. (Anhui: Yaolouping) and P. nanlingensis sp. n. (Guangdong: Nanling). One species probably undescribed remains unnamed and one synonymy is proposed: Paederus (Gnathopaederus) bursavacua Willers, 2001 = Paederus (Gnathopaederus) daozhenensis Li & Zhou, 2009, nov. syn. A key to the brachypterous Paederus species of mainland China is provided.

  13. Role of SRC-3delta4 in the Progression and Metastasis of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    tyrosine phosphorylation of SRC-3∆4, which was inhibited by the treatment with EGFR inhibitor AG1478. Mutation of Y1159 to phenylalanine (Y1159F...Y1159 to phenylalanine (Y1159F) greatly reduced SRC-3∆4/AR interaction that is stimulated by EGF. Figure 7 Overexpression of SRC-3∆4 promoted...adhesion turnover and matrix metalloproteinase expression. Cancer research 68, 5460-5468. 6. Chung, A.C., Zhou, S., Liao, L ., Tien, J.C., Greenberg

  14. Soybeans Growing inside the Advanced Astroculture Plant Growth Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This composite image shows soybean plants growing in the Advanced Astroculture experiment aboard the International Space Station during June 11-July 2, 2002. DuPont is partnering with NASA and the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to grow soybeans aboard the Space Station to find out if they have improved oil, protein, carbohydrates or secondary metabolites that could benefit farmers and consumers. Principal Investigators: Dr. Tom Corbin, Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., a Dupont Company, with headquarters in Des Moines, Iowa, and Dr. Weijia Zhou, Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  15. Global Urban Mapping and Modeling for Sustainable Urban Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Li, X.; Asrar, G.; Yu, S.; Smith, S.; Eom, J.; Imhoff, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    In the past several decades, the world has experienced fast urbanization, and this trend is expected to continue for decades to come. Urbanization, one of the major land cover and land use changes (LCLUC), is becoming increasingly important in global environmental changes, such as urban heat island (UHI) growth and vegetation phenology change. Better scientific insights and effective decision-making unarguably require reliable science-based information on spatiotemporal changes in urban extent and their environmental impacts. In this study, we developed a globally consistent 20-year urban map series to evaluate the time-reactive nature of global urbanization from the nighttime lights remote sensing data, and projected future urban expansion in the 21st century by employing an integrated modeling framework (Zhou et al. 2014, Zhou et al. 2015). We then evaluated the impacts of urbanization on building energy use and vegetation phenology that affect both ecosystem services and human health. We extended the modeling capability of building energy use in the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) with consideration of UHI effects by coupling the remote sensing based urbanization modeling and explored the impact of UHI on building energy use. We also investigated the impact of urbanization on vegetation phenology by using an improved phenology detection algorithm. The derived spatiotemporal information on historical and potential future urbanization and its implications in building energy use and vegetation phenology will be of great value in sustainable urban design and development for building energy use and human health (e.g., pollen allergy), especially when considered together with other factors such as climate variability and change. Zhou, Y., S. J. Smith, C. D. Elvidge, K. Zhao, A. Thomson & M. Imhoff (2014) A cluster-based method to map urban area from DMSP/OLS nightlights. Remote Sensing of Environment, 147, 173-185. Zhou, Y., S. J. Smith, K. Zhao, M. Imhoff, A

  16. High Frequency Magneto Dielectric Effects In Self Assembled Ferrite Ferroelectric Core Shell Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-10

    2008). 2 Y. Yang, S. Priya, J. Li , and D. Viehland, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92, 1552 (2009). 3 J. Ma, J. Hu, Z. Li , and C. W. Nan, Adv. Mater. 23, 1062...2013) 9 Yongke Yan, Yuan Zhou, and Shashank Priya, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 032911 (2014) 10 Gaojian Wu, Tianxiang Nan, Ru Zhang, Ning Zhang, Shandong Li ...Kim, L. T. Schelhas, S. Keller, J. L. Hockel, S. H. Tolbert, and G. P. Carman, Nano Lett. 13, 884 (2013). 13 S. Zhang, Y. G. Zhao, P. S. Li , J. J

  17. Ground Based Investigation of Electrostatic Accelerometer in HUST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Y.; Zhou, Z.

    2013-12-01

    High-precision electrostatic accelerometers with six degrees of freedom (DOF) acceleration measurement were successfully used in CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions which to measure the Earth's gravity field. In our group, space inertial sensor based on the capacitance transducer and electrostatic control technique has been investigated for test of equivalence principle (TEPO), searching non-Newtonian force in micrometer range, and satellite Earth's field recovery. The significant techniques of capacitive position sensor with the noise level at 2×10-7pF/Hz1/2 and the μV/Hz1/2 level electrostatic actuator are carried out and all the six servo loop controls by using a discrete PID algorithm are realized in a FPGA device. For testing on ground, in order to compensate one g earth's gravity, the fiber torsion pendulum facility is adopt to measure the parameters of the electrostatic controlled inertial sensor such as the resolution, and the electrostatic stiffness, the cross couple between different DOFs. A short distance and a simple double capsule equipment the valid duration about 0.5 second is set up in our lab for the free fall tests of the engineering model which can directly verify the function of six DOF control. Meanwhile, high voltage suspension method is also realized and preliminary results show that the horizontal axis of acceleration noise is about 10-8m/s2/Hz1/2 level which limited mainly by the seismic noise. Reference: [1] Fen Gao, Ze-Bing Zhou, Jun Luo, Feasibility for Testing the Equivalence Principle with Optical Readout in Space, Chin. Phys. Lett. 28(8) (2011) 080401. [2] Z. Zhu, Z. B. Zhou, L. Cai, Y. Z. Bai, J. Luo, Electrostatic gravity gradiometer design for the advanced GOCE mission, Adv. Sp. Res. 51 (2013) 2269-2276. [3] Z B Zhou, L Liu, H B Tu, Y Z Bai, J Luo, Seismic noise limit for ground-based performance measurements of an inertial sensor using a torsion balance, Class. Quantum Grav. 27 (2010) 175012. [4] H B Tu, Y Z Bai, Z B Zhou, L Liu, L

  18. Learning to Identify Local Flora with Human Feedback (Author’s Manuscript)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-23

    UNEP- WCMC, 2002. 1 [4] J . Hays and A. A. Efros. IM2GPS: estimating geographic informa- tion from a single image. In CVPR, 2008. 1 [5] R. Jin, S. Wang...and Y. Zhou. Regularized distance metric learning: Theory and algorithm. In NIPS, 2009. 2 [6] N. Kumar, P. Belhumeur, A. Biswas, D. Jacobs, W. J . Kress...I. Lopez, and J . Soare. Leafsnap: A computer vision system for automatic plant species identification. In ECCV, 2012. 1 [7] A. Oliva and A. Torralba

  19. Characterizing Treatable Causes of Small Fiber Polyneuropathy in Gulf War Veterans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    autoimmune thyroid disease . Clin Rheumatol 33(7):885–891 31. Ørstavik K, Norheim I, Jorum E (2006) Pain and small-fiber neu- ropathy in patients with ...neuronopathy associated with celiac disease : skin biopsy findings. Arch Neurol 62:1574–1578 38. Chin RL, Latov N (2005) Peripheral neuropathy and celiac dis...patients with biopsy-verified celiac disease . JAMA Neurol 72(7):806–811 40. Tavee J, Zhou L (2009) Small fiber neuropathy: a burning problem. Cleve Clin

  20. Multiscale Mathematics for Nano-Particle-Endowed Active Membranes and Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-03

    Formation in Biofilms ,” Contemporary Mathematics (586), 2013, 105-116. 2. Yi Sun and Qi Wang, “Modeling and Simulations of Multicellular Aggregate Self...6402. 21. Hua Jiang, Hao Yang, Jun Zeng, Zhiyuan Zhou, Jin Peng, Qi Wang, Analytic Oncology, Electron J Metab Nutr Cancer ,Jun. 2015,Vol. 2, No. 2, 26...30. 22. Chen Chen, Dacheng Ren, Mingming Ren and Qi Wang, “3-D Spatial-Temporal Structures of Biofilms in A Water Channel,” Mathematical Methods

  1. Periodic matrix population models: growth rate, basic reproduction number, and entropy.

    PubMed

    Bacaër, Nicolas

    2009-10-01

    This article considers three different aspects of periodic matrix population models. First, a formula for the sensitivity analysis of the growth rate lambda is obtained that is simpler than the one obtained by Caswell and Trevisan. Secondly, the formula for the basic reproduction number R0 in a constant environment is generalized to the case of a periodic environment. Some inequalities between lambda and R0 proved by Cushing and Zhou are also generalized to the periodic case. Finally, we add some remarks on Demetrius' notion of evolutionary entropy H and its relationship to the growth rate lambda in the periodic case.

  2. N-Cadherin in Prostate Cancer: Downstream Pathways and Their Translational Application for Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    with properties of stem cells. Cell 133, 704–715 (2008). 22. Mason , M.J., Fan, G ., Plath, K., Zhou, Q. & Horvath , S. Signed weighted gene co...An J, Horvath S, Gleave M, Rettig MB, Wainberg ZA, Reiter RE. Monoclonal antibody targeting of N-cadherin inhibits prostate cancer growth, metastasis...N at u re A m er ic a, In c. A ll ri g h ts r es er ve d . A r t i c l e s nAture medicine VOLUME 16 | NUMBER 12 | DECEMBER 2010 1415 of in

  3. Space Product Development (SPD)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-09

    This composite image shows soybean plants growing in the Advanced Astroculture experiment aboard the International Space Station during June 11-July 2, 2002. DuPont is partnering with NASA and the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to grow soybeans aboard the Space Station to find out if they have improved oil, protein, carbohydrates or secondary metabolites that could benefit farmers and consumers. Principal Investigators: Dr. Tom Corbin, Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., a Dupont Company, with headquarters in Des Moines, Iowa, and Dr. Weijia Zhou, Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  4. Acoustics of old Asian bells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    2004-05-01

    The art of casting bronze bells developed to a high level of sophistication in China during the Shang dynasty (1766-1123 BC). Many chimes of two-tone bells remain from the Western and Eastern Zhou dynasties (1122-249 BC). With the spread of Buddhism from the third century, large round temple bells developed in China and later in Korea, Japan, and other Asian countries. Vibrational modes of some of these bells have been studied by means of holographic interferometry and experimental modal testing. Their musical as well as acoustical properties are discussed.

  5. Sensitivity of Breast Cancer Stem Cells to TRA-8 Anti-DR5 Monoclonal Antibody

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Janelia Farm , VA, travel award 2010 -­‐ Translational Medicine Symposium, HHMI Peer Cluster Meeting, travel award 2010 -­‐ AACR Annual Conference...lab. Science Education Alliance, Janelia Farm , VA, 2001 3. Londoño-Joshi AI, Forero-Torres A, Fineberg NS, Oliver PG, Zhou T, LoBuglio AF, Buchsbaum...rabbit mAb and cleaved caspase 3 rabbit mAb were purchased from Cell Signaling (Billerica, MA). Secondary antibodies, Alexa fluor 405 goat anti-rabbit

  6. Multi-Functional pi-Conjugated Macromolecules Based on Poly(Phenylene Vinylene)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-14

    methacrylate-co-4-vinylpyridine)" (in press). 43. J . Polym. Sci., (with R. Vukovic , G. Bogdanic, V. Kuresevic, M. Tomaskovic and W.J. MacKnight) "Phase...Sokolik I Dr. Zhou Yang Dr. Iwao Teraoka IV. JUNIOR RESEARCH PERSONNEL: J . Neill B. Ma. S.L I U i I I i 5 VI. ABSTRACT OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS This report is...chains. I I U I * 14 I VIII. PUBLICATIONS IN PERIOD WITH AFOSR SUPPORT 1. J . Chem. Phys. 98, 712-716 (1993) (with G. Mao, J.E. Fischer and M.J. Winokur

  7. Unraveling the Nature of Chemical Reactivity of Complex Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-13

    28 J. Zhou, J. J. Lin, W. Shiu, and K. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 4997 2003. 29 S. C. Althorpe, F. Fernandez - Alonso , B. D. Bean, J. D. Ayers, A. E...Truhlar DG, Espinosa- Garcia J (2000) Potential energy surface, thermal, and state-selected rate coefficients, and kinetic isotope effects for Cl CH43...HCl CH3. J Chem Phys 112:9375–9389. 22. Rangel C, Navarrete M, Corchado JC, Espinosa- Garcia J (2006) Potential energy surface, kinetics, and

  8. The Coagulopathy of Trauma: A Review of Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    literature. Although fat embolism syndrome has been associated with a pure DIC-type picture,37 this is rare in the early stages after injury. It appears...Trauma. 1971;18:115–120. 37. Mellor A, Soni N. Fat embolism . Anaesthesia. 2001;56:145–154. 38. Hauser CJ, Zhou X, Joshi P, et al. The immune...Long-bone fractures have also been associated with the de- velopment of a coagulopathy,36 although there is little to support this in the recent

  9. Photoluminescence and Lasing from Deoxyribonucleic Acid Thin Films Doped With Sulforhodamine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-20

    sulforhodamine Z. Yu, W. Li, J. A. Hagen, Y. Zhou, D. Klotzkin, J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl Thin solid films of salmon DNA have been fabricated by...study is de- rived from salmon sperm14 and was provided by the Chitose Institute of Science and Technology (CIST) in Japan. After purification and...films. These conditions produced DNA–CTMA films of 80 nm and PMMA films of 140 nm. The films were baked in a vacuum oven at 30 mbars and 80 °C for 60

  10. A Proteomic Approach to Identify Phosphorylation-Dependent Targets of BRCT Domains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Zhou Songyang, Ph.D. 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E -Mail: songyang@bcm.tmc.edu 5f...L pSQEY BARD1 SG K H M I pSEDE? ECT2 TG K E R W ? PTIP (560-757) TG K P L L pSQVF pSQEY? TOPBP1...22-207) TS K L L F ? TOPBP1 (1177- 1401) SS K E L A ? XRCC1 SG K E S Y ? BRCTD1 TG K K

  11. Targeting Transcription Elongation Machinery for Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-01

    activation of EMT genes in breast cancer cells. 6-30 H. Lu (Zhou) 80% Subtask 2: Determine the molecular basis underlying high sensitivity of EMT and...interaction with the molecular chaperone heat shock protein HSP90 upon the KD. Fig. 1. Knockdown (KD) of HEXIM1 in T47D cells enhances breast cancer EMT...that the observed increase in EMT in ELL2-overexpressing cells was due to the elevated P-TEFb activity. Subtask 2: Determine the molecular basis

  12. Scientists Inspect Plant Grown onboard the ISS in 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Astroculture (tm) unit is growing plants on its second flight on the International Space Station. Dr. Weijia Zhou (left), director of the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, inspects soybeans grown in the plant growth unit aboard ISS in 2002. Coating technology is used inside the miniature plant greenhouse to remove ethylene, a chemical produced by plant leaves that can cause plants to mature too quickly. This same coating technology is used in a new anthrax-killing device. The Space Station experiment is managed by the Space Partnership Development Program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala.

  13. Energy Spectra of Strongly Stratified and Rotating Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahalov, Alex; Nicolaenko, Basil; Zhou, Ye

    1998-01-01

    Turbulence under strong stratification and rotation is usually characterized as quasi-two dimensional turbulence. We develop a "quasi-two dimensional" energy spectrum which changes smoothly between the Kolmogorov -5/3 law (no stratification), the -2 scalings of Zhou for the case of strong rotation, as well as the -2 scalings for the case of strong rotation and stratification. For strongly stratified turbulence, the model may give the -2 scaling predicted by Herring; and the -5/3 scaling indicated by some mesoscale observations.

  14. The Source Parameters of Echolocation Clicks from Captive and Free-Ranging Yangtze Finless Porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis).

    PubMed

    Fang, Liang; Wang, Ding; Li, Yongtao; Cheng, Zhaolong; Pine, Matthew K; Wang, Kexiong; Li, Songhai

    2015-01-01

    The clicks of Yangtze finless porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) from 7 individuals in the tank of Baiji aquarium, 2 individuals in a netted pen at Shishou Tian-e-zhou Reserve and 4 free-ranging individuals at Tianxingzhou were recorded using a broadband digital recording system with four element hydrophones. The peak-to-peak apparent source level (ASL_pp) of clicks from individuals at the Baiji aquarium was 167 dB re 1 μPa with mean center frequency of 133 kHz, -3dB bandwidth of 18 kHz and -10 dB duration of 58 μs. The ASL_pp of clicks from individuals at the Shishou Tian-e-zhou Reserve was 180 dB re 1 μPa with mean center frequency of 128 kHz, -3dB bandwidth of 20 kHz and -10 dB duration of 39 μs. The ASL_pp of clicks from individuals at Tianxingzhou was 176 dB re 1 μPa with mean center frequency of 129 kHz, -3dB bandwidth of 15 kHz and -10 dB duration of 48 μs. Differences between the source parameters of clicks among the three groups of finless porpoises suggest these animals adapt to their echolocation signals depending on their surroundings.

  15. Scale disparity and spectral transfer in anisotropic numerical turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE; Yeung, P. K.; Brasseur, James G.

    1994-01-01

    To study the effect of cancellations within long-range interactions on local isotropy at the small scales, we calculate explicitly the degree of cancellation in distant interactions in the simulations of Yeung & Brasseur and Yeung, Brasseur & Wang using the single scale disparity parameter 's' developed by Zhou. In the simulations, initially isotropic simulated turbulence was subjected to coherent anisotropic forcing at the large scales and the smallest scales were found to become anisotropic as a consequence of direct large-small scale couplings. We find that the marginally distant interactions in the simulation do not cancel out under summation and that the development of small-scale anisotropy is indeed a direct consequence of the distant triadic group, as argued by Yeung, et. al. A reduction of anisotropy at later times occurs as a result of the isotropizing influences of more local energy-cascading triadic interactions. Nevertheless, the local-to-nonlocal triadic group persists as an isotropizing influence at later times. We find that, whereas long-range interactions, in general, contribute little to net energy transfer into or out of a high wavenumber shell k, the anisotropic transfer of component energy within the shell increases with increasing scale separations. These results are consistent with results by Zhou, and Brasseur & Wei, and suggest that the anisotropizing influences of long range interactions should persist to higher Reynolds numbers. The residual effect of the forced distant group in this low-Reynolds number simulation is found to be forward cascading, on average.

  16. The Source Parameters of Echolocation Clicks from Captive and Free-Ranging Yangtze Finless Porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis)

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Liang; Wang, Ding; Li, Yongtao; Cheng, Zhaolong; Pine, Matthew K.; Wang, Kexiong; Li, Songhai

    2015-01-01

    The clicks of Yangtze finless porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) from 7 individuals in the tank of Baiji aquarium, 2 individuals in a netted pen at Shishou Tian-e-zhou Reserve and 4 free-ranging individuals at Tianxingzhou were recorded using a broadband digital recording system with four element hydrophones. The peak-to-peak apparent source level (ASL_pp) of clicks from individuals at the Baiji aquarium was 167 dB re 1 μPa with mean center frequency of 133 kHz, -3dB bandwidth of 18 kHz and -10 dB duration of 58 μs. The ASL_pp of clicks from individuals at the Shishou Tian-e-zhou Reserve was 180 dB re 1 μPa with mean center frequency of 128 kHz, -3dB bandwidth of 20 kHz and -10 dB duration of 39 μs. The ASL_pp of clicks from individuals at Tianxingzhou was 176 dB re 1 μPa with mean center frequency of 129 kHz, -3dB bandwidth of 15 kHz and -10 dB duration of 48 μs. Differences between the source parameters of clicks among the three groups of finless porpoises suggest these animals adapt to their echolocation signals depending on their surroundings. PMID:26053758

  17. Origin and lateral migration of linear dunes in the Qaidam Basin of NW China revealed by dune sediments, internal structures, and optically stimulated luminescence ages, with implications for linear dunes on Titan: discussion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, David M.; Rubin, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Zhou et al. (2012) proposed that longitudinal dunes in the Qaidam Basin, China, formed like yardangs: by erosion into sediment that was not deposited by those dunes. Because erosion occurs on the upwind flanks of most migrating dunes (Rubin and Hunter, 1982, 1985), the key to demonstrating a yardang-like origin is to show that the dunes did not deposit the strata that they contain. Zhou et al. made this argument by proposing that: (1) The dunes have not deposited cross-strata in the past 810 yr. (2) Cross-bedding within the dunes was not deposited by the dunes on the present-day land surface, but rather by older dunes that had a different morphology. (3) The present dunes are a later generation, “most likely of erosional origin similar to yardangs with orientations controlled by strikes of joints,” (p. 1147). (4) Rates of deflation in the dune field have been extremely high for the past 810–2440 yr. This commentary reviews these conclusions, reviews contradictory observations, and considers alternative interpretations.

  18. [Late Ming treatises on Chinese and Islamic calendrical systems as seen in the Seki Teisyo].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The Seki Teisyo (see text for symbol), a manuscript compiled by Seki Takakazu (see text for symbol)) in 1686, is known to consist of 15 treatises which Seki extracted from an early Qing astronomical and astrological corpus, the Tianwen Dacheng Guankui Jiyao (see text for symbol). Containing a detailed account of the Shoushi Li (see text for symbol) as well as a comparative study of Chinese and Islamic calendrical systems, these treatises have drawn the attention not only of Seki but of modern historians. In this paper, I show that 14 of the 15 treatises Seki selected had been composed by a late Ming scholar, Zhou Shuxue (see text for symbol), who discussed issues with Tang Shunzhi (see text for symbol). Their time predates the era in which the mathematical basis of the Shoushi Li was scrutinized and a new Chinese calendrical system was invented incorporating Western astronomical knowledge. I also mention some earlier works that Tang and Zhou could have consulted. Although Seki never knew the author of the treatises nor their background, his concern centered on themes that seem to have derived from one of those earlier works: the Liyuan(see text for symbol).

  19. [Textual research on circulation of the Ming edition of Li Heng's Xiu zhen fang (Pocket Formulary)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinping; Liu, Peng; Lu, Mingjing; Lu, Xing; Li, Shaolin; Jin, Xiumei

    2015-03-01

    Xiu zhen fang (Pocket Formulary) is a recipe book of the Ming Dynasty, inspired and managed by Zhu Su, compiled by Li Heng of liangyisuo (good physician house) in Zhou wangfu (Zhou's royal palace). The book was compiled and published twice during the reigns of the Hongwu and Yongle Emperors of the Ming Dynasty. Because of its high practicability, there were some editions in circulation, and the book was published several times only in the Ming Dynasty. At present, the earliest extanteditionwas the little character version of Yongle, and the version in the 4(th) year of Zhengde Emperor of the Ming Dynasty was a reprinting edition based on the Yongle edition, sharingthe same edition system. Most of the editions appeared after the reign of Zhengtong Emperor of the Ming Dynasty, titled by "kui ben (head version)" and "da quan (complete edition)" were the editionspublished in the local bookshops, which had rather distinct differences from the Yongle edition system not only in the its format but also in its contents.

  20. [Herbological studies on Chinese crude drug Ma-huang. Part 1-On the botanical origin of Ma-huang in ancient China and the origin of Japanese Ma-huang].

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Chieko; Kitade, Makiko; Mikage, Masayuki

    2005-01-01

    The botanical origin of a Chinese crude drug Ma-huang in ancient China and the origin of Japanese Ma-huang were herbologically studied. The results showed that the plants of Ephedra sinica Stapf, E. intermedia Schrenk & C. A. Meyer and E. equisetina Bunge were used as Ma-huang in China, and the first species was considered to be of high quality. The characters of Mao-zhou Ma-huang and Tong-zhou Ma-huang printed in Tu-jing-ben-cao, published in the Song Dynasty in China, were identified as E. likiangensis Florin and E. intermedia, respectively, and both species were recognized as excellent Ma-huang in the Ming Dynasty. The word origin of Katsune-kusa, the Japanese name for Ma-huang in the Heian Era, was etymologically considered as meaning the plant having reddish brown roots. In Japan, the plant of Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. var.japonicum Milde, of the family Equisetaceae, was substituted for Ma-huang in the middle of Edo Era, and it was designated that this action was based on the confusion of Ephedra plants and Equisetum plants those days in China.

  1. Just Say No to Carbon Emissions (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Zhou, Nan; Oldenburg, Curt

    2018-06-15

    Learn about three efforts our grandchildren may thank us for: cheap solar energy, bringing energy efficiency to China, and learning how to store carbon deep underground. Can solar energy be dirt cheap? We're all potentially billionaires when it comes to solar energy. The trick is learning how to convert sunlight to electricity using cheap and plentiful materials. Ramamoorthy Ramesh, an innovative materials scientist at Berkeley Lab, will discuss how he and other researchers are working to make photovoltaic cells using the most abundant elements in the Earth's crust -- materials that are literally as common as dirt. Energy efficiency in China: Nan Zhou is a researcher with Berkeley Labs China Energy Group. She will speak about Chinas energy use and the policies that have been implemented to increase energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emission growth. Her work focuses on building China's capacity to evaluate, adopt and implement low-carbon development strategies. Zhou has an architecture degree from China, and a Master and Ph.D. in Engineering from Japan. Understanding geologic carbon sequestration: Even with continued growth of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar, fossil fuels will likely remain cheap and plentiful for decades to come. Geologist Curt Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Lab's Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will discuss a strategy to reduce carbon emissions from coal and natural gas. It involves pumping compressed CO2 captured from large stationary sources into underground rock formations that can store it for geological time scales.

  2. Theoretical and numerical study of axisymmetric lattice Boltzmann models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haibo; Lu, Xi-Yun

    2009-07-01

    The forcing term in the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) is usually used to mimic Navier-Stokes equations with a body force. To derive axisymmetric model, forcing terms are incorporated into the two-dimensional (2D) LBE to mimic the additional axisymmetric contributions in 2D Navier-Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates. Many axisymmetric lattice Boltzmann D2Q9 models were obtained through the Chapman-Enskog expansion to recover the 2D Navier-Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates [I. Halliday , Phys. Rev. E 64, 011208 (2001); K. N. Premnath and J. Abraham, Phys. Rev. E 71, 056706 (2005); T. S. Lee, H. Huang, and C. Shu, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 17, 645 (2006); T. Reis and T. N. Phillips, Phys. Rev. E 75, 056703 (2007); J. G. Zhou, Phys. Rev. E 78, 036701 (2008)]. The theoretical differences between them are discussed in detail. Numerical studies were also carried out by simulating two different flows to make a comparison on these models’ accuracy and τ sensitivity. It is found all these models are able to obtain accurate results and have the second-order spatial accuracy. However, the model C [J. G. Zhou, Phys. Rev. E 78, 036701 (2008)] is the most stable one in terms of τ sensitivity. It is also found that if density of fluid is defined in its usual way and not directly relevant to source terms, the lattice Boltzmann model seems more stable.

  3. Controllability of control and mixture weakly dependent siphons in S3PR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Liang; Chao, Daniel Y.

    2013-08-01

    Deadlocks in a flexible manufacturing system modelled by Petri nets arise from insufficiently marked siphons. Monitors are added to control these siphons to avoid deadlocks rendering the system too complicated since the total number of monitors grows exponentially. Li and Zhou propose to add monitors only to elementary siphons while controlling the other (strongly or weakly) dependent siphons by adjusting control depth variables. To avoid generating new siphons, the control arcs are ended at source transitions of process nets. This disturbs the original model more and hence loses more live states. Negative terms in the controllability make the control policy for weakly dependent siphons rather conservative. We studied earlier on the controllability of strongly dependent siphons and proposed to add monitors in the order of basic, compound, control, partial mixture and full mixture (strongly dependent) siphons to reduce the number of mixed integer programming iterations and redundant monitors. This article further investigates the controllability of siphons derived from weakly 2-compound siphons. We discover that the controllability for weakly and strongly compound siphons is similar. It no longer holds for control and mixture siphons. Some control and mixture siphons, derived from strongly 2-compound siphons are not redundant - no longer so for those derived from weakly 2-compound siphons; that is all control and mixture siphons are redundant. They do not need to be the conservative one as proposed by Li and Zhou. Thus, we can adopt the maximally permissive control policy even though new siphons are generated.

  4. Just Say No to Carbon Emissions (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Zhou, Nan; Oldenburg, Curt

    2010-04-26

    Learn about three efforts our grandchildren may thank us for: cheap solar energy, bringing energy efficiency to China, and learning how to store carbon deep underground. Can solar energy be dirt cheap? We're all potentially billionaires when it comes to solar energy. The trick is learning how to convert sunlight to electricity using cheap and plentiful materials. Ramamoorthy Ramesh, an innovative materials scientist at Berkeley Lab, will discuss how he and other researchers are working to make photovoltaic cells using the most abundant elements in the Earth's crust -- materials that are literally as common as dirt. Energy efficiency inmore » China: Nan Zhou is a researcher with Berkeley Labs China Energy Group. She will speak about Chinas energy use and the policies that have been implemented to increase energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emission growth. Her work focuses on building China's capacity to evaluate, adopt and implement low-carbon development strategies. Zhou has an architecture degree from China, and a Master and Ph.D. in Engineering from Japan. Understanding geologic carbon sequestration: Even with continued growth of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar, fossil fuels will likely remain cheap and plentiful for decades to come. Geologist Curt Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Lab's Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will discuss a strategy to reduce carbon emissions from coal and natural gas. It involves pumping compressed CO2 captured from large stationary sources into underground rock formations that can store it for geological time scales.« less

  5. Sediment Enzyme Activities and Microbial Community Diversity in an Oligotrophic Drinking Water Reservoir, Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haihan; Huang, Tinglin; Liu, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    Drinking water reservoir plays a vital role in the security of urban water supply, yet little is known about microbial community diversity harbored in the sediment of this oligotrophic freshwater environmental ecosystem. In the present study, integrating community level physiological profiles (CLPPs), nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone sequence technologies, we examined the sediment urease and protease activities, bacterial community functional diversity, genetic diversity of bacterial and fungal communities in sediments from six sampling sites of Zhou cun drinking water reservoir, eastern China. The results showed that sediment urease activity was markedly distinct along the sites, ranged from 2.48 to 11.81 mg NH3-N/(g·24h). The highest average well color development (AWCD) was found in site C, indicating the highest metabolic activity of heterotrophic bacterial community. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed tremendous differences in the functional (metabolic) diversity patterns of the sediment bacterial communities from different sites. Meanwhile, DGGE fingerprints also indicated spatial changes of genetic diversity of sediment bacterial and fungal communities. The sequence BLAST analysis of all the sediment samples found that Comamonas sp. was the dominant bacterial species harbored in site A. Alternaria alternate, Allomyces macrogynus and Rhizophydium sp. were most commonly detected fungal species in sediments of the Zhou cun drinking water reservoir. The results from this work provide new insights about the heterogeneity of sediment microbial community metabolic activity and genetic diversity in the oligotrophic drinking water reservoir. PMID:24205265

  6. An Improved Algorithm for Retrieving Surface Downwelling Longwave Radiation from Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Yaping; Kratz, David P.; Wilber, Anne C.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Cess, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    Zhou and Cess [2001] developed an algorithm for retrieving surface downwelling longwave radiation (SDLW) based upon detailed studies using radiative transfer model calculations and surface radiometric measurements. Their algorithm linked clear sky SDLW with surface upwelling longwave flux and column precipitable water vapor. For cloudy sky cases, they used cloud liquid water path as an additional parameter to account for the effects of clouds. Despite the simplicity of their algorithm, it performed very well for most geographical regions except for those regions where the atmospheric conditions near the surface tend to be extremely cold and dry. Systematic errors were also found for scenes that were covered with ice clouds. An improved version of the algorithm prevents the large errors in the SDLW at low water vapor amounts by taking into account that under such conditions the SDLW and water vapor amount are nearly linear in their relationship. The new algorithm also utilizes cloud fraction and cloud liquid and ice water paths available from the Cloud and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) single scanner footprint (SSF) product to separately compute the clear and cloudy portions of the fluxes. The new algorithm has been validated against surface measurements at 29 stations around the globe for Terra and Aqua satellites. The results show significant improvement over the original version. The revised Zhou-Cess algorithm is also slightly better or comparable to more sophisticated algorithms currently implemented in the CERES processing and will be incorporated as one of the CERES empirical surface radiation algorithms.

  7. Biotechnology

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-09

    Dr. Weijia Zhou, director of the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, inspects the Advanced Astroculture(tm) plant growth unit before its first flight last spring. Coating technology is used inside the miniature plant greenhouse to remove ethylene, a chemical produced by plant leaves that can cause plants to mature too quickly. This same coating technology is used in a new anthrax-killing device. The Space Station experiment is managed by the Space Product Development Program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. DuPont is partnering with NASA and the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to grow soybeans aboard the Space Station to find out if they have improved oil, protein, carbohydrates or secondary metabolites that could benefit farmers and consumers. Principal Investigators: Dr. Tom Corbin, Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., a Dupont Company, with headquarters in Des Moines, Iowa, and Dr. Weijia Zhou, Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  8. The Physical Nature of Polar Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghost, Kajal; Punsly, Brian

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown based on radio variability arguments that some BALQSOs (broad absorption line quasars) are viewed along the polar axis (o rthogonal to accretion disk) in the recent article of Zhou et a. Thes e arguments are based on the brightness temperature, T(sub b) exceedi ng 10(exp 12) K which leads to the well-known inverse Compton catastr ophe unless the radio jet is relativistic and is viewed along its axi s. In this letter, we expand the Zhou et al sample of polar BALQSOs u sing their techniques applied to SDSS DR5. In the process, we clarify a mistake in their calculation of brightness temperature. The expanded sample of high T(sub b) BALQSOS, has an inordinately large fraction of LoBALQSOs (low ionization BALQSOs). We consider this an important clue to understanding the nature of the polar BALQSOs. This is expec ted in the polar BALQSO analytical/numerical models of Punsly that pr edicted that LoBALQSOs occur when the line of sight is very close to the polar axis, where the outflow density is the highest.

  9. S3 and S4 abundances and improved chemical kinetic model for the lower atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.

    2013-07-01

    Mixing ratios of S3 and S4 are obtained from reanalysis of the spectra of true absorption in the visible range retrieved by Maiorov et al. (Maiorov, B.S. et al. [2005]. Solar Syst. Res. 39, 267-282) from the Venera 11 observations. These mixing ratios are fS3 = 11 ± 3 ppt at 3-10 km and 18 ± 3 ppt at 10-19 km, fS4 = 4 ± 4 ppt at 3-10 km and 6 ± 2 ppt at 10-19 km, and show a steep decrease in both S3 and S4 above 19 km. Photolysis rates of S3 and S4 at various altitudes are calculated using the Venera 11 spectra and constant photolysis yields as free parameters. The chemical kinetic model for the Venus lower atmosphere (Krasnopolsky, V.A. [2007]. Icarus 191, 25-37) has been improved by inclusion of the S4 cycle from Yung et al. (Yung, Y.L. et al. [2009]. J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00B34), reduction of the H2SO4 and CO fluxes at the upper boundary of 47 km by a factor of 4 in accord with the recent photochemical models for the middle atmosphere, by using a closed lower boundary for OCS instead of a free parameter for this species at the surface, and some minor updates. Our model with the S4 cycle but without the SO3 + 2 OCS reaction suggested by Krasnopolsky and Pollack (Krasnopolsky, V.A., Pollack, J.B. [1994]. Icarus 109, 58-78) disagrees with the observations of OCS, CO, S3, and S4. However, inclusion of the S4 cycle improves the model fit to all observational constraints. The best-fit activation energy of 7800 K for thermolysis of S4 supports the S4 enthalpy from Mills (Mills, K.C. [1974]. Thermodynamic Data for Inorganic Sulfides, Selenides and Tellurides. Butterworths, London). Chemistry of the Venus lower atmosphere is initiated by disequilibrium products H2SO4 and CO from the middle atmosphere, photolysis of S3 and S4, and thermochemistry in the lowest scale height. The chemistry is mostly driven by sulfur that is formed in a slow reaction SO + SO, produces OCS, and results in dramatic changes in abundances of OCS, CO, and free sulfur allotropes. The SX + OCS

  10. Economic Impact of Above-Label Dosing with Etanercept, Adalimumab, or Ustekinumab in Patients with Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Steven R; Zhao, Yang; Zhou, Huanxue; Herrera, Vivian; Tian, Haijun; Li, Yunfeng

    2017-05-01

    above-label use were $19,458 for etanercept, $18,972 for adalimumab, and $21,045 for ustekinumab. Total additional annual costs were $5,623,362 for etanercept, $701,964 for adalimumab, and $1,304,790 for ustekinumab. Psoriasis patients treated with etanercept, adalimumab, or ustekinumab had extensive above-label use over the 12-month follow-up period, which subsequently led to higher costs. Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation sponsored this study and the resultant publication. BioScience Communications provided medical writing and editorial support, which was also funded by Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation. Feldman was engaged by Novartis Pharmaceuticals as a paid clinical expert and scientific advisor for this study. He has received research support and speaking and/or consulting fees from AbbVie, Advance Medical, Amgen, Anacor, Astellas, Baxter, Boehringer Ingelheim, Caremark, Celgene, Eli Lilly, Galderma, GSK/Stiefel, Informa, Janssen, LEO Pharma, Merck, Merz, Mylan, National Biological, National Psoriasis Foundation, Pfizer, Qurient, Suncare Research, UpToDate, and Valeant; is the founder and majority owner of www.DrScore.com ; and is founder and part owner of Causa Research. Zhao, Herrera, Tian, and Li are employees of Novartis Pharmaceuticals. Zhou is a paid consultant for Novartis Pharmaceuticals and is an employee of KMK Consulting. Study concept and design were contributed by Feldman, Zhao, Herrera, and Li. Zhou and Li were responsible for data collection. Data were interpreted by Feldman and Zhao, with assistance from Zhou, Herrera, Tian, and Li. The manuscript was written primarily by Feldman and Zhao, with assistance from Zhou and Li. The manuscript was revised by Feldman and Zhao, assisted by Zhou, Herrera, Tian, and Li. Portions of this work were presented at the 34th Anniversary Fall Clinical Dermatology Conference in Las Vegas, Nevada, October 1-4, 2015.

  11. Coupled Sulfur and Chlorine Chemistry in Venus' Upper Cloud Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Franklin P.

    2006-09-01

    Venus' atmosphere likely contains a rich variety of sulfur and chlorine compounds because HCl, SO2, and OCS have all been observed. Photodissociation of CO2 and SO2 in the upper cloud layer produces oxygen which can react directly or indirectly with SO2 to form SO3 and eventually H2SO4. Photodissociation of HCl within and above the upper cloud layer produces chlorine which can react with CO and O2 to form ClCO and ClC(O)OO. These two species have been identified as potentially critical intermediaries in the production of CO2. Much less work has been done on the potential coupling between sulfur and chlorine chemistry that may occur within the upper cloud layer. Several aspects have been examined in recent modeling: (1) linkage of the CO2 and sulfur oxidation cycles (based on ideas from Yung and DeMore, 1982), (2) reaction of Cl with SO2 to form ClSO2 (based on ideas from DeMore et al., 1985), and (3) the chemistry of SmCln for m,n = 1,2 (based on preliminary work in Mills, 1998). Initial results suggest the chemistry of SmCln may provide a pathway for accelerated production of polysulfur, Sx, if the oxygen abundance in the upper cloud layer is as small as is implied by the observational limit on O2 (Trauger and Lunine, 1983). Initial results also suggest that ClSO2 can act as a buffer which helps increase the scale height of SO2 and decrease the rate of production of H2SO4. This presentation will describe the results from this modeling; discuss their potential implications for the CO2, sulfur oxidation, and polysulfur cycles; and outline key observations from Venus Express that can help resolve existing questions concerning the chemistry of Venus' upper cloud. Partial funding for this research was provided by the Australian Research Council.

  12. Observations of Altitude Dependence and Temporal Variation of ClO in the Venus Mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandor, Brad J.; Clancy, R. Todd

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of the first observations of ClO in the Venus mesosphere indicate ClO is present above 85 +/-3 km altitude and not below. The retrieved nightside mean abundances show a factor of 2 decrease between observation dates Oct. 23 and Nov. 11, 2015, with change between the two dates evident at more than two sigma confidence. Abundances and altitude distributions are retrieved from submm spectroscopic observations of the 352.88 GHz line of 35ClO (made with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope - JCMT - located an Mauna Kea, Hawaii).Detection of ClO in the Venus atmosphere confirms a theory put forward by Yung and DeMore (1982) that the Venus atmosphere is stabilized as CO2 due to chlorine catalytic recombination of CO and O. (Without some form of catalysis, the Venus atmosphere would have 10s of percent CO and O2, but it is in fact 97% CO2 and 3% N2, with only trace amounts of CO and O2.) Detailed retrieval of ClO abundances and altitude distributions (the focus of this talk) provides greater insight to the catalytic process, and to other aspects of Venus atmospheric chlorine chemistry. We compare findings of our quantitave retrieval with predictions of photochemical models, and discuss the implications for chlorine photochemisty of the Venus atmosphere. We also discuss retrieved ClO temporal variation with that of upper mesospheric HCl (Sandor and Clancy, 2012).[We acknowledge funding of this project by NASA grants NNX10AB33G, NNX12AI32G, and NNX14AK05G, as well as NSF grant AST-1312985.

  13. Studies on Ammonia Spectral Signatures Relevant to Jupiter's Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogerakis, Konstantinos S.; Oza, A. U.; Marschall, J.; Wong, M. H.

    2006-09-01

    Observational evidence and thermochemical models indicate an abundance of ammonia ice clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere. However, spectrally identifiable ammonia ice clouds are found covering less than 1% of Jupiter's atmosphere, notably in turbulent areas [1,2]. Current literature suggests two possible explanations: coating by a hydrocarbon haze and/or photochemical processing ("tanning") [2,3]. We are pursuing a research program investigating the above hypotheses. In the experiments, thin films of ammonia ices are deposited in a cryogenic apparatus, coated with hydrocarbons, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy. The ice films can be irradiated by ultraviolet light to study their photochemistry. The spectroscopic measurements aim to identify the processes that control the optical properties of the ice mixtures and quantify their dependence on the identity of the coating, the temperature, and the ice composition. We have observed a consistent suppression of the ammonia absorption feature at 3 μm with coverage by thin layers of hydrocarbons. Modeling calculations of the multi-layer thin films assist in the interpretation of the experimental results and reveal the role of optical interference in masking the aforementioned ammonia spectral feature. The implications of these results for Jupiter's atmosphere will be discussed. Funding from the NSF Planetary Astronomy Program under grant AST-0206270 and from the NASA Outer Planets Research Program under grant NNG06GF37G is gratefully acknowledged. The participation of Anand Oza (Princeton University) was made possible by the NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program under grant PHY-0353745. 1. S. K. Atreya, A.-S. Wong, K. H. Baines, M. H. Wong, T. C. Owen, Planet. Space Science 53, 498 (2005). 2. K. H. Baines, R. W. Carlson, and L. W. Kamp, Icarus 159, 74 (2002). 3. A.-S. Wong, Y. L. Yung, and A. J. Friedson, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1447 (2003).

  14. Infrared Spectroscopy of Ammonia - Hydrocarbon Ices Relevant to Jupiter's Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, P. A.; Kalogerakis, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    Observational evidence and thermochemical models indicate an abundance of ammonia ice clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere. However, spectrally identifiable ammonia ice clouds are found covering less than 1% of Jupiter's atmosphere, notably in turbulent areas.1,2 This discrepancy highlights an important gap in our understanding of ammonia and its spectral signatures in Jupiter's atmosphere. Current literature suggests two possible explanations: coating by a hydrocarbon haze and/or photochemical processing ("tanning").2,3 We are performing laboratory experiments that investigate the above hypotheses. Thin films of ammonia ices are deposited in a cryogenic apparatus, coated with hydrocarbons, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy. The ice films can be irradiated by ultraviolet light. These spectroscopic measurements aim to identify the photophysical and chemical processes that control the optical properties of the ice mixtures and quantify their dependence on the identity of the coating, the temperature, and the ice composition. Our current results indicate a consistent suppression of the ammonia absorption feature at 3 μm with coverage by thin layers of hexane, cyclohexane, and benzene. Furthermore, strongest suppression is observed in the case of benzene, followed in magnitude by hexane and cyclohexane. Funding from the NSF Planetary Astronomy Program under grant AST-0206270 is gratefully acknowledged. The participation of Patricia A. Engel was made possible by the NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program under grant PHY-0353745. 1. S. K. Atreya, A.-S. Wong, K. H. Baines, M. H. Wong, T. C. Owen, Planet. Space Science 53, 498 (2005). 2. K. H. Baines, R. W. Carlson, and L. W. Kamp, Icarus 159, 74 (2002). 3. A.-S. Wong, Y. L. Yung, and A. J. Friedson, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1447 (2003).

  15. Studies on Ammonia Spectral Signatures Relevant to Jupiter's Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, A. U.; Marschall, J.; Wong, M. H.; Kalogerakis, K. S.

    2006-12-01

    Observational evidence and thermochemical models indicate an abundance of ammonia ice clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere. However, spectrally identifiable ammonia ice clouds are found covering less than 1% of Jupiter's atmosphere, notably in turbulent areas [1,2]. Current literature suggests two possible explanations: coating by a hydrocarbon haze and/or photochemical processing ("tanning")[2,3]. We are pursuing a research program investigating the above hypotheses. In the experiments, thin films of ammonia ices are deposited in a cryogenic apparatus, coated with hydrocarbons, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy. The ice films can be irradiated by ultraviolet light to study their photochemistry. The spectroscopic measurements aim to identify the processes that control the optical properties of the ice mixtures and quantify their dependence on the identity of the coating, the temperature, and the ice composition. We have observed a consistent suppression of the ammonia absorption feature at 3 μm with coverage by thin layers of hydrocarbons. Modeling calculations of the multi-layer thin films assist in the interpretation of the experimental results and reveal the role of optical interference in masking the aforementioned ammonia spectral feature. The implications of these results for Jupiter's atmosphere will be discussed. Funding from the NSF Planetary Astronomy Program under grant AST-0206270 and from the NASA Outer Planets Research Program under grant NNG06GF37G is gratefully acknowledged. The participation of Anand Oza (Princeton University) was made possible by the NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program under grant PHY-0353745. 1. S. K. Atreya, A.-S. Wong, K. H. Baines, M. H. Wong, T. C. Owen, Planet. Space Science 53, 498 (2005). 2. K. H. Baines, R. W. Carlson, and L. W. Kamp, Icarus 159, 74 (2002). 3. A.-S. Wong, Y. L. Yung, and A. J. Friedson, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1447 (2003).

  16. African-American caregivers' expectations of physicians: gaining insights into the key issues of caregivers' concerns.

    PubMed

    Lampley-Dallas, Vicki T; Mold, James W; Flori, Denise E

    2005-07-01

    This qualitative study was done to determine what expectations, if any, African-American caregivers' have of physicians; what were the various causes of caregivers' distress, and what were the participants' perceived level of satisfaction or lack of satisfaction with the physician-patient-caregiver relationship The participants in this current study were either providing or had provided assistance in the activities of daily living of elders diagnosed with Alzheimer's or dementia. Focus group methodology was used and participants were recruited from Oklahoma County, Oklahoma. A total of 13 participants, whose mean age was 53.8 years of age and whose education was at least that of high school graduate, participated in the study. The majority of the caregivers were children who were caring for parents. The participants were asked three basic questions relating to their experiences or frustrations and the questions were followed by a 45-minute discussion to allow for further elaboration. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the Zarit Burden Interview, combined with a demographic information form, was used to define the characteristics of the caregivers (Sheik, et al., 1986; Zarit, Reever & Bach-Peterson, 1980; Vitaliano, Russo, Yung, Becker, & Maiuro, 1991; National Center for Cost Containment, 1993). Findings from this study suggest that of the 13 participants only 2 could be classified as depressed. However, the caregivers expected information, referral for services and assistance in recognizing disease progression. These elements were sometimes lacking as well as not always having effctive caregiver-physician interaction. Greater attention by physicians to the needs, stressors, and expectations of African-American caregivers may improve the caregiver-physician interaction and may reduce caregiver stress. Further studies in this area can add to the sparsely available information.

  17. [From influence to confluence : positioning the history of pre-modern Korean medicine in East Asia].

    PubMed

    Suh, Soyoung

    2010-12-31

    This article surveys studies focusing on pre-modern Korean medicine, which are both written in English and analyzed primary sources up to 1876. Overall, the history of pre-modern Korean medicine is an unknown filed in Anglophone academia. Yung Sik Kim's, James Palais's, and Carter Ecart's problematization of the nationalist framework of Korean scholarship partially explains the marginality of the field. Addressing these criticisms, this review argues that pre-modern Korean medicine's uneasy task lies in both elaborating Korea's own experience of medicine, while simultaneously avoiding making the "Korean" category itself essential. Korean narratives of premodern medicine need to go beyond the mere territorilalization of Korean medicine against its Chinese, Japanese, or Western counterparts, thereby to tackle the field's own boundary of research objects. The existing scholarship in English responds to this challenge by primarily examining the way in which Korea has shared textual tradition with China. Sirhak scholars' innovation in medicine, visual representation of Tongŭi bogam, Korean management of epidemics in the eleventh century, and Korean indexing of local botanicals, engages not only native achievements, but also the process of modifying medicine across geographical and political boundaries. More to the point, the emerging native narratives, although written in Korean, are implicitly resonant with those currently present in Anglophone academia. Taking "tension," "intertextuality," and "local traits" as a lens, this article assesses a series of current research in Korea. Aiming to go beyond appeals for a "distinctively" Korean experience of medicine, the future study of Korean pre-modern medicine will further elucidate confluences of different flows, such as "Chinese and Korean," "universal and local," "center and periphery," and "native and foreign," which will eventually articulate a range of Korean techniques of creating a bricolage in medicine.

  18. SciTech Connect

    Paudel, M; currently at University of Toronto, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON; MacKenzie, M

    Purpose: To evaluate the metal artifacts in diagnostic kVCT images of patients that are corrected using a normalized metal artifact reduction method with MVCT prior images, MVCT-NMAR. Methods: An MVCTNMAR algorithm was developed and applied to five patients: three with bilateral hip prostheses, one with unilateral hip prosthesis and one with dental fillings. The corrected images were evaluated for visualization of tissue structures and their interfaces, and for radiotherapy dose calculations. They were also compared against the corresponding images corrected by a commercial metal artifact reduction technique, O-MAR, on a Phillips™ CT scanner. Results: The use of MVCT images formore » correcting kVCT images in the MVCT-NMAR technique greatly reduces metal artifacts, avoids secondary artifacts, and makes patient images more useful for correct dose calculation in radiotherapy. These improvements are significant over the commercial correction method, provided the MVCT and kVCT images are correctly registered. The remaining and the secondary artifacts (soft tissue blurring, eroded bones, false bones or air pockets, CT number cupping within the metal) present in O-MAR corrected images are removed in the MVCT-NMAR corrected images. Large dose reduction is possible outside the planning target volume (e.g., 59.2 Gy in comparison to 52.5 Gy in pubic bone) when these MVCT-NMAR corrected images are used in TomoTherapy™ treatment plans, as the corrected images no longer require directional blocks for prostate plans in order to avoid the image artifact regions. Conclusion: The use of MVCT-NMAR corrected images in radiotherapy treatment planning could improve the treatment plan quality for cancer patients with metallic implants. Moti Raj Paudel is supported by the Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarship, the Endowed Graduate Scholarship in Oncology and the Dissertation Fellowship at the University of Alberta. The authors acknowledge the CIHR operating grant number MOP 53254.« less

  19. Potential Impact of the National Plan for Future Electric Power Supply on Air Quality in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, C.; Hong, J.

    2014-12-01

    Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) announced the national plan for Korea's future electric power supply (2013 - 2027) in 2013. According to the plan, the national demand for electricity will be increased by 60% compared to that of 2010 and primary energy sources for electric generation will still lean on the fossil fuels such as petroleum, LNG, and coal, which would be a potential threat to air quality of Korea. This study focused on two subjects: (1) How the spatial distribution of the primary air pollutant's emissions (i.e., NOx, SOx, CO, PM) will be changed and (2) How the primary emission changes will influence on the national ambient air quality including ozone in 2027. We used GEOS-Chem model simulation with modification of Korean emissions inventory (Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS)) to simulate the current and future air quality in Korea. The national total emissions of CO, NOx, SOx, PM in year 2027 will be increased by 3%, 8%, 13%, 2%, respectively compared to 2010 and there are additional concern that the future location of the power plants will be closer to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), where there are approximately 20 million population vulnerable to the potentially worsened air quality. While there are slight increase of concentration of CO, NOx, SOx, and PM in 2027, the O3 concentration is expected to be similar to the level of 2010. Those results may imply the characteristics of air pollution in East Asia such as potentially severe O3 titration and poorer O3/CO or O3/NOx ratio. Furthermore, we will discuss on the impact of transboundary pollution transport from China in the future, which is one of the large factors to control the air quality of Korea.

  20. Hybrid functional microfibers for textile electronics and biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanda Sahoo, Bichitra; Choi, Byungwoo; Seo, Jungmok; Lee, Taeyoon

    2018-01-01

    Fibers are low-cost substrates that are abundantly used in our daily lives. This review highlights recent advances in the fabrication and application of multifunctional fibers to achieve fibers with unique functions for specific applications ranging from textile electronics to biomedical applications. By incorporating various nanomaterials such as carbon nanomaterials, metallic nanomaterials, and hydrogel-based biomaterials, the functions of fibers can be precisely engineered. This review also highlights the performance of the functional fibers and electronic materials incorporated with textiles and demonstrates their practical application in pressure/tensile sensors, chemical/biosensors, and drug delivery. Textile technologies in which fibers containing biological factors and cells are formed and assembled into constructions with biomimetic properties have attracted substantial attention in the field of tissue engineering. We also discuss the current limitations of functional textile-based devices and their prospects for use in various future applications. Project supported by the Priority Research Centers Program (No. 2012-0006689) through the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST) and the R&D program of MOTIE/KEIT [10064081, Development of fiber-based flexible multimodal pressure sensor and algorithm for gesture/posture-recognizable wearable devices]. We gratefully acknowledge partial support from the National Research Foundation of Korea (No. NRF-2017K2A9A2A06013377, NRF-2017M3A7B4049466) and the Yonsei University Future-leading Research Initiative and Implantable artificial electronic skin for an ubiquitous healthcare system of 2016-12-0050. This work is also supported by KIST Project (Nos. 2E26900, 2E27630). Dr. Seo was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (No. 2016R1A6A3A03006491).

  1. Schottky barrier parameters and structural properties of rapidly annealed Zr Schottky electrode on p-type GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal Reddy, V.; Asha, B.; Choi, Chel-Jong

    2017-06-01

    The Schottky barrier junction parameters and structural properties of Zr/p-GaN Schottky diode are explored at various annealing temperatures. Experimental analysis showed that the barrier height (BH) of the Zr/p-GaN Schottky diode increases with annealing at 400 °C (0.92 eV (I-V)/1.09 eV (C-V)) compared to the as-deposited one (0.83 eV (I-V)/0.93 eV (C-V)). However, the BH decreases after annealing at 500 °C. Also, at different annealing temperatures, the series resistance and BH are assessed by Cheung's functions and their values compared. Further, the interface state density (N SS) of the diode decreases after annealing at 400 °C and then somewhat rises upon annealing at 500 °C. Analysis reveals that the maximum BH is obtained at 400 °C, and thus the optimum annealing temperature is 400 °C for the diode. The XPS and XRD analysis revealed that the increase in BH may be attributed to the creation of Zr-N phases with increasing annealing up to 400 °C. The BH reduces for the diode annealed at 500 °C, which may be due to the formation of Ga-Zr phases at the junction. The AFM measurements reveal that the overall surface roughness of the Zr film is quite smooth during rapid annealing process. Project supported by the R&D Program for Industrial Core Technology (No. 10045216) and the Transfer Machine Specialized Lighting Core Technology Development Professional Manpower Training Project (No. N0001363) Funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE), Republic of Korea.

  2. Multisensor Analysis of Ice Crystals Backscatter Peak From 5 Years of Collocated POLDER, MODIS and CALIOP Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedi, J.; Labonnote, L. C.; Contaut, F.; Platnick, S. E.; Yang, P.

    2016-12-01

    Realistic assumptions for representation of ice crystal optical properties are key in deriving meaningful information on ice clouds from spaceborne observations. With the increasing number of multi-sensor analysis it is also of paramount importance that ice crystal models be consistents for the interpretation of both passive and active observations in the solar and thermal infrared spectral domains. There has been significant evidences in the past few years that roughened particles might represent an overall good proxy for ice crystal models being able to simultaneously explain visible and infrared observations obtained from either active or passive sensors (Holz et al, 2016). Nevertheless, details of the exact phase function remain very informative fingerprints of ice crystal shapes and can also be critical parameters for retrievals performed under specific viewing geometries. Analysis of lidar observation for instance remains very sensitive to details of phase function in and around the backscatter direction. The relative magnitude and width of the backscatter peak intensity that appears in phase functions of ice crystal has been shown to carry useful information for characterization of ice crystal habits (Zhou & Yang, 2015). Based on these theoretical results we are revisiting here our previous analysis of coincident POLDER, MODIS and CALIOP observations whereby we were able to study the angular variability of ice clouds reflectance in and around the exact backscatter direction. Statistics from 5 years of observations of peak intensities derived from POLDER have been established in relation to coincident MODIS cloud optical thickness and effective radius retrievals as well as CALIOP layer integrated depolarization ratio and attenuated backscatter. Those are analyzed in view of the theoretical results from Zhou & Yang (2015). In particular, correlation of peak intensity and width with particle size retrieved from MODIS will be presented and implications for ice

  3. Treatment of osteomyelitis defects by a vancomycin-loaded gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, J.; Zhou, X. G.; Wang, J. W.; Zhou, H.; Dong, J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective In the present study, we aimed to assess whether gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) composite porous scaffolds could be used as a local controlled release system for vancomycin. We also investigated the efficiency of the scaffolds in eliminating infections and repairing osteomyelitis defects in rabbits. Methods The gelatin scaffolds containing differing amounts of of β-TCP (0%, 10%, 30% and 50%) were prepared for controlled release of vancomycin and were labelled G-TCP0, G-TCP1, G-TCP3 and G-TCP5, respectively. The Kirby-Bauer method was used to examine the release profile. Chronic osteomyelitis models of rabbits were established. After thorough debridement, the osteomyelitis defects were implanted with the scaffolds. Radiographs and histological examinations were carried out to investigate the efficiency of eliminating infections and repairing bone defects. Results The prepared gelatin/β-TCP scaffolds exhibited a homogeneously interconnected 3D porous structure. The G-TCP0 scaffold exhibited the longest duration of vancomycin release with a release duration of eight weeks. With the increase of β-TCP contents, the release duration of the β-TCP-containing composite scaffolds was decreased. The complete release of vancomycin from the G-TCP5 scaffold was achieved within three weeks. In the treatment of osteomyelitis defects in rabbits, the G-TCP3 scaffold showed the most efficacious performance in eliminating infections and repairing bone defects. Conclusions The composite scaffolds could achieve local therapeutic drug levels over an extended duration. The G-TCP3 scaffold possessed the optimal porosity, interconnection and controlled release performance. Therefore, this scaffold could potentially be used in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis defects. Cite this article: J. Zhou, X. G. Zhou, J. W. Wang, H. Zhou, J. Dong. Treatment of osteomyelitis defects by a vancomycin-loaded gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold. Bone Joint Res

  4. Pole orientation of 16 Psyche by two independent methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, E. F.; Taylor, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Nineteen new lightcurves of 16 Psyche are presented along with a pole orientation derived using two independent methods, namely, photometric astrometry and magnitude-amplitude-shape-aspect. The pole orientations found using these two methods agree to within 4 deg. The results from applying photometric astrometry were prograde rotation, a sidereal period of 0.1748143 days + or - 0.0000003 days, and a pole at longitude 223 deg and latitude +37 deg, with an uncertainty of 10 deg, and, from applying magnitude-amplitude-shape-aspect a pole at 220 + or - 1 deg, +40 + or - 4 deg, and a modeled triaxial ellipsoid shape (a greater than b greater than c) and a/b = 1.33 + or - 0.07. The discrepancy between the high-pole latitude found here and the low latitudes reported by Lupishko et al. (1982) and Zhou and Yang (1982) is discussed.

  5. Controlling resonant photonic transport along optical waveguides by two-level atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Conghua; College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu 610068; Wei Lianfu

    2011-10-15

    Recent works [Shen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213001 (2005); Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 100501 (2008)] showed that the incident photons cannot transmit along an optical waveguide containing a resonant two-level atom (TLA). Here we propose an approach to overcome such a difficulty by using asymmetric couplings between the photons and a TLA. Our numerical results show that the transmission spectrum of the photon depends on both the frequency of the incident photons and the photon-TLA couplings. Consequently, this system can serve as a controllable photon attenuator, by which the transmission probability of the resonantly incidentmore » photons can be changed from 0% to 100%. A possible application to explain the recent experimental observations [Astafiev et al., Science 327, 840 (2010)] is also discussed.« less

  6. The existence of a real pole-free solution of the fourth order analogue of the Painlevé I equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claeys, T.; Vanlessen, M.

    2007-05-01

    We establish the existence of a real solution y(x, T) with no poles on the real line of the following fourth order analogue of the Painlevé I equation: \\[ \\begin{equation*}x=Ty-\\left(\\case 1 6 y^3+\\case{1}{24} (y_x^2+2yy_{xx}) +\\case {1}{240} y_{xxxx}\\right).\\end{equation*} \\] This proves the existence part of a conjecture posed by Dubrovin. We obtain our result by proving the solvability of an associated Riemann-Hilbert problem through the approach of a vanishing lemma. In addition, by applying the Deift/Zhou steepest-descent method to this Riemann-Hilbert problem, we obtain the asymptotics for y(x, T) as x → ±∞.

  7. [Try to discuss manipulation of the "Feijing Zouqi" needling technique].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Gao, Ying; Wang, Fu-chun

    2008-03-01

    Based on description of "Feijing Zouqi" needling methods in Jin Zhen Fu (Rhyme Prose of Golden Needle) written by Xu Feng, and explain and analyze the descriptions of "Feijing Zouqi" needling method in Zhenjiu Juying (A Collection of Gems in Acu-Moxibustion) written by Gao Wu, Zhenjiu Wendui written by Wang Ji, Zhenjiu Dacheng (Great Compendium on Acu-Moxibustion) written by Yang Ji-zhou, Yixue Rumen (Elementary Medicine) written by LI Chan and many other works, summarize the technique characteristics of all the "Feijing Zouqi" needling methods. The characteristic of "Qinglong Baiwei" needling method is " first toward the left, then toward the right, slowly move or adjust with the hand"; and "Baihu Yaotou" needling method emphasizes "Tuifang Jinyuan" and "Yaozhen "; key point of "Canggui Tanxue" needling method is "Zuanti Sifang"; Chifeng Yingyuan" needling method emphasizes "Siwei Feixuan".

  8. Improving Unstructured Mesh Partitions for Multiple Criteria Using Mesh Adjacencies

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Cameron W.; Rasquin, Michel; Ibanez, Dan

    The scalability of unstructured mesh based applications depends on partitioning methods that quickly balance the computational work while reducing communication costs. Zhou et al. [SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 32 (2010), pp. 3201{3227; J. Supercomput., 59 (2012), pp. 1218{1228] demonstrated the combination of (hyper)graph methods with vertex and element partition improvement for PHASTA CFD scaling to hundreds of thousands of processes. Our work generalizes partition improvement to support balancing combinations of all the mesh entity dimensions (vertices, edges, faces, regions) in partitions with imbalances exceeding 70%. Improvement results are then presented for multiple entity dimensions on up to one million processesmore » on meshes with over 12 billion tetrahedral elements.« less

  9. High-throughput metagenomic technologies for complex microbial community analysis: open and closed formats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jizhong; He, Zhili; Yang, Yunfeng; Deng, Ye; Tringe, Susannah G; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2015-01-27

    Understanding the structure, functions, activities and dynamics of microbial communities in natural environments is one of the grand challenges of 21st century science. To address this challenge, over the past decade, numerous technologies have been developed for interrogating microbial communities, of which some are amenable to exploratory work (e.g., high-throughput sequencing and phenotypic screening) and others depend on reference genes or genomes (e.g., phylogenetic and functional gene arrays). Here, we provide a critical review and synthesis of the most commonly applied "open-format" and "closed-format" detection technologies. We discuss their characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages within the context of environmental applications and focus on analysis of complex microbial systems, such as those in soils, in which diversity is high and reference genomes are few. In addition, we discuss crucial issues and considerations associated with applying complementary high-throughput molecular technologies to address important ecological questions. Copyright © 2015 Zhou et al.

  10. Information filtering via biased heat conduction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Qiang

    2011-09-01

    The process of heat conduction has recently found application in personalized recommendation [Zhou et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 4511 (2010)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. By decreasing the temperatures of small-degree objects, we present an improved algorithm, called biased heat conduction, which could simultaneously enhance the accuracy and diversity. Extensive experimental analyses demonstrate that the accuracy on MovieLens, Netflix, and Delicious datasets could be improved by 43.5%, 55.4% and 19.2%, respectively, compared with the standard heat conduction algorithm and also the diversity is increased or approximately unchanged. Further statistical analyses suggest that the present algorithm could simultaneously identify users' mainstream and special tastes, resulting in better performance than the standard heat conduction algorithm. This work provides a creditable way for highly efficient information filtering.

  11. Information filtering via biased heat conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Qiang

    2011-09-01

    The process of heat conduction has recently found application in personalized recommendation [Zhou , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1000488107107, 4511 (2010)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. By decreasing the temperatures of small-degree objects, we present an improved algorithm, called biased heat conduction, which could simultaneously enhance the accuracy and diversity. Extensive experimental analyses demonstrate that the accuracy on MovieLens, Netflix, and Delicious datasets could be improved by 43.5%, 55.4% and 19.2%, respectively, compared with the standard heat conduction algorithm and also the diversity is increased or approximately unchanged. Further statistical analyses suggest that the present algorithm could simultaneously identify users' mainstream and special tastes, resulting in better performance than the standard heat conduction algorithm. This work provides a creditable way for highly efficient information filtering.

  12. A new species of Clidicus with asymmetrical parameres (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    JaŁoszyŃski, PaweŁ

    2018-03-20

    Clidicus Laporte, 1832 currently comprises 27 species distributed in India (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu), Sri Lanka, Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak), Laos, Vietnam, the Philippines (Mindanao), China (Hainan) and Australia (Queensland). Some species have conspicuously large adults reaching 8.5 mm, and they represent the largest known Scydmaeninae. Species of Clidicus were relatively poorly known until recently, when Orousset (2014) revised a large portion of this genus and described several new species. Other major studies include Besuchet (1971), who described Sri Lankan species, Jałoszyński et al. (2003) who recorded four new species from Vietnam and Laos, Jałoszyński (2009) with the first description of a Philippine species, and Zhou Li (2015), who discovered the first species in China. Another new species, representing the second Clidicus occurring in the Philippines, is described below.

  13. Microscopic spin Hamiltonian approaches for 3d8 and 3d2 ions in a trigonal crystal field - perturbation theory methods versus complete diagonalization methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudowicz, Czeslaw; Yeung, Yau-yuen; Yang, Zi-Yuan; Qin, Jian

    2002-06-01

    In this paper, we critically review the existing microscopic spin Hamiltonian (MSH) approaches, namely the complete diagonalization method (CDM) and the perturbation theory method (PTM), for 3d8(3d2) ions in a trigonal (C3v, D3, D3d) symmetry crystal field (CF). A new CDM is presented and a CFA/MSH computer package based on our crystal-field analysis (CFA) package for 3dN ions is developed for numerical calculations. Our method takes into account the contribution to the SH parameters (D, g∥ and g⊥) from all 45 CF states for 3d8(3d2) ions and is based on the complete diagonalization of the Hamiltonian including the electrostatic interactions, the CF terms (in the intermediate CF scheme) and the spin-orbit coupling. The CFA/MSH package enables us to study not only the CF energy levels and wavefunctions but also the SH parameters as functions of the CF parameters (B20, B40 and B43 or alternatively Dq, v and v') for 3d8(3d2) ions in trigonal symmetry. Extensive comparative studies of other MSH approaches are carried out using the CFA/MSH package. First, we check the accuracy of the approximate PTM based on the `quasi-fourth-order' perturbation formulae developed by Petrosyan and Mirzakhanyan (PM). The present investigations indicate that the PM formulae for the g-factors (g∥ and g⊥) indeed work well, especially for the cases of small v and v' and large Dq, whereas the PM formula for the zero-field splitting (ZFS) exhibits serious shortcomings. Earlier criticism of the PM approach by Zhou et al (Zhou K W, Zhao S B, Wu P F and Xie J K 1990 Phys. Status Solidi b 162 193) is then revisited. Second, we carry out an extensive comparison of the results of the present CFA/MSH package and those of other CDMs based on the strong- and weak-CF schemes. The CF energy levels and the SH parameters for 3d2 and 3d8 ions at C3v symmetry sites in several crystals are calculated and analysed. Our investigations reveal serious inconsistencies in the CDM results of Zhou et al and Li

  14. Remarks on the regularity criteria of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics system in terms of two velocity field components

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Kazuo

    2014-03-15

    We study the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics system and obtain its regularity criteria in terms of only two velocity vector field components eliminating the condition on the third component completely. The proof consists of a new decomposition of the four nonlinear terms of the system and estimating a component of the magnetic vector field in terms of the same component of the velocity vector field. This result may be seen as a component reduction result of many previous works [C. He and Z. Xin, “On the regularity of weak solutions to the magnetohydrodynamic equations,” J. Differ. Equ. 213(2), 234–254 (2005); Y. Zhou,more » “Remarks on regularities for the 3D MHD equations,” Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. 12(5), 881–886 (2005)].« less

  15. Restrictive Factors and Output Forecast of Green Development of Agricultural Industry Based on Gray System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fengru

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes the characteristics of agricultural products from the perspective of agricultural production, farmers’ income, adjustment of agricultural structure and environmental improvement, and analyzes the characteristics of agricultural products in LanZhou area. Through data mining and empirical analysis, the regional agriculture (1) forecasting model of gray system with dynamic data processing, combined with the output data of lily in 2004-2003, the yield prediction is predicted and the fitting state is good and the error is small. Finally, combined with the relevant characteristics of the local characteristics of the agricultural industry to make reference, by changing the characteristics of agricultural production as the center of the mindset, and agricultural industrialization and organic combination, take the characteristics of efficient industrialization of agricultural products.

  16. SciTech Connect

    Childs, Andrew M.; Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139; Leung, Debbie W.

    We present unified, systematic derivations of schemes in the two known measurement-based models of quantum computation. The first model (introduced by Raussendorf and Briegel, [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5188 (2001)]) uses a fixed entangled state, adaptive measurements on single qubits, and feedforward of the measurement results. The second model (proposed by Nielsen, [Phys. Lett. A 308, 96 (2003)] and further simplified by Leung, [Int. J. Quant. Inf. 2, 33 (2004)]) uses adaptive two-qubit measurements that can be applied to arbitrary pairs of qubits, and feedforward of the measurement results. The underlying principle of our derivations is a variant of teleportationmore » introduced by Zhou, Leung, and Chuang, [Phys. Rev. A 62, 052316 (2000)]. Our derivations unify these two measurement-based models of quantum computation and provide significantly simpler schemes.« less

  17. Shock ignition of thermonuclear fuel with high areal density.

    PubMed

    Betti, R; Zhou, C D; Anderson, K S; Perkins, L J; Theobald, W; Solodov, A A

    2007-04-13

    A novel method by C. Zhou and R. Betti [Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 50, 140 (2005)] to assemble and ignite thermonuclear fuel is presented. Massive cryogenic shells are first imploded by direct laser light with a low implosion velocity and on a low adiabat leading to fuel assemblies with large areal densities. The assembled fuel is ignited from a central hot spot heated by the collision of a spherically convergent ignitor shock and the return shock. The resulting fuel assembly features a hot-spot pressure greater than the surrounding dense fuel pressure. Such a nonisobaric assembly requires a lower energy threshold for ignition than the conventional isobaric one. The ignitor shock can be launched by a spike in the laser power or by particle beams. The thermonuclear gain can be significantly larger than in conventional isobaric ignition for equal driver energy.

  18. Receptor-like kinases in plant innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2013-12-01

    Plants employ a highly effective surveillance system to detect potential pathogens, which is critical for the success of land plants in an environment surrounded by numerous microbes. Recent efforts have led to the identification of a number of immune receptors and components of immune receptor complexes. It is now clear that receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) are key pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) for microbe- and plant-derived molecular patterns that are associated with pathogen invasion. RLKs and RLPs involved in immune signaling belong to large gene families in plants and have undergone lineage specific expansion. Molecular evolution and population studies on phytopathogenic molecular signatures and their receptors have provided crucial insight into the co-evolution between plants and pathogens. [Figure: see text] Jian-Min Zhou (Corresponding author). © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Fast Shepard interpolation on graphics processing units: potential energy surfaces and dynamics for H + CH4 → H2 + CH3.

    PubMed

    Welsch, Ralph; Manthe, Uwe

    2013-04-28

    A strategy for the fast evaluation of Shepard interpolated potential energy surfaces (PESs) utilizing graphics processing units (GPUs) is presented. Speed ups of several orders of magnitude are gained for the title reaction on the ZFWCZ PES [Y. Zhou, B. Fu, C. Wang, M. A. Collins, and D. H. Zhang, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 064323 (2011)]. Thermal rate constants are calculated employing the quantum transition state concept and the multi-layer multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree approach. Results for the ZFWCZ PES are compared to rate constants obtained for other ab initio PESs and problems are discussed. A revised PES is presented. Thermal rate constants obtained for the revised PES indicate that an accurate description of the anharmonicity around the transition state is crucial.

  20. Momentary Conscious Pairing Eliminates Unconscious-Stimulus Influences on Task Selection

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fanzhi Anita; Davis, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Task selection, previously thought to operate only under conscious, voluntary control, can be activated by unconsciously-perceived stimuli. In most cases, such activation is observed for unconscious stimuli that closely resemble other conscious, task-relevant stimuli and hence may simply reflect perceptual activation of consciously established stimulus-task associations. However, other studies have reported ‘direct’ unconscious-stimulus influences on task selection in the absence of any conscious, voluntary association between that stimulus and task (e.g., Zhou and Davis, 2012). In new experiments, described here, these latter influences on cued- and free-choice task selection appear robust and long-lived, yet, paradoxically, are suppressed to undetectable levels following momentary conscious prime-task pairing. Assessing, and rejecting, three intuitive explanations for such suppressive effects, we conclude that conscious prime-task pairing minimizes non-strategic influences of unconscious stimuli on task selection, insulating endogenous choice mechanisms from maladaptive external control. PMID:23050012

  1. The SZ-5 Spaceship Orbit Changes During The 2003 "Halloween Storm"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Liu, D.; Guo, J.

    2017-12-01

    We analyse the daily major semi-axis variations of SZ-5 (ShenZhou V) spaceship during Oct. 20 to Dec. 30 in 2003, which includes the period of the 2003 "Halloween Storm". The significant orbital decay has been observed in late October due to the great solar flares and the severe geomagnetic storms. According to the equation of the air-drag-force on a spacecraft and the SZ-5 orbital decay information, we derive the thermospheric density relative changes during the 2003 "Halloween Storm" and compare the results with the Naval Research Laboratory Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter Radar Extended Model (NRLMSISE-00). The analyses show that the thermosperic density (at the altitude of SZ-5, about 350 km) in storm time enchances to approximately three times as much as that in the quiet time but the empirical model may underestimate the thermospheric density changes during this severe storm.

  2. Improving Unstructured Mesh Partitions for Multiple Criteria Using Mesh Adjacencies

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, Cameron W.; Rasquin, Michel; Ibanez, Dan; ...

    2018-02-13

    The scalability of unstructured mesh based applications depends on partitioning methods that quickly balance the computational work while reducing communication costs. Zhou et al. [SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 32 (2010), pp. 3201{3227; J. Supercomput., 59 (2012), pp. 1218{1228] demonstrated the combination of (hyper)graph methods with vertex and element partition improvement for PHASTA CFD scaling to hundreds of thousands of processes. Our work generalizes partition improvement to support balancing combinations of all the mesh entity dimensions (vertices, edges, faces, regions) in partitions with imbalances exceeding 70%. Improvement results are then presented for multiple entity dimensions on up to one million processesmore » on meshes with over 12 billion tetrahedral elements.« less

  3. Fermented beverages of pre- and proto-historic China.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Patrick E; Zhang, Juzhong; Tang, Jigen; Zhang, Zhiqing; Hall, Gretchen R; Moreau, Robert A; Nuñez, Alberto; Butrym, Eric D; Richards, Michael P; Wang, Chen-Shan; Cheng, Guangsheng; Zhao, Zhijun; Wang, Changsui

    2004-12-21

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the early Neolithic village of Jiahu in Henan province in China have revealed that a mixed fermented beverage of rice, honey, and fruit (hawthorn fruit and/or grape) was being produced as early as the seventh millennium before Christ (B.C.). This prehistoric drink paved the way for unique cereal beverages of the proto-historic second millennium B.C., remarkably preserved as liquids inside sealed bronze vessels of the Shang and Western Zhou Dynasties. These findings provide direct evidence for fermented beverages in ancient Chinese culture, which were of considerable social, religious, and medical significance, and help elucidate their earliest descriptions in the Shang Dynasty oracle inscriptions.

  4. Fermented beverages of pre- and proto-historic China

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Zhang, Juzhong; Tang, Jigen; Zhang, Zhiqing; Hall, Gretchen R.; Moreau, Robert A.; Nuñez, Alberto; Butrym, Eric D.; Richards, Michael P.; Wang, Chen-shan; Cheng, Guangsheng; Zhao, Zhijun; Wang, Changsui

    2004-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the early Neolithic village of Jiahu in Henan province in China have revealed that a mixed fermented beverage of rice, honey, and fruit (hawthorn fruit and/or grape) was being produced as early as the seventh millennium before Christ (B.C.). This prehistoric drink paved the way for unique cereal beverages of the proto-historic second millennium B.C., remarkably preserved as liquids inside sealed bronze vessels of the Shang and Western Zhou Dynasties. These findings provide direct evidence for fermented beverages in ancient Chinese culture, which were of considerable social, religious, and medical significance, and help elucidate their earliest descriptions in the Shang Dynasty oracle inscriptions. PMID:15590771

  5. China’s Nuclear Force Modernization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    of mass destruction, see 美伊 战 争 引发核竞 赛?[U.S. War on Iraq Initiated Nuclear Races?], 世界新闻报 [World News Journal], 1 May 2003. 41. Lewis and Hua...Plana, Spain, May 2003. ———.美伊 战 争 引发核竞赛?[U.S. War on Iraq Initiated Nuclear Races?], 世界新闻报 [World News Journal], no. 33, 1 May 2003. Lewis, John, Hua...彬 [Zhou Baogen and Li Bin], 党派政治对冷 战 后美国军控政策的 影响 [Impacts of Party Politics on Ameri- can Arms Control Policy after the Cold War], 世界经济与政治论坛 [Forum

  6. Effects of space flight exposure on cell growth, tumorigenicity and gene expression in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Cheng; Li, Yuehui; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Chen; Tong, Yongqing; Zhou, Guohua; Xie, Pingli; Hu, Jinyue; Li, Guancheng

    2008-12-01

    It is well recognized that harsh outer space environment, consisting of microgravity and radiation, poses significant health risks for human cells. To investigate potential effects of the space environment exposure on cancer cells we examined the biological changes in Caski cells carried by the "Shen Zhou IV" spaceship. After exposure for 7 days in spaceflight, 1440 survival subclonal cell lines were established and 4 cell lines were screened. 44F10 and 17E3 were selected because of their increased cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, while 48A9 and 31F2 had slower cytological events. Experiments with cell proliferation assay, flow cytometry, soft agar assay, tumorigenesis assay and DNA microarray analysis have shown that selected cell lines presented multiple biological changes in cell morphology, cell growth, tumorigenicity and gene expression. These results suggest that space environment exposure can make significant biological impact on cancer cells and provide an entry point to find the immunological target of tumorigenesis.

  7. Exact solution for a two-phase Stefan problem with variable latent heat and a convective boundary condition at the fixed face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollati, Julieta; Tarzia, Domingo A.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, in Tarzia (Thermal Sci 21A:1-11, 2017) for the classical two-phase Lamé-Clapeyron-Stefan problem an equivalence between the temperature and convective boundary conditions at the fixed face under a certain restriction was obtained. Motivated by this article we study the two-phase Stefan problem for a semi-infinite material with a latent heat defined as a power function of the position and a convective boundary condition at the fixed face. An exact solution is constructed using Kummer functions in case that an inequality for the convective transfer coefficient is satisfied generalizing recent works for the corresponding one-phase free boundary problem. We also consider the limit to our problem when that coefficient goes to infinity obtaining a new free boundary problem, which has been recently studied in Zhou et al. (J Eng Math 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10665-017-9921-y).

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometric variability search in the CSTAR field (Wang+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, J.-L.; Fu, J.-N.; Yang, M.; Liu, H.; Xie, J.; Wang, L.; Wang, L.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Feng, L.-L.; Gong, X.; Lawrence, J. S.; Liu, Q.; Luong-van, D. M.; Ma, J.; Peng, X.; Storey, J. W. V.; Wu, Z.; Yan, J.; Yang, H.; Yang, J.; Yuan, X.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, X.; Zhu, Z.; Zou, H.

    2015-08-01

    Chinese Small Telescope Array (CSTAR), controlled from the PLATO autonomous observatory, consists of four fixed co-aligned 14.5cm (effective aperture of 10cm) telescopes, each with a different optical filter in SDSS bands: r, g, i, and open. CSTAR, the first photometric telescope to enter operation at Dome A, was successfully deployed in 2008 January and operated for the subsequent four winters until it was retrieved in 2012 to be repurposed. The data set analyzed in this work was collected from 2008 March 4 to August 8. In this observing season, about 1728hr observations provided some 0.3million i-band frames for 18145 stars with exposure times of 20s or 30s. A detailed description of the CSTAR observations in 2008 is given in Zhou et al. (2010, J/PASP/122/347). (3 data files).

  9. Intraday return inefficiency and long memory in the volatilities of forex markets and the role of trading volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain; Hernandez, Jose Areola; Hanif, Waqas; Kayani, Ghulam Mujtaba

    2018-09-01

    We investigate the dynamics of efficiency and long memory, and the impact of trading volume on the efficiency of returns and volatilities of four major traded currencies, namely, the EUR, GBP, CHF and JPY. We do so by implementing full sample and rolling window multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and a quantile-on-quantile (QQ) approach. This paper sheds new light by employing high frequency (5-min interval) data spanning from Jan 1, 2007 to Dec 31, 2016. Realized volatilities are estimated using Andersen et al.'s (2001) measure, while the QQ method employed is drawn from Sim and Zhou (2015). We find evidence of higher efficiency levels in the JPY and CHF currency markets. The impact of trading volume on efficiency is only significant for the JPY and CHF currencies. The GBP currency appears to be the least efficient, followed by the EUR. Implications of the results are discussed.

  10. Temperature dependent mechanical property of PZT film: an investigation by nanoindentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingwei; Feng, Shangming; Wu, Wenping; Li, Faxin

    2015-01-01

    Load-depth curves of an unpoled Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) film composite as a function of temperature were measured by nanoindentation technique. Its reduce modulus and hardness were calculated by the typical Oliver-Pharr method. Then the true modulus and hardness of the PZT film were assessed by decoupling the influence of substrate using methods proposed by Zhou et al. and Korsunsky et al., respectively. Results show that the indentation depth and modulus increase, but the hardness decreases at elevated temperature. The increasing of indentation depth and the decreasing of hardness are thought to be caused by the decreasing of the critical stress needed to excite dislocation initiation at high temperature. The increasing of true modulus is attributed to the reducing of recoverable indentation depth induced by back-switched domains. The influence of residual stress on the indentation behavior of PZT film composite was also investigated by measuring its load-depth curves with pre-load strains.

  11. Temperature Dependent Mechanical Property of PZT Film: An Investigation by Nanoindentation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingwei; Feng, Shangming; Wu, Wenping; Li, Faxin

    2015-01-01

    Load-depth curves of an unpoled Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) film composite as a function of temperature were measured by nanoindentation technique. Its reduce modulus and hardness were calculated by the typical Oliver-Pharr method. Then the true modulus and hardness of the PZT film were assessed by decoupling the influence of substrate using methods proposed by Zhou et al. and Korsunsky et al., respectively. Results show that the indentation depth and modulus increase, but the hardness decreases at elevated temperature. The increasing of indentation depth and the decreasing of hardness are thought to be caused by the decreasing of the critical stress needed to excite dislocation initiation at high temperature. The increasing of true modulus is attributed to the reducing of recoverable indentation depth induced by back-switched domains. The influence of residual stress on the indentation behavior of PZT film composite was also investigated by measuring its load-depth curves with pre-load strains. PMID:25768957

  12. Constraining some Horndeski gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Sourav; Chakraborty, Sumanta

    2017-02-01

    We discuss two spherically symmetric solutions admitted by the Horndeski (or scalar-tensor) theory in the context of Solar System and astrophysical scenarios. One of these solutions is derived for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity, while the other originates from the coupling of the Gauss-Bonnet invariant with a scalar field. Specifically, we discuss the perihelion precession and the bending angle of light for these two different spherically symmetric spacetimes derived in Maeda and Dadhich [Phys. Rev. D 75, 044007 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevD.75.044007] and Sotiriou and Zhou [Phys. Rev. D 90, 124063 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevD.90.124063], respectively. The latter, in particular, applies only to black-hole spacetimes. We further delineate on the numerical bounds of relevant parameters of these theories from such computations.

  13. Supernova 2011by in NGC 3972 = Psn J11554556+5519338

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2011-04-01

    Announces discovery of SN 2011by = PSN J11554556+5519338 by Zhangwei Jin (Ningbo, Zhejiang, China) and Xing Gao (Urumqi, Xinjiang, China) on 2011 Apr. 26.8234 UT at magnitude ~14.2 (unfiltered CCD). Spectra obtained on 2011 Apr. 27.5 UT by T. Zhang and Z. Zhou (National Astronomical Observatories of China) and X. Wang (Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University) show SN 2011by to be a type-Ia supernova about 10 days before maximum. Initially announced in IAU CBAT Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams 2708 (Daniel W. E. Green, ed.). The object was designated PSN J11554556+5519338 when posted on the Central Bureau's Transient Objects Confirmation Page (TOCP) webpage. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details, observations, and links to images.

  14. Controlling resonant photonic transport along optical waveguides by two-level atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Cong-Hua; Wei, Lian-Fu; Jia, Wen-Zhi; Shen, Jung-Tsung

    2011-10-01

    Recent works [Shen , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.95.213001 95, 213001 (2005); Zhou , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.101.100501 101, 100501 (2008)] showed that the incident photons cannot transmit along an optical waveguide containing a resonant two-level atom (TLA). Here we propose an approach to overcome such a difficulty by using asymmetric couplings between the photons and a TLA. Our numerical results show that the transmission spectrum of the photon depends on both the frequency of the incident photons and the photon-TLA couplings. Consequently, this system can serve as a controllable photon attenuator, by which the transmission probability of the resonantly incident photons can be changed from 0% to 100%. A possible application to explain the recent experimental observations [Astafiev , ScienceSCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1181918 327, 840 (2010)] is also discussed.

  15. Equivalence of two approaches for modeling ion permeation through a transmembrane channel with an internal binding site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2011-04-01

    Ion permeation through transmembrane channels has traditionally been modeled using two different approaches. In one approach, the translocation of the permeant ion through the channel pore is modeled as continuous diffusion and the rate of ion transport is obtained from solving the steady-state diffusion equation. In the other approach, the translocation of the permeant ion through the pore is modeled as hopping along a discrete set of internal binding sites and the rate of ion transport is obtained from solving a set of steady-state rate equations. In a recent work [Zhou, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 1973 (2010)], the rate constants for binding to an internal site were further calculated by modeling binding as diffusion-influenced reactions. That work provided the foundation for bridging the two approaches. Here we show that, by representing a binding site as an energy well, the two approaches indeed give the same result for the rate of ion transport.

  16. Differential utilization of TATA box-binding protein (TBP) and TBP-related factor 1 (TRF1) at different classes of RNA polymerase III promoters.

    PubMed

    Verma, Neha; Hung, Ko-Hsuan; Kang, Jin Joo; Barakat, Nermeen H; Stumph, William E

    2013-09-20

    In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, RNA polymerase III transcription was found to be dependent not upon the canonical TATA box-binding protein (TBP) but instead upon the TBP-related factor 1 (TRF1) (Takada, S., Lis, J. T., Zhou, S., and Tjian, R. (2000) Cell 101, 459-469). Here we confirm that transcription of fly tRNA genes requires TRF1. However, we unexpectedly find that U6 snRNA gene promoters are occupied primarily by TBP in cells and that knockdown of TBP, but not TRF1, inhibits U6 transcription in cells. Moreover, U6 transcription in vitro effectively utilizes TBP, whereas TBP cannot substitute for TRF1 to promote tRNA transcription in vitro. Thus, in fruit flies, different classes of RNA polymerase III promoters differentially utilize TBP and TRF1 for the initiation of transcription.

  17. A Brief History of the Institute of Theoretical Physics in the Chinese Academy of Sciences since 1978

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinyan, Liu

    2014-03-01

    The Institute of Theoretical Physics (ITP), Chinese academy of Sciences (CAS), founded in June 1978, is a specialized institute studying major issues in the fundamental research of theoretical physics. ITP has played an important role in the development of theoretical physics in China, especially in organizing and undertaking major national projects, expanding international exchanges and cooperation, and nurturing advanced researchers. My presentation will examine the reasons why ITP was founded in 1978 and why Peng Huanwu and Zhou Guangzhao, two prominent Chinese theorists, were chosen as the first and second directors of ITP. Moreover, I will summarize ITP's scientific activities and achievements in the past 35 years. Last but not least, I will compare ITP with university physics departments and explore its unique characters (both strength and weakness).

  18. Deactivating stimulation sites based on low-rate thresholds improves spectral ripple and speech reception thresholds in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ning

    2017-03-01

    The study examined whether the benefit of deactivating stimulation sites estimated to have broad neural excitation was attributed to improved spectral resolution in cochlear implant users. The subjects' spatial neural excitation pattern was estimated by measuring low-rate detection thresholds across the array [see Zhou (2016). PLoS One 11, e0165476]. Spectral resolution, as assessed by spectral-ripple discrimination thresholds, significantly improved after deactivation of five high-threshold sites. The magnitude of improvement in spectral-ripple discrimination thresholds predicted the magnitude of improvement in speech reception thresholds after deactivation. Results suggested that a smaller number of relatively independent channels provide a better outcome than using all channels that might interact.

  19. [Development and future of minimally invasive surgery in western China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Peiwu; Hao, Yingxue

    2017-03-25

    There are vast land and lots of people in western China, but the economy developing is relatively slow. However, the minimally invasive surgery was carried out firstly in China. Moreover, the type, number and difficulty of the minimally invasive surgery increased year by year. Especially, in the western area of China, Dr Zhou Zongguang, Yu Peiwu and Zheng Shuguo et al. have performed much pioneering work in laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer, gastric cancer and laparoscopic liver resection. They led the standard development of minimally invasive in China. In the future, western China should continue to strengthen the standardized training of minimally invasive surgery, make great effort to carry out evidence-based research of minimally invasive surgery, provide evidences of high level of clinical application in minimally invasive surgery. At the same time, we should carry out the robotic and 3D laparoscopic surgery actively, leading the development of minimally invasive surgery more standardized and more widespread in western China.

  20. SPOT-ligand 2: improving structure-based virtual screening by binding-homology search on an expanded structural template library.

    PubMed

    Litfin, Thomas; Zhou, Yaoqi; Yang, Yuedong

    2017-04-15

    The high cost of drug discovery motivates the development of accurate virtual screening tools. Binding-homology, which takes advantage of known protein-ligand binding pairs, has emerged as a powerful discrimination technique. In order to exploit all available binding data, modelled structures of ligand-binding sequences may be used to create an expanded structural binding template library. SPOT-Ligand 2 has demonstrated significantly improved screening performance over its previous version by expanding the template library 15 times over the previous one. It also performed better than or similar to other binding-homology approaches on the DUD and DUD-E benchmarks. The server is available online at http://sparks-lab.org . yaoqi.zhou@griffith.edu.au or yuedong.yang@griffith.edu.au. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. [History of the term "tan" (phlegm) (II) -- studies of the term "tan" found in medical books before the Liang dynasty].

    PubMed

    Endo, J; Nakamura, T; Yamaki, H; Miyamoto, H

    1993-12-01

    The first description of the term "tan" is found in the Shan Han Za Bing Lun published at the end of the later Han dynasty. This book refers to this term as a disorder of the cold fluid in the body. The meaning of this term was revised to a viscous fluid as the years went on. The term "tan" from the Zhou Hou Bai Yi Fang published in the Liang dynasty was the same sense of phlegm as that found in present works. Our studies showed that changes of the words used for the concept "phlegm" in Chinese medical books coincided with those in Chinese Buddhist literature. We suggested that the concept "phlegm" in Buddhist medicine influenced Chinese tradition medicine.

  2. A Riemann-Hilbert approach to asymptotic questions for orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deift, P.; Kriecherbauer, T.; McLaughlin, K. T.-R.; Venakides, S.; Zhou, X.

    2001-08-01

    A few years ago the authors introduced a new approach to study asymptotic questions for orthogonal polynomials. In this paper we give an overview of our method and review the results which have been obtained in Deift et al. (Internat. Math. Res. Notices (1997) 759, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 52 (1999) 1491, 1335), Deift (Orthogonal Polynomials and Random Matrices: A Riemann-Hilbert Approach, Courant Lecture Notes, Vol. 3, New York University, 1999), Kriecherbauer and McLaughlin (Internat. Math. Res. Notices (1999) 299) and Baik et al. (J. Amer. Math. Soc. 12 (1999) 1119). We mainly consider orthogonal polynomials with respect to weights on the real line which are either (1) Freud-type weights d[alpha](x)=e-Q(x) dx (Q polynomial or Q(x)=x[beta], [beta]>0), or (2) varying weights d[alpha]n(x)=e-nV(x) dx (V analytic, limx-->[infinity] V(x)/logx=[infinity]). We obtain Plancherel-Rotach-type asymptotics in the entire complex plane as well as asymptotic formulae with error estimates for the leading coefficients, for the recurrence coefficients, and for the zeros of the orthogonal polynomials. Our proof starts from an observation of Fokas et al. (Comm. Math. Phys. 142 (1991) 313) that the orthogonal polynomials can be determined as solutions of certain matrix valued Riemann-Hilbert problems. We analyze the Riemann-Hilbert problems by a steepest descent type method introduced by Deift and Zhou (Ann. Math. 137 (1993) 295) and further developed in Deift and Zhou (Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 48 (1995) 277) and Deift et al. (Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 95 (1998) 450). A crucial step in our analysis is the use of the well-known equilibrium measure which describes the asymptotic distribution of the zeros of the orthogonal polynomials.

  3. Recombinant Human Parvovirus B19 Vectors: Erythroid Cell-Specific Delivery and Expression of Transduced Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan; Weigel, Kirsten A.; Raikwar, Sudhanshu P.; Mukherjee, Pinku; Yoder, Mervin C.; Srivastava, Arun

    1998-01-01

    A novel packaging strategy combining the salient features of two human parvoviruses, namely the pathogenic parvovirus B19 and the nonpathogenic adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV), was developed to achieve erythroid cell-specific delivery as well as expression of the transduced gene. The development of such a chimeric vector system was accomplished by packaging heterologous DNA sequences cloned within the inverted terminal repeats of AAV and subsequently packaging the DNA inside the capsid structure of B19 virus. Recombinant B19 virus particles were assembled, as evidenced by electron microscopy as well as DNA slot blot analyses. The hybrid vector failed to transduce nonerythroid human cells, such as 293 cells, as expected. However, MB-02 cells, a human megakaryocytic leukemia cell line which can be infected by B19 virus following erythroid differentiation with erythropoietin (N. C. Munshi, S. Z. Zhou, M. J. Woody, D. A. Morgan, and A. Srivastava, J. Virol. 67:562–566, 1993) but lacks the putative receptor for AAV (S. Ponnazhagan, X.-S. Wang, M. J. Woody, F. Luo, L. Y. Kang, M. L. Nallari, N. C. Munshi, S. Z. Zhou, and A. Srivastava, J. Gen. Virol. 77:1111–1122, 1996), were readily transduced by this vector. The hybrid vector was also found to specifically target the erythroid population in primary human bone marrow cells as well as more immature hematopoietic progenitor cells following erythroid differentiation, as evidenced by selective expression of the transduced gene in these target cells. Preincubation with anticapsid antibodies against B19 virus, but not anticapsid antibodies against AAV, inhibited transduction of primary human erythroid cells. The efficiency of transduction of primary human erythroid cells by the recombinant B19 virus vector was significantly higher than that by the recombinant AAV vector. Further development of the AAV-B19 virus hybrid vector system should prove beneficial in gene therapy protocols aimed at the correction of inherited

  4. Hematologic and biochemical differences between two free ranging Yangtze finless porpoise populations: The implications of habitat

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yujiang; Zeng, Xianyuan; Jinsong, Zheng; McLaughlin, Richard W.; Wang, Ding

    2017-01-01

    The goals of this study were to compare the serum chemistry and hematology values of wild and semi-natural free-ranging Yangtze Finless Porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis ssp. asiaeorientalis) populations and to ascertain how these values change with the different environmental condition. For this study, samples were collected from 81 YFPs, 35 living in the wild and 46 living in a semi-natural reserve. Each population was divided into 8 life history categories; Male Calf, Female Calf, Juvenile Male, Juvenile Female, Adult Male, Pregnant, Lactating and Pregnant plus Lactating. Statistically significant differences in the various parameters were observed in the same life history categories for both populations. Generally, Lipid Profile, Hepatic Enzymes, Creatine Kinase, Red Blood Cells, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit and Neutrophils were significantly higher in the Tian-E-Zhou Oxbow population while, Creatinine, Phosphate, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Bilirubin and Lymphocytes were significantly higher in the Poyang Lake YFPs. Across the groups in the Tian-E-Zhou Oxbow population, a significant decrease in serum Albumin, Alkaline Phosphatase and Calcium, while a significant increase in the Neutrophils and Platelets was observed. Similarly, in the Poyang Lake, Alkaline Phosphatase levels in the Female Calves group, High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Lactating group, basophil counts in Pregnant plus Lactating group, lymphocytes counts in Juvenile Females group and Globulin and Total Protein levels in Pregnant group were significantly higher. This study in health assessments can help us to understand the effect of sex, age, reproductive status and environmental conditions on the well-being of Yangtze Finless Porpoises. PMID:29190288

  5. Electrostatic rate enhancement and transient complex of protein-protein association.

    PubMed

    Alsallaq, Ramzi; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2008-04-01

    The association of two proteins is bounded by the rate at which they, via diffusion, find each other while in appropriate relative orientations. Orientational constraints restrict this rate to approximately 10(5)-10(6) M(-1) s(-1). Proteins with higher association rates generally have complementary electrostatic surfaces; proteins with lower association rates generally are slowed down by conformational changes upon complex formation. Previous studies (Zhou, Biophys J 1997;73:2441-2445) have shown that electrostatic enhancement of the diffusion-limited association rate can be accurately modeled by $k_{\\bf D}$ = $k_{D}0\\ {exp} ( - \\langle U_{el} \\rangle;{\\star}/k_{B} T),$ where k(D) and k(D0) are the rates in the presence and absence of electrostatic interactions, respectively, U(el) is the average electrostatic interaction energy in a "transient-complex" ensemble, and k(B)T is the thermal energy. The transient-complex ensemble separates the bound state from the unbound state. Predictions of the transient-complex theory on four protein complexes were found to agree well with the experiment when the electrostatic interaction energy was calculated with the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation (Alsallaq and Zhou, Structure 2007;15:215-224). Here we show that the agreement is further improved when the nonlinear PB equation is used. These predictions are obtained with the dielectric boundary defined as the protein van der Waals surface. When the dielectric boundary is instead specified as the molecular surface, electrostatic interactions in the transient complex become repulsive and are thus predicted to retard association. Together these results demonstrate that the transient-complex theory is predictive of electrostatic rate enhancement and can help parameterize PB calculations. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Electrostatic Rate Enhancement and Transient Complex of Protein-Protein Association

    PubMed Central

    Alsallaq, Ramzi; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    The association of two proteins is bounded by the rate at which they, via diffusion, find each other while in appropriate relative orientations. Orientational constraints restrict this rate to ~105 – 106 M−1s−1. Proteins with higher association rates generally have complementary electrostatic surfaces; proteins with lower association rates generally are slowed down by conformational changes upon complex formation. Previous studies (Zhou, Biophys. J. 1997;73:2441–2445) have shown that electrostatic enhancement of the diffusion-limited association rate can be accurately modeled by kD = kD0 exp(−*/ kBT), where kD and kD0 are the rates in the presence and absence of electrostatic interactions, respectively, * is the average electrostatic interaction energy in a “transient-complex” ensemble, and kBT is thermal energy. The transient-complex ensemble separates the bound state from the unbound state. Predictions of the transient-complex theory on four protein complexes were found to agree well with experiment when the electrostatic interaction energy was calculated with the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation (Alsallaq and Zhou, Structure 2007, 15:215–224). Here we show that the agreement is further improved when the nonlinear PB equation is used. These predictions are obtained with the dielectric boundary defined as the protein van der Waals surface. When the dielectric boundary is instead specified as the molecular surface, electrostatic interactions in the transient complex become repulsive and are thus predicted to retard association. Together these results demonstrate that the transient-complex theory is predictive of electrostatic rate enhancement and can help parameterize PB calculations. PMID:17932929

  7. Can we still beat "buy-and-hold" for individual stocks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Eddie C. M.; Kevin Chan, Ka Kwan

    2014-09-01

    Many investors seek for a trading strategy to beat the "buy-and-hold" strategy. In light of this, Hui and Yam (2014) and Hui et al. (2014) derived a trading strategy from the Shiryaev-Zhou index, and found that the resulting strategy outperformed the "buy-and-hold" strategy for western and Asian securitized real estate indices respectively. However, whether the trading strategy works on individual stocks or not is still unknown. This is the first study to test whether the trading strategy can beat the "buy-and-hold" strategy on individual stocks. We construct two trading strategies and compare the resulting profits with the profits arising from the "buy-and-hold" strategy on Hang Seng Index (HSI), Hang Seng Property (HSP) Index and 12 constituent stocks of HSI during the period December 29, 1995-December 31, 2013. The second strategy (Strategy 2) is a new strategy which incorporates short-selling, and has the effect of multiplying the profit. The results show that our trading strategies are less effective on individual stocks than on stock indices, and are more effective on property stocks than on non-property stocks. Moreover, our strategies outperform "buy-and-hold" by a larger extent on stocks of which the Shiryaev-Zhou indices fluctuate less frequently. Furthermore, by tracking the resulting profits of the three strategies at different times along the whole period of observation, our strategies work better during "bad times" than during "good times". This reflects that our trading strategies are especially useful in protecting investors from substantial loss during market downturns.

  8. Excellence of numerical differentiation method in calculating the coefficients of high temperature series expansion of the free energy and convergence problem of the expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, S., E-mail: chixiayzsq@yahoo.com; Solana, J. R.

    2014-12-28

    In this paper, it is shown that the numerical differentiation method in performing the coupling parameter series expansion [S. Zhou, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 144518 (2006); AIP Adv. 1, 040703 (2011)] excels at calculating the coefficients a{sub i} of hard sphere high temperature series expansion (HS-HTSE) of the free energy. Both canonical ensemble and isothermal-isobaric ensemble Monte Carlo simulations for fluid interacting through a hard sphere attractive Yukawa (HSAY) potential with extremely short ranges and at very low temperatures are performed, and the resulting two sets of data of thermodynamic properties are in excellent agreement with each other, and wellmore » qualified to be used for assessing convergence of the HS-HTSE for the HSAY fluid. Results of valuation are that (i) by referring to the results of a hard sphere square well fluid [S. Zhou, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 124111 (2013)], it is found that existence of partial sum limit of the high temperature series expansion series and consistency between the limit value and the true solution depend on both the potential shapes and temperatures considered. (ii) For the extremely short range HSAY potential, the HS-HTSE coefficients a{sub i} falls rapidly with the order i, and the HS-HTSE converges from fourth order; however, it does not converge exactly to the true solution at reduced temperatures lower than 0.5, wherein difference between the partial sum limit of the HS-HTSE series and the simulation result tends to become more evident. Something worth mentioning is that before the convergence order is reached, the preceding truncation is always improved by the succeeding one, and the fourth- and higher-order truncations give the most dependable and qualitatively always correct thermodynamic results for the HSAY fluid even at low reduced temperatures to 0.25.« less

  9. Comparisons of Spectra from 3D Kinetic Meteor PIC Simulations with Theory and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheim, M. M.; Tarnecki, L. K.

    2017-12-01

    Meteoroids smaller than a grain of sand have significant impacts on the composition, chemistry, and dynamics of the atmosphere. The processes by which they turbulently diffuse can be studied using collisional kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Spectral analysis is a valuable tool for comparing such simulations of turbulent, non-specular meteor trails with observations. We present three types of spectral information: full spectra along the trail in k-ω space, spectral widths at common radar frequencies, and power as a function of angle with respect to B. These properties can be compared to previously published data. Zhou et al. (2004) use radar theory to predict the power observed by a radar as a function of the angle between the meteor trail and the radar beam and the size of field-aligned irregularities (FAI) within the trail. Close et al. (2008) present observations of meteor trails from the ALTAIR radar, including power returned as a function of angle off B for a small sample of meteors. Close et al. (2008) and Zhou et al. (2004) both suggest a power drop off of 2-3 dB per degree off perpendicular to B. We compare results from our simulations with both theory and observations for a range of conditions, including trail altitude and incident neutral wind speed. For 1m waves, power fell off by 1-3 dB per degree off perpendicular to B. These comparisons help determine if small-scale simulations accurately capture the behavior of real meteors.

  10. The Peoples Republic of China High-Frequency Gravitational Wave Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Robert M. L.

    2009-03-01

    For the past decade the Peoples Republic of China has been increasingly active in the pursuit of High-Frequency Gravitational Wave (HFGW) research. Much of their progress has been during 2008. An epochal achievement was the publication of the theoretical analysis of the Li-Baker HFGW detector in the European Physical Journal C (Li, et al., 2008), "Perturbative Photon Fluxes Generated by High-Frequency Gravitational Waves and Their Physical Effects"). Many Chinese scientists and graduate students have participated in these HFGW studies and their contributions are briefly discussed. Some of the key scientists and their institutions are as follows: first from Chongqing University: Zhenyun Fang, Director of the Institute of Theoretical Physics, Xing gang Wu, The Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nan Yang, The Institute of Gravitational Physics; Jun Luo, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan, China, the Head of Gravitational Laboratory, Yang Zhang, University of Science and Technology of China, Associate Dean of the College of Sciences, Biao Li, Institute of Electronic Engineering of China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP), Chief of Microwave Antenna Division, Chuan-Ming Zhou, Technology Committee of Institute of Electronic Engineering of the CAEP, Jie Zhou, Institute of Electronic Engineering of the CAEP, Chief of the Signal Processing Division; Weijia Wen, Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. This Chinese HFGW team includes two parts: (1) Theoretical study and (2) Experimental investigation. These two parts have closed relations, and many cross projects, including cooperation between the American GravWave and Chinese HFGW teams. Referring to financial support, The Institute of Electronic Engineering (i.e., Microwave Laboratory) has already (June 2008) provided support more than three million Yuan for the HFGW detection project and this activity is discussed.

  11. Oscillatory hydraulic testing as a strategy for NAPL source zone monitoring: Laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, YaoQuan; Cardiff, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) have a complex mode of transport in heterogeneous aquifers, which can result in pools and lenses of NAPLs (the "source zone") that are difficult to detect and can cause long-term contamination via slow dissolution into groundwater (the "dissolved plume"). Characterizing the extent and evolution of NAPL contamination within the source zone is a useful strategy for designing and adapting appropriate remedial actions at many contaminated sites. As a NAPL flows into a given aquifer volume, the effective hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific storage (Ss) of the volume changes associated with the viscosity and compressibility of the impinging fluid, meaning that NAPL movement may be detectable with hydraulic testing. Recently, the use of oscillatory pumping tests - in which sinusoidal pumping variations are implemented and oscillatory pressure changes are detected at monitoring locations - has been suggested as a low-impact hydraulic testing strategy for characterizing aquifer properties (Cardiff et al., 2013; Zhou et al., 2016). Here, we investigate this strategy in an experimental laboratory sandbox where dyed vegetable oil is injected and allowed to migrate as a NAPL. Initial qualitative analyses demonstrate that measurable changes in pressure signal amplitude and phase provide clear evidence for NAPL plume emplacement and migration. Using the approach developed in Zhou et al. (2016), we then apply tomographic analyses to estimate the location of effective K changes (representing fluid changes) and their movement throughout time. This approach provides a method for monitoring ongoing NAPL movement without net extraction or injection of fluid, making it advantageous in field remediation applications.

  12. Sensory quality evaluation for appearance of needle-shaped green tea based on computer vision and nonlinear tools.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Wang; Zhu, Hong-Kai; Zhao, Jie-Wen; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Chen, Quan-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Tea is one of the three greatest beverages in the world. In China, green tea has the largest consumption, and needle-shaped green tea, such as Maofeng tea and Sparrow Tongue tea, accounts for more than 40% of green tea (Zhu et al., 2017). The appearance of green tea is one of the important indexes during the evaluation of green tea quality. Especially in market transactions, the price of tea is usually determined by its appearance (Zhou et al., 2012). Human sensory evaluation is usually conducted by experts, and is also easily affected by various factors such as light, experience, psychological and visual factors. In the meantime, people may distinguish the slight differences between similar colors or textures, but the specific levels of the tea are hard to determine (Chen et al., 2008). As human description of color and texture is qualitative, it is hard to evaluate the sensory quality accurately, in a standard manner, and objectively. Color is an important visual property of a computer image (Xie et al., 2014; Khulal et al., 2016); texture is a visual performance of image grayscale and color changing with spatial positions, which can be used to describe the roughness and directivity of the surface of an object (Sanaeifar et al., 2016). There are already researchers who have used computer visual image technologies to identify the varieties, levels, and origins of tea (Chen et al., 2008; Xie et al., 2014; Zhu et al., 2017). Most of their research targets are crush, tear, and curl (CTC) red (green) broken tea, curly green tea (Bilochun tea), and flat-typed green tea (West Lake Dragon-well green tea) as the information sources. However, the target of the above research is to establish a qualitative evaluation method on tea quality (Fu et al., 2013). There is little literature on the sensory evaluation of the appearance quality of needle-shaped green tea, especially research on a quantitative evaluation model (Zhou et al., 2012; Zhu et al., 2017).

  13. Eight-dimensional quantum reaction rate calculations for the H+CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}+CH{sub 3} reactions on recent potential energy surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Dong H., E-mail: zhangdh@dicp.ac.cn

    2014-11-21

    Eight-dimensional (8D) transition-state wave packet simulations have been performed on two latest potential energy surfaces (PES), the Zhou-Fu-Wang-Collins-Zhang (ZFWCZ) PES [Y. Zhou, B. Fu, C. Wang, M. A. Collins, and D. H. Zhang, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 064323 (2011)] and the Xu-Chen-Zhang (XCZ)-neural networks (NN) PES [X. Xu, J. Chen, and D. H. Zhang, Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 27, 373 (2014)]. Reaction rate constants for both the H+CH{sub 4} reaction and the H{sub 2}+CH{sub 3} reaction are calculated. Simulations of the H+CH{sub 4} reaction based on the XCZ-NN PES show that the ZFWCZ PES predicts rate constants with reasonable highmore » accuracy for low temperatures while leads to slightly lower results for high temperatures, in line with the distribution of interpolation error associated with the ZFWCZ PES. The 8D H+CH{sub 4} rate constants derived on the ZFWCZ PES compare well with full-dimensional 12D results based on the equivalent m-ZFWCZ PES, with a maximum relative difference of no more than 20%. Additionally, very good agreement is shown by comparing the 8D XCZ-NN rate constants with the 12D results obtained on the ZFWCZ-WM PES, after considering the difference in static barrier height between these two PESs. The reaction rate constants calculated for the H{sub 2}+CH{sub 3} reaction are found to be in good consistency with experimental observations.« less

  14. Retraction Statement: "High-Volumetric Performance Aligned Nano-Porous Microwave Exfoliated Graphite Oxide-based Electrochemical Capacitors" and "Aligned Nano-Porous Microwave Exfoliated Graphite Oxide Ionic Actuators with High Strain and Elastic Energy Density".

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    These articles first published on 15 August 2013 and 21 August 2013 on the Wiley Online Library have been retracted at the request of the Research Integrity Officer (RIO) of The Pennsylvania State University, in agreement with the corresponding authors, the journal's Editor-in-Chief, and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, because portions of the reported results cannot be considered reliable or reproducible. Following an investigation by the RIO of The Pennsylvania State University, it was found that the data in Figure 2a,b and Figure S1a,b (Supporting Information) of the article with DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301243, and Figure S3 (Supporting Information) of the article with DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301370 were falsified. Data regarding the carbon electrode material, A-aMEGO, reported to have a density of 1.15 g cm -3 , in the article with DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301243, were falsified. The RIO of The Pennsylvania State University confirms that the investigation found that the mentioned data were falsified by the first author. No findings of research misconduct were made against the co-authors of these publications. [1] M. Ghaffari, Y. Zhou, H. Xu, M. Lin, T. Y. Kim, R. S. Ruoff, Q. M. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 25: 2013, 4879. doi:10.1002/adma.201301243 [2] M. Ghaffari, W. Kinsman, Y. Zhou, S. Murali, Q. Burlingame, M. Lin, R. S. Ruoff, Q. M. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 25: 2013, 6277. doi:10.1002/adma.201301370. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. An Improved Algorithm for Retrieving Surface Downwelling Longwave Radiation from Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Yaping; Kratz, David P.; Wilber, Anne C.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Cess, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    Retrieving surface longwave radiation from space has been a difficult task since the surface downwelling longwave radiation (SDLW) are integrations from radiation emitted by the entire atmosphere, while those emitted from the upper atmosphere are absorbed before reaching the surface. It is particularly problematic when thick clouds are present since thick clouds will virtually block all the longwave radiation from above, while satellites observe atmosphere emissions mostly from above the clouds. Zhou and Cess developed an algorithm for retrieving SDLW based upon detailed studies using radiative transfer model calculations and surface radiometric measurements. Their algorithm linked clear sky SDLW with surface upwelling longwave flux and column precipitable water vapor. For cloudy sky cases, they used cloud liquid water path as an additional parameter to account for the effects of clouds. Despite the simplicity of their algorithm, it performed very well for most geographical regions except for those regions where the atmospheric conditions near the surface tend to be extremely cold and dry. Systematic errors were also found for areas that were covered with ice clouds. An improved version of the algorithm was developed that prevents the large errors in the SDLW at low water vapor amounts. The new algorithm also utilizes cloud fraction and cloud liquid and ice water paths measured from the Cloud and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellites to separately compute the clear and cloudy portions of the fluxes. The new algorithm has been validated against surface measurements at 29 stations around the globe for the Terra and Aqua satellites. The results show significant improvement over the original version. The revised Zhou-Cess algorithm is also slightly better or comparable to more sophisticated algorithms currently implemented in the CERES processing. It will be incorporated in the CERES project as one of the empirical surface radiation algorithms.

  16. Semantic text relatedness on Al-Qur’an translation using modified path based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwanto, Yudi; Arif Bijaksana, Moch; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    Abdul Baquee Muhammad [1] have built Corpus that contained AlQur’an domain, WordNet and dictionary. He has did initialisation in the development of knowledges about AlQur’an and the knowledges about relatedness between texts in AlQur’an. The Path based measurement method that proposed by Liu, Zhou and Zheng [3] has never been used in the AlQur’an domain. By using AlQur’an translation dataset in this research, the path based measurement method proposed by Liu, Zhou and Zheng [3] will be used to test this method in AlQur’an domain to obtain similarity values and to measure its correlation value. In this study the degree value is proposed to be used in modifying the path based method that proposed in previous research. Degree Value is the number of links that owned by a lcs (lowest common subsumer) node on a taxonomy. The links owned by a node on the taxonomy represent the semantic relationship that a node has in the taxonomy. By using degree value to modify the path-based method that proposed in previous research is expected that the correlation value obtained will increase. After running some experiment by using proposed method, the correlation measurement value can obtain fairly good correlation ties with 200 Word Pairs derive from Noun POS SimLex-999. The correlation value that be obtained is 93.3% which means their bonds are strong and they have very strong correlation. Whereas for the POS other than Noun POS vocabulary that owned by WordNet is incomplete therefore many pairs of words that the value of its similarity is zero so the correlation value is low.

  17. Lagrangian flows within reflecting internal waves at a horizontal free-slip surface

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Qi, E-mail: q.zhou@damtp.cam.ac.uk; Diamessis, Peter J.

    In this paper sequel to Zhou and Diamessis [“Reflection of an internal gravity wave beam off a horizontal free-slip surface,” Phys. Fluids 25, 036601 (2013)], we consider Lagrangian flows within nonlinear internal waves (IWs) reflecting off a horizontal free-slip rigid lid, the latter being a model of the ocean surface. The problem is approached both analytically using small-amplitude approximations and numerically by tracking Lagrangian fluid particles in direct numerical simulation (DNS) datasets of the Eulerian flow. Inviscid small-amplitude analyses for both plane IWs and IW beams (IWBs) show that Eulerian mean flow due to wave-wave interaction and wave-induced Stokes driftmore » cancels each other out completely at the second order in wave steepness A, i.e., O(A{sup 2}), implying zero Lagrangian mean flow up to that order. However, high-accuracy particle tracking in finite-Reynolds-number fully nonlinear DNS datasets from the work of Zhou and Diamessis suggests that the Euler-Stokes cancelation on O(A{sup 2}) is not complete. This partial cancelation significantly weakens the mean Lagrangian flows but does not entirely eliminate them. As a result, reflecting nonlinear IWBs produce mean Lagrangian drifts on O(A{sup 2}) and thus particle dispersion on O(A{sup 4}). The above findings can be relevant to predicting IW-driven mass transport in the oceanic surface and subsurface region which bears important observational and environmental implications, under circumstances where the effect of Earth rotation can be ignored.« less

  18. Vertical profile of H 2SO 4 vapor at 70-110 km on Venus and some related problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.

    2011-09-01

    The vertical profile of H 2SO 4 vapor is calculated using current atmospheric and thermodynamic data. The atmospheric data include the H 2O profiles observed at 70-112 km by the SOIR solar occultations, the SPICAV-UV profiles of the haze extinction at 220 nm, the VeRa temperature profiles, and a typical profile of eddy diffusion. The thermodynamic data are the saturated vapor pressures of H 2O and H 2SO 4 and chemical potentials of these species in sulfuric acid solutions. The calculated concentration of sulfuric acid in the cloud droplets varies from 85% at 70 km to a minimum of 70% at 90 km and then gradually increasing to 90-100% at 110 km. The H 2SO 4 vapor mixing ratio is ˜10 -12 at 70 and 110 km with a deep minimum of 3 × 10 -18 at 88 km. The H 2O-H 2SO 4 system matches the local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions up to 87 km. The column photolysis rate of H 2SO 4 is 1.6 × 10 5 cm -2 s -1 at 70 km and 23 cm -2 s -1 at 90 km. The calculated abundance of H 2SO 4 vapor at 90-110 km and its photolysis rate are smaller than those presented in the recent model by Zhang et al. (Zhang, X., Liang, M.C., Montmessin, F., Bertaux, J.L., Parkinson, C., Yung, Y.L. [2010]. Nat. Geosci. 3, 834-837) by factors of 10 6 and 10 9, respectively. Assumptions of 100% sulfuric acid, local thermodynamic equilibrium, too warm atmosphere, supersaturation of H 2SO 4 (impossible for a source of SO X), and cross sections for H 2SO 4·H 2O (impossible above the pure H 2SO 4) are the main reasons of this huge difference. Significant differences and contradictions between the SPICAV-UV, SOIR, and ground-based submillimeter observations of SO X at 70-110 km are briefly discussed and some weaknesses are outlined. The possible source of high altitude SO X on Venus remains unclear and probably does not exist.

  19. The distribution of atomic hydrogen and oxygen in the magnetosphere of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melin, Henrik; Shemansky, Don E.; Liu, Xianming

    2009-12-01

    The intensity of H Ly α1216A˚ ( 2P- 1S) and OI 1304A˚ ( 2p33s3S-2p4P) is mapped in the magnetosphere of Saturn using the ultraviolet imaging spectrograph (UVIS) [Esposito, L.W., Barth, C.A., Colwell, J.E., Lawrence, G.M., McClintock, W.E., Stewart, A.I.F., Keller, H.U., Korth, A., Lauche, H., Festou, M.C., Lane, A.L., Hansen, C.J., Maki, J.N., West, R.A., Jahn, H., Reulke, R., Warlich, K., Shemansky, D.E., Yung, Y.L., 2004. The Cassini ultraviolet imaging spectrograph investigation. Space Science Reviews 115, 299-361] onboard Cassini. Spatial coverage is built up by stepping the slit sequentially across the system (system scan). Data are obtained at a large range of space-craft-Saturn distances. The observed atomic hydrogen distribution is very broad, extending beyond 40RS in the equatorial plane, with the intensity increasing with decreasing distances to Saturn. The distribution displays persistent local-time asymmetries, and is seen connecting continuously to the upper atmosphere of the planet at sub-solar latitudes located well outside of the equatorial (ring) plane. This is consistent with the source of the atomic hydrogen being located at the top of the atmosphere on the sun-lit side of the planet on the southern hemisphere. In addition there are a number of temporally persistent features in the intensity distribution, indicating a complex hydrogen energy distribution. The emission from OI 1304A˚ is generally distributed as a broad torus centered around ˜4RS although the position of the peak intensity can vary by as much as ±1RS. There is significant intensity present out to ±10RS. HST observations of hydroxyl (OH) are re-analyzed and display a distribution half as broad as that of oxygen, also centered at 4RS. The observed atomic oxygen distribution requires a sourcing of 1.3×1028atomss-1 against loss due to charge capture with the plasma. Using the ion partitioning of Schippers et al. [2008. Multi-instrument analysis of electron populations in Saturn

  20. D/H on Mars: Effects of floods, volcanism, impacts, and polar processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    Water in the Martian atmosphere is 5.1 times more enriched in deuterium than terrestial water. The enrichment has been previously attributed to either a massive loss of water early in the planet's history or the presence of only a very small reservoir of water that has exchanged with the atmosphere over geologic time. Both these interpretations appear inconsistent with geologic evidence of large floods and sustained volcanism. Large floods are believed to have episodically introduced large amounts of water onto the surface. During a large flood roughly 1017 g of water would almost immediately sublime into the atmospher and be frozen out on polar terrain, to form a new layer several centimeters thick. The long-term effect of a flood would depend on where the water pooled after the flood. If the water pooled at low latitudes, all the water would slowly sublime into the atmosphers and ultimately be frozen out at the poles, thereby adding several meters to the polar deposits for each flood. If the water pooled at high latitude, it would form a permanent ice deposit, largely isolated from further interchange with the atmosphere. Volcanism has also episodically introduced water into the atmosphere. Most of this water has become incorporated into the polar deposits. That released over the last 3.5 Ga could have added a few kilometers to the polar deposits, depending on the amount of dust incorporated along with the ice. Large cometary impacts would have introduced additional large amounts of water into the atmosphere. The long-term evolution of D/H in the atmosphere depends on the rate of exchange of water between the atmosphere and the polar deposits. If exchange is active, then loss rates of hydrogen from the upper atmosphere are substantially higher than those estimated by Y. L. Yung, J. Wen, J. P. Pinto, M. Allen, K. K. Pierce, and S. Paulsen [Icarus 76, 146-159 (1988)]. More plausibly, exchange of water between the atmosphere and the polar deposits is limited, so

  1. Phase diagram and density of fluids in the water-methanol system: experiments and implications for the crystallization and dynamics of subsurface oceans in icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, C.; Mantegazzi, D.; Deschamps, F.; Sanchez-Valle, C.

    2013-12-01

    : Deschamps, F., Mousis, O., Sanchez-Valle, C., and Lunine, J.I., Astrophys. J., 2010. Hodyss, R., Parkinson, C.D. Johnson, V.D., Stern, J.V., Goguen, J.D, Yung, Y.L., and Kanik, I., Geophys. Res. Lett., 1992. Miller, G.A., and Carpenter, D.A., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1964. Vuillard, G., and Sanchez, M., Bull. Soc. Chim. France, 1961.

  2. Laboratory Studies of Ammonia Ices Relevant to the Jovian Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meharchand, R. T.; Boulter, J. E.; Baer, C. E.; Kalogerakis, K. S.

    2004-12-01

    PHY-0353745. 1. S. K. Atreya and A.-S. Wong, Eos. Trans. 84(46), Fall. Meet. Suppl., Abstract A12A-0072 (2003), and references therein. 2. K. H. Baines, R. W. Carlson, and L. W. Kamp, Icarus 159, 74 (2002). 3. A.-S. Wong, Y. L. Yung, and A. J. Friedson, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1447 (2003).

  3. Economic evaluation of nebulized magnesium sulphate in acute severe asthma in children.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Stavros; Boland, Angela; Khan, Kamran; Powell, Colin; Kolamunnage-Dona, Ruwanthi; Lowe, John; Doull, Iolo; Hood, Kerry; Williamson, Paula

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of nebulized magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) in acute asthma in children from the perspective of the UK National Health Service and personal social services. An economic evaluation was conducted based on evidence from a randomized placebo controlled multi-center trial of nebulized MgSO4 in severe acute asthma in children. Participants comprised 508 children aged 2-16 years presenting to an emergency department or a children's assessment unit with severe acute asthma across thirty hospitals in the United Kingdom. Children were randomly allocated to receive nebulized salbutamol and ipratropium bromide mixed with either 2.5 ml of isotonic MgSO4 or 2.5 ml of isotonic saline on three occasions at 20-min intervals. Cost-effectiveness outcomes were constructed around the Yung Asthma Severity Score (ASS) after 60 min of treatment; whilst cost-utility outcomes were constructed around the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) metric. The nonparametric bootstrap method was used to present cost-effectiveness acceptability curves at alternative cost-effectiveness thresholds for either: (i) a unit reduction in ASS; or (ii) an additional QALY. MgSO4 had a 75.1 percent probability of being cost-effective at a GBP 1,000 (EUR 1,148) per unit decrement in ASS threshold, an 88.0 percent probability of being more effective (in terms of reducing the ASS) and a 36.6 percent probability of being less costly. MgSO4 also had a 67.6 percent probability of being cost-effective at a GBP 20,000 (EUR 22,957) per QALY gained threshold, an 8.5 percent probability of being more effective (in terms of generating increased QALYs) and a 69.1 percent probability of being less costly. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results of the economic evaluation were particularly sensitive to the methods used for QALY estimation. The probability of cost-effectiveness of nebulized isotonic MgSO4, given as an adjuvant to standard treatment of severe acute

  4. Magnesium sulphate in acute severe asthma in children (MAGNETIC): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Powell, Colin; Kolamunnage-Dona, Ruwanthi; Lowe, John; Boland, Angela; Petrou, Stavros; Doull, Iolo; Hood, Kerenza; Williamson, Paula

    2013-06-01

    Little evidence is available for the effect of nebulised magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4)) in acute asthma in children. We assessed the effect of MgSO(4) treatment in children with severe acute asthma. In this randomised placebo-controlled, multi-centre, parallel trial, we enrolled children (aged 2-16 years) with severe acute asthma who did not respond to standard inhaled treatment from 30 hospitals in the UK. Children were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive nebulised salbutamol and ipratropium bromide with either 2·5 mL of isotonic MgSO(4) (250 mmol/L; 151 mg per dose; MgSO(4) group) or 2·5 mL of isotonic saline (placebo group) on three occasions at 20-min intervals. Randomisation was done with a computer-generated randomisation sequence, with random block sizes of two to four. Both patients and researchers were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was the Yung Asthma Severity Score (ASS) at 60 min post-randomisation. We used a statistical significance level of p<0·05 for a between-group difference, but regarded a between-group difference in ASS of 0·5 as the minimal clinically significant treatment effect. Analysis was done by intention to treat. This trial is registered with controlled-trials.com, number ISRCTN81456894. Between Jan 3, 2009, and March 20, 2011, we recruited and randomly assigned 508 children to treatment: 252 to MgSO(4) and 256 to placebo. Mean ASS at 60 min was lower in the MgSO(4) group (4·72 [SD 1·37]) than it was in the placebo group (4·95 [SD 1·40]; adjusted difference -0·25, 95% CI -0·48 to -0·02; p=0·03). This difference, however, was not clinically significant. The clinical effect was larger in children with more severe asthma exacerbation (p=0·03) and those with symptoms present for less than 6 h (p=0·049). We detected no difference in the occurrence of adverse events between groups. Overall, nebulised isotonic MgSO(4), given as an adjuvant to standard treatment, did not show a clinically significant

  5. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival patterns to promote pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Stephens, Thomas E.; Arons, Elena; Zaman, Paula; Polach, Kevin J.; Matar, Majed; Yung, Lai-Ming; Yu, Paul B.; Bowman, Frederick P.; Opotowsky, Alexander R.; Waxman, Aaron B.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A.; Maron, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) subunit Raptor induces cell growth and is a downstream target of Akt. Elevated levels of aldosterone activate Akt, and, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), correlate with pulmonary arteriole thickening, which suggests that mTORC1 regulation by aldosterone may mediate adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that aldosterone-Raptor signaling induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) survival patterns to promote PAH. Remodeled pulmonary arterioles from SU-5416/hypoxia-PAH rats and monocrotaline-PAH rats with hyperaldosteronism expressed increased levels of the Raptor target, p70S6K, which provided a basis for investigating aldosterone-Raptor signaling in human PASMCs. Aldosterone (10−9 to 10−7 M) increased Akt/mTOR/Raptor to activate p70S6K and increase proliferation, viability, and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs. In PASMCs transfected with Raptor–small interfering RNA or treated with spironolactone/eplerenone, aldosterone or pulmonary arterial plasma from patients with PAH failed to increase p70S6K activation or to induce cell survival in vitro. Optimal inhibition of pulmonary arteriole Raptor was achieved by treatment with Staramine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol that was formulated with Raptor-small interfering RNA plus spironolactone in vivo, which decreased arteriole muscularization and pulmonary hypertension in 2 experimental animal models of PAH in vivo. Up-regulation of mTORC1 by aldosterone is a critical pathobiologic mechanism that controls PASMC survival to promote hypertrophic vascular remodeling and PAH.—Aghamohammadzadeh, R., Zhang, Y.-Y., Stephens, T. E., Arons, E., Zaman, P., Polach, K. J., Matar, M., Yung, L.-M., Yu, P. B., Bowman, F. P., Opotowsky, A. R., Waxman, A. B., Loscalzo, J., Leopold, J. A., Maron, B. A. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery

  6. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell survival patterns to promote pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Stephens, Thomas E; Arons, Elena; Zaman, Paula; Polach, Kevin J; Matar, Majed; Yung, Lai-Ming; Yu, Paul B; Bowman, Frederick P; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Waxman, Aaron B; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A; Maron, Bradley A

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) subunit Raptor induces cell growth and is a downstream target of Akt. Elevated levels of aldosterone activate Akt, and, in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), correlate with pulmonary arteriole thickening, which suggests that mTORC1 regulation by aldosterone may mediate adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that aldosterone-Raptor signaling induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) survival patterns to promote PAH. Remodeled pulmonary arterioles from SU-5416/hypoxia-PAH rats and monocrotaline-PAH rats with hyperaldosteronism expressed increased levels of the Raptor target, p70S6K, which provided a basis for investigating aldosterone-Raptor signaling in human PASMCs. Aldosterone (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) increased Akt/mTOR/Raptor to activate p70S6K and increase proliferation, viability, and apoptosis resistance in PASMCs. In PASMCs transfected with Raptor-small interfering RNA or treated with spironolactone/eplerenone, aldosterone or pulmonary arterial plasma from patients with PAH failed to increase p70S6K activation or to induce cell survival in vitro Optimal inhibition of pulmonary arteriole Raptor was achieved by treatment with Staramine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol that was formulated with Raptor-small interfering RNA plus spironolactone in vivo, which decreased arteriole muscularization and pulmonary hypertension in 2 experimental animal models of PAH in vivo Up-regulation of mTORC1 by aldosterone is a critical pathobiologic mechanism that controls PASMC survival to promote hypertrophic vascular remodeling and PAH.-Aghamohammadzadeh, R., Zhang, Y.-Y., Stephens, T. E., Arons, E., Zaman, P., Polach, K. J., Matar, M., Yung, L.-M., Yu, P. B., Bowman, F. P., Opotowsky, A. R., Waxman, A. B., Loscalzo, J., Leopold, J. A., Maron, B. A. Up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 subunit Raptor by aldosterone induces abnormal pulmonary artery smooth

  7. 12th WINFOCUS world congress on ultrasound in emergency and critical care.

    PubMed

    Acar, Yahya; Tezel, Onur; Salman, Necati; Cevik, Erdem; Algaba-Montes, Margarita; Oviedo-García, Alberto; Patricio-Bordomás, Mayra; Mahmoud, Mustafa Z; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim; Ali, Abbas; Mustafa, Alrayah; Abdelrahman, Ihab; Bahar, Mustafa; Ali, Osama; Lester Kirchner, H; Prosen, Gregor; Anzic, Ajda; Leeson, Paul; Bahreini, Maryam; Rasooli, Fatemeh; Hosseinnejad, Houman; Blecher, Gabriel; Meek, Robert; Egerton-Warburton, Diana; Ćuti, Edina Ćatić; Belina, Stanko; Vančina, Tihomir; Kovačević, Idriz; Rustemović, Nadan; Chang, Ikwan; Lee, Jin Hee; Kwak, Young Ho; Kim, Do Kyun; Cheng, Chi-Yung; Pan, Hsiu-Yung; Kung, Chia-Te; Ćurčić, Ela; Pritišanac, Ena; Planinc, Ivo; Medić, Marijana Grgić; Radonić, Radovan; Fasina, Abiola; Dean, Anthony J; Panebianco, Nova L; Henwood, Patricia S; Fochi, Oliviero; Favarato, Moreno; Bonanomi, Ezio; Tomić, Ivan; Ha, Youngrock; Toh, Hongchuen; Harmon, Elizabeth; Chan, Wilma; Baston, Cameron; Morrison, Gail; Shofer, Frances; Hua, Angela; Kim, Sharon; Tsung, James; Gunaydin, Isa; Kekec, Zeynep; Ay, Mehmet Oguzhan; Kim, Jinjoo; Kim, Jinhyun; Choi, Gyoosung; Shim, Dowon; Lee, Ji-Han; Ambrozic, Jana; Prokselj, Katja; Lucovnik, Miha; Simenc, Gabrijela Brzan; Mačiulienė, Asta; Maleckas, Almantas; Kriščiukaitis, Algimantas; Mačiulis, Vytautas; Macas, Andrius; Mohite, Sharad; Narancsik, Zoltan; Možina, Hugon; Nikolić, Sara; Hansel, Jan; Petrovčič, Rok; Mršić, Una; Orlob, Simon; Lerchbaumer, Markus; Schönegger, Niklas; Kaufmann, Reinhard; Pan, Chun-I; Wu, Chien-Hung; Pasquale, Sarah; Doniger, Stephanie J; Yellin, Sharon; Chiricolo, Gerardo; Potisek, Maja; Drnovšek, Borut; Leskovar, Boštjan; Robinson, Kristine; Kraft, Clara; Moser, Benjamin; Davis, Stephen; Layman, Shelley; Sayeed, Yusef; Minardi, Joseph; Pasic, Irmina Sefic; Dzananovic, Amra; Pasic, Anes; Zubovic, Sandra Vegar; Hauptman, Ana Godan; Brajkovic, Ana Vujaklija; Babel, Jaksa; Peklic, Marina; Radonic, Vedran; Bielen, Luka; Ming, Peh Wee; Yezid, Nur Hafiza; Mohammed, Fatahul Laham; Huda, Zainal Abidin; Ismail, Wan Nasarudin Wan; Isa, W Yus Haniff W; Fauzi, Hashairi; Seeva, Praveena; Mazlan, Mohd Zulfakar

    2016-09-01

    veterans: a retrospective analysis from the first Croatian veteran's hospitalEdina Ćatić Ćuti, Stanko Belina, Tihomir Vančina, Idriz KovačevićA15 The challenge of AAA: unusual case of obstructive jaundiceEdina Ćatić Ćuti, Nadan RustemovićA16 Educational effectiveness of easy-made new simulator model for ultrasound-guided procedures in pediatric patients: vascular access and foreign body managementIkwan Chang, Jin Hee Lee, Young Ho Kwak, Do Kyun KimA17 Detection of uterine rupture by point-of-care ultrasound at emergency department: a case reportChi-Yung Cheng, Hsiu-Yung Pan, Chia-Te KungA18 Abdominal probe in the hands of interns as a relevant diagnostic tool in revealing the cause of heart failureEla Ćurčić, Ena Pritišanac, Ivo Planinc, Marijana Grgić Medić, Radovan RadonićA19 Needs assessment of the potential utility of point-of-care ultrasound within the Zanzibar health systemAbiola Fasina, Anthony J. Dean, Nova L. Panebianco, Patricia S. HenwoodA20 Ultrasonographic diagnosis of tracheal compressionOliviero Fochi, Moreno Favarato, Ezio BonanomiA21 The role of ultrasound in the detection of lung infiltrates in critically ill patients: a pilot studyMarijana Grgić Medić, Ivan Tomić, Radovan RadonićA22 The SAFER Lasso; a novel approach using point-of-care ultrasound to evaluate patients with abdominal complaints in the emergency departmentYoungrock Ha, Hongchuen TohA23 Awareness and use of clinician-performed ultrasound among clinical clerkship facultyElizabeth Harmon, Wilma Chan, Cameron Baston, Gail Morrison, Frances Shofer, Nova Panebianco, Anthony J. DeanA24 Clinical outcomes in the use of lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of pediatric pneumoniasAngela Hua, Sharon Kim, James TsungA25 Effectiveness of ultrasound in hypotensive patientsIsa Gunaydin, Zeynep Kekec, Mehmet Oguzhan AyA26 Moderate-to-severe left ventricular ejection fraction related to short-term mortality of patients with post-cardiac arrest syndrome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

  8. How will we ensure the long-term sea ice data record continues?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroeve, J. C.; Kaleschke, L.

    2017-12-01

    The multi-channel satellite passive microwave record has been of enormous benefit to the science community and society at large since the late 1970s. Starting with the launch of the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multi-Channel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) in October 1978, and continuing with the launch of a series of Special Sensor Microwave Imagers (SSM/Is) in June 1987 by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), places previously difficult to monitor year-round, such as the polar regions, came to light. Together these sensors have provided nearly 4 decades of climate data records on the state of sea ice cover over the ocean and snow on land. This data has also been used to map melt extent on the large ice sheets, timing of snow melt onset over land and sea ice. Application also extend well beyond the polar regions, mapping important climate variables, such as soil moisture content, oceanic wind speed, rainfall, water vapor, cloud liquid water and total precipitable water. Today the current SSMIS operational satellite (F18) is 7 years old and there is no follow-on mission planned by the DMSP. With the end of the SSMI family of Sensors, will the polar regions once again be in the dark? Other sensors that may contribute to the long-term data record include the JAXA AMSR2 (5 years old as of May 2017), the Chinese Fen-Yung-3 and the Russian Meteor-N2. Scatterometry and L-band radiometry from SMOS and NASA's SMOS may also provide some potential means of extending the sea ice extent data record, as well as future sensors by the DoD, JAXA and ESA. However, this will require considerable effort to intercalibrate the different sensors to ensure consistency in the long-term data record. Differences in measurement approach, frequency and spatial resolution make this a non-trivial matter. The passive microwave sea ice extent data record is one of the longest and most consistent climate data records available. It provides daily monitoring of one of the most striking changes in

  9. SU-E-I-64: Transverse Relaxation Time in Methylene Protons of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Song, K-H; Lee, D-W; Choe, B-Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate transverse relaxation time of methylene resonance compared to other lipid resonances. Methods: The examinations were performed using a 3.0 T scanner with a point — resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence. Lipid relaxation time in a lipid phantom filled with canola oil was estimated considering repetition time (TR) as 6000 msec and echo time (TE) as 40 — 550 msec. For in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H — MRS), eight male Sprague — Dawley rats were given free access to a normal - chow (NC) and eight other male Sprague-Dawley ratsmore » were given free access to a high — fat (HF) diet. Both groups drank water ad libitum. T{sub 2} measurements in the rats’ livers were conducted at a fixed TR of 6000 msec and TE of 40 – 220 msec. Exponential curve fitting quality was calculated through the coefficients of determination (R{sup 2}). Results: A chemical analysis of phantom and liver was not performed but a T{sub 2} decay curve was acquired. The T{sub 2} relaxation time of methylene resonance was estimated as follows: NC rats, 37.07 ± 4.32 msec; HF rats, 31.43 ± 1.81 msec (p < 0.05). The extrapolated M0 values were higher in HF rats than in NC rats (p < 0.005). Conclusion: This study of {sup 1}H-MRS led to sufficient spectral resolution and signal — to — noise ratio differences to characterize all observable resonances for yielding T{sub 2} relaxation times of methylene resonance. {sup 1}H — MRS relaxation times may be useful for quantitative characterization of various liver diseases, including fatty liver disease. This study was supported by grant (2012-007883 and 2014R1A2A1A10050270) from the Mid-career Researcher Program through the NRF funded by Ministry of Science. In addition, this study was supported by the Industrial R&D of MOTIE/KEIT (10048997, Development of the core technology for integrated therapy devices based on real-time MRI-guided tumor tracking)« less

  10. Recent Opportunity Microscopic Imager Results from the Western Rim of Endeavour Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Arvidson, R. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Sullivan, R. J., Jr.; Gellert, R.; Sims, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    The Athena science payload on the Mars Exploration Rover Oppor­tunity includes the Microscopic Imager (MI), a fixed-focus close-up camera mounted on the instrument arm. The MI acquires images at a scale of 31 µm/pixel over a broad spectral range (400 to 700 nm) using only natural illumination of target surfaces. Opportunity has been exploring exposures of Noachian-age rocks along the rim of Endeavour crater since August 2011, moti­vated by orbital spectral evidence for phyllosilicates at multiple locations along the crater's rim. Because Opportunity can no longer directly sense phyllosilicate mineralogy with the MiniTES or Mössbauer spectrometers, the rover mis­sion is focusing on characterizing outcrop multispectral reflectance with Pancam, elemental chemistry with the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and microtexture with the MI of potential phyllosilicate host rocks. In addition, the Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) gives an indication of rock hardness. After traversing more than 42 km (26 miles) since landing in 2004, the rover entered "Marathon Valley" to investigate rock exposures in which phyllosili­cates were detected by the CRISM instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Where clastic textures are resolved, the outcrop pavement in Marathon Valley consists of poorly-sorted dark, sub-rounded to sub-angular clasts in a soft (based on RAT grind data), fine-grained, brighter matrix (see Figure showing 5x5 cm post-grind MI mosaic of "Pierre Pinaut3," acquired on Sol 4373 when target was fully shadowed). These observations are consistent with high-energy emplacement due to impact cratering. The soft, recessive, altered appearance of the matrix material suggests that it is the likely host of phyllosilicate alteration in these rocks. The bedrock appears to have been aqueously altered, but APXS measurements of major elements indicate that the alteration was isochemical, unlike in other Endeavour rim rocks. Also, MI views of a small patch of dark sand

  11. SciTech Connect

    Paudel, M; currently at University of Toronto, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON; MacKenzie, M

    steel hip implants. Moti Raj Paudel is supported by the Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarship, the Endowed Graduate Scholarship in Oncology and the Dissertation Fellowship at the University of Alberta. The authors acknowledge the CIHR operating grant number MOP 53254.« less

  12. SciTech Connect

    Cho, M; Kim, T; Kang, S

    supported by the Industrial R&D program of MOTIE/KEIT. [10048997, Development of the core technology for integrated therapy devices based on real-time MRI guided tumor tracking] and the Mid-career Researcher Program (2014R1A2A1A10050270) through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT&Future Planning.« less

  13. SU-C-207-01: Four-Dimensional Inverse Geometry Computed Tomography: Concept and Its Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K; Kim, D; Kim, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In past few years, the inverse geometry computed tomography (IGCT) system has been developed to overcome shortcomings of a conventional computed tomography (CT) system such as scatter problem induced from large detector size and cone-beam artifact. In this study, we intend to present a concept of a four-dimensional (4D) IGCT system that has positive aspects above all with temporal resolution for dynamic studies and reduction of motion artifact. Methods: Contrary to conventional CT system, projection data at a certain angle in IGCT was a group of fractionated narrow cone-beam projection data, projection group (PG), acquired from multi-source array whichmore » have extremely short time gap of sequential operation between each of sources. At this, for 4D IGCT imaging, time-related data acquisition parameters were determined by combining multi-source scanning time for collecting one PG with conventional 4D CBCT data acquisition sequence. Over a gantry rotation, acquired PGs from multi-source array were tagged time and angle for 4D image reconstruction. Acquired PGs were sorted into 10 phase and image reconstructions were independently performed at each phase. Image reconstruction algorithm based upon filtered-backprojection was used in this study. Results: The 4D IGCT had uniform image without cone-beam artifact on the contrary to 4D CBCT image. In addition, the 4D IGCT images of each phase had no significant artifact induced from motion compared with 3D CT. Conclusion: The 4D IGCT image seems to give relatively accurate dynamic information of patient anatomy based on the results were more endurable than 3D CT about motion artifact. From this, it will be useful for dynamic study and respiratory-correlated radiation therapy. This work was supported by the Industrial R&D program of MOTIE/KEIT [10048997, Development of the core technology for integrated therapy devices based on real-time MRI guided tumor tracking] and the Mid-career Researcher Program (2014R1A2

  14. The El Teniente porphyry Cu-Mo deposit from a hydrothermal rutile perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbia, Osvaldo M.; Hernández, Laura B.; French, David H.; King, Robert W.; Ayers, John C.

    2009-11-01

    Mineralogical, textural, and chemical analyses (EPMA and PIXE) of hydrothermal rutile in the El Teniente porphyry Cu-Mo deposit help to better constrain ore formation processes. Rutile formed from igneous Ti-rich phases (sphene, biotite, Ti-magnetite, and ilmenite) by re-equilibration and/or breakdown under hydrothermal conditions at temperatures ranging between 400°C and 700°C. Most rutile nucleate and grow at the original textural position of its Ti-rich igneous parent mineral phase. The distribution of Mo content in rutile indicates that low-temperature (˜400-550°C), Mo-poor rutile (5.4 ± 1.1 ppm) is dominantly in the Mo-rich mafic wallrocks (high-grade ore), while high-temperature (˜550-700°C), Mo-rich rutile (186 ± 20 ppm) is found in the Mo-poor felsic porphyries (low-grade ore). Rutile from late dacite ring dikes is a notable exception to this distribution pattern. The Sb content in rutile from the high-temperature potassic core of the deposit to its low-temperature propylitic fringe remains relatively constant (35 ± 3 ppm). Temperature and Mo content of the hydrothermal fluids in addition to Mo/Ti ratio, modal abundance and stability of Ti-rich parental phases are key factors constraining Mo content and provenance in high-temperature (≥550°C) rutile. The initial Mo content of parent mineral phases is controlled by melt composition and oxygen fugacity as well as timing and efficiency of fluid-melt separation. Enhanced reduction of SO2-rich fluids and sulfide deposition in the Fe-rich mafic wallrocks influences the low-temperature (≤550°C) rutile chemistry. The data are consistent with a model of fluid circulation of hot (>550°C), oxidized (ƒO2 ≥ NNO + 1.3), SO2-rich and Mo-bearing fluids, likely exsolved from deeper crystallizing parts of the porphyry system and fluxed through the upper dacite porphyries and related structures, with metal deposition dominantly in the Fe-rich mafic wallrocks.

  15. Environmental impact studies for gas hydrate production test in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Byong-Jae

    2017-04-01

    To develop potential future energy resources, the Korean National Gas Hydrate Program has been carried out since 2005. The program has been supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE), and carried out by the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), the Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) and the Korea National Oil Corporation (KNOC) under the management of Gas Hydrate R&D Organization (GHDO). As a part of this national program, geophysical surveys, geological studies on gas hydrates and two deep drilling expeditions were performed. Gas hydrate-bearing sand layers suitable for production using current technologies were found during the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition (UBGH2) in 2010. Environmental impact studies (EIS) also have been carried out since 2012 by KIGAM in cooperation with domestic and foreign universities and research organizations to ensure safe production test that will be performed in near future. The schedule of production test is being planned. The EIS includes assessment of environmental risks, examination on domestic environmental laws related with production test, collection of basic oceanographic information, and baseline and monitoring surveys. Oceanographic information and domestic environmental laws are already collected and analyzed. Baseline survey has been performed using the in-house developed system, KIGAM Seafloor Observation System (KISOS) since 2013. It will also be performed. R/V TAMHAE II of KIGAM used for KISOS operation. As a part of this EIS, pseudo-3D Chirp survey also was carried out in 2014 to determine the development of fault near the potential testing site. Using KIGAM Seafloor Monitoring System (KIMOS), monitoring survey is planned to be performed from three month before production test to three months after production test. The geophysical survey for determining the change of gas hydrate reservoirs and production-efficiency around the production well would also be

  16. Strong Local-Nonlocal Coupling for Integrated Fracture Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Littlewood, David John; Silling, Stewart A.; Mitchell, John A.

    dramatically improved consistency at domain boundaries, and an enhancement to the meshfree discretization applied to peridynamic models that removes irregularities at the limit of the nonlocal length scale and dramatically improves conver- gence behavior. Finally, a novel approach for modeling ductile failure has been developed, moti- vated by the desire to apply coupled local-nonlocal models to a wide variety of materials, including ductile metals, which have received minimal attention in the peridynamic literature. Software im- plementation of the partial-stress coupling strategy, the position-aware peridynamic constitutive models, and the strategies for improving the convergence behavior of peridynamic models was completed within the Peridigm and Albany codes, developed at Sandia National Laboratories and made publicly available under the open-source 3-clause BSD license.« less

  17. Comprehensive geobiological characterization of a bituminous carbonate facies with Ediacara-type fossils (Shibantan Member, South China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duda, Jan-Peter; Blumenberg, Martin; Thiel, Volker; Simon, Klaus; Zhu, Maoyan; Reitner, Joachim

    2015-04-01

    13C = -31.7 to -36.3o VPDB) indicate a significant withdrawal of 12C by primary producers that thrived within the microbial mats. At the same time, sulphurised biomarkers in the bitumen and HyPy-treated extraction residue hint at organic matter decomposition and concomitant sulphide production by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Given the sedimentological evidence for periodical ventilation of the water column by storms, sulphide oxidising bacteria were possibly favoured whenever oxygen became available at the sediment-water interface. Taken together, the environments in which the microbial-mat-associated biota including Ediacara-type fossils throve were highly dynamic due to a complex interplay of geological and biological processes. References Chen Z., Zhou C., Xiao S., Wang W., Guan C., Hua H., Yuan X., 2014. New Ediacara fossils preserved in marine limestone and their ecological implications. Scientific Reports, 4 Ding Q. and Chen Y., 1981. Discovery of soft metazoan from the Sinian System along eastern Yangtze Gorge, Hubei. Journal of the Wuhan College of Geology, 2, 53-57. Shen, B., Xiao S., Zhou C., Yuan X., 2009. Yangtziramulus zhangi New Genus and Species, a Carbonate-Hosted Macrofossil from the Ediacaran Dengying Formation in the Yangtze Gorges Area, South China. Journal of Paleontology, 83(4): 575-587. Sun W., 1986. Late precambrian pennatulids (sea pens) from the eastern Yangtze Gorge, China: Paracharnia gen. nov. Precambrian Research, 31(4), 361-375. Xiao S., Shen B., Zhou C., Xie G., Yuan X., 2005. A uniquely preserved Ediacaran fossil with direct evidence for a quilted bodyplan. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(29), 10227-10232.

  18. Photodissociation of Small Molecules and Photoionization of Free Radicals Using the VUV Velocity-Map Imaging Photoion and Photoelectron Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hong

    The tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser generated through the two-photon resonance-enhanced four-wave mixing scheme is combined with the newly developed time-slice velocity map imaging photoion method to study the photodissociation of small molecules in the VUV region, and with the velocity map imaging photoelectron method to study the photoionization of free radicals. The photodissociation dynamics of NO in the energy region around 13.5 eV has been investigated. Branching ratios of the three lowest dissociation channels of 12C 16O that produce C(3P) + O(3P), C( 1D) + O(3P) and C(3P) + O(1D) are measured for the first time in the VUV region from 102,500 cm-1 to 110,500 cm-1, valuable information of the dissociation dynamics for this prototype system has been deduced. We demonstrated an experiment that has two independently tunable VUV lasers and a time-slice velocity map imaging setup, this provides us a global way to perform systematic state-selected photodissociation of small molecules via state-selected detection of the atomic products in the VUV region. The velocity map imaging photoelectron method was successfully used to obtain the photoelectron spectrum of the propargyl radical (C3H3) via a single VUV photoionization process. The propargyl radical is generated by the 193 nm laser photodissociation of the precursor C3H3Cl. This is the first time that the velocity map imaging photoelectron method is used to get the photoelectron spectra of free radicals, indicating that it is a powerful technique for studying the photoionization of free radicals which are always hard to be produced with high enough number densities for spectroscopic studies. This dissertation is mainly based on the following peer-reviewed journal articles: 1. Hong Gao, Yang Pan, Lei Yang, Jingang Zhou, C. Y. Ng and William M. Jackson. "Time-slice velocity-map ion imaging studies of the Photodissociation of NO in the vacuum ultraviolet region", the Journal of Chemical Physics, 136, 134302

  19. High energy density capacitors for low cost applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyore, Omokhodion David

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and its copolymers with trifluoroethylene, hexafluoropropylene and chlorotrifluoroethylene are the most widely investigated ferroelectric polymers, due to their relatively high electromechanical properties and potential to achieve high energy density. [Bauer, 2010; Zhou et al., 2009] The research community has focused primarily on melt pressed or extruded films of PVDF-based polymers to obtain the highest performance with energy density up to 25 Jcm-3. [Zhou et al., 2009] Solution processing offers an inexpensive, low temperature alternative, which is also easily integrated with flexible electronics. This dissertation focuses on the fabrication of solution-based polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene metal-insulator-metal capacitors on flexible substrates using a photolithographic process. Capacitors were optimized for maximum energy density, high dielectric strength and low leakage current density. It is demonstrated that with the right choice of solvent, electrodes, spin-casting and annealing conditions, high energy density thin film capacitors can be fabricated repeatably and reproducibly. The high electric field dielectric constants were measured and the reliabilities of the polymer capacitors were also evaluated via time-zero breakdown and time-dependent breakdown techniques. Chapter 1 develops the motivation for this work and provides a theoretical overview of dielectric materials, polarization, leakage current and dielectric breakdown. Chapter 2 is a literature review of polymer-based high energy density dielectrics and covers ferroelectric polymers, highlighting PVDF and some of its derivatives. Chapter 3 summarizes some preliminary experimental work and presents materials and electrical characterization that support the rationale for materials selection and process development. Chapter 4 discusses the fabrication of solution-processed PVDF-HFP and modification of its properties by photo-crosslinking. It is followed by a

  20. Historical development of Chinese dietary patterns and nutrition from the ancient to the modern society.

    PubMed

    Chen, J D; Xu, H

    1996-01-01

    Actually, food, diet and diet therapy germinated together with the change of meal patterns and traditional Chinese medicine from very ancient China; they appeared in an embryonic form till the Shang and Zhou Dynasties and received great importance from the governors who arranged officials to manage their diets and banquets. Moreover, food, diet and meal patterns were replenished through the Zhou, Qin, Han and Jin Dynasties and epitomized and reached thriving and prosperous standards till the Tang Dynasty. They then became perfected, developed, and formed a complete theory in the dynasties of Song, Jin, Yuan, Ming and Qing. The basis of modern nutrition was made up until the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century, which was the time when natural science, including microbiology, chemistry, food industry, etc. were extended into China, yet it was not fully formed until the established of the People's Republic of China. Practicing, teaching, training and research activities started regularly in 1950. With a big population and poor economy basis, the first problem that the Chinese people has now been basically solved. Chinese nutritional scientists worked hard to find out the nutritional problems and status of the people. Through the broad-scale 'Nationwide Nutrition Survey', we now understand our main problems. On this basis, RDA, dietary goal and dietary guidance have been put forward. Although the problem of adequate food and clothing has been basically solved, the Chinese are still facing both the problem of nutrition insufficiency and nutrition excess. However, although nutrition insufficiency and deficiency still extensively exist, nutrition excess and imbalance are emerging in other sections of the population. There is still a shortage of qualified nutritional scientists and technicians, and the training of nutritionists is urgent. Food supplies, including milk, beef, green vegetables and fruit should be increased, especially for some rural and

  1. Monodomain dynamics for rigid rod and platelet suspensions in strongly coupled coplanar linear flow and magnetic fields. II. Kinetic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forest, M. Gregory; Sircar, Sarthok; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Ruhai

    2006-10-01

    . Zhang, Comm. Math. Sci. 3, 201 (2005); C. Luo, H. Zhang, and P. Zhang, Nonlinearity 18, 379 (2005); I. Fatkullin and V. Slastikov, Nonlinearity 18, 2565 (2005); H. Zhou, H. Wang, Q. Wang, and M. G. Forest, Nonlinearity 18, 2815 (2005)] and extensional flow-induced equilibria [Q. Wang, S. Sircar, and H. Zhou, Comm. Math. Sci. 4, 605 (2005)]. We predict large parameter regions of bi-stable equilibria; the lowest energy state always has principal axis aligned in the flow plane, while another minimum energy state often exists, with primary alignment transverse to the coplanar field.

  2. Variations of the ionospheric parameters obtained from ground based measurements of ULF magnetic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakova, Elena; Kotik, Dmitry; Bösinger, Tilmann

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of the amplitude spectra and polarization parameter (epsilon)[1] of magnetic ULF noise were investigated during different seasons and high geomagnetic activity time using the data on the horizontal magnetic components monitoring at mid-latitude (New Life, Russia, 56 N, 46 E) and low-latitude stations (Crete, 35.15 N, 25.20 E). It was found that abrupt changes in the spectral polarization parameters can be linked as with variation of height of maximum and the electron density of the F-layer, and with a change in ionospheric parameters profiles at lower altitudes, for example, with the appearance of sporadic Es-layers and intermediate layers, located between the E and F-layers. It was detected the peculiarities in the daily dynamics of the epsilon parameter at low latitudes: a) the appearance in some cases more complicated than in the mid-latitudes, epsilon structure of the spectrum associated with the presence of two different values of the boundary frequency fB [2]; b) a decreasing of fB near local midnight observed in 70% of cases; c) observation of typical for dark time epsilon spectra after sunrise in the winter season. The numerical calculations of epsilon parameter were made using the IRI-2012 model with setting the models of sporadic and intermediate layers. The results revealed the dependence of the polarization spectra of the intensity and height of such thin layers. The specific changes in the electron density at altitudes of 80-350 km during the recovery phase of strong magnetic storms were defined basing on a comparative analysis of the experimental spectra and the results of the numerical calculations. References. 1. E. N. Ermakova, D. S. Kotik, A. V.Ryabov, A. V.Pershin, T. B.osinger, and Q. Zhou, Studying the variation of the broadband spectral maximum parameters in the natural ULF fields, Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics, Vol. 55, No. 10-11, March, 2013 p. 605-615. 2. T. Bosinger, A. G. Demekhov, E. N. Ermakova, C. Haldoupis and Q

  3. Recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from alkaline fermentation liquid of waste activated sludge and application of the fermentation liquid to promote biological municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Tong, Juan; Chen, Yinguang

    2009-07-01

    In previous publications we reported that by controlling the pH at 10.0 the accumulation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) during waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation was remarkably improved [Yuan, H., Chen, Y., Zhang, H., Jiang, S., Zhou, Q., Gu, G., 2006. Improved bioproduction of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from excess sludge under alkaline conditions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 2025-2029], but significant ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)-N) and soluble ortho-phosphorus (SOP) were released [Chen, Y., Jiang, S., Yuan, H., Zhou, Q., Gu, G., 2007. Hydrolysis and acidification of waste activated sludge at different pHs. Water Res. 41, 683-689]. This paper investigated the simultaneous recovery of NH(4)-N and SOP from WAS alkaline fermentation liquid and the application of the fermentation liquid as an additional carbon source for municipal wastewater biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The central composite design (CCD) of the response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize and model the simultaneous NH(4)-N and SOP recovery from WAS alkaline fermentation liquid. Under the optimum conditions, the predicted and experimental recovery efficiency was respectively 73.4 and 75.7% with NH(4)-N, and 82.0 and 83.2% with SOP, which suggested that the developed models described the experiments well. After NH(4)-N and SOP recovery, the alkaline fermentation liquid was added to municipal wastewater, and the influence of volume ratio of fermentation liquid to municipal wastewater (FL/MW) on biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal was investigated. The addition of fermentation liquid didn't significantly affect nitrification. Both SOP and total nitrogen (TN) removal were increased with fermentation liquid, but there was no significant increase at FL/MW greater than 1/35. Compared to the blank test, the removal efficiency of SOP and TN at FL/MW=1/35 was improved from 44.0 to 92.9%, and 63.3 to 83.2%, respectively. The enhancement of phosphorus and nitrogen

  4. Phase equilibria modelling and zircon dating for Precambrian metapelites from Xinghuadukou Group in Lvlin Forest of Erguna Massif, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiulei; Zheng, Changqing; Tajcmanova, Lucie; Zhong, Xin; Xu, Xuechun; Han, Xiaomeng; Wang, Zhaoyuan

    2017-04-01

    Xinghuadukou Group, the basement metamorphic complex of Erguna Massif in NE China, is considered to be Mesoproterozoic with Sm-Nd age of 1157±32 Ma. However, the new zircon data from these metamorphic supracrustal rocks in Lvlin Forest show that they formed in Neoproterozoic with the age of 800 Ma. Old zircon age with 2.5 Ga, 2.0 Ga and 1.8 Ga, indicate that the Erguna Massif had an affinity to both Columbia and Rodinia continents. Furthermore, we also present 500 Ma metamorphic age in micashists and 500 Ma age of adjacent granitoids that might have thermally influenced its surrounding. No detailed studies have been undertaken on the metamorphic evolution of the Xinghuadukou Complex. The typical paragneissic mineral assemblage of garnet sillimanite mica schist is Grt+Sil+Bt+Mus+Qtz±Kfs. (Zhou et al., 2011) proposed that the Xinghuadukou Complex appears to have undergone similar granulite facies metamorphic conditions based on the similarity of mineral assemblages to the Mashan Complex in the Jiamusi Massif, NE China. However, the new phase equilibria modelling result shows that these rocks are high amphibolite facies product with 650℃. We can easily find K-feldspar formed by partial melting due to the consuming of muscovite. Also the remaining muscovite is directly connected with a fluid channel in thin sections which indicate that the remaining muscovite formed from retrograde with the existence of fluid. The zoned garnet has low MgO and high CaO content in rims and high MgO and low CaO content in core. It seems that this garnet has high pressure and low temperature (HP-LT) in rims and low pressure and high temperature (LP-HT) in core which would point to an anti-clockwise metamorphic evolution. Zhou, J.B., Wilde, S.A., Zhang, X.Z., Zhao, G.C., Liu, F.L., Qiao, D.W., Ren, S.M. and Liu, J.H., 2011b. A> 1300km late Pan-African metamorphic belt in NE China: new evidence from the Xing'an block and its tectonic implications. Tectonophysics, 509(3): 280-292.

  5. Mantle melting and melt refertilization beneath the Southwest Indian Ridge: Mineral composition of abyssal peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ling; Zhu, Jihao; Chu, Fengyou; Dong, Yan-hui; Liu, Jiqiang; Li, Zhenggang; Zhu, Zhimin; Tang, Limei

    2017-04-01

    As one of the slowest spreading ridges of the global ocean ridge system, the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is characterized by discontinued magmatism. The 53°E segment between the Gallieni fracture zone (FZ) (52°20'E) and the Gazelle FZ (53°30'E) is a typical amagmatic segment (crustal thickness <2km) (Zhou and Dick, 2013) that opens a window to the mantle thus provides a chance to detect the mantle composition directly. We examine the mineral compositions of 17 peridotite samples from the 53°E amagmatic segment. The results show that the peridotites can be divided into two groups. The Group 1 peridotites are characterized by clinopyroxenes having LREE depleted patterns that is typical for the abyssal peridotite, thus are thought to be the residue of the mantle melting. The Group 2 peridotites show the lowest HREE content within the SWIR peridotites but are anomaly enriched in LREE, with flat or U-type REE patterns, thus cannot be the pure residue of mantle melting. Mineral compositions of the Group 2 peridotites are more depleted than that of peridotites sampled near the Bouvet hot spot (Johnson et al., 1990), implying that the depleted mantle beneath the 53°E segment may be the residue of ancient melting event. This hypothesis is supported by the the low Ol/Opx ratios, coarse grain sizes (>1cm) Opx, and Mg-rich mineral compositions akin to harzburgite xenoliths that sample old continental lithospheric mantle (Kelemen et al., 1998). Melt refertilization model shows that Group 2 peridotites were affected by an enriched low-degree partial melt from the garnet stability field. These results indicate that depleted mantle which experiences ancient melting event are more sensitive to melt refertilization, thus may reduce the melt flux, leading to extremely thin crust at 53°E segment. This research was granted by the National Basic Research Programme of China (973 programme) (grant No. 2013CB429705) and the Fundamental Research Funds of Second Institute of

  6. SciTech Connect

    Lv, Mei; Liu, Zengrong; He, Bing

    In previous studies, we reported molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showing that single-file water wires confined inside Y-shaped single-walled carbon nanotubes (Y-SWNTs) held strong and robust capability to convert and multiply charge signals [Y. S. Tu, P. Xiu, R. Z. Wan, J. Hu, R. H. Zhou, and H. P. Fang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 18120 (2009); Y. Tu, H. Lu, Y. Zhang, T. Huynh, and R. Zhou, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 015104 (2013)]. It is fascinating to see whether the signal multiplication can be realized by other kinds of polar molecules with larger dipole moments (which make the experimentalmore » realization easier). In this article, we use MD simulations to study the urea-mediated signal conversion and multiplication with Y-SWNTs. We observe that when a Y-SWNT with an external charge of magnitude 1.0 e (the model of a signal at the single-electron level) is solvated in 1 M urea solutions, urea can induce drying of the Y-SWNT and fill its interiors in single-file, forming Y-shaped urea wires. The external charge can effectively control the dipole orientation of the urea wire inside the main channel (i.e., the signal can be readily converted), and this signal can further be multiplied into 2 (or more) output signals by modulating dipole orientations of urea wires in bifurcated branch channels of the Y-SWNT. This remarkable signal transduction capability arises from the strong dipole-induced ordering of urea wires under extreme confinement. We also discuss the advantage of urea as compared with water in the signal multiplication, as well as the robustness and biological implications of our findings. This study provides the possibility for multiplying signals by using urea molecules (or other polar organic molecules) with Y-shaped nanochannels and might also help understand the mechanism behind signal conduction in both physical and biological systems.« less

  7. Sensory quality evaluation for appearance of needle-shaped green tea based on computer vision and nonlinear tools*

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chun-wang; Zhu, Hong-kai; Zhao, Jie-wen; Jiang, Yong-wen; Yuan, Hai-bo; Chen, Quan-sheng

    2017-01-01

    Tea is one of the three greatest beverages in the world. In China, green tea has the largest consumption, and needle-shaped green tea, such as Maofeng tea and Sparrow Tongue tea, accounts for more than 40% of green tea (Zhu et al., 2017). The appearance of green tea is one of the important indexes during the evaluation of green tea quality. Especially in market transactions, the price of tea is usually determined by its appearance (Zhou et al., 2012). Human sensory evaluation is usually conducted by experts, and is also easily affected by various factors such as light, experience, psychological and visual factors. In the meantime, people may distinguish the slight differences between similar colors or textures, but the specific levels of the tea are hard to determine (Chen et al., 2008). As human description of color and texture is qualitative, it is hard to evaluate the sensory quality accurately, in a standard manner, and objectively. Color is an important visual property of a computer image (Xie et al., 2014; Khulal et al., 2016); texture is a visual performance of image grayscale and color changing with spatial positions, which can be used to describe the roughness and directivity of the surface of an object (Sanaeifar et al., 2016). There are already researchers who have used computer visual image technologies to identify the varieties, levels, and origins of tea (Chen et al., 2008; Xie et al., 2014; Zhu et al., 2017). Most of their research targets are crush, tear, and curl (CTC) red (green) broken tea, curly green tea (Bilochun tea), and flat-typed green tea (West Lake Dragon-well green tea) as the information sources. However, the target of the above research is to establish a qualitative evaluation method on tea quality (Fu et al., 2013). There is little literature on the sensory evaluation of the appearance quality of needle-shaped green tea, especially research on a quantitative evaluation model (Zhou et al., 2012; Zhu et al., 2017). PMID:28585431

  8. Mechanisms for the cooling of the central eastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunlei; Allan, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The sea surface temperature variation over the Central Eastern Pacific (CEP) controls the global mean surface temperature variation (Kosaka and Xie, 2013). The regional cooling over CEP is directly linked to the surface warming slowdown in last twenty years. It is important to understand the mechanisms of the CEP cooling in the warming climate in order to have a robust prediction of the future climate change. Previous studies showed the CEP cooling is related to the pronounced strengthening in Pacific trade winds over the past two decades, which is sufficient to account for the cooling of the CEP and a substantial slowdown in surface warming through increased subsurface ocean heat uptake in the Pacific shallow overturning cells and equatorial upwelling in the CEP (England et al., 2014). By analysing the cloud data, Zhou et al. (2016) showed the increase of the lower cloud cover (LCC) over the CEP area contributed to the cooling, resulting in positive local feedback and negative global feedback. Using the data from observations, ERA-Interim reanalysis and atmospheric climate simulations, our study shows that the increasing Latent Heat (LH) also plays an important role in the CEP cooling (Liu et al., 2015). After the sensitivity test using the bulk formula, it showed that both wind and total column water vapour content contribute to the cooling trends of the SST in CEP. The observed trends of the wind and LH in CEP also confirmed this. England et al. (2014) Recent intensification of wind-driven circulation in the Pacific and the ongoing warming hiatus, Nat. Clim. Change, 4, 222-227, doi:10.1038/nclimate2106. Kosaka, Y., and S. P. Xie (2013), Recent global-warming hiatus tied to equatorial Pacific surface cooling, Nature, 501, 403-407, doi:10.1038/nature12534. Liu et al. (2015) Combining satellite observations and reanalysis energy transports to estimate global net surface energy fluxes 1985-2012. J. Geophys. Res. , Atmospheres. ISSN 2169-8996 doi: 10.1002/2015JD

  9. Petrology of metabasic and peridotitic rocks of the Songshugou ophiolite, Qinling orogen, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belic, Maximilian; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Dong, Yunpeng

    2013-04-01

    unclear but probably related to the closure of the Shangdan ocean during the early Paleozoic. The financial support by Eurasia-Pacific Uninet is gratefully acknowledged. Dong, Y.P., Zhou, M.F., Zhang, G.W., Zhou, D.W., Liu, L., Zhang, Q., 2008. The Grenvillian Songshugou ophiolite in the Qinling Mountains, Central China: implications for the tectonic evolution of the Qinling orogenic belt. Journal of Asian Earth Science 32 (5-6), 325-335.

  10. Possible polyphase metamorphic evolution of high grade metabasic rocks from the Songshugou ophiolite, Qinling orogen, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belic, Maximilian; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Dong, Yunpeng; Chen, Danling

    2014-05-01

    cycle or developed during a separate event. The financial support by Eurasia-Pacific Uninet is gratefully acknowledged. Dong, Y.P., Zhou, M.F., Zhang, G.W., Zhou, D.W., Liu, L., Zhang, Q., 2008. The Grenvillian Songshugou ophiolite in the Qinling Mountains, Central China: implications for the tectonic evolution of the Qinling orogenic belt. Journal of Asian Earth Science 32 (5-6), 325-335. Zhang, Z.J., 1999. Metamorphic evolution of garnet-clinopyroxene-amphibole rocks from the Proterozoic Songshugou mafic-ultramafic complex, Qinling Mountains, central China. The Island Arc, 8, 259-280.

  11. A Review: Development of a Microdose Model for Analysis of Adaptive Response and Bystander Dose Response Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Bobby E.

    2008-01-01

    Prior work has provided incremental phases to a microdosimetry modeling program to describe the dose response behavior of the radio-protective adaptive response effect. We have here consolidated these prior works (Leonard 2000, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) to provide a composite, comprehensive Microdose Model that is also herein modified to include the bystander effect. The nomenclature for the model is also standardized for the benefit of the experimental cellular radio-biologist. It extends the prior work to explicitly encompass separately the analysis of experimental data that is 1.) only dose dependent and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection, 2.) both dose and dose-rate dependent data and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection for spontaneous and challenge dose damage, 3.) only dose dependent data and reflecting both bystander deleterious damage and adaptive response radio-protection (AR-BE model). The Appendix cites the various applications of the model. Here we have used the Microdose Model to analyze the, much more human risk significant, Elmore et al (2006) data for the dose and dose rate influence on the adaptive response radio-protective behavior of HeLa x Skin cells for naturally occurring, spontaneous chromosome damage from a Brachytherapy type 125I photon radiation source. We have also applied the AR-BE Microdose Model to the Chromosome inversion data of Hooker et al (2004) reflecting both low LET bystander and adaptive response effects. The micro-beam facility data of Miller et al (1999), Nagasawa and Little (1999) and Zhou et al (2003) is also examined. For the Zhou et al (2003) data, we use the AR-BE model to estimate the threshold for adaptive response reduction of the bystander effect. The mammogram and diagnostic X-ray induction of AR and protective BE are observed. We show that bystander damage is reduced in the similar manner as spontaneous and challenge dose damage as shown by the Azzam et al (1996) data. We cite

  12. A review: Development of a microdose model for analysis of adaptive response and bystander dose response behavior.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Bobby E

    2008-02-27

    Prior work has provided incremental phases to a microdosimetry modeling program to describe the dose response behavior of the radio-protective adaptive response effect. We have here consolidated these prior works (Leonard 2000, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) to provide a composite, comprehensive Microdose Model that is also herein modified to include the bystander effect. The nomenclature for the model is also standardized for the benefit of the experimental cellular radio-biologist. It extends the prior work to explicitly encompass separately the analysis of experimental data that is 1.) only dose dependent and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection, 2.) both dose and dose-rate dependent data and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection for spontaneous and challenge dose damage, 3.) only dose dependent data and reflecting both bystander deleterious damage and adaptive response radio-protection (AR-BE model). The Appendix cites the various applications of the model. Here we have used the Microdose Model to analyze the, much more human risk significant, Elmore et al (2006) data for the dose and dose rate influence on the adaptive response radio-protective behavior of HeLa x Skin cells for naturally occurring, spontaneous chromosome damage from a Brachytherapy type (125)I photon radiation source. We have also applied the AR-BE Microdose Model to the Chromosome inversion data of Hooker et al (2004) reflecting both low LET bystander and adaptive response effects. The micro-beam facility data of Miller et al (1999), Nagasawa and Little (1999) and Zhou et al (2003) is also examined. For the Zhou et al (2003) data, we use the AR-BE model to estimate the threshold for adaptive response reduction of the bystander effect. The mammogram and diagnostic X-ray induction of AR and protective BE are observed. We show that bystander damage is reduced in the similar manner as spontaneous and challenge dose damage as shown by the Azzam et al (1996) data. We cite

  13. Inverse U-shaped Association between Sleep Duration and Semen Quality: Longitudinal Observational Study (MARHCS) in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing; Yang, Huan; Zhou, Niya; Sun, Lei; Bao, Huaqiong; Tan, Lu; Chen, Hongqiang; Ling, Xi; Zhang, Guowei; Huang, Linping; Li, Lianbing; Ma, Mingfu; Yang, Hao; Wang, Xiaogang; Zou, Peng; Peng, Kaige; Liu, Taixiu; Cui, Zhihong; Ao, Lin; Roenneberg, Till; Zhou, Ziyuan; Cao, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the association between sleep duration and semen parameters as well as reproductive hormone levels. Methods: We designed a cohort of male college students in Chongqing, China. A total of 796 subjects were recruited in 2013 and 656 (82.4%) were followed up in 2014. Each time, semen and peripheral blood samples were collected for semen quality and reproductive hormone measurement. Sleep duration was estimated by revised Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. In 2014, sleep quality was also measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Results: There was a substantial inverse U-shaped association between sleep duration and two semen parameters (semen volume and total sperm number), with 7.0–7.5 h/day of sleep showing highest parameters. Either longer or shorter sleep was associated with decreased semen parameters in a dose-response manner (P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). Sleeping > 9.0 h was associated with a 21.5% (95% confidence interval 9.2, 32.2) reduction in semen volume and 39.4% (23.3, 52.1) reduction in total sperm number; sleeping ≤ 6.5 h was associated with 4.6% (−10.5, 22.3) and 25.7% (−1.2, 60.1) reduction. Increase of the two parameters was found in those who changed sleep duration toward 7.0–7.5 h/day from 2013 to 2014. The U-shaped association was independent from PSQI and was replicated in another dataset of 1,346 males. No association found between sleep duration and reproductive hormone. Conclusions: Either restricted or excessive sleep may impair semen quality. Further research is needed to validate this finding. Citation: Chen Q, Yang H, Zhou N, Sun L, Bao H, Tan L, Chen H, Ling X, Zhang G, Huang L, Li L, Ma M, Yang H, Wang X, Zou P, Peng K, Liu T, Cui Z, Ao L, Roenneberg T, Zhou Z, Cao J. Inverse u-shaped association between sleep duration and semen quality: longitudinal observational study (MARHCS) in Chongqing, China. SLEEP 2016;39(1):79–86. PMID:26350472

  14. Brunhes-Matuyama Magnetic Polarity Reversal Tracing using Chinese loess10Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, W.; Beck, W.; Kong, X.; An, Z.; Qiang, X.; Wu, Z.; Xian, F.; Ao, H.

    2014-12-01

    The geomagnetic polarity reversal is generally considered to occur synchronously around the world, and is commonly used as a time marker. However, in the case of the most recent reversal, the Brunhes-Matuyama (B-M) reversal (~780 ka), comparison of paleomagnetic studies in Chinese loess-paleosol sequences versus marine sediments revealed a marked discrepancy in timing of this event (Tauxe et al., 1996; Zhou and Shackleton, 1999), leading to the debate on uncertainties of paleoclimatic correlation between the Chinese loess-paleosol sequences and marine sediments (Wang et al., 2006; Liu et al., 2008; Jin and Liu, 2011). Based on this issue, here we propose to use the cosmogenic 10Be to address this conundrum. 10Be is a long-lived radionuclide produced in the atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation reactions and carried to the ground attached to aerosols. Its atmospheric production rate is inversely proportional to the geomagnetic field intensity (Masarik and Beer, 1999). This allows us to reconstruct past geomagnetic field intensity variations using 10Be concentrations recorded in different sedimentary archives. We carried out the 10Be studies in Luochuan and Xifeng sections in Chinese Loess Plateau, both loess profiles show that 10Be production rate was at a maximum-an indication of the dipole field reversal-at ca. 780 ± 3 ka BP., in paleosol unit S7corresponding to MIS 19. These results have proven that the timing of B-M reversal recorded in Chinese loess is synchronous with that seen in marine records (Tauxe et al., 1996) and reaffirmed the conventional paleoclimatic correlation of loess-paleosol sequences with marine isotope stages and the standard loess timescale as correct. However, it is ~25 ka younger than the age (depth) of the magnetic polarity reversal recorded in these same Chinese loess-paleosol sequences, demonstrating that loess magnetic overprinting has occurred. 1.Jin, C.S.,et al., 2011,PALAEOGEOGR PALAEOCL, 299, 309-3172.Liu, Q.S., et al., 2008, EARTH

  15. South American Summer Monsoon of 1997/1998 and 1998/1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K.-M.; Zhou, Jiayu

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that during El Nino years severe drought occurs in the area of Amazon and northeastern Brazil. According to the linear model result the reduced latent heating over the Amazon may lead to a weaker than normal upper tropospheric Bolivian high. As a result, some studies have suggested a weaker South American summer monsoon (SASM) during El Nino years. Using re-analysis. Zhou and Lau data found a statistically significant positive correlation between the tropical eastern Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and the strength of low-level jet (LLJ) along the eastern foothills of the tropical-subtropical Andes. Douglas also showed a strong LLJ at Santa Cruz, Bolivia during a special pilot balloon observation period in 1997/98 El Nino austral summer. Since this LLJ is an integral part of the monsoon system in the summertime, these results indicated that SASM could be stronger than normal in El Nino years. To clarify this issue, we conducted an investigation on SASM anomaly in the recent ENSO event of 1997/98 El Nino and 1998/99 La Nina In the following we first give a brief review on SASM and the interannual variability of summer rainfall over South America. Then, the impact of 1997-99 ENSO on the South American regional thermal structure and its dynamical consequences to SASM will be discussed.

  16. Novel dynamic tuning of broadband visible metamaterial perfect absorber using graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xiuli; Wang, Xiaoou; Yuan, Chengxun; Meng, Qingxin; Zhou, Zhongxiang

    2016-07-01

    We present a novel dynamic tuning of a broadband visible metamaterial absorber consisting of a multilayer-graphene-embedded nano-cross elliptical hole (MGENCEH) structure. It has multiple effects, including excitation of surface plasmon polaritons and extraordinary optical transmission in the first two metal layers. A numerical simulation shows that the MGENCEH structure can realize broadband perfect absorption (BPA) from 5.85 × 1014 to 6.5 × 1014 Hz over a wide incident angle range for transverse magnetic polarized light if the chemical potential of graphene (uc) is tuned to 1.0 eV. Furthermore, it has high broadband absorption (above 96%) from 4.6 × 1014 to 6.6 × 1014 Hz and three areas of narrowband perfect absorption around 4.65 × 1014, 5.1 × 1014, and 5.6 × 1014 Hz. The changes in the absorption spectra as a function of uc can be classically explained by simply considering plasmons as damped harmonic oscillators. This BPA is broader than the result of Zhou et al. [Opt. Express 23, A413-A418 (2015)] and is particularly desirable for various potential applications such as solar energy absorbers.

  17. Resistance properties of coal-water slurry flowing through local piping fittings

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Meng; Duan, Yu Feng

    2009-07-15

    Local resistance characteristics of coal-water slurry (CWS) flowing through three types of piping components, namely gradual contractions, sudden contractions and 90 horizontal bends, were investigated at a transportation test facility. The results show that CWS exhibits different rheological behaviors, i.e., the shear-thinning, Newtonian, and shear-thicken, at different shear rates. When CWS flows through the gradual contractions, the local pressure loss firstly decreases to a minimum, and then increases as the gradual contraction angle ({theta}) increases. When the CWS flow through the sudden contractions, with the increase of pipe diameter ratio ({beta}), the local pressure loss increases for the two kindsmore » of CWS, SHEN-HUA (S-H) CWS and YAN-ZHOU (Y-Z) CWS whose mass concentration range from 57% to 59% and 59% to 62%, respectively. For 90 horizontal bends, there is an optimal value of the bend diameter ratio (Rc/D) at which the local pressure loss is the least. Furthermore, the local resistance coefficient (K) in the empirical correlations is determined from the experimental data. The correlations show that as Re increases, K of the three fittings declines quickly at first. However, with further increase in Re, K shows different behaviors for the three fittings due to the special rheological property of CWS at higher shear rates. The factors of {theta}, {beta} and Rc/D have minor effects on K. (author)« less

  18. Resistance properties of coal-water slurry flowing through local piping fittings

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, L.; Duan, Y.F.

    2009-07-15

    Local resistance characteristics of coal-water slurry (CWS) flowing through three types of piping components, namely gradual contractions, sudden contractions and 90 horizontal bends, were investigated at a transportation test facility. The results show that CWS exhibits different rheological behaviors, i.e., the shear-thinning, Newtonian, and shear-thicken, at different shear rates. When CWS flows through the gradual contractions, the local pressure loss firstly decreases to a minimum, and then increases as the gradual contraction angle {theta} increases. When the CWS flow through the sudden contractions, with the increase of pipe diameter ratio {beta}, the local pressure loss increases for the two kindsmore » of CWS, SHEN-HUA (S-H) CWS and YAN-ZHOU (Y-Z) CWS whose mass concentration range from 57% to 59% and 59% to 62%, respectively. For 90 horizontal bends, there is an optimal value of the bend diameter ratio (Rc/D) at which the local pressure loss is the least. Furthermore, the local resistance coefficient (K) in the empirical correlations is determined from the experimental data. The correlations show that as Re increases, K of the three fittings declines quickly at first. However, with further increase in Re, K shows different behaviors for the three fittings due to the special rheological property of CWS at higher shear rates. The factors of theta, beta and Rc/D have minor effects on K.« less

  19. Unified Least Squares Methods for the Evaluation of Diagnostic Tests With the Gold Standard

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Liansheng Larry; Yuan, Ao; Collins, John; Che, Xuan; Chan, Leighton

    2017-01-01

    The article proposes a unified least squares method to estimate the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) parameters for continuous and ordinal diagnostic tests, such as cancer biomarkers. The method is based on a linear model framework using the empirically estimated sensitivities and specificities as input “data.” It gives consistent estimates for regression and accuracy parameters when the underlying continuous test results are normally distributed after some monotonic transformation. The key difference between the proposed method and the method of Tang and Zhou lies in the response variable. The response variable in the latter is transformed empirical ROC curves at different thresholds. It takes on many values for continuous test results, but few values for ordinal test results. The limited number of values for the response variable makes it impractical for ordinal data. However, the response variable in the proposed method takes on many more distinct values so that the method yields valid estimates for ordinal data. Extensive simulation studies are conducted to investigate and compare the finite sample performance of the proposed method with an existing method, and the method is then used to analyze 2 real cancer diagnostic example as an illustration. PMID:28469385

  20. A cubic map chaos criterion theorem with applications in generalized synchronization based pseudorandom number generator and image encryption.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiuping; Min, Lequan; Wang, Xue

    2015-05-01

    This paper sets up a chaos criterion theorem on a kind of cubic polynomial discrete maps. Using this theorem, Zhou-Song's chaos criterion theorem on quadratic polynomial discrete maps and generalized synchronization (GS) theorem construct an eight-dimensional chaotic GS system. Numerical simulations have been carried out to verify the effectiveness of theoretical results. The chaotic GS system is used to design a chaos-based pseudorandom number generator (CPRNG). Using FIPS 140-2 test suit/Generalized FIPS 140-2, test suit tests the randomness of two 1000 key streams consisting of 20 000 bits generated by the CPRNG, respectively. The results show that there are 99.9%/98.5% key streams to have passed the FIPS 140-2 test suit/Generalized FIPS 140-2 test. Numerical simulations show that the different keystreams have an average 50.001% same codes. The key space of the CPRNG is larger than 2(1345). As an application of the CPRNG, this study gives an image encryption example. Experimental results show that the linear coefficients between the plaintext and the ciphertext and the decrypted ciphertexts via the 100 key streams with perturbed keys are less than 0.00428. The result suggests that the decrypted texts via the keystreams generated via perturbed keys of the CPRNG are almost completely independent on the original image text, and brute attacks are needed to break the cryptographic system.

  1. A cubic map chaos criterion theorem with applications in generalized synchronization based pseudorandom number generator and image encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiuping; Min, Lequan; Wang, Xue

    2015-05-01

    This paper sets up a chaos criterion theorem on a kind of cubic polynomial discrete maps. Using this theorem, Zhou-Song's chaos criterion theorem on quadratic polynomial discrete maps and generalized synchronization (GS) theorem construct an eight-dimensional chaotic GS system. Numerical simulations have been carried out to verify the effectiveness of theoretical results. The chaotic GS system is used to design a chaos-based pseudorandom number generator (CPRNG). Using FIPS 140-2 test suit/Generalized FIPS 140-2, test suit tests the randomness of two 1000 key streams consisting of 20 000 bits generated by the CPRNG, respectively. The results show that there are 99.9%/98.5% key streams to have passed the FIPS 140-2 test suit/Generalized FIPS 140-2 test. Numerical simulations show that the different keystreams have an average 50.001% same codes. The key space of the CPRNG is larger than 21345. As an application of the CPRNG, this study gives an image encryption example. Experimental results show that the linear coefficients between the plaintext and the ciphertext and the decrypted ciphertexts via the 100 key streams with perturbed keys are less than 0.00428. The result suggests that the decrypted texts via the keystreams generated via perturbed keys of the CPRNG are almost completely independent on the original image text, and brute attacks are needed to break the cryptographic system.

  2. Intra- and interregional coregulation of opioid genes: broken symmetry in spinal circuits

    PubMed Central

    Kononenko, Olga; Galatenko, Vladimir; Andersson, Malin; Bazov, Igor; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Zhou, Xing Wu; Iatsyshyna, Anna; Mityakina, Irina; Yakovleva, Tatiana; Sarkisyan, Daniil; Ponomarev, Igor; Krishtal, Oleg; Marklund, Niklas; Tonevitsky, Alex; Adkins, DeAnna L.; Bakalkin, Georgy

    2017-01-01

    Regulation of the formation and rewiring of neural circuits by neuropeptides may require coordinated production of these signaling molecules and their receptors that may be established at the transcriptional level. Here, we address this hypothesis by comparing absolute expression levels of opioid peptides with their receptors, the largest neuropeptide family, and by characterizing coexpression (transcriptionally coordinated) patterns of these genes. We demonstrated that expression patterns of opioid genes highly correlate within and across functionally and anatomically different areas. Opioid peptide genes, compared with their receptor genes, are transcribed at much greater absolute levels, which suggests formation of a neuropeptide cloud that covers the receptor-expressed circuits. Surprisingly, we found that both expression levels and the proportion of opioid receptors are strongly lateralized in the spinal cord, interregional coexpression patterns are side specific, and intraregional coexpression profiles are affected differently by left- and right-side unilateral body injury. We propose that opioid genes are regulated as interconnected components of the same molecular system distributed between distinct anatomic regions. The striking feature of this system is its asymmetric coexpression patterns, which suggest side-specific regulation of selective neural circuits by opioid neurohormones.—Kononenko, O., Galatenko, V., Andersson, M., Bazov, I., Watanabe, H., Zhou, X. W., Iatsyshyna, A., Mityakina, I., Yakovleva, T., Sarkisyan, D., Ponomarev, I., Krishtal, O., Marklund, N., Tonevitsky, A., Adkins, D. L., Bakalkin, G. Intra- and interregional coregulation of opioid genes: broken symmetry in spinal circuits. PMID:28122917

  3. Interplay between Self-Assembled Structures and Energy Level Alignment of Benzenediamine on Au(111) Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guo; Neaton, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Using van der Waals-corrected density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we study the adsorption of benzene-diamine (BDA) molecules on Au(111) surfaces. We find that at low surface coverage, the adsorbed molecules prefer to stay isolated from each other in a monomer phase, due to the inter-molecular dipole-dipole repulsions. However, when the coverage rises above a critical value of 0.9nm-2, the adsorbed molecules aggregate into linear structures via hydrogen bonding between amine groups, consistent with recent experiments [Haxton, Zhou, Tamblyn, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 265701 (2013)]. Moreover, we find that these linear structures at high density considerably reduces the Au work function (relative to a monomer phase). Due to reduced surface polarization effects, we estimate that the resonance energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital of the adsorbed BDA molecule relative to the Au Fermi level is significantly lower than the monomer phase by more than 0.5 eV, consistent with the experimental measurements [DellAngela, Kladnik, and Cossaro, et al., Nano Lett. 10, 2470 (2010)]. This work supported by DOE (the JCAP under Award Number DE-SC000499 and the Molecular Foundry of LBNL), and computational resources provided by NERSC.

  4. Low Temperature Thermodynamic Equilibrium of CO2 Dimer Anion Species in Cryogenic Argon and Krypton Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, Michael E.; Moore, David T.

    2016-06-01

    The separated CO2 dimer anion, (CO2)(CO2-), is observed by FTIR spectroscopy in matrix isolation experiments at 1652 cm-1 upon deposition of high energy argon ions into an argon matrix doped with 0.5% CO2. It has previously been reported by Andrews that upon annealing the matrix to 25K, the separated species converts to an oxalate-like C2O4- species which appears at 1856 cm-1.a We have observed that subsequently holding the matrix at 10K caused the C2O4- species to fully convert back to (CO2)(CO2-). Upon further investigation, we determined that the two species reversibly interconvert between 19K and 23K, suggesting the species are in thermodynamic equilibrium. The associated van't Hoff plot has a linear trend and indicates an endothermic reaction driven by a large increase in entropy. An analogous experiment in a krypton matrix was performed, and the equilibrium was found to occur between 26K and 31K. Interestingly, analysis revealed the reaction in krypton is more endothermic, but has nearly the same entropy value as was observed in the argon experiment. aZhou, M.; Andrews, L.; J. Chem. Phys. 110, 2414 (1999).

  5. Coordinated control system modelling of ultra-supercritical unit based on a new T-S fuzzy structure.

    PubMed

    Hou, Guolian; Du, Huan; Yang, Yu; Huang, Congzhi; Zhang, Jianhua

    2018-03-01

    The thermal power plant, especially the ultra-supercritical unit is featured with severe nonlinearity, strong multivariable coupling. In order to deal with these difficulties, it is of great importance to build an accurate and simple model of the coordinated control system (CCS) in the ultra-supercritical unit. In this paper, an improved T-S fuzzy model identification approach is proposed. First of all, the k-means++ algorithm is employed to identify the premise parameters so as to guarantee the number of fuzzy rules. Then, the local linearized models are determined by using the incremental historical data around the cluster centers, which are obtained via the stochastic gradient descent algorithm with momentum and variable learning rate. Finally, with the proposed method, the CCS model of a 1000 MW USC unit in Tai Zhou power plant is developed. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is validated by the given extensive simulation results, and it can be further employed to design the overall advanced controllers for the CCS in an USC unit. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of bacterial cellulose using different carbon sources and culture media.

    PubMed

    Mohammadkazemi, Faranak; Azin, Mehrdad; Ashori, Alireza

    2015-03-06

    In this work, the effects of carbon sources and culture media on the production and structural properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) have been studied. BC nanofibers were synthesized using Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain PTCC 1734. Media used were Hestrin-Schramm (H), Yamanaka (Y), and Zhou (Z). Five different carbon sources, namely date syrup, glucose, mannitol, sucrose, and food-grade sucrose were used in these media. All the produced BC pellicles were characterized in terms of dry weight production, biomass yield, thermal stability, crystallinity and morphology by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The obtained results showed that mannitol lead to the highest yield, followed by sucrose. The highest production efficiency of mannitol might be due to the nitrogen source, which plays an important role. The maximum improvement on the thermal stability of the composites was achieved when mannitol was used in H medium. In addition, the crystallinity was higher in BC formed in H medium compared to other media. FE-SEM micrographs illustrated that the BC pellicles, synthesized in the culture media H and Z, were stable, unlike those in medium Y that were unstable. The micrographs of BC produced in media containing mannitol and sucrose provided evidence of the strong interfacial adhesion between the BC fibers without noticeable aggregates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Research on fatigue cracking growth parameters in asphaltic mixtures using computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braz, D.; Lopes, R. T.; Motta, L. M. G.

    2004-01-01

    Distress of asphalt concrete pavement due to repeated bending from traffic loads has been a well-recognized problem in Brazil. If it is assumed that fatigue cracking growth is governed by the conditions at the crack tip, and that the crack tip conditions can be characterized by the stress intensity factor, then fatigue cracking growth as a function of stress intensity range Δ K can be determined. Computed tomography technique is used to detect crack evolution in asphaltic mixtures which were submitted to fatigue tests. Fatigue tests under conditions of controlled stress were carried out using diametral compression equipment and repeat loading. The aim of this work is imaging several specimens at different stages of the fatigue tests. In preliminary studies it was noted that the trajectory of a crack was influenced by the existence of voids in the originally unloaded specimens. Cracks would first be observed in the central region of a specimen, propagating in the direction of the extremities. Analyzing the graphics, that represent the fatigue cracking growth (d c/d N) as a function of stress intensity factor (Δ K), it is noticed that the curve has practically shown the same behavior for all specimens at the same level of the static tension rupture stress. The experimental values obtained for the constants A and n (of the Paris-Erdogan Law) present good agreement with the results obtained by Liang and Zhou.

  8. Modeling of Current-Voltage Characteristics in Large Metal-Semiconducting Carbon Nanotube Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Toshishige; Biegel, Bryon A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A model is proposed for two observed current-voltage (I-V) patterns in recent experiment with a scanning tunneling microscope tip and a carbon nanotube [Collins et al., Science 278, 100 (1997)]. We claim that there are two contact modes for a tip (metal)-nanotube (semiconductor) junction depending whether the alignment of the metal and the semiconductor band structures is (1) variable (vacuum-gap) or (2) fixed (touching) with V. With the tip grounded, the tunneling case in (1) would produce large dI/dV with V > 0, small dI/dV with V < 0, and I = 0 near V = 0 for an either n- or p-nanotube. However, the Schottky mechanism in (2) would result in forward current with V < 0 for an n-nanotube, while with V > 0 for an p-nanotube. The two observed I-V patterns are thus entirely explained by a tip-nanotube contact of the two types, where the nanotube must be n-type. We apply this model to the source-drain I-V characteristics in a long nanotube-channel field-effect-transistor with metallic electrodes at low temperature [Zhou et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1597 (2000)], and show that two independent metal-semiconductor junctions in series are responsible for the observed behavior.

  9. [Revision to origin of northern Artemisia argyi in Compendium of Materia Medica (Bencao gangmu)].

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu-qi; Qiu, Le

    2014-12-01

    The origin of northern Artemisia argyi recorded in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu) is Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county, While there is only Fudao(Chinese characters) instead of Fudao(Chinese characters). Whether indeed Fudao(Chinese characters) is Fudao(Chinese characters)? By reviewing the genuine evolution of A. argyi, doing textual research on Fudao(Chinese characters) and combing with field survey data of national census of Chinese Materia Medica resources, this paper concluded that the word Fudao(Chinese characters) firstly emerged in Figure Canon of Chinese Materia Medica(Bencao tujing) of Susong in Song dynasty and was applied in later generations, but the implication was not clear, then emerged both Tangyin and Fudao(Chinese characters) in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu). The place Fudao(Chinese characters) is one of the graves of Bianque, that existed from Shang and Zhou dynasty and never changed until now, the A. argyi of Tangyin was famous from the grave of Bianque in Fudao(Chinese characters), which could infer that Lishizhen considered Fudao (Chinese characters) was Fudao(Chinese characters) indeed, and the origin of northern A. argyi was Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county.

  10. [Deciphering the argots of the names of materia medica and its dosage in the Yi lin kou pu liu zhi mi shu (A Secret Medical Book of Six Therapies in Rhymes of Medical Professionals)].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Lin, Shiyi; Liu, Shijue

    2014-11-01

    Yi lin kou pu liu zhi mi shu (A Secret Medical Book of Six Therapies in Rhymes of Medical Professionals) was additionally compiled, supplemented and annotated by Zhou Sheng, a famous doctor of the Qing Dynasty, based on Yi lin kou pu (Rhymes of Medical Professionals) which was composed by Lu Qi. The book contains four volumes in total, dealing mainly with the miscellaneous diseases of internal medicine, as well as external medicine, gynecology, and pediatrics etc. The syndrome differentiation and treatment, prescriptions and medications in this book has its own characteristic with rather high academic value and practical significance. There were 20 drug names were deciphered by the argots, for instance, "you che" was the argot of golden thread, and "wu yue (May)" was the argot of medicinal evodia fruit, etc. In addition, the argots were often used to decipher numerals and quantifiers, for example, "su, qi, zi, qi, man" referring to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 respectively, and "huo, pu, xiang, feng, lai" referring to 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 respectively, and "qing","zhong","xi" referring to qian, liang and fen respectively. Hence, deciphering of these argots could help to understand and apply these prescriptions correctly.

  11. Strength of object representation: its key role in object-based attention for determining the competition result between Gestalt and top-down objects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingjing; Wang, Yonghui; Liu, Donglai; Zhao, Liang; Liu, Peng

    2015-10-01

    It was found in previous studies that two types of objects (rectangles formed according to the Gestalt principle and Chinese words formed in a top-down fashion) can both induce an object-based effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the strength of an object representation affects the result of the competition between these two types of objects based on research carried out by Liu, Wang and Zhou [(2011) Acta Psychologica, 138(3), 397-404]. In Experiment 1, the rectangles were filled with two different colors to increase the strength of Gestalt object representation, and we found that the object effect changed significantly for the different stimulus types. Experiment 2 used Chinese words with various familiarities to manipulate the strength of the top-down object representation. As a result, the object-based effect induced by rectangles was observed only when the Chinese word familiarity was low. These results suggest that the strength of object representation determines the result of competition between different types of objects.

  12. Theory of mode coupling in spin torque oscillators coupled to a thermal bath of magnons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Shulei; Li, Dong; Heinonen, Olle

    Recently, numerous experimental investigations have shown that the dynamics of a single spin torque oscillator (STO) exhibits complex behavior stemming from interactions between two or more modes of the oscillator. Examples are the observed mode-hopping and mode coexistence. There has been some initial work indicating how the theory for a single-mode (macro-spin) spin torque oscillator should be generalized to include several modes and the interactions between them. In this work, we rigorously derive such a theory starting with the generalized Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in the presence of the current-driven spin transfer torques. We will first show, in general, that how a linear mode coupling would arise through the coupling of the system to a thermal bath of magnons, which implies that the manifold of orbits and fixed points may shift with temperature. We then apply our theory to two experimentally interesting systems: 1) a STO patterned into nano-pillar with circular or elliptical cross-sections and 2) a nano-contact STO. For both cases, we found that in order to get mode coupling, it would be necessary to have either a finite in-plane component of the external field or an Oersted field. We will also discuss the temperature dependence of the linear mode coupling. Y. Zhou acknowledges the support by the Seed Funding Program for Basic Research from the University of Hong Kong, and University Grants Committee of Hong Kong (Contract No. AoE/P-04/08).

  13. A Generalizable Methodology for Quantifying User Satisfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Te-Yuan; Chen, Kuan-Ta; Huang, Polly; Lei, Chin-Laung

    Quantifying user satisfaction is essential, because the results can help service providers deliver better services. In this work, we propose a generalizable methodology, based on survival analysis, to quantify user satisfaction in terms of session times, i. e., the length of time users stay with an application. Unlike subjective human surveys, our methodology is based solely on passive measurement, which is more cost-efficient and better able to capture subconscious reactions. Furthermore, by using session times, rather than a specific performance indicator, such as the level of distortion of voice signals, the effects of other factors like loudness and sidetone, can also be captured by the developed models. Like survival analysis, our methodology is characterized by low complexity and a simple model-developing process. The feasibility of our methodology is demonstrated through case studies of ShenZhou Online, a commercial MMORPG in Taiwan, and the most prevalent VoIP application in the world, namely Skype. Through the model development process, we can also identify the most significant performance factors and their impacts on user satisfaction and discuss how they can be exploited to improve user experience and optimize resource allocation.

  14. Optical quasi-soliton solutions for higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with variable coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiefang; Yang, Qin; Dai, Chaoqing

    2005-04-01

    Optical quasi-soliton solutions for higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation (HNLS) with variable coefficients are considered. Based on the extended tanh-function method, we successfully obtained bright and dark quasi-soliton solutions under certain parametric conditions. We conclude that the parameter k(z) is unnecessary to be zero compared with [R. Yang et al., Opt. Commun. 242 (2004) 285]. Furthermore, we choose appropriate optical fiber parameters D2(z) and D3(z) to control the velocity of quasi-soliton and time shift, and discuss the evolution behavior of the special quasi-soliton. For D3(z) = α(z) = f(z) = 0, that is to say, under the absence of the higher order terms, we give same results as early reported in [R.Y. Hao, L. Li, Z.H. Li, W.R. Xue, G.S. Zhou, Opt. Commun. 236 (2004) 79]. As discussed examples, we also analyze three optical systems with real physical significance and obtain results which can be recovered in earlier papers.

  15. Analysis of nonlocal phonon thermal conductivity simulations showing the ballistic to diffusive crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Philip B.

    2018-04-01

    Simulations [e.g., X. W. Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. B 79, 115201 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevB.79.115201] show nonlocal effects of the ballistic/diffusive crossover. The local temperature has nonlinear spatial variation not contained in the local Fourier law j ⃗(r ⃗) =-κ ∇ ⃗T (r ⃗) . The heat current j ⃗(r ⃗) depends not just on the local temperature gradient ∇ ⃗T (r ⃗) but also on temperatures at points r⃗' within phonon mean free paths, which can be micrometers long. This paper uses the Peierls-Boltzmann transport theory in nonlocal form to analyze the spatial variation Δ T (r ⃗) . The relaxation-time approximation (RTA) is used because the full solution is very challenging. Improved methods of extrapolation to obtain the bulk thermal conductivity κ are proposed. Callaway invented an approximate method of correcting RTA for the q ⃗ (phonon wave vector or crystal momentum) conservation of N (Normal as opposed to Umklapp) anharmonic collisions. This method is generalized to the nonlocal case where κ (k ⃗) depends on the wave vector of the current j ⃗(k ⃗) and temperature gradient i k ⃗Δ T (k ⃗) .

  16. Improved hybrid information filtering based on limited time window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wen-Jun; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-12-01

    Adopting the entire collecting information of users, the hybrid information filtering of heat conduction and mass diffusion (HHM) (Zhou et al., 2010) was successfully proposed to solve the apparent diversity-accuracy dilemma. Since the recent behaviors are more effective to capture the users' potential interests, we present an improved hybrid information filtering of adopting the partial recent information. We expand the time window to generate a series of training sets, each of which is treated as known information to predict the future links proven by the testing set. The experimental results on one benchmark dataset Netflix indicate that by only using approximately 31% recent rating records, the accuracy could be improved by an average of 4.22% and the diversity could be improved by 13.74%. In addition, the performance on the dataset MovieLens could be preserved by considering approximately 60% recent records. Furthermore, we find that the improved algorithm is effective to solve the cold-start problem. This work could improve the information filtering performance and shorten the computational time.

  17. Effects of magnetic field on electron-electron intersubband scattering rates in quantum wells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempa, K.; Zhou, Y.; Engelbrecht, J.; Bakshi, P.

    2001-03-01

    Electron-electron scattering dominates the physics of carrier relaxation in quantum nano-structures used as active regions of THz radiation sources. This is the limiting mechanism in achieving population inversion, and reducing its deleterious effects could clear the way to a THz laser. We study here the inter-subband relaxation processes due to the electron-electron scattering in quantum well structures, in a magnetic field. We obtain the scattering rate from the imaginary part of the electron self-energy in the random phase approximation, extending our earlier studies [1] to nonzero magnetic fields. We find that the scattering rate is peaked at two possible sets of arrangements of the Landau levels (LL) of the two subbands of interest. The first set occurs when the LL of both subbands align, and the other when the LL misalign, so that the LL of one subband lie exactly in the middle between those of the other subband. Experiments on various quantum cascade structures show that the misaligned set of transitions is completely suppressed. >From our calculations this implies that there is no population inversion in those structures. Work supported by US Army Research Office. [1] K. Kempa, P. Bakshi, J. R. Engelbrecht, and Y. Zhou, Phys. Rev. B61, 11083 (2000).

  18. Measurements of Positronium Formation Cross Sections for Positron-Kr, Xe Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppila, W. E.; Kwan, C. K.; Li, H.; Stein, T. S.; Zhou, S.

    1997-04-01

    Our experimental approach(S. Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 236 (1994).) for measuring Ps formation cross sections (Q_Ps) involves passing a variable energy positron beam through a gas scattering cell and detecting the 511 keV annihilation gamma rays resulting from the decay of para-Ps and from the interaction of ortho-Ps with the walls of the scattering cell. It is found that the Q_Ps curves for both Kr and Xe rise rapidly from their formation threshold energies of 7.2 and 5.3 eV, reach maxima within about 10 eV of their thresholds and then decrease to become rather small (less than 10% of the peak heights) above 100 eV. At the maxima Q_Ps accounts for more than 50% of the total scattering cross sections. There is some evidence of possible small scale structure in the Q_Ps curves between 10 and 100 eV. The present results are consistent with the prior measurements of Diana et al.( L.M. Diana et al., in "Atomic Physics with Positrons", edited by J.W. Humberston and E.A.G. Armour (Plenum, New York and London, 1987), p. 55; and in "Positron Annihilation", edited by L. Dorikens-Vanpraet et al. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), p. 311.) from near threshold to 70 eV for Kr and from 15 to 100 eV for Xe.

  19. [Textual research on Chen Ye and his Jia cang jing yan fang (Family-preserved Empirical Recipes) of the Song Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuedan; Zhang, Ruqing; Chen, Dexing

    2014-01-01

    Chen Ye, an official of the Southern Song Dynasty, also known as Chen Rihua as his styled name, was born in Changle, Fuzhou in the reign of Shaoxing, and died during the reign of Duanping. He had been consecutively in the positions of Jiang shi lang (Court Gentleman for Ceremonial Service), Zhi zhou (Prefect) of Lingding, the Ti xing (Judicial Commissioner) of Guangdong, the Zong ling (Overseer-general) of Sichuan, Shan ding (Reviser), Shu lin and other positions in Tongzhou, Yuanzhou. His works included 1 volume of Gu ling xian sheng nian pu (Mr. Guling's Chronological Biography), 1 volume of Tan xie (On Humor), 1 volume of Shi hua (Poetry), 8 volumes of Jin yuan li shu (Jin Yuan's Smart Technique), 3 volumes of Yi jian zhi lei bian (Classified Compilation of Yijian's Annals), (Zeng guang) Suo sui lu (Augmented Records of Trivial Matters), 5 volumes of Jia cang jing yan fang (Family-preserved Empirical Recipes). He also compiled the 8-volume Yin jiang zhi (Yinjiang's Annals), published the 2-volume Jia cang ji yao fang (Collected Essential Recipes from Family Preservation), and other proses and poetry. Jia cang jing yan fang was a formulary compiled by Chen Ye, which was lost. Altogether 74 of its recipes were cited in Fu ren da quan liang fang (Complete Effective Prescriptions for Women's Diseases), Shou qin yang lao shu (A Book for Pursuing Seniors' Longevity and Healthcare), Pu ji fang (Prescriptions for Universal Relief) and Yong le da dian (Yongle Encyclopedia).

  20. A phenomenological treatment of rotating turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    The strong similarity between the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and initially isotropic turbulence subject to rotation is noted. We then apply the MHD phenomenologies of Kraichnan and Matthaeus & Zhou to rotating turbulence. When the turbulence is subject to a strong rotation, the energy spectrum is found to scale as E(k) = C(sub Omega)(Omega(sub epsilon))(sup 1/2)k(sup -2), where Omega is the rotation rate, k is the wavenumber, and epsilon is the dissipation rate. This spectral form is consistent with a recent letter by Zeman. However, here the constant C(sub Omega) is found to be related to the Kolmogorov constant and is estimated in the range 1.22 - 1.87 for the typical values of the latter constant. A 'rule' that relates spectral transfer times to the eddy turnover time and the time scale for decay of the triple correlations is deduced. A hypothesis for the triple correlation decay rate leads to the spectral law which varies between the '-5/3' (without rotation) and '-2' laws (with strong rotation). For intermediate rotation rates, the spectrum varies according to the value of a dimensionless parameter that measures the strength of the rotation wavenumber k(sub Omega) = (Omega(sup 3)/epsiolon)(sup 1/2) relative to the wavenumber k. An eddy viscosity is derived with an explicit dependence on the rotation rate.

  1. Redescription and new records of Ontholestes brasilianus Bernhauer, 1906 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylininae).

    PubMed

    Costa-Silva, VinÍcius; Asenjo, AngÉlico; Newton, Alfred F; Thyssen, Patricia J

    2018-02-28

    The genus Ontholestes Ganglbauer includes 35 species distributed mainly in Eurasia, with a few additional species in Africa and North and South America (Herman, 2001; Yang Zhou, 2012; Smetana Shavrin, 2013; Rougemont, 2016). According to Asenjo et al. (2013), the South American record of the Palearctic species Ontholestes murinus (Linnaeus, 1758) for Brazil made by J. Guérin (1953) seems doubtful. Ontholestes murinus was recorded for the first time outside the Palaearctic region by Smetana (1981), from Newfoundland, in Canada, as an adventive species (e.g., Downie and Arnett, 1996; Brunke et al., 2011), but its occurrence in Brazil remains to be confirmed; if the Guérin (1953) record was based on a mistaken identification or mislabeled specimen, this would reduce the number of species distributed in this region from two to one. With respect to O. brasilianus Bernhauer, although it has been confirmed for Peru, Brazil and Argentina (Herman, 2001; Asenjo et al., 2013; Newton, 2015; Newton Caron, 2015), no specific localities of occurrence have been reported since its description in 1906. Thus, to solve problems of misidentification with Neotropical species of this genus, in this study we redescribe Ontholestes brasilianus and provide the first illustrations of the beetle including its aedeagus and a short key for South American species. Additionally, new records from South America are listed here.

  2. Modified homotopy perturbation method for solving hypersingular integral equations of the first kind.

    PubMed

    Eshkuvatov, Z K; Zulkarnain, F S; Nik Long, N M A; Muminov, Z

    2016-01-01

    Modified homotopy perturbation method (HPM) was used to solve the hypersingular integral equations (HSIEs) of the first kind on the interval [-1,1] with the assumption that the kernel of the hypersingular integral is constant on the diagonal of the domain. Existence of inverse of hypersingular integral operator leads to the convergence of HPM in certain cases. Modified HPM and its norm convergence are obtained in Hilbert space. Comparisons between modified HPM, standard HPM, Bernstein polynomials approach Mandal and Bhattacharya (Appl Math Comput 190:1707-1716, 2007), Chebyshev expansion method Mahiub et al. (Int J Pure Appl Math 69(3):265-274, 2011) and reproducing kernel Chen and Zhou (Appl Math Lett 24:636-641, 2011) are made by solving five examples. Theoretical and practical examples revealed that the modified HPM dominates the standard HPM and others. Finally, it is found that the modified HPM is exact, if the solution of the problem is a product of weights and polynomial functions. For rational solution the absolute error decreases very fast by increasing the number of collocation points.

  3. Inexpensive metagenomic DNA extraction protocol with high quality from marine sediments contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    García-Bautista, I; Toledano-Thompson, T; Dantán-González, E; González-Montilla, J; Valdez-Ojeda, R

    2017-09-21

    Marine environments are a reservoir of relevant information on dangerous contaminants such as hydrocarbons, as well as microbial communities with probable degradation skills. However, to access microbial diversity, it is necessary to obtain high-quality DNA. An inexpensive, reliable, and effective metagenomic DNA (mgDNA) extraction protocol from marine sediments contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was established in this study from modifications to Zhou's protocol. The optimization included pretreatment of sediment with saline solutions for the removal of contaminants, a second precipitation and enzymatic degradation of RNA, followed by purification of mgDNA extracted by electroelution. The results obtained indicated that the modifications applied to 12 sediments with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations from 22.6-174.3 (µg/g dry sediment) yielded 20.3-321.3 ng/µL mgDNA with A 260 /A 280 and A 260 /A 230 ratios of 1.75 ± 0.08 and 1.19 ± 0.22, respectively. The 16S rRNA amplification confirmed the purity of the mgDNA. The suitability of this mgDNA extraction protocol lies in the fact that all chemical solutions utilized are common in all molecular biology laboratories, and the use of dialysis membrane does not require any sophisticated or expensive equipment, only an electrophoretic chamber.

  4. The microbial community characteristics of ancient painted sculptures in Maijishan Grottoes, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Dongpeng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Feng, Huyuan; Chen, Tuo; Liu, Guangxiu; An, Lizhe

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a culture-independent Illumina MiSeq sequencing strategy was applied to investigate the microbial communities colonizing the ancient painted sculptures of the Maijishan Grottoes, a famous World Cultural Heritage site listed by UNESCO in China. Four mixed samples were collected from Cave 4–4 of the Maijishan Grottoes, the so-called Upper Seven Buddha Pavilion, which was built during the Northern Zhou Dynasty (557-581AD). The 16/18S rRNA gene-based sequences revealed a rich bacterial diversity and a relatively low fungal abundance, including the bacterial groups Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia and the fungal groups Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Among them, the bacteria genera of Pseudonocardia and Rubrobacter and unclassified fungi in the order of Capnodiales were dominant. The relative abundance of Pseudonocardia in the painted layer samples was higher than that in the dust sample, while Cyanobacteria dominated in the dust sample. Many of them have been discovered at other cultural heritage sites and associated with the biodeterioration of cultural relics. The presence and activity of these pioneering microorganisms may lead to an unexpected deterioration of the painted sculptures that are preserved in this heritage site. Thus, proper management strategies and potential risk monitoring should be used in the Maijishan Grottoes to improve the conservation of these precious painted sculptures. PMID:28678844

  5. Another piece in the progranulin puzzle: special binding between progranulin and prosaposin creates additional lysosomal access: An Editorial Comment for 'The interaction between progranulin and prosaposin is mediated by granulins and the linker region between saposin B and C' on page 236.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Philip

    2017-10-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the growth factor progranulin cause degeneration of the ageing brain in a dose-dependent manner. While heterozygous mutations result in adult onset frontotemporal dementia, the much rarer homozygous null mutations cause an early onset lysosomal storage disorder. A better understanding of the biology of progranulin in the central nervous system is needed to find solutions for these incurable diseases. This Editorial highlights a study by Zhou et al. in the current issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry, in which the authors provide data that are a step towards this goal. Progranulin is mainly expressed by neurons and microglia and, although it is a secreted protein, it also ends up in lysosomes. Recently, the trafficking of progranulin and the molecular players involved have become better understood. A special interaction between progranulin and its travelling companion, prosaposin, explains how both proteins can use each other's transport receptors to gain access to lysosomes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Determination of Important Topographic Factors for Landslide Mapping Analysis Using MLP Network

    PubMed Central

    Alkhasawneh, Mutasem Sh.; Ngah, Umi Kalthum; Mat Isa, Nor Ashidi; Al-batah, Mohammad Subhi

    2013-01-01

    Landslide is one of the natural disasters that occur in Malaysia. Topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, general curvature, plan curvature, and profile curvature are considered as the main causes of landslides. In order to determine the dominant topographic factors in landslide mapping analysis, a study was conducted and presented in this paper. There are three main stages involved in this study. The first stage is the extraction of extra topographic factors. Previous landslide studies had identified mainly six topographic factors. Seven new additional factors have been proposed in this study. They are longitude curvature, tangential curvature, cross section curvature, surface area, diagonal line length, surface roughness, and rugosity. The second stage is the specification of the weight of each factor using two methods. The methods are multilayer perceptron (MLP) network classification accuracy and Zhou's algorithm. At the third stage, the factors with higher weights were used to improve the MLP performance. Out of the thirteen factors, eight factors were considered as important factors, which are surface area, longitude curvature, diagonal length, slope angle, elevation, slope aspect, rugosity, and profile curvature. The classification accuracy of multilayer perceptron neural network has increased by 3% after the elimination of five less important factors. PMID:24453846

  7. Using a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to determine product usability: A test case

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ronggang; Chan, Alan H. S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to take into account the inherent uncertainties during product usability evaluation, Zhou and Chan [1] proposed a comprehensive method of usability evaluation for products by combining the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy evaluation methods for synthesizing performance data and subjective response data. This method was designed to provide an integrated framework combining the inevitable vague judgments from the multiple stages of the product evaluation process. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In order to illustrate the effectiveness of the model, this study used a summative usability test case to assess the application and strength of the general fuzzy usability framework. To test the proposed fuzzy usability evaluation framework [1], a standard summative usability test was conducted to benchmark the overall usability of a specific network management software. Based on the test data, the fuzzy method was applied to incorporate both the usability scores and uncertainties involved in the multiple components of the evaluation. Then, with Monte Carlo simulation procedures, confidence intervals were used to compare the reliabilities among the fuzzy approach and two typical conventional methods combining metrics based on percentages. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: This case study showed that the fuzzy evaluation technique can be applied successfully for combining summative usability testing data to achieve an overall usability quality for the network software evaluated. Greater differences of confidence interval widths between the method of averaging equally percentage and weighted evaluation method, including the method of weighted percentage averages, verified the strength of the fuzzy method. PMID:28035942

  8. Determination of important topographic factors for landslide mapping analysis using MLP network.

    PubMed

    Alkhasawneh, Mutasem Sh; Ngah, Umi Kalthum; Tay, Lea Tien; Mat Isa, Nor Ashidi; Al-batah, Mohammad Subhi

    2013-01-01

    Landslide is one of the natural disasters that occur in Malaysia. Topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, general curvature, plan curvature, and profile curvature are considered as the main causes of landslides. In order to determine the dominant topographic factors in landslide mapping analysis, a study was conducted and presented in this paper. There are three main stages involved in this study. The first stage is the extraction of extra topographic factors. Previous landslide studies had identified mainly six topographic factors. Seven new additional factors have been proposed in this study. They are longitude curvature, tangential curvature, cross section curvature, surface area, diagonal line length, surface roughness, and rugosity. The second stage is the specification of the weight of each factor using two methods. The methods are multilayer perceptron (MLP) network classification accuracy and Zhou's algorithm. At the third stage, the factors with higher weights were used to improve the MLP performance. Out of the thirteen factors, eight factors were considered as important factors, which are surface area, longitude curvature, diagonal length, slope angle, elevation, slope aspect, rugosity, and profile curvature. The classification accuracy of multilayer perceptron neural network has increased by 3% after the elimination of five less important factors.

  9. Environmental Applications of Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Arturo A.

    2014-07-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are currently used in many applications including agriculture (Gruère, 2012; Khot et al. 2012; Lopez-Moreno et al. 2010; Peralta-Videa et al. 2011; Zhao et al. 2012), aerogels (Bigall et al. 2009), aerospace (Baur and Silverman, 2007), automotive (Coelho et al. 2012; Presting and König, 2003; Salonitis et al. 2010), catalysts (Zhou et al. 2011), coatings, paints and pigments (Dhoke et al. 2009; Gopalakrishnan et al. 2011; Khanna, 2008), composites (Borchardt, 2003; Khanna and Bakshi, 2009; Petrov and Georgiev, 2012; Sahoo et al. 2010), construction (Lee et al. 2010), cosmetics (Musee, 2011; Sabitha et al. 2012; Singh and Nanda, 2012), electronics and optics (Alda et al. 2005; Avasthi et al. 2007; Song et al. 2012; Subramanian and Takhee, 2012), energy (Serrano et al. 2009), environmental remediation (Dionysiou 2004; Khin et al. 2012), filtration and purification (Dhakras, 2011; Savage and Diallo, 2005), food products (Blasco and Picó, 2011; Weiss et al. 2006), medical (Boisseau and Loubaton, 2011; Farokhzad and Langer, 2006), packaging (Silvestre et al. 2011), paper and board (Kharisov and Kharissova, 2010), plastics, security (Marín and Merkoçi, 2012), sensors (Ding et al. 2010; Duncan et al. 2012; Su et al. 2012; Tan et al. 2012), and textiles (Qian and Hinestroza, 2004; Wong et al. 2006), and research is underway on many new applications...

  10. The Astronomical Instruments from the Tomb of Xiahou Zao (? - 165BCE) Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunli

    2012-09-01

    In 1977, archaeologists unearthed a piece of lacquerware from the tomb of Xiahou Zao (?--165BCE), the 2nd Marquis of Ruyin of the Western Han dynasty (206BCE--24ACE). It has been named ``A Lacquerware Article of Unkown Name" for no one understands its function. Our analysis shows that the article is actually a gnomon for the determination of 4 major seasons in ancient Chinese calendar, viz. Spring Equinox, Summer Solstice, Autumn Equinox and Winter Solstice, and the size and function of the article coincide quite well with those of the ``Earth Gnomon-Scale" as described in the Rites of Zhou, a Confucian Classic appeared in the middle of the 2nd century BCE. This is the earliest example of its kind that we have hitherto seen in a complete form. Moreover, the "Disks with 28 Lunar Lodges" from the same tomb have caused a lasting dispute over their possible function. While some scholars believe it to be a pure astrological instrument, others guess that it was an instrument for the measurement of celestial coordinates. Our analysis shows that, with the so-called ``Supporting Frame for the Cosmic Boards" unearthed from the same tomb, the disks can actually be mounted onto the plane of the celestial equator and thus form the earliest and definitely dated example of an equatorial device for astronomical observation that still can be seen in the world.

  11. A Collaboration Network Model Of Cytokine-Protein Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Sheng-Rong; Zhou, Ta; Peng, Yu-Jing; Guo, Zhong-Wei; Gu, Chang-Gui; He, Da-Ren

    2008-03-01

    Complex networks provide us a new view for investigation of immune systems. We collect data through STRING database and present a network description with cooperation network model. The cytokine-protein network model we consider is constituted by two kinds of nodes, one is immune cytokine types which can be regarded as collaboration acts, the other one is protein type which can be regarded as collaboration actors. From act degree distribution that can be well described by typical SPL (shifted power law) functions [1], we find that HRAS, TNFRSF13C, S100A8, S100A1, MAPK8, S100A7, LIF, CCL4, CXCL13 are highly collaborated with other proteins. It reveals that these mediators are important in cytokine-protein network to regulate immune activity. Dyad in the collaboration networks can be defined as two proteins and they appear in one cytokine collaboration relationship. The dyad act degree distribution can also be well described by typical SPL functions. [1] Assortativity and act degree distribution of some collaboration networks, Hui Chang, Bei-Bei Su, Yue-Ping Zhou, Daren He, Physica A, 383 (2007) 687-702

  12. A bipartite graph of Neuroendocrine System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhong-Wei; Zou, Sheng-Rong; Peng, Yu-Jing; Zhou, Ta; Gu, Chang-Gui; He, Da-Ren

    2008-03-01

    We present an empirical investigation on the neuroendocrine system and suggest describe it by a bipartite graph. In the net the cells can be regarded as collaboration acts and the mediators can be regarded as collaboration actors. The act degree stands for the number of the cells that secrete a single mediator. Among them bFGF (the basic fibroblast growth factor) has the largest node act degree. It is the most important mitogenic cytokine, followed by TGF-beta, IL-6, IL1-beta, VEGF, IGF-1and so on. They are critical in neuroendocrine system to maintain bodily healthiness, emotional stabilization and endocrine harmony. The act degree distribution shows a shifted power law (SPL) function forms [1]. The average act degree of neuroendocrine network is h=3.01, It means that each mediator is secreted by three cells on average. The similarity, which stands for the average probability of secreting the same mediators by all neuroendocrine cells, is observed as s=0.14. Our results may be used in the research of the medical treatment of neuroendocrine diseases. [1] Assortativity and act degree distribution of some collaboration networks, Hui Chang, Bei-Bei Su, Yue-Ping Zhou, Daren He, Physica A, 383 (2007) 687-702

  13. Analytical and phenomenological studies of rotating turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahalov, Alex; Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    A framework, which combines mathematical analysis, closure theory, and phenomenological treatment, is developed to study the spectral transfer process and reduction of dimensionality in turbulent flows that are subject to rotation. First, we outline a mathematical procedure that is particularly appropriate for problems with two disparate time scales. The approach which is based on the Green's method leads to the Poincare velocity variables and the Poincare transformation when applied to rotating turbulence. The effects of the rotation are now reflected in the modifications to the convolution of a nonlinear term. The Poincare transformed equations are used to obtain a time-dependent analog of the Taylor-Proudman theorem valid in the asymptotic limit when the non-dimensional parameter mu is identical to Omega(t) approaches infinity (Omega is the rotation rate and t is the time). The 'split' of the energy transfer in both direct and inverse directions is established. Secondly, we apply the Eddy-Damped-Quasinormal-Markovian (EDQNM) closure to the Poincare transformed Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. This closure leads to expressions for the spectral energy transfer. In particular, an unique triple velocity decorrelation time is derived with an explicit dependence on the rotation rate. This provides an important input for applying the phenomenological treatment of Zhou. In order to characterize the relative strength of rotation, another non-dimensional number, a spectral Rossby number, which is defined as the ratio of rotation and turbulence time scales, is introduced. Finally, the energy spectrum and the spectral eddy viscosity are deduced.

  14. Modeling collective behavior of molecules in nanoscale direct deposition processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Nam-Kyung; Hong, Seunghun

    2006-03-01

    We present a theoretical model describing the collective behavior of molecules in nanoscale direct deposition processes such as dip-pen nanolithography. We show that strong intermolecular interactions combined with nonuniform substrate-molecule interactions can produce various shapes of molecular patterns including fractal-like structures. Computer simulations reveal circular and starlike patterns at low and intermediate densities of preferentially attractive surface sites, respectively. At large density of such surface sites, the molecules form a two-dimensional invasion percolation cluster. Previous experimental results showing anisotropic patterns of various chemical and biological molecules correspond to the starlike regime [P. Manandhar et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 115505 (2003); J.-H. Lim and C. A. Mirkin, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 1474 (2002); D. L. Wilson et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 13660 (2001); M. Su et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4200 (2004); R. McKendry et al., Nano Lett. 2, 713 (2002); H. Zhou et al., Appl. Surf. Sci. 236, 18 (2004); G. Agarwal et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 580 (2003)].

  15. COMMITTEES: SQM2008-International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter SQM2008-International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    Local Organising Committee Xiangzhou Cai (SINPA) Weiqin Chao (CCAST) Liewen Chen (SJTU) Jianping Cheng (Tsinghua University) Jinghua Fu (CCNU) Yuanning Gao (Tsinghua University) Xiaomei Li (CIAE) Zuotang Liang (Shandong University) Feng Liu (CCNU), Co-chair Yuxin Liu (PKU) Qing Wang (Tsinghua University) Qun Wang (USTC) Hushan Xu (IMP) Daicui Zhou (CCNU) Pengfei Zhuang (Tsinghua University), Co-chair Bingsong Zou (IHEP) International Advisory Committee Jörg Aichelin, Nantes Federico Antinori, Padova Tamás Biró, Budapest Peter Braun-Munzinger, GSI Jean Cleymans, Cape Town László Csernai, Bergen Timothy Hallman, BNL Huan Zhong Huang, UCLA Takeshi Kodama, Rio de Janeiro Carlos Lourenço, CERN Yu-Gang Ma, Shanghai Jes Masden, Aarhus Yasuo Miake, Tsukuba Berndt Müller, Duke Grazyna Odyniec, LBNL Helmut Oeschler, Darmstadt Johann Rafelski, Arizona Hans Georg Ritter, LBNL Karel Šafařík, CERN Jack Sandweiss, Yale George S F Stephans, MIT Horst Stöcker, Frankfurt Thomas Ullrich, BNL Nu Xu, LBNL William A Zajc, Columbia

  16. Studies of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation with the Discontinuous Galerkin Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzozero, David A.

    In this thesis, we present methods for integrating Maxwell's equations in Frenet-Serret coordinates in several settings using discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element method codes in 1D, 2D, and 3D. We apply these routines to the study of coherent synchrotron radiation, an important topic in accelerator physics. We build upon the published computational work of T. Agoh and D. Zhou in solving Maxwell's equations in the frequency-domain using a paraxial approximation which reduces Maxwell's equations to a Schrodinger-like system. We also evolve Maxwell's equations in the time-domain using a Fourier series decomposition with 2D DG motivated by an experiment performed at the Canadian Light Source. A comparison between theory and experiment has been published (Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 204801 (2015)). Lastly, we devise a novel approach to integrating Maxwell's equations with 3D DG using a Galilean transformation and demonstrate proof-of-concept. In the above studies, we examine the accuracy, efficiency, and convergence of DG.

  17. A net reproductive number for periodic matrix models.

    PubMed

    Cushing, J M; Ackleh, A S

    2012-01-01

    We give a definition of a net reproductive number R (0) for periodic matrix models of the type used to describe the dynamics of a structured population with periodic parameters. The definition is based on the familiar method of studying a periodic map by means of its (period-length) composite. This composite has an additive decomposition that permits a generalization of the Cushing-Zhou definition of R (0) in the autonomous case. The value of R (0) determines whether the population goes extinct (R (0)<1) or persists (R (0)>1). We discuss the biological interpretation of this definition and derive formulas for R (0) for two cases: scalar periodic maps of arbitrary period and periodic Leslie models of period 2. We illustrate the use of the definition by means of several examples and by applications to case studies found in the literature. We also make some comparisons of this definition of R (0) with another definition given recently by Bacaër.

  18. Immune tolerance of vector beetle to its partner plant parasitic nematode modulated by its insect parasitic nematode.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiao; Zhao, Li-Lin; Yu, Hai-Ying; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Song-Nian; Zou, Zhen; Sun, Jiang-Hua

    2018-04-02

    Immune response of insect vectors to transmitted pathogens or insect hosts against parasites are well studied, whereas the mechanism of tripartite interactions remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the immune interactions of the vector beetle Monochamus alternatus ( Ma) to the devastating plant parasitic nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus ( Bx) and the insect parasitic nematode Howardula phyllotretae ( Hp). We report the unique immune mechanism by which the vector beetle tolerates many devastating Bx in its trachea, yet that immune tolerance is compromised by the parasitic nematode Hp. Contact with either nematode species triggers epithelial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Ma. Only the entry of Bx, not Hp, infection, induces increased expression of antioxidative genes, through which the ROS levels are balanced in the trachea of beetles. Furthermore, we found that up-regulation of antioxidative genes was induced by the interaction of Toll receptors. In contrast, beetles infected by Hp retain high levels of oxidative stress and melanization in trachea, and as a result, decrease Bx loading. This study highlights the role of Toll receptors in mediating the activation of antioxidative genes in immune tolerance to plant parasitic nematodes, and suggests the use of insect parasites as a biologic control.-Zhou, J., Zhao, L.-L., Yu, H.-Y., Wang, Y.-H., Zhang, W., Hu, S.-N., Zou, Z., Sun, J.-H. Immune tolerance of vector beetle to its partner plant parasitic nematode modulated by its insect parasitic nematode.

  19. Electronic structure of the ingredient planes of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + δ and Bi2Sr2CuO6 + δ superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xucun

    Understanding the mechanism of high transition temperature superconductivity in cuprates has been hindered by the apparent complexity of their multilayered crystal structure. Using a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we report on layer-by-layer probing of the electronic structures of the ingredient planes (BiO, SrO, CuO2) of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + δ (Bi-2212) and Bi2Sr2CuO6 + δ (Bi-2201) superconductors prepared by argon-ion bombardment and annealing (IBA) technique. We show that the well-known pseudogap (PG) feature observed by STM is inherently a property of the charge reservoir planes and thus irrelevant directly to Cooper pairing. The CuO2 planes are exclusively characterized by a small gap inside the PG. The small gap becomes invisible near Tc, which we identify as the superconducting gap. The results constitute severe constraints on any microscopic model for high Tc superconductivity in cuprates. Contributors: Yan-Feng Lv, Wen-Lin Wang, Hao Ding, Yang Wang, Yong Zhong, Ying Ding, Ruidan Zhong, John Schneeloch, Gen-Da Gu, Lili Wang, Ke He, Shuai-Hua Ji, Lin Zhao, Xing-Jiang Zhou Can-Li Song, and Qi-Kun Xue. NSF and MOST of China.

  20. Realization of a gain with electromagnetically induced transparency system using non-degenerate Zeeman sublevels in 87 Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Minchuan; Zhou, Zifan; Shahriar, Selim M.

    2017-11-01

    Previously, we had proposed an optically-pumped five-level Gain EIT (GEIT) system, which has a transparency dip superimposed on a gain profile and exhibits a negative dispersion suitable for the white-light-cavity signal-recycling (WLC-SR) scheme of the interferometric gravitational wave detector (Zhou et al., 2015). Using this system as the negative dispersion medium (NDM) in the WLC-SR, we get an enhancement in the quantum noise (QN) limited sensitivity-bandwidth product by a factor of ∼ 18. Here, we show how to realize this GEIT system in a realistic platform, using non-degenerate Zeeman sublevels in cold Rb atoms, employing anomalous dispersion at 795 nm. Using the Caves model for a phase insensitive linear amplifier, we show that an enhancement of the sensitivity-bandwidth product by a factor of ∼ 17 is possible for potentially realizable experimental parameters. While the current LIGO apparatus uses light at 1064 nm, a future embodiment thereof may operate at a wavelength that is consistent with the wavelength considered here.

  1. Go Signaling in Mushroom Bodies Regulates Sleep in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fang; Yi, Wei; Zhou, Mingmin; Guo, Aike

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep is a fundamental physiological process and its biological mechanisms are poorly understood. In Drosophila melanogaster, heterotrimeric Go protein is abundantly expressed in the brain. However, its post-developmental function has not been extensively explored. Design: Locomotor activity was measured using the Drosophila Activity Monitoring System under a 12:12 LD cycle. Sleep was defined as periods of 5 min with no recorded activity. Results: Pan-neuronal elevation of Go signaling induced quiescence accompanied by an increased arousal threshold in flies. By screening region-specific GAL4 lines, we mapped the sleep-regulatory function of Go signaling to mushroom bodies (MBs), a central brain region which modulates memory, decision making, and sleep in Drosophila. Up-regulation of Go activity in these neurons consolidated sleep while inhibition of endogenous Go via expression of Go RNAi or pertussis toxin reduced and fragmented sleep, indicating that the Drosophila sleep requirement is affected by levels of Go activity in the MBs. Genetic interaction results showed that Go signaling serves as a neuronal transmission inhibitor in a cAMP-independent pathway. Conclusion: Go signaling is a novel signaling pathway in MBs that regulates sleep in Drosophila. Citation: Guo F; Yi W; Zhou M; Guo A. Go signaling in mushroom bodies regulates sleep in drosophila. SLEEP 2011;34(3):273-281. PMID:21358844

  2. [Textual criticism and discrimination on the naming of"Five-abstention Soup of Medical Professional"from the Han-tomb of the Marquis of Haihun].

    PubMed

    Wang, Y R; Yuan, Y; Xu, C Q; Cao, L J; Wang, Y L; Huang, L Q

    2017-05-28

    A lacquer vessel with the inscription of Yi gong wu jin tang (Five-abstention Soup of Medical Profession) has been unearthed from the Han-tomb of Marquis of Haihun, in which"Five abstentions"is related to the incantations and abstention therapies prevalent in the Qin and Han Dynasties. The"Five-abstention Law"is the five rituals and methods during the process of practicing incantations and abstentions therapies including"keeping one's thinking ( cun si )","holding the breath( bi qi )","twirling eyes ( nian mu )","stepping after Yu's sample ( yu bu )"and"incanting and blessing ( zhou zhu )". The"Five-abstention Law"uses the medium"soup"to achieve the purpose of treatment."Soup"refers either to"decoction"or to"magic water". The lacquer vessel with the inscription"Five-abstention Soup of Medical professional"could be an instrument for implementing the process of practising the"Five-abstention Law", reflecting the historical facts that Liu He, the Marquis Haihun did accept the incantations and abstention therapies.

  3. Metallic Electrode: Semiconducting Nanotube Junction Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Toshishige; Biegel, Bryon (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed for two observed current-voltage (I-V) patterns in an experiment with a scanning tunneling microscope tip and a carbon nanotube [Collins et al., Science 278, 100 ('97)]. We claim that there are two contact modes for a tip (metal) -nanotube semi conductor) junction depending whether the alignment of the metal and semiconductor band structure is (1) variable (vacuum-gap) or (2) fixed (touching) with V. With the tip grounded, the tunneling case in (1) would produce large dI/dV with V > 0, small dI/dV with V < 0, and I = 0 near V = 0 for an either n- or p-nanotube. However, the Schottky mechanism in (2) would result in forward current with V < 0 for an n-nanotube, while with V > 0 for an p-nanotube. The two observed I-V patterns are thus entirely explained by a tip-nanotube contact of the two types, where the nanotube must be n-type. We apply this picture to the source-drain I-V characteristics in a long nanotube-channel field-effect-transistor (Zhou et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1597 ('00)], and show that two independent metal-semiconductor junctions connected in series are responsible for the observed behavior.

  4. A recurrent neural model for proto-object based contour integration and figure-ground segregation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Brian; Niebur, Ernst

    2017-12-01

    Visual processing of objects makes use of both feedforward and feedback streams of information. However, the nature of feedback signals is largely unknown, as is the identity of the neuronal populations in lower visual areas that receive them. Here, we develop a recurrent neural model to address these questions in the context of contour integration and figure-ground segregation. A key feature of our model is the use of grouping neurons whose activity represents tentative objects ("proto-objects") based on the integration of local feature information. Grouping neurons receive input from an organized set of local feature neurons, and project modulatory feedback to those same neurons. Additionally, inhibition at both the local feature level and the object representation level biases the interpretation of the visual scene in agreement with principles from Gestalt psychology. Our model explains several sets of neurophysiological results (Zhou et al. Journal of Neuroscience, 20(17), 6594-6611 2000; Qiu et al. Nature Neuroscience, 10(11), 1492-1499 2007; Chen et al. Neuron, 82(3), 682-694 2014), and makes testable predictions about the influence of neuronal feedback and attentional selection on neural responses across different visual areas. Our model also provides a framework for understanding how object-based attention is able to select both objects and the features associated with them.

  5. Fundamental Flux Equations for Fracture-Matrix Interactions with Linear Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Zhou, Q.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The conventional dual-continuum models are only applicable for late-time behavior of pressure propagation in fractured rock, while discrete-fracture-network models may explicitly deal with matrix blocks at high computational expense. To address these issues, we developed a unified-form diffusive flux equation for 1D isotropic (spheres, cylinders, slabs) and 2D/3D rectangular matrix blocks (squares, cubes, rectangles, and rectangular parallelepipeds) by partitioning the entire dimensionless-time domain (Zhou et al., 2017a, b). For each matrix block, this flux equation consists of the early-time solution up until a switch-over time after which the late-time solution is applied to create continuity from early to late time. The early-time solutions are based on three-term polynomial functions in terms of square root of dimensionless time, with the coefficients dependent on dimensionless area-to-volume ratio and aspect ratios for rectangular blocks. For the late-time solutions, one exponential term is needed for isotropic blocks, while a few additional exponential terms are needed for highly anisotropic blocks. The time-partitioning method was also used for calculating pressure/concentration/temperature distribution within a matrix block. The approximate solution contains an error-function solution for early times and an exponential solution for late times, with relative errors less than 0.003. These solutions form the kernel of multirate and multidimensional hydraulic, solute and thermal diffusion in fractured reservoirs.

  6. Using a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to determine product usability: A test case.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ronggang; Chan, Alan H S

    2017-01-01

    In order to take into account the inherent uncertainties during product usability evaluation, Zhou and Chan [1] proposed a comprehensive method of usability evaluation for products by combining the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy evaluation methods for synthesizing performance data and subjective response data. This method was designed to provide an integrated framework combining the inevitable vague judgments from the multiple stages of the product evaluation process. In order to illustrate the effectiveness of the model, this study used a summative usability test case to assess the application and strength of the general fuzzy usability framework. To test the proposed fuzzy usability evaluation framework [1], a standard summative usability test was conducted to benchmark the overall usability of a specific network management software. Based on the test data, the fuzzy method was applied to incorporate both the usability scores and uncertainties involved in the multiple components of the evaluation. Then, with Monte Carlo simulation procedures, confidence intervals were used to compare the reliabilities among the fuzzy approach and two typical conventional methods combining metrics based on percentages. This case study showed that the fuzzy evaluation technique can be applied successfully for combining summative usability testing data to achieve an overall usability quality for the network software evaluated. Greater differences of confidence interval widths between the method of averaging equally percentage and weighted evaluation method, including the method of weighted percentage averages, verified the strength of the fuzzy method.

  7. Identification of myogenic-endothelial progenitor cells in the interstitial spaces of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Tetsuro; Akatsuka, Akira; Ando, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Matsuzawa, Hideyuki; Hotta, Tomomitsu; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2002-05-13

    Putative myogenic and endothelial (myo-endothelial) cell progenitors were identified in the interstitial spaces of murine skeletal muscle by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy using CD34 antigen. Enzymatically isolated cells were characterized by fluorescence-activated cell sorting on the basis of cell surface antigen expression, and were sorted as a CD34+ and CD45- fraction. Cells in this fraction were approximately 94% positive for Sca-1, and mostly negative (<3% positive) for CD14, 31, 49, 144, c-kit, and FLK-1. The CD34+/45- cells formed colonies in clonal cell cultures and colony-forming units displayed the potential to differentiate into adipocytes, endothelial, and myogenic cells. The CD34+/45- cells fully differentiated into vascular endothelial cells and skeletal muscle fibers in vivo after transplantation. Immediately after sorting, CD34+/45- cells expressed only c-met mRNA, and did not express any other myogenic cell-related markers such as MyoD, myf-5, myf-6, myogenin, M-cadherin, Pax-3, and Pax-7. However, after 3 d of culture, these cells expressed mRNA for all myogenic markers. CD34+/45- cells were distinct from satellite cells, as they expressed Bcrp1/ABCG2 gene mRNA (Zhou et al., 2001). These findings suggest that myo-endothelial progenitors reside in the interstitial spaces of mammalian skeletal muscles, and that they can potentially contribute to postnatal skeletal muscle growth.

  8. Dielectric and structural properties of aqueous nonpolar solute mixtures.

    PubMed

    Shvab, I; Sadus, Richard J

    2012-09-28

    The dielectric properties and molecular structure of water mixtures with different nonpolar solutes (methane and noble gases) are studied using molecular dynamics. The water-water, water-solute, and solute-solute interactions are calculated using the combination of a polarizable potential [J. Li, Z. Zhou, and R. J. Sadus, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 154509 (2007)] for water plus the Lennard-Jones potential. The effect of solute size and concentration on the solubility of the system, hydrogen bonding, dielectric constant, and dipole moment are investigated over a temperature range of 278-750 K and solute percentage mole fractions up to 30%. Solute particles affect the structure of water, resulting in the compression of oxygen-oxygen and oxygen-hydrogen radial distribution functions. The influence of the solute extends both to relatively low concentrations and high temperatures. The coordination numbers of aqueous solutions of the nonpolar solutes appear to be proportional to the size of the solute particles. Our study shows the destructive influence of the nonpolar solute on both the tetrahedral water structure and hydrogen bond formation at solute concentrations greater than 30%. The presence of nonpolar particles typically decreases both the dielectric constant and dipole moment. The decrease of dielectric constant and water dipole moment is directly proportional to the solute concentration and temperature.

  9. Auditory perceptual simulation: Simulating speech rates or accents?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-07-01

    When readers engage in Auditory Perceptual Simulation (APS) during silent reading, they mentally simulate characteristics of voices attributed to a particular speaker or a character depicted in the text. Previous research found that auditory perceptual simulation of a faster native English speaker during silent reading led to shorter reading times that auditory perceptual simulation of a slower non-native English speaker. Yet, it was uncertain whether this difference was triggered by the different speech rates of the speakers, or by the difficulty of simulating an unfamiliar accent. The current study investigates this question by comparing faster Indian-English speech and slower American-English speech in the auditory perceptual simulation paradigm. Analyses of reading times of individual words and the full sentence reveal that the auditory perceptual simulation effect again modulated reading rate, and auditory perceptual simulation of the faster Indian-English speech led to faster reading rates compared to auditory perceptual simulation of the slower American-English speech. The comparison between this experiment and the data from Zhou and Christianson (2016) demonstrate further that the "speakers'" speech rates, rather than the difficulty of simulating a non-native accent, is the primary mechanism underlying auditory perceptual simulation effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A novel effect of thalidomide and its analogs: suppression of cereblon ubiquitination enhances ubiquitin ligase function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaobin; Huang, Xiangao; He, Xian; Zhou, Yanqing; Jiang, Xiaogang; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Jaffrey, Samie R.; Xu, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    The immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) thalidomide and its structural analogs lenalidomide and pomalidomide are highly effective in treating clinical indications. Thalidomide binds to cereblon (CRBN), a substrate receptor of the cullin-4 really interesting new gene (RING) E3 ligase complex. Here, we examine the effect of thalidomide and its analogs on CRBN ubiquitination and its functions in human cell lines. We find that the ubiquitin modification of CRBN includes K48-linked polyubiquitin chains and that thalidomide blocks the formation of CRBN-ubiquitin conjugates. Furthermore, we show that ubiquitinated CRBN is targeted for proteasomal degradation. Treatment of human myeloma cell lines such as MM1.S, OPM2, and U266 with thalidomide (100 μM) and its structural analog lenalidomide (10 μM) results in stabilization of CRBN and elevation of CRBN protein levels. This in turn leads to the reduced level of CRBN target proteins and enhances the sensitivity of human multiple myeloma cells to IMiDs. Our results reveal a novel mechanism by which thalidomide and its analogs modulate the CRBN function in cells. Through inhibition of CRBN ubiquitination, thalidomide and its analogs allow CRBN to accumulate, leading to the increased cullin-4 RING E3 ligase-mediated degradation of target proteins.—Liu, Y., Huang, X., He, X., Zhou, Y., Jiang, X., Chen-Kiang, S., Jaffrey, S. R., Xu, G. A novel effect of thalidomide and its analogs: suppression of cereblon ubiquitination enhances ubiquitin ligase function. PMID:26231201

  11. Intermolecular potentials and the accurate prediction of the thermodynamic properties of water

    SciTech Connect

    Shvab, I.; Sadus, Richard J., E-mail: rsadus@swin.edu.au

    2013-11-21

    The ability of intermolecular potentials to correctly predict the thermodynamic properties of liquid water at a density of 0.998 g/cm{sup 3} for a wide range of temperatures (298–650 K) and pressures (0.1–700 MPa) is investigated. Molecular dynamics simulations are reported for the pressure, thermal pressure coefficient, thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal and adiabatic compressibilities, isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, and Joule-Thomson coefficient of liquid water using the non-polarizable SPC/E and TIP4P/2005 potentials. The results are compared with both experiment data and results obtained from the ab initio-based Matsuoka-Clementi-Yoshimine non-additive (MCYna) [J. Li, Z. Zhou, and R. J. Sadus, J. Chem. Phys.more » 127, 154509 (2007)] potential, which includes polarization contributions. The data clearly indicate that both the SPC/E and TIP4P/2005 potentials are only in qualitative agreement with experiment, whereas the polarizable MCYna potential predicts some properties within experimental uncertainty. This highlights the importance of polarizability for the accurate prediction of the thermodynamic properties of water, particularly at temperatures beyond 298 K.« less

  12. How to make thermodynamic perturbation theory to be suitable for low temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shiqi

    2009-02-01

    Low temperature unsuitability is a problem plaguing thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) for years. Present investigation indicates that the low temperature predicament can be overcome by employing as reference system a nonhard sphere potential which incorporates one part of the attractive ingredient in a potential function of interest. In combination with a recently proposed TPT [S. Zhou, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 144518 (2006)] based on a λ expansion (λ being coupling parameter), the new perturbation strategy is employed to predict for several model potentials. It is shown that the new perturbation strategy can very accurately predict various thermodynamic properties even if the potential range is extremely short and hence the temperature of interest is very low and current theoretical formalisms seriously deteriorate or critically fail to predict even the existence of the critical point. Extensive comparison with existing liquid state theories and available computer simulation data discloses a superiority of the present TPT to two Ornstein-Zernike-type integral equation theories, i.e., hierarchical reference theory and self-consistent Ornstein-Zernike approximation.

  13. Dual functions of Macpiwi1 in transposon silencing and stem cell maintenance in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Battistoni, Giorgia; El Demerdash, Osama; Gurtowski, James; Wunderer, Julia; Falciatori, Ilaria; Ladurner, Peter; Schatz, Michael C; Hannon, Gregory J; Wasik, Kaja A

    2015-11-01

    PIWI proteins and piRNA pathways are essential for transposon silencing and some aspects of gene regulation during animal germline development. In contrast to most animal species, some flatworms also express PIWIs and piRNAs in somatic stem cells, where they are required for tissue renewal and regeneration. Here, we have identified and characterized piRNAs and PIWI proteins in the emerging model flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We found that M. lignano encodes at least three PIWI proteins. One of these, Macpiwi1, acts as a key component of the canonical piRNA pathway in the germline and in somatic stem cells. Knockdown of Macpiwi1 dramatically reduces piRNA levels, derepresses transposons, and severely impacts stem cell maintenance. Knockdown of the piRNA biogenesis factor Macvasa caused an even greater reduction in piRNA levels with a corresponding increase in transposons. Yet, in Macvasa knockdown animals, we detected no major impact on stem cell self-renewal. These results may suggest stem cell maintenance functions of PIWI proteins in flatworms that are distinguishable from their impact on transposons and that might function independently of what are considered canonical piRNA populations. © 2015 Zhou et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  14. Synchrony and the binding problem in macaque visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Mihalas, Stefan; Qiu, Fangtu; von der Heydt, Rüdiger; Niebur, Ernst

    2009-01-01

    We tested the binding-by-synchrony hypothesis which proposes that object representations are formed by synchronizing spike activity between neurons that code features of the same object. We studied responses of 32 pairs of neurons recorded with microelectrodes 3 mm apart in the visual cortex of macaques performing a fixation task. Upon mapping the receptive fields of the neurons, a quadrilateral was generated so that two of its sides were centered in the receptive fields at the optimal orientations. This one-figure condition was compared with a two-figure condition in which the neurons were stimulated by two separate figures, keeping the local edges in the receptive fields identical. For each neuron, we also determined its border ownership selectivity (H. Zhou, H. S. Friedman, & R. von der Heydt, 2000). We examined both synchronization and correlation at nonzero time lag. After correcting for effects of the firing rate, we found that synchrony did not depend on the binding condition. However, finding synchrony in a pair of neurons was correlated with finding border-ownership selectivity in both members of the pair. This suggests that the synchrony reflected the connectivity in the network that generates border ownership assignment. Thus, we have not found evidence to support the binding-by-synchrony hypothesis. PMID:19146262

  15. Hierarchical neural network model of the visual system determining figure/ground relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masayuki

    2017-07-01

    One of the most important functions of the visual perception in the brain is figure/ground interpretation from input images. Figural region in 2D image corresponding to object in 3D space are distinguished from background region extended behind the object. Previously the author proposed a neural network model of figure/ground separation constructed on the standpoint that local geometric features such as curvatures and outer angles at corners are extracted and propagated along input contour in a single layer network (Kikuchi & Akashi, 2001). However, such a processing principle has the defect that signal propagation requires manyiterations despite the fact that actual visual system determines figure/ground relation within the short period (Zhou et al., 2000). In order to attain speed-up for determining figure/ground, this study incorporates hierarchical architecture into the previous model. This study confirmed the effect of the hierarchization as for the computation time by simulation. As the number of layers increased, the required computation time reduced. However, such speed-up effect was saturatedas the layers increased to some extent. This study attempted to explain this saturation effect by the notion of average distance between vertices in the area of complex network, and succeeded to mimic the saturation effect by computer simulation.

  16. Molecular dynamic simulation study of plasma etching L10 FePt media in embedded mask patterning (EMP) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianxin; Quarterman, P.; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2017-05-01

    Plasma etching process of single-crystal L10-FePt media [H. Wang et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5) (2013)] is studied using molecular dynamic simulation. Embedded-Atom Method [M. S. Daw and M. I. Baskes, Phy. Rev. B 29, 6443 (1984); X. W. Zhou, R. A. Johnson and H. N. G. Wadley, Phy. Rev. B 69, 144113 (2004)] is used to calculate the interatomic potential within atoms in FePt alloy, and ZBL potential [J.F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack and U. Littmark, "The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter," Volume 1, Pergamon,1985] in comparison with conventional Lennard-Jones "12-6" potential is applied to interactions between etching gas ions and metal atoms. It is shown the post-etch structure defects can include amorphized surface layer and lattice interstitial point defects that caused by etchant ions passed through the surface layer. We show that the amorphized or damaged FePt lattice surface layer (or "magnetic dead-layer") thickness after etching increases with ion energy for Ar ion impacts, but significantly small for He ions at up to 250eV ion energy. However, we showed that He sputtering creates more interstitial defects at lower energy levels and defects are deeper below the surface compared to Ar sputtering. We also calculate the interstitial defect level and depth as dependence on ion energy for both Ar and He ions. Media magnetic property loss due to these defects is also discussed.

  17. Shear wave velocity and attenuation in the upper layer of ocean bottoms from long-range acoustic field measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ji-Xun; Zhang, Xue-Zhen

    2012-12-01

    Several physics-based seabed geoacoustic models (including the Biot theory) predict that compressional wave attenuation α(2) in sandy marine sediments approximately follows quadratic frequency dependence at low frequencies, i.e., α(2)≈kf(n) (dB/m), n=2. A recent paper on broadband geoacoustic inversions from low frequency (LF) field measurements, made at 20 locations around the world, has indicated that the frequency exponent of the effective sound attenuation n≈1.80 in a frequency band of 50-1000 Hz [Zhou et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 2847-2866 (2009)]. Carey and Pierce hypothesize that the discrepancy is due to the inversion models' neglect of shear wave effects [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124, EL271-EL277 (2008)]. The broadband geoacoustic inversions assume that the seabottom is an equivalent fluid and sound waves interact with the bottom at small grazing angles. The shear wave velocity and attenuation in the upper layer of ocean bottoms are estimated from the LF field-inverted effective bottom attenuations using a near-grazing bottom reflection expression for the equivalent fluid model, derived by Zhang and Tindle [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 3391-3396 (1995)]. The resultant shear wave velocity and attenuation are consistent with the SAX99 measurement at 25 Hz and 1000 Hz. The results are helpful for the analysis of shear wave effects on long-range sound propagation in shallow water.

  18. Soliton Resolution for the Derivative Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Robert; Liu, Jiaqi; Perry, Peter; Sulem, Catherine

    2018-05-01

    We study the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation for generic initial data in a weighted Sobolev space that can support bright solitons (but exclude spectral singularities). Drawing on previous well-posedness results, we give a full description of the long-time behavior of the solutions in the form of a finite sum of localized solitons and a dispersive component. At leading order and in space-time cones, the solution has the form of a multi-soliton whose parameters are slightly modified from their initial values by soliton-soliton and soliton-radiation interactions. Our analysis provides an explicit expression for the correction dispersive term. We use the nonlinear steepest descent method of Deift and Zhou (Commun Pure Appl Math 56:1029-1077, 2003) revisited by the {\\overline{partial}} -analysis of McLaughlin and Miller (IMRP Int Math Res Pap 48673:1-77, 2006) and Dieng and McLaughlin (Long-time asymptotics for the NLS equation via dbar methods. Preprint, arXiv:0805.2807, 2008), and complemented by the recent work of Borghese et al. (Ann Inst Henri Poincaré Anal Non Linéaire, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anihpc.2017.08.006, 2017) on soliton resolution for the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Our results imply that N-soliton solutions of the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation are asymptotically stable.

  19. Structure of weakly 2-dependent siphons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Daniel Yuh; Chen, Jiun-Ting

    2013-09-01

    Deadlocks arising from insufficiently marked siphons in flexible manufacturing systems can be controlled by adding monitors to each siphon - too many for large systems. Li and Zhou add monitors to elementary siphons only while controlling the rest of (called dependent) siphons by adjusting control depth variables of elementary siphons. Only a linear number of monitors are required. The control of weakly dependent siphons (WDSs) is rather conservative since only positive terms were considered. The structure for strongly dependent siphons (SDSs) has been studied earlier. Based on this structure, the optimal sequence of adding monitors has been discovered earlier. Better controllability has been discovered to achieve faster and more permissive control. The results have been extended earlier to S3PGR2 (systems of simple sequential processes with general resource requirements). This paper explores the structures for WDSs, which, as found in this paper, involve elementary resource circuits interconnecting at more than (for SDSs, exactly) one resource place. This saves the time to compute compound siphons, their complementary sets and T-characteristic vectors. Also it allows us (1) to improve the controllability of WDSs and control siphons and (2) to avoid the time to find independent vectors for elementary siphons. We propose a sufficient and necessary test for adjusting control depth variables in S3PR (systems of simple sequential processes with resources) to avoid the sufficient-only time-consuming linear integer programming test (LIP) (Nondeterministic Polynomial (NP) time complete problem) required previously for some cases.

  20. Evaluating the predictive power of multivariate tensor-based morphometry in Alzheimer's disease progression via convex fused sparse group Lasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Gajawelli, Niharika; Zhou, Jiayu; Shi, Jie; Ye, Jieping; Wang, Yalin; Lepore, Natasha

    2014-03-01

    Prediction of Alzheimers disease (AD) progression based on baseline measures allows us to understand disease progression and has implications in decisions concerning treatment strategy. To this end we combine a predictive multi-task machine learning method1 with novel MR-based multivariate morphometric surface map of the hippocampus2 to predict future cognitive scores of patients. Previous work by Zhou et al.1 has shown that a multi-task learning framework that performs prediction of all future time points (or tasks) simultaneously can be used to encode both sparsity as well as temporal smoothness. They showed that this can be used in predicting cognitive outcomes of Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) subjects based on FreeSurfer-based baseline MRI features, MMSE score demographic information and ApoE status. Whilst volumetric information may hold generalized information on brain status, we hypothesized that hippocampus specific information may be more useful in predictive modeling of AD. To this end, we applied Shi et al.2s recently developed multivariate tensor-based (mTBM) parametric surface analysis method to extract features from the hippocampal surface. We show that by combining the power of the multi-task framework with the sensitivity of mTBM features of the hippocampus surface, we are able to improve significantly improve predictive performance of ADAS cognitive scores 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months from baseline.

  1. Renormalization group analysis of the 2000-2002 anti-bubble in the US S&P500 index: explanation of the hierarchy of five crashes and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei-Xing; Sornette, Didier

    2003-12-01

    We propose a straightforward extension of our previously proposed log-periodic power-law model of the “anti-bubble” regime of the USA stock market since the summer of 2000, in terms of the renormalization group framework to model critical points. Using a previous work by Gluzman and Sornette (Phys. Rev. E 65 (2003) 036142) on the classification of the class of Weierstrass-like functions, we show that the five crashes that occurred since August 2000 can be accurately modeled by this approach, in a fully consistent way with no additional parameters. Our theory suggests an overall consistent organization of the investors forming a collective network which interact to form the pessimistic bearish “anti-bubble” regime with intermittent acceleration of the positive feedbacks of pessimistic sentiment leading to these crashes. We develop retrospective predictions, that confirm the existence of significant arbitrage opportunities for a trader using our model. Finally, we offer a prediction for the unknown future of the US S&P500 index extending over 2003 and 2004, that refines the previous prediction of Sornette and Zhou (Quant. Finance 2 (2002) 468).

  2. Phylogeny and classification of Prunus sensu lato (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuo; Li, Jinlu; Sun, Jiahui; Yu, Jing; Zhou, Shiliang

    2013-11-01

    The classification of the economically important genus Prunus L. sensu lato (s.l.) is controversial due to the high levels of convergent or the parallel evolution of morphological characters. In the present study, phylogenetic analyses of fifteen main segregates of Prunus s.l. represented by eighty-four species were conducted with maximum parsimony and Bayesian approaches using twelve chloroplast regions (atpB-rbcL, matK, ndhF, psbA-trnH, rbcL, rpL16, rpoC1, rps16, trnS-G, trnL, trnL-F and ycf1) and three nuclear genes (ITS, s6pdh and SbeI) to explore their infrageneric relationships. The results of these analyses were used to develop a new, phylogeny-based classification of Prunus s.l. Our phylogenetic reconstructions resolved three main clades of Prunus s.l. with strong supports. We adopted a broad-sensed genus, Prunus, and recognised three subgenera corresponding to the three main clades: subgenus Padus, subgenus Cerasus and subgenus Prunus. Seven sections of subgenus Prunus were recognised. The dwarf cherries, which were previously assigned to subgenus Cerasus, were included in this subgenus Prunus. One new section name, Prunus L. subgenus Prunus section Persicae (T. T. Yü & L. T. Lu) S. L. Zhou and one new species name, Prunus tianshanica (Pojarkov) S. Shi, were proposed. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Application of 4G wireless network-based system for remote diagnosis and nursing of stomal complications

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiulian; Cao, Yingjuan; Luan, Xiaorong

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aims to apply 4G wireless network in the remote diagnosis of stoma complications for the first time. Background: Remote diagnosis and nursing care for a variety of illnesses are urgently needed in clinical settings. Objectives: Combining with relevant clinical manifestations, an Android phone-based intelligent diagnosis system was designed to construct a universe, easy access to exploitation and human-computer interaction database and exploitation environment for applications and programs. Methods: “Production rule” and forward reasoning method were utilized to design arborescence structures and logic reasoner associated with stoma complications. Stoma physicians were responsible for delivering evaluation scores on patients’ health status using analytic hierarchy process. The emphasis of this study is to exploit an “Android phone-based system for remote diagnosis of stoma”, which is of certain universe usage. Results: Such system was tested in the Medicine Information Center of Qilu Hospital of Shandong University and initially applied in the city of De Zhou, Shandong province, China. Conclusions: These results collectively demonstrated that the system is easy to carry, of high utility and free from the limitations of wire network environment, etc. It provides clinical evidence for establishing a novel type model for the exchange between patients and physicians. PMID:25550986

  4. Good gibbons and evil macaques: a historical review on cognitive features of non-human primates in Chinese traditional culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng

    2015-07-01

    For several thousand years the ancient Chinese have accumulated rich knowledge, in the form of written literature and folklore, on the non-human primates widely distributed in China. I have used critical text analysis and discourse analysis to clarify when and how ancient Chinese distinguished gibbons from macaques. I divided the progress into four main stages, the Pre-Shang to Shang dynasty (before 1046 BC), the Zhou to Han dynasty (1046 BC-220 AD), the six dynasties to Song dynasty (220-1279 AD), and the Yuan to Qing dynasties (1279-1840 AD). I found that China's traditional cognition of gibbons and macaques emphasized the appearance of animals, organoleptic performance, or even whether or not their behavior was "moral". They described them as human-like animals by ethical standards but ignored the species itself. This kind of cognitive style actually embodies the "pursuit of goodness", which is the feature of Chinese traditional culture. This study presents some original views on Chinese traditional knowledge of non-human primates.

  5. Parabolic single-crystal diamond compound refractive lenses for coherent x-ray imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentyev, Sergey; Blank, Vladimir D.; Polyakov, Sergey; Zholudev, Sergey; Snigirev, Anatoly A.; Polikarpov, Maxim; Kolodziej, Tomasz; Qian, Jun; Zhou, Hua; Shvyd'ko, Yuri V.

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate parabolic single-crystal diamond compound refractive lenses [1] designed for coherent x-ray imaging resilient to extreme thermal and radiation loading expected from next generation light sources. To ensure the preservation of coherence and resilience, the lenses are manufactured from the highest-quality single-crystalline synthetic diamond material grown by a high-pressure high-temperature technique. Picosecond laser milling is applied to machine lenses to parabolic shapes with a 1-micron precision and surface roughness. A compound refractive lens comprised of six lenses with a radius of curvature R=200 microns at the vertex of the parabola and a geometrical aperture A=900 microns focuses 10 keV x-ray photons from an undulator source at the Advanced Photon Source facility to a focal spot size of 10x40 microns^2 with a gain factor of 100. [1] S. Terentyev, V. Blank, S. Polyakov, S. Zholudev, A. Snigirev, M. Polikarpov, T. Kolodziej, J. Qian, H. Zhou, and Yu. Shvyd'ko Applied Physics Letters 107, 111108 (2015); doi: 10.1063/1.4931357

  6. How to make thermodynamic perturbation theory to be suitable for low temperature?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiqi

    2009-02-07

    Low temperature unsuitability is a problem plaguing thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) for years. Present investigation indicates that the low temperature predicament can be overcome by employing as reference system a nonhard sphere potential which incorporates one part of the attractive ingredient in a potential function of interest. In combination with a recently proposed TPT [S. Zhou, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 144518 (2006)] based on a lambda expansion (lambda being coupling parameter), the new perturbation strategy is employed to predict for several model potentials. It is shown that the new perturbation strategy can very accurately predict various thermodynamic properties even if the potential range is extremely short and hence the temperature of interest is very low and current theoretical formalisms seriously deteriorate or critically fail to predict even the existence of the critical point. Extensive comparison with existing liquid state theories and available computer simulation data discloses a superiority of the present TPT to two Ornstein-Zernike-type integral equation theories, i.e., hierarchical reference theory and self-consistent Ornstein-Zernike approximation.

  7. Quantum neural networks: Current status and prospects for development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altaisky, M. V.; Kaputkina, N. E.; Krylov, V. A.

    2014-11-01

    The idea of quantum artificial neural networks, first formulated in [34], unites the artificial neural network concept with the quantum computation paradigm. Quantum artificial neural networks were first systematically considered in the PhD thesis by T. Menneer (1998). Based on the works of Menneer and Narayanan [42, 43], Kouda, Matsui, and Nishimura [35, 36], Altaisky [2, 68], Zhou [67], and others, quantum-inspired learning algorithms for neural networks were developed, and are now used in various training programs and computer games [29, 30]. The first practically realizable scaled hardware-implemented model of the quantum artificial neural network is obtained by D-Wave Systems, Inc. [33]. It is a quantum Hopfield network implemented on the basis of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). In this work we analyze possibilities and underlying principles of an alternative way to implement quantum neural networks on the basis of quantum dots. A possibility of using quantum neural network algorithms in automated control systems, associative memory devices, and in modeling biological and social networks is examined.

  8. Fossil endocarps of Aralia (Araliaceae) from the upper Pliocene of Yunnan in southwest China, and their biogeographical implications

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Hai; Jacques, Frederic M. B.; Wang, Li; ...

    2015-10-09

    Aralia stratosa H. Zhu, Y.J. Huang et Z.K. Zhou sp. nov. is described based on fossil endocarps from the upper Pliocene of northwest Yunnan in southwest China. The endocarps are characterized by a semicircular to elliptic outline in the lateral view, an apical beak-like structure bending towards the ventral side, and a transversely wrinkled surface, collectively indicating taxonomical inclusion in the genus Aralia (Araliaceae). The new fossil taxon is compared with nine extant species of Aralia based on endocarp morphology and anatomy, showing the carpological resemblance to A. echinocaulis. Aralia stratosa sp. nov. represents the first confirmed fossil record frommore » lower latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. This implies a southerly biogeographical range for this genus than was previously interpreted. The fossil record of Aralia suggests a Cretaceous origin in North America and an Eocene dispersal to eastern Asia, likely via the Bering land bridge, followed by Miocene establishment in Europe. The genus likely began to inhabit lower latitudes in eastern Asia no later than the late Pliocene, which is in line with results from molecular analyses. As a result, all these may suggest a southward distributional change probably associated with the global cooling and northern acidification.« less

  9. Inputs for subject-specific computational fluid dynamics simulation of blood flow in the mouse aorta.

    PubMed

    Van Doormaal, Mark; Zhou, Yu-Qing; Zhang, Xiaoli; Steinman, David A; Henkelman, R Mark

    2014-10-01

    Mouse models are an important way for exploring relationships between blood hemodynamics and eventual plaque formation. We have developed a mouse model of aortic regurgitation (AR) that produces large changes in plaque burden with charges in hemodynamics [Zhou et al., 2010, "Aortic Regurgitation Dramatically Alters the Distribution of Atherosclerotic Lesions and Enhances Atherogenesis in Mice," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 30(6), pp. 1181-1188]. In this paper, we explore the amount of detail needed for realistic computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations in this experimental model. The CFD calculations use inputs based on experimental measurements from ultrasound (US), micro computed tomography (CT), and both anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and phase contrast MRI (PC-MRI). The adequacy of five different levels of model complexity (a) subject-specific CT data from a single mouse; (b) subject-specific CT centerlines with radii from US; (c) same as (b) but with MRI derived centerlines; (d) average CT centerlines and averaged vessel radius and branching vessels; and (e) same as (d) but with averaged MRI centerlines) is evaluated by demonstrating their impact on relative residence time (RRT) outputs. The paper concludes by demonstrating the necessity of subject-specific geometry and recommends for inputs the use of CT or anatomical MRI for establishing the aortic centerlines, M-mode US for scaling the aortic diameters, and a combination of PC-MRI and Doppler US for estimating the spatial and temporal characteristics of the input wave forms.

  10. SciTech Connect

    Fromm, Andrea; Bonitz, Michael; Dufty, James

    The idea of treating quantum systems by semiclassical representations using effective quantum potentials (forces) has been successfully applied in equilibrium by many authors, see e.g. [D. Bohm, Phys. Rev. 85 (1986) 166 and 180; D.K. Ferry, J.R. Zhou, Phys. Rev. B 48 (1993) 7944; A.V. Filinov, M. Bonitz, W. Ebeling, J. Phys. A 36 (2003) 5957 and references cited therein]. Here, this idea is extended to nonequilibrium quantum systems in an external field. A gauge-invariant quantum kinetic theory for weakly inhomogeneous charged particle systems in a strong electromagnetic field is developed within the framework of nonequilibrium Green's functions. The equationmore » for the spectral density is simplified by introducing a classical (local) form for the kinetics. Nonlocal quantum effects are accounted for in this way by replacing the bare external confinement potential with an effective quantum potential. The equation for this effective potential is identified and solved for weak inhomogeneity in the collisionless limit. The resulting nonequilibrium spectral function is used to determine the density of states and the modification of the Born collision operator in the kinetic equation for the Wigner function due to quantum confinement effects.« less

  11. Methods for Determining Likelihood of Tweet Deletion

    SciTech Connect

    Few works exist that attempt to build predictive models for tweet deletion. Zhou et al. (2015) focus on a subset of deleted tweets – regrettable tweets. These are tweets that the authors believe to contain inappropriate content. Inappropriate can range from vulgar language to sharing private content such as a personal email address. The presence of inappropriate content doesn’t guarantee that a tweet will be deleted, however intuition dictates it can be in an important factor in the tweet being deleted. In their work, the authors create a predictive model for identifying regrettable tweets. It is important to note themore » authors focus on predicting regrettable tweets that are distinctly not spam and only written in English. Through manual investigation, the authors identify ten major topics including negative sentiment, cursing, and relationships that are prevalent in regrettable tweets. The authors then exploit WordNet and UrbanDictionary to create keyword lists related to the ten topics. Finally, using a combination of existing lexica and the topic keywords as features, the authors build classifiers to test the accuracy of their model. The authors complement 700 manually labeled regrettable tweets with 700 normal tweets to create their evaluation dataset. The authors’ best performance from 10-fold cross-validation was an f1 score of 0.85 using a J48 classifier on a balanced dataset of deleted and non-deleted tweets.« less

  12. Economic policy uncertainty, equity premium and dependence between their quantiles: Evidence from quantile-on-quantile approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Syed Ali; Zaighum, Isma; Shah, Nida

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines the relationship between economic policy uncertainty and equity premium in G7 countries over a period of the monthly data from January 1989 to December 2015 using a novel technique namely QQ regression proposed by Sim and Zhou (2015). Based on QQ approach, we estimate how the quantiles of the economic policy uncertainty affect the quantiles of the equity premium. Thus, it provides a comprehensive insight into the overall dependence structure between the equity premium and economic policy uncertainty as compared to traditional techniques like OLS or quantile regression. Overall, our empirical evidence suggests the existence of a negative association between equity premium and EPU predominately in all G7 countries, especially in the extreme low and extreme high tails. However, differences exist among countries and across different quantiles of EPU and the equity premium within each country. The existence of this heterogeneity among countries is due to the differences in terms of dependency on economic policy, other stock markets, and the linkages with other country's equity market.

  13. Freely-tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ru-Wen; Fan, Ren-Hao; Zhou, Yu; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Xiong, Xiang; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    It is known that commercially-available terahertz (THz) emitters usually generate linearly polarized waves only along certain directions, but in practice, a polarization rotator that is capable of rotating the polarization of THz waves to any direction is particularly desirable and it will have various important applications. In this work, we demonstrate a freely tunable polarization rotator for broadband THz waves using a three-rotating-layer metallic grating structure, which can conveniently rotate the polarization of a linearly polarized THz wave to any desired direction with nearly perfect conversion efficiency. The device performance has been experimentally demonstrated by both THz transmission spectra and direct imaging. The polarization rotation originates from multi wave interference in the three-layer grating structure based on the scattering-matrix analysis. We can expect that this active broadband polarization rotator has wide applications in analytical chemistry, biology, communication technology, imaging, etc.. Reference: R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and Mu Wang, Advanced Materials 27,1201(2015). Freely-tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves.

  14. Nonperiodic metallic gratings transparent for broadband terahertz waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Ren, Xiao-Ping; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    Recently, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that nonperiodic metallic gratings can become transparent for broadband terahertz waves. Quasiperiodic and disordered metallic gratings effectively weaken and even eliminate Wood's anomalies, which are the diffraction-related characters of periodic gratings. Consequently, both the transparence bandwidth and transmission efficiency are significantly increased due to the structural aperiodicity. Furthermore, we show that for a specific light source, for example, a line source, a corresponding nonperiodic transparent grating can be also designed. We expect that our findings can be applied for transparent conducting panels, perfect white-beam polarizers, antireflective conducting solar cells, and beyond. References: X. P. Ren, R. H. Fan, R. W. Peng, X. R. Huang, D. H. Xu, Y. Zhou, and Mu Wang, Physical Review B, 91, 045111 (2015); R. H. Fan, R. W. Peng, X. R. Huang, J. Li, Y. Liu, Q. Hu, Mu. Wang, and X. Zhang, Advanced Materials, 24, 1980 (2012); and X. R. Huang, R. W. Peng, and R. H. Fan. Physical Review Letters, 105, 243901 (2010).

  15. Electron self-injection due to a plasma density downramp and gas ionization in a plasma wakefield accelerator in the blowout regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S. A.; D'Avignon, E. C.; Khudik, V.; Shvets, G.

    2010-11-01

    We study self-injection into a plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) in the blowout regime analytically and through particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. We propose a new injection mechanism into a plasma wakefield accelerator, where growth of the blowout region is enabled through a slow decrease in background plasma density along the direction of propagation. Deepening of the potential well due to this growth causes a reduction of electron Hamiltonian in the co-moving frame. This reduction depends on the shape of the blowout region, its growth rate, and impact parameter of the electron. When the reduction is greater than mc^2 [1,2], the electron becomes trapped inside the bubble. We demonstrate this effect using analytic expressions for the bubble potentials [3], and estimate plasma density gradients, and beam charge and size required for injection. We also apply the injection criterion to electron trapping through gas ionization. This work is supported by the US DOE grants DE-FG02-04ER41321 and DE-FG02-07ER54945. [1] S. Kalmykov, S.A. Yi, V. Khudik, and G. Shvets, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 135004 (2009). [2] S.A. Yi, V. Khudik, S. Kalmykov, and G. Shvets, Plasma Phys. Contr. Fus., in press. [3] W. Lu, C. Huang, M. Zhou, M. Tzoufras et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 056709 (2006).

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LaCoSSPAr in the Southern Galactic Cap. I. (Yang+, 2018)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Wu, H.; Yang, F.; Lam, M. I.; Cao, T.-W.; Wu, C.-J.; Zhao, P.-S.; Zhang, T.-M.; Zhou, Z.-M.; Wu, X.-B.; Zhang, Y.-X.; Shao, Z.-Y.; Jing, Y.-P.; Shen, S.-Y.; Zhu, Y.-N.; Du, W.; Lei, F.-J.; He, M.; Jin, J.-J.; Shi, J.-R.; Zhang, W.; Wang, J.-L.; Wu, Y.-Z.; Zhang, H.-T.; Luo, A.-L.; Yuan, H.-L.; Bai, Z.-R.; Kong, X.; Gu, Q.-S.; Zhou, X.; Ma, J.; Hu, Z.; Nie, J.-D.; Wang, J.-L.; Zhang, Y.; Hou, Y.-H.; Zhao, Y.-H.

    2018-03-01

    We have selected two FOVs according to the distribution of galaxy clusters from the Abell rich galaxy clusters catalog (Abell+ 1989, VII/110) in the region of the South Galactic Cap u-band Sky Survey (SCUSS, Zhou+ 2016RAA....16....7Z). The central coordinates of the two FOVs we selected are RA=37.88°,DE=3.44° (Field A) and RA=21.53,DE=-2.20° (Field B) as shown in Figure 1. The observation of LAMOST is automatically managed by the Survey Strategy System (SSS). We conduct the observation from 2012 September to 2014 January (except July through August, which is the maintain period of the telescope). Field A contains 2519 galaxies and 13930 stars in which 2447 (~97%) and 13278 (~95%) of them have been observed with 5 B and 12 F plates (redundant F plates are caused by a technical issue), respectively. Field B contains 3104 galaxies and 11381 stars in which 2995 (~97%) and 10224 (~90%) of them have been observed with six B and five F plates, respectively. (2 data files).

  17. Editorial

    PubMed Central

    Wainwright, CL; McGrath, JC

    2009-01-01

    A themed section in this issue of Br J Pharmacol, on ‘Advances in Nutritional Pharmacology’, provides a valuable and timely update on progress in this area. The value of dietary components to improvement in health and, particularly, to prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer, is frequently reported in the media and therefore often captures the attention of the wider public. Understanding the pharmacological mechanisms by which nutritional elements confer their health benefits enables us to keep the public informed, but also aids in the identification of new targets for drug development. In recent years there has been significant progress in this field. Four rapidly developing areas are reviewed. Vosper (2009) covers the identification of a receptor for niacin and the subsequent development of selective agonists as lipid lowering agents. Wu-Wong (2009) describes the development of new Vitamin D analogues for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. de Roos et al. (2009) provide detailed insight into how omega-3 fatty acids, also known as longchain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protect against cardiovascular disease. Zhou et al. (2009) cover the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of resveretrol in protection against cancer. These reviews are complimented by three key original articles focusing on endogenous mechanisms of weight control involving endocannabinoids (Izzo et al., 2009), a circulating protein, the soluble leptin receptor (Zhang & Scarpace, 2009) and a treatment, zinc plus cyclo-(His-Pro) (CHP), known to increase insulin metabolism (Song et al., 2009). PMID:19732059

  18. Themed section: Advances in nutritional pharmacology. Editorial.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, C L; McGrath, J C

    2009-09-01

    A themed section in this issue of Br J Pharmacol, on 'Advances in Nutritional Pharmacology', provides a valuable and timely update on progress in this area. The value of dietary components to improvement in health and, particularly, to prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer, is frequently reported in the media and therefore often captures the attention of the wider public. Understanding the pharmacological mechanisms by which nutritional elements confer their health benefits enables us to keep the public informed, but also aids in the identification of new targets for drug development. In recent years there has been significant progress in this field. Four rapidly developing areas are reviewed. Vosper (2009) covers the identification of a receptor for niacin and the subsequent development of selective agonists as lipid lowering agents. Wu-Wong (2009) describes the development of new Vitamin D analogues for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. de Roos et al. (2009) provide detailed insight into how omega-3 fatty acids, also known as longchain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protect against cardiovascular disease. Zhou et al. (2009) cover the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of resveretrol in protection against cancer. These reviews are complimented by three key original articles focusing on endogenous mechanisms of weight control involving endocannabinoids (Izzo et al., 2009), a circulating protein, the soluble leptin receptor (Zhang & Scarpace, 2009) and a treatment, zinc plus cyclo-(His-Pro) (CHP), known to increase insulin metabolism (Song et al., 2009).

  19. Performance of in silico tools for the evaluation of p16INK4a (CDKN2A) variants in CAGI.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Marco; Minervini, Giovanni; Giollo, Manuel; Bromberg, Yana; Capriotti, Emidio; Casadio, Rita; Dunbrack, Roland; Elefanti, Lisa; Fariselli, Pietro; Ferrari, Carlo; Gough, Julian; Katsonis, Panagiotis; Leonardi, Emanuela; Lichtarge, Olivier; Menin, Chiara; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Niroula, Abhishek; Pal, Lipika R; Repo, Susanna; Scaini, Maria Chiara; Vihinen, Mauno; Wei, Qiong; Xu, Qifang; Yang, Yuedong; Yin, Yizhou; Zaucha, Jan; Zhao, Huiying; Zhou, Yaoqi; Brenner, Steven E; Moult, John; Tosatto, Silvio C E

    2017-09-01

    Correct phenotypic interpretation of variants of unknown significance for cancer-associated genes is a diagnostic challenge as genetic screenings gain in popularity in the next-generation sequencing era. The Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation (CAGI) experiment aims to test and define the state of the art of genotype-phenotype interpretation. Here, we present the assessment of the CAGI p16INK4a challenge. Participants were asked to predict the effect on cellular proliferation of 10 variants for the p16INK4a tumor suppressor, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor encoded by the CDKN2A gene. Twenty-two pathogenicity predictors were assessed with a variety of accuracy measures for reliability in a medical context. Different assessment measures were combined in an overall ranking to provide more robust results. The R scripts used for assessment are publicly available from a GitHub repository for future use in similar assessment exercises. Despite a limited test-set size, our findings show a variety of results, with some methods performing significantly better. Methods combining different strategies frequently outperform simpler approaches. The best predictor, Yang&Zhou lab, uses a machine learning method combining an empirical energy function measuring protein stability with an evolutionary conservation term. The p16INK4a challenge highlights how subtle structural effects can neutralize otherwise deleterious variants. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Book Reivew: A chance for lasting survival: Ecology and behavior of wild giant pandas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Manen, Frank T.

    2015-01-01

    “If we watch species going extinct in front of us, how useful is that we publish 100 or even 1,000 papers by studying them?” (p. 330). This quote from senior author Pan Wenshi captures an important essence of this book. A translation of a 2001 monograph originally published in Chinese, this volume details the findings of a 15-year research program in the Qinling Mountains by Wenshi and his students. Starting in 1984, this Chinese research team from Peking University was only the second to study free-ranging pandas. This is the remarkable journey of a devoted group of field researchers who helped changed the course of giant panda conservation, events that few conservationists outside of China have been aware of until now.Review info: A chance for lasting survival: Ecology and behavior of wild giant pandas. By Pan Wenshi, Lü Zhi, Zhu Xiaojian, Wang Dajun, Wang Hao, Long Yu, Fu Dali, and Zhou Xin; edited by, William J. McShea, Richard B. Harris, David L. Garshelis, and Wang Dajun, 2014. ISBN: 978-1-935623-17-5, 349pp.

  1. Estimation of Carbon Sink in Surface Carbonate Rocks of Guangxi Province by Using Remote Sensing Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, B.; Zhou, G.; Wang, H.; Yue, T.; Huang, W.

    2018-04-01

    Studies of the imbalance of source sinks in the carbon cycle show that CO2 absorbed during rock weathering is part of the "miss carbon" of the global carbon cycle. The carbon sink contribution of carbonate rocks obviously plays a very important role in the absorption of atmospheric CO2. Estimation of carbon sinks in karst dynamic system of Guangxi province has great significance for further understanding of global karst carbon cycle and global climate research. This paper quotes the rock data from Tao Xiaodong's paper, which is obtained using RS and GIS techniques. At the same time, the dissolution rate model studied by Zhou Guoqing and others was used to estimate the dissolution rate of carbonate rocks in Guangxi Province. Finally, the CO2 content consumed by carbonate karstification in Guangxi Province was 1342910.447 t a-1. The results obtained are in the same order of magnitude as the CO2 content consumed by carbonate rock karstification in Guangxi Province calculated by Tao Xiaodong.

  2. Toward Rotational State-Selective Photoionization of ThF+ Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Ng, Kia Boon; Gresh, Dan; Cairncross, William; Grau, Matt; Ni, Yiqi; Cornell, Eric; Ye, Jun

    2016-06-01

    ThF+ has been chosen to replace HfF+ for a second-generation measurement of the electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM). Compared to the currently running HfF+ eEDM experiment, ThF+ has several advantages: (i) the eEDM-sensitive state (3Δ1) is the ground state, which facilitates a long coherence time [1]; (ii) its effective electric field (35 GV/cm) is 50% larger than that of HfF+, which promises a direct increase of the eEDM sensitivity [2]; and (iii) the ionization energy of neutral ThF is lower than its dissociation energy, which introduces greater flexibility in rotational state-selective photoionization via core-nonpenetrating Rydberg states [3]. In this talk, we first present our strategy of preparing and utilizing core-nonpenetrating Rydberg states for rotational state-selective ionization. Then, we report spectroscopic data of laser-induced fluorescence of neutral ThF, which provides critical information for multi-photon ionization spectroscopy. [1] D. N. Gresh, K. C. Cossel, Y. Zhou, J. Ye, E. A. Cornell, Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy, 319 (2016), 1-9 [2] M. Denis, M. S. Nørby, H. J. A. Jensen, A. S. P. Gomes, M. K. Nayak, S. Knecht, T. Fleig, New Journal of Physics, 17 (2015) 043005. [3] Z. J. Jakubek, R. W. Field, Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 205 (2001) 197-220.

  3. Demonstration of 40 MHz thin-film electro-optic modulator using an organic molecular salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Achintya; Ahyi, Ayayi; Tan, Shida; Mishra, Alpana; Thakur, Mrinal

    2000-03-01

    Recently we reported the first demonstration of a single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on a DAST single-crystal film.(M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).) In this work, we report a larger modulation depth ( ~80%) and higher speed of operation. Excellent optical quality single-crystal films were prepared by a modified shear method.(M. Thakur and S. Meyler, Macromolecules 18, 2341 (1985); M. Thakur, Y. Shani, G. C. Chi, and K. O'Brien, Synth. Met. 28, D595 (1989).) Thin-film modulator was constructed by depositing electrodes across the polar axis. The beam from a Ti-Sapphire laser, tunable over 720-850 nm, was propagated perpendicular to the film surface. The modulated signal was detected using a fast photodetector, and displayed on a high bandwidth oscilloscope and a spectrum analyzer. The response was independent of the frequency of applied field over the measurement range (2 kHz - 40 MHz). A much higher speed (>100 GHz) of operation should be possible using these films. These modulators involve negligible losses compared to the waveguide structures, and have significant potential for a broad range of applications in high speed optical signal processing.

  4. Polarized optical absorption and photoluminescence measurements in single-crystal thin films of 4'-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Achintya K.; Xu, Jianjun; Thakur, Mrinal

    1999-11-01

    Single-crystal thin films of the anhydrous (red) and the hydrated (orange) phases of the organic salt 4'-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate were grown by a modification of the shear method. The optical absorption coefficients of the films were measured with light polarized along and normal to the dipole/molecular axis at both resonant and off-resonant wavelengths, and a strong dichroism was observed at the resonant wavelengths. The absorption measurements are important considering potential applications of these films (red phase) in high-speed single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulators [M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635 (1999)] and other photonic devices. Highly polarized photoluminescence (PL) has been observed in these films. The PL efficiencies of the red- and orange-phase single-crystal films were measured to be about 12% and 14%, respectively, which are significantly higher than the maximum PL efficiency measured in solution (3%).

  5. Is the structural diversity of tripeptides sufficient for developing functional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Hui; Liu, Yong-Le; Ning, Jing-Heng; Yu, Jian; Li, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Fa-Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Multifunctional peptides have attracted increasing attention in the food science community because of their therapeutic potential, low toxicity and rapid intestinal absorption. However, previous study demonstrated that the limited structural variations make it difficult to optimize dipeptide molecules in a good balance between desirable and undesirable properties (F. Tian, P. Zhou, F. Lv, R. Song, Z. Li, J. Pept. Sci. 13 (2007) 549-566). In the present work, we attempt to answer whether the structural diversity is sufficient for a tripeptide to have satisfactory multiple bioactivities. Statistical test, structural examination and energetic analysis confirm that peptides of three amino acids long can bind tightly to human angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and thus exert significant antihypertensive efficacy. Further quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling and prediction of all 8000 possible tripeptides reveal that their ACE-inhibitory potency exhibits a good (positive) relationship to antioxidative activity, but has only a quite modest correlation with bitterness. This means that it is possible to find certain tripeptide entities possessing the optimal combination of strong ACE-inhibitory potency, high antioxidative activity and weak bitter taste, which are the promising candidates for developing multifunctional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities. The marked difference between dipeptide and tripeptide can be attributed to the fact that the structural diversity of peptides increases dramatically with a slight change in sequence length.

  6. Water use efficiency and integrated water resource management for river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiangzheng; Singh, R. B.; Liu, Junguo; Güneralp, Burak

    Water use efficiency and management have attracted increasing attention as water has become scare to challenge the world's sustainable development. Water use efficiency is correlated to the land use and cover changes (LUCC), population distribution, industrial structure, economic development, climate changes, and environmental governance. These factors significantly alter water productivity for water balance through the changes in natural environment and socio-economic system (Wang et al., 2015b). Consequently, dynamics of water inefficiency lower the social welfare of water allocation (Wang et al., 2015b), and induce water management alternation interactively and financially (Wang et al., 2015a). This triggers on actual water price changes through both natural resource and socioeconomic system (Zhou et al., 2015). Therefore, it is very important to figure out a mechanism of water allocation in the course of LUCC (Jin et al., 2015) at a global perspective (Zhao et al., 2015), climate and economic changes of ecosystem service at various spatial and temporal scales (Li et al., 2015).

  7. Coding the presence of visual objects in a recurrent neural network of visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Zwickel, Timm; Wachtler, Thomas; Eckhorn, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    Before we can recognize a visual object, our visual system has to segregate it from its background. This requires a fast mechanism for establishing the presence and location of objects independently of their identity. Recently, border-ownership neurons were recorded in monkey visual cortex which might be involved in this task [Zhou, H., Friedmann, H., von der Heydt, R., 2000. Coding of border ownership in monkey visual cortex. J. Neurosci. 20 (17), 6594-6611]. In order to explain the basic mechanisms required for fast coding of object presence, we have developed a neural network model of visual cortex consisting of three stages. Feed-forward and lateral connections support coding of Gestalt properties, including similarity, good continuation, and convexity. Neurons of the highest area respond to the presence of an object and encode its position, invariant of its form. Feedback connections to the lowest area facilitate orientation detectors activated by contours belonging to potential objects, and thus generate the experimentally observed border-ownership property. This feedback control acts fast and significantly improves the figure-ground segregation required for the consecutive task of object recognition.

  8. Complexation of carboxylate on smectite surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiandong; Lu, Xiancai; Zhang, Yingchun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Rucheng

    2017-07-19

    We report a first principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) study of carboxylate complexation on clay surfaces. By taking acetate as a model carboxylate, we investigate its inner-sphere complexes adsorbed on clay edges (including (010) and (110) surfaces) and in interlayer space. Simulations show that acetate forms stable monodentate complexes on edge surfaces and a bidentate complex with Ca 2+ in the interlayer region. The free energy calculations indicate that the complexation on edge surfaces is slightly more stable than in interlayer space. By integrating pK a s and desorption free energies of Al coordinated water calculated previously (X. Liu, X. Lu, E. J. Meijer, R. Wang and H. Zhou, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 2012, 81, 56-68; X. Liu, J. Cheng, M. Sprik, X. Lu and R. Wang, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 2014, 140, 410-417), the pH dependence of acetate complexation has been revealed. It shows that acetate forms inner-sphere complexes on (110) in a very limited mildly acidic pH range while it can complex on (010) in the whole common pH range. The results presented in this study form a physical basis for understanding the geochemical processes involving clay-organics interactions.

  9. Teaching quantum physics by the sum over paths approach and GeoGebra simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malgieri, M.; Onorato, P.; De Ambrosis, A.

    2014-09-01

    We present a research-based teaching sequence in introductory quantum physics using the Feynman sum over paths approach. Our reconstruction avoids the historical pathway, and starts by reconsidering optics from the standpoint of the quantum nature of light, analysing both traditional and modern experiments. The core of our educational path lies in the treatment of conceptual and epistemological themes, peculiar of quantum theory, based on evidence from quantum optics, such as the single photon Mach-Zehnder and Zhou-Wang-Mandel experiments. The sequence is supported by a collection of interactive simulations, realized in the open source GeoGebra environment, which we used to assist students in learning the basics of the method, and help them explore the proposed experimental situations as modeled in the sum over paths perspective. We tested our approach in the context of a post-graduate training course for pre-service physics teachers; according to the data we collected, student teachers displayed a greatly improved understanding of conceptual issues, and acquired significant abilities in using the sum over path method for problem solving.

  10. The Validity of Online Patient Ratings of Physicians: Analysis of Physician Peer Reviews and Patient Ratings.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert J; Priestley, Jennifer Lewis; Zhou, Yiyun; Culligan, Patrick J

    2018-04-09

    Information from ratings sites are increasingly informing patient decisions related to health care and the selection of physicians. The current study sought to determine the validity of online patient ratings of physicians through comparison with physician peer review. We extracted 223,715 reviews of 41,104 physicians from 10 of the largest cities in the United States, including 1142 physicians listed as "America's Top Doctors" through physician peer review. Differences in mean online patient ratings were tested for physicians who were listed and those who were not. Overall, no differences were found between the online patient ratings based upon physician peer review status. However, statistical differences were found for four specialties (family medicine, allergists, internal medicine, and pediatrics), with online patient ratings significantly higher for those physicians listed as a peer-reviewed "Top Doctor" versus those who were not. The results of this large-scale study indicate that while online patient ratings are consistent with physician peer review for four nonsurgical, primarily in-office specializations, patient ratings were not consistent with physician peer review for specializations like anesthesiology. This result indicates that the validity of patient ratings varies by medical specialization. ©Robert J McGrath, Jennifer Lewis Priestley, Yiyun Zhou, Patrick J Culligan. Originally published in the Interactive Journal of Medical Research (http://www.i-jmr.org/), 09.04.2018.

  11. High Rate Micromechanical Behavior of Grafted Polymer Nanoparticle Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    We report the ultra high strain rate behavior of films comprised of polymer grafted nanoparticles (NPs) and compare the results to homopolymer films. The films are formed by flow coating a suspension of polystyrene (PS) chains of 230 kg/mol grafted to 16nm diameter SiO2\\ at a graft density of 0.6 chains/nm2 resulting a film with 1 vol % SiO2. Films of 267 kg/mol PS were also flow coated and both films were impacted at velocities 350-700 ms-1 using 3.7 micron SiO2\\ projectiles to achieve increments in kinetic energy (KE) of 1:2:4. The KE of the projectiles before and after penetration was measured to determine the penetration energy. TEM and SEM suggest the projectile initially induces plastic flow due to the adiabatic temperature rise from impact. As the projectile deforms the film, the lower magnitude, biaxial stress state in the peripherial regions causes material microvoid formation and initiation of craze growth in the radial and tangential directions. The anchoring of the grafted polymer chains to the NPs increases the penetration energy relative to the pure homopolymer by 50% and the films capacity to delocalize the impact by 200%. These results suggest that highly grafted NP films may be useful in lightweight protection systems. In collaboration with Omri Fried, Olawale Lawal, Yang Jiao, Victor Hsaio, Thevamaran Ramathasan, Mujin Zhou, Richard Vaia.

  12. Flow Kills Conductivity of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWNT) Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Sanjiv; Macosko, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    Most composites of polymer and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) reported in the literature are made by solvent casting or simple compression molding. Commercial utility of these composites requires use of precision injection molding. We have observed a unique behavior wherein the SWNT composites made by injection molding or by extrusion are insulators but upon heating become electrically conductive. This behavior appears to be the result of a relaxation phenomenon in the SWNT composite. During flow into an injection mold or through an extrusion die the well-dispersed SWNT in the polymer matrix tend to align such that they are not in contact with each other and are farther than the minimum required distance, 5 nm (1), to achieve electrical percolation through electron hopping. Upon heating the SWNT relax and either touch each other or are at a distance less than or equal to 5 nm from each other to create a percolating. [1] Du, F., Scogna, R, C., Zhou, W., Brand, Stijn, Fischer, J. E., and Winey, K. I., Macromolecules 2004, 37, 9048-9055.

  13. Interpretation of frequency sweeping of n=0 mode in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, H. L.

    2006-04-01

    Persistent rapid up and down frequency chirping modes with a toroidal mode number of zero (n=0) are observed in the JET tokamak when energetic ions, in the range of several hundred keV, are created by high field side ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating. Fokker-Planck calculations demonstrate that the heating method enables the formation of an energetically inverted ion distribution which supplies the free energy for the ions to excite a global geodesic acoustic mode (GGAM). The large frequency shifts of this mode are attributed to the formation of phase space structures whose frequencies, which are locked to an ion orbit resonance frequency, are forced to continually shift so that energetic particle energy can be released to counterbalance the energy dissipation present in the background plasma. In collaboration with C.J. Boswell, MIT; D. Borba, A.C.A. Figueiredo, Center for Nuclear Fusion Association; T. Johnson, Alfven Laboratory, KTH; M.F.F. Nave, Center for Nuclear Fusion Association; S.D. Pinches, Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics; S.E. Sharapov, UKEA Culham Science Centre; and T. Zhou, University of Texas at Austin.

  14. SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiuping, E-mail: yangxiuping-1990@163.com; Min, Lequan, E-mail: minlequan@sina.com; Wang, Xue, E-mail: wangxue-20130818@163.com

    This paper sets up a chaos criterion theorem on a kind of cubic polynomial discrete maps. Using this theorem, Zhou-Song's chaos criterion theorem on quadratic polynomial discrete maps and generalized synchronization (GS) theorem construct an eight-dimensional chaotic GS system. Numerical simulations have been carried out to verify the effectiveness of theoretical results. The chaotic GS system is used to design a chaos-based pseudorandom number generator (CPRNG). Using FIPS 140-2 test suit/Generalized FIPS 140-2, test suit tests the randomness of two 1000 key streams consisting of 20 000 bits generated by the CPRNG, respectively. The results show that there are 99.9%/98.5% keymore » streams to have passed the FIPS 140-2 test suit/Generalized FIPS 140-2 test. Numerical simulations show that the different keystreams have an average 50.001% same codes. The key space of the CPRNG is larger than 2{sup 1345}. As an application of the CPRNG, this study gives an image encryption example. Experimental results show that the linear coefficients between the plaintext and the ciphertext and the decrypted ciphertexts via the 100 key streams with perturbed keys are less than 0.00428. The result suggests that the decrypted texts via the keystreams generated via perturbed keys of the CPRNG are almost completely independent on the original image text, and brute attacks are needed to break the cryptographic system.« less

  15. Influences of pH and Iron Concentration on the Salivary Microbiome in Individual Humans with and without Caries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianye; Jiang, Nan; Wang, Zhenzhen; Li, Longqing; Zhang, Jumei; Ma, Rui; Nie, Hongbing; Li, Zhiqiang

    2017-02-15

    This study aimed to identify the differences in the oral microbial communities in saliva from patients with and without caries by performing sequencing with the Illumina MiSeq platform, as well as to further assess their relationships with environmental factors (salivary pH and iron concentration). Forty-three volunteers were selected, including 21 subjects with and 22 without caries, from one village in Gansu, China. Based on 966,255 trimmed sequences and clustering at the 97% similarity level, 1,303 species-level operational taxonomic units were generated. The sequencing data for the two groups revealed that (i) particular distribution patterns (synergistic effects or competition) existed in the subjects with and without caries at both the genus and species levels and (ii) both the salivary pH and iron concentration had significant influences on the microbial community structure. The significant influences of the oral environment observed in this study increase the current understanding of the salivary microbiome in caries. These results will be useful for expanding research directions and for improving disease diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. Copyright © 2017 Zhou et al.

  16. Human Lung Cancer Risks from Radon – Part I - Influence from Bystander Effects - A Microdose Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Bobby E.; Thompson, Richard E.; Beecher, Georgia C.

    2010-01-01

    Since the publication of the BEIR VI report in 1999 on health risks from radon, a significant amount of new data has been published showing various mechanisms that may affect the ultimate assessment of radon as a carcinogen, at low domestic and workplace radon levels, in particular the Bystander Effect (BE) and the Adaptive Response radio-protection (AR). We analyzed the microbeam and broadbeam alpha particle data of Miller et al. (1995, 1999), Zhou et al. (2001, 2003, 2004), Nagasawa and Little (1999, 2002), Hei et al. (1999), Sawant et al. (2001a) and found that the shape of the cellular response to alphas is relatively independent of cell species and LET of the alphas. The same alpha particle traversal dose response behavior should be true for human lung tissue exposure to radon progeny alpha particles. In the Bystander Damage Region of the alpha particle response, there is a variation of RBE from about 10 to 35. There is a transition region between the Bystander Damage Region and Direct Damage Region of between one and two microdose alpha particle traversals indicating that perhaps two alpha particle “hits” are necessary to produce the direct damage. Extrapolation of underground miners lung cancer risks to human risks at domestic and workplace levels may not be valid. PMID:21731539

  17. Mechanical remodeling of normally sized mammalian cells under a gravity vector.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Lüwen; Zhang, Fan; Lü, Dongyuan; Li, Ning; Zheng, Lu; Xu, Yanhong; Li, Zhan; Sun, Shujin; Long, Mian

    2017-02-01

    Translocation of the dense nucleus along a gravity vector initiates mechanical remodeling of a cell, but the underlying mechanisms of cytoskeletal network and focal adhesion complex (FAC) reorganization in a mammalian cell remain unclear. We quantified the remodeling of an MC3T3-E1 cell placed in upward-, downward-, or edge-on-orientated substrate. Nucleus longitudinal translocation presents a high value in downward orientation at 24 h or in edge-on orientation at 72 h, which is consistent with orientation-dependent distribution of perinuclear actin stress fibers and vimentin cords. Redistribution of total FAC area and fractionized super mature adhesion number coordinates this dependence at short duration. This orientation-dependent remodeling is associated with nucleus flattering and lamin A/C phosphorylation. Actin depolymerization or Rho-associated protein kinase signaling inhibition abolishes the orientation dependence of nucleus translocation, whereas tubulin polymerization inhibition or vimentin disruption reserves the dependence. A biomechanical model is therefore proposed for integrating the mechanosensing of nucleus translocation with cytoskeletal remodeling and FAC reorganization induced by a gravity vector.-Zhang, C., Zhou, L., Zhang, F., Lü, D., Li, N., Zheng, L., Xu, Y., Li, Z., Sun, S., Long, M. Mechanical remodeling of normally sized mammalian cells under a gravity vector. © FASEB.

  18. Dynamics of the Spin Liquid Phase of Cs2CuCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ookie; Vachon, Marc-Andre; Mitrovi{Ć}, Vesna F.; Marston, Brad

    2008-03-01

    The dynamics of a spin-liquid phase of an antiferromagnet on the anisotropic triangular lattice and in a magnetic field are studied with a combination of Gutzwiller-projected wavefunctions and mean-field theory. Candidate ground states that support fermionic gapless spinon excitations include four different U(1) spin liquidsootnotetextY. Zhou, X. G. Wen, cond-mat/0210662 (2003).. The lattice and the states interpolate between limiting cases of 1D decoupled chains (J/J^' = 0) and the isotropic 2D square lattice (J/J^'= ∞). Parameters of the mean field theory are chosen to minimize the ground state energy of the corresponding Gutzwiller-projected wavefunction. The spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1, calculated within the mean-field approximation, is compared to NMR measurementsootnotetextM. A. Vachon, O. Ma, J. B. Marston, V. F. Mitrovi'c, unpublished (2007). in the spin liquid phase of Cs2CuCl4ootnotetextY. Tokiwa, T. Radu, R. Coldea, H. Wilhelm, Z. Tylczynski, F. Steglich, PRB 73, 134414 (2006)..

  19. Comparative Analyses of Two Extremely Fast CMEs Induced Shocks using A H3DMHD Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S. T.; Wu, C. C.; Liou, K.; Dryer, Ph D., M.; Plunkett, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    During the last two decades, spacecraft recorded several extremely fast Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) which have resulted in severe geomagnetic storms. Here, we will report results from a comparative study of two extremely fast CME events: one on 29 October 2003 (Halloween 2003 epoch) and the other on 23 July 2012. Both shock events reached 1 AU within ~20 hours. We employed a global three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation model (H3DMHD, Wu et al. 2007, JGR) to study these two events and compared the results with observations (e.g., 1 AU in-situ data, and coronal images from SOHO/LASCO or STEREO/ SECCHI). It was found that: (i) The peak temperature, velocity, and density of the solar wind for the shock/ICME event are 2 x 107 K, 2500 km s-1, and 35 cm-3, respectively. (ii) The peaks of magnetic field (B) are ~60 and 110 nT for the event on 29 October 2003 and 23 July 2012, respectively. Solar wind densities behind the shocks are extremely low which are due to rarefaction of the interplanetary shocks' propagation. We will discuss this issue in the presentation. Simulations are vastly improved and forecasting arrival times should be done as noted in real time by Zhou and Dryer (Space Weather Quarterly, 2014) review, but CME and B therein is still a major challenge for storm prediction.

  20. Eicosanomic profiling reveals dominance of the epoxygenase pathway in human amniotic fluid at term in spontaneous labor

    PubMed Central

    Maddipati, Krishna Rao; Romero, Roberto; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Zhou, Sen-Lin; Xu, Zhonghui; Tarca, Adi L.; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Munoz, Hernan; Honn, Kenneth V.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid mediators play an important role in reproductive biology, especially, in parturition. Enhanced biosynthesis of eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGF2α, precedes the onset of labor as a result of increased expression of inducible cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in placental tissues. Metabolism of arachidonic acid results in bioactive lipid mediators beyond prostaglandins that could significantly influence myometrial activity. Therefore, an unbiased lipidomic approach was used to profile the arachidonic acid metabolome of amniotic fluid. In this study, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry was used for the first time to quantitate these metabolites in human amniotic fluid by comparing patients at midtrimester, at term but not in labor, and at term and in spontaneous labor. In addition to exposing novel aspects of COX pathway metabolism, this lipidomic study revealed a dramatic increase in epoxygenase- and lipoxygenase-pathway-derived lipid mediators in spontaneous labor with remarkable product selectivity. Despite their recognition as anti-inflammatory lipid mediators and regulators of ion channels, little is known about the epoxygenase pathway in labor. Epoxygenase pathway metabolites are established regulators of vascular homeostasis in cardiovascular and renal physiology. Their presence as the dominant lipid mediators in spontaneous labor at term portends a yet undiscovered physiological function in parturition.—Maddipati, K. R., Romero, R., Chaiworapongsa, T., Zhou, S.-L., Xu, Z., Tarca, A. L., Kusanovic, J. P., Munoz, H., Honn, K. V. Eicosanomic profiling reveals dominance of the epoxygenase pathway in human amniotic fluid at term in spontaneous labor. PMID:25059230

  1. Phytochemical variation among the traditional Chinese medicine Mu Dan Pi from Paeonia suffruticosa (tree peony).

    PubMed

    Li, Shan-Shan; Wu, Qian; Yin, Dan-Dan; Feng, Cheng-Yong; Liu, Zheng-An; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2018-02-01

    Mu Dan Pi is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat inflammation, cancer, allergies, diabetes, angiocardiopathy, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, the metabolome variation within Mu Dan Pi collected from 372 tree peony cultivars was systematically investigated. In total, 42 metabolites were identified, comprising of 14 monoterpene glucosides, 11 tannins, 8 paeonols, 6 flavonoids, and 3 phenols. All cultivars revealed similar metabolite profiles, however, they were further classified into seven groups on the basis of their varying metabolite contents by hierarchical cluster analysis. Traditional cultivars for Mu Dan Pi were found to have very low metabolite contents, falling into clusters I and II. Cultivars with the highest amounts of metabolites were grouped in clusters VI and VII. Five potential cultivars, namely, 'Bai Yuan Qi Guan', 'Cao Zhou Hong', 'Da Zong Zi', 'Sheng Dan Lu', and 'Cheng Xin', with high contents of monoterpene glycosides, tannins, and paeonols, were further screened. Interestingly, the majority of investigated cultivars had relatively higher metabolite contents compared to the traditional medicinal tree peony cultivars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Folding free energy surfaces of three small proteins under crowding: validation of the postprocessing method by direct simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Sanbo; Mittal, Jeetain; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2013-08-01

    We have developed a ‘postprocessing’ method for modeling biochemical processes such as protein folding under crowded conditions (Qin and Zhou 2009 Biophys. J. 97 12-19). In contrast to the direct simulation approach, in which the protein undergoing folding is simulated along with crowders, the postprocessing method requires only the folding simulation without crowders. The influence of the crowders is then obtained by taking conformations from the crowder-free simulation and calculating the free energies of transferring to the crowders. This postprocessing yields the folding free energy surface of the protein under crowding. Here the postprocessing results for the folding of three small proteins under ‘repulsive’ crowding are validated by those obtained previously by the direct simulation approach (Mittal and Best 2010 Biophys. J. 98 315-20). This validation confirms the accuracy of the postprocessing approach and highlights its distinct advantages in modeling biochemical processes under cell-like crowded conditions, such as enabling an atomistic representation of the test proteins.

  3. Log-periodic crashes revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Raul; da Silva, Sergio; Figueiredo, Annibal; Gleria, Iram

    2006-05-01

    We revisit the finding that crashes can be deterministic and governed by log-periodic formulas [D. Sornette, A. Johansen, Significance of log-periodic precursors to financial crashes, Quant. Finance 1 (2001) 452-471; D. Sornette, W.X. Zhou, The US 2000-2002 market descent: how much longer and deeper?, Quant. Finance 2 (2002) 468-481]. One- and two-harmonic equations are usually employed to fit daily data during bubble episodes. But a three-harmonics has been shown to fit anti-bubbles [A. Johansen, D. Sornette, Financial “anti-bubbles”: log-periodicity in gold and Nikkei collapses, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 10 (1999) 563-575]. Here we show that the three-harmonic formula can work for bubble episodes as well as anti-bubbles. This is illustrated with daily data from the Brazilian real-US dollar exchange rate. And we also show that the three-harmonics can fit an intraday data set from that foreign exchange rate.

  4. NASA MEaSUREs Combined ASTER and MODIS Emissivity over Land (CAMEL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borbas, E. E.; Hulley, G. C.; Feltz, M.; Knuteson, R. O.; Hook, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    A land surface emissivity product of the NASA MEASUREs project called Combined ASTER and MODIS Emissivity over Land (CAMEL) is being made available as part of the Unified and Coherent Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST&E) Earth System Data Record (ESDR). The CAMEL database has been created by merging the UW MODIS-based baseline-fit emissivity database (UWIREMIS) developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and the ASTER Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED V4) produced at JPL. This poster will introduce the beta version of the database, which is available globally for the period 2003 through 2015 at 5km in mean monthly time-steps and for 13 bands from 3.6-14.3 micron. An algorithm to create a high spectral emissivity on 417 wavenumbers is also provided for high spectral IR applications. On the poster the CAMEL database has been evaluated with the IASI Emissivity Atlas (Zhou et al, 2010) and laboratory measurements, and also through simulation of IASI BTs in the RTTOV Forward model.

  5. Crustal and upper-mantle structure of South China from Rayleigh wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, B.; Xiong, X.; Zhao, K. F.; Xie, Z. J.; Zheng, Y.; Zhou, L.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we image the crust and upper-mantle seismic velocity structures in South China using teleseismic Rayleigh waves recorded at 354 stations from the Chinese provincial networks (CEArray). We process Rayleigh wave data from 1087 teleseismic events and construct phase velocity maps at periods of 40-150 s. By combining dispersion curves at 6-70 s from Zhou et al. and at 40-150 s from the teleseismic surface wave tomography of this study, we construct a 3-D shear velocity model of the crust and upper mantle of South China. Distinct seismic structures are revealed from the eastern part of South China (including the South China Fold System and the eastern Yangtze Craton) to the western Yangtze Craton. The South China Fold System and eastern Yangtze Craton are characterized by lower velocities and shallow lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (∼90 km), which are similar to the lithospheric thermal and seismic velocity structures of the North China basin. These observations may imply that the lithospheric destruction and thinning occurred not only beneath the North China Craton, but also beneath the eastern part of South China. The western Yangtze Craton, including the Sichuan Basin and Jiangnan Orogen, is underlain by a thicker and colder lithosphere with high velocities. The contrast of the lithosphere structure between the western Yangtze Craton and other parts of South China indicates that the lithospheric destruction and thinning of the east and southeast parts of South China may terminate at the boundary of the Jiangnan Orogen.

  6. Physical consequences of the mitochondrial targeting of single-walled carbon nanotubes probed computationally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chistyakov, V. A.; Zolotukhin, P. V.; Prazdnova, E. V.; Alperovich, I.; Soldatov, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Experiments by F. Zhou and coworkers (2010) [16] showed that mitochondria are the main target of the cellular accumulation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Our in silico experiments, based on geometrical optimization of the system consisting of SWCNT+proton within Density Functional Theory, revealed that protons can bind to the outer side of SWCNT so generating a positive charge. Calculation results allow one to propose the following mechanism of SWCNTs mitochondrial targeting. SWCNTs enter the space between inner and outer membranes of mitochondria, where the excess of protons has been formed by diffusion. In this compartment SWCNTs are loaded with protons and acquire positive charges distributed over their surface. Protonation of hydrophobic SWCNTs can also be carried out within the mitochondrial membrane through interaction with the protonated ubiquinone. Such "charge loaded" particles can be transferred as "Sculachev ions" through the inner membrane of the mitochondria due to the potential difference generated by the inner membrane. Physiological consequences of the described mechanism are discussed.

  7. Fossil endocarps of Aralia (Araliaceae) from the upper Pliocene of Yunnan in southwest China, and their biogeographical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Hai; Jacques, Frederic M. B.; Wang, Li

    Aralia stratosa H. Zhu, Y.J. Huang et Z.K. Zhou sp. nov. is described based on fossil endocarps from the upper Pliocene of northwest Yunnan in southwest China. The endocarps are characterized by a semicircular to elliptic outline in the lateral view, an apical beak-like structure bending towards the ventral side, and a transversely wrinkled surface, collectively indicating taxonomical inclusion in the genus Aralia (Araliaceae). The new fossil taxon is compared with nine extant species of Aralia based on endocarp morphology and anatomy, showing the carpological resemblance to A. echinocaulis. Aralia stratosa sp. nov. represents the first confirmed fossil record frommore » lower latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. This implies a southerly biogeographical range for this genus than was previously interpreted. The fossil record of Aralia suggests a Cretaceous origin in North America and an Eocene dispersal to eastern Asia, likely via the Bering land bridge, followed by Miocene establishment in Europe. The genus likely began to inhabit lower latitudes in eastern Asia no later than the late Pliocene, which is in line with results from molecular analyses. As a result, all these may suggest a southward distributional change probably associated with the global cooling and northern acidification.« less

  8. Oxygen Isotopic Analyses of Water Extracted from the Martian Meteorite NWA 7034

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, M.; Agee, C. B.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2012-12-01

    isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2 [5]. This anomaly is transferred by exchange from CO2 to water and subsequently to secondary minerals. The much larger CO2 to water ratio on Mars could allow this process to introduce a measurable oxygen isotopic anomaly to sulfates, carbonates, and water. The magnitude and variability of this anomaly would depend on the formation mechanism of the species (particularly the source of oxygen), as is consistent with measurements to date of phases in SNCs. References: [1] Franchi, I.A., et al. (1999) MAPS 34, 657-661. [2] Rumble, D. and Irving, A.J. (2009) LPSC XXXX, #2293 [3] Karlsson, H.R., et al. (1992) Science 255, 1409-1411. [4] Farquhar, J. and Thiemens, M.H. (2000) J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11991-11997. [5] Yung, Y.L., et al. (1991) Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 13-16.

  9. Oceanus: A New Frontiers orbiter to study Titan's potential habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotin, Christophe; Hayes, Alex; Malaska, Michael; Nimmo, Francis; Trainer, Melissa; Tortora, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    product of the decay of 40K contained in the silicate core, and methane whose origin is still controversial argue for ex-change processes between the interior and the atmosphere. Like we see here on Earth, these processes will be chronicled in the interaction between geological features on Titan's surface. Oceanus will investigate specific features identified by Cassini as potential candidates for cryvolcanism, impact, and tectonic processes that could facilitate exchange with the interior. Acknowledgments: This work has been per-formed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. References: [1] Stofan E.R. et al. (2007) Nature. [2] Sotin C. et al. (2012) Icarus. [3] Iess L. et al. (2012) Science. [4] Castillo-Rogez J.C. and Lunine J.I. (2010) Geophys. Res. Lett. [5] Coates A.J. et al. (2007) Geophys. Res. Let. [6] Lavvas P. et al. (2008) Planet. Space Sci. [7] Yung Y.L. et al. (1984) Astrophys. J. [8] Sotin C. et al. (2005) Nature.

  10. The potential impact of hydrogen energy use on the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ruijven, B. J.; Lamarque, J. F.; van Vuuren, D. P.; Kram, T.; Eerens, H.

    2009-04-01

    ., Hess, P. G., Collins, W. D., Emmons, L. K., Ginoux, P., Luo, C. and Tie, X. X. (2005). "Response of a coupled chemistry-climate model to changes in aerosol emissions: Global impact on the hydrological cycle and the tropospheric burdens of OH, ozone and NOx." Geophysical Research Letters 32(16). Lamarque, J.-F., Kinnison, D. E., Hess, P. G. and Vitt, F. (2008). "Simulated lower stratospheric trends between 1970 and 2005: identifying the role of climate and composition changes." Journal of Geophysical Research 113(D12301). Price, H., Jaegle, L., Rice, A., Quay, P., Novelli, P. C. and Gammon, R. (2007). "Global budget of molecular hydrogen and its deuterium content: constraints from ground station, cruise, and aircraft observations." Journal of Geophysical Research 112(D22108). Sanderson, M. G., Collins, W. J., Derwent, R. G. and Johnson, C. E. (2003). "Simulation of Global Hydrogen Levels Using a Lagrangian Three-Dimensional Model." Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 46(1): 15-28. Schultz, M. G., Diehl, T., Brasseur, G. P. and Zittel, W. (2003). "Air Pollution and Climate-Forcing Impacts of a Global Hydrogen Economy." Science 302(5645): 624-627. Tromp, T. K., Shia, R. L., Allen, M., Eiler, J. M. and Yung, Y. L. (2003). "Potential environmental impact of a hydrogen economy on the stratosphere." Science 300(5626): 1740-1742. van Ruijven, B., Hari, L., van Vuuren, D. P. and de Vries, B. (2008). "The potential role of hydrogen in India and Western Europe." Energy Policy 36(5): 1649-1665. van Ruijven, B., van Vuuren, D. P. and de Vries, B. (2007). "The potential role of hydrogen in energy systems with and without climate policy." International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 32(12): 1655-1672. van Vuuren, D. P. (2007). Energy systems and climate policy. Dept. of Science, Technology and Society, Faculty of Science. Utrecht, Utrecht University: 326.

  11. Accidental Predissociation: A Special Case of Photo-Induced Isotope Fractionation Effect and Possible Occurrence in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2009-12-01

    light of these data, anomalous isotopic fractionations associated with accidental predissociation will be discussed for the CO and N2. These fractionations are important as VUV-photodissociation of CO and N2 have been invoked in solar nebula (self-shielding, (9-10)) to explain the observed iso-topic signatures in different solar system objects neglecting these isotope effects during photo-dissociation. References: 1. Y. L. Yung, C. E. Miller, Science 278, 1778 (1997). 2. S. Chakraborty, S. K. Bhattacharya, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 2164 (2003). 3. H. Lefebvre-Brion, R. W. Field, The Spectra and Dynamics of Diatomic Molecules. (Elsevier Academic Press, 2004). 4. A. J. Lorquet, J. C. Lorquet, Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 138 (1974). 5. W. Ubachs, I. Velchev, P. Cacciani, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 547 (2000). 6. H. Lefebvre-Brion, R. Colin, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 65, 33 (1977). 7. S. Chakraborty, M. Ahmed, T. L. Jackson, M. H. Thiemens, Science 321, 1328 (2008). 8. S. Chakraborty, M. Ahmed, T. L. Jackson, M. H. Thiemens, Science 324, 4 (2009). 9. R. N. Clayton, Nature 415, 860 (2002). 10. J. R. Lyons, E. D. Young, Nature 435, 317 (2005).

  12. Poster Session B

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    that the most significantly enriched molecular function categories for SSG-modified proteins were free radical scavenging and cell death/survival. This preliminary result provides some insights on protein SSG modification as a potential regulatory mechanism of nanomaterial-induced oxidative stress. B.11 O-GlcNAc Regulates SOX2 Activity in Embryonic Stem Cells by Altering Protein-SOX2 Interactions Samuel Myers1, Sailaja Pedadda, Tara Freidrich, Sean Thomas, Gregor Krings, Michael Lopez, Marena Trinidad, Barbara Panning, Al Burlingame University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA SOX2 is a versatile transcription factor that maintains embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency and self-renewal, and is important for proper lineage specification and adult stem cell maintenance. This versatility is likely due to post-translational modifications (PTMs) as SOX2 has been reported to be modified by numerous chemical moieties in a variety of cell types. One such PTM is O-GlcNAc, the dynamic and regulatory glycosylation of intracellular proteins. Global O-GlcNAc is essential for ESC self-renewal though the function of SOX2 O-GlcNAcylation in ESC is not understood. Here, we show that SOX2 is O-GlcNAc modified in the transactivation domain and alterations of self-renewing signals induce changes in SOX2 O-GlcNAc stoichiometry. Replacement of wild-type SOX2 with an O-GlcNAc-deficient mutant SOX2 in ESCs increases the pluripotency transcriptional network while down-regulating genes involved in differentiation. Analysis of SOX2-interacting proteins from ESCs revealed that the WT and mutant SOX2 interact with distinct subsets of transcriptional regulatory complexes. Thus, SOX2 O-GlcNAcylation modulates the transcriptional landscape of ESCs by modulating SOX2 activity and interactions with epigenetic regulatory complexes. B.12 Development of Multiplexed Assays for Oral Cancer Biomarker Verification by Peptide Immunoaffinity Enrichment and Targeted Mass Spectrometry Yung-Chin Hsiao1, Lang

  13. SU-E-I-60: Quality Assurance Testing Methods and Customized Phantom for Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Song, K-H; Lee, D-W; Choe, B-Y

    2015-06-15

    and MRS QA factors simultaneously. This study was supported by grant (2012-007883 and 2014R1A2A1A10050270) from the Mid-career Researcher Program through the NRF funded by Ministry of Science. In addition, this study was supported by the Industrial R&D of MOTIE/KEIT (10048997, Development of the core technology for integrated therapy devices based on real-time MRI-guided tumor tracking)« less

  14. Sub-marine groundwater for the supply of drinking water. A review of the hydro-geological potential and its technical and economical feasibility.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haakon Bakken, Tor; Mangset, Lars Erik

    2010-05-01

    assumptions as Zhou and Tol (2005), it is found that utilisation of sub-marine groundwater can be economically competitive. The calculation gives an expected unit cost of 1,23 US /m3. Performed Monte Carlo-simulations give 5 % and 95 % percentiles equal to the unit cost levels 1,07 and 1,39 US /m3, respectively. This is not far from the proposed feasibility benchmark of 1,14 US /m3 by Zhou and Tol (2005), or the average costs of 1,46 US /m3 derived from their large database of built desalination plants (based on reverse osmosis-technology). The dominating cost driver is considered being the salinity of the sub-marine groundwater, affecting the need for water treatment and consequently energy consumption. Hence it is concluded that a premise for the proposed technical concept is that the sub-marine groundwater holds sufficiently better quality (lower salinity) than the ambient sea water to justify the additional costs related to exploration and exploitation of the sub-marine water resource (i.e. the additional off-shore oil & gas technologies). A review of publications mainly from the US, supported by a limited number of publications originating from European research groups, were all positive in their conclusions that fresh and brackish water can be found on the continental shelf. These indications may therefore suggest that sub-marine groundwater may be a realistic alternative to desalination of sea water, seen from an economic point of view. Lower energy consumption related to treatment of less saline sub-marine groundwater moreover implies that environmental benefits, assuming the use of fossil fuels as energy source to water desalination, may be achieved.

  15. PREFACE: 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhangjian; Li, Jingfeng; Zhang, Lianmeng; Ge, Changchun

    2013-03-01

    Technology, and was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China. On behalf of the organizing committee of FGM-2012, I express my great appreciation to their support of the symposium. Nearly 100 scholars and students from Japan, Brazil, Germany, Russia, United States of America, Portugal, France, Switzerland, Turkey, Singapore, China, and so on, attended FGM-2012, and 57 of the presented papers were collected and selected for publication. The subjects of these papers cover simulation and characterization, advanced fabrication technology, novel application of FGM and layer materials. I cordially thank all of the authors and attendees for their support, and my appreciation is also given to the advisory committee, organizing committee, and the conference volunteers for their hard work. Professor Zhangjian Zhou Proceedings Editor Beijing, December 2012 Committees International Advisory Committee Professor Glaucio H Paulino, USA Professor Marek-Jerzy Pindera, USA Professor Jeong-Ho Kim, USA Professor Emer Fazil Erdogan, USA Professor Dr Monika Willert-Porada, Germany Professor Emer Wolfgang G J Bunk, Germany Professor Omer Van Der Biest, Belgium Professor Michael M Gasik, Finland Professor Evgeny Levashov, Russia Professor Lianmeng Zhang, China Professor Qingjie Zhang, China Professor Wei Pan, China Professor Chang-Chun Ge, China Professor Jing-Feng Li, China Professor Zhangjian Zhou, China Associate Professor Serkan Dag, Turkey Professor Fernando A Rochinha, Brazil Professor Emilio C N Silva, Brazil Professor Luis August Rocha, Portugal Dr Sasa Novak, Slovenia Dr Masayuki Niino, Japan Professor Akira Kawasaki, Japan Professor Ichiro Shiota, Japan Dr Akinaga Kumakawa, Japan Dr Yoshikazu Shinohara, Japan Professor Kiyotaka Matsuura, Japan Professor Yoshinari Miyamoto, Japan Professor Takashi Goto, Japan Professor Yoshimi Watanabe, Japan Professor Kazuhiro Hasezaki, Japan Professor Soshu Kirihara, Japan Professor Emer Toshio Hirai, Japan Mr Choji Endou, Japan Dr

  16. Full Waveform Inversion of Diving & Reflected Waves based on Scale Separation for Velocity and Impedance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brossier, Romain; Zhou, Wei; Operto, Stéphane; Virieux, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) is an appealing method for quantitative high-resolution subsurface imaging (Virieux et al., 2009). For crustal-scales exploration from surface seismic, FWI generally succeeds in recovering a broadband of wavenumbers in the shallow part of the targeted medium taking advantage of the broad scattering-angle provided by both reflected and diving waves. In contrast, deeper targets are often only illuminated by short-spread reflections, which favor the reconstruction of the short wavelengths at the expense of the longer ones, leading to a possible notch in the intermediate part of the wavenumber spectrum. To update the velocity macromodel from reflection data, image-domain strategies (e.g., Symes & Carazzone, 1991) aim to maximize a semblance criterion in the migrated domain. Alternatively, recent data-domain strategies (e.g., Xu et al., 2012, Ma & Hale, 2013, Brossier et al., 2014), called Reflection FWI (RFWI), inspired by Chavent et al. (1994), rely on a scale separation between the velocity macromodel and prior knowledge of the reflectivity to emphasize the transmission regime in the sensitivity kernel of the inversion. However, all these strategies focus on reflected waves only, discarding the low-wavenumber information carried out by diving waves. With the current development of very long-offset and wide-azimuth acquisitions, a significant part of the recorded energy is provided by diving waves and subcritical reflections, and high-resolution tomographic methods should take advantage of all types of waves. In this presentation, we will first review the issues of classical FWI when applied to reflected waves and how RFWI is able to retrieve the long wavelength of the model. We then propose a unified formulation of FWI (Zhou et al., 2014) to update the low wavenumbers of the velocity model by the joint inversion of diving and reflected arrivals, while the impedance model is updated thanks to reflected wave only. An alternate inversion of

  17. The study of the geomagnetic excursions and the relative intensities from Chinese loess 10Be over the past 130 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, W.; Xian, F.; Beck, J.; An, Z.; Wu, Z.; Liu, M.; Chen, M.; Priller, A.; Kutschera, W.; Jull, A. T.; Yu, H.; Song, S.; Cheng, P.; Kong, X.

    2009-12-01

    Chinese loess is well-known archive for the paleogeomagnetic and paleoclimatic studies [Zhou et al., 1990; An et al., 1990; Zhu et al., 2007]. However, earlier efforts to extract weak geomagnetic excursion signals from Chinese loess 10Be were always unsuccessful due to the complexities of loess 10Be, which results in the fact that loess 10Be was only used as a climatic proxy [Shen et al., 1992; Beer et al.,1993; Gu et al.,1996]. Meanwhile, knowledge on the precise stratigraphic horizons of geomagnetic excursions with a reliable dating [Channell, 2006], on whether the short-lived excursions such as Blake can not be recorded in paleosol unit are still controversial. Here, we present the reconstructed past 130ka geomagnetic excursions and relative paleointensities for the first time from 10Be records in two Chinese loess sections. Results are comparative with those of independent geomagnetic research on Atlantic and Pacific sediments. The derived Laschamp and Blake events lie in the loess-paleosol (L1SS1 and S1SS3) corresponding to mid MIS 3 and 5e respectively. Our studies prove the potential application of the complex loess 10Be for long-term geomagnetic tracing and provide new evidence to answer the long-existing debates on the precise stratigraphic horizon of geomagnetic excursions. Our study suggests the potential application of loess-paleosol 10Be for reconstructing geomagnetic intensity variations spanning the whole Quaternary. References 1. Zhou, L. P., F. Oldfield, A. G. Wintle, S. G. Robinson, and J. T. Wang (1990), Partly pedogenic origin of magnetic variations in Chinese loess, Nature, 346, 737-739. 2. An, Z. S., T. S. Liu, Y. C. Lu, S. C. Porter, G. Kukla, X. H. Wu, and Y. M. Hua (1990), The long-term paleomonsoon variation recorded by the loess-paleosol sequence in Central China, Quat. Int., 7-8, 91-95. 3. Zhu, R. X., R. Zhang, C. L. Deng, Y. X. Pan, Q. S. Liu, and Y. B. Sun (2007), Are Chinese loess deposits essentially continuous?, Geophys. Res. Lett

  18. Loess 10Be evidence for an asynchronous Brunhes-Matuyama magnetic polarity reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weijian; Beck, J. Warren; Kong, Xianghui; An, Zhisheng; Qiang, Xiaoke; Wu, Zhenkun; Xian, Feng; Ao, Hong

    2015-04-01

    In Chinese loess the Brunhes-Matuyama (B-M) geomagnetic reversal appears to occur about 25 ka prior to the established axial dipole reversal age found in many marine sediments, i.e., in Chinese loess this magnetic reversal boundary is found in glacial loess unit L8 which is thought to be correlated with Marine Isotope Stage 20 (MIS 20), in marine sediment records, however, this boundary is commonly found in interglacial period of MIS 19 (Tauxe et al., 1996; Zhou and Shackleton, 1999), leading to the debate on uncertainties of paleoclimatic correlation between the Chinese loess-paleosol sequences and marine sediments (Wang et al., 2006; Liu et al., 2008; Jin and Liu, 2011). Based on this issue, here we propose to use the cosmogenic 10Be to address this conundrum. 10Be is a long-lived radionuclide produced in the atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation reactions and carried to the ground attached to aerosols. Its atmospheric production rate is inversely proportional to the geomagnetic field intensity (Masarik and Beer, 1999). This allows us to reconstruct past geomagnetic field intensity variations using 10Be concentrations recorded in different sedimentary archives. We carried out both the 10Be studies and paleogeomagnetic measurements in Luochuan and Xifeng sections in Chinese Loess Plateau. Both loess profiles show that 10Be production rate was at a maximum-an indication of the dipole field reversal-at ca. 780 ± 3 ka BP., in paleosol unit S7 corresponding to MIS 19, proving that the timing of B-M reversal recorded in Chinese loess is synchronous with that seen in marine records (Tauxe et al., 1996). These results reaffirmed the conventional paleoclimatic correlation of loess-paleosol sequences with marine isotope stages and the standard loess timescale as correct. However, it is ~25 ka younger than the age (depth) of the paleogeomagnetic measurements which show that the B-M boundary is in L8 in these two Chinese loess-paleosol sequences, demonstrating that loess

  19. Eugenics discourse and racial improvement in Republican China (1911-1949).

    PubMed

    Sihn, Kyu-hwan

    2010-12-31

    This paper aimed to examine the advent of eugenics and its characteristics in republican China. Although eugenics was introduced into China as a discourse to preserve and improve race by the 1898 reformers such as Yan Fu (1854-1921) and Yi Nai (1875-?) in the late imperial period, it was not until the republican period that eugenics discourse started to combine with the discourse and movement related to social reform. The May 4th intellectuals put forward criticisms of Confucian patriarchy, propagating science and democracy. They pointed out that the large family system was a source of every social evil, and argued the need for a small family system based on monogamy. The aim of the small family system was to improve both the race and the environment. Such thinkers argued that freedom of love and the liberation of individuality were necessary for this end. Zhou Jianren (1888-1984), Lu Xun's youngest brother and representative eugenicist in the May 4th period, combined eugenics with freedom of love and the liberation of individuality. Pan Guangdan (1899-1967) and Zhou Jianren debated the eugenics controversy in the 1920s. They raised the freedom of love and the liberation of individuality as central issues related to the eugenics controversy. The eugenics debate was developed into the controversy between biological determinism and environmentalism in the late 1920s. However, these issues did not continue to be brought up in the 1930s. The main issues concerning the eugenics controversy in the 1930s were cultural identity and the population problem. Particularly in the 1930s, the scope of birth control as the solution to the population problem was extended from the individual person and family to nation and race. For eugenicists like Pan Guangdan, birth control violated the aim of eugenics and brought about the degeneration of the race. However, such theorists did not deny the value of birth control itself. The supporters of birth control thought that selecting

  20. Real-World Adherence and Persistence to Oral Disease-Modifying Therapies in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Over 1 Year.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kristen M; Zhou, Huanxue; Lin, Feng; Ko, John J; Herrera, Vivian

    2017-08-01

    and injectable/infused DMT use, relapse history, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score. Relative to fingolimod patients, dimethyl fumarate and teriflunomide patients were significantly less likely to have an MPR ≥ 80% (OR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.09-0.36; P < 0.001 and OR = 0.19; 95% CI = 0.08-0.42; P < 0.001, respectively). Similarly, relative to fingolimod patients, dimethyl fumarate and teriflunomide patients were significantly less likely to have PDC ≥ 80% (OR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.33-0.67; P < 0.001 and OR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.23-0.59; P < 0.001, respectively). Additionally, the HR for discontinuation was about 2 times greater for dimethyl fumarate (HR = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.44-2.59; P < 0.001) and teriflunomide patients (HR = 2.27; 95% CI = 1.57-3.28; P < 0.001) compared with fingolimod. In a real-world setting, patients taking fingolimod had better adherence and persistence compared with patients taking other oral DMTs over 12 months. Coupled with clinical factors, medication adherence and persistence should be important considerations when determining coverage decisions for MS patients. This research was funded by Novartis Pharmaceuticals. Johnson, Lin, Ko, and Herrera are employed by Novartis Pharmaceuticals and own Novartis stock. Huanxue Zhou is employed by KMK Consulting, which provides consulting services to Novartis. Study concept and design were contributed by Johnson, Lin, Ko, and Herrera. Zhou collected the data, and data interpretation was performed by Johnson, Lin, Ko, and Herrera. All authors were involved in manuscript revision. The abstract for this study was presented at the AMCP Nexus 2015; October 26-29, 2015; Orlando, Florida.

  1. Distributed meandering waveguides (DMWs) for novel photonic circuits (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dag, Ceren B.; Anil, Mehmet Ali; Serpengüzel, Ali

    2017-05-01

    in special cases. The antisymmetric MR (AMR) is composed of two coupled MLM's. The AMR has the characteristics of an add-drop filter in the general case, and coupled resonator induced transparency (CRIT) filter in a special case. The symmetric MDFB (SMDFB) is composed of multiple coupled MLM's. The antisymmetric MDFB (AMDFB) is composed of multiple coupled MLM's. The SMDFB and AMDFB can be utilized as band-pass, Fano, or Lorentzian filters, or Rabi splitters. Distributed meandering waveguide elements with extremely rich spectral and phase responses can be designed with creative combinations of distributed meandering waveguides structures for various novel photonic circuits. References [1 ] C. B. Dağ, M. A. Anıl, and A. Serpengüzel, "Meandering Waveguide Distributed Feedback Lightwave Circuits," J. Lightwave Technol, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 1691-1702, May 2015. [2] N. J. Doran and D. Wood, "Nonlinear-optical loop mirror," Opt. Lett. vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 56-58, Jan. 1988. [3] L. Zhou and A. W. Poon, "Fano resonance-based electrically reconfigurable add-drop filters in silicon microring resonator-coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Opt. Lett. vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 781-783, Apr. 2007. [4] Z. Zou, L. Zhou, X. Sun, J. Xie, H. Zhu, L. Lu, X. Li, and J. Chen, "Tunable two-stage self-coupled optical waveguide resonators," Opt. Lett. vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 1215-1217, Apr. 2013. [5] C. B. Dağ, M. A. Anıl, and A. Serpengüzel, "Novel distributed feedback lightwave circuit elements," in Proc. SPIE, San Francisco, 2015, vol. 9366, p. 93660A. [6] C. B. Dağ, M. A. Anıl, and A. Serpengüzel, "Meandering Waveguide Distributed Feedback Lightwave Elements: Phasor Diagram Analysis," in Proc. PIERS, Prague, 1986-1990 (2015).

  2. Improving protein disorder prediction by deep bidirectional long short-term memory recurrent neural networks.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jack; Yang, Yuedong; Paliwal, Kuldip; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2017-03-01

    Capturing long-range interactions between structural but not sequence neighbors of proteins is a long-standing challenging problem in bioinformatics. Recently, long short-term memory (LSTM) networks have significantly improved the accuracy of speech and image classification problems by remembering useful past information in long sequential events. Here, we have implemented deep bidirectional LSTM recurrent neural networks in the problem of protein intrinsic disorder prediction. The new method, named SPOT-Disorder, has steadily improved over a similar method using a traditional, window-based neural network (SPINE-D) in all datasets tested without separate training on short and long disordered regions. Independent tests on four other datasets including the datasets from critical assessment of structure prediction (CASP) techniques and >10 000 annotated proteins from MobiDB, confirmed SPOT-Disorder as one of the best methods in disorder prediction. Moreover, initial studies indicate that the method is more accurate in predicting functional sites in disordered regions. These results highlight the usefulness combining LSTM with deep bidirectional recurrent neural networks in capturing non-local, long-range interactions for bioinformatics applications. SPOT-disorder is available as a web server and as a standalone program at: http://sparks-lab.org/server/SPOT-disorder/index.php . j.hanson@griffith.edu.au or yuedong.yang@griffith.edu.au or yaoqi.zhou@griffith.edu.au. Supplementary data is available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Interaction between P2X and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in glutamate nerve terminals of the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ricardo J; Almeida, Teresa; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2006-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs [constituted by pentameric association of alpha2-10 and beta2-4 subunits]) and P2X receptors (P2XRs [activated by ATP and constituted by multimeric association of P2X1-7 subunits]) are both ionotropic receptors permeable to cations, which have in common the disparity between the wealth of data showing their presence in the brain and little evidence of their participation in mediating synaptic transmission. This has led to the proposal that both nAChRs and P2XRs might primarily modulate rather than directly mediate synaptic transmission, which is in accordance with the predominant presynaptic localization of both receptor subtypes (Role and Berg, 1996; Cunha and Ribeiro, 2000). Interestingly, both functional neurochemical (Allgaier et al., 1995; Salgado et al., 2000; Diáz-Hernández et al., 2002) and electrophysiological studies (Barajas-Lopez et al., 1998; Searl et al., 1998; Zhou and Calligan, 1998; Khakh et al., 2000) indicated a close interaction between nAChRs and P2XRs, which is paralleled by a co-release of ATPand ACh from central terminals (e.g., Richardson and Brown, 1987). Because glutamate release in the hippocampus is controlled by both nAChRs (e.g., McGehee et al., 1995) and P2XRs (Khakh et al., 2003; Rodrigues et al., 2005), we investigated if there was a functional interaction between these two presynaptic ionotropic receptors in the control of glutamate release in the rat hippocampus.

  4. Nuclear factor I-C reciprocally regulates adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation via control of canonical Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Wang, Shan; Qi, Qi; Yang, Xiaoyue; Zhu, Endong; Yuan, Hairui; Li, Xuemei; Liu, Ying; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Baoli

    2017-05-01

    Nuclear factor I-C (NFIC) has recently been identified as an important player in osteogenesis and bone homeostasis in vivo However, the molecular mechanisms involved have yet to be defined. In the current study, Nfic expression was altered in primary marrow stromal cells and established progenitor lines after adipogenic and osteogenic treatment. Overexpression of Nfic in stromal cells ST2, mesenchymal cells C3H10T1/2, and primary marrow stromal cells inhibited adipogenic differentiation, whereas it promoted osteogenic differentiation. Conversely, silencing of endogenous Nfic in the cell lines enhanced adipogenic differentiation, whereas it blocked osteogenic differentiation. Mechanism investigations revealed that Nfic overexpression promoted nuclear translocation of β-catenin and increased nuclear protein levels of β-catenin and transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2). Promoter studies and the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that NFIC directly binds to the promoter of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5) and thereafter transactivates the promoter. Finally, inactivation of canonical Wnt signaling in ST2 attenuated the inhibition of adipogenic differentiation and stimulation of osteogenic differentiation by NFIC. Our study suggests that NFIC balances adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation from progenitor cells through controlling canonical Wnt signaling and highlights the potential of NFIC as a target for new therapies to control metabolic disorders like osteoporosis and obesity.-Zhou, J., Wang, S., Qi, Q., Yang, X., Zhu, E., Yuan, H., Li, X., Liu, Y., Li, X., Wang, B. Nuclear factor I-C reciprocally regulates adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation via control of canonical Wnt signaling. © FASEB.

  5. A Micromagnetic Study of Medium Orientation Ratio Effects in High Areal Density Recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumer, Martin; van Ek, Johannes

    2000-03-01

    An extensive analysis of written tracks on granular media with anisotropy axes preferentially oriented either in the down-track or cross-track direction was performed with a newly developed micromagnetic model of magnetic recording [1]. The response of planar media to writer head fields, derived from the Finite-Element-Method, is calculated by solving the LLG equations. Signal from the written transitions is determined through a micromagnetic model of a GMR spin-valve device. Using fields from a generic 10Gb/in2 head (TPWG=0.6um, gap=0.2um, 1.8T materials around the gap), dibits were written at high linear density. Relative to the isotropic case, both erase bands and read-back voltage deteriorate for cross-track oriented media and improve in the down-track orientation case. For an orientation ratio of 1.23, the read-back signal at 200 kbpi drops by 15% in the radial case and increases by 15% in the circumferential case. Although the cross-track coercivity is smaller for down-track oriented media, and thus easier to write with the corners of the head, the remnant cross-track magnetization is correspondingly smaller. Track edge distortion is thus less severe than for isotropic media. Oriented media is of interest due to enhanced thermal stability and faster switching times [2]. [1] J. van Ek, M.L. Plumer, H. Zhou and H.N. Bertram, ``A Micromagnetic Recording Model for Write and Read-back," in preparation. Also see the GMAG symposium, this conference. [2] E.N. Abarra, I. Okamoto and M. Shinohara, IEEE Trans. Mag. 35, 2709 (1999).

  6. Particle-in-cell Simulation of Dipolarization Front Associated Whistlers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, D.; Scales, W.; Ganguli, G.; Crabtree, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    Dipolarization fronts (DFs) are dipolarized magnetic field embedded in the Earthward propagating bursty bulk flows (BBFs), which separates the hot, tenuous high-speed flow from the cold, dense, and slowly convecting surrounding plasma [Runov et al. 2011]. Broadband fluctuations have been observed at DFs including the electromagnetic whistler waves and electrostatic lower hybrid waves in the Very Low Frequency (VLF) range [e.g., Zhou et al. 2009, Deng et al. 2010]. There waves are suggested to be able heat electrons and play a critical role in the plasma sheet dynamics [Chaston et al., 2012, Angelopoulos et al., 2013]. However, their generation mechanism and role in the energy conversion are still under debate. The gradient scale of magnetic field, plasma density at DFs in the near-Earth magnetotail is comparable to or lower than the ion gyro radius [Runov et al., 2011, Fu et al., 2012, Breuillard et al., 2016]. Such strongly inhomogeneous configuration could be unstable to the electron-ion hybrid (EIH) instability, which arises from strongly sheared transverse flow and is in the VLF range [Ganguli et al. 1988, Ganguli et al. 2014]. The equilibrium of the EIH theory implies an anisotropy of electron temperature, which are likely to drive the whistler waves observed in DFs [Deng et al., 2010, Gary et al., 2011]. In order to better understand how the whistler waves are generated in DFs and whether the EIH theory is applicable, a fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EMPIC) model is used to simulate the EIH instability with similar equilibrium configurations in DF observations. The EMPIC model deals with three dimensions in the velocity space and two dimensions in the configuration space, which is quite ready to include the third configuration dimension. Simulation results will be shown in this presentation.

  7. Concentration effect on inter-mineral equilibrium isotope fractionation: insights from Mg and Ca isotopic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, F.; Wang, W.; Zhou, C.; Kang, J.; Wu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Many naturally occurring minerals, such as carbonate, garnet, pyroxene, and feldspar, are solid solutions with large variations in chemical compositions. Such variations may affect mineral structures and modify the chemical bonding environment around atoms, which further impacts the equilibrium isotope fractionation factors among minerals. Here we investigated the effects of Mg content on equilibrium Mg and Ca isotope fractionation among carbonates and Ca content on equilibrium Ca isotope fractionation between orthopyroxene (opx) and clinopyroxene (cpx) using first-principles calculations. Our results show that the average Mg-O bond length increases with decreasing Mg/(Mg+Ca) in calcite when it is greater than 1/48[1] and the average Ca-O bond length significantly decreases with decreasing Ca/(Ca+Mg+Fe) in opx when it ranges from 2/16 to 1/48[2]. Equilibrium isotope fractionation is mainly controlled by bond strengths, which could be measured by bond lengths. Thus, 103lnα26Mg/24Mg between dolomite and calcite dramatically increases with decreasing Mg/(Mg+Ca) in calcite [1] and it reaches a constant value when it is lower than 1/48. 103lnα44Ca/40Ca between opx and cpx significantly increases with decreasing Ca content in opx when Ca/(Ca+Mg+Fe) ranges from 2/16 to 1/48 [2]. If Ca/(Ca+Mg+Fe) is below 1/48, 103lnα44Ca/40Ca is not sensitive to Ca content. Based on our results, we conclude that the concentration effect on equilibrium isotope fractionation could be significant within a certain range of chemical composition of minerals, which should be a ubiquitous phenomenon in solid solution systems. [1] Wang, W., Qin, T., Zhou, C., Huang, S., Wu, Z., Huang, F., 2017. GCA 208, 185-197. [2] Feng, C., Qin, T., Huang, S., Wu, Z., Huang, F., 2014. GCA 143, 132-142.

  8. Large-scale urban point cloud labeling and reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Li, Zhuqiang; Li, Anjian; Liu, Fangyu

    2018-04-01

    The large number of object categories and many overlapping or closely neighboring objects in large-scale urban scenes pose great challenges in point cloud classification. In this paper, a novel framework is proposed for classification and reconstruction of airborne laser scanning point cloud data. To label point clouds, we present a rectified linear units neural network named ReLu-NN where the rectified linear units (ReLu) instead of the traditional sigmoid are taken as the activation function in order to speed up the convergence. Since the features of the point cloud are sparse, we reduce the number of neurons by the dropout to avoid over-fitting of the training process. The set of feature descriptors for each 3D point is encoded through self-taught learning, and forms a discriminative feature representation which is taken as the input of the ReLu-NN. The segmented building points are consolidated through an edge-aware point set resampling algorithm, and then they are reconstructed into 3D lightweight models using the 2.5D contouring method (Zhou and Neumann, 2010). Compared with deep learning approaches, the ReLu-NN introduced can easily classify unorganized point clouds without rasterizing the data, and it does not need a large number of training samples. Most of the parameters in the network are learned, and thus the intensive parameter tuning cost is significantly reduced. Experimental results on various datasets demonstrate that the proposed framework achieves better performance than other related algorithms in terms of classification accuracy and reconstruction quality.

  9. [Preliminary investigation on the materia medica of the Zhuang ethnic group].

    PubMed

    Rong, Xiao-Xiang; Li, Gui

    2013-09-01

    By Zhuang materia medica, it refers to application of medicines under the instructions of medical theory of Zhuang ethnic group. By studying the pronunciation of the Zhuang language for the terms "zhu yu", "bai jiu", and "mi gu" included in the shan hai jing nan shan jing (The Classic of Southern Mountain in Classic of Seas and Mountains) carried out by the Zhuang scholar Qin Bao-lin, it was concluded that the Zhuang minority already applied medicines early in the pre-Qin period. Through extensive cultural communication in different regions in the Wei-Jin-Southern-Northern Dynasties, the medicinal experiences of the Zhuang ethnic group appeared in ancient literature. The antidotes in Zhou hou fang (Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergency), for instance, were mostly coming from the Southern Ridge area. Since the Sui-Tang Dynasties, many materia medica recorded in the herbal works and regional gazetteers, and Annals such as the Guangxi Annals, Gazetteer of Nanning County, and Gazetteer of Liuzhou County, Gazetteer of Binzhou County etc., also carry medicines such as Cinnamom twigs and bark, and mangosteen etc., which are similar to those of the Zhuang medicines. In the Republican period, many manuscripts of Zhuang medicines appeared. After 1949, many institutions of Zhuang medicine were set up successively, including The Nanning Medical Institute, The Medical Institute of Wuzhou, The Medical Institute of Guilin. Systematic researches were also done, with publication of a series of works on Zhuang materia medica. Reformation of part of the prescription forms of Zhuang medicine were also accomplished.

  10. Hyperspectral chemical plume detection algorithms based on multidimensional iterative filtering decomposition.

    PubMed

    Cicone, A; Liu, J; Zhou, H

    2016-04-13

    Chemicals released in the air can be extremely dangerous for human beings and the environment. Hyperspectral images can be used to identify chemical plumes, however the task can be extremely challenging. Assuming we know a priori that some chemical plume, with a known frequency spectrum, has been photographed using a hyperspectral sensor, we can use standard techniques such as the so-called matched filter or adaptive cosine estimator, plus a properly chosen threshold value, to identify the position of the chemical plume. However, due to noise and inadequate sensing, the accurate identification of chemical pixels is not easy even in this apparently simple situation. In this paper, we present a post-processing tool that, in a completely adaptive and data-driven fashion, allows us to improve the performance of any classification methods in identifying the boundaries of a plume. This is done using the multidimensional iterative filtering (MIF) algorithm (Cicone et al. 2014 (http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.6051); Cicone & Zhou 2015 (http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.07173)), which is a non-stationary signal decomposition method like the pioneering empirical mode decomposition method (Huang et al. 1998 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 454, 903. (doi:10.1098/rspa.1998.0193)). Moreover, based on the MIF technique, we propose also a pre-processing method that allows us to decorrelate and mean-centre a hyperspectral dataset. The cosine similarity measure, which often fails in practice, appears to become a successful and outperforming classifier when equipped with such a pre-processing method. We show some examples of the proposed methods when applied to real-life problems. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Pharmacological inhibition of myostatin suppresses systemic inflammation and muscle atrophy in mice with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liping; Rajan, Vik; Lin, Eugene; Hu, Zhaoyong; Han, H. Q.; Zhou, Xiaolan; Song, Yanping; Min, Hosung; Wang, Xiaonan; Du, Jie; Mitch, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and several other catabolic conditions are characterized by increased circulating inflammatory cytokines, defects in IGF-1 signaling, abnormal muscle protein metabolism, and progressive muscle atrophy. In these conditions, no reliable treatments successfully block the development of muscle atrophy. In mice with CKD, we found a 2- to 3-fold increase in myostatin expression in muscle. Its pharmacological inhibition by subcutaneous injections of an anti-myostatin peptibody into CKD mice (IC50 ∼1.2 nM) reversed the loss of body weight (≈5–7% increase in body mass) and muscle mass (∼10% increase in muscle mass) and suppressed circulating inflammatory cytokines vs. results from CKD mice injected with PBS. Pharmacological myostatin inhibition also decreased the rate of protein degradation (16.38±1.29%; P<0.05), increased protein synthesis in extensor digitorum longus muscles (13.21±1.09%; P<0.05), markedly enhanced satellite cell function, and improved IGF-1 intracellular signaling. In cultured muscle cells, TNF-α increased myostatin expression via a NF-κB-dependent pathway, whereas muscle cells exposed to myostatin stimulated IL-6 production via p38 MAPK and MEK1 pathways. Because IL-6 stimulates muscle protein breakdown, we conclude that CKD increases myostatin through cytokine-activated pathways, leading to muscle atrophy. Myostatin antagonism might become a therapeutic strategy for improving muscle growth in CKD and other conditions with similar characteristics.—Zhang, L., Rajan, V., Lin, E., Hu, Z., Han, H.Q., Zhou, X., Song, Y., Min, H., Wang, X., Du, J., Mitch, W. E. Pharmacological inhibition of myostatin suppresses systemic inflammation and muscle atrophy in mice with chronic kidney disease. PMID:21282204

  12. Bisphenol-A exposure in utero leads to epigenetic alterations in the developmental programming of uterine estrogen response

    PubMed Central

    Bromer, Jason G.; Zhou, Yuping; Taylor, Melissa B.; Doherty, Leo; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a nonsteroidal estrogen that is ubiquitous in the environment. The homeobox gene Hoxa10 controls uterine organogenesis, and its expression is affected by in utero BPA exposure. We hypothesized that an epigenetic mechanism underlies BPA-mediated alterations in Hoxa10 expression. We analyzed the expression pattern and methylation profile of Hoxa10 after in utero BPA exposure. Pregnant CD-1 mice were treated with BPA (5 mg/kg IP) or vehicle control on d 9–16 of pregnancy. Hoxa10 mRNA and protein expression were increased by 25% in the reproductive tract of mice exposed in utero. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that cytosine-guanine dinucleotide methylation was decreased from 67 to 14% in the promoter and from 71 to 3% in the intron of Hoxa10 after in utero BPA exposure. Decreased DNA methylation led to an increase in binding of ER-α to the Hoxa10 ERE both in vitro as and in vivo as determined by EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation, respectively. Diminished methylation of the ERE-containing promoter sequence resulted in an increase in ERE-driven gene expression in reporter assays. We identify altered methylation as a novel mechanism of BPA-induced altered developmental programming. Permanent epigenetic alteration of ERE sensitivity to estrogen may be a general mechanism through which endocrine disruptors exert their action.—Bromer, J. G., Zhou, Y., Taylor, M. B., Doherty, L., Taylor, H. S.. Bisphenol-A exposure in utero leads to epigenetic alterations in the developmental programming of uterine estrogen response. PMID:20181937

  13. Fully Convolutional Neural Networks Improve Abdominal Organ Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Bobo, Meg F; Bao, Shunxing; Huo, Yuankai; Yao, Yuang; Virostko, Jack; Plassard, Andrew J; Lyu, Ilwoo; Assad, Albert; Abramson, Richard G; Hilmes, Melissa A; Landman, Bennett A

    2018-03-01

    Abdominal image segmentation is a challenging, yet important clinical problem. Variations in body size, position, and relative organ positions greatly complicate the segmentation process. Historically, multi-atlas methods have achieved leading results across imaging modalities and anatomical targets. However, deep learning is rapidly overtaking classical approaches for image segmentation. Recently, Zhou et al. showed that fully convolutional networks produce excellent results in abdominal organ segmentation of computed tomography (CT) scans. Yet, deep learning approaches have not been applied to whole abdomen magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation. Herein, we evaluate the applicability of an existing fully convolutional neural network (FCNN) designed for CT imaging to segment abdominal organs on T2 weighted (T2w) MRI's with two examples. In the primary example, we compare a classical multi-atlas approach with FCNN on forty-five T2w MRI's acquired from splenomegaly patients with five organs labeled (liver, spleen, left kidney, right kidney, and stomach). Thirty-six images were used for training while nine were used for testing. The FCNN resulted in a Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 0.930 in spleens, 0.730 in left kidneys, 0.780 in right kidneys, 0.913 in livers, and 0.556 in stomachs. The performance measures for livers, spleens, right kidneys, and stomachs were significantly better than multi-atlas (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). In a secondary example, we compare the multi-atlas approach with FCNN on 138 distinct T2w MRI's with manually labeled pancreases (one label). On the pancreas dataset, the FCNN resulted in a median DSC of 0.691 in pancreases versus 0.287 for multi-atlas. The results are highly promising given relatively limited training data and without specific training of the FCNN model and illustrate the potential of deep learning approaches to transcend imaging modalities.

  14. RTV silicone rubber surface modification for cell biocompatibility by negative-ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chenlong; Wang, Guangfu; Chu, Yingjie; Xu, Ya; Qiu, Menglin; Xu, Mi

    2016-03-01

    A negative cluster ion implantation system was built on the injector of a GIC4117 tandem accelerator. Next, the system was used to study the surface modification of room temperature vulcanization silicone rubber (RTV SR) for cell biocompatibility. The water contact angle was observed to decrease from 117.6° to 99.3° as the C1- implantation dose was increased to 1 × 1016 ions/cm2, and the effects of C1-, C2- and O1- implantation result in only small differences in the water contact angle at 3 × 1015 ions/cm2. These findings indicate that the hydrophilicity of RTV SR improves as the dose is increased and that the radiation effect has a greater influence than the doping effect on the hydrophilicity. There are two factors influence hydrophilicity of RTV: (1) based on the XPS and ATR-FTIR results, it can be inferred that ion implantation breaks the hydrophobic functional groups (Sisbnd CH3, Sisbnd Osbnd Si, Csbnd H) of RTV SR and generates hydrophilic functional groups (sbnd COOH, sbnd OH, Sisbnd (O)x (x = 3,4)). (2) SEM reveals that the implanted surface of RTV SR appears the micro roughness such as cracks and wrinkles. The hydrophilicity should be reduced due to the lotus effect (Zhou Rui et al., 2009). These two factors cancel each other out and make the C-implantation sample becomes more hydrophilic in general terms. Finally, cell culture demonstrates that negative ion-implantation is an effective method to improve the cell biocompatibility of RTV SR.

  15. Full Spatial Resolution Infrared Sounding Application in the Preconvection Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Liu, G.; Lin, T.

    2013-12-01

    Advanced infrared (IR) sounders such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) provide atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles with high vertical resolution and high accuracy in preconvection environments. The derived atmospheric stability indices such as convective available potential energy (CAPE) and lifted index (LI) from advanced IR soundings can provide critical information 1 ; 6 h before the development of severe convective storms. Three convective storms are selected for the evaluation of applying AIRS full spatial resolution soundings and the derived products on providing warning information in the preconvection environments. In the first case, the AIRS full spatial resolution soundings revealed local extremely high atmospheric instability 3 h ahead of the convection on the leading edge of a frontal system, while the second case demonstrates that the extremely high atmospheric instability is associated with the local development of severe thunderstorm in the following hours. The third case is a local severe storm that occurred on 7-8 August 2010 in Zhou Qu, China, which caused more than 1400 deaths and left another 300 or more people missing. The AIRS full spatial resolution LI product shows the atmospheric instability 3.5 h before the storm genesis. The CAPE and LI from AIRS full spatial resolution and operational AIRS/AMSU soundings along with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Sounder derived product image (DPI) products were analyzed and compared. Case studies show that full spatial resolution AIRS retrievals provide more useful warning information in the preconvection environments for determining favorable locations for convective initiation (CI) than do the coarser spatial resolution operational soundings and lower spectral resolution GOES Sounder retrievals. The retrieved soundings are also tested in a regional data assimilation WRF 3D-var system to evaluate the

  16. 2K09 and thereafter : the coming era of integrative bioinformatics, systems biology and intelligent computing for functional genomics and personalized medicine research

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Austin), Dr. Aidong Zhang (Buffalo) and Dr. Zhi-Hua Zhou (Nanjing) for their significant contributions to the field of intelligent biological medicine. PMID:21143775

  17. The validation and preference among different EAM potentials to describe the solid-liquid transition of aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yewei; Luo, Jie; Wu, Yongquan

    2017-06-01

    Empirical potential is vital to the classic atomic simulation, especially for the study of phase transitions, as well as the solid-interface. In this paper, we attempt to set up a uniform procedure for the validation among different potentials before the formal simulation study of phase transitions of metals. Two main steps are involved: (1) the prediction of the structures of both solid and liquid phases and their mutual transitions, i.e. melting and crystallization; (2) the prediction of vital thermodynamic (the equilibrium melting point at ambient pressure) and dynamic properties (the degrees of superheating and undercooling). We applied this procedure to the testing of seven published embedded-atom potentials (MKBA (Mendelev et al 2008 Philos. Mag. 88 1723), MFMP (Mishin et al 1999 Phys. Rev. B 59 3393), MDSL (Sturgeon and Laird 2000 Phys. Rev. B 62 14720), ZM (Zope and Mishin 2003 Phys. Rev. B 68 024102), LEA (Liu et al 2004 Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 12 665), WKG (Winey et al 2009 Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 17 055004) and ZJW (Zhou et al 2004 Phys. Rev. B 69 144113)) for the description of the solid-liquid transition of Al. All the predictions of structure, melting point and superheating/undercooling degrees were compared with the experiments or theoretical calculations. Then, two of them, MKBA and MDSL, were proven suitable for the study of the solid-liquid transition of Al while the residuals were unqualified. However, potential MKBA is more accurate to predict the structures of solid and liquid, while MDSL works a little better in the thermodynamic and dynamic predictions of solid-liquid transitions.

  18. The Genetic Basis for Variation in Sensitivity to Lead Toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shanshan; Morozova, Tatiana V; Hussain, Yasmeen N; Luoma, Sarah E; McCoy, Lenovia; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Mackay, Trudy F C; Anholt, Robert R H

    2016-07-01

    Lead toxicity presents a worldwide health problem, especially due to its adverse effects on cognitive development in children. However, identifying genes that give rise to individual variation in susceptibility to lead toxicity is challenging in human populations. Our goal was to use Drosophila melanogaster to identify evolutionarily conserved candidate genes associated with individual variation in susceptibility to lead exposure. To identify candidate genes associated with variation in susceptibility to lead toxicity, we measured effects of lead exposure on development time, viability and adult activity in the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and performed genome-wide association analyses to identify candidate genes. We used mutants to assess functional causality of candidate genes and constructed a genetic network associated with variation in sensitivity to lead exposure, on which we could superimpose human orthologs. We found substantial heritabilities for all three traits and identified candidate genes associated with variation in susceptibility to lead exposure for each phenotype. The genetic architectures that determine variation in sensitivity to lead exposure are highly polygenic. Gene ontology and network analyses showed enrichment of genes associated with early development and function of the nervous system. Drosophila melanogaster presents an advantageous model to study the genetic underpinnings of variation in susceptibility to lead toxicity. Evolutionary conservation of cellular pathways that respond to toxic exposure allows predictions regarding orthologous genes and pathways across phyla. Thus, studies in the D. melanogaster model system can identify candidate susceptibility genes to guide subsequent studies in human populations. Zhou S, Morozova TV, Hussain YN, Luoma SE, McCoy L, Yamamoto A, Mackay TF, Anholt RR. 2016. The genetic basis for variation in sensitivity to lead toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. Environ Health

  19. RECOVERY ACT: MULTIMODAL IMAGING FOR SOLAR CELL MICROCRACK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Janice Hudgings; Lawrence Domash

    2012-02-08

    Undetected microcracks in solar cells are a principal cause of failure in service due to subsequent weather exposure, mechanical flexing or diurnal temperature cycles. Existing methods have not been able to detect cracks early enough in the production cycle to prevent inadvertent shipment to customers. This program, sponsored under the DOE Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies program, studied the feasibility of quantifying surface micro-discontinuities by use of a novel technique, thermoreflectance imaging, to detect surface temperature gradients with very high spatial resolution, in combination with a suite of conventional imaging methods such as electroluminescence. The project carried out laboratorymore » tests together with computational image analyses using sample solar cells with known defects supplied by industry sources or DOE National Labs. Quantitative comparisons between the effectiveness of the new technique and conventional methods were determined in terms of the smallest detectable crack. Also the robustness of the new technique for reliable microcrack detection was determined at various stages of processing such as before and after antireflectance treatments. An overall assessment is that the new technique compares favorably with existing methods such as lock-in thermography or ultrasonics. The project was 100% completed in Sept, 2010. A detailed report of key findings from this program was published as: Q.Zhou, X.Hu, K.Al-Hemyari, K.McCarthy, L.Domash and J.Hudgings, High spatial resolution characterization of silicon solar cells using thermoreflectance imaging, J. Appl. Phys, 110, 053108 (2011).« less

  20. Systematic Review Protocol to Assess the Effectiveness of Usability Questionnaires in mHealth App Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Leming; Bao, Jie; Parmanto, Bambang

    2017-08-01

    Usability questionnaires have a wide use in mobile health (mHealth) app usability studies. However, no systematic review has been conducted for assessing the effectiveness of these questionnaires. This paper describes a protocol for conducting a systematic review of published questionnaire-based mHealth app usability studies. In this systematic review, we will select recently published (2008-2017) articles from peer-reviewed journals and conferences that describe mHealth app usability studies and implement at least one usability questionnaire. The search strategy will include terms such as "mobile app" and "usability." Multiple databases such as PubMed, CINAHL, IEEE Xplore, ACM Digital Library, and INSPEC will be searched. There will be 2 independent reviewers in charge of screening titles and abstracts as well as determining those articles that should be included for a full-text review. The third reviewer will act as a mediator between the other 2 reviewers. Moreover, a data extraction form will be created and used during the full article data analysis. Notably, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines will be followed in reporting this protocol. A preliminary search produced 1271 articles, 40 of which are duplicate records. The inclusion-exclusion criteria are being strictly followed in performing the ongoing study selection. Usability questionnaires are an important tool in mHealth app usability studies. This review will summarize the usability questionnaires used in published research articles while assessing the efficacy of these questionnaires in determining the usability of mHealth apps. ©Leming Zhou, Jie Bao, Bambang Parmanto. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 01.08.2017.