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Sample records for ziarko yiyu yao

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Yao syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... in more than half of affected individuals. Dry eyes and dry mouth (described as "sicca-like" symptoms, which refers to dryness) are reported in about half of people with this disease. Other potential signs and symptoms of Yao syndrome include mouth sores, chest pain, and enlargement of ...

  2. Chemical study of the Chinese medicine Pi Han Yao

    PubMed Central

    PENG, TENG; ZHAO, FURONG; CHEN, XIAOYU; JIANG, GUIHUA; WANG, SHAONAN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to ivnestigate the chemical constituents of the Chinese medicine Pi Han Yao (Gueldenstaedtia delavayi Franch) decoction. Following this, the quantitative determination of the formononetin and maackiain content in Pi Han Yao was established. The chemical constituents were isolated by column chromatography and their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectrometric data and chemical evidence. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the determination of the formononetin and maackiain content in Pi Han Yao. Seven flavanones were isolated from the Pi Han Yao decoction. Five of the chemical structures were elucidated as 1, 7,2′-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-isoflavanol; 2, maackiain; 3, formononetin-7-O-β-D-glucoside; 4, formononetin; and 5, 9-(β-D-ribofuranosyl)-adenosine. The other two compounds and their structures require further study. Additionally, the linear range of formononetin and maackiain were 0.03992–0.3992 and 0.0292–0.292 µg, and their recoveries were 100.31 and 100.44%. To the best of our knowledge, compounds 1–5 were obtained from Pi Han Yao for the first time. The HPLC method use for determination of formononetin and maackiain in Pi Han Yao was simple, accurate and reliable. Findings from the present study suggest that these methods may be used to evaluate the quality of Pi Han Yao and provide an experience basis for quality standards of this medicinal material. PMID:26893842

  3. Mao Was My Neighbour: Yao Zhongda and the "Opening" of Chinese Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger

    2013-01-01

    After Deng Xiaoping's 1978 reform and opening, foreigners had a chance to see adult education in China. As a result, many met Yao Zhongda, Chief of the Bureau of Workers' and Peasants Education. From 1921 onwards, adult education has been a vital corollary of Communist revolution. Although Yao's biography was extremely relevant to what foreigners…

  4. On the Jupiter's ephemeris in the Ch'i-Yao Jang-Tsai-Chüch.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Weixing; Jiang, Xiaoyuan

    Jupiter's ephemeris preserved in the Ch'i-Yao Jang-Tsai-Chüch is interpreted. Then the time and position coordinates of Jupiter's first stationary point, second stationary point, first visibility in the east and last visibility in the west, which recorded in the ephemeris are analysed. The accuracy of the ephemeris is also discussed. Finally, it is identified that the ephemeris has been used as an astrological handbook by Japanese astrologers in 973 - 1132.

  5. [Study on the first translated obstetrics book Tai chan ju yao (Essentials in Obstetrics)].

    PubMed

    Wu, M

    2018-01-28

    In 1893, Wan Tsun-mo translated and published Tai chan ju yao ( Essentials in Obstetrics ), the first monograph of western obstetrics in modern China, symbolizing the independence of obstetrics from such maternal and child books as Fu ying xin shuo and Fu ke jing yun tu shuo , which occupies an important position in the history of the development of modern Chinese obstetrics. The book introduced anatomy, physiology, pathology, embryology, diagnostics, surgery, pharmacology and other knowledge of obstetrics in a catechismal form, and had a detailed discussion of such advanced obstetrical technologies as antiseptic, anesthesia, forceps and cesarean section for the first time.Judging from the content and translation of Tai chan ju yao , this book has already possessed the basic knowledge system of modern obstetrics, though the translation appeared to be somewhat jerky and not elegant and the terminology needing to be further improved, it was not only used as an important medium for the introduction of obstetrical knowledge, but also of great clinical value.However, its influence was so weak that later researchers seldom mentioned this book.

  6. Description of immature stages of Scymnus (Neopullus) sinuanodulus Yu and Yao (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with notes on life history

    Treesearch

    Wenhua Lu; Phetsamon Souphanya; Michael E. Montgomery

    2002-01-01

    We describe for the first time immature stages of the Scymnus subgenus Neopullus; namely the egg, larval (4 instars), and pupal stages of Scymnus (Neopullus) sinuanodulus Yu and Yao (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), which is indigenous to China. This lady beetle was imported to...

  7. Elucidation of Islamic drugs in Hui Hui Yao Fang: a linguistic and pharmaceutical approach.

    PubMed

    Kong, Y C; Chen, D S

    1996-11-01

    Hui Hui Yao Fang, an Islamic formulary, was probably the official formulary of the Mongolian administration during the Yuan dynasty (13th-14th century) in China. In the three chapters of prescriptions that remain extant today, there are 517 Islamic drugs carrying Arabic or Persian names, each with its Chinese transliteration. Chapter 12 deals with the 'wind' diseases, containing 199 Islamic drugs. In this research, 129 items were identified, and each of which was assigned to a definite taxon; these are the most frequently cited drugs in the formulary. Identifications were corroborated by botanical, pharmacological and phonetic considerations. This exercise demonstrates the inherent affinity between Islamic and Chinese medicines. The reciprocal influence between them greatly enriched the content of these two important bodies of drug science, thus, setting a pattern for the synthesis of drug knowledge and the regulation of therapeutic substances. Recognition of different bodies of ethnomedicine is necessary in view of the fact that there is an increasing mobility of people today, who tend to bring with them their drug knowledge.

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PPARD +294T > C (rs2016520) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 609 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 573 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the PPARD +294T > C polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.001 for all). The frequency of T and C alleles was 77.50% and 22.50% in Bai Ku Yao, and 72.43% and 27.57% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequency of TT, TC and CC genotypes was 60.59%, 33.83% and 5.53% in Bai Ku Yao, and 52.18%, 40.50% and 7.32% in Han (P < 0.05); respectively. The subjects with CC genotype in Bai Ku Yao had higher serum LDL-C and ApoB levels and lower the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the subjects with TT and TC genotypes in females but not in males. The C allele carriers in Han had higher serum TC levels in males (P < 0.01) and ApoB levels in females (P < 0.05) than the C allele noncarriers. Serum TC and ApoB levels were correlated with genotypes in Han (P < 0.05 for each) but not in Bai Ku Yao. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups. Conclusions These results suggest that the association of PPARD +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is

  9. Association of LIPC -250G>A polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association between -250G>A polymorphism in the promoter region of the hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) and plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is contradictory in diverse ethnics. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. This study was designed to detect the association of LIPC -250G>A (rs2070895) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 778 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 648 participants of Han Chinese aged 15-80 were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LIPC -250G>A was performed by polymerse chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequencies of GG, GA and AA genotypes were 50.0%, 43.3% and 6.7% in Bai Ku Yao, and 35.7%, 50.6% and 13.7% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequencies of G and A alleles were 71.7% and 28.3% in Bai Ku Yao, and 61.0% and 39.0% in Han (P < 0.01). The levels of HDL-C and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Bai Ku Yao were lower in GG genotype than in GA or AA genotype (P < 0.05-0.01). The levels of TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoB in Han were lower in GG genotype than in GA or AA genotype (P < 0.05-0.01). The levels of HDL-C and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Bai Ku Yao, and the levels of HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoB in Han were correlated with genotype and/or allele (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with age, sex, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, blood pressure, body weight, and body mass index in both ethnic groups. Conclusions The differences in the serum lipid profiles between the two ethnic groups might partly result from

  10. Processes affecting the spatial distribution of seagrass meadow sedimentary material on Yao Yai Island, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quak, Michelle S. Y.; Ziegler, Alan D.; Benner, Shawn G.; Evans, Sam; Todd, Peter A.; Gillis, Lucy G.; Vongtanaboon, Sukanya; Jachowski, Nick; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2016-12-01

    Many islands throughout SE Asia are experiencing rapid development and land-cover conversion that potentially threaten sensitive coastal ecosystems, such as seagrasses, through increased loading of sediment and nutrients originating from disturbed catchments draining to the sea. To evaluate this threat for one such island in Southern Thailand (Yao Yai), we perform sediment source tracing via end-member mixing analysis using stable isotopes δ13C and δ15N in organic matter to explore sediment loading in a seagrass meadow. The analysis indicates that sedimentary material in the meadow originates mostly from ocean-associated sources (∼62% from seagrass detritus, seston, and ocean sediments). Terrestrial material comprises ∼19% of the organic material found in the seagrass meadow, with another 20% originating from an adjacent mangrove forest. Approximately one-fourth of the seagrass meadow material (24%) is detritus that has been (re)deposited internally. The high contribution of terrestrial-derived organic matter deposited near the river mouth demonstrates that substantial quantities of sediment are being transferred from upslope erosion sources into the seagrass meadow. However, only a small amount of this material is deposited throughout the entire bay because much of the terrestrial- and mangrove-derived sediment is transferred to the open ocean via channels that are periodically dredged to allow boat access to two small inland harbours. This positive affect of dredging has not received very much attention in existing literature. River water flowing to the channels during falling tide delivers sediment to these efficient pathways, where much of it bypasses the seagrass meadow at periods of time when sediment deposition would normally be the greatest. There is growing concern that ongoing land-cover changes and planned urbanization related to tourism and agriculture on the island may boost sediment/nutrients above a critical threshold, beyond that revealed in

  11. Low density lipoprotein receptor gene Ava II polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several common genetic polymorphisms in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene have associated with modifications of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, but the results are not consistent in different populations. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 1024 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 792 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A- and A+ alleles was 65.5% and 34.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 80.7% and 19.3% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of A-A-, A-A+ and A+A+ genotypes was 42.6%, 45.9% and 11.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 64.9%, 31.6% and 3.5% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. There was also significant difference in the genotypic frequencies between males and females in Bai Ku Yao (P <0.05), and in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C (>3.20 mmol/L) subgroups in Bai Ku Yao (P < 0.05 for each) and between males and females in Han (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of LDL-C in males and TC and HDL-C in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for all) in Bai Ku Yao, whereas the levels of HDL-C in males and HDL-C and ApoA1 in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001) in Han. The subjects with A+A+ genotype had

  12. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse ethnics. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The aim of the present study was to eveluate the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 780 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 686 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05-0.001). The frequency of C and T alleles was 77.4% and 22.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 60.9% and 39.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes was 58.7%, 37.3% and 4.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 32.6%, 56.4% and 11.0% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC and LDL-C in both ethnic groups were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01). The T allele carriers had higher serum TC and LDL-C levels than the T allele noncarriers. The levels of ApoB in Han were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum ApoB levels as compared with the T allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, TG and LDL-C in Bai Ku Yao were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001), whereas the levels of LDL-C in Han were associated with genotypes (P < 0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in the both ethnic

  13. Anxiolytic and neuroprotective effects of the Traditional Chinese Medicinal formulation Dan-zhi-xiao-yao-san in a rat model of chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guo-Ping; Gui, Dan; Fu, Lu-Di; Guo, Zhou-Ke; Fu, Wen-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Dan-zhi-xiao-yao-san is a Traditional Chinese Medicinal formulation widely used for the treatment of neuropsychological disorders. The present study examined the anxiolytic and neuroprotective effects of Dan-zhi-xiao-yao-san in a rat model of chronic stress. The results of an elevated plus maze test showed that Dan‑zhi‑xiao‑yao‑san significantly attenuated the levels of anxiety-induced stress as evidenced by increases in the time spent in the open arm region, as well as the percentage of entries into this area. In addition, Dan-zhi-xiao-yao-san alleviated stress‑induced neuronal death, as indicated by histological examination. Furthermore, mechanistic studies suggested that the anxiolytic and neuroprotective effects of Dan-zhi-xiao-yao-san may be mediated via attenuation of chronic stress‑induced upregulation of α‑synuclein and corticosterone, and downregulation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in the hippocampal region of the brain at the mRNA and protein level. In addition, Dan‑zhi‑xiao‑yao‑san decreased the serum levels of stress‑induced corticosterone in the model animals. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that Dan‑zhi‑xiao‑yao‑san exerted anxiolytic and neuroprotective effects in a rat model of chronic stress via attenuation of stress‑induced upregulation of α‑synuclein and corticosterone, and downregulation of PP2A in the hippocampus.

  14. Study on the effect of Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San decoction on patients with functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Gan, Hong Quan; Mei, Qi Bing; Liu, Li

    2010-02-01

    The effect of Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS) decoction on patients with functional dyspepsia was studied by means of electrogastrography (EGG) and symptoms of dyspepsia were assessed. Twenty patients with functional dyspepsia were selected; before and after internal treatment with JWXYS, the integrated symptoms of the patients were down-regulated from 18.55 +/- 3.24 (before treatment) to 11.65 +/- 2.37 (after treatment) (p < 0.01); electrogastrography showed that all the EGG parameters of the patients were outside the normal range. After treatment with JWXYS, all these indices improved before and after dinner. The results showed that the JWXYS decoction could not only improve the symptoms, but also adjust the abnormal gastric motility and gastric myoelectrical activity of patients with functional dyspepsia. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Association of the LIPG 584C > T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Endothelial lipase (EL) is a major determinant of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism, but the association of endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) polymorphism and serum HDL-C levels is scarce and conflicting in diverse populations. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. This study was designed to detect the association of LIPG 584C > T (rs2000813) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 645 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 638 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LIPG 584C > T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05 - 0.001). The frequency of C and T alleles was 73.5% and 26.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 67.9% and 32.1% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes was 50.4%, 46.2% and 3.4% in Bai Ku Yao, and 41.4%, 53.1% and 5.5% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. Serum HDL-C levels in both ethnic groups were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). Serum TC levels in both ethnic groups were also different between the CC and CT/TT genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). The T allele carriers had higher serum HDL-C and TC levels than the T allele noncarriers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the levels of HDL-C and ApoB were correlated with genotypes in Bai Ku Yao (P < 0.05 for each), whereas the levels of TC and HDL-C were associated with genotypes in Han Chinese (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in the both ethnic

  16. A Chinese herbal medicine, jia-wei-xiao-yao-san, prevents dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Chien, Shu-Chen; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Lin, Pu-Hua; Chang, Wei-Pin; Hsu, Shih-Chung; Chang, Jung-Chen; Wu, Ya-Chieh; Pei, Jin-Kuo; Lin, Chia-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (JWXYS) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that is widely used to treat neuropsychological disorders. Only a few of the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS have been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS on dimethylnitrosamine- (DMN-) induced chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis in rats and to clarify the mechanism through which JWXYS exerts these effects. After the rats were treated with DMN for 3 weeks, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) levels were significantly elevated, whereas the albumin level decreased. Although DMN was continually administered, after the 3 doses of JWXYS were orally administered, the SGOT and SGPT levels significantly decreased and the albumin level was significantly elevated. In addition, JWXYS treatment prevented liver fibrosis induced by DMN. JWXYS exhibited superoxide-dismutase-like activity and dose-dependently inhibited DMN-induced lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity in the liver of rats. Our findings suggest that JWXYS exerts antifibrotic effects against DMN-induced chronic hepatic injury. The possible mechanism is at least partially attributable to the ability of JWXYS to inhibit reactive-oxygen-species-induced membrane lipid peroxidation.

  17. Effects of Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San on the Peripheral and Lymphatic Pharmacokinetics of Paclitaxel in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mei-Ling; Lu, Chia-Ming; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel is effective against breast cancer. The herbal medicine, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS), is the most frequent prescription used to relieve the symptoms of breast cancer treatments. The aim of the study was to investigate the herb-drug interaction effects of a herbal medicine on the distribution of paclitaxel to lymph. A validated ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was used to determine the paclitaxel levels in rat plasma and lymph after intravenous infusion of paclitaxel alone with or without 7 days of JWXYS pretreatment. The pharmacokinetic results indicate that paclitaxel concentrations in plasma exceeded those in lymph by approximately 3.6-fold. The biodistribution of paclitaxel from plasma to lymph was 39 ± 5%; however, this increased to 45 ± 4% with JWXYS pretreatment. With JWXYS pretreatment, the AUC and C max of paclitaxel in plasma were significantly reduced by approximately 1.5-fold, compared to paclitaxel alone. Additionally, JWXYS decreased the AUC and C max of paclitaxel in lymph. However, the lymph absorption rate of paclitaxel with or without JWXYS pretreatment was not significantly changed (27 ± 3 and 30 ± 2%, resp.). Our findings demonstrate that when paclitaxel is prescribed concurrently with herbal medicine, monitoring of the blood pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel is recommended.

  18. Effects of Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San on the Peripheral and Lymphatic Pharmacokinetics of Paclitaxel in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Mei-Ling; Lu, Chia-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel is effective against breast cancer. The herbal medicine, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS), is the most frequent prescription used to relieve the symptoms of breast cancer treatments. The aim of the study was to investigate the herb-drug interaction effects of a herbal medicine on the distribution of paclitaxel to lymph. A validated ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was used to determine the paclitaxel levels in rat plasma and lymph after intravenous infusion of paclitaxel alone with or without 7 days of JWXYS pretreatment. The pharmacokinetic results indicate that paclitaxel concentrations in plasma exceeded those in lymph by approximately 3.6-fold. The biodistribution of paclitaxel from plasma to lymph was 39 ± 5%; however, this increased to 45 ± 4% with JWXYS pretreatment. With JWXYS pretreatment, the AUC and C max of paclitaxel in plasma were significantly reduced by approximately 1.5-fold, compared to paclitaxel alone. Additionally, JWXYS decreased the AUC and C max of paclitaxel in lymph. However, the lymph absorption rate of paclitaxel with or without JWXYS pretreatment was not significantly changed (27 ± 3 and 30 ± 2%, resp.). Our findings demonstrate that when paclitaxel is prescribed concurrently with herbal medicine, monitoring of the blood pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel is recommended. PMID:27057200

  19. Tong Xie Yao Fang relieves irritable bowel syndrome in rats via mechanisms involving regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine and substance P

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yue; Zhong, Lei; Wang, Jian-Wei; Zhao, Xue-Ying; Zhao, Wen-Jing; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the Chinese medicine Tong Xie Yao Fang (TXYF) improves dysfunction in an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) rat model. METHODS: Thirty baby rats for IBS modeling were separated from mother rats (1 h per day) from days 8 to 21, and the rectum was expanded by angioplasty from days 8 to 12. Ten normal rats were used as normal controls. We examined the effects of TXYF on defection frequency, colonic transit function and smooth muscle contraction, and the expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and substance P (SP) in colonic and hypothalamus tissues by Western blot and RT-PCT techniques in both normal rats and IBS model rats with characterized visceral hypersensitivity. RESULTS: Defecation frequency was 1.8 ± 1.03 in normal rats and 4.5 ± 1.58 in IBS model rats (P < 0.001). However, the defecation frequency was significantly decreased (3.0 ± 1.25 vs 4.5 ± 1.58, P < 0.05), while the time (in seconds) of colon transit function was significantly increased (256.88 ± 20.32 vs 93.36 ± 17.28, P < 0.001) in IBS + TXYF group rats than in IBS group rats. Increased colonic smooth muscle tension and contract frequency in IBS model rats were significantly decreased by administration of TXYF. Exogenous agonist stimulants increased spontaneous activity and elicited contractions of colon smooth muscle in IBS model rats, and all of these actions were significantly reduced by TXYF involving 5-HT and SP down-regulation. CONCLUSION: TXYF can modulate the activity of the enteric nervous system and alter 5-HT and SP activities, which may contribute to the symptoms of IBS. PMID:25914462

  20. Tong Xie Yao Fang relieves irritable bowel syndrome in rats via mechanisms involving regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine and substance P.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yue; Zhong, Lei; Wang, Jian-Wei; Zhao, Xue-Ying; Zhao, Wen-Jing; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2015-04-21

    To investigate whether the Chinese medicine Tong Xie Yao Fang (TXYF) improves dysfunction in an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) rat model. Thirty baby rats for IBS modeling were separated from mother rats (1 h per day) from days 8 to 21, and the rectum was expanded by angioplasty from days 8 to 12. Ten normal rats were used as normal controls. We examined the effects of TXYF on defection frequency, colonic transit function and smooth muscle contraction, and the expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and substance P (SP) in colonic and hypothalamus tissues by Western blot and RT-PCT techniques in both normal rats and IBS model rats with characterized visceral hypersensitivity. Defecation frequency was 1.8 ± 1.03 in normal rats and 4.5 ± 1.58 in IBS model rats (P < 0.001). However, the defecation frequency was significantly decreased (3.0 ± 1.25 vs 4.5 ± 1.58, P < 0.05), while the time (in seconds) of colon transit function was significantly increased (256.88 ± 20.32 vs 93.36 ± 17.28, P < 0.001) in IBS + TXYF group rats than in IBS group rats. Increased colonic smooth muscle tension and contract frequency in IBS model rats were significantly decreased by administration of TXYF. Exogenous agonist stimulants increased spontaneous activity and elicited contractions of colon smooth muscle in IBS model rats, and all of these actions were significantly reduced by TXYF involving 5-HT and SP down-regulation. TXYF can modulate the activity of the enteric nervous system and alter 5-HT and SP activities, which may contribute to the symptoms of IBS.

  1. Xiao-Yao-San, a Chinese Medicine Formula, Ameliorates Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Induced Polycystic Ovary in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao-Yu; Li, Quan; Liu, Yu-Ying; Wei, Xiao-Hong; Pan, Chun-Shui; Fan, Jing-Yu; Han, Jing-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Chronic stress induces endocrine disturbance, which contributes to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition that remains a challenge for clinicians to cope with. The present study investigated the effect of Xiao-Yao-San (XYS), a traditional Chinese medicine formula used for treatment of gynecological disease, on the chronic stress-induced polycystic ovary and its underlying mechanism. Female Sprague-Dwaley rats underwent a 3 weeks chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) procedure to establish the PCOS model, followed by 4 weeks treatment with XYS (0.505 g/kg or 1.01 g/kg) by gavage. Granulosa cells were exposed to noradrenaline (1 mM) in vitro for 24 h, followed by incubation with or without XYS-treated rat serum for 24 h. Post-treatment with XYS ameliorated CUMS-induced irregular estrous cycles and follicles development abnormalities, decrease of estradiol and progesterone level as well as increase of luteinizing hormone in serum, reduced cystic follicles formation and the apoptosis and autophagy of granulosa cells, attenuated the increase in dopamine beta hydroxylase and c-fos level in locus coeruleus, the noradrenaline level in serum and ovarian tissue, and the expression of beta 2 adrenergic receptor in ovarian tissue. Besides, XYS alleviated the reduction of phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase polypeptide I and protein kinase B, as well as the increase of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-I to microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II conversion both in vivo and in vitro. This study demonstrated XYS as a potential strategy for CUMS induced polycystic ovary, and suggested that the beneficial role of XYS was correlated with the regulation of the sympathetic nerve activity. PMID:29018356

  2. Simultaneous determination of 12 chemical constituents in the traditional Chinese Medicinal Prescription Xiao-Yao-San-Jia-Wei by HPLC coupled with photodiode array detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongmin; Chen, Shiwei; Qin, Feng; Huang, Xi; Ren, Ping; Gu, Xinqi

    2008-12-15

    An HPLC-photodiode array (PDA) detection method was established for the simultaneous determination of 12 components in Xiao-Yao-San-Jia-Wei (XYSJW): geniposide, puerarin, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, liquiritin, hesperidin, naringin, paeonol, daidzein, glycyrrhizic acid, honokiol, and magnolol. These were separated in less than 70 min using a Waters Symmetry Shield RP 18 column with gradient elution using (A) acetonitrile, (B) water, and (C) acetic acid at a flow rate of 1 ml/min, and with a PDA detector. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r(2)>0.9992) within the test ranges. The method was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision, and limits of detection. The proposed method enables in a single run the simultaneous identification and determination for quality control of 12 multi-structural components of XYSJW forming the basis of its therapeutic effect.

  3. Genetic variant of V825I in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several genetic variants in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene have associated with modifications of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and the susceptibility for coronary heart disease, but the findings are still controversial in diverse racial/ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in southern China. The present study was undertaken to detect the possible association of V825I (rs2066715) polymorphism in the ABCA1 gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 677 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 646 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism assay combined with gel electrophoresis were performed for the genotyping of V825I variant, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of G and A alleles was 57.4% and 42.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 57.7% and 42.3% in Han (P > 0.05); respectively. The frequency of GG, GA and AA genotypes was 33.7%, 47.4% and 18.9% in Bai Ku Yao, and 33.4%, 48.6% and 18.0% in Han (P > 0.05); respectively. There was no difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between males and females in the both ethnic groups. The subjects with AA genotype in Bai Ku Yao had higher serum TC levels than the subjects with GG and GA genotypes (P < 0.05). The participants with AA genotype in Han had lower serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the participants with GG and GA genotypes (P < 0.05 for each), but these results were found in males but not in females. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the levels of TC in Bai Ku Yao and HDL-C and ApoAI in male Han were correlated with genotypes (P < 0

  4. Xiao Yao San Improves Depressive-Like Behaviors in Rats with Chronic Immobilization Stress through Modulation of Locus Coeruleus-Norepinephrine System.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiu-Fang; Zhao, Xiao-Hua; Tao, Yang; Zhong, Wei-Chao; Fan, Qin; Diao, Jian-Xin; Liu, Yuan-Liang; Chen, Yu-Yao; Chen, Jia-Xu; Lv, Zhi-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Most research focuses on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPGA) axis systems of abnormalities of emotions and behaviors induced by stress, while no studies of Chinese herbal medicine such as Xiao Yao San (XYS) on the mechanisms of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system have been reported. Therefore, experiments were carried out to observe mechanism of LC-NE system in response to chronic immobilization stress (CIS) and explore the antidepressant effect of XYS. Rat model was established by CIS. LC morphology in rat was conducted. The serum norepinephrine (NE) concentrations and NE biosynthesis such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH), and corticotrophin-releasing-factor (CRF) in LC were determined. Results showed that there were no discernible alterations in LC in rats. The serum NE concentrations, positive neurons, mean optical density (MOD), and protein levels of TH, DBH, and CRF in model group were significantly increased compared to the control group. But XYS-treated group displayed a significantly decreased in NE levels and expressions of TH, DBH, and CRF compared to the model group. In conclusion, CIS can activate LC-NE system to release NE and then result in a significant decrease in rats. XYS treatment can effectively improve depressive-like behaviors in rats through inhibition of LC-NE neurons activity.

  5. Xiao Yao San Improves Depressive-Like Behaviors in Rats with Chronic Immobilization Stress through Modulation of Locus Coeruleus-Norepinephrine System

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiu-Fang; Zhao, Xiao-Hua; Tao, Yang; Zhong, Wei-Chao; Fan, Qin; Diao, Jian-Xin; Liu, Yuan-Liang; Chen, Yu-Yao; Chen, Jia-Xu; Lv, Zhi-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Most research focuses on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPGA) axis systems of abnormalities of emotions and behaviors induced by stress, while no studies of Chinese herbal medicine such as Xiao Yao San (XYS) on the mechanisms of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system have been reported. Therefore, experiments were carried out to observe mechanism of LC-NE system in response to chronic immobilization stress (CIS) and explore the antidepressant effect of XYS. Rat model was established by CIS. LC morphology in rat was conducted. The serum norepinephrine (NE) concentrations and NE biosynthesis such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH), and corticotrophin-releasing-factor (CRF) in LC were determined. Results showed that there were no discernible alterations in LC in rats. The serum NE concentrations, positive neurons, mean optical density (MOD), and protein levels of TH, DBH, and CRF in model group were significantly increased compared to the control group. But XYS-treated group displayed a significantly decreased in NE levels and expressions of TH, DBH, and CRF compared to the model group. In conclusion, CIS can activate LC-NE system to release NE and then result in a significant decrease in rats. XYS treatment can effectively improve depressive-like behaviors in rats through inhibition of LC-NE neurons activity. PMID:25610478

  6. Herb-drug pharmacokinetic interaction of a traditional chinese medicine jia-wei-xiao-yao-san with 5-Fluorouracil in the blood and brain of rat using microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Chang, Li-Wen; Wang, Ju-Wen; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2015-01-01

    According to a survey from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS) is the most popular Chinese medicine for cancer patients in Taiwan. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a general anticancer drug for the chemotherapy. To investigate the herb-drug interaction of JWXYS on pharmacokinetics of 5-FU, a microdialysis technique coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography system was used to monitor 5-FU in rat blood and brain. Rats were divided into four parallel groups, one of which was treated with 5-FU (100 mg/kg, i.v.) alone and the remaining three groups were pretreated with a different dose of JWXYS (600, 1200, or 2400 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days) followed by a combination with 5-FU. This study demonstrates that 5-FU with JWXYS (600 mg/kg/day or 1200 mg/kg/day) has no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of 5-FU in the blood and brain. However, JWXYS (2400 mg/kg/day) coadministered with 5-FU extends the elimination half-life and increases the volume of distribution of 5-FU in the blood. The elimination half-life of 5-FU in the brain for the pretreatment group with 2400 mg/kg/day of JWXYS is significantly longer than that for the group treated with 5-FU alone and also reduces the clearance. This study provides practical dosage information for clinical practice and proves the safety of 5-FU coadministered with JWXYS.

  7. A sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of eleven bioactive components of Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang decoction in rat biological matrices.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-xue; Hu, Lang; Zhang, Meng-meng; Sun, Jian; Qiu, Yue; Rui, Jun-qian; Yang, Xing-hao

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the sensitive quantification of multiple components using advanced data acquisition method in herbal medicines (HMs). An improved and rugged UPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for sensitive and rapid determination of multiply analytes from Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang (TXYF) decoction in three biological matrices (plasma/brain tissue/urine) using geniposide and formononetin as internal standards. After solid-phase extraction, chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using gradient elution. Quantifier and qualifier transitions were monitored using novel Triggered Dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (TdMRM) in the positive ionization mode. A significant peak symmetry and sensitivity improvement in the TdMRM mode was achieved as compared to conventional MRM. The reproducibility (RSD%) was ≤7.9% by applying TdMRM transition while the values were 6.8-20.6% for MRM. Excellent linear calibration curves were obtained under TdMRM transitions over the tested concentration ranges. Intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD%) were ≤14.2% and accuracies (RE%) ranged from -9.6% to 10.6%. The validation data of specificity, carryover, recovery, matrix effect and stability were within the required limits. The method was effectively applied to simultaneously detect and quantify 1 lactone, 2 monoterpene glucosides, 1 alkaloid, 5 flavonoids and 2 chromones in plasma, brain tissue and urine after oral administration of TXYF decoction. In conclusion, this new and reliable method is beneficial for quantification and confirmation assays of multiply components in complex biological samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Herb-Drug Pharmacokinetic Interaction of a Traditional Chinese Medicine Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San with 5-Fluorouracil in the Blood and Brain of Rat Using Microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Chang, Li-Wen; Wang, Ju-Wen; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2015-01-01

    According to a survey from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS) is the most popular Chinese medicine for cancer patients in Taiwan. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a general anticancer drug for the chemotherapy. To investigate the herb-drug interaction of JWXYS on pharmacokinetics of 5-FU, a microdialysis technique coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography system was used to monitor 5-FU in rat blood and brain. Rats were divided into four parallel groups, one of which was treated with 5-FU (100 mg/kg, i.v.) alone and the remaining three groups were pretreated with a different dose of JWXYS (600, 1200, or 2400 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days) followed by a combination with 5-FU. This study demonstrates that 5-FU with JWXYS (600 mg/kg/day or 1200 mg/kg/day) has no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of 5-FU in the blood and brain. However, JWXYS (2400 mg/kg/day) coadministered with 5-FU extends the elimination half-life and increases the volume of distribution of 5-FU in the blood. The elimination half-life of 5-FU in the brain for the pretreatment group with 2400 mg/kg/day of JWXYS is significantly longer than that for the group treated with 5-FU alone and also reduces the clearance. This study provides practical dosage information for clinical practice and proves the safety of 5-FU coadministered with JWXYS. PMID:25861367

  9. [Comparative study of theoretical literature on cold pathogenic disease in Wai tai mi yao fang (Arcane Essentials from the Imperial Library) and Tai ping sheng hui fang (Taiping Holy Prescriptions for Universal Relief)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huirui; Liang, Yongxuan

    2014-09-01

    In the Wai tai mi yao fang (Arcane Essentials from the Imperial Library) compiled in 752, its portion on cold pathogenic disorders embodies the achievements before the mid Tang Dynasty, whereas that in the Tai ping sheng hui fang (Taiping Holy Prescriptions for Universal Relief), compiled in 992 embodies those before the early Song Dynasty. Comparison on the theory of cold disorders in both books reveal that, during the 2 centuries period from mid Tang to early Song Dynasties, the texts as a carrier for the transmission of such theory in both show no distinct changes, but only with minor revisions and improvements.

  10. In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San in Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells Treated With Tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chang, Chun-Ju; Wang, Jir-You; Wen, Che-Sheng; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Chang, Wen-Chi; Noomhorm, Nattanant; Liu, Hui-Ju; Chen, Wei-Shone; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Shyr, Yi-Ming

    2014-05-01

    There is epidemiological evidence that Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS) is the most common Chinese medicine decoction coprescribed with tamoxifen (Tam) when breast cancer is treated by hormonal therapy. However, whether there is interaction between JWXYS and Tam remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of JWXYS on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells treated with Tam. In vitro cultured MCF-7 cells were cotreated with JWXYS and Tam. This was followed by MTT ([4,5-cimethylthiazol-2-yl]- 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assays and cell cycle analysis to assess cell proliferation; Western blot analysis was used to analyze the expression of various proteins involved in growth-related signal pathways. In addition, immunohistochemistry was used to detect autophagy among the cancer cells. In vivo analysis used female athymic nude mice implanted with MCF-7 cells; these mice were randomly assigned to 6 groups. All mice were killed humanely after 21 days of treatment; body weight, tumor volume, and tumor weight were then measured. JWXYS was not cytotoxic to MCF-7 cells, based on the fact that there were no statistically significant changes between the JWXYS + Tam groups and the Tam-alone group in cell numbers, cell cycle progression, and cell proliferation signals, the latter including the expression levels of AKT, ERK, P38, p27(Kip1), and light chain (LC3)-I, II. Furthermore, using the MCF-7 xenograft mouse model, there were no significant changes between the JWXYS (1.3-3.9 gm/kg) + Tam groups and the Tam-alone group in terms of tumor weight and the protein expression levels of AKT, ERK, P38, and p27 (Kip1). However, there was a significant decrease in LC3-II protein expression with the low-dose JWXYS + Tam group but not with the middle- or high-dose JWXYS + Tam groups compared with the Tam-alone group. Based on in vitro studies and in vivo functional studies, there is no obvious interaction between JWXYS and Tam. However

  11. Room-temperature super-extraction system (RTSES) optimizes the anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like behavioural effects of traditional Xiao-Yao-San in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Xiao-Yao-San (XYS) is a Chinese medicinal formula for treating anxiety and depression. This study aims to evaluate the use of a room-temperature super-extraction system (RTSES) to extract the major active components of XYS and enhance their psycho-pharmacological effects. Methods The neuroprotective roles of XYS/RTSES against reserpine-derived neurotoxicity were evaluated using a glial cell injury system (in vitro) and a depression-like C57BL/6 J mouse model (in vivo). The anxiolytic-behavioural effects were measured by the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test and the antidepressant effects were evaluated by the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were assayed by ELISA. The expression of 5-HT1A receptors in the prefrontal cortex was examined by western blotting. Results XYS/RTSES (300 μg/mL) diminished reserpine-induced glial cell death more effectively than either XYS (300 μg/mL) or fluoxetine (30 μM) at 24 h (P = 0.0481 and P = 0.054, respectively). Oral administration of XYS/RTSES (500 mg/kg/day) for 4 consecutive weeks significantly elevated the ratios of entries (open arms/closed arms; P = 0.0177) and shuttle activity (P = 0.00149) on the EPM test, and reduced the immobility time by 90% on the TST (P = 0.00000538) and FST (P = 0.0000053839). XYS/RTSES also improved the regulation of blood glucose (P = 0.0305) and increased the insulin sensitivity (P = 0.0093). The Western blot results indicated that the activation of cerebral 5-HT1A receptors may be involved in the mechanisms of XYS/RTSES actions. Conclusion The RTSES could provide a novel method for extracting effective anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like substances. XYS/RTSES improved the regulation of blood glucose and increased the insulin sensitivity in reserpine-induced anxiety and depression. Neuroprotection of glial cells and activation of cerebral 5-HT1A receptors were also involved. PMID:23134744

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Mira stars discovered in LAMOST DR4 (Yao+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Y.; Liu, C.; Deng, L.; de Grijs, R.; Matsunaga, N.

    2017-10-01

    By the end of 2016 March, the wide-field Large sky Area Multi-Object fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) DR4 catalog had accumulated 7681185 spectra (R=1800), of which 6898298 were of stars. We compiled a photometrically confirmed sample of Mira variables from the Kiso Wide-Field Camera (KWFC) Intensive Survey of the Galactic Plane (KISOGP; Matsunaga 2017, arXiv:1705.08567), the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) International Database Variable Star Index (VSX; Watson 2006, B/vsx, version 2017-05-02; we selected stars of variability type "M"), and the SIMBAD Astronomical Database. We first cross-matched the KISOGP and VSX Miras with the LAMOST DR4 catalog. Finally, we cross-matched the DR4 catalog with the SIMBAD database. See section 2. (1 data file).

  13. Medicinal plant knowledge and its erosion among the Mien (Yao) in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srithi, Kamonnate; Balslev, Henrik; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit; Srisanga, Prachaya; Trisonthi, Chusie

    2009-06-22

    We studied local knowledge and actual uses of medicinal plants among the Mien in northern Thailand, documenting traditional medical practices and its transfer between generations. With the assumption that discrepancies between knowledge and actual use represent knowledge erosion, we studied whether actual use of medicinal plants corresponded to people's knowledge of such uses. We used local knowledge from four specialist informants as the domain for semi-structured interviews with 34 randomly selected non-specialist informants. We calculated informant consensus, use value, and fidelity level for each species and use category and performed statistical analyses with Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, Pearson correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and paired-sample t-tests. We found significant discrepancies between knowledge and actual use of medicinal plants. The number of known and actually used plants increased with increasing informant age and decreased with increasing years of formal education. Medicinal plant knowledge and use in these Mien communities is undergoing inter-generational erosion because of acculturation and interrupted knowledge transmission. Preservation of Mien medicinal plant intellectual heritage requires continued documentation concerning use, conservation, and sustainable management of this resource, which should be publicized to younger Mien.

  14. ShaoYao decoction ameliorates colitis-associated colorectal cancer by downregulating proinflammatory cytokines and promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstracts Background Shaoyao decoction (SYD) is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription formulated by Liu Wan-Su, a master of traditional Chinese medicine in Jin-Yuan Dynasty. SYD is effective in treating ulcerative colitis. Paeonol, a component of SYD, inhibits colorectal cancer (CRC) cell proliferation and induces CRC cell apoptosis. In this study, azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)–induced colitis-associated CRC (caCRC) model and CRC cell lines were used to examine the effects of SYD on CRC in vivo and in vitro. Methods A translational medicine strategy based on phytomics quality control was adopted. Liquid chromatography was employed for the chemical characterization and chemical fingerprinting of SYD. Protein expression and macrophage existence were determined by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Serum cytokines were quantified by Luminex assay. Results AOM/DSS-induced caCRC phenotypically resembled human caCRC. SYD significantly increased the survival rate of the mice, ameliorated the general well-being of the mice, and reduced the incidence and multiplicity of colonic neoplasms. SYD inhibited epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), as indicated by upregulated epithelia cadherin and downregulated neuronal cadherin, fibronectin, vimentin, and transcription factor Snail. SYD reduced the expression levels of serum interleukin 1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α, tumor-associated macrophages, and p65. These results showed that SYD can attenuate proinflammatory cytokines and inhibit EMT. Conclusions SYD ameliorates caCRC by suppressing inflammation and inhibiting EMT. SYD might be an alternative therapy for caCRC. PMID:24766737

  15. News in Brief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-12-01

    Vice President Shen Wenqing Meets with Ecuadorian Guests For the First Time a Chinese Researcher Gives the Plenary Lecture at the International Symposium on Combustion Vice President Shen Wenqing Meets with NSERC Executive Vice-President Vice President Sun Jiaguang Meets with CONICYT President Ten-Year Anniversary Workshop of NSFC-IIASA Young Scientists Summer Program Held in Beijing Vice President Shen Wenqing Meets Guest from K.T. Li Foundation The 6th ASIAHORCs General Meeting in Beijing President Chen Yiyu Meets with DFG Delegation Vice President Shen Yan Visited International Organizations in Italy and France Vice President Wang Jie Meets with CEO of Academy of Malaysia

  16. A Computing Platform for Parallel Sparse Matrix Computations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-05

    REPORT NUMBER 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER Ahmed Sameh Ahmed H. Sameh, Alicia Klinvex, Yao Zhu 611103 c. THIS PAGE The...PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME FTE Equivalent: Total Number: Discipline Yao Zhu 0.50 Alicia Klinvex 0.10 0.60 2 Names of Post Doctorates Names of Faculty Supported...PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME FTE Equivalent: Total Number: NAME Total Number: NAME Total Number: Yao Zhu Alicia Klinvex 2 ...... ...... Sub Contractors (DD882) Names of other

  17. News in Brief News in Brief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    NSFC Delegation Visits Russia NSFC President Visits UNEP and ICRAF Professor Chen Yiyu, NSFC President Visits South Africa Evaluation results for applications to the National Natural Science Fund Programs in 2009 Released ---- 17,858 proposals approved, 72,964 declined Prof. Shen Meets Guests from the Netherlands The 12th Joint Committee Meeting of the Sino-German Center Held in Germany NSFC-CIHR Workshop on Health Sciences held in Beijing President Chen Yiyu Meets with Dr. Alain Beaudet NFSC-FRSQ Joint Workshop on Genomics Held in Beijing President Chen Meets with Dr. Fidel Castro Diaz-Balart NSFC Vice President Attends the 13th U.S.-China Joint Commission Meeting on Science and Technology Cooperation DFG Secretary General Visits NSFC NSFC Vice President Attended the 3rd ASIAHORCs Meeting NSFC Vive President Visits Cuba and Canada NSFC Vice President Attends Second China-Thailand Joint Workshop Top Ten Events in China's Basic Research in 2009 Unveiled NSFC-RGC Funded Research Won IEEE Marconi Prize Paper Award

  18. Two new species of Oobius (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and their phylogenetic relationship with other congeners from northeastern Asia

    Treesearch

    Yan-Xia Yao; Jian J. Duan; Jason L. Mottern; Xiao-Yi Wang; Zhong-Qi Yang; Leah S. Bauer; Michael W. Gates

    2018-01-01

    Two new species of egg parasitoids, Oobius saimaensis Yao and Mottern new species and Oobius fleischeri Yao and Duan new species (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are described from eggs of Agrilus fleischeri Obenberger, 1925 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Agrilus fleischeri is a phloemfeeding woodborer of poplar (...

  19. Targeting Alpha5 Beta1 Integrin to Prevent Metastatic Breast Cancer Cell Invasion: PhScN Target Site Definition and Plasma Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    carcinoma. Neoplasia, 2002. 4(5): p. 373-9. PMID: 12192595 12. Yao, H., D. Veine, K. Fay, E. Staszewski, et al., The PHSCN dendrimer as a more...375. PMID: 20300829 13. Yao, H., D.M. Veine, Z.Z. Zeng, K.S. Fay, et al., Increased potency of the PHSCN dendrimer as an inhibitor of human

  20. Identification of Damage in Hysteretic Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    Hart and Yao [34], Ibanez [51], Ibrahim . [53-58], Milne [59], Raggett, Rodeman, and Yao [32], Ting, Chen, and Yao [35], Udwadia and Shaw [61], and...S 4JJ S- 4 4 cy, m .9-D4 CD- to Ln C~0 Lsd ssa-4 57 0 ’.0 0 𔃾- a., 4.) 0. In In 1..a) o 0*,- a) ~fl .4~) 0) ’- E ~ *i-* E 00 ~ C U r~*, 0 *UC Z eua...and P. C. Shaw , "Identification of Structures Through Records Obtained During Strong Earthquake Ground Motion," Journal of Engineering for Industry

  1. Notes on the Chinese species of Dianous group I (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Liang; Li, Li-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Dianous zhujianqingi Tang & Li, 2011 syn. n. is synonymised with Dianous cyaneovirens (Cameron, 1930). Additional records of Dianous yao Rougemont, 1981, Dianous haraldi Puthz, 2000 and Dianous huanghaoi Tang & Li, 2011 are provided. PMID:24194652

  2. The Effects of Rater Severity and Rater Distribution on Examinees' Ability Estimation for Constructed-Response Items. Research Report. ETS RR-13-23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhen; Yao, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    The current study used simulated data to investigate the properties of a newly proposed method (Yao's rater model) for modeling rater severity and its distribution under different conditions. Our study examined the effects of rater severity, distributions of rater severity, the difference between item response theory (IRT) models with rater effect…

  3. Biohazard Detoxification Method Utilizing Magnetic Particles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    configurations (noted by the yellow in the flow tube region). These data highlight the importance of the magnetic field gradient in particle capture...Weyhers, F. Specht , J.S. Lucks, Int. J. Pharm. 138(1996) 85. [9] Z.L. Liu, Z.H. Ding, K.L. Yao, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 265(2003) 98. [10] P.A. Dresco

  4. Traditional Chinese medicine typing of affective disorders and treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L D; Zhang, Y L; Xu, S H; Zhou, G; Jin, S B

    1994-01-01

    According to the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), 50 patients with affective disorders were typed into the categories of depressed liver resulting in fire, mild Yang deficiency and mild Yin deficiency and were treated with Xiao Yao San Jia Wei. The results are 26 patients with marked improvement, 17 patients with improvement and 7 patients with no improvement.

  5. TESL Reporter, Vol. 4, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pack, Alice C., Ed.

    This issue of "TESL Reporter" presents the following articles: "Language Acquisition and Dialectalism" by Patricia G. Adkins, "Supplementation of Opposites in Simple Predicate Expansion" by Yao Shen, and "Form Class Baseball: A TESL Game" by Alice C. Pack. The meaning today of dialectal speech, or "bidialectal speech," is addressed by Patricia…

  6. TESL Reporter, Vol. 4, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pack, Alice C., Ed.

    This issue of "TESL Reporter" presents results of a 1970 English as a Second Language (ESL) textbook survey conducted by the English Language Institute and reported by Alice C. Pack; an article by Julene Evans entitled "Why TESL?"; and an article by Yao Shen entitled "Supplementation of Opposites in Simple Predicate Expansion." Of the 1,200 mailed…

  7. Comparative biology of three Scymnus lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): predators of Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae)

    Treesearch

    Wenhua Lu; Michael E. Montgomery

    2000-01-01

    Scymnus (Neopullus) sinuanodulus Yu et Yao, S. (N.) camptodromusYu et Liu, and Scymnus (Neopullus) n. sp. (in press) were collected in the People's Republic of China from hemlocks infested with the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand. To date, 3 of the 14 provinces in China where...

  8. Intrusion Detection and Forensics for Self-Defending Wireless Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    ICNP), Nov. 2007. 5. Yao Zhao, Yan Chen, Bo Li, and Qian Zhang, Hop ID: A Virtual Coordinate based Routing for Sparse Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, in...Liu, Hongbo Zhao, Kai Chen and Yan Chen, " DISCO : Memory Efficient and Accurate Flow Statistics for Network Measurement", in the Proc. of IEEE ICDCS

  9. Atypical Pupillary Light Reflex in Individuals with Autism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    N. Takahashi Thompson Center for Autism & Neurodevelopmental Disorders, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA S. E. Christ D. Q. Beversdorf...receiving clinical services at the University of Missouri Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders, an interdisciplinary academic...10-1-0474 TITLE: Atypical Pupillary Light Reflex in Individuals With Autism PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gang Yao, Ph.D

  10. Road Maps for Learning and Teacher Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitomer, Drew H.

    2011-01-01

    Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) make a compelling case for a coherent model of curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment, all built around a well-specified theory of learning. Arguing that dominant assessment policies and practices tend to drive pedagogy and student attitudes toward learning in pernicious ways, Black et al. make an argument that is…

  11. Earth Observations taken by the Expedition 10 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-01-11

    ISS010-E-12738 (11 January 2005) --- One of a series of post-tsunami digital still images photographed by the Expedition 10 crew aboard the International Space Station. This image, recorded on January 11, 2005 and centered at 8.00 degrees north latitude and 98.60 degrees east longitude, is Ko Yao Yai, northwest of Phuket (Thailand).

  12. Submersed Aquatic Vegetation Modeling Output Online

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    La Grange Pool of the Upper Mississippi River System: U.S. Geologi- cal Survey Upper Midwest Environmental Science Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin...information, please contact: Yao Yin1, Jim Rogala2, and Jason Rohweder3 USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Science Center 2630 Fanta Reed Road La Crosse, WI

  13. Differences in the reproductive biology and diapause of two congeneric species of egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera:Encyrtidae) from northeast Asia: implications for biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oobius primorskyensis Yao and Duan and Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) constitute a cryptic species complex of egg parasitoids attacking the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleotpera: Buprestidae) in their native range of northeast Asia. While O. primorskyensis is c...

  14. Attacking the One-Out-Of-m Multicore Problem by Combining Hardware Management with Mixed-Criticality Provisioning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    LLC and DRAM banks. For each µB task and isolation configuration, we ran experiments with all 256 possible LLC area sizes (given by 1 to 16 ways and 1...isolation on multicoore platforms. In RTAS ’14. [29] H. Yun, G. Yao, R. Pellizzoni, M. Caccamo, and L. Sha . Memory access control in multiprocessor

  15. Road Maps for Learning: A Bird's Eye View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Timothy T.

    2011-01-01

    The notion of the road map, advocated by Black, Wilson, and Yao (2011), and the associated minutiae of the construct map have several powerful features. At one level these notions assist the teacher to select and embody a suitable sequence of constructs within a specified curriculum. Whatever disparate sequenced pathways individual learners may…

  16. LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD--SINO-TIBETAN FASCICLE THREE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VOEGELIN, C. F.; VOEGELIN, FLORENCE M.

    THIS REPORT CONTAINS A LIST AND DESCRIPTION OF THE LANGUAGES OF THE CHINA-TIBET-BURMA REGION OF ASIA, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE MIAO-YAO LANGUAGE FAMILY AND THE CHINESE DIALECTS. (THE REPORT IS PART OF A SERIES, ED 010 350 TO ED 010 367.) (JK)

  17. Hyperfine Level Interactions of Diamond Nitrogen Vacancy Ensembles Under Transverse Magnetic Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-06

    eigenvalues 0, ±h̄, corresponding to ms = 0,±1 [18]. Figure 1 shows the calculated energy levels as a function of axial field for a fixed transverse...Progress in 5 Physics 77, 056503 (2014). [9] G. Kucsko, P. C. Maurer, N. Y. Yao, M. Kubo , H. J. Noh, P. K. Lo, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, Nature 500

  18. Partial Orders Cannot Be Measured

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyngdon, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) commendably attempt to put descriptive theory at the center of pedagogy, assessment, and curriculum. The thrust of their article is that only through theories of learning will student progression be properly understood. Casting a critical eye over the faddish distinction between "formative" and "summative"…

  19. An Ecological Perspective on Learning Progressions as Road Maps for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhard, George, Jr.; Sullivan, Rubye K.

    2011-01-01

    The Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) provide a wide-ranging commentary and vision of the interrelationships among curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment. Specifically, they describe how the Berkeley Evaluation & Assessment Research (BEAR) Center Assessment System can be used to integrate and systematize these areas. This commentary focuses on…

  20. Targeting Alpha5 Beta1 Integrin to Prevent Metastatic Breast Cancer Cell Invasion: PhScN Target Site Definition and Plasma Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    12192595 12. Yao, H., D. Veine, K. Fay, E. Staszewski, et al., The PHSCN dendrimer as a more potent inhibitor of human breast cancer cell...Z.Z. Zeng, K.S. Fay, et al., Increased potency of the PHSCN dendrimer as an inhibitor of human prostate cancer cell invasion, extravasation, and lung

  1. Targeting Alpha5 Beta1 Integrin to Prevent Metastatic Breast Cancer Cell Invasion: PhScN Target Site Definition and Plasma Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    dendrimer as a more potent inhibitor of human breast cancer cell invasion, extravasation, and lung colony formation. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment...2011. 125: p. 363-375. PMID: 20300829 13. Yao, H., D.M. Veine, Z.Z. Zeng, K.S. Fay, et al., Increased potency of the PHSCN dendrimer as an inhibitor of

  2. Learning Progressions Provide Road Maps for the Development and Validity of Assessments and Curriculum Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajcik, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Paul Black, Mark Wilson, and Shih-Ying Yao in "Road Maps for Learning: A Guide to the Navigation of Learning Progressions" provide a number of important ideas to consider regarding the development of assessments and curriculum materials to support development of core ideas. One major idea that the author found most valuable is the focus on student…

  3. Biology of Scymnus ningshanensis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): A predator of Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae)

    Treesearch

    Michael Montgomery; Hongbin Wang; Defu Yao; Wenhau Lu; Nathan Havill; Guangwu Li

    2002-01-01

    Information is presented on the occurrence, development, and feeding of Scymnus (Neopullus) ningshanensis Yu et Yao. Information on its biology was collected in the field and laboratory in China and in quarantine in the United States. This lady beetle was found in China only on hemlock infested with ...

  4. A new species of oobius trjapitzin (hymenoptera:encyrtidae) from the russian far east that parasitizes eggs of emerald ash borer (coleoptera:buprestidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from the Russian Far East, Oobius primorskyensis Yao et Duan is described. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from the previ...

  5. A new species of genus Oobius (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from the Russian Far East that parasitizes eggs of Emerald Ash Borer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described from the Vladivostok, Russia, Oobius primorskyensis Yao & Duan n. sp. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from t...

  6. Recovery of hemlock woolly adelgid predators in the high country of northwestern North Carolina, 2004-2008

    Treesearch

    Richard McDonald; David Mausel; Scott Salom; Loke Kok; Michael Montgomery; Gina Luker; Stan Steury; Gene Spears; Stewart Skeate; James Graham; Byron Hamstead.

    2008-01-01

    Three species of predatory beetles have been released to combat infestations of the hemlock woolly adelgid in the High Country region of northwestern North Carolina. They are the spring/summer predators Sasajiscymnus tsugae Sasaji (St), Scymnus sinuanodulus Yu and Yao (Ss), and the winter/fall...

  7. One new species of Amphinemura and description of the female of A. ancistroidea Li & Yang (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of southern China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Raorao; Yang, Ding; Wang, Guoquan; Li, Weihai

    2017-06-11

    A new nemourid species, Amphinemura yao sp. nov. is described from the Daoyao Mountains of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of southern China. Amphinemura ancistroidea Li & Yang, 2007 is newly recorded from Guangxi and the female is described for the first time including the internal vaginal complex. The new species is compared with related taxa.

  8. New species and records of the stonefly genus Neoperla (Plecoptera, Perlidae) from Jinhuacha Nature Reserve, Guangxi of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Quan; Li, Wei-Hai; Yang, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Two new Neoperla species (Neoperla mesospina, Neoperla latispina) are described from the adult male stage from the Jinhuacha Nature Reserve, Guangxi of China. The new species are compared with similar taxa. Taxonomic remarks are also provided for N. transversprojecta Du & Sivec and N. yao Stark. The latter species is newly recorded for Guangxi.

  9. New species and records of the stonefly genus Neoperla (Plecoptera, Perlidae) from Jinhuacha Nature Reserve, Guangxi of China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guo–Quan; Li, Wei–Hai; Yang, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new Neoperla species (Neoperla mesospina, Neoperla latispina) are described from the adult male stage from the Jinhuacha Nature Reserve, Guangxi of China. The new species are compared with similar taxa. Taxonomic remarks are also provided for N. transversprojecta Du & Sivec and N. yao Stark. The latter species is newly recorded for Guangxi. PMID:24294087

  10. Field cage evaluations of the lady beetle Scymnus sinuanodulus for biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid

    Treesearch

    Michael Montgomery; Carole A. S-J. Cheah; Christopher Asaro

    2007-01-01

    Biological control has been a major focus of efforts to reduce the impact of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) on hemlocks in the eastern United States. The lady beetle Scymnus sinuanodulus Yu et Yao, one of the most abundant predators of HWA in China, was first imported in 1996. Subsequently its biology and host range were evaluated in quarantine and...

  11. Reflections on Math Reforms in the U.S.: "A Cross-National Perspective"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Xiaoxia

    2007-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, a key maxim is "Zhi Bing Yao Zhi Gen," which literally means, "To cure a disease one must cure the underlying cause." The author was reminded of this principle when she reflects on K-12 math education reform when the US. President Bush's 2006 State of the Union Address prompted yet another wave…

  12. A Filtering Method to Reveal Crystalline Patterns from Atom Probe Microscopy Desorption Maps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-26

    Gault, S.P. Ringer, J.M. Cairney, Atom probe crystallography : characterization of grain boundary orientation relationships in nanocrystalline...J.M. Cairney, Atom probe crystallography : atomic- scale 3-D orientation mapping, Scr. Mater. 66 (11) (2012) 907. L. Yao /MethodsX 3 (2016) 268–273 273

  13. Correlations between polymorphisms in the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A and C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 genes and infection with the hepatitis B virus in three ethnic groups in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chan; He, Yan; Shan, Ke-Ren; Tan, Kui; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Chan-Juan; Guan, Zhi-Zhong

    2018-02-01

    Objective To determine whether genetic polymorphisms in the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A ( UGT1A) and the C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 ( CCR5) genes are associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Yi, Yao and Han ethnic groups in the Guizhou Province of China. Methods The study enrolled subjects with and without HBV infection. Whole blood was used for DNA genotyping using standard techniques. The study determined the frequencies of several polymorphic alleles ( UGT1A6 [rs2070959], UGT1A1 [rs8175347], CCR5-59029 [rs1799987] and CCR5Δ32 [rs333]) and then characterized their relationship with HBV infection. Results A total of 404 subjects were enrolled in the study: 138 from the Yao group, 101 from the Yi group and 165 from the Han group. There was a significant difference in the frequency of UGT1A1 rs8175347 polymorphisms among the three groups. The rates of 7TA carriers of UGT1A1 rs8175347 in all three groups were significantly higher than the other genotypes. Individuals with genotype AA of UGT1A6 rs2070959 in the Yi group had a higher risk for HBV infection than in the Yao and Han groups. The frequency of genotype GG in CCR5-59029 in the Yao group was significantly higher than in the Yi group. The genotypes of CCR5Δ32 were not associated with HBV infection. Conclusion These findings provide genetic and epidemiological evidence for an association of UGT1A and CCR5-59029 polymorphisms with HBV infection in Chinese Yi and Yao populations.

  14. 'It was caused by the carelessness of the parents': cultural models of child malnutrition in southern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Flax, Valerie L

    2015-01-01

    Parents' conceptions of child growth, health and malnutrition are culturally bound, making information about local understandings of malnutrition and its causes necessary for designing effective nutrition programmes. This study used ethnographic methods to elucidate cultural models of child care and malnutrition among the Yao of southern Malawi. Data were collected in six rural villages from 28 key informant interviews with village chiefs and traditional healers among others and 18 focus group discussions with parents and grandmothers of young children. For the Yao, lack of parental care is a key cause of poor child health and can lead to thinness (kunyililika) or swelling (kuimbangana). Parents are said to be careless if they are not attentive to the child's needs, are unable to provide adequate quality or quantity of food, or fail to follow sexual abstinence rules. Maintaining abstinence protects the family and failure to do so causes the transfer of 'heat' from a sexually active parent to a 'cold' child and results in child health problems, including signs and symptoms of malnutrition. These findings indicate that the Yao understanding of care is much broader than the concept of care during feeding described in the nutrition literature. In addition, the Yao note the importance of several key feeding practices supported by international agencies and understand the influence of illness on child nutritional status. These congruencies with the public health frame should be used together with information about the cultural context to design more socially and emotionally relevant care and nutrition programmes among the Yao. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Social, educational and vocational outcomes in patients with childhood-onset and young-adult-onset growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mitra, M Tanya; Jönsson, Peter; Åkerblad, Ann-Charlotte; Clayton, Peter; Kołtowska-Häggström, Maria; Korbonits, Márta; Toogood, Andy; Gleeson, Helena

    2017-04-01

    Hypopituitarism diagnosed in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood has the potential to affect growth and somatic development. Less is known about the impact of such a diagnosis on other aspects of development. An analysis of the KIMS database (Pfizer International Metabolic Database) was performed to explore social, educational and vocational outcomes of adult patients diagnosed in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood compared with adult-onset controls. A total of 2952 adult patients diagnosed with hypothalamic pituitary conditions before the age of 25 were divided into two groups: childhood-onset [<16 years (CO)] (n = 1782) and young-adult-onset [16 to <25 years (YAO)] (n = 1170). A total of 1617 adult patients diagnosed with a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma at the age of 25 or older formed the adult-onset control group (AO). KIMS Patient Life Situation Form which provided information on social, educational and vocational outcomes. Compared with the AO control group, CO and YAO patients were between 4·5 and 8·0 times more likely to live with their parents in adulthood; CO and YAO patients were also less likely to live in partnership and to have children. The impact on educational and vocational outcomes was less marked than on social outcomes with no significant differences compared with the AO control group. Educational and vocational outcomes showed the lowest level in male and female CO and YAO patients who had been previously diagnosed with a brain tumour. Social outcomes were more affected than educational and vocational outcomes. Although CO patients are more adversely affected, YAO patients were also failing to achieve social milestones. This has consequences for the delivery of endocrine care in both paediatric and adult services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Agreement between coding schemas used to identify bleeding-related hospitalizations in claims analyses of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Craig I; Vaitsiakhovich, Tatsiana; Nguyen, Elaine; Weeda, Erin R; Sood, Nitesh A; Bunz, Thomas J; Schaefer, Bernhard; Meinecke, Anna-Katharina; Eriksson, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Schemas to identify bleeding-related hospitalizations in claims data differ in billing codes used and coding positions allowed. We assessed agreement across bleeding-related hospitalization coding schemas for claims analyses of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients on oral anticoagulation (OAC). We hypothesized that prior coding schemas used to identify bleeding-related hospitalizations in claim database studies would provide varying levels of agreement in incidence rates. Within MarketScan data, we identified adults, newly started on OAC for NVAF from January 2012 to June 2015. Billing code schemas developed by Cunningham et al., the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Mini-Sentinel program, and Yao et al. were used to identify bleeding-related hospitalizations as a surrogate for major bleeding. Bleeds were subcategorized as intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), gastrointestinal (GI), or other. Schema agreement was assessed by comparing incidence, rates of events/100 person-years (PYs), and Cohen's kappa statistic. We identified 151 738 new-users of OAC with NVAF (CHA2DS2-VASc score = 3, [interquartile range = 2-4] and median HAS-BLED score = 3 [interquartile range = 2-3]). The Cunningham, FDA Mini-Sentinel, and Yao schemas identified any bleeding-related hospitalizations in 1.87% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.81-1.94), 2.65% (95% CI: 2.57-2.74), and 4.66% (95% CI: 4.55-4.76) of patients (corresponding rates = 3.45, 4.90, and 8.65 events/100 PYs). Kappa agreement across schemas was weak-to-moderate (κ = 0.47-0.66) for any bleeding hospitalization. Near-perfect agreement (κ = 0.99) was observed with the FDA Mini-Sentinel and Yao schemas for ICH-related hospitalizations, but agreement was weak when comparing Cunningham to FDA Mini-Sentinel or Yao (κ = 0.52-0.53). FDA Mini-Sentinel and Yao agreement was moderate (κ = 0.62) for GI bleeding, but agreement was weak when comparing Cunningham to FDA Mini-Sentinel or Yao

  17. Trauma is Danger

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    self interactions and thereby neglect most traumatic injuries , the Danger model abandons this classical concept [ 2 ]. The Danger model theorizes that...June 2011 References 1. Keel M, Trentz O: Pathophysiology of polytrauma. Injury 2005, 36:691-709. 2 . Matzinger P: Tolerance, danger, and the extended... ischemia - reperfusion . J Exp Med 2005, 201:1135-1143. 27. Huang LF, Yao YM, Zhang LT, Dong N, Yu Y, Sheng ZY: The effect of high- mobility group box 1

  18. Data Fusion of Geographically Dispersed Information: Experience With the Scalable Data Grid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    framework that exposes calls to this HLA interface to registered plug-ins (Figure 2). The SDG exploits this plug-in to intercept and log messages and...implementation and use of the SDG and Hadoop Figure 4. Schematic meshrouter topology. Figure 5. Factored Meshrouter implementation, with application-specific...communications primitives. Yao, Ward, & Davis 92 ITEA Journal show promise for the T&E environments. It reported on experiments implementing the SDG and on

  19. A review of the cicada genus Haphsa Distant from China (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Yang, Mingsheng; Wei, Cong

    2015-05-18

    The cicada genus Haphsa Distant from China was reviewed based on the description of a new species (Haphsa lueta sp. n.) and redescriptions of other three known species which are reported from China for the first time. A key to all known species of Haphsa worldwide is provided. The geographical distribution of the Haphsa species and the availability of Haphsa dianensis Chou, Lei, Li, Lu & Yao, 1997 are discussed.

  20. Amylase and Lipase Detection in Hemorrhaged Animals Treated with HBOC-201

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Biopure Corp., Cambridge, MA, and Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, n.., respectively. We are thankful to Yao Yang and Mike Hammett for technical...amylase readings above baseline. Regression Equations : Amyl (%) = 1001J.0899 * HBOC-201 concentration (r = 0.993) for serum; Amyl (%) = 1000·0sss... Hammett , M., Asher, L., Philbin, N., Rice, J., Dong, F., Pearce, B., Flournoy, W., Nicholson, C., McCarron, R., and Freilich, D. (2005). Effects of bovine

  1. Binary Sequences for Spread-Spectrum Multiple-Access Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    Massey, J. L., and Uhran, J. J., Jr., "Sub-baud coding," Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Allerton Conference on Circuit and System Theory, pp. 539...sequences in a multipl.e access environment," Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual AIlerton Conference on Circuit and System Theory, pp. 21-27, October...34 Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Allertcn Conference on Circuit and System Theory, pp. 548-559, October 1975. Yao, K., *Performance bounds on

  2. Mixed-Integer Nonconvex Quadratic Optimization Relaxations and Performance Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-11

    Analysis of Interior Point Algorithms for Non-Lipschitz and Nonconvex Minimization,” (W. Bian, X. Chen, and Ye), Math Programming, 149 (2015) 301-327...Chen, Ge, Wang, Ye), Math Programming, 143 (1-2) (2014) 371-383. This paper resolved an important open question in cardinality constrained...Statistical Performance, and Algorithmic Theory for Local Solutions,” (H. Liu, T. Yao, R. Li, Y. Ye) manuscript, 2nd revision in Math Programming

  3. Novel Flame-Based Synthesis of Nanowires for Multifunctional Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-13

    referenced above, the laser fluence is appropriately low so that only a nanoplasma is created around the nanoparticle with no gas-phase breakdown or...and 501.428 nm corresponding to Ti (I) atomic emission lines [20] from the nanoparticle-induced nanoplasmas are observed. However, for 355 nm...Ren, Q. Yao, and C. K. Law, "Two-dimensional imaging of gas-to-particle transition in flames by laser-induced nanoplasmas ," Applied Physics Letters

  4. Flexible Supercapacitors Based on Carbon Nanomaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-26

    Pasta , F. L. Mantia, L. Cui, S. Jeong, H. D. Deshazer, J. W. Choi, S. M. Han and Y. Cui, Nano Lett., 2010, 10, 708–714. J. Mater. Chem. A This...Liu, Y. Yang, H. Wu, Y. Yao, M. Pasta , H. N. Alshareef and Y. Cui, ACS Nano, 2011, 5, 8904–8913. 64 G. Yu, X. Xie, L. Pan, Z. Bao and Y. Cui, Nano

  5. Validation of Biomarkers of the Tumor Microenvironment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    A ., Yao, H., Rahmatpanah, F., Xia, X. Q., Xu, Q., Pio, R., Turan , T., Koziol, J. A ., Goodison, S., Carpenter, P., Wang-Rodriguez, J., Simoneau, A ...to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE...embedded) prostate cancer biopsy tissue in order validate the accuracy of a stroma-based classifier for diagnosis of prostate cancer using FFPE

  6. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the stability of a sleeping top described by three forms of dynamic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Zheng-Ming

    2008-04-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions for the stability of a sleeping top described by dynamic equations of six state variables, Euler equations, and Poisson equations, by a two-degree-of-freedom system, Krylov equations, and by a one-degree-of-freedom system, nutation angle equation, is obtained by the Lyapunov direct method, Ge-Liu second instability theorem, an instability theorem, and a Ge-Yao-Chen partial region stability theorem without using the first approximation theory altogether.

  7. Entering the Dragon’s Lair: Chinese Antiaccess Strategies and Their Implications for the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    possible expansion of electronic warfare into outer space in future conflicts (Peng and Yao, 2001, p. 363): As a result of the continuous development of...information warfare units to develop viruses to attack enemy computer systems and networks .” Potential Effects of Chinese Antiaccess Measures 87...computers, enhanced user identi- fication measures, and monitoring of network activity. Given the possibility that China could nonetheless succeed in

  8. MicroRNA, Angiogenesis and Skeletal Anabolic Response to Mechanical Strain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702...SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort ...osteogenesis. Bone 34(5):849-61. 2. Yao Z, Lafage-Proust MH, Plouet J, Bloomfield S, Alexandre C, Vico L 2004 Increase of both angiogenesis and bone mass

  9. Image-Guided Surgery of Primary Breast Cancer Using Ultrasound Phased Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    applications using high-intensity focused ultrasound ( HIFU ). We tems, Once the real-time imaging capability is available for have shown that this dual-mode...Arrays Emad S. Ebbini, PI Introduction High-intensity focus ultrasound ( HIFU ) is gaining wider acceptance in noninvasive or minimally invasive targeting of...Methods in Ultrasound Imaging, ISBI 2004, Arlington, VA, April 2004. III. Yao and Ebbini, "Real-Time Monitoring of the Transients of HIFU -Induced Lesions

  10. Enhanced Lesion Visualization in Image-Guided Noninvasive Surgery With Ultrasound Phased Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    81, 1995. [4] N. Sanghvi et al., “Noninvasive surgery of prostate tissue by high-intensity focused ultrasound ,” IEEE Trans. UFFC, vol. 43, no. 6, pp...ENHANCED LESION VISUALIZATION IN IMAGE-GUIDED NONINVASIVE SURGERY WITH ULTRASOUND PHASED ARRAYS Hui Yao, Pornchai Phukpattaranont and Emad S. Ebbini...Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN 55455 Abstract- We describe dual-mode ultrasound phased

  11. China Report, Economic Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-26

    Revenue, Expenditures 83 ENERGY Briefs Tianjin Methane Pits 84 - c - MINERAL RESOURCES PRC Journal on Stepping Up Exploitation of Mines (Li Peilin ...Huayun, Zhan Jingwu, Yao Xia, Lin Yinghai, Hou Zhiying, Song [name indis- tinct], Li Baoguang, Zhang Shude, Hu Tingji, and Hao Fuhong attended the...10, 5 Oct 84 pp 4-6 [Article by Li Peilin [621 3099 2651]: "A Probe into the Policy of Stepping Up the Exploitation of Mines"] [Text] Recently

  12. Subpicosecond Optical Digital Computation Using Conjugate Parametric Generators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    Using Phase Conjugate Farametric Generators ..... 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Alfano, Robert- Eichmann . George; Dorsinville. Roger! Li. Yao 13a. TYPE OF...conjugation-based optical residue arithmetic processor," Y. Li, G. Eichmann , R. Dorsinville, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 13, (1988). [2] "Parallel ultrafast...optical digital and symbolic computation via optical phase conjugation," Y. Li, G. Eichmann , R. Dorsinville, Appl. Opt. 27, 2025 (1988). [3

  13. Low Power, Room Temperature Systems for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides from Atmospheric Nuclear Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    3 2.0 TELLURIUM ANTISITES IN CdZnTe ...........................................................................•. 4 3.0 EFFECTS OF...five journals, reported in eleven presentations, and printed in four conference proceedings. 3 2.0 TELLURIUM ANTISITES IN CdZnTe 1. M. Ch~ S...Terterian, D. Ting, R.B. James, J.C. Erickson, R W. Yao, T.T. Lam. M. Szawlowski, and R. Sczeboitz, " Tellurium Antisites in CdZnTe," SPIE Proceedings

  14. Post-synthetic transformation of a Zn(ii) polyhedral coordination network into a new supramolecular isomer of HKUST-1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Wojtas, Lukasz; Ma, Shengqian; Zaworotko, Michael J; Zhang, Zhenjie

    2017-08-03

    A Zn-based porphyrin containing metal-organic material (porphMOM-1) was transformed into a novel Cu-based porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic material (porph@HKUST-1-β) via a one-pot post-synthetic modification (PSM) process involving both metal ion exchange and linker installation of trimesic acid. HKUST-1-β is the first example of yao topology and is to our knowledge the first supramolecular isomer of the archetypal coordination network HKUST-1.

  15. Genetic and Epigenetic Biomarkers for Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Radiotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    complications from surgery as well as risks associated with anesthesia. Moreover, this therapy includes a low risk of urinary incontinence . Major...another type of RT, involves placing radioactive sources into the prostate tissue. Disadvantages of this treatment include the risk of acute urinary ...Molecular mechanisms and clinical applications of angiogenesis. Nature, 2011. 473(7347): p. 298-307. 6. Yao, J.L., et al., Tissue factor and VEGF

  16. Topological Valley Transport at Bilayer Graphene Domain Walls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-22

    2015. Published online 22 April 2015. 1. McCann, E. Asymmetry gap in the electronic band structure of bilayer graphene . Phys. Rev. B 74, 161403 (2006...6. Yao, W., Yang, S. A. & Niu, Q. Edge states in graphene : from gapped flat- band to gapless chiral modes. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 096801 (2009). 7...induced in bilayer graphene by an external electric field1–5, and such gapped bilayer graphene is predicted to be a topo- logical insulating phase

  17. Effects of Simultaneous Radiofrequency Radiation and Chemical Exposure of Mammalian Cells. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    chromosome - - - - - - -I aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). Yao (1982) exposed rat kangaroo RH5 and RH1l6 cells to 2.45 GHz radiation, and...control was reported in chromosome aberrations. Yac (1982) investigated the cytogenetic consequences of chronic microwave exposure on rat kangaroo RH5...was said to be 280C. The cells were exposed both as conidia, which are "rather inactive metabolically ," and also after DNA replication had been

  18. ONR Far East Scientific Bulletin. Volume 7. Number 3. July-September 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Ejiri, F. Sugawara, H . Onuki , M. Hirano, and T. Yao, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 50, 45 (1981), A "Fluorescent Emission and Scattering Spectra of Lithium...a consultant in information systems in the Southern California area. Leon H -. Fisher, presently on the staff of ONR Far East, is on leave from...basic and applied work on thin f ilm and bulk superconductors as well as -multif ilamentary * conductor development. John H . Hubbell is a physicist at

  19. Osteosarcopenic obesity and its relationship with dyslipidemia in women from different ethnic groups of China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Dan; Hsieh, Peishan; Yu, Hongrong; Zhou, Lining; Gong, Jichun; Xu, Lin; Liu, Peng; Chen, Gang; Chen, Zhao; Deng, Qiongying

    2018-06-09

    To explore the prevalence and ethnic differences of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) and dyslipidemia and their relationship among Maonan, Mulam, Hmong, and Yao minorities in China. A total of 2315 Maonan, Mulam, Hmong, and Yao women aged 20-95 from Guangxi were included in this study. Questionnaire survey was carried out and their blood lipids were tested. Body compositions were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and T-score was assessed by ultrasonic examination, respectively. Our study showed ethnic-specific prevalence of OSO. In older women, the incidence rates of OSO in Mulam were 4.9, 12.6, and 11.5% in Maonan, Mulam, and Hmong ethnicity, respectively. In younger group, the incidence rates of OSO were 0.4, 0.4, and 0.6%, respectively. However, there is no prevalence of OSO in Yao women in two groups. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in younger women was 22.86, 29.89, 43.35, and 80.00% in group numbering one, two, and three, respectively. In older women, it was 29.13, 39.02, 41.37, and 52.38%, respectively. Based on logistic regression analysis, after controlling for covariates, dyslipidemia in younger group was positively associated with a higher number of adverse body composition, especially for OSO (OR = 12.53, 95%CI 1.34-116.99). Compared with normal women, OSO women in older group were also more likely to have dyslipidemia (OR = 6.75, 95%CI 3.19-14.31). OSO may be a risk factor for dyslipidemia in the ethnic groups. Thus, efforts to promote healthy aging should be focused on preventing obesity and maintaining bone health and muscle mass.

  20. The relationship between osteoporosis and body composition in pre- and postmenopausal women from different ethnic groups in China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Dan; Hsieh, Peishan; Yu, Hongrong; Zhou, Lining; Gong, Jichun; Xu, Lin; Liu, Peng; Chen, Gang; Chen, Zhao; Deng, Qiongying

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the ethnic differences in osteoporosis (OP) and body composition (BC) and their relationship in the Maonan, Mulam, Hmong, and Yao minorities in China. A total of 860 Maonan, Mulam, Hmong, and Yao women were included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic, health history, and lifestyle information was collected using questionnaires. BC was measured through bioelectrical impedance analysis, and bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed via calcaneal quantitative ultrasound. Compared with premenopausal women, postmenopausal women exhibited a lower fat-free mass (FFM), muscle mass (MM), limb muscle mass, and T-score but a higher waist-to-hip ratio and prevalence of OP in each minority (p < .05). After adjustment for age, Hmong women displayed the highest body mass index, fat mass, percentage of body fat, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat contents, while Yao women presented the highest T-scores and lowest prevalence of OP among the four minorities (p < .05). Having a greater number of children and an older age were significant risk factors for OP in all ethnic groups (p < .05, OR > 1). In addition, our results revealed that FFM and MM exhibited exactly the same weak positive relationship with the T-score (r = 0.081, p < .05) after adjusting for menopausal status and age in all of the participants. Furthermore, significant ethnic differences in the relationship between BC and the T-score existed in the four minorities studied here. BC and OP prevalence varied by menopausal status and ethnic group, and ethnic-specific relationships between BC and BMD were present in the four minorities. More research is needed to further investigate the ethnic differences in BC, OP, and risk factors for lower BMD to develop targeted prevention strategies to reduce the burden of OP across different ethnic groups in China.

  1. The malignant niche: safe spaces for toxic stem cell marketing.

    PubMed

    Sipp, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Many tumors are sustained by microenvironments, or niches, that support and protect malignant cells, thus conferring a competitive advantage against both healthy cells and therapeutic interventions (for a brief review, see Yao and Link (Stem Cells 35: 3-8, 2017)). The global industry engaged in the commercial promotion of unproven and scientifically implausible cell-based "regenerative" therapies has developed a number of self-protective strategies that support its survival and growth in ways that are broadly analogous to the functions of the malignant niche.

  2. Electrical Characteristics of GaAs MESFET Fabrication by Ion Implantation of Si or Se

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-04

    only the z-component of the polarization vector is non-zero, given by - dao . Since all the stress tensors are independent of z, the effective charge...GaAs," Stanford University, 1990. [381 Jong-Lam Lee , Jin Sup Kim, Hyung Moo Park, and Dong Sung Ma, "Depth Pro- files on Ion Implantation Induced Vacancy...February 1990. [40] Yao- Tsung Tsai and Timothy A. Grotjohn, "Source and Drain Resistance Studies of Short Channel MESFET’s Using Two-Dimensional Device

  3. Redetermination of (+)-methamphetamine hydro­chloride at 90 K

    PubMed Central

    Hakey, Patrick; Ouellette, Wayne; Zubieta, Jon; Korter, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The title crystal structure (systematic name: N-methyl-1-phenyl­propan-2-aminium chloride), C10H16N+·Cl−, was orginally determined by Simon, Bocskei & Torok [Acta Pharm. Hung. (1992). 62, 225–230] and Yao, Kan & Wang [Huaxue Shijie (1999). 40, 568–570] at room temperature but no atomic coordinates are available for these determinations. The mol­ecule has inter­est with respect to biological activity. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds form one-dimensional chains. PMID:21202421

  4. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (CR&D) Delivery Order 0063: Flexible and Transparent Electronics (FAT) Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Suzuki, T . Matsushita, T . Aoki and M. Okuda, Thin Solid Films, 445, p263 (2003). 7 S.M. Park, T . Ikegami , K. Ebihara and P.K. Shin, App. Surf...quality films and substrates have negligible scatter therefore we may take the absorption to be 1- T -R, where T and R are the specularly resolved...1995. 2 T . Minami, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S35–S44 (2005). 3 G. Fang, D. Li and B.L. Yao, Vacuum 68, p363 (2003). 4 T . Minami, S. Suzuki and T

  5. Construction of New Campylobacter Cloning Vectors and a New Mutational Cat Cassette

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    mutational cat cassette PE - 61102A PR - 3M161102 6. AUTHOR(S) TA - BS13AK Yao R, Aim RA, Trust TJ, Guerry P WU- 1291 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...mutational cat cassette %~ccesion For (Site-specific mutagenesis; recombinant DNA; multiple cloning site; PCR; shuttle vectors) NTIS CRA&I OTIC TAB E...campylobacter portion of these vectors, only three CAT , Cm acetyllraaseriase; car, gene encoding CAT , Cm, restriction sites in the IacZ MCS remain unique

  6. [Studies on the chemical constituents from Cissus pteroclada].

    PubMed

    Chi, Cui-Yun; Wang, Feng; Lei, Ting; Xu, Shao-Yu; Hong, Ai-Hua; Cen, Ying-Zhou

    2010-10-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Yao Medicine Cissus pteroclada. The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography with silica gel, TLC and recrystallization. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectra analysis. Six compounds were isolated and identified as beta-sitosterol (I), bergenin (II), 11-O-galloylbergenin (III), 11-O-(4-hydroxy benzoyl) bergenin (IV), gallic acid (V), daucosterol (VI). Compounds III and NIV are obtained from the genus for the first time. All the compounds are isolated from this plant for the first time except the compound II.

  7. The Development and Study of Molecular Electronic Switches and their Field-Effect Transistor (FET) Device Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-27

    Grand Rapids, MI) meetings and conferences. References 1. L.N Lucas, J.J.D. de Jong, J.H. van Esch, R.M. Kellogg , B.L. Berringa. Eur. J. Org...R.M. Kellogg , H.L. Feringa, H.L. Eur. J. Org. Chem., 2003, 155-166. 6. B. Qin, R. Yao, X. Zhao, H. Tian. Org. Biomol. Chem., 1, 2003, 2187-2191...7. L.N. Lucas, J.H. van Euch, R.M. Kellogg , B. Feringa. Chem. Comm., 1998, 2313-2314.

  8. Multi-Scale Process of Soil Freezing, Thawing, and Thaw-Settlement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-18

    constitutive model was implemented into the finite element system ABAQUS using subroutine UMAT and UEXPAN to solve boundary value problems. The model...soils, 16 Int. Conf. Soil Mech. Geotech. Eng. (12 2012) 02/15/2013 13.00 Yao Zhang, Radoslaw L. Michalowski. Thermal -mechanical constitutive modeling...freezing and thawing soils…… 19 5.1 The model …………………………………………………….. 19 5.2 Thermal -mechanical load process ……………………………. 23 5.3 Implementation

  9. Assessing the Need for Supercomputing Resources Within the Pacific Area of Responsibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-26

    portion of today’s research and development dollars are going toward developing machines that will be better suited for addressing big data applications...2009; Radu Sion, “To Cloud or Not to? Musings on Clouds, Security and Big Data ,” in Secure Data Management, Vol. 8425, May 2014, pp. 3–5; Yao Chen...Applied Parallel and Scientific Computing, Vol. 7134, 2010. Sion, Radu, “To Cloud or Not to? Musings on Clouds, Security and Big Data ,” in Secure Data

  10. [Brief investigation on the issue of Zhen Dan(Cinnabar, HgS) irrelevant to Qian Dan (Minium, Pb(3)O(4))].

    PubMed

    Shen, S N

    2017-07-28

    Zhen Dan, the abbreviated form of Zhen Dan Sha, or called Zhu Sha (Cinnabar, HgS). It can be ruled out that Zhen Dan is the nickname of Qian Dan (Minium, Pb(3)O(4)) through the homologous formulas contrast. The prescriptions containing Zhen Dan in the Zheng lei ben cao ( Classified Materia Medica ) was put under the "attached prescriptions" of Qian Dan, while Zhong yao da ci dian ( Great Dictionary of Chinese Materia Medica )and Zhong hua ben cao ( Chinese Herbology )all definitelyconfirmed that Zhen Dan is the other name of Qian Dan, which are wrong and should be corrected.

  11. Molecular Mechanisms and Treatment Strategies for Obesity-Associated Coronary Artery Disease, an Imminent Military Epidemic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    23813. 24. Li Y, Gerbod- Giannone MC, Seitz H, Cui D, Thorp E, Tall AR, Matsushima GK, Tabas I. Cholesterol-induced apoptotic macrophages elicit an...Pharmacology. 2005;73:15–22. 30. Li Y, Schwabe RF, DeVries-Seimon T, Yao PM, Gerbod- Giannone MC, Tall AR, Davis RJ, Flavell R, Brenner DA, Tabas I. Free...J. Cell Biol. 171:61-73. *86. Li, Y., Gerbod- Giannone , M.C., Seitz, H., Cui, D., Thorp, E., Tall, A.R., Matsushima, G.K., and Tabas, I. (2006

  12. Molecular Mechanisms and Treatment Strategies for Obesity-Associated Coronary Artery Disease, an Imminent Military Epidemic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    acyltransferase by compound 58-035. J.Biol.Chem. 259:815-819. 5. Li,Y., Gerbod- Giannone ,M.C., Seitz,H., Cui,D., Thorp,E., Tall,A.R., Matsushima,G.K., and...differentiation of human breast cancer through PPAR gamma. Mol.Cell 1:465-470. 9. Li,Y., Schwabe,R.F., DeVries-Seimon,T., Yao,P.M., Gerbod- Giannone ...receptor. J. Cell Biol. 171:61-73. *86. Li, Y., Gerbod- Giannone , M.C., Seitz, H., Cui, D., Thorp, E., Tall, A.R., Matsushima, G.K., and Tabas

  13. The Use and the Prescription Pattern of Traditional Chinese Medicine Among Urolithiasis Patients in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Po-Hung; Lin, Shun-Ku; Hsu, Ren-Jun; Cheng, Kuan-Chen; Liu, Jui-Ming

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the pattern of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) usage for urolithiasis patients in Taiwan and to determine the most common Chinese herbal products used for urolithiasis. Retrospective review of urolithiasis patients treated with TCM treatment. One million randomly selected samples in the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database between 1997 and 2008. Eighty-two thousand five hundred and fifty-one newly diagnosed urolithiasis patients. The correlation between TCM treatment, demographic factors, or medical conditions. A total of 62.6% of urolithiasis patients use TCM treatment. A younger age, female gender, polypharmacy, multiple comorbidities, and stone in the lower urinary tract result in a greater tendency to use TCM, after adjusting for demographic factors. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San Extract Powder and Ji-Sheng-Shen-Qi-Wan Extract Powder are the most frequently prescribed Chinese medicine formulae. This is the first study to examine the use of and the prescription pattern for TCM in urolithiasis patients using a random, national population-based sample. More than 62% of urolithiasis patients use TCM, and patients with polypharmacy, multiple comorbidities, and stone in the ureter are more likely to use TCM. The most frequently prescribed Chinese medicine formulae were Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San Extract Powder and Ji-Sheng-Shen-Qi-Wan Extract Powder, which were reported to retard the progression of renal failure and alleviate flank pain or tenderness.

  14. Concurrent administration of anticancer chemotherapy drug and herbal medicine on the perspective of pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Yi; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2018-04-01

    With an increasing number of cancer patients seeking an improved quality of life, complementary and alternative therapies are becoming more common ways to achieve such improvements. The potential risks of concurrent administration are serious and must be addressed. However, comprehensive evidence for the risks and benefits of combining anticancer drugs with traditional herbs is rare. Pharmacokinetic investigations are an efficient way to understand the influence of concomitant remedies. Therefore, this study aimed to collect the results of pharmacokinetic studies relating to the concurrent use of cancer chemotherapy and complementary and alternative therapies. According to the National Health Insurance (NHI) database in Taiwan and several publications, the three most commonly prescribed formulations for cancer patients are Xiang-Sha-Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San and Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang. The three most commonly prescribed single herbs for cancer patients are Hedyotis diffusa, Scutellaria barbata, and Astragalus membranaceus. Few studies have discussed herb-drug interactions involving these herbs from a pharmacokinetics perspective. Here, we reviewed Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang, Curcuma longa and milk thistle to provide information based on pharmacokinetic evidence for healthcare professionals to use in educating patients about the risks of the concomitant use of various remedies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Biased decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum cryptographic conferencing with finite resources.

    PubMed

    Chen, RuiKe; Bao, WanSu; Zhou, Chun; Li, Hongwei; Wang, Yang; Bao, HaiZe

    2016-03-21

    In recent years, a large quantity of work have been done to narrow the gap between theory and practice in quantum key distribution (QKD). However, most of them are focus on two-party protocols. Very recently, Yao Fu et al proposed a measurement-device-independent quantum cryptographic conferencing (MDI-QCC) protocol and proved its security in the limit of infinitely long keys. As a step towards practical application for MDI-QCC, we design a biased decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum cryptographic conferencing protocol and analyze the performance of the protocol in both the finite-key and infinite-key regime. From numerical simulations, we show that our decoy-state analysis is tighter than Yao Fu et al. That is, we can achieve the nonzero asymptotic secret key rate in long distance with approximate to 200km and we also demonstrate that with a finite size of data (say 1011 to 1013 signals) it is possible to perform secure MDI-QCC over reasonable distances.

  16. A hydrophobic hole transporting system to improve moisture stability of perovskite solar cells (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Lixin

    2016-09-01

    Non-ion additive hole-transporting material (HTM) of hydrophobic oligothiophene derivative named DR3TBDTT and triphenylamine derivative of N,N'-di(3-methylphenyl)-N,N-diphenyl-4,4-diaminobiphenyl (TPD) were used for the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) was comparable to the device using Li-TFSI doped spiro-MeOTAD. Moreover, the PCE decreases by only 10% after approximately 1000 h without encapsulation, which suggests an alternative method to improve the stability of perovskite solar cells[1-3 ]. Figure 1. Schematic illustration of the energy diagram of the device without lithium salts REFERENCES [1] Zheng, L.; Ma, Y.; Chu, S.; Wang, S.; Qu, B.; Xiao, L.; Chen, Z.;Gong, Q.; Wu, Z.; Hou, X. Nanoscale 6, 8171-8176 (2014). [2] Zheng Lingling, Chung Yao-Hsien, Ma Yingzhuang, Zhang Lipei, Xiao Lixin, Chen Zhijian, Wang Shufeng, Qu Bo and Gong Qihuang, Chem. Commun. 50, 11196-11199 (2014). [3] Ma Yingzhuang, Chung Yao-Hsien, Zheng Lingling, Zhang Danfei, Yu Xiao, Xiao Lixin, Chen Zhijian, Wang Shufeng, Qu Bo, Gong Qihuang, and Zou Dechun, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7 (12), 6406-6411 (2015)

  17. Geochemical and geochronological constrains on the Chiang Khong volcanic rocks (northwestern Thailand) and its tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xin; Feng, Qinglai; Chonglakmani, Chongpan; Monjai, Denchok

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic rocks in northwestern Thailand exposed dominantly in the Chiang Khong area, are commonly considered to be genetically linked to the tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Tethyan Ocean. The volcanic rocks consist mainly of andesitic to rhyolitic rocks and are traditionally mapped as Permian-Triassic sequences. Our zircon U-Pb geochronological results show that two andesitic samples (TL-1-B and TL-31-B), are representative of the Doi Yao volcanic zone, and give a mean weighted age of 241.2±4.6 Ma and 241.7±2.9 Ma, respectively. The rhyolitic sample (TL-32-B1) from the Doi Khun Ta Khuan volcanic zone erupted at 238.3±3.8 Ma. Such ages indicate that Chiang Khong volcanic rocks erputed during the early Middle Triassic period. Seven samples from the Doi Yao and Doi Khun Ta Khuan zones exhibit an affinity to arc volcanics. Three rhyolitic samples from the Chiang Khong area have a geochemical affinity to both arc and syn-collisional volcanic rocks. The Chiang Khong arc volcanic rocks can be geochemically compared with those in the Lampang area in northern Thailand, also consistent with those in Jinghong area of southwestern Yunnan. This indicates that the Chiang Rai arc-volcanic zone might northwardly link to the Lancangjiang volcanic zone in southwestern China.

  18. Frequency and pattern of Chinese herbal medicine prescriptions for chronic hepatitis in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang-Pey; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Yu-Chun; Jong, Maw-Shiou; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2008-04-17

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used in treating liver diseases in Asian countries. To conduct a large-scale pharmacoepidemiological study and evaluate the frequency and pattern of CHM prescriptions in treating chronic hepatitis. We obtained the database of traditional Chinese medicine outpatient claims from the national health insurance in Taiwan for the whole 2002. Patients with chronic hepatitis were identified by the corresponding diagnosis of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and association rule were applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM in treating chronic hepatitis. Among the 91,080 subjects treated by CHM for chronic hepatitis, the peak age was in the 40 s, followed by 30 s and 50 s. Male/female ratio was 2.07:1. Long-dan-xie-gan-tang and Saliva miltiorrhiza (Dan-shen) were the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula and single herbal drug, respectively. The most common two-drug prescription was Jia-wei-xia-yao-san plus Saliva miltiorrhiza, and the most common three-drug prescription was Jia-wei-xia-yao-san plus Saliva miltiorrhiza and Artemisia capillaries (Yin-chen-hao). This study showed the utilization pattern of Chinese herbal drugs or formulae in treating chronic hepatitis. Further researches and clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these Chinese herbs or its ingredients in treating chronic hepatitis.

  19. Chinese Herbal Medicine and Depression: The Research Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Lee; Pilkington, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background. Alternative approaches for managing depression are often sought and herbal mixtures are widely used in China. The aim of this paper was to provide an overall picture of the current evidence by analysing published systematic reviews and presenting a supplementary systematic review of trials in Western databases. Methods. Searches were conducted using AMED, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and trial registers. Results were screened and selected trials were evaluated by two reviewers working independently. Systematic reviews were identified and assessed using key criteria. Results. Five systematic reviews were located addressing the Chinese literature, adjunctive use of Chinese herbs, and the formulae Chaihu-Shugan-San, Xiao Yao San, and Free and Easy Wanderer Plus. The supplementary review located 8 trials, 3 of which were not included in previous reviews. Positive results were reported: no significant differences from medication, greater effect than medication or placebo, reduced adverse event rates when combined or compared with antidepressants. However, limitations in methodology and reporting were revealed. Conclusions. Despite promising results, particularly for Xiao Yao San and its modifications, the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine in depression could not be fully substantiated based on current evidence. Further well-designed, well-reported trials that reflect practice may be worth pursuing. PMID:23476701

  20. Recruitment of burbot (Lota lota L.) in Lake Erie: An empirical modelling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, M.A.; Witzel, L.D.; Cook, A.

    2010-01-01

    World-wide, many burbot Lota lota (L.) populations have been extirpated or are otherwise in need of conservation measures. By contrast, burbot made a dramatic recovery in Lake Erie during 1993-2001 but declined during 2002-2007, due in part to a sharp decrease in recruitment. We used Akaike's Information Criterion to evaluate 129 linear regression models that included all combinations of one to seven ecological indices as predictors of burbot recruitment. Two models were substantially supported by the data: (i) the number of days in which water temperatures were within optimal ranges for burbot spawning and development combined with biomass of yearling and older (YAO) yellow perch Perca flavescens (Mitchill); and (ii) biomass of YAO yellow perch. Warmer winter water temperatures and increases in yellow perch biomass were associated with decreases in burbot recruitment. Continued warm winter water temperatures could result in declines in burbot recruitment, particularly in the southern part of the species' range. Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Construction of adhesion maps for contacts between a sphere and a half-space: Considering size effects of the sphere.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuyan; Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Hanqing; Yang, Weixu

    2015-11-15

    Previous adhesion maps, such as the JG (Johnson-Greenwood) and YCG (Yao-Ciavarella-Gao) maps, are used to guide the selection of Bradley, DMT, M-D, JKR and Hertz models. However, when the size of the contact sphere decreases to the small scale, the applicability of JG and YCG maps is limited because the assumptions regarding the contact region profile, interaction between contact bodies and sphere shape in the classical models constituting these two maps are no longer valid. To avoid this limitation, in this paper, a new numerical model considering size effects of the sphere is established first and then introduced into the new adhesion maps together with the YGG (Yao-Guduru-Gao) model and Hertz model. Regimes of these models in the new map under a certain sphere radius are demarcated by the criteria related to the relative force differences and the ratio of contact radius to sphere radius. In addition, the approaches at pull-off, jump-in and jump-out for different Tabor parameters and sphere radii are provided in the new maps. Finally, to make the new maps more feasible, the numerical results of approaches, force and contact radius involved in the maps are formularized by using the piecewise fitting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The utilization of traditional Chinese medicine in patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Rong; Wu, Mei-Yao; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Yen, Hung-Rong; Yang, Su-Tso

    2017-08-29

    Many patients with gynecological disorders seek traditional medicine consultations in Asian countries. This study intended to investigate the utilization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) in Taiwan. We analyzed a cohort of one million individuals randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We included 46,337 subjects with newly diagnosed DUB (ICD-9-CM codes 626.8) from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2010. The patients were categorized into TCM seekers and non-TCM seekers according to their use of TCM. Among the subjects, 41,558 (89.69%) were TCM seekers and 4,779 (10.31%) were non-TCM seekers. Patients who were younger tended to be TCM seekers. Most of the patients had also taken Western medicine, especially tranexamic acid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). More than half of TCM seekers (55.41%) received combined treatment with both Chinese herbal remedies and acupuncture. The most commonly used TCM formula and single herb were Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (Bupleurum and Peony Formula) and Yi-Mu-Cao (Herba Leonuri), respectively. The core pattern of Chinese herbal medicine for DUB patients consisted of Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Xiang-Fu (Rhizoma Cyperi), and Yi-Mu-Cao (Herba Leonuri). TCM use is popular among patients with DUB in Taiwan. Further pharmacological investigations and clinical trials are required to validate the efficacy and safety of these items.

  3. Chinese herbal medicine and depression: the research evidence.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lee; Pilkington, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background. Alternative approaches for managing depression are often sought and herbal mixtures are widely used in China. The aim of this paper was to provide an overall picture of the current evidence by analysing published systematic reviews and presenting a supplementary systematic review of trials in Western databases. Methods. Searches were conducted using AMED, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and trial registers. Results were screened and selected trials were evaluated by two reviewers working independently. Systematic reviews were identified and assessed using key criteria. Results. Five systematic reviews were located addressing the Chinese literature, adjunctive use of Chinese herbs, and the formulae Chaihu-Shugan-San, Xiao Yao San, and Free and Easy Wanderer Plus. The supplementary review located 8 trials, 3 of which were not included in previous reviews. Positive results were reported: no significant differences from medication, greater effect than medication or placebo, reduced adverse event rates when combined or compared with antidepressants. However, limitations in methodology and reporting were revealed. Conclusions. Despite promising results, particularly for Xiao Yao San and its modifications, the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine in depression could not be fully substantiated based on current evidence. Further well-designed, well-reported trials that reflect practice may be worth pursuing.

  4. [Philological structure of Dan xi shou jing (Danxi's Hand Mirror)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yincan; Zhu, Jianping

    2015-05-01

    Zhu Danxi, one of the four Major Schools of the Jin-Yuan Dynasties, had a lot of works circulated with its authorship in disarray. Part of the works were compiled by his disciples, while others were by his self-taught followers based on prior circulated Danxi's originals, plus some apocryphal so-called Danxi's works circulated posthumously. When sorting out Danxi's Hand Mirror, we found that some of its contents are closely related to Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold for Emergencies), Qian jin yi fang (Supplements to Qian jin yao fang), Tai ping sheng hui fang (Peaceful Holy Benevolent Prescriptions), Zhu jie shang han lun (Annotated Treatises of Cold Pathogenic Disease), Shang han ming li lun (Elucidation of Cold Pathogenic Disease), Ge zhi yu lun (Treatise of Inquiring the Properties of Things), either by transcription or with an identical origin. By clearing their relationships, it can provide assistance to the research of the philological structure of Danxi's hand Mirror.

  5. The deterministic chaos and random noise in turbulent jet

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Tian-Liang; Shanghai Institute of Space Propulsion, Shanghai 201112; Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Space Engine, Shanghai Institute of Space Propulsion, Shanghai 201112

    2014-06-01

    A turbulent flow is usually treated as a superposition of coherent structure and incoherent turbulence. In this paper, the largest Lyapunov exponent and the random noise in the near field of round jet and plane jet are estimated with our previously proposed method of chaotic time series analysis [T. L. Yao, et al., Chaos 22, 033102 (2012)]. The results show that the largest Lyapunov exponents of the round jet and plane jet are in direct proportion to the reciprocal of the integral time scale of turbulence, which is in accordance with the results of the dimensional analysis, and the proportionalitymore » coefficients are equal. In addition, the random noise of the round jet and plane jet has the same linear relation with the Kolmogorov velocity scale of turbulence. As a result, the random noise may well be from the incoherent disturbance in turbulence, and the coherent structure in turbulence may well follow the rule of chaotic motion.« less

  6. Rigidity of the magic pentagram game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalev, Amir; Miller, Carl A.

    2018-01-01

    A game is rigid if a near-optimal score guarantees, under the sole assumption of the validity of quantum mechanics, that the players are using an approximately unique quantum strategy. Rigidity has a vital role in quantum cryptography as it permits a strictly classical user to trust behavior in the quantum realm. This property can be traced back as far as 1998 (Mayers and Yao) and has been proved for multiple classes of games. In this paper we prove ridigity for the magic pentagram game, a simple binary constraint satisfaction game involving two players, five clauses and ten variables. We show that all near-optimal strategies for the pentagram game are approximately equivalent to a unique strategy involving real Pauli measurements on three maximally-entangled qubit pairs.

  7. Rigidity of the magic pentagram game.

    PubMed

    Kalev, Amir; Miller, Carl A

    2018-01-01

    A game is rigid if a near-optimal score guarantees, under the sole assumption of the validity of quantum mechanics, that the players are using an approximately unique quantum strategy. Rigidity has a vital role in quantum cryptography as it permits a strictly classical user to trust behavior in the quantum realm. This property can be traced back as far as 1998 (Mayers and Yao) and has been proved for multiple classes of games. In this paper we prove ridigity for the magic pentagram game, a simple binary constraint satisfaction game involving two players, five clauses and ten variables. We show that all near-optimal strategies for the pentagram game are approximately equivalent to a unique strategy involving real Pauli measurements on three maximally-entangled qubit pairs.

  8. Atypical Pupillary Light Reflex in Individuals with Autism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    latency has the potential to track  neurodevelopmental  trajectory in children;    Our results suggest autonomic dysfunctions associated with  autism ;   We...different HRV in a large group of  children with  autism . We found that PLR latency has a potential to be used as a biomarker for  normal  neurodevelopmental ...USA e-mail: YaoG@missouri.edu J. H. Miles S. E. Christ D. Q. Beversdorf T. N. Takahashi Thompson Center for Autism & Neurodevelopmental Disorders

  9. Multidirectional hybrid algorithm for the split common fixed point problem and application to the split common null point problem.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Guo, Meifang; Su, Yongfu

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a new multidirectional monotone hybrid iteration algorithm for finding a solution to the split common fixed point problem is presented for two countable families of quasi-nonexpansive mappings in Banach spaces. Strong convergence theorems are proved. The application of the result is to consider the split common null point problem of maximal monotone operators in Banach spaces. Strong convergence theorems for finding a solution of the split common null point problem are derived. This iteration algorithm can accelerate the convergence speed of iterative sequence. The results of this paper improve and extend the recent results of Takahashi and Yao (Fixed Point Theory Appl 2015:87, 2015) and many others .

  10. Experimental verification of cleavage characteristic stress vs grain size

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, W.; Li, D.; Yao, M.

    Instead of the accepted cleavage fracture stress [sigma][sub f] proposed by Knott et al, a new parameter S[sub co], named as ''cleavage characteristic stress,'' has been recently recommended to characterize the microscopic resistance to cleavage fracture. To give a definition, S[sub co] is the fracture stress at the brittle/ductile transition temperature of steels in plain tension, below which the yield strength approximately equals the true fracture stress combined with an abrupt curtailment of ductility. By considering a single-grain microcrack arrested at a boundary, Huang and Yao set up an expression of S[sub co] as a function of grain size. Themore » present work was arranged to provide an experimental verification of S[sub co] vs grain size.« less

  11. An Efficient Numerical Method for Computing Synthetic Seismograms for a Layered Half-space with Sources and Receivers at Close or Same Depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.-m.; Chen, X.-f.; Chang, S.

    - It is difficult to compute synthetic seismograms for a layered half-space with sources and receivers at close to or the same depths using the generalized R/T coefficient method (Kennett, 1983; Luco and Apsel, 1983; Yao and Harkrider, 1983; Chen, 1993), because the wavenumber integration converges very slowly. A semi-analytic method for accelerating the convergence, in which part of the integration is implemented analytically, was adopted by some authors (Apsel and Luco, 1983; Hisada, 1994, 1995). In this study, based on the principle of the Repeated Averaging Method (Dahlquist and Björck, 1974; Chang, 1988), we propose an alternative, efficient, numerical method, the peak-trough averaging method (PTAM), to overcome the difficulty mentioned above. Compared with the semi-analytic method, PTAM is not only much simpler mathematically and easier to implement in practice, but also more efficient. Using numerical examples, we illustrate the validity, accuracy and efficiency of the new method.

  12. New control concepts for uncertain water resources systems: 1. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, Aris P.; Yao, Huaming

    1993-06-01

    A major complicating factor in water resources systems management is handling unknown inputs. Stochastic optimization provides a sound mathematical framework but requires that enough data exist to develop statistical input representations. In cases where data records are insufficient (e.g., extreme events) or atypical of future input realizations, stochastic methods are inadequate. This article presents a control approach where input variables are only expected to belong in certain sets. The objective is to determine sets of admissible control actions guaranteeing that the system will remain within desirable bounds. The solution is based on dynamic programming and derived for the case where all sets are convex polyhedra. A companion paper (Yao and Georgakakos, this issue) addresses specific applications and problems in relation to reservoir system management.

  13. Coherent Control to Prepare an InAs Quantum Dot for Spin-Photon Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, L. A.; Truex, K.; Duan, L.-M.; Steel, D. G.; Bracker, A. S.; Gammon, D.; Sham, L. J.

    2014-03-01

    We optically generated an electronic state in a single InAs /GaAs self-assembled quantum dot that is a precursor to the deterministic entanglement of the spin of the electron with an emitted photon in the proposal of W. Yao, R.-B. Liu, and L. J. Sham [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 030504 (2005).]. A superposition state is prepared by optical pumping to a pure state followed by an initial pulse. By modulating the subsequent pulse arrival times and precisely controlling them using interferometric measurement of path length differences, we are able to implement a coherent control technique to selectively drive exactly one of the two components of the superposition to the ground state. This optical transition contingent on spin was driven with the same broadband pulses that created the superposition through the use of a two pulse coherent control sequence. A final pulse affords measurement of the coherence of this "preentangled" state.

  14. Coherent control with optical pulses for deterministic spin-photon entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truex, Katherine; Webster, L. A.; Duan, L.-M.; Sham, L. J.; Steel, D. G.

    2013-11-01

    We present a procedure for the optical coherent control of quantum bits within a quantum dot spin-exciton system, as a preliminary step to implementing a proposal by Yao, Liu, and Sham [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.95.030504 95, 030504 (2005)] for deterministic spin-photon entanglement. The experiment proposed here utilizes a series of picosecond optical pulses from a single laser to coherently control a single self-assembled quantum dot in a magnetic field, creating the precursor state in 25 ps with a predicted fidelity of 0.991. If allowed to decay in an appropriate cavity, the ideal precursor superposition state would create maximum spin-photon entanglement. Numerical simulations using values typical of InAs quantum dots give a predicted entropy of entanglement of 0.929, largely limited by radiative decay and electron spin flips.

  15. On distributed wavefront reconstruction for large-scale adaptive optics systems.

    PubMed

    de Visser, Cornelis C; Brunner, Elisabeth; Verhaegen, Michel

    2016-05-01

    The distributed-spline-based aberration reconstruction (D-SABRE) method is proposed for distributed wavefront reconstruction with applications to large-scale adaptive optics systems. D-SABRE decomposes the wavefront sensor domain into any number of partitions and solves a local wavefront reconstruction problem on each partition using multivariate splines. D-SABRE accuracy is within 1% of a global approach with a speedup that scales quadratically with the number of partitions. The D-SABRE is compared to the distributed cumulative reconstruction (CuRe-D) method in open-loop and closed-loop simulations using the YAO adaptive optics simulation tool. D-SABRE accuracy exceeds CuRe-D for low levels of decomposition, and D-SABRE proved to be more robust to variations in the loop gain.

  16. Environmental stress and epigenetic transgenerational inheritance.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Michael K

    2014-09-05

    Previous studies have shown a wide variety of environmental toxicants and abnormal nutrition can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease. More recently a number of studies have indicated environmental stress can also promote epigenetic alterations that are transmitted to subsequent generations to induce pathologies. A recent study by Yao and colleagues demonstrated gestational exposure to restraint stress and forced swimming promoted preterm birth risk and adverse newborn outcomes generationally. This ancestral stress promoted the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of abnormalities in the great-grand offspring of the exposed gestating female. Several studies now support the role of environmental stress in promoting the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease. Observations suggest ancestral environmental stress may be a component of disease etiology in the current population.

  17. PRECISE:PRivacy-prEserving Cloud-assisted quality Improvement Service in hEalthcare.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Wang, Shuang; Mohammed, Noman; Cheng, Samuel; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2014-10-01

    Quality improvement (QI) requires systematic and continuous efforts to enhance healthcare services. A healthcare provider might wish to compare local statistics with those from other institutions in order to identify problems and develop intervention to improve the quality of care. However, the sharing of institution information may be deterred by institutional privacy as publicizing such statistics could lead to embarrassment and even financial damage. In this article, we propose a PRivacy-prEserving Cloud-assisted quality Improvement Service in hEalthcare (PRECISE), which aims at enabling cross-institution comparison of healthcare statistics while protecting privacy. The proposed framework relies on a set of state-of-the-art cryptographic protocols including homomorphic encryption and Yao's garbled circuit schemes. By securely pooling data from different institutions, PRECISE can rank the encrypted statistics to facilitate QI among participating institutes. We conducted experiments using MIMIC II database and demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed PRECISE framework.

  18. Direct speech quotations promote low relative-clause attachment in silent reading of English.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bo; Scheepers, Christoph

    2018-07-01

    The implicit prosody hypothesis (Fodor, 1998, 2002) proposes that silent reading coincides with a default, implicit form of prosody to facilitate sentence processing. Recent research demonstrated that a more vivid form of implicit prosody is mentally simulated during silent reading of direct speech quotations (e.g., Mary said, "This dress is beautiful"), with neural and behavioural consequences (e.g., Yao, Belin, & Scheepers, 2011; Yao & Scheepers, 2011). Here, we explored the relation between 'default' and 'simulated' implicit prosody in the context of relative-clause (RC) attachment in English. Apart from confirming a general low RC-attachment preference in both production (Experiment 1) and comprehension (Experiments 2 and 3), we found that during written sentence completion (Experiment 1) or when reading silently (Experiment 2), the low RC-attachment preference was reliably enhanced when the critical sentences were embedded in direct speech quotations as compared to indirect speech or narrative sentences. However, when reading aloud (Experiment 3), direct speech did not enhance the general low RC-attachment preference. The results from Experiments 1 and 2 suggest a quantitative boost to implicit prosody (via auditory perceptual simulation) during silent production/comprehension of direct speech. By contrast, when reading aloud (Experiment 3), prosody becomes equally salient across conditions due to its explicit nature; indirect speech and narrative sentences thus become as susceptible to prosody-induced syntactic biases as direct speech. The present findings suggest a shared cognitive basis between default implicit prosody and simulated implicit prosody, providing a new platform for studying the effects of implicit prosody on sentence processing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhibitory effects of Atractylodis lanceae rhizoma and Poria on collagen- or thromboxane A2-induced aggregation in rabbit platelets.

    PubMed

    Nasu, Yuiko; Iwashita, Masaya; Saito, Masaki; Fushiya, Shinji; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2009-05-01

    Kami-shoyo-san (Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San), Toki-shakuyaku-san (Dang-Gui-Shao-Yao-San) and Toki-shigyaku-ka-goshuyu-shokyo-to (Dang-Gui-Si-Ni-Jia-Wu-Zhu-Yu-Sheng-Jiang-Tang) are Kampo (traditional Chinese) medicines which are traditionally and effectively used for the treatment of chilly sensation (Hiesho) in Japan, but the active components and their detailed mechanisms have not yet been clarified. Etiologies of Hiesho include poor peripheral blood circulation and platelet aggregability contributes to peripheral blood circulation; therefore, we investigated the effect of Kampo medicines on platelet aggregation using rabbit platelets in vitro. Collagen and U46619, a thromboxane A(2) receptor agonist, caused rabbit platelet aggregation, which was potently inhibited by pretreatment of platelets with Kami-shoyo-san and Toki-shakuyaku-san in vitro. Toki-shigyaku-ka-goshuyu-shokyo-to, however, did not significantly inhibit collagen- or U46619-induced platelet aggregation. Therefore, we examined the effect on platelet aggregation of two herbal medicines, Atractylodis Lanceae Rhizoma and Poria, both of which are contained in Kami-shoyo-san and Toki-shakuyaku-san but not in Toki-shigyaku-ka-goshuyu-shokyo-to. As the results indicate, Atractylodis Lanceae Rhizoma inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen but not by U46619. Poria effectively inhibited U46619-induced platelet aggregation and it partially inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation. On the other hand, Atractylodis Lanceae Rhizoma and Poria did not inhibit adrenaline/adenosine diphosphate- or adrenaline/serotonin-induced platelet aggregation. These results suggest the possibility that the inhibition of platelet aggregation by two Kampo medicines, Kami-shoyo-san and Toki-shakuyaku-san, is one of the mechanisms underlying the improvement of Hiesho. Furthermore, Atractylodis Lanceae Rhizoma and Poria are possible herbal medicines for the inhibition of platelet aggregation.

  20. Occurrence of chai hu (Bupleuri radix) in prescriptions of Chinese herbal medicine in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Klein, Sabine D; Becker, Simon; Wolf, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Chai hu (Bupleuri radix), one of the most frequently used herbs in Chinese herbal medicine, has 3 major functions, depending on dosage and combination with other herbs. The aim of this study was to investigate how chai hu is prescribed in everyday practice in Switzerland, and whether these prescription patterns reflect its various applications. A random sample of 1,053 prescriptions was drawn from the database of Lian Chinaherb AG, Wollerau, Switzerland, and analyzed regarding the most frequently used classical formulas containing chai hu, daily dosages and combinations with other herbs. 29.0% of all prescriptions contained chai hu, and 98.0% of these were in granular form. The most frequently used classical formulas were xiao yao san ('rambling powder'), jia wei xiao yao san ('augmented rambling powder') and chai hu shu gan san ('Bupleurum powder to spread the liver'). In more than half of the prescriptions, chai hu was combined with bai shao (Paeoniae Radix Alba), dang gui (Angelicae sinensis radix) or fu ling (Poria). 51.8% of the prescriptions contained a low daily dosage of chai hu, 24.9% a medium and 15.1% a high dosage. Chai hu was generally prescribed in classic combinations with other herbs and in a medium dosage. Due to the addition of supplementary herbs to classical formulas, its daily dose was often diminished from a high or medium dose to a low dose. This raises the question if chai hu would then still exert its desired function of, e.g., moving liver-qi in these prescriptions.

  1. Coprescription of Chinese herbal medicine and Western medication among female patients with breast cancer in Taiwan: analysis of national insurance claims.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bih-Ru; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Wu, Jing Chong; Wu, Min-Shan; Chou, Chia-Lin; Chou, Yueh-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Many female breast cancer (FBC) patients take Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and Western medication (WM) concurrently in Taiwan. Despite the possibility of interactions between the CHM and WM mentioned in previous studies, the pattern of these coprescriptions in FBC patients remains unclear. Hence, the aim of the present study is to investigate the utilization of coprescriptions of CHM and WM among the FBC patients in Taiwan. The study was a cross-sectional survey using the sampled cohort in 2009 obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. There were 3,507 FBC patients identified from the registry for catastrophic illness patients. Ambulatory visit records, corresponding prescriptions, and the data of beneficiaries belonging to the FBC patients were further extracted. A total of 1,086 FBC patients used CHM at least once. CHM and WM prescribed within any overlapping duration were defined as coprescriptions. There were 868 (80.0%) patients simultaneously receiving CHM and WM. A total of 4,927 CHM prescriptions and 6,358 WM prescriptions were prescribed concurrently. Among these coprescriptions, the most frequently used CHM was jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (21.2%), and the most frequently coprescribed WM was acetaminophen (38.9%), followed by tamoxifen (25.5%). There were 346 patients using systemic adjuvant therapy and CHM concurrently. The most commonly coprescribed CHM with chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, and trastuzumab was xiang-sha-liu-jun-zi-tang, jia-wei-xiao-yao-san, and zhi-gan-cao-tang, respectively. The combined use of CHM with WM is prevalent. The main purpose of combining CHM with systemic cancer treatment is to alleviate the treatment-related adverse effects. However, the combination may result in the potential risk of drug-herb interactions. Further clinical studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the CHM and WM coprescriptions for FBC patients.

  2. The use of Chinese herbal products and its influence on tamoxifen induced endometrial cancer risk among female breast cancer patients: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Wu, Chien-Tung

    2014-09-11

    The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. The purpose of our study was to analyze the use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) and to estimate the influence of the use of CHP on tamoxifen induced endometrial cancer risk among female breast cancer patients in Taiwan. All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer receiving tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2008 were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The usage, frequency of service, and CHPs prescribed among the 20,466 tamoxifen-treated female breast cancer patients were analyzed. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for utilization of CHPs. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) for subsequent endometrial cancer for CHP non-users and CHP users among female breast cancer patients who had undergone tamoxifen treatment. More than half of the subjects had ever used a CHP. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (Augmented Rambling Powder) and Shu-Jing-Huo-Xue-Tang (Channel-Coursing Blood-Quickening Decoction) were the two most commonly used CHPs. The HR for the development of endometrial cancer among CHP users was 0.50-fold (95% CI=0.38-0.64) compared to that of CHP non-users. More than half of the study subjects had ever used a CHP. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San was the most commonly used CHP. Among female breast cancer patients who had undergone tamoxifen therapy, CHP consumption decreased the risk of subsequent endometrial cancer. Exploring potential Chinese herb-tamoxifen interactions and integrating both healthcare approaches are beneficial to the overall health outcomes of tamoxifen-treated female breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Behaviors Related to Mosquito-Borne Diseases among Different Ethnic Minority Groups along the China-Laos Border Areas.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao; Guo, Xiaofang; Zhao, Jun; Lv, Quan; Li, Hongbin; McNeil, Edward B; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Zhou, Hongning

    2017-10-15

    Background : In China, mosquito-borne diseases are most common in the sub-tropical area of Yunnan province. The objective of this study was to examine behaviors related to mosquito-borne diseases in different ethnic minority groups and different socioeconomic groups of people living in this region. Methods : A stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique with probability proportional to size was used in Mengla County, Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan. Twelve villages were used to recruit adult (≥18 years old) and eight schools were used for children (<18 years old). A questionnaire on behaviors and environment variables related to mosquito-borne diseases was devised. Results : Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) grouped 20 behaviors into three domains, namely, environmental condition, bed net use behaviors, and repellent use behaviors, respectively. The Han ethnicity had the lowest odds of rearing pigs, their odds being significantly lower than those of Yi and Yao. For bed net use, Dai and other ethnic minority groups were less likely to use bed nets compared to Yi and Yao. The odds of repellent use in the Han ethnicity was lower than in Yi, but higher than in Dai. The Dai group was the most likely ethnicity to use repellents. Farmers were at a higher risk for pig rearing and not using repellents. Education of less than primary school held the lowest odds of pig rearing. Those with low income were at a higher risk for not using bed nets and repellent except in pig rearing. Those with a small family size were at a lower risk for pig rearing. Conclusion : Different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in the study areas require different specific emphases for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases.

  4. Vitamin D status and age of onset of demyelinating disease.

    PubMed

    Brenton, J Nicholas; Koenig, Scott; Goldman, Myla D

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of and associated factors impacting vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in childhood versus adult-onset demyelinating disease. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional, chart-review, cohort study on geographically-similar pediatric, young adult, and adult patients with a diagnosis of demyelinating disease identified at the University of Virginia from 2008 to 2013. Group prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency as well as relevant factors associated with vitamin D status was analyzed and compared. We identified 24 childhood-onset (CO), 33 young adult-onset (Y-AO), and 59 adult-onset (AO) cases. There was no difference in the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency between the cohorts. Non-Caucasian race and elevated body mass index were significantly associated with low vitamin D levels, regardless of age of onset. In regression models, race and obesity were independent predictors of vitamin D status. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in the childhood-onset cohort (CO=58.5%; Y-AO=31%; AO=34%; p=0.02). Our findings demonstrate no difference in the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency between childhood and adult-onset demyelinating disease, suggesting age at disease onset is irrelevant to vitamin D status in demyelinating disease. Both race and obesity are independent factors associated with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency, regardless of age of disease onset. Obesity, independent of gender, is significantly higher in children compared to adult patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and may have a role in the development of childhood-onset demyelinating disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Secular trends for age at spermarche among Chinese boys from 11 ethnic minorities, 1995–2010: a multiple cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Li, Liu-Bai; Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We compared the differences in median age at spermarche among 11 ethnic minorities in 2010, estimated the trends regarding age at spermarche in different ethnic minorities from 1995 to 2010, and explored the association of spermarche with body mass index (BMI). Methods We used four cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010), and the total sample size was 40 113 children aged 11–18 years. The median age at spermarche of each ethnic minority was determined by using probit analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of spermarche with BMI. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with earliest age at spermarche were Qiang (12.03 years), Zhuang (12.91 years) and Kirghiz (13.17 years); the three ethnic minorities with latest age at spermarche were Dong (14.73 years), Yao (14.60 years), and Naxi (14.36 years). From 1995 to 2010, age at spermarche showed a decline in almost each minority group except Yao and Dong. A higher BMI was associated with an increased likelihood of having reached spermarche after adjusting for age, regions or ethnic minorities. Conclusions A large variation in age at spermarche was observed among different ethnic minorities. The age at spermarche showed a downward shift in almost each of the 11 ethnic minorities with different patterns over time, and the children with higher BMI are more likely to enter puberty early. PMID:26911588

  6. Changes in expression of BDNF and its receptors TrkB and p75NTR in the hippocampus of a dog model of chronic alcoholism and abstinence.

    PubMed

    Xu, R; Duan, S R; Zhao, J W; Wang, C Y

    2015-08-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption can produce learning and memory deficits. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptors affect the pathogenesis of alcoholism. In this study, we examined the expression of BDNF, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) in the hippocampus of a dog model of chronic alcoholism and abstinence. Twenty domestic dogs (9-10 months old, 15-20 kg; 10 males and 10 females) were obtained from Harbin Medical University. A stable alcoholism model was established through ad libitum feeding, and anti-alcohol drug treatment (Zhong Yao Jie Jiu Ling, the main ingredient was the stems of watermelon; developed in our laboratory), at low- and high-doses, was carried out. The Zhong Yao Jie Jiu Ling was effective for the alcoholism in dogs. The morphology of hippocampal neurons was evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The number and morphological features of BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR-positive neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG), and the CA1, CA3 and CA4 regions of the hippocampus were observed using immunohistochemistry. One-way ANOVA was used to determine differences in BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR expression. BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR-positive cells were mainly localized in the granular cell layer of the DG and in the pyramidal cell layer of the CA1, CA3 and CA4 regions (DG>CA1>CA3>CA4). Expression levels of both BDNF and TrkB were decreased in chronic alcoholism, and increased after abstinence. The CA4 region appeared to show the greatest differences. Changes in p75NTR expression were the opposite of those of BDNF and TrkB, with the greatest differences observed in the DG and CA4 regions.

  7. The prescribing of Chinese herbal products in Taiwan: a cross-sectional analysis of the national health insurance reimbursement database.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shu-Ching; Lai, Jung-Nien; Lee, Chuan-Fang; Hu, Fu-Chang; Tseng, Wei-Lum; Wang, Jung-Der

    2008-06-01

    The consumption of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) is increasing exponentially. However, the scientific evidence is lacking and there is an urgent requirement for detailed pharmacoepidemiological information on CHP usage. This study was to investigate CHP prescription patterns in Taiwan. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis on a cohort of 200,000 patients based on 2004 data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) reimbursement database. Data mining techniques were applied to explore CHP co-prescription patterns. A total of 46,938 patients had been prescribed CHPs on at least one occasion in 2004. Patients using CHPs were generally female and middle-aged, made more outpatient visits, had fewer hospitalizations and consumed more medical resources than non-users of CHPs. A total of 1,073,030 CHPs were contained within 220,123 prescriptions, for which acute nasopharyngitis was the most common indication. Yan hu suo and Jia Wei Xiao Yao San were the most frequently prescribed single herb (SH) and herbal formula (HF), respectively. The results of the data mining showed that the best predictions were provided by co-prescriptions of 'Mo yao and Ru xiang', 'Ye jiao teng and Suan Zao Ren Tan' and 'Dang Gui Nian Tong Tang and Shu Jing Huo Xue Tang' in the groups of SH-SH, SH-HF and HF-HF, respectively. This study provides national-level CHP prescription profiles and utilization rates, and documents, for the first time, HF-HF prescription combinations in Chinese medicine (CM) practices in Taiwan. We conclude that more studies are needed to validate the safety and effectiveness of CHP prescriptions.

  8. Investigation on Chinese herbal medicine for primary dysmenorrhea: implication from a nationwide prescription database in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Su, Irene H; Chen, Yu-Chun; Yang, Sien-Hung; Chen, Jiun-Liang

    2014-02-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a common gynecological condition, for which Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been widely used in addition to western medicine. The aim of this study is to explore CHM commonly used to treat dysmenorrhea in young Chinese women. Observational retrospective study. The National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Women aged from 13 to 25 years with single diagnosis of primary dysmenorrhea. CHM prescriptions made for primary dysmenorrhea women during 1998-2008 were extracted to build up CHM prescription database. Association rule mining was used to explore the prevalent CHM combination patterns in treating primary dysmenorrhea. Prevalence and mechanisms of CHM combinations. Totally 57,315 prescriptions were analyzed and, on average, 5.3 CHM was used in one prescription. Dang-Gui-Shao-Yao-San (DGSYS) was the most commonly used herbal formula (27.2%), followed by Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS) (20.7%) and Wen-Jing-Tang (WJT) (20.5%). Corydalis yanhusuo and Cyperus rotundus were the most commonly used single herb, found in 33.1% and 29.2% of all prescriptions. Additionally, C. yanhusuo with C. rotundus is the most commonly used two CHM in combination, accounting for 14.24% of all prescriptions, followed by DGSYS with C. yanhusuo (10.47%). Multi-target effects on primary dysmenorrhea, such as analgesia, mood modifying and hormone adjustment, were found among commonly prescribed CHM in this study. This study discovered the potential importance of C. yanhusuo, C. rotundus and DGSYS in treating primary dysmenorrhea. Further clinical trials or bench studies are warranted based on the results. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Behaviors Related to Mosquito-Borne Diseases among Different Ethnic Minority Groups along the China-Laos Border Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chao; Guo, Xiaofang; Zhao, Jun; Lv, Quan; Li, Hongbin; McNeil, Edward B.; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Zhou, Hongning

    2017-01-01

    Background: In China, mosquito-borne diseases are most common in the sub-tropical area of Yunnan province. The objective of this study was to examine behaviors related to mosquito-borne diseases in different ethnic minority groups and different socioeconomic groups of people living in this region. Methods: A stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique with probability proportional to size was used in Mengla County, Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan. Twelve villages were used to recruit adults (≥18 years old) and eight schools were used for children (<18 years old). A questionnaire on behaviors and environment variables related to mosquito-borne diseases was devised. Results: Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) grouped 20 behaviors into three domains, namely, environmental condition, bed net use behaviors, and repellent use behaviors, respectively. The Han ethnicity had the lowest odds of rearing pigs, their odds being significantly lower than those of Yi and Yao. For bed net use, Dai and other ethnic minority groups were less likely to use bed nets compared to Yi and Yao. The odds of repellent use in the Han ethnicity was lower than in Yi, but higher than in Dai. The Dai group was the most likely ethnicity to use repellents. Farmers were at a higher risk for pig rearing and not using repellents. Education of less than primary school held the lowest odds of pig rearing. Those with low income were at a higher risk for not using bed nets and repellent except in pig rearing. Those with a small family size were at a lower risk for pig rearing. Conclusion: Different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in the study areas require different specific emphases for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:29036937

  10. Depth optimal sorting networks resistant to k passive faults

    SciTech Connect

    Piotrow, M.

    In this paper, we study the problem of constructing a sorting network that is tolerant to faults and whose running time (i.e. depth) is as small as possible. We consider the scenario of worst-case comparator faults and follow the model of passive comparator failure proposed by Yao and Yao, in which a faulty comparator outputs directly its inputs without comparison. Our main result is the first construction of an N-input, k-fault-tolerant sorting network that is of an asymptotically optimal depth {theta}(log N+k). That improves over the recent result of Leighton and Ma, whose network is of depth O(log N +more » k log log N/log k). Actually, we present a fault-tolerant correction network that can be added after any N-input sorting network to correct its output in the presence of at most k faulty comparators. Since the depth of the network is O(log N + k) and the constants hidden behind the {open_quotes}O{close_quotes} notation are not big, the construction can be of practical use. Developing the techniques necessary to show the main result, we construct a fault-tolerant network for the insertion problem. As a by-product, we get an N-input, O(log N)-depth INSERT-network that is tolerant to random faults, thereby answering a question posed by Ma in his PhD thesis. The results are based on a new notion of constant delay comparator networks, that is, networks in which each register is used (compared) only in a period of time of a constant length. Copies of such networks can be put one after another with only a constant increase in depth per copy.« less

  11. EDITORIAL: Integrated assessments of environmental change on the Tibetan Plateau Integrated assessments of environmental change on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Yongwei; Yao, Tandong

    2009-12-01

    in frozen ground in the Source Area of the Yellow River on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, and their eco-environmental impacts Huijun Jin, Ruixia He, Guodong Cheng, Qingbai Wu, Shaoling Wang, Lanzhi Lü and Xiaoli Chang A shallow ice core re-drilled on the Dunde Ice Cap, western China: recent changes in the Asian high mountains Nozomu Takeuchi, Takayuki Miyake, Fumio Nakazawa, Hideki Narita, Koji Fujita, Akiko Sakai, Masayoshi Nakawo, Yoshiyuki Fujii, Keqin Duan and Tandong Yao Review of climate and cryospheric change in the Tibetan Plateau Shichang Kang, Yanwei Xu, Qinglong You, Wolfgang-Albert Flügel, Nick Pepin and Tandong Yao Simulated impacts of land cover change on summer climate in the Tibetan Plateau Qian Li and Yongkang Xue

  12. Accurately determining direction of arrival by seismic array based on compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J.; Zhang, H.; Yu, H.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic array analysis method plays an important role in detecting weak signals and determining their locations and rupturing process. In these applications, reliably estimating direction of arrival (DOA) for the seismic wave is very important. DOA is generally determined by the conventional beamforming method (CBM) [Rost et al, 2000]. However, for a fixed seismic array generally the resolution of CBM is poor in the case of low-frequency seismic signals, and in the case of high frequency seismic signals the CBM may produce many local peaks, making it difficult to pick the one corresponding to true DOA. In this study, we develop a new seismic array method based on compressive sensing (CS) to determine the DOA with high resolution for both low- and high-frequency seismic signals. The new method takes advantage of the space sparsity of the incoming wavefronts. The CS method has been successfully used to determine spatial and temporal earthquake rupturing distributions with seismic array [Yao et al, 2011;Yao et al, 2013;Yin 2016]. In this method, we first form the problem of solving the DOA as a L1-norm minimization problem. The measurement matrix for CS is constructed by dividing the slowness-angle domain into many grid nodes, which needs to satisfy restricted isometry property (RIP) for optimized reconstruction of the image. The L1-norm minimization is solved by the interior point method. We first test the CS-based DOA array determination method on synthetic data constructed based on Shanghai seismic array. Compared to the CBM, synthetic test for data without noise shows that the new method can determine the true DOA with a super-high resolution. In the case of multiple sources, the new method can easily separate multiple DOAs. When data are contaminated by noise at various levels, the CS method is stable when the noise amplitude is lower than the signal amplitude. We also test the CS method for the Wenchuan earthquake. For different arrays with different apertures

  13. Rupture process of the 2013 Okhotsk deep mega earthquake from iterative backprojection and compress sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, W.; Yin, J.; Yao, H.

    2013-12-01

    On May 24th 2013 a Mw 8.3 normal faulting earthquake occurred at a depth of approximately 600 km beneath the sea of Okhotsk, Russia. It is a rare mega earthquake that ever occurred at such a great depth. We use the time-domain iterative backprojection (IBP) method [1] and also the frequency-domain compressive sensing (CS) technique[2] to investigate the rupture process and energy radiation of this mega earthquake. We currently use the teleseismic P-wave data from about 350 stations of USArray. IBP is an improved method of the traditional backprojection method, which more accurately locates subevents (energy burst) during earthquake rupture and determines the rupture speeds. The total rupture duration of this earthquake is about 35 s with a nearly N-S rupture direction. We find that the rupture is bilateral in the beginning 15 seconds with slow rupture speeds: about 2.5km/s for the northward rupture and about 2 km/s for the southward rupture. After that, the northward rupture stopped while the rupture towards south continued. The average southward rupture speed between 20-35 s is approximately 5 km/s, lower than the shear wave speed (about 5.5 km/s) at the hypocenter depth. The total rupture length is about 140km, in a nearly N-S direction, with a southward rupture length about 100 km and a northward rupture length about 40 km. We also use the CS method, a sparse source inversion technique, to study the frequency-dependent seismic radiation of this mega earthquake. We observe clear along-strike frequency dependence of the spatial and temporal distribution of seismic radiation and rupture process. The results from both methods are generally similar. In the next step, we'll use data from dense arrays in southwest China and also global stations for further analysis in order to more comprehensively study the rupture process of this deep mega earthquake. Reference [1] Yao H, Shearer P M, Gerstoft P. Subevent location and rupture imaging using iterative backprojection for

  14. Sulfur isotopic evidence for the origin of elemental sulfur in gas hydrate-bearing sediments of the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhiyong; Sun, Xiaoming; Strauss, Harald; Lu, Yang; Xu, Li; Lu, Hongfeng; Teichert, Barbara M. A.; Peckmann, Jörn

    2017-04-01

    Elemental sulfur is a common intermediate in the sulfur cycle and contributes significantly to the fractionation of stable sulfur isotopes in different reservoirs in shelfal marine sediments (e.g., Canfield and Thamdrup, 1994). However, no study dedicated to the isotopic composition of elemental sulfur in seep environments has been conducted to the best of our knowledge, thus limiting further insight into the biochemical pathways involving elemental sulfur in such environments. In this study, elemental sulfur and pyrite were extracted from the sediment of a 200-m long gas hydrate-bearing core, which was obtained from the gas hydrate drilling expedition to the northern South China Sea in 2013 (Zhang et al., 2015). The sulfur isotopic composition of elemental sulfur was found to vary from -16 to +23 per mill, and pyrite yielded values ranging from -34 to +18 per mill. Interestingly, elemental sulfur revealed higher 34S contents (up to 30 per mill) than the associated pyrite in most sediment layers. Since elemental sulfur is only produced during oxidative pathways in the sulfur cycle, the studied elemental sulfur apparently represents the oxidation product of hydrogen sulfide by various electron acceptors such as Mn(IV) oxides or Fe(III) oxides (e.g., Thamdrup et al., 1993; Yao and Millero, 1996). Since there is little sulfur isotope fractionation for oxidative processes (Fry et al., 1986), the enrichment of elemental sulfur in 34S points to a pool of hydrogen sulfide depleted in 32S, which is best interpreted to result from sulfate-driven anaerobic oxidation of methane. References: Canfield D.E. and Thamdrup B. (1994) The production of 34S-depleted sulfide during bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur. Science 266, 1973. Fry B., Cox J., Gest H. and Hayer J.M. (1986) Discrimination between 34S and32S during bacterial metabolism of inorganic sulfur compounds. J. Bacteriol. 165, 328-330. Thamdrup B., Finster K., Hansen W. and Bak F. (1993) Bacterial

  15. Current ambient ozone in China has threatened the health of farmland ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Ground-level Ozone (O3) has been one of global environmental issues as a result of rising concentration at most parts of the earth causing significant biological and economic damage to both agricultural and native species. Although the rising trends in O3 concentration have leveled off or decreased slightly in North America and Europe, the trends are increasing in developing countries such as India and China. Here, the impacts of ozone on crops in China are reviewed from studies during the last two decades. The field experimental methods include open-top chambers (OTC), free-air concentration enrichments (FACE) and chemical protectant EDU application. The experimental crops are winter wheat, rice, soybean, and oilrape. At a regional scale, yield loss in Yangtze River Delta by O3 was estimated to be 17%, 3% and 6% for wheat, rice and oil rape, respectively, and the corresponding economic losses were estimated to be 86 M US , 116 M US and 39 M US $ at the rate of 2007 (Yao et al., 2008). In four years' FACE studies, a mean 25% enhancement above the ambient O3 concentration significantly reduced the grain yield by, on average, 20% and 12% for winter wheat and rice, respectively, but there were significant differences in O3 sensitivity among the cultivars studied (Shi et al., 2009; Zhu et al., 2011). Both flux and concentration -based dose-response relationships indicated that FACE system induced larger yield loss of crops than OTCs, suggesting that O3 effects on crop yield were underestimated. Therefore, it can be inferred that food security will be seriously threatened by rising O3 concentration due to the intensive rate of urbanization in China. However, the impacts of O3 on local food crops need to be investigated more thoroughly in different parts of China, and the combined effects of elevated O3 and other factors like warming and CO2 should be considered. ReferencesFeng, Z. Z., Tang, H.Y., Uddling, J, et al. (2012). Environ Pollut, 164, 16-23. Shi, G.Y., Yang, L

  16. Electron Transport Properties of Ge nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanrath, Tobias; Khondaker, Saiful I.; Yao, Zhen; Korgel, Brian A.

    2003-03-01

    Electron Transport Properties of Ge nanowires Tobias Hanrath*, Saiful I. Khondaker, Zhen Yao, Brian A. Korgel* *Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Dept. of Physics, Texas Materials Institute, and Center for Nano- and Molecular Science and Technology University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1062 e-mail: korgel@mail.che.utexas.edu Germanium (Ge) nanowires with diameters ranging from 6 to 50 nm and several micrometer in length were grown via a supercritical fluid-liquid-solid synthesis. Parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS) was employed to study the band structure and electron density in the Ge nanowires. The observed increase in plasmon peak energy and peak width with decreasing nanowire diameter is attributed to quantum confinement effects. For electrical characterization, Ge nanowires were deposited onto a patterned Si/SiO2 substrate. E-beam lithography was then used to form electrode contacts to individual nanowires. The influence of nanowire diameter, surface chemistry and crystallographic defects on electron transport properties were investigated and the comparison of Ge nanowire conductivity with respect to bulk, intrinsic Ge will be presented.

  17. Chemical profiling approach to evaluate the influence of traditional and simplified decoction methods on the holistic quality of Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xuemei; Zhang, Qianying; Feng, Fang

    2016-04-01

    Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction, consisting of Rheum officinale Baill, Mirabilitum, Phellodendron amurense Rupr. and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, is a traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of jaundice. As described in "Jin Kui Yao Lue", a traditional multistep decoction of Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction was required while simplified one-step decoction was used in recent repsorts. To investigate the chemical difference between the decoctions obtained by the traditional and simplified preparations, a sensitive and reliable approach of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was established. As a result, a total of 105 compounds were detected and identified. Analysis of the chromatogram profiles of the two decoctions showed that many compounds in the decoction of simplified preparation had changed obviously compared with those in traditional preparation. The changes of constituents would be bound to cause the differences in the therapeutic effects of the two decoctions. The present study demonstrated that certain preparation methods significantly affect the holistic quality of traditional Chinese medicines and the use of a suitable preparation method is crucial for these medicines to produce special clinical curative effect. This research results elucidated the scientific basis of traditional preparation methods in Chinese medicines. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. [A study of the sexual art of having intercourse with several young virgins in traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Yan, Shanzhao

    2002-06-01

    The emergency treatments for the damage and bleeding of the vagina, and the sharp pubic pain of young virgins which were caused occurred by the sexual art, were recorded in traditional medicine books, such as the "Ji yan fang" and others. It is a fact that in ancient China some people used the sexual art of having intercourse with several young virgins at the same time in order to increase their health and keep perpetual youth and longevity. The famous traditional general-medical book, "qian jin yao fang" recommended that method to rich persons too. It is supposed that the beginning of the sexual art of having intercourse with several young virgins traces back to the times of Emperor Hanwu , but it seems to have disappeared from the historical stage in the Song period. On the other hand, the criticisms from the traditional medicine books and the secret languages of internal alchemy used for the Taoist sacred books show that the sexual art of having intercourse with several young virgins was still going on behind the scene in the Ming and Qing periods. Even if we consider the historical changes of ethics and mortality, we now cannot but criticize this behavior of abusing juveniles for the sexual art.

  19. A natural product from Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa inhibits homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2), attenuating MPP+-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan; Zhu, Lingjuan; Zhao, Yuqian; Gao, Suyu; Sun, Dejuan; Yuan, Jingquan; Huang, Yuxin; Zhang, Xue; Yao, Xinsheng

    2017-06-01

    Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is a conserved serine/threonine kinase, which regulate transcription, cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Previous evidences indicated that HIPK2 could be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting as a novel target for Parkinson's disease (PD) therapeutic development. Herein, gene microarray analysis was performed to verify the key regulatory function of HIPK2 in PD. (Z)-methylp-hydroxycinnamate (ZMHC, 7) with other eighteen compounds were isolated from Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa, growing in Bama Yao Autonomous County, one of the five largest longevity regions of the world. Intriguingly, ZMHC was identified to bind HIPK2 with high affinity through molecular modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Moreover, cell morphology, flow cytometry and western blot assay suggested that ZMHC inhibited HIPK2, which attenuated MPP + -induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. In conclusion, these findings discovered a natural product that inhibited HIPK2, and highlighted that ZMHC could be a potential precursor agent for future PD therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote amyloid-β clearance from the brain through mediating the function of the glymphatic system.

    PubMed

    Ren, Huixia; Luo, Chuanming; Feng, Yanqing; Yao, Xiaoli; Shi, Zhe; Liang, Fengyin; Kang, Jing X; Wan, Jian-Bo; Pei, Zhong; Su, Huanxing

    2017-01-01

    Impairment of amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance leads to Aβ accumulation in the brain during the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Strategies that can restore or improve the clearance function hold great promise in delaying or preventing the onset of AD. Here, we show that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), by use of fat-1 transgenic mice and oral administration of fish oil, significantly promote interstitial Aβ clearance from the brain and resist Aβ injury. Such beneficial effects were abolished in Aqp4-knockout mice, suggesting that the AQP4-dependent glymphatic system is actively involved in the promoting the effects of n-3 PUFAs on the clearance of extracellular Aβ. Imaging on clarified brain tissues clearly displayed that n-3 PUFAs markedly inhibit the activation of astrocytes and protect the AQP4 polarization in the affected brain region after Aβ injection. The results of the present study prove a novel mechanism by which n-3 PUFAs exert protective roles in reducing Aβ accumulation via mediating the glymphatic system function.-Ren, H., Luo, C., Feng, Y., Yao, X., Shi, Z., Liang, F., Kang, J. X., Wan, J.-B., Pei, Z., Su, H. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote amyloid-β clearance from the brain through mediating the function of the glymphatic system. © FASEB.

  1. [Changes of physical functions among Chinese minority students from 1985 to 2005].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Zhang, Ji; Wu, Shuang-sheng; Song, Yi; Hu, Pei-jin; Zhang, Bing

    2009-10-01

    To study the changes of physical functions among minority students in China from 1985 to 2005, to provide evidence for health promotion to the minority students in the country. Using data from the Chinese national survey on students physical fitness and health from 1985 to 2005, we analyzed the physical functions of 15 minority groups from primary and secondary schools, including Mongolian, Hui, Uygur, Zhuang, Korean, Tibetan, Yao, Li, Qiang, Buyi, Dong, Miao, Tu, Salar, Kirgiz, aged 7 - 18 years old. Some of the minority students had the higher levels of physiological functions and athletic ability, but some indicators decreased significantly. In terms of items related to 'speed', most of the minority boys and girls improved, but items related to 'endurance' or'vital capacity', were significantly declining. Part of the minority students had better 'endurance' than students of Han ethnicity in the cities. All the indicators of athletic ability declined in schoolboys and schoolgirls of Korean ethnicity. Kirgiz students were outstanding in vital capacity and speed quality while Uighur students had better physical development and vital capacity, but were poorer in running and jumping, reflecting the weakness of explosive power of lower limbs. On the contrary, Li and Zhuang students had shown a very good quality in running, jumping, male shoulder muscular strength and endurance items, etc. The physical functions and the athletic ability of the minority students in China had the advantages and characteristics, which might be related to their living environment and habits.

  2. Concurrent Use of Hypnotic Drugs and Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapies among Taiwanese Adults with Insomnia Symptoms: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuei-Hua; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Lin, Shun-Ku

    2013-01-01

    Background. The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. The purpose of our study is to analyze the concurrent use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) among Taiwanese insomnia patients taking hypnotic drugs. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed among 53,949 insomnia sufferers were evaluated from a random sample of 1 million beneficiaries in the National Health Insurance Research Database. A logistic regression method was used to identify the factors that were associated with the coprescription of a CHP and a hypnotic drug. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of hip fracture between the two groups. Results. More than 1 of every 3 hypnotic users also used a CHP concurrently. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (Augmented Rambling Powder) and Suan-Zao-Ren-Tang (Zizyphus Combination) were the 2 most commonly used CHPs that were coadministered with hypnotic drugs. The HR of hip fracture for hypnotic-drug users who used a CHP concurrently was 0.57-fold (95% CI = 0.47-0.69) that of hypnotic-drug users who did not use a CHP. Conclusion. Exploring potential CHP-drug interactions and integrating both healthcare approaches might be beneficial for the overall health and quality of life of insomnia sufferers.

  3. Anxiolytic effect of Kami-Shoyo-San (TJ-24) in mice: possible mediation of neurosteroid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mizowaki, M; Toriizuka, K; Hanawa, T

    2001-09-21

    We assessed the anxiolytic effect of Kami-Shoyo-San (Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san; TJ-24), one of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatment of menopausal anxiety, by the social interaction (SI) test in male mice. Acute administration of TJ-24 (25-100 mg/kg, p.o.), as well as the gamma-amino-butyric acidA/benzodiazepine (GABA(A)/BZP) receptor agonist diazepam (1-3 mg/kg, i.p.), dose dependently increased the SI time, respectively. The GABA(A) receptor antagonist picrotoxin blocked the effects of TJ-24 and diazepam. TJ-24-induced SI behavior was significantly blocked by the GABA(A)/BZP receptor inverse agonist Ro 15-4513 and the GABA(A)/BZP receptor antagonist flumazenil. In addition, 5alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride potently blocked the effect of TJ-24 without attenuating the basal level by itself. These findings suggest that TJ-24 shows the anxiolytic effect through the neurosteroid synthesis followed by GABA(A)/BDZ receptor stimulations.

  4. Chinese Herbal Medicine Treatment Improves the Overall Survival Rate of Individuals with Hypertension among Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Modulates In Vitro Smooth Muscle Cell Contractility.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Ju; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Chi-Fung; Shiao, Yi-Tzone; Wang, Chang-Bi; Chien, Wen-Kuei; Chen, Jin-Hua; Liu, Xiang; Tsang, Hsinyi; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Liao, Chiu-Chu; Huang, Shao-Mei; Li, Ju-Pi; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Pang, Hao-Yu; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lan, Yu-Ching; Liu, Yu-Huei; Chen, Shih-Yin; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Liang, Wen-Miin

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic, multifactorial, and metabolic disorder accounting for 90% diabetes cases worldwide. Among them, almost half of T2D have hypertension, which is responsible for cardiovascular disease, morbidity, and mortality in these patients. The Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) prescription patterns of hypertension individuals among T2D patients have yet to be characterized. This study, therefore, aimed to determine their prescription patterns and evaluate the CHM effect. A cohort of one million randomly sampled cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to investigate the overall survival rate of CHM users, and prescription patterns. After matching CHM and non-CHM users for age, gender and date of diagnosis of hypertension, 980 subjects for each group were selected. The CHM users were characterized with slightly longer duration time from diabetes to hypertension, and more cases for hyperlipidaemia. The cumulative survival probabilities were higher in CHM users than in non-CHM users. Among these top 12 herbs, Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Dan-Shen, and Ge-Gen were the most common herbs and inhibited in vitro smooth muscle cell contractility. Our study also provides a CHM comprehensive list that may be useful in future investigation of the safety and efficacy for individuals with hypertension among type 2 diabetes patients.

  5. Decreased risk of dementia in migraine patients with traditional Chinese medicine use: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Ting; Wu, Bei-Yu; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Wang, Lin-Yi; Lee, Yan-Yuh; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Lin, Pao-Yen; Chen, Wu-Fu; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Hsu, Sheng-Feng; Hu, Wen-Long

    2017-10-03

    Patients with migraine are reportedly at increased risk of developing dementia. We aimed to investigate the association between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) use and dementia risk in migraine patients. This longitudinal cohort study used the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database to identify 32,386 diagnosed migraine patients aged 20 years and above who received treatment from 1997 to 2010. To balance comparability between TCM users and non-TCM users, we randomly selected equal numbers from each group, and compared subgroups compiled based on combinations of age, sex, index year, and year of migraine diagnosis. All enrollees received follow-up until the end of 2013 to measure dementia incidence. We identified 1,402 TCM users and non-TCM users after frequency matching. A total of 134 subjects were newly diagnosed with dementia during the follow-up period. TCM users were significantly less likely to develop dementia than non-TCM users. The most frequently prescribed formulae and single Chinese herbal products were Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San and Yan-Hu-Suo, respectively. This population-based study revealed a decreased dementia risk in migraine patients with TCM use. These findings may provide a reference for dementia prevention strategies, and help integrate TCM into clinical intervention programs that provide a favorable prognosis for migraine patients.

  6. Is Traditional Chinese medicine effective for reducing hyperthyroidism?

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Huang, Sheng-Teng

    2010-11-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease that can affect a few patients with hyperthyroidism. In this case report, we demonstrated that Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) was effective for the patient with hyperthyroidism induced by Graves' disease. The patient also remained in the euthyroid state for several years after the treatment. SUBJECT AND SETTING: A 33-year-old woman had palpitations, fatigability, and weight loss and was diagnosed as having Graves' disease. Urticaria and itching skin appeared after she took an antithyroid drug. Therefore, she sought treatment with TCM. After regular therapy with Jia Wei Xiao Yao San in addition to Xia Ku Cao, Bei Mu, and oyster shell, her symptoms subsided and the thyroid function level returned to normal range with 3 years' treatment. She still remained in the euthyroid state for 3 years after discontinuing the TCM treatment up to the present. Neither complications nor side-effects were noted during the TCM treatment. This case demonstrates that TCM is an effective and alternative option for hyperthyroidism induced by Graves' disease, especially for patients who have an allergic reaction caused by thioamides.

  7. Chinese Herbal Medicine as an Adjunctive Therapy Ameliorated the Incidence of Chronic Hepatitis in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Chin; Yen, Hung-Rong; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Su, Yuan-Chih; Sun, Mao-Feng; Chang, Hen-Hong; Huang, Sheng-Teng

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a National Health Insurance Research Database-based Taiwanese nationwide population-based cohort study to evaluate whether Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment decreased the incidence of chronic hepatitis in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. A total of 81171 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer within the defined study period. After randomly equal matching, data from 13856 patients were analyzed. Hazard ratios of incidence rate of chronic hepatitis were used to determine the influence and therapeutic potential of CHM in patients with breast cancer. The patients with breast cancer receiving CHM treatment exhibited a significantly decreased incidence rate of chronic hepatitis even across the stratification of age, CCI score, and treatments. The cumulative incidence of chronic hepatitis for a period of seven years after initial breast cancer diagnosis was also reduced in the patients receiving CHM treatment. The ten most commonly used single herbs and formulas were effective in protecting liver function in patients with breast cancer, where Hedyotis diffusa and Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San were the most commonly used herbal agents. In conclusion, our study provided information that western medicine therapy combined with CHM as an adjuvant modality may have a significant impact on liver protection in patients with breast cancer.

  8. Optical system for tablet variety discrimination using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yongni; He, Yong; Hu, Xingyue

    2007-12-01

    An optical system based on visible/near-infrared spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS) for variety discrimination of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) tablets was developed. This system consisted of a light source, beam splitter system, sample chamber, optical detector (diffuse reflection detector), and data collection. The tablet varieties used in the research include Da na kang, Xin bang, Tian bao ning, Yi kang, Hua na xing, Dou le, Lv yuan, Hai wang, and Ji yao. All samples (n=270) were scanned in the Vis/NIR region between 325 and 1075 nm using a spectrograph. The chemometrics method of principal component artificial neural network (PC-ANN) was used to establish discrimination models of them. In PC-ANN models, the scores of the principal components were chosen as the input nodes for the input layer of ANN, and the best discrimination rate of 91.1% was reached. Principal component analysis was also executed to select several optimal wavelengths based on loading values. Wavelengths at 481, 458, 466, 570, 1000, 662, and 400 nm were then used as the input data of stepwise multiple linear regression, the regression equation of ginkgo tablets was obtained, and the discrimination rate was researched 84.4%. The results indicated that this optical system could be applied to discriminating ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) tablets, and it supplied a new method for fast ginkgo tablet variety discrimination.

  9. [Textual research on Chen Ye and his Jia cang jing yan fang (Family-preserved Empirical Recipes) of the Song Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuedan; Zhang, Ruqing; Chen, Dexing

    2014-01-01

    Chen Ye, an official of the Southern Song Dynasty, also known as Chen Rihua as his styled name, was born in Changle, Fuzhou in the reign of Shaoxing, and died during the reign of Duanping. He had been consecutively in the positions of Jiang shi lang (Court Gentleman for Ceremonial Service), Zhi zhou (Prefect) of Lingding, the Ti xing (Judicial Commissioner) of Guangdong, the Zong ling (Overseer-general) of Sichuan, Shan ding (Reviser), Shu lin and other positions in Tongzhou, Yuanzhou. His works included 1 volume of Gu ling xian sheng nian pu (Mr. Guling's Chronological Biography), 1 volume of Tan xie (On Humor), 1 volume of Shi hua (Poetry), 8 volumes of Jin yuan li shu (Jin Yuan's Smart Technique), 3 volumes of Yi jian zhi lei bian (Classified Compilation of Yijian's Annals), (Zeng guang) Suo sui lu (Augmented Records of Trivial Matters), 5 volumes of Jia cang jing yan fang (Family-preserved Empirical Recipes). He also compiled the 8-volume Yin jiang zhi (Yinjiang's Annals), published the 2-volume Jia cang ji yao fang (Collected Essential Recipes from Family Preservation), and other proses and poetry. Jia cang jing yan fang was a formulary compiled by Chen Ye, which was lost. Altogether 74 of its recipes were cited in Fu ren da quan liang fang (Complete Effective Prescriptions for Women's Diseases), Shou qin yang lao shu (A Book for Pursuing Seniors' Longevity and Healthcare), Pu ji fang (Prescriptions for Universal Relief) and Yong le da dian (Yongle Encyclopedia).

  10. Theoretical analysis on non-uniformity of water distribution and influence of construction parameters on settling efficiency.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ting-Lin; Li, Yu-Xian; Zhang, Hui

    2008-01-01

    During the reconstruction of horizontal flow tanks into inclined settling tanks in Chinese water plants, uniformity of water distribution has not been solved theoretically. Based on the concepts of hydraulics, a model of inclined tanks, including the ratio (L/B) of tank length (L) to width (B), diameter of inclined tubes (d) and height of the water distribution area (h1) and so on, was established to simulate and analyze the effects of these parameters on Non-Uniformity of Water Distribution (NUWD). The influences of NUWD on settling efficiency were also analyzed based on Yao's formula. Simulated results show that the ratio (L/B) has the greatest impact on NUWD, and the settling efficiency decreases with it. Under the conditions of q=10 or 20 m/h and L/B>or=5 or 3, the total forces imposed on down-sliding flocs tend to be zero, which reduces the separating efficiency. Moreover, critical settling velocity (CSV) of the first inclined tube will decrease with the increase of h1, and the optimal range of h1 will be 1.2-1.6 m. The difference of CSV between the first tube and the average value of the tank u0 (shown as Delta(uF0-u0)) will increase with d and surface load (q). Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  11. Thomas Gold's Intense Solar Wind; It's evidence in prehistoric petroglyphs recorded along rivers in North and South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peratt, A. L.

    2008-11-01

    A past intense solar outburst and its effect on Earth circa 8,000 BCE was proposed by Gold who based his hypotheses on astronomical and geophysical evidence [1]. The discovery of high-current Z-pinch patterns in Neolithic petroglyphs provides evidence for this occurrence and insight into the origin and meaning of these ancient symbols produced by mankind. These correspond to mankind's visual observations of ancient aurora if the solar wind had increased between one and two orders of magnitude millennia ago [2]. Our data show identical MHD patterns from surveys along 300 km of the Orinoco River (Venezuela), the Chuluut River (Mongolia), the Columbia River (USA), Red Gorge (South Australia) and the Urubamba River (Peru). Three-dimensional, high-fidelity PIC simulations of intense Z-pinches replicate the carved data [3]. 1. T. Gold, Pontificiae Academiae Scientiarvm Scripta Varia, 25, 159, 1962. 2. A. L. Peratt. Trans. Plasma Sci. 35. 778. 2007. 3. A. L. Peratt and W. F. Yao, Physica Scripta, T130, August 2008.

  12. Continuation of support for the Intercampus Institute for Research at Particle Accelerators. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, D.; Eisner, A.

    1997-10-01

    During the budget period beginning May 16, 1995, the UCSD group of the U.C. Intercampus Institute for Research at Particle Accelerators devoted approximately 75% of its effort to the PEP-II B Factory and the associated BABAR detector at SLAC, and 25% of its effort to the LSND collaboration at LAMPF. Michael Sullivan spent all of his time on PEP-II, while Alan Eisner split his time between BABAR and LSND. Sullivan remained a critical member of the group designing the PEP-II interaction region and the machine-detector interface; and, in fact, toward the end of the period he left IIRPA to becomemore » a SLAC employee, in order to ensure his continued participation in those efforts. That work has focused on developing an interaction region in which the accelerator can achieve the required high specific luminosity while, at the same time, maintaining low enough beam background to allow a detector to operate. Both requirements are essential to achieving the primary physics goal of not only detecting but doing detailed measurements of CP violation. Eisner`s work on the BABAR detector concentrated on the electromagnetic (CsI crystal) calorimeter. With the calorimeter geometry largely established, he turned his attention more fully to the areas of calorimeter data acquisition and calibration. The data acquisition focus, was on understaning the performance of the proposed system via calculations and simulations, a joint project with Yao-xin Wang of the UCSB IIRPA group.« less

  13. BioQueue: a novel pipeline framework to accelerate bioinformatics analysis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Li; Wang, Heming; Song, Yuanyuan; Sui, Guangchao

    2017-10-15

    With the rapid development of Next-Generation Sequencing, a large amount of data is now available for bioinformatics research. Meanwhile, the presence of many pipeline frameworks makes it possible to analyse these data. However, these tools concentrate mainly on their syntax and design paradigms, and dispatch jobs based on users' experience about the resources needed by the execution of a certain step in a protocol. As a result, it is difficult for these tools to maximize the potential of computing resources, and avoid errors caused by overload, such as memory overflow. Here, we have developed BioQueue, a web-based framework that contains a checkpoint before each step to automatically estimate the system resources (CPU, memory and disk) needed by the step and then dispatch jobs accordingly. BioQueue possesses a shell command-like syntax instead of implementing a new script language, which means most biologists without computer programming background can access the efficient queue system with ease. BioQueue is freely available at https://github.com/liyao001/BioQueue. The extensive documentation can be found at http://bioqueue.readthedocs.io. li_yao@outlook.com or gcsui@nefu.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Optical Pattern Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Jutamulia, Suganda

    2008-10-01

    Contributors; Preface; 1. Pattern recognition with optics Francis T. S. Yu and Don A. Gregory; 2. Hybrid neural networks for nonlinear pattern recognition Taiwei Lu; 3. Wavelets, optics, and pattern recognition Yao Li and Yunglong Sheng; 4. Applications of the fractional Fourier transform to optical pattern recognition David Mendlovic, Zeev Zalesky and Haldum M. Oxaktas; 5. Optical implementation of mathematical morphology Tien-Hsin Chao; 6. Nonlinear optical correlators with improved discrimination capability for object location and recognition Leonid P. Yaroslavsky; 7. Distortion-invariant quadratic filters Gregory Gheen; 8. Composite filter synthesis as applied to pattern recognition Shizhou Yin and Guowen Lu; 9. Iterative procedures in electro-optical pattern recognition Joseph Shamir; 10. Optoelectronic hybrid system for three-dimensional object pattern recognition Guoguang Mu, Mingzhe Lu and Ying Sun; 11. Applications of photrefractive devices in optical pattern recognition Ziangyang Yang; 12. Optical pattern recognition with microlasers Eung-Gi Paek; 13. Optical properties and applications of bacteriorhodopsin Q. Wang Song and Yu-He Zhang; 14. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators Aris Tanone and Suganda Jutamulia; 15. Representations of fully complex functions on real-time spatial light modulators Robert W. Cohn and Laurence G. Hassbrook; Index.

  15. Adaptive color halftoning for minimum perceived error using the blue noise mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qing; Parker, Kevin J.

    1997-04-01

    Color halftoning using a conventional screen requires careful selection of screen angles to avoid Moire patterns. An obvious advantage of halftoning using a blue noise mask (BNM) is that there are no conventional screen angle or Moire patterns produced. However, a simple strategy of employing the same BNM on all color planes is unacceptable in case where a small registration error can cause objectionable color shifts. In a previous paper by Yao and Parker, strategies were presented for shifting or inverting the BNM as well as using mutually exclusive BNMs for different color planes. In this paper, the above schemes will be studied in CIE-LAB color space in terms of root mean square error and variance for luminance channel and chrominance channel respectively. We will demonstrate that the dot-on-dot scheme results in minimum chrominance error, but maximum luminance error and the 4-mask scheme results in minimum luminance error but maximum chrominance error, while the shift scheme falls in between. Based on this study, we proposed a new adaptive color halftoning algorithm that takes colorimetric color reproduction into account by applying 2-mutually exclusive BNMs on two different color planes and applying an adaptive scheme on other planes to reduce color error. We will show that by having one adaptive color channel, we obtain increased flexibility to manipulate the output so as to reduce colorimetric error while permitting customization to specific printing hardware.

  16. Lax representations for matrix short pulse equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popowicz, Z.

    2017-10-01

    The Lax representation for different matrix generalizations of Short Pulse Equations (SPEs) is considered. The four-dimensional Lax representations of four-component Matsuno, Feng, and Dimakis-Müller-Hoissen-Matsuno equations are obtained. The four-component Feng system is defined by generalization of the two-dimensional Lax representation to the four-component case. This system reduces to the original Feng equation, to the two-component Matsuno equation, or to the Yao-Zang equation. The three-component version of the Feng equation is presented. The four-component version of the Matsuno equation with its Lax representation is given. This equation reduces the new two-component Feng system. The two-component Dimakis-Müller-Hoissen-Matsuno equations are generalized to the four-parameter family of the four-component SPE. The bi-Hamiltonian structure of this generalization, for special values of parameters, is defined. This four-component SPE in special cases reduces to the new two-component SPE.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Background Subtraction Algorithms in Remote Scene Videos Captured by MWIR Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Guangle; Lei, Tao; Zhong, Jiandan; Jiang, Ping; Jia, Wenwu

    2017-01-01

    Background subtraction (BS) is one of the most commonly encountered tasks in video analysis and tracking systems. It distinguishes the foreground (moving objects) from the video sequences captured by static imaging sensors. Background subtraction in remote scene infrared (IR) video is important and common to lots of fields. This paper provides a Remote Scene IR Dataset captured by our designed medium-wave infrared (MWIR) sensor. Each video sequence in this dataset is identified with specific BS challenges and the pixel-wise ground truth of foreground (FG) for each frame is also provided. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate BS algorithms on this proposed dataset. The overall performance of BS algorithms and the processor/memory requirements were compared. Proper evaluation metrics or criteria were employed to evaluate the capability of each BS algorithm to handle different kinds of BS challenges represented in this dataset. The results and conclusions in this paper provide valid references to develop new BS algorithm for remote scene IR video sequence, and some of them are not only limited to remote scene or IR video sequence but also generic for background subtraction. The Remote Scene IR dataset and the foreground masks detected by each evaluated BS algorithm are available online: https://github.com/JerryYaoGl/BSEvaluationRemoteSceneIR. PMID:28837112

  18. Itinerancy-Enhanced Quantum Fluctuation of Magnetic Moments in Iron-Based Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Yu-Ting; Yao, Dao-Xin; Ku, Wei

    We investigate the influence of itinerant carriers on dynamics and fluctuation of local moments in Fe-based superconductors, via linear spin-wave analysis of a spin-fermion model containing both itinerant and local degrees of freedom.Surprisingly against the common lore, instead of enhancing the (π,0) order, itinerant carriers with well nested Fermi surfaces are found to induce a significant amount of spatial and temporal quantum fluctuation that leads to the observed small ordered moment. Interestingly, the underlying mechanism is shown to be intra-pocket nesting-associated long-range coupling rather than the previously believed ferromagnetic double-exchange effect. This challenges the validity of ferromagnetically compensated first-neighbor coupling reported from short-range fitting to the experimental dispersion, which turns out to result instead from the ferro-orbital order that is also found instrumental in stabilizing the magnetic order. *Y.-T. Tam, D.-X. Yao and W. Ku, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 117001 (2015) Work supported by US DOE No.DE-AC02-98CH10886 and CHN No. NBRPC-2012CB821400, No. NSFC-11275279.

  19. Astronomical function and date of the Taosi observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiabi; Chen, Meidong; Liu, Ciyuan

    2009-01-01

    The Taosi site in Xiangfen County, Shanxi Province, may be the capital of the King Yao. Archeologists recently discovered a large semi-circular stamped-earth platform, II FJT1, which has a clear and definite pounded-earth central core together with a curved wall perforated by twelve gaps. The platform is said to be an ancient observatory used to determine the seasons by watching the sunrise. Each feature of II FJT1 was precisely measured and the data are reproduced in this paper. An astronomical analysis of slots E2 and E12 was carried out using the azimuths of the slots’ centerlines and the vertical angle of the mountain ridge opposite, above which the sun rises. The results show that at present the sun is close to the two slots but does not exactly enter them at summer and winter solstice sunrise. Using 14C analysis archeologists dated the site to about 2100 BC. Because of the secular change in the obliquity of the ecliptic, at that date on the summer solstice the half-risen sun would have appeared inside slot E12 just to the right of the centerline, and on the winter solstice the sun would have been exactly on the centerline of slot E2. This result provides compelling proof that II FJT1 is an ancient observatory.

  20. RF Photonic Technology in Optical Fiber Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, William S. C.

    2007-06-01

    List of contributors; Introduction and preface; 1. Figures of merit and performance analysis of photonic microwave links Charles Cox and William S. C. Chang; 2. RF subcarrier links in local access networks Xiaolin Lu; 3. Analog modulation of semiconductor lasers Joachim Piprek and John E. Bowers; 4. LiNbO3 external modulators and their use in high performance analog links Gary E. Betts; 5. Broadband traveling wave modulators in LiNbO3 Marta M. Howerton and William K. Burns; 6. Multiple quantum well electroabsorption modulators for RF photonic links William S. C. Chang; 7. Polymer modulators for RF photonics Timothy Van Eck; 8. Photodiodes for high performance analog links P. K. L. Yu and Ming C. Wu; 9. Opto-electronic oscillators X. Steve Yao; 10. Photonic link techniques for microwave frequency conversion Stephen A. Pappert, Roger Helkey and Ronald T. Logan Jr; 11. Antenna-coupled millimeter-wave electro-optical modulators William B. Bridges; 12. System design and performance of wideband photonic phased array antennas Greg L. Tangonan, Willie Ng, Daniel Yap and Ron Stephens; Acknowledgements; References; Index.

  1. A new anthraquinone and eight constituents from Hedyotis caudatifolia Merr. et Metcalf: isolation, purification and structural identification.

    PubMed

    Luo, Peng; Su, Jiale; Zhu, Yilin; Wei, Jianhua; Wei, Wanxing; Pan, Weigao

    2016-10-01

    Hedyotis caudatifolia Merr. et Metcalf. (HC), a folk medicine in Yao nationalities areas in China, was used to investigate the chemical constituents. Through silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, nine compounds were isolated and purified. By physical and chemical properties, IR, MS (EI-MS, high resolution EI-MS), 1D NMR ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR) and 2D NMR (HSQC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMBC), their structures were identified as β-sitosterol (1), stigmasterol (2), scopolin (3), 2-hydroxy-1,7,8-trimethoxyanthracene-9,10-dione (4), oleanolic acid (5), ursolic acid (6), methyl barbinervate (7), β-daucosterol (8) and p-Hydroxybenzoic acid (9). These compounds were isolated from HC for the first time, and 4 a new anthraquinone whose biological activities are worth to be investigated in future. These compounds may contribute to the HC's pharmacological effects on treating diseases, and may be used as candidates for control index in establishing the quality control standard of HC.

  2. Temporal Features of the Differentiation between Self-Name and Religious Leader Name among Christians: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ruixue; Jin, Ruijie; Yong, Lin; Li, Shaodong; Li, Shifeng; Zhou, Aibao

    2018-01-01

    Existing neuroimaging studies have shown that religion, as a subjective culture, can influence self-referential processing. However, the time course of this impact remains unclear. The present study examined how Christians process their own names, the name of their religious leader (i.e., Jesus), and a famous person’s name (i.e., Yao Ming). Behavioral and EEG data were recorded while the participants performed a name-color judgment task for these three names. The behavioral data showed no significant differences in reaction time or accuracy among the names. However, the ERP data showed that the P200 and P300 amplitudes elicited by the self-name and religious leader name were larger than those elicited by the famous name. Furthermore, the self-name also elicited a larger P300 amplitude than the religious leader name did. These results suggested that both the self-name and the religious leader name were processed preferentially due to their important social value for the self as compared to a generally famous name. Importantly, the dissociation between the self-name and the religious leader name was observed at a high-order cognitive stage, which might be attributed to their different roles in one’s self-concept. PMID:29422874

  3. Therapeutic effect of the compound Danshen dripping pill combined with laser acupoint irradiation on early diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui-Hui; Xiong, Guo-Xin; Zhang, Li-Ping

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of the compound Danshen dripping pill combined with laser acupoint irradiation on early diabetic retinopathy, 19 patients with early diabetic retinopathy were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group. The TaiYang, YangBai, YuYao and ZanZhu acupoints of patients in the treatment group were irradiated with a semiconductor laser combined with the oral compound Danshen dropping pills, while those in the control group only used the oral compound Danshen dropping pills. The indicators of vision, mean defect of light sensitivity in the visual field, renal function and fasting blood glucose, were examined to evaluate the efficacy. After treatment, the above indicators of patients in the two groups were significantly improved and there was a significant difference between the two groups. This showed that the compound Danshen dripping pills combined with the laser acupoint irradiation can improve the ischemic and anoxic state of early diabetic retinopathy and improve the visual field.

  4. Finding of two new radiolarian associations calibrated with ammonoids in the Vaca Muerta Formation (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous), Neuquén Basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennari, Verónica V.; Pujana, Ignacio

    2017-04-01

    An association of ammonoids and radiolarians retrieved from a sedimentary section of the Vaca Muerta Formation at Vega de Escalone, Neuquén Basin, Argentina, was analized under a strict stratigraphic control. Nine ammonoid assemblage biozones were identified, indicating an age span from Early Tithonian to Late Berriasian/earlymost Valanginian for the Vaca Muerta Formation at the studied section. In connection to the ammonoid record, two radiolarian faunas were identified and named J3A1 and J3B1. Fauna J3A1, corresponding to the Virgatosphinctes andesensis Biozone, is dominated by nasellarian genera and represents the first Lower Tithonian radiolarian fauna described from the Neuquén Basin. Fauna J3B1, linked to the interval assigned to the Substeueroceras koeneni Biozone (Late Tithonian-Early Berriasian), yields abundant representatives of the Pantanellid Family. The presence of Complexapora kozuri (Kiessling and Zeiss) and Loopus primitivus (Matsuoka and Yao), two important radiolarian primary markers of the Late Jurassic in North America, supports a Late Tithonian age for at least part of the S. koeneni Biozone in the studied area. Nor certain Berriasian radiolarian faunas nor elements of the Vallupinae Family were identified so far at the Vega de Escalone section.

  5. Expression Profiling and Proteomic Analysis of JIN Chinese Herbal Formula in Lung Carcinoma H460 Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Luyu; Zhang, Weiyi; Jiang, Miao; Zhang, Huarong; Xiong, Fei; Yu, Yang; Chen, Meijuan; Zhou, Jing; Dai, Xiaoming; Jiang, Ming; Wang, Mingyan; Cheng, Ge; Duan, Jinao; Yu, Wei; Lin, Biaoyang; Fu, Haian; Zhang, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Many traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulae have been used in cancer therapy. The JIN formula is an ancient herbal formula recorded in the classic TCM book Jin Kui Yao Lue (Golden Chamber). The JIN formula significantly delayed the growth of subcutaneous human H460 xenografted tumors in vivo compared with the growth of mock controls. Gene array analysis of signal transduction in cancer showed that the JIN formula acted on multiple targets such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase, hedgehog, and Wnt signaling pathways. The coformula treatment of JIN and diamminedichloroplatinum (DDP) affected the stress/heat shock pathway. Proteomic analysis showed 36 and 84 differentially expressed proteins between the mock and DDP groups and between the mock and JIN groups, respectively. GoMiner analysis revealed that the differentially expressed proteins between the JIN and mock groups were enriched during cellular metabolic processes, and so forth. The ones between the DDP and mock groups were enriched during protein-DNA complex assembly, and so forth. Most downregulated proteins in the JIN group were heat shock proteins (HSPs) such as HSP90AA1 and HSPA1B, which could be used as markers to monitor responses to the JIN formula therapy. The mechanism of action of the JIN formula on HSP proteins warrants further investigation. PMID:24066008

  6. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F { X ( t ), t } where F (·,·) is an unknown regression function and X ( t ) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F (·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X ( t ) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t , along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  7. FBXL5 interacts with p150 {sup Glued} and regulates its ubiquitination

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Ning; Liu Jing; Ding Xia

    2007-07-20

    The microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein and its activator dynactin drive vesicular transport and mitotic spindle organization. p150 {sup Glued} is the dynactin subunit responsible for binding to dynein and microtubules. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which governs phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and subsequent proteolysis. Our recent study showed that the proteolysis of mitotic kinesin CENP-E is mediated by SCF via a direct Skp1 link [D. Liu, N. Zhang, J. Du, X. Cai, M. Zhu, C. Jin, Z. Dou, C. Feng, Y. Yang, L. Liu, K. Takeyasu, W. Xie, X. Yao,more » Interaction of Skp1 with CENP-E at the midbody is essential for cytokinesis, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 345 (2006) 394-402]. Here we show that F-box protein FBXL5 interacts with p150 {sup Glued} and orchestrates its turnover via ubiquitination. FBXL5 binds to p150 {sup Glued} in vitro and in vivo. FBXL5 and p150 {sup Glued} co-localize primarily in the cytoplasm with peri-nuclear enrichment in HeLa cells. Overexpression of FBXL5 promotes poly-ubiquitination of p150 {sup Glued} and protein turnover of p150 {sup Glued} . Our findings provide a potential mechanism by which p150 {sup Glued} protein function is regulated by SCFs.« less

  8. Genetic homogeneity across Bantu-speaking groups from Mozambique and Angola challenges early split scenarios between East and West Bantu populations.

    PubMed

    Alves, Isabel; Coelho, Margarida; Gignoux, Christopher; Damasceno, Albertino; Prista, Antonio; Rocha, Jorge

    2011-02-01

    The large scale spread of Bantu-speaking populations remains one of the most debated questions in African population history. In this work we studied the genetic structure of 19 Bantu-speaking groups from Mozambique and Angola using a multilocus approach based on 14 newly developed compound haplotype systems (UEPSTRs), each consisting of a rapidly evolving short tandem repeat (STR) closely linked to a unique event polymorphism (UEP). We compared the ability of UEPs, STRs and UEPSTRs to document genetic variation at the intercontinental level and among the African Bantu populations, and found that UEPSTR systems clearly provided more resolution than UEPs or STRs alone. The observed patterns of genetic variation revealed high levels of genetic homogeneity between major populations from Angola and Mozambique, with two main outliers: the Kuvale from Angola and the Chopi from Mozambique. Within Mozambique, two Kaskazi-speaking populations from the far north (Yao and Mwani) and two Nyasa-speaking groups from the Zambezi River basin (Nyungwe and Sena) could be differentiated from the remaining groups, but no further population structure was observed across the country. The close genetic relationship between most sampled Bantu populations is consistent with high degrees of interaction between peoples living in savanna areas located to the south of the rainforest. Our results highlight the role of gene flow during the Bantu expansions and show that the genetic evidence accumulated so far is becoming increasingly difficult to reconcile with widely accepted models postulating an early split between eastern and western Bantu populations.

  9. Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

  10. Influence of culture, residential segregation and socioeconomic development on rural elderly health-related quality of life in Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tai; Shi, Wuxiang; Huang, Zhaoquan; Gao, Dong; Guo, Zhenyou; Liu, Jianying; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2016-06-29

    This study aimed to assess ethnic differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among the rural elderly, and to examine the influence of ethnic culture, residential segregation and socioeconomic development on HRQoL. A total of 6,511 rural elderly aged 60 years and older from 5,541 households in 116 villages across eight ethnic groups in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous region were selected and assessed for HRQoL. The EQ-5D index values were calculated based on the Chinese Time Trade-Off values set. The EQ-5D descriptive system scores, visual analogue scale scores, and index values were described by ethnic group. The EQ-5D index was modeled against ethnic culture, residential segregation and socioeconomic development using villages as random effects. The median (IQR) of HRQoL among all the ethnic groups was 0.88 (0.80, 0.96). Pain/discomfort was the most prevalent problem, followed by anxiety/depression. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, a significant difference in HRQoL among ethnic groups persisted, but this was not true for residential segregation. Social welfare and health policies designed to improve the health of the rural elderly should focus more on older, female, less-educated, Yao minority individuals as well as lower-income households.

  11. Afterglow luminescence in sol-gel/Pechini grown oxide materials: persistence or phosphorescence process? (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sontakke, Atul; Ferrier, Alban; Viana, Bruno

    2017-03-01

    Persistent luminescence and phosphorescence, both yields afterglow luminescence, but are completely different mechanisms. Persistent luminescence involves a slow thermal release of trapped electrons stored in defect states, whereas the phosphorescence is caused due to triplet to singlet transition [1,2]. Many persistent luminescence phosphors are based on oxide inorganic hosts, and exhibit long afterglow luminescence after ceasing the excitation. We observed intense and long afterglow luminescence in sol-gel/pechini grown inorganic oxides, and as a first interpretation thought to be due to persistence mechanism. However, some of these materials do not exhibit defect trap centers, and a detailed investigation suggested it is due to phosphorescence, but not the persistence. Phosphorescence is not common in inorganic solids, and that too at room temperature, and therefore usually misinterpreted as persistence luminescence [3]. Here we present a detailed methodology to distinguish phosphorescence from persistence luminescence in inorganic solids, and the process to harvest highly efficient long phosphorescence afterglow at room temperature. 1. Jian Xu, Setsuhisa Tanabe, Atul D. Sontakke, Jumpei Ueda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 081903 (2015) 2. Sebastian Reineke, Marc A. Baldo, Scientific Reports, 4, 3797 (2014) 3. Pengchong Xue, Panpan Wang, Peng Chen, Boqi Yao, Peng Gong, Jiabao Sun, Zhenqi Zhang, Ran Lu, Chem. Sci. (2016) DOI: 10.1039/C5SC03739E

  12. Mashing up metals with carbothermal shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrabalak, Sara E.

    2018-03-01

    Different materials and the capabilities they enabled have marked the ages of civilization. For example, the malleable copper alloys of the Bronze Age provided harder and more durable tools. Most exploration of new alloys has focused on random alloys, in which the alloying metal sites have no metal preference. In binary and ternary metal systems, dissimilar elements do not mix readily at high concentrations, which has limited alloying studies to intermetallics (ordered multimetallic phases) and random alloys, in which minor components are added to a principal element. In 2004, crystalline metal alloys consisting of five or more principal elements in equal or nearly equal amounts (1, 2) were reported that were stabilized by their high configurational entropy. Unlike most random alloys, the “high-entropy” alloys (3, 4) reside in the centers of their multidimensional phase diagrams (see the figure, right). On page 1489 of this issue, Yao et al. (5) present an innovative and general route to high-entropy alloys that can mix up to eight elements into single-phase, size-controlled nanoparticles (NPs).

  13. Prescription pattern of chinese herbal products for breast cancer in taiwan: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jung-Nien; Wu, Chien-Tung; Wang, Jung-Der

    2012-01-01

    Background. Chinese herbal products (CHPs) given as a therapy for symptom relief have gained widespread popularity among women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of CHP among women with breast cancer in Taiwan. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed for breast cancer among women with breast cancer were evaluated, recruited from a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for utilization of CHP. Results. 81.5 percent (N = 2, 236) of women with breast cancer utilized traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and 18% of them sought TCM with the intent of treating their breast cancer. Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (Augmented Rambling Powder) was the most frequently prescribed formula for treating breast cancer. Among the top 10 most frequently prescribed CHP for treating breast cancer, seven contained dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) and six contained ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix), which are reported to have potential beneficial synergistic effects on breast cancer cells. Conclusion. CHP containing dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) or ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix) are the most frequently prescribed for breast cancer and their effects should be taken into account by healthcare providers.

  14. Hedyotis diffusa Combined with Scutellaria barbata Are the Core Treatment of Chinese Herbal Medicine Used for Breast Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Yuan-Chieh; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Sien-Hung; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Jiun-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is the most common type of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) used in Taiwan, is increasingly used to treat patients with breast cancer. However, large-scale studies on the patterns of TCM prescriptions for breast cancer are still lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the core treatment of TCM prescriptions used for breast cancer recorded in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. TCM visits made for breast cancer in 2008 were identified using ICD-9 codes. The prescriptions obtained at these TCM visits were evaluated using association rule mining to evaluate the combinations of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used to treat breast cancer patients. A total of 37,176 prescriptions were made for 4,436 outpatients with breast cancer. Association rule mining and network analysis identified Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata as the most common duplex medicinal (10.9%) used for the core treatment of breast cancer. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (19.6%) and Hedyotis diffusa (41.9%) were the most commonly prescribed herbal formula (HF) and single herb (SH), respectively. Only 35% of the commonly used CHM had been studied for efficacy. More clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHM used to treat breast cancer. PMID:24734104

  15. Chinese Herbal Medicine as an Adjunctive Therapy Ameliorated the Incidence of Chronic Hepatitis in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Jen-Huai; Su, Yuan-Chih; Chang, Hen-Hong

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a National Health Insurance Research Database-based Taiwanese nationwide population-based cohort study to evaluate whether Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment decreased the incidence of chronic hepatitis in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. A total of 81171 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer within the defined study period. After randomly equal matching, data from 13856 patients were analyzed. Hazard ratios of incidence rate of chronic hepatitis were used to determine the influence and therapeutic potential of CHM in patients with breast cancer. The patients with breast cancer receiving CHM treatment exhibited a significantly decreased incidence rate of chronic hepatitis even across the stratification of age, CCI score, and treatments. The cumulative incidence of chronic hepatitis for a period of seven years after initial breast cancer diagnosis was also reduced in the patients receiving CHM treatment. The ten most commonly used single herbs and formulas were effective in protecting liver function in patients with breast cancer, where Hedyotis diffusa and Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San were the most commonly used herbal agents. In conclusion, our study provided information that western medicine therapy combined with CHM as an adjuvant modality may have a significant impact on liver protection in patients with breast cancer. PMID:29234362

  16. A reporter gene assay for the detection of phytoestrogens in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Miller-Martini, D M; Chan, R Y; Ip, N Y; Sheu, S J; Wong, Y H

    2001-09-01

    Bupleurum & Peony Formula (Jia Wei Xiao Yao San) is a herbal formula which possesses a clinical history for the treatment of menopausal syndrome and menstrual irregularity. The present investigation reports the ability to monitor the formula's phytoestrogen content that will allow for the implementation of a standardization protocol that is based on a quantifiable biological response. Utilizing an oestrogen-sensitive chimeric receptor/reporter gene element which has been stably transfected into HeLa cells, the botanical formula was shown to induce the expression of the reporter gene, luciferase, in a dose dependent manner. Pretreatment of the HeLa cells with the botanical formula produced a 5-fold increase in bioluminescence compared with the control. Additionally, our studies showed that the response of the cells, when challenged by the botanical formula, was oestrogen specific. Pretreatment of the cells with tamoxifen effectively blocked the activation of the chimeric oestrogen receptor by the botanical formula. The cell line provides a sensitive assay that can easily detect the presence of phytoestrogens in complex botanical formulas. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Chinese Herbal Medicine Treatment Improves the Overall Survival Rate of Individuals with Hypertension among Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Modulates In Vitro Smooth Muscle Cell Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Chi-Fung; Shiao, Yi-Tzone; Wang, Chang-Bi; Chien, Wen-Kuei; Chen, Jin-Hua; Liu, Xiang; Tsang, Hsinyi; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Liao, Chiu-Chu; Huang, Shao-Mei; Li, Ju-Pi; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Pang, Hao-Yu; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lan, Yu-Ching; Liu, Yu-Huei; Chen, Shih-Yin; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Liang, Wen-Miin

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic, multifactorial, and metabolic disorder accounting for 90% diabetes cases worldwide. Among them, almost half of T2D have hypertension, which is responsible for cardiovascular disease, morbidity, and mortality in these patients. The Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) prescription patterns of hypertension individuals among T2D patients have yet to be characterized. This study, therefore, aimed to determine their prescription patterns and evaluate the CHM effect. A cohort of one million randomly sampled cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to investigate the overall survival rate of CHM users, and prescription patterns. After matching CHM and non-CHM users for age, gender and date of diagnosis of hypertension, 980 subjects for each group were selected. The CHM users were characterized with slightly longer duration time from diabetes to hypertension, and more cases for hyperlipidaemia. The cumulative survival probabilities were higher in CHM users than in non-CHM users. Among these top 12 herbs, Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Dan-Shen, and Ge-Gen were the most common herbs and inhibited in vitro smooth muscle cell contractility. Our study also provides a CHM comprehensive list that may be useful in future investigation of the safety and efficacy for individuals with hypertension among type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:26699542

  18. Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-01-01

    This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351 ± 0.017, 0.136 ± 0.010, 0.140 ± 0.005, and 2.281 ± 0.406 mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

  19. Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products for Breast Cancer in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jung-Nien; Wu, Chien-Tung; Wang, Jung-Der

    2012-01-01

    Background. Chinese herbal products (CHPs) given as a therapy for symptom relief have gained widespread popularity among women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of CHP among women with breast cancer in Taiwan. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed for breast cancer among women with breast cancer were evaluated, recruited from a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for utilization of CHP. Results. 81.5 percent (N = 2, 236) of women with breast cancer utilized traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and 18% of them sought TCM with the intent of treating their breast cancer. Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (Augmented Rambling Powder) was the most frequently prescribed formula for treating breast cancer. Among the top 10 most frequently prescribed CHP for treating breast cancer, seven contained dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) and six contained ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix), which are reported to have potential beneficial synergistic effects on breast cancer cells. Conclusion. CHP containing dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) or ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix) are the most frequently prescribed for breast cancer and their effects should be taken into account by healthcare providers. PMID:22685488

  20. Hedyotis diffusa Combined with Scutellaria barbata Are the Core Treatment of Chinese Herbal Medicine Used for Breast Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yuan-Chieh; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Sien-Hung; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Jiun-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is the most common type of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) used in Taiwan, is increasingly used to treat patients with breast cancer. However, large-scale studies on the patterns of TCM prescriptions for breast cancer are still lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the core treatment of TCM prescriptions used for breast cancer recorded in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. TCM visits made for breast cancer in 2008 were identified using ICD-9 codes. The prescriptions obtained at these TCM visits were evaluated using association rule mining to evaluate the combinations of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used to treat breast cancer patients. A total of 37,176 prescriptions were made for 4,436 outpatients with breast cancer. Association rule mining and network analysis identified Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata as the most common duplex medicinal (10.9%) used for the core treatment of breast cancer. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (19.6%) and Hedyotis diffusa (41.9%) were the most commonly prescribed herbal formula (HF) and single herb (SH), respectively. Only 35% of the commonly used CHM had been studied for efficacy. More clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHM used to treat breast cancer.

  1. Pharmacokinetic interactions of herbal medicines for the treatment of chronic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Tun-Pin; Lin, Wan-Ling; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2017-04-01

    Chronic liver disease is a serious global health problem, and an increasing number of patients are seeking alternative medicines or complementary treatment. Herbal medicines account for 16.8% of patients with chronic liver disease who use complementary and alternative therapies. A survey of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan reported that Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang, Jia-Wei-Xia-Yao-San, and Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang (Sho-saiko-to) were the most frequent formula prescriptions for chronic hepatitis used by traditional Chinese medicine physicians. Bioanalytical methods of herbal medicines for the treatment of chronic hepatitis were developed to investigate pharmacokinetics properties, but multicomponent herbal formulas have been seldom discussed. The pharmacokinetics of herbal formulas is closely related to efficacy, efficiency, and patient safety of traditional herbal medicines. Potential herbal formula-drug interactions are another essential issue during herbal formula administration in chronic hepatitis patients. In a survey with the PubMed database, this review article evaluates the existing evidence-based data associated with the documented pharmacokinetics profiles and potential herbal-drug interactions of herbal formulas for the treatment of chronic hepatitis. In addition, the existing pharmacokinetic profiles were further linked with clinical practice to provide insight for the safety and specific use of traditional herbal medicines. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia-Ming; Hou, Mei-Ling; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-01-01

    This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351 ± 0.017, 0.136 ± 0.010, 0.140 ± 0.005, and 2.281 ± 0.406 mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products.

  3. Distribution functions of probabilistic automata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatan, F.

    2001-01-01

    Each probabilistic automaton M over an alphabet A defines a probability measure Prob sub(M) on the set of all finite and infinite words over A. We can identify a k letter alphabet A with the set {0, 1,..., k-1}, and, hence, we can consider every finite or infinite word w over A as a radix k expansion of a real number X(w) in the interval [0, 1]. This makes X(w) a random variable and the distribution function of M is defined as usual: F(x) := Prob sub(M) { w: X(w) < x }. Utilizing the fixed-point semantics (denotational semantics), extended to probabilistic computations, we investigate the distribution functions of probabilistic automata in detail. Automata with continuous distribution functions are characterized. By a new, and much more easier method, it is shown that the distribution function F(x) is an analytic function if it is a polynomial. Finally, answering a question posed by D. Knuth and A. Yao, we show that a polynomial distribution function F(x) on [0, 1] can be generated by a prob abilistic automaton iff all the roots of F'(x) = 0 in this interval, if any, are rational numbers. For this, we define two dynamical systems on the set of polynomial distributions and study attracting fixed points of random composition of these two systems.

  4. Interaction of Carbamazepine with Herbs, Dietary Supplements, and Food: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food interacting with CBZ were identified. No fatal or severe interactions were documented. The majority of the interactions were pharmacokinetic-based (80%). Traditional Chinese medicine accounted for most of the interactions (n = 17), followed by food (n = 10), dietary supplements (n = 3), and other herbs/botanicals (n = 3). Coadministration of 11 and 12 of the studied herbal products/dietary supplement/food significantly decreased or increased the plasma concentrations of CBZ. Regarding pharmacodynamic interaction, Xiao-yao-san, melatonin, and alcohol increased the side effects of CBZ while caffeine lowered the antiepileptic efficacy of CBZ. Conclusion. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the documented interactions between CBZ and herbal products/food/dietary supplements which assists healthcare professionals to identify potential herb-drug and food-drug interactions, thereby preventing potential adverse events and improving patients' therapeutic outcomes when prescribing CBZ. PMID:24023584

  5. Melt recharge, f O2-T conditions, and metal fertility of felsic magmas: zircon trace element chemistry of Cu-Au porphyries in the Sanjiang orogenic belt, southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xuyang; Mao, Jingwen; Zhang, Changqing; Zhang, Dongyang; Liu, Huan

    2018-06-01

    The magmatic hydrothermal Pulang Cu deposit (Triassic) and the Beiya Au-Cu deposits (Eocene) are located in the Sanjiang copper porphyry belt, southwest China. Zircon chemistry was used to constrain the magmatic evolution and oxidation state of the porphyries. The results show that porphyries of the Beiya district formed from an early oxidized melt and a later relatively reduced and more evolved magma, whereas Pulang experienced a normal Cu porphyry evolutionary trend. The Pulang porphyries crystallized from more oxidized magma (ΔFMQ + 2.9-4.6, average = 4.0 ± 1.0, n = 3) with an average temperature of 709 ± 6 °C compared to the Beiya porphyries (ΔFMQ + 0.6-3.5, average = 1.9 ± 1.3, n = 5) with a mean magmatic temperature of 780 ± 22 °C. These data, combined with data from other Cu- and Au-rich porphyries in the Sanjiang belt (i.e., Machangjing Cu, Yao'an Au), are consistent with previous experimental work showing that elevated Cu and Au solubilities in magma require oxidizing conditions. A compilation of existing geochemical data for magmatic zircons from fertile and barren porphyry systems worldwide establishes an optimal diagnostic interval on CeIV/CeIII-TTi-in-zircon and (Eu/Eu*)N plots for generating magmatic hydrothermal Cu-Au deposits.

  6. An Investigation of Estuary Gate Effect on Freshwater Fish Biotope and a Study on Ecological Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. W.; Hu, P.; Ni, G.; Jia, Y. W.; Ge, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of an estuary gate changes the existing hydrologic regime and produces a far-reaching and accumulated impact on river biotopes and fish stocks. This work investigates the estuary gate effect in the Yong River valley on the species Elopichthys bambusa (E. bambusa). By combininge hydrodynamic results from the MIKE FLOOD model with observations of the E. bambusa habitat indicators. After the establishment of the gate, the hydrological conditions required for spawning, egg hatching and oviposition stimulation, were analysed, and the corresponding strategies for ecological water demand were proposed. This study finds that satisfactory fish egg hatching hydrodynamic conditions are created when the Fenghua River flow reaches 120 m3/s in the spawning season. With Fenghua River, Yao River gate, and Yong River gate discharges at 120 m3/s, 90 m3/s, and 210 m3/s respectively, an average flow speed increase above 0.2 m/s/day may be generated for E. bambusa spawning sites and migration passages. This hydraulic condition stimulates spawning in natural streams. At the most suitable spawning season temperature, an ecological scheduling scheme that maintains a pulse flow for 5-7 days provides E. bambusa with the hydrodynamic conditions required for the whole process of reproduction, thereby maintaining healthy stream ecology. The flow rate scheduling rules, as provided in this paper, may serve as references in watershed ecological scheduling after gate installation.

  7. Computational Analysis of End-of-Injection Transients and Combustion Recession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrahbashi, Dorrin; Kim, Sayop; Knox, Benjamin W.; Genzale, Caroline L.; Georgia Institute of Technology Team

    2016-11-01

    Mixing and combustion of ECN Spray A after end of injection are modeled with different chemical kinetics models to evaluate the impact of mechanism formulation and low-temperature chemistry on predictions of combustion recession. Simulations qualitatively agreed with the past experimental observations of combustion recession. Simulations with the Cai mechanism show second-stage ignition in distinct regions near the nozzle, initially spatially separated from the lifted diffusion flame, but then rapidly merge with flame. By contrast, the Yao mechanism fails to predict sufficient low-temperature chemistry in mixtures upstream of the diffusion flame and combustion recession. The effects of the shape and duration of the EOI transient on the entrainment wave near the nozzle, the likelihood of combustion recession, and the spatiotemporal development of mixing and chemistry in near-nozzle mixtures are also investigated. With a more rapid ramp-down injection profile, a weaker combustion recession occurs. For extremely fast ramp-down, the entrainment flux varies rapidly near the nozzle and over-leaning of the mixture completely suppresses combustion recession. For a slower ramp-down profile complete combustion recession back toward the nozzle is observed.

  8. X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    Dr. S. N. Zhang has lead a seven member group (Dr. Yuxin Feng, Mr. XuejunSun, Mr. Yongzhong Chen, Mr. Jun Lin, Mr. Yangsen Yao, and Ms. Xiaoling Zhang). This group has carried out the following activities: continued data analysis from space astrophysical missions CGRO, RXTE, ASCA and Chandra. Significant scientific results have been produced as results of their work. They discovered the three-layered accretion disk structure around black holes in X-ray binaries; their paper on this discovery is to appear in the prestigious Science magazine. They have also developed a new method for energy spectral analysis of black hole X-ray binaries; four papers on this topics were presented at the most recent Atlanta AAS meeting. They have also carried Monte-Carlo simulations of X-ray detectors, in support to the hardware development efforts at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). These computation-intensive simulations have been carried out entirely on the computers at UAH. They have also carried out extensive simulations for astrophysical applications, taking advantage of the Monte-Carlo simulation codes developed previously at MSFC and further improved at UAH for detector simulations. One refereed paper and one contribution to conference proceedings have been resulted from this effort.

  9. Simulation of leaf area index on site scale based on model data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    The world's grassland area is about 24 × 108hm2, accounting for about one-fifth of the global land area. It is one of the most widely distributed terrestrial ecosystems on Earth. And currently, it is the most affected area of human activity. A considerable portion of the global CO2 emissions are fixed by grassland, and the grassland carbon cycle plays an important role in the global carbon cycle (Li Bo, Yongshen Peng, Li Yao, China's Prairie, 1990). In recent years, the carbon cycle and its influencing factors of grassland ecosystems have become one of the hotspots in ecology, geology, botany and agronomy under the background of global change ( Mu Shaojie, 2014) . And the model is now as a popular and effective method of research. However, there are still some uncertainties in this approach. CEVSA ( Carbon Exchange between Vegetation, Soil and Atmosphere) is a biogeochemical cycle model based on physiological and ecological processes to simulate plant-soil-atmosphere system energy exchange and water-carbon-nitrogen coupling cycles (Cao at al., 1998a; 1998b; Woodward et al., 1995). In this paper, the remote sensing observation data of leaf area index are integrated into the model, and the CEVSA model of site version is optimized by Markov chain-Monte Carlo method to achieve the purpose of increasing the accuracy of model results.

  10. Probe DNA-Cisplatin Interaction with Solid-State Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Hu, Ying; Li, Wei; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Pengye; Bai, Xuedong; Shan, Xinyan; Lu, Xinghua; Nanopore Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the mechanism of DNA-cisplatin interaction is essential for clinical application and novel drug design. As an emerging single-molecule technology, solid-state nanopore has been employed in biomolecule detection and probing DNA-molecule interactions. Herein, we reported a real-time monitoring of DNA-cisplatin interaction by employing solid-state SiN nanopores. The DNA-cisplatin interacting process is clearly classified into three stages by measuring the capture rate of DNA-cisplatin adducts. In the first stage, the negative charged DNA molecules were partially discharged due to the bonding of positive charged cisplatin and forming of mono-adducts. In the second stage, forming of DNA-cisplatin di-adducts with the adjacent bases results in DNA bending and softening. The capture rate increases since the softened bi-adducts experience a lower barrier to thread into the nanopores. In the third stage, complex structures, such as micro-loop, are formed and the DNA-cisplatin adducts are aggregated. The capture rate decreases to zero as the aggregated adduct grows to the size of the pore. The characteristic time of this stage was found to be linear with the diameter of the nanopore and this dynamic process can be described with a second-order reaction model. We are grateful to Laboratory of Microfabrication, Dr. Y. Yao, and Prof. R.C. Yu (Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for technical assistance.

  11. Biological Sulfate Reduction Rates in Hydrothermal Recharge Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, B.; Lowell, R. P.

    2007-12-01

    We develop a model to determine the rate of removal of seawater sulfate in the recharge regions of deep-sea hydrothermal systems as a result of biogenic sulfate reduction. The rate of sulfate reduction as a function of temperature derived from laboratory measurements on cores from the Guaymas Basin in Mexico [Jorgensen et al., 1992] is incorporated into a steady state 1-D advection-diffusion temperature equation, and a 1-D, steady- state, advection dominated conservation of solute equation. The diffusivity of sulfate in seawater is on the order of ~ 10-10 m2/s, and unless the flow speeds are < 10-12 m/s, the effects of diffusion are negligible, except within thin diffusive boundary layers. This model is then compared with a model that utilizes Gibbs free energy to quantify biogenic sulfate reduction [Bach and Edwards, 2003] in the upper oceanic crust of aging lithosphere. Using the high rates determined by Jorgensen et al. [1992], our model indicates that biological activity would reduce all seawater sulfate transported into the system within the upper 10 meters or less of the crust, which is inconsistent with the estimates of Bach and Edwards [2003]. Sulfate concentrations from ODP borehole Legs 64 and 168, at the sedimented Guaymas Basin and Juan de Fuca Ridge, respectively, show that most of the seawater sulfate is removed in the upper 100 meters. If the sulfate is assumed to all be reduced biogenically, the sulfate reduction rates at the ODP sites are at least 2 orders of magnitude less than the laboratory estimates of Jorgenson et al. [1992]. Finally, we compare the rate of seawater sulfate removal as a result of the precipitation of anhydrite, with the rate of biogenic sulfate reduction. We find that if hydrothermal recharge occurs rapidly through highly permeable faults, that biogenic sulfate reduction is negligible and that anhydrite precipitation would rapidly clog the recharge zone [Lowell and Yao, 2002]. If recharge occurs through broad zones of slow

  12. Interactions between glycine derivatives and mineral surfaces: Implications for the origins of life on planetary surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall-Bowman, K. J.; Cleaves, H. J.; Sverjensky, D. A.; Hazen, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Various mechanisms could have delivered amino acids to the prebiotic Earth (Miller and Orgel 1974). The polymerization of amino acids may have been important for the origin of life, as peptides may have been components for the first self-replicating systems (Kauffman 1971; Yao et al 1998). Though amino acid concentrations in the primitive oceans were likely too dilute for significant oligomerization to occur (Cleaves et al 2009), mineral surface adsorption may have concentrated these biomolecules (Bernal 1951; Lambert 2008). Few studies have examined the catalytic effects of mineral surfaces on aqueous peptide oligomerization or degradation. As unactivated amino acid polymerization is thermodynamically unfavorable and kinetically slow in aqueous solution, we studied the reverse reaction of polymer degradation to measure potential mineral catalysis. Glycine (G) derivatives glycylglycine (GG), diketopiperazine (DKP), and glycylglycylglycine (GGG) were reacted with different minerals (calcite, hematite, montmorillonite, rutile, amorphous silica, and pyrite) in the presence of 0.05 M pH 8.1 KHCO3 buffer and 0.1 M NaCl as background electrolyte. Experiments were performed by reacting the aqueous amino acid derivative-mineral mixtures in a thermostatted oven (modified to accommodate a mechanical rotator) at 25°, 50° or 70°C. Samples were removed after 30, 60, 90, and 140 hours. Samples were then analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography to quantify the products. Besides mineral catalysis, it was determined that degradation of GGG proceeds principally via a GGG → DKP + G mechanism, rather than via GGG → GG + G. Below 70°C kinetics were generally too sluggish to detect catalytic activity over reasonable laboratory time-scales at this pH. At 70°C, pyrite was the only mineral with detectible catalytic effects on the degradation of GGG. GGG degraded ~ 1.5 - 4 x faster in the presence of pyrite than in control reactions, depending on the ratio of solution

  13. Jaw-Opening Reflex and Corticobulbar Motor Excitability Changes During Quiet Sleep in Non-Human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Dongyuan; Lavigne, Gilles J.; Lee, Jye-Chang; Adachi, Kazunori; Sessle, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To test the hypothesis that the reflex and corticobulbar motor excitability of jaw muscles is reduced during sleep. Design: Polysomnographic recordings in the electrophysiological study. Setting: University sleep research laboratories. Participants and Interventions: The reflex and corticobulbar motor excitability of jaw muscles was determined during the quiet awake state (QW) and quiet sleep (QS) in monkeys (n = 4). Measurements and Results: During QS sleep, compared to QW periods, both tongue stimulation-evoked jaw-opening reflex peak and root mean square amplitudes were significantly decreased with stimulations at 2-3.5 × thresholds (P < 0.001). The jaw-opening reflex latency during sleep was also significantly longer than during QW. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) within the cortical masticatory area induced rhythmic jaw movements at a stable threshold (≤ 60 μA) during QW; but during QS, ICMS failed to induce any rhythmic jaw movements at the maximum ICMS intensity used, although sustained jaw-opening movements were evoked at significantly increased threshold (P < 0.001) in one of the monkeys. Similarly, during QW, ICMS within face primary motor cortex induced orofacial twitches at a stable threshold (≤ 35 μA), but the ICMS thresholds were elevated during QS. Soon after the animal awoke, rhythmic jaw movements and orofacial twitches could be evoked at thresholds similar to those before QS. Conclusions: The results suggest that the excitability of reflex and corticobulbar-evoked activity in the jaw motor system is depressed during QS. Citation: Yao D; Lavigne GJ; Lee JC; Adachi K; Sessle BJ. Jaw-opening reflex and corticobulbar motor excitability changes during quiet sleep in non-human primates. SLEEP 2013;36(2):269-280. PMID:23372275

  14. Ambient Noise Interferometry and Surface Wave Array Tomography: Promises and Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hilst, R. D.; Yao, H.; de Hoop, M. V.; Campman, X.; Solna, K.

    2008-12-01

    In the late 1990ies most seismologists would have frowned at the possibility of doing high-resolution surface wave tomography with noise instead of with signal associated with ballistic source-receiver propagation. Some may still do, but surface wave tomography with Green's functions estimated through ambient noise interferometry ('sourceless tomography') has transformed from a curiosity into one of the (almost) standard tools for analysis of data from dense seismograph arrays. Indeed, spectacular applications of ambient noise surface wave tomography have recently been published. For example, application to data from arrays in SE Tibet revealed structures in the crust beneath the Tibetan plateau that could not be resolved by traditional tomography (Yao et al., GJI, 2006, 2008). While the approach is conceptually simple, in application the proverbial devil is in the detail. Full reconstruction of the Green's function requires that the wavefields used are diffusive and that ambient noise energy is evenly distributed in the spatial dimensions of interest. In the field, these conditions are not usually met, and (frequency dependent) non-uniformity of the noise sources may lead to incomplete reconstruction of the Green's function. Furthermore, ambient noise distributions can be time-dependent, and seasonal variations have been documented. Naive use of empirical Green's functions may produce (unknown) bias in the tomographic models. The degrading effect on EGFs of the directionality of noise distribution forms particular challenges for applications beyond isotropic surface wave inversions, such as inversions for (azimuthal) anisotropy and attempts to use higher modes (or body waves). Incomplete Green's function reconstruction can (probably) not be prevented, but it may be possible to reduce the problem and - at least - understand the degree of incomplete reconstruction and prevent it from degrading the tomographic model. We will present examples of Rayleigh wave

  15. Circadian clock function is disrupted by environmental tobacco/cigarette smoke, leading to lung inflammation and injury via a SIRT1-BMAL1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jae-Woong; Sundar, Isaac K.; Yao, Hongwei; Sellix, Michael T.; Rahman, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Patients with obstructive lung diseases display abnormal circadian rhythms in lung function. We determined the mechanism whereby environmental tobacco/cigarette smoke (CS) modulates expression of the core clock gene BMAL1, through Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) deacetylase during lung inflammatory and injurious responses. Adult C57BL6/J and various mice mutant for SIRT1 and BMAL1 were exposed to both chronic (6 mo) and acute (3 and 10 d) CS, and we measured the rhythmic expression of clock genes, circadian rhythms of locomotor activity, lung function, and inflammatory and emphysematous responses in the lungs. CS exposure (100–300 mg/m3 particulates) altered clock gene expression and reduced locomotor activity by disrupting the central and peripheral clocks and increased lung inflammation, causing emphysema in mice. BMAL1 was acetylated and degraded in the lungs of mice exposed to CS and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), compared with lungs of the nonsmoking controls, linking it mechanistically to CS-induced reduction of SIRT1. Targeted deletion of Bmal1 in lung epithelium augmented inflammation in response to CS, which was not attenuated by the selective SIRT1 activator SRT1720 (EC50=0.16 μM) in these mice. Thus, the circadian clock, specifically the enhancer BMAL1 in epithelium, plays a pivotal role, mediated by SIRT1-dependent BMAL1, in the regulation of CS-induced lung inflammatory and injurious responses.— Hwang, J.-W., Sundar, I. K., Yao, H., Sellix, M. T., Rahman, I. Circadian clock function is disrupted by environmental tobacco/cigarette smoke, leading to lung inflammation and injury via a SIRT1-BMAL1 pathway. PMID:24025728

  16. Traditional Chinese medicine therapy improves the survival of systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Chia-Ing; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2016-04-01

    No previous studies have evaluated the effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment on the survival of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Hence, in this study, we determined whether TCM treatment affects the survival of SLE patients. This nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study assessed 23,084 patients newly diagnosed with SLE between 1999 and 2009, using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance program. Among these patients, 9267 (40.15%) used TCM for SLE treatment and exhibited a significantly decreased risk of death [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.78], with multivariate adjustment, compared with those without TCM use. A similar significant protective effect of TCM use was found across various subgroups of comorbidities. TCM use 1 year before diagnosis also reduced the risk of death. Our study findings indicated that Zhi Bo Di Huang Wan (HR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.32-0.91), Jia Wei Xiao Yao San (HR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.16-0.73), Liu Wei Di Huang Wan (HR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.28-0.93), Gan Lu Yin (HR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.17-0.96), and Yin Qiao San (HR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.05-0.86) were the most effective TCM agents that improved survival. This nationwide retrospective cohort study provided information that combined therapy with TCM may improve the survival in SLE patients. This study also suggests that TCM may be used as an integral element of effective therapy for SLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prescription patterns of Chinese herbal products for patients with sleep disorder and major depressive disorder in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Lin; Lee, Chien-Ying; Huang, Kuang-Hua; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Ming

    2015-08-02

    Chinese herbal products (CHPs) are commonly prescribed for sleep disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to investigate the prescription patterns of CHPs and Western medicine for patients with these disorders in Taiwan, and analyze the frequency of using single herbs (SHs) and herbal formulas (HFs). In this retrospective population-based study secondary data analysis was performed using data from Taiwan's Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) between January 2007 and December 2011. In total, 1000,000 beneficiaries from the LHID were randomly selected from the 2010 registry for beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with sleep disorder and MDD according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 307.40 and 311, respectively. Among a total of 11,030 patients with sleep disorder, 9619 used Western medicine, 1334 used CHPs, and 77 used both, Among a total of 11,571 patients with MDD, 11,389 used Western medicine, 131 used CHPs, and 51 used both. Regardless of disorder type, women were predominant The majority of the patients were aged 22-44 years, had a monthly income of NT$17,281-NT$22,800, and lived in an area with Level 1 and Level 2 urbanization. Of the patients with sleep disorder, 1411 had used CHPs and visited a clinic 5298 times on average. Of the patients with MDD, 182 had used CHPs and visited a clinic 755 times on average. The three most commonly used SHs and HFs were Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, and Polygalae Radix, and Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Suan-Zao-Ren-Tang, and Chai-Hu-Chia-Lung-Ku-Mu-Li-Tang, respectively. Chinese herbal products including SHs and HFs are prescribed for patients with sleep disorder and MDD. However, the efficacy and safety of CHPs for sleep disorder and MDD need to be further evaluated. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Review article: Herbal hepatotoxicity--an update on traditional Chinese medicine preparations.

    PubMed

    Teschke, R; Wolff, A; Frenzel, C; Schulze, J

    2014-07-01

    Although evidence for their therapeutic efficacy is limited, herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations increasingly gain popularity. In contrast to other herbal products, adverse effects by herbal TCM including liver toxicity were rarely reported. In recent years, more cases were published, providing new clinical challenges. To summarise comprehensively the literature on herbal TCM hepatotoxicity since 2011. PubMed was searched using key words related to TCM, the results were restricted to full English-language publications and abstracts published since 2011. In addition, the database of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and LiverTox was accessed under the topic 'Drug record: Chinese and other Asian herbal medicines'. Since 2011, new case reports and case series provided evidence for herbal hepatotoxicity by TCM, focusing on nine TCM herbal mixtures and four individual TCM herbs with potential health hazards. These were the TCM products Ban Tu Wan, Chai Hu, Du Huo, Huang Qin, Jia Wei Xia Yao San, Jiguja, Kamishoyosan, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Polygonum multiflorum products, Shan Chi, 'White flood' containing the herbal TCM Wu Zhu Yu and Qian Ceng Ta, and Xiao Chai Hu Tang. Other developments include the establishment of a new and early diagnostic serum marker for hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, assessed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and new regulatory details to improve herbal TCM product quality and safety. Stringent evaluation of the risk/benefit ratio is essential to protect traditional Chinese medicines users from health hazards including liver injury. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The use of Chinese herbal medicines associated with reduced mortality in chronic hepatitis B patients receiving lamivudine treatment.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Der-Shiang; Huang, Mei-Hsuen; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Li, Tsai-Chung; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2015-11-04

    Lamivudine associated mutation and resistance reduces the effect of anti-hepatitis B virus. Pharmacological studies in cell and animal model suggest that Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) have anti-hepatitis B virus effect. Observational studies offer mixed results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between the use of CHMs and outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis B receiving lamivudine treatment and further estimate the association of Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-Sang (JWXYS) use with mortality of those patients. We conducted a cohort study among patients age 20-90 years within a National Health Insurance Healthcare system. Information on the use of CHMs and covariates were obtained from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the hazard ratio and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for all-cause mortality among CHMs users compared to nonusers. Among 1037 patients studied from 2004 to 2011, median follow-up time 5.3 years and 88 deaths were identified. During the study period, 49% of patients used CHMs and the median duration of use was 2.4 years. We found that significant difference on all-cause mortality among CHMs users (aHR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.27-0.76) compared to CHMs nonusers. All-cause mortality also differed by JWXYS use (aHR=0.26, 95% CI: 0.08-0.83). This study reveals that the use of CHMs may lower the risk of death in patients with chronic hepatitis B receiving lamivudine treatment. Further randomized-controlled trials are required to validate these findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identifying Chinese herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome: implications from a nationwide database.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Huang, Ben-Shian; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Su, Irene H; Yang, Sien-Hung; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Huang, Jen-Wu; Chen, Yu-Chun

    2014-06-27

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) occurs in women during their reproductive age with a quite negative impact on their daily lives. Women with PMS experience a wide range of physical or psychological symptoms and seek treatment for them. Chinese herb medicine (CHM) is commonly used for PMS and the goal of this study is to investigate the prescription patterns of CHM for PMS by using a nationwide database. Prescriptions of CHM were obtained from two million beneficiaries randomly sampled from the National Health Insurance Research Database, a nationwide database in Taiwan. The ICD-9 code 625.4 was used to identify patients with PMS. Association rule mining and social network analysis were used to explore both the combinations and the core treatments for PMS. During 1998-2011, a total of 14,312 CHM prescriptions for PMS were provided. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS) was the CHM which had the highest prevalence (37.5% of all prescriptions) and also the core of prescription network for PMS. For combination of two CHM, JWXYS with Cyperus rotundus L. was prescribed most frequently, 7.7% of all prescriptions, followed by JWXYS with Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, 5.9%, and Cyperus rotundus L. with Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, 5.6%. JWXYS-centered CHM combinations were most commonly prescribed for PMS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first pharmaco-epidemiological study to review CHM treatments for PMS. However, the efficacy and safety of these commonly used CHM were still lacking. The results of this study provide valuable references for further clinical trials and bench studies.

  1. Adjunctive traditional Chinese medicine therapy improves survival of liver cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yueh-Hsiang; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lai, Hsueh-Chou; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2015-12-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an alternative treatment for cancer with its effect by stimulating host immune response for cytotoxic activity against liver cancer. No studies evaluated TCM treatment on survival of liver cancer patients. This study determined whether the combination of TCM and conventional cancer treatment affects the survival of liver cancer patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 127 237 newly diagnosed liver cancer patients from 2000 to 2009 in the National Health Insurance Program database. Among these patients, 30 992 (24.36%) used TCM for liver cancer care. All patients were followed up until 2011. The mean follow-up was 5.67 years (SD 1.47) for TCM users and 5.49 years (SD 3.64) for non-TCM users. Compared with patients without TCM use, patients with TCM use were significantly associated with a decreased risk of death [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.64-0.66] with multivariate adjustment. A similar significant protective effect of TCM use across various subgroups of chronic liver diseases was also observed. Jia Wei Xiao Yao San (HR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.81-0.96) and Chai Hu Shu Gan Tang (HR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.78-0.95) were the most effective TCM agents that improved survival. This cohort study provided information that adjunctive therapy with TCM may improve the survival in liver cancer patients. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential role of TCM in HCC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Improved Survival With Integration of Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapy in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Tom; Chang, Tung-Ti; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Sun, Mao-Feng; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2017-06-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most deadly subtype of leukemia, and many patients with this disease seek other complementary therapies, one of which is Chinese medicine. We set out to provide reliable data regarding the benefit of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for AML patients, using mortality as the main outcome measure. We also characterized the herbal prescriptions of patients. Using the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, we performed a nationwide population-based cohort study among AML patients from 1997 to 2010. The Cox regression model was used to adjust for comorbidities and other variables, and the hazard ratios (HRs) of CHM users and non-CHM users were compared. After 1:1 matching, 498 patients were included into the study. The HR of the CHM group was 0.41 (95% CI = 0.26-0.65; P = .0001) compared with the non-CHM group. This decrease in HR was also shown to be dose dependent ( P < .001). The 3 single-herbs most commonly prescribed were Salvia miltiorrhiza (Dan Shen), Astragalus membranaceus (Huang Qi), and Spatholobus suberectus (Ji Xue Teng). The 3 mutli-herb products most commonly prescribed were Jia Wei Xiao Yao San, Gui Pi Tang, and Qi Ju Di Huang Wan. Prospective controlled clinical data is still needed, however, this study provides real-world data regarding the benefit AML patients may have from CHM. This study suggests that all AML patients, regardless of age or other prognostic factors, may achieve longer survival times when receiving CHM in addition to standard therapy.

  3. Effects of Chinese herbal medicines on the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes patients and protection of ARPE-19 retina cells by inhibiting oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Li, Te-Mao; Ko, Cheng-Hang; Cheng, Chi-Fung; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Liu, Xiang; Tsang, Hsinyi; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Liao, Chiu-Chu; Li, Ju-Pi; Huang, Shao-Mei; Lin, Jung-Chun; Lin, Chih-Chien; Liang, Wen-Miin; Lin, Ying-Ju

    2017-09-08

    Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular complication of type 2 diabetes and the leading cause of acquired blindness. In Taiwan, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is a popular adjunctive therapy. In this study, we investigated the CHM prescription patterns and their effects. We identified 23,701 subjects with type 2 diabetes in a database, and after matching for age and gender, 6,948 patients each were assigned to CHM and non-CHM groups. In the female subgroups, the cumulative retinopathy probability was lower for the CHM users than that for the CHM non-users ( P < 0.001, log-rank test). Among the top 10 CHMs, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS; 52.9%), Shu-Jing-Huo-Xue-Tang (SJHXT; 45.1%), and Ge-Gen-Tang (GGT; 43.7%) were the most common herbal formulas. Yan-Hu-Suo (48.1%), Ge-Gen (42.1%), and Huang-Qin (HQin; 40.1%) were the most common single herbs. CHM network analysis showed that JWXYS was the core CHM of cluster 1. JWXYS, DS, XF, and SZRT exhibited both of the reductions of H 2 O 2 -induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) in human ARPE-19 retina cells. In cluster 2, SJHXT was the core CHM. SJHXT and NX showed both of the phosphorylation reductions. In cluster 3, GGT was the core CHM, and it reduced the phosphorylation of both MAPKs. In cluster 4, HQin was the core CHM, and it also reduced the phosphorylation of both MAPKs. Our study suggests that adjunctive CHM therapy may reduce diabetic retinopathy via antioxidant activity of the herbs and provides information on core CHM treatments for further scientific investigations or therapeutic interventions.

  4. Study on Inhibitory Effect of MaiMenDong Decoction and WeiJing Decoction Combination with Cisplatin on NCI-A549 Xenograft in Nude Mice and Its Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fei; Jiang, Miao; Chen, Meijuan; Wang, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Shiping; Zhou, Jing; Li, Ke; Sheng, Yan; Yin, Lian; Tang, Yuping; Ye, Lihong; Wu, Mianhua; Fu, Haian; Zhang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    MaiMenDong Decoction and WeiJing Decoction (Jin formula) is a traditional Chinese medication that consists of 8 medicinal plants, which recorded in the classical TCM literature Jin Kui Yao Lue and has been utilized in the treatment of lung diseases for hundreds of years in China. The present study aimed to determine the anti-tumor activity and the underlying mechanisms of Jin formula combined with cisplatin in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Xenograft model of NCI-A549 was established in Balb/c nude mice. Five groups, including normal, MOCK, Jin, cisplatin (DDP), and Jin+DDP were included in the study. We found that Jin formula ameliorated the body weight loss caused by DDP 15 days after drug administration. Moreover, the combination of Jin with DDP enhanced the anti-tumor function of DDP. Microarray analysis showed that Jin suppressed gene expression of certain pathways which regulating cell cycle and apoptosis. Furthermore, DDP mainly decreased the gene expression level of angiogenesis associated factors, such as VEGFA, TGF-β and MMP-1. Moreover, co-treatment with Jin and DDP not only down-regulated Bcl-2 and E2F1, but also decreased the expression of MYC, MET, and MCAM. In addition, co-formula decreased the levels of p-AKT (thr308) and p-PTEN, increased Bax/Bcl-2 value, and resulted in apoptosis of tumor cells. Taken together , Jin+DDP significantly inhibited the growth of A549 cell transplanted solid tumor with slight side effect compared to the treatment by DDP only, and had a better effect than the Jin group. The mechanisms may be mainly associated with inactivation of PI3K/AKT pathway and apoptosis induction.

  5. Operational Precipitation prediction in Support of Real-Time Flash Flood Prediction and Reservoir Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, K. P.

    2006-05-01

    The presentation will outline the implementation and performance evaluation of a number of national and international projects pertaining to operational precipitation estimation and prediction in the context of hydrologic warning systems and reservoir management support. In all cases, uncertainty measures of the estimates and predictions are an integral part of the precipitation models. Outstanding research issues whose resolution is likely to lead to improvements in the operational environment are presented. The presentation draws from the experience of the Hydrologic Research Center (http://www.hrc-lab.org) prototype implementation projects at the Panama Canal, Central America, Northern California, and South-Central US. References: Carpenter, T.M, and K.P. Georgakakos, "Discretization Scale Dependencies of the Ensemble Flow Range versus Catchment Area Relationship in Distributed Hydrologic Modeling," Journal of Hydrology, 2006, in press. Carpenter, T.M., and K.P. Georgakakos, "Impacts of Parametric and Radar Rainfall Uncertainty on the Ensemble Streamflow Simulations of a Distributed Hydrologic Model," Journal of Hydrology, 298, 202-221, 2004. Georgakakos, K.P., Graham, N.E., Carpenter, T.M., Georgakakos, A.P., and H. Yao, "Integrating Climate- Hydrology Forecasts and Multi-Objective Reservoir Management in Northern California," EOS, 86(12), 122,127, 2005. Georgakakos, K.P., and J.A. Sperfslage, "Operational Rainfall and Flow Forecasting for the Panama Canal Watershed," in The Rio Chagres: A Multidisciplinary Profile of a Tropical Watershed, R.S. Harmon, ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, Chapter 16, 323-334, 2005. Georgakakos, K. P., "Analytical results for operational flash flood guidance," Journal of Hydrology, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.05.009, 2005.

  6. Biochemistry and structural studies of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase reveal allosteric inhibition by Ro 61-8048.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingjing; Yao, Licheng; Xia, Tingting; Liao, Xuebin; Zhu, Deyu; Xiang, Ye

    2018-04-01

    The human kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (hKMO) is a potential therapeutic target for neurodegenerative and neurologic disorders. Inhibition of KMO by Ro 61-8048, a potent, selective, and the most widely used inhibitor of KMO, was shown effective in various models of neurodegenerative or neurologic disorders. However, the molecular basis of hKMO inhibition by Ro 61-8048 is not clearly understood. Here, we report biochemistry studies on hKMO and crystal structures of an hKMO homolog, pfKMO from Pseudomonas fluorescens, in complex with the substrate l-kynurenine and Ro 61-8048. We found that the C-terminal ∼110 aa are essential for the enzymatic activity of hKMO and the homologous C-terminal region of pfKMO folds into a distinct, all-α-helical domain, which associates with the N-terminal catalytic domain to form a unique tunnel in proximity to the substrate-binding pocket. The tunnel binds the Ro 61-8048 molecule, which fills most of the tunnel, and Ro 61-8048 is hydrogen bonded with several completely conserved residues, including an essential catalytic residue. Modification of Ro 61-8048 and biochemical studies of the modified Ro 61-8048 derivatives suggested that Ro 61-8048 inhibits the enzyme in an allosteric manner by affecting the conformation of the essential catalytic residue and by blocking entry of the substrate or product release. The unique binding sites distinguish Ro 61-8048 as a noncompetitive and highly selective inhibitor from other competitive inhibitors, which should facilitate further optimization of Ro 61-8048 and the development of new inhibitory drugs to hKMO.-Gao, J., Yao, L., Xia, T., Liao, X., Zhu, D., Xiang, Y. Biochemistry and structural studies of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase reveal allosteric inhibition by Ro 61-8048.

  7. Anti-thrombosis Repertoire of Blood-feeding Horsefly Salivary Glands*

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dongying; Wang, Yipeng; Yang, Hailong; Wu, Jing; An, Shu; Gao, Li; Xu, Xueqing; Lai, Ren

    2009-01-01

    Blood-feeding arthropods rely heavily on the pharmacological properties of their saliva to get a blood meal and suppress immune reactions of hosts. Little information is available on antihemostatic substances in horsefly salivary glands although their saliva has been thought to contain wide range of physiologically active molecules. In traditional Eastern medicine, horseflies are used as anti-thrombosis material for hundreds of years. By proteomics coupling transcriptome analysis with pharmacological testing, several families of proteins or peptides, which exert mainly on anti-thrombosis functions, were identified and characterized from 60,000 pairs of salivary glands of the horsefly Tabanus yao Macquart (Diptera, Tabanidae). They are: (I) ten fibrin(ogen)olytic enzymes, which hydrolyze specially alpha chain of fibrin(ogen) and are the first family of fibrin(ogen)olytic enzymes purified and characterized from arthropods; (II) another fibrin(ogen)olytic enzyme, which hydrolyzes both alpha and beta chain of fibrin(ogen); (III) ten Arg-Gly-Asp-motif containing proteins acting as platelet aggregation inhibitors; (IV) five thrombin inhibitor peptides; (V) three vasodilator peptides; (VI) one apyrase acting as platelet aggregation inhibitor; (VII) one peroxidase with both platelet aggregation inhibitory and vasodilator activities. The first three families are belonging to antigen five proteins, which show obvious similarity with insect allergens. They are the first members of the antigen 5 family found in salivary glands of blood sucking arthropods to have anti-thromobosis function. The current results imply a possible evolution from allergens of blood-sucking insects to anti-thrombosis agents. The extreme diversity of horsefly anti-thrombosis components also reveals the anti-thrombosis molecular mechanisms of the traditional Eastern medicine insect material. PMID:19531497

  8. Stifled Stakeholders and Subdued Participation: Interpreting Local Responses Toward Shimentai Nature Reserve in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jim, C. Y.; Xu, Steve S. W.

    2002-09-01

    In recent decades, protected-area management in many developing countries has been molded to win the support and participation of local people. Increasingly, research initiatives are undertaken to enhance understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of rural stakeholders. The effectiveness of the expanding protected-area system in China is critically constrained by similar considerations of community mentality. This paper provides an empirical assessment of local responses towards conservation efforts based on a case study of the recently established Shimentai Nature Reserve (SNR) situated in Yingde, Guangdong Province, China. Questionnaire surveys, face-to-face interviews, and group discussions were employed to gauge local residents' knowledge, perceptions, and expectations towards the SNR. The study covered seven villages situated in and around the reserve, grouped into far-zone (floodplain) and near-zone (upland) categories, accommodating Hakka (Han) and minority Yao peoples. Many respondents had inadequate knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of the reserve. Although most respondents welcomed the expected park-related dividends, the most affected near-zone villagers anticipated losses due to restriction on traditional resource-extraction activities in the forest. The local expectations were influenced by place of residence, emigration of rural young, and household affluence. The lack of local participation in management and inadequate dissemination of information posed obstacles to effective conservation. The high expectation of accruing benefits from development projects, including tourism, might be misplaced and might not be realized. The present honeymoon period of positive attitudes could end soon if the hopes remain unfulfilled for too long. The need to win sustained local support and provide alternative means of livelihood is emphasized.

  9. The pathogen-related yeast protein Pry1, a member of the CAP protein superfamily, is a fatty acid-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Darwiche, Rabih; Mène-Saffrané, Laurent; Gfeller, David; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Schneiter, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Members of the CAP superfamily (cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5, and pathogenesis-related 1 proteins), also known as SCP superfamily (sperm-coating proteins), have been implicated in many physiological processes, including immune defenses, venom toxicity, and sperm maturation. Their mode of action, however, remains poorly understood. Three proteins of the CAP superfamily, Pry1, -2, and -3 (pathogen related in yeast), are encoded in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. We have shown previously that Pry1 binds cholesterol in vitro and that Pry function is required for sterol secretion in yeast cells, indicating that members of this superfamily may generally bind sterols or related small hydrophobic compounds. On the other hand, tablysin-15, a CAP protein from the horsefly Tabanus yao, has been shown to bind leukotrienes and free fatty acids in vitro. Therefore, here we assessed whether the yeast Pry1 protein binds fatty acids. Computational modeling and site-directed mutagenesis indicated that the mode of fatty acid binding is conserved between tablysin-15 and Pry1. Pry1 bound fatty acids with micromolar affinity in vitro, and its function was essential for fatty acid export in cells lacking the acyl-CoA synthetases Faa1 and Faa4. Fatty acid binding of Pry1 is independent of its capacity to bind sterols, and the two sterol- and fatty acid-binding sites are nonoverlapping. These results indicate that some CAP family members, such as Pry1, can bind different lipids, particularly sterols and fatty acids, at distinct binding sites, suggesting that the CAP domain may serve as a stable, secreted protein domain that can accommodate multiple ligand-binding sites. PMID:28365570

  10. Characteristics of Chinese herbal medicine usage in ischemic heart disease patients among type 2 diabetes and their protection against hydrogen peroxide-mediated apoptosis in H9C2 cardiomyoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chi-Fung; Shiao, Yi-Tzone; Chien, Wen-Kuei; Chen, Jin-Hua; Liu, Xiang; Tsang, Hsinyi; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Liao, Chiu-Chu; Huang, Shao-Mei; Li, Ju-Pi; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lan, Yu-Ching; Liu, Yu-Huei; Hung, Chien-Hui; Lin, Jung-Chun; Lin, Chih-Chien; Lai, Chih-Ho; Liang, Wen-Miin; Lin, Ying-Ju

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for long-term use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) as an adjuvant treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains limited. This study aimed to assess the frequency of use, utilization patterns, and therapeutic effects of adjuvant CHM for ischemic heart disease (IHD) in patients with T2D in Taiwan. We identified 4620 IHD patients with T2D. After matching for age, gender, and insulin use, 988 subjects each were allocated to a CHM group and a non-CHM group. There were no differences in baseline characteristics except for comorbidities. The CHM group contained more cases with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hepatitis, ulcer disease, and hyperlipidemia. The cumulative survival probability was higher in CHM users than in matched non-CHM users aged 60 years or older (P < .0001, log rank test) regardless of gender (P = .0046 for men, P = .0010 for women, log rank test). Among the top 12 CHM combinations, Shu-Jing-Huo-Xue-Tang and Shao-Yao-Gan-Cao-Tang (13.6%) were the most common. This dual combination improved antiapoptotic activity in H2O2-exposed H9C2 cells by enhancing phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and could increase the survival of myocardial cells. Our study suggests that adjuvant CHM therapy may increase the survival probability and provides a comprehensive list for future investigations of the safety and efficacy of CHM for IHD patients with T2D. PMID:28099940

  11. Short superstrings and the structure of overlapping strings.

    PubMed

    Armen, C; Stein, C

    1995-01-01

    Given a collection of strings S = [s1,...,sn] over an alphabet sigma, a superstring alpha of S is a string containing each si as a substring, that is, for each i, 1 < or = i < or = n, alpha contains a block of magnitude of si consecutive characters that match si exactly. The shortest superstring problem is the problem of finding a superstring alpha of minimum length. The shortest superstring problem has applications in both computational biology and data compression. The shortest superstring problem is NP-hard (Gallant et al., 1980); in fact, it was recently shown to be MAX SNP-hard (Blum et al., 1994). Given the importance of the applications, several heuristics and approximation algorithms have been proposed. Constant factor approximation algorithms have been given in Blum et al. (1994) (factor of 3), Teng and Yao (1993) (factor of 2 8/9), Czumaj et al. (1994) (factor of 2 5/6), and Kosaraju et al. (1994) (factor of 2 50/63). Informally, the key to any algorithm for the shortest superstring problem is to identify sets of strings with large amounts of similarity, or overlap. Although the previous algorithms and their analyses have grown increasingly sophisticated, they reveal remarkably little about the structure of strings with large amounts of overlap. In this sense, they are solving a more general problem than the one at hand. In this paper, we study the structure of strings with large amounts of overlap and use our understanding to give an algorithm that finds a superstring whose length is no more than 2 3/4 times that of the optimal superstring. Our algorithm runs in O(magnitude of S + n3) time, which matches that of previous algorithms. We prove several interesting properties about short periodic strings, allowing us to answer questions of the following form: Given a string with some periodic structure, characterize all the possible periodic strings that can have a large amount of overlap with the first string.

  12. Description of a Nanobody-based Competitive Immunoassay to Detect Tsetse Fly Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Caljon, Guy; Hussain, Shahid; Vermeiren, Lieve; Van Den Abbeele, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background Tsetse flies are the main vectors of human and animal African trypanosomes. The Tsal proteins in tsetse fly saliva were previously identified as suitable biomarkers of bite exposure. A new competitive assay was conceived based on nanobody (Nb) technology to ameliorate the detection of anti-Tsal antibodies in mammalian hosts. Methodology/Principal Findings A camelid-derived Nb library was generated against the Glossina morsitans morsitans sialome and exploited to select Tsal specific Nbs. One of the three identified Nb families (family III, TsalNb-05 and TsalNb-11) was found suitable for anti-Tsal antibody detection in a competitive ELISA format. The competitive ELISA was able to detect exposure to a broad range of tsetse species (G. morsitans morsitans, G. pallidipes, G. palpalis gambiensis and G. fuscipes) and did not cross-react with the other hematophagous insects (Stomoxys calcitrans and Tabanus yao). Using a collection of plasmas from tsetse-exposed pigs, the new test characteristics were compared with those of the previously described G. m. moristans and rTsal1 indirect ELISAs, revealing equally good specificities (> 95%) and positive predictive values (> 98%) but higher negative predictive values and hence increased sensitivity (> 95%) and accuracy (> 95%). Conclusion/Significance We have developed a highly accurate Nb-based competitive immunoassay to detect specific anti-Tsal antibodies induced by various tsetse fly species in a range of hosts. We propose that this competitive assay provides a simple serological indicator of tsetse fly presence without the requirement of test adaptation to the vertebrate host species. In addition, the use of monoclonal Nbs for antibody detection is innovative and could be applied to other tsetse fly salivary biomarkers in order to achieve a multi-target immunoprofiling of hosts. In addition, this approach could be broadened to other pathogenic organisms for which accurate serological diagnosis remains a

  13. Photoacoustic and fluorescent imaging GAF2 photoswitchable chromoproteins (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chee, Ryan K.; Li, Yan; Paproski, Robert J.; Campbell, Robert E.; Zemp, Roger J.

    2017-03-01

    Molecular photoacoustic imaging is hindered by hemoglobin background signal. Photoswitchable chromoproteins can be used to obtain images with significantly reduced background signal. Molecular imaging of multiple biological processes via multiple chromoprotiens is difficult due to overlapping imaging spectra. Using a new rate-of-change imaging methodology, we can obtain molecular images with multiple chromoprotiens with overlapping imaging spectra. We also present a new photoswitchable chromoprotein, GAF2, which is significantly smaller than the BphP1 which has shown promise for photoswitchable photoacoustic imaging [Yao et al., Nat. Meth. 13, 67-73 (2016)]. We use BphP1 and GAF2 with photoacoustic (Vevo LAZR, Fujifilm Visualsonics Inc) and fluorescence (In vivo Xtreme, Bruker) imaging systems to show background-free multiplexed images. We image before, after, and during photoconversion to obtain background-free rate-of-change images and compare our results to difference imaging and spectral demixing. After phantom imaging, we inject mice with different chromoprotein-expressing E. coli bacteria to show multiplexed images of bacterial infections. We show distinguishable differences in the rate-of-change between GAF2 and BphP1. We obtain rate-of-change feasibility images and in vivo images in mice showing the ability to differentiate between GAF2 and BphP1 even though they are spectrally similar. We photoconvert both GAF2 and BphP1 using 550nm and 735nm light. Phantom studies suggest a 10-20dB improvement in the rate-of-change and difference images in comparison to images with background. Multiplexed background-free molecular imaging using chromoproteins could prove to be a promising new imaging methodology especially when combined with spectral demixing.

  14. Molecular Identification of Sibling Species of Sclerodermus (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) That Parasitize Buprestid and Cerambycid Beetles by Using Partial Sequences of Mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit 1 and 28S Ribosomal RNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan; Yang, Zhongqi; Wang, Xiaoyi; Hou, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    The species belonging to Sclerodermus (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) are currently the most important insect natural enemies of wood borer pests, mainly buprestid and cerambycid beetles, in China. However, some sibling species of this genus are very difficult to distinguish because of their similar morphological features. To address this issue, we conducted phylogenetic and genetic analyses of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 28S RNA gene sequences from eight species of Sclerodermus reared from different wood borer pests. The eight sibling species were as follows: S. guani Xiao et Wu, S. sichuanensis Xiao, S. pupariae Yang et Yao, and Sclerodermus spp. (Nos. 1–5). A 594-bp fragment of COI and 750-bp fragment of 28S were subsequently sequenced. For COI, the G-C content was found to be low in all the species, averaging to about 30.0%. Sequence divergences (Kimura-2-parameter distances) between congeneric species averaged to 4.5%, and intraspecific divergences averaged to about 0.09%. Further, the maximum sequence divergences between congeneric species and Sclerodermus sp. (No. 5) averaged to about 16.5%. All 136 samples analyzed were included in six reciprocally monophyletic clades in the COI neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. The NJ tree inferred from the 28S rRNA sequence yielded almost identical results, but the samples from S. guani, S. sichuanensis, S. pupariae, and Sclerodermus spp. (Nos. 1–4) clustered together and only Sclerodermus sp. (No. 5) clustered separately. Our findings indicate that the standard barcode region of COI can be efficiently used to distinguish morphologically similar Sclerodermus species. Further, we speculate that Sclerodermus sp. (No. 5) might be a new species of Sclerodermus. PMID:25782000

  15. Coincidences between O VI and O VII Lines: Insights from High-resolution Simulations of the Warm-hot Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Renyue

    2012-07-01

    With high-resolution (0.46 h -1 kpc), large-scale, adaptive mesh-refinement Eulerian cosmological hydrodynamic simulations we compute properties of O VI and O VII absorbers from the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) at z = 0. Our new simulations are in broad agreement with previous simulations with ~40% of the intergalactic medium being in the WHIM. Our simulations are in agreement with observed properties of O VI absorbers with respect to the line incidence rate and Doppler-width-column-density relation. It is found that the amount of gas in the WHIM below and above 106 K is roughly equal. Strong O VI absorbers are found to be predominantly collisionally ionized. It is found that (61%, 57%, 39%) of O VI absorbers of log N(O VI) cm2 = (12.5-13, 13-14, > 14) have T < 105 K. Cross correlations between galaxies and strong [N(O VI) > 1014 cm-2] O VI absorbers on ~100-300 kpc scales are suggested as a potential differentiator between collisional ionization and photoionization models. Quantitative prediction is made for the presence of broad and shallow O VI lines that are largely missed by current observations but will be detectable by Cosmic Origins Spectrograph observations. The reported 3σ upper limit on the mean column density of coincidental O VII lines at the location of detected O VI lines by Yao et al. is above our predicted value by a factor of 2.5-4. The claimed observational detection of O VII lines by Nicastro et al., if true, is 2σ above what our simulations predict.

  16. Description of a nanobody-based competitive immunoassay to detect tsetse fly exposure.

    PubMed

    Caljon, Guy; Hussain, Shahid; Vermeiren, Lieve; Van Den Abbeele, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Tsetse flies are the main vectors of human and animal African trypanosomes. The Tsal proteins in tsetse fly saliva were previously identified as suitable biomarkers of bite exposure. A new competitive assay was conceived based on nanobody (Nb) technology to ameliorate the detection of anti-Tsal antibodies in mammalian hosts. A camelid-derived Nb library was generated against the Glossina morsitans morsitans sialome and exploited to select Tsal specific Nbs. One of the three identified Nb families (family III, TsalNb-05 and TsalNb-11) was found suitable for anti-Tsal antibody detection in a competitive ELISA format. The competitive ELISA was able to detect exposure to a broad range of tsetse species (G. morsitans morsitans, G. pallidipes, G. palpalis gambiensis and G. fuscipes) and did not cross-react with the other hematophagous insects (Stomoxys calcitrans and Tabanus yao). Using a collection of plasmas from tsetse-exposed pigs, the new test characteristics were compared with those of the previously described G. m. moristans and rTsal1 indirect ELISAs, revealing equally good specificities (> 95%) and positive predictive values (> 98%) but higher negative predictive values and hence increased sensitivity (> 95%) and accuracy (> 95%). We have developed a highly accurate Nb-based competitive immunoassay to detect specific anti-Tsal antibodies induced by various tsetse fly species in a range of hosts. We propose that this competitive assay provides a simple serological indicator of tsetse fly presence without the requirement of test adaptation to the vertebrate host species. In addition, the use of monoclonal Nbs for antibody detection is innovative and could be applied to other tsetse fly salivary biomarkers in order to achieve a multi-target immunoprofiling of hosts. In addition, this approach could be broadened to other pathogenic organisms for which accurate serological diagnosis remains a bottleneck.

  17. Small-molecule activators of TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel, stimulate epithelial chloride secretion and intestinal contraction

    PubMed Central

    Namkung, Wan; Yao, Zhen; Finkbeiner, Walter E.; Verkman, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    TMEM16A (ANO1) is a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) expressed in secretory epithelia, smooth muscle, and other tissues. Cell-based functional screening of ∼110,000 compounds revealed compounds that activated TMEM16A CaCC conductance without increasing cytoplasmic Ca2+. By patch-clamp, N-aroylaminothiazole “activators” (Eact) strongly increased Cl− current at 0 Ca2+, whereas tetrazolylbenzamide “potentiators” (Fact) were not active at 0 Ca2+ but reduced the EC50 for Ca2+-dependent TMEM16A activation. Of 682 analogs tested, the most potent activator (Eact) and potentiator (Fact) produced large and more sustained CaCC Cl− currents than general agonists of Ca2+ signaling, with EC50 3–6 μM and Cl− conductance comparable to that induced transiently by Ca2+-elevating purinergic agonists. Analogs of activators were identified that fully inhibited TMEM16A Cl− conductance, providing further evidence for direct TMEM16A binding. The TMEM16A activators increased CaCC conductance in human salivary and airway submucosal gland epithelial cells, and IL-4 treated bronchial cells, and stimulated submucosal gland secretion in human bronchi and smooth muscle contraction in mouse intestine. Small-molecule, TMEM16A-targeted activators may be useful for drug therapy of cystic fibrosis, dry mouth, and gastrointestinal hypomotility disorders, and for pharmacological dissection of TMEM16A function.—Namkung, W., Yao, Z., Finkbeiner, W. E., Verkman, A. S. Small-molecule activators of TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel, stimulate epithelial chloride secretion and intestinal contraction. PMID:21836025

  18. An Experimental Study of Penny-shaped Fluid-driven Cracks in an Elastic Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Howard

    2015-11-01

    When a pressurized fluid is injected into an elastic matrix, the fluid generates a fracture that grows along a plane and forms a fluid-filled disc-like shape. For example, such problems occur in various natural and industrial applications involving the subsurface of Earth, such as hydraulic fracturing operations. We report a laboratory study of such a fluid-driven crack in a gelatin matrix, study the crack shape as a function of time, and investigate the influence of different experimental parameters such as the injection flow rate, Young's modulus of the matrix, and fluid viscosity. We find that the crack radius increases with time as a power law, which has been predicted both for the limit where viscous effects in the flow along the crack opening control the rate of crack propagation, as well as the limit where fracture toughness controls crack propagation. We vary experimental parameters to probe the physical limits and highlight that for our typical parameters both effects can be significant. Also, we measure the time evolution of crack shape, which has not been studied before. The rescaled crack shapes collapse at longer times, based on an appropriate scaling argument, and again we compare the scaling arguments in different physical limits. The gelatin system provides a useful laboratory model for further studies of fluid-driven cracks, some of which we will mention as they are inspired by the physics of hydraulic fracturing. This work is part of the PhD thesis of Ching-Yao Lai and is a collaboration with Drs. Zhong Zheng and Jason Wexler (Princeton University) and Professor Emilie Dressaire (NYU). Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

  19. Effect of Urbanization on River CO2 Emissons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, F.; Masiello, C. A.

    2007-12-01

    CO2 supersaturation in rivers has been reported for a number of different systems: tropical (e.g. Amazon1), subtropical (e.g. Xijiang River in China2) and temperate (e.g. Hudson3), indicating rivers' role as a source of atmospheric CO2 in regional net carbon budgets. In situ respiration of organic carbon is responsible for the high CO2 concentrations in rivers1. Because this organic carbon primarily originates on land1, land use practices may alter sources and character of this organic carbon significantly, potentially impacting river CO2 emissions. Urbanization is an important, expanding global land use. We are researching the effect of urbanization on river CO2 emissions. In this study, partial pressure of dissolved CO2 (pCO2) and radiocarbon (14C) contents of riverine dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) are directly measured in time series in Buffalo Bayou and Brays Bayou, two of the main rivers draining Houston, Texas, a developed humid subtropical city. The watersheds of both bayous are entirely unbanized. We will report seasonal trends of pCO2 and 14C of riverine DIC to estimate sources and turnover times of dissolved CO2. For comparison, we are also measuring pCO2 and DIC 14C in Spring Creek, Texas, a nearby river which has a mixed forest/agriculture watershed, as a non-urbanized counterpart to Buffalo and Brays Bayous. References: 1. E. Mayorga et al., Nature 436, 538 (2005). 2. G. Yao et al., Sci. Tot. Environ. 376, 255 (2007). 3. P.A. Raymond, N.F. Caraco, and J.J. Cole, Estuaries 20, 381 (1997).

  20. Assessment of Folsom Lake Watershed response to historical and potential future climate scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Theresa M.; Georgakakos, Konstantine P.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated forecast-control system was designed to allow the profitable use of ensemble forecasts for the operational management of multi-purpose reservoirs. The system ingests large-scale climate model monthly precipitation through the adjustment of the marginal distribution of reservoir-catchment precipitation to reflect occurrence of monthly climate precipitation amounts in the extreme terciles of their distribution. Generation of ensemble reservoir inflow forecasts is then accomplished with due account for atmospheric- forcing and hydrologic- model uncertainties. These ensemble forecasts are ingested by the decision component of the integrated system, which generates non- inferior trade-off surfaces and, given management preferences, estimates of reservoir- management benefits over given periods. In collaboration with the Bureau of Reclamation and the California Nevada River Forecast Center, the integrated system is applied to Folsom Lake in California to evaluate the benefits for flood control, hydroelectric energy production, and low flow augmentation. In addition to retrospective studies involving the historical period 1964-1993, system simulations were performed for the future period 2001-2030, under a control (constant future greenhouse-gas concentrations assumed at the present levels) and a greenhouse-gas- increase (1-% per annum increase assumed) scenario. The present paper presents and validates ensemble 30-day reservoir- inflow forecasts under a variety of situations. Corresponding reservoir management results are presented in Yao and Georgakakos, A., this issue. Principle conclusions of this paper are that the integrated system provides reliable ensemble inflow volume forecasts at the 5-% confidence level for the majority of the deciles of forecast frequency, and that the use of climate model simulations is beneficial mainly during high flow periods. It is also found that, for future periods with potential sharp climatic increases of precipitation

  1. Effects of Chinese herbal medicines on the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes patients and protection of ARPE-19 retina cells by inhibiting oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chi-Fung; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Liu, Xiang; Tsang, Hsinyi; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Liao, Chiu-Chu; Li, Ju-Pi; Huang, Shao-Mei; Lin, Jung-Chun; Lin, Chih-Chien

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular complication of type 2 diabetes and the leading cause of acquired blindness. In Taiwan, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is a popular adjunctive therapy. In this study, we investigated the CHM prescription patterns and their effects. We identified 23,701 subjects with type 2 diabetes in a database, and after matching for age and gender, 6,948 patients each were assigned to CHM and non-CHM groups. In the female subgroups, the cumulative retinopathy probability was lower for the CHM users than that for the CHM non-users (P < 0.001, log-rank test). Among the top 10 CHMs, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS; 52.9%), Shu-Jing-Huo-Xue-Tang (SJHXT; 45.1%), and Ge-Gen-Tang (GGT; 43.7%) were the most common herbal formulas. Yan-Hu-Suo (48.1%), Ge-Gen (42.1%), and Huang-Qin (HQin; 40.1%) were the most common single herbs. CHM network analysis showed that JWXYS was the core CHM of cluster 1. JWXYS, DS, XF, and SZRT exhibited both of the reductions of H2O2-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) in human ARPE-19 retina cells. In cluster 2, SJHXT was the core CHM. SJHXT and NX showed both of the phosphorylation reductions. In cluster 3, GGT was the core CHM, and it reduced the phosphorylation of both MAPKs. In cluster 4, HQin was the core CHM, and it also reduced the phosphorylation of both MAPKs. Our study suggests that adjunctive CHM therapy may reduce diabetic retinopathy via antioxidant activity of the herbs and provides information on core CHM treatments for further scientific investigations or therapeutic interventions. PMID:28969009

  2. Utilization and prescription patterns of traditional Chinese medicine for patients with hepatitis C in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Yu; Chu, Jui-Ying; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Yen, Hung-Rong; Hsu, Chung-Hua

    2016-10-21

    To characterize the utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) among patients with hepatitis C (HC). This study examined datasets from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. One cohort, including one million patients randomly sampled from the beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance Programme from January 1 to December 31 in 2010, was chosen for this analysis. People who had at least three outpatient or inpatient records and had been diagnosed with hepatitis C virus infection from 2000 to 2010 were defined as patients with HC. Patients with HC who had at least one TCM outpatient clinical record from 2000 to 2010 were defined as TCM users (N = 5,691), whereas patients with no TCM outpatient records were defined as non-TCM users (N = 2,876). The demographic data, treatment modalities and disease distributions of TCM users were analysed. Overall, 66.4 % of the patients with HC had used TCM from 2000 to 2010. Of the TCM users, 54.1 % were female. The utilization rate of TCM increased with age and peaked in the age group of those 40 - 64 years old. Herbal remedies (52.4 %) were the most commonly used agents, followed by combination therapy (46.4 %) and acupuncture alone (1.2 %). Patients who had more extrahepatic diseases and were taking more antiviral agents tended to visit TCM clinics. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San and Dan-Shen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) were the most commonly used formula and single herb, with 88,124 person-days and 59,252 person-days, respectively. Our nationwide population-based study revealed a high prevalence and specific usage patterns of TCM in patients with HC in Taiwan.

  3. The traditional Chinese medicine prescription patterns for migraine patients in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Yun; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Yeh, Chia-Hao; Lin, Shun-Ku

    2014-02-12

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), when given for symptom relief, has gained widespread popularity among migraine patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the utilization of TCM among migraine patients in Taiwan. The usage, frequency of service, and the Chinese herbal products prescribed for migraine were evaluated using a representative sample of one million subjects selected at random from the 22 million beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance scheme of Taiwan. Overall, 89.3% (N=12,827) migraine patients utilized TCM and 24.2% of them sought TCM with the intention of treating their migraine-related symptoms. Migraine patients who are living in urban area and those with an episodic migraine pattern (<15 days/month) (aOR=3.18, 95% CI: 2.75-3.67) were more likely to be TCM users than those living in a rural area and those who suffered from chronic migraine (≥15 days/month) (aOR=1.00). Overall, 81.2% of TCM visits involved the prescription of a Chinese herbal remedy or remedies and Chuan-Xiong-Cha-Tiao-San, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Ge-Gen-Tang, Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu-Tang, Ban-Xia-Bai-Zhu-Tian-Ma-Tang, Qing-Shang-Juan-Tong-Tang, Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang, Tian-Ma-Gou-Teng-Yin, Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang, and Tian-Wang-Bu-Xin-Dan were the ten most frequently prescribed formula for treating migraine based on syndrome differentiation. Chuan-Xiong-Cha-Tiao-San, which contains sedative and anti-inflammatory agents, is the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula for the treatment of migraine-related phenomena. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prescription patterns of Chinese herbal products for post-surgery colon cancer patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, Te-Hsin; Fu, Pin-Kuei; Chang, Chiung-Hung; Chang, Shih-Ni; Chiahung Mao, Frank; Lin, Ching-Heng

    2014-08-08

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is commonly provided to cancer patients, however, the patterns of prescriptions for this type of medicine in Taiwan are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the use of traditional Chinese medicine products in colon cancer patients post-surgery in Taiwan and to research patterns of TCM. This was a cross-sectional study of newly diagnosed colon cancer patients who received surgery between 2004 and 2008 identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. The prescription patterns and reasons for the use of TCM for colon cancer were analyzed. The results showed that "symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions" (23.3%) and diseases of the digestive system (16.9%) were the most common reasons for using Chinese herbal medicine. Xiang-sha-liu-jun-zi-tang (7.1%), Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (4.3%), Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (4.1%), Shen-Ling-Bai-Zhu-San (3.7%), Ban-Xia-Xie-Xin-Tang (3.4%), Gui-pi-tang (2.4%), Ping-Wei-San (2.4%), Gan-Lu-Yin (2.0%), Bao-He-Wan (1.9%), and Zhen-Ren-Huo-Ming-Yin (1.8%) were the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herbal formulae (CHF) for colon cancer patients post-surgery. Hedyotis diffusa Willd (Bai Hua She She Cao) (5.1%) and Scutellaria barbata (Ban Zhi Lian )(4.8%) were the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herbs. This study identified patterns of TCM use in colon cancer patients post-surgery in Taiwan. The herbal ingredients were most commonly used for stimulate ghrelin secretion to increase food intake and had potential anti-tumor effect. However, further research is required to evaluate any beneficial effects which could identify leads for the development of new treatment strategies using TCM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prescription pattern of traditional Chinese medicine for climacteric women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y-H; Chen, P-C; Wang, J-D; Lee, C-H; Lai, J-N

    2009-12-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has become more popular as a therapy for symptom relief among menopause-aged women. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of TCM for climacteric women in Taiwan. The study analyzed frequency distributions among 19 379 women aged 45-55 years, recruited from a random-sampled cohort of 200 000 people from the National Health Insurance database. Data mining was conducted to explore the co-prescription patterns for finished herbal products (FHP). There were 19 379 women aged 45-55 years in the sample; of these, 12 572 (64.9%) utilized TCM services at least once. A total of 4078 (21.0%) of the 19 379 climacteric women utilized 145 200 (79.2%) TCM visits. Of these, 39 802 (21.7%) visits were because of diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue, of which more than half were treated with acupuncture and traumatology manipulative therapies. There were 28 154 visits with FHP prescriptions because of non-specific symptoms and ill-defined conditions, and Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san was the most frequent formula. Nearly two-thirds of FHP contained more than two herbal formulae. Women of climacteric age in Taiwan utilized TCM more often than other age groups. To deal with multiple symptoms and/or diseases among climacteric women, new prescription patterns of combining two or more herbal formulae have evolved. Studies on safety issues and drug-herb interactions are warranted for future research.

  6. Identifying Chinese herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome: implications from a nationwide database

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) occurs in women during their reproductive age with a quite negative impact on their daily lives. Women with PMS experience a wide range of physical or psychological symptoms and seek treatment for them. Chinese herb medicine (CHM) is commonly used for PMS and the goal of this study is to investigate the prescription patterns of CHM for PMS by using a nationwide database. Methods Prescriptions of CHM were obtained from two million beneficiaries randomly sampled from the National Health Insurance Research Database, a nationwide database in Taiwan. The ICD-9 code 625.4 was used to identify patients with PMS. Association rule mining and social network analysis were used to explore both the combinations and the core treatments for PMS. Results During 1998-2011, a total of 14,312 CHM prescriptions for PMS were provided. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS) was the CHM which had the highest prevalence (37.5% of all prescriptions) and also the core of prescription network for PMS. For combination of two CHM, JWXYS with Cyperus rotundus L. was prescribed most frequently, 7.7% of all prescriptions, followed by JWXYS with Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, 5.9%, and Cyperus rotundus L. with Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, 5.6%. Conclusions JWXYS-centered CHM combinations were most commonly prescribed for PMS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first pharmaco-epidemiological study to review CHM treatments for PMS. However, the efficacy and safety of these commonly used CHM were still lacking. The results of this study provide valuable references for further clinical trials and bench studies. PMID:24969368

  7. The Psychologist Said Quickly, “Dialogue Descriptions Modulate Reading Speed!”

    PubMed Central

    Stites, Mallory C.; Luke, Steven G.; Christianson, Kiel

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates whether the semantic content of a dialogue description can affect reading times on an embedded quote to determine if the speed at which a character is described as saying a quote influences how quickly it is read. Yao and Scheepers (2011) previously found that readers were faster to read direct quotes when the preceding context implied that the talker generally spoke quickly, an effect attributed to perceptual simulation of talker speed. The current study manipulated the speed of a physical action performed by the speaker independently from character talking rate to determine if these sources have separable effects on perceptual simulation of a direct quote. Results showed that readers spent less time reading direct quotes described as being said quickly compared to slowly (e.g., John walked/bolted into the room and said energetically/nonchalantly, “I finally found my car keys”), an effect that was not present when a nearly identical phrase was presented as an indirect quote (e.g., John…said energetically that he finally found his car keys). The speed of the character’s movement did not affect direct quote reading times. Furthermore, fast adverbs were themselves read significantly faster than slow adverbs, an effect we attribute to implicit effects on the eye movement program stemming from automatically activated semantic features of the adverbs. Our findings add to the literature on perceptual simulation by showing that these effects can be instantiated with only a single adverb, and are strong enough to override effects of global sentence speed. PMID:22927027

  8. Frequency-Dependent Rupture Processes for the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, H.

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake is characterized by frequency-dependent rupture process [e.g., Ide et al., 2011; Wang and Mori, 2011; Yao et al., 2011]. For understanding rupture dynamics of this earthquake, it is extremely important to investigate wave-based source inversions for various frequency bands. The above frequency-dependent characteristics have been derived from teleseismic analyses. This study challenges to infer frequency-dependent rupture processes from strong motion waveforms of K-NET and KiK-net stations. The observations suggested three or more S-wave phases, and ground velocities at several near-source stations showed different arrivals of their long- and short-period components. We performed complex source spectral inversions with frequency-dependent phase weighting developed by Miyake et al. [2002]. The technique idealizes both the coherent and stochastic summation of waveforms using empirical Green's functions. Due to the limitation of signal-to-noise ratio of the empirical Green's functions, the analyzed frequency bands were set within 0.05-10 Hz. We assumed a fault plane with 480 km in length by 180 km in width with a single time window for rupture following Koketsu et al. [2011] and Asano and Iwata [2012]. The inversion revealed source ruptures expanding from the hypocenter, and generated sharp slip-velocity intensities at the down-dip edge. In addition to test the effects of empirical/hybrid Green's functions and with/without rupture front constraints on the inverted solutions, we will discuss distributions of slip-velocity intensity and a progression of wave generation with increasing frequency.

  9. Deficiency in adipocyte chemokine receptor CXCR4 exacerbates obesity and compromises thermoregulatory responses of brown adipose tissue in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Longbiao; Heuser-Baker, Janet; Herlea-Pana, Oana; Zhang, Nan; Szweda, Luke I.; Griffin, Timothy M.; Barlic-Dicen, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is expressed on adipocytes and macrophages in adipose tissue, but its role in this tissue remains unknown. We evaluated whether deficiency in either adipocyte or myeloid leukocyte CXCR4 affects body weight (BW) and adiposity in a mouse model of high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity. We found that ablation of adipocyte, but not myeloid leukocyte, CXCR4 exacerbated obesity. The HFD-fed adipocyte-specific CXCR4-knockout (AdCXCR4ko) mice, compared to wild-type C57BL/6 control mice, had increased BW (average: 52.0 g vs. 35.5 g), adiposity (average: 49.3 vs. 21.0% of total BW), and inflammatory leukocyte content in white adipose tissue (WAT), despite comparable food intake. As previously reported, HFD feeding increased uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression (fold increase: 3.5) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of the C57BL/6 control mice. However, no HFD-induced increase in UCP1 expression was observed in the AdCXCR4ko mice, which were cold sensitive. Thus, our study suggests that adipocyte CXCR4 limits development of obesity by preventing excessive inflammatory cell recruitment into WAT and by supporting thermogenic activity of BAT. Since CXCR4 is conserved between mouse and human, the newfound role of CXCR4 in mouse adipose tissue may parallel the role of this chemokine receptor in human adipose tissue.—Yao, L., Heuser-Baker, J., Herlea-Pana, O., Zhang, N., Szweda, L. I., Griffin, T. M., Barlic-Dicen, J. Deficiency in adipocyte chemokine receptor CXCR4 exacerbates obesity and compromises thermoregulatory responses of brown adipose tissue in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. PMID:25016030

  10. Repeated Sleep Restriction in Adolescent Rats Altered Sleep Patterns and Impaired Spatial Learning/Memory Ability

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Su-Rong; Sun, Hui; Huang, Zhi-Li; Yao, Ming-Hui; Qu, Wei-Min

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate possible differences in the effect of repeated sleep restriction (RSR) during adolescence and adulthood on sleep homeostasis and spatial learning and memory ability. Design: The authors examined electroencephalograms of rats as they were subjected to 4-h daily sleep deprivation that continued for 7 consecutive days and assessed the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze test (WMT). Participants: Adolescent and adult rats. Measurements and Results: Adolescent rats exhibited a similar amount of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with higher slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4 Hz) and fewer episodes and conversions with prolonged durations, indicating they have better sleep quality than adult rats. After RSR, adult rats showed strong rebound of REM sleep by 31% on sleep deprivation day 1; this value was 37% on sleep deprivation day 7 in adolescents compared with 20-h baseline level. On sleep deprivation day 7, SWA in adult and adolescent rats increased by 47% and 33%, and such elevation lasted for 5 h and 7 h, respectively. Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of 4-h daily sleep deprivation immediately after the water maze training sessions on spatial cognitive performance. Adolescent rats sleep-restricted for 7 days traveled a longer distance to find the hidden platform during the acquisition training and had fewer numbers of platform crossings in the probe trial than those in the control group, something that did not occur in the sleep-deprived adult rats. Conclusions: Repeated sleep restriction (RSR) altered sleep profiles and mildly impaired spatial learning and memory capability in adolescent rats. Citation: Yang SR; Sun H; Huang ZL; Yao MH; Qu WM. Repeated sleep restriction in adolescent rats altered sleep patterns and impaired spatial learning/memory ability. SLEEP 2012;35(6):849-859. PMID:22654204

  11. Review of high pressure phases of calcium by first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Nagara, H.; Suzuki, N.; Tsuchiya, J.; Tsuchiya, T.

    2010-03-01

    We review high pressure phases of calcium which have obtained by recent experimental and first-principles studies. In this study, we investigated the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure, the body-centered cubic (bcc) structure, the simple cubic (sc) structure, a tetragonal P43212 [Ishikawa T et al. 2008 Phys. Rev. B 77 020101(R)], an orthorhombic Cmca [Ishikawa T et al. 2008 Phys. Rev. B 77 020101(R)], an orthorhombic Cmcm [Teweldeberhan A M and Bonev S A 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 140101(R)], an orthorhombic Pnma [Yao Y et al. 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 054506] and a tetragonal I4/mcm(00) [Arapan S et al. 2008 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105 20627]. We compared the enthalpies among the structures up to 200 GPa and theoretically determined the phase diagram of calcium. The sequence of the structural transitions is fcc (0- 3.5 GPa) → bcc (3.5 - 35.7 GPa) → Cmcm (35.7- 52GPa) → P43212 (52-109 GPa) → Cmca (109-117.4GPa) → Pnma (117.4-134.6GPa) → I4/mcm(00) (134.6 GPa -). The sc phase is experimentally observed in the pressure range from 32 to 113 GPa but, in our calculation, there is no pressure region where the sc phase is the most stable. In addition, we found that the enthalpy of the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure is lower than that of I4/mcm(00) above 495 GPa.

  12. Comparison of Frequency-Domain Array Methods for Studying Earthquake Rupture Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Y.; Yin, J.; Yao, H.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic array methods, in both time- and frequency- domains, have been widely used to study the rupture process and energy radiation of earthquakes. With better spatial resolution, the high-resolution frequency-domain methods, such as Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) (Schimdt, 1986; Meng et al., 2011) and the recently developed Compressive Sensing (CS) technique (Yao et al., 2011, 2013), are revealing new features of earthquake rupture processes. We have performed various tests on the methods of MUSIC, CS, minimum-variance distortionless response (MVDR) Beamforming and conventional Beamforming in order to better understand the advantages and features of these methods for studying earthquake rupture processes. We use the ricker wavelet to synthesize seismograms and use these frequency-domain techniques to relocate the synthetic sources we set, for instance, two sources separated in space but, their waveforms completely overlapping in the time domain. We also test the effects of the sliding window scheme on the recovery of a series of input sources, in particular, some artifacts that are caused by the sliding window scheme. Based on our tests, we find that CS, which is developed from the theory of sparsity inversion, has relatively high spatial resolution than the other frequency-domain methods and has better performance at lower frequencies. In high-frequency bands, MUSIC, as well as MVDR Beamforming, is more stable, especially in the multi-source situation. Meanwhile, CS tends to produce more artifacts when data have poor signal-to-noise ratio. Although these techniques can distinctly improve the spatial resolution, they still produce some artifacts along with the sliding of the time window. Furthermore, we propose a new method, which combines both the time-domain and frequency-domain techniques, to suppress these artifacts and obtain more reliable earthquake rupture images. Finally, we apply this new technique to study the 2013 Okhotsk deep mega earthquake

  13. PREFACE: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Chaohui; Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhou, Bingkun

    2011-02-01

    National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (China)Junqiang Sun, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (China) 4. OPTOELECTRONIC SENSING AND IMAGING (OSI)Editors:Kecheng Yang, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (China)Pengcheng Li, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (China) 5. SOLAR CELLS, SOLID-STATE LIGHTING AND INFORMATION DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES (SSID)Editors:Hiroshi Amano, Meijo University (Japan)Yibing Cheng, Monash University (Australia)Jinzhong Yu, Institute of Semiconductor, CAS (China)Changqing Chen, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (China)Hongwei Han, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (China)Guoli Tu, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (China) 6. TERA-HERTZ SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (THST)Editors:Jianquan Yao, Tianjin University (China)Shenggang Liu, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (China)X C Zhang, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (USA)Jinsong Liu, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (China) International Advisory Committee:Yibing Cheng, Monash University (Australia)Stephen Z D Cheng, University of Akron (USA)Min Gu, Swinburne University of Technology (Australia)Andrew B Holmes, the University of Melbourne (Australia)Chinlon Lin, Bell Laboratory (retired, USA)Xun Li, McMaster University (Canada)Shenggang Liu, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (China)Jesper Moerk, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark)Dennis L Matthews, University of California, Davis (USA)Jiacong Shen, Jilin University (China)Ping Shum, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)Chester C T Shu, Chinese University of Hong Kong (China)Valery V Tuchin, Saratov State University (Russia)Bruce Tromberg, University of California/Irvine (USA)Peiheng Wu, University of Nanjing (China)Alan Willner, University of Southern California (USA)Lihong Wang, Washington University in St. Louis (USA)C P Wong, Georgia Institute of Technology (USA)Jianquan Yao, Tianjin University (China)Xi Zhang

  14. Formation of nitro-PAHs from the heterogeneous reaction of ambient particle-bound PAHs with NO3/N2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, K.; Jariyasopit, N.; Simonich, S. L.; Atkinson, R.; Arey, J.

    2012-12-01

    , 139-150. 4. Kamens, R. M.; Zhi-Hua, F.; Yao, Y.; Chen, D.; Chen, S.; Vartiainen, M. Chemosphere 1994, 28, 1623-1632.

  15. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine on hyperlipidemia and the risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Li, Te-Mao; Cheng, Chi-Fung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Lai, Chih-Ho; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Liu, Xiang; Tsang, Hsinyi; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Liao, Chiu-Chu; Huang, Shao-Mei; Li, Ju-Pi; Lin, Jung-Chun; Lin, Chih-Chien; Liang, Wen-Miin; Lin, Ying-Ju

    2018-06-12

    Due to the development of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV/AIDS is now regarded as a treatable chronic disease. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is a type of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) that has been widely applied in the healthcare system in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of use and patterns of prescription for the CHM-based treatment of HIV-infected patients and to assess the long-term effects of CHM on hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease events in these patients. We identified 21,846 HIV-infected patients (ICD-9-CM: 042-044, 079, and V08 codes). Of these, 1083 and 2166 patients who used CHM and were non-users, respectively, were matched for age, gender, and ART use before CHM. The chi-squared test, Cox proportional hazard model, Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test were used for comparisons between these two groups. CHM users had a lower risk of hyperlipidemia compared with non-users after adjusting for comorbidities by using a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model (P = 0.0011; HR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.52-0.85). In addition, the CHM users had a lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared with non-users after adjusting for comorbidities (P = 0.0004; HR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.53-0.83). The 10-year cumulative incidences of hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease were lower in the CHM group (P < 0.0001 for both, log rank test). Among the 12 most commonly used CHMs in these patients, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS) (46.1%), Ge-Gen-Tang (GGT) (40.6%), and Yin-Qiao-San (YQS) (38.0%) were the most common herbal formulas used. Huang-Qin (HQin) (44.6%), Yan-Hu-Suo (YHS) (40.5%), and Jie-Geng (JG) (39.5%) were the most commonly used single herbs. A CHM network analysis showed that JG was the core CHM in one cluster, and BM, MXSGT, and HQin were important CHMs in that cluster. In the other cluster, YHS was the core CHM, and SYGCT and JWXYS were important CHMs. CHM as adjunctive therapy may reduce

  16. Association of traditional Chinese medicine therapy and the risk of dementia in patients with hypertension: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuen-Hau; Yeh, Ming-Hsien; Livneh, Hanoch; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Lin, I-Hsin; Lu, Ming-Chi; Tsai, Tzung-Yi; Yeh, Chia-Chou

    2017-03-29

    Patients with hypertension (HTN) reportedly have a higher risk of developing dementia. However, it remains unclear if use of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the most common form of complementary and alternative medicine, can help lower the risk of dementia for these patients. So the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of TCM on dementia risk among patients with hypertension. This longitudinal cohort study used the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) to identify 143,382 newly diagnosed hypertension patients aged 20-90 years who received treatment between 1998 and 2007. Among them, 52,365 (36.52%) had received TCM after the onset of hypertension (TCM users), and the remaining 91,017 patients (63.48%) were designated as a control group (non-TCM users). All enrollees were followed until the end of 2012 to record the incidence of dementia. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to compute the hazard ratio (HR) of dementia in patients who received TCM. During the 15-year follow-up, 3933 TCM users and 10,316 non-TCM users developed dementia, representing an incidence rate of 8.41 and 11.55%, respectively, per 1000 person-years. TCM users had a significantly reduced risk of dementia compared to non-TCM users (adjusted HR = 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74-0.81). The predominant effect was observed among those treated with TCM longer than 180 days (adjusted HR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.62-0.69). Among the commonly used TCM products, Tian-Ma-Gou-Teng-Yin, Dan-Shen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae), Chuan-Niu-Xi (Radix Cyathulae), Ge-Gen (Radix Puerariae), Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, and Jue-Ming-Zi (Semen Cassiae) were significantly associated with a lower risk of dementia. Results from this population-based study support the effects of TCM on reducing dementia risk, which may provide a reference for dementia prevention strategies.

  17. Mud volcano venting induced gas hydrate formation at the upper slope accretionary wedge, offshore SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Saulwood; Tseng, Yi-Ting; Cheng, Wan-Yen; Chou, Cheng-Tien; Chen, NeiChen; Hsieh, I.-Chih

    2016-04-01

    TsanYao Mud Volcano (TYMV) is the largest mud volcano cone in the Hengchun Mud Volcano Group (HCMVG), located at the upper slope of the accrretionary wedge, southwest of Taiwan. The region is under active tectonic activity with the Philippine Plate, moving northwestward at a rate of ~8 cm/year. This region also receives huge quantity of suspended particle load of ~100 mT/year at present time from adjacent small rivers of the Island of Taiwan. Large loads of suspended sediments influx become a major source of organic carbon and later gas and other hydrocarbon. Gas and fluid in the mud volcano are actively venting from deep to the sea floor on the upper slope of the accretionary wedge. In order to understand venting on the HCMVG, echo sounder, towcam and coring were carried out. Pore water sulfate, chloride, potassium, calcium, stable isotope O-18, gas compositions, dissolved sulfide were analysed. The HCMVG consists of 12 volcano cones of different sizes. Large quantity of gas and fluid are venting directly from deep to the TYMV structure high, as well as 50+ other vents as appeared as flares on the echo sounder. Some flares are reaching to the atmosphere and likely a source of green house gases to the atmosphere. Venting fluids include gas bubbles, suspended particle, mud, and breccia. Breccia size could reach more than 12 cm in diameter. Circular bands in different color appeared around the cone may represent stages of vent eruptions. Compositions of vent gas include methane, ethane and propane. High proportions of ethane and propane in the vent gas demonstrated that source of gas are thermogenic in origin. Patchy authigenic carbonate, bacterial mats, bivalves, tube worms and other chemosynthesis organisms were supported by venting gas AOM process near the sea floor. Pore water chloride concentrations show distinct variation pattern from center cone to the side of the volcano, with low in the center and high away from the cone. Pore water with higher than seawater

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension among the hill tribe elderly populations in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Apidechkul, Tawatchai

    2018-06-05

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension (HT) are major noncommunicable health problems in both developing and developed countries, including Thailand. Each year, a large amount of money is budgeted for treatment and care. Hill tribe people are a marginalized population in Thailand, and members of its elderly population are vulnerable to health problems due to language barriers, lifestyles, and daily dietary intake. An analytic cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of T2DM and HT and to assess the factors associated with T2DM and HT. The study populations were hill tribe elderly adults aged ≥  60 years living in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. A simple random method was used to select the targeted hill tribe villages and participants into the study. A validated questionnaire, physical examination form, and 5-mL blood specimen were used as research instruments. Fasting plasma glucose and blood pressure were examined and used as outcome measurements. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used for detecting the associations between variables at the significance level alpha=0.05. In total, 793 participants participated in the study; 49.6% were male, and 51.7% were aged 60-69 years. A total of 71.5% were Buddhist, 93.8% were uneducated, 62.9% were unemployed, and 89 % earned an income of < 5,000 baht/month. The overall prevalence of T2DM and HT was 16.8% and 45.5%, respectively. Approximately 9.0% individuals had comorbidity of T2DM and HT. Members of the Lahu, Yao, Karen, and Lisu tribes had a greater odds of developing T2DM than did those of the Akha tribe. Being overweight, having a parental history of T2DM, and having high cholesterol were associated with T2DM development. In contrast, those who engaged in highly physical activities and exercise had lower odds of developing T2DM than did those who did not. Regarding HT, being female, having a high dietary salt intake, being overweight, and having a parental history of HT

  19. [Latent factors aggravating airway allergic symptom in urban population: the involvement of urban living environments].

    PubMed

    Azuma, E; Nakajima, T; Hashimoto, M; Toyoshima, K; Hayashida, M; Komachi, Y

    1999-03-01

    The involvement of urban living environments in IgE-increase (atopy) and ECP-increase (enhanced eosinophil activity), the inter-relationship of IgE-increase and ECP-increase, and their involvement in developing airway allergic symptoms were studied on a population of adult nonsmoking women, in order to elucidate the latent factors aggravating airway allergic symptoms in an urban population. In our earlier study on child asthma in 1994, we examined the relationship between living environments and mite proliferation in asthma and non-asthma groups and the involvement of mite proliferation in developing atopy in the non-asthma group. The asthma group consisted of 190 children under 12 years old who had been recently diagnosed as having bronchial asthma and under the care of Osaka Prefectural Habikino Hospital. The non-asthma group consisted of 78 children under 12 years old who had been under care at Osaka Prefectural Hospital but had no present history of allergic symptom. The adult woman group consisted of 423 non-smoking women who had been diagnosed as having no allergic disease by the medical examination done at Yao City, Osaka, each March from 1995 to 1997. Individual living environments such as housing and heating styles were surveyed by questionnaire. Also, the amount of mite allergen (Dp: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Df: Dermatophagoides farinae) in room and bedding dust (only in the case of children) and the concentration of continine in urine were examined as objective indicators for the load of environmental allergen and the indoor air pollution by tobacco smoke, respectively. Atopy was diagnosed according to whether Dp-specific immunoglobulin E (Dp-IgE) was present/absent (positive/negative), and ECP-increase was defined as serum ECP concentration over 10 ng/ml. The results were as follows: 1. An environment of higher humidity (dampness) causing a room to become moldy appeared to enhance mite proliferation, while heating only with an electric heater or

  20. Neurotrophin receptor structure and interactions.

    PubMed

    Yano, H; Chao, M V

    2000-03-01

    Although ligand-induced dimerization or oligomerization of receptors is a well established mechanism of growth factor signaling, increasing evidence indicates that biological responses are often mediated by receptor trans-signaling mechanisms involving two or more receptor systems. These include G protein-coupled receptors, cytokine, growth factor and trophic factor receptors. Greater flexibility is provided when different signaling pathways are merged through multiple receptor signaling systems. Trophic factors exemplified by NGF and its family members, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) all utilize increased tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular substrates to mediate neuronal cell survival. Actions of the NGF family of neurotrophins are not only dictated by ras activation through the Trk family of receptor tyrosine kinases, but also a survival pathway defined by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activity (Yao and Cooper, 1995), which gives rise to phosphoinositide intermediates that activate the serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB (Dudek et al., 1997). Induction of the serine-threonine kinase activity is critical for cell survival, as well as cell proliferation. Hence, for many trophic factors, multiple proteins constitute a functional multisubunit receptor complex that activates ras-dependent and ras-independent intracellular signaling. The NGF receptors provide an example of bidirectional crosstalk. In the presence of TrkA receptors, p75 can participate in the formation of high affinity binding sites and enhanced neurotrophin responsiveness leading to a survival or differentiation signal. In the absence of TrkA receptors, p75 can generate, in only specific cell populations, a death signal. These activities include the induction of NF kappa B (Carter et al., 1996); the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide (Dobrowsky et al., 1995); and the pro-apoptotic functions attributed to p75. Receptors are generally drawn and viewed as

  1. Sleep Duration and Midday Napping with 5-Year Incidence and Reversion of Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Older Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liangle; Xu, Zengguang; He, Meian; Yang, Handong; Li, Xiulou; Min, Xinwen; Zhang, Ce; Xu, Chengwei; Angileri, Francesca; Légaré, Sébastien; Yuan, Jing; Miao, Xiaoping; Guo, Huan; Yao, Ping; Wu, Tangchun; Zhang, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Prospective evidence on the association of sleep duration and midday napping with metabolic syndrome (MetS) is limited. We aimed to examine the associations of sleep duration and midday napping with risk of incidence and reversion of MetS and its components among a middle-aged and older Chinese population. Methods: We included 14,399 subjects from the Dongfeng-Tongji (DFTJ) Cohort Study (2008–2013) who were free of coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer at baseline. Baseline data were obtained by questionnaires and health examinations. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were derived from multivariate logistic regression models. Results: After controlling for potential covariates, longer sleep duration (≥ 9 h) was associated with a higher risk of MetS incidence (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.08–1.55) and lower reversion of MetS (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66–0.96) compared with sleep duration of 7 to < 8 h; whereas shorter sleep duration (< 6 h) was not related to incidence or reversion of MetS. For midday napping, subjects with longer napping (≥ 90 min) was also associated with a higher risk of MetS incidence and a lower risk of MetS reversion compared with those with napping of 1 to < 30 min (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.05–2.10 and OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.52–0.94, respectively). Significance for incidence or reversion of certain MetS components remained in shorter and longer sleepers but disappeared across napping categories. Conclusions: Both longer sleep duration and longer midday napping were potential risk factors for MetS incidence, and concurrently exert adverse effects on MetS reversion. Citation: Yang L, Xu Z, He M, Yang H, Li X, Min X, Zhang C, Xu C, Angileri F, Légaré S, Yuan J, Miao X, Guo H, Yao P, Wu T, Zhang X. Sleep duration and midday napping with 5-year incidence and reversion of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older Chinese. SLEEP 2016;39(11):1911–1918. PMID:27450688

  2. Development of the scintillator-based probe for fast-ion losses in the HL-2A tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. P.; Liu, Yi; Luo, X. B.; Isobe, M.; Yuan, G. L.; Liu, Y. Q.; Hua, Y.; Song, X. Y.; Yang, J. W.; Li, X.; Chen, W.; Li, Y.; Yan, L. W.; Song, X. M.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.

    2014-05-01

    A new scintillator-based lost fast-ion probe (SLIP) has been developed and operated in the HL-2A tokamak [L. W. Yan, X. R. Duan, X. T. Ding, J. Q. Dong, Q. W. Yang, Yi Liu, X. L. Zou, D. Q. Liu, W. M. Xuan, L. Y. Chen, J. Rao, X. M. Song, Y. Huang, W. C. Mao, Q. M. Wang, Q. Li, Z. Cao, B. Li, J. Y. Cao, G. J. Lei, J. H. Zhang, X. D. Li, W. Chen, J. Chen, C. H. Cui, Z. Y. Cui, Z. C. Deng, Y. B. Dong, B. B. Feng, Q. D. Gao, X. Y. Han, W. Y. Hong, M. Huang, X. Q. Ji, Z. H. Kang, D. F. Kong, T. Lan, G. S. Li, H. J. Li, Qing Li, W. Li, Y. G. Li, A. D. Liu, Z. T. Liu, C. W. Luo, X. H. Mao, Y. D. Pan, J. F. Peng, Z. B. Shi, S. D. Song, X. Y. Song, H. J. Sun, A. K. Wang, M. X. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, W. W. Xiao, Y. F. Xie, L. H. Yao, D. L. Yu, B. S. Yuan, K. J. Zhao, G. W. Zhong, J. Zhou, J. C. Yan, C. X. Yu, C. H. Pan, Y. Liu, and the HL-2A Team, Nucl. Fusion 51, 094016 (2011)] to measure the losses of neutral beam ions. The design of the probe is based on the concept of the α-particle detectors on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) using scintillator plates. The probe is capable of traveling across an equatorial plane port and sweeping the aperture angle rotationally with respect to the axis of the probe shaft by two step motors, in order to optimize the radial position and the collimator angle. The energy and the pitch angle of the lost fast ions can be simultaneously measured if the two-dimensional image of scintillation light intensity due to the impact of the lost fast ions is detected. Measurements of the fast-ion losses using the probe have been performed during HL-2A neutral beam injection discharges. The clear experimental evidence of enhanced losses of beam ions during disruptions has been obtained by means of the SLIP system. A detailed description of the probe system and the first experimental results are reported.

  3. Crust and Upper Mantle Structure Beneath Tibet and SW China From Seismic Tomography and Array Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hilst, R. D.; Li, C.; Yao, H.; Sun, R.; Meltzer, A. S.

    2007-12-01

    We will present a summary of the results of our seismological studies of crust and upper mantle heterogeneity and anisotropy beneath Tibet and SW China with data from temporary (PASSCAL) arrays as well as other regional, national, and global networks. In 2003 and 2004 MIT and CIGMR (Chengdu Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources) operated a 25 station array (3-component, broad band seismometers) in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, SW China; during the same period Lehigh University (also in collaboration with CIGMR) operated a 75 station array in east Tibet. Data from these arrays allow delineation of mantle structure in unprecedented detail. We focus our presentation on results of two lines of seismological study. Travel time tomography (Li et al., PEPI, 2006; EPSL, 2007) with hand-picked phase arrivals from recordings at regional arrays, and combined with data from over 1,000 stations in China and with the global data base due to Engdahl et al. (BSSA, 1998), reveals substantial the structural complexity of the upper mantle beneath SE Asia. In particular, structures associated with subduction of the Indian plate beneath the Himalayas vary significantly from west Tibet (where the plate seems to have underthrusted the entire plateau) to east Tibet (where P-wave tomography provides no evidence for the presence of fast lithosphere beneath the Plateau proper). Further east, fast structures appear in the upper mantle transition zone, presumably related to stagnation of slab fragments associated with subduction of the Pacific plate. (2) Surface wave array tomography (Yao et al., GJI, 2006, 2007), using ambient noise interferometry and traditional (inter station) dispersion analysis, is used to delineate the 3-D structure of the crust and lithospheric mantle at length scales as small as 100 km beneath the MIT and Lehigh arrays. This analysis reveals a complex spatial distribution of intra-crustal low velocity zones (which may imply that crustal-scale faults influence the

  4. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  5. Effects of in Utero Exposure to Arsenic during the Second Half of Gestation on Reproductive End Points and Metabolic Parameters in Female CD-1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Karina F.; Ungewitter, Erica K.; Crespo-Mejias, Yasmin; Liu, Chang; Nicol, Barbara; Kissling, Grace E.; Yao, Humphrey Hung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background Mice exposed to high levels of arsenic in utero have increased susceptibility to tumors such as hepatic and pulmonary carcinomas when they reach adulthood. However, the effects of in utero arsenic exposure on general physiological functions such as reproduction and metabolism remain unclear. Objectives We evaluated the effects of in utero exposure to inorganic arsenic at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standard (10 ppb) and at tumor-inducing levels (42.5 ppm) on reproductive end points and metabolic parameters when the exposed females reached adulthood. Methods Pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed to sodium arsenite [none (control), 10 ppb, or 42.5 ppm] in drinking water from gestational day 10 to birth, the window of organ formation. At birth, exposed offspring were fostered to unexposed dams. We examined reproductive end points (age at vaginal opening, reproductive hormone levels, estrous cyclicity, and fertility) and metabolic parameters (body weight changes, hormone levels, body fat content, and glucose tolerance) in the exposed females when they reached adulthood. Results Arsenic-exposed females (10 ppb and 42.5 ppm) exhibited early onset of vaginal opening. Fertility was not affected when females were exposed to the 10-ppb dose. However, the number of litters per female was decreased in females exposed to 42.5 ppm of arsenic in utero. In both 10-ppb and 42.5-ppm groups, arsenic-exposed females had significantly greater body weight gain, body fat content, and glucose intolerance. Conclusion Our findings revealed unexpected effects of in utero exposure to arsenic: exposure to both a human-relevant low dose and a tumor-inducing level led to early onset of vaginal opening and to obesity in female CD-1 mice. Citation Rodriguez KF, Ungewitter EK, Crespo-Mejias Y, Liu C, Nicol B, Kissling GE, Yao HH. 2016. Effects of in utero exposure to arsenic during the second half of gestation on reproductive end points and metabolic

  6. Normalization and extension of single-collector efficiency correlation equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Francesca; Marchisio, Daniele; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2015-04-01

    The colloidal transport and deposition are important phenomena involved in many engineering problems. In the environmental engineering field the use of micro- and nano-scale zerovalent iron (M-NZVI) is one of the most promising technologies for groundwater remediation. Colloid deposition is normally studied from a micro scale point of view and the results are then implemented in macro scale models that are used to design field-scale applications. The single collector efficiency concept predicts particles deposition onto a single grain of a complex porous medium in terms of probability that an approaching particle would be retained on the solid grain. In literature, many different approaches and equations exist to predict it, but most of them fail under specific conditions (e.g. very small or very big particle size and very low fluid velocity) because they predict efficiency values exceeding unity. By analysing particle fluxes and deposition mechanisms and performing a mass balance on the entire domain, the traditional definition of efficiency was reformulated and a novel total flux normalized correlation equation is proposed for predicting single-collector efficiency under a broad range of parameters. It has been formulated starting from a combination of Eulerian and Lagrangian numerical simulations, performed under Smoluchowski-Levich conditions, in a geometry which consists of a sphere enveloped by a control volume. In order to guarantee the independence of each term, the correlation equation is derived through a rigorous hierarchical parameter estimation process, accounting for single and mutual interacting transport mechanisms. The correlation equation provides efficiency values lower than one over a wide range of parameters and is valid both for point and finite-size particles. A reduced form is also proposed by elimination of the less relevant terms. References 1. Yao, K. M.; Habibian, M. M.; Omelia, C. R., Water and Waste Water Filtration - Concepts and

  7. Comparison of Different Approach of Back Projection Method in Retrieving the Rupture Process of Large Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, F.; Wang, G.; Chen, C.; Ge, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Back-projection of teleseismic P waves [Ishii et al., 2005] has been widely used to image the rupture of earthquakes. Besides the conventional narrowband beamforming in time domain, approaches in frequency domain such as MUSIC back projection (Meng 2011) and compressive sensing (Yao et al, 2011), are proposed to improve the resolution. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages and should be properly used in different cases. Therefore, a thorough research to compare and test these methods is needed. We write a GUI program, which puts the three methods together so that people can conveniently use different methods to process the same data and compare the results. Then we use all the methods to process several earthquake data, including 2008 Wenchuan Mw7.9 earthquake and 2011 Tohoku-Oki Mw9.0 earthquake, and theoretical seismograms of both simple sources and complex ruptures. Our results show differences in efficiency, accuracy and stability among the methods. Quantitative and qualitative analysis are applied to measure their dependence on data and parameters, such as station number, station distribution, grid size, calculate window length and so on. In general, back projection makes it possible to get a good result in a very short time using less than 20 lines of high-quality data with proper station distribution, but the swimming artifact can be significant. Some ways, for instance, combining global seismic data, could help ameliorate this method. Music back projection needs relatively more data to obtain a better and more stable result, which means it needs a lot more time since its runtime accumulates obviously faster than back projection with the increase of station number. Compressive sensing deals more effectively with multiple sources in a same time window, however, costs the longest time due to repeatedly solving matrix. Resolution of all the methods is complicated and depends on many factors. An important one is the grid size, which in turn influences

  8. The source parameters of 2013 Mw6.6 Lushan earthquake constrained with the restored local clipped seismic waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, J.; Zhang, J. H.; Yao, Z. X.

    2017-12-01

    We developed a method to restore the clipped seismic waveforms near epicenter using projection onto convex sets method (Zhang et al, 2016). This method was applied to rescue the local clipped waveforms of 2013 Mw 6.6 Lushan earthquake. We restored 88 out of 93 clipped waveforms of 38 broadband seismic stations of China Earthquake Networks (CEN). The epicenter distance of the nearest station to the epicenter that we can faithfully restore is only about 32 km. In order to investigate if the source parameters of earthquake could be determined exactly with the restored data, restored waveforms are utilized to get the mechanism of Lushan earthquake. We apply the generalized reflection-transmission coefficient matrix method to calculate the synthetic seismic records and simulated annealing method in inversion (Yao and Harkrider, 1983; Hao et al., 2012). We select 5 stations of CEN with the epicenter distance about 200km whose records aren't clipped and three-component velocity records are used. The result shows the strike, dip and rake angles of Lushan earthquake are 200o, 51o and 87o respectively, hereinafter "standard result". Then the clipped and restored seismic waveforms are applied respectively. The strike, dip and rake angles of clipped seismic waveforms are 184o, 53o and 72o respectively. The largest misfit of angle is 16o. In contrast, the strike, dip and rake angles of restored seismic waveforms are 198o, 51o and 87o respectively. It is very close to the "standard result". We also study the rupture history of Lushan earthquake constrained with the restored local broadband and teleseismic waves based on finite fault method (Hao et al., 2013). The result consists with that constrained with the strong motion and teleseismic waves (Hao et al., 2013), especially the location of the patch with larger slip. In real-time seismology, determining the source parameters as soon as possible is important. This method will help us to determine the mechanism of earthquake

  9. Prenatal Air Pollution Exposures, DNA Methyl Transferase Genotypes, and Associations with Newborn LINE1 and Alu Methylation and Childhood Blood Pressure and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in the Children's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Breton, Carrie V; Yao, Jin; Millstein, Josh; Gao, Lu; Siegmund, Kimberly D; Mack, Wendy; Whitfield-Maxwell, Lora; Lurmann, Fred; Hodis, Howard; Avol, Ed; Gilliland, Frank D

    2016-12-01

    pollution exposure. Citation: Breton CV, Yao J, Millstein J, Gao L, Siegmund KD, Mack W, Whitfield-Maxwell L, Lurmann F, Hodis H, Avol E, Gilliland FD. 2016. Prenatal air pollution exposures, DNA methyl transferase genotypes, and associations with newborn LINE1 and Alu methylation and childhood blood pressure and carotid intima-media thickness in the Children's Health Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1905-1912; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP181.

  10. [Concepts of "urinary bladder" and "vesicles (bao)" , "jin ye" (fluid and humor) and "urine" and other associated issues].

    PubMed

    Son, J R; Liu, Y; Ma, Q N; Ju, B Z; Sun, K F; Wu, J D; Zhang, L D; Yang, G L

    2017-09-28

    In the Huang di nei jing ( Huangdi ' s Internal Classic ), jin ye (fluid and humor) is described in two senses, broad and narrow, though not so strictly.Sometimes, jin ye is explained ambiguously as "sweat" and "urine" , as in the phrase "the bladder, being a house of jin ye " , here " jin ye " refers to the urine. In the Qi jue lun pian of Su wen ( Chapter on Qi - Syncope of Plain Questions ) , the " bao " in the sentence "heat of bao moved to bladder" refersto the uterus. In the Shi cong rong lun pian ( Chapter of Readily Inspecting ) of Plain Questions , the "bladder" in the phrase "gallbladder, stomach, large intestine, small intestine, spleen, bao and bladder" , which, being an annotation of " bao " originally, is mistakenly incorporated into the text of the Classic . In the Wu wei lun of Ling shu ( On Five Tastes in Miraculous Pivot ) , the " bao " in " bao of bladder" refers to the external hou (external manifestation) of the bladder, that is the scrotum. In the Bei ji qian jin yao fang ( Essential Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold for Emergencies ) , the short sentence " pang guang zou bao " is an error in itself. In the sentence of "settled in the bao and zhi causing to dream of defecation and urination" in the Yin xie fa meng (Dreams due to Evils) of Miraculous Pivot , " bao " refers to uterus, and " zhi " to anus. In Bi lun pian ( Chapter on Impediment ) of Plain Questions , "the man suffered bao bimight feel internal pain when the lesser abdomen and bladder are pressed" , here, " bao " refers to the bladder. In the Wu yin wu wei ( Chapter on Five Sound and Five Tastes ) of Miraculous Pivot , the " bao " in the sentence "thoroughfare vessel and conception vessel all starts from bao " , again, " bao " here refers to the bladder, rather than to the uterus. From the above descriptions of "bladder" and " bao " in the Huangdi ' s Internal Classic , the "bladder" in ancient medical books refers to the substantial bladder, an anatomical organ, and " bao

  11. Hands-on physics displays for undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerlof, Carl W.

    2014-07-01

    Yao. With a core group of a few dozen people, Cynthia convinced the City of Ann Arbor to allow free use of an old firehouse. The Ann Arbor Hands-On Museum opened its doors to the public in 1982 and remains a thriving institution to this day.

  12. Feedbacks between Air-Quality, Meteorology, and the Forest Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar, Paul; Akingunola, Ayodeji; Stroud, Craig; Zhang, Junhua; Gong, Wanmin; Moran, Michael; Zheng, Qiong; Brook, Jeffrey; Sills, David

    2017-04-01

    The outcome of air quality forecasts depend in part on how the local environment surrounding the emissions regions influences chemical reaction rates and transport from those regions to the larger spatial scales. Forested areas alter atmospheric chemistry through reducing photolysis rates and vertical diffusivities within the forest canopy. The emitted pollutants, and their reaction products, are in turn capable of altering meteorology, through the well-known direct and indirect effects of particulate matter on radiative transfer. The combination of these factors was examined using version 2 of the Global Environmental Multiscale - Modelling Air-quality and CHemistry (GEM-MACH) on-line air pollution model. The model configuration used for this study included 12 aerosol size bins, eight aerosol species, homogeneous core Mie scattering, the Milbrandt-Yao two-moment cloud microphysics scheme with cloud condensation nuclei generated from model aerosols using the scheme of Abdul-Razzak and Ghan, and a new parameterization for forest canopy shading and turbulence. The model was nested to 2.5km resolution for a domain encompassing the lower Great Lakes, for simulations of a period in August of 2015 during the Pan American Games, held in Toronto, Canada. Four scenarios were carried out: (1) a "Base Case" scenario (the original model, in which coupling between chemistry and weather is not permitted; instead, the meteorological model's internal climatologies for aerosol optical and cloud condensation properties are used for direct and indirect effect calculations); (2) a "Feedback" scenario (the aerosol properties were derived from the internally simulated chemistry, and coupled to the meteorological model's radiative transfer and cloud formation modules); (3) a "Forest" scenario (canopy shading and turbulence were added to the Base Case); (4) a "Combined" scenario (including both direct and indirect effect coupling between meteorology and chemistry, as well as the forest

  13. Epigenome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Methylation in Children Related to Prenatal NO2 Air Pollution Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gruzieva, Olena; Xu, Cheng-Jian; Breton, Carrie V; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Antó, Josep M; Auffray, Charles; Ballereau, Stéphane; Bellander, Tom; Bousquet, Jean; Bustamante, Mariona; Charles, Marie-Aline; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; den Dekker, Herman T; Duijts, Liesbeth; Felix, Janine F; Gehring, Ulrike; Guxens, Mònica; Jaddoe, Vincent V W; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A; Merid, Simon Kebede; Kere, Juha; Kumar, Ashish; Lemonnier, Nathanael; Lepeule, Johanna; Nystad, Wenche; Page, Christian Magnus; Panasevich, Sviatlana; Postma, Dirkje; Slama, Rémy; Sunyer, Jordi; Söderhäll, Cilla; Yao, Jin; London, Stephanie J; Pershagen, Göran; Koppelman, Gerard H; Melén, Erik

    2017-01-01

    , Jankipersadsing SA, Merid SK, Kere J, Kumar A, Lemonnier N, Lepeule J, Nystad W, Page CM, Panasevich S, Postma D, Slama R, Sunyer J, Söderhäll C, Yao J, London SJ, Pershagen G, Koppelman GH, Melén E. 2017. Epigenome-wide meta-analysis of methylation in children related to prenatal NO2 air pollution exposure. Environ Health Perspect 125:104-110; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP36.

  14. Development of the scintillator-based probe for fast-ion losses in the HL-2A tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y. P., E-mail: zhangyp@swip.ac.cn; Liu, Yi; Yuan, G. L.

    A new scintillator-based lost fast-ion probe (SLIP) has been developed and operated in the HL-2A tokamak [L. W. Yan, X. R. Duan, X. T. Ding, J. Q. Dong, Q. W. Yang, Yi Liu, X. L. Zou, D. Q. Liu, W. M. Xuan, L. Y. Chen, J. Rao, X. M. Song, Y. Huang, W. C. Mao, Q. M. Wang, Q. Li, Z. Cao, B. Li, J. Y. Cao, G. J. Lei, J. H. Zhang, X. D. Li, W. Chen, J. Chen, C. H. Cui, Z. Y. Cui, Z. C. Deng, Y. B. Dong, B. B. Feng, Q. D. Gao, X. Y.more » Han, W. Y. Hong, M. Huang, X. Q. Ji, Z. H. Kang, D. F. Kong, T. Lan, G. S. Li, H. J. Li, Qing Li, W. Li, Y. G. Li, A. D. Liu, Z. T. Liu, C. W. Luo, X. H. Mao, Y. D. Pan, J. F. Peng, Z. B. Shi, S. D. Song, X. Y. Song, H. J. Sun, A. K. Wang, M. X. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, W. W. Xiao, Y. F. Xie, L. H. Yao, D. L. Yu, B. S. Yuan, K. J. Zhao, G. W. Zhong, J. Zhou, J. C. Yan, C. X. Yu, C. H. Pan, Y. Liu, and the HL-2A Team , Nucl. Fusion 51, 094016 (2011)] to measure the losses of neutral beam ions. The design of the probe is based on the concept of the α-particle detectors on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) using scintillator plates. The probe is capable of traveling across an equatorial plane port and sweeping the aperture angle rotationally with respect to the axis of the probe shaft by two step motors, in order to optimize the radial position and the collimator angle. The energy and the pitch angle of the lost fast ions can be simultaneously measured if the two-dimensional image of scintillation light intensity due to the impact of the lost fast ions is detected. Measurements of the fast-ion losses using the probe have been performed during HL-2A neutral beam injection discharges. The clear experimental evidence of enhanced losses of beam ions during disruptions has been obtained by means of the SLIP system. A detailed description of the probe system and the first experimental results are reported.« less

  15. Epigenome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Methylation in Children Related to Prenatal NO2 Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gruzieva, Olena; Xu, Cheng-Jian; Breton, Carrie V.; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Antó, Josep M.; Auffray, Charles; Ballereau, Stéphane; Bellander, Tom; Bousquet, Jean; Bustamante, Mariona; Charles, Marie-Aline; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; den Dekker, Herman T.; Duijts, Liesbeth; Felix, Janine F.; Gehring, Ulrike; Guxens, Mònica; Jaddoe, Vincent V.W.; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A.; Merid, Simon Kebede; Kere, Juha; Kumar, Ashish; Lemonnier, Nathanael; Lepeule, Johanna; Nystad, Wenche; Page, Christian Magnus; Panasevich, Sviatlana; Postma, Dirkje; Slama, Rémy; Sunyer, Jordi; Söderhäll, Cilla; Yao, Jin; London, Stephanie J.; Pershagen, Göran; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Melén, Erik

    2016-01-01

    HT, Duijts L, Felix JF, Gehring U, Guxens M, Jaddoe VV, Jankipersadsing SA, Merid SK, Kere J, Kumar A, Lemonnier N, Lepeule J, Nystad W, Page CM, Panasevich S, Postma D, Slama R, Sunyer J, Söderhäll C, Yao J, London SJ, Pershagen G, Koppelman GH, Melén E. 2017. Epigenome-wide meta-analysis of methylation in children related to prenatal NO2 air pollution exposure. Environ Health Perspect 125:104–110; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP36 PMID:27448387

  16. Uncertainty Analyses for Back Projection Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, H.; Wei, S.; Wu, W.

    2017-12-01

    So far few comprehensive error analyses for back projection methods have been conducted, although it is evident that high frequency seismic waves can be easily affected by earthquake depth, focal mechanisms and the Earth's 3D structures. Here we perform 1D and 3D synthetic tests for two back projection methods, MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) (Meng et al., 2011) and Compressive Sensing (CS) (Yao et al., 2011). We generate synthetics for both point sources and finite rupture sources with different depths, focal mechanisms, as well as 1D and 3D structures in the source region. The 3D synthetics are generated through a hybrid scheme of Direct Solution Method and Spectral Element Method. Then we back project the synthetic data using MUSIC and CS. The synthetic tests show that the depth phases can be back projected as artificial sources both in space and time. For instance, for a source depth of 10km, back projection gives a strong signal 8km away from the true source. Such bias increases with depth, e.g., the error of horizontal location could be larger than 20km for a depth of 40km. If the array is located around the nodal direction of direct P-waves the teleseismic P-waves are dominated by the depth phases. Therefore, back projections are actually imaging the reflection points of depth phases more than the rupture front. Besides depth phases, the strong and long lasted coda waves due to 3D effects near trench can lead to additional complexities tested here. The strength contrast of different frequency contents in the rupture models also produces some variations to the back projection results. In the synthetic tests, MUSIC and CS derive consistent results. While MUSIC is more computationally efficient, CS works better for sparse arrays. In summary, our analyses indicate that the impact of various factors mentioned above should be taken into consideration when interpreting back projection images, before we can use them to infer the earthquake rupture physics.

  17. Effects and treatment methods of acupuncture and herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During their reproductive years about 10% of women experience some kind of symptoms before menstruation (PMS) in a degree that affects their quality of life (QOL). Acupuncture and herbal medicine has been a recent favorable therapeutic approach. Thus we aimed to review the effects of acupuncture and herbal medicine in the past decade as a preceding research in order to further investigate the most effective Korean Medicine treatment for PMS/PMDD. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using electronic databases on studies published between 2002 and 2012. Our review included randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of acupuncture and herbal medicine for PMS/PMDD. Interventions include acupuncture or herbal medicine. Clinical information including statistical tests was extracted from the articles and summarized in tabular form or in the text. Study outcomes were presented as the rate of improvement (%) and/or end-of-treatment scores. Results The search yielded 19 studies. In screening the RCTs, 8 studies in acupuncture and 11 studies in herbal medicine that matched the criteria were identified. Different acupuncture techniques including traditional acupuncture, hand acupuncture and moxibustion, and traditional acupuncture technique with auricular points, have been selected for analysis. In herbal medicine, studies on Vitex Agnus castus, Hypericum perforatum, Xiao yao san, Elsholtzia splendens, Cirsium japonicum, and Gingko biloba L. were identified. Experimental groups with Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatment (all herbal medicine except Cirsium japonicum) had significantly improved results regarding PMS/PMDD. Conclusions Limited evidence supports the efficacy of alternative medicinal interventions such as acupuncture and herbal medicine in controlling premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatments for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder showed a 50% or

  18. Effects and treatment methods of acupuncture and herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jang, Su Hee; Kim, Dong Il; Choi, Min-Sun

    2014-01-10

    During their reproductive years about 10% of women experience some kind of symptoms before menstruation (PMS) in a degree that affects their quality of life (QOL). Acupuncture and herbal medicine has been a recent favorable therapeutic approach. Thus we aimed to review the effects of acupuncture and herbal medicine in the past decade as a preceding research in order to further investigate the most effective Korean Medicine treatment for PMS/PMDD. A systematic literature search was conducted using electronic databases on studies published between 2002 and 2012. Our review included randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of acupuncture and herbal medicine for PMS/PMDD. Interventions include acupuncture or herbal medicine. Clinical information including statistical tests was extracted from the articles and summarized in tabular form or in the text. Study outcomes were presented as the rate of improvement (%) and/or end-of-treatment scores. The search yielded 19 studies. In screening the RCTs, 8 studies in acupuncture and 11 studies in herbal medicine that matched the criteria were identified. Different acupuncture techniques including traditional acupuncture, hand acupuncture and moxibustion, and traditional acupuncture technique with auricular points, have been selected for analysis. In herbal medicine, studies on Vitex Agnus castus, Hypericum perforatum, Xiao yao san, Elsholtzia splendens, Cirsium japonicum, and Gingko biloba L. were identified. Experimental groups with Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatment (all herbal medicine except Cirsium japonicum) had significantly improved results regarding PMS/PMDD. Limited evidence supports the efficacy of alternative medicinal interventions such as acupuncture and herbal medicine in controlling premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatments for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder showed a 50% or better reduction of symptoms compared to

  19. Evaluation of a Wildfire Smoke Forecasting System as a Tool for Public Health Protection

    PubMed Central

    Brauer, Michael; Henderson, Sarah B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Exposure to wildfire smoke has been associated with cardiopulmonary health impacts. Climate change will increase the severity and frequency of smoke events, suggesting a need for enhanced public health protection. Forecasts of smoke exposure can facilitate public health responses. Objectives: We evaluated the utility of a wildfire smoke forecasting system (BlueSky) for public health protection by comparing its forecasts with observations and assessing their associations with population-level indicators of respiratory health in British Columbia, Canada. Methods: We compared BlueSky PM2.5 forecasts with PM2.5 measurements from air quality monitors, and BlueSky smoke plume forecasts with plume tracings from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Hazard Mapping System remote sensing data. Daily counts of the asthma drug salbutamol sulfate dispensations and asthma-related physician visits were aggregated for each geographic local health area (LHA). Daily continuous measures of PM2.5 and binary measures of smoke plume presence, either forecasted or observed, were assigned to each LHA. Poisson regression was used to estimate the association between exposure measures and health indicators. Results: We found modest agreement between forecasts and observations, which was improved during intense fire periods. A 30-μg/m3 increase in BlueSky PM2.5 was associated with an 8% increase in salbutamol dispensations and a 5% increase in asthma-related physician visits. BlueSky plume coverage was associated with 5% and 6% increases in the two health indicators, respectively. The effects were similar for observed smoke, and generally stronger in very smoky areas. Conclusions: BlueSky forecasts showed modest agreement with retrospective measures of smoke and were predictive of respiratory health indicators, suggesting they can provide useful information for public health protection. Citation: Yao J, Brauer M, Henderson SB. 2013. Evaluation of a wildfire smoke

  20. Emergence of Spatial Stream Segregation in the Ascending Auditory Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Justin D; Bremen, Peter; Middlebrooks, John C

    2015-12-09

    ascending auditory pathway with extracellular unit recordings in anesthetized rats. We found that neural SSS emerges within the ascending auditory pathway as a consequence of sharpening of spatial sensitivity and increasing forward suppression. Our results highlight brainstem mechanisms that culminate in SSS at the level of the auditory cortex. Copyright © 2015 Yao et al.

  1. Multi-scale Slip Inversion Based on Simultaneous Spatial and Temporal Domain Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Yao, H.; Yang, H. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Finite fault inversion is a widely used method to study earthquake rupture processes. Some previous studies have proposed different methods to implement finite fault inversion, including time-domain, frequency-domain, and wavelet-domain methods. Many previous studies have found that different frequency bands show different characteristics of the seismic rupture (e.g., Wang and Mori, 2011; Yao et al., 2011, 2013; Uchide et al., 2013; Yin et al., 2017). Generally, lower frequency waveforms correspond to larger-scale rupture characteristics while higher frequency data are representative of smaller-scale ones. Therefore, multi-scale analysis can help us understand the earthquake rupture process thoroughly from larger scale to smaller scale. By the use of wavelet transform, the wavelet-domain methods can analyze both the time and frequency information of signals in different scales. Traditional wavelet-domain methods (e.g., Ji et al., 2002) implement finite fault inversion with both lower and higher frequency signals together to recover larger-scale and smaller-scale characteristics of the rupture process simultaneously. Here we propose an alternative strategy with a two-step procedure, i.e., firstly constraining the larger-scale characteristics with lower frequency signals, and then resolving the smaller-scale ones with higher frequency signals. We have designed some synthetic tests to testify our strategy and compare it with the traditional one. We also have applied our strategy to study the 2015 Gorkha Nepal earthquake using tele-seismic waveforms. Both the traditional method and our two-step strategy only analyze the data in different temporal scales (i.e., different frequency bands), while the spatial distribution of model parameters also shows multi-scale characteristics. A more sophisticated strategy is to transfer the slip model into different spatial scales, and then analyze the smooth slip distribution (larger scales) with lower frequency data firstly and more

  2. Demographic and medication characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine users among dementia patients in Taiwan: a nationwide database study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shun-Ku; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Wu, Chien-Tung

    2015-02-23

    Few studies have reported on the utilization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) among dementia patients. The aim of the present study is to analyze factors associated with TCM users in the dementia populations and to investigate the medical conditions related to TCM visits. A total of 18,141 dementia patients were screened from the one million sample of the National Health Insurance Research Database. The dementia patients were then divided into TCM users and non-TCM users according to their medical records between 1997 and 2008. Demographic characteristics included gender, age, insured amount, and geographic location and medical conditions including comorbidity diseases, behavioral and psychological symptoms, and anti-dementia medication were also investigated. Their tendency of TCM usage was investigated using a multivariate logistic regression. In Taiwan, 43.3% dementia patients had sought TCM treatments. The inclination of TCM usage was inversely proportional to age; the younger and early-onset dementia (age less than 55 years) patients constituted the high usage group. Female, living in central Taiwan, and higher insured amount were also associated with higher tendency of TCM use. Multilevel Poisson regression analysis showed that the Adjust odds ratios (OR) of TCM use were 1.80 (95% CI=1.68-1.94), 2.52 (95% CI=2.30-2.76), and 3.41 (95% CI=3.01-3.86) for those with one, two, three or more behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), respectively compared with dementia sufferers without BPSD. In addition, polypharmacy led to higher utilization of TCM (one type: Adjust OR=1.41, 95% CI=1.28-1.56, two types: Adjust OR=1.97, 95% CI=1.63-2.00; three or more types: Adjust OR=2.95, 95% CI=2.27-2.78). More than 70% TCM visits were treated with Chinese herbal remedies, while others used acupuncture and manipulative therapies. Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan (9.7%) was the most frequently prescribed formula, followed by Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San and Ban

  3. Herbal prescription Chang'an II repairs intestinal mucosal barrier in rats with post-inflammation irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng-yun; Su, Min; Zheng, Yong-qiu; Wang, Xiao-ge; Kang, Nan; Chen, Ting; Zhu, En-lin; Bian, Zhao-xiang; Tang, Xu-dong

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The herbal prescription Chang'an II is derived from a classical TCM formula Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang for the treatment of liver-qi stagnation and spleen deficiency syndrome of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this study we investigated the effects of Chang'an II on the intestinal mucosal immune barrier in a rat post-inflammation IBS (PI-IBS) model. Methods: A rat model of PI-IBS was established using a multi-stimulation paradigm including early postnatal sibling deprivation, bondage and intrarectal administration of TNBS. Four weeks after TNBS administration, the rats were treated with Chang'an II (2.85, 5.71 and 11.42 g·kg−1·d−1, ig) for 14 d. Intestinal sensitivity was assessed based on the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores and fecal water content. Open field test and two-bottle sucrose intake test were used to evaluate the behavioral changes. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were counted and IL-1β and IL-4 levels were measured in intestinal mucosa. Transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate ultrastructural changes of the intestinal mucosal barrier. Results: PI-IBS model rats showed significantly increased AWR reactivity and fecal water content, and decreased locomotor activity and sucrose intake. Chang'an II treatment not only reduced AWR reactivity and fecal water content, but also suppressed the anxiety and depressive behaviors. Ultrastructural study revealed that the gut mucosal barrier function was severely damaged in PI-IBS model rats, whereas Chang'an II treatment relieved intestinal mucosal inflammation and repaired the gut mucosal barrier. Furthermore, PI-IBS model rats showed a significantly reduced CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio in lamina propria and submucosa, and increased IL-1β and reduced IL-4 expression in intestinal mucosa, whereas Chang'an II treatment reversed PI-IBS-induced changes in CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and expression of IL-1β and IL-4. Conclusion: Chang'an II treatment protects the intestinal mucosa against PI-IBS through anti

  4. Cracking and adhesion at small scales: atomistic and continuum studies of flaw tolerant nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, Markus J.; Yao, Haimin; Gao, Huajian; Ji, Baohua

    2006-07-01

    corroborate earlier theoretical modelling at the continuum scale (Gao and Yao 2004 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 101 7851-6). We discuss the relevance of our studies with respect to nature's design of bone nanostructures and nanoscale adhesion elements in geckos.

  5. Evaluation of symptom, clinical chemistry and metabolomics profiles during Rehmannia six formula (R6) treatment: an integrated and personalized data analysis approach.

    PubMed

    van Wietmarschen, Herman A; van der Greef, Jan; Schroën, Yan; Wang, Mei

    2013-12-12

    Rehmannia Six Formula (R6, Chinese name is Liu Wei Di Huang Wan) is one of the most important classic Chinese medicine formula used to treat metabolic disorders related to aging. It was first reported in the Chinese medicine book titled 'Xiao Er Yao Zheng Zhi Jue by Qian Yi' (Chinese Song dynasty: 1035-1117). In modern times it is therefore often used to treat diabetes, pre-diabetes, fatigue and people with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to measure changes in symptoms, clinical parameters and serum metabolite profiles during R6 treatment of human subjects with features of metabolic syndrome. Symptoms, clinical parameters and serum metabolites were measured before and after 4 and 8 weeks of R6 treatment. Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis was applied for the first time to conduct an integrated analysis of the three data sets. Correlation structures were compared before treatment and after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Additionally, a State Space Grid approach was used to study personalized changes in symptom profiles. The symptoms 'hectic fever' and 'spontaneous sweating' were found to be most relieved during R6 treatment. Most of the symptoms were less correlated with other variables after 8 weeks of R6 treatment. LDL-C, total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and waist size were found to decrease during R6 treatment. Additionally, 10 of the 15 measured phosphatidylcholines were found to decrease. Personalized symptom profiles as described by Chinese medical terms show that most Yin deficiencies are addressed first by R6 treatment. However, in subjects with reduced or less Yin deficiency but which do have a substantial Qi deficiency a reduction of Qi deficiency is subsequently observed. R6 treatment was shown to improve the lipid profile indicating a reduction of cardiovascular risk. Additionally, the changes observed in correlation structure indicate a different angle of looking at treatment effects. Less strong correlations between symptoms and

  6. Exceptionally low prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment in schoolchildren from Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Casson, Robert J; Kahawita, Shyalle; Kong, Aimee; Muecke, James; Sisaleumsak, Siphetthavong; Visonnavong, Vithoune

    2012-10-01

    Vientiane Province is an urbanizing region in Southeast Asia. We aimed to determine the prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment in primary school-aged children in this region. Prospective, cross-sectional survey. A total of 2899 schoolchildren from Vientiane Province, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). Ten districts from Vientiane were randomly selected and 2 primary schools were randomly selected from each district. All children aged 6 to 11 years at selected schools were eligible to participate. The examination included visual acuity (VA) testing, cycloplegic retinoscopy with subjective refinement if indicated, ocular motility testing, and anterior segment and fundus examinations in visually impaired children. Cycloplegic refraction and VA. There was an estimated total of 3330 children who were eligible to participate, and data were recorded from 2899 (87%) of these children. Complete refractive data were available on 2842 children (85% of eligible population). The mean spherical equivalent (SE) in the right eyes was +0.60 diopter (D) (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.72), and the mean SE in the left eyes was +0.59 (95% CI, 0.50-0.68). The prevalence of hyperopia was 2.8% (95% CI, 1.9-3.7; 88 subjects), and the prevalence of myopia was 0.8% (95% CI, 0.3-1.4; 24 subjects). The majority of children (98%; 95% CI, 97.0-99.0) had normal unaided binocular VA (at least 20/32 in their better eye). The overall prevalence of any visual impairment (presenting VA <20/32 in the better eye) was 1.9% (95% CI, 1.0-2.9; 55 subjects). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (P = 0.001) was a significant predictor, and female gender (P = 0.08) and Yao ethnicity (P = 0.09) were borderline significant predictors of the presence of any visual impairment. Visual impairment is not a public health concern in this primary school-aged population; however, visually impaired children in the community were not studied. From this baseline, future surveys

  7. Public Opinions Toward Diseases: Infodemiological Study on News Media Data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming; ElTayeby, Omar; Zolnoori, Maryam; Yao, Lixia

    2018-05-08

    Zika virus were linked to other infectious diseases during 1996/1997 and 2016, respectively. The multi-dimensional analysis of news media data allows the discovery of focus, sentiments and topics of news media in terms of diseases and medical conditions. These infodemiological discoveries could shed light on unmet medical needs and research priorities for future and provide guidance for the decision making in public policy. ©Ming Huang, Omar ElTayeby, Maryam Zolnoori, Lixia Yao. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 08.05.2018.

  8. Herbal prescription Chang'an II repairs intestinal mucosal barrier in rats with post-inflammation irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-yun; Su, Min; Zheng, Yong-qiu; Wang, Xiao-ge; Kang, Nan; Chen, Ting; Zhu, En-lin; Bian, Zhao-xiang; Tang, Xu-dong

    2015-06-01

    The herbal prescription Chang'an II is derived from a classical TCM formula Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang for the treatment of liver-qi stagnation and spleen deficiency syndrome of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this study we investigated the effects of Chang'an II on the intestinal mucosal immune barrier in a rat post-inflammation IBS (PI-IBS) model. A rat model of PI-IBS was established using a multi-stimulation paradigm including early postnatal sibling deprivation, bondage and intrarectal administration of TNBS. Four weeks after TNBS administration, the rats were treated with Chang'an II (2.85, 5.71 and 11.42 g · kg(-1) · d(-1), ig) for 14 d. Intestinal sensitivity was assessed based on the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores and fecal water content. Open field test and two-bottle sucrose intake test were used to evaluate the behavioral changes. CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells were counted and IL-1β and IL-4 levels were measured in intestinal mucosa. Transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate ultrastructural changes of the intestinal mucosal barrier. PI-IBS model rats showed significantly increased AWR reactivity and fecal water content, and decreased locomotor activity and sucrose intake. Chang'an II treatment not only reduced AWR reactivity and fecal water content, but also suppressed the anxiety and depressive behaviors. Ultrastructural study revealed that the gut mucosal barrier function was severely damaged in PI-IBS model rats, whereas Chang'an II treatment relieved intestinal mucosal inflammation and repaired the gut mucosal barrier. Furthermore, PI-IBS model rats showed a significantly reduced CD4(+)/CD8(+) cell ratio in lamina propria and submucosa, and increased IL-1β and reduced IL-4 expression in intestinal mucosa, whereas Chang'an II treatment reversed PI-IBS-induced changes in CD4(+)/CD8(+) cell ratio and expression of IL-1β and IL-4. Chang'an II treatment protects the intestinal mucosa against PI-IBS through anti

  9. Reconnection on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Because the Sun is so close, it makes an excellent laboratory to study processes we cant examinein distant stars. One openquestion is that of how solar magnetic fields rearrange themselves, producing the tremendous releases of energy we observe as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).What is Magnetic Reconnection?Magnetic reconnection occurs when a magnetic field rearranges itself to move to a lower-energy state. As field lines of opposite polarity reconnect, magnetic energy is suddenly converted into thermal and kinetic energy.This processis believed to be behind the sudden releases of energy from the solar surface in the form of solar flares and CMEs. But there are many different models for how magnetic reconnection could occur in the magnetic field at the Suns surface, and we arent sure which one of these reconnection types is responsible for the events we see.Recently, however, several studies have been published presenting some of the first observational support of specific reconnection models. Taken together, these observations suggest that there are likely several different types of reconnection happening on the solar surface. Heres a closer look at two of these recent publications:A pre-eruption SDO image of a flaring region (b) looks remarkably similar to a 3D cartoon for typical breakout configuration (a). Click for a closer look! [Adapted from Chen et al. 2016]Study 1:Magnetic BreakoutLed by Yao Chen (Shandong University in China), a team of scientists has presented observations made by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) of a flare and CME event that appears to have been caused by magnetic breakout.In the magnetic breakout model, a series of loops in the Suns lower corona are confined by a surrounding larger loop structure called an arcade higher in the corona. As the lower loops push upward, reconnection occurs in the upper corona, removing the overlying, confining arcade. Without that extra confinement, the lower coronal loops expand upward

  10. Extracting preseismic VLF-VHF electromagnetic signatures: A possible way in which the critical regime is reached as the earthquake approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftaxias, K.; Kapiris, P.; Karamanos, K.; Balasis, G.; Peratzakis, A.

    2005-12-01

    -regulating character and to a great degree the property of irreversibility, one of the important components of predictive capability. We address the role of the order of material heterogeneity on the transition from antipersistent to persistent behavior. We gratefully acknowledge financial support by the European Union Program EPEAEK/PYTHAGORAS 70/3/7357 P. Kapiris, K. Eftaxias and T. Chelidze, Electromagnetic Signature of Prefracture Criticality in Heterogeneous Media, Physical Review Letters, 92(6), 065702, 2004. P. Kapiris, J. Polygiannakis, X. Li, X. Yao and K. Eftaxias, Similarities in precursory features in seismic shocks and epileptic seizures, Europhysics Letters 69, 657-663, 2005. P. Kapiris, K. Nomicos, G. Antonopoulos, J. Polygiannakis, K. Karamanos, J. Kopanas, A. Zissos, A. Peratzakis and K. Eftaxias, Distinguished seismological and electromagnetic features of the impending global failure: did the 7/9/1999 M5.9 Athens earthquake come with a warning?, Earth Planets and Space, 57, 215-230, 2005 Y. Contoyiannis, P. Kapiris and K. Eftaxias, A Monitoring of a Pre-Seismic Phase from its Electromagnetic Precursors, Physical Review E, 71, 066123, 2005. K. Karamanos, A. Peratzakis, P. Kapiris, S. Nikolopoulos, J. Kopanas, and K. Eftaxias, Extracting preseismic electromagnetic signatures in terms of symbolic dynamics, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, (in press), 2005.

  11. The Large Scale Tectonic Framework of SE Asia and the Deformation of the lithosphere Beneath Tibet and SW China (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hilst, R. D.; Huang, H.; Yao, H.

    2010-12-01

    We summarize results of our seismological studies of the lithosphere beneath Tibet and SW China. Joint analysis of geological, geodetic, and seismological data suggests that the Tibetan plateau formed through interplay between continental collision between India and Asia in the west and ocean floor subduction along the western Pacific island arcs and marginal basins in the east. These dynamic systems combine to facilitate the eastward extrusion of lithospheric material away from central Tibet. Located near the transition of these systems, SE Tibet is a key area for understanding regional seismicity as well as eastward plateau expansion. For a detailed regional study MIT installed an array of 25 three-component, broad band seismometers in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, SW China. During the same 1-year period Lehigh University operated a 75 station array in east Tibet. Data from these and other nearby arrays have been used in a range of studies of crust and mantle heterogeneity and anisotropy. We focus our presentation on results of two lines of seismological study. First, travel time tomography (Li et al., PEPI 2006, EPSL 2008, JGR 2010) - with hand-picked phase arrivals from recordings at regional arrays, data from over 1,000 stations in China, and the global data base due to Engdahl et al. (BSSA, 1998) - has revealed that structures associated with subduction of the Indian plate beneath the Himalayas vary significantly from west Tibet (where the plate seems to underlie the entire plateau) to east Tibet (where Indian lithosphere seems to have plunged deeper into the mantle). Further east, fast structures appear in the upper mantle transition zone, presumably related to stagnation of slab fragments from westward subduction along Asia’s eastern sea board. Second, surface wave array tomography (Yao et al., GJI 2006, GJI 2008, JGR 2010; Huang et al., GRL 2010), based on ambient noise interferometry and traditional (inter station) dispersion analysis, is used to

  12. Natural Compounds for the Treatment of Psoriatic Arthritis: A Proposal Based on Multi-Targeted Osteoclastic Regulation and on a Preclinical Study.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shiqiang; Cheng, Jianwen; Zhao, Jinmin; Yao, Felix; Xu, Jiake

    2017-07-11

    (PANTHER) will be used to predict the pathways of the natural compound sources. Subsequently, an in vitro sample preparation including extraction, fractionation, isolation, purification, and bioassays with high-speed counter-current chromatography-high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HSCCC-HPLC-DAD) will be carried out for each identified natural source. In vitro investigations into the effect of NPs on osteoclast signaling pathways will be performed. The experimental methods include cell viability assays, osteoclastogenesis and resorption pit assays, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot, and luciferase reporter gene assays. Finally, an in vivo preclinical efficacy on a collagen-induced arthritis rat model will be carried out using a treatment group (n=10), a control group (n=10), and a non-arthritis group (n=10). Main outcome measure assessments during intervention include daily macroscopic scores and a digital calipers measurement. Post-treatment tissue measurements will be analyzed by serological testing, radiographic imaging, and histopathological assessment. Studies are currently underway to evaluate the in silico data and the in vitro effects of compounds on osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. The preclinical study is expected to start a year following completion of the in silico analysis. The in silico rapid approach is proposed as a more general method for adding value to the results of a systematic review of NPs. More importantly, the proposed study builds on a multi-targeted approach for the identification of natural compounds for future drug discovery. This innovative approach is likely to be more precise, efficient, and compatible to identify the novel natural compounds for effective treatment of PsA. ©Shiqiang Deng, Jianwen Cheng, Jinmin Zhao, Felix Yao, Jiake Xu. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 11.07.2017.

  13. Tobacco-Smoking, Alcohol-Drinking, and Betel-Quid-Chewing Behaviors: Development and Use of a Web-Based Survey System.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kuo-Yao; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Huang, Chu-Ching; Yeh, Wen-Ling; Chang, Kai-Ping; Lin, Chen-Chun; Chen, Ching-Yen; Lee, Hsiu-Lan

    2018-06-11

    family members or friends took 7.7 minutes (SD 2.8; range 3-18). Most of the participants completed the survey within 5-10 minutes. The Web-based survey was easy to self-administer. Health care providers can use this Web-based survey system to save time in assessing these risk behaviors in clinical settings. All smokers had mild-to-severe nicotine addiction, and 5.6%-12.3% of patients and their family members or friends were at risk of alcohol dependence. Considering that these three behaviors, particularly in combination, dramatically increase the risk of esophageal cancer, appropriate and convenient interventions are necessary for preserving public health in Taiwan. ©Kuo-Yao Hsu, Yun-Fang Tsai, Chu-Ching Huang, Wen-Ling Yeh, Kai-Ping Chang, Chen-Chun Lin, Ching-Yen Chen, Hsiu-Lan Lee. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 11.06.2018.

  14. Fermions on the low-buckled honey-comb structured lattice plane and classical Casimir-Polder force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Partha

    2016-05-01

    We start with the well-known expression for the vacuum polarization and suitably modify it for 2+1-dimensional spin-orbit coupled (SOC) fermions on the low-buckled honey-comb structured lattice plane described by the low-energy Liu-Yao-Feng-Ezawa (LYFE) model Hamiltonian involving the Dirac matrices in the chiral representation obeying the Clifford algebra. The silicene and germanene fit this description suitably. They have the Dirac cones similar to those of graphene and SOC is much stronger. The system could be normal or ferromagnetic in nature. The silicene turns into the latter type if there is exchange field arising due to the proximity coupling to a ferromagnet (FM) such as depositing Fe atoms to the silicene surface. For the silicene, we find that the many-body effects considerably change the bare Coulomb potential by way of the dependence of the Coulomb propagator on the real-spin, iso-spin and the potential due to an electric field applied perpendicular to the silicene plane. The computation aspect of the Casimir-Polder force (CPF) needs to be investigated in this paper. An important quantity in this process is the dielectric response function (DRF) of the material. The plasmon branch was obtained by finding the zeros of DRF in the long-wavelength limit. This leads to the plasmon frequencies. We find that the collective charge excitations at zero doping, i.e., intrinsic plasmons, in this system, are absent in the Dirac limit. The valley-spin-split intrinsic plasmons, however, come into being in the case of the massive Dirac particles with characteristic frequency close to 10 THz. Our scheme to calculate the Casimir-Polder interaction (CPI) of a micro-particle with a sheet involves replacing the dielectric constant of the sample in the CPI expression obtained on the basis of the Lifshitz theory by the static DRF obtained using the expressions for the polarization function we started with. Though the approach replaces a macroscopic constant by a microscopic

  15. The care, stimulation and nutrition of children from 0-2 in Malawi-Perspectives from caregivers; "Who's holding the baby?"

    PubMed

    Gladstone, Melissa; Phuka, John; Mirdamadi, Shirin; Chidzalo, Kate; Chitimbe, Fatima; Koenraads, Marianne; Maleta, Kenneth

    2018-01-01

    Universal access to quality early childhood development and care is a fundamental part of Sustainable Development Goal 4.2.1. Research from diverse settings, including that in low and middle income countries, now demonstrates the positive impact that interventions to promote play, stimulation, early communication and responsiveness can have, not just on child development, but on long term gains in education and economic growth. International agencies have recently produced the Nurturing Care Framework for Early Child Development in order to promote this and to encourage countries to move the focus from child survival to child thrival. Research on the best methods of integration of these programmes into present care practices, particularly in African settings is still very limited. We used qualitative methods to gain an understanding of care practices (play, developmental stimulation, early communication and responsive feeding) for children 0-2 years. We conducted 18 focus groups (FGDs), six PFGDs (Participatory Research focus groups), 18 in depth interviews (IDIs) and 20 observations with caregivers in rural and urban settings of Malawi. We used a topic guide, audio-recorded the FGDs and IDIS and transcribed them in Chichewa or Yao and then into English. We coded data using an inductive approach to thematic analysis. We placed the data within a framework with the emerging major and minor themes. We conducted quality assurance for translations and coding frameworks through cross comparison of data and used respondent validation to check our results. Malawian caregivers see children's play as a consequence of good health and wellbeing, less an interaction that a parent undertakes to promote wellbeing and learning. Non-verbal communication and responsiveness with infants is clearly present and caregivers have many one-on-one interactions with young infants. Furthermore, many caregivers have good knowledge of feeding recommendations but cannot always follow these due

  16. Continuous Advances in QCD 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peloso, Marco M.

    2008-12-01

    1. High-order calculations in QCD and in general gauge theories. NLO evolution of color dipoles / I. Balitsky. Recent perturbative results on heavy quark decays / J. H. Piclum, M. Dowling, A. Pak. Leading and non-leading singularities in gauge theory hard scattering / G. Sterman. The space-cone gauge, Lorentz invariance and on-shell recursion for one-loop Yang-Mills amplitudes / D. Vaman, Y.-P. Yao -- 2. Heavy flavor physics. Exotic cc¯ mesons / E. Braaten. Search for new physics in B[symbol]-mixing / A. J. Lenz. Implications of D[symbol]-D[symbol] mixing for new physics / A. A. Petrov. Precise determinations of the charm quark mass / M. Steinhauser -- 3. Quark-gluon dynamics at high density and/or high temperature. Crystalline condensate in the chiral Gross-Neveu model / G. V. Dunne, G. Basar. The strong coupling constant at low and high energies / J. H. Kühn. Quarkyonic matter and the phase diagram of QCD / L. McLerran. Statistical QCD with non-positive measure / J. C. Osborn, K. Splittorff, J. J. M. Verbaarschot. From equilibrium to transport properties of strongly correlated fermi liquids / T. Schäfer. Lessons from random matrix theory for QCD at finite density / K. Splittorff, J. J. M. Verbaarschot -- 4. Methods and models of holographic correspondence. Soft-wall dynamics in AdS/QCD / B. Batell. Holographic QCD / N. Evans, E. Threlfall. QCD glueball sum rules and vacuum topology / H. Forkel. The pion form factor in AdS/QCD / H. J. Kwee, R. F. Lebed. The fast life of holographic mesons / R. C. Myers, A. Sinha. Properties of Baryons from D-branes and instantons / S. Sugimoto. The master space of N = 1 quiver gauge theories: counting BPS operators / A. Zaffaroni. Topological field congurations. Skyrmions in theories with massless adjoint quarks / R. Auzzi. Domain walls, localization and confinement: what binds strings inside walls / S. Bolognesi. Static interactions of non-abelian vortices / M. Eto. Vortices which do not abelianize dynamically: semi

  17. Phototropism experiments in microgravity-the Seedling Growth project in the EMCS on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, John; Edelmann, Richard; Herranz, Raul; Medina, Francisco Javier; Millar, Katherine

    .P. Pyle, K.D.L. Millar, Y. Sun, J. Yao, R.E. Edelmann, J.Z. Kiss. 2013. Transcriptome analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown in space: implications for gravity-responsive genes. Planta 238: 519-533. Kiss J.Z., K.D.L. Millar, R.E. Edelmann. 2012. Phototropism of Arabidopsis thaliana in microgravity and fractional gravity on the International Space Station. Planta 236:635-645. Matía I., F. González-Camacho, R. Herranz, J.Z. Kiss, G. Gasset, J. van Loon, R. Marco, F.J. Medina. 2010. Plant cell proliferation and growth are altered by microgravity conditions in spaceflight. Journal of Plant Physiology 167: 184-193. Millar K.D.L., P. Kumar, M.J. Correll, J.L. Mullen, R.P. Hangarter, R.E. Edelmann, J.Z. Kiss 2010. A novel phototropic response to red light is revealed in microgravity. New Phytologist 186:648-656.

  18. Regional Analysis of the Hazard Level of Glacial Lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisolm, Rachel E.; Jhon Sanchez Leon, Walter; McKinney, Daene C.; Cochachin Rapre, Alejo

    2016-04-01

    of glacial lakes and their hazard potential. This phase of glacial lake hazard assessment aims to be geographically comprehensive in order to identify potentially dangerous lakes that may have previously been ignored. A second phase of analysis that includes site visits will be necessary for a thorough analysis at each lake to determine the potential hazard for downstream communities. The objective of the work presented here is to identify potentially dangerous lakes that warrant further study rather than provide a final hazard assessment for each lake of the glacial lake inventory in the Cordillera Blanca. References: Emmer, A. and Vilímek, V.: New method for assessing the potential hazardousness of glacial lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 11, 2391-2439, 2014. UGRH - Unidad de Glaciologia y Recursos Hidricos. Inventario de Lagunas Glaciares del Peru. Ministerio de Agricultura y Riego, Autoridad Nacional del Agua, Direcccion de Conservacion y Planeamiento de Recursos Hidricos, Huaraz, Peru, 2014. Wang, W., Yao, T., Gao, Y., Yang, X., and Kattel, D. B.: A first-order method to identify potentially dangerous glacial lakes in a region of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, Mountain Res. Develop., 31, 122-130, 2011.

  19. Mobile App-Based Interventions to Support Diabetes Self-Management: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials to Identify Functions Associated with Glycemic Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan; Yao, Xun; Vespasiani, Giacomo; Nicolucci, Antonio; Dong, Yajie; Kwong, Joey; Li, Ling; Sun, Xin; Tian, Haoming; Li, Sheyu

    2017-03-14

    .66%-1.96% vs without: MD 0.38%, 95% CI 0.09%-0.67%; intersubgroup P=.01), as was having a structured display (with structured display: MD 0.69%, 95% CI 0.32%-1.06% vs without: MD 0.16%, 95% CI 0.16%-0.48%; intersubgroup P=.03). However, having a clinical decision-making function was not associated with a larger HbA 1c reduction (with clinical decision making: MD 0.18%, 95% CI 0.21%-0.56% vs without: MD 0.61%, 95% CI 0.27%-0.95%; intersubgroup P=.10). The use of mobile app-based interventions yields a clinically significant HbA 1c reduction among adult outpatients with diabetes, especially among those with type 2 diabetes. Our study suggests that the clinical decision-making function needs further improvement and evaluation before being added to apps. ©Yuan Wu, Xun Yao, Giacomo Vespasiani, Antonio Nicolucci, Yajie Dong, Joey Kwong, Ling Li, Xin Sun, Haoming Tian, Sheyu Li. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 14.03.2017.

  20. PREFACE: Ultrafast and nonlinear optics in carbon nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Junichiro

    2013-02-01

    Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter staff for their help, patience and professionalism. Since this is a fast-moving field, there is absolutely no way of presenting definitive answers to all open questions, but we hope that this special section will provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding this topic. Furthermore, we hope that the exciting science and technology described in this section will attract and inspire other researchers and students working in related fields to enter into the study of ultrafast and nonlinear optical phenomena in carbon-based nanostructures. Ultrafast and nonlinear optics in carbon nanomaterials contents Ultrafast and nonlinear optics in carbon nanomaterialsJunichiro Kono The impact of pump fluence on carrier relaxation dynamics in optically excited grapheneT Winzer and E Malic Time-resolved spectroscopy on epitaxial graphene in the infrared spectral range: relaxation dynamics and saturation behaviorS Winnerl, F Göttfert, M Mittendorff, H Schneider, M Helm, T Winzer, E Malic, A Knorr, M Orlita, M Potemski, M Sprinkle, C Berger and W A de Heer Nonlinear optics of graphene in a strong magnetic fieldXianghan Yao and Alexey Belyanin Theory of coherent phonons in carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbonsG D Sanders, A R T Nugraha, K Sato, J-H Kim3, J Kono3, R Saito and C J Stanton Non-perturbative effects of laser illumination on the electrical properties of graphene nanoribbons Hernán L Calvo, Pablo M Perez-Piskunow, Horacio M Pastawski, Stephan Roche and Luis E F Foa Torres Transient absorption microscopy studies of energy relaxation in graphene oxide thin film Sean Murphy and Libai Huang Femtosecond dynamics of exciton localization: self-trapping from the small to the large polaron limit F X Morrissey, J G Mance, A D Van Pelt and S L Dexheimer

  1. A survey of the spider family Nesticidae (Arachnida, Araneae) in Asia and Madagascar, with the description of forty-three new species

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yucheng; Ballarin, Francesco; Li, Shuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Forty-three new species of Nesticidae are described from China, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam and Madagascar, and two new junior synonyms are suggested. A new genus, Speleoticus gen. n., is described with Nesticus navicellatus Liu & Li, 2013 as the type species, and four species are transferfed from Nesticus, i.e., Speleoticus globosus (Liu & Li, 2013), comb. n., Speleoticus libo (Chen & Zhu, 2005), comb. n., Speleoticus navicellatus (Liu & Li, 2015), comb. n. and Speleoticus uenoi (Yaginuma, 1972), comb. n. The new species described in this paper belong to four genera and are: Hamus cornutus sp. n. (♂♀), Hamus kangdingensis sp. n. (♂), Hamus luzon sp. n. (♀), Hamus mangunensis sp. n. (♂), Nescina kohi sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella baiseensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella baobab sp. n. (♂), Nesticella caeca sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella chongqing sp. n. (♀), Nesticella dazhuangensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella fuliangensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella gazuida sp. n. (♀), Nesticella gongshanensis sp. n. (♀), Nesticella griswoldi sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella hongheensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella huomachongensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella jingpo sp. n. (♀), Nesticella kaohsiungensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella lisu sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella liuzhaiensis sp. n. (♀), Nesticella nandanensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella phami sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella potala sp. n. (♀), Nesticella qiaoqiensis sp. n. (♀), Nesticella qiongensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella robusta sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella rongtangensis sp. n. (♂), Nesticella sanchaheensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella sulawesi sp. n. (♀), Nesticella sumatrana sp. n. (♂), Nesticella tibetana sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella vanlang sp. n. (♀), Nesticella wanzaiensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella xiongmao sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella xixia sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella yanbeiensis sp. n. (♂♀), Nesticella yao sp. n. (♀), Nesticella zhiyuani sp. n. (

  2. Côte d'Ivoire Dual Burden of Disease (CoDuBu): Study Protocol to Investigate the Co-occurrence of Chronic Infections and Noncommunicable Diseases in Rural Settings of Epidemiological Transition.

    PubMed

    Eze, Ikenna C; Esse, Clémence; Bassa, Fidèle K; Koné, Siaka; Acka, Felix; Yao, Loukou; Imboden, Medea; Jaeger, Fabienne N; Schindler, Christian; Dosso, Mireille; Laubhouet-Koffi, Véronique; Kouassi, Dinard; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2017-10-27

    comparative studies at different levels of epidemiological transition. An HDSS setting is ideal as a basis for longitudinal studies since their sustainable field work teams hold close contact with the local population. The collaboration between research institutions, public health organizations, health care providers, and staff from the Taabo HDSS in this study assures that the synthesized evidence will feed into health policy towards integrated infectious disease-NCD management. The preparation of health systems for the dual burden of disease is pressing in low- and middle-income countries. The established biobank will strengthen the local research capacity and offer opportunities for biomarker studies to deepen the understanding of the cross-talk between infectious diseases and NCDs. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials Number (ISRCTN): 87099939; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN87099939 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6uLEs1EsX). ©Ikenna C Eze, Clémence Esse, Fidèle K Bassa, Siaka Koné, Felix Acka, Loukou Yao, Medea Imboden, Fabienne N Jaeger, Christian Schindler, Mireille Dosso, Véronique Laubhouet-Koffi, Dinard Kouassi, Eliézer K N’Goran, Jürg Utzinger, Bassirou Bonfoh, Nicole Probst-Hensch. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 27.10.2017.

  3. Indicators of grazing impact in Inner Mongolian steppe ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, B.; Breuer, L.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Frede, H.-G.

    2009-04-01

    (vs) determined at in situ soil moisture and soil temperature conditions were in a range of 0.5-4.1 mg N kg-1 soil dry weight day)1. In 2005, gross N turnover rates were significantly higher at the ungrazed plots than at the moderately and overgrazed plots (Holst et al. 2007). In the hydrosphere group soil water content (w) was the highest at the ungrazed site and lowest at the heavy grazed site. Compared with moderately grazed treatments, soil water content was little higher in ungrazed treatments after long dryness but lower under wet conditions. Water drop penetration time (s) was higher in the ungrazed plots showing a slight to strong water repellency than in the grazed plots (Zhao et al. 2007). References Gao, Y., Giese, M., Lin, S., Sattelmacher, B., Zhao, Y. and Brueck, H. Belowground net primary productivity and biomass allocation of a grassland in Inner Mongolia is affected by grazing intensity. 2008. Plant and Soil DOI 10.1007/s11104-008-9579-3. Hoffmann, C., Funk, R., Li, Y. and Sommer, M. Effect of grazing on wind driven carbon and nitrogen ratios in the grasslands of Inner Mongolia. 2008. Catena 75: 182-190. Holst, J., Liu, C., Brueggemann, N., Butterbach-Bahl, K., Zheng, X., Wang, Y., Han, S., Yao, Z., Yue, J. and Han, X. Microbial N Turnover and N-Oxide (N2O/NO/NO2) Fluxes in Semi-arid Grassland of Inner Mongolia as influenced by grazing intensity. 2007. Ecosystems. Ketzer, B., Bernhofer, Ch. and Liu, H. Sensitivity of micrometeorological measurements to detect surface characteristics of grasslands in Inner Mongolia. 2008. Int. J. Biometeorol. Liu, C., Holst, J., Brueggemann, N., Butterbach-Bahl, K., Yao, Z., Yue, J., Han, S., Han, X., Kruemmelbein, J., Horn, R. and Zheng, X. Winter-grazing reduces methane uptake by soils of a typical semi-arid steppe in Inner Mongolia, China. 2007. Journal of Atmospheric Environment doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.03.017. Steffens, M., Koelbl, A., Totsche, K. U. and Koegel-Knabner, I. Grazing effects on soil chemical and

  4. Reconciling late Quaternary transgressions in the Bohai Sea, China to the global sea level changes, and new linkage of sedimentary records to three astronomical rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Liang

    2013-04-01

    Terminations. Science 326, 248-252. Ding, Z.L., Yu, Z.W., Rutter, N.W., Liu, T.S., 1994. Towards an orbital time scale for chinese loess deposits. Quaternary Science Reviews 13, 39-70. IOCAS (Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences), 1985. Bohai Sea Geology. Science Press, Beijing, China. Liu, T., 2009. Loess and Arid Environment. Anhui Science & Techonology Press, Hefei, China. Wang, Y., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., An, Z., Wu, J., Chen, C.-C., Dorale, J.A., 2001. A High-Resolution Absolute-Dated Late Pleistocene Monsoon Record from Hulu Cave, China. Science 294, 2345-2348. Wang, Y., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Kong, X., Shao, X., Chen, S., Wu, J., Jiang, X., Wang, X., An, Z., 2008. Millennial- and orbital-scale changes in the East Asian monsoon over the past 224,000 years. Nature 451, 1090-1093. Yi, L., Yu, H., Ortiz, J.D., Xu, X., Chen, S., Ge, J., Hao, Q., Yao, J., Shi, X., Peng, S., 2012a. Late Quaternary linkage of sedimentary records to three astronomical rhythms and the Asian monsoon, inferred from a coastal borehole in the south Bohai Sea, China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 329-310, 101-117. Yi, L., Lai, Z.P., Yu, H.J., Xu, X.Y., Su, Q., Yao, J., Wang, X.L., Shi, X., 2012b. Chronologies of sedimentary changes in the south Bohai Sea, China: Constraints from luminescence and radiocarbon dating. Boreas, doi: 10.1111/j.1502-3885.2012.00271.x. Yi, L., Yu, H.J., Ortiz, J.D., Xu, X.Y., Qiang, X.K., Huang, H.J., Shi, X., Deng, C.L., 2012c. A reconstruction of late Pleistocene relative sea level in the south Bohai Sea, China, based on sediment grain-size analysis. Sedimentary Geology 281, 88-100. Zhao, S., Yang, G., Cang, S., Zhang, H., Huang, Q., Xia, D., Wang, Y., Liu, F., Liu, C., 1978. Transgression's stratas and shoreline changes in the south coast of Bohai Bay, China. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica 9, 15-25.

  5. PREFACE: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qingming; Wang, Lihong V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2011-02-01

    and imaging from all over the world, including the United States, Russia, Australia, Canada, Israel, France, Ireland, Japan, Korea and China. The major topics covered at the conference and presented in this volume include: Photonic Therapeutics, Diagnostics and Instrumentations; Tissue Optics and Laser Tissue Interaction; Biomedical Spectroscopy and Microscopy; Multimodal and Hybrid Biomedical Imaging; and Optical Molecular Imaging. The conference voted for the three best student papers; awards were presented to the participant students whose posters were recognized as excellent and who took part in the oral presentation competition. The conference received 133 submitted abstracts, and this volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes a selection of 53 excellent submissions. The Conference Secretariat and Local Organizing Committee deserve recognition for planning a smoothly run and productive conference with comprehensive, instructive lectures and innovative work displayed in poster presentations. The faculties and students from Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics were dedicated to their work in reception and service during the conference. It is a pleasure to thank all of them for their efficient and hard work. We are also grateful for the financial support from 111 Project (B07038), and the assistance in organization and coordination from Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Finally, we would like to thank all the authors for their contributions to PIBM 2010 and all the members of the Committees for their cooperation and time spent reviewing submissions. Special thanks are due to the Advisory Committee members Shu Chien, Aaron Ciechanover, Steve Dahms, Da Hsuan Feng, Steven R Goodman, Brian Salzberg, Fujia Yang, Jianquan Yao, Baoyong Zheng and Olivia Ho Cheng for their participation on-site, and their significant contributions to the conference. Wuhan, PR ChinaDecember, 2010

  6. What influences climate and glacier change in southwestern China?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasunari, Teppei J.

    2011-12-01

    The subject of climate change in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and Himalayas has taken on increasing importance because of the availability of water resources from their mountain glaciers (Immerzeel et al 2010). Many of the glaciers over these regions have been retreating, while some are advancing and stable (Yao et al 2004, Scherler et al 2011). Other studies report that some glaciers in the Himalayas show acceleration of their shrinkage (e.g., Fujita and Nuimura 2011). However, the causes of glacier melting are still difficult to grasp because of the complexity of climatic change and its influence on glacier issues. Despite this, it is vital that we pursue further study to enable future predictions of glacier changes. The paper entitled 'Climate and glacier change in southwestern China during the past several decades' by Li et al (2011) provided carefully analyzed, quality controlled, long-term data on atmospheric temperature and precipitation during the period 1961-2008. The data were obtained from 111 Chinese stations. The researchers performed systematic analyses of temperature and precipitation over the whole southwestern Chinese domain. They discussed those changes in terms of other meteorological components such as atmospheric circulation patterns, radiation and altitude difference, and then showed how these factors could contribute to climate and glacier changes in the region. Air temperature and precipitation are strongly associated with glacier mass balance because of heat balance and the addition of mass when it snows. Temperature warming trends over many places in southwestern China were unequivocally dominant in all seasons and at higher altitudes. This indicates that the heat contribution to the glaciers has been increasing. On the other hand, precipitation has a wider variability in time and space. It is more difficult to clearly understand the effect of precipitation on the climate and glacier melting characteristics in the whole of southwestern China

  7. David Adler Lectureship Award in the Field of Materials Physics Talk: Surfaces of Quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    Quasiperiodic order is recognized (in a utilitarian, rather than a mathematical sense) by the absence of periodicity, concurrent with a classically-forbidden rotational symmetry. It is quite beautiful, having captured the attention of scientists and artists alike. Following the discovery of quasiperiodic order in a real system,footnotetextD. Shechtman, I. Blech, D. Gratias, and J.W. Cahn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1951 (1984). many metallic alloys and intermetallics were found to exhibit this type of order on the atomic scale. More recently ``soft'' quasicrystals were discovered,footnotetextL. Bindi, P.J. Steinhardt, N. Yao, and P.J. Lu, Science 324, 1306 (2009). and nanocrystalline arrays were found to spontaneously adopt quasiperiodic order.footnotetextD.V. Talapin, E.V. Shevchenko, M.I. Bodnarchuk, X. Ye, J. Chen, and C.B. Murray, Nature 461 , 964 (2009). From a scientific perspective, quasicrystals are alluring because they allow us to test the relationship between atomic structure and physical properties. This talk deals with the ways in which our understanding of solid surfaces has been both enriched and challenged by these complex materials.footnotetextP. Thiel, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (2008).^,footnotetextV. Fourn'ee, J. Ledieu, and P. Thiel, J. Phys: Condens. Matter. 20, 3310301 (2008). properties of the metallic quasicrystals originally generated interest because they were unusual.footnotetextJ.M. Dubois, Useful Quasicrystals(World Scientific, Singapore, 2005). For instance, among Al-rich alloys, the Al-based quasicrystalline phases exhibit puzzling resistance to surface oxidation. Also, Al-rich quasicrystals have surprisingly good and promising catalytic properties (e.g. for steam reforming of methanol).footnotetextA.P. Tsai and M. Yoshimura, Appl. Cat. A: General 214 , 237 (2001). Perhaps most famously, they exhibit low friction.^7 Comparisons with crystalline materials have established that these features are deeply related to the quasiperiodic atomic

  8. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloaking and Transformation Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Smith, David R.

    2008-11-01

    coordinate transformations. If the coordinates they conjure up run backwards one gets negative refraction, if they exclude some region of space one makes anything inside invisible [4]. In physics, general relativity has honed the theoretical tools for understanding curved space and curved-coordinate transformations. In transformation optics, general relativity has become a theoretical tool for solving practical engineering problems [4]. What an unorthodox connection! This focus issue represents a snapshot of this rapidly developing research area. It is not restricted to optics or electromagnetism, though. Metamaterials for acoustics also exist and can be applied in ways similar to optical metamaterials. So transformation optics not only attracts an unusual mix of scientists, but also spans a range of applications in optics and beyond. Transformation optics has the potential to transform optics, for example by visualizing invisibility and making materials beyond materials—metamaterials. But before we transgress the boundaries to the hermeneutics of transformation optics [5], let the papers speak for themselves. References [1] Yao J, Liu Z, Liu Y, Wang Y, Sun C, Bartal G, Stacy A M and Zhang X 2008 Science 321 930 [2] Valentine J, Zhang S, Zentgraf T, Ulin-Avila E, Genov D A, Bartal G and Zhang X 2008 Nature 455 376 [3] Schurig D, Mock J J, Justice B J, Cummer S A, Pendry J B, Starr A F and Smith D R 2006 Science 314 977 [4] Leonhardt U and Philbin T G 2006 New J. Phys. 8 247 [5] Sokal A D 1996 Social Text 14(46/47) 217 Focus on Cloaking and Transformation Optics Contents Transformation optics for the full dielectric electromagnetic cloak and metal-dielectric planar hyperlens D P Gaillot, C Croënne, F Zhang and D Lippens Transmutation of singularities in optical instruments Tomáš Tyc and Ulf Leonhardt Electromagnetic cloaking with canonical spiral inclusions K Guven, E Saenz, R Gonzalo, E Ozbay and S Tretyakov Theory and potentials of multi-layered plasmonic covers for

  9. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D. Sharkey

    mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production. Lu Y., Gehan J.P. & Sharkey T.D. (2005) Daylength and circadian effects on starch degradation and maltose metabolism. Plant Physiology, 138, 2280-2291 Lu Y. & Sharkey T.D. (2004) The role of amylomaltase in maltose metabolism in the cytosol of photosynthetic cells. Planta, 218, 466-473 Lu Y. & Sharkey T.D. (2006) The importance of maltose in transitory starch breakdown. Plant, Cell and Environment, 29, 353-366 Lu Y., Steichen J.M., Weise S.E. & Sharkey T.D. (2006a) Cellular and organ level localization of maltose in maltose-excess Arabidopsis mutants. Planta, 224, 935-943 Lu Y., Steichen J.M., Yao J. & Sharkey T.D. (2006b) The role of cytosolic α-glucan phosphorylase in maltose metabolism and the comparison of amylomaltase in Arabidopsis and E. coli. Plant Physiology, 142 878-889 Steichen J.M., Petty R.V. & Sharkey T.D. (2008) Domain characterization of a 4-α-glucanotransferase essential for maltose metabolism in photosynthetic leaves. J. Biol. Chem., 283, 20797-20804 Weise S.E., Kim K.S., Stewart R.P. & Sharkey T.D. (2005a) Beta-maltose is the metabolically active anomer of maltose during transitory starch degradation. Plant Physiology, 137, 756-761 Weise S.E., Schrader S.M., Kleinbeck K.R. & Sharkey T.D. (2006) Carbon balance and circadian regulation of hydrolytic and phosphorolytic breakdown of transitory starch. Plant Physiology, 141, 879-886 Weise S.E., Sharkey T.D., van der Est A. & Bruce D. (2005b) Energetics of carbon export from the chloroplast at night. In: Photosynthesis: Fundamental aspects to global perspectives, the proceedings of the 13th international congress on photosynthesis, pp. 816-818. International Society of Photosynthesis/Alliance Communications Group, Lawrence. Weise S.E., Weber A. & Sharkey T.D. (2004) Maltose is the major form of carbon exported from the chloroplast at night. Planta

  10. Probing the Spatial Distribution of the Interstellar Dust Medium by High Angular Resolution X-ray Halos of Point Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jingen

    X-rays are absorbed and scattered by dust grains when they travel through the interstellar medium. The scattering within small angles results in an X-ray ``halo''. The halo properties are significantly affected by the energy of radiation, the optical depth of the scattering, the grain size distributions and compositions, and the spatial distribution of dust along the line of sight (LOS). Therefore analyzing the X-ray halo properties is an important tool to study the size distribution and spatial distribution of interstellar grains, which plays a central role in the astrophysical study of the interstellar medium, such as the thermodynamics and chemistry of the gas and the dynamics of star formation. With excellent angular resolution, good energy resolution and broad energy band, the Chandra ACIS is so far the best instrument for studying the X-ray halos. But the direct images of bright sources obtained with ACIS usually suffer from severe pileup which prevents us from obtaining the halos in small angles. We first improve the method proposed by Yao et al to resolve the X-ray dust scattering halos of point sources from the zeroth order data in CC-mode or the first order data in TE mode with Chandra HETG/ACIS. Using this method we re-analyze the Cygnus X-1 data observed with Chandra. Then we studied the X-ray dust scattering halos around 17 bright X-ray point sources using Chandra data. All sources were observed with the HETG/ACIS in CC-mode or TE-mode. Using the interstellar grain models of WD01 model and MRN model to fit the halo profiles, we get the hydrogen column densities and the spatial distributions of the scattering dust grains along the line of sights (LOS) to these sources. We find there is a good linear correlation not only between the scattering hydrogen column density from WD01 model and the one from MRN model, but also between N_{H} derived from spectral fits and the one derived from the grain models WD01 and MRN (except for GX 301-2 and Vela X-1): N

  11. “My children and I will no longer suffer from malaria”: a qualitative study of the acceptance and rejection of indoor residual spraying to prevent malaria in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    emphasis on providing thorough public education, ensuring the sprayers themselves are more knowledgeable about IRS, and asking that community leaders encourage participation by their constituents rather than threatening punishment for noncompliance. While there are several rumours and misconceptions concerning IRS in Tanzania, acceptance is very high and continues to increase as positive results become apparent. Swahili Abstract Usuli Malengo mahususi ya utafiti huu ni kutambua tabia na imani potofu zinazopelekea kukubali au kutakaa upuliaziaji wa dawa ya kuua mbu majumbani (IRS) katika Tanzania kwa watu wote kwa ujumla na kwa makundi maalumu ya watu (kama wakulima, wavuvi, viongozi wa jamii na wanawake). Njia Utafiti huu ni mfululizo wa tafiti stahilifu zenye sehemu ya muundo, tafiti za kina na majadilianao ya vikundi vya walengwa yaliyofanyika Tanzania bara na Zanzibar kuanzia mwezi Oktoba, 2010 hadi mwezi Machi, 2011. Yalikuwepo makundi matatu ya walengwa: wanaokubali IRS (wale ambao nyumba zao zilikwisha kupulizwa dawa ya kuua mbu) wasiokubali (hii ni jamii iliyokwisha kupulizwa dawa na wale watu waliokataa dawa isipulizwe kwenye nyumba zao) na wale ambao nyumba zao zilikuwa zinakaribia kupulizwa dawa ikiwa ni kama sehemu ya kusambaza IRS. Usaili ulifanyika pia kwa wakulima, wavuvi, wanawake na viongozi wa jamii vile vile na kwa wanachama wa asasi zisizo za kiserikali waliokuwa wakiwajibika kwa IRS. Matokeo Matokeo yalionyesha kuwa waliokataa walikuwa ni asilimia ndogo sana ya watu wote. Walikuwa ni watu waelewa kama vile walimu, madereva, wafanyakazi katika miradi na watumishi wengine wa serikali ambao wanafuata amri kutoka kwa serikali yao au kwa wapuliza dawa lakini walikuwa na wasiwasi kuhusu mchakato huo mpaka waone matokeo yake. Waliokataa walikuwa katika maainisho matatu: 1) waliokataa kidogo mpaka wapewe maelezo; 2) waliokubali dawa ipulizwe kwenye vyumba vichache tu; 3) waliokataa katu katu. Mara kwa mara wengi wa wasailiwa waliokataa, walitoa sababu zao za

  12. Wave propagation, scattering and emission in complex media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Ya-Qiu

    . Gitterman. Transformation of the spectrum of scattered radiation in randomly inhomogeneous absorptive plasma layer / G. V. Jandieri, G. D. Aburjunia, V. G. Jandieri. Numerical analysis of microwave heating on saponification reaction / K. Huang, K. Jia -- IV. Scattering from complex targets. Analysis of electromagnetic scattering from layered crossed-gratings of circular cylinders using lattice sums technique / K. Yasumoto, H. T. Jia. Scattering by a body in a random medium / M. Tateiba, Z. Q. Meng, H. El-Ocla. A rigorous analysis of electromagnetic scattering from multilayered crossed-arrays of metallic cylinders / H. T. Jia, K. Yasumoto. Vector models of non-stable and spatially-distributed radar objects / A. Surkov ... [et al.]. Simulation of algorithm of orthogonal signals forming and processing used to estimate back scattering matrix of non-stable radar objects / D. Nosov ... [et al.]. New features of scattering from a dielectric film on a reflecting metal substrate / Z. H. Gu, I. M. Fuks, M. Ciftan. A higher order FDTD method for EM wave propagation in collision plasmas / S. B. Liu, J. J. Mo, N. C. Yuan -- V. Radiative transfer and remote sensing. Simulating microwave emission from Antarctica ice sheet with a coherent model / M. Tedesco, P. Pampaloni. Scattering and emission from inhomogeneous vegetation canopy and alien target by using three-dimensional Vector Radiative Transfer (3D-VRT) equation / Y. Q. Jin, Z. C. Liang. Analysis of land types using high-resolution satellite images and fractal approach / H. G. Zhang ... [et al.]. Data fusion of RADARSAT SAR and DMSP SSM/I for monitoring sea ice of China's Bohai Sea / Y. Q. Jin. Retrieving atmospheric temperature profiles from simulated microwave radiometer data with artificial neural networks / Z. G. Yao, H. B. Chen -- VI. Wave propagation and wireless communication. Wireless propagation in urban environments: modeling and experimental verification / D. Erricolo ... [et al.]. An overview of physics-based wave

  13. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    integrated memristors Nanotechnology 24 384011 [7] Timm C and Di Ventra M 2013 Molecular neuron based on the Franck-Condon blockade Nanotechnology 24 384001 [8] Sillin H O, Aguilera R, Shieh H-H, Avizienis A V, Aono M, Stieg A Z and Gimzewski J K 2013 A theoretical and experimental study of neuromorphic atomic switch networks for reservoir computing Nanotechnology 24 384004 [9] Linn E, Menzel S, Ferch S and Waser R 2013 Compact modeling of CRS devices based on ECM cells for memory, logic and neuromorphic applications Nanotechnology 24 384008 [10] Konkoli Z and Wendin G 2013 A generic simulator for large networks of memristive elements Nanotechnology 24 384007 [11] Gacem K, Retrouvey J-M, Chabi D, Filoramo A, Zhao W, Klein J-O and Derycke V 2013 Neuromorphic function learning with carbon nanotube-based synapses Nanotechnology 24 384013 [12] Lim H, Kim I, Kim J-S, Hwang C S and Jeong D S 2013 Short-term memory of TiO2-based electrochemical capacitors: empirical analysis with adoption of a sliding threshold Nanotechnology 24 384005 [13] Park S, Noh J, Choo M-L, Sheri A M, Chang M, Kim Y-B, Kim C J, Jeon M, Lee B-G, Lee B H and Hwang H 2013 Nanoscale RRAM-based synaptic electronics: toward a neuromorphic computing device Nanotechnology 24 384009 [14] Yang R, Terabe K, Yao Y, Tsuruoka T, Hasegawa T, Gimzewski J K and Aono M 2013 Synaptic plasticity and memory functions achieved in WO3-x-based nanoionics device by using principle of atomic switch operation Nanotechnology 24 384002 [15] Ambrogio S, Balatti S, Nardi F, Facchinetti S and Ielmini D 2013 Spike-timing dependent plasticity in a transistor-selected resistive switching memory Nanotechnology 24 384012 [16] Indiveria G, Linares-Barranco B, Legenstein R, Deligeorgis G and Prodromakise T 2013 Integration of nanoscale memristor synapses in neuromorphic computing architectures Nanotechnology 24 384010 [17] Hino T, Hasegawa T, Tanaka H, Tsuruoka T, Terabe K, Ogawa T and Aono M 2013 Volatile and nonvolatile selective switching of

  14. PREFACE: International Conference on Magnetism (ICM 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goll, Gernot; Löhneysen, Hilbert v.; Loidl, Alois; Pruschke, Thomas; Richter, Manuel; Schultz, Ludwig; Sürgers, Christoph; Wosnitza, Jochen

    2010-11-01

    helped to run the conference. We are grateful for financial support to Universität Karlsruhe (TH) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (both institutions merged to form the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) as of 1 October 2009), International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), the City of Karlsruhe, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German National Science Foundation) and the European Commission through COST MPNS Action P16. Hilbert v Löhneysen Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Email address: hilbert.loehneysen@kit.edu Logo Conference Organization Chairperson Hilbert v Löhneysen, Karlsruhe Members of IUPAP Commission 9 Magnetism C Chang, TaipeiD Kaczorowski, Wroclaw khrouhou, SfaxP H Kes, Leiden M A Continentino, NiteróiS Maekawa, Sendai D E Dahlberg, MinnesotaI Mertig, Halle D Fiorani, RomaD McMorow, London M R Freeman, EdmontonS Rezende, Recife D Givord, GrenobleS Sanvito, Dublin A Granovsky, MoscowJ Xiaofeng, Shanghai International Advisory Board G Aeppli, UKM Gingras, Canada I Affleck, CanadaJ C Gomez Sal, Spain J Akimitsu, JapanP A Grünberg, Germany D Awschalom, USAB Heinrich, Canada S D Bader, USAT J Hicks, Australia E Baggio-Saitovitch, BrazilM R Ibarra, Spain M N Baibich, BrazilY H Jeong, Korea G Baskaran, IndiaB Keimer, Germany E Bauer, AustriaG Kotliar, USA R J Birgeneau, USAR B Laughlin, USA P Bruno, GermanyP A Lee, USA J Chapman, UKG G Lonzarich, UK Y Endoh, JapanA MacDonald, USA A Fert, FranceM B Maple, USA J Fink, GermanyA J Millis, USA Z Fisk, USAL W Molenkamp, Germany J Flouquet, FranceJ A Mydosh, Germany A J Freeman, USAY Maeno, Japan H Fukuyama, JapanK Miyake, Japan P Fulde, GermanyP Nordblad, Sweden H Ohno, JapanF Steglich, Germany H R Ott, SwitzerlandT Takabatake, Japan Y Onuki, JapanJ L Tholence, France S S P Parkin, USAY Tokura, Japan A P Ramirez, USAK Ueda, Japan T M Rice, SwitzerlandD Vollhardt, Germany Z X Shen, USAE F Wassermann, Germany S -C Shin, KoreaM K Wu, Taiwan T Shinjo, JapanD Y Xing, China J C Slonczewski, USAY D Yao

  15. EDITORIAL: Ongoing climatic change in Northern Eurasia: justification for expedient research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2009-12-01

    Russia A Olchev, E Novenko, O Desherevskaya, K Krasnorutskaya and J Kurbatova The effects of climate, permafrost and fire on vegetation change in Siberia in a changing climate N M Tchebakova, E Parfenova and A J Soja An image-based inventory of the spatial structure of West Siberian wetlands A Peregon, S Maksyutov and Y Yamagata Modeling of the carbon dioxide fluxes in European Russia peat bogs J Kurbatova, C Li, F Tatarinov, A Varlagin, N Shalukhina and A Olchev Feedbacks of windthrow for Norway spruce and Scots pine stands under changing climate O Panferov, C Doering, E Rauch, A Sogachev and B Ahrends Reconstruction and prediction of climate and vegetation change in the Holocene in the Altai-Sayan mountains, Central Asia N M Tchebakova, T A Blyakharchuk and E I Parfenova Simulating the effects of soil organic nitrogen and grazing on arctic tundra vegetation dynamics on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia Qin Yu, Howard Epstein and Donald Walker Possible decline of the carbon sink in the Mongolian Plateau during the 21st century Y Lu, Q Zhuang, G Zhou, A Sirin, J Melillo and D Kicklighter The frequency of forest fires in Scots pine stands of Tuva, Russia G A Ivanova, V A Ivanov, E A Kukavskaya and A J Soja Lateral extension in Sphagnum mires along the southern margin of the boreal region, Western Siberia A Peregon, M Uchida and Y Yamagata Evaluating the sensitivity of Eurasian forest biomass to climate change using a dynamic vegetation model J K Shuman and H H Shugart Studies of socioeconomic processes in Northern Eurasia Comparing patterns of ecosystem service consumption and perceptions of range management between ethnic herders in Inner Mongolia and Mongolia L Zhen, B Ochirbat, Y Lv, Y J Wei, X L Liu, J Q Chen, Z J Yao and F Li Land cover/land use change in semi-arid Inner Mongolia: 1992-2004 Ranjeet John, Jiquan Chen, Nan Lu and Burkhard Wilske Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting

  16. PREFACE: Symmetries and integrability of difference equations Symmetries and integrability of difference equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Decio; Olver, Peter; Thomova, Zora; Winternitz, Pavel

    2009-11-01

    (articles by Doliwa and Nieszporski; Konopelchenko; Tsarev and Wolf). •Singularity confinement, algebraic entropy and Nevanlinna theory (articles by Grammaticos, Halburd, Ramani and Viallet; Grammaticos, Ramani and Tamizhmani). •Discrete integrable systems and isomonodromy transformations (article by Dzhamay). •Special functions as solutions of difference and q-difference equations (articles by Atakishiyeva, Atakishiyev and Koornwinder; Bertola, Gekhtman and Szmigielski; Vinet and Zhedanov). •Other topics (articles by Atkinson; Grünbaum Nagai, Kametaka and Watanabe; Nagiyev, Guliyeva and Jafarov; Sahadevan and Uma Maheswari; Svinin; Tian and Hu; Yao, Liu and Zeng). This issue is the result of the collaboration of many individuals. We would like to thank the authors who contributed and everyone else involved in the preparation of this special issue.

  17. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy; Son, Leonid; Sabirzjanov, Alexandre

    2007-06-01

    and new materials; I) Quasicrystals; J) Industrial applications. The most representative sessions were E (53 reports), C (47), D (43) and F (40). All posters were exhibited during the first (sections A-E) or the last (sections F-J) three days of the conference. All the sessions took place in the Government House of Sverdlovsk Region where, in addition, everyone was able to enjoy dishes of Russian cuisine during lunches and coffee breaks. As usual, each oral session started from an invited talk. Therefore, 10 invited lecturers presented their reports. In accordance with contemporary tendency the first invited talk of M Yao (Kyoto University) was devoted to interrelations between liquid metal studies and nano-science. He pointed out that physics of disordered matter, especially liquid metals, has provided nano-science with basic ideas and theoretical tools such as ab initio MD simulation. K Tamura (Kyoto University) reported results of experimental investigation of expanded liquid rubidium showing that observed structural features originate from the instability of the low-density electron gas. Modern theory has predicted that interacting electron gas suffers a negative compressibility and the static dielectric-function (DF) becomes negative when electron density is sufficiently reduced. The negative DF is of special interest in connection with the possibility of a new type of superconductor. In the invited lecture of M I Mendelev and J R Morris (USA) MD simulations were performed to study phase transformations in supercooled liquid Al. The authors found that widely used EAM potential for Al provides vitrification for the cooling rates achievable in classical MD simulation, while other Al potentials provide crystallization under the same conditions. The reason for this difference, as well as features of the vitrification in the EA Al, were discussed. P Häussler (Chemnitz University) spoke about fundamental structure-forming processes in liquid and amorphous materials

  18. EDITORIAL: Focus on Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors FOCUS ON DILUTE MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Scott A.; Gallagher, Bryan

    2008-05-01

    Chisholm, J D Budai and D P Norton Role of charge carriers for ferromagnetism in cobalt-doped rutile TiO2 T Fukumura, H Toyosaki, K Ueno, M Nakano and M Kawasaki Ab-initio study of exchange constants and electronic structure in diluted magnetic group-IV semiconductors Silvia Picozzi and Marjana Ležaić Phase coherent transport in (Ga,Mn)As D Neumaier, K Wagner, U Wurstbauer, M Reinwald, W Wegscheider and D Weiss Hydrogen interstitials-mediated ferromagnetism in MnxGe1-x magnetic semiconductors Xin-Xin Yao, Shi-Shen Yan, Shu-Jun Hu, Xue-Ling Lin, Chong Han, Yan-Xue Chen, Guo-Lei Liu and Liang-Mo Mei Electronic structures of magnetic semiconductors FeCr2Se4 and Fe0.5Cu0.5Cr2Se4 B I Min, Seung Su Baik, H C Choi, S K Kwon and J-S Kang Investigation of pure and Co2+-doped ZnO quantum dot electronic structures using the density functional theory: choosing the right functional Ekaterina Badaeva, Yong Feng, Daniel R Gamelin and Xiaosong Li Magnetic properties of sol-gel-derived doped ZnO as a potential ferromagnetic semiconductor: a synchrotron-based study N R S Farley, K W Edmonds, A A Freeman, G van der Laan, C R Staddon, D H Gregory and B L Gallagher Local electronic structure of Cr in the II-VI diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Zn1-xCrxTe M Kobayashi, Y Ishida, J I Hwang, G S Song, A Fujimori, C S Yang, L Lee, H-J Lin, D J Huang, C T Chen, Y Takeda, K Terai, S-I Fujimori, T Okane, Y Saitoh, H Yamagami, K Kobayashi, A Tanaka, H Saito and K Ando Lack of ferromagnetism in n-type cobalt-doped ZnO epitaxial thin films T C Kaspar, T Droubay, S M Heald, P Nachimuthu, C M Wang, V Shutthanandan, C A Johnson, D R Gamelin and S A Chambers XMCD studies on Co and Li doped ZnO magnetic semiconductors Thomas Tietze, Milan Gacic, Gisela Schütz, Gerhard Jakob, Sebastian Brück and Eberhard Goering Ferromagnetic semiconductors and the role of disorder B W Wessels An extensive comparison of anisotropies in MBE grown (Ga,Mn)As material C Gould, S Mark, K Pappert, R G Dengel, J Wenisch, R P

  19. Modelling spatial distribution of soil steady state infiltration rate in an urban park (Vingis Parkas, Vilnius, Lithuania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Bogunovic, Igor; Menchov, Oleksandr

    2016-04-01

    of the infiltration rates in a mediterranean scrubland on limestone. Journal of Hydrology, 198, 209-225. Hewelke, E., Szatyłowicz, J., Gnatowski, T., Oleszczuk, R. (2015) Effects of soil water repellency on moisture patterns in a degraded sapric histosol, Land Degradation and Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2305 Jordán, A., González, F.A., Zavala, L.M. (2010) Re-establishment of soil water repellency after destruction by intense burning in a Mediterranean heathland (SW Spain). Hydrological Processes, 24, 736-748. Keesstra, S.D. (2007) Impact of natural reforestation on floodplain sedimentation in the Dragonja basin, SW Slovenia. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 32, 49-65. Liu, Z., Yao, Z., Huang, H., Wu, S., Liu, G. (2014) Land use and climate changes and their impacts on runoff in the Yarlung Zangbo river basin, China. Land Degradation and Development, 25, 203-215. Mao, J., Nierop, K.G.J., Rietkerk, M., Dekker, S.C. (2015) Predicting soil water repellency using hydrophobic organic compounds and their vegetation origin. SOIL, 1, 411-425. Mohawesh, Y., Taimeh, A., Ziadat, F. (2015) Effects of land use changes and soil conservation intervention on soil properties as indicators for land degradation under a Mediterranean climate Solid Earth, 6, 857-868. Neris, J., Jimenez, C., Fuentes, J., Morillas, G., Tejedor, M. (2012) Vegetation and land-use effects on soil properties and water infiltration of Andisols in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). Catena, 98, 55-62. Pereira, P., Cerda, A., Ubeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J., Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L. (2015) Modelling the impacts of wildfire on ash thickness in short-term period. Land Degradation and Development, 26, 180-192. Pereira, P., Úbeda, X., Martin, D., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Burguet, M. Wildfire effects on extractable elements in ash from a Pinus pinaster forest in Portugal (2014) Hydrological Processes, 28, 3681-3690. Pereira, P., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J., Oliva, M., Novara, A. (2014) Short

  20. Preface: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals (LAM13) (Ekaterinburg, Russia, 8 14 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy

    2008-03-01

    , simulation; G: Surface and interface; H: Mechanical properties and new materials; I: Quasicrystals; J: Industrial applications. The largest sessions were E, C, D and F with 53, 47, 43 and 40 reports, respectively. Posters were exhibited during the first (sessions A-E) or last (sessions F-J) three days of the conference. As usual, each oral session started with an invited talk. In accordance with contemporary tendencies the first invited talk of M Yao (Kyoto University) was devoted to interrelations between liquid metal studies and nanoscience. He pointed out that the physics of disordered matter, especially liquid metals, has provided nanoscience with basic ideas and theoretical tools such as ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. K Tamura (Kyoto University) reported experimental investigation results of expanded liquid rubidium, showing that observed structural features are originated from the instability of low-density electron gas. Modern theory has predicted that interacting electron gas suffers negative compressibility and the static dielectric function (DF) becomes negative when electron density is sufficiently reduced. Negative DF is of special interest when considering the possibility of new types of superconductors. In the next invited lecture, M I Mendelev and J R Morris (USA) described how MD simulations were performed to study phase transformations in supercooled liquid Al. The authors found that the widely used EAM potential for Al enables vitrification for cooling rates achievable in classical MD simulation, while other Al potentials enable crystallization under the same conditions. The reason for this difference was discussed, as well as features of vitrification in the EA Al. P Häussler (Chemnitz Univeristy) spoke about fundamental structure-forming processes in liquid and amorphous materials. He proposed the resonance model as an autonomous missing link between the microscopic description of atoms/molecules of Schrödinger's equation, and crystals

  1. EDITORIAL: Focus on Iron-Based Superconductors FOCUS ON IRON-BASED SUPERCONDUCTORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Hideo; Ren, Zhi-An

    2009-02-01

    Tegel, Inga Schellenberg, Falko M Schappacher, Rainer Pöttgen, Joachim Deisenhofer, Axel Günther, Florian Schrettle, Alois Loidl and Dirk Johrendt The superconductor KxSr1-xFe2As2: normal state and superconducting properties B Lv, M Gooch, B Lorenz, F Chen, A M Guloy and C W Chu Effect of 3d transition metal doping on the superconductivity in quaternary fluoroarsenide CaFeAsF Satoru Matsuishi, Yasunori Inoue, Takatoshi Nomura, Youichi Kamihara, Masahiro Hirano and Hideo Hosono Influence of the rare-earth element on the effects of the structural and magnetic phase transitions in CeFeAsO, PrFeAsO and NdFeAsO Michael A McGuire, Raphaël P Hermann, Athena S Sefat, Brian C Sales, Rongying Jin, David Mandrus, Fernande Grandjean and Gary J Long Heat capacity measurements on FeAs-based compounds: a thermodynamic probe of electronic and magnetic states P J Baker, S R Giblin, F L Pratt, R H Liu, G Wu, X H Chen, M J Pitcher, D R Parker, S J Clarke and S J Blundell Spin fluctuations, interband coupling and unconventional pairing in iron-based superconductors Zi-Jian Yao, Jian-Xin Li and Z D Wang Superconductivity induced by Ni doping in BaFe2As2 single crystals L J Li, Y K Luo, Q B Wang, H Chen, Z Ren, Q Tao, Y K Li, X Lin, M He, Z W Zhu, G H Cao and Z A Xu Metamagnetic transition in EuFe2As2 single crystals Shuai Jiang, Yongkang Luo, Zhi Ren, Zengwei Zhu, Cao Wang, Xiangfan Xu, Qian Tao, Guanghan Cao and Zhu'an Xu Pressure dependence of the thermoelectric power of the iron-based high-Tc superconductor SmFeAsO0.85 N Kang, P Auban-Senzier, C R Pasquier, Z A Ren, J Yang, G C Che and Z X Zhao Superconductivity in some heavy rare-earth iron arsenide REFeAsO1-δ (RE = Ho, Y, Dy and Tb) compounds Jie Yang, Xiao-Li Shen, Wei Lu, Wei Yi, Zheng-Cai Li, Zhi-An Ren, Guang-Can Che, Xiao-Li Dong, Li-Ling Sun, Fang Zhou and Zhong-Xian Zhao The delicate electronic and magnetic structure of the LaFePnO system (Pn = pnicogen) S Lebègue, Z P Yin and W E Pickett