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Sample records for zhx1 binds dna

  1. Solution NMR structures of homeodomains from human proteins ALX4, ZHX1, and CASP8AP2 contribute to the structural coverage of the Human Cancer Protein Interaction Network.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianzhong; Pulavarti, Surya V S R K; Eletsky, Alexander; Huang, Yuanpeng Janet; Acton, Thomas B; Xiao, Rong; Everett, John K; Montelione, Gaetano T; Szyperski, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    High-quality solution NMR structures of three homeodomains from human proteins ALX4, ZHX1 and CASP8AP2 were solved. These domains were chosen as targets of a biomedical theme project pursued by the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium. This project focuses on increasing the structural coverage of human proteins associated with cancer.

  2. DNA Binding Hydroxyl Radical Probes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Vicky J; Konigsfeld, Katie M; Aguilera, Joe A; Milligan, Jamie R

    2012-01-01

    The hydroxyl radical is the primary mediator of DNA damage by the indirect effect of ionizing radiation. It is a powerful oxidizing agent produced by the radiolysis of water and is responsible for a significant fraction of the DNA damage associated with ionizing radiation. There is therefore an interest in the development of sensitive assays for its detection. The hydroxylation of aromatic groups to produce fluorescent products has been used for this purpose. We have examined four different chromophores which produce fluorescent products when hydroxylated. Of these, the coumarin system suffers from the fewest disadvantages. We have therefore examined its behavior when linked to a cationic peptide ligand designed to bind strongly to DNA.

  3. The helical structure of DNA facilitates binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Otto G.; Mahmutovic, Anel; Marklund, Emil; Elf, Johan

    2016-09-01

    The helical structure of DNA imposes constraints on the rate of diffusion-limited protein binding. Here we solve the reaction-diffusion equations for DNA-like geometries and extend with simulations when necessary. We find that the helical structure can make binding to the DNA more than twice as fast compared to a case where DNA would be reactive only along one side. We also find that this rate advantage remains when the contributions from steric constraints and rotational diffusion of the DNA-binding protein are included. Furthermore, we find that the association rate is insensitive to changes in the steric constraints on the DNA in the helix geometry, while it is much more dependent on the steric constraints on the DNA-binding protein. We conclude that the helical structure of DNA facilitates the nonspecific binding of transcription factors and structural DNA-binding proteins in general.

  4. New DNA-binding radioprotectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Roger

    The normal tissue damage associated with cancer radiotherapy has motivated the development at Peter Mac of a new class of DNA-binding radioprotecting drugs that could be applied top-ically to normal tissues at risk. Methylproamine (MP), the lead compound, reduces radiation induced cell kill at low concentrations. For example, experiments comparing the clonogenic survival of transformed human keratinocytes treated with 30 micromolar MP before and dur-ing various doses of ionising radiation, with the radiation dose response for untreated cells, indicate a dose reduction factor (DRF) of 2. Similar survival curve experiments using various concentrations of MP, with parallel measurements of uptake of MP into cell nuclei, have en-abled the relationship between drug uptake and extent of radioprotection to be established. Radioprotection has also been demonstrated after systemic administration to mice, for three different endpoints, namely lung, jejunum and bone marrow (survival at 30 days post-TBI). The results of pulse radiolysis studies indicated that the drugs act by reduction of transient radiation-induced oxidative species on DNA. This hypothesis was substantiated by the results of experiments in which MP radioprotection of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks, assessed as -H2AX foci, in the human keratinocyte cell line. For both endpoints, the extent of radioprotection increased with MP concentration up to a maximal value. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that radioprotection by MP is mediated by attenuation of the extent of initial DNA damage. However, although MP is a potent radioprotector, it becomes cytotoxic at higher concentrations. This limitation has been addressed in an extensive program of lead optimisation and some promising analogues have emerged from which the next lead will be selected. Given the clinical potential of topical radioprotection, the new analogues are being assessed in terms of delivery to mouse oral mucosa. This is

  5. Direct DNA binding by Brca1.

    PubMed

    Paull, T T; Cortez, D; Bowers, B; Elledge, S J; Gellert, M

    2001-05-22

    The tumor suppressor Brca1 plays an important role in protecting mammalian cells against genomic instability, but little is known about its modes of action. In this work we demonstrate that recombinant human Brca1 protein binds strongly to DNA, an activity conferred by a domain in the center of the Brca1 polypeptide. As a result of this binding, Brca1 inhibits the nucleolytic activities of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex, an enzyme implicated in numerous aspects of double-strand break repair. Brca1 displays a preference for branched DNA structures and forms protein-DNA complexes cooperatively between multiple DNA strands, but without DNA sequence specificity. This fundamental property of Brca1 may be an important part of its role in DNA repair and transcription.

  6. C60 fullerene binding to DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshehri, Mansoor H.; Cox, Barry J.; Hill, James M.

    2014-09-01

    Fullerenes have attracted considerable attention in various areas of science and technology. Owing to their exceptional physical, chemical, and biological properties, they have many applications, particularly in cosmetic and medical products. Using the Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential function and the continuum approximation, which assumes that intermolecular interactions can be approximated by average atomic surface densities, we determine the binding energies of a C60 fullerene with respect to both single-strand and double-strand DNA molecules. We assume that all configurations are in a vacuum and that the C60 fullerene is initially at rest. Double integrals are performed to determine the interaction energy of the system. We find that the C60 fullerene binds to the double-strand DNA molecule, at either the major or minor grooves, with binding energies of -4.7 eV or -2.3 eV, respectively, and that the C60 molecule binds to the single-strand DNA molecule with a binding energy of -1.6 eV. Our results suggest that the C60 molecule is most likely to be linked to the major groove of the dsDNA molecule.

  7. DNA-aptamers binding aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Nikolaus, Nadia; Strehlitz, Beate

    2014-02-21

    Aptamers are short, single stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that are able to bind specifically and with high affinity to their non-nucleic acid target molecules. This binding reaction enables their application as biorecognition elements in biosensors and assays. As antibiotic residues pose a problem contributing to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens and thereby reducing the effectiveness of the drug to fight human infections, we selected aptamers targeted against the aminoglycoside antibiotic kanamycin A with the aim of constructing a robust and functional assay that can be used for water analysis. With this work we show that aptamers that were derived from a Capture-SELEX procedure targeting against kanamycin A also display binding to related aminoglycoside antibiotics. The binding patterns differ among all tested aptamers so that there are highly substance specific aptamers and more group specific aptamers binding to a different variety of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Also the region of the aminoglycoside antibiotics responsible for aptamer binding can be estimated. Affinities of the different aptamers for their target substance, kanamycin A, are measured with different approaches and are in the micromolar range. Finally, the proof of principle of an assay for detection of kanamycin A in a real water sample is given.

  8. Enantioselective binding of L, D-phenylalanine to ct DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijin; Xu, Jianhua; Huang, Yan; Min, Shungeng

    2009-10-01

    The enantioselective binding of L, D-phenylalanine to calf thymus DNA was studied by absorption, circular dichroism, fluorescence quenching, viscosity, salt effect and emission experiments. The results obtained from absorption, circular dichroism, fluorescence quenching and viscosity experiments excluded the intercalative binding and salt effect experiments did not support electrostatic binding. So the binding of L, D-phenylalanine to ct DNA should be groove binding. Furthermore, the emission spectra revealed that the binding is enantioselective.

  9. Enantioselective binding of L,D-phenylalanine to ct DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijin; Xu, Jianhua; Huang, Yan; Min, Shungeng

    2009-10-15

    The enantioselective binding of L,D-phenylalanine to calf thymus DNA was studied by absorption, circular dichroism, fluorescence quenching, viscosity, salt effect and emission experiments. The results obtained from absorption, circular dichroism, fluorescence quenching and viscosity experiments excluded the intercalative binding and salt effect experiments did not support electrostatic binding. So the binding of l,d-phenylalanine to ct DNA should be groove binding. Furthermore, the emission spectra revealed that the binding is enantioselective.

  10. Characterization of the DNA binding properties of polyomavirus capsid protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D.; Cai, X.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The DNA binding properties of the polyomavirus structural proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 were studied by Southwestern analysis. The major viral structural protein VP1 and host-contributed histone proteins of polyomavirus virions were shown to exhibit DNA binding activity, but the minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 failed to bind DNA. The N-terminal first five amino acids (Ala-1 to Lys-5) were identified as the VP1 DNA binding domain by genetic and biochemical approaches. Wild-type VP1 expressed in Escherichia coli (RK1448) exhibited DNA binding activity, but the N-terminal truncated VP1 mutants (lacking Ala-1 to Lys-5 and Ala-1 to Cys-11) failed to bind DNA. The synthetic peptide (Ala-1 to Cys-11) was also shown to have an affinity for DNA binding. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP1 gene showed that the point mutations at Pro-2, Lys-3, and Arg-4 on the VP1 molecule did not affect DNA binding properties but that the point mutation at Lys-5 drastically reduced DNA binding affinity. The N-terminal (Ala-1 to Lys-5) region of VP1 was found to be essential and specific for DNA binding, while the DNA appears to be non-sequence specific. The DNA binding domain and the nuclear localization signal are located in the same N-terminal region.

  11. Computational Design of DNA-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Thyme, Summer; Song, Yifan

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the outcome of engineered and naturally occurring sequence perturbations to protein-DNA interfaces requires accurate computational modeling technologies. It has been well established that computational design to accommodate small numbers of DNA target site substitutions is possible. This chapter details the basic method of design used in the Rosetta macromolecular modeling program that has been successfully used to modulate the specificity of DNA-binding proteins. More recently, combining computational design and directed evolution has become a common approach for increasing the success rate of protein engineering projects. The power of such high-throughput screening depends on computational methods producing multiple potential solutions. Therefore, this chapter describes several protocols for increasing the diversity of designed output. Lastly, we describe an approach for building comparative models of protein-DNA complexes in order to utilize information from homologous sequences. These models can be used to explore how nature modulates specificity of protein-DNA interfaces and potentially can even be used as starting templates for further engineering.

  12. Isolation from genomic DNA of sequences binding specific regulatory proteins by the acceleration of protein electrophoretic mobility upon DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, S; Cronan, J E

    1999-01-21

    We report an efficient and flexible in vitro method for the isolation of genomic DNA sequences that are the binding targets of a given DNA binding protein. This method takes advantage of the fact that binding of a protein to a DNA molecule generally increases the rate of migration of the protein in nondenaturing gel electrophoresis. By the use of a radioactively labeled DNA-binding protein and nonradioactive DNA coupled with PCR amplification from gel slices, we show that specific binding sites can be isolated from Escherichia coli genomic DNA. We have applied this method to isolate a binding site for FadR, a global regulator of fatty acid metabolism in E. coli. We have also isolated a second binding site for BirA, the biotin operon repressor/biotin ligase, from the E. coli genome that has a very low binding efficiency compared with the bio operator region.

  13. Stoichiometry of DNA binding by the bacteriophage SP01-encoded type II DNA-binding protein TF1.

    PubMed

    Schneider, G J; Geiduschek, E P

    1990-06-25

    The stoichiometry of DNA binding by the bacteriophage SP01-encoded type II DNA-binding protein TF1 has been determined. 3H-Labeled TF1 was allowed to bind to a 32P-labeled DNA fragment containing a TF1 binding site. Multiple TF1-DNA complexes were resolved from each other and from unbound DNA by native gel electrophoresis. DNA-protein complexes were cut from polyacrylamide gels, and the amounts of 3H and 32P contained in each slice were measured. A ratio of 1.12 +/- 0.06 TF1 dimer/DNA molecule was calculated for the fastest-migrating TF1-DNA complex. We conclude that TF1 has a DNA-binding unit of one dimer. More slowly migrating complexes are apparently formed by serial addition of single TF1 dimers.

  14. DNA binding by the ribosomal DNA transcription factor rrn3 is essential for ribosomal DNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Stepanchick, Ann; Zhi, Huijun; Cavanaugh, Alice H; Rothblum, Katrina; Schneider, David A; Rothblum, Lawrence I

    2013-03-29

    The human homologue of yeast Rrn3 is an RNA polymerase I-associated transcription factor that is essential for ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription. The generally accepted model is that Rrn3 functions as a bridge between RNA polymerase I and the transcription factors bound to the committed template. In this model Rrn3 would mediate an interaction between the mammalian Rrn3-polymerase I complex and SL1, the rDNA transcription factor that binds to the core promoter element of the rDNA. In the course of studying the role of Rrn3 in recruitment, we found that Rrn3 was in fact a DNA-binding protein. Analysis of the sequence of Rrn3 identified a domain with sequence similarity to the DNA binding domain of heat shock transcription factor 2. Randomization, or deletion, of the amino acids in this region in Rrn3, amino acids 382-400, abrogated its ability to bind DNA, indicating that this domain was an important contributor to DNA binding by Rrn3. Control experiments demonstrated that these mutant Rrn3 constructs were capable of interacting with both rpa43 and SL1, two other activities demonstrated to be essential for Rrn3 function. However, neither of these Rrn3 mutants was capable of functioning in transcription in vitro. Moreover, although wild-type human Rrn3 complemented a yeast rrn3-ts mutant, the DNA-binding site mutant did not. These results demonstrate that DNA binding by Rrn3 is essential for transcription by RNA polymerase I.

  15. DNA Binding by the Ribosomal DNA Transcription Factor Rrn3 Is Essential for Ribosomal DNA Transcription*

    PubMed Central

    Stepanchick, Ann; Zhi, Huijun; Cavanaugh, Alice H.; Rothblum, Katrina; Schneider, David A.; Rothblum, Lawrence I.

    2013-01-01

    The human homologue of yeast Rrn3 is an RNA polymerase I-associated transcription factor that is essential for ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription. The generally accepted model is that Rrn3 functions as a bridge between RNA polymerase I and the transcription factors bound to the committed template. In this model Rrn3 would mediate an interaction between the mammalian Rrn3-polymerase I complex and SL1, the rDNA transcription factor that binds to the core promoter element of the rDNA. In the course of studying the role of Rrn3 in recruitment, we found that Rrn3 was in fact a DNA-binding protein. Analysis of the sequence of Rrn3 identified a domain with sequence similarity to the DNA binding domain of heat shock transcription factor 2. Randomization, or deletion, of the amino acids in this region in Rrn3, amino acids 382–400, abrogated its ability to bind DNA, indicating that this domain was an important contributor to DNA binding by Rrn3. Control experiments demonstrated that these mutant Rrn3 constructs were capable of interacting with both rpa43 and SL1, two other activities demonstrated to be essential for Rrn3 function. However, neither of these Rrn3 mutants was capable of functioning in transcription in vitro. Moreover, although wild-type human Rrn3 complemented a yeast rrn3-ts mutant, the DNA-binding site mutant did not. These results demonstrate that DNA binding by Rrn3 is essential for transcription by RNA polymerase I. PMID:23393135

  16. Effects of nucleoside analog incorporation on DNA binding to the DNA binding domain of the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Foti, M; Omichinski, J G; Stahl, S; Maloney, D; West, J; Schweitzer, B I

    1999-02-05

    We investigate here the effects of the incorporation of the nucleoside analogs araC (1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine) and ganciclovir (9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl] guanine) into the DNA binding recognition sequence for the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. A 10-fold decrease in binding affinity was observed for the ganciclovir-substituted DNA complex in comparison to an unmodified DNA of the same sequence composition. AraC substitution did not result in any changes in binding affinity. 1H-15N HSQC and NOESY NMR experiments revealed a number of chemical shift changes in both DNA and protein in the ganciclovir-modified DNA-protein complex when compared to the unmodified DNA-protein complex. These changes in chemical shift and binding affinity suggest a change in the binding mode of the complex when ganciclovir is incorporated into the GATA DNA binding site.

  17. MCM ring hexamerization is a prerequisite for DNA-binding

    DOE PAGES

    Froelich, Clifford A.; Nourse, Amanda; Enemark, Eric J.

    2015-09-13

    The hexameric Minichromosome Maintenance (MCM) protein complex forms a ring that unwinds DNA at the replication fork in eukaryotes and archaea. Our recent crystal structure of an archaeal MCM N-terminal domain bound to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) revealed ssDNA associating across tight subunit interfaces but not at the loose interfaces, indicating that DNA-binding is governed not only by the DNA-binding residues of the subunits (MCM ssDNA-binding motif, MSSB) but also by the relative orientation of the subunits. We now extend these findings to show that DNA-binding by the MCM N-terminal domain of the archaeal organism Pyrococcus furiosus occurs specifically in themore » hexameric oligomeric form. We show that mutants defective for hexamerization are defective in binding ssDNA despite retaining all the residues observed to interact with ssDNA in the crystal structure. One mutation that exhibits severely defective hexamerization and ssDNA-binding is at a conserved phenylalanine that aligns with the mouse Mcm4(Chaos3) mutation associated with chromosomal instability, cancer, and decreased intersubunit association.« less

  18. Crystal Structure of the Chromodomain Helicase DNA-binding Protein 1 (Chd1) DNA-binding Domain in Complex with DNA*

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit; Jenkins, Katherine R.; Héroux, Annie; Bowman, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    Chromatin remodelers are ATP-dependent machines that dynamically alter the chromatin packaging of eukaryotic genomes by assembling, sliding, and displacing nucleosomes. The Chd1 chromatin remodeler possesses a C-terminal DNA-binding domain that is required for efficient nucleosome sliding and believed to be essential for sensing the length of DNA flanking the nucleosome core. The structure of the Chd1 DNA-binding domain was recently shown to consist of a SANT and SLIDE domain, analogous to the DNA-binding domain of the ISWI family, yet the details of how Chd1 recognized DNA were not known. Here we present the crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Chd1 DNA-binding domain in complex with a DNA duplex. The bound DNA duplex is straight, consistent with the preference exhibited by the Chd1 DNA-binding domain for extranucleosomal DNA. Comparison of this structure with the recently solved ISW1a DNA-binding domain bound to DNA reveals that DNA lays across each protein at a distinct angle, yet contacts similar surfaces on the SANT and SLIDE domains. In contrast to the minor groove binding seen for Isw1 and predicted for Chd1, the SLIDE domain of the Chd1 DNA-binding domain contacts the DNA major groove. The majority of direct contacts with the phosphate backbone occur only on one DNA strand, suggesting that Chd1 may not strongly discriminate between major and minor grooves. PMID:22033927

  19. In vitro DNA binding studies of Aspartame, an artificial sweetener.

    PubMed

    Kashanian, Soheila; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh

    2013-03-05

    A number of small molecules bind directly and selectively to DNA, by inhibiting replication, transcription or topoisomerase activity. In this work the interaction of native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with Aspartame (APM), an artificial sweeteners was studied at physiological pH. DNA binding study of APM is useful to understand APM-DNA interaction mechanism and to provide guidance for the application and design of new and safer artificial sweeteners. The interaction was investigated using spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric competition experiment and circular dichroism (CD). Hypochromism and red shift are shown in UV absorption band of APM. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of DNA to APM was observed and the binding constants (Kf) of DNA with APM and corresponding number of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy changes (ΔH) and entropy changes (ΔS) were calculated to be +181kJmol(-1) and +681Jmol(-1)K(-1) according to Van't Hoff equation, which indicated that reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Moreover, spectrofluorometric competition experiment and circular dichroism (CD) results are indicative of non-intercalative DNA binding nature of APM. We suggest that APM interacts with calf thymus DNA via groove binding mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 5×10(+4)M(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Modulation of DNA binding by gene-specific transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Schleif, Robert F

    2013-10-01

    The transcription of many genes, particularly in prokaryotes, is controlled by transcription factors whose activity can be modulated by controlling their DNA binding affinity. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which DNA binding affinity is regulated is important, but because forming definitive conclusions usually requires detailed structural information in combination with data from extensive biophysical, biochemical, and sometimes genetic experiments, little is truly understood about this topic. This review describes the biological requirements placed upon DNA binding transcription factors and their consequent properties, particularly the ways that DNA binding affinity can be modulated and methods for its study. What is known and not known about the mechanisms modulating the DNA binding affinity of a number of prokaryotic transcription factors, including CAP and lac repressor, is provided.

  1. Variola Type IB DNA Topoisomerase: DNA Binding and Supercoil Unwinding Using Engineered DNA Minicircles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Type IB topoisomerases unwind positive and negative DNA supercoils and play a key role in removing supercoils that would otherwise accumulate at replication and transcription forks. An interesting question is whether topoisomerase activity is regulated by the topological state of the DNA, thereby providing a mechanism for targeting the enzyme to highly supercoiled DNA domains in genomes. The type IB enzyme from variola virus (vTopo) has proven to be useful in addressing mechanistic questions about topoisomerase function because it forms a reversible 3′-phosphotyrosyl adduct with the DNA backbone at a specific target sequence (5′-CCCTT-3′) from which DNA unwinding can proceed. We have synthesized supercoiled DNA minicircles (MCs) containing a single vTopo target site that provides highly defined substrates for exploring the effects of supercoil density on DNA binding, strand cleavage and ligation, and unwinding. We observed no topological dependence for binding of vTopo to these supercoiled MC DNAs, indicating that affinity-based targeting to supercoiled DNA regions by vTopo is unlikely. Similarly, the cleavage and religation rates of the MCs were not topologically dependent, but topoisomers with low superhelical densities were found to unwind more slowly than highly supercoiled topoisomers, suggesting that reduced torque at low superhelical densities leads to an increased number of cycles of cleavage and ligation before a successful unwinding event. The K271E charge reversal mutant has an impaired interaction with the rotating DNA segment that leads to an increase in the number of supercoils that were unwound per cleavage event. This result provides evidence that interactions of the enzyme with the rotating DNA segment can restrict the number of supercoils that are unwound. We infer that both superhelical density and transient contacts between vTopo and the rotating DNA determine the efficiency of supercoil unwinding. Such determinants are likely to be

  2. [Features of binding of proflavine to DNA at different DNA-ligand concentration ratios].

    PubMed

    Berezniak, E G; gladkovskaia, N A; Khrebtova, A S; Dukhopel'nikov, E V; Zinchenko, A V

    2009-01-01

    The binding of proflavine to calf thymus DNA has been studied using the methods of differential scanning calorimetry and spectrophotometry. It was shown that proflavine can interact with DNA by at least 3 binding modes. At high DNA-ligand concentration ratios (P/D), proflavine intercalates into both GC- and AT-sites, with a preference to GC-rich sequences. At low P/D ratios proflavine interacts with DNA by the external binding mode. From spectrophotometric concentration dependences, the parameters of complexing of proflavine with DNA were calculated. Thermodynamic parameters of DNA melting were calculated from differential scanning calorimetry data.

  3. Detection of Z DNA binding proteins in tissue culture cells.

    PubMed Central

    Leith, I R; Hay, R T; Russell, W C

    1988-01-01

    A gel electrophoresis DNA binding assay to detect Z DNA binding proteins has been developed utilising [32P] labelled poly [d(G-C)] which was converted to the Z form by incubation in 100 microM Co(NH3)6Cl3. The parameters of the assay were established using a Z DNA antibody as a model system and then applied to extracts of Hela and BHK21 cells. Using an anti-Z DNA antibody conditions were established which allowed resolution of antibody-DNA complexes and free DNA in the presence of 100 microM Co(NH3)6Cl3. The inclusion of unlabelled complementary homopolymers eliminated non-specific binding to the labelled Z-DNA probe. Competition experiments demonstrated that the assay was highly specific for double stranded non-B DNA. Application of the technique to extracts of mammalian cells demonstrated that human and hamster cells contain Z-DNA binding proteins; further characterisation by a blotting technique indicated that a 56,000 molecular weight cell protein preferentially binds Z-DNA. Images PMID:3419919

  4. Binding of undamaged double stranded DNA to vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase

    SciTech Connect

    Schormann, Norbert; Banerjee, Surajit; Ricciardi, Robert

    Background: Uracil-DNA glycosylases are evolutionarily conserved DNA repair enzymes. However, vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase (known as D4), also serves as an intrinsic and essential component of the processive DNA polymerase complex during DNA replication. In this complex D4 binds to a unique poxvirus specific protein A20 which tethers it to the DNA polymerase. At the replication fork the DNA scanning and repair function of D4 is coupled with DNA replication. So far, DNA-binding to D4 has not been structurally characterized. Results: This manuscript describes the first structure of a DNA-complex of a uracil-DNA glycosylase from the poxvirus family. This alsomore » represents the first structure of a uracil DNA glycosylase in complex with an undamaged DNA. In the asymmetric unit two D4 subunits bind simultaneously to complementary strands of the DNA double helix. Each D4 subunit interacts mainly with the central region of one strand. DNA binds to the opposite side of the A20-binding surface on D4. In comparison of the present structure with the structure of uracil-containing DNA-bound human uracil-DNA glycosylase suggests that for DNA binding and uracil removal D4 employs a unique set of residues and motifs that are highly conserved within the poxvirus family but different in other organisms. Conclusion: The first structure of D4 bound to a truly non-specific undamaged double-stranded DNA suggests that initial binding of DNA may involve multiple non-specific interactions between the protein and the phosphate backbone.« less

  5. Binding of undamaged double stranded DNA to vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase

    DOE PAGES

    Schormann, Norbert; Banerjee, Surajit; Ricciardi, Robert; ...

    2015-06-02

    Background: Uracil-DNA glycosylases are evolutionarily conserved DNA repair enzymes. However, vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase (known as D4), also serves as an intrinsic and essential component of the processive DNA polymerase complex during DNA replication. In this complex D4 binds to a unique poxvirus specific protein A20 which tethers it to the DNA polymerase. At the replication fork the DNA scanning and repair function of D4 is coupled with DNA replication. So far, DNA-binding to D4 has not been structurally characterized. Results: This manuscript describes the first structure of a DNA-complex of a uracil-DNA glycosylase from the poxvirus family. This alsomore » represents the first structure of a uracil DNA glycosylase in complex with an undamaged DNA. In the asymmetric unit two D4 subunits bind simultaneously to complementary strands of the DNA double helix. Each D4 subunit interacts mainly with the central region of one strand. DNA binds to the opposite side of the A20-binding surface on D4. In comparison of the present structure with the structure of uracil-containing DNA-bound human uracil-DNA glycosylase suggests that for DNA binding and uracil removal D4 employs a unique set of residues and motifs that are highly conserved within the poxvirus family but different in other organisms. Conclusion: The first structure of D4 bound to a truly non-specific undamaged double-stranded DNA suggests that initial binding of DNA may involve multiple non-specific interactions between the protein and the phosphate backbone.« less

  6. Tetrameric Ctp1 coordinates DNA binding and DNA bridging in DNA double-strand-break repair

    DOE PAGES

    Andres, Sara N.; Appel, C. Denise; Westmoreland, James W.; ...

    2015-01-12

    Ctp1 (also known as CtIP or Sae2) collaborates with Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 to initiate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), but its functions remain enigmatic. In this paper, we report that tetrameric Schizosaccharomyces pombe Ctp1 contains multivalent DNA-binding and DNA-bridging activities. Through structural and biophysical analyses of the Ctp1 tetramer, we define the salient features of Ctp1 architecture: an N-terminal interlocking tetrameric helical dimer-of-dimers (THDD) domain and a central intrinsically disordered region (IDR) linked to C-terminal 'RHR' DNA-interaction motifs. The THDD, IDR and RHR are required for Ctp1 DNA-bridging activity in vitro, and both the THDD and RHR are required for efficientmore » DSB repair in S. pombe. Finally, our results establish non-nucleolytic roles of Ctp1 in binding and coordination of DSB-repair intermediates and suggest that ablation of human CtIP DNA binding by truncating mutations underlie the CtIP-linked Seckel and Jawad syndromes.« less

  7. DNA Mismatch Binding and Antiproliferative Activity of Rhodium Metalloinsertors

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Russell J.; Song, Hang; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2009-01-01

    Deficiencies in mismatch repair (MMR) are associated with carcinogenesis. Rhodium metalloinsertors bind to DNA base mismatches with high specificity and inhibit cellular proliferation preferentially in MMR-deficient cells versus MMR-proficient cells. A family of chrysenequinone diimine complexes of rhodium with varying ancillary ligands that serve as DNA metalloinsertors has been synthesized, and both DNA mismatch binding affinities and antiproliferative activities against the human colorectal carcinoma cell lines HCT116N and HCT116O, an isogenic model system for MMR deficiency, have been determined. DNA photocleavage experiments reveal that all complexes bind to the mismatch sites with high specificities; DNA binding affinities to oligonucleotides containing single base CA and CC mismatches, obtained through photocleavage titration or competition, vary from 104 to 108 M−1 for the series of complexes. Significantly, binding affinities are found to be inversely related to ancillary ligand size and directly related to differential inhibition of the HCT116 cell lines. The observed trend in binding affinity is consistent with the metalloinsertion mode where the complex binds from the minor groove with ejection of mismatched base pairs. The correlation between binding affinity and targeting of the MMR-deficient cell line suggests that rhodium metalloinsertors exert their selective biological effects on MMR-deficient cells through mismatch binding in vivo. PMID:19175313

  8. Multivalent DNA-binding properties of the HMG-1 proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Maher, J F; Nathans, D

    1996-01-01

    HMG-I proteins are DNA-binding proteins thought to affect the formation and function of transcription complexes. Each protein contains three DNA-binding motifs, known as AT-hooks, that bind in the minor groove of AT tracts in DNA. Multiple AT-hooks within a polypeptide chain should contact multiple AT tracts, but the rules governing these interactions have not been defined. In this study, we demonstrate that high-affinity binding uses two or three appropriately spaced AT tracts as a single multivalent binding site. These principles have implications for binding to regulatory elements such as the interferon beta enhancer, TATA boxes, and serum response elements. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8692884

  9. EMSA Analysis of DNA Binding By Rgg Proteins

    PubMed Central

    LaSarre, Breah; Federle, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, interaction of various proteins with DNA is essential for the regulation of specific target gene expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) is an in vitro approach allowing for the visualization of these protein-DNA interactions. Rgg proteins comprise a family of transcriptional regulators widespread among the Firmicutes. Some of these proteins function independently to regulate target gene expression, while others have now been demonstrated to function as effectors of cell-to-cell communication, having regulatory activities that are modulated via direct interaction with small signaling peptides. EMSA analysis can be used to assess DNA binding of either type of Rgg protein. EMSA analysis of Rgg protein activity has facilitated in vitro confirmation of regulatory targets, identification of precise DNA binding sites via DNA probe mutagenesis, and characterization of the mechanism by which some cognate signaling peptides modulate Rgg protein function (e.g. interruption of DNA-binding in some cases). PMID:27430004

  10. EMSA Analysis of DNA Binding By Rgg Proteins.

    PubMed

    LaSarre, Breah; Federle, Michael J

    2013-08-20

    In bacteria, interaction of various proteins with DNA is essential for the regulation of specific target gene expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) is an in vitro approach allowing for the visualization of these protein-DNA interactions. Rgg proteins comprise a family of transcriptional regulators widespread among the Firmicutes. Some of these proteins function independently to regulate target gene expression, while others have now been demonstrated to function as effectors of cell-to-cell communication, having regulatory activities that are modulated via direct interaction with small signaling peptides. EMSA analysis can be used to assess DNA binding of either type of Rgg protein. EMSA analysis of Rgg protein activity has facilitated in vitro confirmation of regulatory targets, identification of precise DNA binding sites via DNA probe mutagenesis, and characterization of the mechanism by which some cognate signaling peptides modulate Rgg protein function ( e.g. interruption of DNA-binding in some cases).

  11. Aptamer-Binding Directed DNA Origami Pattern for Logic Gates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Jiang, Shuoxing; Liu, Xiangrong; Pan, Linqiang; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-12-14

    In this study, an aptamer-substrate strategy is introduced to control programmable DNA origami pattern. Combined with DNA aptamer-substrate binding and DNAzyme-cutting, small DNA tiles were specifically controlled to fill into the predesigned DNA origami frame. Here, a set of DNA logic gates (OR, YES, and AND) are performed in response to the stimuli of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and cocaine. The experimental results are confirmed by AFM imaging and time-dependent fluorescence changes, demonstrating that the geometric patterns are regulated in a controllable and programmable manner. Our approach provides a new platform for engineering programmable origami nanopatterns and constructing complex DNA nanodevices.

  12. The human mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein displays distinct kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA binding and exchange

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yufeng; Johnson, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    The human mitochondrial ssDNA-binding protein (mtSSB) is a homotetrameric protein, involved in mtDNA replication and maintenance. Although mtSSB is structurally similar to SSB from Escherichia coli (EcoSSB), it lacks the C-terminal disordered domain, and little is known about the biophysics of mtSSB–ssDNA interactions. Here, we characterized the kinetics and thermodynamics of mtSSB binding to ssDNA by equilibrium titrations and stopped-flow kinetic measurements. We show that the mtSSB tetramer can bind to ssDNA in two distinct binding modes: (SSB)30 and (SSB)60, defined by DNA binding site sizes of 30 and 60 nucleotides, respectively. We found that the binding mode is modulated by magnesium ion and NaCl concentration, but unlike EcoSSB, the mtSSB does not show negative intersubunit cooperativity. Global fitting of both the equilibrium and kinetic data afforded estimates for the rate and equilibrium constants governing the formation of (SSB)60 and (SSB)30 complexes and for the transitions between the two binding modes. We found that the mtSSB tetramer binds to ssDNA with a rate constant near the diffusion limit (2 × 109 m−1 s−1) and that longer DNA (≥60 nucleotides) rapidly wraps around all four monomers, as revealed by FRET assays. We also show that the mtSSB tetramer can directly transfer from one ssDNA molecule to another via an intermediate with two DNA molecules bound to the mtSSB. In conclusion, our results indicate that human mtSSB shares many physicochemical properties with EcoSSB and that the differences may be explained by the lack of an acidic, disordered C-terminal tail in human mtSSB protein. PMID:28615444

  13. DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase wherein the modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase.

  14. DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, S.; Richardson, C.

    1997-03-25

    A modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase is disclosed. The modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase. 6 figs.

  15. Mechanochemical regulations of RPA's binding to ssDNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin; Le, Shimin; Basu, Anindita; Chazin, Walter J.; Yan, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a ubiquitous eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein that serves to protect ssDNA from degradation and annealing, and as a template for recruitment of many downstream factors in virtually all DNA transactions in cell. During many of these transactions, DNA is tethered and is likely subject to force. Previous studies of RPA's binding behavior on ssDNA were conducted in the absence of force; therefore the RPA-ssDNA conformations regulated by force remain unclear. Here, using a combination of atomic force microscopy imaging and mechanical manipulation of single ssDNA tethers, we show that force mediates a switch of the RPA bound ssDNA from amorphous aggregation to a much more regular extended conformation. Further, we found an interesting non-monotonic dependence of the binding affinity on monovalent salt concentration in the presence of force. In addition, we discovered that zinc in micromolar concentrations drives ssDNA to a unique, highly stiff and more compact state. These results provide new mechanochemical insights into the influences and the mechanisms of action of RPA on large single ssDNA.

  16. Structural basis for DNA binding by replication initiator Mcm10

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Eric M.; Vaithiyalingam, Sivaraja; Haworth, Justin

    2009-06-30

    Mcm10 is an essential eukaryotic DNA replication protein required for assembly and progression of the replication fork. The highly conserved internal domain (Mcm10-ID) has been shown to physically interact with single-stranded (ss) DNA, DNA polymerase alpha, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The crystal structure of Xenopus laevis Mcm10-ID presented here reveals a DNA binding architecture composed of an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-fold followed in tandem by a variant and highly basic zinc finger. NMR chemical shift perturbation and mutational studies of DNA binding activity in vitro reveal how Mcm10 uses this unique surface to engage ssDNA. Corresponding mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resultmore » in increased sensitivity to replication stress, demonstrating the functional importance of DNA binding by this region of Mcm10 to replication. In addition, mapping Mcm10 mutations known to disrupt PCNA, polymerase alpha, and DNA interactions onto the crystal structure provides insight into how Mcm10 might coordinate protein and DNA binding within the replisome.« less

  17. Structures of apo IRF-3 and IRF-7 DNA binding domains: effect of loop L1 on DNA binding

    SciTech Connect

    De Ioannes, Pablo; Escalante, Carlos R.; Aggarwal, Aneel K.

    2013-11-20

    Interferon regulatory factors IRF-3 and IRF-7 are transcription factors essential in the activation of interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) gene in response to viral infections. Although, both proteins recognize the same consensus IRF binding site AANNGAAA, they have distinct DNA binding preferences for sites in vivo. The X-ray structures of IRF-3 and IRF-7 DNA binding domains (DBDs) bound to IFN-{beta} promoter elements revealed flexibility in the loops (L1-L3) and the residues that make contacts with the target sequence. To characterize the conformational changes that occur on DNA binding and how they differ between IRF family members, we have solved the X-ray structures ofmore » IRF-3 and IRF-7 DBDs in the absence of DNA. We found that loop L1, carrying the conserved histidine that interacts with the DNA minor groove, is disordered in apo IRF-3 but is ordered in apo IRF-7. This is reflected in differences in DNA binding affinities when the conserved histidine in loop L1 is mutated to alanine in the two proteins. The stability of loop L1 in IRF-7 derives from a unique combination of hydrophobic residues that pack against the protein core. Together, our data show that differences in flexibility of loop L1 are an important determinant of differential IRF-DNA binding.« less

  18. DNA Binding Peptide Directed Synthesis of Continuous DNA Nanowires for Analysis of Large DNA Molecules by Scanning Electron Microscope.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Il; Lee, Seonghyun; Jin, Xuelin; Kim, Su Ji; Jo, Kyubong; Lee, Jung Heon

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis of smooth and continuous DNA nanowires, preserving the original structure of native DNA, and allowing its analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM), is demonstrated. Gold nanoparticles densely assembled on the DNA backbone via thiol-tagged DNA binding peptides work as seeds for metallization of DNA. This method allows whole analysis of DNA molecules with entangled 3D features. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. DNA-binding mechanism of the Escherichia coli Ada O6-alkylguanine–DNA alkyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Verdemato, Philip E.; Brannigan, James A.; Damblon, Christian; Zuccotto, Fabio; Moody, Peter C. E.; Lian, Lu-Yun

    2000-01-01

    The C-terminal domain of the Escherichia coli Ada protein (Ada-C) aids in the maintenance of genomic integrity by efficiently repairing pre-mutagenic O6-alkylguanine lesions in DNA. Structural and thermodynamic studies were carried out to obtain a model of the DNA-binding process. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies map the DNA-binding site to helix 5, and a loop region (residues 151–160) which form the recognition helix and the ‘wing’ of a helix–turn–wing motif, respectively. The NMR data also suggest the absence of a large conformational change in the protein upon binding to DNA. Hence, an O6-methylguanine (O6meG) lesion would be inaccessible to active site nucleophile Cys146 if the modified base remained stacked within the DNA duplex. The experimentally determined DNA-binding face of Ada-C was used in combination with homology modelling, based on the catabolite activator protein, and the accepted base-flipping mechanism, to construct a model of how Ada-C binds to DNA in a productive manner. To complement the structural studies, thermodynamic data were obtained which demonstrate that binding to unmethylated DNA was entropically driven, whilst the demethylation reaction provoked an exothermic heat change. Methylation of Cys146 leads to a loss of structural integrity of the DNA-binding subdomain. PMID:11000262

  20. Inhibition of HMGA2 binding to DNA by netropsin

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yi; Cui, Tengjiao; Leng, Fenfei; Wilson, W. David

    2008-01-01

    The design of small synthetic molecules that can be used to affect gene expression is an area of active interest for development of agents in therapeutic and biotechnology applications. Many compounds that target the minor groove in AT sequences in DNA are well characterized and are promising reagents for use as modulators of protein-DNA complexes. The mammalian high mobility group transcriptional factor, HMGA2, also targets the DNA minor groove and plays critical roles in disease processes from cancer to obesity. Biosensor-surface plasmon resonance methods were used to monitor HMGA2 binding to target sites on immobilized DNA and a competition assay for inhibition of the HMGA2-DNA complex was designed. HMGA2 binds strongly to the DNA through AT hook domains with KD values of 20 - 30 nM depending on the DNA sequence. The well-characterized minor groove binder, netropsin, was used to develop and test the assay. The compound has two binding sites in the protein-DNA interaction sequence and this provides an advantage for inhibition. An equation for analysis of results when the inhibitor has two binding sites in the biopolymer recognition surface is presented with the results. The assay provides a platform for discovery of HMGA2 inhibitors. PMID:18023407

  1. Binding and thermodynamics of REV peptide-ctDNA interaction.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar

    2017-03-01

    The thermodynamics of DNA-ligand binding is important as it provides useful information to understand the details of binding processes. HIV-1 REV response element (RRE) located in the env coding region of the viral genome is reported to be well conserved across different HIV-1 isolates. In this study, the binding characteristics of Calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) and REV peptide from HIV-1 were investigated using spectroscopic (UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD)) and isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) techniques. Thermal stability and ligand binding properties of the ctDNA revealed that native ctDNA had a T m of 75.5 °C, whereas the ctDNA-REV peptide complex exhibited an incremental shift in the T m by 8 °C, indicating thermal stability of the complex. CD data indicated increased ellipticity due to large conformational changes in ctDNA molecule upon binding with REV peptide and two binding stoichiometric modes are apparent. The ctDNA experienced condensation due to large conformational changes in the presence of REV peptide and positive B→Ψ transition was observed at higher molar charge ratios. Fluorescence studies performed at several ligand concentrations revealed a gradual decrease in the fluorescence intensity of EtBr-bound ctDNA in response to increasing ligand concentrations. The fluorescence data further confirmed two stoichiometric modes of binding for ctDNA-REV peptide complex as previously observed with CD studies. The binding enthalpies were determined using ITC in the temperature range of 293 K-308 K. The ITC binding isotherm was exothermic at all temperatures examined, with low ΔH values indicating that the ctDNA-REV peptide interaction is driven largely by entropy. The heat capacity change (ΔC p ) was insignificant, an unusual finding in the area of DNA-peptide interaction studies. The variation in the values obtained for ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG with temperature further suggests that ctDNA-REV peptide interaction is entropically

  2. Zinc-binding Domain of the Bacteriophage T7 DNA Primase Modulates Binding to the DNA Template*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Joo; Zhu, Bin; Akabayov, Barak; Richardson, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    The zinc-binding domain (ZBD) of prokaryotic DNA primases has been postulated to be crucial for recognition of specific sequences in the single-stranded DNA template. To determine the molecular basis for this role in recognition, we carried out homolog-scanning mutagenesis of the zinc-binding domain of DNA primase of bacteriophage T7 using a bacterial homolog from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. The ability of T7 DNA primase to catalyze template-directed oligoribonucleotide synthesis is eliminated by substitution of any five-amino acid residue-long segment within the ZBD. The most significant defect occurs upon substitution of a region (Pro-16 to Cys-20) spanning two cysteines that coordinate the zinc ion. The role of this region in primase function was further investigated by generating a protein library composed of multiple amino acid substitutions for Pro-16, Asp-18, and Asn-19 followed by genetic screening for functional proteins. Examination of proteins selected from the screening reveals no change in sequence-specific recognition. However, the more positively charged residues in the region facilitate DNA binding, leading to more efficient oligoribonucleotide synthesis on short templates. The results suggest that the zinc-binding mode alone is not responsible for sequence recognition, but rather its interaction with the RNA polymerase domain is critical for DNA binding and for sequence recognition. Consequently, any alteration in the ZBD that disturbs its conformation leads to loss of DNA-dependent oligoribonucleotide synthesis. PMID:23024359

  3. Sequence-specific binding of counterions to B-DNA

    PubMed Central

    Denisov, Vladimir P.; Halle, Bertil

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies by x-ray crystallography, NMR, and molecular simulations have suggested that monovalent counterions can penetrate deeply into the minor groove of B form DNA. Such groove-bound ions potentially could play an important role in AT-tract bending and groove narrowing, thereby modulating DNA function in vivo. To address this issue, we report here 23Na magnetic relaxation dispersion measurements on oligonucleotides, including difference experiments with the groove-binding drug netropsin. The exquisite sensitivity of this method to ions in long-lived and intimate association with DNA allows us to detect sequence-specific sodium ion binding in the minor groove AT tract of three B-DNA dodecamers. The sodium ion occupancy is only a few percent, however, and therefore is not likely to contribute importantly to the ensemble of B-DNA structures. We also report results of ion competition experiments, indicating that potassium, rubidium, and cesium ions bind to the minor groove with similarly weak affinity as sodium ions, whereas ammonium ion binding is somewhat stronger. The present findings are discussed in the light of previous NMR and diffraction studies of sequence-specific counterion binding to DNA. PMID:10639130

  4. Discrete persistent-chain model for protein binding on DNA.

    PubMed

    Lam, Pui-Man; Zhen, Yi

    2011-04-01

    We describe and solve a discrete persistent-chain model of protein binding on DNA, involving an extra σ(i) at a site i of the DNA. This variable takes the value 1 or 0, depending on whether or not the site is occupied by a protein. In addition, if the site is occupied by a protein, there is an extra energy cost ɛ. For a small force, we obtain analytic expressions for the force-extension curve and the fraction of bound protein on the DNA. For higher forces, the model can be solved numerically to obtain force-extension curves and the average fraction of bound proteins as a function of applied force. Our model can be used to analyze experimental force-extension curves of protein binding on DNA, and hence deduce the number of bound proteins in the case of nonspecific binding. ©2011 American Physical Society

  5. SA1 and TRF1 synergistically bind to telomeric DNA and promote DNA-DNA pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong; Lin, Jiangguo; Countryman, Preston; Pan, Hai; Parminder Kaur Team; Robert Riehn Team; Patricia Opresko Team; Jane Tao Team; Susan Smith Team

    Impaired telomere cohesion leads to increased aneuploidy and early onset of tumorigenesis. Cohesion is thought to occur through the entrapment of two DNA strands within tripartite cohesin ring(s), along with a fourth subunit (SA1/SA2). Surprisingly, cohesion rings are not essential for telomere cohesion, which instead requires SA1 and shelterin proteins including TRF1. However, neither this unique cohesion mechanism at telomeres or DNA-binding properties of SA1 is understood. Here, using single-molecule fluorescence imaging of quantum dot-labeled proteins on DNA we discover that while SA1 diffuses across multiple telomeric and non-telomeric regions, the diffusion mediated through its N-terminal domain is slower at telomeric regions. However, addition of TRF1 traps SA1 within telomeric regions, which form longer DNA-DNA pairing tracts than with TRF1 alone, as revealed by atomic force microscopy. Together, these experimental results and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations suggest that TRF1 and SA1 synergistically interact with DNA to support telomere cohesion without cohesin rings.

  6. Structure-based Analysis to Hu-DNA Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Swinger,K.; Rice, P.

    2007-01-01

    HU and IHF are prokaryotic proteins that induce very large bends in DNA. They are present in high concentrations in the bacterial nucleoid and aid in chromosomal compaction. They also function as regulatory cofactors in many processes, such as site-specific recombination and the initiation of replication and transcription. HU and IHF have become paradigms for understanding DNA bending and indirect readout of sequence. While IHF shows significant sequence specificity, HU binds preferentially to certain damaged or distorted DNAs. However, none of the structurally diverse HU substrates previously studied in vitro is identical with the distorted substrates in the recently publishedmore » Anabaena HU(AHU)-DNA cocrystal structures. Here, we report binding affinities for AHU and the DNA in the cocrystal structures. The binding free energies for formation of these AHU-DNA complexes range from 10-14.5 kcal/mol, representing K{sub d} values in the nanomolar to low picomolar range, and a maximum stabilization of at least 6.3 kcal/mol relative to complexes with undistorted, non-specific DNA. We investigated IHF binding and found that appropriate structural distortions can greatly enhance its affinity. On the basis of the coupling of structural and relevant binding data, we estimate the amount of conformational strain in an IHF-mediated DNA kink that is relieved by a nick (at least 0.76 kcal/mol) and pinpoint the location of the strain. We show that AHU has a sequence preference for an A+T-rich region in the center of its DNA-binding site, correlating with an unusually narrow minor groove. This is similar to sequence preferences shown by the eukaryotic nucleosome.« less

  7. Molecular mechanism of DNA association with single-stranded DNA binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Maffeo, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Abstract During DNA replication, the single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) wraps single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with high affinity to protect it from degradation and prevent secondary structure formation. Although SSB binds ssDNA tightly, it can be repositioned along ssDNA to follow the advancement of the replication fork. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we characterized the molecular mechanism of ssDNA association with SSB. Placed in solution, ssDNA–SSB assemblies were observed to change their structure spontaneously; such structural changes were suppressed in the crystallographic environment. Repeat simulations of the SSB–ssDNA complex under mechanical tension revealed a multitude of possible pathways for ssDNA to come off SSB punctuated by prolonged arrests at reproducible sites at the SSB surface. Ensemble simulations of spontaneous association of short ssDNA fragments with SSB detailed a three-dimensional map of local affinity to DNA; the equilibrium amount of ssDNA bound to SSB was found to depend on the electrolyte concentration but not on the presence of the acidic tips of the SSB tails. Spontaneous formation of ssDNA bulges and their diffusive motion along SSB surface was directly observed in multiple 10-µs-long simulations. Such reptation-like motion was confined by DNA binding to high-affinity spots, suggesting a two-step mechanism for SSB diffusion. PMID:29059392

  8. Competition for DNA binding sites using Promega DNA IQ™ paramagnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Frégeau, Chantal J; De Moors, Anick

    2012-09-01

    The Promega DNA IQ™ system is easily amenable to automation and has been an integral part of standard operating procedures for many forensic laboratories including those of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) since 2004. Due to some failure to extract DNA from samples that should have produced DNA using our validated automated DNA IQ™-based protocol, the competition for binding sites on the DNA IQ™ magnetic beads was more closely examined. Heme from heavily blooded samples interfered slightly with DNA binding. Increasing the concentration of Proteinase K during lysis of these samples did not enhance DNA recovery. However, diluting the sample lysate following lysis prior to DNA extraction overcame the reduction in DNA yield and preserved portions of the lysates for subsequent manual or automated extraction. Dye/chemicals from black denim lysates competed for binding sites on the DNA IQ™ beads and significantly reduced DNA recovery. Increasing the size or number of black denim cuttings during lysis had a direct adverse effect on DNA yield from various blood volumes. The dilution approach was successful on these samples and permitted the extraction of high DNA yields. Alternatively, shortening the incubation time for cell lysis to 30 min instead of the usual overnight at 56 °C prevented competition from black denim dye/chemicals and increased DNA yields. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. enDNA-Prot: identification of DNA-binding proteins by applying ensemble learning.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruifeng; Zhou, Jiyun; Liu, Bin; Yao, Lin; He, Yulan; Zou, Quan; Wang, Xiaolong

    2014-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins are crucial for various cellular processes, such as recognition of specific nucleotide, regulation of transcription, and regulation of gene expression. Developing an effective model for identifying DNA-binding proteins is an urgent research problem. Up to now, many methods have been proposed, but most of them focus on only one classifier and cannot make full use of the large number of negative samples to improve predicting performance. This study proposed a predictor called enDNA-Prot for DNA-binding protein identification by employing the ensemble learning technique. Experiential results showed that enDNA-Prot was comparable with DNA-Prot and outperformed DNAbinder and iDNA-Prot with performance improvement in the range of 3.97-9.52% in ACC and 0.08-0.19 in MCC. Furthermore, when the benchmark dataset was expanded with negative samples, the performance of enDNA-Prot outperformed the three existing methods by 2.83-16.63% in terms of ACC and 0.02-0.16 in terms of MCC. It indicated that enDNA-Prot is an effective method for DNA-binding protein identification and expanding training dataset with negative samples can improve its performance. For the convenience of the vast majority of experimental scientists, we developed a user-friendly web-server for enDNA-Prot which is freely accessible to the public.

  10. Accurate and sensitive quantification of protein-DNA binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Chaitanya; Rube, H Tomas; Kribelbauer, Judith F; Crocker, Justin; Loker, Ryan E; Martini, Gabriella D; Laptenko, Oleg; Freed-Pastor, William A; Prives, Carol; Stern, David L; Mann, Richard S; Bussemaker, Harmen J

    2018-04-17

    Transcription factors (TFs) control gene expression by binding to genomic DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Mutations in TF binding sites are increasingly found to be associated with human disease, yet we currently lack robust methods to predict these sites. Here, we developed a versatile maximum likelihood framework named No Read Left Behind (NRLB) that infers a biophysical model of protein-DNA recognition across the full affinity range from a library of in vitro selected DNA binding sites. NRLB predicts human Max homodimer binding in near-perfect agreement with existing low-throughput measurements. It can capture the specificity of the p53 tetramer and distinguish multiple binding modes within a single sample. Additionally, we confirm that newly identified low-affinity enhancer binding sites are functional in vivo, and that their contribution to gene expression matches their predicted affinity. Our results establish a powerful paradigm for identifying protein binding sites and interpreting gene regulatory sequences in eukaryotic genomes. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  11. Accurate and sensitive quantification of protein-DNA binding affinity

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Chaitanya; Rube, H. Tomas; Kribelbauer, Judith F.; Crocker, Justin; Loker, Ryan E.; Martini, Gabriella D.; Laptenko, Oleg; Freed-Pastor, William A.; Prives, Carol; Stern, David L.; Mann, Richard S.; Bussemaker, Harmen J.

    2018-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) control gene expression by binding to genomic DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Mutations in TF binding sites are increasingly found to be associated with human disease, yet we currently lack robust methods to predict these sites. Here, we developed a versatile maximum likelihood framework named No Read Left Behind (NRLB) that infers a biophysical model of protein-DNA recognition across the full affinity range from a library of in vitro selected DNA binding sites. NRLB predicts human Max homodimer binding in near-perfect agreement with existing low-throughput measurements. It can capture the specificity of the p53 tetramer and distinguish multiple binding modes within a single sample. Additionally, we confirm that newly identified low-affinity enhancer binding sites are functional in vivo, and that their contribution to gene expression matches their predicted affinity. Our results establish a powerful paradigm for identifying protein binding sites and interpreting gene regulatory sequences in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:29610332

  12. Mechanistic insight into ligand binding to G-quadruplex DNA

    PubMed Central

    Di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Novellino, Ettore; Cavalli, Andrea; Parrinello, Michele; Limongelli, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Specific guanine-rich regions in human genome can form higher-order DNA structures called G-quadruplexes, which regulate many relevant biological processes. For instance, the formation of G-quadruplex at telomeres can alter cellular functions, inducing apoptosis. Thus, developing small molecules that are able to bind and stabilize the telomeric G-quadruplexes represents an attractive strategy for antitumor therapy. An example is 3-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-7-hydroxy-8-((4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl)methyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (compound 1), recently identified as potent ligand of the G-quadruplex [d(TGGGGT)]4 with promising in vitro antitumor activity. The experimental observations are suggestive of a complex binding mechanism that, despite efforts, has defied full characterization. Here, we provide through metadynamics simulations a comprehensive understanding of the binding mechanism of 1 to the G-quadruplex [d(TGGGGT)]4. In our calculations, the ligand explores all the available binding sites on the DNA structure and the free-energy landscape of the whole binding process is computed. We have thus disclosed a peculiar hopping binding mechanism whereas 1 is able to bind both to the groove and to the 3’ end of the G-quadruplex. Our results fully explain the available experimental data, rendering our approach of great value for further ligand/DNA studies. PMID:24753420

  13. IFI16 Preferentially Binds to DNA with Quadruplex Structure and Enhances DNA Quadruplex Formation.

    PubMed

    Hároníková, Lucia; Coufal, Jan; Kejnovská, Iva; Jagelská, Eva B; Fojta, Miroslav; Dvořáková, Petra; Muller, Petr; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Brázda, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) is a member of the HIN-200 protein family, containing two HIN domains and one PYRIN domain. IFI16 acts as a sensor of viral and bacterial DNA and is important for innate immune responses. IFI16 binds DNA and binding has been described to be DNA length-dependent, but a preference for supercoiled DNA has also been demonstrated. Here we report a specific preference of IFI16 for binding to quadruplex DNA compared to other DNA structures. IFI16 binds to quadruplex DNA with significantly higher affinity than to the same sequence in double stranded DNA. By circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy we also demonstrated the ability of IFI16 to stabilize quadruplex structures with quadruplex-forming oligonucleotides derived from human telomere (HTEL) sequences and the MYC promotor. A novel H/D exchange mass spectrometry approach was developed to assess protein interactions with quadruplex DNA. Quadruplex DNA changed the IFI16 deuteration profile in parts of the PYRIN domain (aa 0-80) and in structurally identical parts of both HIN domains (aa 271-302 and aa 586-617) compared to single stranded or double stranded DNAs, supporting the preferential affinity of IFI16 for structured DNA. Our results reveal the importance of quadruplex DNA structure in IFI16 binding and improve our understanding of how IFI16 senses DNA. IFI16 selectivity for quadruplex structure provides a mechanistic framework for IFI16 in immunity and cellular processes including DNA damage responses and cell proliferation.

  14. DNA condensing effects and sequence selectivity of DNA binding of antitumor noncovalent polynuclear platinum complexes.

    PubMed

    Malina, Jaroslav; Farrell, Nicholas P; Brabec, Viktor

    2014-02-03

    The noncovalent analogues of antitumor polynuclear platinum complexes represent a structurally discrete class of platinum drugs. Their chemical and biological properties differ significantly from those of most platinum chemotherapeutics, which bind to DNA in a covalent manner by formation of Pt-DNA adducts. In spite of the fact that these noncovalent polynuclear platinum complexes contain no leaving groups, they have been shown to bind to DNA with high affinity. We report here on the DNA condensation properties of a series of noncovalent analogues of antitumor polynuclear platinum complexes described by biophysical and biochemical methods. The results demonstrate that these polynuclear platinum compounds are capable of inducing DNA condensation at more than 1 order of magnitude lower concentrations than conventional spermine. Atomic force microscopy studies of DNA condensation confined to a mica substrate have revealed that the DNA morphologies become more compact with increasing concentration of the platinum complexes. Moreover, we also found that the noncovalent polynuclear platinum complex [{Pt(NH3)3}2-μ-{trans-Pt(NH3)2(NH2(CH2)6NH2)2}](6+) (TriplatinNC-A) binds to DNA in a sequence-dependent manner, namely, to A/T-rich sequences and A-tract regions, and that noncovalent polynuclear platinum complexes protect DNA from enzymatic cleavage by DNase I. The results suggest that mechanisms of antitumor and cytotoxic activities of these complexes may be associated with their unique ability to condense DNA along with their sequence-specific DNA binding. Owing to their high cellular accumulation, it is also reasonable to suggest that their mechanism of action is based on the competition with naturally occurring DNA condensing agents, such as polyamines spermine, spermidine, and putrescine, for intracellular binding sites, resulting in the disturbance of the correct binding of regulatory proteins initiating the onset of apoptosis.

  15. Preparation and DNA-binding properties of substituted triostin antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Cornish, A; Fox, K R; Waring, M J

    1983-02-01

    Novel derivatives of the triostin group of antibiotics were prepared by supplementing cultures of the producing organism Streptomyces triostinicus with a variety of aromatic carboxylic acids. Five new antibiotics, each having both the natural quinoxaline chromophores replaced by a substituted ring system, were purified to homogeneity and characterized by high-pressure liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Their antibacterial activities and DNA-binding properties were investigated. Addition of a halogen atom at position 6 of the quinoxaline ring or an amino group at position 3 had little effect on either the biological activity or the DNA-binding characteristics. The bis-3-amino derivative is fluorescent, and its fluorescence is strongly quenched by calf thymus DNA and polydeoxyguanylate-polydeoxycytidylate but not by polydeoxyadenylate-polydeoxythymidylate, suggesting that it binds preferentially to guanosine-cytosine-rich sequences in natural DNA. Binding constants for the bis-6-chloro and bis-3-amino derivatives do not differ greatly from those of unsubstituted triostin A. The analogs having two quinoline chromophores or a chlorine atom in position 7 of the quinoxaline ring display little or no detectable antibacterial activity, in marked contrast to the other congeners. Bis-7-chloro-triostin A binds conspicuously more tightly to polydeoxyadenylate-polydeoxythymidylate than to any other polynucleotide tested.

  16. Extended HSR/CARD domain mediates AIRE binding to DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Maslovskaja, Julia, E-mail: julia.maslovskaja@ut.ee; Saare, Mario; Liiv, Ingrid

    Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) activates the transcription of many genes in an unusual promiscuous and stochastic manner. The mechanism by which AIRE binds to the chromatin and DNA is not fully understood, and the regulatory elements that AIRE target genes possess are not delineated. In the current study, we demonstrate that AIRE activates the expression of transiently transfected luciferase reporters that lack defined promoter regions, as well as intron and poly(A) signal sequences. Our protein-DNA interaction experiments with mutated AIRE reveal that the intact homogeneously staining region/caspase recruitment domain (HSR/CARD) and amino acids R113 and K114 are key elements involved inmore » AIRE binding to DNA. - Highlights: • Promoter and mRNA processing elements are not important for AIRE to activate gene expression from reporter plasmids. • AIRE protein fragment aa 1–138 mediates direct binding to DNA. • Integrity of the HSR/CARD domain is needed for AIRE binding to DNA.« less

  17. β -Cyclodextrin polymer binding to DNA: Modulating the physicochemical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, J. C. B.; Silva, E. F.; Oliveira, M. F.; Sousa, F. B.; Teixeira, A. V. N. C.; Rocha, M. S.

    2017-05-01

    Cyclodextrins and cyclodextrins-modified molecules have interesting and appealing properties due to their capacity to host components that are normally insoluble or poorly soluble in water. In this work, we investigate the interaction of a β -cyclodextrin polymer (poly-β -CD) with λ -DNA. The polymers are obtained by the reaction of β -CD with epichlorohydrin in alkaline conditions. We have used optical tweezers to characterize the changes of the mechanical properties of DNA molecules by increasing the concentration of poly-β -CD in the sample. The physical chemistry of the interaction is then deduced from these measurements by using a recently developed quenched-disorder statistical model. It is shown that the contour length of the DNA does not change in the whole range of poly-β -CD concentration (<300 μ M ). On the other hand, significant alterations were observed in the persistence length that identifies two binding modes corresponding to the clustering of ˜2.6 and ˜14 polymer molecules along the DNA double helix, depending on the polymer concentration. Comparing these results with the ones obtained for monomeric β -CD, it was observed that the concentration of CD that alters the DNA persistence length is considerably smaller when in the polymeric form. Also, the binding constant of the polymer-DNA interaction is three orders of magnitude higher than the one found for native (monomeric) β -CD. These results show that the polymerization of the β -CD strongly increases its binding affinity to the DNA molecule. This property can be wisely used to modulate the binding of cyclodextrins to the DNA double helix.

  18. iDNA-Prot: Identification of DNA Binding Proteins Using Random Forest with Grey Model

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Zhong; Fang, Jian-An; Xiao, Xuan; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2011-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes. Developing high throughput tools for rapidly and effectively identifying DNA-binding proteins is one of the major challenges in the field of genome annotation. Although many efforts have been made in this regard, further effort is needed to enhance the prediction power. By incorporating the features into the general form of pseudo amino acid composition that were extracted from protein sequences via the “grey model” and by adopting the random forest operation engine, we proposed a new predictor, called iDNA-Prot, for identifying uncharacterized proteins as DNA-binding proteins or non-DNA binding proteins based on their amino acid sequences information alone. The overall success rate by iDNA-Prot was 83.96% that was obtained via jackknife tests on a newly constructed stringent benchmark dataset in which none of the proteins included has pairwise sequence identity to any other in a same subset. In addition to achieving high success rate, the computational time for iDNA-Prot is remarkably shorter in comparison with the relevant existing predictors. Hence it is anticipated that iDNA-Prot may become a useful high throughput tool for large-scale analysis of DNA-binding proteins. As a user-friendly web-server, iDNA-Prot is freely accessible to the public at the web-site on http://icpr.jci.edu.cn/bioinfo/iDNA-Prot or http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iDNA-Prot. Moreover, for the convenience of the vast majority of experimental scientists, a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get the desired results. PMID:21935457

  19. Protein Affinity Chromatography with Purified Yeast DNA Polymerase α Detects Proteins that Bind to DNA Polymerase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Jeff; Formosa, Tim

    1992-02-01

    We have overexpressed the POL1 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and purified the resulting DNA polymerase α polypeptide in an apparently intact form. We attached the purified DNA polymerase covalently to an agarose matrix and used this matrix to chromatograph extracts prepared from yeast cells. At least six proteins bound to the yeast DNA polymerase α matrix that did not bind to a control matrix. We speculate that these proteins might be DNA polymerase α accessory proteins. Consistent with this interpretation, one of the binding proteins, which we have named POB1 (polymerase one binding), is required for normal chromosome transmission. Mutations in this gene cause increased chromosome loss and an abnormal cell morphology, phenotypes that also occur in the presence of mutations in the yeast α or δ polymerase genes. These results suggest that the interactions detected by polymerase affinity chromatography are biologically relevant and may help to illuminate the architecture of the eukaryotic DNA replication machinery.

  20. On the connection between inherent DNA flexure and preferred binding of hydroxymethyluracil-containing DNA by the type II DNA-binding protein TF1.

    PubMed

    Grove, A; Galeone, A; Mayol, L; Geiduschek, E P

    1996-07-12

    TF1 is a member of the family of type II DNA-binding proteins, which also includes the bacterial HU proteins and the Escherichia coli integration host factor (IHF). Distinctive to TF1, which is encoded by the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPO1, is its preferential binding to DNA in which thymine is replaced by 5-hydroxymethyluracil (hmU), as it is in the phage genome. TF1 binds to preferred sites within the phage genome and generates pronounced DNA bending. The extent to which DNA flexibility contributes to the sequence-specific binding of TF1, and the connection between hmU preference and DNA flexibility has been examined. Model flexible sites, consisting of consecutive mismatches, increase the affinity of thymine-containing DNA for TF1. In particular, tandem mismatches separated by nine base-pairs generate an increase, by orders of magnitude, in the affinity of TF1 for T-containing DNA with the sequence of a preferred TF1 binding site, and fully match the affinity of TF1 for this cognate site in hmU-containing DNA (Kd approximately 3 nM). Other placements of loops generate suboptimal binding. This is consistent with a significant contribution of site-specific DNA flexibility to complex formation. Analysis of complexes with hmU-DNA of decreasing length shows that a major part of the binding affinity is generated within a central 19 bp segment (delta G0 = 41.7 kJ mol-1) with more-distal DNA contributing modestly to the affinity (delta delta G = -0.42 kJ mol-1 bp-1 on increasing duplex length to 37 bp). However, a previously characterised thermostable and more tightly binding mutant TF1, TF1(E15G/T32I), derives most of its extra affinity from interaction with flanking DNA. We propose that inherent but sequence-dependent deformability of hmU-containing DNA underlies the preferential binding of TF1 and that TF1-induced DNA bendings is a result of distortions at two distinct sites separated by 9 bp of duplex DNA.

  1. Fluoroquinolone-gyrase-DNA complexes: two modes of drug binding.

    PubMed

    Mustaev, Arkady; Malik, Muhammad; Zhao, Xilin; Kurepina, Natalia; Luan, Gan; Oppegard, Lisa M; Hiasa, Hiroshi; Marks, Kevin R; Kerns, Robert J; Berger, James M; Drlica, Karl

    2014-05-02

    DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV control bacterial DNA topology by breaking DNA, passing duplex DNA through the break, and then resealing the break. This process is subject to reversible corruption by fluoroquinolones, antibacterials that form drug-enzyme-DNA complexes in which the DNA is broken. The complexes, called cleaved complexes because of the presence of DNA breaks, have been crystallized and found to have the fluoroquinolone C-7 ring system facing the GyrB/ParE subunits. As expected from x-ray crystallography, a thiol-reactive, C-7-modified chloroacetyl derivative of ciprofloxacin (Cip-AcCl) formed cross-linked cleaved complexes with mutant GyrB-Cys(466) gyrase as evidenced by resistance to reversal by both EDTA and thermal treatments. Surprisingly, cross-linking was also readily seen with complexes formed by mutant GyrA-G81C gyrase, thereby revealing a novel drug-gyrase interaction not observed in crystal structures. The cross-link between fluoroquinolone and GyrA-G81C gyrase correlated with exceptional bacteriostatic activity for Cip-AcCl with a quinolone-resistant GyrA-G81C variant of Escherichia coli and its Mycobacterium smegmatis equivalent (GyrA-G89C). Cip-AcCl-mediated, irreversible inhibition of DNA replication provided further evidence for a GyrA-drug cross-link. Collectively these data establish the existence of interactions between the fluoroquinolone C-7 ring and both GyrA and GyrB. Because the GyrA-Gly(81) and GyrB-Glu(466) residues are far apart (17 Å) in the crystal structure of cleaved complexes, two modes of quinolone binding must exist. The presence of two binding modes raises the possibility that multiple quinolone-enzyme-DNA complexes can form, a discovery that opens new avenues for exploring and exploiting relationships between drug structure and activity with type II DNA topoisomerases.

  2. Differential impact of ionic and coordinate covalent chromium (Cr)-DNA binding on DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Fornsaglio, Jamie L; O'Brien, Travis J; Patierno, Steven R

    2005-11-01

    The reactive species produced by the reduction of Cr(VI), particularly Cr(III), can form both ionic and coordinate covalent complexes with DNA. These Cr(III)-DNA interactions consist of Cr-DNA monoadducts, Cr-DNA ternary adducts, and Cr-DNA interstrand cross-links (Cr-ICLs), the latter of which are DNA polymerase arresting lesions (PALs). We sought to determine the impact of Cr-DNA interactions on the formation of replication blocking lesions in S. cerevisiae using a PCR-based method. We found that target sequence (TS) amplification using DNA isolated from Cr(VI)-treated yeast actually increased as a function of Cr(VI) concentration. Moreover, the enhanced TS amplification was reproduced in vitro using Cr(III)-treated DNA. In contrast, PCR amplification of TS from DNA isolated from yeast exposed to equitoxic doses of the inorganic DNA cross-linking agent cisplatin (CDDP), was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. This paradox suggested that a specific Cr-DNA interaction, such as an ionic Cr-DNA complex, was responsible for the enhanced TS amplification, thereby masking the replication-blocking effect of certain ternary Cr-DNA adducts (i.e. interstrand cross-links). To test this possibility, we removed ionically associated Cr from the DNA using salt extraction prior to PCR analysis. This procedure obviated the increased amplification and revealed a dose-dependent decrease in TS amplification and an increase in Cr-PALs. These data from DNA analyzed ex vivo after treatment of intact cells indicate that ionic interactions of Cr with DNA result in increased DNA amplification whereas coordinate-covalent Cr-DNA complexes lead to formation of Cr-PALs. Thus, these results suggest that treatment of living cells with Cr(VI) leads to two modes of Cr-binding, which may have conflicting effects on DNA replication.

  3. A Method for Preparing DNA Sequencing Templates Using a DNA-Binding Microplate

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu; Hebron, Haroun R.; Hang, Jun

    2009-01-01

    A DNA-binding matrix was immobilized on the surface of a 96-well microplate and used for plasmid DNA preparation for DNA sequencing. The same DNA-binding plate was used for bacterial growth, cell lysis, DNA purification, and storage. In a single step using one buffer, bacterial cells were lysed by enzymes, and released DNA was captured on the plate simultaneously. After two wash steps, DNA was eluted and stored in the same plate. Inclusion of phosphates in the culture medium was found to enhance the yield of plasmid significantly. Purified DNA samples were used successfully in DNA sequencing with high consistency and reproducibility. Eleven vectors and nine libraries were tested using this method. In 10 μl sequencing reactions using 3 μl sample and 0.25 μl BigDye Terminator v3.1, the results from a 3730xl sequencer gave a success rate of 90–95% and read-lengths of 700 bases or more. The method is fully automatable and convenient for manual operation as well. It enables reproducible, high-throughput, rapid production of DNA with purity and yields sufficient for high-quality DNA sequencing at a substantially reduced cost. PMID:19568455

  4. Z-DNA binding protein from chicken blood nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, A. G.; Spitzner, J. R.; Lowenhaupt, K.; Rich, A.

    1993-01-01

    A protein (Z alpha) that appears to be highly specific for the left-handed Z-DNA conformer has been identified in chicken blood nuclear extracts. Z alpha activity is measured in a band-shift assay by using a radioactive probe consisting of a (dC-dG)35 oligomer that has 50% of the deoxycytosines replaced with 5-bromodeoxycytosine. In the presence of 10 mM Mg2+, the probe converts to the Z-DNA conformation and is bound by Z alpha. The binding of Z alpha to the radioactive probe is specifically blocked by competition with linear poly(dC-dG) stabilized in the Z-DNA form by chemical bromination but not by B-form poly(dC-dG) or boiled salmon-sperm DNA. In addition, the binding activity of Z alpha is competitively blocked by supercoiled plasmids containing a Z-DNA insert but not by either the linearized plasmid or by an equivalent amount of the parental supercoiled plasmid without the Z-DNA-forming insert. Z alpha can be crosslinked to the 32P-labeled brominated probe with UV light, allowing us to estimate that the minimal molecular mass of Z alpha is 39 kDa.

  5. Viral interference with DNA repair by targeting of the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Pubali; DeJesus, Rowena; Gjoerup, Ole; Schaffhausen, Brian S

    2013-10-01

    Correct repair of damaged DNA is critical for genomic integrity. Deficiencies in DNA repair are linked with human cancer. Here we report a novel mechanism by which a virus manipulates DNA damage responses. Infection with murine polyomavirus sensitizes cells to DNA damage by UV and etoposide. Polyomavirus large T antigen (LT) alone is sufficient to sensitize cells 100 fold to UV and other kinds of DNA damage. This results in activated stress responses and apoptosis. Genetic analysis shows that LT sensitizes via the binding of its origin-binding domain (OBD) to the single-stranded DNA binding protein replication protein A (RPA). Overexpression of RPA protects cells expressing OBD from damage, and knockdown of RPA mimics the LT phenotype. LT prevents recruitment of RPA to nuclear foci after DNA damage. This leads to failure to recruit repair proteins such as Rad51 or Rad9, explaining why LT prevents repair of double strand DNA breaks by homologous recombination. A targeted intervention directed at RPA based on this viral mechanism could be useful in circumventing the resistance of cancer cells to therapy.

  6. Mapping the interactions of the single-stranded DNA binding protein of bacteriophage T4 (gp32) with DNA lattices at single nucleotide resolution: polynucleotide binding and cooperativity

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Davis; Weitzel, Steven E.; Baase, Walter A.; Michael, Miya M.; von Hippel, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    We here use our site-specific base analog mapping approach to study the interactions and binding equilibria of cooperatively-bound clusters of the single-stranded DNA binding protein (gp32) of the T4 DNA replication complex with longer ssDNA (and dsDNA) lattices. We show that in cooperatively bound clusters the binding free energy appears to be equi-partitioned between the gp32 monomers of the cluster, so that all bind to the ssDNA lattice with comparable affinity, but also that the outer domains of the gp32 monomers at the ends of the cluster can fluctuate on and off the lattice and that the clusters of gp32 monomers can slide along the ssDNA. We also show that at very low binding densities gp32 monomers bind to the ssDNA lattice at random, but that cooperatively bound gp32 clusters bind preferentially at the 5′-end of the ssDNA lattice. We use these results and the gp32 monomer-binding results of the companion paper to propose a detailed model for how gp32 might bind to and interact with ssDNA lattices in its various binding modes, and also consider how these clusters might interact with other components of the T4 DNA replication complex. PMID:26275774

  7. Synthesis and characterization of DNA minor groove binding alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Prema; Srinivasan, Ajay; Singh, Sreelekha K; Mascara, Gerard P; Zayitova, Sevara; Sidone, Brian; Fouquerel, Elise; Svilar, David; Sobol, Robert W; Bobola, Michael S; Silber, John R; Gold, Barry

    2013-01-18

    Derivatives of methyl 3-(1-methyl-5-(1-methyl-5-(propylcarbamoyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-ylcarbamoyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-ylamino)-3-oxopropane-1-sulfonate (1), a peptide-based DNA minor groove binding methylating agent, were synthesized and characterized. In all cases, the N-terminus was appended with an O-methyl sulfonate ester, while the C-terminus group was varied with nonpolar and polar side chains. In addition, the number of pyrrole rings was varied from 2 (dipeptide) to 3 (tripeptide). The ability of the different analogues to efficiently generate N3-methyladenine was demonstrated as was their selectivity for minor groove (N3-methyladenine) versus major groove (N7-methylguanine) methylation. Induced circular dichroism studies were used to measure the DNA equilibrium binding properties of the stable sulfone analogues; the tripeptide binds with affinity that is >10-fold higher than that of the dipeptide. The toxicities of the compounds were evaluated in alkA/tag glycosylase mutant E. coli and in human WT glioma cells and in cells overexpressing and under-expressing N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase, which excises N3-methyladenine from DNA. The results show that equilibrium binding correlates with the levels of N3-methyladenine produced and cellular toxicity. The toxicity of 1 was inversely related to the expression of MPG in both the bacterial and mammalian cell lines. The enhanced toxicity parallels the reduced activation of PARP and the diminished rate of formation of aldehyde reactive sites observed in the MPG knockdown cells. It is proposed that unrepaired N3-methyladenine is toxic due to its ability to directly block DNA polymerization.

  8. Facilitated dissociation of transcription factors from single DNA binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Kamar, Ramsey I.; Banigan, Edward J.; Erbas, Aykut; Giuntoli, Rebecca D.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Johnson, Reid C.; Marko, John F.

    2017-01-01

    The binding of transcription factors (TFs) to DNA controls most aspects of cellular function, making the understanding of their binding kinetics imperative. The standard description of bimolecular interactions posits that TF off rates are independent of TF concentration in solution. However, recent observations have revealed that proteins in solution can accelerate the dissociation of DNA-bound proteins. To study the molecular basis of facilitated dissociation (FD), we have used single-molecule imaging to measure dissociation kinetics of Fis, a key Escherichia coli TF and major bacterial nucleoid protein, from single dsDNA binding sites. We observe a strong FD effect characterized by an exchange rate ∼1×104 M−1s−1, establishing that FD of Fis occurs at the single-binding site level, and we find that the off rate saturates at large Fis concentrations in solution. Although spontaneous (i.e., competitor-free) dissociation shows a strong salt dependence, we find that FD depends only weakly on salt. These results are quantitatively explained by a model in which partially dissociated bound proteins are susceptible to invasion by competitor proteins in solution. We also report FD of NHP6A, a yeast TF with structure that differs significantly from Fis. We further perform molecular dynamics simulations, which indicate that FD can occur for molecules that interact far more weakly than those that we have studied. Taken together, our results indicate that FD is a general mechanism assisting in the local removal of TFs from their binding sites and does not necessarily require cooperativity, clustering, or binding site overlap. PMID:28364020

  9. Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and DNA binding studies of carbon dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhonsi, Mariadoss Asha; Ananth, Devanesan Arul; Nambirajan, Gayathri; Sivasudha, Thilagar; Yamini, Rekha; Bera, Soumen; Kathiravan, Arunkumar

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, quantum dots (QDs) are one of the most promising nanomaterials in life sciences community due to their unexploited potential in biomedical applications; particularly in bio-labeling and sensing. In the advanced nanomaterials, carbon dots (CDs) have shown promise in next generation bioimaging and drug delivery studies. Therefore the knowledge of the exact nature of interaction with biomolecules is of great interest to designing better biosensors. In this study, the interaction between CDs derived from tamarind and calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) has been studied by vital spectroscopic techniques, which revealed that the CDs could interact with DNA via intercalation. The apparent association constant has been deduced from the absorption spectral changes of ct-DNA-CDs using the Benesi-Hildebrand equation. From the DNA induced emission quenching experiments the apparent DNA binding constant of the CDs (Kapp) have also been evaluated. Furthermore, we have analyzed the antibacterial and antifungal activity of CDs using disc diffusion assay method which exhibited excellent activity against E. coli and C. albicans with inhibition zone in the range of 7-12 mm. The biocompatible nature of CDs was confirmed by an in vitro cytotoxicity test on L6 normal rat myoblast cells by using MTT assay. The cell viability is not affected till the high dosage of CDs (200 μg/mL) for >48 h. As a consequence of the work, future development of CDs for microbial control and DNA sensing among the various biomolecules is possible in view of emerging biofields.

  10. DNA binding of supramolecular mixed-metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swavey, Shawn; Williams, Rodd L.; Fang, Zhenglai; Milkevitch, Matthew; Brewer, Karen J.

    2001-10-01

    The high binding affinity of cisplatin toward DNA has led to its popularity as an anticancer agent. Due to cumulative drug resistance and toxic side effects, researchers are exploring related metallodrugs. Our approach involves the use of supramolecular complexes. These mixed-metal complexes incorporate a reactive platinum moiety bridged by a polyazine ligand to a light absorbing metal-based chromophore. The presence of the light absorber allows excitation of these systems, opening up the possibility of photoactivation. The use of a supramolecular design allows components of the assembly to be varied to enhance device function and light absorbing properties. Aspects of our molecular design process and results on the DNA binding properties for a number of these mixed-metal complexes will be discussed.

  11. Regulation of transcriptional activators by DNA-binding domain ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Landré, Vivien; Revi, Bhindu; Mir, Maria Gil; Verma, Chandra; Hupp, Ted R; Gilbert, Nick; Ball, Kathryn L

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitin is a key component of the regulatory network that maintains gene expression in eukaryotes, yet the molecular mechanism(s) by which non-degradative ubiquitination modulates transcriptional activator (TA) function is unknown. Here endogenous p53, a stress-activated transcription factor required to maintain health, is stably monoubiquitinated, following pathway activation by IR or Nutlin-3 and localized to the nucleus where it becomes tightly associated with chromatin. Comparative structure–function analysis and in silico modelling demonstrate a direct role for DNA-binding domain (DBD) monoubiquitination in TA activation. When attached to the DBD of either p53, or a second TA IRF-1, ubiquitin is orientated towards, and makes contact with, the DNA. The contact is made between a predominantly cationic surface on ubiquitin and the anionic DNA. Our data demonstrate an unexpected role for ubiquitin in the mechanism of TA-activity enhancement and provides insight into a new level of transcriptional regulation. PMID:28362432

  12. Dynamic DNA binding licenses a repair factor to bypass roadblocks in search of DNA lesions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Maxwell W; Kim, Yoori; Williams, Gregory M; Huck, John D; Surtees, Jennifer A; Finkelstein, Ilya J

    2016-02-03

    DNA-binding proteins search for specific targets via facilitated diffusion along a crowded genome. However, little is known about how crowded DNA modulates facilitated diffusion and target recognition. Here we use DNA curtains and single-molecule fluorescence imaging to investigate how Msh2-Msh3, a eukaryotic mismatch repair complex, navigates on crowded DNA. Msh2-Msh3 hops over nucleosomes and other protein roadblocks, but maintains sufficient contact with DNA to recognize a single lesion. In contrast, Msh2-Msh6 slides without hopping and is largely blocked by protein roadblocks. Remarkably, the Msh3-specific mispair-binding domain (MBD) licences a chimeric Msh2-Msh6(3MBD) to bypass nucleosomes. Our studies contrast how Msh2-Msh3 and Msh2-Msh6 navigate on a crowded genome and suggest how Msh2-Msh3 locates DNA lesions outside of replication-coupled repair. These results also provide insights into how DNA repair factors search for DNA lesions in the context of chromatin.

  13. Dynamic DNA binding licenses a repair factor to bypass roadblocks in search of DNA lesions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Maxwell W.; Kim, Yoori; Williams, Gregory M.; Huck, John D.; Surtees, Jennifer A.; Finkelstein, Ilya J.

    2016-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins search for specific targets via facilitated diffusion along a crowded genome. However, little is known about how crowded DNA modulates facilitated diffusion and target recognition. Here we use DNA curtains and single-molecule fluorescence imaging to investigate how Msh2–Msh3, a eukaryotic mismatch repair complex, navigates on crowded DNA. Msh2–Msh3 hops over nucleosomes and other protein roadblocks, but maintains sufficient contact with DNA to recognize a single lesion. In contrast, Msh2–Msh6 slides without hopping and is largely blocked by protein roadblocks. Remarkably, the Msh3-specific mispair-binding domain (MBD) licences a chimeric Msh2–Msh6(3MBD) to bypass nucleosomes. Our studies contrast how Msh2–Msh3 and Msh2–Msh6 navigate on a crowded genome and suggest how Msh2–Msh3 locates DNA lesions outside of replication-coupled repair. These results also provide insights into how DNA repair factors search for DNA lesions in the context of chromatin. PMID:26837705

  14. Coupled binding-bending-folding: The complex conformational dynamics of protein-DNA binding studied by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    van der Vaart, Arjan

    2015-05-01

    Protein-DNA binding often involves dramatic conformational changes such as protein folding and DNA bending. While thermodynamic aspects of this behavior are understood, and its biological function is often known, the mechanism by which the conformational changes occur is generally unclear. By providing detailed structural and energetic data, molecular dynamics simulations have been helpful in elucidating and rationalizing protein-DNA binding. This review will summarize recent atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the conformational dynamics of DNA and protein-DNA binding. A brief overview of recent developments in DNA force fields is given as well. Simulations have been crucial in rationalizing the intrinsic flexibility of DNA, and have been instrumental in identifying the sequence of binding events, the triggers for the conformational motion, and the mechanism of binding for a number of important DNA-binding proteins. Molecular dynamics simulations are an important tool for understanding the complex binding behavior of DNA-binding proteins. With recent advances in force fields and rapid increases in simulation time scales, simulations will become even more important for future studies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Recent developments of molecular dynamics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. DNABP: Identification of DNA-Binding Proteins Based on Feature Selection Using a Random Forest and Predicting Binding Residues.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Guo, Jing; Sun, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins are fundamentally important in cellular processes. Several computational-based methods have been developed to improve the prediction of DNA-binding proteins in previous years. However, insufficient work has been done on the prediction of DNA-binding proteins from protein sequence information. In this paper, a novel predictor, DNABP (DNA-binding proteins), was designed to predict DNA-binding proteins using the random forest (RF) classifier with a hybrid feature. The hybrid feature contains two types of novel sequence features, which reflect information about the conservation of physicochemical properties of the amino acids, and the binding propensity of DNA-binding residues and non-binding propensities of non-binding residues. The comparisons with each feature demonstrated that these two novel features contributed most to the improvement in predictive ability. Furthermore, to improve the prediction performance of the DNABP model, feature selection using the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) method combined with incremental feature selection (IFS) was carried out during the model construction. The results showed that the DNABP model could achieve 86.90% accuracy, 83.76% sensitivity, 90.03% specificity and a Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.727. High prediction accuracy and performance comparisons with previous research suggested that DNABP could be a useful approach to identify DNA-binding proteins from sequence information. The DNABP web server system is freely available at http://www.cbi.seu.edu.cn/DNABP/.

  16. DnaA protein DNA-binding domain binds to Hda protein to promote inter-AAA+ domain interaction involved in regulatory inactivation of DnaA.

    PubMed

    Keyamura, Kenji; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2011-08-19

    Chromosomal replication is initiated from the replication origin oriC in Escherichia coli by the active ATP-bound form of DnaA protein. The regulatory inactivation of DnaA (RIDA) system, a complex of the ADP-bound Hda and the DNA-loaded replicase clamp, represses extra initiations by facilitating DnaA-bound ATP hydrolysis, yielding the inactive ADP-bound form of DnaA. However, the mechanisms involved in promoting the DnaA-Hda interaction have not been determined except for the involvement of an interaction between the AAA+ domains of the two. This study revealed that DnaA Leu-422 and Pro-423 residues within DnaA domain IV, including a typical DNA-binding HTH motif, are specifically required for RIDA-dependent ATP hydrolysis in vitro and that these residues support efficient interaction with the DNA-loaded clamp·Hda complex and with Hda in vitro. Consistently, substitutions of these residues caused accumulation of ATP-bound DnaA in vivo and oriC-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Leu-422 plays a more important role in these activities than Pro-423. By contrast, neither of these residues is crucial for DNA replication from oriC, although they are highly conserved in DnaA orthologues. Structural analysis of a DnaA·Hda complex model suggested that these residues make contact with residues in the vicinity of the Hda AAA+ sensor I that participates in formation of a nucleotide-interacting surface. Together, the results show that functional DnaA-Hda interactions require a second interaction site within DnaA domain IV in addition to the AAA+ domain and suggest that these interactions are crucial for the formation of RIDA complexes that are active for DnaA-ATP hydrolysis.

  17. DnaA Protein DNA-binding Domain Binds to Hda Protein to Promote Inter-AAA+ Domain Interaction Involved in Regulatory Inactivation of DnaA*

    PubMed Central

    Keyamura, Kenji; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    Chromosomal replication is initiated from the replication origin oriC in Escherichia coli by the active ATP-bound form of DnaA protein. The regulatory inactivation of DnaA (RIDA) system, a complex of the ADP-bound Hda and the DNA-loaded replicase clamp, represses extra initiations by facilitating DnaA-bound ATP hydrolysis, yielding the inactive ADP-bound form of DnaA. However, the mechanisms involved in promoting the DnaA-Hda interaction have not been determined except for the involvement of an interaction between the AAA+ domains of the two. This study revealed that DnaA Leu-422 and Pro-423 residues within DnaA domain IV, including a typical DNA-binding HTH motif, are specifically required for RIDA-dependent ATP hydrolysis in vitro and that these residues support efficient interaction with the DNA-loaded clamp·Hda complex and with Hda in vitro. Consistently, substitutions of these residues caused accumulation of ATP-bound DnaA in vivo and oriC-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Leu-422 plays a more important role in these activities than Pro-423. By contrast, neither of these residues is crucial for DNA replication from oriC, although they are highly conserved in DnaA orthologues. Structural analysis of a DnaA·Hda complex model suggested that these residues make contact with residues in the vicinity of the Hda AAA+ sensor I that participates in formation of a nucleotide-interacting surface. Together, the results show that functional DnaA-Hda interactions require a second interaction site within DnaA domain IV in addition to the AAA+ domain and suggest that these interactions are crucial for the formation of RIDA complexes that are active for DnaA-ATP hydrolysis. PMID:21708944

  18. Comparison between TRF2 and TRF1 of their telomeric DNA-bound structures and DNA-binding activities

    PubMed Central

    Hanaoka, Shingo; Nagadoi, Aritaka; Nishimura, Yoshifumi

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian telomeres consist of long tandem arrays of double-stranded telomeric TTAGGG repeats packaged by the telomeric DNA-binding proteins TRF1 and TRF2. Both contain a similar C-terminal Myb domain that mediates sequence-specific binding to telomeric DNA. In a DNA complex of TRF1, only the single Myb-like domain consisting of three helices can bind specifically to double-stranded telomeric DNA. TRF2 also binds to double-stranded telomeric DNA. Although the DNA binding mode of TRF2 is likely identical to that of TRF1, TRF2 plays an important role in the t-loop formation that protects the ends of telomeres. Here, to clarify the details of the double-stranded telomeric DNA-binding modes of TRF1 and TRF2, we determined the solution structure of the DNA-binding domain of human TRF2 bound to telomeric DNA; it consists of three helices, and like TRF1, the third helix recognizes TAGGG sequence in the major groove of DNA with the N-terminal arm locating in the minor groove. However, small but significant differences are observed; in contrast to the minor groove recognition of TRF1, in which an arginine residue recognizes the TT sequence, a lysine residue of TRF2 interacts with the TT part. We examined the telomeric DNA-binding activities of both DNA-binding domains of TRF1 and TRF2 and found that TRF1 binds more strongly than TRF2. Based on the structural differences of both domains, we created several mutants of the DNA-binding domain of TRF2 with stronger binding activities compared to the wild-type TRF2. PMID:15608118

  19. Molecular beacons for DNA binding proteins: an emerging technology for detection of DNA binding proteins and their ligands.

    PubMed

    Dummitt, Benjamin; Chang, Yie-Hwa

    2006-06-01

    Quantitation of the level or activity of specific proteins is one of the most commonly performed experiments in biomedical research. Protein detection has historically been difficult to adapt to high throughput platforms because of heavy reliance upon antibodies for protein detection. Molecular beacons for DNA binding proteins is a recently developed technology that attempts to overcome such limitations. Protein detection is accomplished using inexpensive, easy-to-synthesize oligonucleotides, accompanied by a fluorescence readout. Importantly, detection of the protein and reporting of the signal occur simultaneously, allowing for one-step protocols and increased potential for use in high throughput analysis. While the initial iteration of the technology allowed only for the detection of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins, more recent adaptations allow for the possibility of development of beacons for any protein, independent of native DNA binding activity. Here, we discuss the development of the technology, the mechanism of the reaction, and recent improvements and modifications made to improve the assay in terms of sensitivity, potential for multiplexing, and broad applicability.

  20. Dynamic binding of replication protein a is required for DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ran; Subramanyam, Shyamal; Elcock, Adrian H.; Spies, Maria; Wold, Marc S.

    2016-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA), the major eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein, is essential for replication, repair and recombination. High-affinity ssDNA-binding by RPA depends on two DNA binding domains in the large subunit of RPA. Mutation of the evolutionarily conserved aromatic residues in these two domains results in a separation-of-function phenotype: aromatic residue mutants support DNA replication but are defective in DNA repair. We used biochemical and single-molecule analyses, and Brownian Dynamics simulations to determine the molecular basis of this phenotype. Our studies demonstrated that RPA binds to ssDNA in at least two modes characterized by different dissociation kinetics. We also showed that the aromatic residues contribute to the formation of the longer-lived state, are required for stable binding to short ssDNA regions and are needed for RPA melting of partially duplex DNA structures. We conclude that stable binding and/or the melting of secondary DNA structures by RPA is required for DNA repair, including RAD51 mediated DNA strand exchange, but is dispensable for DNA replication. It is likely that the binding modes are in equilibrium and reflect dynamics in the RPA–DNA complex. This suggests that dynamic binding of RPA to DNA is necessary for different cellular functions. PMID:27131385

  1. A Novel DNA Binding Mechanism for maf Basic Region-Leucine Zipper Factors Inferred from a MafA-DNA Complex Structure and Binding Specificities

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xun; Guanga, Gerald P; Wan, Cheng

    2012-11-13

    MafA is a proto-oncoprotein and is critical for insulin gene expression in pancreatic β-cells. Maf proteins belong to the AP1 superfamily of basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors. Residues in the basic helix and an ancillary N-terminal domain, the Extended Homology Region (EHR), endow maf proteins with unique DNA binding properties: binding a 13 bp consensus site consisting of a core AP1 site (TGACTCA) flanked by TGC sequences and binding DNA stably as monomers. To further characterize maf DNA binding, we determined the structure of a MafA–DNA complex. MafA forms base-specific hydrogen bonds with the flanking G –5C –4 andmore » central C 0/G 0 bases, but not with the core-TGA bases. However, in vitro binding studies utilizing a pulse–chase electrophoretic mobility shift assay protocol revealed that mutating either the core-TGA or flanking-TGC bases dramatically increases the binding off rate. Comparing the known maf structures, we propose that DNA binding specificity results from positioning the basic helix through unique phosphate contacts. The EHR does not contact DNA directly but stabilizes DNA binding by contacting the basic helix. Collectively, these results suggest a novel multistep DNA binding process involving a conformational change from contacting the core-TGA to contacting the flanking-TGC bases.« less

  2. Study on the binding of procaine hydrochloride to DNA/DNA bases and the effect of CdS nanoparticles on the binding behavior.

    PubMed

    Ping, Gang; Lv, Gang; Gutmann, Sebastian; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Renyun; Wang, Xuemei

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between procaine hydrochloride and DNA/DNA bases in the absence and presence of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles has been explored in this study by using differential pulse voltammetry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and so on, which illustrates the different binding behaviors of procaine hydrochloride with different DNA bases. The results clearly indicate that the binding of purines to procaine hydrochloride is stronger than that of pyrimidines and the binding affinity is in the order of G > A > T > C. In addition, it was observed that the presence of CdS nanoparticles could remarkably enhance the probing sensitivity for the interaction between procaine hydrochloride and DNA/DNA bases. Furthermore, AFM study illustrates that procaine hydrochloride can bind to some specific sites of DNA chains, which indicates that procaine hydrochloride may interact with some special sequences of DNA.

  3. Systematic prediction of control proteins and their DNA binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Sorokin, Valeriy; Severinov, Konstantin; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

    2009-01-01

    We present here the results of a systematic bioinformatics analysis of control (C) proteins, a class of DNA-binding regulators that control time-delayed transcription of their own genes as well as restriction endonuclease genes in many type II restriction-modification systems. More than 290 C protein homologs were identified and DNA-binding sites for ∼70% of new and previously known C proteins were predicted by a combination of phylogenetic footprinting and motif searches in DNA upstream of C protein genes. Additional analysis revealed that a large proportion of C protein genes are translated from leaderless RNA, which may contribute to time-delayed nature of genetic switches operated by these proteins. Analysis of genetic contexts of newly identified C protein genes revealed that they are not exclusively associated with restriction-modification genes; numerous instances of associations with genes originating from mobile genetic elements were observed. These instances might be vestiges of ancient horizontal transfers and indicate that during evolution ancestral restriction-modification system genes were the sites of mobile elements insertions. PMID:19056824

  4. Human RAD50 makes a functional DNA-binding complex.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Eri; van Rossum-Fikkert, Sari; Sanchez, Humberto; Kertokalio, Aryandi; Wyman, Claire

    2015-06-01

    The MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex has several distinct functions in DNA repair including important roles in both non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). The biochemical activities of MR(N) have been well characterized implying specific functional roles for the components. The arrangement of proteins in the complex implies interdependence of their biochemical activities making it difficult to separate specific functions. We obtained purified human RAD50 and observed that it binds ATP, undergoes ATP-dependent conformational changes as well as having ATPase activity. Scanning force microscopy analysis clearly showed that RAD50 binds DNA although not as oligomers. RAD50 alone was not functional in tethering DNA molecules. ATP increased formation of RAD50 multimers which were however globular lacking extended coiled coils, in contrast to the MR complex where ATP induced oligomers have obvious coiled coils protruding from a central domain. These results suggest that MRE11 is important in maintaining the structural arrangement of RAD50 in the protein complex and perhaps has a role in reinforcing proper alignment of the coiled coils in the ATP-bound state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  5. Interaction of zanamivir with DNA and RNA: Models for drug DNA and drug RNA bindings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafisi, Shohreh; Kahangi, Fatemeh Ghoreyshi; Azizi, Ebrahim; Zebarjad, Nader; Tajmir-Riahi, Heidar-Ali

    2007-03-01

    Zanamivir (ZAN) is the first of a new generation of influenza virus-specific drugs known as neuraminidase inhibitors, which acts by interfering with life cycles of influenza viruses A and B. It prevents the virus spreading infection to other cells by blocking the neuraminidase enzyme present on the surface of the virus. The aim of this study was to examine the stability and structural features of calf thymus DNA and yeast RNA complexes with zanamivir in aqueous solution, using constant DNA or RNA concentration (12.5 mM) and various zanamivir/polynucleotide ( P) ratios of 1/20, 1/10, 1/4, and 1/2. FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy are used to determine the drug external binding modes, the binding constant and the stability of zanamivir-DNA and RNA complexes in aqueous solution. Structural analysis showed major interaction of zanamivir with G-C (major groove) and A-T (minor groove) base pairs and minor perturbations of the backbone PO 2 group with overall binding constants of Kzanamivir-DNA = 1.30 × 10 4 M -1 and Kzanamivir-RNA = 1.38 × 10 4 M -1. The drug interaction induces a partial B to A-DNA transition, while RNA remains in A-conformation.

  6. Cooperative DNA binding and protein/DNA fiber formation increases the activity of the Dnmt3a DNA methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Emperle, Max; Rajavelu, Arumugam; Reinhardt, Richard; Jurkowska, Renata Z; Jeltsch, Albert

    2014-10-24

    The Dnmt3a DNA methyltransferase has been shown to bind cooperatively to DNA and to form large multimeric protein/DNA fibers. However, it has also been reported to methylate DNA in a processive manner, a property that is incompatible with protein/DNA fiber formation. We show here that the DNA methylation rate of Dnmt3a increases more than linearly with increasing enzyme concentration on a long DNA substrate, but not on a short 30-mer oligonucleotide substrate. We also show that addition of a catalytically inactive Dnmt3a mutant, which carries an amino acid exchange in the catalytic center, increases the DNA methylation rate by wild type Dnmt3a on the long substrate but not on the short one. In agreement with this finding, preincubation experiments indicate that stable protein/DNA fibers are formed on the long, but not on the short substrate. In addition, methylation experiments with substrates containing one or two CpG sites did not provide evidence for a processive mechanism over a wide range of enzyme concentrations. These data clearly indicate that Dnmt3a binds to DNA in a cooperative reaction and that the formation of stable protein/DNA fibers increases the DNA methylation rate. Fiber formation occurs at low μm concentrations of Dnmt3a, which are in the range of Dnmt3a concentrations in the nucleus of embryonic stem cells. Understanding the mechanism of Dnmt3a is of vital importance because Dnmt3a is a hotspot of somatic cancer mutations one of which has been implicated in changing Dnmt3a processivity. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Cyclic perylene diimide: Selective ligand for tetraplex DNA binding over double stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Vasimalla, Suresh; Sato, Shinobu; Takenaka, Fuminori; Kurose, Yui; Takenaka, Shigeori

    2017-12-15

    Synthesized cyclic perylene diimide, cPDI, showed the binding constant of 6.3 × 10 6  M -1 with binding number of n = 2 with TA-core as a tetraplex DNA in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH = 7.4) containing 100 mM KCl using Schatchard analysis and showed a higher preference for tetraplex DNA than for double stranded DNA with over 10 3 times. CD spectra showed that TA-core induced its antiparallel conformation upon addition of cPDI in the absence or presence of K + or Na + ions. The cPDI inhibits the telomerase activity with IC 50 of 0.3 µM using TRAP assay which is potential anti-cancer drug with low side effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. DNA sensing by a Eu-binding peptide containing a proflavine unit.

    PubMed

    Ancel, Laetitia; Gateau, Christelle; Lebrun, Colette; Delangle, Pascale

    2013-01-18

    Synthesis of a lanthanide-binding peptide (LBP) for the detection of double-stranded DNA is presented. A proflavine moiety was introduced into a high affinity LBP involving two unnatural chelating amino acids in the Ln ion coordination. The Eu(3+)-LBP complex is demonstrated to bind to ct-DNA and to sensitize Eu luminescence. The DNA binding process is effectively detected via the Eu-centered luminescence thanks to the intimate coupling between the LBP scaffold and DNA intercalating unit.

  9. Selective DNA demethylation by fusion of TDG with a sequence-specific DNA-binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, David J.; Mikhaylova, Lyudmila; Fedulov, Alexey V.

    2012-01-01

    Our ability to selectively manipulate gene expression by epigenetic means is limited, as there is no approach for targeted reactivation of epigenetically silenced genes, in contrast to what is available for selective gene silencing. We aimed to develop a tool for selective transcriptional activation by DNA demethylation. Here we present evidence that direct targeting of thymine-DNA-glycosylase (TDG) to specific sequences in the DNA can result in local DNA demethylation at potential regulatory sequences and lead to enhanced gene induction. When TDG was fused to a well-characterized DNA-binding domain [the Rel-homology domain (RHD) of NFκB], we observed decreased DNA methylation and increased transcriptional response to unrelated stimulus of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). The effect was not seen for control genes lacking either RHD-binding sites or high levels of methylation, nor in control mock-transduced cells. Specific reactivation of epigenetically silenced genes may thus be achievable by this approach, which provides a broadly useful strategy to further our exploration of biological mechanisms and to improve control over the epigenome. PMID:22419066

  10. Surface salt bridges modulate DNA wrapping by the type II DNA-binding protein TF1.

    PubMed

    Grove, Anne

    2003-07-29

    The histone-like protein HU is involved in compaction of the bacterial genome. Up to 37 bp of DNA may be wrapped about some HU homologues in a process that has been proposed to depend on a linked disruption of surface salt bridges that liberates cationic side chains for interaction with the DNA. Despite significant sequence conservation between HU homologues, binding sites from 9 to 37 bp have been reported. TF1, an HU homologue that is encoded by Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPO1, has nM affinity for 37 bp preferred sites in DNA with 5-hydroxymethyluracil (hmU) in place of thymine. On the basis of electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we show that TF1-DNA complex formation is associated with a net release of only approximately 0.5 cations. The structure of TF1 suggests that Asp13 can form a dehydrated surface salt bridge with Lys23; substitution of Asp13 with Ala increases the net release of cations to approximately 1. These data are consistent with complex formation linked to disruption of surface salt bridges. Substitution of Glu90 with Ala, which would expose Lys87 predicted to contact DNA immediately distal to a proline-mediated DNA kink, causes an increase in affinity and an abrogation of the preference for hmU-containing DNA. We propose that hmU preference is due to finely tuned interactions at the sites of kinking that expose a differential flexibility of hmU- and T-containing DNA. Our data further suggest that the difference in binding site size for HU homologues is based on a differential ability to stabilize the DNA kinks.

  11. DNA-binding specificity prediction with FoldX.

    PubMed

    Nadra, Alejandro D; Serrano, Luis; Alibés, Andreu

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of Synthetic Biology, a field between basic science and applied engineering, new computational tools are needed to help scientists reach their goal, their design, optimizing resources. In this chapter, we present a simple and powerful method to either know the DNA specificity of a wild-type protein or design new specificities by using the protein design algorithm FoldX. The only basic requirement is having a good resolution structure of the complex. Protein-DNA interaction design may aid the development of new parts designed to be orthogonal, decoupled, and precise in its target. Further, it could help to fine-tune the systems in terms of specificity, discrimination, and binding constants. In the age of newly developed devices and invented systems, computer-aided engineering promises to be an invaluable tool. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sequence specificity of single-stranded DNA-binding proteins: a novel DNA microarray approach

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Hugh P.; Estibeiro, Peter; Wear, Martin A.; Max, Klaas E.A.; Heinemann, Udo; Cubeddu, Liza; Gallagher, Maurice P.; Sadler, Peter J.; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a novel DNA microarray-based approach for identification of the sequence-specificity of single-stranded nucleic-acid-binding proteins (SNABPs). For verification, we have shown that the major cold shock protein (CspB) from Bacillus subtilis binds with high affinity to pyrimidine-rich sequences, with a binding preference for the consensus sequence, 5′-GTCTTTG/T-3′. The sequence was modelled onto the known structure of CspB and a cytosine-binding pocket was identified, which explains the strong preference for a cytosine base at position 3. This microarray method offers a rapid high-throughput approach for determining the specificity and strength of ss DNA–protein interactions. Further screening of this newly emerging family of transcription factors will help provide an insight into their cellular function. PMID:17488853

  13. Exploring DNA-binding Proteins with In Vivo Chemical Cross-linking and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Haibo; Wang, Yinsheng

    2009-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins are very important constituents of proteomes of all species and play crucial roles in transcription, DNA replication, recombination, repair and other activities associated with DNA. Although a number of DNA-binding proteins have been identified, many proteins involved in gene regulation and DNA repair are likely still unknown because of their dynamic and/or weak interactions with DNA. In this report, we described an approach for the comprehensive identification of DNA-binding proteins with in vivo formaldehyde cross-linking and LC-MS/MS. DNA-binding proteins could be purified via the isolation of DNA-protein complexes and released from the complexes by reversing the cross-linking. By using this method, we were able to identify more than one hundred DNA-binding proteins, such as proteins involved in transcription, gene regulation, DNA replication and repair, and a large number of proteins which are potentially associated with DNA and DNA-binding proteins. This method should be generally applicable to the investigation of other nucleic acid-binding proteins, and hold great potential in the comprehensive study of gene regulation, DNA damage response and repair, as well as many other critical biological processes at proteomic level. PMID:19714816

  14. Nonspecific DNA Binding and Bending by HUαβ: Interfaces of the Three Binding Modes Characterized by Salt Dependent Thermodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Junseock; Shkel, Irina; Saecker, Ruth M.; Record, M. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Previous ITC and FRET studies demonstrated that Escherichia coli HUαβ binds nonspecifically to duplex DNA in three different binding modes: a tighter-binding 34 bp mode which interacts with DNA in large (>34 bp) gaps between bound proteins, reversibly bending it 140° and thereby increasing its flexibility, and two weaker, modestly cooperative small-site-size modes (10 bp, 6 bp) useful for filling gaps between bound proteins shorter than 34 bp. Here we use ITC to determine the thermodynamics of these binding modes as a function of salt concentration, and deduce that DNA in the 34 bp mode is bent around but not wrapped on the body of HU, in contrast to specific binding of IHF. Analyses of binding isotherms (8, 15, 34 bp DNA) and initial binding heats (34, 38, 160 bp DNA) reveal that all three modes have similar log-log salt concentration derivatives of the binding constants (Ski) even though their binding site sizes differ greatly; most probable values of Ski on 34 bp or larger DNA are − 7.5 ± 0.5. From the similarity of Ski values, we conclude that binding interfaces of all three modes involve the same region of the arms and saddle of HU. All modes are entropy-driven, as expected for nonspecific binding driven by the polyelectrolyte effect. The bent-DNA 34 bp mode is most endothermic, presumably because of the cost of HU-induced DNA bending, while the 6 bp mode is modestly exothermic at all salt concentrations examined. Structural models consistent with the observed Ski values are proposed. PMID:21513716

  15. Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus Encodes a DNA-Binding Protein Capable of Destabilizing Duplex DNA

    PubMed Central

    Mikhailov, Victor S.; Mikhailova, Alla L.; Iwanaga, Masashi; Gomi, Sumiko; Maeda, Susumu

    1998-01-01

    A DNA-binding protein (designated DBP) with an apparent molecular mass of 38 kDa was purified to homogeneity from BmN cells (derived from Bombyx mori) infected with the B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). Six peptides obtained after digestion of the isolated protein with Achromobacter protease I were partially or completely sequenced. The determined amino acid sequences indicated that DBP was encoded by an open reading frame (ORF16) located at nucleotides (nt) 16189 to 17139 in the BmNPV genome (GenBank accession no. L33180). This ORF (designated dbp) is a homolog of Autographa californica multicapsid NPV ORF25, whose product has not been identified. BmNPV DBP is predicted to contain 317 amino acids (calculated molecular mass of 36.7 kDa) and to have an isoelectric point of 7.8. DBP showed a tendency to multimerization in the course of purification and was found to bind preferentially to single-stranded DNA. When bound to oligonucleotides, DBP protected them from hydrolysis by phage T4 DNA polymerase-associated 3′→5′ exonuclease. The sizes of the protected fragments indicated that a binding site size for DBP is about 30 nt per protein monomer. DBP, but not BmNPV LEF-3, was capable of unwinding partial DNA duplexes in an in vitro system. This helix-destabilizing ability is consistent with the prediction that DBP functions as a single-stranded DNA binding protein in virus replication. PMID:9525636

  16. Monitoring ssDNA Binding to the DnaB Helicase from Helicobacter pylori by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Thomas; Cadalbert, Riccardo; Gardiennet, Carole; Timmins, Joanna; Terradot, Laurent; Böckmann, Anja; Meier, Beat H

    2016-11-02

    DnaB helicases are bacterial, ATP-driven enzymes that unwind double-stranded DNA during DNA replication. Herein, we study the sequential binding of the "non-hydrolysable" ATP analogue AMP-PNP and of single-stranded (ss) DNA to the dodecameric DnaB helicase from Helicobacter pylori using solid-state NMR. Phosphorus cross-polarization experiments monitor the binding of AMP-PNP and DNA to the helicase. 13 C chemical-shift perturbations (CSPs) are used to detect conformational changes in the protein upon binding. The helicase switches upon AMP-PNP addition into a conformation apt for ssDNA binding, and AMP-PNP is hydrolyzed and released upon binding of ssDNA. Our study sheds light on the conformational changes which are triggered by the interaction with AMP-PNP and are needed for ssDNA binding of H. pylori DnaB in vitro. They also demonstrate the level of detail solid-state NMR can provide for the characterization of protein-DNA interactions and the interplay with ATP or its analogues. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Non-intercalative, deoxyribose binding of boric acid to calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ayse; Gursaclı, Refiye Tekiner; Tekinay, Turgay

    2014-05-01

    The present study characterizes the effects of the boric acid binding on calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) by spectroscopic and calorimetric methods. UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize binding properties. Changes in the secondary structure of ct-DNA were determined by CD spectroscopy. Sizes and morphologies of boric acid-DNA complexes were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The kinetics of boric acid binding to calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). ITC results revealed that boric acid exhibits a moderate affinity to ct-DNA with a binding constant (K a) of 9.54 × 10(4) M(-1). FT-IR results revealed that boric acid binds to the deoxyribose sugar of DNA without disrupting the B-conformation at tested concentrations.

  18. The substrate binding interface of alkylpurine DNA glycosylase AlkD.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Elwood A; Rubinson, Emily H; Eichman, Brandt F

    2014-01-01

    Tandem helical repeats have emerged as an important DNA binding architecture. DNA glycosylase AlkD, which excises N3- and N7-alkylated nucleobases, uses repeating helical motifs to bind duplex DNA and to selectively pause at non-Watson-Crick base pairs. Remodeling of the DNA backbone promotes nucleotide flipping of the lesion and the complementary base into the solvent and toward the protein surface, respectively. The important features of this new DNA binding architecture that allow AlkD to distinguish between damaged and normal DNA without contacting the lesion are poorly understood. Here, we show through extensive mutational analysis that DNA binding and N3-methyladenine (3mA) and N7-methylguanine (7mG) excision are dependent upon each residue lining the DNA binding interface. Disrupting electrostatic or hydrophobic interactions with the DNA backbone substantially reduced binding affinity and catalytic activity. These results demonstrate that residues seemingly only involved in general DNA binding are important for catalytic activity and imply that base excision is driven by binding energy provided by the entire substrate interface of this novel DNA binding architecture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of amsacrine binding with DNA using UV-visible, circular dichroism and Raman spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Jangir, Deepak Kumar; Dey, Sanjay Kumar; Kundu, Suman; Mehrotra, Ranjana

    2012-09-03

    Proper understanding of the mechanism of binding of drugs to their targets in cell is a fundamental requirement to develop new drug therapy regimen. Amsacrine is a rationally designed anticancer drug, used to treat leukemia and lymphoma. Binding with cellular DNA is a crucial step in its mechanism of cytotoxicity. Despite numerous studies, DNA binding properties of amsacrine are poorly understood. Its reversible binding with DNA does not permit X-ray crystallography or NMR spectroscopic evaluation of amsacrine-DNA complexes. In the present work, interaction of amsacrine with calf thymus DNA is investigated at physiological conditions. UV-visible, FT-Raman and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques were employed to determine the binding mode, binding constant, sequence specificity and conformational effects of amsacrine binding to native calf thymus DNA. Our results illustrate that amsacrine interacts with DNA by and large through intercalation between base pairs. Binding constant of the amsacrine-DNA complex was found to be K=1.2±0.1×10(4) M(-1) which is indicative of moderate type of binding of amsacrine to DNA. Raman spectroscopic results suggest that amsacrine has a binding preference of intercalation between AT base pairs of DNA. Minor groove binding is also observed in amsacrine-DNA complexes. These results are in good agreement with in silico investigation of amsacrine binding to DNA and thus provide detailed insight into DNA binding properties of amsacrine, which could ultimately, renders its cytotoxic efficacy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. R248Q mutation--Beyond p53-DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jeremy W K; Lama, Dilraj; Lukman, Suryani; Lane, David P; Verma, Chandra S; Sim, Adelene Y L

    2015-12-01

    R248 in the DNA binding domain (DBD) of p53 interacts directly with the minor groove of DNA. Earlier nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies indicated that the R248Q mutation resulted in conformation changes in parts of DBD far from the mutation site. However, how information propagates from the mutation site to the rest of the DBD is still not well understood. We performed a series of all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to dissect sterics and charge effects of R248 on p53-DBD conformation: (i) wild-type p53 DBD; (ii) p53 DBD with an electrically neutral arginine side-chain; (iii) p53 DBD with R248A; (iv) p53 DBD with R248W; and (v) p53 DBD with R248Q. Our results agree well with experimental observations of global conformational changes induced by the R248Q mutation. Our simulations suggest that both charge- and sterics are important in the dynamics of the loop (L3) where the mutation resides. We show that helix 2 (H2) dynamics is altered as a result of a change in the hydrogen bonding partner of D281. In turn, neighboring L1 dynamics is altered: in mutants, L1 predominantly adopts the recessed conformation and is unable to interact with the major groove of DNA. We focused our attention the R248Q mutant that is commonly found in a wide range of cancer and observed changes at the zinc-binding pocket that might account for the dominant negative effects of R248Q. Furthermore, in our simulations, the S6/S7 turn was more frequently solvent exposed in R248Q, suggesting that there is a greater tendency of R248Q to partially unfold and possibly lead to an increased aggregation propensity. Finally, based on the observations made in our simulations, we propose strategies for the rescue of R248Q mutants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Investigation of arc repressor DNA-binding specificity by comparative molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Guo, Jun-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors regulate gene expression through binding to specific DNA sequences. How transcription factors achieve high binding specificity is still not well understood. In this paper, we investigated the role of protein flexibility in protein-DNA-binding specificity by comparative molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Protein flexibility has been considered as a key factor in molecular recognition, which is intrinsically a dynamic process involving fine structural fitting between binding components. In this study, we performed comparative MD simulations on wild-type and F10V mutant P22 Arc repressor in both free and complex conformations. The F10V mutant has lower DNA-binding specificity though both the bound and unbound main-chain structures between the wild-type and F10V mutant Arc are highly similar. We found that the DNA-binding motif of wild-type Arc is structurally more flexible than the F10V mutant in the unbound state, especially for the six DNA base-contacting residues in each dimer. We demonstrated that the flexible side chains of wild-type Arc lead to a higher DNA-binding specificity through forming more hydrogen bonds with DNA bases upon binding. Our simulations also showed a possible conformational selection mechanism for Arc-DNA binding. These results indicate the important roles of protein flexibility and dynamic properties in protein-DNA-binding specificity.

  2. Searching for DNA Lesions: Structural Evidence for Lower- and Higher-Affinity DNA Binding Conformations of Human Alkyladenine DNA Glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    To efficiently repair DNA, human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) must search the million-fold excess of unmodified DNA bases to find a handful of DNA lesions. Such a search can be facilitated by the ability of glycosylases, like AAG, to interact with DNA using two affinities: a lower-affinity interaction in a searching process and a higher-affinity interaction for catalytic repair. Here, we present crystal structures of AAG trapped in two DNA-bound states. The lower-affinity depiction allows us to investigate, for the first time, the conformation of this protein in the absence of a tightly bound DNA adduct. We find that active site residues of AAG involved in binding lesion bases are in a disordered state. Furthermore, two loops that contribute significantly to the positive electrostatic surface of AAG are disordered. Additionally, a higher-affinity state of AAG captured here provides a fortuitous snapshot of how this enzyme interacts with a DNA adduct that resembles a one-base loop. PMID:22148158

  3. Functional interaction of the DNA-binding transcription factor Sp1 through its DNA-binding domain with the histone chaperone TAF-I.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toru; Muto, Shinsuke; Miyamoto, Saku; Aizawa, Kenichi; Horikoshi, Masami; Nagai, Ryozo

    2003-08-01

    Transcription involves molecular interactions between general and regulatory transcription factors with further regulation by protein-protein interactions (e.g. transcriptional cofactors). Here we describe functional interaction between DNA-binding transcription factor and histone chaperone. Affinity purification of factors interacting with the DNA-binding domain of the transcription factor Sp1 showed Sp1 to interact with the histone chaperone TAF-I, both alpha and beta isoforms. This interaction was specific as Sp1 did not interact with another histone chaperone CIA nor did other tested DNA-binding regulatory factors (MyoD, NFkappaB, p53) interact with TAF-I. Interaction of Sp1 and TAF-I occurs both in vitro and in vivo. Interaction with TAF-I results in inhibition of DNA-binding, and also likely as a result of such, inhibition of promoter activation by Sp1. Collectively, we describe interaction between DNA-binding transcription factor and histone chaperone which results in negative regulation of the former. This novel regulatory interaction advances our understanding of the mechanisms of eukaryotic transcription through DNA-binding regulatory transcription factors by protein-protein interactions, and also shows the DNA-binding domain to mediate important regulatory interactions.

  4. Interrelations of secondary structure stability and DNA-binding affinity in the bacteriophage SPO1-encoded type II DNA-binding protein TF1.

    PubMed

    Andera, L; Spangler, C J; Galeone, A; Mayol, L; Geiduschek, E P

    1994-02-11

    TF1, a homodimeric DNA-binding and -bending protein with a preference for hydroxymethyluracil-containing DNA is the Bacillus subtilis-encoded homolog of the bacterial HU proteins and of the E. coli integration host factor. A temperature-sensitive mutation at amino acid 25 of TF1 (L25-->A) and two intragenic second site revertants at amino acids 15 (E15-->G) and 32 (L32-->I) were previously identified and their effects on virus development were examined. The DNA-binding properties of these proteins and the thermal stability of their secondary structures have now been analyzed. Amino acids 15 and 32 are far removed from the putative DNA-binding domains of TF1 but changes there exert striking effects on DNA affinity that correlate with effects on structure. The double mutant protein TF1-G15I32 binds to a preferred site in hydroxymethyluracil-containing DNA 40 times more tightly, denatures at higher temperature (delta tm = 21 degrees C), and also exchanges subunits much more slowly than does the wild-type protein. The L25-->A mutation makes TF1 secondary structure and DNA-binding highly salt concentration-dependent. The E15-->G mutation partly suppresses this effect: secondary structure of TF1-A25G15 is restored at 21 degrees C by 1 M NaCl or, at low NaCl concentration, by binding to DNA.

  5. Role of indirect readout mechanism in TATA box binding protein-DNA interaction.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Manas; Choudhury, Devapriya; Chakrabarti, Jaydeb; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay

    2015-03-01

    Gene expression generally initiates from recognition of TATA-box binding protein (TBP) to the minor groove of DNA of TATA box sequence where the DNA structure is significantly different from B-DNA. We have carried out molecular dynamics simulation studies of TBP-DNA system to understand how the DNA structure alters for efficient binding. We observed rigid nature of the protein while the DNA of TATA box sequence has an inherent flexibility in terms of bending and minor groove widening. The bending analysis of the free DNA and the TBP bound DNA systems indicate presence of some similar structures. Principal coordinate ordination analysis also indicates some structural features of the protein bound and free DNA are similar. Thus we suggest that the DNA of TATA box sequence regularly oscillates between several alternate structures and the one suitable for TBP binding is induced further by the protein for proper complex formation.

  6. BINDING OF CARCINOGENS TO DNA AND COVALENT ADDUCTS DNA DAMAGE - PAH, AROMATIC AMINES, NITRO-AROMATIC COMPOUNDS, AND HALOGENATED COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA adducts are the covalent addition products resulting from binding of reactive chemical species to DNA bases. The cancer initiating role of DNA adducts is well-established, and is clearly reflected in the high cancer incidence observed in individuals with deficiencies in any o...

  7. A Key Evolutionary Mutation Enhances DNA Binding of the FOXP2 Forkhead Domain.

    PubMed

    Morris, Gavin; Fanucchi, Sylvia

    2016-04-05

    Forkhead box (FOX) transcription factors share a conserved forkhead DNA binding domain (FHD) and are key role players in the development of many eukaryotic species. Their involvement in various congenital disorders and cancers makes them clinically relevant targets for novel therapeutic strategies. Among them, the FOXP subfamily of multidomain transcriptional repressors is unique in its ability to form DNA binding homo and heterodimers. The truncated FOXP2 FHD, in the absence of the leucine zipper, exists in equilibrium between monomeric and domain-swapped dimeric states in vitro. As a consequence, determining the DNA binding properties of the FOXP2 FHD becomes inherently difficult. In this work, two FOXP2 FHD hinge loop mutants have been generated to successfully prevent both the formation (A539P) and the dissociation (F541C) of the homodimers. This allows for the separation of the two species for downstream DNA binding studies. Comparison of DNA binding of the different species using electrophoretic mobility shift assay, fluorescence anisotropy and isothermal titration calorimetry indicates that the wild-type FOXP2 FHD binds DNA as a monomer. However, comparison of the DNA-binding energetics of the monomer and wild-type FHD, reveals that there is a difference in the mechanism of binding between the two species. We conclude that the naturally occurring reverse mutation (P539A) seen in the FOXP subfamily increases DNA binding affinity and may increase the potential for nonspecific binding compared to other FOX family members.

  8. Differences in DNA Binding Specificity of Floral Homeotic Protein Complexes Predict Organ-Specific Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Smaczniak, Cezary; Muiño, Jose M; Chen, Dijun; Angenent, Gerco C; Kaufmann, Kerstin

    2017-08-01

    Floral organ identities in plants are specified by the combinatorial action of homeotic master regulatory transcription factors. However, how these factors achieve their regulatory specificities is still largely unclear. Genome-wide in vivo DNA binding data show that homeotic MADS domain proteins recognize partly distinct genomic regions, suggesting that DNA binding specificity contributes to functional differences of homeotic protein complexes. We used in vitro systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing (SELEX-seq) on several floral MADS domain protein homo- and heterodimers to measure their DNA binding specificities. We show that specification of reproductive organs is associated with distinct binding preferences of a complex formed by SEPALLATA3 and AGAMOUS. Binding specificity is further modulated by different binding site spacing preferences. Combination of SELEX-seq and genome-wide DNA binding data allows differentiation between targets in specification of reproductive versus perianth organs in the flower. We validate the importance of DNA binding specificity for organ-specific gene regulation by modulating promoter activity through targeted mutagenesis. Our study shows that intrafamily protein interactions affect DNA binding specificity of floral MADS domain proteins. Differential DNA binding of MADS domain protein complexes plays a role in the specificity of target gene regulation. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantification of transcription factor-DNA binding affinity in a living cell

    PubMed Central

    Belikov, Sergey; Berg, Otto G.; Wrange, Örjan

    2016-01-01

    The apparent dissociation constant (Kd) for specific binding of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and androgen receptor (AR) to DNA was determined in vivo in Xenopus oocytes. The total nuclear receptor concentration was quantified as specifically retained [3H]-hormone in manually isolated oocyte nuclei. DNA was introduced by nuclear microinjection of single stranded phagemid DNA, chromatin is then formed during second strand synthesis. The fraction of DNA sites occupied by the expressed receptor was determined by dimethylsulphate in vivo footprinting and used for calculation of the receptor-DNA binding affinity. The forkhead transcription factor FoxA1 enhanced the DNA binding by GR with an apparent Kd of ∼1 μM and dramatically stimulated DNA binding by AR with an apparent Kd of ∼0.13 μM at a composite androgen responsive DNA element containing one FoxA1 binding site and one palindromic hormone receptor binding site known to bind one receptor homodimer. FoxA1 exerted a weak constitutive- and strongly cooperative DNA binding together with AR but had a less prominent effect with GR, the difference reflecting the licensing function of FoxA1 at this androgen responsive DNA element. PMID:26657626

  10. DNA sequencing using polymerase substrate-binding kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Previte, Michael John Robert; Zhou, Chunhong; Kellinger, Matthew; Pantoja, Rigo; Chen, Cheng-Yao; Shi, Jin; Wang, BeiBei; Kia, Amirali; Etchin, Sergey; Vieceli, John; Nikoomanzar, Ali; Bomati, Erin; Gloeckner, Christian; Ronaghi, Mostafa; He, Molly Min

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has transformed genomic research by decreasing the cost of sequencing. However, whole-genome sequencing is still costly and complex for diagnostics purposes. In the clinical space, targeted sequencing has the advantage of allowing researchers to focus on specific genes of interest. Routine clinical use of targeted NGS mandates inexpensive instruments, fast turnaround time and an integrated and robust workflow. Here we demonstrate a version of the Sequencing by Synthesis (SBS) chemistry that potentially can become a preferred targeted sequencing method in the clinical space. This sequencing chemistry uses natural nucleotides and is based on real-time recording of the differential polymerase/DNA-binding kinetics in the presence of correct or mismatch nucleotides. This ensemble SBS chemistry has been implemented on an existing Illumina sequencing platform with integrated cluster amplification. We discuss the advantages of this sequencing chemistry for targeted sequencing as well as its limitations for other applications. PMID:25612848

  11. TFBSshape: a motif database for DNA shape features of transcription factor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Zhou, Tianyin; Dror, Iris; Mathelier, Anthony; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Gordân, Raluca; Rohs, Remo

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) are most commonly characterized by the nucleotide preferences at each position of the DNA target. Whereas these sequence motifs are quite accurate descriptions of DNA binding specificities of transcription factors (TFs), proteins recognize DNA as a three-dimensional object. DNA structural features refine the description of TF binding specificities and provide mechanistic insights into protein-DNA recognition. Existing motif databases contain extensive nucleotide sequences identified in binding experiments based on their selection by a TF. To utilize DNA shape information when analysing the DNA binding specificities of TFs, we developed a new tool, the TFBSshape database (available at http://rohslab.cmb.usc.edu/TFBSshape/), for calculating DNA structural features from nucleotide sequences provided by motif databases. The TFBSshape database can be used to generate heat maps and quantitative data for DNA structural features (i.e., minor groove width, roll, propeller twist and helix twist) for 739 TF datasets from 23 different species derived from the motif databases JASPAR and UniPROBE. As demonstrated for the basic helix-loop-helix and homeodomain TF families, our TFBSshape database can be used to compare, qualitatively and quantitatively, the DNA binding specificities of closely related TFs and, thus, uncover differential DNA binding specificities that are not apparent from nucleotide sequence alone.

  12. TFBSshape: a motif database for DNA shape features of transcription factor binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Zhou, Tianyin; Dror, Iris; Mathelier, Anthony; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Gordân, Raluca; Rohs, Remo

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) are most commonly characterized by the nucleotide preferences at each position of the DNA target. Whereas these sequence motifs are quite accurate descriptions of DNA binding specificities of transcription factors (TFs), proteins recognize DNA as a three-dimensional object. DNA structural features refine the description of TF binding specificities and provide mechanistic insights into protein–DNA recognition. Existing motif databases contain extensive nucleotide sequences identified in binding experiments based on their selection by a TF. To utilize DNA shape information when analysing the DNA binding specificities of TFs, we developed a new tool, the TFBSshape database (available at http://rohslab.cmb.usc.edu/TFBSshape/), for calculating DNA structural features from nucleotide sequences provided by motif databases. The TFBSshape database can be used to generate heat maps and quantitative data for DNA structural features (i.e., minor groove width, roll, propeller twist and helix twist) for 739 TF datasets from 23 different species derived from the motif databases JASPAR and UniPROBE. As demonstrated for the basic helix-loop-helix and homeodomain TF families, our TFBSshape database can be used to compare, qualitatively and quantitatively, the DNA binding specificities of closely related TFs and, thus, uncover differential DNA binding specificities that are not apparent from nucleotide sequence alone. PMID:24214955

  13. Determinants of affinity and mode of DNA binding at the carboxy terminus of the bacteriophage SPO1-encoded type II DNA-binding protein, TF1.

    PubMed

    Andera, L; Geiduschek, E P

    1994-03-01

    The role of the carboxy-terminal amino acids of the bacteriophage SPO1-encoded type II DNA-binding protein, TF1, in DNA binding was analyzed. Chain-terminating mutations truncating the normally 99-amino-acid TF1 at amino acids 96, 97, and 98 were constructed, as were missense mutations substituting cysteine, arginine, and serine for phenylalanine at amino acid 97 and tryptophan for lysine at amino acid 99. The binding of the resulting proteins to a synthetic 44-bp binding site in 5-(hydroxymethyl)uracil DNA, to binding sites in larger SPO1 [5-(hydroxymethyl)uracil-containing] DNA fragments, and to thymine-containing homologous DNA was analyzed by gel retardation and also by DNase I and hydroxy radical footprinting. We conclude that the C tail up to and including phenylalanine at amino acid 97 is essential for DNA binding and that the two C-terminal amino acids, 98 and 99, are involved in protein-protein interactions between TF1 dimers bound to DNA.

  14. The Fanconi anemia associated protein FAAP24 uses two substrate specific binding surfaces for DNA recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wienk, Hans; Slootweg, Jack C.; Speerstra, Sietske; Kaptein, Robert; Boelens, Rolf; Folkers, Gert E.

    2013-01-01

    To maintain the integrity of the genome, multiple DNA repair systems exist to repair damaged DNA. Recognition of altered DNA, including bulky adducts, pyrimidine dimers and interstrand crosslinks (ICL), partially depends on proteins containing helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) domains. To understand how ICL is specifically recognized by the Fanconi anemia proteins FANCM and FAAP24, we determined the structure of the HhH domain of FAAP24. Although it resembles other HhH domains, the FAAP24 domain contains a canonical hairpin motif followed by distorted motif. The HhH domain can bind various DNA substrates; using nuclear magnetic resonance titration experiments, we demonstrate that the canonical HhH motif is required for double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) binding, whereas the unstructured N-terminus can interact with single-stranded DNA. Both DNA binding surfaces are used for binding to ICL-like single/double-strand junction-containing DNA substrates. A structural model for FAAP24 bound to dsDNA has been made based on homology with the translesion polymerase iota. Site-directed mutagenesis, sequence conservation and charge distribution support the dsDNA-binding model. Analogous to other HhH domain-containing proteins, we suggest that multiple FAAP24 regions together contribute to binding to single/double-strand junction, which could contribute to specificity in ICL DNA recognition. PMID:23661679

  15. Phenazine virulence factor binding to extracellular DNA is important for Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Das, Theerthankar; Kutty, Samuel K; Tavallaie, Roya; Ibugo, Amaye I; Panchompoo, Janjira; Sehar, Shama; Aldous, Leigh; Yeung, Amanda W S; Thomas, Shane R; Kumar, Naresh; Gooding, J Justin; Manefield, Mike

    2015-02-11

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics necessitates the identification of novel leads for infection control. Interference with extracellular phenomena, such as quorum sensing, extracellular DNA integrity and redox active metabolite release, represents a new frontier to control human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and hence reduce mortality. Here we reveal that the extracellular redox active virulence factor pyocyanin produced by P. aeruginosa binds directly to the deoxyribose-phosphate backbone of DNA and intercalates with DNA nitrogenous base pair regions. Binding results in local perturbations of the DNA double helix structure and enhanced electron transfer along the nucleic acid polymer. Pyocyanin binding to DNA also increases DNA solution viscosity. In contrast, antioxidants interacting with DNA and pyocyanin decrease DNA solution viscosity. Biofilms deficient in pyocyanin production and biofilms lacking extracellular DNA show similar architecture indicating the interaction is important in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation.

  16. Phenazine virulence factor binding to extracellular DNA is important for Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Das, Theerthankar; Kutty, Samuel K.; Tavallaie, Roya; Ibugo, Amaye I.; Panchompoo, Janjira; Sehar, Shama; Aldous, Leigh; Yeung, Amanda W. S.; Thomas, Shane R.; Kumar, Naresh; Gooding, J. Justin; Manefield, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics necessitates the identification of novel leads for infection control. Interference with extracellular phenomena, such as quorum sensing, extracellular DNA integrity and redox active metabolite release, represents a new frontier to control human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and hence reduce mortality. Here we reveal that the extracellular redox active virulence factor pyocyanin produced by P. aeruginosa binds directly to the deoxyribose-phosphate backbone of DNA and intercalates with DNA nitrogenous base pair regions. Binding results in local perturbations of the DNA double helix structure and enhanced electron transfer along the nucleic acid polymer. Pyocyanin binding to DNA also increases DNA solution viscosity. In contrast, antioxidants interacting with DNA and pyocyanin decrease DNA solution viscosity. Biofilms deficient in pyocyanin production and biofilms lacking extracellular DNA show similar architecture indicating the interaction is important in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. PMID:25669133

  17. Identification of the DNA-Binding Domains of Human Replication Protein A That Recognize G-Quadruplex DNA

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Aishwarya; Natarajan, Amarnath; Marky, Luis A.; Ouellette, Michel M.; Borgstahl, Gloria E. O.

    2011-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA), a key player in DNA metabolism, has 6 single-stranded DNA-(ssDNA-) binding domains (DBDs) A-F. SELEX experiments with the DBDs-C, -D, and -E retrieve a 20-nt G-quadruplex forming sequence. Binding studies show that RPA-DE binds preferentially to the G-quadruplex DNA, a unique preference not observed with other RPA constructs. Circular dichroism experiments show that RPA-CDE-core can unfold the G-quadruplex while RPA-DE stabilizes it. Binding studies show that RPA-C binds pyrimidine- and purine-rich sequences similarly. This difference between RPA-C and RPA-DE binding was also indicated by the inability of RPA-CDE-core to unfold an oligonucleotide containing a TC-region 5′ to the G-quadruplex. Molecular modeling studies of RPA-DE and telomere-binding proteins Pot1 and Stn1 reveal structural similarities between the proteins and illuminate potential DNA-binding sites for RPA-DE and Stn1. These data indicate that DBDs of RPA have different ssDNA recognition properties. PMID:21772997

  18. Quercetin-Iron Complex: Synthesis, Characterization, Antioxidant, DNA Binding, DNA Cleavage, and Antibacterial Activity Studies.

    PubMed

    Raza, Aun; Xu, Xiuquan; Xia, Li; Xia, Changkun; Tang, Jian; Ouyang, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Quercetin-iron (II) complex was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron micrography and molar conductivity. The low molar conductivity value investigates the non-electrolyte nature of the complex. The elemental analysis and other physical and spectroscopic methods reveal the 1:2 stoichiometric ratio (metal:ligand) of the complex. Antioxidant study of the quercetin and its metal complex against 2, 2-di-phenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical showed that the complex has much more radical scavenging activity than free quercetin. The interaction of quercetin-iron (II) complex with DNA was determined using ultraviolet visible spectra, fluorescence spectra and agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that quercetin-iron (II) complex can intercalate moderately with DNA, quench a strong intercalator ethidium bromide and compete for the intercalative binding sites. The complex showed significant cleavage of pBR 322 DNA from supercoiled form to nicked circular form and these cleavage effects were dose-dependent. Moreover, the mechanism of DNA cleavage indicated that it was an oxidative cleavage pathway. These results revealed the potential nuclease activity of complex to cleave DNA. In addition, antibacterial activity of complex on E.coli and S. aureus was also investigated. The results showed that complex has higher antibacterial activity than ligand.

  19. DNA breathing dynamics distinguish binding from nonbinding consensus sites for transcription factor YY1 in cells.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, Boian S; Fukuyo, Yayoi; Lange, Martin; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Gelev, Vladimir; Rasmussen, Kim Ø; Bishop, Alan R; Usheva, Anny

    2012-11-01

    The genome-wide mapping of the major gene expression regulators, the transcription factors (TFs) and their DNA binding sites, is of great importance for describing cellular behavior and phenotypic diversity. Presently, the methods for prediction of genomic TF binding produce a large number of false positives, most likely due to insufficient description of the physiochemical mechanisms of protein-DNA binding. Growing evidence suggests that, in the cell, the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is subject to local transient strands separations (breathing) that contribute to genomic functions. By using site-specific chromatin immunopecipitations, gel shifts, BIOBASE data, and our model that accurately describes the melting behavior and breathing dynamics of dsDNA we report a specific DNA breathing profile found at YY1 binding sites in cells. We find that the genomic flanking sequence variations and SNPs, may exert long-range effects on DNA dynamics and predetermine YY1 binding. The ubiquitous TF YY1 has a fundamental role in essential biological processes by activating, initiating or repressing transcription depending upon the sequence context it binds. We anticipate that consensus binding sequences together with the related DNA dynamics profile may significantly improve the accuracy of genomic TF binding sites and TF binding-related functional SNPs.

  20. Genome-Wide Motif Statistics are Shaped by DNA Binding Proteins over Evolutionary Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Long; Kussell, Edo

    2016-10-01

    The composition of a genome with respect to all possible short DNA motifs impacts the ability of DNA binding proteins to locate and bind their target sites. Since nonfunctional DNA binding can be detrimental to cellular functions and ultimately to organismal fitness, organisms could benefit from reducing the number of nonfunctional DNA binding sites genome wide. Using in vitro measurements of binding affinities for a large collection of DNA binding proteins, in multiple species, we detect a significant global avoidance of weak binding sites in genomes. We demonstrate that the underlying evolutionary process leaves a distinct genomic hallmark in that similar words have correlated frequencies, a signal that we detect in all species across domains of life. We consider the possibility that natural selection against weak binding sites contributes to this process, and using an evolutionary model we show that the strength of selection needed to maintain global word compositions is on the order of point mutation rates. Likewise, we show that evolutionary mechanisms based on interference of protein-DNA binding with replication and mutational repair processes could yield similar results and operate with similar rates. On the basis of these modeling and bioinformatic results, we conclude that genome-wide word compositions have been molded by DNA binding proteins acting through tiny evolutionary steps over time scales spanning millions of generations.

  1. An Mcm10 Mutant Defective in ssDNA Binding Shows Defects in DNA Replication Initiation.

    PubMed

    Perez-Arnaiz, Patricia; Kaplan, Daniel L

    2016-11-20

    Mcm10 is an essential protein that functions to initiate DNA replication after the formation of the replication fork helicase. In this manuscript, we identified a budding yeast Mcm10 mutant (Mcm10-m2,3,4) that is defective in DNA binding in vitro. Moreover, this Mcm10-m2,3,4 mutant does not stimulate the phosphorylation of Mcm2 by Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) in vitro. When we expressed wild-type levels of mcm10-m2,3,4 in budding yeast cells, we observed a severe growth defect and a substantially decreased DNA replication. We also observed a substantially reduced replication protein A- chromatin immunoprecipitation signal at origins of replication, reduced levels of DDK-phosphorylated Mcm2, and diminished Go, Ichi, Ni, and San (GINS) association with Mcm2-7 in vivo. mcm5-bob1 bypasses the growth defect conferred by DDK-phosphodead Mcm2 in budding yeast. However, the growth defect observed by expressing mcm10-m2,3,4 is not bypassed by the mcm5-bob1 mutation. Furthermore, origin melting and GINS association with Mcm2-7 are substantially decreased for cells expressing mcm10-m2,3,4 in the mcm5-bob1 background. Thus, the origin melting and GINS-Mcm2-7 interaction defects we observed for mcm10-m2,3,4 are not explained by decreased Mcm2 phosphorylation by DDK, since the defects persist in an mcm5-bob1 background. These data suggest that DNA binding by Mcm10 is essential for the initiation of DNA replication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Unusual Characteristics of the DNA Binding Domain of Epigenetic Regulatory Protein MeCP2 Determine Its Binding Specificity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The protein MeCP2 mediates epigenetic regulation by binding methyl-CpG (mCpG) sites on chromatin. MeCP2 consists of six domains of which one, the methyl binding domain (MBD), binds mCpG sites in duplex DNA. We show that solution conditions with physiological or greater salt concentrations or the presence of nonspecific competitor DNA is necessary for the MBD to discriminate mCpG from CpG with high specificity. The specificity for mCpG over CpG is >100-fold under these solution conditions. In contrast, the MBD does not discriminate hydroxymethyl-CpG from CpG. The MBD is unusual among site-specific DNA binding proteins in that (i) specificity is not conferred by the enhanced affinity for the specific site but rather by suppression of its affinity for generic DNA, (ii) its specific binding to mCpG is highly electrostatic, and (iii) it takes up as well as displaces monovalent cations upon DNA binding. The MBD displays an unusually high affinity for single-stranded DNA independent of modification or sequence. In addition, the MBD forms a discrete dimer on DNA via a noncooperative binding pathway. Because the affinity of the second monomer is 1 order of magnitude greater than that of nonspecific binding, the MBD dimer is a unique molecular complex. The significance of these results in the context of neuronal function and development and MeCP2-related developmental disorders such as Rett syndrome is discussed. PMID:24828757

  3. Interference between Triplex and Protein Binding to Distal Sites on Supercoiled DNA.

    PubMed

    Noy, Agnes; Maxwell, Anthony; Harris, Sarah A

    2017-02-07

    We have explored the interdependence of the binding of a DNA triplex and a repressor protein to distal recognition sites on supercoiled DNA minicircles using MD simulations. We observe that the interaction between the two ligands through their influence on their DNA template is determined by a subtle interplay of DNA mechanics and electrostatics, that the changes in flexibility induced by ligand binding play an important role and that supercoiling can instigate additional ligand-DNA contacts that would not be possible in simple linear DNA sequences. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Molecular dynamics studies on the DNA-binding process of ERG.

    PubMed

    Beuerle, Matthias G; Dufton, Neil P; Randi, Anna M; Gould, Ian R

    2016-11-15

    The ETS family of transcription factors regulate gene targets by binding to a core GGAA DNA-sequence. The ETS factor ERG is required for homeostasis and lineage-specific functions in endothelial cells, some subset of haemopoietic cells and chondrocytes; its ectopic expression is linked to oncogenesis in multiple tissues. To date details of the DNA-binding process of ERG including DNA-sequence recognition outside the core GGAA-sequence are largely unknown. We combined available structural and experimental data to perform molecular dynamics simulations to study the DNA-binding process of ERG. In particular we were able to reproduce the ERG DNA-complex with a DNA-binding simulation starting in an unbound configuration with a final root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) of 2.1 Å to the core ETS domain DNA-complex crystal structure. This allowed us to elucidate the relevance of amino acids involved in the formation of the ERG DNA-complex and to identify Arg385 as a novel key residue in the DNA-binding process. Moreover we were able to show that water-mediated hydrogen bonds are present between ERG and DNA in our simulations and that those interactions have the potential to achieve sequence recognition outside the GGAA core DNA-sequence. The methodology employed in this study shows the promising capabilities of modern molecular dynamics simulations in the field of protein DNA-interactions.

  5. MOCCS: Clarifying DNA-binding motif ambiguity using ChIP-Seq data.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Haruka; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2016-08-01

    As a key mechanism of gene regulation, transcription factors (TFs) bind to DNA by recognizing specific short sequence patterns that are called DNA-binding motifs. A single TF can accept ambiguity within its DNA-binding motifs, which comprise both canonical (typical) and non-canonical motifs. Clarification of such DNA-binding motif ambiguity is crucial for revealing gene regulatory networks and evaluating mutations in cis-regulatory elements. Although chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) now provides abundant data on the genomic sequences to which a given TF binds, existing motif discovery methods are unable to directly answer whether a given TF can bind to a specific DNA-binding motif. Here, we report a method for clarifying the DNA-binding motif ambiguity, MOCCS. Given ChIP-Seq data of any TF, MOCCS comprehensively analyzes and describes every k-mer to which that TF binds. Analysis of simulated datasets revealed that MOCCS is applicable to various ChIP-Seq datasets, requiring only a few minutes per dataset. Application to the ENCODE ChIP-Seq datasets proved that MOCCS directly evaluates whether a given TF binds to each DNA-binding motif, even if known position weight matrix models do not provide sufficient information on DNA-binding motif ambiguity. Furthermore, users are not required to provide numerous parameters or background genomic sequence models that are typically unavailable. MOCCS is implemented in Perl and R and is freely available via https://github.com/yuifu/moccs. By complementing existing motif-discovery software, MOCCS will contribute to the basic understanding of how the genome controls diverse cellular processes via DNA-protein interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. DNA Binding of Centromere Protein C (CENPC) Is Stabilized by Single-Stranded RNA

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yaqing; Topp, Christopher N.; Dawe, R. Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Centromeres are the attachment points between the genome and the cytoskeleton: centromeres bind to kinetochores, which in turn bind to spindles and move chromosomes. Paradoxically, the DNA sequence of centromeres has little or no role in perpetuating kinetochores. As such they are striking examples of genetic information being transmitted in a manner that is independent of DNA sequence (epigenetically). It has been found that RNA transcribed from centromeres remains bound within the kinetochore region, and this local population of RNA is thought to be part of the epigenetic marking system. Here we carried out a genetic and biochemical study of maize CENPC, a key inner kinetochore protein. We show that DNA binding is conferred by a localized region 122 amino acids long, and that the DNA-binding reaction is exquisitely sensitive to single-stranded RNA. Long, single-stranded nucleic acids strongly promote the binding of CENPC to DNA, and the types of RNAs that stabilize DNA binding match in size and character the RNAs present on kinetochores in vivo. Removal or replacement of the binding module with HIV integrase binding domain causes a partial delocalization of CENPC in vivo. The data suggest that centromeric RNA helps to recruit CENPC to the inner kinetochore by altering its DNA binding characteristics. PMID:20140237

  7. Cr(3+) Binding to DNA Backbone Phosphate and Bases: Slow Ligand Exchange Rates and Metal Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenhu; Yu, Tianmeng; Vazin, Mahsa; Ding, Jinsong; Liu, Juewen

    2016-08-15

    The interaction between chromium ions and DNA is of great interest in inorganic chemistry, toxicology, and analytical chemistry. Most previous studies focused on in situ reduction of Cr(VI), producing Cr(3+) for DNA binding. Recently, Cr(3+) was reported to activate the Ce13d DNAzyme for RNA cleavage. Herein, the Ce13d is used to study two types of Cr(3+) and DNA interactions. First, Cr(3+) binds to the DNA phosphate backbone weakly through reversible electrostatic interactions, which is weakened by adding competing inorganic phosphate. However, Cr(3+) coordinates with DNA nucleobases forming stable cross-links that can survive denaturing gel electrophoresis condition. The binding of Cr(3+) to different nucleobases was further studied in terms of binding kinetics and affinity by exploiting carboxyfluorescein-labeled DNA homopolymers. Once binding takes place, the stable Cr(3+)/DNA complex cannot be dissociated by EDTA, attributable to the ultraslow ligand exchange rate of Cr(3+). The binding rate follows the order of G > C > T ≈ A. Finally, Cr(3+) gradually loses its DNA binding ability after being stored at neutral or high pH, attributable to hydrolysis. This hydrolysis can be reversed by lowering the pH. This work provides a deeper insight into the bioinorganic chemistry of Cr(3+) coordination with DNA, clarifies some inconsistency in the previous literature, and offers practically useful information for generating reproducible results.

  8. Mutational analyses of Aquifex pyrophilus DNA ligase define essential domains for self-adenylation and DNA binding activity.

    PubMed

    Lim, J H; Choi, J; Kim, W; Ahn, B Y; Han, Y S

    2001-04-15

    We constructed nine deletion mutants of NAD+-dependent DNA ligase from Aquifex pyrophilus to characterize the functional domains. All of DNA ligase deletion mutants were analyzed in biochemical assays for NAD+-dependent self-adenylation, DNA binding, and nick-closing activity. Although the mutant lsub1 (91-362) included the active site lysine (KxDG), self-adenylation was not shown. However, the mutants lsub6 (1-362), lsub7 (1-516), and lsub9 (1-635) showed the same adenylation activity as that of wild type. The lsub5 (91-719), which has the C-terminal domain (487-719) as to lsub4 (91-486), showed minimal adenylation activity. These results suggest that the presence of N-terminal 90 residues is essential for the formation of an enzyme-AMP complex, while C-terminal domain (487-719) appears to play a minimal role in adenylation. It was found that the presence of C-terminal domain (487-719) is indispensable for DNA binding activity of lsub5 (91-719). The mutant lsub9 (1-635) showed reduced DNA binding activity compared to that of wild type, suggesting the contribution of the domain (636-719) for the DNA binding activity. Thus, we concluded that the N-terminal 90 residues and C-terminal domain (487-719) of NAD+-dependent DNA ligase from A. pyrophilus are mutually indispensable for binding of DNA substrate.

  9. Genome-Wide Motif Statistics are Shaped by DNA Binding Proteins over Evolutionary Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Long; Kussell, Edo

    The composition of genomes with respect to short DNA motifs impacts the ability of DNA binding proteins to locate and bind their target sites. Since nonfunctional DNA binding can be detrimental to cellular functions and ultimately to organismal fitness, organisms could benefit from reducing the number of nonfunctional binding sites genome wide. Using in vitro measurements of binding affinities for a large collection of DNA binding proteins, in multiple species, we detect a significant global avoidance of weak binding sites in genomes. The underlying evolutionary process leaves a distinct genomic hallmark in that similar words have correlated frequencies, which we detect in all species across domains of life. We hypothesize that natural selection against weak binding sites contributes to this process, and using an evolutionary model we show that the strength of selection needed to maintain global word compositions is on the order of point mutation rates. Alternative contributions may come from interference of protein-DNA binding with replication and mutational repair processes, which operates with similar rates. We conclude that genome-wide word compositions have been molded by DNA binding proteins through tiny evolutionary steps over timescales spanning millions of generations.

  10. A novel class of plant-specific zinc-dependent DNA-binding protein that binds to A/T-rich DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Yukio; Furuhashi, Hirofumi; Inaba, Takehito; Sasaki, Yukiko

    2001-01-01

    Complementary DNA encoding a DNA-binding protein, designated PLATZ1 (plant AT-rich sequence- and zinc-binding protein 1), was isolated from peas. The amino acid sequence of the protein is similar to those of other uncharacterized proteins predicted from the genome sequences of higher plants. However, no paralogous sequences have been found outside the plant kingdom. Multiple alignments among these paralogous proteins show that several cysteine and histidine residues are invariant, suggesting that these proteins are a novel class of zinc-dependent DNA-binding proteins with two distantly located regions, C-x2-H-x11-C-x2-C-x(4–5)-C-x2-C-x(3–7)-H-x2-H and C-x2-C-x(10–11)-C-x3-C. In an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, the zinc chelator 1,10-o-phenanthroline inhibited DNA binding, and two distant zinc-binding regions were required for DNA binding. A protein blot with 65ZnCl2 showed that both regions are required for zinc-binding activity. The PLATZ1 protein non-specifically binds to A/T-rich sequences, including the upstream region of the pea GTPase pra2 and plastocyanin petE genes. Expression of the PLATZ1 repressed those of the reporter constructs containing the coding sequence of luciferase gene driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S90 promoter fused to the tandem repeat of the A/T-rich sequences. These results indicate that PLATZ1 is a novel class of plant-specific zinc-dependent DNA-binding protein responsible for A/T-rich sequence-mediated transcriptional repression. PMID:11600698

  11. Mechanistic aspects of thioflavin-T self-aggregation and DNA binding: evidence for dimer attack on DNA grooves.

    PubMed

    Biancardi, A; Biver, T; Burgalassi, A; Mattonai, M; Secco, F; Venturini, M

    2014-10-07

    Thioflavin-T (TFT) is a fluorescent marker widely employed in biomedical research but the mechanism of its binding to polynucleotides has been poorly understood. This paper presents a study of the mechanisms of TFT self-aggregation and binding to DNA. Relaxation kinetics of TFT solutions show that the cyanine undergoes dimerization followed by dimer isomerisation. The interaction of TFT with DNA has been investigated using static methods, such as spectrophotometric and spectrofluorometric titrations under different conditions (salt content, temperature), fluorescence quenching, viscometric experiments and the T-jump relaxation method. The combined use of these techniques enabled us to show that the TFT monomer undergoes intercalation between the DNA base pairs and external binding according to a branched mechanism. Moreover, it has also been observed that, under dye excess conditions, the TFT dimer binds to the DNA grooves. The molecular structures of intercalated TFT and the groove-bound TFT dimer are obtained by performing QM/MM MD simulations.

  12. Structure analysis of FAAP24 reveals single-stranded DNA-binding activity and domain functions in DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yucai; Han, Xiao; Wu, Fangming; Leung, Justin W; Lowery, Megan G; Do, Huong; Chen, Junjie; Shi, Chaowei; Tian, Changlin; Li, Lei; Gong, Weimin

    2013-01-01

    The FANCM/FAAP24 heterodimer has distinct functions in protecting cells from complex DNA lesions such as interstrand crosslinks. These functions rely on the biochemical activity of FANCM/FAAP24 to recognize and bind to damaged DNA or stalled replication forks. However, the DNA-binding activity of this complex was not clearly defined. We investigated how FAAP24 contributes to the DNA-interacting functions of the FANCM/FAAP24 complex by acquiring the N-terminal and C-terminal solution structures of human FAAP24. Modeling of the FAAP24 structure indicates that FAAP24 may possess a high affinity toward single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Testing of various FAAP24 mutations in vitro and in vivo validated this prediction derived from structural analyses. We found that the DNA-binding and FANCM-interacting functions of FAAP24, although both require the C-terminal (HhH)2 domain, can be distinguished by segregation-of-function mutations. These results demonstrate dual roles of FAAP24 in DNA damage response against crosslinking lesions, one through the formation of FANCM/FAAP24 heterodimer and the other via its ssDNA-binding activity required in optimized checkpoint activation. PMID:23999858

  13. DNA-Binding Interaction Studies of Microwave Assisted Synthesized Sulfonamide Substituted 8-Hydroxyquinoline Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Ritu B; Patel, Tarosh S; Vanparia, Satish F; Kunjadiya, Anju P; Keharia, Harish R; Dixit, Bharat C

    2011-01-01

    Sulfonamide substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives were prepared using a microwave synthesizer. The interaction of sulfonamide substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives and their transition metal complexes with Plasmid (pUC 19) DNA and Calf Thymus DNA were investigated by UV spectroscopic studies and gel electrophoresis measurements. The interaction between ligand/metal complexes and DNA was carried out by increasing the concentration of DNA from 0 to 12 μl in UV spectroscopic study, while the concentration of DNA in gel electrophoresis remained constant at 10 μl. These studies supported the fact that, the complex binds to DNA by intercalation via ligand into the base pairs of DNA. The relative binding efficacy of the complexes to DNA was much higher than the binding efficacy of ligands, especially the complex of Cu-AHQMBSH had the highest binding ability to DNA. The mobility of the bands decreased as the concentration of the complex was increased, indicating that there was increase in the interaction between the metal ion and DNA. Complexes of AHQMBSH were excellent for DNA binding as compared to HQMABS.

  14. RPA binds histone H3-H4 and functions in DNA replication-coupled nucleosome assembly.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaofeng; Xu, Zhiyun; Leng, He; Zheng, Pu; Yang, Jiayi; Chen, Kaifu; Feng, Jianxun; Li, Qing

    2017-01-27

    DNA replication-coupled nucleosome assembly is essential to maintain genome integrity and retain epigenetic information. Multiple involved histone chaperones have been identified, but how nucleosome assembly is coupled to DNA replication remains elusive. Here we show that replication protein A (RPA), an essential replisome component that binds single-stranded DNA, has a role in replication-coupled nucleosome assembly. RPA directly binds free H3-H4. Assays using a synthetic sequence that mimics freshly unwound single-stranded DNA at replication fork showed that RPA promotes DNA-(H3-H4) complex formation immediately adjacent to double-stranded DNA. Further, an RPA mutant defective in H3-H4 binding exhibited attenuated nucleosome assembly on nascent chromatin. Thus, we propose that RPA functions as a platform for targeting histone deposition to replication fork, through which RPA couples nucleosome assembly with ongoing DNA replication. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. A calmodulin binding protein from Arabidopsis is induced by ethylene and contains a DNA-binding motif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, A. S.; Reddy, V. S.; Golovkin, M.

    2000-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), a key calcium sensor in all eukaryotes, regulates diverse cellular processes by interacting with other proteins. To isolate CaM binding proteins involved in ethylene signal transduction, we screened an expression library prepared from ethylene-treated Arabidopsis seedlings with 35S-labeled CaM. A cDNA clone, EICBP (Ethylene-Induced CaM Binding Protein), encoding a protein that interacts with activated CaM was isolated in this screening. The CaM binding domain in EICBP was mapped to the C-terminus of the protein. These results indicate that calcium, through CaM, could regulate the activity of EICBP. The EICBP is expressed in different tissues and its expression in seedlings is induced by ethylene. The EICBP contains, in addition to a CaM binding domain, several features that are typical of transcription factors. These include a DNA-binding domain at the N terminus, an acidic region at the C terminus, and nuclear localization signals. In database searches a partial cDNA (CG-1) encoding a DNA-binding motif from parsley and an ethylene up-regulated partial cDNA from tomato (ER66) showed significant similarity to EICBP. In addition, five hypothetical proteins in the Arabidopsis genome also showed a very high sequence similarity with EICBP, indicating that there are several EICBP-related proteins in Arabidopsis. The structural features of EICBP are conserved in all EICBP-related proteins in Arabidopsis, suggesting that they may constitute a new family of DNA binding proteins and are likely to be involved in modulating gene expression in the presence of ethylene.

  16. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino; Lafayette, Elizabeth Almeida; Gomes da Silva, Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra; Amorim, Cézar Augusto da Cruz; de Oliveira, Tiago Bento; Gois Ruiz, Ana Lucia Tasca; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; de Moura, Ricardo Olímpio; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a–h) were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as red or blue shifts were demonstrated by addition of ctDNA to the derivatives. The calculated binding constants ranged from 1.74 × 104 to 1.0 × 106 M−1 and quenching constants from −0.2 × 104 to 2.18 × 104 M−1 indicating high affinity to ctDNA base pairs. The most efficient compound in binding to ctDNA in vitro was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-(4-chlorophenyl) hydrazinecarbothioamide (3f), while the most active compound in antiproliferative assay was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (3a). There was no correlation between DNA-binding and in vitro antiproliferative activity, but the results suggest that DNA binding can be involved in the biological activity mechanism. This study may guide the choice of the size and shape of the intercalating part of the ligand and the strategic selection of substituents that increase DNA-binding or antiproliferative properties. PMID:26068233

  17. TAF(II)170 interacts with the concave surface of TATA-binding protein to inhibit its DNA binding activity.

    PubMed

    Pereira, L A; van der Knaap, J A; van den Boom, V; van den Heuvel, F A; Timmers, H T

    2001-11-01

    The human RNA polymerase II transcription factor B-TFIID consists of TATA-binding protein (TBP) and the TBP-associated factor (TAF) TAF(II)170 and can rapidly redistribute over promoter DNA. Here we report the identification of human TBP-binding regions in human TAF(II)170. We have defined the TBP interaction domain of TAF(II)170 within three amino-terminal regions: residues 2 to 137, 290 to 381, and 380 to 460. Each region contains a pair of Huntington-elongation-A subunit-Tor repeats and exhibits species-specific interactions with TBP family members. Remarkably, the altered-specificity TBP mutant (TBP(AS)) containing a triple mutation in the concave surface is defective for binding the TAF(II)170 amino-terminal region of residues 1 to 504. Furthermore, within this region the TAF(II)170 residues 290 to 381 can inhibit the interaction between Drosophila TAF(II)230 (residues 2 to 81) and TBP through competition for the concave surface of TBP. Biochemical analyses of TBP binding to the TATA box indicated that TAF(II)170 region 290-381 inhibits TBP-DNA complex formation. Importantly, the TBP(AS) mutant is less sensitive to TAF(II)170 inhibition. Collectively, our results support a mechanism in which TAF(II)170 induces high-mobility DNA binding by TBP through reversible interactions with its concave DNA binding surface.

  18. SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung-Hak; Park, Jinah; Choi, Moon-Chang

    DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) 3B is a de novo DNMT that represses transcription independent of DNMT activity. In order to gain a better insight into DNMT3B-mediated transcriptional repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid analysis using DNMT3B as a bait. Of the various binding candidates, ZHX1, a member of zinc-finger and homeobox protein, was found to interact with DNMT3B in vivo and in vitro. N-terminal PWWP domain of DNMT3B was required for its interaction with homeobox motifs of ZHX1. ZHX1 contains nuclear localization signal at C-terminal homeobox motif, and both ZHX1 and DNMT3B were co-localized in nucleus. Furthermore, we found that ZHX1more » enhanced the transcriptional repression mediated by DNMT3B when DNMT3B is directly targeted to DNA. These results showed for First the direct linkage between DNMT and zinc-fingers homeoboxes protein, leading to enhanced gene silencing by DNMT3B.« less

  19. Identification of DNA-binding proteins by combining auto-cross covariance transformation and ensemble learning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Shanyi; Dong, Qiwen; Li, Shumin; Liu, Xuan

    2016-04-20

    DNA-binding proteins play a pivotal role in various intra- and extra-cellular activities ranging from DNA replication to gene expression control. With the rapid development of next generation of sequencing technique, the number of protein sequences is unprecedentedly increasing. Thus it is necessary to develop computational methods to identify the DNA-binding proteins only based on the protein sequence information. In this study, a novel method called iDNA-KACC is presented, which combines the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and the auto-cross covariance transformation. The protein sequences are first converted into profile-based protein representation, and then converted into a series of fixed-length vectors by the auto-cross covariance transformation with Kmer composition. The sequence order effect can be effectively captured by this scheme. These vectors are then fed into Support Vector Machine (SVM) to discriminate the DNA-binding proteins from the non DNA-binding ones. iDNA-KACC achieves an overall accuracy of 75.16% and Matthew correlation coefficient of 0.5 by a rigorous jackknife test. Its performance is further improved by employing an ensemble learning approach, and the improved predictor is called iDNA-KACC-EL. Experimental results on an independent dataset shows that iDNA-KACC-EL outperforms all the other state-of-the-art predictors, indicating that it would be a useful computational tool for DNA binding protein identification. .

  20. BclxL changes conformation upon binding to wild-type but not mutant p53 DNA binding domain.

    PubMed

    Hagn, Franz; Klein, Christian; Demmer, Oliver; Marchenko, Natasha; Vaseva, Angelina; Moll, Ute M; Kessler, Horst

    2010-01-29

    p53 can induce apoptosis through mitochondrial membrane permeabilization by interaction of its DNA binding region with the anti-apoptotic proteins BclxL and Bcl2. However, little is known about the action of p53 at the mitochondria in molecular detail. By using NMR spectroscopy and fluorescence polarization we characterized the binding of wild-type and mutant p53 DNA binding domains to BclxL and show that the wild-type p53 DNA binding domain leads to structural changes in the BH3 binding region of BclxL, whereas mutants fail to induce such effects due to reduced affinity. This was probed by induced chemical shift and residual dipolar coupling data. These data imply that p53 partly achieves its pro-apoptotic function at the mitochondria by facilitating interaction between BclxL and BH3-only proteins in an allosteric mode of action. Furthermore, we characterize for the first time the binding behavior of Pifithrin-mu, a specific small molecule inhibitor of the p53-BclxL interaction, and present a structural model of the protein-ligand complex. A rather unusual behavior is revealed whereby Pifithrin-mu binds to both sides of the protein-protein complex. These data should facilitate the rational design of more potent specific BclxL-p53 inhibitors.

  1. A calmodulin-binding/CGCG box DNA-binding protein family involved in multiple signaling pathways in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Tianbao; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    We reported earlier that the tobacco early ethylene-responsive gene NtER1 encodes a calmodulin-binding protein (Yang, T., and Poovaiah, B. W. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 38467-38473). Here we demonstrate that there is one NtER1 homolog as well as five related genes in Arabidopsis. These six genes are rapidly and differentially induced by environmental signals such as temperature extremes, UVB, salt, and wounding; hormones such as ethylene and abscisic acid; and signal molecules such as methyl jasmonate, H(2)O(2), and salicylic acid. Hence, they were designated as AtSR1-6 (Arabidopsis thaliana signal-responsive genes). Ca(2+)/calmodulin binds to all AtSRs, and their calmodulin-binding regions are located on a conserved basic amphiphilic alpha-helical motif in the C terminus. AtSR1 targets the nucleus and specifically recognizes a novel 6-bp CGCG box (A/C/G)CGCG(G/T/C). The multiple CGCG cis-elements are found in promoters of genes such as those involved in ethylene signaling, abscisic acid signaling, and light signal perception. The DNA-binding domain in AtSR1 is located on the N-terminal 146 bp where all AtSR1-related proteins share high similarity but have no similarity to other known DNA-binding proteins. The calmodulin-binding nuclear proteins isolated from wounded leaves exhibit specific CGCG box DNA binding activities. These results suggest that the AtSR gene family encodes a family of calmodulin-binding/DNA-binding proteins involved in multiple signal transduction pathways in plants.

  2. Spectrophotometric analysis of flavonoid-DNA binding interactions at physiological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janjua, Naveed Kausar; Siddiqa, Asima; Yaqub, Azra; Sabahat, Sana; Qureshi, Rumana; Haque, Sayed ul

    2009-12-01

    Mode of interactions of three flavonoids [morin (M), quercetin (Q), and rutin (R)] with chicken blood ds.DNA (ck.DNA) has been investigated spectrophotometrically at different temperatures including body temperature (310 K) and at two physiological pH values, i.e. 7.4 (human blood pH) and 4.7 (stomach pH). The binding constants, Kf, evaluated using Benesi-Hildebrand equation showed that the flavonoids bind effectively through intercalation at both pH values and body temperature. Quercetin, somehow, showed greater binding capabilities with DNA. The free energies of flavonoid-DNA complexes indicated the spontaneity of their binding. The order of binding constants of three flavonoids at both pH values were found to be Kf(Q) > Kf(R) > Kf(M) and at 310 K.

  3. NMR studies of DNA oligomers and their interactions with minor groove binding ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Fagan, Patricia A.

    1996-05-01

    The cationic peptide ligands distamycin and netropsin bind noncovalently to the minor groove of DNA. The binding site, orientation, stoichiometry, and qualitative affinity of distamycin binding to several short DNA oligomers were investigated by NMR spectroscopy. The oligomers studied contain A,T-rich or I,C-rich binding sites, where I = 2-desaminodeoxyguanosine. I•C base pairs are functional analogs of A•T base pairs in the minor groove. The different behaviors exhibited by distamycin and netropsin binding to various DNA sequences suggested that these ligands are sensitive probes of DNA structure. For sites of five or more base pairs, distamycin can form 1:1 or 2:1more » ligand:DNA complexes. Cooperativity in distamycin binding is low in sites such as AAAAA which has narrow minor grooves, and is higher in sites with wider minor grooves such as ATATAT. The distamycin binding and base pair opening lifetimes of I,C-containing DNA oligomers suggest that the I,C minor groove is structurally different from the A,T minor groove. Molecules which direct chemistry to a specific DNA sequence could be used as antiviral compounds, diagnostic probes, or molecular biology tools. The author studied two ligands in which reactive groups were tethered to a distamycin to increase the sequence specificity of the reactive agent.« less

  4. Context influences on TALE–DNA binding revealed by quantitative profiling

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Julia M.; Barrera, Luis A.; Reyon, Deepak; Sander, Jeffry D.; Kellis, Manolis; Joung, J Keith; Bulyk, Martha L.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins recognize DNA using a seemingly simple DNA-binding code, which makes them attractive for use in genome engineering technologies that require precise targeting. Although this code is used successfully to design TALEs to target specific sequences, off-target binding has been observed and is difficult to predict. Here we explore TALE–DNA interactions comprehensively by quantitatively assaying the DNA-binding specificities of 21 representative TALEs to ∼5,000–20,000 unique DNA sequences per protein using custom-designed protein-binding microarrays (PBMs). We find that protein context features exert significant influences on binding. Thus, the canonical recognition code does not fully capture the complexity of TALE–DNA binding. We used the PBM data to develop a computational model, Specificity Inference For TAL-Effector Design (SIFTED), to predict the DNA-binding specificity of any TALE. We provide SIFTED as a publicly available web tool that predicts potential genomic off-target sites for improved TALE design. PMID:26067805

  5. Context influences on TALE-DNA binding revealed by quantitative profiling.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Julia M; Barrera, Luis A; Reyon, Deepak; Sander, Jeffry D; Kellis, Manolis; Joung, J Keith; Bulyk, Martha L

    2015-06-11

    Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins recognize DNA using a seemingly simple DNA-binding code, which makes them attractive for use in genome engineering technologies that require precise targeting. Although this code is used successfully to design TALEs to target specific sequences, off-target binding has been observed and is difficult to predict. Here we explore TALE-DNA interactions comprehensively by quantitatively assaying the DNA-binding specificities of 21 representative TALEs to ∼5,000-20,000 unique DNA sequences per protein using custom-designed protein-binding microarrays (PBMs). We find that protein context features exert significant influences on binding. Thus, the canonical recognition code does not fully capture the complexity of TALE-DNA binding. We used the PBM data to develop a computational model, Specificity Inference For TAL-Effector Design (SIFTED), to predict the DNA-binding specificity of any TALE. We provide SIFTED as a publicly available web tool that predicts potential genomic off-target sites for improved TALE design.

  6. Trigger Factor and DnaK possess overlapping substrate pools and binding specificities.

    PubMed

    Deuerling, Elke; Patzelt, Holger; Vorderwülbecke, Sonja; Rauch, Thomas; Kramer, Günter; Schaffitzel, Elke; Mogk, Axel; Schulze-Specking, Agnes; Langen, Hanno; Bukau, Bernd

    2003-03-01

    Ribosome-associated Trigger Factor (TF) and the DnaK chaperone system assist the folding of newly synthesized proteins in Escherichia coli. Here, we show that DnaK and TF share a common substrate pool in vivo. In TF-deficient cells, deltatig, depleted for DnaK and DnaJ the amount of aggregated proteins increases with increasing temperature, amounting to 10% of total soluble protein (approximately 340 protein species) at 37 degrees C. A similar population of proteins aggregated in DnaK depleted tig+ cells, albeit to a much lower extent. Ninety-four aggregated proteins isolated from DnaK- and DnaJ-depleted deltatig cells were identified by mass spectrometry and found to include essential cytosolic proteins. Four potential in vivo substrates were screened for chaperone binding sites using peptide libraries. Although TF and DnaK recognize different binding motifs, 77% of TF binding peptides also associated with DnaK. In the case of the nascent polypeptides TF and DnaK competed for binding, however, with competitive advantage for TF. In vivo, the loss of TF is compensated by the induction of the heat shock response and thus enhanced levels of DnaK. In summary, our results demonstrate that the co-operation of the two mechanistically distinct chaperones in protein folding is based on their overlap in substrate specificities.

  7. DNA-magnetic Particle Binding Analysis by Dynamic and Electrophoretic Light Scattering.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Yazan; Dostalova, Simona; Kudr, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Heger, Zbynek; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-11-09

    Isolation of DNA using magnetic particles is a field of high importance in biotechnology and molecular biology research. This protocol describes the evaluation of DNA-magnetic particles binding via dynamic light scattering (DLS) and electrophoretic light scattering (ELS). Analysis by DLS provides valuable information on the physicochemical properties of particles including particle size, polydispersity, and zeta potential. The latter describes the surface charge of the particle which plays major role in electrostatic binding of materials such as DNA. Here, a comparative analysis exploits three chemical modifications of nanoparticles and microparticles and their effects on DNA binding and elution. Chemical modifications by branched polyethylenimine, tetraethyl orthosilicate and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane are investigated. Since DNA exhibits a negative charge, it is expected that zeta potential of particle surface will decrease upon binding of DNA. Forming of clusters should also affect particle size. In order to investigate the efficiency of these particles in isolation and elution of DNA, the particles are mixed with DNA in low pH (~6), high ionic strength and dehydration environment. Particles are washed on magnet and then DNA is eluted by Tris-HCl buffer (pH = 8). DNA copy number is estimated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Zeta potential, particle size, polydispersity and quantitative PCR data are evaluated and compared. DLS is an insightful and supporting method of analysis that adds a new perspective to the process of screening of particles for DNA isolation.

  8. The identification of FANCD2 DNA binding domains reveals nuclear localization sequences.

    PubMed

    Niraj, Joshi; Caron, Marie-Christine; Drapeau, Karine; Bérubé, Stéphanie; Guitton-Sert, Laure; Coulombe, Yan; Couturier, Anthony M; Masson, Jean-Yves

    2017-08-21

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessive genetic disorder characterized by congenital abnormalities, progressive bone-marrow failure, and cancer susceptibility. The FA pathway consists of at least 21 FANC genes (FANCA-FANCV), and the encoded protein products interact in a common cellular pathway to gain resistance against DNA interstrand crosslinks. After DNA damage, FANCD2 is monoubiquitinated and accumulates on chromatin. FANCD2 plays a central role in the FA pathway, using yet unidentified DNA binding regions. By using synthetic peptide mapping and DNA binding screen by electromobility shift assays, we found that FANCD2 bears two major DNA binding domains predominantly consisting of evolutionary conserved lysine residues. Furthermore, one domain at the N-terminus of FANCD2 bears also nuclear localization sequences for the protein. Mutations in the bifunctional DNA binding/NLS domain lead to a reduction in FANCD2 monoubiquitination and increase in mitomycin C sensitivity. Such phenotypes are not fully rescued by fusion with an heterologous NLS, which enable separation of DNA binding and nuclear import functions within this domain that are necessary for FANCD2 functions. Collectively, our results enlighten the importance of DNA binding and NLS residues in FANCD2 to activate an efficient FA pathway. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. A duplex DNA-gold nanoparticle probe composed as a colorimetric biosensor for sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Junho; Choi, Yeonweon; Lee, Ae-Ree; Lee, Joon-Hwa; Jung, Jong Hwa

    2016-03-21

    Using duplex DNA-AuNP aggregates, a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein, SQUAMOSA Promoter-binding-Like protein 12 (SPL-12), was directly determined by SPL-12-duplex DNA interaction-based colorimetric actions of DNA-Au assemblies. In order to prepare duplex DNA-Au aggregates, thiol-modified DNA 1 and DNA 2 were attached onto the surface of AuNPs, respectively, by the salt-aging method and then the DNA-attached AuNPs were mixed. Duplex-DNA-Au aggregates having the average size of 160 nm diameter and the maximum absorption at 529 nm were able to recognize SPL-12 and reached the equivalent state by the addition of ∼30 equivalents of SPL-12 accompanying a color change from red to blue with a red shift of the maximum absorption at 570 nm. As a result, the aggregation size grew to about 247 nm. Also, at higher temperatures of the mixture of duplex-DNA-Au aggregate solution and SPL-12, the equivalent state was reached rapidly. On the contrary, in the control experiment using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), no absorption band shift of duplex-DNA-Au aggregates was observed.

  10. Conformation of nanoconfined DNA as a function of ATP, AMP, CTP, Mg2+, and dye binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roushan, Maedeh; Riehn, Robert

    2014-03-01

    DNA molecules stretch in nanochannels with a channel cross-section of 100x100 nm2, thereby allowing analysis by observation of a fluorescent dye. The length and configuration of DNA can be directly observed, and the effect of different DNA-binding proteins on DNA configuration can be studied. Recently, we reported on the ability of T4 ligase to transiently manipulate DNA as a function of ATP and magnesium exposure. In this process we have extensively probed the interactions of dyes and enzyme co-factors with DNA under nanoconfinement. We find negligible effects if DNA is visualized using groove-binding dyes such as DAPI. However, if an intercalating dye (YOYO-1) is used, we find a significant shortening of the DNA in the presence of ATP that we attribute to an interaction of dye and ATP (as well as AMP and CTP). We did not record a noticeable effect due to Mg2+.

  11. Dimerization-induced corepressor binding and relaxed DNA-binding specificity are critical for PML/RARA-induced immortalization

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Pérès, Laurent; Honoré, Nicole; Nasr, Rihab; Zhu, Jun; de Thé, Hugues

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukemia involves the transcriptional repression of master genes of myeloid differentiation by the promyelocytic leukemia–retinoic acid receptor α (PML/RARA) oncogene. PML-enforced RARA homodimerization allows the tighter binding of corepressors, silencing RARA target genes. In addition, homodimerization dramatically extends the spectrum of DNA-binding sites of the fusion protein compared with those of normal RARA. Yet, any contribution of these two properties of PML/RARA to differentiation arrest and immortalization of primary mouse hematopoietic progenitors was unknown. We demonstrate that dimerization-induced silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid receptors (SMRT)-enhanced binding and relaxed DNA-binding site specificity are both required for efficient immortalization. Thus, enforced RARA dimerization is critical not only for triggering transcriptional repression but also for extending the repertoire of target genes. Our studies exemplify how dimerization-induced gain of functions converts an unessential transcription factor into a dominant oncogenic protein. PMID:16757557

  12. An immunoassay for the study of DNA-binding activities of herpes simplex virus protein ICP8.

    PubMed

    Lee, C K; Knipe, D M

    1985-06-01

    An immunoassay was used to examine the interaction between a herpes simplex virus protein, ICP8, and various types of DNA. The advantage of this assay is that the protein is not subjected to harsh purification procedures. We characterized the binding of ICP8 to both single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) DNA. ICP8 bound ss DNA fivefold more efficiently than ds DNA, and both binding activities were most efficient in 150 mM NaCl. Two lines of evidence indicate that the binding activities were not identical: (i) ds DNA failed to complete with ss DNA binding even with a large excess of ds DNA; (ii) Scatchard plots of DNA binding with various amounts of DNA were fundamentally different for ss DNA and ds DNA. However, the two activities were related in that ss DNA efficiently competed with the binding of ds DNA. We conclude that the ds DNA-binding activity of ICP8 is probably distinct from the ss DNA-binding activity. No evidence for sequence-specific ds DNA binding was obtained for either the entire herpes simplex virus genome or cloned viral sequences.

  13. Reshaping the Energy Landscape Transforms the Mechanism and Binding Kinetics of DNA Threading Intercalation.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew G; Naufer, M Nabuan; Westerlund, Fredrik; Lincoln, Per; Rouzina, Ioulia; Paramanathan, Thayaparan; Williams, Mark C

    2018-02-06

    Molecules that bind DNA via threading intercalation show high binding affinity as well as slow dissociation kinetics, properties ideal for the development of anticancer drugs. To this end, it is critical to identify the specific molecular characteristics of threading intercalators that result in optimal DNA interactions. Using single-molecule techniques, we quantify the binding of a small metal-organic ruthenium threading intercalator (Δ,Δ-B) and compare its binding characteristics to a similar molecule with significantly larger threading moieties (Δ,Δ-P). The binding affinities of the two molecules are the same, while comparison of the binding kinetics reveals significantly faster kinetics for Δ,Δ-B. However, the kinetics is still much slower than that observed for conventional intercalators. Comparison of the two threading intercalators shows that the binding affinity is modulated independently by the intercalating section and the binding kinetics is modulated by the threading moiety. In order to thread DNA, Δ,Δ-P requires a "lock mechanism", in which a large length increase of the DNA duplex is required for both association and dissociation. In contrast, measurements of the force-dependent binding kinetics show that Δ,Δ-B requires a large DNA length increase for association but no length increase for dissociation from DNA. This contrasts strongly with conventional intercalators, for which almost no DNA length change is required for association but a large DNA length change must occur for dissociation. This result illustrates the fundamentally different mechanism of threading intercalation compared with conventional intercalation and will pave the way for the rational design of therapeutic drugs based on DNA threading intercalation.

  14. STN1 OB Fold Mutation Alters DNA Binding and Affects Selective Aspects of CST Function

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Anukana; Stewart, Jason; Chaiken, Mary; Price, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) participates in multiple aspects of telomere replication and genome-wide recovery from replication stress. CST resembles Replication Protein A (RPA) in that it binds ssDNA and STN1 and TEN1 are structurally similar to RPA2 and RPA3. Conservation between CTC1 and RPA1 is less apparent. Currently the mechanism underlying CST action is largely unknown. Here we address CST mechanism by using a DNA-binding mutant, (STN1 OB-fold mutant, STN1-OBM) to examine the relationship between DNA binding and CST function. In vivo, STN1-OBM affects resolution of endogenous replication stress and telomere duplex replication but telomeric C-strand fill-in and new origin firing after exogenous replication stress are unaffected. These selective effects indicate mechanistic differences in CST action during resolution of different replication problems. In vitro binding studies show that STN1 directly engages both short and long ssDNA oligonucleotides, however STN1-OBM preferentially destabilizes binding to short substrates. The finding that STN1-OBM affects binding to only certain substrates starts to explain the in vivo separation of function observed in STN1-OBM expressing cells. CST is expected to engage DNA substrates of varied length and structure as it acts to resolve different replication problems. Since STN1-OBM will alter CST binding to only some of these substrates, the mutant should affect resolution of only a subset of replication problems, as was observed in the STN1-OBM cells. The in vitro studies also provide insight into CST binding mechanism. Like RPA, CST likely contacts DNA via multiple OB folds. However, the importance of STN1 for binding short substrates indicates differences in the architecture of CST and RPA DNA-protein complexes. Based on our results, we propose a dynamic DNA binding model that provides a general mechanism for CST action at diverse forms of replication stress. PMID:27690379

  15. Structural Determinants of DNA Binding by a P. falciparum ApiAP2 Transcriptional Regulator

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, Scott E.; De Silva, Erandi K.; Keck, James L.

    2010-11-05

    Putative transcription factors have only recently been identified in the Plasmodium spp., with the major family of regulators comprising the Apicomplexan Apetala2 (AP2) proteins. To better understand the DNA-binding mechanisms of these transcriptional regulators, we characterized the structure and in vitro function of an AP2 DNA-binding domain from a prototypical Apicomplexan AP2 protein, PF14{_}0633 from Plasmodium falciparum. The X-ray crystal structure of the PF14{_}0633 AP2 domain bound to DNA reveals a {beta}-sheet fold that binds the DNA major groove through base-specific and backbone contacts; a prominent {alpha}-helix supports the {beta}-sheet structure. Substitution of predicted DNA-binding residues with alanine weakened ormore » eliminated DNA binding in solution. In contrast to plant AP2 domains, the PF14{_}0633 AP2 domain dimerizes upon binding to DNA through a domain-swapping mechanism in which the {alpha}-helices of the AP2 domains pack against the {beta}-sheets of the dimer mates. DNA-induced dimerization of PF14{_}0633 may be important for tethering two distal DNA loci together in the nucleus and/or for inducing functional rearrangements of its domains to facilitate transcriptional regulation. Consistent with a multisite binding mode, at least two copies of the consensus sequence recognized by PF14{_}0633 are present upstream of a previously identified group of sporozoite-stage genes. Taken together, these findings illustrate how Plasmodium has adapted the AP2 DNA-binding domain for genome-wide transcriptional regulation.« less

  16. Chemotherapeutic Drug-Conjugated Microbeads Demonstrate Preferential Binding to Methylated Plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kevin N; Grandhi, Taraka Sai Pavan; Goklany, Sheba; Rege, Kaushal

    2018-04-10

    Plasmid DNA (pDNA) is an attractive therapeutic biomolecule in several diseases including cancer, AIDS, cystic fibrosis, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Increasing demand for plasmid DNA as a therapeutic biomolecule for transgene expression or vaccine applications necessitate novel approaches to bioprocessing. The synthesis, characterization and evaluation of aminoglycoside-derived hydrogel microbeads (Amikabeads) for pDNA binding is described previously. Here, the generation and evaluation of novel chemotherapeutic drug-conjugated microbeads for application in pDNA binding and recovery is described. Chemotherapeutic drug-conjugated Amikabeads demonstrate higher binding of methylated pDNA compared to unmethylated pDNA in presence of high salt concentrations. Desorption of plasmids from drug-conjugated microbeads is facilitated by the use of organic modifiers. The observed differences in binding methylated versus unmethylated DNA can make drug-conjugated microbeads useful in diagnostic as well as therapeutic applications. These results demonstrate that anti-cancer drugs represent a diverse set of ligands that may be exploited for molecular engineering of novel DNA binding materials for applications in delivery, diagnostics, and biomanufacturing. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Specific minor groove solvation is a crucial determinant of DNA binding site recognition

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Lydia-Ann; Williams, Loren Dean; Koudelka, Gerald B.

    2014-01-01

    The DNA sequence preferences of nearly all sequence specific DNA binding proteins are influenced by the identities of bases that are not directly contacted by protein. Discrimination between non-contacted base sequences is commonly based on the differential abilities of DNA sequences to allow narrowing of the DNA minor groove. However, the factors that govern the propensity of minor groove narrowing are not completely understood. Here we show that the differential abilities of various DNA sequences to support formation of a highly ordered and stable minor groove solvation network are a key determinant of non-contacted base recognition by a sequence-specific binding protein. In addition, disrupting the solvent network in the non-contacted region of the binding site alters the protein's ability to recognize contacted base sequences at positions 5–6 bases away. This observation suggests that DNA solvent interactions link contacted and non-contacted base recognition by the protein. PMID:25429976

  18. Quest for the binding mode of tetrabromobisphenol A with Calf thymus DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Cao, Jian

    2014-10-01

    The binding interaction of tetrabromobisphenol A with Calf thymus DNA was studied by multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The UV-vis study revealed that an obvious interaction between tetrabromobisphenol A and Calf thymus DNA happened. The π-π∗ transitions and the electron cloud of tetrabromobisphenol A might be changed by entering the groove of Calf thymus DNA. From the fluorescence spectral and thermodynamics studies, it was concluded that the hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic force played a major role in the binding of tetrabromobisphenol A to Calf thymus DNA. The molecular modeling study showed that the possible sites of tetrabromobisphenol A in the groove of DNA. Circular dichroism study also depicted that tetrabromobisphenol A bond to DNA. These above results would further advance our knowledge on the molecular mechanism of the binding interactions of brominated flame-retardants with nucleic acid.

  19. RecA binding to a single double-stranded DNA molecule: A possible role of DNA conformational fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Leger, J. F.; Robert, J.; Bourdieu, L.; Chatenay, D.; Marko, J. F.

    1998-01-01

    Most genetic regulatory mechanisms involve protein–DNA interactions. In these processes, the classical Watson–Crick DNA structure sometimes is distorted severely, which in turn enables the precise recognition of the specific sites by the protein. Despite its key importance, very little is known about such deformation processes. To address this general question, we have studied a model system, namely, RecA binding to double-stranded DNA. Results from micromanipulation experiments indicate that RecA binds strongly to stretched DNA; based on this observation, we propose that spontaneous thermal stretching fluctuations may play a role in the binding of RecA to DNA. This has fundamental implications for the protein–DNA binding mechanism, which must therefore rely in part on a combination of flexibility and thermal fluctuations of the DNA structure. We also show that this mechanism is sequence sensitive. Theoretical simulations support this interpretation of our experimental results, and it is argued that this is of broad relevance to DNA–protein interactions. PMID:9770480

  20. Structural Reorganization and the Cooperative Binding of Single-stranded Telomere DNA in Sterkiella nova*

    PubMed Central

    Buczek, Pawel; Horvath, Martin P.

    2009-01-01

    In Sterkiella nova, α and β telomere proteins bind cooperatively with single-stranded DNA to form a ternary α·β·DNA complex. Association of telomere protein subunits is DNA-dependent, and α-β association enhances DNA affinity. To further understand the molecular basis for binding cooperativity, we characterized several possible stepwise assembly pathways using isothermal titration calorimetry. In one path, α and DNA first form a stable α·DNA complex followed by addition of β in a second step. Binding energy accumulates with nearly equal free energy of association for each of these steps. Heat capacity is nonetheless dramatically different with ΔCp = −305 ± 3 cal mol−1 K−1 for α binding with DNA and ΔCp = −2010 ± 20 cal mol−1 K−1 for addition of β to complete the α·β·DNA complex. By examining alternate routes including titration of single-stranded DNA with a preformed α·β complex, a significant portion of binding energy and heat capacity could be assigned to structural reorganization involving protein-protein interactions and repositioning of the DNA. Structural reorganization probably affords a mechanism to regulate high affinity binding of telomere single-stranded DNA with important implications for telomere biology. Regulation of telomere complex dissociation is thought to involve post-translational modifications in the lysine-rich C-terminal portion of β. We observed no difference in binding energetics or crystal structure when comparing complexes prepared with full-length β or a C-terminally truncated form, supporting interesting parallels between the intrinsically disordered regions of histones and this portion of β. PMID:17082188

  1. Deciphering the groove binding modes of tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin with calf thymus DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Mo; Zhang, Guowen; Pan, Junhui; Xiong, Chunhong

    2016-02-01

    Tau-fluvalinate (TFL) and flumethrin (FL), widely used in agriculture and a class of synthetic pyrethroid pesticides with a similar structure, may cause a potential security risk. Herein, the modes of binding in vitro of TFL and FL with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were characterized by fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy with the aid of viscosity measurements, melting analyses and molecular docking studies. The fluorescence titration indicated that both TFL and FL bound to ctDNA forming complexes through hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. The binding constants of TFL and FL with ctDNA were in the range of 104 L mol- 1, and FL exhibited a higher binding propensity than TFL. The iodide quenching effect, single/double-stranded DNA effects, and ctDNA melting and viscosity measurements demonstrated that the binding of both TFL and FL to ctDNA was groove mode. The FT-IR analyses suggested the A-T region of the minor groove of ctDNA as the preferential binding for TFL and FL, which was confirmed by the displacement assays with Hoechst 33258 probe, and the molecular docking visualized the specific binding. The changes in CD spectra indicated that both FL and TFL induced the perturbation on the base stacking and helicity of B-DNA, but the disturbance caused by FL was more obvious. Gel electrophoresis analyses indicated that both TFL and FL did not cause significant DNA cleavage. This study provides novel insights into the binding properties of TFL/FL with ctDNA and its toxic mechanisms.

  2. Cooperation between Catalytic and DNA-binding Domains Enhances Thermostability and Supports DNA Synthesis at Higher Temperatures by Thermostable DNA Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Andrey R.; Pavlova, Nadejda V.; Kozyavkin, Sergei A.; Slesarev, Alexei I.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously introduced a general kinetic approach for comparative study of processivity, thermostability, and resistance to inhibitors of DNA polymerases (Pavlov et. al., (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 13510–13515). The proposed method was successfully applied to characterize hybrid DNA polymerases created by fusing catalytic DNA polymerase domains with various non-specific DNA binding domains. Here we use the developed kinetic analysis to assess basic parameters of DNA elongation by DNA polymerases and to further study the interdomain interactions in both previously constructed and new chimeric DNA polymerases. We show that connecting Helix-hairpin-Helix (HhH) domains to catalytic polymerase domains can increase thermostability, not only of DNA polymerases from extremely thermophilic species, but also of the enzyme from a faculatative thermophilic bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus. We also demonstrate that addition of TopoV HhH domains extends efficient DNA synthesis by chimerical polymerases up to 105°C by maintaining processivity of DNA synthesis at high temperatures. We also found that reversible high-temperature structural transitions in DNA polymerases decrease the rates of binding of these enzymes to the templates. Furthermore, activation energies and pre-exponential factors of the Arrhenius equation suggest that the mechanism of electrostatic enhancement of diffusion-controlled association plays a minor role in binding templates to DNA polymerases. PMID:22320201

  3. DNA-cisplatin binding mechanism peculiarities studied with single molecule stretching experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisafuli, F. A. P.; Cesconetto, E. C.; Ramos, E. B.; Rocha, M. S.

    2012-02-01

    We propose a method to determine the DNA-cisplatin binding mechanism peculiarities by monitoring the mechanical properties of these complexes. To accomplish this task, we have performed single molecule stretching experiments by using optical tweezers, from which the persistence and contour lengths of the complexes can be promptly measured. The persistence length of the complexes as a function of the drug total concentration in the sample was used to deduce the binding data, from which we show that cisplatin binds cooperatively to the DNA molecule, a point which so far has not been stressed in binding equilibrium studies of this ligand.

  4. Prospects of nanoparticle-DNA binding and its implications in medical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    An, Hongjie; Jin, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Bio-nanotechnology is a new interdisciplinary R&D area that integrates engineering and physical science with biology through the development of multifunctional devices and systems, focusing biology inspired processes or their applications, in particular in medical biotechnology. DNA based nanotechnology, in many ways, has been one of the most intensively studied fields in recent years that involves the use and the creation of bio-inspired materials and their technologies for highly selective biosensing, nanoarchitecture engineering and nanoelectronics. Increasing researches have been offered to a fundamental understanding how the interactions between the nanoparticles and DNA molecules could alter DNA molecular structure and its biochemical activities. This minor review describes the mechanisms of the nanoparticle-DNA binding and molecular interactions. We present recent discoveries and research progresses how the nanoparticle-DNA binding could vary DNA molecular structure, DNA detection, and gene therapy. We report a few case studies associated with the application of the nanoparticle-DNA binding devices in medical detection and biotechnology. The potential impacts of the nanoparticles via DNA binding on toxicity of the microorganisms are briefly discussed. The nanoparticle-DNA interactions and their impact on molecular and microbial functionalities have only drown attention in recent a few years. The information presented in this review can provide useful references for further studies on biomedical science and technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Computational investigation of fullerene-DNA interactions: Implications of fullerene's size and functionalization on DNA structure and binding energetics.

    PubMed

    Papavasileiou, Konstantinos D; Avramopoulos, Aggelos; Leonis, Georgios; Papadopoulos, Manthos G

    2017-06-01

    DNA is the building block of life, as it carries the biological information controlling development, function and reproduction of all organisms. However, its central role in storing and transferring genetic information can be severely hindered by molecules with structure altering abilities. Fullerenes are nanoparticles that find a broad spectrum of uses, but their toxicological effects on living organisms upon exposure remain unclear. The present study examines the interactions of a diverse array of fullerenes with DNA, by means of Molecular Dynamics and MM-PBSA methodologies, with special focus on structural deformations that may hint toxicity implications. Our results show that pristine and hydroxylated fullerenes have no unwinding effects upon DNA structure, with the latter displaying binding preference to the DNA major groove, achieved by both direct formation of hydrogen bonds and water molecule mediation. Fluorinated derivatives are capable of penetrating DNA structure, forming intercalative complexes with high binding affinities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Two-step interrogation then recognition of DNA binding site by Integration Host Factor: an architectural DNA-bending protein.

    PubMed

    Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Vivas, Paula; Connolly, Mitchell; Kuznetsov, Serguei V; Rice, Phoebe A; Ansari, Anjum

    2018-02-28

    The dynamics and mechanism of how site-specific DNA-bending proteins initially interrogate potential binding sites prior to recognition have remained elusive for most systems. Here we present these dynamics for Integration Host factor (IHF), a nucleoid-associated architectural protein, using a μs-resolved T-jump approach. Our studies show two distinct DNA-bending steps during site recognition by IHF. While the faster (∼100 μs) step is unaffected by changes in DNA or protein sequence that alter affinity by >100-fold, the slower (1-10 ms) step is accelerated ∼5-fold when mismatches are introduced at DNA sites that are sharply kinked in the specific complex. The amplitudes of the fast phase increase when the specific complex is destabilized and decrease with increasing [salt], which increases specificity. Taken together, these results indicate that the fast phase is non-specific DNA bending while the slow phase, which responds only to changes in DNA flexibility at the kink sites, is specific DNA kinking during site recognition. Notably, the timescales for the fast phase overlap with one-dimensional diffusion times measured for several proteins on DNA, suggesting that these dynamics reflect partial DNA bending during interrogation of potential binding sites by IHF as it scans DNA.

  7. DNA binding and unwinding by Hel308 helicase requires dual functions of a winged helix domain.

    PubMed

    Northall, Sarah J; Buckley, Ryan; Jones, Nathan; Penedo, J Carlos; Soultanas, Panos; Bolt, Edward L

    2017-09-01

    Hel308 helicases promote genome stability linked to DNA replication in archaea, and have homologues in metazoans. In the crystal structure of archaeal Hel308 bound to a tailed DNA duplex, core helicase domains encircle single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in a "ratchet" for directional translocation. A winged helix domain (WHD) is also present, but its function is mysterious. We investigated the WHD in full-length Hel308, identifying that mutations in a solvent exposed α-helix resulted in reduced DNA binding and unwinding activities. When isolated from the rest of Hel308, the WHD protein alone bound to duplex DNA but not ssDNA, and DNA binding by WHD protein was abolished by the same mutations as were analyzed in full-length Hel308. Isolated WHD from a human Hel308 homologue (HelQ) also bound to duplex DNA. By disrupting the interface between the Hel308 WHD and a RecA-like domain, a topology typical of Ski2 helicases, we show that this is crucial for ATPase and helicase activities. The data suggest a model in which the WHD promotes activity of Hel308 directly, through binding to duplex DNA that is distinct from ssDNA binding by core helicase, and indirectly through interaction with the RecA-like domain. We propose how the WHD may contribute to ssDNA translocation, resulting in DNA helicase activity or in removal of other DNA bound proteins by "reeling" ssDNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel DNA Motif Binding Activity Observed In Vivo With an Estrogen Receptor α Mutant Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Li, Leping; Grimm, Sara A.; Winuthayanon, Wipawee; Hamilton, Katherine J.; Pockette, Brianna; Rubel, Cory A.; Pedersen, Lars C.; Fargo, David; Lanz, Rainer B.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Schütz, Günther; Korach, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) interacts with DNA directly or indirectly via other transcription factors, referred to as “tethering.” Evidence for tethering is based on in vitro studies and a widely used “KIKO” mouse model containing mutations that prevent direct estrogen response element DNA- binding. KIKO mice are infertile, due in part to the inability of estradiol (E2) to induce uterine epithelial proliferation. To elucidate the molecular events that prevent KIKO uterine growth, regulation of the pro-proliferative E2 target gene Klf4 and of Klf15, a progesterone (P4) target gene that opposes the pro-proliferative activity of KLF4, was evaluated. Klf4 induction was impaired in KIKO uteri; however, Klf15 was induced by E2 rather than by P4. Whole uterine chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing revealed enrichment of KIKO ERα binding to hormone response elements (HREs) motifs. KIKO binding to HRE motifs was verified using reporter gene and DNA-binding assays. Because the KIKO ERα has HRE DNA-binding activity, we evaluated the “EAAE” ERα, which has more severe DNA-binding domain mutations, and demonstrated a lack of estrogen response element or HRE reporter gene induction or DNA-binding. The EAAE mouse has an ERα null–like phenotype, with impaired uterine growth and transcriptional activity. Our findings demonstrate that the KIKO mouse model, which has been used by numerous investigators, cannot be used to establish biological functions for ERα tethering, because KIKO ERα effectively stimulates transcription using HRE motifs. The EAAE-ERα DNA-binding domain mutant mouse demonstrates that ERα DNA-binding is crucial for biological and transcriptional processes in reproductive tissues and that ERα tethering may not contribute to estrogen responsiveness in vivo. PMID:24713037

  9. New phthalimide-appended Schiff bases: Studies of DNA binding, molecular docking and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Nayab, Pattan Sirajuddin; Akrema; Ansari, Istikhar A; Shahid, Mohammad; Rahisuddin

    2017-08-01

    Herein, we investigated new phthalimide-based Schiff base molecules as promising DNA-binding and free radical scavenging agents. Physicochemical properties of these molecules were demonstrated on the basis of elemental analysis, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), infra-red (IR), 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. All spectral data are agreed well with the proposed Schiff base framework. The DNA-binding potential of synthesized compounds were investigated by means of UV-visible, fluorescence, iodide quenching, circular dichroism, viscosity and thermal denaturation studies. The intrinsic binding constants (K b ) were calculated from absorption studies were found to be 1.1 × 10 4 and 1.0 × 10 4  M -1 for compounds 2a and 2b suggesting that compound 2a binding abilities with DNA were stronger than the compound 2b. Our studies showed that the presented compounds interact with DNA through groove binding. Molecular docking studies were carried out to predict the binding between Ct-DNA and test compounds. Interestingly, in silico predictions were corroborated with in vitro DNA-binding conclusions. Furthermore, the title compounds displayed remarkable antioxidant activity compared with reference standard. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Imaging chromatin nanostructure with binding-activated localization microscopy based on DNA structure fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Szczurek, Aleksander; Klewes, Ludger; Xing, Jun; Gourram, Amine; Birk, Udo; Knecht, Hans; Dobrucki, Jurek W.; Mai, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Advanced light microscopy is an important tool for nanostructure analysis of chromatin. In this report we present a general concept for Single Molecule localization Microscopy (SMLM) super-resolved imaging of DNA-binding dyes based on modifying the properties of DNA and the dye. By careful adjustment of the chemical environment leading to local, reversible DNA melting and hybridization control over the fluorescence signal of the DNA-binding dye molecules can be introduced. We postulate a transient binding as the basis for our variation of binding-activated localization microscopy (BALM). We demonstrate that several intercalating and minor-groove binding DNA dyes can be used to register (optically isolate) only a few DNA-binding dye signals at a time. To highlight this DNA structure fluctuation-assisted BALM (fBALM), we applied it to measure, for the first time, nanoscale differences in nuclear architecture in model ischemia with an anticipated structural resolution of approximately 50 nm. Our data suggest that this approach may open an avenue for the enhanced microscopic analysis of chromatin nano-architecture and hence the microscopic analysis of nuclear structure aberrations occurring in various pathological conditions. It may also become possible to analyse nuclear nanostructure differences in different cell types, stages of development or environmental stress conditions. PMID:28082388

  11. Analytical methods to determine the comparative DNA binding studies of curcumin-Cu(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, Jegathalaprathaban; Rajasekaran, Marichamy; Rajagopal, Gurusamy; Athappan, Periakaruppan

    2012-11-01

    DNA interaction studies of two mononuclear [1:1(1); 1:2(2)] copper(II) complexes of curcumin have been studied. The interaction of these complexes with CT-DNA has been explored by physical methods to propose modes of DNA binding of the complexes. Absorption spectral titrations of complex 1 with CT-DNA shows a red-shift of 3 nm with the DNA binding affinity of Kb, 5.21 × 104 M-1 that are higher than that obtained for 2 (red-shift, 2 nm; Kb, 1.73 × 104 M-1) reveal that the binding occurs in grooves as a result of the interaction is via exterior phosphates. The CD spectra of these Cu(II) complexes show a red shift of 3-10 nm in the positive band with increase in intensities. This spectral change of induced CD due to the hydrophobic interaction of copper complexes with DNA is the characteristic of B to A conformational change. The EB displacement assay also reveals the same trend as observed in UV-Vis spectral titration. The addition of complexes 1 and 2 to the DNA bound ethidium bromide (EB) solutions causes an obvious reduction in emission intensities indicating that these complexes competitively bind to DNA with EB. The positive shift of both the Epc and E0' accompanied by reduction of peak currents in differential pulse voltammogram (DPV), upon adding different concentrations of DNA to the metal complexes, are obviously in favor of strong binding to DNA. The super coiled plasmid pUC18 DNA cleavage ability of Cu(II) complexes in the presence of reducing agent reveals the single strand DNA cleavage (ssDNA) is observed. The hydroxyl radical (HOrad ) and the singlet oxygen are believed to be the reactive species responsible for the cleavage.

  12. From face to interface recognition: a differential geometric approach to distinguish DNA from RNA binding surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Shazman, Shula; Elber, Gershon; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2011-01-01

    Protein nucleic acid interactions play a critical role in all steps of the gene expression pathway. Nucleic acid (NA) binding proteins interact with their partners, DNA or RNA, via distinct regions on their surface that are characterized by an ensemble of chemical, physical and geometrical properties. In this study, we introduce a novel methodology based on differential geometry, commonly used in face recognition, to characterize and predict NA binding surfaces on proteins. Applying the method on experimentally solved three-dimensional structures of proteins we successfully classify double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) from single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) binding proteins, with 83% accuracy. We show that the method is insensitive to conformational changes that occur upon binding and can be applicable for de novo protein-function prediction. Remarkably, when concentrating on the zinc finger motif, we distinguish successfully between RNA and DNA binding interfaces possessing the same binding motif even within the same protein, as demonstrated for the RNA polymerase transcription-factor, TFIIIA. In conclusion, we present a novel methodology to characterize protein surfaces, which can accurately tell apart dsDNA from an ssRNA binding interfaces. The strength of our method in recognizing fine-tuned differences on NA binding interfaces make it applicable for many other molecular recognition problems, with potential implications for drug design. PMID:21693557

  13. From face to interface recognition: a differential geometric approach to distinguish DNA from RNA binding surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shazman, Shula; Elber, Gershon; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2011-09-01

    Protein nucleic acid interactions play a critical role in all steps of the gene expression pathway. Nucleic acid (NA) binding proteins interact with their partners, DNA or RNA, via distinct regions on their surface that are characterized by an ensemble of chemical, physical and geometrical properties. In this study, we introduce a novel methodology based on differential geometry, commonly used in face recognition, to characterize and predict NA binding surfaces on proteins. Applying the method on experimentally solved three-dimensional structures of proteins we successfully classify double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) from single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) binding proteins, with 83% accuracy. We show that the method is insensitive to conformational changes that occur upon binding and can be applicable for de novo protein-function prediction. Remarkably, when concentrating on the zinc finger motif, we distinguish successfully between RNA and DNA binding interfaces possessing the same binding motif even within the same protein, as demonstrated for the RNA polymerase transcription-factor, TFIIIA. In conclusion, we present a novel methodology to characterize protein surfaces, which can accurately tell apart dsDNA from an ssRNA binding interfaces. The strength of our method in recognizing fine-tuned differences on NA binding interfaces make it applicable for many other molecular recognition problems, with potential implications for drug design.

  14. A Comparison Study for DNA Motif Modeling on Protein Binding Microarray.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka-Chun; Li, Yue; Peng, Chengbin; Wong, Hau-San

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) are relatively short (5-15 bp) and degenerate. Identifying them is a computationally challenging task. In particular, protein binding microarray (PBM) is a high-throughput platform that can measure the DNA binding preference of a protein in a comprehensive and unbiased manner; for instance, a typical PBM experiment can measure binding signal intensities of a protein to all possible DNA k-mers (k = 8∼10). Since proteins can often bind to DNA with different binding intensities, one of the major challenges is to build TFBS (also known as DNA motif) models which can fully capture the quantitative binding affinity data. To learn DNA motif models from the non-convex objective function landscape, several optimization methods are compared and applied to the PBM motif model building problem. In particular, representative methods from different optimization paradigms have been chosen for modeling performance comparison on hundreds of PBM datasets. The results suggest that the multimodal optimization methods are very effective for capturing the binding preference information from PBM data. In particular, we observe a general performance improvement if choosing di-nucleotide modeling over mono-nucleotide modeling. In addition, the models learned by the best-performing method are applied to two independent applications: PBM probe rotation testing and ChIP-Seq peak sequence prediction, demonstrating its biological applicability.

  15. Binding mechanism of PicoGreen to DNA characterized by magnetic tweezers and fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Schellenberg, Helene; Walhorn, Volker; Toensing, Katja; Anselmetti, Dario

    2017-09-01

    Fluorescent dyes are broadly used in many biotechnological applications to detect and visualize DNA molecules. However, their binding to DNA alters the structural and nanomechanical properties of DNA and, thus, interferes with associated biological processes. In this work we employed magnetic tweezers and fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate the binding of PicoGreen to DNA at room temperature in a concentration-dependent manner. PicoGreen is an ultrasensitive quinolinium nucleic acid stain exhibiting hardly any background signal from unbound dye molecules. By means of stretching and overwinding single, torsionally constrained, nick-free double-stranded DNA molecules, we acquired force-extension and supercoiling curves which allow quantifying DNA contour length, persistence length and other thermodynamical binding parameters, respectively. The results of our magnetic tweezers single-molecule binding study were well supported through analyzing the fluorescent spectra of stained DNA. On the basis of our work, we could identify a concentration-dependent bimodal binding behavior, where, apparently, PicoGreen associates to DNA as an intercalator and minor-groove binder simultaneously.

  16. The amplification effect of functionalized gold nanoparticles on the binding of anticancer drug dacarbazine to DNA and DNA bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Qin; Wang, Xuemei; Fu, Degang

    2008-11-01

    The promising application of functionalized gold nanoparticles to amplify the performance of biosensors and relevant biomolecular recognition processes has been explored in this paper. Our observations illustrate the apparent enhancement effect of the gold nanoparticles on the electrochemical response of the anticancer drug dacarbazine (DTIC) binding to DNA and DNA bases, indicating that these functionalized gold nanoparticles could readily facilitate the specific interactions between DTIC and DNA/DNA bases. This raises the potential valuable applications of these biocompatible nanoparticles in the promising biosensors and biomedical engineering.

  17. DNA Binding Mode Transitions of Escherichia coli HUαβ: Evidence for Formation of a Bent DNA – Protein Complex on Intact, Linear Duplex DNA

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Junseock; Saecker, Ruth M.; Record, M. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli HUαβ, a major nucleoid associated protein (NAP), organizes the DNA chromosome and facilitates numerous DNA transactions. Using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and a series of DNA lengths (8, 15, 34, 38 and 160 base pairs) we establish that HUαβ interacts with duplex DNA using three different nonspecific binding modes. Both the HU to DNA mole ratio ([HU]/[DNA]) and DNA length dictate the dominant HU binding mode. On sufficiently long DNA (≥ 34 base pairs), at low [HU]/[DNA], HU populates a noncooperative 34 bp binding mode with a binding constant of 2.1 (± 0.4) × 106 M−1, and a binding enthalpy of +7.7 (± 0.6) kcal/mol at 15 °C and 0.15 M Na+. With increasing [HU]/[DNA], HU bound in the noncooperative 34 bp mode progressively converts to two cooperative (ω ~ 20) modes with site sizes of 10 bp and 6 bp. These latter modes exhibit smaller binding constants (1.1 (± 0.2) × 105 M−1 for the 10 bp mode, 3.5 (± 1.4) × 104 M−1 for the 6 bp mode) and binding enthalpies (4.2 (± 0.3) kcal/mol for the 10 bp mode, −1.6 (±0.3) kcal/mol for the 6 bp mode). As DNA length increases to 34 bp or more at low [HU]/[DNA], the small modes are replaced by the 34 bp binding mode. FRET data demonstrate that the 34 bp mode bends DNA by 143 ± 6° whereas the 6 and 10 bp modes do not. The model proposed in this study provides a novel quantitative and comprehensive framework for reconciling previous structural and solution studies of HU, including single molecule (force extension measurement, AFM), fluorescence, and electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays. In particular, it explains how HU condenses or extends DNA depending on the relative concentrations of HU and DNA. PMID:18657548

  18. In vitro DNA binding studies of therapeutic and prophylactic drug citral.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Fazle; Varshney, Supriya; Khan, Masood Alam; Laskar, Amaj Ahmed; Younus, Hina

    2018-07-01

    The study of drug-DNA interactions is of great importance, as it paves the way towards the design of better therapeutic agents. Here, the interaction of DNA with a therapeutic and prophylactic drug citral has been studied. We have attempted to ascertain the mode of binding of citral with calf thymus DNA (Ct-DNA) through various biophysical techniques. Analysis of the UV-visible absorbance spectra and fluorescence spectra indicated the formation of a complex between citral and Ct-DNA. Competitive binding assays with ethidium bromide (EB), acridine orange (AO) and Hoechst 33258 reflected that citral possibly intercalates within the Ct-DNA. These observations were further confirmed by circular dichroism (CD) spectral analysis, viscosity measurements, DNA melting and molecular docking studies. This study is expected to contribute to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of citral, and design of new drugs in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Drosophila telomere-capping protein Verrocchio binds single-stranded DNA and protects telomeres from DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Cicconi, Alessandro; Micheli, Emanuela; Vernì, Fiammetta; Jackson, Alison; Gradilla, Ana Citlali; Cipressa, Francesca; Raimondo, Domenico; Bosso, Giuseppe; Wakefield, James G.; Ciapponi, Laura; Cenci, Giovanni; Gatti, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Drosophila telomeres are sequence-independent structures maintained by transposition to chromosome ends of three specialized retroelements rather than by telomerase activity. Fly telomeres are protected by the terminin complex that includes the HOAP, HipHop, Moi and Ver proteins. These are fast evolving, non-conserved proteins that localize and function exclusively at telomeres, protecting them from fusion events. We have previously suggested that terminin is the functional analogue of shelterin, the multi-protein complex that protects human telomeres. Here, we use electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to show that Ver preferentially binds single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with no sequence specificity. We also show that Moi and Ver form a complex in vivo. Although these two proteins are mutually dependent for their localization at telomeres, Moi neither binds ssDNA nor facilitates Ver binding to ssDNA. Consistent with these results, we found that Ver-depleted telomeres form RPA and γH2AX foci, like the human telomeres lacking the ssDNA-binding POT1 protein. Collectively, our findings suggest that Drosophila telomeres possess a ssDNA overhang like the other eukaryotes, and that the terminin complex is architecturally and functionally similar to shelterin. PMID:27940556

  20. Sequence Discrimination by Alternatively Spliced Isoforms of a DNA Binding Zinc Finger Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogos, Joseph A.; Hsu, Tien; Bolton, Jesse; Kafatos, Fotis C.

    1992-09-01

    Two major developmentally regulated isoforms of the Drosophila chorion transcription factor CF2 differ by an extra zinc finger within the DNA binding domain. The preferred DNA binding sites were determined and are distinguished by an internal duplication of TAT in the site recognized by the isoform with the extra finger. The results are consistent with modular interactions between zinc fingers and trinucleotides and also suggest rules for recognition of AT-rich DNA sites by zinc finger proteins. The results show how modular finger interactions with trinucleotides can be used, in conjunction with alternative splicing, to alter the binding specificity and increase the spectrum of sites recognized by a DNA binding domain. Thus, CF2 may potentially regulate distinct sets of target genes during development.

  1. Mutations in the C-terminal fragment of DnaK affecting peptide binding.

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, W F; Zhao, X; Zhu, X; Hendrickson, W A; Gragerov, A; Gottesman, M E

    1996-01-01

    Escherichia coli DnaK acts as a molecular chaperone through its ATP-regulated binding and release of polypeptide substrates. Overexpressing a C-terminal fragment (CTF) of DnaK (Gly-384 to Lys-638) containing the polypeptide substrate binding domain is lethal in wild-type E. coli. This dominant-negative phenotype may result from the nonproductive binding of CTF to cellular polypeptide targets of DnaK. Mutations affecting DnaK substrate binding were identified by selecting noncytotoxic CTF mutants followed by in vitro screening. The clustering of such mutations in the three-dimensional structure of CTF suggests the model that loops L1,2 and L4,5 form a rigid core structure critical for interactions with substrate. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8855230

  2. The ATPase domain of the large terminase protein, gp17, from bacteriophage T4 binds DNA: implications to the DNA packaging mechanism.

    PubMed

    Alam, Tanfis I; Rao, Venigalla B

    2008-03-07

    Translocation of double-stranded DNA into a preformed capsid by tailed bacteriophages is driven by powerful motors assembled at the special portal vertex. The motor is thought to drive processive cycles of DNA binding, movement, and release to package the viral genome. In phage T4, there is evidence that the large terminase protein, gene product 17 (gp17), assembles into a multisubunit motor and translocates DNA by an inchworm mechanism. gp17 consists of two domains; an N-terminal ATPase domain (amino acids 1-360) that powers translocation of DNA, and a C-terminal nuclease domain (amino acids 361-610) that cuts concatemeric DNA to generate a headful-size viral genome. While the functional motifs of ATPase and nuclease have been well defined and the ATPase atomic structure has been solved, the DNA binding motif(s) responsible for viral DNA recognition, cutting, and translocation are unknown. Here we report the first evidence for the presence of a double-stranded DNA binding activity in the gp17 ATPase domain. Binding to DNA is sensitive to Mg(2+) and salt, but not the type of DNA used. DNA fragments as short as 20 bp can bind to the ATPase but preferential binding was observed to DNA greater than 1 kb. A high molecular weight ATPase-DNA complex was isolated by gel filtration, suggesting oligomerization of ATPase following DNA interaction. DNA binding was not observed with the full-length gp17, or the C-terminal nuclease domain. The small terminase protein, gp16, inhibited DNA binding, which was further accentuated by ATP. The presence of a DNA binding site in the ATPase domain and its binding properties implicate a role in the DNA packaging mechanism.

  3. Selective inhibition of c-Myc/Max dimerization and DNA binding by small molecules.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Anke; Sperl, Bianca; Hollis, Angela; Eick, Dirk; Berg, Thorsten

    2006-07-01

    bZip and bHLHZip protein family members comprise a large fraction of eukaryotic transcription factors and need to bind DNA in order to exert most of their fundamental biological roles. Their binding to DNA requires homo- or heterodimerization via alpha-helical domains, which generally do not contain obvious binding sites for small molecules. We have identified two small molecules, dubbed Mycro1 and Mycro2, which inhibit the protein-protein interactions between the bHLHZip proteins c-Myc and Max. Mycros are the first inhibitors of c-Myc/Max dimerization, which have been demonstrated to inhibit DNA binding of c-Myc with preference over other dimeric transcription factors in vitro. Mycros inhibit c-Myc-dependent proliferation, gene transcription, and oncogenic transformation in the low micromolar concentration range. Our data support the idea that dimeric transcription factors can be druggable even in the absence of obvious small-molecule binding pockets.

  4. Spectrophotometric study on binding of 2-thioxanthone acetic acid with ct-DNA.

    PubMed

    Ataci, Nese; Ozcelik, Elif; Arsu, Nergis

    2018-06-02

    Thioxanthone and its derivatives are the most remarkable molecules due to their vast variety of application such as radiation curing that is, until using them as a therapeutic drug. Therefore, in this study it was intended to use 2-Thioxanthone acetic acid with and without NaCl in Tris HCl buffer solution (pH:7.0) to represent the interaction with ct-DNA. The UV-vis absorption spectra of TXCH 2 COOH in the presence of ct-DNA showed hypochromism and the intrinstic binding constant (K b ) was determined as 6 × 10 3  L mol -1 . The fluoresence intensity of TXCH 2 COOH with ct-DNA clearly increased up to 101% which indicated that the fluorescence intensity was very sensitive to ct-DNA concentration. The binding constant (K) and the values of number of binding sites (n) and were calculated as 1.8 × 10 3  L mol -1 and 0.69, respectively. When the quenching constants (K sv ) of free TXCH 2 COOH and TXCH 2 COOH, which were bonded with ct-DNA were compared, slightly changed values of Ksv were seen. Moreover, displacement assay with Hoechst 33,258 and viscosity measurements in the presence and absence of NaCl salt also confirmed the binding mode which noted the electrostatic interaction following groove binding between TXCH 2 COOH and ct-DNA. Last but not least, the salt effect was examined on ct-DNA binding with TXCH 2 COOH. The results of the experiments indicated that the groove binding was strengthened by NaCl whereas in the high NaCl concentration, the binding ability of TXCH 2 COOH to ct-DNA was inversely affected. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Insights into the nature of DNA binding of AbrB-like transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Daniel M.; Bobay, Benjamin G.; Kojetin, Douglas J.; Thompson, Richele J.; Rance, Mark; Strauch, Mark A.; Cavanagh, John

    2008-01-01

    Summary Understanding the DNA recognition and binding by the AbrB-like family of transcriptional regulators is of significant interest since these proteins enable bacteria to elicit the appropriate response to diverse environmental stimuli. Although these ‘transition-state regulator’ proteins have been well characterized at the genetic level, the general and specific mechanisms of DNA binding remain elusive. We present RDC-refined NMR solution structures and dynamic properties of the DNA-binding domains of three Bacillus subtilis transition-state regulators AbrB, Abh, and SpoVT. We combined previously investigated DNase I footprinting, DNA methylation, gel shift assays, mutagenic and NMR studies to generate a structural model of the complex between AbrBN55 and its cognate promoter, abrB8. These investigations have enabled us to generate the first model for the specific nature of the transition-state regulator-DNA interaction. PMID:19000822

  6. Specific DNA binding activity of T antigen subclasses varies among different SV40-transformed cell lines.

    PubMed

    Burger, C; Fanning, E

    1983-04-15

    Large tumor antigen (T antigen) occurs in at least three different oligomeric subclasses in cells infected or transformed by simian virus 40 (SV40): 5-7 S, 14-16 S, and 23-25 S. The 23-25 S form is complexed with a host phosphoprotein (p53). The DNA binding properties of these three subclasses of T antigen from nine different cell lines and free p53 protein were compared using an immunoprecipitation assay. All three subclasses of T antigen bound specifically to SV40 DNA sequences near the origin of replication. However, the DNA binding activity varied between different cell lines over a 40- to 50-fold range. The 23-25 S and 14-16 S forms from most of the cell lines tested bound much less SV40 origin DNA than 5-7 S T antigen. The free p53 phosphoprotein did not bind specifically to any SV40 DNA sequences.

  7. A method to identify and characterize Z-DNA binding proteins using a linear oligodeoxynucleotide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, A. G.; Rich, A.

    1993-01-01

    An oligodeoxynucleotide that readily flips to the Z-DNA conformation in 10mM MgCl2 was produced by using Klenow enzyme to incorporate 5-bromodeoxycytosine and deoxyguanosine into a (dC-dG)22 template. During synthesis the oligomer can be labeled with 32P to high specific activity. The labeled oligodeoxynucleotide can be used in bandshift experiment to detect proteins that bind Z-DNA. This allows the binding specificity of such proteins to be determined with high reliability using unlabeled linear and supercoiled DNA competitors. In addition, because the radioactive oligodeoxynucleotide contains bromine atoms, DNA-protein complexes can be readily crosslinked using UV light. This allows an estimate to be made of the molecular weight of the proteins that bind to the radioactive probe. Both techniques are demonstrated using a goat polyclonal anti-Z-DNA antiserum.

  8. Studies of Single Biomolecules, DNA Conformational Dynamics, and Protein Binding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-11

    Nucleotide Base pairs Hydrogen bonds FIG. 1: Ladder structure of DNA showing the Watson - Crick bonding of the bases A, T, G, and C which are suspended by a...protected against unwanted action of chemicals and proteins. The three-dimensional structure of DNA is the famed Watson - Crick double-helix, the equilibrium...quantitative analysis [88]. [1] A. Kornberg and T. A. Baker, DNA Replication (W. H. Freeman, New York, 1992). [2] J. D. Watson and F. H. C. Crick

  9. Chiral halogenated Schiff base compounds: green synthesis, anticancer activity and DNA-binding study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyaeifar, Mahnaz; Amiri Rudbari, Hadi; Sahihi, Mehdi; Kazemi, Zahra; Kajani, Abolghasem Abbasi; Zali-Boeini, Hassan; Kordestani, Nazanin; Bruno, Giuseppe; Gharaghani, Sajjad

    2018-06-01

    Eight enantiomerically pure halogenated Schiff base compounds were synthesized by reaction of halogenated salicylaldehydes with 3-Amino-1,2-propanediol (R or S) in water as green solvent at ambient temperature. All compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, NMR (1H and 13C), circular dichroism (CD) and FT-IR spectroscopy. FS-DNA binding studies of these compounds carried out by fluorescence quenching and UV-vis spectroscopy. The obtained results revealed that the ligands bind to DNA as: (Rsbnd ClBr) > (Rsbnd Cl2) > (Rsbnd Br2) > (Rsbnd I2) and (Ssbnd ClBr) > (Ssbnd Cl2) > (Ssbnd Br2) > (Ssbnd I2), indicating the effect of halogen on binding constant. In addition, DNA-binding constant of the Ssbnd and R-enantiomers are different from each other. The ligands can form halogen bonds with DNA that were confirmed by molecular docking. This method was also measured the bond distances and bond angles. The study of obtained data can have concluded that binding affinity of the ligands to DNA depends on strength of halogen bonds. The potential anticancer activity of ligands were also evaluated on MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines by using MTT assay. The results showed that the anticancer activity and FS-DNA interaction is significantly dependent on the stereoisomers of Schiff base compounds as R-enantiomers displayed significantly higher activity than S-enantiomers. The molecular docking was also used to illustrate the specific DNA-binding of synthesized compounds and groove binding mode of DNA interaction was proposed for them. In addition, molecular docking results indicated that there are three types of bonds (Hsbnd and X-bond and hX-bond) between synthesized compounds and base pairs of DNA.

  10. DNA binding specificity of the basic-helix-loop-helix protein MASH-1.

    PubMed

    Meierhan, D; el-Ariss, C; Neuenschwander, M; Sieber, M; Stackhouse, J F; Allemann, R K

    1995-09-05

    Despite the high degree of sequence similarity in their basic-helix-loop-helix (BHLH) domains, MASH-1 and MyoD are involved in different biological processes. In order to define possible differences between the DNA binding specificities of these two proteins, we investigated the DNA binding properties of MASH-1 by circular dichroism spectroscopy and by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). Upon binding to DNA, the BHLH domain of MASH-1 underwent a conformational change from a mainly unfolded to a largely alpha-helical form, and surprisingly, this change was independent of the specific DNA sequence. The same conformational transition could be induced by the addition of 20% 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol. The apparent dissociation constants (KD) of the complexes of full-length MASH-1 with various oligonucleotides were determined from half-saturation points in EMSAs. MASH-1 bound as a dimer to DNA sequences containing an E-box with high affinity KD = 1.4-4.1 x 10(-14) M2). However, the specificity of DNA binding was low. The dissociation constant for the complex between MASH-1 and the highest affinity E-box sequence (KD = 1.4 x 10(-14) M2) was only a factor of 10 smaller than for completely unrelated DNA sequences (KD = approximately 1 x 10(-13) M2). The DNA binding specificity of MASH-1 was not significantly increased by the formation of an heterodimer with the ubiquitous E12 protein. MASH-1 and MyoD displayed similar binding site preferences, suggesting that their different target gene specificities cannot be explained solely by differential DNA binding. An explanation for these findings is provided on the basis of the known crystal structure of the BHLH domain of MyoD.

  11. Spermine Attenuates the Action of the DNA Intercalator, Actinomycin D, on DNA Binding and the Inhibition of Transcription and DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jeremy J. W.; Wu, Wen-Lin; Yuann, Jeu-Ming P.; Su, Wang-Lin; Chuang, Show-Mei; Hou, Ming-Hon

    2012-01-01

    The anticancer activity of DNA intercalators is related to their ability to intercalate into the DNA duplex with high affinity, thereby interfering with DNA replication and transcription. Polyamines (spermine in particular) are almost exclusively bound to nucleic acids and are involved in many cellular processes that require nucleic acids. Until now, the effects of polyamines on DNA intercalator activities have remained unclear because intercalation is the most important mechanism employed by DNA-binding drugs. Herein, using actinomycin D (ACTD) as a model, we have attempted to elucidate the effects of spermine on the action of ACTD, including its DNA-binding ability, RNA and DNA polymerase interference, and its role in the transcription and replication inhibition of ACTD within cells. We found that spermine interfered with the binding and stabilization of ACTD to DNA. The presence of increasing concentrations of spermine enhanced the transcriptional and replication activities of RNA and DNA polymerases, respectively, in vitro treated with ActD. Moreover, a decrease in intracellular polyamine concentrations stimulated by methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) enhanced the ACTD-induced inhibition of c-myc transcription and DNA replication in several cancer cell lines. The results indicated that spermine attenuates ACTD binding to DNA and its inhibition of transcription and DNA replication both in vitro and within cells. Finally, a synergistic antiproliferative effect of MGBG and ACTD was observed in a cell viability assay. Our findings will be of significant relevance to future developments in combination with cancer therapy by enhancing the anticancer activity of DNA interactors through polyamine depletion. PMID:23144800

  12. Spermine attenuates the action of the DNA intercalator, actinomycin D, on DNA binding and the inhibition of transcription and DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Yu; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Lee, Yueh-Luen; Lai, Yi-Hua; Chen, Jeremy J W; Wu, Wen-Lin; Yuann, Jeu-Ming P; Su, Wang-Lin; Chuang, Show-Mei; Hou, Ming-Hon

    2012-01-01

    The anticancer activity of DNA intercalators is related to their ability to intercalate into the DNA duplex with high affinity, thereby interfering with DNA replication and transcription. Polyamines (spermine in particular) are almost exclusively bound to nucleic acids and are involved in many cellular processes that require nucleic acids. Until now, the effects of polyamines on DNA intercalator activities have remained unclear because intercalation is the most important mechanism employed by DNA-binding drugs. Herein, using actinomycin D (ACTD) as a model, we have attempted to elucidate the effects of spermine on the action of ACTD, including its DNA-binding ability, RNA and DNA polymerase interference, and its role in the transcription and replication inhibition of ACTD within cells. We found that spermine interfered with the binding and stabilization of ACTD to DNA. The presence of increasing concentrations of spermine enhanced the transcriptional and replication activities of RNA and DNA polymerases, respectively, in vitro treated with ActD. Moreover, a decrease in intracellular polyamine concentrations stimulated by methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) enhanced the ACTD-induced inhibition of c-myc transcription and DNA replication in several cancer cell lines. The results indicated that spermine attenuates ACTD binding to DNA and its inhibition of transcription and DNA replication both in vitro and within cells. Finally, a synergistic antiproliferative effect of MGBG and ACTD was observed in a cell viability assay. Our findings will be of significant relevance to future developments in combination with cancer therapy by enhancing the anticancer activity of DNA interactors through polyamine depletion.

  13. DNA-binding protects p53 from interactions with cofactors involved in transcription-independent functions.

    PubMed

    Lambrughi, Matteo; De Gioia, Luca; Gervasio, Francesco Luigi; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Nussinov, Ruth; Urani, Chiara; Bruschi, Maurizio; Papaleo, Elena

    2016-11-02

    Binding-induced conformational changes of a protein at regions distant from the binding site may play crucial roles in protein function and regulation. The p53 tumour suppressor is an example of such an allosterically regulated protein. Little is known, however, about how DNA binding can affect distal sites for transcription factors. Furthermore, the molecular details of how a local perturbation is transmitted through a protein structure are generally elusive and occur on timescales hard to explore by simulations. Thus, we employed state-of-the-art enhanced sampling atomistic simulations to unveil DNA-induced effects on p53 structure and dynamics that modulate the recruitment of cofactors and the impact of phosphorylation at Ser215. We show that DNA interaction promotes a conformational change in a region 3 nm away from the DNA binding site. Specifically, binding to DNA increases the population of an occluded minor state at this distal site by more than 4-fold, whereas phosphorylation traps the protein in its major state. In the minor conformation, the interface of p53 that binds biological partners related to p53 transcription-independent functions is not accessible. Significantly, our study reveals a mechanism of DNA-mediated protection of p53 from interactions with partners involved in the p53 transcription-independent signalling. This also suggests that conformational dynamics is tightly related to p53 signalling. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. DNA-binding protects p53 from interactions with cofactors involved in transcription-independent functions

    PubMed Central

    Lambrughi, Matteo; De Gioia, Luca; Gervasio, Francesco Luigi; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Nussinov, Ruth; Urani, Chiara; Bruschi, Maurizio; Papaleo, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Binding-induced conformational changes of a protein at regions distant from the binding site may play crucial roles in protein function and regulation. The p53 tumour suppressor is an example of such an allosterically regulated protein. Little is known, however, about how DNA binding can affect distal sites for transcription factors. Furthermore, the molecular details of how a local perturbation is transmitted through a protein structure are generally elusive and occur on timescales hard to explore by simulations. Thus, we employed state-of-the-art enhanced sampling atomistic simulations to unveil DNA-induced effects on p53 structure and dynamics that modulate the recruitment of cofactors and the impact of phosphorylation at Ser215. We show that DNA interaction promotes a conformational change in a region 3 nm away from the DNA binding site. Specifically, binding to DNA increases the population of an occluded minor state at this distal site by more than 4-fold, whereas phosphorylation traps the protein in its major state. In the minor conformation, the interface of p53 that binds biological partners related to p53 transcription-independent functions is not accessible. Significantly, our study reveals a mechanism of DNA-mediated protection of p53 from interactions with partners involved in the p53 transcription-independent signalling. This also suggests that conformational dynamics is tightly related to p53 signalling. PMID:27604871

  15. DNA-binding study of anticancer drug cytarabine by spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Falsafi, Monireh; Maghsudi, Maryam

    2017-01-02

    The interaction of anticancer drug cytarabine with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions by multispectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling study. The fluorescence spectroscopy and UV absorption spectroscopy indicated drug interacted with CT-DNA in a groove-binding mode, while the binding constant of UV-vis and the number of binding sites were 4.0 ± 0.2 × 10 4 L mol -1 and 1.39, respectively. The fluorimetric studies showed that the reaction between the drugs with CT-DNA is exothermic. Circular dichroism spectroscopy was employed to measure the conformational change of DNA in the presence of cytarabine. Furthermore, the drug induces detectable changes in its viscosity for DNA interaction. The molecular modeling results illustrated that cytarabine strongly binds to groove of DNA by relative binding energy of docked structure -20.61 KJ mol -1 . This combination of multiple spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling methods can be widely used in the investigation on the interaction of small molecular pollutants and drugs with biomacromolecules for clarifying the molecular mechanism of toxicity or side effect in vivo.

  16. Discrimination against RNA Backbones by a ssDNA Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Neil R; Wuttke, Deborah S

    2018-05-01

    Pot1 is the shelterin component responsible for the protection of the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) overhang at telomeres in nearly all eukaryotic organisms. The C-terminal domain of the DNA-binding domain, Pot1pC, exhibits non-specific ssDNA recognition, achieved through thermodynamically equivalent alternative binding conformations. Given this flexibility, it is unclear how specificity for ssDNA over RNA, an activity required for biological function, is achieved. Examination of the ribose-position specificity of Pot1pC shows that ssDNA specificity is additive but not uniformly distributed across the ligand. High-resolution structures of several Pot1pC complexes with RNA-DNA chimeric ligands reveal Pot1pC discriminates against RNA by utilizing non-compensatory binding modes that feature significant rearrangement of the binding interface. These alternative conformations, accessed through both ligand and protein flexibility, recover much, but not all, of the binding energy, leading to the observed reduction in affinities. These findings suggest that intermolecular interfaces are remarkably sophisticated in their tuning of specificity toward flexible ligands. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A comprehensive approach to ascertain the binding mode of curcumin with DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haris, P.; Mary, Varughese; Aparna, P.; Dileep, K. V.; Sudarsanakumar, C.

    2017-03-01

    Curcumin is a natural phytochemical from the rhizoma of Curcuma longa, the popular Indian spice that exhibits a wide range of pharmacological properties like antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antiviral activities. In the published literatures we can see different studies and arguments on the interaction of curcumin with DNA. The intercalative binding, groove binding and no binding of curcumin with DNA were reported. In this context, we conducted a detailed study to understand the mechanism of recognition of dimethylsulfoxide-solubilized curcumin by DNA. The interaction of curcumin with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The nature of binding and energetics of interaction were studied by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), UV-visible, fluorescence and melting temperature (Tm) analysis. The experimental data were compared with molecular modeling studies. Our investigation confirmed that dimethylsulfoxide-solubilized curcumin binds in the minor groove of the ctDNA without causing significant structural alteration to the DNA.

  18. Conflict RNA modification, host-parasite co-evolution, and the origins of DNA and DNA-binding proteins1.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Paul J; Keegan, Liam P

    2014-08-01

    Nearly 150 different enzymatically modified forms of the four canonical residues in RNA have been identified. For instance, enzymes of the ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) family convert adenosine residues into inosine in cellular dsRNAs. Recent findings show that DNA endonuclease V enzymes have undergone an evolutionary transition from cleaving 3' to deoxyinosine in DNA and ssDNA to cleaving 3' to inosine in dsRNA and ssRNA in humans. Recent work on dsRNA-binding domains of ADARs and other proteins also shows that a degree of sequence specificity is achieved by direct readout in the minor groove. However, the level of sequence specificity observed is much less than that of DNA major groove-binding helix-turn-helix proteins. We suggest that the evolution of DNA-binding proteins following the RNA to DNA genome transition represents the major advantage that DNA genomes have over RNA genomes. We propose that a hypothetical RNA modification, a RRAR (ribose reductase acting on genomic dsRNA) produced the first stretches of DNA in RNA genomes. We discuss why this is the most satisfactory explanation for the origin of DNA. The evolution of this RNA modification and later steps to DNA genomes are likely to have been driven by cellular genome co-evolution with viruses and intragenomic parasites. RNA modifications continue to be involved in host-virus conflicts; in vertebrates, edited cellular dsRNAs with inosine-uracil base pairs appear to be recognized as self RNA and to suppress activation of innate immune sensors that detect viral dsRNA.

  19. Melting of DNA double strand after binding to geroprotective tetrapeptide.

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Solovyov, A Yu; Shataeva, L K

    2008-11-01

    Experimental relationship between the hyperchromic effect of DNA [poly(dA-dT):poly(dA-dT)] interacting with Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly peptide is presented by a saturation isotherm. The free DNA double strand is melting (the strands separate) at 69.5 degrees C and at higher energy expenditures (enthalpy increase by 976.4 kJ/mol b.p.) in comparison with melting of the DNA-peptide complex (28 degrees C and 444.6 kJ/mol b.p.). The detected regularities of melting of duplex DNA and the thermodynamic parameters of this process indicate the natural mechanism of interaction between DNA and regulatory peptides underlying functioning of the living matter.

  20. Resistance of Adenoviral DNA Replication to Aphidicolin Is Dependent on the 72-Kilodalton DNA-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Foster, David A.; Hantzopoulos, Petros; Zubay, Geoffrey

    1982-01-01

    Aphidicolin is a highly specific inhibitor of DNA polymerase α and has been most useful for assessing the role of this enzyme in various replication processes (J. A. Huberman, Cell 23:647-648, 1981). Both nuclear DNA replication and simian virus 40 DNA replication are highly sensitive to this drug (Krokan et al., Biochemistry 18:4431-4443, 1979), whereas mitochondrial DNA synthesis is completely insensitive (Zimmerman et al., J. Biol. Chem. 255:11847-11852, 1980). Adenovirus DNA replication is sensitive to aphidicolin, but only at much higher concentrations. These patterns of sensitivity are seen both in vivo and in vitro (Krokan et al., Biochemistry 18:4431-4443, 1979). A temperature-sensitive mutant of adenovirus type 5 known as H5ts125 is able to complete but not initiate new rounds of replication at nonpermissive temperatures (P. C. van der Vliet and J. S. Sussenbach, Virology 67:415-426, 1975). When cells infected with H5ts125 were shifted from permissive (33°C) to nonpermissive (41°C) conditions, the residual DNA synthesis (elongation) showed a striking increase in sensitivity to aphidicolin. The temperature-sensitive mutation of H5ts125 is in the gene for the 72-kilodalton single-stranded DNA-binding protein. This demonstrated that the increased resistance to aphidicolin shown by adenovirus DNA replication was dependent on that protein. It also supports an elongation role for both DNA polymerase α and the 72-kilodalton single-stranded DNA-binding protein in adenovirus DNA replication. Further support for an elongation role of DNA polymerase α came from experiments with permissive temperature conditions and inhibiting levels of aphidicolin in which it was shown that newly initiated strands failed to elongate to completion. Images PMID:6809958

  1. Yeast aconitase binds and provides metabolically coupled protection to mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin Jie; Wang, Xiaowen; Butow, Ronald A

    2007-08-21

    Aconitase (Aco1p) is a multifunctional protein: It is an enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In animal cells, Aco1p also is a cytosolic protein binding to mRNAs to regulate iron metabolism. In yeast, Aco1p was identified as a component of mtDNA nucleoids. Here we show that yeast Aco1p protects mtDNA from excessive accumulation of point mutations and ssDNA breaks and suppresses reductive recombination of mtDNA. Aconitase binds to both ds- and ssDNA, with a preference for GC-containing sequences. Therefore, mitochondria are opportunistic organelles that seize proteins, such as metabolic enzymes, for construction of the nucleoid, an mtDNA maintenance/segregation apparatus.

  2. DNA sequence+shape kernel enables alignment-free modeling of transcription factor binding.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenxiu; Yang, Lin; Rohs, Remo; Noble, William Stafford

    2017-10-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) bind to specific DNA sequence motifs. Several lines of evidence suggest that TF-DNA binding is mediated in part by properties of the local DNA shape: the width of the minor groove, the relative orientations of adjacent base pairs, etc. Several methods have been developed to jointly account for DNA sequence and shape properties in predicting TF binding affinity. However, a limitation of these methods is that they typically require a training set of aligned TF binding sites. We describe a sequence + shape kernel that leverages DNA sequence and shape information to better understand protein-DNA binding preference and affinity. This kernel extends an existing class of k-mer based sequence kernels, based on the recently described di-mismatch kernel. Using three in vitro benchmark datasets, derived from universal protein binding microarrays (uPBMs), genomic context PBMs (gcPBMs) and SELEX-seq data, we demonstrate that incorporating DNA shape information improves our ability to predict protein-DNA binding affinity. In particular, we observe that (i) the k-spectrum + shape model performs better than the classical k-spectrum kernel, particularly for small k values; (ii) the di-mismatch kernel performs better than the k-mer kernel, for larger k; and (iii) the di-mismatch + shape kernel performs better than the di-mismatch kernel for intermediate k values. The software is available at https://bitbucket.org/wenxiu/sequence-shape.git. rohs@usc.edu or william-noble@uw.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Anti-dsDNA Antibodies Bind to Mesangial Annexin II in Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Susan; Cheung, Kwok Fan; Zhang, Qing

    2010-01-01

    Production of anti-dsDNA antibodies is a hallmark of lupus nephritis, but how these antibodies deposit in organs and elicit inflammatory damage remains unknown. In this study, we sought to identify antigens on the surface of human mesangial cells (HMC) that mediate the binding of human anti-dsDNA antibodies and the subsequent pathogenic processes. We isolated anti-dsDNA antibodies from patients with lupus nephritis by affinity chromatography. We used multiple methods to identify and characterize antigens from the plasma membrane fraction of mesangial cells that crossreacted with the anti-dsDNA antibodies. We found that annexin II mediated the binding of anti-dsDNA antibodies to HMC. After binding to the mesangial cell surface, anti-dsDNA antibodies were internalized into the cytoplasm and nucleus. This also led to induction of IL-6 secretion and annexin II synthesis, mediated through activation of p38 MAPK, JNK, and AKT. Binding of anti-dsDNA antibodies to annexin II correlated with disease activity in human lupus nephritis. Glomerular expression of annexin II correlated with the severity of nephritis, and annexin II colocalized with IgG and C3 deposits in both human and murine lupus nephritis. Gene silencing of annexin II in HMC reduced binding of anti-dsDNA antibody and partially decreased IL-6 secretion. In summary, our data demonstrate that annexin II mediates the binding of anti-dsDNA antibodies to mesangial cells, contributing to the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis. This interaction provides a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:20847146

  4. Studies of Xenopus laevis mitochondrial DNA: D-loop mapping and characterization of DNA-binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    In X. laevis oocytes, mitochondrial DNA accumulates to 10/sup 5/ times the somatic cell complement, and is characterized by a high frequency of a triple-stranded displacement hoop structure at the origin of replication. To map the termini of the single strands, it was necessary to correct the nucleotide sequence of the D-loop region. The revised sequence of 2458 nucleotides contains 54 discrepancies in comparison to a previously published sequence. Radiolabeling of the nascent strands of the D-loop structure either at the 5' end or at the 3' end identifies a major species with a length of 1670 nucleotides. Cleavage ofmore » the 5' labeled strands reveals two families of ends located near several matches to an element, designated CSB-1, that is conserved in this location in several vertebrate genomes. Cleavage of 3' labeled strands produced one fragment. The unique 3' end maps to about 15 nucleotides preceding the tRNA/sup Pro/ gene. A search for proteins which may bind to mtDNA in this region to regulate nucleic acid synthesis has identified three activities in lysates of X. laevis mitochondria. The DNA-binding proteins were assayed by monitoring their ability to retard the migration of labeled double- or single-stranded DNA fragments in polyacrylamide gels. The DNA binding preference was determined by competition with an excess of either ds- or ssDNA.« less

  5. An analysis of subunit exchange in the dimeric DNA-binding and DNA-bending protein, TF1.

    PubMed

    Andera, L; Schneider, G J; Geiduschek, E P

    1994-01-01

    TF1 is the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage-encoded dimeric type II DNA-binding protein. This relative of the eubacterial HU proteins and of the Escherichia coli integration host factor binds preferentially to 5-(hydroxymethyluracil)-containing DNA. We have examined the dynamics of exchange of monomer subunits between molecules of dimeric TF1. The analysis takes advantage of the fact that replacement of phenylalanine with arginine at amino acid 61 in the beta-loop 'arm' of TF1 alters DNA-bending and -binding properties, generating DNA complexes with distinctively different mobilities in gel electrophoresis. New species of DNA-protein complexes were formed by mixtures of wild type and mutant TF1, reflecting the formation of heterodimeric TF1, and making the dynamics of monomer exchange between TF1 dimers accessible to a simple gel retardation analysis. Exchange was rapid at high protein concentrations, even at 0 degrees C, and is proposed to be capable of proceeding through an interaction of molecules of TF1 dimer rather than exclusively through dissociation into monomer subunits. Evidence suggesting that DNA-bound TF1 dimers do not exchange subunits readily is also presented.

  6. Targeted DNA demethylation in human cells by fusion of a plant 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase to a sequence-specific DNA binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Parrilla-Doblas, Jara Teresa; Ariza, Rafael R.; Roldán-Arjona, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT DNA methylation is a crucial epigenetic mark associated to gene silencing, and its targeted removal is a major goal of epigenetic editing. In animal cells, DNA demethylation involves iterative 5mC oxidation by TET enzymes followed by replication-dependent dilution and/or replication-independent DNA repair of its oxidized derivatives. In contrast, plants use specific DNA glycosylases that directly excise 5mC and initiate its substitution for unmethylated C in a base excision repair process. In this work, we have fused the catalytic domain of Arabidopsis ROS1 5mC DNA glycosylase (ROS1_CD) to the DNA binding domain of yeast GAL4 (GBD). We show that the resultant GBD-ROS1_CD fusion protein binds specifically a GBD-targeted DNA sequence in vitro. We also found that transient in vivo expression of GBD-ROS1_CD in human cells specifically reactivates transcription of a methylation-silenced reporter gene, and that such reactivation requires both ROS1_CD catalytic activity and GBD binding capacity. Finally, we show that reactivation induced by GBD-ROS1_CD is accompanied by decreased methylation levels at several CpG sites of the targeted promoter. All together, these results show that plant 5mC DNA glycosylases can be used for targeted active DNA demethylation in human cells. PMID:28277978

  7. Binding site size limit of the 2:1 pyrrole-imidazole polyamide-DNA motif.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J J; Baird, E E; Dervan, P B

    1996-01-01

    Polyamides containing N-methylimidazole (Im) and N-methylpyrrole (Py) amino acids can be combined in antiparallel side-by-side dimeric complexes for sequence-specific recognition in the minor groove of DNA. Six polyamides containing three to eight rings bind DNA sites 5-10 bp in length, respectively. Quantitative DNase I footprint titration experiments demonstrate that affinity maximizes and is similar at ring sizes of five, six, and seven. Sequence specificity decreases as the length of the polyamides increases beyond five rings. These results provide useful guidelines for the design of new polyamides that bind longer DNA sites with enhanced affinity and specificity. Images Fig. 4 PMID:8692930

  8. Isolation and characterization of the DNA-binding protein (DBP) of the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailov, Victor S.; N. K. Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117808; Vanarsdall, Adam L.

    2008-01-20

    DNA-binding protein (DBP) of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) was expressed as an N-terminal His{sub 6}-tag fusion using a recombinant baculovirus and purified to near homogeneity. Purified DBP formed oligomers that were crosslinked by redox reagents resulting in predominantly protein dimers and tetramers. In gel retardation assays, DBP showed a high affinity for single-stranded oligonucleotides and was able to compete with another baculovirus SSB protein, LEF-3, for binding sites. DBP binding protected ssDNA against hydrolysis by a baculovirus alkaline nuclease AN/LEF-3 complex. Partial proteolysis by trypsin revealed a domain structure of DBP that is required for interaction with DNA andmore » that can be disrupted by thermal treatment. Binding to ssDNA, but not to dsDNA, changed the pattern of proteolytic fragments of DBP indicating adjustments in protein structure upon interaction with ssDNA. DBP was capable of unwinding short DNA duplexes and also promoted the renaturation of long complementary strands of ssDNA into duplexes. The unwinding and renaturation activities of DBP, as well as the DNA binding activity, were sensitive to sulfhydryl reagents and were inhibited by oxidation of thiol groups with diamide or by alkylation with N-ethylmaleimide. A high affinity of DBP for ssDNA and its unwinding and renaturation activities confirmed identification of DBP as a member of the SSB/recombinase family. These activities and a tight association with subnuclear structures suggests that DBP is a component of the virogenic stroma that is involved in the processing of replicative intermediates.« less

  9. Synthesis of trimethoprim metal complexes: Spectral, electrochemical, thermal, DNA-binding and surface morphology studies.

    PubMed

    Demirezen, Nihat; Tarınç, Derya; Polat, Duygu; Ceşme, Mustafa; Gölcü, Ayşegül; Tümer, Mehmet

    2012-08-01

    Complexes of trimethoprim (TMP), with Cu(II), Zn(II), Pt(II), Ru(III) and Fe(III) have been synthesized. Then, these complexes have been characterized by spectroscopic techniques involving UV-vis, IR, mass and (1)H NMR. CHN elemental analysis, electrochemical and thermal behavior of complexes have also been investigated. The electrochemical properties of all complexes have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) using glassy carbon electrode. The biological activity of the complexes has been evaluated by examining their ability to bind to calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) with UV spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. UV studies of the interaction of the complexes with DNA have shown that these compounds can bind to CT DNA. The binding constants of the complexes with CT DNA have also been calculated. The cyclic voltammograms of the complexes in the presence of CT DNA have shown that the complexes can bind to CT DNA by both the intercalative and the electrostatic binding mode. The antimicrobial activity of these complexes has been evaluated against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria. Antifungal activity against two different fungi has been evaluated and compared with the reference drug TMP. Almost all types of complexes show excellent activity against all type of bacteria and fungi. The morphology of the CT DNA, TMP, metal ions and metal complexes has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To get the SEM images, the interaction of compounds with CT DNA has been studied by means of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at CT DNA modified pencil graphite electrode (PGE). The decrease in intensity of the guanine oxidation signals has been used as an indicator for the interaction mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enzyme-adenylate structure of a bacterial ATP-dependent DNA ligase with a minimized DNA-binding surface.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Adele; Rothweiler, Ulli; Leiros, Hanna Kirsti Schrøder

    2014-11-01

    DNA ligases are a structurally diverse class of enzymes which share a common catalytic core and seal breaks in the phosphodiester backbone of double-stranded DNA via an adenylated intermediate. Here, the structure and activity of a recombinantly produced ATP-dependent DNA ligase from the bacterium Psychromonas sp. strain SP041 is described. This minimal-type ligase, like its close homologues, is able to ligate singly nicked double-stranded DNA with high efficiency and to join cohesive-ended and blunt-ended substrates to a more limited extent. The 1.65 Å resolution crystal structure of the enzyme-adenylate complex reveals no unstructured loops or segments, and suggests that this enzyme binds the DNA without requiring full encirclement of the DNA duplex. This is in contrast to previously characterized minimal DNA ligases from viruses, which use flexible loop regions for DNA interaction. The Psychromonas sp. enzyme is the first structure available for the minimal type of bacterial DNA ligases and is the smallest DNA ligase to be crystallized to date.

  11. The constant region affects antigen binding of antibodies to DNA by altering secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yumin; Janda, Alena; Eryilmaz, Ertan; Casadevall, Arturo; Putterman, Chaim

    2013-11-01

    We previously demonstrated an important role of the constant region in the pathogenicity of anti-DNA antibodies. To determine the mechanisms by which the constant region affects autoantibody binding, a panel of isotype-switch variants (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b) was generated from the murine PL9-11 IgG3 autoantibody. The affinity of the PL9-11 antibody panel for histone was measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Tryptophan fluorescence was used to determine wavelength shifts of the antibody panel upon binding to DNA and histone. Finally, circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to measure changes in secondary structure. SPR analysis revealed significant differences in histone binding affinity between members of the PL9-11 panel. The wavelength shifts of tryptophan fluorescence emission were found to be dependent on the antibody isotype, while circular dichroism analysis determined that changes in antibody secondary structure content differed between isotypes upon antigen binding. Thus, the antigen binding affinity is dependent on the particular constant region expressed. Moreover, the effects of antibody binding to antigen were also constant region dependent. Alteration of secondary structures influenced by constant regions may explain differences in fine specificity of anti-DNA antibodies between antibodies with similar variable regions, as well as cross-reactivity of anti-DNA antibodies with non-DNA antigens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A statistical model for investigating binding probabilities of DNA nucleotide sequences using microarrays.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei-Ling Ting; Bulyk, Martha L; Whitmore, G A; Church, George M

    2002-12-01

    There is considerable scientific interest in knowing the probability that a site-specific transcription factor will bind to a given DNA sequence. Microarray methods provide an effective means for assessing the binding affinities of a large number of DNA sequences as demonstrated by Bulyk et al. (2001, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 98, 7158-7163) in their study of the DNA-binding specificities of Zif268 zinc fingers using microarray technology. In a follow-up investigation, Bulyk, Johnson, and Church (2002, Nucleic Acid Research 30, 1255-1261) studied the interdependence of nucleotides on the binding affinities of transcription proteins. Our article is motivated by this pair of studies. We present a general statistical methodology for analyzing microarray intensity measurements reflecting DNA-protein interactions. The log probability of a protein binding to a DNA sequence on an array is modeled using a linear ANOVA model. This model is convenient because it employs familiar statistical concepts and procedures and also because it is effective for investigating the probability structure of the binding mechanism.

  13. Quantitative characterization of conformational-specific protein-DNA binding using a dual-spectral interferometric imaging biosensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xirui; Daaboul, George G; Spuhler, Philipp S; Dröge, Peter; Ünlü, M Selim

    2016-03-14

    DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in the maintenance and functions of the genome and yet, their specific binding mechanisms are not fully understood. Recently, it was discovered that DNA-binding proteins recognize specific binding sites to carry out their functions through an indirect readout mechanism by recognizing and capturing DNA conformational flexibility and deformation. High-throughput DNA microarray-based methods that provide large-scale protein-DNA binding information have shown effective and comprehensive analysis of protein-DNA binding affinities, but do not provide information of DNA conformational changes in specific protein-DNA complexes. Building on the high-throughput capability of DNA microarrays, we demonstrate a quantitative approach that simultaneously measures the amount of protein binding to DNA and nanometer-scale DNA conformational change induced by protein binding in a microarray format. Both measurements rely on spectral interferometry on a layered substrate using a single optical instrument in two distinct modalities. In the first modality, we quantitate the amount of binding of protein to surface-immobilized DNA in each DNA spot using a label-free spectral reflectivity technique that accurately measures the surface densities of protein and DNA accumulated on the substrate. In the second modality, for each DNA spot, we simultaneously measure DNA conformational change using a fluorescence vertical sectioning technique that determines average axial height of fluorophores tagged to specific nucleotides of the surface-immobilized DNA. The approach presented in this paper, when combined with current high-throughput DNA microarray-based technologies, has the potential to serve as a rapid and simple method for quantitative and large-scale characterization of conformational specific protein-DNA interactions.

  14. Spectral investigations on binding of DNA-CTMA complex with tetrameric copper phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkat, Narayanan; Haley, Joy E.; Swiger, Rachel; Zhu, Lei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Ouchen, Fahima; Grote, James G.

    2013-10-01

    The binding of DNA-CTMA (Deoxyribonucleic acid-cetyltrimethylammonium) complex with two tetrameric Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc) systems, substituted with carboxylic acid (CuPc-COOH) and derivatized further as an imidazolium salt (CuPc-COOR), was investigated in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solutions using UV/Visible Spectroscopy. Absorbance changes at 685 nm (Q band of the CuPc) were monitored as a function of DNA-CTMA added to the dye solution and stock concentrations of DNA-CTMA in DMSO were varied to facilitate observation of the full binding process. Our findings indicated that while binding with DNA-CTMA was more well-defined in the case of CuPc-COOH, the binding profile of the CuPc-COOR showed initial growth followed by decay in its Q-band absorbance which was indicative of a more complex binding mechanism involving the dye and DNA-CTMA. Preliminary findings from photophysical studies involving the CuPc tetramers and DNA-CTMA are also discussed in this paper.

  15. Direct measurement of torque and twist generated by a dye binding to DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gore, Jeff; Bryant, Zev; Bustamante, Carlos

    2004-03-01

    Many biologically important chemicals and proteins change the twist of DNA upon binding. We have used magnetic tweezers to directly measure the torque and twist generated when ethidium bromide binds and unbinds to DNA. One end of the DNA is bound specifically to a glass coverslip and the opposite end is held away from the surface by a paramagnetic bead. Attached to the middle of the DNA is a second fluorescent bead whose position can be tracked with high angular and temporal resolution. On one side of the fluorescent bead binding site we have engineered a single strand nick that acts like a free swivel. Addition of ethidium bromide then powered rotation of the central fluorescent bead. After the ethidium bromide was bound we used magnesium to compete out the intercalated ethidium bromide, thus inducing a rotation in the opposite direction. We studied the torque generation, energetics, and kinetics associated with ethidium bromide binding and unbinding by tracking the rotation of the fluorescent bead. This system is a demonstration of a reversible chemically powered DNA-based rotary motor. We also expect that this technique will be useful in studying proteins that bind to or rotate DNA, including recA, polymerases, and topoisomerases.

  16. Identification of DNA-Binding Proteins Using Structural, Electrostatic and Evolutionary Features

    PubMed Central

    Nimrod, Guy; Szilágyi, András; Leslie, Christina; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2009-01-01

    Summary DNA binding proteins (DBPs) often take part in various crucial processes of the cell's life cycle. Therefore, the identification and characterization of these proteins are of great importance. We present here a random forests classifier for identifying DBPs among proteins with known three-dimensional structures. First, clusters of evolutionarily conserved regions (patches) on the protein's surface are detected using the PatchFinder algorithm; previous studies showed that these regions are typically the proteins' functionally important regions. Next, we train a classifier using features like the electrostatic potential, cluster-based amino acid conservation patterns and the secondary structure content of the patches, as well as features of the whole protein including its dipole moment. Using 10-fold cross validation on a dataset of 138 DNA-binding proteins and 110 proteins which do not bind DNA, the classifier achieved a sensitivity and a specificity of 0.90, which is overall better than the performance of previously published methods. Furthermore, when we tested 5 different methods on 11 new DBPs which did not appear in the original dataset, only our method annotated all correctly. The resulting classifier was applied to a collection of 757 proteins of known structure and unknown function. Of these proteins, 218 were predicted to bind DNA, and we anticipate that some of them interact with DNA using new structural motifs. The use of complementary computational tools supports the notion that at least some of them do bind DNA. PMID:19233205

  17. DNA-binding regulates site-specific ubiquitination of IRF-1.

    PubMed

    Landré, Vivien; Pion, Emmanuelle; Narayan, Vikram; Xirodimas, Dimitris P; Ball, Kathryn L

    2013-02-01

    Understanding the determinants for site-specific ubiquitination by E3 ligase components of the ubiquitin machinery is proving to be a challenge. In the present study we investigate the role of an E3 ligase docking site (Mf2 domain) in an intrinsically disordered domain of IRF-1 [IFN (interferon) regulatory factor-1], a short-lived IFNγ-regulated transcription factor, in ubiquitination of the protein. Ubiquitin modification of full-length IRF-1 by E3 ligases such as CHIP [C-terminus of the Hsc (heat-shock cognate) 70-interacting protein] and MDM2 (murine double minute 2), which dock to the Mf2 domain, was specific for lysine residues found predominantly in loop structures that extend from the DNA-binding domain, whereas no modification was detected in the more conformationally flexible C-terminal half of the protein. The E3 docking site was not available when IRF-1 was in its DNA-bound conformation and cognate DNA-binding sequences strongly suppressed ubiquitination, highlighting a strict relationship between ligase binding and site-specific modification at residues in the DNA-binding domain. Hyperubiquitination of a non-DNA-binding mutant supports a mechanism where an active DNA-bound pool of IRF-1 is protected from polyubiquitination and degradation.

  18. HTLV-1 Tax Oncoprotein Subverts the Cellular DNA Damage Response via Binding to DNA-dependent Protein Kinase*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Durkin, Sarah S.; Guo, Xin; Fryrear, Kimberly A.; Mihaylova, Valia T.; Gupta, Saurabh K.; Belgnaoui, S. Mehdi; Haoudi, Abdelali; Kupfer, Gary M.; Semmes, O. John

    2008-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 is the causative agent for adult T-cell leukemia. Previous research has established that the viral oncoprotein Tax mediates the transformation process by impairing cell cycle control and cellular response to DNA damage. We showed previously that Tax sequesters huChk2 within chromatin and impairs the response to ionizing radiation. Here we demonstrate that DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a member of the Tax·Chk2 nuclear complex. The catalytic subunit, DNA-PKcs, and the regulatory subunit, Ku70, were present. Tax-containing nuclear extracts showed increased DNA-PK activity, and specific inhibition of DNA-PK prevented Tax-induced activation of Chk2 kinase activity. Expression of Tax induced foci formation and phosphorylation of H2AX. However, Tax-induced constitutive signaling of the DNA-PK pathway impaired cellular response to new damage, as reflected in suppression of ionizing radiation-induced DNA-PK phosphorylation and γH2AX stabilization. Tax co-localized with phospho-DNA-PK into nuclear speckles and a nuclear excluded Tax mutant sequestered endogenous phospho-DNA-PK into the cytoplasm, suggesting that Tax interaction with DNA-PK is an initiating event. We also describe a novel interaction between DNA-PK and Chk2 that requires Tax. We propose that Tax binds to and stabilizes a protein complex with DNA-PK and Chk2, resulting in a saturation of DNA-PK-mediated damage repair response. PMID:18957425

  19. Inhibition of DNA binding of Sox2 by the SUMO conjugation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuruzoe, Shu; Ishihara, Ko; Uchimura, Yasuhiro

    2006-12-29

    Sox2 is a member of the high mobility group (HMG) domain DNA-binding proteins for transcriptional control and chromatin architecture. The HMG domain of Sox2 binds the DNA to facilitate transactivation by the cooperative transcription factors such as Oct3/4. We report that mouse Sox2 is modified by SUMO at lysine 247. Substitution of the target lysine to arginine lost the sumoylation but little affected transcriptional potential or nuclear localization of Sox2. By contrast with the unmodified form, Sox2 fused to SUMO-1 did not augment transcription via the Fgf4 enhancer in the presence of Oct3/4. Further, SUMO-1-conjugated Sox2 at the lysine 247more » or at the carboxyl terminus reduced the binding to the Fgf4 enhancer. These indicate that Sox2 sumoylation negatively regulates its transcriptional role through impairing the DNA binding.« less

  20. Study of DNA binding sites using the Rényi parametric entropy measure.

    PubMed

    Krishnamachari, A; moy Mandal, Vijnan; Karmeshu

    2004-04-07

    Shannon's definition of uncertainty or surprisal has been applied extensively to measure the information content of aligned DNA sequences and characterizing DNA binding sites. In contrast to Shannon's uncertainty, this study investigates the applicability and suitability of a parametric uncertainty measure due to Rényi. It is observed that this measure also provides results in agreement with Shannon's measure, pointing to its utility in analysing DNA binding site region. For facilitating the comparison between these uncertainty measures, a dimensionless quantity called "redundancy" has been employed. It is found that Rényi's measure at low parameter values possess a better delineating feature of binding sites (of binding regions) than Shannon's measure. The critical value of the parameter is chosen with an outlier criterion.

  1. Footprinting reveals that nogalamycin and actinomycin shuffle between DNA binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, K R; Waring, M J

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that sequence-selective DNA-binding antibiotics locate their preferred binding sites by a process involving migration from nonspecific sites has been tested by footprinting with DNAase I. Footprinting patterns on the tyrT DNA fragment produced by nogalamycin and actinomycin change with time after mixing the antibiotic with the DNA. Sites of protection as well as enhanced cleavage are seen to develop in a fashion which is both temperature and concentration-dependent. At certain sites cutting is transiently enhanced, then blocked. Limited evidence for slow reaction with echinomycin and mithramycin is presented, but the kinetics of footprinting with daunomycin and distamycin appear instantaneous. The feasibility of adducing direct evidence for shuffling by footprinting seems to be governed by slow dissociation of the antibiotic-DNA complex. It may also be dependent upon the mode of binding, be it intercalative or non-intercalative in character. Images PMID:2421246

  2. Quantitative Assessment of the Interplay Between DNA Elasticity and Cooperative Binding of Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siman, L.; Carrasco, I. S. S.; da Silva, J. K. L.; de Oliveira, M. C.; Rocha, M. S.; Mesquita, O. N.

    2012-12-01

    Binding of ligands to DNA can be studied by measuring the change of the persistence length of the complex formed, in single-molecule assays. We propose a methodology for persistence length data analysis based on a quenched disorder statistical model and describing the binding isotherm by a Hill-type equation. We obtain an expression for the effective persistence length as a function of the total ligand concentration, which we apply to our data of the DNA-cationic β-cyclodextrin and to the DNA-HU protein data available in the literature, determining the values of the local persistence lengths, the dissociation constant, and the degree of cooperativity for each set of data. In both cases the persistence length behaves nonmonotonically as a function of ligand concentration and based on the results obtained we discuss some physical aspects of the interplay between DNA elasticity and cooperative binding of ligands.

  3. Methylene blue binding to DNA with alternating AT base sequence: minor groove binding is favored over intercalation.

    PubMed

    Rohs, Remo; Sklenar, Heinz

    2004-04-01

    The results presented in this paper on methylene blue (MB) binding to DNA with AT alternating base sequence complement the data obtained in two former modeling studies of MB binding to GC alternating DNA. In the light of the large amount of experimental data for both systems, this theoretical study is focused on a detailed energetic analysis and comparison in order to understand their different behavior. Since experimental high-resolution structures of the complexes are not available, the analysis is based on energy minimized structural models of the complexes in different binding modes. For both sequences, four different intercalation structures and two models for MB binding in the minor and major groove have been proposed. Solvent electrostatic effects were included in the energetic analysis by using electrostatic continuum theory, and the dependence of MB binding on salt concentration was investigated by solving the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation. We find that the relative stability of the different complexes is similar for the two sequences, in agreement with the interpretation of spectroscopic data. Subtle differences, however, are seen in energy decompositions and can be attributed to the change from symmetric 5'-YpR-3' intercalation to minor groove binding with increasing salt concentration, which is experimentally observed for the AT sequence at lower salt concentration than for the GC sequence. According to our results, this difference is due to the significantly lower non-electrostatic energy for the minor groove complex with AT alternating DNA, whereas the slightly lower binding energy to this sequence is caused by a higher deformation energy of DNA. The energetic data are in agreement with the conclusions derived from different spectroscopic studies and can also be structurally interpreted on the basis of the modeled complexes. The simple static modeling technique and the neglect of entropy terms and of non-electrostatic solute

  4. The high mobility group protein 1 enhances binding of the estrogen receptor DNA binding domain to the estrogen response element.

    PubMed

    Romine, L E; Wood, J R; Lamia, L A; Prendergast, P; Edwards, D P; Nardulli, A M

    1998-05-01

    We have examined the ability of the high-mobility group protein 1 (HMG1) to alter binding of the estrogen receptor DNA-binding domain (DBD) to the estrogen response element (ERE). HMG1 dramatically enhanced binding of purified, bacterially expressed DBD to the consensus vitellogenin A2 ERE in a dose-dependent manner. The ability of HMG1 to stabilize the DBD-ERE complex resulted in part from a decrease in the dissociation rate of the DBD from the ERE. Antibody supershift experiments demonstrated that HMG1 was also capable of forming a ternary complex with the ERE-bound DBD in the presence of HMG1-specific antibody. HMG1 did not substantially affect DBD-ERE contacts as assessed by methylation interference assays, nor did it alter the ability of the DBD to induce distortion in ERE-containing DNA fragments. Because HMG1 dramatically enhanced estrogen receptor DBD binding to the ERE, and the DBD is the most highly conserved region among the nuclear receptor superfamily members, HMG1 may function to enhance binding of other nuclear receptors to their respective response elements and act in concert with coactivator proteins to regulate expression of hormone-responsive genes.

  5. Binding characteristics and protective capacity of cyanidin-3-glucoside and its aglycon to calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Guo, Xiaofei; Cai, Wenqian; Ma, Yue; Zhao, Xiaoyan

    2015-04-01

    The binding characteristics and protective capacity of cyanidin (Cy) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) to calf thymus DNA were explored for the first time. The Cy and C3G gave a bathochromic shift to the ultraviolet-visible spectra of the DNA, indicating the formation of the DNA-Cy and DNA-C3G complexes. The complexes were formed by an intercalative binding mode based on the results of the fluorescence spectra and competitive binding analysis. Meanwhile, the Cy and C3G protected the DNA from the damage induced by the hydroxyl radical. The binding capacity and protective capacity of the C3G were stronger than that of the Cy. Furthermore, the formation of the DNA-anthocyanin complexes was spontaneous when the hydrogen bond and hydrophobic force played a key role. Hence, the Cy and C3G could protect the DNA automatically from the damage induced by the hydroxyl radical. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Twin hydroxymethyluracil-A base pair steps define the binding site for the DNA-binding protein TF1.

    PubMed

    Grove, A; Figueiredo, M L; Galeone, A; Mayol, L; Geiduschek, E P

    1997-05-16

    The DNA-bending protein TF1 is the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPO1-encoded homolog of the bacterial HU proteins and the Escherichia coli integration host factor. We recently proposed that TF1, which binds with high affinity (Kd was approximately 3 nM) to preferred sites within the hydroxymethyluracil (hmU)-containing phage genome, identifies its binding sites based on sequence-dependent DNA flexibility. Here, we show that two hmU-A base pair steps coinciding with two previously proposed sites of DNA distortion are critical for complex formation. The affinity of TF1 is reduced 10-fold when both of these hmU-A base pair steps are replaced with A-hmU, G-C, or C-G steps; only modest changes in affinity result when substitutions are made at other base pairs of the TF1 binding site. Replacement of all hmU residues with thymine decreases the affinity of TF1 greatly; remarkably, the high affinity is restored when the two hmU-A base pair steps corresponding to previously suggested sites of distortion are reintroduced into otherwise T-containing DNA. T-DNA constructs with 3-base bulges spaced apart by 9 base pairs of duplex also generate nM affinity of TF1. We suggest that twin hmU-A base pair steps located at the proposed sites of distortion are key to target site selection by TF1 and that recognition is based largely, if not entirely, on sequence-dependent DNA flexibility.

  7. The single-strand DNA binding activity of human PC4 preventsmutagenesis and killing by oxidative DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jen-Yeu; Sarker, Altaf Hossain; Cooper, Priscilla K.

    Human positive cofactor 4 (PC4) is a transcriptional coactivator with a highly conserved single-strand DNA (ssDNA) binding domain of unknown function. We identified PC4 as a suppressor of the oxidative mutator phenotype of the Escherichia coli fpg mutY mutant and demonstrate that this suppression requires its ssDNA binding activity. Yeast mutants lacking their PC4 ortholog Sub1 are sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and exhibit spontaneous and peroxide induced hypermutability. PC4 expression suppresses the peroxide sensitivity of the yeast sub l{Delta} mutant, suggesting that the human protein has a similar function. A role for yeast and human proteins in DNA repair ismore » suggested by the demonstration that Sub1 acts in a peroxide-resistance pathway involving Rad2 and by the physical interaction of PC4 with the human Rad2 homolog XPG. We show XPG recruits PC4 to a bubble-containing DNA substrate with resulting displacement of XPG and formation of a PC4-DNA complex. We discuss the possible requirement for PC4 in either global or transcription-coupled repair of oxidative DNA damage to mediate the release of XPG bound to its substrate.« less

  8. Interactive Roles of DNA Helicases and Translocases with the Single-Stranded DNA Binding Protein RPA in Nucleic Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Awate, Sanket; Brosh, Robert M

    2017-06-08

    Helicases and translocases use the energy of nucleoside triphosphate binding and hydrolysis to unwind/resolve structured nucleic acids or move along a single-stranded or double-stranded polynucleotide chain, respectively. These molecular motors facilitate a variety of transactions including replication, DNA repair, recombination, and transcription. A key partner of eukaryotic DNA helicases/translocases is the single-stranded DNA binding protein Replication Protein A (RPA). Biochemical, genetic, and cell biological assays have demonstrated that RPA interacts with these human molecular motors physically and functionally, and their association is enriched in cells undergoing replication stress. The roles of DNA helicases/translocases are orchestrated with RPA in pathways of nucleic acid metabolism. RPA stimulates helicase-catalyzed DNA unwinding, enlists translocases to sites of action, and modulates their activities in DNA repair, fork remodeling, checkpoint activation, and telomere maintenance. The dynamic interplay between DNA helicases/translocases and RPA is just beginning to be understood at the molecular and cellular levels, and there is still much to be learned, which may inform potential therapeutic strategies.

  9. Interactive Roles of DNA Helicases and Translocases with the Single-Stranded DNA Binding Protein RPA in Nucleic Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Awate, Sanket; Brosh, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Helicases and translocases use the energy of nucleoside triphosphate binding and hydrolysis to unwind/resolve structured nucleic acids or move along a single-stranded or double-stranded polynucleotide chain, respectively. These molecular motors facilitate a variety of transactions including replication, DNA repair, recombination, and transcription. A key partner of eukaryotic DNA helicases/translocases is the single-stranded DNA binding protein Replication Protein A (RPA). Biochemical, genetic, and cell biological assays have demonstrated that RPA interacts with these human molecular motors physically and functionally, and their association is enriched in cells undergoing replication stress. The roles of DNA helicases/translocases are orchestrated with RPA in pathways of nucleic acid metabolism. RPA stimulates helicase-catalyzed DNA unwinding, enlists translocases to sites of action, and modulates their activities in DNA repair, fork remodeling, checkpoint activation, and telomere maintenance. The dynamic interplay between DNA helicases/translocases and RPA is just beginning to be understood at the molecular and cellular levels, and there is still much to be learned, which may inform potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:28594346

  10. Exo-Dye-based assay for rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive detection of DNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zaozao; Ji, Meiju; Hou, Peng; Lu, Zuhong

    2006-07-07

    We reported herein a rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive technique for detecting sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins. In this technique, the common exonuclease III (ExoIII) footprinting assay is coupled with simple SYBR Green I staining for monitoring the activities of DNA-binding proteins. We named this technique as ExoIII-Dye-based assay. In this assay, a duplex probe was designed to detect DNA-binding protein. One side of the probe contains one protein-binding site, and another side of it contains five protruding bases at 3' end for protection from ExoIII digestion. If a target protein is present, it will bind to binding sites of probe and produce a physical hindrance to ExoIII, which protects the duplex probe from digestion of ExoIII. SYBR Green I will bind to probe, which results in high fluorescence intensity. On the contrary, in the absence of the target protein, the naked duplex probe will be degraded by ExoIII. SYBR Green I will be released, which results in a low fluorescence intensity. In this study, we employed this technique to successfully detect transcription factor NF-kappaB in crude cell extracts. Moreover, it could also be used to evaluate the binding affinity of NF-kappaB. This technique has therefore wide potential application in research, medical diagnosis, and drug discovery.

  11. Widespread evidence of cooperative DNA binding by transcription factors in Drosophila development

    PubMed Central

    Kazemian, Majid; Pham, Hannah; Wolfe, Scot A.; Brodsky, Michael H.; Sinha, Saurabh

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of eukaryotic gene transcription is often combinatorial in nature, with multiple transcription factors (TFs) regulating common target genes, often through direct or indirect mutual interactions. Many individual examples of cooperative binding by directly interacting TFs have been identified, but it remains unclear how pervasive this mechanism is during animal development. Cooperative TF binding should be manifest in genomic sequences as biased arrangements of TF-binding sites. Here, we explore the extent and diversity of such arrangements related to gene regulation during Drosophila embryogenesis. We used the DNA-binding specificities of 322 TFs along with chromatin accessibility information to identify enriched spacing and orientation patterns of TF-binding site pairs. We developed a new statistical approach for this task, specifically designed to accurately assess inter-site spacing biases while accounting for the phenomenon of homotypic site clustering commonly observed in developmental regulatory regions. We observed a large number of short-range distance preferences between TF-binding site pairs, including examples where the preference depends on the relative orientation of the binding sites. To test whether these binding site patterns reflect physical interactions between the corresponding TFs, we analyzed 27 TF pairs whose binding sites exhibited short distance preferences. In vitro protein–protein binding experiments revealed that >65% of these TF pairs can directly interact with each other. For five pairs, we further demonstrate that they bind cooperatively to DNA if both sites are present with the preferred spacing. This study demonstrates how DNA-binding motifs can be used to produce a comprehensive map of sequence signatures for different mechanisms of combinatorial TF action. PMID:23847101

  12. Widespread evidence of cooperative DNA binding by transcription factors in Drosophila development.

    PubMed

    Kazemian, Majid; Pham, Hannah; Wolfe, Scot A; Brodsky, Michael H; Sinha, Saurabh

    2013-09-01

    Regulation of eukaryotic gene transcription is often combinatorial in nature, with multiple transcription factors (TFs) regulating common target genes, often through direct or indirect mutual interactions. Many individual examples of cooperative binding by directly interacting TFs have been identified, but it remains unclear how pervasive this mechanism is during animal development. Cooperative TF binding should be manifest in genomic sequences as biased arrangements of TF-binding sites. Here, we explore the extent and diversity of such arrangements related to gene regulation during Drosophila embryogenesis. We used the DNA-binding specificities of 322 TFs along with chromatin accessibility information to identify enriched spacing and orientation patterns of TF-binding site pairs. We developed a new statistical approach for this task, specifically designed to accurately assess inter-site spacing biases while accounting for the phenomenon of homotypic site clustering commonly observed in developmental regulatory regions. We observed a large number of short-range distance preferences between TF-binding site pairs, including examples where the preference depends on the relative orientation of the binding sites. To test whether these binding site patterns reflect physical interactions between the corresponding TFs, we analyzed 27 TF pairs whose binding sites exhibited short distance preferences. In vitro protein-protein binding experiments revealed that >65% of these TF pairs can directly interact with each other. For five pairs, we further demonstrate that they bind cooperatively to DNA if both sites are present with the preferred spacing. This study demonstrates how DNA-binding motifs can be used to produce a comprehensive map of sequence signatures for different mechanisms of combinatorial TF action.

  13. Structure solution of DNA-binding proteins and complexes with ARCIMBOLDO libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Pröpper, Kevin; Instituto de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona; Meindl, Kathrin

    2014-06-01

    The structure solution of DNA-binding protein structures and complexes based on the combination of location of DNA-binding protein motif fragments with density modification in a multi-solution frame is described. Protein–DNA interactions play a major role in all aspects of genetic activity within an organism, such as transcription, packaging, rearrangement, replication and repair. The molecular detail of protein–DNA interactions can be best visualized through crystallography, and structures emphasizing insight into the principles of binding and base-sequence recognition are essential to understanding the subtleties of the underlying mechanisms. An increasing number of high-quality DNA-binding protein structure determinations have been witnessed despite themore » fact that the crystallographic particularities of nucleic acids tend to pose specific challenges to methods primarily developed for proteins. Crystallographic structure solution of protein–DNA complexes therefore remains a challenging area that is in need of optimized experimental and computational methods. The potential of the structure-solution program ARCIMBOLDO for the solution of protein–DNA complexes has therefore been assessed. The method is based on the combination of locating small, very accurate fragments using the program Phaser and density modification with the program SHELXE. Whereas for typical proteins main-chain α-helices provide the ideal, almost ubiquitous, small fragments to start searches, in the case of DNA complexes the binding motifs and DNA double helix constitute suitable search fragments. The aim of this work is to provide an effective library of search fragments as well as to determine the optimal ARCIMBOLDO strategy for the solution of this class of structures.« less

  14. Surface shapes and surrounding environment analysis of single- and double-stranded DNA-binding proteins in protein-DNA interface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Juan; Sun, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Protein-DNA bindings are critical to many biological processes. However, the structural mechanisms underlying these interactions are not fully understood. Here, we analyzed the residues shape (peak, flat, or valley) and the surrounding environment of double-stranded DNA-binding proteins (DSBs) and single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) in protein-DNA interfaces. In the results, we found that the interface shapes, hydrogen bonds, and the surrounding environment present significant differences between the two kinds of proteins. Built on the investigation results, we constructed a random forest (RF) classifier to distinguish DSBs and SSBs with satisfying performance. In conclusion, we present a novel methodology to characterize protein interfaces, which will deepen our understanding of the specificity of proteins binding to ssDNA (single-stranded DNA) or dsDNA (double-stranded DNA). Proteins 2016; 84:979-989. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Autoinhibition of ETV6 DNA Binding Is Established by the Stability of Its Inhibitory Helix

    PubMed Central

    De, Soumya; Okon, Mark; Graves, Barbara J.; McIntosh, Lawrence P.

    2017-01-01

    The ETS transcriptional repressor ETV6 (or TEL) is autoinhibited by an α-helix that sterically blocks its DNA-binding ETS domain. The inhibitory helix is marginally stable and unfolds when ETV6 binds to either specific or non-specific DNA. Using NMR spectroscopy, we show that folding of the inhibitory helix requires a buried charge–dipole interaction with helix H1 of the ETS domain. This interaction also contributes directly to autoinhibition by precluding a highly conserved dipole-enhanced hydrogen bond between the phosphodiester backbone of bound DNA and the N terminus of helix H1. To probe further the thermodynamic basis of autoinhibition, ETV6 variants were generated with amino acid substitutions introduced along the solvent exposed surface of the inhibitory helix. These changes were designed to increase the intrinsic helical propensity of the inhibitory helix without perturbing its packing interactions with the ETS domain. NMR-monitored amide hydrogen exchange measurements confirmed that the stability of the folded inhibitory helix increases progressively with added helix-promoting substitutions. This also results in progressively reinforced autoinhibition and decreased DNA-binding affinity. Surprisingly, locking the inhibitory helix onto the ETS domain by a disulfide bridge severely impairs, but does not abolish DNA binding. Weak interactions still occur via an interface displaced from the canonical ETS domain DNA-binding surface. Collectively, these studies establish a direct thermodynamic linkage between inhibitory helix stability and ETV6 autoinhibition, and demonstrate that helix unfolding does not strictly precede DNA binding. Modulating inhibitory helix stability provides a potential route for the in vivo regulation of ETV6 activity. PMID:26920109

  16. Combining H/D exchange mass spectroscopy and computational docking reveals extended DNA-binding surface on uracil-DNA glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Victoria A.; Pique, Michael E.; Hsu, Simon; Li, Sheng; Slupphaug, Geir; Rambo, Robert P.; Jamison, Jonathan W.; Liu, Tong; Lee, Jun H.; Tainer, John A.; Ten Eyck, Lynn F.; Woods, Virgil L.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray crystallography provides excellent structural data on protein–DNA interfaces, but crystallographic complexes typically contain only small fragments of large DNA molecules. We present a new approach that can use longer DNA substrates and reveal new protein–DNA interactions even in extensively studied systems. Our approach combines rigid-body computational docking with hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS). DXMS identifies solvent-exposed protein surfaces; docking is used to create a 3-dimensional model of the protein–DNA interaction. We investigated the enzyme uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG), which detects and cleaves uracil from DNA. UNG was incubated with a 30 bp DNA fragment containing a single uracil, giving the complex with the abasic DNA product. Compared with free UNG, the UNG–DNA complex showed increased solvent protection at the UNG active site and at two regions outside the active site: residues 210–220 and 251–264. Computational docking also identified these two DNA-binding surfaces, but neither shows DNA contact in UNG–DNA crystallographic structures. Our results can be explained by separation of the two DNA strands on one side of the active site. These non-sequence-specific DNA-binding surfaces may aid local uracil search, contribute to binding the abasic DNA product and help present the DNA product to APE-1, the next enzyme on the DNA-repair pathway. PMID:22492624

  17. Lead inhibition of DNA-binding mechanism of Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger proteins.

    PubMed

    Hanas, J S; Rodgers, J S; Bantle, J A; Cheng, Y G

    1999-11-01

    The association of lead with chromatin in cells suggests that deleterious metal effects may in part be mediated through alterations in gene function. To elucidate if and how lead may alter DNA binding of cysteine-rich zinc finger proteins, lead ions were analyzed for their ability to alter the DNA binding mechanism of the Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger protein transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA). As assayed by DNase I protection, the interaction of TFIIIA with the 50-bp internal control region of the 5S ribosomal gene was partially inhibited by 5 microM lead ions and completely inhibited by 10 to 20 microM lead ions. Preincubation of free TFIIIA with lead resulted in DNA-binding inhibition, whereas preincubation of a TFIIIA/5S RNA complex with lead did not result in DNA-binding inhibition. Because 5S RNA binds TFIIIA zinc fingers, this result is consistent with an inhibition mechanism via lead binding to zinc fingers. The complete loss of DNase I protection on the 5S gene indicates the mechanism of inhibition minimally involves the N-terminal fingers of TFIIIA. Inhibition was not readily reversible and occurred in the presence of an excess of beta-mercaptoethanol. Inhibition kinetics were fast, progressing to completion in approximately 5 min. Millimolar concentrations of sulfhydryl-specific arsenic ions were not inhibitory for TFIIIA binding. Micromolar concentrations of lead inhibited DNA binding by Sp1, another Cys(2)His(2) finger protein, but not by the nonfinger protein AP2. Inhibition of Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger transcription factors by lead ions at concentrations near those known to have deleterious physiological effects points to new molecular mechanisms for lead toxicity in promoting disease.

  18. Elucidating the evolutionary conserved DNA-binding specificities of WRKY transcription factors by molecular dynamics and in vitro binding assays

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Luise H.; Fischer, Nina M.; Harter, Klaus; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Wanke, Dierk

    2013-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors constitute a large protein family in plants that is involved in the regulation of developmental processes and responses to biotic or abiotic stimuli. The question arises how stimulus-specific responses are mediated given that the highly conserved WRKY DNA-binding domain (DBD) exclusively recognizes the ‘TTGACY’ W-box consensus. We speculated that the W-box consensus might be more degenerate and yet undetected differences in the W-box consensus of WRKYs of different evolutionary descent exist. The phylogenetic analysis of WRKY DBDs suggests that they evolved from an ancestral group IIc-like WRKY early in the eukaryote lineage. A direct descent of group IIc WRKYs supports a monophyletic origin of all other group II and III WRKYs from group I by loss of an N-terminal DBD. Group I WRKYs are of paraphyletic descent and evolved multiple times independently. By homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro DNA–protein interaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with AtWRKY50 (IIc), AtWRKY33 (I) and AtWRKY11 (IId) DBDs, we revealed differences in DNA-binding specificities. Our data imply that other components are essentially required besides the W-box-specific binding to DNA to facilitate a stimulus-specific WRKY function. PMID:23975197

  19. Theoretical study on the binding mechanism between N6-methyladenine and natural DNA bases.

    PubMed

    Song, Qi-Xia; Ding, Zhen-Dong; Liu, Jian-Hua; Li, Yan; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2013-03-01

    N6-methyladenine (m(6)A) is a rare base naturally occurring in DNA. It is different from the base adenine due to its N-CH(3). Therefore, the base not only pairs with thymine, but also with other DNA bases (cytosine, adenine and guanine). In this work, Møller-Plesset second-order (MP2) method has been used to investigate the binding mechanism between m(6)A and natural DNA bases in gas phase and in aqueous solution. The results show that N-CH(3) changed the way of N6-methyladenine binding to natural DNA bases. The binding style significantly influences the stability of base pairs. The trans-m(6)A:G and trans-m(6)A:C conformers are the most stable among all the base pairs. The existence of solvent can remarkably reduce the stability of the base pairs, and the DNA bases prefer pairing with trans-m(6)A to cis-m(6)A. Besides, the properties of these hydrogen bonds have been analyzed by atom in molecules (AIM) theory, natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis and Wiberg bond indexes (WBI). In addition, pairing with m(6)A decreases the binding energies compared to the normal Watson-Crick base pairs, it may explain the instability of the N6 site methylated DNA in theory.

  20. Structure-affinity relationships for the binding of actinomycin D to DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, José; Ortiz, Angel R.; de Pascual-Teresa, Beatriz; Gago, Federico

    1997-03-01

    Molecular models of the complexes between actinomycin D and 14 different DNA hexamers were built based on the X-ray crystal structure of the actinomycin-d(GAAGCTTC)2 complex. The DNA sequences included the canonical GpC binding step flanked by different base pairs, nonclassical binding sites such as GpG and GpT, and sites containing 2,6-diamino- purine. A good correlation was found between the intermolecular interaction energies calculated for the refined complexes and the relative preferences of actinomycin binding to standard and modified DNA. A detailed energy decomposition into van der Waals and electrostatic components for the interactions between the DNA base pairs and either the chromophore or the peptidic part of the antibiotic was performed for each complex. The resulting energy matrix was then subjected to principal component analysis, which showed that actinomycin D discriminates among different DNA sequences by an interplay of hydrogen bonding and stacking interactions. The structure-affinity relationships for this important antitumor drug are thus rationalized and may be used to advantage in the design of novel sequence-specific DNA-binding agents.

  1. Role of the Adenovirus DNA-Binding Protein in In Vitro Adeno-Associated Virus DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Peter; Dean, Frank B.; O’Donnell, Michael E.; Berns, Kenneth I.

    1998-01-01

    A basic question in adeno-associated virus (AAV) biology has been whether adenovirus (Ad) infection provided any function which directly promoted replication of AAV DNA. Previously in vitro assays for AAV DNA replication, using linear duplex AAV DNA as the template, uninfected or Ad-infected HeLa cell extracts, and exogenous AAV Rep protein, demonstrated that Ad infection provides a direct helper effect for AAV DNA replication. It was shown that the nature of this helper effect was to increase the processivity of AAV DNA replication. Left unanswered was the question of whether this effect was the result of cellular factors whose activity was enhanced by Ad infection or was the result of direct participation of Ad proteins in AAV DNA replication. In this report, we show that in the in vitro assay, enhancement of processivity occurs with the addition of either the Ad DNA-binding protein (Ad-DBP) or the human single-stranded DNA-binding protein (replication protein A [RPA]). Clearly Ad-DBP is present after Ad infection but not before, whereas the cellular level of RPA is not apparently affected by Ad infection. However, we have not measured possible modifications of RPA which might occur after Ad infection and affect AAV DNA replication. When the substrate for replication was an AAV genome inserted into a plasmid vector, RPA was not an effective substitute for Ad-DBP. Extracts supplemented with Ad-DBP preferentially replicated AAV sequences rather than adjacent vector sequences; in contrast, extracts supplemented with RPA preferentially replicated vector sequences. PMID:9420241

  2. Single-molecule FRET studies of the cooperative and non-cooperative binding kinetics of the bacteriophage T4 single-stranded DNA binding protein (gp32) to ssDNA lattices at replication fork junctions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wonbae; Gillies, John P.; Jose, Davis; Israels, Brett A.; von Hippel, Peter H.; Marcus, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Gene 32 protein (gp32) is the single-stranded (ss) DNA binding protein of the bacteriophage T4. It binds transiently and cooperatively to ssDNA sequences exposed during the DNA replication process and regulates the interactions of the other sub-assemblies of the replication complex during the replication cycle. We here use single-molecule FRET techniques to build on previous thermodynamic studies of gp32 binding to initiate studies of the dynamics of the isolated and cooperative binding of gp32 molecules within the replication complex. DNA primer/template (p/t) constructs are used as models to determine the effects of ssDNA lattice length, gp32 concentration, salt concentration, binding cooperativity and binding polarity at p/t junctions. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and transition density plots (TDPs) are used to characterize the dynamics of the multi-step assembly pathway of gp32 at p/t junctions of differing polarity, and show that isolated gp32 molecules bind to their ssDNA targets weakly and dissociate quickly, while cooperatively bound dimeric or trimeric clusters of gp32 bind much more tightly, can ‘slide’ on ssDNA sequences, and exhibit binding dynamics that depend on p/t junction polarities. The potential relationships of these binding dynamics to interactions with other components of the T4 DNA replication complex are discussed. PMID:27694621

  3. A conserved MCM single-stranded DNA binding element is essential for replication initiation.

    PubMed

    Froelich, Clifford A; Kang, Sukhyun; Epling, Leslie B; Bell, Stephen P; Enemark, Eric J

    2014-04-01

    The ring-shaped MCM helicase is essential to all phases of DNA replication. The complex loads at replication origins as an inactive double-hexamer encircling duplex DNA. Helicase activation converts this species to two active single hexamers that encircle single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The molecular details of MCM DNA interactions during these events are unknown. We determined the crystal structure of the Pyrococcus furiosus MCM N-terminal domain hexamer bound to ssDNA and define a conserved MCM-ssDNA binding motif (MSSB). Intriguingly, ssDNA binds the MCM ring interior perpendicular to the central channel with defined polarity. In eukaryotes, the MSSB is conserved in several Mcm2-7 subunits, and MSSB mutant combinations in S. cerevisiae Mcm2-7 are not viable. Mutant Mcm2-7 complexes assemble and are recruited to replication origins, but are defective in helicase loading and activation. Our findings identify an important MCM-ssDNA interaction and suggest it functions during helicase activation to select the strand for translocation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01993.001.

  4. A conserved MCM single-stranded DNA binding element is essential for replication initiation

    PubMed Central

    Froelich, Clifford A; Kang, Sukhyun; Epling, Leslie B; Bell, Stephen P; Enemark, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    The ring-shaped MCM helicase is essential to all phases of DNA replication. The complex loads at replication origins as an inactive double-hexamer encircling duplex DNA. Helicase activation converts this species to two active single hexamers that encircle single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The molecular details of MCM DNA interactions during these events are unknown. We determined the crystal structure of the Pyrococcus furiosus MCM N-terminal domain hexamer bound to ssDNA and define a conserved MCM-ssDNA binding motif (MSSB). Intriguingly, ssDNA binds the MCM ring interior perpendicular to the central channel with defined polarity. In eukaryotes, the MSSB is conserved in several Mcm2-7 subunits, and MSSB mutant combinations in S. cerevisiae Mcm2-7 are not viable. Mutant Mcm2-7 complexes assemble and are recruited to replication origins, but are defective in helicase loading and activation. Our findings identify an important MCM-ssDNA interaction and suggest it functions during helicase activation to select the strand for translocation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01993.001 PMID:24692448

  5. BuD, a helix–loop–helix DNA-binding domain for genome modification

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Stefano; Molina, Rafael; López-Méndez, Blanca; Juillerat, Alexandre; Bertonati, Claudia; Daboussi, Fayza; Campos-Olivas, Ramon; Duchateau, Phillippe; Montoya, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    DNA editing offers new possibilities in synthetic biology and biomedicine for modulation or modification of cellular functions to organisms. However, inaccuracy in this process may lead to genome damage. To address this important problem, a strategy allowing specific gene modification has been achieved through the addition, removal or exchange of DNA sequences using customized proteins and the endogenous DNA-repair machinery. Therefore, the engineering of specific protein–DNA interactions in protein scaffolds is key to providing ‘toolkits’ for precise genome modification or regulation of gene expression. In a search for putative DNA-binding domains, BurrH, a protein that recognizes a 19 bp DNA target, was identified. Here, its apo and DNA-bound crystal structures are reported, revealing a central region containing 19 repeats of a helix–loop–helix modular domain (BurrH domain; BuD), which identifies the DNA target by a single residue-to-nucleotide code, thus facilitating its redesign for gene targeting. New DNA-binding specificities have been engineered in this template, showing that BuD-derived nucleases (BuDNs) induce high levels of gene targeting in a locus of the human haemoglobin β (HBB) gene close to mutations responsible for sickle-cell anaemia. Hence, the unique combination of high efficiency and specificity of the BuD arrays can push forward diverse genome-modification approaches for cell or organism redesign, opening new avenues for gene editing. PMID:25004980

  6. Statistical-Mechanical Studies of the Collective Binding of Proteins to DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Houyin

    My dissertation work focuses on the microscopic statistical-mechanical studies of DNA-protein interactions and mainly comprises of three projects. In living cells, binding of proteins to DNA controls gene expression and packaging of the genome. Single-DNA stretching and twisting experiments provide a powerful tool to detect binding of proteins, via detection of their modification of DNA mechanical properties. However, it is often difficult or impossible to determine the numbers of proteins bound in such experiments, especially when the proteins interact nonspecifically with DNA. In the first project, we developed single-molecule versions of classical thermodynamic Maxwell relations and proposed that these relations could be used to measure DNA-bound protein numbers, changes in DNA double-helix torque with force, and many other quantities which are hard to directly measure. This approach does not need any theoretical assumptions beyond the existence of thermodynamic equilibrium and has been used in single-DNA experiments. Many single-molecule experiments associated with DNA-bending proteins suggest the existence of cooperative interactions between adjacent DNA-bound proteins. In the second project, we studied a statistical-mechanical worm-like chain model including binding cooperativity effects and found that the intrinsic cooperativity of binding sharpens force-extension curves and causes enhancement of fluctuation of extension and protein occupation. This model also allows us to estimate the intrinsic cooperativity in experiments. We also analyzed force-generated cooperativity and found that the related interaction between proteins is always attractive. This suggests that tension in DNA in vivo could alter the distribution of proteins bound along DNA, causing chromosome refolding, or changes in gene expression. In the third project, we investigated the correlations along DNA-protein complexes. We found there are two different correlation lengths corrected to the

  7. Conformational changes of the phenyl and naphthyl isocyanate-DNA adducts during DNA replication and by minor groove binding molecules

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Shu-ichi; Uotani, Yuuki; Sato, Yuichi; Oka, Hirohito; Fujii, Masayuki; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    DNA lesions produced by aromatic isocyanates have an extra bulky group on the nucleotide bases, with the capability of forming stacking interaction within a DNA helix. In this work, we investigated the conformation of the 2′-deoxyadenosine and 2′-deoxycytidine derivatives tethering a phenyl or naphthyl group, introduced in a DNA duplex. The chemical modification experiments using KMnO4 and 1-cyclohexyl-3 -(2-morpholinoethyl) carbodiimide metho-p-toluenesulfonate have shown that the 2′-deoxycytidine lesions form the base pair with guanine while the 2′-deoxyadenosine lesions have less ability of forming the base pair with thymine in solution. Nevertheless, the kinetic analysis shows that these DNA lesions are compatible with DNA ligase and DNA polymerase reactions, as much as natural DNA bases. We suggest that the adduct lesions have a capability of adopting dual conformations, depending on the difference in their interaction energies between stacking of the attached aromatic group and base pairing through hydrogen bonds. It is also presented that the attached aromatic groups change their orientation by interacting with the minor groove binding netropsin, distamycin and synthetic polyamide. The nucleotide derivatives would be useful for enhancing the phenotypic diversity of DNA molecules and for exploring new non-natural nucleotides. PMID:23873956

  8. Investigations of the CLOCK and BMAL1 Proteins Binding to DNA: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Xue, Tuo; Song, Chunnian; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yan; Chen, Guangju

    2016-01-01

    The circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK), and brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (BMAL1) proteins are important transcriptional factors of the endogenous circadian clock. The CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins can regulate the transcription-translation activities of the clock-related genes through the DNA binding. The hetero-/homo-dimerization and DNA combination of the CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins play a key role in the positive and negative transcriptional feedback processes. In the present work, we constructed a series of binary and ternary models for the bHLH/bHLH-PAS domains of the CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins, and the DNA molecule, and carried out molecular dynamics simulations, free energy calculations and conformational analysis to explore the interaction properties of the CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins with DNA. The results show that the bHLH domains of CLOCK and BMAL1 can favorably form the heterodimer of the bHLH domains of CLOCK and BMAL1 and the homodimer of the bHLH domains of BMAL1. And both dimers could respectively bind to DNA at its H1-H1 interface. The DNA bindings of the H1 helices in the hetero- and homo-bHLH dimers present the rectangular and diagonal binding modes, respectively. Due to the function of the α-helical forceps in these dimers, the tight gripping of the H1 helices to the major groove of DNA would cause the decrease of interactions at the H1-H2 interfaces in the CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins. The additional PAS domains in the CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins affect insignificantly the interactions of the CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins with the DNA molecule due to the flexible and long loop linkers located at the middle of the PAS and bHLH domains. The present work theoretically explains the interaction mechanisms of the bHLH domains of the CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins with DNA.

  9. Double-stranded telomeric DNA binding proteins: Diversity matters.

    PubMed

    Červenák, Filip; Juríková, Katarína; Sepšiová, Regina; Neboháčová, Martina; Nosek, Jozef; Tomáška, L'ubomír

    2017-01-01

    Telomeric sequences constitute only a small fraction of the whole genome yet they are crucial for ensuring genomic stability. This function is in large part mediated by protein complexes recruited to telomeric sequences by specific telomere-binding proteins (TBPs). Although the principal tasks of nuclear telomeres are the same in all eukaryotes, TBPs in various taxa exhibit a surprising diversity indicating their distinct evolutionary origin. This diversity is especially pronounced in ascomycetous yeasts where they must have co-evolved with rapidly diversifying sequences of telomeric repeats. In this article we (i) provide a historical overview of the discoveries leading to the current list of TBPs binding to double-stranded (ds) regions of telomeres, (ii) describe examples of dsTBPs highlighting their diversity in even closely related species, and (iii) speculate about possible evolutionary trajectories leading to a long list of various dsTBPs fulfilling the same general role(s) in their own unique ways.

  10. UV damage-specific DNA-binding protein in xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, H.; Fujiwara, Y.

    1991-03-29

    The gel mobility shift assay method revealed a specifically ultraviolet (UV) damage recognizing, DNA-binding protein in nuclear extracts of normal human cells. The resulted DNA/protein complexes caused the two retarded mobility shifts. Four xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E (XPE) fibroblast strains derived from unrelated Japanese families were not deficient in such a DNA damage recognition/binding protein because of the normal complex formation and gel mobility shifts, although we confirmed the reported lack of the protein in the European XPE (XP2RO and XP3RO) cells. Thus, the absence of this binding protein is not always commonly observed in all the XPE strains,more » and the partially repair-deficient and intermediately UV-hypersensitive phenotype of XPE cells are much similar whether or not they lack the protein.« less

  11. HMMBinder: DNA-Binding Protein Prediction Using HMM Profile Based Features.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Rianon; Chowdhury, Shahana Yasmin; Rashid, Mahmood A; Sharma, Alok; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Shatabda, Swakkhar

    2017-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins often play important role in various processes within the cell. Over the last decade, a wide range of classification algorithms and feature extraction techniques have been used to solve this problem. In this paper, we propose a novel DNA-binding protein prediction method called HMMBinder. HMMBinder uses monogram and bigram features extracted from the HMM profiles of the protein sequences. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of HMM profile based features for the DNA-binding protein prediction problem. We applied Support Vector Machines (SVM) as a classification technique in HMMBinder. Our method was tested on standard benchmark datasets. We experimentally show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods found in the literature.

  12. Correction of the DNA repair defect in xeroderma pigmentosum group E by injection of a DNA damage-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, S.; Brody, T.; Linn, S.

    1994-04-26

    Cells from a subset of patients with the DNA-repair-defective disease xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E (XP-E) are known to lack a DNA damage-binding (DDB) activity. Purified human DDB protein was injected into XP-E cells to test whether the DNA-repair defect in these cells is caused by a defect in DDB activity. Injected DDB protein stimulated DNA repair to normal levels in those strains that lack the DDB activity but did not stimulate repair in cells from other xeroderma pigmentosum groups or in XP-E cells that contain the activity. These results provide direct evidence that defective DDB activity causes the repairmore » defect in a subset of XP-E patients, which in turn establishes a role for this activity in nucleotide-excision repair in vivo.« less

  13. In vitro DNA binding studies of lenalidomide using spectroscopic in combination with molecular docking techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liang; Hu, Yan-Xi; Li, Yan-Cheng; Zhang, Li; Ai, Hai-Xin; Liu, Yu-Feng; Liu, Hong-Sheng

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, the binding interaction between lenalidomide (LEN) and calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was systematically studied by using fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies under imitated physiological conditions (pH = 7.4) coupled with molecular docking. It was found that LEN was bound to ct-DNA with high binding affinity (Ka = 2.308 × 105 M-1 at 283 K) through groove binding as evidenced by a slight decrease in the absorption intensity in combination with CD spectra. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG < 0, ΔH > 0 and ΔS < 0) of the LEN-DNA system obtained at three different temperatures suggested that the binding process was spontaneous and was primarily driven by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interaction. Furthermore, competitive binding experiments with ethidium bromide and 4‧, 6-dia-midino-2-phenylindoleas probes showed that LEN could preferentially bind in the minor groove of double-stranded DNA. The average lifetime of LEN was calculated to be 7.645 ns. The φ of LEN was measured as 0.09 and non-radiation energy transfer between LEN and DNA had occurred. The results of the molecular docking were consistent with the experimental results. This study explored the potential applicability of the spectroscopic properties of LEN and also investigated its interactions with relevant biological targets. In addition, it will provide some theoretical references for the deep research of simultaneous administration of LEN with other drugs.

  14. Multiple conformations of the cytidine repressor DNA-binding domain coalesce to one upon recognition of a specific DNA surface.

    PubMed

    Moody, Colleen L; Tretyachenko-Ladokhina, Vira; Laue, Thomas M; Senear, Donald F; Cocco, Melanie J

    2011-08-09

    The cytidine repressor (CytR) is a member of the LacR family of bacterial repressors with distinct functional features. The Escherichia coli CytR regulon comprises nine operons whose palindromic operators vary in both sequence and, most significantly, spacing between the recognition half-sites. This suggests a strong likelihood that protein folding would be coupled to DNA binding as a mechanism to accommodate the variety of different operator architectures to which CytR is targeted. Such coupling is a common feature of sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins, including the LacR family repressors; however, there are no significant structural rearrangements upon DNA binding within the three-helix DNA-binding domains (DBDs) studied to date. We used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to characterize the CytR DBD free in solution and to determine the high-resolution structure of a CytR DBD monomer bound specifically to one DNA half-site of the uridine phosphorylase (udp) operator. We find that the free DBD populates multiple distinct conformations distinguished by up to four sets of NMR peaks per residue. This structural heterogeneity is previously unknown in the LacR family. These stable structures coalesce into a single, more stable udp-bound form that features a three-helix bundle containing a canonical helix-turn-helix motif. However, this structure differs from all other LacR family members whose structures are known with regard to the packing of the helices and consequently their relative orientations. Aspects of CytR activity are unique among repressors; we identify here structural properties that are also distinct and that might underlie the different functional properties. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Ferrate oxidation of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase-I. Identification of a methionine residue that is essential for DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Basu, A; Williams, K R; Modak, M J

    1987-07-15

    Treatment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase-I with potassium ferrate (K2FeO4), a site-specific oxidizing agent for the phosphate group-binding sites of proteins, results in the irreversible inactivation of enzyme activity as judged by the loss of polymerization as well as 3'-5' exonuclease activity. A significant protection from ferrate-mediated inactivation is observed in the presence of DNA but not by substrate deoxynucleoside triphosphates. Furthermore, ferrate-treated enzyme also exhibits loss of template-primer binding activity, whereas its ability to bind substrate triphosphates is unaffected. In addition, comparative high pressure liquid chromatography tryptic peptide maps obtained before and after ferrate oxidation demonstrated that only five peptides of the more than 60 peptide peaks present in the tryptic digest underwent a major change in either peak position or intensity as a result of ferrate treatment. Amino acid analyses and/or sequencing identified four of these affected peaks as corresponding to peptides that span residues 324-340, 437-455, 456-464, and 512-518, respectively. However, only the last peptide, which has the sequence: Met-Trp-Pro-Asp-Leu-Gln-Lys, was significantly protected in the presence of DNA. This latter peptide was also the only peptide whose degree of oxidation correlated directly with the extent of inactivation of the enzyme. Amino acid analysis indicated that methionine 512 is the target site in this peptide for ferrate oxidation. Methionine 512, therefore, appears to be essential for the DNA-binding function of DNA polymerase-I from E. coli.

  16. DNA binding of a proflavine derivative bearing a platinum hanging residue.

    PubMed

    Biagini, Silvia; Bianchi, Antonio; Biver, Tarita; Boggioni, Alessia; Nikolayenko, Igor V; Secco, Fernando; Venturini, Marcella

    2011-04-01

    New platinum(II) complex of 3,6-diamine-9-[6,6-bis(2-aminohethyl)-1,6-diaminohexyl]acridine, AzaPt, has been synthesised and characterised. Behaviour of AzaPt in solution (protonation and possible self-aggregation phenomena) has been investigated by spectral methods (absorbance and fluorescence) at I=0.1M and 25°C, and the equilibrium parameters of binding to calf thymus DNA have been established. Two different modes of DNA binding by the complex were detected, which depend on the polymer to dye molar ratio (P/D). At relatively low P/D values the mode was interpreted as binding by the polyamine residue external to the base pairs, while at high P/D values the binding corresponds to intercalation of the proflavine residue. Such interpretation is supported by the observed salt effect on binding and the temperature variation of the binding constants, which allowed estimating the ΔH and ΔS values contributions. Spectrophotometric analysis of the long time range binding revealed that AzaPt is involved in a slow reaction, interpreted as an attack by the platinum ion on the nucleobases. The time constant for such interaction was calculated and found to be the same order of magnitude as for processes responsible for the action of anti-tumour drugs that do covalently bind to polynucleotides. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression, purification and biochemical characterization of a single-stranded DNA binding protein from Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    PubMed

    Vernal, Javier; Serpa, Viviane I; Tavares, Carolina; Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Terenzi, Hernán

    2007-05-01

    An open reading frame encoding a protein similar in size and sequence to the Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB protein) was identified in the Herbaspirillum seropedicae genome. This open reading frame was cloned into the expression plasmid pET14b. The SSB protein from H. seropedicae, named Hs_SSB, was overexpressed in E. coli strain BL21(DE3) and purified to homogeneity. Mass spectrometry data confirmed the identity of this protein. The apparent molecular mass of the native Hs_SSB was estimated by gel filtration, suggesting that the native protein is a tetramer made up of four similar subunits. The purified protein binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in a similar manner to other SSB proteins. The production of this recombinant protein in good yield opens up the possibility of obtaining its 3D-structure and will help further investigations into DNA metabolism.

  18. Understanding the Effect of Carbonate Ion on Cisplatin Binding to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Ryan C.; Lovejoy, Katherine S.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    The role of carbonate in the binding of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) to DNA was investigated in order to understand the potential involvement of carbonato-cisplatin species in the mechanism of action of platinum anticancer agents. Cisplatin was allowed to react with both double- and single-stranded DNA in carbonate, phosphate, and HEPES buffers, and the products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and enzymatic digestion/mass spectrometry, respectively. The data from these experiments demonstrate (1) that carbonate, like other biological nucleophiles, forms relatively inert complexes with platinum that inactivate cisplatin, and (2) that the major cisplatin-DNA adduct formed is a bifunctional cross-link. These results are in accord with previous studies of cisplatin-DNA binding and reveal that the presence of carbonate has no consequence on the nature of the resulting adducts. PMID:17465550

  19. Molecular cloning of MSSP-2, a c-myc gene single-strand binding protein: characterization of binding specificity and DNA replication activity.

    PubMed Central

    Takai, T; Nishita, Y; Iguchi-Ariga, S M; Ariga, H

    1994-01-01

    We have previously reported the human cDNA encoding MSSP-1, a sequence-specific double- and single-stranded DNA binding protein [Negishi, Nishita, Saëgusa, Kakizaki, Galli, Kihara, Tamai, Miyajima, Iguchi-Ariga and Ariga (1994) Oncogene, 9, 1133-1143]. MSSP-1 binds to a DNA replication origin/transcriptional enhancer of the human c-myc gene and has turned out to be identical with Scr2, a human protein which complements the defect of cdc2 kinase in S.pombe [Kataoka and Nojima (1994) Nucleic Acid Res., 22, 2687-2693]. We have cloned the cDNA for MSSP-2, another member of the MSSP family of proteins. The MSSP-2 cDNA shares highly homologous sequences with MSSP-1 cDNA, except for the insertion of 48 bp coding 16 amino acids near the C-terminus. Like MSSP-1, MSSP-2 has RNP-1 consensus sequences. The results of the experiments using bacterially expressed MSSP-2, and its deletion mutants, as histidine fusion proteins suggested that the binding specificity of MSSP-2 to double- and single-stranded DNA is the same as that of MSSP-1, and that the RNP consensus sequences are required for the DNA binding of the protein. MSSP-2 stimulated the DNA replication of an SV40-derived plasmid containing the binding sequence for MSSP-1 or -2. MSSP-2 is hence suggested to play an important role in regulation of DNA replication. Images PMID:7838710

  20. Binding of transcription termination protein nun to nascent RNA and template DNA.

    PubMed

    Watnick, R S; Gottesman, M E

    1999-12-17

    The amino-terminal arginine-rich motif of coliphage HK022 Nun binds phage lambda nascent transcript, whereas the carboxyl-terminal domain interacts with RNA polymerase (RNAP) and blocks transcription elongation. RNA binding is inhibited by zinc (Zn2+) and stimulated by Escherichia coli NusA. To study these interactions, the Nun carboxyl terminus was extended by a cysteine residue conjugated to a photochemical cross-linker. The carboxyl terminus contacted NusA and made Zn2+-dependent intramolecular contacts. When Nun was added to a paused transcription elongation complex, it cross-linked to the DNA template. Nun may arrest transcription by anchoring RNAP to DNA.

  1. Identifying DNA-binding proteins using structural motifs and the electrostatic potential

    PubMed Central

    Shanahan, Hugh P.; Garcia, Mario A.; Jones, Susan; Thornton, Janet M.

    2004-01-01

    Robust methods to detect DNA-binding proteins from structures of unknown function are important for structural biology. This paper describes a method for identifying such proteins that (i) have a solvent accessible structural motif necessary for DNA-binding and (ii) a positive electrostatic potential in the region of the binding region. We focus on three structural motifs: helix–turn-helix (HTH), helix–hairpin–helix (HhH) and helix–loop–helix (HLH). We find that the combination of these variables detect 78% of proteins with an HTH motif, which is a substantial improvement over previous work based purely on structural templates and is comparable to more complex methods of identifying DNA-binding proteins. Similar true positive fractions are achieved for the HhH and HLH motifs. We see evidence of wide evolutionary diversity for DNA-binding proteins with an HTH motif, and much smaller diversity for those with an HhH or HLH motif. PMID:15356290

  2. DNA binding properties and biological evaluation of dihydropyrimidinones derivatives as potential antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gongke; Li, Xiangrong; Gou, Yaping; Chen, Yuhan; Yan, Changling; Lu, Yan

    2013-10-01

    The binding properties of two medicinally important dihydropyrimidinones derivatives 5-(Ethoxycarbonyl)-6-methyl-4-phenyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one (EMPD) and 5-(Ethoxycarbonyl)-6-methyl-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one (EMCD) with calf-thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated by spectroscopy, viscosity, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and molecular modeling techniques. Simultaneously, their biological activities were evaluated with MTT assay method. The binding constants determined with spectroscopic titration and ITC were found to be in the same order of 10(4)M(-1). According to the results of viscosity studies, fluorescence competitive binding experiment and ITC investigations, intercalative binding was evaluated as the dominant binding modes between the two compounds and ctDNA. Furthermore, the results of molecular modeling corroborated those obtained from spectroscopic, viscosimetric and ITC investigations. Evaluation of the antitumor activities of the two derivatives against different tumor cell lines proved that they exhibited significant tumor cell inhibition rate, accordingly blocking DNA transcription and replication. The present results favor the development of potential drugs related with dihydropyrimidinones derivatives in the treatment of some diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ligand binding to telomeric G-quadruplex DNA investigated by funnel-metadynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Moraca, Federica; Amato, Jussara; Ortuso, Francesco; Artese, Anna; Novellino, Ettore; Alcaro, Stefano; Parrinello, Michele; Limongelli, Vittorio

    2017-01-01

    G-quadruplexes (G4s) are higher-order DNA structures typically present at promoter regions of genes and telomeres. Here, the G4 formation decreases the replicative DNA at each cell cycle, finally leading to apoptosis. The ability to control this mitotic clock, particularly in cancer cells, is fascinating and passes through a rational understanding of the ligand/G4 interaction. We demonstrate that an accurate description of the ligand/G4 binding mechanism is possible using an innovative free-energy method called funnel-metadynamics (FM), which we have recently developed to investigate ligand/protein interaction. Using FM simulations, we have elucidated the binding mechanism of the anticancer alkaloid berberine to the human telomeric G4 (d[AG3(T2AG3)3]), computing also the binding free-energy landscape. Two ligand binding modes have been identified as the lowest energy states. Furthermore, we have found prebinding sites, which are preparatory to reach the final binding mode. In our simulations, the ions and the water molecules have been explicitly represented and the energetic contribution of the solvent during ligand binding evaluated. Our theoretical results provide an accurate estimate of the absolute ligand/DNA binding free energy (ΔGb0 = −10.3 ± 0.5 kcal/mol) that we validated through steady-state fluorescence binding assays. The good agreement between the theoretical and experimental value demonstrates that FM is a most powerful method to investigate ligand/DNA interaction and can be a useful tool for the rational design also of G4 ligands. PMID:28232513

  4. The prokaryotic enhancer binding protein NTRC has an ATPase activity which is phosphorylation and DNA dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Austin, S; Dixon, R

    1992-01-01

    The prokaryotic activator protein NTRC binds to enhancer-like elements and activates transcription in response to nitrogen limitation by catalysing open complex formation by sigma 54 RNA polymerase holoenzyme. Formation of open complexes requires the phosphorylated form of NTRC and the reaction is ATP dependent. We find that NTRC has an ATPase activity which is activated by phosphorylation and is strongly stimulated by the presence of DNA containing specific NTRC binding sites. Images PMID:1534752

  5. DNA-binding activity of TNF-{alpha} inducing protein from Helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzuhara, T.; Suganuma, M.; Oka, K.

    2007-11-03

    Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) inducing protein (Tip{alpha}) is a carcinogenic factor secreted from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), mediated through both enhanced expression of TNF-{alpha} and chemokine genes and activation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B. Since Tip{alpha} enters gastric cancer cells, the Tip{alpha} binding molecules in the cells should be investigated. The direct DNA-binding activity of Tip{alpha} was observed by pull down assay using single- and double-stranded genomic DNA cellulose. The surface plasmon resonance assay, indicating an association between Tip{alpha} and DNA, revealed that the affinity of Tip{alpha} for (dGdC)10 is 2400 times stronger than that of del-Tip{alpha}, an inactive Tip{alpha}. This suggestsmore » a strong correlation between DNA-binding activity and carcinogenic activity of Tip{alpha}. And the DNA-binding activity of Tip{alpha} was first demonstrated with a molecule secreted from H. pylori.« less

  6. Activator Protein-1: redox switch controlling structure and DNA-binding.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhou; Machius, Mischa; Nestler, Eric J; Rudenko, Gabby

    2017-11-02

    The transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1), binds to cognate DNA under redox control; yet, the underlying mechanism has remained enigmatic. A series of crystal structures of the AP-1 FosB/JunD bZIP domains reveal ordered DNA-binding regions in both FosB and JunD even in absence DNA. However, while JunD is competent to bind DNA, the FosB bZIP domain must undergo a large conformational rearrangement that is controlled by a 'redox switch' centered on an inter-molecular disulfide bond. Solution studies confirm that FosB/JunD cannot undergo structural transition and bind DNA when the redox-switch is in the 'OFF' state, and show that the mid-point redox potential of the redox switch affords it sensitivity to cellular redox homeostasis. The molecular and structural studies presented here thus reveal the mechanism underlying redox-regulation of AP-1 Fos/Jun transcription factors and provide structural insight for therapeutic interventions targeting AP-1 proteins. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Synthesis, DNA binding, topoisomerase inhibition and cytotoxic properties of 2-chloroethylnitrosourea derivatives of hoechst 33258.

    PubMed

    Bielawski, Krzysztof; Bielawska, Anna; Anchim, Tomasz; Wołczyński, Sławomir

    2005-06-01

    A number of novel 2-chloroethylnitrosourea derivatives of Hoechst 33258 were synthesized and examined for cytotoxicity in breast cancer cell cultures and for inhibition of topoisomerases I and II. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of these compounds employing a MTT assay and inhibition of [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells demonstrated that these compounds were more active than Hoechst 33258. The DNA-binding ability of these compounds was evaluated by an ultrafiltration method using calf thymus DNA, poly(dA-dT)2 and poly(dG-dC)2, indicated that these compounds as well as Hoechst 33258 well interact with AT base pair compared with GC pair. Binding studies indicate that these compounds bind more tightly to double-stranded DNA than the parent compound Hoechst 33258. The degree to which these compounds inhibited cell growth breast cancer cells was generally consistent with their relative DNA binding affinity. Mechanistic studies revealed that these compounds act as topoisomerase I (topo I) or topoisomerase II (topo II) inhibitors in plasmid relaxation assays.

  8. Activator Protein-1: redox switch controlling structure and DNA-binding

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Zhou; Machius, Mischa; Nestler, Eric J.

    The transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1), binds to cognate DNA under redox control; yet, the underlying mechanism has remained enigmatic. A series of crystal structures of the AP-1 FosB/JunD bZIP domains reveal ordered DNA-binding regions in both FosB and JunD even in absence DNA. However, while JunD is competent to bind DNA, the FosB bZIP domain must undergo a large conformational rearrangement that is controlled by a ‘redox switch’ centered on an inter-molecular disulfide bond. Solution studies confirm that FosB/JunD cannot undergo structural transition and bind DNA when the redox-switch is in the ‘OFF’ state, and show that the mid-pointmore » redox potential of the redox switch affords it sensitivity to cellular redox homeostasis. The molecular and structural studies presented here thus reveal the mechanism underlying redox-regulation of AP-1 Fos/Jun transcription factors and provide structural insight for therapeutic interventions targeting AP-1 proteins.« less

  9. Identification of DNA-binding proteins using structural, electrostatic and evolutionary features.

    PubMed

    Nimrod, Guy; Szilágyi, András; Leslie, Christina; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2009-04-10

    DNA-binding proteins (DBPs) participate in various crucial processes in the life-cycle of the cells, and the identification and characterization of these proteins is of great importance. We present here a random forests classifier for identifying DBPs among proteins with known 3D structures. First, clusters of evolutionarily conserved regions (patches) on the surface of proteins were detected using the PatchFinder algorithm; earlier studies showed that these regions are typically the functionally important regions of proteins. Next, we trained a classifier using features like the electrostatic potential, cluster-based amino acid conservation patterns and the secondary structure content of the patches, as well as features of the whole protein, including its dipole moment. Using 10-fold cross-validation on a dataset of 138 DBPs and 110 proteins that do not bind DNA, the classifier achieved a sensitivity and a specificity of 0.90, which is overall better than the performance of published methods. Furthermore, when we tested five different methods on 11 new DBPs that did not appear in the original dataset, only our method annotated all correctly. The resulting classifier was applied to a collection of 757 proteins of known structure and unknown function. Of these proteins, 218 were predicted to bind DNA, and we anticipate that some of them interact with DNA using new structural motifs. The use of complementary computational tools supports the notion that at least some of them do bind DNA.

  10. Direct Correlation of DNA Binding and Single Protein Domain Motion via Dual Illumination Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report a dual illumination, single-molecule imaging strategy to dissect directly and in real-time the correlation between nanometer-scale domain motion of a DNA repair protein and its interaction with individual DNA substrates. The strategy was applied to XPD, an FeS cluster-containing DNA repair helicase. Conformational dynamics was assessed via FeS-mediated quenching of a fluorophore site-specifically incorporated into XPD. Simultaneously, binding of DNA molecules labeled with a spectrally distinct fluorophore was detected by colocalization of the DNA- and protein-derived signals. We show that XPD undergoes thermally driven conformational transitions that manifest in spatial separation of its two auxiliary domains. DNA binding does not strictly enforce a specific conformation. Interaction with a cognate DNA damage, however, stabilizes the compact conformation of XPD by increasing the weighted average lifetime of this state by 140% relative to an undamaged DNA. Our imaging strategy will be a valuable tool to study other FeS-containing nucleic acid processing enzymes. PMID:25204359

  11. Binding-induced DNA walker for signal amplification in highly selective electrochemical detection of protein.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yuhang; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Longyi; Lei, Jianping; Wu, Jie; Ju, Huangxian

    2017-10-15

    A binding-induced DNA walker-assisted signal amplification was developed for highly selective electrochemical detection of protein. Firstly, the track of DNA walker was constructed by self-assembly of the high density ferrocene (Fc)-labeled anchor DNA and aptamer 1 on the gold electrode surface. Sequentially, a long swing-arm chain containing aptamer 2 and walking strand DNA was introduced onto gold electrode through aptamers-target specific recognition, and thus initiated walker strand sequences to hybridize with anchor DNA. Then, the DNA walker was activated by the stepwise cleavage of the hybridized anchor DNA by nicking endonuclease to release multiple Fc molecules for signal amplification. Taking thrombin as the model target, the Fc-generated electrochemical signal decreased linearly with logarithm value of thrombin concentration ranging from 10pM to 100nM with a detection limit of 2.5pM under the optimal conditions. By integrating the specific recognition of aptamers to target with the enzymatic cleavage of nicking endonuclease, the aptasensor showed the high selectivity. The binding-induced DNA walker provides a promising strategy for signal amplification in electrochemical biosensor, and has the extensive applications in sensitive and selective detection of the various targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A nucleotide binding rectification Brownian ratchet model for translocation of Y-family DNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Y-family DNA polymerases are characterized by low-fidelity synthesis on undamaged DNA and ability to catalyze translesion synthesis over the damaged DNA. Their translocation along the DNA template is an important event during processive DNA synthesis. In this work we present a Brownian ratchet model for this translocation, where the directed translocation is rectified by the nucleotide binding to the polymerase. Using the model, different features of the available structures for Dpo4, Dbh and polymerase ι in binary and ternary forms can be easily explained. Other dynamic properties of the Y-family polymerases such as the fast translocation event upon dNTP binding for Dpo4 and the considerable variations of the processivity among the polymerases can also be well explained by using the model. In addition, some predicted results of the DNA synthesis rate versus the external force acting on Dpo4 and Dbh polymerases are presented. Moreover, we compare the effect of the external force on the DNA synthesis rate of the Y-family polymerase with that of the replicative DNA polymerase. PMID:21699732

  13. Small terminase couples viral DNA-binding to genome-packaging ATPase activity

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ankoor; Bhardwaj, Anshul; Datta, Pinaki; Lander, Gabriel C.; Cingolani, Gino

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Packaging of viral genomes into empty procapsids is powered by a large DNA-packaging motor. In most viruses, this machine is composed of a large (L) and a small (S) terminase subunit complexed with a dodecamer of portal protein. Here, we describe the 1.75 Å crystal structure of the bacteriophage P22 S-terminase in a nonameric conformation. The structure presents a central channel ~23 Å in diameter, sufficiently large to accommodate hydrated B-DNA. The last 23 residues of S-terminase are essential for binding to DNA and assembly to L-terminase. Upon binding to its own DNA, S-terminase functions as a specific activator of L-terminase ATPase activity. The DNA-dependent stimulation of ATPase activity thus rationalizes the exclusive specificity of genome-packaging motors for viral DNA in the crowd of host DNA, ensuring fidelity of packaging and avoiding wasteful ATP hydrolysis. This posits a model for DNA-dependent activation of genome-packaging motors of general interest in virology. PMID:22771211

  14. Sequence-specific DNA binding Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides and their applications.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Yusuke; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides (Py-Im polyamides) are cell-permeable compounds that bind to the minor groove of double-stranded DNA in a sequence-specific manner without causing denaturation of the DNA. These compounds can be used to control gene expression and to stain specific sequences in cells. Here, we review the history, structural variations, and functional investigations of Py-Im polyamides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. p53 Specifically Binds Triplex DNA In Vitro and in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brázdová, Marie; Tichý, Vlastimil; Helma, Robert; Bažantová, Pavla; Polášková, Alena; Krejčí, Aneta; Petr, Marek; Navrátilová, Lucie; Tichá, Olga; Nejedlý, Karel; Bennink, Martin L.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Bábková, Zuzana; Martínek, Tomáš; Lexa, Matej; Adámik, Matej

    2016-01-01

    Triplex DNA is implicated in a wide range of biological activities, including regulation of gene expression and genomic instability leading to cancer. The tumor suppressor p53 is a central regulator of cell fate in response to different type of insults. Sequence and structure specific modes of DNA recognition are core attributes of the p53 protein. The focus of this work is the structure-specific binding of p53 to DNA containing triplex-forming sequences in vitro and in cells and the effect on p53-driven transcription. This is the first DNA binding study of full-length p53 and its deletion variants to both intermolecular and intramolecular T.A.T triplexes. We demonstrate that the interaction of p53 with intermolecular T.A.T triplex is comparable to the recognition of CTG-hairpin non-B DNA structure. Using deletion mutants we determined the C-terminal DNA binding domain of p53 to be crucial for triplex recognition. Furthermore, strong p53 recognition of intramolecular T.A.T triplexes (H-DNA), stabilized by negative superhelicity in plasmid DNA, was detected by competition and immunoprecipitation experiments, and visualized by AFM. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed p53 binding T.A.T forming sequence in vivo. Enhanced reporter transactivation by p53 on insertion of triplex forming sequence into plasmid with p53 consensus sequence was observed by luciferase reporter assays. In-silico scan of human regulatory regions for the simultaneous presence of both consensus sequence and T.A.T motifs identified a set of candidate p53 target genes and p53-dependent activation of several of them (ABCG5, ENOX1, INSR, MCC, NFAT5) was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Our results show that T.A.T triplex comprises a new class of p53 binding sites targeted by p53 in a DNA structure-dependent mode in vitro and in cells. The contribution of p53 DNA structure-dependent binding to the regulation of transcription is discussed. PMID:27907175

  16. DNA-Binding Kinetics Determines the Mechanism of Noise-Induced Switching in Gene Networks

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Margaret J.; Chu, Brian K.; Roy, Mahua; Read, Elizabeth L.

    2015-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks are multistable dynamical systems in which attractor states represent cell phenotypes. Spontaneous, noise-induced transitions between these states are thought to underlie critical cellular processes, including cell developmental fate decisions, phenotypic plasticity in fluctuating environments, and carcinogenesis. As such, there is increasing interest in the development of theoretical and computational approaches that can shed light on the dynamics of these stochastic state transitions in multistable gene networks. We applied a numerical rare-event sampling algorithm to study transition paths of spontaneous noise-induced switching for a ubiquitous gene regulatory network motif, the bistable toggle switch, in which two mutually repressive genes compete for dominant expression. We find that the method can efficiently uncover detailed switching mechanisms that involve fluctuations both in occupancies of DNA regulatory sites and copy numbers of protein products. In addition, we show that the rate parameters governing binding and unbinding of regulatory proteins to DNA strongly influence the switching mechanism. In a regime of slow DNA-binding/unbinding kinetics, spontaneous switching occurs relatively frequently and is driven primarily by fluctuations in DNA-site occupancies. In contrast, in a regime of fast DNA-binding/unbinding kinetics, switching occurs rarely and is driven by fluctuations in levels of expressed protein. Our results demonstrate how spontaneous cell phenotype transitions involve collective behavior of both regulatory proteins and DNA. Computational approaches capable of simulating dynamics over many system variables are thus well suited to exploring dynamic mechanisms in gene networks. PMID:26488666

  17. Synthesis, structure, DNA/BSA binding and antibacterial studies of NNO tridentate Schiff base metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakthi, Marimuthu; Ramu, Andy

    2017-12-01

    A new salicylaldehyde derived 2,4-diiodo-6-((2-phenylaminoethylimino)methyl)phenol Schiff base(L) and its transition metal complexes of the type MLCl where, M = Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II) have been synthesized. The coordination mode of Schiff base holding NNO donor atoms with metal ions was well investigated by elemental analysis, ESI-mass as well as IR, UV-vis, CV and NMR spectral studies. The binding efficiency and mode of these complexes with biological macromolecules viz., herring sperm DNA (HS- DNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been explored through various spectroscopic techniques. The characteristic changes in absorption, emission and, circular dichroism spectra of the complexes with DNA indicate the noticeable interaction between them. From the all spectral information complexes could interact with DNA via non-intercalation mode of binding. The hyperchromisim in absorption band and hypochromisim in emission intensity of BSA with different complex concentrations shown significant information, and the binding affinity value has been predicted from Stern-Volmer plots. Further, all the complexes could cleave the circular plasmid pUC19 DNA efficiently by using an activator H2O2. The ligand and all metal(II) complexes showed good antibacterial activities. The molecular docking studies of the complexes with DNA were performed in order to make a comparison and conclusion with spectral technic results.

  18. Structure and DNA-binding of meiosis-specific protein Hop2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Donghua; Moktan, Hem; Pezza, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Here we report structure elucidation of the DNA binding domain of homologous pairing protein 2 (Hop2), which is important to gene diversity when sperms and eggs are produced. Together with another protein Mnd1, Hop2 enhances the strand invasion activity of recombinase Dmc1 by over 30 times, facilitating proper synapsis of homologous chromosomes. However, the structural and biochemical bases for the function of Hop2 and Mnd1 have not been well understood. As a first step toward such understanding, we recently solved the structure for the N-terminus of Hop2 (1-84) using solution NMR. This fragment shows a typical winged-head conformation with recognized DNA binding activity. DNA interacting sites were then investigated by chemical shift perturbations in a titration experiment. Information of these sites was used to guide protein-DNA docking with MD simulation, revealing that helix 3 is stably lodged in the DNA major groove and that wing 1 (connecting strands 2 and 3) transiently comes in contact with the minor groove in nanosecond time scale. Mutagenesis analysis further confirmed the DNA binding sites in this fragment of the protein.

  19. Cationic polymers for DNA origami coating - examining their binding efficiency and tuning the enzymatic reaction rates.

    PubMed

    Kiviaho, Jenny K; Linko, Veikko; Ora, Ari; Tiainen, Tony; Järvihaavisto, Erika; Mikkilä, Joona; Tenhu, Heikki; Nonappa; Kostiainen, Mauri A

    2016-06-02

    DNA origamis are fully tailored, programmable, biocompatible and readily functionalizable nanostructures that provide an excellent foundation for the development of sophisticated drug-delivery systems. However, the DNA origami objects suffer from certain drawbacks such as low cell-transfection rates and low stability. A great deal of studies on polymer-based transfection agents, mainly focusing on polyplex formation and toxicity, exists. In this study, the electrostatic binding between a brick-like DNA origami and cationic block-copolymers was explored. The effect of the polymer structure on the binding was investigated and the toxicity of the polymer-origami complexes evaluated. The study shows that all of the analyzed polymers had a suitable binding efficiency irrespective of the block structure. It was also observed that the toxicity of polymer-origami complexes was insignificant at the biologically relevant concentration levels. Besides brick-like DNA origamis, tubular origami carriers equipped with enzymes were also coated with the polymers. By adjusting the amount of cationic polymers that cover the DNA structures, we showed that it is possible to control the enzyme kinetics of the complexes. This work gives a starting point for further development of biocompatible and effective polycation-based block copolymers that can be used in coating different DNA origami nanostructures for various bioapplications.

  20. Circadian clock protein KaiC forms ATP-dependent hexameric rings and binds DNA

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Tetsuya; Saveliev, Sergei V.; Xu, Yao; Stafford, Walter F.; Cox, Michael M.; Inman, Ross B.; Johnson, Carl H.

    2002-01-01

    KaiC from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 (KaiC) is an essential circadian clock protein in cyanobacteria. Previous sequence analyses suggested its inclusion in the RecA/DnaB superfamily. A characteristic of the proteins of this superfamily is that they form homohexameric complexes that bind DNA. We show here that KaiC also forms ring complexes with a central pore that can be visualized by electron microscopy. A combination of analytical ultracentrifugation and chromatographic analyses demonstrates that these complexes are hexameric. The association of KaiC molecules into hexamers depends on the presence of ATP. The KaiC sequence does not include the obvious DNA-binding motifs found in RecA or DnaB. Nevertheless, KaiC binds forked DNA substrates. These data support the inclusion of KaiC into the RecA/DnaB superfamily and have important implications for enzymatic activity of KaiC in the circadian clock mechanism that regulates global changes in gene expression patterns. PMID:12477935

  1. Kinetic studies of amino acid-based surfactant binding to DNA.

    PubMed

    Santhiya, Deenan; Dias, Rita S; Dutta, Sounak; Das, Prasanta Kumar; Miguel, Maria G; Lindman, Björn; Maiti, Souvik

    2012-05-24

    In this work, the binding kinetics of amino acid-based surfactants, presenting different linkers and head groups, with calf thymus (CT)-DNA was studied using stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy. The kinetic studies were carried out as a function of Na(+) concentration and surfactant-to-DNA charge ratio. The surfactant binding on DNA took place in two consecutive steps, for which the corresponding first and second relative rate constants (k(1) and k(2)) were determined. The fast step was attributed to the surfactant binding to DNA and micelle formation in its vicinity, the slower step to DNA condensation and possible rearrangement of the surfactant aggregates. In general, both relative rate constants increase with surfactant concentration and decrease with the ionic strength of the medium. The architecture of the surfactant was found to have a significant impact on the kinetics of the DNA-surfactant complexation. Surfactants with amide linkers showed larger relative rate constants than those with ester linkers. The variation of the relative rate constants with the head groups of the surfactants, alanine and proline, was found to be less obvious, being partially dependent on the surfactant concentration.

  2. (CAG)(n)-hairpin DNA binds to Msh2-Msh3 and changes properties of mismatch recognition.

    PubMed

    Owen, Barbara A L; Yang, Zungyoon; Lai, Maoyi; Gajec, Maciej; Gajek, Maciez; Badger, John D; Hayes, Jeffrey J; Edelmann, Winfried; Kucherlapati, Raju; Wilson, Teresa M; McMurray, Cynthia T

    2005-08-01

    Cells have evolved sophisticated DNA repair systems to correct damaged DNA. However, the human DNA mismatch repair protein Msh2-Msh3 is involved in the process of trinucleotide (CNG) DNA expansion rather than repair. Using purified protein and synthetic DNA substrates, we show that Msh2-Msh3 binds to CAG-hairpin DNA, a prime candidate for an expansion intermediate. CAG-hairpin binding inhibits the ATPase activity of Msh2-Msh3 and alters both nucleotide (ADP and ATP) affinity and binding interfaces between protein and DNA. These changes in Msh2-Msh3 function depend on the presence of A.A mispaired bases in the stem of the hairpin and on the hairpin DNA structure per se. These studies identify critical functional defects in the Msh2-Msh3-CAG hairpin complex that could misdirect the DNA repair process.

  3. Neisseria conserved protein DMP19 is a DNA mimic protein that prevents DNA binding to a hypothetical nitrogen-response transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao-Ching; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Wu, Mao-Lun; Ku, Shan-Chi; Wu, Hsing-Ju; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

    2012-01-01

    DNA mimic proteins occupy the DNA binding sites of DNA-binding proteins, and prevent these sites from being accessed by DNA. We show here that the Neisseria conserved hypothetical protein DMP19 acts as a DNA mimic. The crystal structure of DMP19 shows a dsDNA-like negative charge distribution on the surface, suggesting that this protein should be added to the short list of known DNA mimic proteins. The crystal structure of another related protein, NHTF (Neisseria hypothetical transcription factor), provides evidence that it is a member of the xenobiotic-response element (XRE) family of transcriptional factors. NHTF binds to a palindromic DNA sequence containing a 5′-TGTNAN11TNACA-3′ recognition box that controls the expression of an NHTF-related operon in which the conserved nitrogen-response protein [i.e. (Protein-PII) uridylyltransferase] is encoded. The complementary surface charges between DMP19 and NHTF suggest specific charge–charge interaction. In a DNA-binding assay, we found that DMP19 can prevent NHTF from binding to its DNA-binding sites. Finally, we used an in situ gene regulation assay to provide evidence that NHTF is a repressor of its down-stream genes and that DMP19 can neutralize this effect. We therefore conclude that the interaction of DMP19 and NHTF provides a novel gene regulation mechanism in Neisseria spps. PMID:22373915

  4. Conformational control and DNA-binding mechanism of the metazoan origin recognition complex.

    PubMed

    Bleichert, Franziska; Leitner, Alexander; Aebersold, Ruedi; Botchan, Michael R; Berger, James M

    2018-06-26

    In eukaryotes, the heterohexameric origin recognition complex (ORC) coordinates replication onset by facilitating the recruitment and loading of the minichromosome maintenance 2-7 (Mcm2-7) replicative helicase onto DNA to license origins. Drosophila ORC can adopt an autoinhibited configuration that is predicted to prevent Mcm2-7 loading; how the complex is activated and whether other ORC homologs can assume this state are not known. Using chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry, biochemical assays, and electron microscopy (EM), we show that the autoinhibited state of Drosophila ORC is populated in solution, and that human ORC can also adopt this form. ATP binding to ORC supports a transition from the autoinhibited state to an active configuration, enabling the nucleotide-dependent association of ORC with both DNA and Cdc6. An unstructured N-terminal region adjacent to the conserved ATPase domain of Orc1 is shown to be required for high-affinity ORC-DNA interactions, but not for activation. ORC optimally binds DNA duplexes longer than the predicted footprint of the ORC ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities (AAA + ) and winged-helix (WH) folds; cryo-EM analysis of Drosophila ORC bound to DNA and Cdc6 indicates that ORC contacts DNA outside of its central core region, bending the DNA away from its central DNA-binding channel. Our findings indicate that ORC autoinhibition may be common to metazoans and that ORC-Cdc6 remodels origin DNA before Mcm2-7 recruitment and loading.

  5. Dissecting the protein architecture of DNA-binding transcription factors in bacteria and archaea.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Gómez, Nancy; Martínez-Núñez, Mario Alberto; Pastor, Nina; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Katya; Perez-Rueda, Ernesto

    2017-08-01

    Gene regulation at the transcriptional level is a central process in all organisms where DNA-binding transcription factors play a fundamental role. This class of proteins binds specifically at DNA sequences, activating or repressing gene expression as a function of the cell's metabolic status, operator context and ligand-binding status, among other factors, through the DNA-binding domain (DBD). In addition, TFs may contain partner domains (PaDos), which are involved in ligand binding and protein-protein interactions. In this work, we systematically evaluated the distribution, abundance and domain organization of DNA-binding TFs in 799 non-redundant bacterial and archaeal genomes. We found that the distributions of the DBDs and their corresponding PaDos correlated with the size of the genome. We also identified specific combinations between the DBDs and their corresponding PaDos. Within each class of DBDs there are differences in the actual angle formed at the dimerization interface, responding to the presence/absence of ligands and/or crystallization conditions, setting the orientation of the resulting helices and wings facing the DNA. Our results highlight the importance of PaDos as central elements that enhance the diversity of regulatory functions in all bacterial and archaeal organisms, and our results also demonstrate the role of PaDos in sensing diverse signal compounds. The highly specific interactions between DBDs and PaDos observed in this work, together with our structural analysis highlighting the difficulty in predicting both inter-domain geometry and quaternary structure, suggest that these systems appeared once and evolved with diverse duplication events in all the analysed organisms.

  6. Genomic Heat Shock Element Sequences Drive Cooperative Human Heat Shock Factor 1 DNA Binding and Selectivity*

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Alex M.; Makley, Leah N.; Gestwicki, Jason E.; Thiele, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    The heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) activates expression of a variety of genes involved in cell survival, including protein chaperones, the protein degradation machinery, anti-apoptotic proteins, and transcription factors. Although HSF1 activation has been linked to amelioration of neurodegenerative disease, cancer cells exhibit a dependence on HSF1 for survival. Indeed, HSF1 drives a program of gene expression in cancer cells that is distinct from that activated in response to proteotoxic stress, and HSF1 DNA binding activity is elevated in cycling cells as compared with arrested cells. Active HSF1 homotrimerizes and binds to a DNA sequence consisting of inverted repeats of the pentameric sequence nGAAn, known as heat shock elements (HSEs). Recent comprehensive ChIP-seq experiments demonstrated that the architecture of HSEs is very diverse in the human genome, with deviations from the consensus sequence in the spacing, orientation, and extent of HSE repeats that could influence HSF1 DNA binding efficacy and the kinetics and magnitude of target gene expression. To understand the mechanisms that dictate binding specificity, HSF1 was purified as either a monomer or trimer and used to evaluate DNA-binding site preferences in vitro using fluorescence polarization and thermal denaturation profiling. These results were compared with quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in vivo. We demonstrate a role for specific orientations of extended HSE sequences in driving preferential HSF1 DNA binding to target loci in vivo. These studies provide a biochemical basis for understanding differential HSF1 target gene recognition and transcription in neurodegenerative disease and in cancer. PMID:25204655

  7. Purification and general properties of the DNA-binding protein (P16) from rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Pavco, P A; Van Tuyle, G C

    1985-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA-binding protein P16 was isolated from rat liver mitochondrial lysates by affinity chromatography on single strand DNA agarose and separated from DNA in the preparation by alkaline CsCl isopycnic gradients. The top fraction of the gradients contained a single polypeptide species (Mr approximately equal to 15,200) based upon SDS PAGE. Digestion of single strand DNA-bound P16 with proteinase K produced a protease-insensitive, DNA-binding fragment (Mr approximately equal to 6,000) that has been purified by essentially the same procedures used for intact P16. The partial amino acid compositions for P16 and the DNA-binding fragment were obtained by conventional methods. Analysis of subcellular fractions revealed that nearly all of the cellular P16 was located in the mitochondria and that only trace amounts of protein of comparable electrophoretic mobility could be isolated from the nuclear or cytoplasmic fractions. The labeling of P16 with [35S]methionine in primary rat hepatocyte cultures was inhibited by more than 90% by the cytoplasmic translation inhibitor cycloheximide, but unaffected by the mitochondrial-specific agent chloramphenicol. These results indicate that P16 is synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes and imported into the mitochondria. The addition of purified P16 to deproteinized mitochondrial DNA resulted in the complete protection of the labeled nascent strands of displacement loops against branch migrational loss during cleavage of parental DNA with SstI, thus providing strong evidence that P16 is the single entity required for this in vitro function. Incubation of P16 with single strand phi X174 DNA, double strand (RF) phi X174 DNA, or Escherichia coli ribosomal RNA and subsequent analysis of the nucleic acid species for bound protein indicated a strong preference of P16 for single strand DNA and no detectable affinity for RNA or double strand DNA. Examination of P16-single strand phi X174 DNA complexes by direct electron microscopy

  8. Curated collection of yeast transcription factor DNA binding specificity data reveals novel structural and gene regulatory insights

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transcription factors (TFs) play a central role in regulating gene expression by interacting with cis-regulatory DNA elements associated with their target genes. Recent surveys have examined the DNA binding specificities of most Saccharomyces cerevisiae TFs, but a comprehensive evaluation of their data has been lacking. Results We analyzed in vitro and in vivo TF-DNA binding data reported in previous large-scale studies to generate a comprehensive, curated resource of DNA binding specificity data for all characterized S. cerevisiae TFs. Our collection comprises DNA binding site motifs and comprehensive in vitro DNA binding specificity data for all possible 8-bp sequences. Investigation of the DNA binding specificities within the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) and VHT1 regulator (VHR) TF families revealed unexpected plasticity in TF-DNA recognition: intriguingly, the VHR TFs, newly characterized by protein binding microarrays in this study, recognize bZIP-like DNA motifs, while the bZIP TF Hac1 recognizes a motif highly similar to the canonical E-box motif of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) TFs. We identified several TFs with distinct primary and secondary motifs, which might be associated with different regulatory functions. Finally, integrated analysis of in vivo TF binding data with protein binding microarray data lends further support for indirect DNA binding in vivo by sequence-specific TFs. Conclusions The comprehensive data in this curated collection allow for more accurate analyses of regulatory TF-DNA interactions, in-depth structural studies of TF-DNA specificity determinants, and future experimental investigations of the TFs' predicted target genes and regulatory roles. PMID:22189060

  9. Distinct structural features of the peroxide response regulator from group A Streptococcus drive DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chang Sheng-Huei; Chao, Shi-Yu; Hammel, Michal; Nix, Jay C; Tseng, Hsiao-Ling; Tsou, Chih-Cheng; Fei, Chun-Hsien; Chiou, Huo-Sheng; Jeng, U-Ser; Lin, Yee-Shin; Chuang, Woei-Jer; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Wang, Shuying

    2014-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) is a strict human pathogen that causes severe, invasive diseases. GAS does not produce catalase, but has an ability to resist killing by reactive oxygen species (ROS) through novel mechanisms. The peroxide response regulator (PerR), a member of ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family, plays a key role for GAS to cope with oxidative stress by regulating the expression of multiple genes. Our previous studies have found that expression of an iron-binding protein, Dpr, is under the direct control of PerR. To elucidate the molecular interactions of PerR with its cognate promoter, we have carried out structural studies on PerR and PerR-DNA complex. By combining crystallography and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we confirmed that the determined PerR crystal structure reflects its conformation in solution. Through mutagenesis and biochemical analysis, we have identified DNA-binding residues suggesting that PerR binds to the dpr promoter at the per box through a winged-helix motif. Furthermore, we have performed SAXS analysis and resolved the molecular architecture of PerR-DNA complex, in which two 30 bp DNA fragments wrap around two PerR homodimers by interacting with the adjacent positively-charged winged-helix motifs. Overall, we provide structural insights into molecular recognition of DNA by PerR and define the hollow structural arrangement of PerR-30bpDNA complex, which displays a unique topology distinct from currently proposed DNA-binding models for Fur family regulators.

  10. The key DNA-binding residues in the C-terminal domain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA gyrase A subunit (GyrA)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, You-Yi; Deng, Jiao-Yu; Gu, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Maxwell, Anthony; Bi, Li-Jun; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Ya-Feng; Yu, Zi-Niu; Zhang, Xian-En

    2006-01-01

    As only the type II topoisomerase is capable of introducing negative supercoiling, DNA gyrase is involved in crucial cellular processes. Although the other domains of DNA gyrase are better understood, the mechanism of DNA binding by the C-terminal domain of the DNA gyrase A subunit (GyrA-CTD) is less clear. Here, we investigated the DNA-binding sites in the GyrA-CTD of Mycobacterium tuberculosis gyrase through site-directed mutagenesis. The results show that Y577, R691 and R745 are among the key DNA-binding residues in M.tuberculosis GyrA-CTD, and that the third blade of the GyrA-CTD is the main DNA-binding region in M.tuberculosis DNA gyrase. The substitutions of Y577A, D669A, R691A, R745A and G729W led to the loss of supercoiling and relaxation activities, although they had a little effect on the drug-dependent DNA cleavage and decatenation activities, and had no effect on the ATPase activity. Taken together, these results showed that the GyrA-CTD is essential to DNA gyrase of M.tuberculosis, and promote the idea that the M.tuberculosis GyrA-CTD is a new potential target for drug design. It is the first time that the DNA-binding sites in GyrA-CTD have been identified. PMID:17038336

  11. Preferential Binding of Hot Spot Mutant p53 Proteins to Supercoiled DNA In Vitro and in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brázdová, Marie; Navrátilová, Lucie; Tichý, Vlastimil; Němcová, Kateřina; Lexa, Matej; Hrstka, Roman; Pečinka, Petr; Adámik, Matej; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Paleček, Emil; Deppert, Wolfgang; Fojta, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Hot spot mutant p53 (mutp53) proteins exert oncogenic gain-of-function activities. Binding of mutp53 to DNA is assumed to be involved in mutp53-mediated repression or activation of several mutp53 target genes. To investigate the importance of DNA topology on mutp53-DNA recognition in vitro and in cells, we analyzed the interaction of seven hot spot mutp53 proteins with topologically different DNA substrates (supercoiled, linear and relaxed) containing and/or lacking mutp53 binding sites (mutp53BS) using a variety of electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation based techniques. All seven hot spot mutp53 proteins (R175H, G245S, R248W, R249S, R273C, R273H and R282W) were found to have retained the ability of wild-type p53 to preferentially bind circular DNA at native negative superhelix density, while linear or relaxed circular DNA was a poor substrate. The preference of mutp53 proteins for supercoiled DNA (supercoil-selective binding) was further substantiated by competition experiments with linear DNA or relaxed DNA in vitro and ex vivo. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, the preferential binding of mutp53 to a sc mutp53BS was detected also in cells. Furthermore, we have shown by luciferase reporter assay that the DNA topology influences p53 regulation of BAX and MSP/MST1 promoters. Possible modes of mutp53 binding to topologically constrained DNA substrates and their biological consequences are discussed. PMID:23555710

  12. Expression, purification, and DNA-binding activity of the Herbaspirillum seropedicae RecX protein.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Carolina W; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Souza, Emanuel M; Yates, M Geoffrey; Chubatsu, Leda S; Steffens, Maria Berenice R

    2004-06-01

    The Herbaspirillum seropedicae RecX protein participates in the SOS response: a process in which the RecA protein plays a central role. The RecX protein of the H. seropedicae, fused to a His-tag sequence (RecX His-tagged), was over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by metal-affinity chromatography to yield a highly purified and active protein. DNA band-shift assays showed that the RecX His-tagged protein bound to both circular and linear double-stranded DNA and also to circular single-stranded DNA. The apparent affinity of RecX for DNA decreased in the presence of Mg(2+) ions. The ability of RecX to bind DNA may be relevant to its function in the SOS response.

  13. Binding of Substrate Locks the Electrochemistry of CRY-DASH into DNA Repair.

    PubMed

    Gindt, Yvonne M; Messyasz, Adriana; Jumbo, Pamela I

    2015-05-12

    VcCry1, a member of the CRY-DASH family, may serve two diverse roles in vivo, including blue-light signaling and repair of UV-damaged DNA. We have discovered that the electrochemistry of the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor of VcCry1 is locked to cycle only between the hydroquinone and neutral semiquinone states when UV-damaged DNA is present. Other potential substrates, including undamaged DNA and ATP, have no discernible effect on the electrochemistry, and the kinetics of the reduction is unaffected by damaged DNA. Binding of the damaged DNA substrate determines the role of the protein and prevents the presumed photochemistry required for blue-light signaling.

  14. Interaction with Single-stranded DNA-binding Protein Stimulates Escherichia coli Ribonuclease HI Enzymatic Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Petzold, Christine; Marceau, Aimee H.; Miller, Katherine H.

    Single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) bind and protect ssDNA intermediates formed during replication, recombination, and repair reactions. SSBs also directly interact with many different genome maintenance proteins to stimulate their enzymatic activities and/or mediate their proper cellular localization. We have identified an interaction formed between Escherichia coli SSB and ribonuclease HI (RNase HI), an enzyme that hydrolyzes RNA in RNA/DNA hybrids. The RNase HI·SSB complex forms by RNase HI binding the intrinsically disordered C terminus of SSB (SSB-Ct), a mode of interaction that is shared among all SSB interaction partners examined to date. Residues that comprise the SSB-Ct binding sitemore » are conserved among bacterial RNase HI enzymes, suggesting that RNase HI·SSB complexes are present in many bacterial species and that retaining the interaction is important for its cellular function. A steady-state kinetic analysis shows that interaction with SSB stimulates RNase HI activity by lowering the reaction Km. SSB or RNase HI protein variants that disrupt complex formation nullify this effect. Collectively our findings identify a direct RNase HI/SSB interaction that could play a role in targeting RNase HI activity to RNA/DNA hybrid substrates within the genome.« less

  15. MeDReaders: a database for transcription factors that bind to methylated DNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guohua; Luo, Ximei; Wang, Jianan; Wan, Jun; Xia, Shuli; Zhu, Heng; Qian, Jiang; Wang, Yadong

    2018-01-04

    Understanding the molecular principles governing interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and DNA targets is one of the main subjects for transcriptional regulation. Recently, emerging evidence demonstrated that some TFs could bind to DNA motifs containing highly methylated CpGs both in vitro and in vivo. Identification of such TFs and elucidation of their physiological roles now become an important stepping-stone toward understanding the mechanisms underlying the methylation-mediated biological processes, which have crucial implications for human disease and disease development. Hence, we constructed a database, named as MeDReaders, to collect information about methylated DNA binding activities. A total of 731 TFs, which could bind to methylated DNA sequences, were manually curated in human and mouse studies reported in the literature. In silico approaches were applied to predict methylated and unmethylated motifs of 292 TFs by integrating whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) and ChIP-Seq datasets in six human cell lines and one mouse cell line extracted from ENCODE and GEO database. MeDReaders database will provide a comprehensive resource for further studies and aid related experiment designs. The database implemented unified access for users to most TFs involved in such methylation-associated binding actives. The website is available at http://medreader.org/. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Multiplexed target detection using DNA-binding dye chemistry in droplet digital PCR.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Geoffrey P; Do, Duc; Litterst, Claudia M; Maar, Dianna; Hindson, Christopher M; Steenblock, Erin R; Legler, Tina C; Jouvenot, Yann; Marrs, Samuel H; Bemis, Adam; Shah, Pallavi; Wong, Josephine; Wang, Shenglong; Sally, David; Javier, Leanne; Dinio, Theresa; Han, Chunxiao; Brackbill, Timothy P; Hodges, Shawn P; Ling, Yunfeng; Klitgord, Niels; Carman, George J; Berman, Jennifer R; Koehler, Ryan T; Hiddessen, Amy L; Walse, Pramod; Bousse, Luc; Tzonev, Svilen; Hefner, Eli; Hindson, Benjamin J; Cauly, Thomas H; Hamby, Keith; Patel, Viresh P; Regan, John F; Wyatt, Paul W; Karlin-Neumann, George A; Stumbo, David P; Lowe, Adam J

    2013-12-03

    Two years ago, we described the first droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) system aimed at empowering all researchers with a tool that removes the substantial uncertainties associated with using the analogue standard, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). This system enabled TaqMan hydrolysis probe-based assays for the absolute quantification of nucleic acids. Due to significant advancements in droplet chemistry and buoyed by the multiple benefits associated with dye-based target detection, we have created a "second generation" ddPCR system compatible with both TaqMan-probe and DNA-binding dye detection chemistries. Herein, we describe the operating characteristics of DNA-binding dye based ddPCR and offer a side-by-side comparison to TaqMan probe detection. By partitioning each sample prior to thermal cycling, we demonstrate that it is now possible to use a DNA-binding dye for the quantification of multiple target species from a single reaction. The increased resolution associated with partitioning also made it possible to visualize and account for signals arising from nonspecific amplification products. We expect that the ability to combine the precision of ddPCR with both DNA-binding dye and TaqMan probe detection chemistries will further enable the research community to answer complex and diverse genetic questions.

  17. Interaction with Single-stranded DNA-binding Protein Stimulates Escherichia coli Ribonuclease HI Enzymatic Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Christine; Marceau, Aimee H.; Miller, Katherine H.; Marqusee, Susan; Keck, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) bind and protect ssDNA intermediates formed during replication, recombination, and repair reactions. SSBs also directly interact with many different genome maintenance proteins to stimulate their enzymatic activities and/or mediate their proper cellular localization. We have identified an interaction formed between Escherichia coli SSB and ribonuclease HI (RNase HI), an enzyme that hydrolyzes RNA in RNA/DNA hybrids. The RNase HI·SSB complex forms by RNase HI binding the intrinsically disordered C terminus of SSB (SSB-Ct), a mode of interaction that is shared among all SSB interaction partners examined to date. Residues that comprise the SSB-Ct binding site are conserved among bacterial RNase HI enzymes, suggesting that RNase HI·SSB complexes are present in many bacterial species and that retaining the interaction is important for its cellular function. A steady-state kinetic analysis shows that interaction with SSB stimulates RNase HI activity by lowering the reaction Km. SSB or RNase HI protein variants that disrupt complex formation nullify this effect. Collectively our findings identify a direct RNase HI/SSB interaction that could play a role in targeting RNase HI activity to RNA/DNA hybrid substrates within the genome. PMID:25903123

  18. DNA BINDING POTENTIAL OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE MEDIATED BY GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1

    EPA Science Inventory


    DNA BINDING POTENTIAL OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE MEDIATED BY GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1. R A Pegram1 and M K Ross2. 2Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 1Pharmacokinetics Branch, NHEERL, ORD, United States Environmental Protection Ag...

  19. Interaction with Single-stranded DNA-binding Protein Stimulates Escherichia coli Ribonuclease HI Enzymatic Activity.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Christine; Marceau, Aimee H; Miller, Katherine H; Marqusee, Susan; Keck, James L

    2015-06-05

    Single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) bind and protect ssDNA intermediates formed during replication, recombination, and repair reactions. SSBs also directly interact with many different genome maintenance proteins to stimulate their enzymatic activities and/or mediate their proper cellular localization. We have identified an interaction formed between Escherichia coli SSB and ribonuclease HI (RNase HI), an enzyme that hydrolyzes RNA in RNA/DNA hybrids. The RNase HI·SSB complex forms by RNase HI binding the intrinsically disordered C terminus of SSB (SSB-Ct), a mode of interaction that is shared among all SSB interaction partners examined to date. Residues that comprise the SSB-Ct binding site are conserved among bacterial RNase HI enzymes, suggesting that RNase HI·SSB complexes are present in many bacterial species and that retaining the interaction is important for its cellular function. A steady-state kinetic analysis shows that interaction with SSB stimulates RNase HI activity by lowering the reaction Km. SSB or RNase HI protein variants that disrupt complex formation nullify this effect. Collectively our findings identify a direct RNase HI/SSB interaction that could play a role in targeting RNase HI activity to RNA/DNA hybrid substrates within the genome. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. One-step selection of Vaccinia virus-binding DNA aptamers by MonoLEX

    PubMed Central

    Nitsche, Andreas; Kurth, Andreas; Dunkhorst, Anna; Pänke, Oliver; Sielaff, Hendrik; Junge, Wolfgang; Muth, Doreen; Scheller, Frieder; Stöcklein, Walter; Dahmen, Claudia; Pauli, Georg; Kage, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Background As a new class of therapeutic and diagnostic reagents, more than fifteen years ago RNA and DNA aptamers were identified as binding molecules to numerous small compounds, proteins and rarely even to complete pathogen particles. Most aptamers were isolated from complex libraries of synthetic nucleic acids by a process termed SELEX based on several selection and amplification steps. Here we report the application of a new one-step selection method (MonoLEX) to acquire high-affinity DNA aptamers binding Vaccinia virus used as a model organism for complex target structures. Results The selection against complete Vaccinia virus particles resulted in a 64-base DNA aptamer specifically binding to orthopoxviruses as validated by dot blot analysis, Surface Plasmon Resonance, Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and real-time PCR, following an aptamer blotting assay. The same oligonucleotide showed the ability to inhibit in vitro infection of Vaccinia virus and other orthopoxviruses in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion The MonoLEX method is a straightforward procedure as demonstrated here for the identification of a high-affinity DNA aptamer binding Vaccinia virus. MonoLEX comprises a single affinity chromatography step, followed by subsequent physical segmentation of the affinity resin and a single final PCR amplification step of bound aptamers. Therefore, this procedure improves the selection of high affinity aptamers by reducing the competition between aptamers of different affinities during the PCR step, indicating an advantage for the single-round MonoLEX method. PMID:17697378

  1. Solution properties of the archaeal CRISPR DNA repeat-binding homeodomain protein Cbp2

    PubMed Central

    Kenchappa, Chandra S.; Heidarsson, Pétur O.; Kragelund, Birthe B.; Garrett, Roger A.; Poulsen, Flemming M.

    2013-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) form the basis of diverse adaptive immune systems directed primarily against invading genetic elements of archaea and bacteria. Cbp1 of the crenarchaeal thermoacidophilic order Sulfolobales, carrying three imperfect repeats, binds specifically to CRISPR DNA repeats and has been implicated in facilitating production of long transcripts from CRISPR loci. Here, a second related class of CRISPR DNA repeat-binding protein, denoted Cbp2, is characterized that contains two imperfect repeats and is found amongst members of the crenarchaeal thermoneutrophilic order Desulfurococcales. DNA repeat-binding properties of the Hyperthermus butylicus protein Cbp2Hb were characterized and its three-dimensional structure was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The two repeats generate helix-turn-helix structures separated by a basic linker that is implicated in facilitating high affinity DNA binding of Cbp2 by tethering the two domains. Structural studies on mutant proteins provide support for Cys7 and Cys28 enhancing high thermal stability of Cbp2Hb through disulphide bridge formation. Consistent with their proposed CRISPR transcriptional regulatory role, Cbp2Hb and, by inference, other Cbp1 and Cbp2 proteins are closely related in structure to homeodomain proteins with linked helix-turn-helix (HTH) domains, in particular the paired domain Pax and Myb family proteins that are involved in eukaryal transcriptional regulation. PMID:23325851

  2. Structure of apo-CAP reveals that large conformational changes are necessary for DNA binding

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Hitesh; Yu, Shaoning; Kong, Jilie

    2009-10-21

    The binding of cAMP to the Escherichia coli catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) produces a conformational change that enables it to bind specific DNA sequences and regulate transcription, which it cannot do in the absence of the nucleotide. The crystal structures of the unliganded CAP containing a D138L mutation and the unliganded WT CAP were determined at 2.3 and 3.6 {angstrom} resolution, respectively, and reveal that the two DNA binding domains have dimerized into one rigid body and their two DNA recognition helices become buried. The WT structure shows multiple orientations of this rigid body relative to the nucleotide bindingmore » domain supporting earlier biochemical data suggesting that the inactive form exists in an equilibrium among different conformations. Comparison of the structures of the liganded and unliganded CAP suggests that cAMP stabilizes the active DNA binding conformation of CAP through the interactions that the N{sup 6} of the adenosine makes with the C-helices. These interactions are associated with the reorientation and elongation of the C-helices that precludes the formation of the inactive structure.« less

  3. Imidazolium tagged acridines: Synthesis, characterization and applications in DNA binding and anti-microbial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Gembali; Vishwanath, S.; Prasad, Archana; Patel, Basant K.; Prabusankar, Ganesan

    2016-03-01

    New water soluble 4,5-bis imidazolium tagged acridines have been synthesized and structurally characterized by multinuclear NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The DNA binding and anti-microbial activities of these acridine derivatives were investigated by fluorescence and far-UV circular dichroism studies.

  4. Leishmania replication protein A-1 binds in vivo single-stranded telomeric DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, J.L. Siqueira; Instituto de Biologia, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP; Lira, C.B.B.

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a highly conserved heterotrimeric single-stranded DNA-binding protein involved in different events of DNA metabolism. In yeast, subunits 1 (RPA-1) and 2 (RPA-2) work also as telomerase recruiters and, in humans, the complex unfolds G-quartet structures formed by the 3' G-rich telomeric strand. In most eukaryotes, RPA-1 and RPA-2 bind DNA using multiple OB fold domains. In trypanosomatids, including Leishmania, RPA-1 has a canonical OB fold and a truncated RFA-1 structural domain. In Leishmania amazonensis, RPA-1 alone can form a complex in vitro with the telomeric G-rich strand. In this work, we show that LaRPA-1 ismore » a nuclear protein that associates in vivo with Leishmania telomeres. We mapped the boundaries of the OB fold DNA-binding domain using deletion mutants. Since Leishmania and other trypanosomatids lack homologues of known telomere end binding proteins, our results raise questions about the function of RPA-1 in parasite telomeres.« less

  5. Single molecule characterization of DNA binding and strand displacement reactions on lithographic DNA origami microarrays.

    PubMed

    Scheible, Max B; Pardatscher, Günther; Kuzyk, Anton; Simmel, Friedrich C

    2014-03-12

    The combination of molecular self-assembly based on the DNA origami technique with lithographic patterning enables the creation of hierarchically ordered nanosystems, in which single molecules are positioned at precise locations on multiple length scales. Based on a hybrid assembly protocol utilizing DNA self-assembly and electron-beam lithography on transparent glass substrates, we here demonstrate a DNA origami microarray, which is compatible with the requirements of single molecule fluorescence and super-resolution microscopy. The spatial arrangement allows for a simple and reliable identification of single molecule events and facilitates automated read-out and data analysis. As a specific application, we utilize the microarray to characterize the performance of DNA strand displacement reactions localized on the DNA origami structures. We find considerable variability within the array, which results both from structural variations and stochastic reaction dynamics prevalent at the single molecule level.

  6. Binding regularities in complexes of transcription factors with operator DNA: homeodomain family.

    PubMed

    Chirgadze, Yu N; Zheltukhin, E I; Polozov, R V; Sivozhelezov, V S; Ivanov, V V

    2009-06-01

    In order to disclose general regularities of binding in homeodomain-DNA complexes we considered five of them and extended the observed regularities over the entire homeodomain family. The five complexes have been selected by similarity of protein structures and patterns of contacting residues. Their long range interactions and interfaces were compared. The long-range stage of the recognition process was characterized by electrostatic potentials about 5 Angstrom away from molecular surfaces of protein or DNA. For proteins, clear positive potential is displayed only at the side contacting the DNA. The double-chained DNA molecule displays a rather strong negative potential, especially in their grooves. Thus, a functional role of electrostatics is a guiding of the protein into the DNA major groove, so the protein and DNA could form a loose non-specific complex. At the close-range stage, neutralization of the phosphate charges by positively charged residues is necessary for decreasing the strong electrostatic potential of DNA, allowing nucleotide bases to participate in the formation of protein-DNA atomic contacts in the interface. The recognizing alpha-helix of protein was shown to form both invariant and variable groups of contacts with DNA by means of certain specific side groups. The invariant contacts included highly specific protein-DNA hydrogen bonds between asparagine and adenine, nonpolar contacts of hydrophobic amino acids serving as a stereochemical barrier for fixing the protein factor on DNA, and an interface cluster of water molecules providing local conformational mobility necessary for the dissociation process. There is a unique water molecule within the interface that is conservative and located at the interface center. Invariant contacts of the proteins are mostly formed with the TAAT motif of the promoter DNA forward strand. While the invariant contacts specify the family of homeodomains, the variable contacts that are formed with the reverse strand

  7. Two-stage DNA compaction induced by silver ions suggests a cooperative binding mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wen-Yan; Ran, Shi-Yong

    2018-05-01

    The interaction between silver ions and DNA plays an important role in the therapeutic use of silver ions and in related technologies such as DNA sensors. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully understood. In this study, the dynamics of Ag+-DNA interaction at a single-molecule level was studied using magnetic tweezers. AgNO3 solutions with concentrations ranging from 1 μM to 20 μM led to a 1.4-1.8 μm decrease in length of a single λ-DNA molecule, indicating that Ag+ has a strong binding with DNA, causing the DNA conformational change. The compaction process comprises one linear declining stage and another sigmoid-shaped stage, which can be attributed to the interaction mechanism. Considering the cooperative effect, the sigmoid trend was well explained using a phenomenological model. By contrast, addition of silver nanoparticle solution induced no detectable transition of DNA. The dependence of the interaction on ionic strength and DNA concentration was examined via morphology characterization and particle size distribution measurement. The size of the Ag+-DNA complex decreased with an increase in Ag+ ionic strength ranging from 1 μM to 1 mM. Morphology characterization confirmed that silver ions induced DNA to adopt a compacted globular conformation. At a fixed [AgNO3]:[DNA base pairs] ratio, increasing DNA concentration led to increased sizes of the complexes. Intermolecular interaction is believed to affect the Ag+-DNA complex formation to a large extent.

  8. Cytotoxicity and DNA cleavage with core-shell nanocomposites functionalized by a KH domain DNA binding peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazak, Remon; Ressl, Jan; Raha, Sumita; Doty, Caroline; Liu, William; Wanzer, Beau; Salam, Seddik Abdel; Elwany, Samy; Paunesku, Tatjana; Woloschak, Gayle E.

    2013-11-01

    A nanoconjugate was composed of metal oxide nanoparticles decorated with peptides and fluorescent dye and tested for DNA cleavage following UV light activation. The peptide design was based on a DNA binding domain, the so called KH domain of the hnRNPK protein. This ``KH peptide'' enabled cellular uptake of nanoconjugates and their entry into cell nuclei. The control nanoconjugate carried no peptide; it consisted only of the metal oxide nanoparticle prepared as Fe3O4@TiO2 nanocomposite and the fluorescent dye alizarin red S. These components of either construct are responsible for nanoconjugate activation by UV light and the resultant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Production of ROS at different subcellular locations causes damage to different components of cells: only nanoconjugates inside cell nuclei can be expected to cause DNA cleavage. Degradation of cellular DNA with KH peptide decorated nanoconjugates exceeded the DNA damage obtained from control, no-peptide nanoconjugate counterparts. Moreover, caspase activation and cell death were more extensive in the same cells.A nanoconjugate was composed of metal oxide nanoparticles decorated with peptides and fluorescent dye and tested for DNA cleavage following UV light activation. The peptide design was based on a DNA binding domain, the so called KH domain of the hnRNPK protein. This ``KH peptide'' enabled cellular uptake of nanoconjugates and their entry into cell nuclei. The control nanoconjugate carried no peptide; it consisted only of the metal oxide nanoparticle prepared as Fe3O4@TiO2 nanocomposite and the fluorescent dye alizarin red S. These components of either construct are responsible for nanoconjugate activation by UV light and the resultant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Production of ROS at different subcellular locations causes damage to different components of cells: only nanoconjugates inside cell nuclei can be expected to cause DNA cleavage. Degradation of cellular DNA

  9. Cation binding to 15-TBA quadruplex DNA is a multiple-pathway cation-dependent process.

    PubMed

    Reshetnikov, Roman V; Sponer, Jiri; Rassokhina, Olga I; Kopylov, Alexei M; Tsvetkov, Philipp O; Makarov, Alexander A; Golovin, Andrey V

    2011-12-01

    A combination of explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulation (30 simulations reaching 4 µs in total), hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach and isothermal titration calorimetry was used to investigate the atomistic picture of ion binding to 15-mer thrombin-binding quadruplex DNA (G-DNA) aptamer. Binding of ions to G-DNA is complex multiple pathway process, which is strongly affected by the type of the cation. The individual ion-binding events are substantially modulated by the connecting loops of the aptamer, which play several roles. They stabilize the molecule during time periods when the bound ions are not present, they modulate the route of the ion into the stem and they also stabilize the internal ions by closing the gates through which the ions enter the quadruplex. Using our extensive simulations, we for the first time observed full spontaneous exchange of internal cation between quadruplex molecule and bulk solvent at atomistic resolution. The simulation suggests that expulsion of the internally bound ion is correlated with initial binding of the incoming ion. The incoming ion then readily replaces the bound ion while minimizing any destabilization of the solute molecule during the exchange. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Cation binding to 15-TBA quadruplex DNA is a multiple-pathway cation-dependent process

    PubMed Central

    Reshetnikov, Roman V.; Sponer, Jiri; Rassokhina, Olga I.; Kopylov, Alexei M.; Tsvetkov, Philipp O.; Makarov, Alexander A.; Golovin, Andrey V.

    2011-01-01

    A combination of explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulation (30 simulations reaching 4 µs in total), hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach and isothermal titration calorimetry was used to investigate the atomistic picture of ion binding to 15-mer thrombin-binding quadruplex DNA (G-DNA) aptamer. Binding of ions to G-DNA is complex multiple pathway process, which is strongly affected by the type of the cation. The individual ion-binding events are substantially modulated by the connecting loops of the aptamer, which play several roles. They stabilize the molecule during time periods when the bound ions are not present, they modulate the route of the ion into the stem and they also stabilize the internal ions by closing the gates through which the ions enter the quadruplex. Using our extensive simulations, we for the first time observed full spontaneous exchange of internal cation between quadruplex molecule and bulk solvent at atomistic resolution. The simulation suggests that expulsion of the internally bound ion is correlated with initial binding of the incoming ion. The incoming ion then readily replaces the bound ion while minimizing any destabilization of the solute molecule during the exchange. PMID:21893589

  11. Flexible DNA binding of the BTB/POZ-domain protein FBI-1.

    PubMed

    Pessler, Frank; Hernandez, Nouria

    2003-08-01

    POZ-domain transcription factors are characterized by the presence of a protein-protein interaction domain called the POZ or BTB domain at their N terminus and zinc fingers at their C terminus. Despite the large number of POZ-domain transcription factors that have been identified to date and the significant insights that have been gained into their cellular functions, relatively little is known about their DNA binding properties. FBI-1 is a BTB/POZ-domain protein that has been shown to modulate HIV-1 Tat trans-activation and to repress transcription of some cellular genes. We have used various viral and cellular FBI-1 binding sites to characterize the interaction of a POZ-domain protein with DNA in detail. We find that FBI-1 binds to inverted sequence repeats downstream of the HIV-1 transcription start site. Remarkably, it binds efficiently to probes carrying these repeats in various orientations and spacings with no particular rotational alignment, indicating that its interaction with DNA is highly flexible. Indeed, FBI-1 binding sites in the adenovirus 2 major late promoter, the c-fos gene, and the c-myc P1 and P2 promoters reveal variously spaced direct, inverted, and everted sequence repeats with the consensus sequence G(A/G)GGG(T/C)(C/T)(T/C)(C/T) for each repeat.

  12. DNA Recognition by the DNA Primase of Bacteriophage T7: A Structure Function Study of the Zinc-Binding Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Akabayov, B.; Lee, S; Akabayov, S

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis of oligoribonucleotide primers for lagging-strand DNA synthesis in the DNA replication system of bacteriophage T7 is catalyzed by the primase domain of the gene 4 helicase-primase. The primase consists of a zinc-binding domain (ZBD) and an RNA polymerase (RPD) domain. The ZBD is responsible for recognition of a specific sequence in the ssDNA template whereas catalytic activity resides in the RPD. The ZBD contains a zinc ion coordinated with four cysteine residues. We have examined the ligation state of the zinc ion by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and biochemical analysis of genetically altered primases. The ZBD of primase engaged inmore » catalysis exhibits considerable asymmetry in coordination to zinc, as evidenced by a gradual increase in electron density of the zinc together with elongation of the zinc-sulfur bonds. Both wild-type primase and primase reconstituted from purified ZBD and RPD have a similar electronic change in the level of the zinc ion as well as the configuration of the ZBD. Single amino acid replacements in the ZBD (H33A and C36S) result in the loss of both zinc binding and its structural integrity. Thus the zinc in the ZBD may act as a charge modulation indicator for the surrounding sulfur atoms necessary for recognition of specific DNA sequences.« less

  13. Role of advanced glycation on aggregation and DNA binding properties of α-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Padmaraju, Vasudevaraju; Bhaskar, Jamuna J; Prasada Rao, Ummiti J S; Salimath, Paramahans V; Rao, K S

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with multiple etiologies. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in the aging brain and could be one of the reasons for age-related diseases like PD. Oxidative stress also leads to the formation of AGEs and may be involved in neurodegeneration by altering the properties of proteins. α-Synuclein is involved in pathogenesis of PD and there are limited studies on the role of AGE-α-synuclein in neurodegeneration. We studied the aggregation and DNA binding ability of AGE-α-synuclein in vitro. α-Synuclein is glycated using methylglyoxal and formation of AGE-α-synuclein is characterized using fluorescence studies, intrinsic tyrosine fluorescence, and fructosamine estimation. The results indicated that AGE-α-synuclein aggregates into smaller globular-like aggregates compared to fibrils formed with native α-synuclein. Further, it is found that AGE-α-synuclein induced conformational changes in scDNA from B-form to B-C-A mixed conformation. Additionally, AGE-α-synuclein altered DNA integrity as evidenced by the melting temperature, ethidium bromide, and DNAse I sensitivity studies. AGE-α-synuclein converted biphasic Tm to higher monophasic Tm. The Tm of AGE-α-synuclein-scDNA complex is more than that of native α-synuclein-scDNA complex, indicating that AGE-α-synuclein stabilized the uncoiled scDNA. AGE-α-synuclein could stabilize the uncoiled scDNA, as shown by the decrease in the number of ethidium bromide binding molecules per base pair of DNA. DNAse I sensitive studies indicated that both AGE-α-synuclein-scDNA and α-synuclein-scDNA are resistant to DNAse I digestion. The relevance of these findings to neuronal cell death is discussed.

  14. Effect of Rap1 binding on DNA distortion and potassium permanganate hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Le Bihan, Yann-Vaï; Matot, Béatrice; Pietrement, Olivier; Giraud-Panis, Marie-Josèphe; Gasparini, Sylvaine; Le Cam, Eric; Gilson, Eric; Sclavi, Bianca; Miron, Simona; Le Du, Marie-Hélène

    2013-03-01

    Repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1) is an essential factor involved in transcription and telomere stability in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Its interaction with DNA causes hypersensitivity to potassium permanganate, suggesting local DNA melting and/or distortion. In this study, various Rap1-DNA crystal forms were obtained using specifically designed crystal screens. Analysis of the DNA conformation showed that its distortion was not sufficient to explain the permanganate reactivity. However, anomalous data collected at the Mn edge using a Rap1-DNA crystal soaked in potassium permanganate solution indicated that the DNA conformation in the crystal was compatible with interaction with permanganate ions. Sequence-conservation analysis revealed that double-Myb-containing Rap1 proteins all carry a fully conserved Arg580 at a position that may favour interaction with permanganate ions, although it is not involved in the hypersensitive cytosine distortion. Permanganate reactivity assays with wild-type Rap1 and the Rap1[R580A] mutant demonstrated that Arg580 is essential for hypersensitivity. AFM experiments showed that wild-type Rap1 and the Rap1[R580A] mutant interact with DNA over 16 successive binding sites, leading to local DNA stiffening but not to accumulation of the observed local distortion. Therefore, Rap1 may cause permanganate hypersensitivity of DNA by forming a pocket between the reactive cytosine and Arg580, driving the permanganate ion towards the C5-C6 bond of the cytosine.

  15. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E and UV-damaged DNA-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jean; Chu, Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    UV-damaged DNA-binding protein (UV-DDB) is composed of two subunits, DDB1 (p127) and DDB2 (p48). Mutations in the DDB2 gene inactivate UV-DDB in individuals from complementation group E of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP-E), an autosomal recessive disease characterized by sun sensitivity, severe risk for skin cancer and defective nucleotide excision repair. UV-DDB is also deficient in many rodent tissues, exposing a shortcoming in rodent models for cancer. In vitro, UV-DDB binds to cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), 6–4 photoproducts and other DNA lesions, stimulating the excision of CPDs, and to a lesser extent, of 6–4 photoproducts. In vivo, UV-DDB plays an important role in the p53-dependent response of mammalian cells to DNA damage. When cells are exposed to UV, the resulting accumulation of p53 activates DDB2 transcription, which leads to increased levels of UV-DDB. Binding of UV-DDB to CPDs targets these lesions for global genomic repair, suppressing mutations without affecting UV survival. Apparently, cells are able to survive with unrepaired CPDs because of the activity of bypass DNA polymerases. Finally, there is evidence that UV-DDB may have roles in the cell that are distinct from DNA repair. PMID:12509284

  16. Identification of DNA-Binding Proteins Using Mixed Feature Representation Methods.

    PubMed

    Qu, Kaiyang; Han, Ke; Wu, Song; Wang, Guohua; Wei, Leyi

    2017-09-22

    DNA-binding proteins play vital roles in cellular processes, such as DNA packaging, replication, transcription, regulation, and other DNA-associated activities. The current main prediction method is based on machine learning, and its accuracy mainly depends on the features extraction method. Therefore, using an efficient feature representation method is important to enhance the classification accuracy. However, existing feature representation methods cannot efficiently distinguish DNA-binding proteins from non-DNA-binding proteins. In this paper, a multi-feature representation method, which combines three feature representation methods, namely, K-Skip-N-Grams, Information theory, and Sequential and structural features (SSF), is used to represent the protein sequences and improve feature representation ability. In addition, the classifier is a support vector machine. The mixed-feature representation method is evaluated using 10-fold cross-validation and a test set. Feature vectors, which are obtained from a combination of three feature extractions, show the best performance in 10-fold cross-validation both under non-dimensional reduction and dimensional reduction by max-relevance-max-distance. Moreover, the reduced mixed feature method performs better than the non-reduced mixed feature technique. The feature vectors, which are a combination of SSF and K-Skip-N-Grams, show the best performance in the test set. Among these methods, mixed features exhibit superiority over the single features.

  17. Predicting conformational ensembles and genome-wide transcription factor binding sites from DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Andrabi, Munazah; Hutchins, Andrew Paul; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Kono, Hidetoshi; Nussinov, Ruth; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Ahmad, Shandar

    2017-06-22

    DNA shape is emerging as an important determinant of transcription factor binding beyond just the DNA sequence. The only tool for large scale DNA shape estimates, DNAshape was derived from Monte-Carlo simulations and predicts four broad and static DNA shape features, Propeller twist, Helical twist, Minor groove width and Roll. The contributions of other shape features e.g. Shift, Slide and Opening cannot be evaluated using DNAshape. Here, we report a novel method DynaSeq, which predicts molecular dynamics-derived ensembles of a more exhaustive set of DNA shape features. We compared the DNAshape and DynaSeq predictions for the common features and applied both to predict the genome-wide binding sites of 1312 TFs available from protein interaction quantification (PIQ) data. The results indicate a good agreement between the two methods for the common shape features and point to advantages in using DynaSeq. Predictive models employing ensembles from individual conformational parameters revealed that base-pair opening - known to be important in strand separation - was the best predictor of transcription factor-binding sites (TFBS) followed by features employed by DNAshape. Of note, TFBS could be predicted not only from the features at the target motif sites, but also from those as far as 200 nucleotides away from the motif.

  18. pH Modulates the Binding of EGR1 Transcription Factor to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Mikles, David C.; Bhat, Vikas; Schuchardt, Brett J.; Deegan, Brian J.; Seldeen, Kenneth L.; McDonald, Caleb B.; Farooq, Amjad

    2013-01-01

    EGR1 transcription factor orchestrates a plethora of signaling cascades involved in cellular homeostasis and its down-regulation has been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. Herein, using a battery of biophysical tools, we show that the binding of EGR1 to DNA is tightly regulated by solution pH. Importantly, the binding affinity undergoes an enhancement of more than an order of magnitude with increasing pH from 5 to 8, implying that the deprotonation of an ionizable residue accounts for such behavior. This ionizable residue is identified as H382 by virtue of the fact that its substitution to non-ionizable residues abolishes pH-dependence of the binding of EGR1 to DNA. Notably, H382 inserts into the major groove of DNA and stabilizes the EGR1-DNA interaction via both hydrogen bonding and van der Waals contacts. Remarkably, H382 is predominantly conserved across other members of EGR1 family, implying that histidine protonation-deprotonation may serve as a molecular switch for modulating protein-DNA interactions central to this family of transcription factors. Collectively, our findings uncover an unexpected but a key step in the molecular recognition of EGR1 family of transcription factors and suggest that they may act as sensors of pH within the intracellular environment. PMID:23718776

  19. pH modulates the binding of early growth response protein 1 transcription factor to DNA.

    PubMed

    Mikles, David C; Bhat, Vikas; Schuchardt, Brett J; Deegan, Brian J; Seldeen, Kenneth L; McDonald, Caleb B; Farooq, Amjad

    2013-08-01

    The transcription factor early growth response protein (EGR)1 orchestrates a plethora of signaling cascades involved in cellular homeostasis, and its downregulation has been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. Herein, using a battery of biophysical tools, we show that the binding of EGR1 to DNA is tightly regulated by solution pH. Importantly, the binding affinity undergoes an enhancement of more than an order of magnitude with an increase in pH from 5 to 8, implying that the deprotonation of an ionizable residue accounts for such behavior. This ionizable residue is identified as His382 by virtue of the fact that its replacement by nonionizable residues abolishes the pH dependence of the binding of EGR1 to DNA. Notably, His382 inserts into the major groove of DNA, and stabilizes the EGR1-DNA interaction via both hydrogen bonding and van der Waals contacts. Remarkably, His382 is mainly conserved across other members of the EGR family, implying that histidine protonation-deprotonation may serve as a molecular switch for modulating the protein-DNA interactions that are central to this family of transcription factors. Collectively, our findings reveal an unexpected but a key step in the molecular recognition of the EGR family of transcription factors, and suggest that they may act as sensors of pH within the intracellular environment. © 2013 FEBS.

  20. Isohelical DNA-Binding Oligomers: Antiviral Activity and Application for the Design of Nanostructured Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gursky, Georgy; Nikitin, Alexei; Surovaya, Anna; Grokhovsky, Sergey; Andronova, Valeria; Galegov, Georgy

    We performed a systematic search for new structural motifs isohelical to double-stranded DNA and found five motifs that can be used for the design and synthesis of new DNA-binding oligomers. Some of the DNA-binding oligomers can be equipped with fluorescence chromophores and metal-chelating groups and may serve as conductive wires in nano-scaled electric circuits. A series of new DNA-binding ligands were synthesized by a modular assembly of pyrrole carboxamides and novel pseudopeptides of the form (XY)n. Here, Y is a glycine residue; n is the degree of polymerization. X is an unusual amino acid residue containing a five-membered aromatic ring. Antiviral activity of bis-linked netropsin derivatives is studied. Bis-netropsins containing 15 and 31 lysine residues at the N-termini inhibit most effectively reproduction of the herpes virus type 1 in the Vero cell culture, including virus variants resistant to acyclovir and its analogues. Antiviral activity of bis-linked netropsin derivatives is correlated with their ability to interact with long clusters of AT-base pairs in the origin of replication of the viral DNA.

  1. Characterization of monomeric DNA-binding protein Histone H1 in Leishmania braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Carmelo, Emma; González, Gloria; Cruz, Teresa; Osuna, Antonio; Hernández, Mariano; Valladares, Basilio

    2011-08-01

    Histone H1 in Leishmania presents relevant differences compared to higher eukaryote counterparts, such as the lack of a DNA-binding central globular domain. Despite that, it is apparently fully functional since its differential expression levels have been related to changes in chromatin condensation and infectivity, among other features. The localization and the aggregation state of L. braziliensis H1 has been determined by immunolocalization, mass spectrometry, cross-linking and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Analysis of H1 sequences from the Leishmania Genome Database revealed that our protein is included in a very divergent group of histones H1 that is present only in L. braziliensis. An antibody raised against recombinant L. braziliensis H1 recognized specifically that protein by immunoblot in L. braziliensis extracts, but not in other Leishmania species, a consequence of the sequence divergences observed among Leishmania species. Mass spectrometry analysis and in vitro DNA-binding experiments have also proven that L. braziliensis H1 is monomeric in solution, but oligomerizes upon binding to DNA. Finally, despite the lack of a globular domain, L. braziliensis H1 is able to form complexes with DNA in vitro, with higher affinity for supercoiled compared to linear DNA.

  2. Antiviral and Anticancer Optimization Studies of the DNA-binding Marine Natural Product Aaptamine

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, John J.; Pennaka, Hari K.; Ivey, Kelly; Wahyuono, Subagus; Kelly, Michelle; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Valeriote, Frederick A.; Graves, David E.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Aaptamine has potent cytotoxicity that may be explained by its ability to intercalate DNA. Aaptamine was evaluated for its ability to bind to DNA to validate DNA binding as the primary mechanism of cytotoxicity. Based on UV–vis absorbance titration data, the Kobs for aaptamine was 4.0 (±0.2) × 103 which was essentially equivalent to the known DNA intercalator N-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]-9-aminoacridine-4-carboxamide. Semi-synthetic core modifications were performed to improve the general structural diversity of known aaptamine analogs and vary its absorption characteristics. Overall, 26 aaptamine derivatives were synthesized which consisted of a simple homologous range of mono and di-N-alkylations as well as some 9-O-sulfonylation and bis-O-isoaaptamine dimer products. Each product was evaluated for activity in a variety of whole cell and viral assays including a unique solid tumor disk diffusion assay. Details of aaptamine's DNA-binding activity and its derivatives’ whole cell and viral assay results are discussed. PMID:18251774

  3. Evaluation of DNA Binding Drugs as Inhibitors of ESX, and ETS Domain Transcription Factor Associated With Breast Cancer: Effects of ESX/DNA Complex Disruption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    4). Sequence recognition of all four DNA bases is achieved by positioning an N- methylimidazole opposite guanine or N-methylpyrrole opposite...unique sequences of DNA based upon selective binding motifs to all four DNA bases , although relatively little is known about the ability of these agents to

  4. Acemannan increases NF-κB/DNA binding and IL-6/-8 expression by selectively binding Toll-like receptor-5 in human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya; Kengkwasing, Pattrawadee; Chokboribal, Jaroenporn; Sangvanich, Polkit

    2017-04-01

    Acemannan, an acetylated polymannose from Aloe vera, has immunomodulatory effects. We investigated whether acemannan induces IL-6 and -8 expression and NF-κB/DNA binding in human gingival fibroblasts. IL-6 and -8 expression levels were assessed via RT-PCR and ELISA. The NF-κB p50/p65-DNA binding was determined. The structures of acemannan mono-pentamers and Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) were simulated. The binding energies between acemannan and TLR5 were identified. We found that acemannan significantly stimulated IL-6/-8 expression at both the mRNA and protein level and significantly increased p50/DNA binding. Preincubation with an anti-TLR5 neutralizing antibody abolished acemannan-induced IL-6/-8 expression and p50/DNA binding, and co-incubation of acemannan with Bay11-7082, a specific NF- κB inhibitor, abolished IL-6/-8 expression. The computer modeling indicated that monomeric/dimeric single stranded acemannan molecules interacted with the TLR5 flagellin recognition sites with a high binding affinity. We conclude that acemannan induces IL-6/-8 expression, and p50/DNA binding in gingival fibroblasts, at least partly, via a TLR5/NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway. Furthermore, acemannan selectively binds with TLR5 ectodomain flagellin recognition sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of Specific DNA Binding Residues in the TCP Family of Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Pooja; Das Gupta, Mainak; Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Chatterjee, Nirmalya; Srinivasan, N.; Nath, Utpal

    2010-01-01

    The TCP transcription factors control multiple developmental traits in diverse plant species. Members of this family share an ∼60-residue-long TCP domain that binds to DNA. The TCP domain is predicted to form a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) structure but shares little sequence similarity with canonical bHLH domain. This classifies the TCP domain as a novel class of DNA binding domain specific to the plant kingdom. Little is known about how the TCP domain interacts with its target DNA. We report biochemical characterization and DNA binding properties of a TCP member in Arabidopsis thaliana, TCP4. We have shown that the 58-residue domain of TCP4 is essential and sufficient for binding to DNA and possesses DNA binding parameters comparable to canonical bHLH proteins. Using a yeast-based random mutagenesis screen and site-directed mutants, we identified the residues important for DNA binding and dimer formation. Mutants defective in binding and dimerization failed to rescue the phenotype of an Arabidopsis line lacking the endogenous TCP4 activity. By combining structure prediction, functional characterization of the mutants, and molecular modeling, we suggest a possible DNA binding mechanism for this class of transcription factors. PMID:20363772

  6. Specificity of the weak binding between the phage SPO1 transcription-inhibitory protein, TF1, and SPO1 DNA.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G G; Geiduschek, E P

    1977-04-05

    The interaction of the phage SPO1 protein transcription factor 1 (TF1), with DNA has been analyzed by membrane filter binding and by sedimentation methods. Substantially specific binding of TF1 to helical SPO1 DNA can be demonstrated by nitrocellulose filter-binding assays at relatively low ionic strength (0.08). However, TF1-DNA complexes dissociate and reequilibrate relatively rapidly and this makes filter-binding assays unsuitable for quantitative measurements of binding equilibra. Accordingly, the sedimentation properties of TF1-DNA complexes have been explored and a short-column centrifugation assay has been elaborated for quantitative measurements. Preferential binding of TF1 to the hydroxymethyluracil-containing SPO1 DNA has also been demonstrated by short-column centrifugation. TF1 binds relatively weakly and somewhat cooperatively to SPO1 DNA at many sites; TF1-DNA complexes dissociate and reequilibrate rapidly. At 20 degrees C in 0.01 M phosphate, pH 7.5, 0.15 KC1, one molecule of TF1 can bind to approximately every 60 nucleotide pairs of SPO1 DNA.

  7. TATA Binding Protein Discriminates between Different Lesions on DNA, Resulting in a Transcription Decrease

    PubMed Central

    Coin, Frédéric; Frit, Philippe; Viollet, Benoit; Salles, Bernard; Egly, Jean-Marc

    1998-01-01

    DNA damage recognition by basal transcription factors follows different mechanisms. Using transcription-competition, nitrocellulose filter binding, and DNase I footprinting assays, we show that, although the general transcription factor TFIIH is able to target any kind of lesion which can be repaired by the nucleotide excision repair pathway, TATA binding protein (TBP)-TFIID is more selective in damage recognition. Only genotoxic agents which are able to induce kinked DNA structures similar to the one for the TATA box in its TBP complex are recognized. Indeed, DNase I footprinting patterns reveal that TBP protects equally 4 nucleotides upstream and 6 nucleotides downstream from the A-T (at position −29 of the noncoding strand) of the adenovirus major late promoter and from the G-G of a cisplatin-induced 1,2-d(GpG) cross-link. Together, our results may partially explain differences in transcription inhibition rates following DNA damage. PMID:9632775

  8. Thermodynamic investigation of the binding of dissymmetric pyrenyl-gemini surfactants to DNA.

    PubMed

    Wettig, Shawn D; Deubry, Rubena; Akbar, Javed; Kaur, Tranum; Wang, Haitang; Sheinin, Tatiana; Joseph, Jamie W; Slavcev, Roderick A

    2010-05-14

    Gemini surfactants have demonstrated significant potential for use in constructing non-viral transfection vectors for the delivery of genes into cells to induce protein expression. Previously, two asymmetric gemini surfactants containing pyrenyl groups in one of the alkyl tails of the surfactants were synthesized as fluorescence probes for use in mechanistic studies of the transfection process. Here we present the results of a thermodynamic investigation of the binding interaction(s) between the pyrenyl-modified surfactants and DNA. The thermodynamics of the interactions have been examined using isothermal titration calorimetry, light scattering, zeta potential, and circular dichroism measurements. Distinct differences are observed between the interaction of 12-s-12 vs. the pyrene modified py-s-12 surfactants with DNA; an intercalated binding is found for the py-s-12 surfactants that disrupts the typical interactions observed between DNA and gemini surfactants.

  9. Proteolytic dissection of Zab, the Z-DNA-binding domain of human ADAR1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, T.; Lowenhaupt, K.; Kim, Y. G.; Li, L.; Brown, B. A. 2nd; Herbert, A.; Rich, A.

    1999-01-01

    Zalpha is a peptide motif that binds to Z-DNA with high affinity. This motif binds to alternating dC-dG sequences stabilized in the Z-conformation by means of bromination or supercoiling, but not to B-DNA. Zalpha is part of the N-terminal region of double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (ADAR1), a candidate enzyme for nuclear pre-mRNA editing in mammals. Zalpha is conserved in ADAR1 from many species; in each case, there is a second similar motif, Zbeta, separated from Zalpha by a more divergent linker. To investigate the structure-function relationship of Zalpha, its domain structure was studied by limited proteolysis. Proteolytic profiles indicated that Zalpha is part of a domain, Zab, of 229 amino acids (residues 133-361 in human ADAR1). This domain contains both Zalpha and Zbeta as well as a tandem repeat of a 49-amino acid linker module. Prolonged proteolysis revealed a minimal core domain of 77 amino acids (positions 133-209), containing only Zalpha, which is sufficient to bind left-handed Z-DNA; however, the substrate binding is strikingly different from that of Zab. The second motif, Zbeta, retains its structural integrity only in the context of Zab and does not bind Z-DNA as a separate entity. These results suggest that Zalpha and Zbeta act as a single bipartite domain. In the presence of substrate DNA, Zab becomes more resistant to proteases, suggesting that it adopts a more rigid structure when bound to its substrate, possibly with conformational changes in parts of the protein.

  10. DNA binding by a new metallointercalator that contains a proflavine group bearing a hanging chelating unit.

    PubMed

    Bazzicalupi, Carla; Bencini, Andrea; Bianchi, Antonio; Biver, Tarita; Boggioni, Alessia; Bonacchi, Sara; Danesi, Andrea; Giorgi, Claudia; Gratteri, Paola; Ingraín, Antonio Marchal; Secco, Fernando; Sissi, Claudia; Valtancoli, Barbara; Venturini, Marcella

    2008-01-01

    The new bifunctional molecule 3,6-diamine-9-[6,6-bis(2-aminoethyl)-1,6-diaminohexyl]acridine (D), which is characterised by both an aromatic moiety and a separate metal-complexing polyamine centre, has been synthesised. The characteristics of D and its ZnII complex ([ZnD]) (protonation and metal-complexing constants, optical properties and self-aggregation phenomena) have been analysed by means of NMR spectroscopy, potentiometric, spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric techniques. The equilibria and kinetics of the binding process of D and [ZnD] to calf thymus DNA have been investigated at I=0.11 M (NaCl) and 298.1 K by using spectroscopic methods and the stopped-flow technique. Static measurements show biphasic behaviour for both D-DNA and [ZnD]-DNA systems; this reveals the occurrence of two different binding processes depending on the polymer-to-dye molar ratio (P/D). The binding mode that occurs at low P/D values is interpreted in terms of external binding with a notable contribution from the polyamine residue. The binding mode at high P/D values corresponds to intercalation of the proflavine residue. Stopped-flow, circular dichroism and supercoiled-DNA unwinding experiments corroborate the proposed mechanism. Molecular-modelling studies support the intercalative process and evidence the influence of NH+...O interactions between the protonated acridine nitrogen atom and the oxygen atoms of the polyanion; these interactions play a key role in determining the conformation of DNA adducts.

  11. Correlation of Local Effects of DNA Sequence and Position of Beta-Alanine Inserts with Polyamide-DNA Complex Binding Affinities and Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo; Nanjunda, Rupesh; Aston, Karl; Bashkin, James K.; Wilson, W. David

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the effects of β-alanine (β) substitution and the number of heterocycles on DNA binding affinity and selectivity, the interactions of an eight-ring hairpin polyamide (PA) and two β derivatives as well as a six-heterocycle analog have been investigated with their cognate DNA sequence, 5′-TGGCTT-3′. Binding selectivity and the effects of β have been investigated with the cognate and five mutant DNAs. A set of powerful and complementary methods have been employed for both energetic and structural evaluations: UV-melting, biosensor-surface plasmon resonance, isothermal titration calorimetry, circular dichroism and a DNA ligation ladder global structure assay. The reduced number of heterocycles in the six-ring PA weakens the binding affinity; however, the smaller PA aggregates significantly less than the larger PAs, and allows us to obtain the binding thermodynamics. The PA-DNA binding enthalpy is large and negative with a large negative ΔCp, and is the primary driving component of the Gibbs free energy. The complete SPR binding results clearly show that β substitutions can substantially weaken the binding affinity of hairpin PAs in a position-dependent manner. More importantly, the changes in PA binding to the mutant DNAs further confirm the position-dependent effects on PA-DNA interaction affinity. Comparison of mutant DNA sequences also shows a different effect in recognition of T•A versus A•T base pairs. The effects of DNA mutations on binding of a single PA as well as the effects of the position of β substitution on binding tell a clear and very important story about sequence dependent binding of PAs to DNA. PMID:23167504

  12. Thermodynamic characterization of binding Oxytricha nova single strand telomere DNA with the alpha protein N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Buczek, Pawel; Horvath, Martin P

    2006-06-23

    The Oxytricha nova telemere binding protein alpha subunit binds single strand DNA and participates in a nucleoprotein complex that protects the very ends of chromosomes. To understand how the N-terminal, DNA binding domain of alpha interacts with DNA we measured the stoichiometry, enthalpy (DeltaH), entropy (DeltaS), and dissociation constant (K(D-DNA)) for binding telomere DNA fragments at different temperatures and salt concentrations using native gel electrophoresis and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). About 85% of the total free energy of binding corresponded with non-electrostatic interactions for all DNAs. Telomere DNA fragments d(T(2)G(4)), d(T(4)G(4)), d(G(3)T(4)G(4)), and d(G(4)T(4)G(4)) each formed monovalent protein complexes. In the case of d(T(4)G(4)T(4)G(4)), which has two tandemly repeated d(TTTTTGGGG) telomere motifs, two binding sites were observed. The high-affinity "A site" has a dissociation constant, K(D-DNA(A)) = 13(+/-4) nM, while the low-affinity "B site" is characterized by K(D-DNA(B)) = 5600(+/-600) nM at 25 degrees C. Nucleotide substitution variants verified that the A site corresponds principally with the 3'-terminal portion of d(T(4)G(4)T(4)G(4)). The relative contributions of entropy (DeltaS) and enthalpy (DeltaH) for binding reactions were DNA length-dependent as was heat capacity (DeltaCp). These trends with respect to DNA length likely reflect structural transitions in the DNA molecule that are coupled with DNA-protein association. Results presented here are important for understanding early intermediates and subsequent stages in the assembly of the full telomere nucleoprotein complex and how binding events can prepare the telomere DNA for extension by telomerase, a critical event in telomere biology.

  13. Zuotin, a putative Z-DNA binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, S.; Lockshin, C.; Herbert, A.; Winter, E.; Rich, A.

    1992-01-01

    A putative Z-DNA binding protein, named zuotin, was purified from a yeast nuclear extract by means of a Z-DNA binding assay using [32P]poly(dG-m5dC) and [32P]oligo(dG-Br5dC)22 in the presence of B-DNA competitor. Poly(dG-Br5dC) in the Z-form competed well for the binding of a zuotin containing fraction, but salmon sperm DNA, poly(dG-dC) and poly(dA-dT) were not effective. Negatively supercoiled plasmid pUC19 did not compete, whereas an otherwise identical plasmid pUC19(CG), which contained a (dG-dC)7 segment in the Z-form was an excellent competitor. A Southwestern blot using [32P]poly(dG-m5dC) as a probe in the presence of MgCl2 identified a protein having a molecular weight of 51 kDa. The 51 kDa zuotin was partially sequenced at the N-terminal and the gene, ZUO1, was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli; the expressed zuotin showed similar Z-DNA binding activity, but with lower affinity than zuotin that had been partially purified from yeast. Zuotin was deduced to have a number of potential phosphorylation sites including two CDC28 (homologous to the human and Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc2) phosphorylation sites. The hexapeptide motif KYHPDK was found in zuotin as well as in several yeast proteins, DnaJ of E.coli, csp29 and csp32 proteins of Drosophila and the small t and large T antigens of the polyoma virus. A 60 amino acid segment of zuotin has similarity to several histone H1 sequences. Disruption of ZUO1 in yeast resulted in a slow growth phenotype.

  14. Cooperative DNA binding and sequence discrimination by the Opaque2 bZIP factor.

    PubMed Central

    Yunes, J A; Vettore, A L; da Silva, M J; Leite, A; Arruda, P

    1998-01-01

    The maize Opaque2 (O2) protein is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that controls the expression of distinct classes of endosperm genes through the recognition of different cis-acting elements in their promoters. The O2 target region in the promoter of the alpha-coixin gene was analyzed in detail and shown to comprise two closely adjacent binding sites, named O2u and O2d, which are related in sequence to the GCN4 binding site. Quantitative DNase footprint analysis indicated that O2 binding to alpha-coixin target sites is best described by a cooperative model. Transient expression assays showed that the two adjacent sites act synergistically. This synergy is mediated in part by cooperative DNA binding. In tobacco protoplasts, O2 binding at the O2u site is more important for enhancer activity than is binding at the O2d site, suggesting that the architecture of the O2-DNA complex is important for interaction with the transcriptional machinery. PMID:9811800

  15. Cooperative DNA binding and sequence discrimination by the Opaque2 bZIP factor.

    PubMed

    Yunes, J A; Vettore, A L; da Silva, M J; Leite, A; Arruda, P

    1998-11-01

    The maize Opaque2 (O2) protein is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that controls the expression of distinct classes of endosperm genes through the recognition of different cis-acting elements in their promoters. The O2 target region in the promoter of the alpha-coixin gene was analyzed in detail and shown to comprise two closely adjacent binding sites, named O2u and O2d, which are related in sequence to the GCN4 binding site. Quantitative DNase footprint analysis indicated that O2 binding to alpha-coixin target sites is best described by a cooperative model. Transient expression assays showed that the two adjacent sites act synergistically. This synergy is mediated in part by cooperative DNA binding. In tobacco protoplasts, O2 binding at the O2u site is more important for enhancer activity than is binding at the O2d site, suggesting that the architecture of the O2-DNA complex is important for interaction with the transcriptional machinery.

  16. All-atomic simulations on human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA binding with thioflavin T.

    PubMed

    Luo, Di; Mu, Yuguang

    2015-04-16

    Ligand-stabilized human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA is believed to be an anticancer agent, as it can impede the continuous elongation of telomeres by telomerase in cancer cells. In this study, five well-established human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA models were probed on their binding behaviors with thioflavin T (ThT) via both conventional molecular dynamics (MD) and well-tempered metadynamics (WT-MetaD) simulations. Novel dynamics and characteristic binding patterns were disclosed by the MD simulations. It was observed that the K(+) promoted parallel and hybridized human telomeric G-quadruplex conformations pose higher binding affinities to ThT than the Na(+) and K(+) promoted basket conformations. It is the end, sandwich, and base stacking driven by π-π interactions that are identified as the major binding mechanisms. As the most energy favorable binding mode, the sandwich stacking observed in (3 + 1) hybridized form 1 G-quadruplex conformation is triggered by reversible conformational change of the G-quadruplex. To further examine the free energy landscapes, WT-MetaD simulations were utilized on G-quadruplex-ThT systems. It is found that all of the major binding modes predicted by the MD simulations are confirmed by the WT-MetaD simulations. The results in this work not only accord with existing experimental findings, but also reinforce our understanding on the dynamics of G-quadruplexes and aid future drug developments for G-quadruplex stabilization ligands.

  17. Quantitative characterization of conformational-specific protein-DNA binding using a dual-spectral interferometric imaging biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xirui; Daaboul, George G.; Spuhler, Philipp S.; Dröge, Peter; Ünlü, M. Selim

    2016-03-01

    DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in the maintenance and functions of the genome and yet, their specific binding mechanisms are not fully understood. Recently, it was discovered that DNA-binding proteins recognize specific binding sites to carry out their functions through an indirect readout mechanism by recognizing and capturing DNA conformational flexibility and deformation. High-throughput DNA microarray-based methods that provide large-scale protein-DNA binding information have shown effective and comprehensive analysis of protein-DNA binding affinities, but do not provide information of DNA conformational changes in specific protein-DNA complexes. Building on the high-throughput capability of DNA microarrays, we demonstrate a quantitative approach that simultaneously measures the amount of protein binding to DNA and nanometer-scale DNA conformational change induced by protein binding in a microarray format. Both measurements rely on spectral interferometry on a layered substrate using a single optical instrument in two distinct modalities. In the first modality, we quantitate the amount of binding of protein to surface-immobilized DNA in each DNA spot using a label-free spectral reflectivity technique that accurately measures the surface densities of protein and DNA accumulated on the substrate. In the second modality, for each DNA spot, we simultaneously measure DNA conformational change using a fluorescence vertical sectioning technique that determines average axial height of fluorophores tagged to specific nucleotides of the surface-immobilized DNA. The approach presented in this paper, when combined with current high-throughput DNA microarray-based technologies, has the potential to serve as a rapid and simple method for quantitative and large-scale characterization of conformational specific protein-DNA interactions.DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in the maintenance and functions of the genome and yet, their specific binding mechanisms are

  18. Synthesis and structure elucidation of a copper(II) Schiff-base complex: in vitro DNA binding, pBR322 plasmid cleavage and HSA binding studies.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Sartaj; Ahmad, Musheer; Afzal, Mohd; Zaki, Mehvash; Bharadwaj, Parimal K

    2014-11-01

    New copper(II) complex with Schiff base ligand 4-[(2-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzylidene)-amino]-benzoic acid (H₂L) was synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic and analytical and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies which revealed that the complex 1 exist in a distorted octahedral environment. In vitro CT-DNA binding studies were performed by employing different biophysical technique which indicated that the 1 strongly binds to DNA in comparison to ligand via electrostatic binding mode. Complex 1 cleaves pBR322 DNA via hydrolytic pathway and recognizes minor groove of DNA double helix. The HSA binding results showed that ligand and complex 1 has ability to quench the fluorescence emission intensity of Trp 214 residue available in the subdomain IIA of HSA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. DNA binding studies of Sunset Yellow FCF using spectroscopy, viscometry and electrochemical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaadi, Sara; Hajian, Reza

    2017-10-01

    Color is one of the important factors in food industry. All food companies use synthetic pigments to improve the aesthetic of products. Studies on the interaction between deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and food dye molecules is important because DNA is responsible for some processes including replication and transcription of cells, mutations, genetic diseases, and some synthetic chemical nucleases. In this study, the molecular interaction between Sunset Yellow FCF (SY) as a common food coloring additive and calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) has been studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and viscometry techniques. The binding constant between ct-DNA and SY in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) was calculated as 2.09 × 103 L mol-1. The non-electrostatic bonding constant (K0t) was almost consistent and the ratio of K0t/Kb increased by increasing the ionic strength in the range of 0.01-0.1 mol L-1 of KCl. This observation shows that, the molecular bonding of SY to ct-DNA is a combination of electrostatic and intercalation interactions. In the electrochemical studies, an oxidation peak at 0.71 V and a reduction peak at about 0.63 V was observed with the peak potential difference (ΔEp) of 0.08 V, showing a reversible process. The oxidation and reduction peaks were significantly decreased in the presence of ct-DNA and the reduction peak current shifted to negative values. In spectrofluorometric study, the fluorescence intensity of SY increased dramatically after successive addition of DNA due to the increasing of molecular surface area and decreasing of impact frequency between solvent and SY-DNA adduct. Moreover, viscometric study shows that the increasing of viscosity for SY solution in the presence of DNA is due to the intercalation mechanism with double strand DNA (ds-DNA).

  20. AgI -Induced Switching of DNA Binding Modes via Formation of a Supramolecular Metallacycle.

    PubMed

    Basak, Shibaji; Léon, J Christian; Ferranco, Annaleizle; Sharma, Renu; Hebenbrock, Marian; Lough, Alan; Müller, Jens; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2018-03-12

    The histidine derivative L1 of the DNA intercalator naphthalenediimide (NDI) forms a triangular Ag I complex (C2). The interactions of L1 and of C2 with DNA were studied by circular dichroism (CD) and UV/Vis spectroscopy and by viscosity studies. Different binding modes were observed for L1 and for C2, as the Ag I complex C2 is too large in size to act as an intercalator. If Ag I is added to the NDI molecule that is already intercalated into a duplex, higher order complexes are formed within the DNA duplex and cause disruptions in the helical duplex structure, which leads to a significant decrease in the characteristic CD features of B-DNA. Thus, via addition of a metal we show how a classic and well-known organic intercalator unit can be turned into a partial metallo insertor. We also show how electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) can be used to probe DNA binding modes on DNA films that are immobilized on gold surfaces. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Zn2+ selectively stabilizes FdU-substituted DNA through a unique major groove binding motif

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Supratim; Salsbury, Freddie R.; Horita, David A.; Gmeiner, William H.

    2011-01-01

    We report, based on semi-empirical calculations, that Zn2+ binds duplex DNA containing consecutive FdU–dA base pairs in the major groove with distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. In this previously uncharacterized binding motif, O4 and F5 on consecutive FdU are axial ligands while three water molecules complete the coordination sphere. NMR spectroscopy confirmed Zn2+ complexation occurred with maintenance of base pairing while a slight hypsochromic shift in circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated moderate structural distortion relative to B-form DNA. Zn2+ complexation inhibited ethidium bromide (EtBr) intercalation and stabilized FdU-substituted duplex DNA (ΔTm > 15°C). Mg2+ neither inhibited EtBr complexation nor had as strong of a stabilizing effect. DNA sequences that did not contain consecutive FdU were not stabilized by Zn2+. A lipofectamine preparation of the Zn2+–DNA complex displayed enhanced cytotoxicity toward prostate cancer cells relative to the individual components prepared as lipofectamine complexes indicating the potential utility of Zn2+–DNA complexes for cancer treatment. PMID:21296761

  2. Deciphering the Binding between Nupr1 and MSL1 and Their DNA-Repairing Activity

    PubMed Central

    Doménech, Rosa; Pantoja-Uceda, David; Gironella, Meritxell; Santoro, Jorge; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Neira, José L.; Iovanna, Juan L.

    2013-01-01

    The stress protein Nupr1 is a highly basic, multifunctional, intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). MSL1 is a histone acetyl transferase-associated protein, known to intervene in the dosage compensation complex (DCC). In this work, we show that both Nupr1 and MSL1 proteins were recruited and formed a complex into the nucleus in response to DNA-damage, which was essential for cell survival in reply to cisplatin damage. We studied the interaction of Nupr1 and MSL1, and their binding affinities to DNA by spectroscopic and biophysical methods. The MSL1 bound to Nupr1, with a moderate affinity (2.8 µM) in an entropically-driven process. MSL1 did not bind to non-damaged DNA, but it bound to chemically-damaged-DNA with a moderate affinity (1.2 µM) also in an entropically-driven process. The Nupr1 protein bound to chemically-damaged-DNA with a slightly larger affinity (0.4 µM), but in an enthalpically-driven process. Nupr1 showed different interacting regions in the formed complexes with Nupr1 or DNA; however, they were always disordered (“fuzzy”), as shown by NMR. These results underline a stochastic description of the functionality of the Nupr1 and its other interacting partners. PMID:24205110

  3. PriC-mediated DNA replication restart requires PriC complex formation with the single-stranded DNA-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Sarah R; Marceau, Aimee H; Massoni, Shawn C; Zhou, Ruobo; Ha, Taekjip; Sandler, Steven J; Keck, James L

    2013-06-14

    Frequent collisions between cellular DNA replication complexes (replisomes) and obstacles such as damaged DNA or frozen protein complexes make DNA replication fork progression surprisingly sporadic. These collisions can lead to the ejection of replisomes prior to completion of replication, which, if left unrepaired, results in bacterial cell death. As such, bacteria have evolved DNA replication restart mechanisms that function to reload replisomes onto abandoned DNA replication forks. Here, we define a direct interaction between PriC, a key Escherichia coli DNA replication restart protein, and the single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB), a protein that is ubiquitously associated with DNA replication forks. PriC/SSB complex formation requires evolutionarily conserved residues from both proteins, including a pair of Arg residues from PriC and the C terminus of SSB. In vitro, disruption of the PriC/SSB interface by sequence changes in either protein blocks the first step of DNA replication restart, reloading of the replicative DnaB helicase onto an abandoned replication fork. Consistent with the critical role of PriC/SSB complex formation in DNA replication restart, PriC variants that cannot bind SSB are non-functional in vivo. Single-molecule experiments demonstrate that PriC binding to SSB alters SSB/DNA complexes, exposing single-stranded DNA and creating a platform for other proteins to bind. These data lead to a model in which PriC interaction with SSB remodels SSB/DNA structures at abandoned DNA replication forks to create a DNA structure that is competent for DnaB loading.

  4. DNA-Binding Protein HU Coordinates Pathogenicity in Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Phan, Ngoc Quang; Uebanso, Takashi; Shimohata, Takaaki; Nakahashi, Mutsumi; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Akira

    2015-09-01

    HU is one of the most abundant nucleoid-associated proteins in bacterial cells and regulates the expression of many genes involved in growth, motility, metabolism, and virulence. It is known that Vibrio parahaemolyticus pathogenicity is related to its characteristic rapid growth and that type III secretion system 1 (T3SS1) contributes to its cytotoxicity. However, it is not known if HU plays a role in the pathogenicity of V. parahaemolyticus. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HU proteins HU-2 (HUα) (V. parahaemolyticus 2911 [vp2911]) and HUβ (vp0920) on the pathogenicity of V. parahaemolyticus. We found that a deletion of both HU subunits (yielding the ΔHUs [Δvp0920 Δvp2911] strain), but not single deletions, led to a reduction of the growth rate. In addition, expression levels of T3SS1-related genes, including exsA (positive regulator), exsD (negative regulator), vp1680 (cytotoxic effector), and vp1671 (T3SS1 apparatus), were reduced in the ΔHUs strain compared to the wild type (WT). As a result, cytotoxicity to HeLa cells was decreased in the ΔHUs strain. The additional deletion of exsD in the ΔHUs strain restored T3SS1-related gene expression levels and cytotoxicity but not the growth rate. These results suggest that the HU protein regulates the levels of T3SS1 gene expression and cytotoxicity in a growth rate-independent manner. Nucleoid-binding protein HU regulates cellular behaviors, including nucleoid structuring, general recombination, transposition, growth, replication, motility, metabolism, and virulence. It is thought that both the number of bacteria and the number of virulence factors may affect the pathogenicity of bacteria. In the present study, we investigated which factor(s) has a dominant role during infection in one of the most rapidly growing bacterial species, Vibrio parahaemolyticus. We found that V. parahaemolyticus cytotoxicity is regulated, in a growth rate-independent manner, by the HU proteins through regulation

  5. Effect of Escherichia coli DNA binding protein on the transcription of single-stranded phage M13 DNA by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Niyogi, S.K.; Ratrie, H. III; Datta, A.K.

    E. coli DNA binding protein strongly inhibits the transcription of single-stranded rather than double-stranded phage M13 DNA by E. coli RNA polymerase. This inhibition cannot be significantly overcome by increasing the concentration of RNA polymerase. Nor does the order of addition of binding protein affect its inhibitory property: inhibition is evident whether binding protein is added before or after the formation of the RNA polymerase--DNA complex. Inhibition is also observed if binding protein is added at various times after initiation of RNA synthesis. Maximal inhibition occurs at a binding protein-to-DNA ratio (w/w) of about 8:1. This corresponds to one bindingmore » protein molecule covering about 30 nucleotides, in good agreement with values obtained by physical measurements.« less

  6. Binding of anticancer drug daunomycin to a TGGGGT G-quadruplex DNA probed by all-atom molecular dynamics simulations: additional pure groove binding mode and implications on designing more selective G-quadruplex ligands.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhanhang; Mulholland, Kelly A; Zheng, Yujun; Wu, Chun

    2017-09-01

    DNA G-quadruplex structures are emerging cancer-specific targets for chemotherapeutics. Ligands that bind to and stabilize DNA G-quadruplexes have the potential to be anti-cancer drugs. Lack of binding selectivity to DNA G-quadruplex over DNA duplex remains a major challenge when attempting to develop G-quadruplex ligands into successful anti-cancer drugs. Thorough understanding of the binding nature of existing non-selective ligands that bind to both DNA quadruplex and DNA duplex will help to address this challenge. Daunomycin and doxorubicin, two commonly used anticancer drugs, are examples of non-selective DNA ligands. In this study, we extended our early all-atom binding simulation studies between doxorubicin and a DNA duplex (d(CGATCG) 2 ) to probe the binding between daunomycin and a parallel DNA quadruplex (d(TGGGGT) 4 ) and DNA duplex. In addition to the end stacking mode, which mimics the mode in the crystal structure, a pure groove binding mode was observed in our free binding simulations. The dynamic and energetic properties of these two binding modes are thoroughly examined, and a detailed comparison is made between DNA quadruplex binding modes and DNA duplex binding modes. Implications on the design of more selective DNA quadruplex ligands are also discussed. Graphical abstract Top stacking and groov binding modes from the MD simulations.

  7. Genome-wide survey of DNA-binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana: analysis of distribution and functions.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Sony; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2013-08-01

    The interaction of proteins with their respective DNA targets is known to control many high-fidelity cellular processes. Performing a comprehensive survey of the sequenced genomes for DNA-binding proteins (DBPs) will help in understanding their distribution and the associated functions in a particular genome. Availability of fully sequenced genome of Arabidopsis thaliana enables the review of distribution of DBPs in this model plant genome. We used profiles of both structure and sequence-based DNA-binding families, derived from PDB and PFam databases, to perform the survey. This resulted in 4471 proteins, identified as DNA-binding in Arabidopsis genome, which are distributed across 300 different PFam families. Apart from several plant-specific DNA-binding families, certain RING fingers and leucine zippers also had high representation. Our search protocol helped to assign DNA-binding property to several proteins that were previously marked as unknown, putative or hypothetical in function. The distribution of Arabidopsis genes having a role in plant DNA repair were particularly studied and noted for their functional mapping. The functions observed to be overrepresented in the plant genome harbour DNA-3-methyladenine glycosylase activity, alkylbase DNA N-glycosylase activity and DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase activity, suggesting their role in specialized functions such as gene regulation and DNA repair.

  8. Screening the sequence selectivity of DNA-binding molecules using a gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric approach.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Sarah J; Han, Min Su; Lytton-Jean, Abigail K R; Mirkin, Chad A

    2007-09-15

    We have developed a novel competition assay that uses a gold nanoparticle (Au NP)-based, high-throughput colorimetric approach to screen the sequence selectivity of DNA-binding molecules. This assay hinges on the observation that the melting behavior of DNA-functionalized Au NP aggregates is sensitive to the concentration of the DNA-binding molecule in solution. When short, oligomeric hairpin DNA sequences were added to a reaction solution consisting of DNA-functionalized Au NP aggregates and DNA-binding molecules, these molecules may either bind to the Au NP aggregate interconnects or the hairpin stems based on their relative affinity for each. This relative affinity can be measured as a change in the melting temperature (Tm) of the DNA-modified Au NP aggregates in solution. As a proof of concept, we evaluated the selectivity of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindone (an AT-specific binder), ethidium bromide (a nonspecific binder), and chromomycin A (a GC-specific binder) for six sequences of hairpin DNA having different numbers of AT pairs in a five-base pair variable stem region. Our assay accurately and easily confirmed the known trends in selectivity for the DNA binders in question without the use of complicated instrumentation. This novel assay will be useful in assessing large libraries of potential drug candidates that work by binding DNA to form a drug/DNA complex.

  9. Structural mechanisms of DNA binding and unwinding in bacterial RecQ helicases

    DOE PAGES

    Manthei, Kelly A.; Hill, Morgan C.; Burke, Jordan E.; ...

    2015-03-23

    RecQ helicases unwind remarkably diverse DNA structures as key components of many cellular processes. How RecQ enzymes accommodate different substrates in a unified mechanism that couples ATP hydrolysis to DNA unwinding is unknown. In this paper, the X-ray crystal structure of the Cronobacter sakazakii RecQ catalytic core domain bound to duplex DNA with a 3' single-stranded extension identifies two DNA-dependent conformational rearrangements: a winged-helix domain pivots ~90° to close onto duplex DNA, and a conserved aromatic-rich loop is remodeled to bind ssDNA. These changes coincide with a restructuring of the RecQ ATPase active site that positions catalytic residues for ATPmore » hydrolysis. Complex formation also induces a tight bend in the DNA and melts a portion of the duplex. Finally, this bending, coupled with translocation, could provide RecQ with a mechanism for unwinding duplex and other DNA structures.« less

  10. DNA binding polarity, dimerization, and ATPase ring remodeling in the CMG helicase of the eukaryotic replisome

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Alessandro; Renault, Ludovic; Swuec, Paolo; Petojevic, Tatjana; Pesavento, James J; Ilves, Ivar; MacLellan-Gibson, Kirsty; Fleck, Roland A; Botchan, Michael R; Berger, James M

    2014-01-01

    The Cdc45/Mcm2-7/GINS (CMG) helicase separates DNA strands during replication in eukaryotes. How the CMG is assembled and engages DNA substrates remains unclear. Using electron microscopy, we have determined the structure of the CMG in the presence of ATPγS and a DNA duplex bearing a 3′ single-stranded tail. The structure shows that the MCM subunits of the CMG bind preferentially to single-stranded DNA, establishes the polarity by which DNA enters into the Mcm2-7 pore, and explains how Cdc45 helps prevent DNA from dissociating from the helicase. The Mcm2-7 subcomplex forms a cracked-ring, right-handed spiral when DNA and nucleotide are bound, revealing unexpected congruencies between the CMG and both bacterial DnaB helicases and the AAA+ motor of the eukaryotic proteasome. The existence of a subpopulation of dimeric CMGs establishes the subunit register of Mcm2-7 double hexamers and together with the spiral form highlights how Mcm2-7 transitions through different conformational and assembly states as it matures into a functional helicase. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03273.001 PMID:25117490

  11. Sequence-selective binding of C8-conjugated pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) to DNA.

    PubMed

    Basher, Mohammad A; Rahman, Khondaker Miraz; Jackson, Paul J M; Thurston, David E; Fox, Keith R

    2017-11-01

    DNA footprinting and melting experiments have been used to examine the sequence-specific binding of C8-conjugates of pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) and benzofused rings including benzothiophene and benzofuran, which are attached using pyrrole- or imidazole-containing linkers. The conjugates modulate the covalent attachment points of the PBDs, so that they bind best to guanines flanked by A/T-rich sequences on either the 5'- or 3'-side. The linker affects the binding, and pyrrole produces larger changes than imidazole. Melting studies with 14-mer oligonucleotide duplexes confirm covalent attachment of the conjugates, which show a different selectivity to anthramycin and reveal that more than one ligand molecule can bind to each duplex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. DNA binding site characterization by means of Rényi entropy measures on nucleotide transitions.

    PubMed

    Perera, A; Vallverdu, M; Claria, F; Soria, J M; Caminal, P

    2008-06-01

    In this work, parametric information-theory measures for the characterization of binding sites in DNA are extended with the use of transitional probabilities on the sequence. We propose the use of parametric uncertainty measures such as Rényi entropies obtained from the transition probabilities for the study of the binding sites, in addition to nucleotide frequency-based Rényi measures. Results are reported in this work comparing transition frequencies (i.e., dinucleotides) and base frequencies for Shannon and parametric Rényi entropies for a number of binding sites found in E. Coli, lambda and T7 organisms. We observe that the information provided by both approaches is not redundant. Furthermore, under the presence of noise in the binding site matrix we observe overall improved robustness of nucleotide transition-based algorithms when compared with nucleotide frequency-based method.

  13. Cationic polymers for DNA origami coating - examining their binding efficiency and tuning the enzymatic reaction rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiviaho, Jenny K.; Linko, Veikko; Ora, Ari; Tiainen, Tony; Järvihaavisto, Erika; Mikkilä, Joona; Tenhu, Heikki; Nonappa, Affc; Kostiainen, Mauri A.

    2016-06-01

    DNA origamis are fully tailored, programmable, biocompatible and readily functionalizable nanostructures that provide an excellent foundation for the development of sophisticated drug-delivery systems. However, the DNA origami objects suffer from certain drawbacks such as low cell-transfection rates and low stability. A great deal of studies on polymer-based transfection agents, mainly focusing on polyplex formation and toxicity, exists. In this study, the electrostatic binding between a brick-like DNA origami and cationic block-copolymers was explored. The effect of the polymer structure on the binding was investigated and the toxicity of the polymer-origami complexes evaluated. The study shows that all of the analyzed polymers had a suitable binding efficiency irrespective of the block structure. It was also observed that the toxicity of polymer-origami complexes was insignificant at the biologically relevant concentration levels. Besides brick-like DNA origamis, tubular origami carriers equipped with enzymes were also coated with the polymers. By adjusting the amount of cationic polymers that cover the DNA structures, we showed that it is possible to control the enzyme kinetics of the complexes. This work gives a starting point for further development of biocompatible and effective polycation-based block copolymers that can be used in coating different DNA origami nanostructures for various bioapplications.DNA origamis are fully tailored, programmable, biocompatible and readily functionalizable nanostructures that provide an excellent foundation for the development of sophisticated drug-delivery systems. However, the DNA origami objects suffer from certain drawbacks such as low cell-transfection rates and low stability. A great deal of studies on polymer-based transfection agents, mainly focusing on polyplex formation and toxicity, exists. In this study, the electrostatic binding between a brick-like DNA origami and cationic block-copolymers was explored. The

  14. Multiple Intrinsically Disordered Sequences Alter DNA Binding by the Homeodomain of the Drosophila Hox Protein Ultrabithorax*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Matthews, Kathleen S.; Bondos, Sarah E.

    2008-01-01

    During animal development, distinct tissues, organs, and appendages are specified through differential gene transcription by Hox transcription factors. However, the conserved Hox homeodomains bind DNA with high affinity yet low specificity. We have therefore explored the structure of the Drosophila melanogaster Hox protein Ultrabithorax and the impact of its nonhomeodomain regions on DNA binding properties. Computational and experimental approaches identified several conserved, intrinsically disordered regions outside the homeodomain of Ultrabithorax that impact DNA binding by the homeodomain. Full-length Ultrabithorax bound to target DNA 2.5-fold weaker than its isolated homeodomain. Using N-terminal and C-terminal deletion mutants, we demonstrate that the YPWM region and the disordered microexons (termed the I1 region) inhibit DNA binding ∼2-fold, whereas the disordered I2 region inhibits homeodomain-DNA interaction a further ∼40-fold. Binding is restored almost to homeodomain affinity by the mostly disordered N-terminal 174 amino acids (R region) in a length-dependent manner. Both the I2 and R regions contain portions of the activation domain, functionally linking DNA binding and transcription regulation. Given that (i) the I1 region and a portion of the R region alter homeodomain-DNA binding as a function of pH and (ii) an internal deletion within I1 increases Ultrabithorax-DNA affinity, I1 must directly impact homeodomain-DNA interaction energetics. However, I2 appears to indirectly affect DNA binding in a manner countered by the N terminus. The amino acid sequences of I2 and much of the I1 and R regions vary significantly among Ultrabithorax orthologues, potentially diversifying Hox-DNA interactions. PMID:18508761

  15. Thermodynamic Characterization of Binding Oxytricha nova Single Strand Telomere DNA with the Alpha Protein N-terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Buczek, Pawel; Horvath, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    The Oxytricha nova telomere binding protein alpha subunit binds single strand DNA and participates in a nucleoprotein complex that protects the very ends of chromosomes. To understand how the N-terminal, DNA binding domain of alpha interacts with DNA we measured the stoichiometry, enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), and dissociation constant (KD-DNA) for binding telomere DNA fragments at different temperatures and salt concentrations using native gel electrophoresis and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). About 85% of the total free energy of binding corresponded with non-electrostatic interactions for all DNAs. Telomere DNA fragments d(T2G4), d(T4G4), d(G3T4G4), and d(G4T4G4) each formed monovalent protein complexes. In the case of d(T4G4T4G4), which has two tandemly repeated d(TTTTTGGGG) telomere motifs, two binding sites were observed. The high-affinity “A site” has a dissociation constant, KD-DNA(A)=13(±4) nM, while the low-affinity “B site” is characterized by KD-DNA(B)=5600(±600) nM at 25 °C. Nucleotide substitution variants verified that the A site corresponds principally with the 3′-terminal portion of d(T4G4T4G4). The relative contributions of entropy (ΔS) and enthalpy (ΔH) for binding reactions were DNA length-dependent as was heat capacity (ΔCp). These trends with respect to DNA length likely reflect structural transitions in the DNA molecule that are coupled with DNA–protein association. Results presented here are important for understanding early intermediates and subsequent stages in the assembly of the full telomere nucleoprotein complex and how binding events can prepare the telomere DNA for extension by telomerase, a critical event in telomere biology. PMID:16678852

  16. A Colorimetric Microplate Assay for DNA-Binding Activity of His-Tagged MutS Protein.

    PubMed

    Banasik, Michał; Sachadyn, Paweł

    2016-09-01

    A simple microplate method was designed for rapid testing DNA-binding activity of proteins. The principle of the assay involves binding of tested DNA by his-tagged protein immobilized on a nickel-coated ELISA plate, following colorimetric detection of biotinylated DNA with avidin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. The method was used to compare DNA mismatch binding activities of MutS proteins from three bacterial species. The assay required relatively low amounts of tested protein (approximately 0.5-10 pmol) and DNA (0.1-10 pmol) and a relatively short time of analysis (up to 60 min). The method is very simple to apply and convenient to test different buffer conditions of DNA-protein binding. Sensitive colorimetric detection enables naked eye observations and quantitation with an ELISA reader. The performance of the assay, which we believe is a distinguishing trait of the method, is based on two strong and specific molecular interactions: binding of a his-tagged protein to a nickel-coated microplate and binding of biotinylated DNA to avidin. In the reported experiments, the solution was used to optimize the conditions for DNA mismatch binding by MutS protein; however, the approach could be implemented to test nucleic acids interactions with any protein of interest.

  17. MGMT DNA repair gene promoter/enhancer haplotypes alter transcription factor binding and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meixiang; Cross, Courtney E; Speidel, Jordan T; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z

    2016-10-01

    The O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) protein removes O 6 -alkyl-guanine adducts from DNA. MGMT expression can thus alter the sensitivity of cells and tissues to environmental and chemotherapeutic alkylating agents. Previously, we defined the haplotype structure encompassing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MGMT promoter/enhancer (P/E) region and found that haplotypes, rather than individual SNPs, alter MGMT promoter activity. The exact mechanism(s) by which these haplotypes exert their effect on MGMT promoter activity is currently unknown, but we noted that many of the SNPs comprising the MGMT P/E haplotypes are located within or in close proximity to putative transcription factor binding sites. Thus, these haplotypes could potentially affect transcription factor binding and, subsequently, alter MGMT promoter activity. In this study, we test the hypothesis that MGMT P/E haplotypes affect MGMT promoter activity by altering transcription factor (TF) binding to the P/E region. We used a promoter binding TF profiling array and a reporter assay to evaluate the effect of different P/E haplotypes on TF binding and MGMT expression, respectively. Our data revealed a significant difference in TF binding profiles between the different haplotypes evaluated. We identified TFs that consistently showed significant haplotype-dependent binding alterations (p ≤ 0.01) and revealed their role in regulating MGMT expression using siRNAs and a dual-luciferase reporter assay system. The data generated support our hypothesis that promoter haplotypes alter the binding of TFs to the MGMT P/E and, subsequently, affect their regulatory function on MGMT promoter activity and expression level.

  18. PDNAsite: Identification of DNA-binding Site from Protein Sequence by Incorporating Spatial and Sequence Context

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiyun; Xu, Ruifeng; He, Yulan; Lu, Qin; Wang, Hongpeng; Kong, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Protein-DNA interactions are involved in many fundamental biological processes essential for cellular function. Most of the existing computational approaches employed only the sequence context of the target residue for its prediction. In the present study, for each target residue, we applied both the spatial context and the sequence context to construct the feature space. Subsequently, Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) was applied to remove the redundancies in the feature space. Finally, a predictor (PDNAsite) was developed through the integration of the support vector machines (SVM) classifier and ensemble learning. Results on the PDNA-62 and the PDNA-224 datasets demonstrate that features extracted from spatial context provide more information than those from sequence context and the combination of them gives more performance gain. An analysis of the number of binding sites in the spatial context of the target site indicates that the interactions between binding sites next to each other are important for protein-DNA recognition and their binding ability. The comparison between our proposed PDNAsite method and the existing methods indicate that PDNAsite outperforms most of the existing methods and is a useful tool for DNA-binding site identification. A web-server of our predictor (http://hlt.hitsz.edu.cn:8080/PDNAsite/) is made available for free public accessible to the biological research community. PMID:27282833

  19. How Cations Can Assist DNase I in DNA Binding and Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Guéroult, Marc; Picot, Daniel; Abi-Ghanem, Joséphine; Hartmann, Brigitte; Baaden, Marc

    2010-01-01

    DNase I requires Ca2+ and Mg2+ for hydrolyzing double-stranded DNA. However, the number and the location of DNase I ion-binding sites remain unclear, as well as the role of these counter-ions. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that bovine pancreatic (bp) DNase I contains four ion-binding pockets. Two of them strongly bind Ca2+ while the other two sites coordinate Mg2+. These theoretical results are strongly supported by revisiting crystallographic structures that contain bpDNase I. One Ca2+ stabilizes the functional DNase I structure. The presence of Mg2+ in close vicinity to the catalytic pocket of bpDNase I reinforces the idea of a cation-assisted hydrolytic mechanism. Importantly, Poisson-Boltzmann-type electrostatic potential calculations demonstrate that the divalent cations collectively control the electrostatic fit between bpDNase I and DNA. These results improve our understanding of the essential role of cations in the biological function of bpDNase I. The high degree of conservation of the amino acids involved in the identified cation-binding sites across DNase I and DNase I-like proteins from various species suggests that our findings generally apply to all DNase I-DNA interactions. PMID:21124947

  20. DNA-binding studies of a tetraalkyl-substituted porphyrin and the mutually adaptive distortion principle.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Srijana; Fanwick, Phillip E; McMillin, David R

    2014-10-20

    This investigation explores DNA-binding interactions of various forms of an alkyl-substituted cationic porphyrin, H2TC3 (5,10,15,20-tetra[3-(3'-methylimidazolium-1'-yl)]porphyrin). The motivating idea is that incorporating alkyl rather than aryl substituents in the meso positions will enhance the prospects for intercalative as well as external binding to DNA hosts. The ligands may also be applicable for photodynamic and/or anticancer therapy. Methods employed include absorbance, circular dichroism, and emission spectroscopies, as well as viscometry and X-ray crystallography. By comparison with the classical H2T4 system, H2TC3 exhibits a higher molar extinction coefficient but is more prone to self-association. Findings of note include that the copper(II)-containing form Cu(TC3) is adept at internalizing into single-stranded as well as B-form DNA, regardless of the base composition. Surprisingly, however, external binding of H2TC3 occurs within domains that are rich in adenine-thymine base pairs. The difference in the deformability of H2TC3 versus Cu(TC3) probably accounts for the reactivity difference. Finally, Zn(TC3) binds externally, as the metal center remains five-coordinate.

  1. Cdc13 N-Terminal Dimerization DNA Binding and Telomere Length Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    M Mitchell; J Smith; M Mason

    The essential yeast protein Cdc13 facilitates chromosome end replication by recruiting telomerase to telomeres, and together with its interacting partners Stn1 and Ten1, it protects chromosome ends from nucleolytic attack, thus contributing to genome integrity. Although Cdc13 has been studied extensively, the precise role of its N-terminal domain (Cdc13N) in telomere length regulation remains unclear. Here we present a structural, biochemical, and functional characterization of Cdc13N. The structure reveals that this domain comprises an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding (OB) fold and is involved in Cdc13 dimerization. Biochemical data show that Cdc13N weakly binds long, single-stranded, telomeric DNA in a fashion that ismore » directly dependent on domain oligomerization. When introduced into full-length Cdc13 in vivo, point mutations that prevented Cdc13N dimerization or DNA binding caused telomere shortening or lengthening, respectively. The multiple DNA binding domains and dimeric nature of Cdc13 offer unique insights into how it coordinates the recruitment and regulation of telomerase access to the telomeres.« less

  2. CpG methylation increases the DNA binding of 9-aminoacridine carboxamide Pt analogues.

    PubMed

    Kava, Hieronimus W; Murray, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of CpG methylation on the DNA binding of cisplatin analogues with an attached aminoacridine intercalator. DNA-targeted 9-aminoacridine carboxamide Pt complexes are known to bind at 5'-CpG sequences. Their binding to methylated and non-methylated 5'-CpG sequences was determined and compared with cisplatin. The damage profiles of each platinum compound were quantified via a polymerase stop assay with fluorescently labelled primers and capillary electrophoresis. Methylation at 5'-CpG was shown to significantly increase the binding intensity for the 9-aminoacridine carboxamide compounds, whereas no significant increase was found for cisplatin. 5'-CpG methylation had the largest effect on the 9-ethanolamine-acridine carboxamide Pt complex, followed by the 9-aminoacridine carboxamide Pt complex and the 7-fluoro complex. The methylation state of a cell's genome is important in maintaining normal gene expression, and is often aberrantly altered in cancer cells. An analogue of cisplatin which differentially targets methylated DNA may be able to improve its therapeutic activity, or alter its range of targets and evade the chemoresistance which hampers cisplatin efficacy in clinical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structure of p73 DNA-binding domain tetramer modulates p73 transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Ethayathulla, Abdul S.; Tse, Pui-Wah; Monti, Paola; Nguyen, Sonha; Inga, Alberto; Fronza, Gilberto; Viadiu, Hector

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor p73 triggers developmental pathways and overlaps stress-induced p53 transcriptional pathways. How p53-family response elements determine and regulate transcriptional specificity remains an unsolved problem. In this work, we have determined the first crystal structures of p73 DNA-binding domain tetramer bound to response elements with spacers of different length. The structure and function of the adaptable tetramer are determined by the distance between two half-sites. The structures with zero and one base-pair spacers show compact p73 DNA-binding domain tetramers with large tetramerization interfaces; a two base-pair spacer results in DNA unwinding and a smaller tetramerization interface, whereas a four base-pair spacer hinders tetramerization. Functionally, p73 is more sensitive to spacer length than p53, with one base-pair spacer reducing 90% of transactivation activity and longer spacers reducing transactivation to basal levels. Our results establish the quaternary structure of the p73 DNA-binding domain required as a scaffold to promote transactivation. PMID:22474346

  4. Design, synthesis and DNA-binding study of some novel morpholine linked thiazolidinone derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    War, Javeed Ahmad; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar; Srivastava, Savitri Devi

    2017-02-01

    The emergence of multiple drug resistance amongst bacterial strains resulted in many clinical drugs to be ineffective. Being vulnerable to bacterial infections any lack in the development of new antimicrobial drugs could pose a serious threat to public health. Here we report design and synthesis of a novel class of morpholine linked thiazolidinone hybrid molecules. The compounds were characterized by FT-IR, NMR and HRMS techniques. Susceptibility tests showed that most of the synthesized molecules were highly active against multiple bacterial strains. Compound 3f displayed MIC values which were better than the standard drug for most of the tested strains. DNA being a well defined target for many antimicrobial drugs was probed as possible target for these synthetic molecules. DNA-binding study of 3f with sm-DNA was probed through UV-vis absorption, fluorescence quenching, gel electrophoresis and molecular docking techniques. The studies revealed that compound 3f has strong affinity towards DNA and binds at the minor groove. The docking studies revealed that the compound 3f shows preferential binding towards A/T residues.

  5. Design, synthesis and DNA-binding study of some novel morpholine linked thiazolidinone derivatives.

    PubMed

    War, Javeed Ahmad; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar; Srivastava, Savitri Devi

    2017-02-15

    The emergence of multiple drug resistance amongst bacterial strains resulted in many clinical drugs to be ineffective. Being vulnerable to bacterial infections any lack in the development of new antimicrobial drugs could pose a serious threat to public health. Here we report design and synthesis of a novel class of morpholine linked thiazolidinone hybrid molecules. The compounds were characterized by FT-IR, NMR and HRMS techniques. Susceptibility tests showed that most of the synthesized molecules were highly active against multiple bacterial strains. Compound 3f displayed MIC values which were better than the standard drug for most of the tested strains. DNA being a well defined target for many antimicrobial drugs was probed as possible target for these synthetic molecules. DNA-binding study of 3f with sm-DNA was probed through UV-vis absorption, fluorescence quenching, gel electrophoresis and molecular docking techniques. The studies revealed that compound 3f has strong affinity towards DNA and binds at the minor groove. The docking studies revealed that the compound 3f shows preferential binding towards A/T residues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Predicting the binding preference of transcription factors to individual DNA k-mers.

    PubMed

    Alleyne, Trevis M; Peña-Castillo, Lourdes; Badis, Gwenael; Talukder, Shaheynoor; Berger, Michael F; Gehrke, Andrew R; Philippakis, Anthony A; Bulyk, Martha L; Morris, Quaid D; Hughes, Timothy R

    2009-04-15

    Recognition of specific DNA sequences is a central mechanism by which transcription factors (TFs) control gene expression. Many TF-binding preferences, however, are unknown or poorly characterized, in part due to the difficulty associated with determining their specificity experimentally, and an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms governing sequence specificity. New techniques that estimate the affinity of TFs to all possible k-mers provide a new opportunity to study DNA-protein interaction mechanisms, and may facilitate inference of binding preferences for members of a given TF family when such information is available for other family members. We employed a new dataset consisting of the relative preferences of mouse homeodomains for all eight-base DNA sequences in order to ask how well we can predict the binding profiles of homeodomains when only their protein sequences are given. We evaluated a panel of standard statistical inference techniques, as well as variations of the protein features considered. Nearest neighbour among functionally important residues emerged among the most effective methods. Our results underscore the complexity of TF-DNA recognition, and suggest a rational approach for future analyses of TF families.

  7. Genome-wide profiling of DNA-binding proteins using barcode-based multiplex Solexa sequencing.

    PubMed

    Raghav, Sunil Kumar; Deplancke, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a commonly used technique to detect the in vivo binding of proteins to DNA. ChIP is now routinely paired to microarray analysis (ChIP-chip) or next-generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to profile the DNA occupancy of proteins of interest on a genome-wide level. Because ChIP-chip introduces several biases, most notably due to the use of a fixed number of probes, ChIP-Seq has quickly become the method of choice as, depending on the sequencing depth, it is more sensitive, quantitative, and provides a greater binding site location resolution. With the ever increasing number of reads that can be generated per sequencing run, it has now become possible to analyze several samples simultaneously while maintaining sufficient sequence coverage, thus significantly reducing the cost per ChIP-Seq experiment. In this chapter, we provide a step-by-step guide on how to perform multiplexed ChIP-Seq analyses. As a proof-of-concept, we focus on the genome-wide profiling of RNA Polymerase II as measuring its DNA occupancy at different stages of any biological process can provide insights into the gene regulatory mechanisms involved. However, the protocol can also be used to perform multiplexed ChIP-Seq analyses of other DNA-binding proteins such as chromatin modifiers and transcription factors.

  8. DNA binding triggers tetramerization of the glucocorticoid receptor in live cells

    PubMed Central

    Presman, Diego M.; Ganguly, Sourav; Schiltz, R. Louis; Johnson, Thomas A.; Karpova, Tatiana S.; Hager, Gordon L.

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors dynamically bind to chromatin and are essential for the regulation of genes. Although a large percentage of these proteins appear to self-associate to form dimers or higher order oligomers, the stoichiometry of DNA-bound transcription factors has been poorly characterized in vivo. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a ligand-regulated transcription factor widely believed to act as a dimer or a monomer. Using a unique set of imaging techniques coupled with a cell line containing an array of DNA binding elements, we show that GR is predominantly a tetramer when bound to its target DNA. We find that DNA binding triggers an interdomain allosteric regulation within the GR, leading to tetramerization. We therefore propose that dynamic changes in GR stoichiometry represent a previously unidentified level of regulation in steroid receptor activation. Quaternary structure analysis of other members of the steroid receptor family (estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors) reveals variation in oligomerization states among this family of transcription factors. Because GR’s oligomerization state has been implicated in therapy outcome, our findings open new doors to the rational design of novel GR ligands and redefine the quaternary structure of steroid receptors. PMID:27382178

  9. Circadian clock protein KaiC forms ATP-dependent hexameric rings and binds DNA.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tetsuya; Saveliev, Sergei V; Xu, Yao; Stafford, Walter F; Cox, Michael M; Inman, Ross B; Johnson, Carl H

    2002-12-24

    KaiC from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 (KaiC) is an essential circadian clock protein in cyanobacteria. Previous sequence analyses suggested its inclusion in the RecADnaB superfamily. A characteristic of the proteins of this superfamily is that they form homohexameric complexes that bind DNA. We show here that KaiC also forms ring complexes with a central pore that can be visualized by electron microscopy. A combination of analytical ultracentrifugation and chromatographic analyses demonstrates that these complexes are hexameric. The association of KaiC molecules into hexamers depends on the presence of ATP. The KaiC sequence does not include the obvious DNA-binding motifs found in RecA or DnaB. Nevertheless, KaiC binds forked DNA substrates. These data support the inclusion of KaiC into the RecADnaB superfamily and have important implications for enzymatic activity of KaiC in the circadian clock mechanism that regulates global changes in gene expression patterns.

  10. Tunable regulation of CREB DNA binding activity couples genotoxic stress response and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Hwa; Trinh, Anthony T.; Larsen, Michele Campaigne; Mastrocola, Adam S.; Jefcoate, Colin R.; Bushel, Pierre R.; Tibbetts, Randal S.

    2016-01-01

    cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is a key regulator of glucose metabolism and synaptic plasticity that is canonically regulated through recruitment of transcriptional coactivators. Here we show that phosphorylation of CREB on a conserved cluster of Ser residues (the ATM/CK cluster) by the DNA damage-activated protein kinase ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and casein kinase1 (CK1) and casein kinase2 (CK2) positively and negatively regulates CREB-mediated transcription in a signal dependent manner. In response to genotoxic stress, phosphorylation of the ATM/CK cluster inhibited CREB-mediated gene expression, DNA binding activity and chromatin occupancy proportional to the number of modified Ser residues. Paradoxically, substoichiometric, ATM-independent, phosphorylation of the ATM/CK cluster potentiated bursts in CREB-mediated transcription by promoting recruitment of the CREB coactivator, cAMP-regulated transcriptional coactivators (CRTC2). Livers from mice expressing a non-phosphorylatable CREB allele failed to attenuate gluconeogenic genes in response to DNA damage or fully activate the same genes in response to glucagon. We propose that phosphorylation-dependent regulation of DNA binding activity evolved as a tunable mechanism to control CREB transcriptional output and promote metabolic homeostasis in response to rapidly changing environmental conditions. PMID:27431323

  11. Single-Molecule Counting of Point Mutations by Transient DNA Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xin; Li, Lidan; Wang, Shanshan; Hao, Dandan; Wang, Lei; Yu, Changyuan

    2017-03-01

    High-confidence detection of point mutations is important for disease diagnosis and clinical practice. Hybridization probes are extensively used, but are hindered by their poor single-nucleotide selectivity. Shortening the length of DNA hybridization probes weakens the stability of the probe-target duplex, leading to transient binding between complementary sequences. The kinetics of probe-target binding events are highly dependent on the number of complementary base pairs. Here, we present a single-molecule assay for point mutation detection based on transient DNA binding and use of total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Statistical analysis of single-molecule kinetics enabled us to effectively discriminate between wild type DNA sequences and single-nucleotide variants at the single-molecule level. A higher single-nucleotide discrimination is achieved than in our previous work by optimizing the assay conditions, which is guided by statistical modeling of kinetics with a gamma distribution. The KRAS c.34 A mutation can be clearly differentiated from the wild type sequence (KRAS c.34 G) at a relative abundance as low as 0.01% mutant to WT. To demonstrate the feasibility of this method for analysis of clinically relevant biological samples, we used this technology to detect mutations in single-stranded DNA generated from asymmetric RT-PCR of mRNA from two cancer cell lines.

  12. Predicting DNA binding proteins using support vector machine with hybrid fractal features.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiao-Hui; Hu, Xue-Hai; Shi, Feng; Xia, Jing-Bo

    2014-02-21

    DNA-binding proteins play a vitally important role in many biological processes. Prediction of DNA-binding proteins from amino acid sequence is a significant but not fairly resolved scientific problem. Chaos game representation (CGR) investigates the patterns hidden in protein sequences, and visually reveals previously unknown structure. Fractal dimensions (FD) are good tools to measure sizes of complex, highly irregular geometric objects. In order to extract the intrinsic correlation with DNA-binding property from protein sequences, CGR algorithm, fractal dimension and amino acid composition are applied to formulate the numerical features of protein samples in this paper. Seven groups of features are extracted, which can be computed directly from the primary sequence, and each group is evaluated by the 10-fold cross-validation test and Jackknife test. Comparing the results of numerical experiments, the group of amino acid composition and fractal dimension (21-dimension vector) gets the best result, the average accuracy is 81.82% and average Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) is 0.6017. This resulting predictor is also compared with existing method DNA-Prot and shows better performances. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of point substitutions within the minimal DNA-binding domain of xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein on interaction with DNA intermediates of nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Maltseva, E A; Krasikova, Y S; Naegeli, H; Lavrik, O I; Rechkunova, N I

    2014-06-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum factor A (XPA) is one of the key proteins in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) process. The effects of point substitutions in the DNA-binding domain of XPA (positively charged lysine residues replaced by negatively charged glutamate residues: XPA K204E, K179E, K141E, and tandem mutant K141E/K179E) on the interaction of the protein with DNA structures modeling intermediates of the damage recognition and pre-incision stages in NER were analyzed. All these mutations decreased the affinity of the protein to DNA, the effect depending on the substitution and the DNA structure. The mutant as well as wild-type proteins bind with highest efficiency partly open damaged DNA duplex, and the affinity of the mutants to this DNA is reduced in the order: K204E > K179E > K141E = K141/179E. For all the mutants, decrease in DNA binding efficiency was more pronounced in the case of full duplex and single-stranded DNA than with bubble-DNA structure, the difference between protein affinities to different DNA structures increasing as DNA binding activity of the mutant decreased. No effect of the studied XPA mutations on the location of the protein on the partially open DNA duplex was observed using photoinduced crosslinking with 5-I-dUMP in different positions of the damaged DNA strand. These results combined with earlier published data suggest no direct correlation between DNA binding and activity in NER for these XPA mutants.

  14. DNA Nanostructures as Models for Evaluating the Role of Enthalpy and Entropy in Polyvalent Binding

    PubMed Central

    Nangreave, Jeanette; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2011-01-01

    DNA nanotechnology allows the design and construction of nano-scale objects that have finely tuned dimensions, orientation, and structure with remarkable ease and convenience. Synthetic DNA nanostructures can be precisely engineered to model a variety of molecules and systems, providing the opportunity to probe very subtle biophysical phenomena. In this study, several such synthetic DNA nanostructures were designed to serve as models to study the binding behavior of polyvalent molecules and gain insight into how small changes to the ligand/receptor scaffolds, intended to vary their conformational flexibility, will affect their association equilibrium. This approach has yielded a quantitative identification of the roles of enthalpy and entropy in the affinity of polyvalent DNA nanostructure interactions, which exhibit an intriguing compensating effect. PMID:21381740

  15. Oxidation of a critical methionine modulates DNA binding of the Drosophila melanogaster high mobility group protein, HMG-D.

    PubMed

    Dow, L K; Changela, A; Hefner, H E; Churchill, M E

    1997-09-15

    HMG-D is a major high mobility group chromosomal protein present during early embryogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. During overexpression and purification of HMG-D from E. coli, a key DNA binding residue, methionine 13, undergoes oxidation to methionine sulfoxide. Oxidation of this critical residue decreases the affinity of HMG-D for DNA by three-fold, altering the structure of the HMG-D-DNA complex without affecting the structure of the free protein. This work shows that minor modification of DNA intercalating residues may be used to fine tune the DNA binding affinity of HMG domain proteins.

  16. Cross-talk between the ligand- and DNA-binding domains of estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Greene, Geoffrey L; Ravikumar, Krishnakumar M; Yang, Sichun

    2013-11-01

    Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is a hormone-responsive transcription factor that contains several discrete functional domains, including a ligand-binding domain (LBD) and a DNA-binding domain (DBD). Despite a wealth of knowledge about the behaviors of individual domains, the molecular mechanisms of cross-talk between LBD and DBD during signal transduction from hormone to DNA-binding of ERα remain elusive. Here, we apply a multiscale approach combining coarse-grained (CG) and atomistically detailed simulations to characterize this cross-talk mechanism via an investigation of the ERα conformational landscape. First, a CG model of ERα is built based on crystal structures of individual LBDs and DBDs, with more emphasis on their interdomain interactions. Second, molecular dynamics simulations are implemented and enhanced sampling is achieved via the "push-pull-release" strategy in the search for different LBD-DBD orientations. Third, multiple energetically stable ERα conformations are identified on the landscape. A key finding is that estradiol-bound LBDs utilize the well-described activation helix H12 to pack and stabilize LBD-DBD interactions. Our results suggest that the estradiol-bound LBDs can serve as a scaffold to position and stabilize the DBD-DNA complex, consistent with experimental observations of enhanced DNA binding with the LBD. Final assessment using atomic-level simulations shows that these CG-predicted models are significantly stable within a 15-ns simulation window and that specific pairs of lysine residues in close proximity at the domain interfaces could serve as candidate sites for chemical cross-linking studies. Together, these simulation results provide a molecular view of the role of ERα domain interactions in response to hormone binding. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. In vitro selection of zinc fingers with altered DNA-binding specificity.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, A C; Kim, S H; Wells, J A

    1994-05-17

    We have used random mutagenesis and phage display to alter the DNA-binding specificity of Zif268, a transcription factor that contains three zinc finger domains. Four residues in the helix of finger 1 of Zif268 that potentially mediate DNA binding were identified from an X-ray structure of the Zif268-DNA complex. A library was constructed in which these residues were randomly mutated and the Zif268 variants were fused to a truncated version of the gene III coat protein on the surface of M13 filamentous phage particles. The phage displayed the mutant proteins in a monovalent fashion and were sorted by repeated binding and elution from affinity matrices containing different DNA sequences. When the matrix contained the natural nine base pair operator sequence 5'-GCG-TGG-GCG-3', native-like zinc fingers were isolated. New finger 1 variants were found by sorting with two different operators in which the singly modified triplets, GTG and TCG, replaced the native finger 1 triplet, GCG. Overall, the selected finger 1 variants contained a preponderance of polar residues at the four sites. Interestingly, the net charge of the four residues in any selected finger never derived more that one unit from neutrality despite the fact that about half the variants contained three or four charged residues over the four sites. Measurements of the dissociation constants for two of these purified finger 1 variants by gel-shift assay showed their specificities to vary over a 10-fold range, with the greatest affinity being for the DNA binding site for which they were sorted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Synthesis, characterization, DNA-binding and cleavage studies of polypyridyl copper(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubendran, Ammavasi; Rajesh, Jegathalaprathaban; Anitha, Kandasamy; Athappan, Periyakaruppan

    2014-10-01

    Six new mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes were synthesized namely [Cu(phen)2OAc]ClO4ṡH2O(1), [Cu(bpy)2OAc]ClO4ṡH2O(2), [Cu(o-ampacac)(phen)]ClO4(3), [Cu(o-ampbzac)(phen)]ClO4(4), [Cu(o-ampacac)(bpy)]ClO4(5), and [Cu(o-ampbzac)(bpy)]ClO4(6) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bpy = 2, 2‧-bipyridine, o-ampacac = (Z)-4-(2-hydroxylamino)pent-3-ene-2-one,o-ampbzac = (Z)-4-(2-hydroxylamino)-4-phenylbut-3-ene-2-one)and characterized by UV-Vis, IR, EPR and cyclic voltammetry. Ligands were characterized by NMR spectra. Single crystal X-ray studies of the complex 1 shows Cu(II) ions are located in a highly distorted octahedral environment. Absorption spectral studies reveal that the complexes 1-6 exhibit hypochromicity during the interaction with DNA and binding constant values derived from spectral and electrochemical studies indicate that complexes 1, 2 and 3 bind strongly with DNA possibly by an intercalative mode. Electrochemical studies reveal that the complexes 1-4 prefer to bind with DNA in Cu(I) rather than Cu(II) form. The shift in the formal potentials E1/2 and CD spectral studies suggest groove or electrostatic binding mode for the complexes 4-6. Complex 1 can cleave supercoiled (SC) pUC18 DNA efficiently into nicked form II under photolytic conditions and into an open circular form (form II) and linear form (form III) in the presence of H2O2 at pH 8.0 and 37 °C, while the complex 2 does not cleave DNA under similar conditions.

  19. Assembly Architecture and DNA Binding of the Bacteriophage P22 Terminase Small Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Němeček, Daniel; Lander, Gabriel C.; Johnson, John E.; Casjens, Sherwood R.; Thomas, George J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Morphogenesis of bacteriophage P22 involves the packaging of double-stranded DNA into a preassembled procapsid. DNA is translocated by a powerful virally-encoded molecular motor called terminase, which comprises large (gp2, 499 residues) and small (gp3, 162 residues) subunits. While gp2 contains the phosphohydrolase and endonuclease activities of terminase, the function of gp3 may be to regulate specific and nonspecific modes of DNA recognition as well as the enzymatic activities of gp2. Electron microscopy shows that wildtype gp3 self-assembles into a stable and monodisperse nonameric ring. A three-dimensional reconstruction at 18 Å resolution provides the first glimpse of P22 terminase architecture and implies two distinct modes of interaction with DNA – involving a central channel of 20 Å diameter and radial spikes separated by 34 Å. Electromobility shift assays indicate that the gp3 ring binds dsDNA nonspecifically in vitro via electrostatic interactions between the positively charged C-terminus of gp3 (residues 143–152) and phosphates of the DNA backbone. Raman spectra show that nonameric rings formed by subunits truncated at residue 142 retain the subunit fold, despite the loss of DNA-binding activity. Difference density maps between gp3 rings containing full-length and C-terminally truncated subunits are consistent with localization of residues 143–152 along the central channel of the nonameric ring. The results suggest a plausible molecular mechanism for gp3 function in DNA recognition and translocation. PMID:18775728

  20. Loop L1 governs the DNA-binding specificity and order for RecA-catalyzed reactions in homologous recombination and DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Takeshi; Ikawa, Shukuko; Iwasaki, Wakana; Hiraki, Toshiki; Hikima, Takaaki; Mikawa, Tsutomu; Arai, Naoto; Kamiya, Nobuo; Shibata, Takehiko

    2015-01-01

    In all organisms, RecA-family recombinases catalyze homologous joint formation in homologous genetic recombination, which is essential for genome stability and diversification. In homologous joint formation, ATP-bound RecA/Rad51-recombinases first bind single-stranded DNA at its primary site and then interact with double-stranded DNA at another site. The underlying reason and the regulatory mechanism for this conserved binding order remain unknown. A comparison of the loop L1 structures in a DNA-free RecA crystal that we originally determined and in the reported DNA-bound active RecA crystals suggested that the aspartate at position 161 in loop L1 in DNA-free RecA prevented double-stranded, but not single-stranded, DNA-binding to the primary site. This was confirmed by the effects of the Ala-replacement of Asp-161 (D161A), analyzed directly by gel-mobility shift assays and indirectly by DNA-dependent ATPase activity and SOS repressor cleavage. When RecA/Rad51-recombinases interact with double-stranded DNA before single-stranded DNA, homologous joint-formation is suppressed, likely by forming a dead-end product. We found that the D161A-replacement reduced this suppression, probably by allowing double-stranded DNA to bind preferentially and reversibly to the primary site. Thus, Asp-161 in the flexible loop L1 of wild-type RecA determines the preference for single-stranded DNA-binding to the primary site and regulates the DNA-binding order in RecA-catalyzed recombinase reactions. PMID:25561575

  1. NF-κB DNA-binding activity in embryos responding to a teratogen, cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Torchinsky, Arkady; Lishanski, Lucy; Wolstein, Orit; Shepshelovich, Jeanne; Orenstein, Hasida; Savion, Shoshana; Zaslavsky, Zeev; Carp, Howard; Brill, Alexander; Dikstein, Rivka; Toder, Vladimir; Fein, Amos

    2002-01-01

    Background The Rel/NF-κB transcription factors have been shown to regulate apoptosis in different cell types, acting as inducers or blockers in a stimuli- and cell type-dependent fashion. One of the Rel/NF-κB subunits, RelA, has been shown to be crucial for normal embryonic development, in which it functions in the embryonic liver as a protector against TNFα-induced physiological apoptosis. This study assesses whether NF-κB may be involved in the embryo's response to teratogens. Fot this, we evaluated how NF-KappaB DNA binding activity in embryonic organs demonstraiting differential sensitivity to a reference teratogen, cyclophosphamide, correlates with dysmorphic events induced by the teratogen at the cellular level (excessive apoptosis) and at the organ level (structural anomalies). Results The embryonic brain and liver were used as target organs. We observed that the Cyclophosphamide-induced excessive apoptosis in the brain, followed by the formation of severe craniofacial structural anomalies, was accompanied by suppression of NF-κB DNA-binding activity as well as by a significant and lasting increase in the activity of caspases 3 and 8. However, in the liver, in which cyclophosphamide induced transient apoptosis was not followed by dysmorphogenesis, no suppression of NF-κB DNA-binding activity was registered and the level of active caspases 3 and 8 was significantly lower than in the brain. It has also been observed that both the brain and liver became much more sensitive to the CP-induced teratogenic insult if the embryos were exposed to a combined treatment with the teratogen and sodium salicylate that suppressed NF-κB DNA-binding activity in these organs. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that suppression of NF-κB DNA-binding activity in embryos responding to the teratogenic insult may be associated with their decreased resistance to this insult. They also suggest that teratogens may suppress NF-κB DNA-binding activity in the

  2. Recognition and Binding of Human Telomeric G-Quadruplex DNA by Unfolding Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The specific recognition by proteins of G-quadruplex structures provides evidence of a functional role for in vivo G-quadruplex structures. As previously reported, the ribonucleoprotein, hnRNP Al, and it is proteolytic derivative, unwinding protein 1 (UP1), bind to and destabilize G-quadruplex structures formed by the human telomeric repeat d(TTAGGG)n. UP1 has been proposed to be involved in the recruitment of telomerase to telomeres for chain extension. In this study, a detailed thermodynamic characterization of the binding of UP1 to a human telomeric repeat sequence, the d[AGGG(TTAGGG)3] G-quadruplex, is presented and reveals key insights into the UP1-induced unfolding of the G-quadruplex structure. The UP1–G-quadruplex interactions are shown to be enthalpically driven, exhibiting large negative enthalpy changes for the formation of both the Na+ and K+ G-quadruplex–UP1 complexes (ΔH values of −43 and −19 kcal/mol, respectively). These data reveal three distinct enthalpic contributions from the interactions of UP1 with the Na+ form of G-quadruplex DNA. The initial interaction is characterized by a binding affinity of 8.5 × 108 M–1 (strand), 200 times stronger than the binding of UP1 to a single-stranded DNA with a comparable but non-quadruplex-forming sequence [4.1 × 106 M–1 (strand)]. Circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals the Na+ form of the G-quadruplex to be completely unfolded by UP1 at a binding ratio of 2:1 (UP1:G-quadruplex DNA). The data presented here demonstrate that the favorable energetics of the initial binding event are closely coupled with and drive the unfolding of the G-quadruplex structure. PMID:24831962

  3. A fractal analysis of protein to DNA binding kinetics using biosensors.

    PubMed

    Sadana, Ajit

    2003-08-01

    A fractal analysis of a confirmative nature only is presented for the binding of estrogen receptor (ER) in solution to its corresponding DNA (estrogen response element, ERE) immobilized on a sensor chip surface [J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 11384], and for the cooperative binding of human 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) receptor (VDR) to DNA with the 9-cis-retinoic acid receptor (RXR) [Biochemistry 35 (1996) 3309]. Ligands were also used to modulate the first reaction. Data taken from the literature may be modeled by using a single- or a dual-fractal analysis. Relationships are presented for the binding rate coefficient as a function of either the analyte concentration in solution or the fractal dimension that exists on the biosensor surface. The binding rate expressions developed exhibit a wide range of dependence on the degree of heterogeneity that exists on the surface, ranging from sensitive (order of dependence equal to 1.202) to very sensitive (order of dependence equal to 12.239). In general, the binding rate coefficient increases as the degree of heterogeneity or the fractal dimension of the surface increases. The predictive relationships presented provide further physical insights into the reactions occurring on the biosensor surface. Even though these reactions are occurring on the biosensor surface, the relationships presented should assist in understanding and in possibly manipulating the reactions occurring on cellular surfaces.

  4. Spectroscopic profiling and computational study of the binding of tschimgine: A natural monoterpene derivative, with calf thymus DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajeh, Masoumeh Ashrafi; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Dastmalchi, Siavoush; Shaghaghi, Masoomeh; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2018-03-01

    DNA is a major target for a number of anticancer substances. Interaction studies between small molecules and DNA are essential for rational drug designing to influence main biological processes and also introducing new probes for the assay of DNA. Tschimgine (TMG) is a monoterpene derivative with anticancer properties. In the present study we tried to elucidate the interaction of TMG with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) using different spectroscopic methods. UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies as well as molecular docking study revealed formation of complex between TMG and CT-DNA. Binding constant (Kb) between TMG and DNA was 2.27 × 104 M- 1, that is comparable to groove binding agents. The fluorescence spectroscopic data revealed that the quenching mechanism of fluorescence of TMG by CT-DNA is static quenching. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH < 0 and ΔS < 0) at different temperatures indicated that van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds were involved in the binding process of TMG with CT-DNA. Competitive binding assay with methylene blue (MB) and Hoechst 33258 using fluorescence spectroscopy displayed that TMG possibly binds to the minor groove of CT-DNA. These observations were further confirmed by CD spectral analysis, viscosity measurements and molecular docking.

  5. Spectroscopic profiling and computational study of the binding of tschimgine: A natural monoterpene derivative, with calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Khajeh, Masoumeh Ashrafi; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Dastmalchi, Siavoush; Shaghaghi, Masoomeh; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2018-03-05

    DNA is a major target for a number of anticancer substances. Interaction studies between small molecules and DNA are essential for rational drug designing to influence main biological processes and also introducing new probes for the assay of DNA. Tschimgine (TMG) is a monoterpene derivative with anticancer properties. In the present study we tried to elucidate the interaction of TMG with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) using different spectroscopic methods. UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies as well as molecular docking study revealed formation of complex between TMG and CT-DNA. Binding constant (K b ) between TMG and DNA was 2.27×10 4 M -1 , that is comparable to groove binding agents. The fluorescence spectroscopic data revealed that the quenching mechanism of fluorescence of TMG by CT-DNA is static quenching. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH<0 and ΔS<0) at different temperatures indicated that van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds were involved in the binding process of TMG with CT-DNA. Competitive binding assay with methylene blue (MB) and Hoechst 33258 using fluorescence spectroscopy displayed that TMG possibly binds to the minor groove of CT-DNA. These observations were further confirmed by CD spectral analysis, viscosity measurements and molecular docking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Active Site Mutations on Specificity of Nucleobase Binding in Human DNA Polymerase η

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Human DNA polymerase η (Pol η) plays a vital role in protection against skin cancer caused by damage from ultraviolet light. This enzyme rescues stalled replication forks at cyclobutane thymine–thymine dimers (TTDs) by inserting nucleotides opposite these DNA lesions. Residue R61 is conserved in the Pol η enzymes across species, but the corresponding residue, as well as its neighbor S62, is different in other Y-family polymerases, Pol ι and Pol κ. Herein, R61 and S62 are mutated to their Pol ι and Pol κ counterparts. Relative binding free energies of dATP to mutant Pol η•DNA complexes with and without a TTD were calculated using thermodynamic integration. The binding free energies of dATP to the Pol η•DNA complex with and without a TTD are more similar for all of these mutants than for wild-type Pol η, suggesting that these mutations decrease the ability of this enzyme to distinguish between a TTD lesion and undamaged DNA. Molecular dynamics simulations of the mutant systems provide insights into the molecular level basis for the changes in relative binding free energies. The simulations identified differences in hydrogen-bonding, cation−π, and π–π interactions of the side chains with the dATP and the TTD or thymine–thymine (TT) motif. The simulations also revealed that R61 and Q38 act as a clamp to position the dATP and the TTD or TT and that the mutations impact the balance among the interactions related to this clamp. Overall, these calculations suggest that R61 and S62 play key roles in the specificity and effectiveness of Pol η for bypassing TTD lesions during DNA replication. Understanding the basis for this specificity is important for designing drugs aimed at cancer treatment. PMID:28423907

  7. Effects of Active Site Mutations on Specificity of Nucleobase Binding in Human DNA Polymerase η.

    PubMed

    Ucisik, Melek N; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2017-04-20

    Human DNA polymerase η (Pol η) plays a vital role in protection against skin cancer caused by damage from ultraviolet light. This enzyme rescues stalled replication forks at cyclobutane thymine-thymine dimers (TTDs) by inserting nucleotides opposite these DNA lesions. Residue R61 is conserved in the Pol η enzymes across species, but the corresponding residue, as well as its neighbor S62, is different in other Y-family polymerases, Pol ι and Pol κ. Herein, R61 and S62 are mutated to their Pol ι and Pol κ counterparts. Relative binding free energies of dATP to mutant Pol η•DNA complexes with and without a TTD were calculated using thermodynamic integration. The binding free energies of dATP to the Pol η•DNA complex with and without a TTD are more similar for all of these mutants than for wild-type Pol η, suggesting that these mutations decrease the ability of this enzyme to distinguish between a TTD lesion and undamaged DNA. Molecular dynamics simulations of the mutant systems provide insights into the molecular level basis for the changes in relative binding free energies. The simulations identified differences in hydrogen-bonding, cation-π, and π-π interactions of the side chains with the dATP and the TTD or thymine-thymine (TT) motif. The simulations also revealed that R61 and Q38 act as a clamp to position the dATP and the TTD or TT and that the mutations impact the balance among the interactions related to this clamp. Overall, these calculations suggest that R61 and S62 play key roles in the specificity and effectiveness of Pol η for bypassing TTD lesions during DNA replication. Understanding the basis for this specificity is important for designing drugs aimed at cancer treatment.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and DNA-binding studies of transition metal hydrazone complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanchanadevi, S.; Parveen, S.; Mahalingam, V.

    2018-04-01

    Three new complexes containing salicylaldazine (HL) ligand were synthesised by reacting suitable precursor complex [MCl2(PPh3)2] with the ligand (where M = Cu(II) or Ni(II) or Co(II)). The new complexes were characterised by various spectral studies such as IR, UV-Vis,1H NMR,EPR,fluorescence and elemental analyses. The binding modes of the complexes with HS-DNA have been studied by UV-Vis absorption titration. Binding of the complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein has been investigated using UV-visible, fluorescence and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic methods. Redox behaviour of the complexes has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry.

  9. Isoquinoline alkaloids and their binding with DNA: calorimetry and thermal analysis applications.

    PubMed

    Bhadra, Kakali; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2010-11-01

    Alkaloids are a group of natural products with unmatched chemical diversity and biological relevance forming potential quality pools in drug screening. The molecular aspects of their interaction with many cellular macromolecules like DNA, RNA and proteins are being currently investigated in order to evolve the structure activity relationship. Isoquinolines constitute an important group of alkaloids. They have extensive utility in cancer therapy and a large volume of data is now emerging in the literature on their mode, mechanism and specificity of binding to DNA. Thermodynamic characterization of the binding of these alkaloids to DNA may offer key insights into the molecular aspects that drive complex formation and these data can provide valuable information about the balance of driving forces. Various thermal techniques have been conveniently used for this purpose and modern calorimetric instrumentation provides direct and quick estimation of thermodynamic parameters. Thermal melting studies and calorimetric techniques like isothermal titration calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry have further advanced the field by providing authentic, reliable and sensitive data on various aspects of temperature dependent structural analysis of the interaction. In this review we present the application of various thermal techniques, viz. isothermal titration calorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and optical melting studies in the characterization of drug-DNA interactions with particular emphasis on isoquinoline alkaloid-DNA interaction.

  10. Progressing single biomolecule force spectroscopy measurements for the screening of DNA binding agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenke; Barbagallo, Romina; Madden, Claire; Roberts, Clive J.; Woolford, Alison; Allen, Stephanie

    2005-10-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the force-extension properties of single molecules of double stranded (ds) DNA are sensitive to the presence of small molecule DNA binding agents, and also to their mode of binding. These observations raise the possibility of using this approach as a highly sensitive tool for the screening of such agents. However, particularly for studies employing the atomic force microscope (AFM), several non-trivial barriers hinder the progress of this approach to the non-specialist arena and hence also the full realization of this possibility. In this paper, we therefore address a series of key reproducibility and metrological issues associated with this type of measurement. Specifically, we present an improved immobilization method that covalently anchors one end (5' end) of a dual labelled (5'-thiol, 3'-biotin) p53 DNA molecule onto a gold substrate via gold-thiol chemistry, whilst the biotinylated 3' end is available for 'pick-up' using a streptavidin modified AFM tip. We also show that co-surface immobilization of DNA with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MCH) can also lead to a further increase the measured contour length. We demonstrate the impact of these improved protocols through the observation of the cooperative transition plateau in a DNA fragment of approximately 118 bp, a significantly smaller fragment than previously investigated. The results of a comparative study of the effects of a model minor groove binder (Hoechst 33258) and an intercalating drug (proflavine), alone, as a mixture and under different buffer conditions, are also presented.

  11. A glass fiber/diethylaminoethyl double filter binding assay that measures apoptotic internucleosomal DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Erusalimsky, J D; John, J; Hong, Y; Moore, M

    1996-11-15

    A filter binding assay that measures internucleosomal DNA fragmentation associated with apoptosis is described. The assay is based on a novel principle that consists of using simultaneously two kinds of glass fiber filters to harvest [3H]thymidine-prelabeled cells following their incubation with inducers of apoptosis. One filter, which is neutral, traps intact chromatin and high-molecular-weight DNA. The other filter, which is positively charged with DEAE active groups, traps low-molecular-weight DNA fragments. DNA fragmentation is quantified by measuring the radioactivity retained by each of the filters. The assay was evaluated with the histiocytic lymphoma cell line U937 and the topoisomerase inhibitors camptothecin, etoposide, and doxorubicin. These agents caused a dose-dependent decrease of radioactivity in the neutral filter and a parallel increase of radioactivity in the DEAE filter. Irradiation-induced single strand breaks and topoisomerase-mediated primary DNA damage were not detected by this method. Consistent with the detection of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, the effects measured by this assay were prevented by the endonuclease inhibitor zinc acetate and by the metabolic inhibitor sodium azide. Results obtained using this assay were validated by observation of DNA ladders on agarose gels and by morphologic examination of apoptotic features. Evaluation of the assay in a mock screen demonstrated that the introduction of the DEAE filter increases the assay sensitivity and eliminates false positives. Thus, this assay may be used in high-throughput screening approaches to discover novel modulators of apoptosis.

  12. Design of stapled DNA-minor-groove-binding molecules with a mutable atom simulated annealing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Wynn L.; Kopka, Mary L.; Dickerson, Richard E.; Goodsell, David S.

    1997-11-01

    We report the design of optimal linker geometries for the synthesis of stapledDNA-minor-groove-binding molecules. Netropsin, distamycin, and lexitropsinsbind side-by-side to mixed-sequence DNA and offer an opportunity for thedesign of sequence-reading molecules. Stapled molecules, with two moleculescovalently linked side-by-side, provide entropic gains and restrain theposition of one molecule relative to its neighbor. Using a free-atom simulatedannealing technique combined with a discrete mutable atom definition, optimallengths and atomic composition for covalent linkages are determined, and anovel hydrogen bond `zipper' is proposed to phase two molecules accuratelyside-by-side.

  13. Hda monomerization by ADP binding promotes replicase clamp-mediated DnaA-ATP hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Su'etsugu, Masayuki; Nakamura, Kenta; Keyamura, Kenji; Kudo, Yuka; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2008-12-26

    ATP-DnaA is the initiator of chromosomal replication in Escherichia coli, and the activity of DnaA is regulated by the regulatory inactivation of the DnaA (RIDA) system. In this system, the Hda protein promotes DnaA-ATP hydrolysis to produce inactive ADP-DnaA in a mechanism that is mediated by the DNA-loaded form of the replicase sliding clamp. In this study, we first revealed that hda translation uses an unusual initiation codon, CUG, located downstream of the annotated initiation codon. The CUG initiation codon could be used for restricting the Hda level, as this initiation codon has a low translation efficiency, and the cellular Hda level is only approximately 100 molecules per cell. Hda translated using the correct reading frame was purified and found to have a high RIDA activity in vitro. Moreover, we found that Hda has a high affinity for ADP but not for other nucleotides, including ATP. ADP-Hda was active in the RIDA system in vitro and stable in a monomeric state, whereas apo-Hda formed inactive homomultimers. Both ADP-Hda and apo-Hda could form complexes with the DNA-loaded clamp; however, only ADP-Hda-DNA-clamp complexes were highly functional in the following interaction with DnaA. Formation of ADP-Hda was also observed in vivo, and mutant analysis suggested that ADP binding is crucial for cellular Hda activity. Thus, we propose that ADP is a crucial Hda ligand that promotes the activated conformation of the protein. ADP-dependent monomerization might enable the arginine finger of the Hda AAA+ domain to be accessible to ATP bound to the DnaA AAA+ domain.

  14. The intervening domain from MeCP2 enhances the DNA affinity of the methyl binding domain and provides an independent DNA interaction site.

    PubMed

    Claveria-Gimeno, Rafael; Lanuza, Pilar M; Morales-Chueca, Ignacio; Jorge-Torres, Olga C; Vega, Sonia; Abian, Olga; Esteller, Manel; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian

    2017-01-31

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) preferentially interacts with methylated DNA and it is involved in epigenetic regulation and chromatin remodelling. Mutations in MeCP2 are linked to Rett syndrome, the leading cause of intellectual retardation in girls and causing mental, motor and growth impairment. Unstructured regions in MeCP2 provide the plasticity for establishing interactions with multiple binding partners. We present a biophysical characterization of the methyl binding domain (MBD) from MeCP2 reporting the contribution of flanking domains to its structural stability and dsDNA interaction. The flanking disordered intervening domain (ID) increased the structural stability of MBD, modified its dsDNA binding profile from an entropically-driven moderate-affinity binding to an overwhelmingly enthalpically-driven high-affinity binding. Additionally, ID provided an additional site for simultaneously and autonomously binding an independent dsDNA molecule, which is a key feature linked to the chromatin remodelling and looping activity of MeCP2, as well as its ability to interact with nucleosomes replacing histone H1. The dsDNA interaction is characterized by an unusually large heat capacity linked to a cluster of water molecules trapped within the binding interface. The dynamics of disordered regions together with extrinsic factors are key determinants of MeCP2 global structural properties and functional capabilities.

  15. The intervening domain from MeCP2 enhances the DNA affinity of the methyl binding domain and provides an independent DNA interaction site

    PubMed Central

    Claveria-Gimeno, Rafael; Lanuza, Pilar M.; Morales-Chueca, Ignacio; Jorge-Torres, Olga C.; Vega, Sonia; Abian, Olga; Esteller, Manel; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) preferentially interacts with methylated DNA and it is involved in epigenetic regulation and chromatin remodelling. Mutations in MeCP2 are linked to Rett syndrome, the leading cause of intellectual retardation in girls and causing mental, motor and growth impairment. Unstructured regions in MeCP2 provide the plasticity for establishing interactions with multiple binding partners. We present a biophysical characterization of the methyl binding domain (MBD) from MeCP2 reporting the contribution of flanking domains to its structural stability and dsDNA interaction. The flanking disordered intervening domain (ID) increased the structural stability of MBD, modified its dsDNA binding profile from an entropically-driven moderate-affinity binding to an overwhelmingly enthalpically-driven high-affinity binding. Additionally, ID provided an additional site for simultaneously and autonomously binding an independent dsDNA molecule, which is a key feature linked to the chromatin remodelling and looping activity of MeCP2, as well as its ability to interact with nucleosomes replacing histone H1. The dsDNA interaction is characterized by an unusually large heat capacity linked to a cluster of water molecules trapped within the binding interface. The dynamics of disordered regions together with extrinsic factors are key determinants of MeCP2 global structural properties and functional capabilities. PMID:28139759

  16. HMGB1-mediated DNA bending: Distinct roles in increasing p53 binding to DNA and the transactivation of p53-responsive gene promoters.

    PubMed

    Štros, Michal; Kučírek, Martin; Sani, Soodabeh Abbasi; Polanská, Eva

    2018-03-01

    HMGB1 is a chromatin-associated protein that has been implicated in many important biological processes such as transcription, recombination, DNA repair, and genome stability. These functions include the enhancement of binding of a number of transcription factors, including the tumor suppressor protein p53, to their specific DNA-binding sites. HMGB1 is composed of two highly conserved HMG boxes, linked to an intrinsically disordered acidic C-terminal tail. Previous reports have suggested that the ability of HMGB1 to bend DNA may explain the in vitro HMGB1-mediated increase in sequence-specific DNA binding by p53. The aim of this study was to reinvestigate the importance of HMGB1-induced DNA bending in relationship to the ability of the protein to promote the specific binding of p53 to short DNA duplexes in vitro, and to transactivate two major p53-regulated human genes: Mdm2 and p21/WAF1. Using a number of HMGB1 mutants, we report that the HMGB1-mediated increase in sequence-specific p53 binding to DNA duplexes in vitro depends very little on HMGB1-mediated DNA bending. The presence of the acidic C-terminal tail of HMGB1 and/or the oxidation of the protein can reduce the HMGB1-mediated p53 binding. Interestingly, the induction of transactivation of p53-responsive gene promoters by HMGB1 requires both the ability of the protein to bend DNA and the acidic C-terminal tail, and is promoter-specific. We propose that the efficient transactivation of p53-responsive gene promoters by HMGB1 depends on complex events, rather than solely on the promotion of p53 binding to its DNA cognate sites. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Noncovalent Interactions of Tiopronin-Protected Gold Nanoparticles with DNA: Two Methods to Quantify Free Energy of Binding

    PubMed Central

    Prado-Gotor, R.; Grueso, E.

    2014-01-01

    The binding of gold nanoparticles capped with N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)glycine (Au@tiopronin) with double-stranded DNA has been investigated and quantified in terms of free energies by using two different approaches. The first approach follows the DNA conformational changes induced by gold nanoparticles using the CD technique. The second methodology consists in the use of pyrene-1-carboxaldehyde as a fluorescent probe. This second procedure implies the determination of the “true” free energy of binding of the probe with DNA, after corrections through solubility measurements. Working at different salt concentrations, the nonelectrostatic and electrostatic components of the binding free energy have been separated. The results obtained revealed that the binding is of nonelectrostatic character, fundamentally. The procedure used in this work could be extended to quantify the binding affinity of other AuNPs/DNA systems. PMID:24587710

  18. The influence of repressor DNA binding site architecture on transcriptional control.

    PubMed

    Park, Dan M; Kiley, Patricia J

    2014-08-26

    How the architecture of DNA binding sites dictates the extent of repression of promoters is not well understood. Here, we addressed the importance of the number and information content of the three direct repeats (DRs) in the binding and repression of the icdA promoter by the phosphorylated form of the global Escherichia coli repressor ArcA (ArcA-P). We show that decreasing the information content of the two sites with the highest information (DR1 and DR2) eliminated ArcA binding to all three DRs and ArcA repression of icdA. Unexpectedly, we also found that DR3 occupancy functions principally in repression, since mutation of this low-information-content site both eliminated DNA binding to DR3 and significantly weakened icdA repression, despite the fact that binding to DR1 and DR2 was intact. In addition, increasing the information content of any one of the three DRs or addition of a fourth DR increased ArcA-dependent repression but perturbed signal-dependent regulation of repression. Thus, our data show that the information content and number of DR elements are critical architectural features for maintaining a balance between high-affinity binding and signal-dependent regulation of icdA promoter function in response to changes in ArcA-P levels. Optimization of such architectural features may be a common strategy to either dampen or enhance the sensitivity of DNA binding among the members of the large OmpR/PhoB family of regulators as well as other transcription factors. In Escherichia coli, the response regulator ArcA maintains homeostasis of redox carriers under O2-limiting conditions through a comprehensive repression of carbon oxidation pathways that require aerobic respiration to recycle redox carriers. Although a binding site architecture comprised of a variable number of sequence recognition elements has been identified within the promoter regions of ArcA-repressed operons, it is unclear how this variable architecture dictates transcriptional regulation. By

  19. FANCI-FANCD2 stabilizes the RAD51-DNA complex by binding RAD51 and protects the 5′-DNA end

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Koichi; Shimomuki, Mayo; Katsuki, Yoko; Takahashi, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Wataru; Ishiai, Masamichi; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Takata, Minoru; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    The FANCI-FANCD2 (I-D) complex is considered to work with RAD51 to protect the damaged DNA in the stalled replication fork. However, the means by which this DNA protection is accomplished have remained elusive. In the present study, we found that the I-D complex directly binds to RAD51, and stabilizes the RAD51-DNA filament. Unexpectedly, the DNA binding activity of FANCI, but not FANCD2, is explicitly required for the I-D complex-mediated RAD51-DNA filament stabilization. The RAD51 filament stabilized by the I-D complex actually protects the DNA end from nucleolytic degradation by an FA-associated nuclease, FAN1. This DNA end protection is not observed with the RAD51 mutant from FANCR patient cells. These results clearly answer the currently enigmatic question of how RAD51 functions with the I-D complex to prevent genomic instability at the stalled replication fork. PMID:27694619

  20. Timely binding of IHF and Fis to DARS2 regulates ATP–DnaA production and replication initiation

    PubMed Central

    Kasho, Kazutoshi; Fujimitsu, Kazuyuki; Matoba, Toshihiro; Oshima, Taku; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, the ATP-bound form of DnaA (ATP–DnaA) promotes replication initiation. During replication, the bound ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP to yield the ADP-bound form (ADP–DnaA), which is inactive for initiation. The chromosomal site DARS2 facilitates the regeneration of ATP–DnaA by catalyzing nucleotide exchange between free ATP and ADP bound to DnaA. However, the regulatory mechanisms governing this exchange reaction are unclear. Here, using in vitro reconstituted experiments, we show that two nucleoid-associated proteins, IHF and Fis, bind site-specifically to DARS2 to activate coordinately the exchange reaction. The regenerated ATP–DnaA was fully active in replication initiation and underwent DnaA–ATP hydrolysis. ADP–DnaA formed heteromultimeric complexes with IHF and Fis on DARS2, and underwent nucleotide dissociation more efficiently than ATP–DnaA. Consistently, mutant analyses demonstrated that specific binding of IHF and Fis to DARS2 stimulates the formation of ATP–DnaA production, thereby promoting timely initiation. Moreover, we show that IHF–DARS2 binding is temporally regulated during the cell cycle, whereas Fis only binds to DARS2 in exponentially growing cells. These results elucidate the regulation of ATP–DnaA and replication initiation in coordination with the cell cycle and growth phase. PMID:25378325

  1. Timely binding of IHF and Fis to DARS2 regulates ATP-DnaA production and replication initiation.

    PubMed

    Kasho, Kazutoshi; Fujimitsu, Kazuyuki; Matoba, Toshihiro; Oshima, Taku; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2014-12-01

    In Escherichia coli, the ATP-bound form of DnaA (ATP-DnaA) promotes replication initiation. During replication, the bound ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP to yield the ADP-bound form (ADP-DnaA), which is inactive for initiation. The chromosomal site DARS2 facilitates the regeneration of ATP-DnaA by catalyzing nucleotide exchange between free ATP and ADP bound to DnaA. However, the regulatory mechanisms governing this exchange reaction are unclear. Here, using in vitro reconstituted experiments, we show that two nucleoid-associated proteins, IHF and Fis, bind site-specifically to DARS2 to activate coordinately the exchange reaction. The regenerated ATP-DnaA was fully active in replication initiation and underwent DnaA-ATP hydrolysis. ADP-DnaA formed heteromultimeric complexes with IHF and Fis on DARS2, and underwent nucleotide dissociation more efficiently than ATP-DnaA. Consistently, mutant analyses demonstrated that specific binding of IHF and Fis to DARS2 stimulates the formation of ATP-DnaA production, thereby promoting timely initiation. Moreover, we show that IHF-DARS2 binding is temporally regulated during the cell cycle, whereas Fis only binds to DARS2 in exponentially growing cells. These results elucidate the regulation of ATP-DnaA and replication initiation in coordination with the cell cycle and growth phase. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Chromatin-Specific Regulation of Mammalian rDNA Transcription by Clustered TTF-I Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Diermeier, Sarah D.; Németh, Attila; Rehli, Michael; Grummt, Ingrid; Längst, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    Enhancers and promoters often contain multiple binding sites for the same transcription factor, suggesting that homotypic clustering of binding sites may serve a role in transcription regulation. Here we show that clustering of binding sites for the transcription termination factor TTF-I downstream of the pre-rRNA coding region specifies transcription termination, increases the efficiency of transcription initiation and affects the three-dimensional structure of rRNA genes. On chromatin templates, but not on free rDNA, clustered binding sites promote cooperative binding of TTF-I, loading TTF-I to the downstream terminators before it binds to the rDNA promoter. Interaction of TTF-I with target sites upstream and downstream of the rDNA transcription unit connects these distal DNA elements by forming a chromatin loop between the rDNA promoter and the terminators. The results imply that clustered binding sites increase the binding affinity of transcription factors in chromatin, thus influencing the timing and strength of DNA-dependent processes. PMID:24068958

  3. The evaluation of anoxia responsive E2F DNA binding activity in the red eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans.

    PubMed

    Biggar, Kyle K; Storey, Kenneth B

    2018-01-01

    In many cases, the DNA-binding activity of a transcription factor does not change, while its transcriptional activity is greatly influenced by the make-up of bound proteins. In this study, we assessed the protein composition and DNA-binding ability of the E2F transcription factor complex to provide insight into cell cycle control in an anoxia tolerant turtle through the use of a modified ELISA protocol. This modification also permits the use of custom DNA probes that are tailored to a specific DNA binding region, introducing the ability to design capture probes for non-model organisms. Through the use of EMSA and ELISA DNA binding assays, we have successfully determined the in vitro DNA binding activity and complex dynamics of the Rb/E2F cell cycle regulatory mechanisms in an anoxic turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans . Repressive cell cycle proteins (E2F4, Rb, HDAC4 and Suv39H1) were found to significantly increase at E2F DNA-binding sites upon anoxic exposure in anoxic turtle liver. The lack of p130 involvement in the E2F DNA-bound complex indicates that anoxic turtle liver may maintain G 1 arrest for the duration of stress survival.

  4. The evaluation of anoxia responsive E2F DNA binding activity in the red eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans

    PubMed Central

    Biggar, Kyle K.

    2018-01-01

    In many cases, the DNA-binding activity of a transcription factor does not change, while its transcriptional activity is greatly influenced by the make-up of bound proteins. In this study, we assessed the protein composition and DNA-binding ability of the E2F transcription factor complex to provide insight into cell cycle control in an anoxia tolerant turtle through the use of a modified ELISA protocol. This modification also permits the use of custom DNA probes that are tailored to a specific DNA binding region, introducing the ability to design capture probes for non-model organisms. Through the use of EMSA and ELISA DNA binding assays, we have successfully determined the in vitro DNA binding activity and complex dynamics of the Rb/E2F cell cycle regulatory mechanisms in an anoxic turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans. Repressive cell cycle proteins (E2F4, Rb, HDAC4 and Suv39H1) were found to significantly increase at E2F DNA-binding sites upon anoxic exposure in anoxic turtle liver. The lack of p130 involvement in the E2F DNA-bound complex indicates that anoxic turtle liver may maintain G1 arrest for the duration of stress survival. PMID:29770276

  5. Novel structural features drive DNA binding properties of Cmr, a CRP family protein in TB complex mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Sridevi; Cheung, Jonah; Cassidy, Michael; Ginter, Christopher; Pata, Janice D; McDonough, Kathleen A

    2018-01-09

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes two CRP/FNR family transcription factors (TF) that contribute to virulence, Cmr (Rv1675c) and CRPMt (Rv3676). Prior studies identified distinct chromosomal binding profiles for each TF despite their recognizing overlapping DNA motifs. The present study shows that Cmr binding specificity is determined by discriminator nucleotides at motif positions 4 and 13. X-ray crystallography and targeted mutational analyses identified an arginine-rich loop that expands Cmr's DNA interactions beyond the classical helix-turn-helix contacts common to all CRP/FNR family members and facilitates binding to imperfect DNA sequences. Cmr binding to DNA results in a pronounced asymmetric bending of the DNA and its high level of cooperativity is consistent with DNA-facilitated dimerization. A unique N-terminal extension inserts between the DNA binding and dimerization domains, partially occluding the site where the canonical cAMP binding pocket is found. However, an unstructured region of this N-terminus may help modulate Cmr activity in response to cellular signals. Cmr's multiple levels of DNA interaction likely enhance its ability to integrate diverse gene regulatory signals, while its novel structural features establish Cmr as an atypical CRP/FNR family member. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Comprehensive Interrogation of Natural TALE DNA Binding Modules and Transcriptional Repressor Domains

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Le; Zhou, Ruhong; Kuo, Yu-chi; Cunniff, Margaret; Zhang, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALE) are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that harbor modular, repetitive DNA binding domains. TALEs have enabled the creation of customizable designer transcriptional factors and sequence-specific nucleases for genome engineering. Here we report two improvements of the TALE toolbox for achieving efficient activation and repression of endogenous gene expression in mammalian cells. We show that the naturally occurring repeat variable diresidue (RVD) Asn-His (NH) has high biological activity and specificity for guanine, a highly prevalent base in mammalian genomes. We also report an effective TALE transcriptional repressor architecture for targeted inhibition of transcription in mammalian cells. These findings will improve the precision and effectiveness of genome engineering that can be achieved using TALEs. PMID:22828628

  7. Blending DNA binding dyes to improve detection in real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Linda; Koliana, Marianne; Sidstedt, Maja; Hedman, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    The success of real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis is partly limited by the presence of inhibitory compounds in the nucleic acid samples. For example, humic acid (HA) from soil and aqueous sediment interferes with amplification and also quenches the fluorescence of double-stranded (ds) DNA binding dyes, thus hindering amplicon detection. We aimed to counteract the HA fluorescence quenching effect by blending complementary dsDNA binding dyes, thereby elevating the dye saturation levels and increasing the fluorescence signals. A blend of the four dyes EvaGreen, ResoLight, SYBR Green and SYTO9 gave significantly higher fluorescence intensities in the presence and absence of HA, compared with the dyes applied separately and two-dye blends. We propose blending of dyes as a generally applicable means for elevating qPCR fluorescence signals and thus enabling detection in the presence of quenching substances.

  8. Characterization of a baculovirus lacking the DBP (DNA-binding protein) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Vanarsdall, Adam L.; Mikhailov, Victor S.; N.K. Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117808

    2007-08-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) encodes two proteins that possess properties typical of single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs), late expression factor-3 (LEF-3), and a protein referred to as DNA-binding protein (DBP). Whereas LEF-3 is a multi-functional protein essential for viral DNA replication, transporting helicase into the nucleus, and forms a stable complex with the baculovirus alkaline nuclease, the role for DBP in baculovirus replication remains unclear. Therefore, to better understand the functional role of DBP in viral replication, a DBP knockout virus was generated from an AcMNPV bacmid and analyzed. The results of a growth curve analysis indicated that the dbpmore » knockout construct was unable to produce budded virus indicating that dbp is essential. The lack of DBP does not cause a general shutdown of the expression of viral genes, as was revealed by accumulation of early (LEF-3), late (VP39), and very late (P10) proteins in cells transfected with the dbp knockout construct. To investigate the role of DBP in DNA replication, a real-time PCR-based assay was employed and showed that, although viral DNA synthesis occurred in cells transfected with the dbp knockout, the levels were less than that of the control virus suggesting that DBP is required for normal levels of DNA synthesis or for stability of nascent viral DNA. In addition, analysis of the viral DNA replicated by the dbp knockout by using field inversion gel electrophoresis failed to detect the presence of genome-length DNA. Furthermore, analysis of DBP from infected cells indicated that similar to LEF-3, DBP was tightly bound to viral chromatin. Assessment of the cellular localization of DBP relative to replicated viral DNA by immunoelectron microscopy indicated that, at 24 h post-infection, DBP co-localized with nascent DNA at distinct electron-dense regions within the nucleus. Finally, immunoelectron microscopic analysis of cells transfected with the dbp

  9. DNA binding studies of a new dicationic porphyrin. Insights into interligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Alexander H; Rodger, Alison; McMillin, David R

    2007-08-07

    Cationic porphyrins have an affinity for DNA and potential for applications in the fields of photodynamic therapy and cellular imaging. This report describes a new dicationic porphyrin, 5,15-dimethyl-10,20-di(N-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin, abbreviated H2tMe2D4. Although tetrasubstituted, H2tMe2D4 presents modest steric requirements and forms in reasonable yield by a "2+2" synthetic method. Accordingly, studies of the zinc(II)- and copper(II)-containing derivatives, Zn(tMe2D4) and Cu(tMe2D4), have also been possible. Methods used to characterize DNA-binding motifs include absorption, emission, linear, and circular dichroism spectroscopies, as well as viscometry. An unusually detailed picture of porphyrin uptake emerges. As the ratio of DNA to porphyrin increases during a typical titration, H2tMe2D4 or Cu(tMe2D4) initially aggregates on the host and then shifts to intercalative binding at close quarters before finally dispersing into non-interacting intercalation sites of the host. Emission studies of the copper(II) porphyrin have been very valuable. The existence of a measurable signal is diagnostic of intercalative binding, and the saturation behavior establishes that internalization typically monopolizes approximately three base pairs. In the moderate loading regime, emission data are most telling because dipole-dipole interactions between near-neighbor porphyrins tend to confuse other spectroscopic assays. The third ligand, Zn(tMe2D4), behaves differently in that the uptake is a strictly cooperative process. The mode of binding also varies with the base content of the DNA host. When the DNA is rich in A=T base pairs, the porphyrin remains five-coordinate and binds externally; however, Zn(tMe2D4) loses its axial ligand and binds by intercalation if the host contains only G[triple bond]C base pairs.

  10. Sequence-based prediction of protein-binding sites in DNA: comparative study of two SVM models.

    PubMed

    Park, Byungkyu; Im, Jinyong; Tuvshinjargal, Narankhuu; Lee, Wook; Han, Kyungsook

    2014-11-01

    As many structures of protein-DNA complexes have been known in the past years, several computational methods have been developed to predict DNA-binding sites in proteins. However, its inverse problem (i.e., predicting protein-binding sites in DNA) has received much less attention. One of the reasons is that the differences between the interaction propensities of nucleotides are much smaller than those between amino acids. Another reason is that DNA exhibits less diverse sequence patterns than protein. Therefore, predicting protein-binding DNA nucleotides is much harder than predicting DNA-binding amino acids. We computed the interaction propensity (IP) of nucleotide triplets with amino acids using an extensive dataset of protein-DNA complexes, and developed two support vector machine (SVM) models that predict protein-binding nucleotides from sequence data alone. One SVM model predicts protein-binding nucleotides using DNA sequence data alone, and the other SVM model predicts protein-binding nucleotides using both DNA and protein sequences. In a 10-fold cross-validation with 1519 DNA sequences, the SVM model that uses DNA sequence data only predicted protein-binding nucleotides with an accuracy of 67.0%, an F-measure of 67.1%, and a Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.340. With an independent dataset of 181 DNAs that were not used in training, it achieved an accuracy of 66.2%, an F-measure 66.3% and a MCC of 0.324. Another SVM model that uses both DNA and protein sequences achieved an accuracy of 69.6%, an F-measure of 69.6%, and a MCC of 0.383 in a 10-fold cross-validation with 1519 DNA sequences and 859 protein sequences. With an independent dataset of 181 DNAs and 143 proteins, it showed an accuracy of 67.3%, an F-measure of 66.5% and a MCC of 0.329. Both in cross-validation and independent testing, the second SVM model that used both DNA and protein sequence data showed better performance than the first model that used DNA sequence data. To the best of

  11. Improved detection of DNA-binding proteins via compression technology on PSSM information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yubo; Ding, Yijie; Guo, Fei; Wei, Leyi; Tang, Jijun

    2017-01-01

    Since the importance of DNA-binding proteins in multiple biomolecular functions has been recognized, an increasing number of researchers are attempting to identify DNA-binding proteins. In recent years, the machine learning methods have become more and more compelling in the case of protein sequence data soaring, because of their favorable speed and accuracy. In this paper, we extract three features from the protein sequence, namely NMBAC (Normalized Moreau-Broto Autocorrelation), PSSM-DWT (Position-specific scoring matrix-Discrete Wavelet Transform), and PSSM-DCT (Position-specific scoring matrix-Discrete Cosine Transform). We also employ feature selection algorithm on these feature vectors. Then, these features are fed into the training SVM (support vector machine) model as classifier to predict DNA-binding proteins. Our method applys three datasets, namely PDB1075, PDB594 and PDB186, to evaluate the performance of our approach. The PDB1075 and PDB594 datasets are employed for Jackknife test and the PDB186 dataset is used for the independent test. Our method achieves the best accuracy in the Jacknife test, from 79.20% to 86.23% and 80.5% to 86.20% on PDB1075 and PDB594 datasets, respectively. In the independent test, the accuracy of our method comes to 76.3%. The performance of independent test also shows that our method has a certain ability to be effectively used for DNA-binding protein prediction. The data and source code are at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5104084.

  12. Probing the electrostatics and pharmacologic modulation of sequence-specific binding by the DNA-binding domain of the ETS-family transcription factor PU.1: a binding affinity and kinetics investigation

    PubMed Central

    Munde, Manoj; Poon, Gregory M. K.; Wilson, W. David

    2013-01-01

    Members of the ETS family of transcription factors regulate a functionally diverse array of genes. All ETS proteins share a structurally-conserved but sequence-divergent DNA-binding domain, known as the ETS domain. Although the structure and thermodynamics of the ETS-DNA complexes are well known, little is known about the kinetics of sequence recognition, a facet that offers potential insight into its molecular mechanism. We have characterized DNA binding by the ETS domain of PU.1 by biosensor-surface plasmon resonance (SPR). SPR analysis revealed a striking kinetic profile for DNA binding by the PU.1 ETS domain. At low salt concentrations, it binds high-affinity cognate DNA with a very slow association rate constant (≤105 M−1 s−1), compensated by a correspondingly small dissociation rate constant. The kinetics are strongly salt-dependent but mutually balance to produce a relatively weak dependence in the equilibrium constant. This profile contrasts sharply with reported data for other ETS domains (e.g., Ets-1, TEL) for which high-affinity binding is driven by rapid association (>107 M−1 s−1). We interpret this difference in terms of the hydration properties of ETS-DNA binding and propose that at least two mechanisms of sequence recognition are employed by this family of DNA-binding domain. Additionally, we use SPR to demonstrate the potential for pharmacological inhibition of sequence-specific ETS-DNA binding, using the minor groove-binding distamycin as a model compound. Our work establishes SPR as a valuable technique for extending our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ETS-DNA interactions as well as developing potential small-molecule agents for biotechnological and therapeutic purposes. PMID:23416556

  13. DNA-Damage Response RNA-Binding Proteins (DDRBPs): Perspectives from a New Class of Proteins and Their RNA Targets.

    PubMed

    Dutertre, Martin; Vagner, Stéphan

    2017-10-27

    Upon DNA damage, cells trigger an early DNA-damage response (DDR) involving DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints, and late responses involving gene expression regulation that determine cell fate. Screens for genes involved in the DDR have found many RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), while screens for novel RBPs have identified DDR proteins. An increasing number of RBPs are involved in early and/or late DDR. We propose to call this new class of actors of the DDR, which contain an RNA-binding activity, DNA-damage response RNA-binding proteins (DDRBPs). We then discuss how DDRBPs contribute not only to gene expression regulation in the late DDR but also to early DDR signaling, DNA repair, and chromatin modifications at DNA-damage sites through interactions with both long and short noncoding RNAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Manipulation of a DNA aptamer-protein binding site through arylation of internal guanine residues.

    PubMed

    Van Riesen, Abigail J; Fadock, Kaila L; Deore, Prashant S; Desoky, Ahmed; Manderville, Richard A; Sowlati-Hashjin, Shahin; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2018-05-23

    Chemically modified aptamers have the opportunity to increase aptamer target binding affinity and provide structure-activity relationships to enhance our understanding of molecular target recognition by the aptamer fold. In the current study, 8-aryl-2'-deoxyguanosine nucleobases have been inserted into the G-tetrad and central TGT loop of the thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) to determine their impact on antiparallel G-quadruplex (GQ) folding and thrombin binding affinity. The aryl groups attached to the dG nucleobase vary greatly in aryl ring size and impact on GQ stability (∼20 °C change in GQ thermal melting (Tm) values) and thrombin binding affinity (17-fold variation in dissociation constant (Kd)). At G8 of the central TGT loop that is distal from the aptamer recognition site, the probes producing the most stable GQ structure exhibited the strongest thrombin binding affinity. However, within the G-tetrad, changes to the electron density of the dG component within the modified nucleobase can diminish thrombin binding affinity. Detailed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the modified TBA (mTBA) and mTBA-protein complexes demonstrate how the internal 8-aryl-dG modification can manipulate the interactions between the DNA nucleobases and the amino acid residues of thrombin. These results highlight the potential of internal fluorescent nuclobase analogs (FBAs) to broaden design options for aptasensor development.

  15. Linear and circular dichroism characterization of thionine binding mode with DNA polynucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuite, Eimer Mary; Nordén, Bengt

    2018-01-01

    The binding mode of thionine (3,7-diamino-5-phenothiazinium) with alternating and non-alternating DNA polynucleotides at low binding ratios was conclusively determined using linear and circular dichroism spectroscopies. The binding to [poly(dG-dC)]2 and poly(dG)·poly(dC) was purely intercalative and was insensitive to ionic strength. Intercalative binding to [poly(dA-dT)]2 is observed at low ionic strength, but a shift of some dye to an non-intercalative mode is observed as the background salt concentration increases. With poly(dA)·poly(dT), intercalative binding is unfavourable, although some dye molecules may intercalate at low ionic strength, and groove binding is strongly promoted with increasing concentration of background salt. However, stacking with bases is observed with single-stranded poly(dA) and with triplex poly(dT)*poly(dA)·poly(dT) which suggests that the unusual structure of poly(dA)·poly(dT) precludes intercalation. Thionine behaves similarly to the related dye methylene blue, and small differences may be attributed either to the ability of thionine to form H-bonds that stabilize intercalation or to its improved stacking interactions in the basepair pocket on steric grounds.

  16. Vital Roles of the Second DNA-binding Site of Rad52 Protein in Yeast Homologous Recombination*

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Naoto; Kagawa, Wataru; Saito, Kengo; Shingu, Yoshinori; Mikawa, Tsutomu; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Shibata, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    RecA/Rad51 proteins are essential in homologous DNA recombination and catalyze the ATP-dependent formation of D-loops from a single-stranded DNA and an internal homologous sequence in a double-stranded DNA. RecA and Rad51 require a “recombination mediator” to overcome the interference imposed by the prior binding of single-stranded binding protein/replication protein A to the single-stranded DNA. Rad52 is the prototype of recombination mediators, and the human Rad52 protein has two distinct DNA-binding sites: the first site binds to single-stranded DNA, and the second site binds to either double- or single-stranded DNA. We previously showed that yeast Rad52 extensively stimulates Rad51-catalyzed D-loop formation even in the absence of replication protein A, by forming a 2:1 stoichiometric complex with Rad51. However, the precise roles of Rad52 and Rad51 within the complex are unknown. In the present study, we constructed yeast Rad52 mutants in which the amino acid residues corresponding to the second DNA-binding site of the human Rad52 protein were replaced with either alanine or aspartic acid. We found that the second DNA-binding site is important for the yeast Rad52 function in vivo. Rad51-Rad52 complexes consisting of these Rad52 mutants were defective in promoting the formation of D-loops, and the ability of the complex to associate with double-stranded DNA was specifically impaired. Our studies suggest that Rad52 within the complex associates with double-stranded DNA to assist Rad51-mediated homologous pairing. PMID:21454474

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure, DFT calculation and DNA binding studies of new water-soluble derivatives of dppz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminzadeh, Mohammad; Eslami, Abbas; Kia, Reza; Aleeshah, Roghayeh

    2017-10-01

    Diquaternarization of dipyrido-[2,3-a:2‧,3‧-c]-phenazine,(dppz) and its analogous dipyrido-[2,3-a:2‧,3‧-c]-dimethylphenazine,(dppx) using 1,3-dibromopropane afford new water-soluble derivatives of phenazine, propylene-bipyridyldiylium-phenazine (1) and propylene-bipyridyldiylium-dimethylphenazine (2). The compounds have been characterized by means of FT-IR, NMR, elemental analysis and conductometric measurements and their structure were determined by X-ray crystallography. The experimental studies on the compounds have been accompanied computationally by Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The DNA binding properties of both compounds to calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated by UV-Vis absorption and emission methods. The expanded UV-Vis spectral data matrix was analyzed by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) technique to obtain the concentration profile and pure spectra of all reaction species which existed in the interaction procedure. Multivariate curve resolution may help us to give a better understanding of the 1(Cl)2-ctDNA and 2(Cl)2-ctDNA interaction mechanism. The results suggest that both compounds bind tightly to DNA through intercalation mechanism and the DNA binding affinity of 2 is slightly lower than that of 1 due to steric hindrance of the methyl group. Also, thermal denaturation studies reveal that these compounds show strong affinity for binding with calf thymus DNA. The thermodynamic parameters of the DNA binding process were obtained from the temperature dependence of the binding constants and the results showed that binding of both compounds to DNA is an enthalpically driven process that is in agreement with proposed DNA intercalation capability of these compounds.

  18. Mitochondrial telomerase reverse transcriptase binds to and protects mitochondrial DNA and function from damage.

    PubMed

    Haendeler, Judith; Dröse, Stefan; Büchner, Nicole; Jakob, Sascha; Altschmied, Joachim; Goy, Christine; Spyridopoulos, Ioakim; Zeiher, Andreas M; Brandt, Ulrich; Dimmeler, Stefanie

    2009-06-01

    The enzyme telomerase and its catalytic subunit the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) are important for maintenance of telomere length in the nucleus. Recent studies provided evidence for a mitochondrial localization of TERT. Therefore, we investigated the exact localization of TERT within the mitochondria and its function. Here, we demonstrate that TERT is localized in the matrix of the mitochondria. TERT binds to mitochondrial DNA at the coding regions for ND1 and ND2. Binding of TERT to mitochondrial DNA protects against ethidium bromide-induced damage. TERT increases overall respiratory chain activity, which is most pronounced at complex I and dependent on the reverse transcriptase activity of the enzyme. Moreover, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species are increased after genetic ablation of TERT by shRNA. Mitochondrially targeted TERT and not wild-type TERT revealed the most prominent protective effect on H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis. Lung fibroblasts from 6-month-old TERT(-/-) mice (F2 generation) showed increased sensitivity toward UVB radiation and heart mitochondria exhibited significantly reduced respiratory chain activity already under basal conditions, demonstrating the protective function of TERT in vivo. Mitochondrial TERT exerts a novel protective function by binding to mitochondrial DNA, increasing respiratory chain activity and protecting against oxidative stress-induced damage.

  19. How aromatic compounds block DNA binding of HcaR catabolite regulator

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Youngchang; Joachimiak, Grazyna; Bigelow, Lance; ...

    2016-04-25

    Bacterial catabolism of aromatic compounds from various sources including phenylpropanoids and flavonoids that are abundant in soil plays an important role in the recycling of carbon in the ecosystem. We have determined the crystal structures of apo-HcaR from Acinetobacter sp. ADP1, a MarR/SlyA transcription factor, in complexes with hydroxycinnamates and a specific DNA operator. The protein regulates the expression of the hca catabolic operon in Acinetobacter and related bacterial strains, allowing utilization of hydroxycinnamates as sole sources of carbon. HcaR binds multiple ligands, and as a result the transcription of genes encoding several catabolic enzymes is increased. The 1.9-2.4 Åmore » resolution structures presented here explain how HcaR recognizes four ligands (ferulate, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, p-coumarate, and vanillin) using the same binding site. The ligand promiscuity appears to be an adaptation to match a broad specificity of hydroxycinnamate catabolic enzymes while responding to toxic thioester intermediates. Structures of apo-HcaR and in complex with a specific DNA hca operator when combined with binding studies of hydroxycinnamates show how aromatic ligands render HcaR unproductive in recognizing a specific DNA target. Furthermore, the current study contributes to a better understanding of the hca catabolic operon regulation mechanism by the transcription factor HcaR.« less

  20. iDBPs: a web server for the identification of DNA binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nimrod, Guy; Schushan, Maya; Szilágyi, András; Leslie, Christina; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The iDBPs server uses the three-dimensional (3D) structure of a query protein to predict whether it binds DNA. First, the algorithm predicts the functional region of the protein based on its evolutionary profile; the assumption is that large clusters of conserved residues are good markers of functional regions. Next, various characteristics of the predicted functional region as well as global features of the protein are calculated, such as the average surface electrostatic potential, the dipole moment and cluster-based amino acid conservation patterns. Finally, a random forests classifier is used to predict whether the query protein is likely to bind DNA and to estimate the prediction confidence. We have trained and tested the classifier on various datasets and shown that it outperformed related methods. On a dataset that reflects the fraction of DNA binding proteins (DBPs) in a proteome, the area under the ROC curve was 0.90. The application of the server to an updated version of the N-Func database, which contains proteins of unknown function with solved 3D-structure, suggested new putative DBPs for experimental studies. Availability: http://idbps.tau.ac.il/ Contact: NirB@tauex.tau.ac.il Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20089514

  1. iDBPs: a web server for the identification of DNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Nimrod, Guy; Schushan, Maya; Szilágyi, András; Leslie, Christina; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2010-03-01

    The iDBPs server uses the three-dimensional (3D) structure of a query protein to predict whether it binds DNA. First, the algorithm predicts the functional region of the protein based on its evolutionary profile; the assumption is that large clusters of conserved residues are good markers of functional regions. Next, various characteristics of the predicted functional region as well as global features of the protein are calculated, such as the average surface electrostatic potential, the dipole moment and cluster-based amino acid conservation patterns. Finally, a random forests classifier is used to predict whether the query protein is likely to bind DNA and to estimate the prediction confidence. We have trained and tested the classifier on various datasets and shown that it outperformed related methods. On a dataset that reflects the fraction of DNA binding proteins (DBPs) in a proteome, the area under the ROC curve was 0.90. The application of the server to an updated version of the N-Func database, which contains proteins of unknown function with solved 3D-structure, suggested new putative DBPs for experimental studies. http://idbps.tau.ac.il/

  2. Loading capacity and interaction of DNA binding on catanionic vesicles with different cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu; Chen, Jingfei; Feng, Lei; Dong, Shuli; Hao, Jingcheng

    2014-12-07

    Cationic and anionic (catanionic) vesicles were constructed from the mixtures of sodium laurate (SL) and alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (CnTAB, n = 12, 14, and 16) and were used to control the loading capacity of DNA. The binding saturation point (BSP) of DNA to catanionic vesicles increases with the chain length of cationic surfactants, which is at 1.0, 1.3 and 1.5 for CnTAB with n = 12, 14, and 16, respectively. Our measurements showed that the loading capacity and affinity of DNA can be controlled by catanionic vesicles. It increases with the chain length of cationic surfactants. Because of a large reduction in surface charge density, catanionic vesicles are prone to undergo re-aggregation or fusion with the addition of DNA. DNA molecules can still maintain original coil state during the interaction with catanionic CnTAL vesicles. (1)H NMR data reveals that the obvious dissociation of anionic ions, L(-), from catanionic C14TAL vesicles is due to the interaction with DNA; however, this phenomenon cannot be observed in C12TAB-SL vesicles. Agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) results demonstrate that the electrostatic interaction between the two oppositely charged cationic and anionic surfactants is stronger than that between DNA and cationic surfactant, CnTAB (n = 12, 14, and 16). Not only is the dissociation of L(-) simply determined by the charge competition, but it also depends largely on the variations in the surface charge density as well as the cationic and anionic surfactant competing ability in geometry configuration of catanionic vesicles. The complicated interaction between DNA and catanionic vesicles induces the deformation of cationic vesicles. Our results should provide clear guidance for choosing more proper vectors for DNA delivery and gene therapy in cell experiments.

  3. Effect of thiol pendant conjugates on plasmid DNA binding, release, and stability of polymeric delivery vectors.

    PubMed

    Bacalocostantis, Irene; Mane, Viraj P; Kang, Michael S; Goodley, Addison S; Muro, Silvia; Kofinas, Peter

    2012-05-14

    Polymers have attracted much attention as potential gene delivery vectors due to their chemical and structural versatility. However, several challenges associated with polymeric carriers, including low transfection efficiencies, insufficient cargo release, and high cytotoxicity levels have prevented clinical implementation. Strong electrostatic interactions between polymeric carriers and DNA cargo can prohibit complete cargo release within the cell. As a result, cargo DNA never reaches the cell's nucleus where gene expression takes place. In addition, highly charged cationic polymers have been correlated with high cytotoxicity levels, making them unsuitable carriers in vivo. Using poly(allylamine) (PAA) as a model, we investigated how pH-sensitive disulfide cross-linked polymer networks can improve the delivery potential of cationic polymer carriers. To accomplish this, we conjugated thiol-terminated pendant chains onto the primary amines of PAA using 2-iminothiolane, developing three new polymer vectors with 5, 13, or 20% thiol modification. Unmodified PAA and thiol-conjugated polymers were tested for their ability to bind and release plasmid DNA, their capacity to protect genetic cargo from enzymatic degradation, and their potential for endolysosomal escape. Our results demonstrate that polymer-plasmid complexes (polyplexes) formed by the 13% thiolated polymer demonstrate the greatest delivery potential. At high N/P ratios, all thiolated polymers (but not unmodified counterparts) were able to resist decomplexation in the presence of heparin, a negatively charged polysaccharide used to mimic in vivo polyplex-protein interactions. Further, all thiolated polymers exhibited higher buffering capacities than unmodified PAA and, therefore, have a greater potential for endolysosomal escape. However, 5 and 20% thiolated polymers exhibited poor DNA binding-release kinetics, making them unsuitable carriers for gene delivery. The 13% thiolated polymers, on the other hand

  4. DNA binding of the p21 repressor ZBTB2 is inhibited by cytosine hydroxymethylation

    SciTech Connect

    Lafaye, Céline; Barbier, Ewa; Miscioscia, Audrey

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • 5-hmC epigenetic modification is measurable in HeLa, SH-SY5Y and UT7-MPL cell lines. • ZBTB2 binds to DNA probes containing 5-mC but not to sequences containing 5-hmC. • This differential binding is verified with DNA sequences involved in p21 regulation. - Abstract: Recent studies have demonstrated that the modified base 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is detectable at various rates in DNA extracted from human tissues. This oxidative product of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) constitutes a new and important actor of epigenetic mechanisms. We designed a DNA pull down assay to trap and identify nuclear proteins bound to 5-hmC and/or 5-mC. We applied thismore » strategy to three cancerous cell lines (HeLa, SH-SY5Y and UT7-MPL) in which we also measured 5-mC and 5-hmC levels by HPLC-MS/MS. We found that the putative oncoprotein Zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 2 (ZBTB2) is associated with methylated DNA sequences and that this interaction is inhibited by the presence of 5-hmC replacing 5-mC. As published data mention ZBTB2 recognition of p21 regulating sequences, we verified that this sequence specific binding was also alleviated by 5-hmC. ZBTB2 being considered as a multifunctional cell proliferation activator, notably through p21 repression, this work points out new epigenetic processes potentially involved in carcinogenesis.« less

  5. DNA binding sites characterization by means of Rényi entropy measures on nucleotide transitions.

    PubMed

    Perera, Alexandre; Vallverdu, Montserrat; Claria, Francesc; Soria, José Manuel; Caminal, Pere

    2006-01-01

    In this work, parametric information-theory measures for the characterization of binding sites in DNA are extended with the use of transitional probabilities on the sequence. We propose the use of parametric uncertainty measure such as Renyi entropies obtained from the transition probabilities for the study of the binding sites, in addition to nucleotide frequency based Renyi measures. Results are reported in this manuscript comparing transition frequencies (i.e. dinucelotides) and base frequencies for Shannon and parametric Renyi for a number of binding sites found in E. Coli, lambda and T7 organisms. We observe that, for the evaluated datasets, the information provided by both approaches is not redundant, as they evolve differently under increasing Renyi orders.

  6. The increasing diversity of functions attributed to the SAFB family of RNA-/DNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Norman, Michael; Rivers, Caroline; Lee, Youn-Bok; Idris, Jalilah; Uney, James

    2016-12-01

    RNA-binding proteins play a central role in cellular metabolism by orchestrating the complex interactions of coding, structural and regulatory RNA species. The SAFB (scaffold attachment factor B) proteins (SAFB1, SAFB2 and SAFB-like transcriptional modulator, SLTM), which are highly conserved evolutionarily, were first identified on the basis of their ability to bind scaffold attachment region DNA elements, but attention has subsequently shifted to their RNA-binding and protein-protein interactions. Initial studies identified the involvement of these proteins in the cellular stress response and other aspects of gene regulation. More recently, the multifunctional capabilities of SAFB proteins have shown that they play crucial roles in DNA repair, processing of mRNA and regulatory RNA, as well as in interaction with chromatin-modifying complexes. With the advent of new techniques for identifying RNA-binding sites, enumeration of individual RNA targets has now begun. This review aims to summarise what is currently known about the functions of SAFB proteins. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. BPF-1, a pathogen-induced DNA-binding protein involved in the plant defense response.

    PubMed

    da Costa e Silva, O; Klein, L; Schmelzer, E; Trezzini, G F; Hahlbrock, K

    1993-07-01

    The mechanisms by which plants restrict the growth of pathogens include transient activation of numerous defense-related genes. Box P is a putative cis-acting element of a distinct group of such genes, including those encoding the enzyme phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL). A DNA-binding activity to Box P was identified in nuclear extracts from cultured parsley cells and a cDNA encoding the protein BPF-1 (Box P-binding Factor) partially characterized. BPF-1 binds to this element with specificity similar to that of the binding activity in nuclear extracts. BPF-1 mRNA accumulates rapidly in elicitor-treated parsley cells and around fungal infection sites on parsley leaves. This accumulation is, at least partly, due to a rapid and transient increase in the transcription rate of BPF-1. Moreover, tight correlation between the relative amounts of BPF-1 and PAL mRNAs was observed in different organs of a parsley plant. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that BPF-1 is involved in disease resistance by modulating plant defense gene expression.

  8. DNA binding mechanism revealed by high resolution crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana WRKY1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Ming-Rui; Nan, Jie; Liang, Yu-He; Mao, Peng; Lu, Lu; Li, Lanfen; Wei, Chunhong; Lai, Luhua; Li, Yi; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2007-01-01

    WRKY proteins, defined by the conserved WRKYGQK sequence, are comprised of a large superfamily of transcription factors identified specifically from the plant kingdom. This superfamily plays important roles in plant disease resistance, abiotic stress, senescence as well as in some developmental processes. In this study, the Arabidopsis WRKY1 was shown to be involved in the salicylic acid signaling pathway and partially dependent on NPR1; a C-terminal domain of WRKY1, AtWRKY1-C, was constructed for structural studies. Previous investigations showed that DNA binding of the WRKY proteins was localized at the WRKY domains and these domains may define novel zinc-binding motifs. The crystal structure of the AtWRKY1-C determined at 1.6 Å resolution has revealed that this domain is composed of a globular structure with five β strands, forming an antiparallel β-sheet. A novel zinc-binding site is situated at one end of the β-sheet, between strands β4 and β5. Based on this high-resolution crystal structure and site-directed mutagenesis, we have defined and confirmed that the DNA-binding residues of AtWRKY1-C are located at β2 and β3 strands. These results provided us with structural information to understand the mechanism of transcriptional control and signal transduction events of the WRKY proteins. PMID:17264121

  9. Dynamic Cooperation of Hydrogen Binding and π Stacking in ssDNA Adsorption on Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Lei, Xiaoling; Tu, Yusong; Tan, Zhi-Jie; Song, Bo; Fang, Haiping

    2017-09-21

    Functional nanoscale structures consisting of a DNA molecule coupled to graphene or graphene oxide (GO) have great potential for applications in biosensors, biomedicine, nanotechnology, and materials science. Extensive studies using the most sophisticated experimental techniques and theoretical methods have still not clarified the dynamic process of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) adsorbed on GO surfaces. Based on a molecular dynamics simulation, this work shows that an ssDNA segment could be stably adsorbed on a GO surface through hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions, with preferential binding to the oxidized rather than to the unoxidized region of the GO surface. The adsorption process shows a dynamic cooperation adsorption behavior; the ssDNA segment first captures the oxidized groups of the GO surface by hydrogen bonding interaction, and then the configuration relaxes to maximize the π-π stacking interactions between the aromatic rings of the nucleobases and those of the GO surface. We attributed this behavior to the faster forming hydrogen bonding interaction compared to π-π stacking; the π-π stacking interaction needs more relaxation time to regulate the configuration of the ssDNA segment to fit the aromatic rings on the GO surface. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Alteration of Escherichia coli topoisomerase IV conformation upon enzyme binding to positively supercoiled DNA.

    PubMed

    Crisona, Nancy J; Cozzarelli, Nicholas R

    2006-07-14

    Escherichia coli topoisomerase IV (topo IV) is an essential enzyme that unlinks the daughter chromosomes for proper segregation at cell division. In vitro, topo IV readily distinguishes between the two possible chiralities of crossing segments in a DNA substrate. The enzyme relaxes positive supercoils and left-handed braids 20 times faster, and with greater processivity, than negative supercoils and right-handed braids. Here, we used chemical cross-linking of topo IV to demonstrate that enzyme bound to positively supercoiled DNA is in a different conformation from that bound to other forms of DNA. Using three different reagents, we observed novel cross-linked species of topo IV when positively supercoiled DNA was in the reaction. We show that the ParE subunits are in close enough proximity to be cross-linked only when the enzyme is bound to positively supercoiled DNA. We suggest that the altered conformation reflects efficient binding by topo IV of the two DNA segments that participate in the strand passage reaction.

  11. Regulation of DNA Replication Timing on Human Chromosome by a Cell-Type Specific DNA Binding Protein SATB1

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Masako; Kanoh, Yutaka; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Masai, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    Background Replication timing of metazoan DNA during S-phase may be determined by many factors including chromosome structures, nuclear positioning, patterns of histone modifications, and transcriptional activity. It may be determined by Mb-domain structures, termed as “replication domains”, and recent findings indicate that replication timing is under developmental and cell type-specific regulation. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined replication timing on the human 5q23/31 3.5-Mb segment in T cells and non-T cells. We used two independent methods to determine replication timing. One is quantification of nascent replicating DNA in cell cycle-fractionated stage-specific S phase populations. The other is FISH analyses of replication foci. Although the locations of early- and late-replicating domains were common between the two cell lines, the timing transition region (TTR) between early and late domains were offset by 200-kb. We show that Special AT-rich sequence Binding protein 1 (SATB1), specifically expressed in T-cells, binds to the early domain immediately adjacent to TTR and delays the replication timing of the TTR. Measurement of the chromosome copy number along the TTR during synchronized S phase suggests that the fork movement may be slowed down by SATB1. Conclusions Our results reveal a novel role of SATB1 in cell type-specific regulation of replication timing along the chromosome. PMID:22879953

  12. Regulation of DNA replication timing on human chromosome by a cell-type specific DNA binding protein SATB1.

    PubMed

    Oda, Masako; Kanoh, Yutaka; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Masai, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    Replication timing of metazoan DNA during S-phase may be determined by many factors including chromosome structures, nuclear positioning, patterns of histone modifications, and transcriptional activity. It may be determined by Mb-domain structures, termed as "replication domains", and recent findings indicate that replication timing is under developmental and cell type-specific regulation. We examined replication timing on the human 5q23/31 3.5-Mb segment in T cells and non-T cells. We used two independent methods to determine replication timing. One is quantification of nascent replicating DNA in cell cycle-fractionated stage-specific S phase populations. The other is FISH analyses of replication foci. Although the locations of early- and late-replicating domains were common between the two cell lines, the timing transition region (TTR) between early and late domains were offset by 200-kb. We show that Special AT-rich sequence Binding protein 1 (SATB1), specifically expressed in T-cells, binds to the early domain immediately adjacent to TTR and delays the replication timing of the TTR. Measurement of the chromosome copy number along the TTR during synchronized S phase suggests that the fork movement may be slowed down by SATB1. Our results reveal a novel role of SATB1 in cell type-specific regulation of replication timing along the chromosome.

  13. Theoretical estimates of exposure timescales of protein binding sites on DNA regulated by nucleosome kinetics.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Jyotsana J; Das, Dibyendu; Padinhateeri, Ranjith

    2016-02-29

    It is being increasingly realized that nucleosome organization on DNA crucially regulates DNA-protein interactions and the resulting gene expression. While the spatial character of the nucleosome positioning on DNA has been experimentally and theoretically studied extensively, the temporal character is poorly understood. Accounting for ATPase activity and DNA-sequence effects on nucleosome kinetics, we develop a theoretical method to estimate the time of continuous exposure of binding sites of non-histone proteins (e.g. transcription factors and TATA binding proteins) along any genome. Applying the method to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that the exposure timescales are determined by cooperative dynamics of multiple nucleosomes, and their behavior is often different from expectations based on static nucleosome occupancy. Examining exposure times in the promoters of GAL1 and PHO5, we show that our theoretical predictions are consistent with known experiments. We apply our method genome-wide and discover huge gene-to-gene variability of mean exposure times of TATA boxes and patches adjacent to TSS (+1 nucleosome region); the resulting timescale distributions have non-exponential tails. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. TopBP1/Dpb11 binds DNA anaphase bridges to prevent genome instability.

    PubMed

    Germann, Susanne M; Schramke, Vera; Pedersen, Rune Troelsgaard; Gallina, Irene; Eckert-Boulet, Nadine; Oestergaard, Vibe H; Lisby, Michael

    2014-01-06

    DNA anaphase bridges are a potential source of genome instability that may lead to chromosome breakage or nondisjunction during mitosis. Two classes of anaphase bridges can be distinguished: DAPI-positive chromatin bridges and DAPI-negative ultrafine DNA bridges (UFBs). Here, we establish budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the avian DT40 cell line as model systems for studying DNA anaphase bridges and show that TopBP1/Dpb11 plays an evolutionarily conserved role in their metabolism. Together with the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA, TopBP1/Dpb11 binds to UFBs, and depletion of TopBP1/Dpb11 led to an accumulation of chromatin bridges. Importantly, the NoCut checkpoint that delays progression from anaphase to abscission in yeast was activated by both UFBs and chromatin bridges independently of Dpb11, and disruption of the NoCut checkpoint in Dpb11-depleted cells led to genome instability. In conclusion, we propose that TopBP1/Dpb11 prevents accumulation of anaphase bridges via stimulation of the Mec1/ATR kinase and suppression of homologous recombination.

  15. In vitro selection of shape-changing DNA nanostructures capable of binding-induced cargo release.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung Soo; Plakos, Kory; Xiao, Yi; Eisenstein, Michael; Soh, H Tom

    2013-11-26

    Many biological systems employ allosteric regulatory mechanisms, which offer a powerful means of directly linking a specific binding event to a wide spectrum of molecular functionalities. There is considerable interest in generating synthetic allosteric regulators that can perform useful molecular functions for applications in diagnostics, imaging and targeted therapies, but generating such molecules through either rational design or directed evolution has proven exceptionally challenging. To address this need, we present an in vitro selection strategy for generating conformation-switching DNA nanostructures that selectively release a small-molecule payload in response to binding of a specific trigger molecule. As an exemplar, we have generated a DNA nanostructure that hybridizes with a separate 'cargo strand' containing an abasic site. This abasic site stably sequesters a fluorescent cargo molecule in an inactive state until the DNA nanostructure encounters an ATP trigger molecule. This ATP trigger causes the nanostructure to release the cargo strand, thereby liberating the fluorescent payload and generating a detectable fluorescent readout. Our DNA nanostructure is highly sensitive, with an EC50 of 30 μM, and highly specific, releasing its payload in response to ATP but not to other chemically similar nucleotide triphosphates. We believe that this selection approach could be generalized to generate synthetic nanostructures capable of selective and controlled release of other small-molecule cargos in response to a variety of triggers, for both research and clinical applications.

  16. TopBP1/Dpb11 binds DNA anaphase bridges to prevent genome instability

    PubMed Central

    Germann, Susanne M.; Schramke, Vera; Pedersen, Rune Troelsgaard; Gallina, Irene; Eckert-Boulet, Nadine; Oestergaard, Vibe H.

    2014-01-01

    DNA anaphase bridges are a potential source of genome instability that may lead to chromosome breakage or nondisjunction during mitosis. Two classes of anaphase bridges can be distinguished: DAPI-positive chromatin bridges and DAPI-negative ultrafine DNA bridges (UFBs). Here, we establish budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the avian DT40 cell line as model systems for studying DNA anaphase bridges and show that TopBP1/Dpb11 plays an evolutionarily conserved role in their metabolism. Together with the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA, TopBP1/Dpb11 binds to UFBs, and depletion of TopBP1/Dpb11 led to an accumulation of chromatin bridges. Importantly, the NoCut checkpoint that delays progression from anaphase to abscission in yeast was activated by both UFBs and chromatin bridges independently of Dpb11, and disruption of the NoCut checkpoint in Dpb11-depleted cells led to genome instability. In conclusion, we propose that TopBP1/Dpb11 prevents accumulation of anaphase bridges via stimulation of the Mec1/ATR kinase and suppression of homologous recombination. PMID:24379413

  17. Use of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to measure DNA binding capacity of chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.C.; Earley, K.; Sharma, S.

    1988-05-01

    Although animal models have been used successfully to study metabolic activation and binding of carcinogens to DNA, only limited studies have been done in human systems. To circumvent the problems associated with the inaccessibility of human tissues and a lack of sensitive methods to detect DNA damage, the authors have investigated the capability of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro to metabolize carcinogens to their DNA binding species by a {sup 32}P-labeled adduct assay. Freshly isolated lymphocytes were exposed at 37{degree}C for 18 hr to 4-aminobiphenyl, 2-aminofluorene, 2-anthramine, 2-acetylaminophenanthrene, benzidine, 1-nitropyrene, 1,2-benzanthracene, triphenylene, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, or benzo(a)pyrene at 30 {mu}M each,more » compounds that are shown or suspected to be carcinogenic in experimental animals. The data indicate that all test carcinogens formed readily measurable levels of DNA adducts. Analysis of exposed DNAs by {sup 32}P-labeling after digestion and adduct enrichment showed exclusively or predominantly one major adduct for all test carcinogens, except for 2-anthramine, triphenylene, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, which showed two or three adducts. From 12 lymphocyte specimens studied thus far, significant interindividual variations were observed. The lymphocyte system in combination with the {sup 32}P-adduct assay may prove to be an ultrasensitive means to determine interindividual variations in the ability to biotransform carcinogens.« less

  18. Role of promoter DNA sequence variations on the binding of EGR1 transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Mikles, David C; Schuchardt, Brett J; Bhat, Vikas; McDonald, Caleb B; Farooq, Amjad

    2014-05-01

    In response to a wide variety of stimuli such as growth factors and hormones, EGR1 transcription factor is rapidly induced and immediately exerts downstream effects central to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Her