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Sample records for zif268 mrna expression

  1. Zif268 mRNA Expression Patterns Reveal a Distinct Impact of Early Pattern Vision Deprivation on the Development of Primary Visual Cortical Areas in the Cat.

    PubMed

    Laskowska-Macios, Karolina; Zapasnik, Monika; Hu, Tjing-Tjing; Kossut, Malgorzata; Arckens, Lutgarde; Burnat, Kalina

    2015-10-01

    Pattern vision deprivation (BD) can induce permanent deficits in global motion perception. The impact of timing and duration of BD on the maturation of the central and peripheral visual field representations in cat primary visual areas 17 and 18 remains unknown. We compared early BD, from eye opening for 2, 4, or 6 months, with late onset BD, after 2 months of normal vision, using the expression pattern of the visually driven activity reporter gene zif268 as readout. Decreasing zif268 mRNA levels between months 2 and 4 characterized the normal maturation of the (supra)granular layers of the central and peripheral visual field representations in areas 17 and 18. In general, all BD conditions had higher than normal zif268 levels. In area 17, early BD induced a delayed decrease, beginning later in peripheral than in central area 17. In contrast, the decrease occurred between months 2 and 4 throughout area 18. Lack of pattern vision stimulation during the first 4 months of life therefore has a different impact on the development of areas 17 and 18. A high zif268 expression level at a time when normal vision is restored seems to predict the capacity of a visual area to compensate for BD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Chronic stress enhanced fear memories are associated with increased amygdala zif268 mRNA expression and are resistant to reconsolidation

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Ann N.; Parga, Alejandro; Paode, Pooja; Watterson, Lucas R.; Nikulina, Ella M.; Hammer, Ronald P.; Conrad, Cheryl D.

    2015-01-01

    The chronically stressed brain may present a vulnerability to develop maladaptive fear-related behaviors in response to a traumatic event. In rodents, chronic stress leads to amygdala hyperresponsivity and dendritic hypertrophy and produces a post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like phenotype that includes exaggerated fear learning following Pavlovian fear conditioning and resistance to extinction. It is unknown whether chronic stress-induced enhanced fear memories are vulnerable to disruption via reconsolidation blockade, as a novel therapeutic approach for attenuating exaggerated fear memories. We used a chronic stress procedure in a rat model (wire mesh restraint for 6h/d/21d) to create a vulnerable brain that leads to a PTSD-like phenotype. We then examined freezing behavior during acquisition, reactivation and after post-reactivation rapamycin administration (i.p., 40 mg/kg) in a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm to determine its effects on reconsolidation as well as the subsequent functional activation of limbic structures using zif268 mRNA. Chronic stress increased amygdala zif268 mRNA during fear memory retrieval at reactivation. Moreover, these enhanced fear memories were unaffected by post reactivation rapamycin to disrupt long-term fear memory. Also, post-reactivation long term memory processing was also associated with increased amygdala (LA and BA), and decreased hippocampal CA1 zif268 mRNA expression. These results suggest potential challenges for reconsolidation blockade as an effective approach in treating exaggerated fear memories, as in PTSD. Our findings also support chronic stress manipulations combined with fear conditioning as a useful preclinical approach to study a PTSD-like phenotype. PMID:25732249

  3. Olfactory memory and maternal behaviour-induced changes in c-fos and zif/268 mRNA expression in the sheep brain.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, A P; Broad, K D; Kendrick, K M

    1997-06-01

    In sheep maternal behaviour and the formation of the selective olfactory, ewe/lamb bond are induced by feedback to the brain from stimulation of the vagina and cervix during parturition. In the present study, we have used in situ hybridization histochemistry to quantify changes in cellular expression of two immediately-early genes, c-fos and zif/268, in order to identify activated brain regions during the induction of maternal behaviour and olfactory bonding as well as regions where plastic changes are occurring during with the formation of the olfactory memory associated with bonding. Three different treatment groups were used. One group gave birth normally, became maternal and were allowed to interact with their lambs for 30 min. A second group received exogenous treatment with oestradiol and progesterone to induce lactation and then received a 5-min period of artificial stimulation of the vagina and cervix (VCS) which reliably induces maternal behaviour but could not interact with lambs. A final control group received exogenous hormone treatment but no VCS or interaction with lambs. Compared to the control group, post-partum animals and animals that had received VCS showed increased c-fos expression in a number of cortical regions (cingulate, entorhinal and somatosensory), the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and the lateral habenula, the limbic system (bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral septum, medial arnygdala, dentate gyrus and the CA3 region of the hippocampus) and the hypothalamus (medial preoptic area, mediobasal hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus and periventricular complex). The group that gave birth and had contact with their lambs for 30 min had significantly enhanced c-fos mRNA expression in the cingulate cortex compared to those receiving VCS and additionally showed significantly increased c-fos mRNA expression in olfactory processing regions (olfactory bulb, piriform cortex and orbitofrontal cortex). Expression of zif

  4. Lower expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia: contribution of altered regulation by Zif268.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Sohei; Bazmi, H Holly; Lewis, David A

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive deficits of schizophrenia may be due at least in part to lower expression of the 67-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67), a key enzyme for GABA synthesis, in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the molecular regulation of lower cortical GAD67 levels in schizophrenia. The GAD67 promoter region contains a conserved Zif268 binding site, and Zif268 activation is accompanied by increased GAD67 expression. Thus, altered expression of the immediate early gene Zif268 may contribute to lower levels of GAD67 mRNA in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. The authors used polymerase chain reaction to quantify GAD67 and Zif268 mRNA levels in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex area 9 from 62 matched pairs of schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects, and in situ hybridization to assess Zif268 expression at laminar and cellular levels of resolution. The effects of potentially confounding variables were assessed in human subjects, and the effects of antipsychotic treatments were tested in antipsychotic-exposed monkeys. The specificity of the Zif268 findings was assessed by quantifying mRNA levels for other immediate early genes. GAD67 and Zif268 mRNA levels were significantly lower and were positively correlated in the schizophrenia subjects. Both Zif268 mRNA-positive neuron density and Zif268 mRNA levels per neuron were significantly lower in the schizophrenia subjects. These findings were robust to the effects of the confounding variables examined and differed from other immediate early genes. Deficient Zif268 mRNA expression may contribute to lower cortical GAD67 levels in schizophrenia, suggesting a potential mechanistic basis for altered cortical GABA synthesis and impaired cognition in schizophrenia.

  5. Nuclear factor kappa B-dependent Zif268 expression in hippocampus is required for recognition memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Zalcman, Gisela; Federman, Noel; de la Fuente, Verónica; Romano, Arturo

    2015-03-01

    Long-term memory formation requires gene expression after acquisition of new information. The first step in the regulation of gene expression is the participation of transcription factors (TFs) such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-кB), which are present before the neuronal activity induced by training. It was proposed that the activation of these types of TFs allows a second step in gene regulation by induction of immediate-early genes (IEGs) whose protein products are, in turn, TFs. Between these IEGs, zif268 has been found to play a critical role in long-term memory formation and reprocessing after retrieval. Here we found in mice hippocampus that, on one hand, NF-кB was activated 45 min after training in a novel object recognition (NOR) task and that inhibiting NF-кB immediately after training by intrahippocampal administration of NF-кB Decoy DNA impaired NOR memory consolidation. On the other hand, Zif268 protein expression was induced 45 min after NOR training and the administration of DNA antisense to its mRNA post-training impaired recognition memory. Finally, we found that the inhibition of NF-кB by NF-кB Decoy DNA reduced significantly the training-induced Zif268 increment, indicating that NF-кB is involved in the regulation of Zif268 expression. Thus, the present results support the involvement of NF-кB activity-dependent Zif268 expression in the hippocampus during recognition memory consolidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Viral-mediated Zif268 expression in the prefrontal cortex protects against gonadectomy-induced working memory, long-term memory, and social interaction deficits in male rats.

    PubMed

    Dossat, Amanda M; Jourdi, Hussam; Wright, Katherine N; Strong, Caroline E; Sarkar, Ambalika; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2017-01-06

    In humans, some males experience reductions in testosterone levels, as a natural consequence of aging or in the clinical condition termed hypogonadism, which are associated with impaired cognitive performance and mood disorder(s). Some of these behavioral deficits can be reversed by testosterone treatment. Our previous work in rats reported that sex differences in the expression of the transcription factor Zif268, a downstream target of testosterone, within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) mediates sex differences in social interaction. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of gonadectomy (GNX) in male rats on mPFC Zif268 expression, mood and cognitive behaviors. We also examined whether reinstitution of Zif268 in GNX rats will correct some of the behavioral deficits observed following GNX. Our results show that GNX induced a downregulation of Zif268 protein in the mPFC, which was concomitant with impaired memory in the y-maze and spontaneous object recognition test, reduced social interaction time, and depression-like behaviors in the forced swim test. Reinstitution of mPFC Zif268, using a novel adeno-associated-viral (AAV) construct, abrogated GNX-induced working memory and long-term memory impairments, and reductions in social interaction time, but not GNX-induced depression-like behaviors. These findings suggest that mPFC Zif268 exerts beneficial effects on memory and social interaction, and could be a potential target for novel treatments for behavioral impairments observed in hypogonadal and aged men with declining levels of gonadal hormones. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-lasting dysregulation of gene expression in corticostriatal circuits after repeated cocaine treatment in adult rats: Effects on zif 268 and homer 1a

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Cagri T.; Beverley, Joel A.; Willuhn, Ingo; Steiner, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Human imaging studies show that psychostimulants such as cocaine produce functional changes in several areas of cortex and striatum. These may reflect neuronal changes related to addiction. We employed gene markers (zif 268, homer 1a) that offer a high anatomical resolution to map cocaine-induced changes in 22 cortical areas and 23 functionally related striatal sectors, in order to determine the corticostriatal circuits altered by repeated cocaine exposure (25 mg/kg, 5 days). Effects were investigated 1 day and 21 days after repeated treatment to assess their longevity. Repeated cocaine treatment increased basal expression of zif 268 predominantly in sensorimotor areas of the cortex. This effect endured for 3 weeks in some areas. These changes were accompanied by attenuated gene induction by a cocaine challenge. In the insular cortex, the cocaine challenge produced a decrease in zif 268 expression after the 21-day, but not 1-day, withdrawal period. In the striatum, cocaine also affected mostly sensorimotor sectors. Repeated cocaine resulted in blunted inducibility of both zif 268 and homer 1a, changes that were still very robust 3 weeks later. Thus, our findings demonstrate that cocaine produces robust and long-lasting changes in gene regulation predominantly in sensorimotor corticostriatal circuits. These neuronal changes were associated with behavioral stereotypies, which are thought to reflect dysfunction in sensorimotor corticostriatal circuits. Future studies will have to elucidate the role of such neuronal changes in psychostimulant addiction. PMID:19419424

  8. Interleukin-1β-induced memory reconsolidation impairment is mediated by a reduction in glutamate release and zif268 expression and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone prevented these effects.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ivana; Gonzalez, Patricia V; Vilcaes, Alejandro; Carniglia, Lila; Schiöth, Helgi B; Lasaga, Mercedes; Scimonelli, Teresa N

    2015-05-01

    The immune system is an important modulator of learning, memory and neural plasticity. Interleukin 1β (IL-1β), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, significantly affects several cognitive processes. Previous studies by our group have demonstrated that intrahippocampal administration of IL-1β impairs reconsolidation of contextual fear memory. This effect was reversed by the melanocortin alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). The mechanisms underlying the effect of IL-1β on memory reconsolidation have not yet been established. Therefore, we examined the effect of IL-1β on glutamate release, ERK phosphorylation and the activation of the transcription factor zinc finger- 268 (zif268) during reconsolidation. Our results demonstrated that IL-1β induced a significant decrease of glutamate release after reactivation of the fear memory and this effect was related to calcium concentration in hippocampal synaptosomes. IL-1β also reduced ERK phosphorylation and zif268 expression in the hippocampus. Central administration of α-MSH prevented the decrease in glutamate release, ERK phosphorylation and zif268 expression induced by IL-1β. Our results establish possible mechanisms involved in the detrimental effect of IL-1β on memory reconsolidation and also indicate that α-MSH may exert a beneficial modulatory role in preventing IL-1β effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression of the Immediate-Early Gene-Encoded Protein Egr-1 ("zif268") during in Vitro Classical Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokin, Maxim; Keifer, Joyce

    2005-01-01

    Expression of the immediate-early genes (IEGs) has been shown to be induced by activity-dependent synaptic plasticity or behavioral training and is thought to play an important role in long-term memory. In the present study, we examined the induction and expression of the IEG-encoded protein Egr-1 during an in vitro neural correlate of eyeblink…

  10. Zif268/Egr1 gain of function facilitates hippocampal synaptic plasticity and long-term spatial recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Penke, Zsuzsa; Morice, Elise; Veyrac, Alexandra; Gros, Alexandra; Chagneau, Carine; LeBlanc, Pascale; Samson, Nathalie; Baumgärtel, Karsten; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Davis, Sabrina; Laroche, Serge

    2014-01-05

    It is well established that Zif268/Egr1, a member of the Egr family of transcription factors, is critical for the consolidation of several forms of memory; however, it is as yet uncertain whether increasing expression of Zif268 in neurons can facilitate memory formation. Here, we used an inducible transgenic mouse model to specifically induce Zif268 overexpression in forebrain neurons and examined the effect on recognition memory and hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. We found that Zif268 overexpression during the establishment of memory for objects did not change the ability to form a long-term memory of objects, but enhanced the capacity to form a long-term memory of the spatial location of objects. This enhancement was paralleled by increased long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and by increased activity-dependent expression of Zif268 and selected Zif268 target genes. These results provide novel evidence that transcriptional mechanisms engaging Zif268 contribute to determining the strength of newly encoded memories.

  11. Dynamic Shifts in Corticostriatal Expression Patterns of the Immediate Early Genes "Homer 1a" and "Zif268" during Early and Late Phases of Instrumental Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ann E.; Hernandez, Pepe J.; Schiltz, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive motor actions require prior knowledge of instrumental contingencies. With practice, these actions can become highly automatic in nature. However, the molecular and anatomical substrates mediating these related forms of learning are not understood. In the present study, we used in situ hybridization to measure the mRNA levels of two…

  12. Induction of c-Fos, Zif268, and Arc from acute bouts of voluntary wheel running in new and pre-existing adult mouse hippocampal granule neurons

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter J.; Bhattacharya, Tushar K.; Miller, Daniel S.; Rhodes, Justin S.

    2011-01-01

    The functional significance of newly formed granule neurons in the adult mammalian hippocampus remains a mystery. Recently, it was demonstrated that wheel running increases new neuron survival and c-Fos expression in new and pre-existing granule cells in an activity-dependent manner. It is currently unknown whether other immediate early genes (IEGs) become expressed in granule neurons from running. Further, it is unknown whether locomotor activity in home cages without wheels can influence neurogenesis and IEG expression similar to running. The purpose of this study was three fold: 1) to determine if Arc and Zif268 expression are also induced from wheel running in both pre-existing and newly formed neurons 2) to determine if neurogenesis and IEG induction is related to horizontal distance traveled in home cages without wheels and 3) to determine whether IEG induction is related to acute bouts of running or chronic effects. Adult C57BL/6J female mice were placed in cages with or without running wheels for 31 days. The first 10 days, mice received daily injections of 5-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. On day 31, running and non-running animals were euthanized either 2 hours after peak activity, or during a period of relative inactivity. Immunohistochemistry was performed on hippocampal sections with antibodies against BrdU, mature neuron marker NeuN, c-Fos, Arc, and Zif268. Results demonstrate that Arc, Zif268, and c-Fos are induced from wheel running but not movement in cages without wheels. All IEGs were expressed in new neurons from running. Further, IEGs were induced acutely by running, as increased expression did not continue into the light cycle, a period of relative inactivity. The results suggest that robust movements, like running, are necessary to stimulate IEG expression and neurogenesis. Moreover, results suggest new neurons from running may be processing information about running behavior itself. PMID:21497182

  13. A requirement for the immediate early gene zif268 in reconsolidation of recognition memory after retrieval.

    PubMed

    Bozon, Bruno; Davis, Sabrina; Laroche, Serge

    2003-11-13

    Recent research has revived interest in the possibility that previously consolidated memories need to reconsolidate when recalled to return to accessible long-term memory. Evidence suggests that both consolidation and reconsolidation of certain types of memory require protein synthesis, but whether similar molecular mechanisms are involved remains unclear. Here, we explore whether zif268, an activity-dependent inducible immediate early gene (IEG) required for consolidation of new memories, is also recruited for reconsolidation of recognition memory following reactivation. We show that when a consolidated memory for objects is recalled, zif268 mutant mice are impaired in further long-term but not short-term recognition memory. The impairment is specific to reactivation with the previously memorized objects in the relevant context, occurs in delayed recall, and does not recover over several days. These findings indicate that IEG-mediated transcriptional regulation in neurons is one common molecular mechanism for the storage of newly formed and reactivated recognition memories.

  14. A paper-based device for double-stranded DNA detection with Zif268

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daohong

    2017-05-01

    Here, a small analytical device was fabricated on both nitrocellulose membrane and filter paper, for the detection of biotinylated double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) from 1 nM. Zif268 was utilized for capturing the target DNA, which was a zinc finger protein that recognized only a dsDNA with specific sequence. Therefore, this detection platform could be utilized for PCR result detection, with the well-designed primers (interpolate both biotin and Zif268 binding sequence). The result of the assay could be recorded by a camera-phone, and analyzed with software. The whole assay finished within 1 hour. Due to the easy fabrication, operation and disposal of this device, this method can be employed in point-of-care detection or on-site monitoring.

  15. Methamphetamine-Induced Stereotypy Correlates Negatively with Patch-Enhanced Prodynorphin and ARC mRNA Expression in the Rat Caudate Putamen: The Role of Mu Opioid Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Kristen A.; Noble, Erika S.; Gilbert, Yamiece E.

    2010-01-01

    Amphetamines induce stereotypy, which correlates with patch-enhanced c-Fos expression the patch compartment of caudate putamen (CPu). Methamphetamine (METH) treatment also induces patch-enhanced expression of prodynorphin (PD), arc and zif/268 in the CPu. Whether patch-enhanced activation of any of these genes correlates with METH-induced stereotypy is unknown, and the factors that contribute to this pattern of expression are poorly understood. Activation of mu opioid receptors, which are expressed by the neurons of the patch compartment, may underlie METH-induced patch-enhanced gene expression and stereotypy. The current study examined whether striatal mu opioid receptor blockade altered METH-induced stereotypy and patch-enhanced gene expression, and if there was a correlation between the two responses. Animals were intrastriatally infused with the mu antagonist CTAP (10 μg/μl), treated with METH (7.5 mg/kg, s.c.), placed in activity chambers for 3h, and then sacrificed. CTAP pretreatment attenuated METH-induced increases in PD, arc and zif/268 mRNA expression and significantly reduced METH-induced stereotypy. Patch-enhanced PD and arc mRNA expression in the dorsolateral CPu correlated negatively with METH-induced stereotypy. These data indicate that mu opioid receptor activation contributes to METH-induced gene expression in the CPu and stereotypy, and that patch-enhanced PD and arc expression may be a homeostatic response to METH treatment. PMID:20298714

  16. Methamphetamine-induced stereotypy correlates negatively with patch-enhanced prodynorphin and arc mRNA expression in the rat caudate putamen: the role of mu opioid receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Horner, Kristen A; Noble, Erika S; Gilbert, Yamiece E

    2010-06-01

    Amphetamines induce stereotypy, which correlates with patch-enhanced c-Fos expression the patch compartment of caudate putamen (CPu). Methamphetamine (METH) treatment also induces patch-enhanced expression of prodynorphin (PD), arc and zif/268 in the CPu. Whether patch-enhanced activation of any of these genes correlates with METH-induced stereotypy is unknown, and the factors that contribute to this pattern of expression are poorly understood. Activation of mu opioid receptors, which are expressed by the neurons of the patch compartment, may underlie METH-induced patch-enhanced gene expression and stereotypy. The current study examined whether striatal mu opioid receptor blockade altered METH-induced stereotypy and patch-enhanced gene expression, and if there was a correlation between the two responses. Animals were intrastriatally infused with the mu antagonist CTAP (10 microg/microl), treated with METH (7.5 mg/kg, s.c.), placed in activity chambers for 3h, and then sacrificed. CTAP pretreatment attenuated METH-induced increases in PD, arc and zif/268 mRNA expression and significantly reduced METH-induced stereotypy. Patch-enhanced PD and arc mRNA expression in the dorsolateral CPu correlated negatively with METH-induced stereotypy. These data indicate that mu opioid receptor activation contributes to METH-induced gene expression in the CPu and stereotypy, and that patch-enhanced PD and arc expression may be a homeostatic response to METH treatment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An "egr-1" ("zif268") Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotide Infused into the Amygdala Disrupts Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Melanie P.; Rosen, Jeffrey B.; Malkani, Seema; Wallace, Karin J.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of gene expression following fear conditioning have demonstrated that the inducible transcription factor, "egr-1," is increased in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala shortly following fear conditioning. These studies suggest that "egr-1" and its protein product Egr-1 in the amygdala are important for learning and memory of fear. To…

  18. ACTIVATION OF MU OPIOID RECEPTORS IN THE STRIATUM DIFFERENTIALLY AUGMENTS METHAMPHETAMINE-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION AND ENHANCES STEREOTYPIC BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Kristen A.; Hebbard, John C.; Logan, Anna S.; Vanchipurakel, Golda A.; Gilbert, Yamiece E.

    2013-01-01

    Mu opioid receptors are densely expressed in the patch compartment of striatum and contribute to methamphetamine-induced patch-enhanced gene expression and stereotypy. In order to further elucidate the role of mu opioid receptor activation in these phenomena, we examined whether activation of mu opioid receptors would enhance methamphetamine-induced stereotypy and prodynorphin, c-fos, arc and zif/268 expression in the patch and/or matrix compartments of striatum, as well as the impact of mu opioid receptor activation on the relationship between patch-enhanced gene expression and stereotypy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intrastriatally infused with D-Ala(2)-N-Me-Phe(4),Gly(5)-ol]enkephalin (DAMGO; 1 μg/μl), treated with methamphetamine (0.5 mg/kg) and sacrificed at 45 minutes or 2 hours later. DAMGO augmented methamphetamine-induced zif/268 mRNA expression in the patch and matrix compartments, while prodynorphin expression was increased in the dorsolateral patch compartment. DAMGO pretreatment did not affect methamphetamine-induced arc and c-fos expression. DAMGO enhanced methamphetamine-induced stereotypy and resulted in greater patch versus matrix expression of prodynorphin in the dorsolateral striatum, leading to a negative correlation between the two. These findings indicate that mu opioid receptors contribute to methamphetamine-induced stereotypy, but can differentially influence the genomic responses to methamphetamine. These data also suggest that prodynorphin may offset the overstimulation of striatal neurons by methamphetamine. PMID:22150526

  19. Lack of Increased Immediate Early Gene Expression in Rats Reinstating Cocaine-Seeking Behavior to Discrete Sensory Cues

    PubMed Central

    Riedy, Matthew D.; Keefe, Kristen A.

    2013-01-01

    Drug-seeking behavior elicited by drug-associated cues contributes to relapse in addiction; however, whether relapse elicited by drug-associated conditioned reinforcers (CR) versus discriminative stimuli (DS) involves distinct or overlapping neuronal populations is unknown. To address this question, we developed a novel cocaine self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement paradigm that exposed the same rats to distinct cocaine-associated CR and DS. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine in separate sessions. In one, a DS signaled cocaine availability; in the other, cocaine delivery was paired with a different CR. After extinction training and reinstatement testing, where both cues were presented in separate sessions, rats were sacrificed and processed for cellular analysis of temporal activity by fluorescent in situ hybridization (CatFISH) for activity regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) mRNA and for radioactive in situ hybridization for Arc and zif268 mRNAs. CatFISH did not reveal significant changes in Arc mRNA expression. Similar results were obtained with radioactive in situ hybridization. We have shown that while rats reinstate drug seeking in response to temporally discrete presentations of distinct drug-associated cues, such reinstatement is not associated with increased transcriptional activation of Arc or zif268 mRNAs, suggesting that expression of these genes may not be necessary for cue-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. PMID:24069163

  20. Brain gene expression during REM sleep depends on prior waking experience.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, S; Goyal, V; Mello, C V; Pavlides, C

    1999-01-01

    In most mammalian species studied, two distinct and successive phases of sleep, slow wave (SW), and rapid eye movement (REM), can be recognized on the basis of their EEG profiles and associated behaviors. Both phases have been implicated in the offline sensorimotor processing of daytime events, but the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. We studied brain expression of the plasticity-associated immediate-early gene (IEG) zif-268 during SW and REM sleep in rats exposed to rich sensorimotor experience in the preceding waking period. Whereas nonexposed controls show generalized zif-268 down-regulation during SW and REM sleep, zif-268 is upregulated during REM sleep in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus of exposed animals. We suggest that this phenomenon represents a window of increased neuronal plasticity during REM sleep that follows enriched waking experience.

  1. Contribution of Egr1/zif268 to Activity-Dependent Arc/Arg3.1 Transcription in the Dentate Gyrus and Area CA1 of the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Penke, Zsuzsa; Chagneau, Carine; Laroche, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Egr1, a member of the Egr family of transcription factors, and Arc are immediate early genes known to play major roles in synaptic plasticity and memory. Despite evidence that Egr family members can control Arc transcriptional regulation, demonstration of a selective role of Egr1 alone is lacking. We investigated the extent to which activity-dependent Arc expression is dependent on Egr1 by analyzing Arc mRNA expression using fluorescence in situ hybridization in the dorsal dentate gyrus and CA1 of wild-type (WT) and Egr1 knockout mice. Following electroconvulsive shock, we found biphasic expression of Arc in area CA1 in mice, consisting in a rapid (30 min) and transient wave followed by a second late-phase of expression (8 h), and a single but prolonged wave of expression in the dentate gyrus. Egr1 deficiency abolished the latest, but not the early wave of Arc expression in CA1, and curtailed that of the dentate gyrus. Since the early wave of Arc expression was not affected in Egr1 mutant mice, we next analyzed behaviorally induced Arc expression patterns as an index of neural ensemble activation in the dentate gyrus and area CA1 of WT and Egr1 mutant mice. Spatial exploration of novel or familiar environments induced in mice a single early and transient wave of Arc expression in the dentate gyrus and area CA1, which were not affected in Egr1 mutant mice. Analyses of Arc-expressing cells revealed that exploration recruits similar size dentate gyrus and CA1 neural ensembles in WT and Egr1 knockout mice. These findings suggest that hippocampal neural ensembles are normally activated immediately following spatial exploration in Egr1 knockout mice, indicating normal hippocampal encoding of information. They also provide evidence that in condition of strong activation Egr1 alone can control late-phases of activity-dependent Arc transcription in the dentate gyrus and area CA1 of the hippocampus. PMID:21887136

  2. Lead Neurotoxicity on Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line SH-SY5Y is Mediated via Transcription Factor EGR1/Zif268 Induced Disrupted in Scherophernia-1 Activation.

    PubMed

    You, Yuanyuan; Peng, Bo; Ben, Songbin; Hou, Weijian; Sun, Liguang; Jiang, Wei

    2018-07-01

    Lead (Pb 2+ ) is a well-known type of neurotoxin and chronic exposure to Pb 2+ induces cognition dysfunction. In this work, the potential role of early growth response gene 1 (EGR1) in the linkage of Pb 2+ exposure and disrupted in scherophernia-1 (DISC1) activity was investigated. Human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y was subjected to different concentrations of lead acetate (PbAc) to determine the effect of Pb 2+ exposure on the cell viability, apoptosis, and activity of EGR1 and DISC1. Then the expression of EGR1 in SH-SY5Y cells was knocked down with specific siRNA to assess the function of EGR1 in Pb 2+ induced activation of DISC1. The interaction between EGR1 and DISC1 was further validated with dual luciferase assay, Supershift electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR. Administration of PbAc decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, exposure to PbAc also up-regulated expression of EGR1 and DISC1 at all concentrations. Knockdown of EGR1 blocked the effect of PbAc on SH-SY5Y cells, indicating the central role of EGR1 in the function of Pb 2+ on activity of DISC1. Based on the results of dual luciferase assay, Supershift EMSA, and ChIP-PCR, EGR1 mediated the effect of Pb 2+ on DISC1 by directly bound to the promoter region of DISC1 gene. The current study elaborated the mechanism involved in the effect of Pb 2+ exposure on expression of DISC1 for the first time: EGR1 activated by Pb 2+ substitution of zinc triggered the transcription of DISC1 gene by directly binding to its promoter.

  3. NMDA and dopamine D1 receptors within NAc-shell regulate IEG proteins expression in reward circuit during cocaine memory reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Ge, S; Li, N; Chen, L; Zhang, S; Wang, J; Wu, H; Wang, X; Wang, X

    2016-02-19

    Reactivation of consolidated memory initiates a memory reconsolidation process, during which the reactivated memory is susceptible to strengthening, weakening or updating. Therefore, effective interference with the memory reconsolidation process is expected to be an important treatment for drug addiction. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been well recognized as a pathway component that can prevent drug relapse, although the mechanism underlying this function is poorly understood. We aimed to clarify the regulatory role of the NAc in the cocaine memory reconsolidation process, by examining the effect of applying different pharmacological interventions to the NAc on Zif 268 and Fos B expression in the entire reward circuit after cocaine memory reactivation. Through the cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) model, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining for Zif 268 and Fos B were used to explore the functional activated brain nuclei after cocaine memory reactivation. Our results showed that the expression of Zif 268 and Fos B was commonly increased in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the infralimbic cortex (IL), the NAc-core, the NAc-shell, the hippocampus (CA1, CA2, and CA3 subregions), the amygdala, the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and the supramammillary nucleus (SuM) following memory reconsolidation, and Zif 268/Fos B co-expression was commonly observed (for Zif 268: 51-68%; for Fos B: 52-66%). Further, bilateral NAc-shell infusion of MK 801 and SCH 23390, but not raclopride or propranolol, prior to addictive memory reconsolidation, decreased Zif 268 and Fos B expression in the entire reward circuit, except for the amygdala, and effectively disturbed subsequent CPP-related behavior. In summary, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and dopamine D1 receptors, but not dopamine D2 or β adrenergic receptors, within the NAc-shell, may regulate Zif 268 and Fos B expression in most brain nuclei of the reward circuit after cocaine memory reactivation

  4. Expression of calmodulin mRNA in rat olfactory neuroepithelium.

    PubMed

    Biffo, S; Goren, T; Khew-Goodall, Y S; Miara, J; Margolis, F L

    1991-04-01

    A calmodulin (CaM) cDNA was isolated by differential hybridization screening of a lambda gt10 library prepared from rat olfactory mucosa. This cDNA fragment, containing most of the open reading frame of the rat CaMI gene, was subcloned and used to characterize steady-state expression of CaM mRNA in rat olfactory neuroepithelium and bulb. Within the bulb mitral cells are the primary neuronal population expressing CaM mRNA. The major CaM mRNA expressed in the olfactory mucosa is 1.7 kb with smaller contributions from mRNAs of 4.0 and 1.4 kb. CaM mRNA was primarily associated with the olfactory neurons and, despite the cellular complexity of the tissue and the known involvement of CaM in diverse cellular processes, was only minimally evident in sustentacular cells, gland cells or respiratory epithelium. Following bulbectomy CaM mRNA declines in the olfactory neuroepithelium as does olfactory marker protein (OMP) mRNA. In contrast to the latter, CaM mRNA makes a partial recovery by one month after surgery. These results, coupled with those from in situ hybridization, indicate that CaM mRNA is expressed in both mature and immature olfactory neurons. The program regulating CaM gene expression in olfactory neurons is distinct from those controlling expression of B50/GAP43 in immature, or OMP in mature, neurons respectively.

  5. Conjunctival mucin mRNA expression in contact lens wear.

    PubMed

    Corrales, Rosa M; Galarreta, David; Herreras, Jose M; Saez, Victoria; Arranz, Isabel; González, Maria J; Mayo, Agustin; Calonge, Margarita; Chaves, Felipe J

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the influence of the water content in non-ionic hydrogel contact lenses (HCL) on the mRNA levels of human conjunctival mucin genes (MUCs). Sixteen healthy subjects with no history of contact lenses wear were selected and randomized into two equal groups. Group 1 subjects wore low water content (38%, Soflens 38) non-ionic HCLs. Group 2 wore high water content (66%, Soflens 66) non-ionic HCLs. Conjunctival impression cytology was applied to the superior bulbar conjunctiva of both eyes before, 6 months, and 1 year after HCL fitting, and 15 days after discontinuation of wearing. Total RNA was isolated, retrotranscribed, and amplified by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by quantitative real time PCR to study the mRNA levels of MUCs and to analyze variations during the study period. Time- and HCL-dependent variations in mRNA expression were analyzed using Student's test. From the known MUCs, transcripts from MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC7, MUC13, MUC15, MUC16, and MUC17 genes were detected in all subjects before HCL fitting. Except for MUC2, the expression of some MUC genes significantly increased whereas others significantly decreased at either the 6- and 12-month period. Statistically significant differences between both HCL groups (p < 0.001) were found in the MUC4, MUC13, and MUC15 mRNA expression after 1 year of wear and after the 15 days without HCL wear. However, these differences were not clearly related to the water content of the lenses. Low and high water content non-ionic HCLs induced different changes in the mRNA levels of several MUCs, but the water content was not related to the changes. Recovery to basal levels of conjunctival MUC mRNA expression after wearing HCL lenses for a year takes longer than 15 days for some MUCs.

  6. Vibrational force alters mRNA expression in osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tjandrawinata, R. R.; Vincent, V. L.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1997-01-01

    Serum-deprived mouse osteoblastic (MC3T3E1) cells were subjected to a vibrational force modeled by NASA to simulate a space shuttle launch (7.83 G rms). The mRNA levels for eight genes were investigated to determine the effect of vibrational force on mRNA expression. The mRNA levels of two growth-related protooncogenes, c-fos and c-myc, were up-regulated significantly within 30 min after vibration, whereas those of osteocalcin as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 were decreased significantly within 3 h after vibration. No changes were detected in the levels of beta-actin, histone H4, or cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 after vibration. No basal levels of cyclooxygenase-2 expression were detected. In addition, the extracellular concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent autocrine/paracrine growth factor in bone, were not significantly altered after vibration most likely due to the serum deprivation state of the osteoblasts. In comparison with the gravitational launch profile, vibrational-induced changes in gene expression were greater both in magnitude and number of genes activated. Taken together, these data suggest that the changes in mRNA expression are due to a direct mechanical effect of the vibrational force on the osteoblast cells and not to changes in the local PGE2 concentrations. The finding that launch forces induce gene expression is of utmost importance since many of the biological experiments do not dampen vibrational loads on experimental samples. This lack of dampening of vibrational forces may partially explain why 1-G onboard controls sometimes do not reflect 1-G ground controls. These data may also suggest that scientists use extra ground controls that are exposed to launch forces, have these forces dampened on launched samples, or use facilities such as Biorack that provide an onboard 1-G centrufuge in order to control for space shuttle launch forces.

  7. The chicken immediate-early gene ZENK is expressed in the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale, a brain region involved in acoustic imprinting, and is up-regulated after exposure to an auditory stimulus.

    PubMed

    Thode, C; Bock, J; Braun, K; Darlison, M G

    2005-01-01

    The immediate-early gene zenk (an acronym for the avian orthologue of the mammalian genes zif-268, egr-1, ngfi-a and krox-24) has been extensively employed, in studies on oscine birds, as a marker of neuronal activity to reveal forebrain structures that are involved in the memory processes associated with the acquisition, perception and production of song. Audition-induced expression of this gene, in brain, has also recently been reported for the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Whilst the anatomical distribution of zenk expression was described for the quail, corresponding data for the chicken were not reported. We have, therefore, used in situ hybridisation to localise the mRNA that encodes the product of the zenk gene (which we call ZENK) within the brain of the 1-day-old chick. We demonstrate that this transcript is present in a number of forebrain structures including the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH), a region that has been strongly implicated in auditory imprinting (which is a form of recognition memory), and Field L, the avian analog of the mammalian auditory cortex. Because of this pattern of gene expression, we have compared the level of the ZENK mRNA in chicks that have been subjected to a 30-min acoustic imprinting paradigm and in untrained controls. Our results reveal a significant increase (P< or =0.05) in the level of the ZENK mRNA in MNH and Field L, and in the two forebrain hemispheres; no increase was seen in the ectostriatum, which is a visual projection area. The data obtained implicate the immediate-early gene, zenk, in auditory imprinting, which is an established model of juvenile learning. In addition, our results indicate that the ZENK mRNA may be used as a molecular marker for MNH, a region that is difficult to anatomically and histochemically delineate.

  8. Mapping a multiplexed zoo of mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Choi, Harry M T; Calvert, Colby R; Husain, Naeem; Huss, David; Barsi, Julius C; Deverman, Benjamin E; Hunter, Ryan C; Kato, Mihoko; Lee, S Melanie; Abelin, Anna C T; Rosenthal, Adam Z; Akbari, Omar S; Li, Yuwei; Hay, Bruce A; Sternberg, Paul W; Patterson, Paul H; Davidson, Eric H; Mazmanian, Sarkis K; Prober, David A; van de Rijn, Matt; Leadbetter, Jared R; Newman, Dianne K; Readhead, Carol; Bronner, Marianne E; Wold, Barbara; Lansford, Rusty; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Fraser, Scott E; Pierce, Niles A

    2016-10-01

    In situ hybridization methods are used across the biological sciences to map mRNA expression within intact specimens. Multiplexed experiments, in which multiple target mRNAs are mapped in a single sample, are essential for studying regulatory interactions, but remain cumbersome in most model organisms. Programmable in situ amplifiers based on the mechanism of hybridization chain reaction (HCR) overcome this longstanding challenge by operating independently within a sample, enabling multiplexed experiments to be performed with an experimental timeline independent of the number of target mRNAs. To assist biologists working across a broad spectrum of organisms, we demonstrate multiplexed in situ HCR in diverse imaging settings: bacteria, whole-mount nematode larvae, whole-mount fruit fly embryos, whole-mount sea urchin embryos, whole-mount zebrafish larvae, whole-mount chicken embryos, whole-mount mouse embryos and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tissue sections. In addition to straightforward multiplexing, in situ HCR enables deep sample penetration, high contrast and subcellular resolution, providing an incisive tool for the study of interlaced and overlapping expression patterns, with implications for research communities across the biological sciences. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Mapping a multiplexed zoo of mRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Harry M. T.; Calvert, Colby R.; Husain, Naeem; Huss, David; Barsi, Julius C.; Deverman, Benjamin E.; Hunter, Ryan C.; Kato, Mihoko; Lee, S. Melanie; Abelin, Anna C. T.; Rosenthal, Adam Z.; Akbari, Omar S.; Li, Yuwei; Hay, Bruce A.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Patterson, Paul H.; Davidson, Eric H.; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.; Prober, David A.; van de Rijn, Matt; Leadbetter, Jared R.; Newman, Dianne K.; Readhead, Carol; Bronner, Marianne E.; Wold, Barbara; Lansford, Rusty; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Fraser, Scott E.

    2016-01-01

    In situ hybridization methods are used across the biological sciences to map mRNA expression within intact specimens. Multiplexed experiments, in which multiple target mRNAs are mapped in a single sample, are essential for studying regulatory interactions, but remain cumbersome in most model organisms. Programmable in situ amplifiers based on the mechanism of hybridization chain reaction (HCR) overcome this longstanding challenge by operating independently within a sample, enabling multiplexed experiments to be performed with an experimental timeline independent of the number of target mRNAs. To assist biologists working across a broad spectrum of organisms, we demonstrate multiplexed in situ HCR in diverse imaging settings: bacteria, whole-mount nematode larvae, whole-mount fruit fly embryos, whole-mount sea urchin embryos, whole-mount zebrafish larvae, whole-mount chicken embryos, whole-mount mouse embryos and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tissue sections. In addition to straightforward multiplexing, in situ HCR enables deep sample penetration, high contrast and subcellular resolution, providing an incisive tool for the study of interlaced and overlapping expression patterns, with implications for research communities across the biological sciences. PMID:27702788

  10. [The expressions of HSP 70 mRNA and c-fos mRNA in the skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle of rabbits by electrocuted].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Liu, Min; Cheng, Wei-bo; He, Gui-qiong; Li, Fan; Liao, Zhi-gang

    2008-08-01

    To study the changes of HSP 70 mRNA and c-fos mRNA expression and to find a method to differentiate antemortem from postmortem electrocution. Fifteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups, the antemortem electrocution group, the postmortem electrocution group, and the control group. Each group consists of five rabbits. The levels of HSP 70 mRNA and c-fos mRNA in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle were examined with quantitative fluorescent RT-PCR. The levels of HSP 70 mRNA and c-fos mRNA in the antemortem electrocution group increased significantly (P<0.05), compared with that of the postmortem electrocution group. The changes of HSP 70 mRNA and c-fos mRNA expression in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle can be used as an indicator to distinguish antemortem from postmortem electrocution.

  11. Bioinspired Nanocomplex for Spatiotemporal Imaging of Sequential mRNA Expression in Differentiating Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Messenger RNA plays a pivotal role in regulating cellular activities. The expression dynamics of specific mRNA contains substantial information on the intracellular milieu. Unlike the imaging of stationary mRNAs, real-time intracellular imaging of the dynamics of mRNA expression is of great value for investigating mRNA biology and exploring specific cellular cascades. In addition to advanced imaging methods, timely extracellular stimulation is another key factor in regulating the mRNA expression repertoire. The integration of effective stimulation and imaging into a single robust system would significantly improve stimulation efficiency and imaging accuracy, producing fewer unwanted artifacts. In this study, we developed a multifunctional nanocomplex to enable self-activating and spatiotemporal imaging of the dynamics of mRNA sequential expression during the neural stem cell differentiation process. This nanocomplex showed improved enzymatic stability, fast recognition kinetics, and high specificity. With a mechanism regulated by endogenous cell machinery, this nanocomplex realized the successive stimulating motif release and the dynamic imaging of chronological mRNA expression during neural stem cell differentiation without the use of transgenetic manipulation. The dynamic imaging montage of mRNA expression ultimately facilitated genetic heterogeneity analysis. In vivo lateral ventricle injection of this nanocomplex enabled endogenous neural stem cell activation and labeling at their specific differentiation stages. This nanocomplex is highly amenable as an alternative tool to explore the dynamics of intricate mRNA activities in various physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25494492

  12. Bioinspired nanocomplex for spatiotemporal imaging of sequential mRNA expression in differentiating neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Ruili; Wang, Zhongliang; Wang, He-Fang; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Fu; Li, Weitao; Niu, Gang; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-12-23

    Messenger RNA plays a pivotal role in regulating cellular activities. The expression dynamics of specific mRNA contains substantial information on the intracellular milieu. Unlike the imaging of stationary mRNAs, real-time intracellular imaging of the dynamics of mRNA expression is of great value for investigating mRNA biology and exploring specific cellular cascades. In addition to advanced imaging methods, timely extracellular stimulation is another key factor in regulating the mRNA expression repertoire. The integration of effective stimulation and imaging into a single robust system would significantly improve stimulation efficiency and imaging accuracy, producing fewer unwanted artifacts. In this study, we developed a multifunctional nanocomplex to enable self-activating and spatiotemporal imaging of the dynamics of mRNA sequential expression during the neural stem cell differentiation process. This nanocomplex showed improved enzymatic stability, fast recognition kinetics, and high specificity. With a mechanism regulated by endogenous cell machinery, this nanocomplex realized the successive stimulating motif release and the dynamic imaging of chronological mRNA expression during neural stem cell differentiation without the use of transgenetic manipulation. The dynamic imaging montage of mRNA expression ultimately facilitated genetic heterogeneity analysis. In vivo lateral ventricle injection of this nanocomplex enabled endogenous neural stem cell activation and labeling at their specific differentiation stages. This nanocomplex is highly amenable as an alternative tool to explore the dynamics of intricate mRNA activities in various physiological and pathological conditions.

  13. Calpain expression in lymphoid cells. Increased mRNA and protein levels after cell activation.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Chakrabarti, A K; Barbosa, E; Hogan, E L; Banik, N L

    1995-02-10

    Although calpain is ubiquitously present in human tissues and is thought to play a role in demyelination, its activity is very low in resting normal lymphocytes. To determine the nature of calpain expression at the mRNA and protein levels in human lymphoid cells, we studied human T lymphocytic, B lymphocytic, and monocytic lines as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Stimulation of cells with the phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate and the calcium ionophore A23187 resulted in increased calpain mRNA and protein expression. Calpain mRNA expression is also increased in human T cells stimulated with anti-CD3. A dissociation between the increases of RNA and protein suggested that calpain could be released from the cells; the subsequent experiments showed its presence in the extracellular environment. 5,6-Dichloro-1b-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, a reversible inhibitor of mRNA synthesis, reduced calpain mRNA levels by 50-67% and protein levels by 72-91%. Its removal resulted in resumption of both calpain mRNA and protein synthesis. Cycloheximide, a translational inhibitor, reduced calpain protein levels by 77-81% and calpain mRNA levels by 96% in activated THP-1 cells. Interferon-gamma induced calpain mRNA and protein in U-937 and THP-1 cells. Dexamethasone increased mRNA expression in THP-1 cells. Our results indicate that activation of lymphoid cells results in de novo synthesis and secretion of calpain.

  14. NONOates regulate KCl cotransporter-1 and -3 mRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Di Fulvio, Mauricio; Lauf, Peter K; Shah, Shalin; Adragna, Norma C

    2003-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) donors regulate KCl cotransport (KCC) activity and cotransporter-1 and -3 (KCC1 and KCC3) mRNA expression in sheep erythrocytes and in primary cultures of rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), respectively. In this study, we used NONOates as rapid and slow NO releasers to provide direct evidence implicating NO as a regulator of KCC3 gene expression at the mRNA level. In addition, we used the expression of KCC3 mRNA to further investigate the mechanism of action of these NO donors at the cellular level. Treatment of VSMCs with rapid NO releasers, like NOC-5 and NOC-9, as well as with the direct NO-independent soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) stimulator YC-1, acutely increased KCC3 mRNA expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The slow NO releaser NOC-18 had no effect on KCC3 gene expression. A specific NO scavenger completely prevented the NONOate-induced KCC3 mRNA expression. Inhibition of sGC with LY-83583 blocked the NONOate- and YC-1-induced KCC3 mRNA expression. This study shows that in primary cultures of rat VSMCs, the fast NO releasers NOC-9 and NOC-5, but not the slow NO releaser NOC-18, acutely upregulate KCC3 mRNA expression in a NO/sGC-dependent manner.

  15. Selective probing of mRNA expression levels within a living cell.

    PubMed

    Nawarathna, D; Turan, T; Wickramasinghe, H Kumar

    2009-08-24

    We report on a selective and nondestructive measurement of mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) expression levels within a living cell. We first modify an atomic force microscope tip to create a tapered nanoscale coaxial cable. Application of an ac (alternating potential) between the inner and outer electrodes of this cable creates a dielectrophoretic force attracting mRNA molecules toward the tip-end which is pretreated with gene specific primers. We selectively extracted and analyzed both high ( approximately 2500) and extremely low (11 0) copy number mRNA from a living cell mRNA in less than 10 s.

  16. Selective probing of mRNA expression levels within a living cell

    PubMed Central

    Nawarathna, D.; Turan, T.; Wickramasinghe, H. Kumar

    2009-01-01

    We report on a selective and nondestructive measurement of mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) expression levels within a living cell. We first modify an atomic force microscope tip to create a tapered nanoscale coaxial cable. Application of an ac (alternating potential) between the inner and outer electrodes of this cable creates a dielectrophoretic force attracting mRNA molecules toward the tip-end which is pretreated with gene specific primers. We selectively extracted and analyzed both high (∼2500) and extremely low (11¯0) copy number mRNA from a living cell mRNA in less than 10 s. PMID:19777090

  17. [Effects of lipopolysaccharides extracted from Porphyromonas endodontalis on the expression of IL-1beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA in osteoblasts].

    PubMed

    Yang, Di; Li, Ren; Qiu, Li-Hong; Li, Chen

    2009-04-01

    To quantify the IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA expression induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS)extracted from Porphyromonas endodontalis(P.e) in osteoblasts, and to relate P.e-LPS to bone absorption pathogenesis in lesions of chronical apical periodontitis. MG63 was treated with different concentrations of P.e-LPS(0-50 microg/mL) for different hours(0-24h). The expression of IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Statistical analysis was performed using one- way ANOVA and Dunnett t test with SPSS11.0 software package. The level of IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA increased significantly after treatment with P.e-LPS at more than 5 microg/mL (P<0.01)and for more than 1 hour (P<0.01), which indicated that P.e-LPS induced osteoblasts to express IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA in dose and time dependent manners. P.e-LPS may promote bone resorption in lesions of chronical apical periodontitis by inducing IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA expression in osteoblasts.

  18. Reduced beta 2-microglobulin mRNA levels in transgenic mice expressing a designed hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, S; Hotchkiss, G; Andäng, M; Nyholm, T; Inzunza, J; Jansson, I; Ahrlund-Richter, L

    1994-01-01

    We have generated three artificial hammerhead ribozymes, denoted 'Rz-b', 'Rz-c' and 'Rz-d', with different specificities for exon II of the mouse beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2M) mRNA. In this study we tested for ribozyme mediated reduction of beta 2M mRNA in a cell line and in transgenic mice. Transfections of either of the Rz-b, Rz-c or Rz-d plasmids into a mouse cell-line (NIH/3T3) revealed reductions of beta 2M mRNA substrate in each case. Ribozyme expression in individual transfected clones was accompanied with an up to 80% reduction of beta 2M mRNA levels. Rz-c was selected for a transgenic study. Seven Rz-c transgenic founder animals were identified from which three ribozyme expressing families were established and analysed. Expression of the ribozyme transgene was tested for and detected in lung, kidney and spleen. Expression was accompanied with reduction of the beta 2M mRNA levels of heterozygous (Rz+/-) animals compared to non-transgenic litter mates. The effect was most pronounced in lung with more than 90% beta 2M mRNA reduction in individual mice. In summary, expression of our ribozymes in a cell free system, in a cell-line and in transgenic mice were all accompanied with reductions of beta 2M mRNA levels. Images PMID:8036151

  19. Impact of STAT/SOCS mRNA Expression Levels after Major Injury

    PubMed Central

    Brumann, M.; Matz, M.; Kusmenkov, T.; Stegmaier, J.; Biberthaler, P.; Kanz, K.-G.; Mutschler, W.; Bogner, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Fulminant changes in cytokine receptor signalling might provoke severe pathological alterations after multiple trauma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the posttraumatic imbalance of the innate immune system with a special focus on the STAT/SOCS family. Methods. 20 polytraumatized patients were included. Blood samples were drawn 0 h–72 h after trauma; mRNA expression profiles of IL-10, STAT 3, SOCS 1, and SOCS 3 were quantified by qPCR. Results. IL-10 mRNA expression increased significantly in the early posttraumatic period. STAT 3 mRNA expressions showed a significant maximum at 6 h after trauma. SOCS 1 levels significantly decreased 6 h–72 h after trauma. SOCS 3 levels were significantly higher in nonsurvivors 6 h after trauma. Conclusion. We present a serial, sequential investigation in human neutrophil granulocytes of major trauma patients evaluating mRNA expression profiles of IL-10, STAT 3, SOCS 1, and SOCS 3. Posttraumatically, immune disorder was accompanied by a significant increase of IL-10 and STAT 3 mRNA expression, whereas SOCS 1 mRNA levels decreased after injury. We could demonstrate that death after trauma was associated with higher SOCS 3 mRNA levels already at 6 h after trauma. To support our results, further investigations have to evaluate protein levels of STAT/SOCS family in terms of posttraumatic immune imbalance. PMID:24648661

  20. T-lymphocyte cytokine mRNA expression in cystic echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Fauser, S; Kern, P

    1997-04-01

    In the present study we investigated cytokine mRNA expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with cystic echinococcosis (CE) after stimulation with different antigens. By using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) we could demonstrate that restimulation with crude Echinococcus granulosus antigen (Eg-Ag) induced or enhanced Th2 cytokine mRNA expression, especially IL-5 (by using antigen from sheep cyst fluid) in 23 out of 26 investigated CE patients and IL-10 (by using antigen from camel cyst fluid) in 10 out of 10 investigated CE patients. In contrast, IL-5 mRNA expression was absent in PBMC of healthy controls after Eg-Ag stimulation. To determine the specificity of this reaction we stimulated PBMC from 11 CE patients with crude Echinococcus multilocularis antigen (Em-Ag) and PBMC from 8 CE patients with Toxocara canis antigen (Tc-Ag). We found that the PBMC of patients showed a similar mRNA cytokine pattern on stimulation with Em-Ag when compared with Eg-Ag stimulation. The cytokine mRNA pattern on stimulation with Tc-Ag, however, resembled the cytokine mRNA pattern of unstimulated PBMC. Furthermore, the stimulation of PBMC with crude Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen (H37Ra) and purified protein derivative (PPD) of M. tuberculosis revealed distinct IL-5 mRNA expression in all investigated CE patients, whereas in healthy controls IL-5 mRNA expression was very weak or totally absent. Thus, our results indicate an induction of Th2 cytokine mRNA expression in CE patients, which is frequently observed in parasite infections. Interestingly, this response persists after stimulation with tuberculosis antigens, which normally induce Th1 response.

  1. Induction of cysteine-rich motor neuron 1 mRNA expression in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yukiko; Takahashi, Satoru

    2014-08-22

    Cysteine-rich motor neuron 1 (CRIM1) is expressed in vascular endothelial cells and plays a crucial role in angiogenesis. In this study, we investigated the expression of CRIM1 mRNA in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). CRIM1 mRNA levels were not altered in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated monolayer HUVECs or in cells in collagen gels without VEGF. In contrast, the expression of CRIM1 mRNA was elevated in VEGF-stimulated cells in collagen gels. The increase in CRIM1 mRNA expression was observed even at 2h when HUVECs did not form tubular structures in collagen gels. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) 1/2, Akt and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were activated by VEGF in HUVECs. The VEGF-induced expression of CRIM1 mRNA was significantly abrogated by PD98059 or PF562271, but was not affected by LY294002. These results demonstrate that CRIM1 is an early response gene in the presence of both angiogenic stimulation (VEGF) and environmental (extracellular matrix) factors, and Erk and FAK might be involved in the upregulation of CRIM1 mRNA expression in vascular endothelial cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Preprotachykinin A mRNA expression in the rat brain during development.

    PubMed

    Brené, S; Lindefors, N; Friedman, W J; Persson, H

    1990-12-15

    Expression of preprotachykinin A (PPT-A) mRNA was analyzed by northern blots using mRNA prepared from rat brain at 12 different developmental stages ranging from embryonic day 15 (E15) to adult. A single PPT-A mRNA of 1.3 kb was detected throughout development. PPT-A mRNA was detected as early as E15 and an approximately 3-fold increase occurred at birth. This amount remained until 3 weeks of age when the level increased, reaching a peak at 5 weeks of age. Adult amounts were approximately 3-fold higher than the levels at birth. The distribution of PPT-A mRNA-expressing cells in rat brain was studied by in situ hybridization on sections from embryonic day 20, postnatal days 4 and 7 as well as adult. Cells expressing PPT-A mRNA were detected in the forebrain at all 4 ages analyzed. However, the hybridization pattern and the labeling intensity varied in different brain regions during development. In cingulate cortex, intense labeling was seen in numerous cells at embryonic day 20 and postnatal days 4 and 7, whereas in the adult cingulate cortex only a few scattered labeled cells were observed. In frontoparietal cortex labeled cells were found from postnatal day 4 to adult, with the highest density of labeled cells at P7. Developmental differences in both the distribution of PPT-A mRNA-expressing cells and the level of PPT-A mRNA expression were also found in caudate-putamen, lateral hypothalamus and amygdala. Thus, our results show several changes in PPT-A mRNA expression during ontogeny, indicating a region and time-specific regulation of PPT-A mRNA expression during brain maturation.

  3. Lower FOXO3 mRNA expression in granulosa cells is involved in unexplained infertility.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hikaru; Yamashita, Yoshiki; Saito, Natsuho; Hayashi, Atsushi; Hayashi, Masami; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether FOXO1 and FOXO3 mRNA expression in granulosa cells is the cause of unexplained infertility. Thirty-one patients aged <40 years (13 with unexplained infertility and 18 with male partner infertility as a control group) whose serum anti-Müllerian hormone level was >0.5 ng/μL were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent oocyte retrieval under a short protocol from June 2012 to October 2013. Real-time PCR was carried out using mRNA extracted from granulosa cells retrieved from mature follicles. We compared FOXO1 and FOXO3 mRNA expression ratios in granulosa cells between the unexplained infertility group and the male infertility group. The relation between FOXO1 and FOXO3 mRNA expression ratios in granulosa cells and assisted reproduction technology clinical outcome was also examined. FOXO3 mRNA expression ratio was significantly lower in the unexplained infertility group than in the male infertility group. Moreover, FOXO3 mRNA expression ratio showed a positive correlation with both the number of retrieved oocytes and serum anti-Müllerian hormone level. A positive correlation was also identified between FOXO1 mRNA expression and total dose of hMG. As well, the number of retrieved oocytes in the unexplained infertility group was statistically lower than that in the male infertility group. A lower FOXO3 mRNA expression in granulosa cells leads to poor oocyte development in patients with unexplained infertility undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Increased expression of ADAM 9 and ADAM 15 mRNA in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Daisuke; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Ohhashi, Seiji; Yu, Jun; Egami, Takuya; Fujita, Hayato; Nagai, Eishi; Tanaka, Masao

    2007-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs) comprise a multifunctional family of membrane-anchored proteins. ADAM 9 and ADAM 15 are involved in cell migration and invasion. Expression of ADAM 9 and ADAM 15 was reported to be altered in several types of cancer. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the expression of ADAM 9 mRNA in bulk pancreatic tissues. Results showed no significant difference in the expression of ADAM 9 mRNA between pancreatic cancer and non-neoplastic pancreas. Primary cultured pancreatic fibroblasts also expressed ADAM 9 mRNA. Therefore, a laser microdissection and pressure catapulting technique was employed to isolate cancer cells from tumor tissues. The expression of ADAM 9 and ADAM 15 mRNA was measured in microdissected samples (cancer cells, n = 11; normal epithelial cells, n = 13 for ADAM 9; cancer cells, n = 9; normal epithelial cells, n = 9 for ADAM 15). Pancreatic cancer cells expressed significantly higher levels of ADAM 9 and ADAM 15 mRNA than did normal pancreatic epithelial cells (p = 0.016 for ADAM 9; p = 0.004 for ADAM 15). ADAM 9 and ADAM 15 are involved in pancreatic cancer. Microdissection-based analysis appears to be indispensable for the accurate analysis of the expression of certain ADAM family members in pancreatic cancer.

  5. Testosterone Regulates NUCB2 mRNA Expression in Male Mouse Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Seon, Sojeong; Jeon, Daun; Kim, Heejeong; Chung, Yiwa; Choi, Narae; Yang, Hyunwon

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 is known to take part in the control of the appetite and energy metabolism. Recently, many reports have shown nesfatin-1/NUCB2 expression and function in various organs. We previously demonstrated that nesfatin-1/NUCB2 expression level is higher in the pituitary gland compared to other organs and its expression is regulated by 17β-estradiol and progesterone secreted from the ovary. However, currently no data exist on the expression of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 and its regulation mechanism in the pituitary of male mouse. Therefore, we examined whether nesfatin-1/NUCB2 is expressed in the male mouse pituitary and if its expression is regulated by testosterone. As a result of PCR and western blotting, we found that a large amount of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 was expressed in the pituitary and hypothalamus. The NUCB2 mRNA expression level in the pituitary was decreased after castration, but not in the hypothalamus. In addition, its mRNA expression level in the pituitary was increased after testosterone treatment in the castrated mice, whereas, the expression level in the hypothalamus was significantly decreased after the treatment with testosterone. The in vitro experiment to elucidate the direct effect of testosterone on NUCB2 mRNA expression showed that NUCB2 mRNA expression was significantly decreased with testosterone in cultured hypothalamus tissue, but increased with testosterone in cultured pituitary gland. The present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1/NUCB2 was highly expressed in the male mouse pituitary and was regulated by testosterone. This data suggests that reproductive-endocrine regulation through hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis may contribute to NUCB2 mRNA expression in the mouse hypothalamus and pituitary gland. PMID:28484746

  6. Reference genes for measuring mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Dundas, Jitesh; Ling, Maurice

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this review is to find answers to some of the questions surrounding reference genes and their reliability for quantitative experiments. Reference genes are assumed to be at a constant expression level, over a range of conditions such as temperature. These genes, such as GADPH and beta-actin, are used extensively for gene expression studies using techniques like quantitative PCR. There have been several studies carried out on identifying reference genes. However, a lot of evidence indicates issues to the general suitability of these genes. Recent studies had shown that different factors, including the environment and methods, play an important role in changing the expression levels of the reference genes. Thus, we conclude that there is no reference gene that can deemed suitable for all the experimental conditions. In addition, we believe that every experiment will require the scientific evaluation and selection of the best candidate gene for use as a reference gene to obtain reliable scientific results.

  7. Effect of Supplemental Trace Minerals on Hsp-70 mRNA Expression in Commercial Broiler Chicken.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, U; Vinoth, A; Reddy, E Pradeep Kumar; Shanmugam, M; Rao, S V Rama

    2018-01-02

    The effects of supplementing the organic forms of selenium (Se), chromium (Cr), and zinc (Zn) on Hsp-70 mRNA expression and body weight in broiler chickens were evaluated. 200 chicks were equally distributed into stainless steel battery brooders at the rate of 5 birds per pen and reared under heat stress condition up to 42 nd day. The chicks were fed with three experimental diets supplemented with organic forms of Se (0.30 mg/kg), Cr (2 mg/kg), and Zn (40 mg/kg) during the starter and finisher phases and a control diet without any supplementation. On the 21st and 42nd day, 20 birds from each period were sacrificed and samples were collected for analysis. Organic Se, Cr, and Zn supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the expression of Hsp-70 mRNA levels. The Hsp-70 mRNA expression levels were significantly (P < 0.05) different between the tissues studied with spleen having the lowest expression level. Hsp-70 mRNA expression level was not affected by age of the birds. The study concluded that organic trace mineral (oTM) supplementation resulted in low Hsp-70 mRNA expression, indicating reduced heat stress in broilers.

  8. Expression of beta 3-adrenoceptor mRNA in rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Evans, B A; Papaioannou, M; Bonazzi, V R; Summers, R J

    1996-01-01

    1. This study examines the expression of beta 3-adrenoceptor messenger RNA (beta 3-AR mRNA) in rat tissues to allow comparison with atypical beta-adrenoceptors determined by functional and radioligand binding techniques. 2. A reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction protocol has been developed for determining the relative amounts of beta 3-AR mRNA in rat tissues. 3. Measurement of adipsin and uncoupling protein (UCP) mRNA was used to examine all tissues for the presence of white and brown adipose tissue which may contribute beta 3-AR mRNA. 4. The beta 3-AR mRNA is expressed at high levels in brown and white adipose tissue, stomach fundus, the longitudinal/circular smooth muscle of both colon and ileum, and colon submucosa. There was substantial expression of adipsin in colon submucosa and moderate expression in fundus, suggesting that in these regions at least some of the beta 3-AR signal may be contributed by fat. Pylorus and colon mucosa showed moderate levels of beta 3-AR mRNA with lower levels of adipsin. Ileum mucosa and submucosa showed low but readily detectable levels of beta 3-AR. 5. Expression of adipsin in rat skeletal muscles coupled to very low levels of beta 3-AR mRNA indicates that the observed beta 3-AR may be due to the presence of intrinsic fat. beta 3-AR mRNA was virtually undetectable in heart, lung and liver. These results raise the possibility that the atypical beta-AR demonstrated by functional and/or binding studies in muscle and in heart is not the beta 3-AR. 6. By use of two different sets of primers for amplification of beta 3-AR cDNA, no evidence was found for differential splicing of the mRNA in any of the tissues examined. 7. The detection of beta 3-AR mRNA in the gut mucosa and submucosa suggests that in addition to its established roles in lipolysis, thermogenesis and regulation of gut motility beta 3-AR may subserve other functions in the gastrointestinal tract. The absence of beta 3-AR mRNA in rat heart or its presence with

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum stress increases AT1R mRNA expression via TIA-1-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Backlund, Michael; Paukku, Kirsi; Kontula, Kimmo K.; Lehtonen, Jukka Y.A.

    2016-01-01

    As the formation of ribonucleoprotein complexes is a major mechanism of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) regulation, we sought to identify novel AT1R mRNA binding proteins. By affinity purification and mass spectroscopy, we identified TIA-1. This interaction was confirmed by colocalization of AT1R mRNA and TIA-1 by FISH and immunofluorescence microscopy. In immunoprecipitates of endogenous TIA- 1, reverse transcription-PCR amplified AT1R mRNA. TIA-1 has two binding sites within AT1R 3′-UTR. The binding site proximal to the coding region is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-dependent whereas the distal binding site is not. TIA-1 functions as a part of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response leading to stress granule (SG) formation and translational silencing. We and others have shown that AT1R expression is increased by ER stress-inducing factors. In unstressed cells, TIA-1 binds to AT1R mRNA and decreases AT1R protein expression. Fluorescence microscopy shows that ER stress induced by thapsigargin leads to the transfer of TIA-1 to SGs. In FISH analysis AT1R mRNA remains in the cytoplasm and no longer colocalizes with TIA-1. Thus, release of TIA-1-mediated suppression by ER stress increases AT1R protein expression. In conclusion, AT1R mRNA is regulated by TIA-1 in a ER stress-dependent manner. PMID:26681690

  10. Cytochrome P450IA mRNA expression in feral Hudson River tomcod

    SciT

    Kreamer, G.L.; Squibb, K.; Gioeli, D.

    1991-06-01

    The authors sought to determine if levels of cytochrome P450IA gene expression are environmentally induced in feral populations of Hudson River tomcod, a cancer prone fish, and whether laboratory exposure of tomcod to artificially spiked and naturally contaminated Hudson sediments can elicit a significant response. Using Northern blot analysis, they found levels of P450IA mRNA in tomcod collected from two Hudson River sites higher than those in tomcod from a river in Maine. Depuration of environmentally induced Hudson tomcod P450IA mRNA was rapid, with an initial detectable decline in P450 gene expression by 8 hr and basal levels reached bymore » 5 days. Intraperitoneal injection of {beta}-napthoflavone in depurated Hudson tomcod resulted in a 15-fold induction of P450 gene expression within 26 hr. Exposure of depurated Hudson tomcod to natural sediment spiked with two PAHs resulted in a 7-fold induction of P450 gene expression. Exposure of depurated tomcod to sediment from a contaminated Hudson site also resulted in a 7- to 15-fold induction of P450IA mRNA expression. Northern blot analysis revealed a second polymorphic cytochrome P450IA mRNA band in some tomcod which was also detected by Southern blot analysis. Induction of cytochrome P450IA mRNA in Atlantic tomcod may provide a sensitive biomarker of environmentally relevant concentrations of some pollutants in the Hudson and other northeastern tidal rivers.« less

  11. Microarray mRNA expression analysis of Fanconi anemia fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Galetzka, D; Weis, E; Rittner, G; Schindler, D; Haaf, T

    2008-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) cells are generally hypersensitive to DNA cross-linking agents, implying that mutations in the different FANC genes cause a similar DNA repair defect(s). By using a customized cDNA microarray chip for DNA repair- and cell cycle-associated genes, we identified three genes, cathepsin B (CTSB), glutaredoxin (GLRX), and polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2), that were misregulated in untreated primary fibroblasts from three unrelated FA-D2 patients, compared to six controls. Quantitative real-time RT PCR was used to validate these results and to study possible molecular links between FA-D2 and other FA subtypes. GLRX was misregulated to opposite directions in a variety of different FA subtypes. Increased CTSB and decreased PLK2 expression was found in all or almost all of the analyzed complementation groups and, therefore, may be related to the defective FA pathway. Transcriptional upregulation of the CTSB proteinase appears to be a secondary phenomenon due to proliferation differences between FA and normal fibroblast cultures. In contrast, PLK2 is known to play a pivotal role in processes that are linked to FA defects and may contribute in multiple ways to the FA phenotype: PLK2 is a target gene for TP53, is likely to function as a tumor suppressor gene in hematologic neoplasia, and Plk2(-/-) mice are small because of defective embryonal development. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Detection of MDR1 mRNA expression with optimized gold nanoparticle beacon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qiumei; Qian, Zhiyu; Gu, Yueqing

    2016-03-01

    MDR1 (multidrug resistance gene) mRNA expression is a promising biomarker for the prediction of doxorubicin resistance in clinic. However, the traditional technical process in clinic is complicated and cannot perform the real-time detection mRNA in living single cells. In this study, the expression of MDR1 mRNA was analyzed based on optimized gold nanoparticle beacon in tumor cells. Firstly, gold nanoparticle (AuNP) was modified by thiol-PEG, and the MDR1 beacon sequence was screened and optimized using a BLAST bioinformatics strategy. Then, optimized MDR1 molecular beacons were characterized by transmission electron microscope, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies. The cytotoxicity of MDR1 molecular beacon on L-02, K562 and K562/Adr cells were investigated by MTT assay, suggesting that MDR1 molecular beacon was low inherent cytotoxicity. Dark field microscope was used to investigate the cellular uptake of hDAuNP beacon assisted with ultrasound. Finally, laser scanning confocal microscope images showed that there was a significant difference in MDR1 mRNA expression in K562 and K562/Adr cells, which was consistent with the results of q-PCR measurement. In summary, optimized MDR1 molecular beacon designed in this study is a reliable strategy for detection MDR1 mRNA expression in living tumor cells, and will be a promising strategy for in guiding patient treatment and management in individualized medication.

  13. Increased Expression of Interleukin-18 mRNA is Associated with Carotid Artery Stenosis

    PubMed

    Arapi, Berk; Bayoğlu, Burcu; Cengiz, Müjgan; Dirican, Ahmet; Deser, Serkan Burç; Junusbekov, Yerik; Arslan, Caner

    2018-05-29

    Carotid artery stenosis is the atherosclerotic narrowing of the proximal internal carotid artery and one of the primary causes of stroke. Elevated expression of the pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 has been demonstrated in human atherosclerotic plaques. To investigate whether the mRNA expression levels of interleukin-18 and interleukin-18-binding protein and interleukin-18 −137 G/C (rs187238) variants are associated with carotid artery stenosis development. Case-control study. The mRNA expression levels of interleukin-18 and interleukin-18-binding protein and interleukin-18 rs187238 variants were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively, in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 70 patients with carotid artery stenosis (36 symptomatic, 34 asymptomatic) and 75 healthy controls. Interleukin-18 mRNA expression was significantly increased in carotid artery stenosis patients compared to that in healthy controls (p=0.01). However, no significant difference was observed between interleukin-18-binding protein mRNA expression levels in patients with carotid artery stenosis and those in controls (p=0.101). Internal carotid artery stenosis severity was significantly higher in symptomatic patients than that in asymptomatic patients (p<0.001). A significant relationship was identified between interleukin-18 expression and internal carotid artery stenosis severity in patients with carotid artery stenosis (p=0.051). Interleukin-18 rs187238 polymorphism genotype frequencies did not significantly differ between patients with carotid artery stenosis and controls (p=0.246). A significant difference was identified between interleukin-18-binding protein gene expression and symptomatic and asymptomatic patients (p=0.026), but there was no difference in interleukin-18 expression between the symptomatic and asymptomatic subgroups (p=0.397). Interleukin-18 mRNA expression may affect carotid

  14. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate downregulates HSC70 expression by facilitating mRNA degradation.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, R C; Lyons, B M

    2001-07-01

    Intracellular trafficking of the DeltaF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is repaired by sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA) by an undetermined mechanism. 4PBA downregulates protein and mRNA expression of the heat shock cognate protein HSC70 (the constitutively expressed member of the 70-kDa heat shock protein family) by approximately 40-50% and decreases formation of a HSC70-DeltaF508 CFTR complex that may be important in the intracellular degradation of DeltaF508 CFTR. We examined the potential mechanisms by which 4PBA decreases HSC70 mRNA and protein expression. In IB3-1 cells, 1 mM 4PBA did not alter the activity of the Chinese hamster ovary HSC70 promoter or of a human HSC70 promoter fragment in luciferase reporter assays nor did it alter HSC70 mRNA synthesis in nuclear runoff assays. In contrast, preincubation with 4PBA increased the rate of HSC70 mRNA degradation by approximately 40%. The initial rate of 35S-HSC70 protein synthesis in 4PBA-treated IB3-1 cells was reduced by approximately 40%, consistent with the steady-state mRNA level, whereas its rate of degradation was unaltered by 4PBA. 4PBA also reduced the steady-state accumulation of (35)S-HSC70 by approximately 40%. These data suggest that 4PBA decreases the expression of HSC70 mRNA and protein by inducing cellular adaptations that result in the decreased stability of HSC70 mRNA.

  15. Effect of raclopride on dopamine D2 receptor mRNA expression in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kopp, J; Lindefors, N; Brené, S; Hall, H; Persson, H; Sedvall, G

    1992-01-01

    Prolonged treatment with dopamine D2 receptor antagonists is known to elevate the density of dopamine D2 receptor binding sites in caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens in rat and human brain. In this study we used the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist raclopride (3 mumol/kg, s.c.) to determine if a single injection or daily administration of this drug for up to 18 days changed the expression of dopamine D2 receptor mRNA in rat caudate-putamen and accumbens as measured by in situ hybridization. A single injection of raclopride did not significantly change the numerical density of dopamine D2 receptor mRNA-expressing neurons in any of the regions examined. A daily administration of raclopride for 18 days resulted in a 31% increase in the number of cells expressing detectable amounts of dopamine D2 receptor mRNA in dorsolateral caudate-putamen and in a 20% increase in the area of silver grains over individual hybridization-positive neurons in this brain region measured on emulsion-dipped slides. The region-specific increase in the D2 receptor mRNA level in dorsolateral caudate-putamen was confirmed by measurement of the hybridization signal on X-ray film autoradiograms. The levels of D2 receptor mRNA remained unchanged in medial caudate-putamen and accumbens after 18 days' treatment. The region-selective increase in dopamine D2 receptor mRNA expression in dorsolateral caudate-putamen indicates a differential regulation of dopamine D2 receptor mRNA expression in a subpopulation of caudate-putamen neurons by this neuroleptic. We suggest that the increase in dopamine D2 receptor density in caudate-putamen known to follow prolonged dopamine D2 receptor blockade to some extent is regulated at the level of gene expression.

  16. Gnrh mRNA expression in the brain of cooperatively breeding female Damaraland mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Cornelia; Bennett, Nigel C

    2017-04-01

    The Damaraland mole-rat ( Fukomys damarensis ) is a eusocial, subterranean rodent, in which breeding is limited to a single reproductive pair within each colony. Non-reproductive females, while in the confines of the colony, exhibit socially induced infertility. Anovulation is thought to be caused by a disruption in the normal gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) secretion from the hypothalamus. To assess whether social suppression is associated with altered Gnrh mRNA expression in the brain, we investigated the distribution and gene expression levels by means of in situ hybridization in female breeders and non-breeders from field captured colonies of the Damaraland mole-rat. We found expression of Gnrh mRNA as a loose network in several forebrain areas of female Damaraland mole-rats with the majority of labelling in the preoptic and anterior hypothalamus. The distribution matched previous findings using immunocytochemistry in this and other social mole-rat species. Quantification of the hybridisation signal revealed no difference between breeding and non-breeding females in the average optical density of the hybridization signal and the size of the total area covered by Gnrh mRNA. However, analysis along the rostro-caudal axis revealed significantly elevated Gnrh mRNA expression in the rostral preoptic region of breeders compared to non-breeders, whereas the latter had increased Gnrh mRNA expression at the caudal level of the anterior hypothalamus. This study indicates that social suppression affects the expression of Gnrh mRNA in female Damaraland mole-rats. Furthermore, differential regulation occurs within different neuron subpopulations. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  17. Promoter methylation, mRNA expression of goat tumor‑associated genes and mRNA expression of DNA methyltransferase in enzootic nasal tumors.

    PubMed

    Quan, Zifang; Ye, Ni; Hao, Zhongxiang; Wen, Caifang; Liao, Hong; Zhang, Manli; Luo, Lu; Cao, Sanjie; Wen, Xintian; Wu, Rui; Yan, Qigui

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the promoter methylation status and mRNA expression of goat tumor‑associated genes, in addition to the mRNA expression of DNA methyltransferase genes in enzootic nasal tumors (ENT). Methylation‑specific polymerase chain reaction and SYBR Green reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to detect the methylation status and the mRNA expression levels of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), O6‑methylguanine‑DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), the tumor suppressor genes P73, P53, GADD45G, CHFR and THBS1, the transcription factor CEBPA, the proto‑oncogenes KRAS, NRAS and C‑myc and EGFR in 24 nasal tumor tissue samples and 20 normal nasal epithelia tissue samples. The associations between promoter methylation and DNMT, and promoter methylation and mRNA expression of the genes were analyzed. The results indicated that the expression levels of DNMT1 increased by 56% compared with those in normal nasal epithelial tissues, while MGMT, DNMT3a and DNMT3b had similar expression levels in the two tissue types. The expression levels of P53 decreased by 36.8% and those of THBS1 by 43%, while C‑myc increased by 2.9‑fold and CEBPA by 2‑fold compared with that in normal nasal epithelial tissues. GADD45G, P73, CHFR and NRAS were observed to have similar expression levels in the two tissue types. However, no expression was observed for EGFR and KRAS. CHFR, GADD45G and THBS1 were identified to be methylated in tumor suppressor genes. The methylation expression rate of the CHFR gene was ~60% in the two tissue types and for THBS1 it was 100% in the nasal tumor tissues as opposed to 20% in the normal nasal epithelial tissues. The exhaustive methylation expression rate of GADD45G was 62.5% and the partial methylation expression rate was 37.5% in nasal tumor tissue, while no methylation was observed in normal nasal epithelial tissues. C‑myc was the only gene identified to be methylated amongst proto

  18. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling in grape berry tissues

    PubMed Central

    Grimplet, Jerome; Deluc, Laurent G; Tillett, Richard L; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Cramer, Grant R; Cushman, John C

    2007-01-01

    Background Berries of grape (Vitis vinifera) contain three major tissue types (skin, pulp and seed) all of which contribute to the aroma, color, and flavor characters of wine. The pericarp, which is composed of the exocarp (skin) and mesocarp (pulp), not only functions to protect and feed the developing seed, but also to assist in the dispersal of the mature seed by avian and mammalian vectors. The skin provides volatile and nonvolatile aroma and color compounds, the pulp contributes organic acids and sugars, and the seeds provide condensed tannins, all of which are important to the formation of organoleptic characteristics of wine. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on each tissue of mature berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0. In order to monitor the influence of water-deficit stress on tissue-specific expression patterns, mRNA expression profiles were also compared from mature berries harvested from vines subjected to well-watered or water-deficit conditions. Results Overall, berry tissues were found to express approximately 76% of genes represented on the Vitis microarray. Approximately 60% of these genes exhibited significant differential expression in one or more of the three major tissue types with more than 28% of genes showing pronounced (2-fold or greater) differences in mRNA expression. The largest difference in tissue-specific expression was observed between the seed and pulp/skin. Exocarp tissue, which is involved in pathogen defense and pigment production, showed higher mRNA abundance relative to other berry tissues for genes involved with flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogen resistance, and cell wall modification. Mesocarp tissue, which is considered a nutritive tissue, exhibited a higher mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell wall function and

  19. Expression of CD30 mRNA, CD30L mRNA and a variant form of CD30 mRNA in restimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with helminthic infections resembling a Th2 disease

    PubMed Central

    Kilwinski, J; Berger, T; Mpalaskas, J; Reuter, S; Flick, W; Kern, P

    1999-01-01

    It has been proposed that CD30, a member of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, is preferentially up-regulated on Th2-type human T cells. In order to investigate a correlation between infection with Echinococcus multilocularis and CD30 expression, we analysed regulation of CD30 mRNA, a variant form of CD30 mRNA (CD30v) and CD30 ligand (CD30L) mRNA expression on PBMC from patients with alveolar echinococcosis (AE) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In PBMC of patients with AE as well as healthy donors, spontaneous expression of CD30L mRNA and the CD30v mRNA could be detected. However, the intact form of CD30 mRNA could be detected neither in freshly isolated PBMC of patients nor in PBMC of healthy individuals. Expression of CD30L mRNA and the variant form of CD30 mRNA was frequently detected at individual time points during 72 h of culture of PBMC stimulated with crude Echinococcus antigen. In contrast to CD30v or CD30L mRNA expression, induction of CD30 mRNA expression was detected only in three out of six (50%) healthy donors and in 10 out of 21 (48%) patients with alveolar echinococcosis after 72 h of incubation. As a control, mitogenic stimulation of PBMC of both healthy individuals and infected patients led to expression of intact CD30 mRNA within 24 h of culture. These data demonstrate the different expression of two different forms of CD30 mRNA in PBMC of human individuals. The specific induction of CD30 expression is correlated only in rare cases with the clinical status of patients with AE, indicating the lack of a general induction of CD30 mRNA in this Th2-type-dominated helminthic disease. The data provide further evidence that the CD30 receptor is not an exclusive marker for a Th2-type response. PMID:9933429

  20. Heparanase mRNA expression and point mutation in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Peng; Liu, Yin-Bib; Rui, Jing; Peng, Shu-You; Peng, Cheng-Hong; Zhou, Zi-Yan; Shi, Liang-Hui; Shen, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bin

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression of heparanase mRNA and point mutation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the expression of heparanase mRNA in the primary tumor tissues and surrounding liver tissues of 33 HCC patients. T-A cloning and sequencing were used to detect whether there was any mutation in the amplified PCR products. RESULTS: The expression of heparanase mRNA was positive in 16 primary tumor tissues of HCC, and the positive rate was 48.5%, which was significantly higher than that in the surrounding liver parenchyma (P < 0.01). The positive rate for heparanase gene in high-tendency to metastatic recurrence group (71.4%, 10/14) was obviously higher than that in low-tendency to metastatic recurrence group (31.6%, 6/19) (P = 0.023). The positive rate for heparanase gene in patients with metastatic recurrence during postoperative follow-up (78.6%, 11/14) was also significantly higher than that in those without metastatic recurrence (21.4%, 3/14) (P = 0.003). Sequence analysis of the HPA PCR products was made in 7 patients, and 2-point mutations were found in 4 patients, one of which was sense mutation, neither base insertion nor deletion was detected. The mutation rate was 57.1% (4/7). CONCLUSION: The expression rate of heparanase mRNA increases in HCC, and HPA mRNA may be one of the reliable markers for the metastatic activity gained by the liver tumor cells and could be used clinically in predicting metastatic recurrence of HCC. Point mutation may be one of the causes for enhanced heparanase mRNA expression. PMID:15334672

  1. Examining FKBP5 mRNA expression in human iPSC-derived neural cells

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Richard; Kranzler, Henry R.; Levine, Eric S.; Covault, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In peripheral blood leukocytes, FKBP5 mRNA expression is upregulated following glucocorticoid receptor activation. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs1360780 in FKBP5 is associated with psychiatric illness and has functional molecular effects. However, examination of FKBP5 regulation has largely been limited to peripheral cells, which may not reflect regulation in neural cells. We used 27 human induced pluripotent stem cell lines (iPSCs) derived from 20 subjects to examine FKBP5 mRNA expression following GR activation. Following differentiation into forebrain-lineage neural cultures, cells were exposed to 1μM dexamethasone and mRNA expression of FKBP5 and NR3C1 analyzed. Results from the iPSC-derived neural cells were compared with those from 15 donor matched fibroblast lines. Following dexamethasone treatment, there was a 670% increase in FKBP5 expression in fibroblasts, mimicking findings in peripheral blood-derived cells, but only a 23% increase in iPSC-derived neural cultures. FKBP5 rs1360780 genotype did not affect the induction of FKBP5 mRNA in either fibroblasts or neural cells. These results suggest that iPSC-derived forebrain-lineage neurons may not be an optimal neural cell type in which to examine relationships between GR activation, FKBP5 expression, and genetic variation in human subjects. Further, FKBP5 induction following GR activation may differ between cell types derived from the same individual. PMID:27915167

  2. Decreased TIM-3 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from nephropathy patients.

    PubMed

    Cai, X Z; Liu, N; Qiao, Y; Du, S Y; Chen, Y; Chen, D; Yu, S; Jiang, Y

    2015-06-12

    Increasing evidence shows that TIM-1 and TIM-3 in-fluence chronic autoimmune diseases, and their expression levels in immune cells from nephritic patients are still unknown. Real-time transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to deter-mine expression levels of TIM-1 and TIM-3 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 36 patients with minimal change glo-merulopathy (MCG), 65 patients with lupus nephritis (LN), 78 patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), 55 patients with membranous nephropa-thy (MN), 22 patients with crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN), 26 patients with anaphylactoid purpura nephritis (APN), and 63 healthy controls. TIM-3 mRNA expression significantly decreased in PBMCs from nephritic patients (LN, P < 0.0001; MCG, P < 0.0001; MN, P = 0.0031; CGN, P = 0.0464; IgAN, P = 0.0002; APN, P = 0.0392) com-pared with healthy controls. In contrast, there was no significant differ-ence in TIM-1 mRNA expression between the patients and the healthy controls. Our results suggest that insufficient expression of TIM-3 mRNA may be involved in the pathogenesis of nephropathy.

  3. Orotate phosphoribosyl transferase mRNA expression and the response of cholangiocarcinoma to 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Hahnvajanawong, Chariya; Chaiyagool, Jariya; Seubwai, Wunchana; Bhudhisawasdi, Vajarabhongsa; Namwat, Nisana; Khuntikeo, Narong; Sripa, Banchob; Pugkhem, Ake; Tassaneeyakul, Wichittra

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether expression of certain enzymes related to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) metabolism predicts 5-FU chemosensitivity in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). METHODS: The histoculture drug response assay (HDRA) was performed using surgically resected CCA tissues. Tumor cell viability was determined morphologically with hematoxylin and eosin- and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-stained tissues. The mRNA expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP), orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT), thymidylate synthase (TS), and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) was determined with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The levels of gene expression and the sensitivity to 5-FU were evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty-three CCA tissues were obtained from patients who had been diagnosed with intrahepatic CCA and who underwent surgical resection at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University from 2007 to 2009. HDRA was used to determine the response of these CCA tissues to 5-FU. Based on the dose-response curve, 200 μg/mL 5-FU was selected as the test concentration. The percentage of inhibition index at the median point was selected as the cut-off point to differentiate the responding and non-responding tumors to 5-FU. When the relationship between TP, OPRT, TS and DPD mRNA expression levels and the sensitivity of CCA tissues to 5-FU was examined, only OPRT mRNA expression was significantly correlated with the response to 5-FU. The mean expression level of OPRT was significantly higher in the responder group compared to the non-responder group (0.41 ± 0.25 vs 0.22 ± 0.12, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: OPRT mRNA expression may be a useful predictor of 5-FU chemosensitivity of CCA. Whether OPRT mRNA could be used to predict the success of 5-FU chemotherapy in CCA patients requires confirmation in patients. PMID:22912546

  4. Multidimensional quantitative analysis of mRNA expression within intact vertebrate embryos.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Vikas; Choi, Harry M T; Fraser, Scott E; Pierce, Niles A

    2018-01-08

    For decades, in situ hybridization methods have been essential tools for studies of vertebrate development and disease, as they enable qualitative analyses of mRNA expression in an anatomical context. Quantitative mRNA analyses typically sacrifice the anatomy, relying on embryo microdissection, dissociation, cell sorting and/or homogenization. Here, we eliminate the trade-off between quantitation and anatomical context, using quantitative in situ hybridization chain reaction (qHCR) to perform accurate and precise relative quantitation of mRNA expression with subcellular resolution within whole-mount vertebrate embryos. Gene expression can be queried in two directions: read-out from anatomical space to expression space reveals co-expression relationships in selected regions of the specimen; conversely, read-in from multidimensional expression space to anatomical space reveals those anatomical locations in which selected gene co-expression relationships occur. As we demonstrate by examining gene circuits underlying somitogenesis, quantitative read-out and read-in analyses provide the strengths of flow cytometry expression analyses, but by preserving subcellular anatomical context, they enable bi-directional queries that open a new era for in situ hybridization. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Changes in beta-actin mRNA expression in remodeling canine myocardium.

    PubMed

    Carlyle, W C; Toher, C A; Vandervelde, J R; McDonald, K M; Homans, D C; Cohn, J N

    1996-01-01

    Beta-actin, a cytoskeletal protein important in the maintenance of cytoarchitecture, has long been thought to be expressed constitutively in myocardial tissue. As such, beta-actin mRNA has been used as a control gene in a wide range of experiments. However, we have uncovered consistent changes in beta-actin mRNA expression in canine myocardium remodeling as a result of insult to the left ventricle. The experimental canine models used were either DC shock damage to the left ventricle or volume overload resulting from severe mitral regurgitation. The remodeling process in both canine models is characterized by an increase in left ventricular mass. PCR amplification using primers designed to selectively amplify the 3' end and a portion of the 3' untranslated region of beta-actin mRNA resulted in the generation of a 297 base pair product predominant only in normal canine myocardium and a 472 base pair product that became increasingly prominent from 1 to 30 days after DC shock damage to the left ventricle and from 10 to 90 days after creation of mitral regurgitation. Northern analysis showed a three-fold increase in beta-actin mRNA after either DC shock or creation of mitral regurgitation. Western analysis revealed an early increase in beta-actin protein followed by an apparent decrease to below baseline levels. These observations suggest that changes in beta-actin mRNA expression accompany the structural alterations that occur in response to myocardial damage. Whether or not the changes in beta-actin mRNA expression play a role in mediating these structural alterations remains to be determined.

  6. Replenishment of RANTES mRNA expression in activated eosinophils fromatopic asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Velazquez, J R; Lacy, P; Moqbel, R

    2000-01-01

    Eosinophils have been shown to express the gene encoding regulated upon activation, normal T‐cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), a potent eosinophilotactic chemokine. RANTES protein expression in eosinophils has previously been shown to be up‐regulated by a number of agonists, including complement‐dependent factors (C3b/iC3b) and interferon‐γ (IFN‐γ). We hypothesized that gene expression of RANTES is regulated in these cells by eosinophil‐specific agonists. We analysed RANTES mRNA expression by reverse‐transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR) in human peripheral blood eosinophils obtained from mild atopic asthmatics following stimulation over time. In resting eosinophils, a low level of RANTES mRNA was found to be constitutively expressed in all the atopic donors tested in this study (n = 6). Following stimulation with C3b/iC3b (serum‐coated surfaces), eosinophils released measurable levels of RANTES, while sustained transcript expression was detected for up to 24 hr of stimulation. In contrast, IFN‐γ (5 ng/ml) transiently and significantly (P < 0·05, n = 3) depleted relative amounts of RANTES PCR product (compared with β2‐microglobulin) after 1–4 hr of stimulation. RANTES transcript was again detectable after 24 hr of IFN‐γ incubation, suggesting that the pool of RANTES mRNA had been replenished. Other eosinophil‐active cytokines, interleukin‐3 (IL‐3), IL‐4, IL‐5 and granulocyte–macrophage colony‐stimulating factor, did not appear to modulate RANTES mRNA expression after 1 hr of incubation. The effect of IFN‐γ on RANTES mRNA was reversed by cycloheximide, suggesting that IFN‐γ may act by increasing the rate of translation of RANTES mRNA. These findings indicate that IFN‐γ may induce a rapid and transient effect on the translation and replenishment of RANTES mRNA in eosinophils. This novel observation supports the notion that eosinophils have the potential to replenish their stored and released

  7. Differences in expression of retinal pigment epithelium mRNA between normal canines

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A reference database of differences in mRNA expression in normal healthy canine retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) has been established. This database identifies non-informative differences in mRNA expression that can be used in screening canine RPE for mutations associated with clinical effects on vision. Complementary DNA (cDNA) pools were prepared from mRNA harvested from RPE, amplified by PCR, and used in a subtractive hybridization protocol (representational differential analysis) to identify differences in RPE mRNA expression between canines. The effect of relatedness of the test canines on the frequency of occurrence of differences was evaluated by using 2 unrelated canines for comparison with 2 female sibling canines of blue heeler/bull terrier lineage. Differentially expressed cDNA species were cloned, sequenced, and identified by comparison to public database entries. The most frequently observed differentially expressed sequence from the unrelated canine comparison was cDNA with 21 base pairs (bp) identical to the human epithelial membrane protein 1 gene (present in 8 of 20 clones). Different clones from the same-sex sibling RPE contained repetitions of several short sequence motifs including the human epithelial membrane protein 1 (4 of 25 clones). Other prevalent differences between sibling RPE included sequences similar to a chicken genetic marker sequence motif (5 of 25), and 6 clones with homology to porcine major histocompatibility loci. In addition to identifying several repetitively occurring, noninformative, differentially expressed RPE mRNA species, the findings confirm that fewer differences occurred between siblings, highlighting the importance of using closely related subjects in representational difference analysis studies. PMID:15352545

  8. Neutrophil elastase increases MUC5AC mRNA and protein expression in respiratory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Voynow, J A; Young, L R; Wang, Y; Horger, T; Rose, M C; Fischer, B M

    1999-05-01

    Chronic neutrophil-predominant inflammation and hypersecretion of mucus are common pathophysiological features of cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, and viral- or pollution-triggered asthma. Neutrophils release elastase, a serine protease, that causes increased mucin production and secretion. The molecular mechanisms of elastase-induced mucin production are unknown. We hypothesized that as part of this mechanism, elastase upregulates expression of a major respiratory mucin gene, MUC5AC. A549, a human lung carcinoma cell line that expresses MUC5AC mRNA and protein, and normal human bronchial epithelial cells in an air-liquid interface culture were stimulated with neutrophil elastase. Neutrophil elastase increased MUC5AC mRNA levels in a time-dependent manner in both cell culture systems. Neutrophil elastase treatment also increased MUC5AC protein levels in A549 cells. The mechanism of MUC5AC gene regulation by elastase was determined in A549 cells. The induction of MUC5AC gene expression required serine protease activity; other classes of proteases had no effect on MUC5AC gene expression. Neutrophil elastase increased MUC5AC mRNA levels by enhancing mRNA stability. This is the first report of mucin gene regulation by this mechanism.

  9. EXPRESSION OF AHR AND ARNT MRNA IN CULTURED HUMAN ENDOMETRIAL EXPLANTS EXPOSED TO TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Expression of AhR and ARNT mRNA in cultured human endometrial explants exposed to TCDD.

    Pitt JA, Feng L, Abbott BD, Schmid J, Batt RE, Costich TG, Koury ST, Bofinger DP.

    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

    Endom...

  10. Use of mRNA expression signatures to discover small molecule inhibitors of skeletal muscle atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Christopher M.; Ebert, Scott M.; Dyle, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Here, we discuss a recently developed experimental strategy for discovering small molecules with potential to prevent and treat skeletal muscle atrophy. Recent findings Muscle atrophy involves and requires widespread changes in skeletal muscle gene expression, which generate complex but measurable patterns of positive and negative changes in skeletal muscle mRNA levels (a.k.a. mRNA expression signatures of muscle atrophy). Many bioactive small molecules generate their own characteristic mRNA expression signatures, and by identifying small molecules whose signatures approximate mirror images of muscle atrophy signatures, one may identify small molecules with potential to prevent and/or reverse muscle atrophy. Unlike a conventional drug discovery approach, this strategy does not rely on a predefined molecular target but rather exploits the complexity of muscle atrophy to identify small molecules that counter the entire spectrum of pathological changes in atrophic muscle. We discuss how this strategy has been used to identify two natural compounds, ursolic acid and tomatidine, that reduce muscle atrophy and improve skeletal muscle function. Summary Discovery strategies based on mRNA expression signatures can elucidate new approaches for preserving and restoring muscle mass and function. PMID:25807353

  11. Use of mRNA expression signatures to discover small molecule inhibitors of skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Adams, Christopher M; Ebert, Scott M; Dyle, Michael C

    2015-05-01

    Here, we discuss a recently developed experimental strategy for discovering small molecules with potential to prevent and treat skeletal muscle atrophy. Muscle atrophy involves and requires widespread changes in skeletal muscle gene expression, which generate complex but measurable patterns of positive and negative changes in skeletal muscle mRNA levels (a.k.a. mRNA expression signatures of muscle atrophy). Many bioactive small molecules generate their own characteristic mRNA expression signatures, and by identifying small molecules whose signatures approximate mirror images of muscle atrophy signatures, one may identify small molecules with potential to prevent and/or reverse muscle atrophy. Unlike a conventional drug discovery approach, this strategy does not rely on a predefined molecular target but rather exploits the complexity of muscle atrophy to identify small molecules that counter the entire spectrum of pathological changes in atrophic muscle. We discuss how this strategy has been used to identify two natural compounds, ursolic acid and tomatidine, that reduce muscle atrophy and improve skeletal muscle function. Discovery strategies based on mRNA expression signatures can elucidate new approaches for preserving and restoring muscle mass and function.

  12. UCP2 mRNA expression is dependent on glucose metabolism in pancreatic islets

    SciT

    Dalgaard, Louise T., E-mail: ltd@ruc.dk; Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UCP2 mRNA levels are decreased in islets of Langerhans from glucokinase deficient mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UCP2 mRNA up-regulation by glucose is dependent on glucokinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of UCP2 increases GSIS of glucokinase heterozygous pancreatic islets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This may protect glucokinase deficient mice from hyperglycemic damages. -- Abstract: Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) is expressed in the pancreatic {beta}-cell, where it partially uncouples the mitochondrial proton gradient, decreasing both ATP-production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Increased glucose levels up-regulate UCP2 mRNA and protein levels, but the mechanism for UCP2 up-regulation in response to increased glucose is unknown. The aim was tomore » examine the effects of glucokinase (GK) deficiency on UCP2 mRNA levels and to characterize the interaction between UCP2 and GK with regard to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. UCP2 mRNA expression was reduced in GK+/- islets and GK heterozygosity prevented glucose-induced up-regulation of islet UCP2 mRNA. In contrast to UCP2 protein function UCP2 mRNA regulation was not dependent on superoxide generation, but rather on products of glucose metabolism, because MnTBAP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, did not prevent the glucose-induced up-regulation of UCP2. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in UCP2-/- and GK+/- islets compared with GK+/- islets and UCP2 deficiency improved glucose tolerance of GK+/- mice. Accordingly, UCP2 deficiency increased ATP-levels of GK+/- mice. Thus, the compensatory down-regulation of UCP2 is involved in preserving the insulin secretory capacity of GK mutant mice and might also be implicated in limiting disease progression in MODY2 patients.« less

  13. Influenza A viruses suppress cyclooxygenase-2 expression by affecting its mRNA stability.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Sabine Eva; Nitzsche, Katja; Ludwig, Stephan; Ehrhardt, Christina

    2016-06-06

    Infection with influenza A viruses (IAV) provokes activation of cellular defence mechanisms contributing to the innate immune and inflammatory response. In this process the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an important role in the induction of prostaglandin-dependent inflammation. While it has been reported that COX-2 is induced upon IAV infection, in the present study we observed a down-regulation at later stages of infection suggesting a tight regulation of COX-2 by IAV. Our data indicate the pattern-recognition receptor RIG-I as mediator of the initial IAV-induced COX-2 synthesis. Nonetheless, during on-going IAV replication substantial suppression of COX-2 mRNA and protein synthesis could be detected, accompanied by a decrease in mRNA half-life. Interestingly, COX-2 mRNA stability was not only imbalanced by IAV replication but also by stimulation of cells with viral RNA. Our results reveal tristetraprolin (TTP), which is known to bind COX-2 mRNA and promote its rapid degradation, as regulator of COX-2 expression in IAV infection. During IAV replication and viral RNA accumulation TTP mRNA synthesis was induced, resulting in reduced COX-2 levels. Accordingly, the down-regulation of TTP resulted in increased COX-2 protein expression after IAV infection. These findings indicate a novel IAV-regulated cellular mechanism, contributing to the repression of host defence and therefore facilitating viral replication.

  14. Expression and regulation of Icer mRNA in the Syrian hamster pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Elena; Garidou, Marie-Laure; Dardente, Hugues; Salingre, Anthony; Pévet, Paul; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2003-04-10

    Inducible-cAMP early repressor (ICER) is a potent inhibitor of CRE (cAMP-related element)-driven gene transcription. In the rat pineal gland, it has been proposed to be part of the mechanisms involved in the shutting down of the transcription of the gene coding for arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT, the melatonin rhythm-generating enzyme). In this study, we report that ICER is expressed in the pineal gland of the photoperiodic rodent Syrian hamster although with some difference compared to the rat. In the Syrian hamster pineal, Icer mRNA levels, low at daytime, displayed a 20-fold increase during the night. Nighttime administration of a beta-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, significantly reduced Icer mRNA levels although daytime administration of a beta-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, was unable to raise the low amount of Icer mRNA. These observations indicate that Icer mRNA expression is induced by the clock-driven norepinephrine release and further suggest that this stimulation is restricted to nighttime, as already observed for Aa-nat gene transcription. Furthermore, we found that the daily profile of Icer mRNA displayed photoperiodic variation with a lengthening of the nocturnal peak in short versus long photoperiod. These data indicate that ICER may be involved in both daily and seasonal regulation of melatonin synthesis in the Syrian hamster.

  15. Endoplasmic reticulum stress increases AT1R mRNA expression via TIA-1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Backlund, Michael; Paukku, Kirsi; Kontula, Kimmo K; Lehtonen, Jukka Y A

    2016-04-20

    As the formation of ribonucleoprotein complexes is a major mechanism of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) regulation, we sought to identify novel AT1R mRNA binding proteins. By affinity purification and mass spectroscopy, we identified TIA-1. This interaction was confirmed by colocalization of AT1R mRNA and TIA-1 by FISH and immunofluorescence microscopy. In immunoprecipitates of endogenous TIA- 1, reverse transcription-PCR amplified AT1R mRNA. TIA-1 has two binding sites within AT1R 3'-UTR. The binding site proximal to the coding region is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-dependent whereas the distal binding site is not. TIA-1 functions as a part of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response leading to stress granule (SG) formation and translational silencing. We and others have shown that AT1R expression is increased by ER stress-inducing factors. In unstressed cells, TIA-1 binds to AT1R mRNA and decreases AT1R protein expression. Fluorescence microscopy shows that ER stress induced by thapsigargin leads to the transfer of TIA-1 to SGs. In FISH analysis AT1R mRNA remains in the cytoplasm and no longer colocalizes with TIA-1. Thus, release of TIA-1-mediated suppression by ER stress increases AT1R protein expression. In conclusion, AT1R mRNA is regulated by TIA-1 in a ER stress-dependent manner. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Macrophages from Behcet's Disease Patients Express Decreased Level of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) mRNA.

    PubMed

    Palizgir, Mohammad Taghi; Akhtari, Maryam; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Mostafaei, Shayan; Rezaeimanesh, Alireza; Akhlaghi, Massoomeh; Shahram, Farhad

    2017-10-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor, connecting environmental stimulators with the immune system. M1 macrophages are a part of immune system that contribute to the inflammatory events in the pathogenesis of Behcet's disease (BD). The effect of AHR on the macrophages in BD patients is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the mRNA expression of AHR in the monocyte-derived and M1 macrophages in active BD patients in comparison to healthy controls. Isolated monocytes from 10 healthy controls and 10 active BD patients were differentiated to macrophages by macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) for 7 days. Cells were then polarized to M1 macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) for 24h. Monocyte purity and macrophage markers expression were analyzed by flow cytometry. Analysis of AHR mRNA expression was performed by SYBR Green real-time PCR. Our results showed that AHR expression is significantly down-regulated in M1 macrophages compare to monocyte-derived macrophages. It was shown that both monocyte-derived macrophages and M1 macrophages from BD patients significantly express lower level of AHR mRNA compared to healthy individuals. Our results demonstrate an anti-inflammatory role for AHR in macrophages, which suggest that decreased AHR expression is associated with pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage and BD susceptibility.

  17. Expression and significance of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA in benign and malignant ascites

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Li, Xiao-Feng; Kong, Li-Xia; Ma, Lin; Liao, Su-Huan; Jiang, Chang-You

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mRNA expression of cyclooxygensae-2 (COX-2) in benign and malignant ascites, and to explore the difference in COX-2 mRNA expression among different diseases. METHODS: A total of 36 samples were collected from the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University and divided into two experimental groups: benign ascites (n = 21) and malignant ascites (n = 15). Benign ascites included cirrhotic ascites (n = 10) and tuberculous ascites (n = 5). Malignant ascites included oophoroma (n = 7), cancer of colon (n = 5), cancer of the liver (n = 6), gastric cancer (n = 2), and bladder carcinoma (n = 1). The mRNA expression of COX-2 in ascites was examined with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology, and the positive rate of COX-2 mRNA was compared between different diseases. RESULTS: The positive rate of COX-2 mRNA in malignant ascites was 42.9% (9/21), which was significantly higher than in benign ascites, 6.7% (1/15), difference being significant between these two groups (χ2 = 4.051, P = 0.044). The proportion of the positive rate in the malignant ascites was as follows: ovarian cancers 57.1% (4/7), colon cancer 40.0% (2/5), liver cancer 33.3% (2/6), gastric cancer 50.0% (1/2), and bladder cancer 0.00% (0/1). However, there was no significant difference in COX-2 mRNA expression among various tumors with malignant ascites (χ2 = 1.614, P = 0.806). Among the benign ascites, COX-2 mRNA levels were different between the tuberculous ascites (0/5) and cirrhotic ascites (1/10), but there was no significant difference (P = 1.000). CONCLUSION: COX-2 mRNA, detected by RT-PCR, is useful in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ascites, which also has potential value in the clinical diagnosis of tumors. PMID:24187465

  18. Nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression in human fetal membranes: a possible role in parturition.

    PubMed

    Dennes, W J; Slater, D M; Bennett, P R

    1997-04-07

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent endogenous smooth-muscle relaxant. It is synthesised from 1-arginine by isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Whilst it is clear that the uterus responds to NO by relaxation, NOS expression has not been investigated in fetal membranes or myometrium in human pregnancy. This study has shown, using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, expression of cNOS mRNA in human amnion, chorion-decidua, and placenta. iNOS mRNA expression was demonstrated in human amnion, chorion-decidua, and placenta. It is possible that NO synthesised in fetal membranes may act either directly to inhibit myometrial contractility or indirectly to interact with other labour-associated genes, such as cyclo-oxygenase, to coordinate the onset of labour.

  19. Impact of gastro-esophageal reflux on mucin mRNA expression in the esophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    van Roon, Aafke H C; Mayne, George C; Wijnhoven, Bas P L; Watson, David I; Leong, Mary P; Neijman, Gabriëlle E; Michael, Michael Z; McKay, Andrew R; Astill, David; Hussey, Damian J

    2008-08-01

    Changes in the expression of mucin genes in the esophageal mucosa associated with uncomplicated gastro-esophageal reflux disease have not been evaluated even though such changes could be associated with reflux-induced mucosal damage. We therefore sought to identify reflux-induced changes in mucin gene expression using a cell line and biopsies from the esophageal mucosa in patients with and without reflux. MUC-1, MUC-3, MUC-4, and MUC-5AC gene expressions were investigated in the HET-1A cell line following exposure to acid (pH 4) and/or bile (120 muM of a bile salt milieu), and in esophageal mucosal biopsies from controls, subjects with non-erosive gastro-esophageal reflux, and subjects with reflux associated with ulcerative esophagitis (erosive). The mucosal biopsies were also evaluated for IL-6 mRNA expression (inflammatory marker) and CK-14 mRNA expression (mucosal basal cell layer marker). Gene expression was determined using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. In the cell line studies, there were differences in mRNA levels for all of the evaluated mucins following treatment with either acid or the acid and bile combination. In the studies which evaluated tissue specimens, IL-6 and CK-14 mRNA levels increased according to degree of reflux pathology. The expression of MUC-1 and MUC-4 in mucosa from patients with erosive reflux was lower than in subjects without reflux and in patients with non-erosive reflux, whereas the expression of MUC-3 and MUC-5AC was increased (although these differences did not reach significance at p < 0.05). When mRNA expression data for tissue samples from all groups were combined, significant correlations were identified between IL-6 vs. CK-14 and IL-6 vs. MUC-3, MUC-3 vs. CK-14 and MUC-3 vs. MUC-5AC, and for MUC-1 vs. MUC-5AC. The correlation between IL-6 and CK-14 was also significant within the control and non-erosive reflux groups. The correlation between IL-6 and MUC-3 was significant within the

  20. Developmental expression of VGF mRNA in the prenatal and postnatal rat.

    PubMed

    Snyder, S E; Pintar, J E; Salton, S R

    1998-04-27

    VGF is a developmentally regulated, secretory peptide precursor that is expressed by neurons and neuroendocrine cells and that has its transcription and secretion induced rapidly by neurotrophins and by depolarization. To gain insight into the possible functions and regulation of VGF in vivo, we have characterized the distribution of VGF mRNA in the developing rat nervous system. VGF expression was first detectable at embryonic day 11.5 in the primordia of cranial, sympathetic, and dorsal root ganglia, and its distribution expanded throughout development to include significant expression throughout the brain, spinal cord, and retina of the adult rat. The earliest expression of VGF, therefore, appeared in the peripheral nervous system as developing neurons settled in their designated ganglia. In many regions of the brain, VGF mRNA levels were found to be highest during periods when axonal outgrowth and synaptogenesis predominate. Areas of the central nervous system that contain predominantly dividing cells never displayed any VGF mRNA expression, nor did the vast majority of nonneural tissues.

  1. [Expression of SLP-2 mRNA in endometrial cancer and its significance].

    PubMed

    Feng, Wang-qin; Cui, Zhu-mei; Feng, Feng-zhi; Qi, Xiu-juan; Ding, Fang; Li, Wen-dong; Liu, Zhi-hua

    2005-08-01

    To characterize the differential expression of SLP-2 in endometrial cancer, and to study the effect of human SLP-2 gene on human endometrial cancer cell line. The expression of SLP-2 gene in 32 cases of endometrial cancer and 28 cases of normal endometrial tissues was examined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Eukaryotic expression vectors of sense and antisense SLP-2 were constructed and transfected into HEC-1B cell line using lipofectamine 2000 respectively. The morphological changes of the cell were observed by phase contrast microscopy. The cell growth was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and the cell cycles were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of SLP-2 mRNA in endometrial cancer tissues was higher than that in normal endometrial tissues (1.6 +/- 0.7 vs 0.7 +/- 0.3, P < 0.05). Sense and antisense human SLP-2 constructs were transfected into HEC-1B cell line respectively. After being transfected with sense SLP-2, the expression of SLP-2 mRNA in HEC-1B cell line was increased by about 2.4 times that of the control group, the cell growth was accelerated, and the number of cells in G(1) phase was decreased by 12.5%, S phase was increased by 8.0%. After being transfected with antisense SLP-2, the expression of SLP-2 mRNA was declined 50%. The transfected cells showed slower growth, and the number of cells in G(1) phase was significantly increased by 10.5%, and S phase was declined by 9.8%. SLP-2 mRNA shows up-regulation in endometrial cancer tissues, and it may have some relationship with carcinogenesis of endometrial cancer.

  2. Group II intron inhibits conjugative relaxase expression in bacteria by mRNA targeting.

    PubMed

    Qu, Guosheng; Piazza, Carol Lyn; Smith, Dorie; Belfort, Marlene

    2018-06-15

    Group II introns are mobile ribozymes that are rare in bacterial genomes, often cohabiting with various mobile elements, and seldom interrupting housekeeping genes. What accounts for this distribution has not been well understood. Here, we demonstrate that Ll.LtrB, the group II intron residing in a relaxase gene on a conjugative plasmid from Lactococcus lactis , inhibits its host gene expression and restrains the naturally cohabiting mobile element from conjugative horizontal transfer. We show that reduction in gene expression is mainly at the mRNA level, and results from the interaction between exon-binding sequences (EBSs) in the intron and intron-binding sequences (IBSs) in the mRNA. The spliced intron targets the relaxase mRNA and reopens ligated exons, causing major mRNA loss. Taken together, this study provides an explanation for the distribution and paucity of group II introns in bacteria, and suggests a potential force for those introns to evolve into spliceosomal introns. © 2018, Qu et al.

  3. Group II intron inhibits conjugative relaxase expression in bacteria by mRNA targeting

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Carol Lyn; Smith, Dorie

    2018-01-01

    Group II introns are mobile ribozymes that are rare in bacterial genomes, often cohabiting with various mobile elements, and seldom interrupting housekeeping genes. What accounts for this distribution has not been well understood. Here, we demonstrate that Ll.LtrB, the group II intron residing in a relaxase gene on a conjugative plasmid from Lactococcus lactis, inhibits its host gene expression and restrains the naturally cohabiting mobile element from conjugative horizontal transfer. We show that reduction in gene expression is mainly at the mRNA level, and results from the interaction between exon-binding sequences (EBSs) in the intron and intron-binding sequences (IBSs) in the mRNA. The spliced intron targets the relaxase mRNA and reopens ligated exons, causing major mRNA loss. Taken together, this study provides an explanation for the distribution and paucity of group II introns in bacteria, and suggests a potential force for those introns to evolve into spliceosomal introns. PMID:29905149

  4. Cafeteria feeding induces interleukin-1beta mRNA expression in rat liver and brain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M K; Taishi, P; Chen, Z; Krueger, J M

    1998-06-01

    intake affects gut-immune function and can provide a strong intestinal antigen challenge resulting in activation of host defense mechanisms in the digestive system. Previously, we showed that feeding rats a cafeteria diet increases non-rapid eye movement sleep by a subdiaphragmatic mechanism. Food intake and sleep regulation and the immune system share the regulatory molecule interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). Thus this study examined the effects of a cafeteria diet on IL-1beta mRNA and IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAP) mRNA expression in rat liver and brain. Rats were fed normal rat chow or a palatable diet consisting of bread, chocolate, and shortbread cookies (cafeteria diet). After 3 days, midway between the light period of the light-dark cycle, rats were killed by decapitation. Feeding rats a cafeteria diet resulted in increased IL-1beta mRNA expression in the liver and hypothalamus compared with rats fed only the normal rat chow. In addition, cafeteria feeding decreased IL-1RAP mRNA levels in the liver and brain stem. These results indicate that feeding has direct effects on cytokine production and together with other data suggest that the increased sleep that accompanies increased feeding may be the result of increased brain IL-1beta. These results further suggest that cytokine-to-brain communication may be important in normal physiological conditions, such as feeding, as well as being important during inflammatory responses.

  5. Unmasking Upstream Gene Expression Regulators with miRNA-corrected mRNA Data

    PubMed Central

    Bollmann, Stephanie; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi; Bionaz, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Expressed micro-RNA (miRNA) affects messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance, hindering the accuracy of upstream regulator analysis. Our objective was to provide an algorithm to correct such bias. Large mRNA and miRNA analyses were performed on RNA extracted from bovine liver and mammary tissue. Using four levels of target scores from TargetScan (all miRNA:mRNA target gene pairs or only the top 25%, 50%, or 75%). Using four levels of target scores from TargetScan (all miRNA:mRNA target gene pairs or only the top 25%, 50%, or 75%) and four levels of the magnitude of miRNA effect (ME) on mRNA expression (30%, 50%, 75%, and 83% mRNA reduction), we generated 17 different datasets (including the original dataset). For each dataset, we performed upstream regulator analysis using two bioinformatics tools. We detected an increased effect on the upstream regulator analysis with larger miRNA:mRNA pair bins and higher ME. The miRNA correction allowed identification of several upstream regulators not present in the analysis of the original dataset. Thus, the proposed algorithm improved the prediction of upstream regulators. PMID:27279737

  6. Altered profile of mRNA expression in atrioventricular node of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, Frank Christopher; Parekh, Khatija; Jayaprakash, Petrilla; Inbaraj, Edward Samuel; Oz, Murat; Dobrzynski, Halina; Adrian, Thomas Edward

    2017-01-01

    Prolonged action potential duration, reduced action potential firing rate, upstroke velocity and rate of diastolic depolarization have been demonstrated in atrioventricular node (AVN) cells from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. To further clarify the molecular basis of these electrical disturbances, the mRNA profiles encoding a variety of proteins associated with the generation and conduction of electrical activity in the AVN, were evaluated in the STZ-induced diabetic rat heart. Expression of mRNA was measured in AVN biopsies using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques. Notable differences in mRNA expression included upregulation of genes encoding membrane and intracellular Ca2+ transport, including solute carrier family 8 member A1, transient receptor potential channel 1, ryanodine receptor 2/3, hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide 2 and 3, calcium channel voltage-dependent, β2 subunit and sodium channels 3a, 4a, 7a and 3b. In addition to this, potassium channels potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 4, potassium channel calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N α member 2, potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily J members 3, 5, and 11, potassium channel subfamily K members 1, 2, 3 and natriuretic peptide B (BNP) were upregulated in AVN of STZ heart, compared with controls. Alterations in gene expression were associated with upregulation of various proteins including the inwardly rectifying, potassium channel Kir3.4, NCX1 and BNP. The present study demonstrated notable differences in the profile of mRNA encoding proteins associated with the generation, conduction and regulation of electrical signals in the AVN of the STZ-induced diabetic rat heart. These data will provide a basis for a substantial range of future studies to investigate whether variations in mRNA translate into alterations in electrophysiological function. PMID:28731153

  7. Differential expression of melanopsin mRNA and protein in Brown Norwegian rats.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Jens; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Melanopsin is expressed in a subpopulation of retinal ganglion cells rendering these cells intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs). The ipRGCs are the primary RGCs mediating light entrainment of the circadian clock and control of the pupillary light reflex, light regulated melatonin secretion and negative masking behaviour. Previous studies have demonstrated that melanopsin expression in albino rats is regulated by light and darkness. The present study was undertaken to study the influence of light and darkness during the circadian day and after extended periods of constant light and darkness on melanopsin expression in the pigmented retina of the Brown Norwegian rat (Rattus norvegicus). The diurnal and circadian expressions were examined in retinal extracts from rats euthanized every 4 h during a 24 h light/dark (LD) and a 24 h dark cycle (DD) using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. To study whether light regulates melanopsin expression, rats were sacrificed after being placed in either constant light (LL) or darkness for 3 or 21 d. Flat mount retinas from animals kept during either LL or DD were also examined by immunohistochemistry. Melanopsin mRNA expression displayed a significant rhythmic change during the LD cycle with peak expression around dusk and nadir at dawn. Melanopsin protein also changed over the LD cycle with peak expression at the end of the night and nadir at dusk. Rhythmic expression of melanopsin mRNA but not melanopsin protein was found in constant darkness. After 3 or 21 d in either LL or DD melanopsin mRNA expression was unaltered. Melanopsin protein was at the same high level after 3 and 21 d in DD, whereas a significant decrease was found after prolonging the light period for 3 or 21 d. The change in melanopsin protein was primarily due to change in immunoreactivity in the dendritic processes. In conclusion we found that light and darkness are important for regulation of melanopsin protein expression whereas input from a

  8. Aging alters mRNA expression of amyloid transporter genes at the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Osgood, Doreen; Miller, Miles C; Messier, Arthur A; Gonzalez, Liliana; Silverberg, Gerald D

    2017-09-01

    Decreased clearance of potentially toxic metabolites, due to aging changes, likely plays a significant role in the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides and other macromolecules in the brain of the elderly and in the patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aging is the single most important risk factor for AD development. Aβ transport receptor proteins expressed at the blood-brain barrier are significantly altered with age: the efflux transporters lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and P-glycoprotein are reduced, whereas the influx transporter receptor for advanced glycation end products is increased. These receptors play an important role in maintaining brain biochemical homeostasis. We now report that, in a rat model of aging, gene transcription is altered in aging, as measured by Aβ receptor gene messenger RNA (mRNA) at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20, 30, and 36 months. Gene mRNA expression from isolated cerebral microvessels was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and P-glycoprotein mRNA were significantly reduced in aging, and receptor for advanced glycation end products was increased, in parallel with the changes seen in receptor protein expression. Transcriptional changes appear to play a role in aging alterations in blood-brain barrier receptor expression and Aβ accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rift Valley fever virus NSS gene expression correlates with a defect in nuclear mRNA export.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Anna Maria; Van Deusen, Nicole M; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the localization of host mRNA during Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that infection with RVFV altered the localization of host mRNA. mRNA accumulated in the nuclei of RVFV-infected but not mock-infected cells. Further, overexpression of the NSS gene, but not the N, GN or NSM genes correlated with mRNA nuclear accumulation. Nuclear accumulation of host mRNA was not observed in cells infected with a strain of RVFV lacking the gene encoding NSS, confirming that expression of NSS is likely responsible for this phenomenon. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Correlation of mRNA Expression and Signal Variability in Chronic Intracortical Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Jessica D; Carroll, Sheridan L; Saxena, Tarun; Mandavia, Dev; Clark, Alexus; Yarabarla, Varun; Bellamkonda, Ravi V

    2018-01-01

    The goal for this research was to identify molecular mechanisms that explain animal-to-animal variability in chronic intracortical recordings. Microwire electrodes were implanted into Sprague Dawley rats at an acute (1 week) and a chronic (14 weeks) time point. Weekly recordings were conducted, and action potentials were evoked in the barrel cortex by deflecting the rat's whiskers. At 1 and 14 weeks, tissue was collected, and mRNA was extracted. mRNA expression was compared between 1 and 14 weeks using a high throughput multiplexed qRT-PCR. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between mRNA expression and signal-to-noise ratios at 14 weeks. At 14 weeks, a positive correlation between signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and NeuN and GFAP mRNA expression was observed, indicating a relationship between recording strength and neuronal population, as well as reactive astrocyte activity. The inflammatory state around the electrode interface was evaluated using M1-like and M2-like markers. Expression for both M1-like and M2-like mRNA markers remained steady from 1 to 14 weeks. Anti-inflammatory markers, CD206 and CD163, however, demonstrated a significant positive correlation with SNR quality at 14 weeks. VE-cadherin, a marker for adherens junctions, and PDGFR-β, a marker for pericytes, both partial representatives of blood-brain barrier health, had a positive correlation with SNR at 14 weeks. Endothelial adhesion markers revealed a significant increase in expression at 14 weeks, while CD45, a pan-leukocyte marker, significantly decreased at 14 weeks. No significant correlation was found for either the endothelial adhesion or pan-leukocyte markers. A positive correlation between anti-inflammatory and blood-brain barrier health mRNA markers with electrophysiological efficacy of implanted intracortical electrodes has been demonstrated. These data reveal potential mechanisms for further evaluation to determine potential target mechanisms to improve

  11. Anesthesia for euthanasia influences mRNA expression in healthy mice and after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Staib-Lasarzik, Irina; Kriege, Oliver; Timaru-Kast, Ralph; Pieter, Dana; Werner, Christian; Engelhard, Kristin; Thal, Serge C

    2014-10-01

    Tissue sampling for gene expression analysis is usually performed under general anesthesia. Anesthetics are known to modulate hemodynamics, receptor-mediated signaling cascades, and outcome parameters. The present study determined the influence of anesthetic paradigms typically used for euthanization and tissue sampling on cerebral mRNA expression in mice. Naïve mice and animals with acute traumatic brain injury induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) were randomized to the following euthanasia protocols (n=10-11/group): no anesthesia (NA), 1 min of 4 vol% isoflurane in room air (ISO), 3 min of a combination of 5 mg/kg midazolam, 0.05 mg/kg fentanyl, and 0.5 mg/kg medetomidine intraperitoneally (COMB), or 3 min of 360 mg/kg chloral hydrate intraperitoneally (CH). mRNA expression of actin-1-related gene (Act1), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (FosB), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), heat shock protein beta-1 (HspB1), interleukin (IL)-6, tight junction protein 1 (ZO-1), IL-1ß, cyclophilin A, micro RNA 497 (miR497), and small cajal body-specific RNA 17 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in hippocampus samples. In naïve animals, Act1 expression was downregulated in the CH group compared with NA. FosB expression was downregulated in COMB and CH groups compared with NA. CCI reduced Act1 and FosB expression, whereas HspB1 and TNFα expression increased. After CCI, HspB1 expression was significantly higher in ISO, COMB, and CH groups, and TNFα expression was elevated in ISO and COMB groups. MiR497, IL-6, and IL-1ß were upregulated after CCI but not affected by anesthetics. Effects were independent of absolute mRNA copy numbers. The data demonstrate that a few minutes of anesthesia before tissue sampling are sufficient to induce immediate mRNA changes, which seem to predominate in the early-regulated gene cluster. Anesthesia-related effects on gene expression might explain limited reproduciblity of real

  12. Anesthesia for Euthanasia Influences mRNA Expression in Healthy Mice and after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Staib-Lasarzik, Irina; Kriege, Oliver; Timaru-Kast, Ralph; Pieter, Dana; Werner, Christian; Engelhard, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tissue sampling for gene expression analysis is usually performed under general anesthesia. Anesthetics are known to modulate hemodynamics, receptor-mediated signaling cascades, and outcome parameters. The present study determined the influence of anesthetic paradigms typically used for euthanization and tissue sampling on cerebral mRNA expression in mice. Naïve mice and animals with acute traumatic brain injury induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) were randomized to the following euthanasia protocols (n=10–11/group): no anesthesia (NA), 1 min of 4 vol% isoflurane in room air (ISO), 3 min of a combination of 5 mg/kg midazolam, 0.05 mg/kg fentanyl, and 0.5 mg/kg medetomidine intraperitoneally (COMB), or 3 min of 360 mg/kg chloral hydrate intraperitoneally (CH). mRNA expression of actin-1-related gene (Act1), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (FosB), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), heat shock protein beta-1 (HspB1), interleukin (IL)-6, tight junction protein 1 (ZO-1), IL-1ß, cyclophilin A, micro RNA 497 (miR497), and small cajal body-specific RNA 17 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in hippocampus samples. In naïve animals, Act1 expression was downregulated in the CH group compared with NA. FosB expression was downregulated in COMB and CH groups compared with NA. CCI reduced Act1 and FosB expression, whereas HspB1 and TNFα expression increased. After CCI, HspB1 expression was significantly higher in ISO, COMB, and CH groups, and TNFα expression was elevated in ISO and COMB groups. MiR497, IL-6, and IL-1ß were upregulated after CCI but not affected by anesthetics. Effects were independent of absolute mRNA copy numbers. The data demonstrate that a few minutes of anesthesia before tissue sampling are sufficient to induce immediate mRNA changes, which seem to predominate in the early-regulated gene cluster. Anesthesia-related effects on gene expression might explain limited

  13. TPS1 terminator increases mRNA and protein yield in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system.

    PubMed

    Yamanishi, Mamoru; Katahira, Satoshi; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Both terminators and promoters regulate gene expression. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the TPS1 terminator (TPS1t), coupled to a gene encoding a fluorescent protein, produced more transgenic mRNA and protein than did similar constructs containing other terminators, such as CYC1t, TDH3t, and PGK1t. This suggests that TPS1t can be used as a general terminator in the development of metabolically engineered yeast in high-yield systems.

  14. Interleukin-8 mRNA expression in synovial fluid of canine stifle joints with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, T; de Rooster, H; van Bree, H; Cox, E

    2005-12-15

    The objective of this study was to examine and compare the presence of interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA in canine stifle osteoarthritis (OA) differing in etiopathogenesis. Synovial fluid (SF) samples were collected from 24 clinically normal stifle joints and 46 diseased stifle joints (32 stifle joints with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR), 2 joints with CCLR and patella luxation (PL), 7 joints with medial PL and 5 joints with primary OA). The samples were centrifuged to collect synovial fluid cells for RNA extraction. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to obtain cDNA from all samples. Canine IL-8 mRNA expression was determined using real time PCR. Synovial fluid glass smears were made of all samples and coloured with H&E for differential cell counts. All stifle joints were radiographed and graded for the severity of OA. Sixty-one percent (28/46) of the samples from canine stifle OA had IL-8 mRNA expression in contrast to 4% (1/24) in the control stifle joints. This difference in prevalence is highly significant. There were no statistically significant pairwise differences among the mean ranks of the various OA groups for the absolute amount of IL-8 mRNA expression. Neither was there a link between the severity of OA (determined by radiographic evaluation) and the presence of IL-8 in the SF nor any significant difference in the absolute amount of IL-8 between the different OA grades. No statistical difference was found in differential cell counts between IL-8-positive and -negative SF samples. IL-8 cannot be used as a specific joint disease marker since IL-8 expression is found in OA differing in etiopathogenesis. It might, however, relate to the ongoing inflammation within the joint.

  15. Analysis of myosin heavy chain mRNA expression by RT-PCR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, C.; Haddad, F.; Qin, A. X.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1997-01-01

    An assay was developed for rapid and sensitive analysis of myosin heavy chain (MHC) mRNA expression in rodent skeletal muscle. Only 2 microg of total RNA were necessary for the simultaneous analysis of relative mRNA expression of six different MHC genes. We designed synthetic DNA fragments as internal standards, which contained the relevant primer sequences for the adult MHC mRNAs type I, IIa, IIx, IIb as well as the embryonic and neonatal MHC mRNAs. A known amount of the synthetic fragment was added to each polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and yielded a product of different size than the amplified MHC mRNA fragment. The ratio of amplified MHC fragment to synthetic fragment allowed us to calculate percentages of the gene expression of the different MHC genes in a given muscle sample. Comparison with the traditional Northern blot analysis demonstrated that our reverse transcriptase-PCR-based assay was reliable, fast, and quantitative over a wide range of relative MHC mRNA expression in a spectrum of adult and neonatal rat skeletal muscles. Furthermore, the high sensitivity of the assay made it very useful when only small quantities of tissue were available. Statistical analysis of the signals for each MHC isoform across the analyzed samples showed a highly significant correlation between the PCR and the Northern signals as Pearson correlation coefficients ranged between 0.77 and 0.96 (P < 0.005). This assay has potential use in analyzing small muscle samples such as biopsies and samples from pre- and/or neonatal stages of development.

  16. Conditioned Fear Inhibits c-fos mRNA Expression in the Central Extended Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Day, Heidi E.W.; Kryskow, Elisa M.; Nyhuis, Tara J.; Herlihy, Lauren; Campeau, Serge

    2008-01-01

    We have shown previously that unconditioned stressors inhibit neurons of the lateral/capsular division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEAl/c) and oval division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTov), which form part of the central extended amygdala. The current study investigated whether conditioned fear inhibits c-fos mRNA expression in these regions. Male rats were trained either to associate a visual stimulus (light) with footshock or were exposed to the light alone. After training, animals were replaced in the apparatus, and 2 hours later injected remotely, via a catheter, with amphetamine (2 mg/kg i.p.), to induce c-fos mRNA and allow inhibition of expression to be measured. The rats were then presented with 15 visual stimuli over a 30 minute period. As expected, fear conditioned animals that were not injected with amphetamine, had extremely low levels of c-fos mRNA in the central extended amygdala. In contrast, animals that were trained with the light alone (no fear conditioning) and were injected with amphetamine had high levels of c-fos mRNA in the CEAl/c and BSTov. Animals that underwent fear-conditioning, and were re-exposed to the conditioned stimulus after amphetamine injection had significantly reduced levels of c-fos mRNA in both the BSTov and CEAl/c, compared to the non-conditioned animals. These data suggest that conditioned fear can inhibit neurons of the central extended amygdala. Because these neurons are GABAergic, and project to the medial CEA (an amygdaloid output region), this may be a novel mechanism whereby conditioned fear potentiates amygdaloid output. PMID:18634767

  17. Expression of connexin 43 mRNA and protein in developing follicles of prepubertal porcine ovaries

    Melton, C.M.; Zaunbrecher, G.M.; Yoshizaki, G.; Patio, R.; Whisnant, S.; Rendon, A.; Lee, V.H.

    2001-01-01

    A major form of cell-cell communication is mediated by gap junctions, aggregations of intercellular channels composed of connexins (Cxs), which are responsible for exchange of low molecular weight (< 1200 Da) cytosolic materials. These channels are a growing family of related proteins. This study was designed to determine the ontogeny of connexin 43 (Cx43) during early stages of follicular development in prepubertal porcine ovaries. A partial-length (412 base) cDNA clone was obtained from mature porcine ovaries and determined to have 98% identity with published porcine Cx43. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a 4.3-kb mRNA in total RNA isolated from prepubertal and adult porcine ovaries. In-situ hybridization revealed that Cx43 mRNA was detectable in granulosa cells of primary follicles but undetectable in dormant primordial follicles. The intensity of the signal increased with follicular growth and was greatest in the large antral follicles. Immunohistochemical evaluation indicated that Cx43 protein expression correlated with the presence of Cx43 mRNA. These results indicate that substantial amounts of Cx43 are first expressed in granulosa cells following activation of follicular development and that this expression increases throughout follicular growth and maturation. These findings suggest an association between the enhancement of intercellular gap-junctional communication and onset of follicular growth. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Codon influence on protein expression in E. coli correlates with mRNA levels

    PubMed Central

    Boël, Grégory; Wong, Kam-Ho; Su, Min; Luff, Jon; Valecha, Mayank; Everett, John K.; Acton, Thomas B.; Xiao, Rong; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Aalberts, Daniel P.; Hunt, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Degeneracy in the genetic code, which enables a single protein to be encoded by a multitude of synonymous gene sequences, has an important role in regulating protein expression, but substantial uncertainty exists concerning the details of this phenomenon. Here we analyze the sequence features influencing protein expression levels in 6,348 experiments using bacteriophage T7 polymerase to synthesize messenger RNA in Escherichia coli. Logistic regression yields a new codon-influence metric that correlates only weakly with genomic codon-usage frequency, but strongly with global physiological protein concentrations and also mRNA concentrations and lifetimes in vivo. Overall, the codon content influences protein expression more strongly than mRNA-folding parameters, although the latter dominate in the initial ~16 codons. Genes redesigned based on our analyses are transcribed with unaltered efficiency but translated with higher efficiency in vitro. The less efficiently translated native sequences show greatly reduced mRNA levels in vivo. Our results suggest that codon content modulates a kinetic competition between protein elongation and mRNA degradation that is a central feature of the physiology and also possibly the regulation of translation in E. coli. PMID:26760206

  19. Hydrostatic pressure modulates mRNA expressions for matrix proteins in human meniscal cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toru; Toyoda, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Hisamori, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Hideo; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    There have been few reports describing the effects of mechanical loading on the metabolism of meniscal cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydrostatic pressure on meniscal cell metabolism. Human meniscal cells were cultured in alginate beads for 3 days. They were then subjected to 4 MPa hydrostatic pressure for 4 hours in either a static or cyclic (1 Hz) mode using a specially designed and constructed system. Immediately after the pressure application, the messenger RNA levels for aggrecan, type I collagen, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -1, -3, -9, -13 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) -1 and -2 were measured. It was found that the application of static hydrostatic pressure caused a significant decrease in mRNA expression for MMP-1 and -13 (p<0.05). In contrast, the application of cyclic hydrostatic pressure was associated with a significant increase in type I collagen (p<0.01), TIMP-1 and -2 mRNA expression (p<0.01). These results would suggest that hydrostatic pressure in isolation can modulate mRNA expressions for matrix proteins in meniscal cells.

  20. Relationship of calcitonin mRNA expression to the differentiation state of HL 60 cells.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, P; Bacher, M; Pflüger, K H

    1994-05-01

    Raised plasma levels of immunoreactive human calcitonin (ihCT) can be found in patients with myeloid leukemia and seem to indicate a poor prognosis. High levels were found in acute undifferentiated and acute myeloblastic leukemia. To test whether CT expression could be a marker of myeloid differentiation, we used the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL 60 which also expresses ihCT as a model system for myeloid differentiation. Exponentially growing HL 60 cells as well as differentiation induced HL 60 cells expressed a single 1.0 Kb CT transcript. The induction of HL 60 cell differentiation along the granulocytic lineage by DMSO or HMBA had no effect on the level of CT transcripts. Induction of monocytic/macrophagic differentiation by TPA resulted in a transient, about 10-fold elevated expression of CT steady state mRNA after 24 h. In contrast to TPA, induction of HL 60 cell differentiation along the monocytic pathway by Vit D3 had no detectable effect on the level of the CT in RNA expression at corresponding time points. These findings suggest that the transient induction of CT steady state mRNA expression by TPA is rather a direct effect of the phorbol ester than commitment along the monocytic line of differentiation.

  1. Increased Expression of Plasma-Induced ABCC1 mRNA in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ideozu, Justin E; Zhang, Xi; Pan, Amy; Ashrafi, Zainub; Woods, Katherine J; Hessner, Martin J; Simpson, Pippa; Levy, Hara

    2017-08-11

    The ABCC1 gene is structurally and functionally related to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene ( CFTR ). Upregulation of ABCC1 is thought to improve lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF); the mechanism underlying this effect is unknown. We analyzed the ABCC1 promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs504348), plasma-induced ABCC1 mRNA expression levels, and ABCC1 methylation status and their correlation with clinical variables among CF subjects with differing CFTR mutations. We assigned 93 CF subjects into disease severity groups and genotyped SNP rs504348. For 23 CF subjects and 7 healthy controls, donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with plasma underwent gene expression analysis via qRT-PCR. ABCC1 promoter methylation was analyzed in the same 23 CF subjects. No significant correlation was observed between rs504348 genotypes and CF disease severity, but pancreatic insufficient CF subjects showed increased colonization with any form of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR = 3.125, 95% CI: 1.192-8.190) and mucoid P. aeruginosa (OR = 5.075, 95% CI: 1.307-28.620) compared to the pancreatic sufficient group. A significantly higher expression of ABCC1 mRNA was induced by CF plasma compared to healthy control plasma ( p < 0.001). CF subjects with rs504348 (CC/CG) also had higher mRNA expression compared to those with the ancestral GG genotype ( p < 0.005). ABCC1 promoter was completely unmethylated; therefore, we did not detect any association between methylation and CF disease severity. In silico predictions suggested that histone modifications are crucial for regulating ABCC1 expression in PBMCs. Our results suggest that ABCC1 expression has a role in CFTR activity thereby increasing our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of the clinical heterogeneity in CF.

  2. Expression of very low density lipoprotein receptor mRNA in circulating human monocytes: its up-regulation by hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, K; Ishibashi, T; Nagata, K; Seino, Y; Wada, Y; Sakamoto, T; Matsuoka, R; Teramoto, T; Sekimata, M; Homma, Y; Maruyama, Y

    2001-04-01

    Although very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor expression by macrophages has been shown in the vascular wall, it is not clear whether or not circulating monocytes express the VLDL receptor. We investigated the expression of VLDL receptor mRNA in human peripheral blood monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nucleotide sequencing after subcloning of PCR product. VLDL receptor mRNA was detected both in peripheral blood monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. Expression of VLDL receptor mRNA was upregulated by hypoxia in monocytes, whereas treatment with oxidized LDL, interleukin-1beta or monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 did not affect the levels of VLDL receptor mRNA in monocytes and macrophages. The present study shows a novel response of VLDL receptor mRNA to hypoxia, suggesting a role for VLDL receptor in the metabolism of lipoproteins in the vascular wall and the development of atherosclerosis.

  3. Seasonal Relationship between Gonadotropin, Growth Hormone, and Estrogen Receptor mRNA Expression in the Pituitary Gland of Largemouth Bass

    PubMed Central

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J.; Porak, Wesley F.; Steward, Cheree; Grier, Harry J.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the seasonal changes in pituitary gonadotropins, growth hormone (GH), and estrogen receptor (ER) isoform mRNA in wild female and male largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides) from an unpolluted habitat to better understand reproductive physiology in this ecologically important species. Female pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) β subunit and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) β subunit mRNA showed significant seasonal variation with levels peaking from January to April and were lowest from May through August. Male LMB showed more variation in gonadotropin subunit expression from month to month. Females had approximately 2–3 times higher gonadotropin mRNA levels in the pituitary when compared to males. All three gonadotropin mRNAs in females were positively correlated to gonadosomatic index (GSI), but only LHβ mRNA was correlated to GSI in males. Gonadotropin mRNA expression also increased with increasing oocyte and sperm maturation. Gonadotropin β subunit mRNA expression was positively correlated to GH mRNA in both sexes. The expression of all three ER isoforms was significantly correlated to each other in both sexes. The concurrent increase in all three ER mRNA isoforms with increasing gonadotropin mRNA in females and males suggests a prominent role for E2 feedback on pituitary gonadotropin synthesis in both sexes and that each of the three ER isoforms are likely to play a role in the pituitary during teleost reproduction. PMID:19416730

  4. Seasonal relationship between gonadotropin, growth hormone, and estrogen receptor mRNA expression in the pituitary gland of largemouth bass.

    PubMed

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J; Porak, Wesley F; Steward, Cheree; Grier, Harry J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2009-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the seasonal changes in pituitary gonadotropins, growth hormone (GH), and estrogen receptor (ER) isoform mRNA in wild female and male largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides) from an unpolluted habitat to better understand reproductive physiology in this ecologically important species. Female pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) beta subunit and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) beta subunit mRNA showed significant seasonal variation with levels peaking from January to April and were lowest from May to August. Male LMB showed more variation in gonadotropin subunit expression from month to month. Females had approximately 2-3 times higher gonadotropin mRNA levels in the pituitary when compared to males. All three gonadotropin mRNAs in females were positively correlated to gonadosomatic index (GSI), but only LHbeta mRNA was correlated to GSI in males. Gonadotropin mRNA expression also increased with increasing oocyte and sperm maturation. Gonadotropin beta subunit mRNA expression was positively correlated to GH mRNA in both sexes. The expression of all three ER isoforms was significantly correlated to each other in both sexes. The concurrent increase in all three ER mRNA isoforms with increasing gonadotropin mRNA in females and males suggests a prominent role for E2 feedback on pituitary gonadotropin synthesis in both sexes and that each of the three ER isoforms are likely to play a role in the pituitary during teleost reproduction.

  5. Regulation of mouse hepatic CYP2D9 mRNA expression by growth and adrenal hormones.

    PubMed

    Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Jaruchotikamol, Atika; Oguro, Miki; Nemoto, Nobuo

    2006-02-01

    The constitutive expression of CYP2D9 is sexually dimorphic, namely, strong in males, but diminutive in females. Repetition of mimic growth hormone (GH) secretion pattern impressively returned the mRNA expression level to that in intact mice: the GH secretion pattern's regulation of CYP2D9 mRNA expression has been predominantly disrupted by exogenous GH-administration. The extensive decline of CYP2D9 mRNA expression becoming a sexually non-specific P450 in 9-week-old male mice exposed as neonates to monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) suggested that the male GH secretion pattern is a key to the regulation of male-specific CYP2D9 mRNA expression in adult mice. Dexamethasone (Dex) showed possibility to induce CYP2D9 mRNA expression in adult MSG-neonatally treated mice of either sex. However, the antagonism was observed by co-administration of Dex and GH in the males. Dex-administration in adrenalectomized mice significantly elevated CYP2D9 mRNA expression levels. These findings suggest that an adrenal hormone participates in the regulatory mechanism of CYP2D9 mRNA expression in association with GH.

  6. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 mRNA expression in the primate auditory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Troy A.; Takahata, Toru; Balaram, Pooja

    2011-01-01

    The vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) regulate storage and release of glutamate in the brain. In adult animals, the VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 isoforms are widely expressed and differentially distributed, suggesting that neural circuits exhibit distinct modes of glutamate regulation. Studies in rodents suggest that VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 mRNA expression patterns are partly complementary, with VGLUT1 expressed at higher levels in cortex and VGLUT2 prominent subcortically, but with overlapping distributions in some nuclei. In primates, VGLUT gene expression has not been previously studied in any part of the brain. The purposes of the present study were to document the regional expression of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 mRNA in the auditory pathway through A1 in cortex, and to determine whether their distributions are comparable to rodents. In situ hybridization with antisense riboprobes revealed that VGLUT2 was strongly expressed by neurons in the cerebellum and most major auditory nuclei, including the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei, medial and lateral superior olivary nuclei, central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, sagulum, and all divisions of the medial geniculate. VGLUT1 was densely expressed in the hippocampus and ventral cochlear nuclei, and at reduced levels in other auditory nuclei. In auditory cortex, neurons expressing VGLUT1 were widely distributed in layers II – VI of the core, belt and parabelt regions. VGLUT2 was most strongly expressed by neurons in layers IIIb and IV, weakly by neurons in layers II – IIIa, and at very low levels in layers V – VI. The findings indicate that VGLUT2 is strongly expressed by neurons at all levels of the subcortical auditory pathway, and by neurons in the middle layers of cortex, whereas VGLUT1 is strongly expressed by most if not all glutamatergic neurons in auditory cortex and at variable levels among auditory subcortical nuclei. These patterns imply that VGLUT2 is the main vesicular glutamate transporter in subcortical

  7. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 mRNA expression in the primate auditory pathway.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Troy A; Takahata, Toru; Balaram, Pooja

    2011-04-01

    The vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) regulate the storage and release of glutamate in the brain. In adult animals, the VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 isoforms are widely expressed and differentially distributed, suggesting that neural circuits exhibit distinct modes of glutamate regulation. Studies in rodents suggest that VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 mRNA expression patterns are partly complementary, with VGLUT1 expressed at higher levels in the cortex and VGLUT2 prominent subcortically, but with overlapping distributions in some nuclei. In primates, VGLUT gene expression has not been previously studied in any part of the brain. The purposes of the present study were to document the regional expression of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 mRNA in the auditory pathway through A1 in the cortex, and to determine whether their distributions are comparable to rodents. In situ hybridization with antisense riboprobes revealed that VGLUT2 was strongly expressed by neurons in the cerebellum and most major auditory nuclei, including the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei, medial and lateral superior olivary nuclei, central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, sagulum, and all divisions of the medial geniculate. VGLUT1 was densely expressed in the hippocampus and ventral cochlear nuclei, and at reduced levels in other auditory nuclei. In the auditory cortex, neurons expressing VGLUT1 were widely distributed in layers II-VI of the core, belt and parabelt regions. VGLUT2 was expressed most strongly by neurons in layers IIIb and IV, weakly by neurons in layers II-IIIa, and at very low levels in layers V-VI. The findings indicate that VGLUT2 is strongly expressed by neurons at all levels of the subcortical auditory pathway, and by neurons in the middle layers of the cortex, whereas VGLUT1 is strongly expressed by most if not all glutamatergic neurons in the auditory cortex and at variable levels among auditory subcortical nuclei. These patterns imply that VGLUT2 is the main vesicular glutamate transporter in

  8. Inflammatory mediator mRNA expression by adenovirus E1A-transfected bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Higashimoto, Yuji; Elliott, W Mark; Behzad, Ali R; Sedgwick, Edward G; Takei, Tatsuo; Hogg, James C; Hayashi, Shizu

    2002-07-15

    Lung tissue from patients with emphysema and airway obstruction carries excess adenoviral E1A DNA that is expressed as protein in airway surface epithelium and is associated with an increased inflammatory response. To examine mechanisms by which latent adenoviral infection might amplify the inflammatory process, we transfected primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells from three separate patients undergoing lung resection so that they stably expressed adenovirus E1A. Lipopolysaccharide stimulation of the E1A-transfected HBE cells increased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-8 mRNA and protein expression compared with control cells from the same patient. It also induced greater intercellular adhesion molecule-1 promoter activity and greater nuclear factor-kappa B binding activity of nuclear extracts in E1A transfectants than controls. E1A-positive transfectants constitutively expressed transforming growth factor-beta 1 mRNA and protein, whereas this expression was either very low or not detected in control cells. We conclude that adenoviral E1A transfection transforms primary HBE cells and upregulates their production of mediators that are clinically relevant to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  9. MRNA and miRNA expression patterns associated to pathways linked to metal mixture health effects.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pacheco, M; Hidalgo-Miranda, A; Romero-Córdoba, S; Valverde, M; Rojas, E

    2014-01-10

    Metals are a threat to human health by increasing disease risk. Experimental data have linked altered miRNA expression with exposure to some metals. MiRNAs comprise a large family of non-coding single-stranded molecules that primarily function to negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Although several human populations are exposed to low concentrations of As, Cd and Pb as a mixture, most toxicology research focuses on the individual effects that these metals exert. Thus, this study aims to evaluate global miRNA and mRNA expression changes induced by a metal mixture containing NaAsO2, CdCl2, Pb(C2H3O2)2·3H2O and to predict possible metal-associated disease development under these conditions. Our results show that this metal mixture results in a miRNA expression profile that may be responsible for the mRNA expression changes observed under experimental conditions in which coding proteins are involved in cellular processes, including cell death, growth and proliferation related to the metal-associated inflammatory response and cancer. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adrenocorticotropin receptors: Functional expression from rat adrenal mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    SciT

    Mertz, L.M.; Catt, K.J.

    1991-10-01

    The adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) receptor, which binds corticotropin and stimulates adenylate cyclase and steroidogenesis in adrenocortical cells, was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes microinjected with rat adrenal poly(A){sup +} RNA. Expression of the ACTH receptor in individual stage 5 and 6 oocytes was monitored by radioimmunoassay of ligand-stimulated cAMP production. Injection of 5-40 ng of adrenal mRNA caused dose-dependent increases in ACTH-responsive cAMP production. Size fractionation of rat adrenal poly(A){sup +}RNA by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation revealed that mRNA encoding the ACTH receptor was present in the 1.1-to 2.0-kilobase fraction. These data indicate that ACTH receptors can be expressed from adrenal mRNAmore » in Xenopus oocytes and are fully functional in terms of ligand specificity and signal generation. The extracellular cAMP response to ACTH is a sensitive and convenient index of receptor expression. This system should permit more complete characterization and expression cloning of the ACTH receptor.« less

  11. Expression of VGF mRNA in the adult rat central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Snyder, S E; Salton, S R

    1998-04-27

    VGF is a secretory peptide precursor that is expressed and processed by neuronal cells in a cell type-specific fashion. In addition, VGF transcription and secretion are rapidly and relatively selectively induced by neurotrophins and depolarization in vitro. To gain insight into the possible function(s) of VGF in the nervous system, we have carried out a detailed examination of the distribution of VGF mRNA in the adult rat central nervous system by using in situ hybridization. Robust expression was detected in many neurons throughout the brain and spinal cord, in several types of neurons in the retina, and in presumptive chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. In the brain, prominent expression of VGF mRNA was observed in neurons of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs; in the anterior olfactory nucleus; in the induseum griseum and taenia tecta; in the olfactory tubercle; in CA1-CA3, the hilus of the dentate gyrus, and the subicular complex of the hippocampal formation; in the piriform, periamygdaloid, transitional, and lateral entorhinal cortices; in the endopiriform nucleus; in the hypothalamus, particularly the preoptic, periventricular, supraoptic, suprachiasmatic, and arcuate nuclei; and in a number of septal, thalamic, amygdaloid, and brainstem nuclei. Labeling was also seen in neurons of the neocortex and transitional cortical areas, particularly in layer V, and in basal ganglia and cerebellum. These data demonstrate that VGF mRNA is expressed much more extensively in the brain than has been described in previous RNA or immunohistochemical studies, and, furthermore, that VGF is widely expressed in the spinal cord and retina.

  12. Sequencing of mRNA identifies re-expression of fetal splice variants in cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ames, EG; Lawson, MJ; Mackey, AJ; Holmes, JW

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy has been well-characterized at the level of transcription. During cardiac hypertrophy, genes normally expressed primarily during fetal heart development are reexpressed, and this fetal gene program is believed to be a critical component of the hypertrophic process. Recently, alternative splicing of mRNA transcripts has been shown to be temporally regulated during heart development, leading us to consider whether fetal patterns of splicing also reappear during hypertrophy. We hypothesized that patterns of alternative splicing occurring during heart development are recapitulated during cardiac hypertrophy. Here we present a study of isoform expression during pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy induced by 10 days of transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in rats and in developing fetal rat hearts compared to sham-operated adult rat hearts, using high-throughput sequencing of poly(A) tail mRNA. We find a striking degree of overlap between the isoforms expressed differentially in fetal and pressure-overloaded hearts compared to control: forty-four percent of the isoforms with significantly altered expression in TAC hearts are also expressed at significantly different levels in fetal hearts compared to control (P < 0.001). The isoforms that are shared between hypertrophy and fetal heart development are significantly enriched for genes involved in cytoskeletal organization, RNA processing, developmental processes, and metabolic enzymes. Our data strongly support the concept that mRNA splicing patterns normally associated with heart development recur as part of the hypertrophic response to pressure overload. These findings suggest that cardiac hypertrophy shares post-transcriptional as well as transcriptional regulatory mechanisms with fetal heart development. PMID:23688780

  13. Region specific regulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase mRNA expression by dopamine neurons in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lindefors, N; Brene, S; Herrera-Marschitz, M; Persson, H

    1989-01-01

    In situ hybridization histochemistry and RNA blots were used to study the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNA in rats with or without a unilateral lesion of midbrain dopamine neurons. Two populations of GAD mRNA positive neurons were found in the intact caudate-putamen, substantia nigra and fronto-parietal cortex. In caudate-putamen, only one out of ten of the GAD mRNA positive neurons expressed high levels, while in substantia nigra every second of the positive neurons expressed high levels of GAD mRNA. Relatively few, but intensively labelled neurons were found in the intact fronto-parietal cerebral cortex. In addition, one out of six of the GAD mRNA positive neurons in the fronto-parietal cortex showed a low labeling. On the ipsilateral side, the forebrain dopamine deafferentation induced an increase in the number of neurons expressing high levels of GAD mRNA in caudate-putamen, and a decrease in fronto-parietal cortex. A smaller decrease was also seen in substantia nigra. However, the total number of GAD mRNA positive neurons were not significantly changed in any of these brain regions. The changes in the levels of GAD mRNA after the dopamine lesion were confirmed by RNA blot analysis. Hence, midbrain dopamine neurons appear to control neuronal expression of GAD mRNA by a tonic down-regulation in a fraction of GAD mRNA positive neurons in caudate-putamen, and a tonic up-regulation in a fraction of GAD mRNA positive neurons in fronto-parietal cortex and substantia nigra.

  14. Whole Blood mRNA Expression-Based Prognosis of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Giridhar, Karthik V; Sosa, Carlos P; Hillman, David W; Sanhueza, Cristobal; Dalpiaz, Candace L; Costello, Brian A; Quevedo, Fernando J; Pitot, Henry C; Dronca, Roxana S; Ertz, Donna; Cheville, John C; Donkena, Krishna Vanaja; Kohli, Manish

    2017-11-03

    The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) prognostic score is based on clinical parameters. We analyzed whole blood mRNA expression in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mCCRCC) patients and compared it to the MSKCC score for predicting overall survival. In a discovery set of 19 patients with mRCC, we performed whole transcriptome RNA sequencing and selected eighteen candidate genes for further evaluation based on associations with overall survival and statistical significance. In an independent validation of set of 47 patients with mCCRCC, transcript expression of the 18 candidate genes were quantified using a customized NanoString probeset. Cox regression multivariate analysis confirmed that two of the candidate genes were significantly associated with overall survival. Higher expression of BAG1 [hazard ratio (HR) of 0.14, p < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.36] and NOP56 (HR 0.13, p < 0.0001, 95% CI 0.05-0.34) were associated with better prognosis. A prognostic model incorporating expression of BAG1 and NOP56 into the MSKCC score improved prognostication significantly over a model using the MSKCC prognostic score only ( p < 0.0001). Prognostic value of using whole blood mRNA gene profiling in mCCRCC is feasible and should be prospectively confirmed in larger studies.

  15. Whole Blood mRNA Expression-Based Prognosis of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Carlos P.; Hillman, David W.; Sanhueza, Cristobal; Dalpiaz, Candace L.; Costello, Brian A.; Quevedo, Fernando J.; Pitot, Henry C.; Dronca, Roxana S.; Ertz, Donna; Cheville, John C.; Donkena, Krishna Vanaja; Kohli, Manish

    2017-01-01

    The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) prognostic score is based on clinical parameters. We analyzed whole blood mRNA expression in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mCCRCC) patients and compared it to the MSKCC score for predicting overall survival. In a discovery set of 19 patients with mRCC, we performed whole transcriptome RNA sequencing and selected eighteen candidate genes for further evaluation based on associations with overall survival and statistical significance. In an independent validation of set of 47 patients with mCCRCC, transcript expression of the 18 candidate genes were quantified using a customized NanoString probeset. Cox regression multivariate analysis confirmed that two of the candidate genes were significantly associated with overall survival. Higher expression of BAG1 [hazard ratio (HR) of 0.14, p < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04–0.36] and NOP56 (HR 0.13, p < 0.0001, 95% CI 0.05–0.34) were associated with better prognosis. A prognostic model incorporating expression of BAG1 and NOP56 into the MSKCC score improved prognostication significantly over a model using the MSKCC prognostic score only (p < 0.0001). Prognostic value of using whole blood mRNA gene profiling in mCCRCC is feasible and should be prospectively confirmed in larger studies. PMID:29099775

  16. mRNA expression of dopamine receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes of computer game addicts.

    PubMed

    Vousooghi, Nasim; Zarei, Seyed Zeinolabedin; Sadat-Shirazi, Mitra-Sadat; Eghbali, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2015-10-01

    Excessive playing of computer games like some other behaviors could lead to addiction. Addictive behaviors may induce their reinforcing effects through stimulation of the brain dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway. The status of dopamine receptors in the brain may be parallel to their homologous receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Here, we have investigated the mRNA expression of dopamine D3, D4 and D5 receptors in PBLs of computer game addicts (n = 20) in comparison to normal subjects (n = 20), using a real-time PCR method. The results showed that the expression level of D3 and D4 dopamine receptors in computer game addicts were not statistically different from the control group. However, the expression of the mRNA of D5 dopamine receptor was significantly down-regulated in PBLs of computer game addicts and reached 0.42 the amount of the control group. It is concluded that unlike with drug addiction, the expression levels of the D3 and D4 dopamine receptors in computer game addicts are not altered compared to the control group. However, reduced level of the D5 dopamine receptor in computer game addicts may serve as a peripheral marker in studies where the confounding effects of abused drugs are unwanted.

  17. [Impacts of the formula of Suoquanwan(SQW) on expression of AQP-2 mRNA and AVPR-V2 mRNA in the kidney of rat polyuria model of Yang-deficiency].

    PubMed

    Cao, Hong-Ying; Wu, Qing-He; Huang, Ping; He, Jin-Yang

    2009-06-01

    To observe the impacts of the formula of Suoquanwan (SQW) on the expression of AQP-2 mRNA and AVPR-V2 mRNA in the kidney of rat polyuria model of Yang-deficiency. The model rats were induced by adenine (250 mg/kg) for 4 weeks, then treated respectively with SQW or dDAVP. The expression of AQP-2 mRNA and AVPR-V2 mRNA in kidney of Yang-deficiency model by realtime fluorescence quantitative PCR method were investigated. In model rats, the expression of AQP-2 mRNA and AVPR-V2 mRNA in the kidney decreased, dDAVP and SQW high dose could increased the expression of AQP-2 mRNA and AVPR-V2 mRNA in the kidney. The others had no influence on the expression of AQP-2 mRNA and AVPR-V2 mRNA in the kidney. SQW can increase the expression of AQP-2 mRNA and AVPR-V2 mRNA in the kidney of rat polyuria model of Yang-deficiency.

  18. Nitric oxide signaling pathway regulates potassium chloride cotransporter-1 mRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Di Fulvio, M; Lauf, P K; Adragna, N C

    2001-11-30

    Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) express at least two mRNAs for K-Cl cotransporters (KCC): KCC1 and KCC3. cGMP-dependent protein kinase I regulates KCC3 mRNA expression in these cells. Here, we show evidence implicating the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP signaling pathway in the expression of KCC1 mRNA, considered to be the major cell volume regulator. VSMCs, expressing soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and PKG-I isoforms showed a time- and concentration-dependent increase in KCC1 mRNA levels after treatment with sodium nitroprusside as demonstrated by semiquantitative RT-PCR. sGC-dependent regulation of KCC1 mRNA expression was confirmed using YC-1, a NO-independent sGC stimulator. The sGC inhibitor LY83583 blocked the effects of sodium nitroprusside and YC-1. Moreover, 8-Br-cGMP increased KCC1 mRNA expression in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. The 8-Br-cGMP effect was partially blocked by KT5823 but not by actinomycin D. However, actinomycin D and cycloheximide increased basal KCC1 mRNA in an additive manner, suggesting different mechanisms of action for both drugs. These findings suggest that in VSMCs, the NO/cGMP-signaling pathway participates in KCC1 mRNA regulation at the post-transcriptional level.

  19. Effect of electroacupuncture on the expression of interlukin-1beta mRNA after transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen-Feng; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Cao, Xiao-Ding

    2002-01-01

    It has been reported that interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta ) play a key role in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. Acupuncture is an effective traditional medical therapy in China. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on IL-1beta mRNA expression after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Using in situ hybridization technique, it was found that in the MCAO group the expression of IL-1beta mRNA was significantly increased at 2h, 6h, 12h after reperfusion in cerebral ischemic cortex compared with normal group. In EA+ MCAO group the expression of IL-1beta mRNA was significantly decreased at 2h, 6h and 12h in ischemic cortex compared with MCAO group. The results indicated that EA might decrease the IL-1beta protein expression by reducing the IL-beta mRNA expression in ischemic cortex.

  20. Effects of fasting, temperature, and photoperiod on preproghrelin mRNA expression in Chinese perch.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Zhao, Cheng; Liang, Xu-Fang; He, Shan; Tian, Changxu; Cheng, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Xiaochen; Lv, Liyuan; Guo, Wenjie; Xue, Min; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2017-06-01

    Preproghrelin, a gut/brain peptide, plays an important role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in teleost and mammals. In the present study, we obtained the full-length preproghrelin cDNA in Chinese perch. The preproghrelin messenger RNA (mRNA) tissue expression showed that level was much higher in stomach and pituitary than in other tissues. The fasting study showed, after gastric emptying (3-6 h), short-term fasting (6-12 h) increased preproghrelin expression in the stomach. While in the pituitary, fasting reduced preproghrelin expression at 1, 3, 12, and 48 h, presenting state fluctuation of self-adjustment. The temperature study showed that the mRNA expression of preproghrelin was the highest in the brain at 26 °C and highest in the stomach at 32 °C, respectively, with different optimum temperature in these two tissues, reflecting spatiotemporal differences of regulation by central nervous system and peripheral organs. The photoperiod study showed that normal light (11 h of lightness and 13 h of darkness) led to highest preproghrelin expression, both in the brain and in the stomach, than continuous light or continuous dark, proving food intake is adapted to natural photoperiod or normal light in this study. These results all indicated that tissue-specific preproghrelin expression of Chinese perch could be significantly affected by environmental factors. Short-term fasting of 6 h after gastric emptying, 26 °C, and normal light led to higher preproghrelin expression, which indicated potential appetite increase in Chinese perch.

  1. Robust Transgene Expression from Bicistronic mRNA in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Masayuki; Pringle, John R.

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model organism that provides an opportunity to understand the evolution and functional biology of the lineage that includes the land plants, as well as aspects of the fundamental core biology conserved throughout the eukaryotic phylogeny. Although many tools are available to facilitate genetic, molecular biological, biochemical, and cell biological studies in Chlamydomonas, expression of unselected transgenes of interest (GOIs) has been challenging. In most methods used previously, the GOI and a selectable marker are expressed from two separate mRNAs, so that their concomitant expression is not guaranteed. In this study, we developed constructs that allow expression of an upstream GOI and downstream selectable marker from a single bicistronic mRNA. Although this approach in other systems has typically required a translation-enhancing element such as an internal ribosome entry site for the downstream marker, we found that a short stretch of unstructured junction sequence was sufficient to obtain adequate expression of the downstream gene, presumably through post-termination reinitiation. With this system, we obtained robust expression of both endogenous and heterologous GOIs, including fluorescent proteins and tagged fusion proteins, in the vast majority of transformants, thus eliminating the need for tedious secondary screening for GOI-expressing transformants. This improved efficiency should greatly facilitate a variety of genetic and cell-biological studies in Chlamydomonas and also enable new applications such as expression-based screens and large-scale production of foreign proteins. PMID:27770025

  2. [Expression of heat shock protein 70 and its mRNA in career exposure to manganese].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenwen; Shao, Hua; Chi, Mingfeng; Zhang, Zhihu; Shan, Yongle; Zou, Wei

    2015-10-01

    To analyze the expression levels of heat shock protein70 (HSPs70) and HSPs70 mRNA in different exposure to manganese, and research the neuroprotective effect on the career exposure to manganese. From 2008 to 2009, with cross-sectional study design, and in a locomotive and rolling stock works, by stratified random sampling method, the exposed sample consisted of 180 welders from different welding shops and 100 unexposed in the last three years, non-welder controls with age-matched workers of similar socioeconomic status from the same industry. The control workers had not been exposed to neurotoxic chemicals. The mRNA expressions of four different metabolic enzyme were detected by SYBR Green I quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of the two enzymes mRNA in different exposure to manganese were analyzed. The expressions of HSPs70 were detected by Western blot. The concentration of air manganese was determined by GFAAS. The average concentration of 8 h time (8h-TWA) was used to express the level of individual exposure to manganese, according to the air manganese workplace occupational exposure limit (8h-TWA=0.15 mg/m3), the exposed group is divided into high exposed group (>0.15 mg/m3) and low exposure group (<0.15 mg/m3). The individuals exposed to manganese dose of exposed group ((0.25±0.31) mg/m3) was higher than the control group ((0.06±0.02) mg/m3) (t=6.15, P=0.001); individuals exposed to manganese dose of high exposure group for (0.42±0.34) mg/m3, which was higher than low exposure group (0.09±0.07) mg/m3 (t=9.80, P=0.001). HSPs70 mRNA and protein of exposure group (5.65±0.21, 3.26±0.15) were higher than the reference group (0.41±0.03, 1.32±0.12) (t=18.91, t=8.68, P=0.001). HSP70 mRNA and protein of high exposure group (6.48±0.37, 3.67±0.26) were higher than the low exposure group (5.15±0.23, 3.02±0.19) (t=3.24, t=2.01, P=0.003, P=0.043). The expression of peripheral blood lymphocytes HSPs70 level and HSPs70 mRNA

  3. IL-1β directly suppress ghrelin mRNA expression in ghrelin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Bando, Mika; Iwakura, Hiroshi; Ueda, Yoko; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Inaba, Hidefumi; Furukawa, Yasushi; Furuta, Hiroto; Nishi, Masahiro; Akamizu, Takashi

    2017-05-15

    In animal models, ghrelin production is suppressed by LPS administration. To elucidate the detailed molecular mechanisms involved in the phenomenon, we investigated the effects of LPS and LPS-inducible cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, on the expression of ghrelin in the ghrelin-producing cell line MGN3-1. These cells expressed IL-1R, and IL-1β significantly suppressed ghrelin mRNA levels. The suppressive effects of IL-1β were attenuated by knockdown of IKKβ, suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB pathway. These results suggested that IL-1β is a major regulator of ghrelin expression during inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. G-cimp status prediction of glioblastoma samples using mRNA expression data.

    PubMed

    Baysan, Mehmet; Bozdag, Serdar; Cam, Margaret C; Kotliarova, Svetlana; Ahn, Susie; Walling, Jennifer; Killian, Jonathan K; Stevenson, Holly; Meltzer, Paul; Fine, Howard A

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a tumor with high mortality and no known cure. The dramatic molecular and clinical heterogeneity seen in this tumor has led to attempts to define genetically similar subgroups of GBM with the hope of developing tumor specific therapies targeted to the unique biology within each of these subgroups. Recently, a subset of relatively favorable prognosis GBMs has been identified. These glioma CpG island methylator phenotype, or G-CIMP tumors, have distinct genomic copy number aberrations, DNA methylation patterns, and (mRNA) expression profiles compared to other GBMs. While the standard method for identifying G-CIMP tumors is based on genome-wide DNA methylation data, such data is often not available compared to the more widely available gene expression data. In this study, we have developed and evaluated a method to predict the G-CIMP status of GBM samples based solely on gene expression data.

  5. G-Cimp Status Prediction Of Glioblastoma Samples Using mRNA Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Baysan, Mehmet; Bozdag, Serdar; Cam, Margaret C.; Kotliarova, Svetlana; Ahn, Susie; Walling, Jennifer; Killian, Jonathan K.; Stevenson, Holly; Meltzer, Paul; Fine, Howard A.

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a tumor with high mortality and no known cure. The dramatic molecular and clinical heterogeneity seen in this tumor has led to attempts to define genetically similar subgroups of GBM with the hope of developing tumor specific therapies targeted to the unique biology within each of these subgroups. Recently, a subset of relatively favorable prognosis GBMs has been identified. These glioma CpG island methylator phenotype, or G-CIMP tumors, have distinct genomic copy number aberrations, DNA methylation patterns, and (mRNA) expression profiles compared to other GBMs. While the standard method for identifying G-CIMP tumors is based on genome-wide DNA methylation data, such data is often not available compared to the more widely available gene expression data. In this study, we have developed and evaluated a method to predict the G-CIMP status of GBM samples based solely on gene expression data. PMID:23139755

  6. Exercise training does not increase muscle FNDC5 protein or mRNA expression in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Fain, John N.; Company, Joseph M.; Booth, Frank W.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Bahouth, Suleiman W.; Sacks, Harold S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Exercise training elevates circulating irisin and induces the expression of the FNDC5 gene in skeletal muscles of mice. Our objective was to determine whether exercise training also increases FNDC5 protein or mRNA expression in the skeletal muscles of pigs as well as plasma irisin. Methods Castrated male pigs of the Rapacz familial hypercholesterolemic (FHM) strain and normal (Yucatan miniature) pigs were sacrificed after 16–20 weeks of exercise training. Samples of cardiac muscle, deltoid and triceps brachii muscle, subcutaneous and epicardial fat were obtained and FNDC5 mRNA, along with that of 6 other genes, was measured in all tissues of FHM pigs by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. FNDC protein in deltoid and triceps brachii was determined by Western blotting in both FHM and normal pigs. Citrate synthase activity was measured in the muscle samples of all pigs as an index of exercise training. Irisin was measured by an ELISA assay. Results There was no statistically significant effect of exercise training on FNDC5 gene expression in epicardial or subcutaneous fat, deltoid muscle, triceps brachii muscle or heart muscle. Exercise-training elevated circulating levels of irisin in the FHM pigs and citrate synthase activity in deltoid and triceps brachii muscle. A similar increase in citrate synthase activity was seen in muscle extracts of exercise-trained normal pigs but there was no alteration in circulating irisin. Conclusion Exercise training in pigs does not increase FNDC5 mRNA or protein in the deltoid or triceps brachii of FHM or normal pigs while increasing circulating irisin only in the FHM pigs. These data indicate that the response to exercise training in normal pigs is not comparable to that seen in mice. PMID:23831442

  7. Keratin14 mRNA expression in human pneumocytes during quiescence, repair and disease

    PubMed Central

    Confalonieri, Marco; Buratti, Emanuele; Grassi, Gabriele; Bussani, Rossana; Chilosi, Marco; Farra, Rossella; Abrami, Michela; Stuani, Cristiana; Salton, Francesco; Ficial, Miriam; Confalonieri, Paola; Zandonà, Lorenzo; Romano, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    The lung alveoli slowly self-renew pneumocytes, but their facultative regeneration capacity is rapidly efficient after an injury, so fibrosis infrequently occurs. We recently observed Keratin 14 (KRT14) expression during diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), but not in controls. We wonder if KRT14 may be a marker of pneumocyte transition from quiescence to regeneration. Quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses highlighted the presence of KRT14 (mRNA and protein) only in human lung samples with DAD or interstitial lung disease (ILD). In the exponentially growing cell lines A549 and H441, the mRNA and protein levels of KRT14 peaked at day one after cell seeding and decreased at day two, opposite to what observed for the proliferation marker E2F1. The inverse relation of KRT14 versus E2F1 expression holds true also for other proliferative markers, such as cyclin E1 and cyclin D1. Of interest, we also found that E2F1 silencing caused cell cycle arrest and increased KRT14 expression, whilst E2F1 stimulation induced cell cycle progression and decreased KRT14. KRT14 also increased in proliferative pneumocytes (HPAEpiC) just before transdifferentiation. Overall, our results suggest that KRT14 is a viable biomarker of pneumocyte activation, and repair/regeneration. The involvement of KRT14 in regenerative process may suggest a novel pharmaceutical target to accelerate lung repair. PMID:28199407

  8. Keratin14 mRNA expression in human pneumocytes during quiescence, repair and disease.

    PubMed

    Confalonieri, Marco; Buratti, Emanuele; Grassi, Gabriele; Bussani, Rossana; Chilosi, Marco; Farra, Rossella; Abrami, Michela; Stuani, Cristiana; Salton, Francesco; Ficial, Miriam; Confalonieri, Paola; Zandonà, Lorenzo; Romano, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    The lung alveoli slowly self-renew pneumocytes, but their facultative regeneration capacity is rapidly efficient after an injury, so fibrosis infrequently occurs. We recently observed Keratin 14 (KRT14) expression during diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), but not in controls. We wonder if KRT14 may be a marker of pneumocyte transition from quiescence to regeneration. Quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses highlighted the presence of KRT14 (mRNA and protein) only in human lung samples with DAD or interstitial lung disease (ILD). In the exponentially growing cell lines A549 and H441, the mRNA and protein levels of KRT14 peaked at day one after cell seeding and decreased at day two, opposite to what observed for the proliferation marker E2F1. The inverse relation of KRT14 versus E2F1 expression holds true also for other proliferative markers, such as cyclin E1 and cyclin D1. Of interest, we also found that E2F1 silencing caused cell cycle arrest and increased KRT14 expression, whilst E2F1 stimulation induced cell cycle progression and decreased KRT14. KRT14 also increased in proliferative pneumocytes (HPAEpiC) just before transdifferentiation. Overall, our results suggest that KRT14 is a viable biomarker of pneumocyte activation, and repair/regeneration. The involvement of KRT14 in regenerative process may suggest a novel pharmaceutical target to accelerate lung repair.

  9. Biologically relevant effects of mRNA amplification on gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    van Haaften, Rachel I M; Schroen, Blanche; Janssen, Ben J A; van Erk, Arie; Debets, Jacques J M; Smeets, Hubert J M; Smits, Jos F M; van den Wijngaard, Arthur; Pinto, Yigal M; Evelo, Chris T A

    2006-04-11

    Gene expression microarray technology permits the analysis of global gene expression profiles. The amount of sample needed limits the use of small excision biopsies and/or needle biopsies from human or animal tissues. Linear amplification techniques have been developed to increase the amount of sample derived cDNA. These amplified samples can be hybridised on microarrays. However, little information is available whether microarrays based on amplified and unamplified material yield comparable results. In the present study we compared microarray data obtained from amplified mRNA derived from biopsies of rat cardiac left ventricle and non-amplified mRNA derived from the same organ. Biopsies were linearly amplified to acquire enough material for a microarray experiment. Both amplified and unamplified samples were hybridized to the Rat Expression Set 230 Array of Affymetrix. Analysis of the microarray data showed that unamplified material of two different left ventricles had 99.6% identical gene expression. Gene expression patterns of two biopsies obtained from the same parental organ were 96.3% identical. Similarly, gene expression pattern of two biopsies from dissimilar organs were 92.8% identical to each other.Twenty-one percent of reporters called present in parental left ventricular tissue disappeared after amplification in the biopsies. Those reporters were predominantly seen in the low intensity range. Sequence analysis showed that reporters that disappeared after amplification had a GC-content of 53.7+/-4.0%, while reporters called present in biopsy- and whole LV-samples had an average GC content of 47.8+/-5.5% (P <0.001). Those reporters were also predicted to form significantly more (0.76+/-0.07 versus 0.38+/-0.1) and longer (9.4+/-0.3 versus 8.4+/-0.4) hairpins as compared to representative control reporters present before and after amplification. This study establishes that the gene expression profile obtained after amplification of mRNA of left ventricular

  10. Biologically relevant effects of mRNA amplification on gene expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    van Haaften, Rachel IM; Schroen, Blanche; Janssen, Ben JA; van Erk, Arie; Debets, Jacques JM; Smeets, Hubert JM; Smits, Jos FM; van den Wijngaard, Arthur; Pinto, Yigal M; Evelo, Chris TA

    2006-01-01

    Background Gene expression microarray technology permits the analysis of global gene expression profiles. The amount of sample needed limits the use of small excision biopsies and/or needle biopsies from human or animal tissues. Linear amplification techniques have been developed to increase the amount of sample derived cDNA. These amplified samples can be hybridised on microarrays. However, little information is available whether microarrays based on amplified and unamplified material yield comparable results. In the present study we compared microarray data obtained from amplified mRNA derived from biopsies of rat cardiac left ventricle and non-amplified mRNA derived from the same organ. Biopsies were linearly amplified to acquire enough material for a microarray experiment. Both amplified and unamplified samples were hybridized to the Rat Expression Set 230 Array of Affymetrix. Results Analysis of the microarray data showed that unamplified material of two different left ventricles had 99.6% identical gene expression. Gene expression patterns of two biopsies obtained from the same parental organ were 96.3% identical. Similarly, gene expression pattern of two biopsies from dissimilar organs were 92.8% identical to each other. Twenty-one percent of reporters called present in parental left ventricular tissue disappeared after amplification in the biopsies. Those reporters were predominantly seen in the low intensity range. Sequence analysis showed that reporters that disappeared after amplification had a GC-content of 53.7+/-4.0%, while reporters called present in biopsy- and whole LV-samples had an average GC content of 47.8+/-5.5% (P <0.001). Those reporters were also predicted to form significantly more (0.76+/-0.07 versus 0.38+/-0.1) and longer (9.4+/-0.3 versus 8.4+/-0.4) hairpins as compared to representative control reporters present before and after amplification. Conclusion This study establishes that the gene expression profile obtained after

  11. Vaspin plasma concentrations and mRNA expressions in patients with stable and unstable angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai Ling; Peng, Wen Hui; Cui, Shi Tao; Lei, Hou; Wei, Yi Dong; Li, Wei Ming; Xu, Ya Wei

    2011-09-01

    Vaspin was a recently identified adipokine, playing a protective role in many metabolic diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the association between vaspin plasma level and stable angina pectoris (SAP) and unstable angina pectoris (UAP). A total of 88 patients with angiographically-proved coronary artery disease (CAD) (SAP 47, UAP 41) and 103 control subjects without cardiovascular diseases were enrolled in this study. Circulating vaspin, mRNA expression of vaspin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), clinical parameters, lipid profile and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were assayed. The severity of CAD was also assessed according to the number of vessels diseased. There are significant differences in circulating vaspin levels and mRNA levels of PBMC between SAP and UAP groups (SAP 0.91±0.95 ng/mL and UAP 0.43±0.38 ng/mL, p<0.01 in circulating vaspin level; SAP 1.19±0.85 and UAP 0.82±0.56, p<0.05 in mRNA level of PBMC). An inverse correlation between the number of diseased vessels and plasma vaspin concentration was observed (r=-0.350, p<0.01) in the CAD group. Construction of receiver operating characteristic curves confirmed that vaspin plasma concentrations significantly differentiated CAD patients (area under the curve=0.684, p<0.001), as well as UAP (area under the curve=0.640, p<0.05). Decreased vaspin plasma levels and mRNA levels in PBMC were observed in patients with UAP. Low vaspin concentrations correlate with CAD severity. The findings suggested that vaspin could serve as a novel biomarker of CAD as well as UAP.

  12. [Effects of macrophages on the biological behaviors and VEGF receptor mRNA, Hoxb2 mRNA, and integrin alphavbeta3 expressions of vascular endothelial cells].

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Liu, Xu-Sheng; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ming, Jia; Xu, Hui; Cheng, Tian-Min

    2005-02-01

    To explore the mechanism by which macrophages regulate angiogenesis by co-culturing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECV-304) with human macrophage cells (U937) stimulated by concanavalin A (ConA). Monolayer ECV-304 cells growing to 60% confluence were co-cultured with 1 x 10(5)/ml U937 cells in the presence or absence of ConA (ConA+U937+ECV-304 and U937+ECV-304 groups, respectively), with non-treated and ConA-treated ECV-304 cells serving as the control groups (ECV-304 and ConA+ECV-304 groups, respectively). Forty-eight h later, U937 cells were removed from the cell co-culture for examining changes in DNA synthesis of ECV-304 cells with (3)H-TdR incorporation assay and for cell cycle analysis with flow cytometry. RT-PCR was employed to assess the influence of macrophages stimulated by ConA on the expression of the target genes. With immunofluorescent method, the changes in the expression of integrin receptor alphavbeta3 of ECV-304 were determined. A significant increase in S-phase ECV-304 cells with enhanced DNA synthesis was observed after co-culture of the cells with ConA-stimulated U937 cells (P<0.01), which also resulted in significant up-regulation of the expressions of KDR mRNA (0.879+/-0.003), Hoxb2 mRNA (0.947+/-0.003) and integrin receptor alphavbeta3 (10.26+/-1.73). Macrophages can accelerate the proliferation, migration and adhesion of the vascular endothelial cells to the basilar membrane matrix by affecting their cell cycle, DNA synthesis, expression of KDR mRNA, Hoxb2 mRNA and integrin alphavbeta3, so as to modulate the angiogenetic process of the latter cells.

  13. The increased mucosal mRNA expressions of complement C3 and interleukin-17 in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Sugihara, T; Kobori, A; Imaeda, H; Tsujikawa, T; Amagase, K; Takeuchi, K; Fujiyama, Y; Andoh, A

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the complement system participates in the regulation of T cell functions. To address the local biosynthesis of complement components in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mucosa, we investigated C3 and interleukin (IL)-17 mRNA expression in mucosal samples obtained from patients with IBD. The molecular mechanisms underlying C3 induction were investigated in human colonic subepithelial myofibroblasts (SEMFs). IL-17 and C3 mRNA expressions in the IBD mucosa were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The C3 levels in the supernatant were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IL-17 and C3 mRNA expressions were elevated significantly in the active lesions from ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients. There was a significant positive correlation between IL-17 and C3 mRNA expression in the IBD mucosa. IL-17 stimulated a dose- and time-dependent increase in C3 mRNA expression and C3 secretion in colonic SEMFs. The C3 molecules secreted by colonic SEMFs were a 115-kDa α-chain linked to a 70-kDa β-chain by disulphide bonds, which was identical to serum C3. The IL-17-induced C3 mRNA expression was blocked by p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors (PD98059 and U0216) and a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580). Furthermore, IL-17-induced C3 mRNA expression was inhibited by an adenovirus containing a stable mutant form of IκBα. C3 and IL-17 mRNA expressions are enhanced, with a strong correlation, in the inflamed mucosa of IBD patients. Part of these clinical findings was considered to be mediated by the colonic SEMF response to IL-17. PMID:20089077

  14. Time-course of 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression during memory consolidation and amnesia.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Rivas, A; Pérez-García, G; González-Espinosa, C; Meneses, A

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that antagonists of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor(6) (5-HT(6)) improve memory and reverse amnesia although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Hence, in this paper RT-PCR was used to evaluate changes in mRNA expression of 5-HT(6) receptor in trained and untrained rats treated with the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-399885 and amnesic drugs scopolamine or dizocilpine. Changes in mRNA expression of 5-HT(6) receptor were investigated at different times in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Data indicated that memory in the Pavlovian/instrumental autoshaping task was a progressive process associated to reduced mRNA expression of 5-HT(6) receptor in the three structures examined. SB-399885 improved long-term memory at 48h, while the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine or the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine impaired it at 24h. Autoshaping training and treatment with SB-399885 increased 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression in (maximum increase) prefrontal cortex and striatum, 24 or 48h. The scopolamine-induced amnesia suppressed 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression while the dizocilpine-induced amnesia did not modify 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression. SB-399885 and scopolamine or dizocilpine were able to reestablish memory and 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression. These data confirmed previous memory evidence and of more interest is the observation that training, SB-399885 and amnesic drugs modulated 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Further investigation in different memory tasks, times and amnesia models together with more complex control groups might provide further clues. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Midbrain dopamine neurons regulate preprotachykinin-A mRNA expression in the rat forebrain during development.

    PubMed

    Brené, S; Lindefors, N; Persson, H

    1992-06-01

    Intracerebroventricular 6-hydroxydopamine injections were performed at postnatal days 3 and 6 in animals pretreated with the norepinephrine uptakeblocker desimipramine in order to generate a selective lesion of dopamine neurons. In situ hybridization was then used to analyze preprotachykinin-A (PPT-A) mRNA expression in the lesioned as well as in saline-injected control animals. The midbrain dopaminergic lesion caused a 22-25% increase in the level of PPT-A mRNA in cingulate cortex and frontoparietal cortex when analysed at 2 weeks of age, compared to saline-injected control animals. In contrast, the lesion caused no change in PPT-A mRNA expression in the neonatal caudate-putamen. These results indicate that dopamine neurons downregulate the expression of PPT-A mRNA specifically in cingulate cortex and frontoparietal cortex during early postnatal brain development. In the adult rat forebrain, lesioned at P3 and P6, no change in the level of PPT-A mRNA was seen in cingulate cortex and frontoparietal cortex. However, a 29% decrease in PPT-A mRNA was seen in the lateral caudate-putamen with no significant change in neurons of medial caudate-putamen. Thus, dopamine neurons appears to exert a region specific influence on PPT-A mRNA expression during brain development.

  16. TP53 and ATM mRNA expression in skin and skeletal muscle after low-level laser exposure.

    PubMed

    Guedes de Almeida, Luciana; Sergio, Luiz Philippe da Silva; de Paoli, Flavia; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; da Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza

    2017-08-01

    Low-level lasers are widespread in regenerative medicine, but the molecular mechanisms involved in their biological effects are not fully understood, particularly those on DNA stability. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate mRNA expression of genes related to DNA genomic stability in skin and skeletal muscle tissue from Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers. For this, TP53 (Tumor Protein 53) and ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated gene) mRNA expressions were evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) technique 24 hours after low-level red and infrared laser exposure. Our data showed that relative TP53 mRNA expression was not significantly altered in both tissues exposed to lasers. For ATM, relative mRNA expression in skin tissue was not significantly altered, but in muscle tissue, laser exposure increased relative ATM mRNA expression. Low-level red and infrared laser radiations alter ATM mRNA expression related to DNA stability in skeletal muscle tissue.

  17. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors Alpha, Beta, and Gamma mRNA and Protein Expression in Human Fetal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Barbara D.; Wood, Carmen R.; Watkins, Andrew M.; Das, Kaberi P.; Lau, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis, are targets of pharmaceuticals, and are also activated by environmental contaminants. Almost nothing is known about expression of PPARs during human fetal development. This study examines expression of PPARα, β, and γ mRNA and protein in human fetal tissues. With increasing fetal age, mRNA expression of PPARα and β increased in liver, but PPARβ decreased in heart and intestine, and PPARγ decreased in adrenal. Adult and fetal mean expression of PPARα, β, and γ mRNA did not differ in intestine, but expression was lower in fetal stomach and heart. PPARα and β mRNA in kidney and spleen, and PPARγ mRNA in lung and adrenal were lower in fetal versus adult. PPARγ in liver and PPARβ mRNA in thymus were higher in fetal versus adult. PPARα protein increased with fetal age in intestine and decreased in lung, kidney, and adrenal. PPARβ protein in adrenal and PPARγ in kidney decreased with fetal age. This study provides new information on expression of PPAR subtypes during human development and will be important in evaluating the potential for the developing human to respond to PPAR environmental or pharmaceutical agonists. PMID:20706641

  18. Molecular evolution of adiponectin in Carnivora and its mRNA expression in relation to hepatic lipidosis.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Kapiainen, Suvi; Harris, Lora; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2010-09-15

    Adiponectin is a novel adipocyte-derived hormone with low circulating concentrations and/or mRNA expression in obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The adiponectin mRNA of several Carnivora species was sequenced to enable further gene expression studies in this clade with potential experimental species to examine the connections of hypoadiponectinemia to hepatic lipidosis. In addition, adiponectin mRNA expression was studied in the retroperitoneal fat of the American mink (Neovison vison), as hepatic lipidosis with close similarities to NAFLD can be rapidly induced to the species by fasting. The mRNA expression was determined after overnight-7d of food deprivation and 28d of re-feeding and correlated to the liver fat %. The homologies between the determined carnivoran mRNA sequences and that of the domestic dog were 92.2-99.1%. As the mRNA expression was not affected by short-term fasting and did not correlate with the liver fat %, there seems to be no clear connection between adiponectin and the development of lipidosis in the American mink. In the future, the obtained sequences can be utilized in further studies of adiponectin expression in comparative endocrinology. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Decline in c-myc mRNA expression but not the induction of c-fos mRNA expression is associated with differentiation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells

    SciT

    Jalava, A.M.; Heikkilae, J.E.; Akerman, K.E.O.

    1988-11-01

    The induction of differentiation in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is accompanied by a rapid and a transient expression of c-fos mRNA and a down-regulation of c-myc RNA. The TPA-induced expression of c-fos mRNA was inhibited by H-7, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C (PK-C). Dioctanoylglycerol (DiC{sub 8}) failed to induce differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells or to down-regulate c-myc mRNA but it did induce the expression of c-fos mRNA. Treatment of IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells with TPA did not cause differentiation although c-fos mRNA was induced. Since PK-C in SH-SY5Y cells was activated by both TPA andmore » DiC{sub 8} it is suggested that the activation of PK-C alone is not sufficient to induce differentiation in SH-SY5Y cells. The down-regulation of c-myc mRNA rather than the induction of c-fos mRNA seems to be associated with differentiation process in SH-SY5Y cells.« less

  20. Tamoxifen enhances choline acetyltransferase mRNA expression in rat basal forebrain cholinergic neurons.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Pamela J; LeMaster, Ann M; Dorsa, Daniel M

    2002-06-30

    Novel estrogen-like molecules known as SERMs (selective estrogen receptor modulators) produce many of the beneficial estrogen-like actions without the detrimental side-effects. The SERM, tamoxifen, an estrogen-like molecule with both agonist and antagonist properties, is widely prescribed for the treatment of breast cancer. While the effects of tamoxifen are being evaluated in many peripheral tissues, its effects in the central nervous system (CNS) have been largely ignored. In the present study, we begin to evaluate the effects of tamoxifen in the rat basal forebrain, a region known to be highly responsive to estrogen. We compared the effects of short-term (24 h) tamoxifen treatment to that of estrogen on ChAT mRNA expression in cholinergic neurons. In addition, we examined the effect of tamoxifen in the presence and absence of estrogen. Our results indicate that tamoxifen enhances ChAT expression in a manner similar to that of estrogen in several basal forebrain regions. In contrast, tamoxifen exhibits antagonist properties with respect to estrogen-induction of progesterone receptor mRNA in the medial preoptic nucleus. These results indicate tamoxifen has estrogenic properties with respect to cholinergic neurons, suggesting a previously unidentified effect of this agent in the CNS. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. Myostatin regulates proliferation and extracellular matrix mRNA expression in NIH3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Z Hosaka, Yoshinao; Ishibashi, Mika; Wakamatsu, Jun-Ichi; Uehara, Masato; Nishimura, Takanori

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of myostatin, which is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, on the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts and the synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) by them. A proliferation assay revealed that myostatin attenuated cell growth at any of the doses used. High doses of myostatin strongly inhibited cell proliferation. Moreover, myostatin receptor, activin receptor type-2B (ActRIIB), was found to be distributed on cells and it was also clarified that myostatin increased the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (p21). These results suggested that a high dose of myostatin inhibits fibroblast proliferation by the same mechanism as that for inhibition of myoblast proliferation. We then examined the effects of myostatin on the mRNA expression of ECM molecules (decorin, biglycan, type I collagen, type III collagen, type IV collagen and type V collagen) by real-time PCR. Real-time PCR showed that myostatin increased the mRNA of decorin, biglycan and collagen (types I, IV and V) in fibroblasts. The results suggest that myostatin regulates ECM synthesis in cultured fibroblasts.

  2. Prognostic impact of MYC protein expression in central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: comparison with MYC rearrangement and MYC mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Son, Seung-Myoung; Ha, Sang-Yun; Yoo, Hae-Yong; Oh, Dongryul; Kim, Seok-Jin; Kim, Won-Seog; Ko, Young-Hyeh

    2017-01-01

    The prognostic role of MYC has been well documented in non-central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; however, it remains controversial in central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. To investigate the prognostic value of MYC, we analyzed the MYC protein expression by immunohistochemistry, mRNA expression by RNA in situ hybridization, and gene status by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 74 cases of central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Moreover, we examined the correlation between MYC translocation, mRNA expression, and protein expression. The mean percentage of MYC immunopositive cells was 49%. Using a 44% cutoff value, 49 (66%) cases showed MYC protein overexpression. The result of mRNA in situ hybridization using the RNA scope technology was obtained using the H-scoring system; the median value was 34.2. Using the cutoff value of 63.5, 16 (22%) cases showed MYC mRNA overexpression. MYC gene rearrangement was detected in five out of 68 (7%) cases. MYC translocation showed no statistically significant correlation with mRNA expression; however, all MYC translocation-positive cases showed MYC protein overexpression, with a higher mean percentage of MYC protein expression than that of translocation-negative cases (78 vs 48%, P=0.001). The level of MYC mRNA expression was moderately correlated with the level of MYC protein expression (P<0.001). The mean percentage of MYC protein expression in the high MYC mRNA group was higher than that in the low MYC mRNA group (70 vs 47%, P<0.001). A univariate analysis showed that age over 60 years, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status ≥2 and MYC protein overexpression were significantly associated with an increased risk of death. MYC translocation and MYC mRNA expression had no prognostic significance. On multivariate analysis, MYC protein overexpression and ECOG score retained prognostic significance.

  3. Cytokine mRNA expression in normal skin of various age populations before and after engraftment onto nude mice.

    PubMed

    Gilhar, A; Ullmann, Y; Shalagino, R; Weisinger, G

    1998-01-01

    Whether the impact of skin biological age on cytokine expression is a result of this tissue's proliferation potential or not is an important issue in dermatology. We investigated these questions by monitoring cytokine marker mRNA expression from human skin samples from healthy groups of individuals. The skin samples studied represented three age groups: fetal (17-21 weeks), young (18-35 years) and aged (76-88 years). Furthermore, upon skin transplantation of tissue from different age groups onto nude mice, we investigated whether cytokine marker RNA levels would change or normalize. Interestingly, both TNF-alpha and P53 mRNA showed a similar pattern of expression. Both were significantly higher in fetal skin (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05, respectively), and no difference was noted between aged versus young skin. In contrast to this, IL1-alpha mRNA was expressed at its lowest and highest levels in fetal and young skin, respectively. Following skin transplantation, cytokines and P53 mRNA expression were normalized to similar levels in all age groups. This study implies that when cytokine expression was determined directly at the mRNA level, post-natal expression was not significantly different at either age group. Furthermore, it seems that the environmental conditions surrounding the grafted human skin found on nude mice encouraged normalization of donor cytokine expression.

  4. HFE mRNA expression is responsive to intracellular and extracellular iron loading: short communication.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Kosha J; Farnaud, Sebastien; Patel, Vinood B

    2017-10-01

    In liver hepatocytes, the HFE gene regulates cellular and systemic iron homeostasis by modulating cellular iron-uptake and producing the iron-hormone hepcidin in response to systemic iron elevation. However, the mechanism of iron-sensing in hepatocytes remain enigmatic. Therefore, to study the effect of iron on HFE and hepcidin (HAMP) expressions under distinct extracellular and intracellular iron-loading, we examined the effect of holotransferrin treatment (1, 2, 5 and 8 g/L for 6 h) on intracellular iron levels, and mRNA expressions of HFE and HAMP in wild-type HepG2 and previously characterized iron-loaded recombinant-TfR1 HepG2 cells. Gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR and intracellular iron was measured by ferrozine assay. Data showed that in the wild-type cells, where intracellular iron content remained unchanged, HFE expression remained unaltered at low holotransferrin treatments but was upregulated upon 5 g/L (p < 0.04) and 8 g/L (p = 0.05) treatments. HAMP expression showed alternating elevations and increased upon 1 g/L (p < 0.05) and 5 g/L (p < 0.05). However, in the recombinant cells that showed higher intracellular iron levels than wild-type cells, HFE and HAMP expressions were elevated only at low 1 g/L treatment (p < 0.03) and were repressed at 2 g/L treatment (p < 0.03). Under holotransferrin-untreated conditions, the iron-loaded recombinant cells showed higher expressions of HFE (p < 0.03) and HAMP (p = 0.05) than wild-type cells. HFE mRNA was independently elevated by extracellular and intracellular iron-excess. Thus, it may be involved in sensing both, extracellular and intracellular iron. Repression of HAMP expression under simultaneous intracellular and extracellular iron-loading resembles non-hereditary iron-excess pathologies.

  5. Expression of dopamine D2 receptor and choline acetyltransferase mRNA in the dopamine deafferented rat caudate-putamen.

    PubMed

    Brené, S; Lindefors, N; Herrera-Marschitz, M; Persson, H

    1990-01-01

    In situ hybridization was used to study dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA expression in neurons of the rat forebrain, both on control animals and after a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion of midbrain dopamine neurons. D2R mRNA expressing neurons were seen in regions which are known to be heavily innervated by midbrain dopamine fibers such as caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle. ChAT mRNA expressing neurons were seen in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens and septal regions including vertical limb of the diagonal band. In caudate-putamen, approximately 55% of the medium sized neurons, which is the predominating neuronal cell-size in this region, were specifically labeled with the D2R probe. In addition, approximately 95% of the large size neurons in caudate-putamen were specifically labeled with both the D2R and ChAT probes, suggesting that most cholinergic neurons in the caudate-putamen express D2R mRNA. After a unilateral lesion of midbrain dopamine neurons, no change in the level of either D2R or ChAT mRNA were seen in the large size intrinsic cholinergic neurons in caudate-putamen. Similarly, no evidence was obtained for altered levels of D2R mRNA in medium size neurons in medial caudate-putamen, or nucleus accumbens. However, an increase in the number of medium size neurons expressing D2R mRNA was observed in the lateral part of the dopamine deafferented caudate-putamen. Thus, it appears that midbrain dopamine deafferentation causes an increase in D2R mRNA expression in a subpopulation of medium size neurons in the lateral caudate-putamen.

  6. Expression of TRAF6 and ubiquitin mRNA in skeletal muscle of gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prognostic significance of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR),-associated factor 6 (TRAF6),-and ubiquitin in gastric cancer patients. Methods Biopsies of the rectus abdominis muscle were obtained intra operatively from 102 gastric cancer patients and 29 subjects undergoing surgery for benign abdominal diseases, and muscle TRAF6 and ubiquitin mRNA expression and proteasome proteolytic activities were assessed. Results TRAF6 was significantly upregulated in muscle of gastric cancer compared with the control muscles. TRAF6 was upregulated in 67.65% (69/102) muscle of gastric cancer. Over expression of TRAF6 in muscles of gastric cancer were associated with TNM stage, level of serum albumin and percent of weight loss. Ubiquitin was significantly upregulated in muscle of gastric cancer compared with the control muscles. Ubiquitin was upregulated in 58.82% (60/102) muscles of gastric cancer. Over expression of ubiquitin in muscles of gastric cancer were associated with TNM (Tumor-Node-Metastasis) stage and weight loss. There was significant relation between TRAF6 and ubiquitin expression. Conclusions We found a positive correlation between TRAF6 and ubiquitin expression, suggesting that TRAF6 may up regulates ubiquitin activity in cancer cachexia. While more investigations are required to understand its mechanisms of TRAF6 and ubiquitin in skeletal muscle. Correct the catabolic-anabolic imbalance is essential for the effective treatment of cancer cachexia. PMID:23013936

  7. IGF-1R mRNA expression is increased in obese children.

    PubMed

    Ricco, Rafaela Cristina; Ricco, Rubens Garcia; Queluz, Mariangela Carletti; de Paula, Mariana Teresa Sarti; Atique, Patricia Volpon; Custódio, Rodrigo José; Tourinho Filho, Hugo; Del Roio Liberatori, Raphael; Martinelli, Carlos Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    Obese children are often taller than age-matched subjects. Reports on GH and IGF-I levels in obese individuals are controversial, with normal and reduced GH-IGF-I levels having been reported in this group of patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-IR) mRNA expression in obese children. Forty-seven pre-pubertal children were included in this study: 29 were obese and taller than their target height, and 18 were normal eutrophic controls. Fasting blood samples were collected for IGF-IR mRNA expression in isolated lymphocytes and serum IGF-I, ALS, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-1 concentration analysis. Relative IGF-IR gene expression (2 -ΔΔCT ) was significantly (P=0.025) higher in obese children (median 1.87) than in controls (1.15). Fourteen of the 29 obese subjects showed 2 -ΔΔCT values greater than or equal to 2, while only 2 individuals in the control group showed values above 2 (P=0.01). Obese children showed significantly (P=0.01) higher IGF-I concentrations than the control group (237ng/ml and 144ng/ml, respectively). Among obese patients, 65.5% had IGF-I values above the 75 percentile of the control group (P=0.02). ALS concentration was significantly (P=0.04) higher in the obese group, while IGFBP-3 levels were similar in obese and control children. IGFBP-1 concentration was lower in obese children, while insulin levels and HOMA-IR index were higher than in controls. The higher IGF-IR mRNA expression observed in obese children, associated with the higher IGF-I and ALS and the lower IGFBP-1 levels, suggest that the higher stature observed in these children may be due to increased IGF-I bioactivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential regulation of preprotachykinin-A mRNA expression in striatum by excitation of hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Brené, S; Lindefors, N; Herrera-Marschitz, M; Persson, H

    1993-07-01

    In this report we have studied the influence of hippocampal neurons on neuropeptide mRNA expression in both dorsal and ventral striatum in the rat. Intrahippocampal unilateral kainic acid injections were performed in control animals and in animals with a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopamine deafferentation of the striatum. In situ hybridization combined with quantitative image analysis was used to study the expression of preprotachykinin A mRNA encoding the neuropeptides substance P and neurokinin A. The 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion caused a decrease of preprotachykinin A mRNA levels in the ipsilateral dorsal striatum and in both sides of the ventral striatum. In normal rats, the intrahippocampal kainic acid injection caused a twofold increase in preprotachykinin A mRNA in the limbic parts of the striatum, which are innervated by the hippocampus. No effect of the kainic acid injection was seen in the lateral parts of the dorsal striatum, a region which does not appear to be innervated by the hippocampus. Animals with a 6-hydroxydopamine lesion showed a similar kainic acid-mediated increase in preprotachykinin A mRNA in parts of the ventral striatum. In the dopamine-lesioned dorsal striatum and ventral striatum the decreased preprotachykinin A mRNA levels were normalized by the intrahippocampal kainic acid injection. These results show that kainic acid-mediated excitation of hippocampal neurons causes a dopamine-independent induction of preprotachykinin A mRNA expression in parts of the ventral striatum, and reverses the dopamine deafferentation-induced decrease of preprotachykinin A mRNA in both dorsal and ventral striatum. Combined, our results suggest that hippocampal neurons can regulate preprotachykinin A mRNA expression in both the ventral and the dorsal striatum.

  9. Effects of active acromegaly on bone mRNA and microRNA expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Belaya, Zhanna; Grebennikova, Tatiana; Melnichenko, Galina; Nikitin, Alexey; Solodovnikov, Alexander; Brovkina, Olga; Grigoriev, Andrey; Rozhinskaya, Liudmila; Lutsenko, Alexander; Dedov, Ivan

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the response of bone to chronic long-term growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) excess by measuring the expression of selected mRNA and microRNA (miR) in bone tissue samples of patients with active acromegaly. Case-control study. Bone tissue samples were obtained during transsphenoidal adenomectomy from the sphenoid bone (sella turcica) from 14 patients with clinically and biochemically confirmed acromegaly and 10 patients with clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) matched by sex and age. Expression of genes involved in the regulation of bone remodeling was studied using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Of the genes involved in osteoblast and osteoclast activity, only alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA was 50% downregulated in patients with acromegaly. GH excess caused increased expression of the Wnt signaling antagonists ( DKK1) and agonists ( WNT10B) and changes in the levels of miR involved in mesenchymal stem cell commitment to chondrocytes (miR-199a-5p) or adipocytes (miR-27-5p, miR-125b-5p, miR-34a-5p, miR-188-3p) P  < 0.05; q  < 0.1. Relevant compensatory mechanisms were found through the changes in miR involved in osteoblastogenesis (miR-210-5p, miR-135a-5p, miR-211, miR-23a-3p, miR-204-5p), but the expression of TWIST1 was 50% downregulated and RUNX2 was unchanged. Acromegaly had minimal effects on tested mRNAs specific to osteoblast or osteoclast function except for downregulated ALP expression. The expressions of miR known to be involved in mesenchymal stem cell commitment and downregulated TWIST1 expression suggest acromegaly has a negative effect on osteoblastogenesis. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  10. mRNA expression levels of hypoxia-induced and stem cell-associated genes in human glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Bache, Matthias; Rot, Swetlana; Keßler, Jacqueline; Güttler, Antje; Wichmann, Henri; Greither, Thomas; Wach, Sven; Taubert, Helge; Söling, Ariane; Bilkenroth, Udo; Kappler, Matthias; Vordermark, Dirk

    2015-06-01

    The roles of hypoxia-induced and stem cell-associated genes in the development of malignancy and tumour progression are well known. However, there are a limited number of studies analysing the impact of mRNA expression levels of hypoxia-induced and stem cell-associated genes in the tissues of brain tumours and glioblastoma patients. In this study, tumour tissues from patients with glioblastoma multiforme and tumour adjacent tissues were analysed. We investigated mRNA expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α), carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) and osteopontin (OPN), and stem cell-associated genes survivin, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), Nanog and octamer binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Our data revealed higher mRNA expression levels of hypoxia-induced and stem cell-associated genes in tumour tissue than levels in the tumour adjacent tissues in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. A strong positive correlation between the mRNA expression levels of HIF-2α, CA9, VEGF, GLUT-1 and OPN suggests a specific hypoxia-associated profile of mRNA expression in glioblastoma multiforme. Additionally, the results indicate the role of stem-cell-related genes in tumour hypoxia. Kaplan-Maier analysis revealed that high mRNA expression levels of hypoxia-induced markers showed a trend towards shorter overall survival in glioblastoma patients (P=0.061). Our data suggest that mRNA expression levels of hypoxia-induced genes are important tumour markers in patients with glioblastoma multiforme.

  11. Adverse early life experience and social stress during adulthood interact to increase serotonin transporter mRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Katherine L.; Hale, Matthew W.; Lightman, Stafford L.; Plotsky, Paul M.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, depression and animal models of vulnerability to a depression-like syndrome have been associated with dysregulation of serotonergic systems in the brain. To evaluate the effects of early life experience, adverse experiences during adulthood, and potential interactions between these factors on serotonin transporter (slc6a4) mRNA expression, we investigated in rats the effects of maternal separation (180 min/day from days 2–14 of life; MS180), neonatal handing (15 min/day from days 2–14 of life; MS15), or normal animal facility rearing control conditions (AFR) with or without subsequent exposure to adult social defeat on slc6a4 mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) and caudal linear nucleus. At the level of specific subdivisions of the DR, there were no differences in slc6a4 mRNA expression between MS15 and AFR rats. Among rats exposed to a novel cage control condition, increased slc6a4 mRNA expression was observed in the dorsal part of the DR in MS180 rats, relative to AFR control rats. In contrast, MS180 rats exposed to social defeat as adults had increased slc6a4 mRNA expression throughout the DR compared to both MS15 and AFR controls. Social defeat increased slc6a4 mRNA expression, but only in MS180 rats and only in the “lateral wings” of the DR. Overall these data demonstrate that early life experience and stressful experience during adulthood interact to determine slc6a4 mRNA expression. These data support the hypothesis that early life experience and major stressful life events contribute to dysregulation of serotonergic systems in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19781533

  12. BORIS/CTCFL mRNA isoform expression and epigenetic regulation in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Link, Petra A.; Zhang, Wa; Odunsi, Kunle; Karpf, Adam R.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer germline (CG) genes are normally expressed in germ cells and aberrantly expressed in a variety of cancers; their immunogenicity has led to the widespread development of cancer vaccines targeting these antigens. BORIS/CTCFL is an autosomal CG antigen and promising cancer vaccine target. BORIS is the only known paralog of CTCF, a gene intimately involved in genomic imprinting, chromatin insulation, and nuclear regulation. We have previously shown that BORIS is expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and that its expression coincides with promoter and global DNA hypomethylation. Recently, 23 different BORIS mRNA variants have been described, and have been functionally grouped into six BORIS isoform families (sf1–sf6). In the present study, we have characterized the expression of BORIS isoform families in normal ovary (NO) and EOC, the latter of which were selected to include two groups with widely varying global DNA methylation status. We find selective expression of BORIS isoform families in NO, which becomes altered in EOC, primarily by the activation of BORIS sf1 in EOC. When comparing EOC samples based on methylation status, we find that BORIS sf1 and sf2 isoform families are selectively activated in globally hypomethylated tumors. In contrast, CTCF is downregulated in EOC, and the ratio of BORIS sf1, sf2, and sf6 isoform families as a function of CTCF is elevated in hypomethylated tumors. Finally, the expression of all BORIS isoform families was induced to varying extents by epigenetic modulatory drugs in EOC cell lines, particularly when DNMT and HDAC inhibitors were used in combination. PMID:23390377

  13. Successful TB treatment induces B-cells expressing FASL and IL5RA mRNA.

    PubMed

    van Rensburg, Ilana C; Wagman, Chandre; Stanley, Kim; Beltran, Caroline; Ronacher, Katharina; Walzl, Gerhard; Loxton, Andre G

    2017-01-10

    Activated B-cells increase T-cell behaviour during autoimmune disease and other infections by means of cytokine production and antigen-presentation. Functional studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) indicate that B-cell deficiencies, and a lack of IL10 and IL35 leads to a poor prognosis. We hypothesised that B-cells play a role during tuberculosis. We evaluated B-cell mRNA expression using real-time PCR from healthy community controls, individuals with other lung diseases and newly diagnosed untreated pulmonary TB patients at three different time points (diagnosis, month 2 and 6 of treatment).We show that FASLG, IL5RA, CD38 and IL4 expression was lower in B-cells from TB cases compared to healthy controls. The changes in expression levels of CD38 may be due to a reduced activation of B-cells from TB cases at diagnosis. By month 2 of treatment, there was a significant increase in the expression of APRIL and IL5RA in TB cases. Furthermore, after 6 months of treatment, APRIL, FASLG, IL5RA and CD19 were upregulated in B-cells from TB cases. The increase in the expression of APRIL and CD19 suggests that there may be restored activation of B-cells following anti-TB treatment. The upregulation of FASLG and IL5RA indicates that B-cells expressing regulatory genes may play an important role in the protective immunity against M.tb infection. Our results show that increased activation of B-cells is present following successful TB treatment, and that the expression of FASLG and IL5RA could potentially be utilised as a signature to monitor treatment response.

  14. Expression of VGF mRNA in developing neuroendocrine and endocrine tissues.

    PubMed

    Snyder, S E; Peng, B; Pintar, J E; Salton, S R J

    2003-11-01

    Analysis of knockout mice suggests that the neurotropin-inducible secreted polypeptide VGF (non-acronymic) plays an important role in the regulation of energy balance. VGF is synthesized by neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS, PNS), as well as in the adult pituitary, adrenal medulla, endocrine cells of the stomach and pancreatic beta cells. Thus VGF, like cholecystokinin, leptin, ghrelin and other peptide hormones that have been shown to regulate feeding and energy expenditure, is synthesized in both the gut and the brain. Although detailed developmental studies of VGF localization in the CNS and PNS have been completed, little is known about the ontogeny of VGF expression in endocrine and neuroendocrine tIssues. Here, we report that VGF mRNA is detectable as early as embryonic day 15.5 in the developing rat gastrointestinal and esophageal lumen, pancreas, adrenal, and pituitary, and we further demonstrate that VGF mRNA is synthesized in the gravid rat uterus, together supporting possible functional roles for this polypeptide outside the nervous system and in the enteric plexus.

  15. [Effect of Panax notoginseng saponins on liver drug metablic enzyme activity, mRNA and protein expressions in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Jin; Wang, Yu-Guang; Ma, Zeng-Chun; Xiao, Cheng-Rong; Tan, Hong-Ling; Liang, Qian-De; Tang, Xiang-Lin; Zhao, Yong-Hong; Wang, Dong-Gen; Gao, Yue

    2014-10-01

    To study the effect of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on liver drug metabolic enzyme activity, mRNA and protein expressions in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups. After administration of the test drugs, their liver microsomes, liver total RNA and total protein were extracted to detect the regulating effect of PNS on liver drug metabolic enzyme activity-related subtype enzymatic activity, mRNA and protein expression by substrate probe, quantitative PCR and Western Blot technology. The result of this experiment was that PNS could significantly induce CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 enzyme activity, mRNA expression, CYP2E1 protein expression level. PNS significantly induced CYP3A mRNA expression, but with no significant effect in CYP3A enzyme activity level. PNS had no significant effect CYP1A1 and CYP2B mRNA expressions and enzyme activity levels. PNS had selective regulations on different P450 subtypes, and the major subtypes were CYP1A2 and CYP2E1. In clinical practice, particularly in the combination with CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 metabolism-related drugs, full consideration shall be given to the possible drug interactions in order to avoid potential toxic and side effects. Meanwhile, whether the induction effect of CYP2E1 gets involved in ginsenoside's effect incavenging free radicals deserves further studies.

  16. Quantitative assessment of hTERT mRNA expression in dysplastic nodules of HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Bong-Kyeong; Kim, Young-Joo; Park, Young Nyun; Choi, Jinsub; Kim, Kyung Sik; Park, Chanil

    2006-04-01

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is the rate-limiting determinant of telomerase, which is critical for carcinogenesis. Dysplastic nodules (DNs) appear to be preneoplastic lesions of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). In this study, in order to characterize DNs, hTERT mRNA, hTERT gene dosage, and mRNA for c-myc, a transcriptional activator of hTERT were studied in human multi-step hepatocarcinogenesis. Fifty four hepatic nodules including 5 large regenerative nodules, 14 low-grade DNs, 7 high-grade DNs, 11 DNs with HCC foci and 17 HCCs, 23 livers with chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis, and 6 normal livers were examined. Transcript levels were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and gene dosages by real-time PCR and Southern blotting. The hTERT mRNA levels increased with the progression of hepatocarcinogenesis, and a significant induction in the transition between low- and high-grade DNs was seen. Most high-grade DNs strongly expressed hTERT mRNA at levels similar to those of HCCs. Twenty-one percent of low-grade DNs had high levels of hTERT mRNA, up to those of high-grade DNs and there was no difference in the pathological features between low-grade DNs with and without increased hTERT mRNA levels. No correlation was found between hTERT mRNA levels, hTERT gene dosage, and c-myc mRNA levels. These results suggest that the induction of hTERT mRNA is an important early event and that its measurement by real-time quantitative RT-PCR is a useful tool to detect premalignant/malignant tendencies in hepatic nodules. However, hTERT gene dosage and c-myc expression are not the main mechanisms regulating hTERT expression in hepatocarcinogenesis.

  17. Rift Valley fever virus NS{sub S} gene expression correlates with a defect in nuclear mRNA export

    SciT

    Copeland, Anna Maria; Van Deusen, Nicole M.; Schmaljohn, Connie S., E-mail: Connie.s.schmaljohn.civ@mail.mil

    We investigated the localization of host mRNA during Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that infection with RVFV altered the localization of host mRNA. mRNA accumulated in the nuclei of RVFV-infected but not mock-infected cells. Further, overexpression of the NS{sub S} gene, but not the N, G{sub N} or NS{sub M} genes correlated with mRNA nuclear accumulation. Nuclear accumulation of host mRNA was not observed in cells infected with a strain of RVFV lacking the gene encoding NS{sub S}, confirming that expression of NS{sub S} is likely responsible for this phenomenon. - Highlights: • Riftmore » Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection alters the localization of host mRNA. • mRNA accumulates in the nuclei of RVFV-infected but not mock-infected cells. • NS{sub S} is likely responsible for mRNA relocalization to the nucleus.« less

  18. Increase of CTGF mRNA expression by respiratory syncytial virus infection is abrogated by caffeine in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kunzmann, Steffen; Krempl, Christine; Seidenspinner, Silvia; Glaser, Kirsten; Speer, Christian P; Fehrholz, Markus

    2018-04-16

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in early childhood. Underlying pathomechanisms of elevated pulmonary morbidity in later infancy are largely unknown. We found that RSV-infected H441 cells showed increased mRNA expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a key factor in airway remodeling. Additional dexamethasone treatment led to further elevated mRNA levels, indicating additive effects. Caffeine treatment prevented RSV-mediated increase of CTGF mRNA. RSV may be involved in airway remodeling processes by increasing CTGF mRNA expression. Caffeine might abrogate these negative effects and thereby help to restore lung homeostasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. [Houttuynia Cordata induces expression of human beta-defensin-2 mRNA in pulmonary epithelial cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Luo, Li; Dong, Bi-rong; Teng, Li-hua

    2008-07-01

    To explore the effects of Houttuynia Cordata on expression of human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) in pulmonary epithelial cells (SPC-A-1) in vitro; and to observe the correlationship between the level of HBD-2 mRNA and the concentrations or treatment times of Houttuynia Cordata. The SPC-A-1 cells were cultured with different concentrations of Houttuynia Cordata in vitro, including 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 microg/ml. And then, the SPC-A-1 cells were cultured with the optimal concentration of Houttuynia Cordata in different lengths of time, including 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours. After the treatment, the mRNA level of HBD-2 in pulmonary epithelial cells was detected by means of semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After being cultured with Houttuynia Cordata, the expression of HBD-2 mRNA had positive correlation with the stimulus concentrations (rs=0.829, P=0.042) and stimulus time (rs=0.914, P=0.003). The highest expression of HBD-2 mRNA was induced by 100 microg/ml Houttuynia Cordata after 8-hour treatment. In comparison with the normal control group and the interleukin-1beta group, 100 microg/ml Houttuynia Cordata could significantly up-regulate the expression of HBD-2 mRNA in SPC-A-1 cells after 8-hour treatment (P<0.01). Houttuynia Cordata can up-regulate expression of HBD-2 mRNA in SPC-A-1 cells, and the highest expression level of HBD-2 mRNA can be obtained by culture with 100 microg/ml Houttuynia Cordata for 8 hours.

  20. Multiple correlation analyses revealed complex relationship between DNA methylation and mRNA expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fang-Fei; Deng, Fei-Yan; Wu, Long-Fei; Mo, Xing-Bo; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Jian; Guo, Yu-Fan; Zeng, Ke-Qin; Wang, Ming-Jun; Zhu, Xiao-Wei; Xia, Wei; Wang, Lan; He, Pei; Bing, Peng-Fei; Lu, Xin; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Lei, Shu-Feng

    2018-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important regulator on the mRNA expression. However, a genome-wide correlation pattern between DNA methylation and mRNA expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is largely unknown. The comprehensive relationship between mRNA and DNA methylation was explored by using four types of correlation analyses and a genome-wide methylation-mRNA expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in PBMCs in 46 unrelated female subjects. An enrichment analysis was performed to detect biological function for the detected genes. Single pair correlation coefficient (r T1 ) between methylation level and mRNA is moderate (-0.63-0.62) in intensity, and the negative and positive correlations are nearly equal in quantity. Correlation analysis on each gene (T4) found 60.1% genes showed correlations between mRNA and gene-based methylation at P < 0.05 and more than 5.96% genes presented very strong correlation (R T4  > 0.8). Methylation sites have regulation effects on mRNA expression in eQTL analysis, with more often observations in region of transcription start site (TSS). The genes under significant methylation regulation both in correlation analysis and eQTL analysis tend to cluster to the categories (e.g., transcription, translation, regulation of transcription) that are essential for maintaining the basic life activities of cells. Our findings indicated that DNA methylation has predictive regulation effect on mRNA with a very complex pattern in PBMCs. The results increased our understanding on correlation of methylation and mRNA and also provided useful clues for future epigenetic studies in exploring biological and disease-related regulatory mechanisms in PBMC.

  1. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA in non-small-cell lung carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Fontanini, G; Boldrini, L; Chinè, S; Pisaturo, F; Basolo, F; Calcinai, A; Lucchi, M; Mussi, A; Angeletti, C A; Bevilacqua, G

    1999-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to be strictly related to vascular permeability and endothelial cell growth under physiological and pathological conditions. In tumour development and progression, VEGF plays a pivotal role in the development of the tumoral vascular network, and useful information in the progression of human cancer can be obtained by analysing the vascular endothelial growth factor expression of the tumours. In this study, we investigated the vascular endothelial growth factor transcript expression in non-small-cell lung carcinomas to evaluate the significance of this factor in a group of cancers in which the vascular pattern has been shown to significantly affect progression. Surgical samples of 42 patients with NSCLC were studied using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and in situ hybridization. Thirty-three out of 42 cases (78.6%) showed VEGF transcript expression predominantly as transcripts for the secretory forms of VEGF (isoforms 121 and 165). In situ hybridization, performed on 24 out of 42 samples, showed that the VEGF transcript expression was in several cases present in the cytoplasm both of neoplastic and normal cells, even if the VEGF mRNA was less expressed in the corresponding non-tumoral part. The VEGF 121 expression was associated with hilar and/or mediastinal nodal involvement (P = 0.02), and, taken together, the VEGF isoforms were shown to significantly influence overall (P = 0.02) and disease-free survival (P = 0.03). As a regulator of tumour angiogenesis, VEGF may represent a useful indicator of progression and poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung carcinomas. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:9888482

  2. Olive Leaf Extract Elevates Hepatic PPAR α mRNA Expression and Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Leena; Liu, Ya-Nan; Park, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesized that olive leaf extract might alleviate dyslipidemia resulting from estrogen deficiency. Serum lipid profile and mRNA expression of the related genes in the liver and adipose tissue were analyzed after providing olive leaf extract (200 or 400 mg/kg body weight; n=7 for each group) to ovariectomized rats for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks' administration, the rats in the olive leaf extract-administered groups showed significantly lower levels of serum triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol compared with the rats in the control group, whereas the administration of olive leaf extract did not significantly change the elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, administration of high dose of olive leaf extract significantly decreased the liver triglyceride and increased serum estradiol levels. mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) were not affected by ovariectomy, however, administration of olive leaf extract significantly increased both PPAR α and ACO mRNA expression. Expression of adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue was significantly decreased in the ovariectomized control group. Rats administered low-dose olive leaf extract showed significantly elevated adiponectin mRNA expression compared with rats in the ovariectomized control group. Even though dose-dependent effects were not observed in most of the measurements, these results suggest that genes involved in lipid metabolism may be regulated by olive leaf extract administration in ovariectomized rats.

  3. Rev-erb beta regulates the Srebp-1c promoter and mRNA expression in skeletal muscle cells

    SciT

    Ramakrishnan, Sathiya N.; Lau, Patrick; Crowther, Lisa M.

    2009-10-30

    The nuclear hormone receptor, Rev-erb beta operates as a transcriptional silencer. We previously demonstrated that exogenous expression of Rev-erb{beta}{Delta}E in skeletal muscle cells increased Srebp-1c mRNA expression. We validated these in vitro observations by injection of an expression vector driving Rev-erb{beta}{Delta}E expression into mouse tibialis muscle that resulted in increased Srebp-1c mRNA expression. Paradoxically, Rev-erb{beta} siRNA expression in skeletal muscle cells repressed Srebp-1c expression, and indicated that Rev-erb{beta} expression was necessary for Srebp-1c expression. ChIP analysis demonstrated that Rev-erb{beta} was recruited to the Srebp-1c promoter. Moreover, Rev-erb{beta} trans-activated the Srebp-1c promoter, in contrast, Rev-erb{beta} efficiently repressed the Rev-erb{alpha} promoter, amore » previously characterized target gene. Finally, treatment with the Rev-erb agonist (hemin) (i) increased the trans-activation of the Srebp-1c promoter by Rev-erb{beta}; and (ii) increased Rev-erb{beta} and Srebp-1c mRNA expression. These data suggest that Rev-erb{beta} has the potential to activate gene expression, and is a positive regulator of Srebp-1c, a regulator of lipogenesis.« less

  4. Expression of phosphatidylserine-specific phospholipase A(1) mRNA in human THP-1-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Hiroyuki; Homma, Masato; Ogasawara, Yoko; Makide, Kumiko; Aoki, Junken; Niwata, Hideaki; Watanabe, Machiko; Inoue, Keizo; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro; Kohda, Yukinao

    2010-01-01

    The expression of phosphatidylserine-specific phospholipase A(1) (PS-PLA(1)) is most upregulated in the genes of peripheral blood cells from chronic rejection model rats bearing long-term surviving cardiac allografts. The expression profile of PS-PLA(1) in peripheral blood cells responsible for the immune response may indicate a possible biological marker for rejection episodes. In this study, PS-PLA(1) mRNA expression was examined in human THP-1-derived macrophages. The effects of several immunosuppressive agents on this expression were also examined in in vitro experiments. A real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that PS-PLA(1) mRNA expression was found in human THP-1-derived macrophages. This expression was enhanced in the cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 ligand. Other TLR ligands (TLR2, 3, 5, 7, and 9) did not show a significant induction of PS-PLA(1) mRNA. The time course of the mRNA expression profiles was different between PS-PLA(1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which showed a maximal expression at 12 and 1 h after LPS stimulation, respectively. Among the observed immunosuppressive agents, corticosteroids, prednisolone, 6α-methylprednisolone, dexamethasone, and beclomethasone inhibited PS-PLA(1) expression with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations less than 3.0 nM, while methotrexate, cyclosporine A, tacrolimus, 6-mercaptopurine, and mycophenoic acid showed either a weak or moderate inhibition. These results suggest that the expression of PS-PLA(1) mRNA in THP-1-derived macrophages is activated via TLR4 and it is inhibited by corticosteroids, which are used at high dosages to suppress chronic allograft rejection.

  5. Differential expression of cytokeratin mRNA and protein in normal prostate, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and invasive carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Y.; Hao, J.; Liu, X.; Dalkin, B.; Nagle, R. B.

    1997-01-01

    The expression of cytokeratin (CK) mRNA for CK5, -8, -14, -16, and -19 was investigated in normal prostate, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) lesions, and invasive carcinoma using in situ hybridization. Protein localization was carried out in adjacent sections using immunohistochemistry and correlated with mRNA expression. Snap-frozen human prostate samples including 22 examples of normal glands, 20 cases of PIN lesions, and 12 cases of invasive carcinoma were examined. CK5 and -14 mRNA and protein were prominently expressed only in the basal cells of normal glands and PIN lesions. CK14 mRNA was absent in the luminal cells of the most of the PIN lesions but was seen at a low level in some PIN lesions. CK14 protein was not detected in any PIN lesion, suggesting that, if the cell that makes up the PIN lesions is derived from a basal cell, CK14 translation is depressed although a low level of CK14 mRNA may persist. CK8 mRNA and protein were constitutively expressed in all epithelia of normal and abnormal prostate tissues. CK19 mRNA and protein were persistently expressed in both basal and luminal cells of the tubular portion of normal glands as well as PIN lesions, but were expressed heterogeneously in both basal and luminal cells of normal alveoli. CK16 mRNA was expressed in a similar pattern as CK19, but CK16 protein was not detected either in normal or in abnormal prostate tissues. In conclusion, the expression of CK19 in PIN lesions is similar to its tubular expression and would support an origin of PIN lesions from this structure rather than the alveolar portion of the glands. The similar cytokeratin expression between PIN lesions and invasive carcinoma further supports the concept that PIN is a precursor lesion of invasive carcinoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9033282

  6. Cloning and mRNA expression of guanylin, uroguanylin, and guanylyl cyclase C in the Spinifex hopping mouse, Notomys alexis.

    PubMed

    Donald, John A; Bartolo, Ray C

    2003-06-01

    Guanylin and uroguanylin are peptides that activate guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) receptors in the intestine and kidney, which causes an increase in the excretion of salt and water. The Spinifex hopping mouse, Notomys alexis, is a desert rodent that can survive for extended periods without free access to water and it was hypothesised that to conserve water, the expression of guanylin, uroguanylin, and GC-C would be down-regulated to reduce the excretion of water in urine and faeces. Accordingly, this study examined the expression of guanylin, uroguanylin, and GC-C mRNA in Notomys under normal (access to water) and water-deprived conditions. Initially, guanylin and uroguanylin cDNAs encoding the full open reading frame were cloned and sequenced. A PCR analysis showed guanylin and uroguanylin mRNA expression in the small intestine, caecum, proximal and distal colon, heart, and kidney. In addition, a partial GC-C cDNA was obtained and GC-C mRNA expression was demonstrated in the proximal and distal colon, but not the kidney. Subsequently, a semi-quantitative PCR method showed that water deprivation in Notomys caused a significant increase in guanylin and uroguanylin mRNA expression in the distal colon, and in guanylin and GC-C mRNA expression in the proximal colon. No significant difference in guanylin and uroguanylin mRNA expression was observed in the kidney. The results of this study indicate that there is, in fact, an up-regulation of the colonic guanylin system in Notomys after 7 days of water deprivation.

  7. Expression of klotho mRNA and protein in rat brain parenchyma from early postnatal development into adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Clinton, Sarah M.; Glover, Matthew E.; Maltare, Astha; Laszczyk, Ann M.; Mehi, Stephen J.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; King, Gwendalyn D.

    2013-01-01

    Without the age-regulating protein klotho, mouse lifespan is shortened and the rapid onset of age-related disorders occurs. Conversely, overexpression of klotho extends mouse lifespan. Klotho is most abundant in kidney and expressed in a limited number of other organs, including the brain, where klotho levels are highest in choroid plexus. Reports vary on where klotho is expressed within the brain parenchyma, and no data is available as to whether klotho levels change across postnatal development. We used in situ hybridization to map klotho mRNA expression in the developing and adult rat brain and report moderate, widespread expression across grey matter regions. mRNA expression levels in cortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, and amygdala decreased during the second week of life and then gradually rose to adult levels by postnatal day 21. Immunohistochemistry revealed a protein expression pattern similar to the mRNA results, with klotho protein expressed widely throughout the brain. Klotho protein co-localized with both the neuronal marker NeuN, as well as, oligodendrocyte marker olig2. These results provide the first anatomical localization of klotho mRNA and protein in rat brain parenchyma and demonstrate that klotho levels vary during early postnatal development. PMID:23838326

  8. Thymidylate synthase (TS) protein expression as a prognostic factor in advanced colorectal cancer: a comparison with TS mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Tateo; Shimada, Mitsuo; Kurita, Nobuhiro; Iwata, Takashi; Nishioka, Masanori; Yoshikawa, Kozo; Higashijima, Jun; Utsunomiya, Tohru

    2012-06-01

    The role of intratumoral thymidylate synthase (TS) mRNA or protein expression is still controversial and little has been reported regarding relation of them in colorectal cancer. Forty-six patients with advanced colorectal cancer who underwent surgical resection were included. TS mRNA expression was determined by the Danenberg tumor profile method based on laser-captured micro-dissection of the tumor cells. TS protein expression was evaluated using immunohistochemical staining. TS mRNA expression tended to relate TS protein expression. Statistical significance was not found in overall survival between the TS mRNA high group and low group regardless of performing adjuvant chemotherapy. The overall survival in the TS protein negative group was significantly higher than that in positive group in all and the patients without adjuvant chemotherapy. Multivariate analysis showed TS protein expression was as an independent prognostic factor. TS protein expression tends to be related TS mRNA expression and is an independent prognostic factor in advanced colorectal cancer.

  9. Stimulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone and Grave's immunoglobulin G of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression in human thyroid follicles in vitro and flt mRNA expression in the rat thyroid in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Yamazaki, K; Shizume, K; Kanaji, Y; Obara, T; Ohsumi, K; Demura, H; Yamaguchi, S; Shibuya, M

    1995-09-01

    To elucidate the pathogenesis of thyroid gland hypervascularity in patients with Graves' disease, we studied the expression of mRNAs for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor, Flt family, using human thyroid follicles in vitro and thiouracil-fed rats in vivo. Human thyroid follicles, cultured in the absence of endothelial cells, secreted de novo-synthesized thyroid hormone in response to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and Graves' IgG. The thyroid follicles produced VEGF mRNA but not flt-1 mRNA. The expression of VEGF mRNA was enhanced by insulin, tumor-promoting phorbol ester, calcium ionophore, dibutyryl cAMP, TSH, and Graves' IgG. When rats were fed thiouracil for 4 wk, their serum levels of TSH were increased at day 3. VEGF mRNA was also increased on day 3, accompanied by an increase in flt family (flt-1 and KDR/ flk-1) mRNA expression. These in vitro and in vivo findings suggest that VEGF is produced by thyroid follicles in response to stimulators of TSH receptors, via the protein kinase A and C pathways. VEGF, a secretable angiogenesis factor, subsequently stimulates Flt receptors on endothelial cells in a paracrine manner, leading to their proliferation and producing hypervascularity of the thyroid gland, as seen in patients with Graves' disease.

  10. Arsenic Induces Polyadenylation of Canonical Histone mRNA by Down-regulating Stem-Loop-binding Protein Gene Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Brocato, Jason; Fang, Lei; Chervona, Yana; Chen, Danqi; Kiok, Kathrin; Sun, Hong; Tseng, Hsiang-Chi; Xu, Dazhong; Shamy, Magdy; Jin, Chunyuan; Costa, Max

    2014-01-01

    The replication-dependent histone genes are the only metazoan genes whose messenger RNA (mRNA) does not terminate with a poly(A) tail at the 3′-end. Instead, the histone mRNAs display a stem-loop structure at their 3′-end. Stem-loop-binding protein (SLBP) binds the stem-loop and regulates canonical histone mRNA metabolism. Here we report that exposure to arsenic, a carcinogenic metal, decreased cellular levels of SLBP by inducing its proteasomal degradation and inhibiting SLBP transcription via epigenetic mechanisms. Notably, arsenic exposure dramatically increased polyadenylation of canonical histone H3.1 mRNA possibly through down-regulation of SLBP expression. The polyadenylated H3.1 mRNA induced by arsenic was not susceptible to normal degradation that occurs at the end of S phase, resulting in continued presence into mitosis, increased total H3.1 mRNA, and increased H3 protein levels. Excess expression of canonical histones have been shown to increase sensitivity to DNA damage as well as increase the frequency of missing chromosomes and induce genomic instability. Thus, polyadenylation of canonical histone mRNA following arsenic exposure may contribute to arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:25266719

  11. The Drosophila Tis11 protein and its effects on mRNA expression in flies.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn-Jeong; Lai, Wi S; Fedic, Robert; Stumpo, Deborah J; Huang, Weichun; Li, Leping; Perera, Lalith; Brewer, Brandy Y; Wilson, Gerald M; Mason, James M; Blackshear, Perry J

    2014-12-19

    Members of the mammalian tristetraprolin family of CCCH tandem zinc finger proteins can bind to certain AU-rich elements (AREs) in mRNAs, leading to their deadenylation and destabilization. Mammals express three or four members of this family, but Drosophila melanogaster and other insects appear to contain a single gene, Tis11. We found that recombinant Drosophila Tis11 protein could bind to ARE-containing RNA oligonucleotides with low nanomolar affinity. Remarkably, co-expression in mammalian cells with "target" RNAs demonstrated that Tis11 could promote destabilization of ARE-containing mRNAs and that this was partially dependent on a conserved C-terminal sequence resembling the mammalian NOT1 binding domain. Drosophila Tis11 promoted both deadenylation and decay of a target transcript in this heterologous cell system. We used chromosome deletion/duplication and P element insertion to produce two types of Tis11 deficiency in adult flies, both of which were viable and fertile. To address the hypothesis that Tis11 deficiency would lead to the abnormal accumulation of potential target transcripts, we analyzed gene expression in adult flies by deep mRNA sequencing. We identified 69 transcripts from 56 genes that were significantly up-regulated more than 1.5-fold in both types of Tis11-deficient flies. Ten of the up-regulated transcripts encoded probable proteases, but many other functional classes of proteins were represented. Many of the up-regulated transcripts contained potential binding sites for tristetraprolin family member proteins that were conserved in other Drosophila species. Tis11 is thus an ARE-binding, mRNA-destabilizing protein that may play a role in post-transcriptional gene expression in Drosophila and other insects. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. The Drosophila Tis11 Protein and Its Effects on mRNA Expression in Flies*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youn-Jeong; Lai, Wi S.; Fedic, Robert; Stumpo, Deborah J.; Huang, Weichun; Li, Leping; Perera, Lalith; Brewer, Brandy Y.; Wilson, Gerald M.; Mason, James M.; Blackshear, Perry J.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the mammalian tristetraprolin family of CCCH tandem zinc finger proteins can bind to certain AU-rich elements (AREs) in mRNAs, leading to their deadenylation and destabilization. Mammals express three or four members of this family, but Drosophila melanogaster and other insects appear to contain a single gene, Tis11. We found that recombinant Drosophila Tis11 protein could bind to ARE-containing RNA oligonucleotides with low nanomolar affinity. Remarkably, co-expression in mammalian cells with “target” RNAs demonstrated that Tis11 could promote destabilization of ARE-containing mRNAs and that this was partially dependent on a conserved C-terminal sequence resembling the mammalian NOT1 binding domain. Drosophila Tis11 promoted both deadenylation and decay of a target transcript in this heterologous cell system. We used chromosome deletion/duplication and P element insertion to produce two types of Tis11 deficiency in adult flies, both of which were viable and fertile. To address the hypothesis that Tis11 deficiency would lead to the abnormal accumulation of potential target transcripts, we analyzed gene expression in adult flies by deep mRNA sequencing. We identified 69 transcripts from 56 genes that were significantly up-regulated more than 1.5-fold in both types of Tis11-deficient flies. Ten of the up-regulated transcripts encoded probable proteases, but many other functional classes of proteins were represented. Many of the up-regulated transcripts contained potential binding sites for tristetraprolin family member proteins that were conserved in other Drosophila species. Tis11 is thus an ARE-binding, mRNA-destabilizing protein that may play a role in post-transcriptional gene expression in Drosophila and other insects. PMID:25342740

  13. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression pattern of Sox10 in Paramisgurnus dabryanus.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaohua; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Linxia; Du, Qiyan; Sun, Jinsheng; Chang, Zhongjie

    2013-04-01

    A number of genetic studies have established that Sox10 involved in a wide range of developmental processes including sex differentiation and neurogenesis in vertebrates. A Sox10 homologue was cloned from brain of Paramisgurnus dabryanus by using homologous cloning and RACE method, designated as PdSox10. The full-length cDNA of PdSox10 contains a 312 bp 5' UTR, a 1,476 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 492 amino acids and a 262 bp 3' UTR (Accession no.: JQ217143). The overall topology of the phylogenetic tree shows that the PdSox10 fits within the Sox10 clade. During embryogenesis, PdSox10 gene seemed to be de novo synthesized in the embryos from gastrulae stage. From the somitogenesis stage and thereafter, distinct expression of PdSox10 was observed in the medial neural tube, extending from the hindbrain through the posterior trunk. In adult, PdSox10 mRNA was detected primarily in the gonads, as well as in brain and heart by RT-PCR. In situ hybridization on gonadal sections further demonstrated that PdSox10 is expressed especially in premature germ cells, in early perinucleolus stage oocytes and cortical-alveolar stage oocytes in ovaries and in spermatogonia and spermatocytes in testes. These preliminary findings suggested that PdSox10 is highly conserved during vertebrate evolution and involved in a wide range of developmental processes including neurogenesis and sex differentiation in vertebrates.

  14. Persistence of Pancreatic Insulin mRNA Expression and Proinsulin Protein in Type 1 Diabetes Pancreata.

    PubMed

    Wasserfall, Clive; Nick, Harry S; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Beachy, Dawn; Haataja, Leena; Kusmartseva, Irina; Posgai, Amanda; Beery, Maria; Rhodes, Christopher; Bonifacio, Ezio; Arvan, Peter; Atkinson, Mark

    2017-09-05

    The canonical notion that type 1 diabetes (T1D) results following a complete destruction of β cells has recently been questioned as small amounts of C-peptide are detectable in patients with long-standing disease. We analyzed protein and gene expression levels for proinsulin, insulin, C-peptide, and islet amyloid polypeptide within pancreatic tissues from T1D, autoantibody positive (Ab+), and control organs. Insulin and C-peptide levels were low to undetectable in extracts from the T1D cohort; however, proinsulin and INS mRNA were detected in the majority of T1D pancreata. Interestingly, heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) for insulin and INS-IGF2, both originating from the INS promoter, were essentially undetectable in T1D pancreata, arguing for a silent INS promoter. Expression of PCSK1, a convertase responsible for proinsulin processing, was reduced in T1D pancreata, supportive of persistent proinsulin. These data implicate the existence of β cells enriched for inefficient insulin/C-peptide production in T1D patients, potentially less susceptible to autoimmune destruction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Selenium Deficiency Influences the mRNA Expression of Selenoproteins and Cytokines in Chicken Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Luan, Yilin; Zhao, Jinxin; Yao, Haidong; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-06-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency induces hemolysis in chickens, but the molecular mechanism for this effect remains unclear. Se primarily elicits its function through the activity of selenoproteins, which contain the unique amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of Se deficiency on the expression of 24 selenoproteins and 10 cytokines. One hundred eighty chickens were randomly divided into 2 groups (90 chickens per group). During the entire experimental period, chickens were allowed ad libitum consumption of feed and water. The chickens were fed either a Se-deficient diet (0.008 mg Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Heilongjiang, China) or a Se-supplemented diet (as sodium selenite) at 0.2 mg/kg for 35 days. At the 35th day, the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of 24 selenoproteins and 10 cytokines were examined in erythrocytes of 5 chickens per group, and the correlation was analyzed. The results showed that the expression of 24 selenoproteins and 7 cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12β, TGF-β4, and IFN-γ) decreased (P < 0.05), and the expression of 3 cytokines (IL-1γ, IL-6 and IL-7) was higher in the Se-deficient group. In both groups, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin 1 (Txnrd1), selenoprotein P1 (SELP), and selenoprotein synthetase (SPS2) were highly expressed compared to the other selenoproteins in chicken erythrocytes (P < 0.05). These data suggest that GPXs, Txnrd1, SELP, and SPS2 possibly play a more important role than the other selenoproteins. The increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1γ, IL-6, and IL-7) suggested that the immune system of chickens was damaged by the Se deficiency. Correlation analysis suggested that although the expression of 24 selenoproteins and 7 cytokines decreased and that of 3 cytokines increased, there was a close correlation between their expression levels and a Se diet. These results suggested that Se deficiency influenced the expressions of 24 selenoproteins

  16. Changes in mRNA expression for gluconeogenic enzymes in liver of dairy cattle during the transition to lactation.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, R B; Cecava, M J; Donkin, S S

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to profile phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC) mRNA expression in the liver of dairy cattle during the peripartum transition and determine changes in abundance of these mRNA in response to protein fed during the prepartum period. Thirty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets containing either 12% crude protein (CP) and 26% rumen undegradable protein (RUP), 16% CP and 26% RUP, 16% CP and 33% RUP, or 16% CP and 40% RUP on a dry-matter basis beginning 28 d before expected calving. After calving, all cows were fed a common diet through 56 d in milk (DIM). Northern analysis of RNA from liver biopsy samples obtained on days -28, -14, +1, +28, and +56 relative to calving indicated that PC and PEPCK mRNA expression were responsive to onset of lactation but not to prepartum protein or RUP concentration. Abundance of PEPCK mRNA was similar at -28, -14, and +1 DIM but was elevated by +28 and +56 DIM relative to precalving levels. Liver PC mRNA abundance was elevated on +1 DIM, remained elevated through 28 DIM, and declined to precalving levels by 56 DIM. The activity of PC enzyme was correlated (r2 = 0.89) with PC mRNA abundance. The data demonstrate increased abundance of PC mRNA during the early transition period followed by increased abundance of PEPCK mRNA during the postpartum period and suggest increased potential metabolism of lactate, pyruvate, and amino acids that contribute to the liver pyruvate pool.

  17. Triptolide inhibits COX-2 expression by regulating mRNA stability in TNF-{alpha}-treated A549 cells

    SciT

    Sun, Lixin; Zhang, Shuang; Jiang, Zhenzhou

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Triptolide inhibited COX-2 expression and the half-life of COX-2 mRNA is decreased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HuR protein shuttling from nucleus to cytoplasm is inhibited by triptolide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Triptolide inhibited 3 Prime -UTR fluorescence reporter gene activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer COX-2 mRNA binding to HuR is decreased by triptolide in pull-down experiments. -- Abstract: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) over-expression is frequently associated with human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and involved in tumor proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and resistance to apoptosis. In the present study, the effects of triptolide on COX-2 expression in A549 cells were investigated and triptolide was found to inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced COX-2 expression.more » In our further studies, it was found that triptolide decreased the half-life of COX-2 mRNA dramatically and that it inhibited 3 Prime -untranslated region (3 Prime -UTR) fluorescence reporter gene activity. Meanwhile, triptolide inhibited the HuR shuttling from nucleus to cytoplasm. After triptolide treatment, decreased COX-2 mRNA in pull-down experiments with anti-HuR antibodies was observed, indicating that the decreased cytoplasmic HuR is responsible for the decreased COX-2 mRNA. Taken together, our results provided evidence for the first time that triptolide inhibited COX-2 expression by COX-2 mRNA stability modulation and post-transcriptional regulation. These results provide a novel mechanism of action for triptolide which may be important in the treatment of lung cancer.« less

  18. Assessment of potential biomarkers, metallothionein and vitellogenin mRNA expressions in various chemically exposed benthic Chironomus riparius larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Inn-Sil

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was conducted to identify the possibility of using Chironomus metallothionein (MT) and vitellogenin (VTG) as biomarkers of stress caused by endocrinedisrupting chemicals (EDCs), heavy metals, herbicides and veterinary antibiotics. We characterized the MT and VTG cDNA in Chironomus riparius and evaluated their mRNA expression profiles following exposure to different environmental pollutants. The gene expression analysis showed that the MT mRNA levels increased significantly after long-term exposure to cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Moreover, the VTG mRNA expression increased significantly in C. riparius larvae exposed to BPA, NP, DEHP, Cd, 2,4-D and fenbendazole. Evaluation of the long-term effects of environmental pollutants revealed up regulation of Chironomus MT mRNA in response to DEHP exposure among EDCs, and the level of the VTG mRNA was increased significantly following treatment with Cd and herbicide 2,4-D at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that VTG could be used as a potential biomarker of herbicide and Cd as well as EDCs, while MT was a potential biomarker of heavy metals such as Cd, Cu, and Pb in aquatic environments.

  19. Nucleotide sequence and expression of three subtypes of proopiomelanocortin mRNA in barfin flounder.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Amano, Masafumi; Itoh, Toshihiro; Yasuda, Akikazu; Yamanome, Takeshi; Amemiya, Yutaka; Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Sakai, Masahiro; Yamamori, Kunio; Kawauchi, Hiroshi

    2005-05-01

    Melanophore-stimulating hormone (MSH) has been shown to be associated with food intake in addition to body color change in teleosts. MSH is encoded by a proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene together with endorphin (END). To assess the significance of MSH to biological activities, we determined the structure and evaluated the expression of POMC mRNA in barfin flounder (bf), Verasper moseri, a member of a group of teleosts, Pleuronectiformes. Three subtypes of POMC cDNAs (A, B, and C) were amplified from bf pituitary glands. These bfPOMCs contained segments for N-POMC, alpha-MSH, beta-MSH, and beta-END as do other teleost POMCs, while POMC-C showed remarkable variations in the segments corresponding to N-POMC and beta-END. A phylogenetic tree of ray-finned fish POMCs constructed by the neighbor joining method revealed that the three POMC subtypes may have appeared as a result of duplication events occurring at least twice during the course of bf evolution. The first duplication may have generated the lineage leading to an ancestor of bfPOMC-A and -B and that leading to bfPOMC-C, and then the lineage of bfPOMC-A may have diverged from that of bfPOMC-B. All peptides flanked by processing signals excluding N-POMC-C (1-14) were identified in a single pituitary extract by mass spectrometry, and the cDNAs of three POMCs were amplified from a single pituitary by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These results demonstrated that the three POMC genes are expressed in a single individual. While the bfPOMC-A gene was exclusively expressed in the pituitary, the bfPOMC-B and -C genes were expressed in non-pituitary tissues such as brain, gill, heart, spleen, liver, stomach, intestine, testis, muscle, blood, and skin in addition to the pituitary. The expression levels of the POMC-A, -B, and -C genes in pituitary neurointermediate lobe were greater in the fish reared with a black background than the fish reared with a white background, indicating that MSH derived from all

  20. Expression of sigma receptor 1 mRNA and protein in rat retina.

    PubMed

    Liu, L L; Wang, L; Zhong, Y M; Yang, X L

    2010-06-02

    Sigma receptor (sigmaR), known as a unique nonopiate, nonphencyclidine brain receptor, can bind diverse classes of psychotropic drugs, neurosteroids and other synthetic compounds, such as (+)pentazocine, etc. Two types of sigmaRs have been identified: sigmaR1 and sigmaR2. In this work, we examined the expression of sigmaR1 in rat retina by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactive (RT-PCR) analysis and immunofluorescence double labeling. RT-PCR analysis showed that sigmaR1 mRNA was present in rat retina. Furthermore, labeling for sigmaR1 was diffusely distributed in the outer and inner plexiform layers. The sigmaR1-immunoreactivity (IR) was also observed in many cells in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. In the outer retina sigmaR1 was expressed in all horizontal cells labeled by calbindin. In contrast, no sigmaR1-IR was detected in several subtypes of bipolar cells, including rod-dominant ON-type bipolar cells, types 2, 3, 5 and 8 bipolar cells, labeled by protein kinase C (PKC), recoverin and hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 4 (HCN4) respectively. In the inner retina, most of GABAergic amacrine cells, including dopaminergic and cholinergic ones, stained by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) respectively, expressed sigmaR1. Some glycinergic amacrine cells were also labeled by sigmaR1, but glycinergic AII amacrine cells were not labeled. In addition, sigmaR1-IR was seen in almost all somata of the ganglion cells retrogradely labeled by fluorogold. These results suggest that sigmaR1 may have neuromodulatory and neuroprotective roles in the retina. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms mRNA transcripts in the temporalis muscle of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Ciurana, Neus; Artells, Rosa; Muñoz, Carmen; Arias-Martorell, Júlia; Bello-Hellegouarch, Gaëlle; Casado, Aroa; Cuesta, Elisabeth; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro; Pastor, Juan Francisco; Potau, Josep Maria

    2017-11-01

    The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is the primate that is phylogenetically most closely related to humans (Homo sapiens). In order to shed light on the anatomy and function of the temporalis muscle in the chimpanzee, we have analyzed the expression patterns of the mRNA transcripts of the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in different parts of the muscle. We dissected the superficial, deep and sphenomandibularis portions of the temporalis muscle in five adult P. troglodytes and quantified the expression of the mRNA transcripts of the MyHC isoforms in each portion using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We observed significant differences in the patterns of expression of the mRNA transcripts of the MyHC-IIM isoform between the sphenomandibularis portion and the anterior superficial temporalis (33.6% vs 47.0%; P=0.032) and between the sphenomandibularis portion and the anterior deep temporalis (33.6% vs 43.0; P=0.016). We also observed non-significant differences between the patterns of expression in the anterior and posterior superficial temporalis. The differential expression patterns of the mRNA transcripts of the MyHC isoforms in the temporalis muscle in P. troglodytes may be related to the functional differences that have been observed in electromyographic studies in other species of primates. Our findings can be applicable to the fields of comparative anatomy, evolutionary anatomy, and anthropology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. DDAH2 mRNA expression is inversely associated with some cardiovascular risk-related features in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Puchau, Blanca; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Zulet, M Angeles; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the mRNA expression profiles of three genes (PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3) are related to ADMA metabolism and signalling, and the potential relationships with anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators in healthy young adults. An emphasis on the putative effect of different mRNA expression on cardiovascular risk-related features was paid. Anthropometrical measurements as well as lifestyle features were analyzed in 120 healthy young adults. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose and lipid profiles as well as the concentrations of selected inflammatory markers. Profiles of mRNA expression were assessed for PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3 genes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Regarding inflammatory biomarkers, DDAH2 was inversely associated with IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Moreover, subjects in the highest quintile of DDAH2 mRNA expression showed a reduced risk to have higher values of waist circumference, and to be more prone to show higher values of HDL-c. Interestingly, DDAH2 gene expression seemed to be related with some anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators linked to cardiovascular risk in apparently healthy young adults, emerging as a potential disease marker.

  3. The differential expression of alternatively polyadenylated transcripts is a common stress-induced response mechanism that modulates mammalian mRNA expression in a quantitative and qualitative fashion.

    PubMed

    Hollerer, Ina; Curk, Tomaz; Haase, Bettina; Benes, Vladimir; Hauer, Christian; Neu-Yilik, Gabriele; Bhuvanagiri, Madhuri; Hentze, Matthias W; Kulozik, Andreas E

    2016-09-01

    Stress adaptation plays a pivotal role in biological processes and requires tight regulation of gene expression. In this study, we explored the effect of cellular stress on mRNA polyadenylation and investigated the implications of regulated polyadenylation site usage on mammalian gene expression. High-confidence polyadenylation site mapping combined with global pre-mRNA and mRNA expression profiling revealed that stress induces an accumulation of genes with differentially expressed polyadenylated mRNA isoforms in human cells. Specifically, stress provokes a global trend in polyadenylation site usage toward decreased utilization of promoter-proximal poly(A) sites in introns or ORFs and increased utilization of promoter-distal polyadenylation sites in intergenic regions. This extensively affects gene expression beyond regulating mRNA abundance by changing mRNA length and by altering the configuration of open reading frames. Our study highlights the impact of post-transcriptional mechanisms on stress-dependent gene regulation and reveals the differential expression of alternatively polyadenylated transcripts as a common stress-induced mechanism in mammalian cells. © 2016 Hollerer et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  4. Differential mRNA expression of neuroinflammatory modulators in the spinal cord and thalamus of type 2 diabetic monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ding, Huiping; Kiguchi, Norikazu; Kishioka, Shiroh; Ma, Tao; Peters, Christopher M; Ko, Mei-Chuan

    2018-05-11

    Given that diabetes-associated complications are closely associated with neuroinflammation, it is imperative to study potential changes in neuroinflammatory modulators in the central nervous system of diabetic primates. The mRNA levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, toll-like receptors (TLRs), growth factors, and cannabinoid receptors were compared in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) and thalamus of naturally occurring type 2 diabetic monkeys and an age-matched control group using reverse transcription and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the SDH of diabetic monkeys, mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines (i.e. interleukin [IL]-1β and tumor necrosis factor [TNF] α), TLR1, and TLR2 were increased, whereas mRNA levels of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, were decreased. No changes were observed in the mRNA levels of growth factors and cannabinoid receptors. In line with the mRNA data, TNFα immunoreactivity was significantly increased in diabetic monkeys. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, TNFα, TLR1, and TLR2 in the SDH were positively correlated with plasma glucose concentrations in all monkeys. Several ligands and receptors involved in neuroinflammation are simultaneously dysregulated in the spinal cord of diabetic monkeys. This primate disease model will facilitate the design of novel treatment approaches to ameliorate neuroinflammation-driven adverse effects in diabetic patients. © 2018 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Redirecting T-Cell Specificity to EGFR Using mRNA to Self-limit Expression of Chimeric Antigen Receptor.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Hillary G; Torikai, Hiroki; Zhang, Ling; Maiti, Sourindra; Dai, Jianliang; Do, Kim-Anh; Singh, Harjeet; Huls, Helen; Lee, Dean A; Champlin, Richard E; Heimberger, Amy B; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2016-06-01

    Potential for on-target, but off-tissue toxicity limits therapeutic application of genetically modified T cells constitutively expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) from tumor-associated antigens expressed in normal tissue, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Curtailing expression of CAR through modification of T cells by in vitro-transcribed mRNA species is one strategy to mitigate such toxicity. We evaluated expression of an EGFR-specific CAR coded from introduced mRNA in human T cells numerically expanded ex vivo to clinically significant numbers through coculture with activating and propagating cells (AaPC) derived from K562 preloaded with anti-CD3 antibody. The density of AaPC could be adjusted to affect phenotype of T cells such that reduced ratio of AaPC resulted in higher proportion of CD8 and central memory T cells that were more conducive to electrotransfer of mRNA than T cells expanded with high ratios of AaPC. RNA-modified CAR T cells produced less cytokine, but demonstrated similar cytolytic capacity as DNA-modified CAR T cells in response to EGFR-expressing glioblastoma cells. Expression of CAR by mRNA transfer was transient and accelerated by stimulation with cytokine and antigen. Loss of CAR abrogated T-cell function in response to tumor and normal cells expressing EGFR. We describe a clinically applicable method to propagate and modify T cells to transiently express EGFR-specific CAR to target EGFR-expressing tumor cells that may be used to limit on-target, off-tissue toxicity to normal tissue.

  6. BDNF mRNA expression in rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex: effects of neonatal ventral hippocampal damage and antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Lipska, B K; Khaing, Z Z; Weickert, C S; Weinberger, D R

    2001-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in development, synapse remodelling and responses to stress and injury. Its abnormal expression has been implicated in schizophrenia, a neuropsychiatric disorder in which abnormal neural development of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex has been postulated. To clarify the effects of antipsychotic drugs used in the therapy of schizophrenia on BDNF mRNA, we studied its expression in rats treated with clozapine and haloperidol and in rats with neonatal lesions of the ventral hippocampus, used as an animal model of schizophrenia. Both antipsychotic drugs reduced BDNF expression in the hippocampus of control rats, but did not significantly lower its expression in the prefrontal cortex. The neonatal hippocampal lesion itself suppressed BDNF mRNA expression in the dentate gyrus and tended to reduce its expression in the prefrontal cortex. These results indicate that, unlike antidepressants, antipsychotics down-regulate BDNF mRNA, and suggest that their therapeutic properties are not mediated by stimulation of this neurotrophin. To the extent that the lesioned rat models some pathophysiological aspects of schizophrenia, our data suggest that a neurodevelopmental insult might suppress expression of the neurotrophin in certain brain regions.

  7. Ultrastructural characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide receptors (ANP-R) mRNA expression in rat kidney cortex.

    PubMed

    Grandclément, B; Morel, G

    1998-06-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and two complementary peptides named brain natriuretic peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide are involved in diuresis, natriuresis, hypotension and vasorelaxation. Their actions are mediated by highly selective and specific ANP receptors. Three subtypes have been characterized and cloned: ANP receptor A, -B and -C. In the present study, the mRNA for each subtype was detected by ultrastructural in situ hybridization on ultrathin sections of Lowicryl-embedded tissue and frozen tissue. The distribution of mRNA (visualized by gold particles) for each subtype was found to differ in different cells of the nephron. The three subtypes of this receptor family were expressed in all the parts of the nephron, but their expression levels were different. The ANPR-A mRNA was the most abundant in cells of glomerulus, proximal and distal tubules. The subtype C was the least expressed mRNA in glomerulus. In contrast, the subcellular localization of the three mRNAs was similar; they were found in the cytoplasmic matrix and the euchromatin of the nucleus. In conclusion, the differential expression of these mRNAs in kidney cortex indicates that these three peptides act directly in differing parts of nephron regions which are the glomerulus, the proximal and distal tubules.

  8. Regulation of adeno-associated virus gene expression in 293 cells: control of mRNA abundance and translation

    SciT

    Trempe, J.P.; Carter, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of the adeno-associated virus (AAV) rep gene on the control of gene expression from the AAV p/sub 40/ promoter in 293 cells in the absence of an adenovirus coinfection. AAV vectors containing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene were used to measure the levels of cat expression and steady-state mRNA from p/sub 40/. When the rep gene was present in cis or in trans, cat expression from p/sub 40/ was decreased 3- to 10-fold, but there was a 2- to 10-fold increase in the level of p/sub 40/ mRNA. Conversely, cat expression increased and the p/submore » 40/ mRNA level decreased in the absence of the rep gene. Both wild-type and carboxyl-terminal truncated Rep proteins were capable of eliciting both effects. These data suggest two roles for the pleiotropic AAV rep gene: as a translational inhibitor and as a positive regulator of p/sub 40/ mRNA levels. They also provide additional evidence for a cis-acting negative regulatory region which decreases RNA from the AAV p/sub 5/ promoter in a fashion independent of rep.« less

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BRAIN AND OVARY AROMATASE ACTIVITY AND ISOFORM-SPECIFIC AROMATASE MRNA EXPRESSION IN THE FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing evidence that some chemicals present in the environment have the capacity to inhibit, or potentially induce, aromatase activity. This study compared aromatase activities and isoform-specific mRNA expression in brain and ovary tissue from non-exposed fathead min...

  10. Expression of a serine protease (motopsin PRSS12) mRNA in the mouse brain: in situ hybridization histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Iijima, N; Tanaka, M; Mitsui, S; Yamamura, Y; Yamaguchi, N; Ibata, Y

    1999-03-20

    Serine proteases are considered to play several important roles in the brain. In an attempt to find novel brain-specific serine proteases (BSSPs), motopsin (PRSS-12) was cloned from a mouse brain cDNA library by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the postnatal 10-day mouse brain contained the most amount of motopsin mRNA. At this developmental stage, in situ hybridization histochemistry showed that motopsin mRNA was specifically expressed in the following regions: cerebral cortical layers II/III, V and VIb, endopiriform cortex and the limbic system, particularly in the CA1 region of the hippocampal formation. In addition, in the brainstem, the oculomotor nucleus, trochlear nucleus, mecencephalic and motor nuclei of trigeminal nerve (N), abducens nucleus, facial nucleus, nucleus of the raphe pontis, dorsoral motor nucleus of vagal N, hypoglossal nucleus and ambiguus nucleus showed motopsin mRNA expression. Expression was also found in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. The above findings strongly suggest that neurons in almost all motor nuclei, particularly in the brainstem and spinal cord, express motopsin mRNA, and that motopsin seems to have a close relation to the functional role of efferent neurons. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Learning-induced expression of meningeal ependymin mRNA and demonstration of ependymin in neurons and glial cells.

    PubMed

    Rother, S; Schmidt, R; Brysch, W; Schlingensiepen, K H

    1995-10-01

    The turnover of a CNS-specific cell adhesion glycoprotein, ependymin, has earlier been found to increase during periods of neuronal plasticity. Here, ependymin mRNA expression was analyzed by semiquantitative in situ hybridization in goldfish. Learning of an active avoidance response resulted in a significant increase in ependymin mRNA expression 20 min to 4 h after acquisition of the task. In contrast, yoked control animals that were exposed to the same numbers of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli in a random, unpaired manner exhibited a strong down-regulation of ependymin mRNA. Hybridization signals were also increased by injection of anti-ependymin antiserum into brain ventricles. Ependymin mRNA was exclusively localized to reticular-shaped fibroblasts of the inner endomeningeal cell layer. Immunoelectron microscopic investigation, however, revealed ependymin also in distinct neuronal and glial cell populations in which no ependymin mRNA had been detected. Uptake of meningeal protein factors into glial and neuronal cells may therefore be of functional importance for plastic adaptations of the CNS.

  12. An integrated mRNA and microRNA expression signature for glioblastoma multiforme prognosis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jie; Bing, Zhitong; Su, Yanlin; Deng, Defeng; Peng, Xiaoning

    2014-01-01

    Although patients with Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) have grave prognosis, significant variability in patient outcome is observed. The objective of this study is to identify a molecular signature for GBM prognosis. We subjected 355 mRNA and microRNA expression profiles to elastic net-regulated Cox regression for identification of an integrated RNA signature for GBM prognosis. A prognostic index (PI) was generated for patient stratification. Survival comparison was conducted by Kaplan-Meier method and a general multivariate Cox regression procedure was applied to evaluate the independence of the PI. The abilities and efficiencies of signatures to predict GBM patient outcome was assessed and compared by the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC). An integrated RNA prognostic signature consisted by 4 protective mRNAs, 12 risky mRNAs, and 1 risky microRNA was identified. Decreased survival was associated with being in the high-risk group (hazard ratio = 2.864, P<0.0001). The prognostic value of the integrated signature was validated in five independent GBM expression datasets (n = 201, hazard ratio = 2.453, P<0.0001). The PI outperformed the known clinical factors, mRNA-only, and miRNA-only prognostic signatures for GBM prognosis (area under the ROC curve for the integrated RNA, mRNA-only, and miRNA-only signatures were 0.828, 0.742, and 0.757 at 3 years of overall survival, respectively, P<0.0001 by permutation test). We describe the first, to our knowledge, robust transcriptome-based integrated RNA signature that improves the current GBM prognosis based on clinical variables, mRNA-only, and miRNA-only signatures.

  13. An Integrated mRNA and microRNA Expression Signature for Glioblastoma Multiforme Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jie; Bing, Zhitong; Su, Yanlin; Deng, Defeng; Peng, Xiaoning

    2014-01-01

    Although patients with Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) have grave prognosis, significant variability in patient outcome is observed. The objective of this study is to identify a molecular signature for GBM prognosis. We subjected 355 mRNA and microRNA expression profiles to elastic net-regulated Cox regression for identification of an integrated RNA signature for GBM prognosis. A prognostic index (PI) was generated for patient stratification. Survival comparison was conducted by Kaplan-Meier method and a general multivariate Cox regression procedure was applied to evaluate the independence of the PI. The abilities and efficiencies of signatures to predict GBM patient outcome was assessed and compared by the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC). An integrated RNA prognostic signature consisted by 4 protective mRNAs, 12 risky mRNAs, and 1 risky microRNA was identified. Decreased survival was associated with being in the high-risk group (hazard ratio = 2.864, P<0.0001). The prognostic value of the integrated signature was validated in five independent GBM expression datasets (n = 201, hazard ratio = 2.453, P<0.0001). The PI outperformed the known clinical factors, mRNA-only, and miRNA-only prognostic signatures for GBM prognosis (area under the ROC curve for the integrated RNA, mRNA-only, and miRNA-only signatures were 0.828, 0.742, and 0.757 at 3 years of overall survival, respectively, P<0.0001 by permutation test). We describe the first, to our knowledge, robust transcriptome-based integrated RNA signature that improves the current GBM prognosis based on clinical variables, mRNA-only, and miRNA-only signatures. PMID:24871302

  14. Cis-Regulatory Variants Affect CHRNA5 mRNA Expression in Populations of African and European Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jen-Chyong; Spiegel, Noah; Bertelsen, Sarah; Le, Nhung; McKenna, Nicholas; Budde, John P.; Harari, Oscar; Kapoor, Manav; Brooks, Andrew; Hancock, Dana; Tischfield, Jay; Foroud, Tatiana; Bierut, Laura J.; Steinbach, Joe Henry; Edenberg, Howard J.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Goate, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    Variants within the gene cluster encoding α3, α5, and β4 nicotinic receptor subunits are major risk factors for substance dependence. The strongest impact on risk is associated with variation in the CHRNA5 gene, where at least two mechanisms are at work: amino acid variation and altered mRNA expression levels. The risk allele of the non-synonymous variant (rs16969968; D398N) primarily occurs on the haplotype containing the low mRNA expression allele. In populations of European ancestry, there are approximately 50 highly correlated variants in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster and the adjacent PSMA4 gene region that are associated with CHRNA5 mRNA levels. It is not clear which of these variants contribute to the changes in CHRNA5 transcript level. Because populations of African ancestry have reduced linkage disequilibrium among variants spanning this gene cluster, eQTL mapping in subjects of African ancestry could potentially aid in defining the functional variants that affect CHRNA5 mRNA levels. We performed quantitative allele specific gene expression using frontal cortices derived from 49 subjects of African ancestry and 111 subjects of European ancestry. This method measures allele-specific transcript levels in the same individual, which eliminates other biological variation that occurs when comparing expression levels between different samples. This analysis confirmed that substance dependence associated variants have a direct cis-regulatory effect on CHRNA5 transcript levels in human frontal cortices of African and European ancestry and identified 10 highly correlated variants, located in a 9 kb region, that are potential functional variants modifying CHRNA5 mRNA expression levels. PMID:24303001

  15. Skeletal muscle myostatin mRNA expression is fiber-type specific and increases during hindlimb unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, C. J.; Booth, F. W.; Gordon, S. E.

    1999-01-01

    Transgenic mice lacking a functional myostatin (MSTN) gene demonstrate greater skeletal muscle mass resulting from muscle fiber hypertrophy and hyperplasia (McPherron, A. C., A. M. Lawler, and S. -J. Lee. Nature 387: 83-90, 1997). Therefore, we hypothesized that, in normal mice, MSTN may act as a negative regulator of muscle mass. Specifically, we hypothesized that the predominately slow (type I) soleus muscle, which demonstrates greater atrophy than the fast (type II) gastrocnemius-plantaris complex (Gast/PLT), would show more elevation in MSTN mRNA abundance during hindlimb unloading (HU). Surprisingly, MSTN mRNA was not detectable in weight-bearing or HU soleus muscle, which atrophied 42% by the 7th day of HU in female ICR mice. In contrast, MSTN mRNA was present in weight-bearing Gast/PLT muscle and was significantly elevated (67%) at 1 day but not at 3 or 7 days of HU. However, the Gast/PLT muscle had only atrophied 17% by the 7th day of HU. Because the soleus is composed only of type I and IIa fibers, whereas the Gast/PLT expresses type IId/x and IIb in addition to type I and IIa, it was necessary to perform a more careful analysis of the relationship between MSTN mRNA levels and myosin heavy-chain (MHC) isoform expression (as a marker of fiber type). A significant correlation (r = 0.725, P < 0. 0005) was noted between the percentage of MHC isoform IIb expression and MSTN mRNA abundance in several muscles of the mouse hindlimb. These results indicate that MSTN expression is not strongly associated with muscle atrophy induced by HU; however, it is strongly associated with MHC isoform IIb expression in normal muscle.

  16. Patterns of mRNA and protein expression during minus-lens compensation and recovery in tree shrew sclera.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong; Frost, Michael R; Siegwart, John T; Norton, Thomas T

    2011-04-12

    To increase our understanding of the mechanisms that remodel the sclera during the development of lens-induced myopia, when the sclera responds to putative "go" signals of retinal origin, and during recovery from lens-induced myopia, when the sclera responds to retinally-derived "stop" signals. Seven groups of tree shrews were used to examine mRNA levels during minus lens compensation and recovery. Starting 24 days after eye opening (days of visual experience [VE]) lens compensation animals wore a monocular -5D lens for 1, 4, or 11 days. Recovery animals wore the -5D lens for 11 days, which was then removed for 1 or 4 days. Normal animals were examined at 24 and 38 days of VE. All groups contained 8 animals. Scleral mRNA levels were examined in the treated and contralateral control eyes with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for 27 genes divided into four categories: 1) signaling molecules, 2) matricellular proteins, 3) metalloproteinases (MPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and 4) cell adhesion and other proteins. Four groups (n=5 per group) were used to examine protein levels. One group wore a -5D lens for 4 days. A second group recovered for 4 days after 11 days of -5D lens treatment. Two groups were used to examine age-matched normal protein levels at 28 and 39 days of VE. The levels of six scleral proteins that showed differential mRNA expression were examined with quantitative western blots. Nineteen of the genes showed differential (treated eye versus control eye) expression of mRNA levels in at least one group of animals. Which genes showed differential expression differed after 1 and 4 days of compensation and after 1 or 4 days of recovery. The mRNA level for one gene, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 1 (ADAMTS1), was upregulated in the treated eyes after 1 day of compensation. After 4 days, transforming growth factor beta receptor 3 (TGFBR3), transforming growth factor

  17. A case of cervical cancer expressed three mRNA variant of Hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor

    PubMed Central

    Villegas-Ruíz, Vanessa; Salcedo, Mauricio; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; de Oca, Edén V Montes; Román-Basaure, Edgar; Mantilla-Morales, Alejandra; Dávila-Borja, Víctor M; Juárez-Méndez, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second malignancy in Mexico, little is known about the prognostic factors associated with this disease. Several cellular components are important in their transformation and progression. Alternative mRNA splice is an important mechanism for generating protein diversity, nevertheless, in cancer unknown mRNA diversity is expressed. Hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (HMMR, RHAMM, CD168) is a family member of proteins, hyaluronan acid dependent, and has been associated with different malignant processes such as: angiogenesis, cell invasiveness, proliferation, metastasis and poor outcome in some tumors. In the present study we identified expression of HMMR in cervical cancer by means of RT-PCR and sequencing. Our results indicate co-expression of two HMMR variants in all samples, and one case expressed three alternative HMMR splice transcripts. These results showed the heterogeneity of mRNA transcripts of HMMR that could express in cancer and the expression of HMMR could be marker of malignancy in CC. PMID:24966934

  18. Posttranscriptional mRNA processing as a mechanism for regulation of human A1 adenosine receptor expression.

    PubMed Central

    Ren, H; Stiles, G L

    1994-01-01

    The human A1 adenosine receptor gene contains six exons with exons 1, 2, 3, 4, and part of 5 representing 5' untranslated regions. Reverse transcription-PCR with exon-specific primers showed two distinct transcripts containing either exons 3, 5, and 6 or exons 4, 5, and 6, with exons 3 and 4 being mutually exclusive. No mature mRNAs containing exons 1 and 2 have been detected. All human tissues that express any A1 receptors contain mRNA with exons 4, 5, and 6. Tissues which express high levels of A1 receptors contain mRNA with exons 3, 5, and 6. Exon 4 contains two upstream ATG codons whereas exon 3 contains none. COS cells transfected with expression vectors containing exon 4 (exons 1-6, 3-6, or Ex4-6) express much lower levels of A1 receptors than vectors without exon 4 (exons 3, 5, and 6). Mutation of upstream ATG codons in exon 4 leads to 3- to 7-fold increased A1 receptor expression, up to the level seen with the construct containing exons 3, 5, and 6. Thus, in human tissues "basal" levels of A1 receptors can be expressed by use of mRNA containing exons 4, 5, and 6, but when high levels are needed, alternative transcripts with exons 3, 5, and 6 are produced. Images PMID:8197148

  19. Mitochondrial MnSOD mRNA expression in human chorioamniotic membranes and its association with labor, inflammation and infection

    PubMed Central

    Than, Nandor Gabor; Romero, Roberto; Tarca, Adi L.; Draghici, Sorin; Erez, Offer; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kim, Yeon Mee; Kim, Sun Kwon; Vaisbuch, Edi; Tromp, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Objective Human parturition is characterized by the activation of genes involved in acute inflammatory in the fetal membranes. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a mitochondrial enzyme that scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS). MnSOD is up-regulated in sites of inflammation and has an important role in the down-regulation of acute inflammatory processes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the differences in MnSOD mRNA expression in the fetal membranes in patients with term and preterm labor as well as in acute chorioamnionitis. Study design Fetal membranes were obtained from patients in the following groups: 1) term not in labor (n=29); 2) term in labor (n=29); 3) spontaneous preterm labor with intact mebranes (n=16); 4) PTL with histological chorioamnionitis (n=12); 5) preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM; n=17); and 6) PPROM with histological chorioamnionitis (n=21). MnSOD mRNA expression in the membranes was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Results 1) MnSOD mRNA expression was higher in the fetal membranes of patients at term in labor than those not in labor (2.4-fold; p=0.02); 2) the amount of MnSOD mRNA in the fetal membranes was higher in PTL than in term labor or in PPROM (7.2-fold, p=0.03; 3.2-fold, p=0.03, respectively); 3) MnSOD mRNA expression was higher when histological chorioamnionitis was present both among patients with PPROM (3.8-fold, p=0.02) and with PTL (5.4-fold, p=0.02) than in patients with these conditions without histological chorioamnionitis; 4) expression of MnSOD mRNA was higher in PTL with chorioamnionitis than in PPROM with chorioamnionitis (4.3-fold, p=0.03); Conclusion The increase in MnSOD mRNA expression by fetal membranes in term labor and in histological chorioamnionitis in PTL and PPROM suggests that the fetus deploys anti-oxidant mechanisms to constrain the inflammatory processes in the chorioamniotic membranes. PMID:19900038

  20. Successful expression in pollen of various plant species of in vitro synthesized mRNA introduced by particle bombardment.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, T; Nishihara, M; Seki, M; Sakamoto, A; Tanaka, K; Irifune, K; Morikawa, H

    1995-05-01

    Gold particles coated with beta-glucuronidase (GUS) mRNA with a 5' cap structure that had been synthesized in vitro were introduced, by use of a pneumatic particle gun, into pollen grains of lily (Lilium longiflorum), freesia (Freesia refracta) and tulip (Tulipa gesneriana). A fluorometric assay for the GUS activity indicated that in vitro synthesized GUS mRNA introduced into these pollen cells by particle bombardment was successfully expressed. GUS activity in extracts of the bombarded lily pollen became detectable fluorometrically within 30 min after bombardment, peaked at 6 h, then gradually decreased. This activity changed as a function of the developmental stage of the pollen cell of lily.

  1. Relationship Between the DPD and TS mRNA Expression and the Response to S-1-Based Chemotherapy and Prognosis in Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Chong; Lian, Lian; Li, Li-Qun; Li, Wei; Tao, Min

    2015-04-01

    The aim was to determine changes in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and thymidylate synthase (TS) mRNAs in the blood of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients to see whether these enzymes affected the patients' response to S-1-based chemotherapy and prognosis. For this purpose, pretreatment DPD/TS mRNA expressions were determined in 40 AGC patients using RT-PCR. The patients were then administered with S-1-based regimen (S-1 + cisplatin) and toxicities were recorded. The relationship between the DPD/TS mRNA expressions and the chemotherapy response, drug resistance, and prognosis was analyzed. The data show that DPD mRNA expression correlated significantly with Lauren type while TS mRNA expression correlated with distant metastasis. Patients with higher DPD and/or TS mRNA expression(s) showed poor response, while those with low DPD mRNA expression showed better response to the chemotherapy. Pooled analysis showed that the patients with low DPD/TS mRNA expressions had better therapeutic response. The incidence of bone marrow suppression, diarrhea, and oral mucositis was high in patients with low DPD mRNA expression. Median overall survival (OS) in 40 patients was 13.5 months. It was 17 months for low and 10 months for high DPD (P = 0.044) and TS mRNA expression (P = 0.047). Pooled analysis showed that the patients with both low DPD/TS mRNA expressions had longer OS (P = 0.001). In conclusion, the detection of DPD and/or TS mRNA expression can be used to predict the response to S-1-based chemotherapy, drug resistance, and prognosis in AGC patients as well as to help guide the individualized treatment of gastric cancer.

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells cannot affect mRNA expression of toll-like receptors in different tissues during sepsis.

    PubMed

    Pedrazza, Leonardo; Pereira, Talita Carneiro Brandão; Abujamra, Ana Lucia; Nunes, Fernanda Bordignon; Bogo, Maurício Reis; de Oliveira, Jarbas Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Experimental animal models and human clinical studies support a crucial role for TLRs in infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to test the ability of MSCs, which have immunomodulatory effects, of altering the mRNA expression of toll-like receptors during a experimental model of sepsis in different tissues. Three experimental groups (male C57BL/6 mice) were formed for the test: control group, untreated septic group and septic group treated with MSCs (1 × 10 6 cells/animal). Lungs, cortex, kidney, liver and colon tissue were dissected after 12 h of sepsis induction and TLR2/3/4/9 mRNA were evaluated by RT-qPCR. We observed a decrease of TLR2 and 9 mRNA expression in the liver of the sepsis group, while TLR3 was decreased in the lung and liver. No change was found between the sepsis group and the sepsis + MSC group. In this model of experimental sepsis the MSCs were unable to modify the mRNA expression of the different toll-like receptors evaluated.

  3. Sex differences in spatiotemporal expression of AR, ERα, and ERβ mRNA in the perinatal mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Mogi, Kazutaka; Takanashi, Haruka; Nagasawa, Miho; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that every masculinized function might be organized by a particular contribution of androgens vs. estrogens in a critical time window. Here, we aimed to investigate the sex differences in brain testosterone levels and in the spatiotemporal dynamics of steroid receptor mRNA expression in perinatal mice, by using enzyme immunoassay and real-time PCR, respectively. We found that testosterone levels in the forebrain transiently increased around birth in male mice. During the perinatal period, levels of androgen receptor mRNA in the hypothalamus (hypo) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) were higher in male mice than in female mice. Estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA levels in the hypo and hippocampus were higher in male mice than in female mice before birth. In contrast, ERβ mRNA expression in the PFC was higher in female mice immediately after birth. These spatiotemporal sex differences in steroid receptor expression might contribute to organizing sex differences of not only reproductive function, but also anxiety, stress responses, and cognition in mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Decreased FOXP3 mRNA expression in children with atopic asthma and IgE-mediated food allergy.

    PubMed

    Krogulska, Aneta; Polakowska, Ewa; Wąsowska-Królikowska, Krystyna; Małachowska, Beata; Młynarski, Wojciech; Borowiec, Maciej

    2015-11-01

    The role of T regulatory lymphocytes has been investigated in various allergic diseases. However, the precise relation between the phenotype and severity of allergic diseases and the changes in FOXP3 mRNA expression are not fully understood. To compare the expression of FOXP3 mRNA in children with asthma with and without concomitant food allergy (FA) with healthy children and children with only FA. The study included 82 children: 15 with atopic asthma and IgE-dependent FA, 27 with atopic asthma without FA, 20 with IgE-dependent FA without asthma, and 20 healthy children without atopy. Reverse transcription was performed using a commercially available High Capacity cDNA Archive Kit (Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, California). Analysis was carried out with a 7900HT real-time polymerase chain reaction system (Applied Biosystems). The average level of the FOXP3 gene expression in children with allergy was significantly lower compared with healthy children (2.2 ± 1.3 vs 4.2 ± 4.2; P = .014). The lowest mean level of FOXP3 mRNA expression (1.9 ± 1.6) was recorded in children with asthma and FA, and the highest level (4.2 ± 4.2) was recorded in healthy children without atopy (P = .036). A milder course of asthma or the degree of allergic reaction after a food challenge was associated with higher FOXP3 mRNA expression. Significantly lower levels of FOXP3 gene expression, observed more commonly in children with asthma and IgE-dependent FA than in healthy controls, were associated with a more severe clinical course. Therefore, FOXP3 expression could serve as an indicator of severe asthma with concomitant atopic conditions such as IgE-dependent FA. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. mRNA secondary structure engineering of Thermobifida fusca endoglucanase (Cel6A) for enhanced expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Asghar, Rehana; Ahmed, Sajjad; Sajjad, Muhammad; Tariq, Muhammad; Waheed Akhtar, M

    2015-03-01

    The sequence and structure of mRNA plays an important role in solubility and expression of the translated protein. To divulge the role of mRNA secondary structure and its thermodynamics in the expression level of the recombinant endoglucanase in Escherichia coli, 5'-end of the mRNA was thermodynamically optimized. Molecular engineering was done by introducing two silent synonymous mutations at positions +5 (UCU with UCC) and +7 (UUC with UUU) of the 5'-end of mRNA to relieve hybridization with ribosomal binding site. Two variants of glycoside hydrolase family six endoglucanase, wild type (cel6A.wt) and mutant (cel6A.mut) from Thermobifida fusca were expressed and characterized in E. coli using T7 promoter-based expression vector; pET22b(+). Enhanced expression level of engineered construct (Cel6A.mut) with ∆G = -2.7 kcal mol(-1)was observed. It showed up to ~45 % higher expression as compared to the wild type construct (Cel6A.wt) having ∆G = -7.8 kcal mol(-1) and ~25 % expression to the total cell proteins. Heterologous protein was purified by heating the recombinant E. coli BL21 (DE3) CodonPlus at 60 °C. The optimum pH for enzyme activity was six and optimum temperature was 60 °C. Maximum activity was observed 4.5 Umg(-1) on CMC. Hydrolytic activity was also observed on insoluble substrates, i.e. RAC (2.8 Umg(-1)), alkali treated bagass (1.7 Umg(-1)), filter paper (1.2 Umg(-1)) and BMCC (0.3 Umg(-1)). Metal ions affect endoglucanase activity in different ways. Only Fe(2+) exhibited 20.8 % stimulatory effects on enzyme activity. Enzyme activity was profoundly inhibited by Hg2(+) (91.8 %).

  6. [Effects of berberine on mRNA expression levels of PPARγ and adipocytokines in insulin-resistant adipocytes].

    PubMed

    Tu, Jun; Luo, Xin-Xin; Li, Bing-Tao; Li, Yu; Xu, Guo-Liang

    2016-06-01

    Adipocytokines are closely associated with insulin resistance (IR) in adipose tissues, and they are more and more seriously taken in the study of the development of diabetes. This experiment was mainly to study the effect of berberine on mRNA expression levels of PPARγ and adipocytokines in insulin resistant adipocytes, and investigate the molecular mechanism of berberine in enhancing insulin sensitization and application advantages of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). ddPCR absolute quantification analysis was taken in this experiment to simply and intuitively determine the appropriate reference genes. ddPCR and quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR) were used to compare the effect of different doses of berberine (10, 20, 50, 100 μmol•L⁻¹) on mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, adiponectin, resistin and leptin in IR 3T3-L1adipocytes. Antagonist GW9662 was added to study the inherent correlation between PPARγ and adiponectin mRNA expression levels. ddPCR results showed that the expression level of β-actin in adipocytes was stable, and suitable as reference gene for normalization of quantitative PCR data. Both of ddPCR and qPCR results showed that, as compared with IR models, the mRNA expression levels of adiponectin were decreased in the treatment with berberine (10, 20, 50, 100 μmol•L⁻¹) in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01); the expression of PPARγ was decreased by 20, 50, 100 μmol•L⁻¹ berberine in a dose-dependent manner in qPCR assay (P<0.01) and decreased only by 50 and 100 μmol•L⁻¹ berberine in ddPCR assay (P<0.05). PPARγ specific antagonist GW9662 intervention experiment showed that adiponectin gene expression was directly relevant with PPARγ (P<0.05). ddPCR probe assay showed that various doses of berberine could significantly reduce mRNA expression levels of resistin and leptin (P<0.01) in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, berberine enhanced insulin sensitization effect not by up-regulating adiponect in expression of transcriptional

  7. The expression and significance of feces cyclooxygensae-2 mRNA in colorectal cancer and colorectal adenomas.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofeng; Kong, Lixia; Liao, Suhuan; Lu, Jing; Ma, Lin; Long, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to explore the expression and significance of feces cyclooxygensae-2 (COX-2) mRNA in colorectal cancer and colorectal adenomas. The expression of feces COX-2 mRNA in colorectal cancer (n = 28), colorectal adenomas (n = 54), and normal control group (n = 11) were examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The positive rate of fecal occult blood test (FOBT) were detected in colorectal cancer (n = 30), colorectal adenomas (n = 56), and normal control group (n = 11); the sensitivity of the two methods was also compared. The positive rate of feces COX-2 mRNA in colorectal cancer was 82.1% (25/28), which was significantly higher than colorectal adenomas 59.3% (32/54), and normal tissues 18.2% (2/11), the difference being significant between the three groups (χ2= 13.842,P= 0.001). The positive rate of FOBT in colorectal cancer was 73.3% (10/30), which was significantly higher than colorectal adenomas 10.7% (6/56) and normal tissues 9.1% (1/11), the difference being significant between these three groups (χ2= 7.525,P= 0.023). There was no significant association between feces COX-2 expression and various clinical pathological features of colorectal cancer and colorectal adenomas (P > 0.05). The sensitivity of the RT-PCR method is higher than FOBT, however, the specificity of FOBT is slightly higher than RT-PCR. High expression of feces COX-2 mRNA in colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer is a common event; it is an early event in the development of colorectal adenomas to colorectal cancer. Feces COX-2 mRNA has a high sensitivity for detect colorectal cancer; combination with FOBT will be the best alternative. Feces COX-2 can be potentially used in the early diagnosis and screening of colorectal cancer.

  8. Distribution of androgen receptor mRNA expression in vocal, auditory, and neuroendocrine circuits in a teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Forlano, Paul M; Marchaterre, Margaret; Deitcher, David L; Bass, Andrew H

    2010-02-15

    Across all major vertebrate groups, androgen receptors (ARs) have been identified in neural circuits that shape reproductive-related behaviors, including vocalization. The vocal control network of teleost fishes presents an archetypal example of how a vertebrate nervous system produces social, context-dependent sounds. We cloned a partial cDNA of AR that was used to generate specific probes to localize AR expression throughout the central nervous system of the vocal plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus). In the forebrain, AR mRNA is abundant in proposed homologs of the mammalian striatum and amygdala, and in anterior and posterior parvocellular and magnocellular nuclei of the preoptic area, nucleus preglomerulosus, and posterior, ventral and anterior tuberal nuclei of the hypothalamus. Many of these nuclei are part of the known vocal and auditory circuitry in midshipman. The midbrain periaqueductal gray, an essential link between forebrain and hindbrain vocal circuitry, and the lateral line recipient nucleus medialis in the rostral hindbrain also express abundant AR mRNA. In the caudal hindbrain-spinal vocal circuit, high AR mRNA is found in the vocal prepacemaker nucleus and along the dorsal periphery of the vocal motor nucleus congruent with the known pattern of expression of aromatase-containing glial cells. Additionally, abundant AR mRNA expression is shown for the first time in the inner ear of a vertebrate. The distribution of AR mRNA strongly supports the role of androgens as modulators of behaviorally defined vocal, auditory, and neuroendocrine circuits in teleost fish and vertebrates in general. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Molecular characterization, mRNA expression of prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene during pregnancy, nonpregnancy in the yak (Bos grunniens).

    PubMed

    Zi, Xiang-Dong; Chen, Da-Wen; Wang, Hong-Mei

    2012-02-01

    Prolactin (PRL) plays central roles in a wide range of body functions in mammals, and the actions are mediated by the specific cell surface receptor, the prolactin receptor (PRLR). To better understand the role of PRL in the yak (Bos grunniens), in the present study, we first cloned yak PRLR cDNA, and compared its mRNA expression in several tissues with cattle (Bos taurus). By reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) strategy, we obtained full-length of yak PRLR cDNA sequence comprised of an open reading frame of 1746bp encoding a 581 amino acid protein, and contained a signal sequence and a transmembrane region. The intracellular domain had two pairs of cysteine residues and a WSXWS motif. The cytoplasmic domain comprised 323 residues and contained box 1 sequence. The yak PRLR shared 66.0-98.5% protein sequence identity with mammalian homologs. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that PRLR mRNA was higher in mammary tissue than in ovary and endometrium (P<0.01). During pregnancy, the ovary and mammary PRLR mRNA expression increased by 33- and 2.9-fold in yak, respectively, and increased by 46- and 3.8-fold in cattle, respectively. PRLR mRNA expression was higher (P<0.05) in mammary tissue and ovary of pregnant cow than that of pregnant yak. It is proposed that the increased ovarian and mammary PRLR mRNA expression during pregnancy may be associated with corpus luteum function for maintenance of pregnancy and mammary development for subsequent lactation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. FATHEAD MINNOW VITELLOGENIN: CDNA SEQUENCE AND MRNA AND PROTEIN EXPRESSION AFTER 17 BETA-ESTRADIOL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the present study, a sensitive ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) for VTG mRNA was developed for the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), a species proposed for routine endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) screening.

  11. Integrated Analysis of Long Noncoding RNA and mRNA Expression Profile in Advanced Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ling; Wang, Ru; Lian, Meng; Ma, Hongzhi; He, Ning; Liu, Honggang; Wang, Haizhou; Fang, Jugao

    2016-01-01

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plays an important role in tumorigenesis. However, the expression pattern and function of lncRNAs in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) are still unclear. To investigate the aberrantly expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs in advanced LSCC, we screened lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles in 9 pairs of primary Stage IVA LSCC tissues and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues by lncRNA and mRNA integrated microarrays. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis were performed to find out the significant function and pathway of the differentially expressed mRNAs, gene-gene functional interaction network and ceRNA network were constructed to select core mRNAs, and lncRNA-mRNA expression correlation network was built to identify the interactions between lncRNA and mRNA. qRT-PCR was performed to further validate the expressions of selected lncRNAs and mRNAs in advanced LSCC. We found 1459 differentially expressed lncRNAs and 2381 differentially expressed mRNAs, including 846 up-regulated lncRNAs and 613 down-regulated lncRNAs, 1542 up-regulated mRNAs and 839 down-regulated mRNAs. The mRNAs ITGB1, HIF1A, and DDIT4 were selected as core mRNAs, which are mainly involved in biological processes, such as matrix organization, cell cycle, adhesion, and metabolic pathway. LncRNA-mRNA expression correlation network showed LncRNA NR_027340, MIR31HG were positively correlated with ITGB1, HIF1A respectively. LncRNA SOX2-OT was negatively correlated with DDIT4. qRT-PCR further validated the expression of these lncRNAs and mRNAs. The work provides convincing evidence that the identified lncRNAs and mRNAs are potential biomarkers in advanced LSCC for further future studies.

  12. Expression of fragile X mental retardation protein and Fmr1 mRNA during folliculogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ferder, Ianina; Parborell, Fernanda; Sundblad, Victoria; Chiauzzi, Violeta; Gómez, Karina; Charreau, Eduardo H; Tesone, Marta; Dain, Liliana

    2013-04-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) belongs to a small family of RNA-binding proteins. Its absence or inactivity is responsible for fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited mental retardation. Despite its ubiquitous expression, FMRP function and expression remain almost understudied in non-neuronal tissues, though previous studies on germline development during oogenesis may suggest a special function of this protein also in ovarian tissue. In addition, the well-documented association of FMR1 premutation state with fragile X-related premature ovarian insufficiency adds interest to the role of FMRP in ovarian physiology. The aim of the present work was to investigate the expression of Fmr1 mRNA and its protein, FMRP, at different stages of rat follicular development. By immunohistochemical studies we demonstrated FMRP expression in granulosa, theca and germ cells in all stages of follicular development. In addition, changes in Fmr1 expression, both at the protein and mRNA levels, were observed. FMRP levels increased upon follicular development while preantral and early antral follicles presented similar levels of Fmr1 transcripts with decreased expression in preovulatory follicles. These observations suggest that Fmr1 expression in the ovary is regulated at different and perhaps independent levels. In addition, our results show expression of at least four different isoforms of FMRP during all stages of follicular growth with expression patterns that differ from those observed in brain and testis. Our study shows a regulated expression of Fmr1, both at mRNA and protein levels, during rat follicular development.

  13. Estradiol In Females May Negate Skeletal Muscle Myostatin Mrna Expression And Serum Myostatin Propeptide Levels After Eccentric Muscle Contractions

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Darryn S.; Wilborn, Colin D.

    2006-01-01

    Eccentric contractions produce a significant degree of inflammation and muscle injury that may increase the expression of myostatin. Due to its anti- oxidant and anti-flammatory effects, circulating 17-β estradiol (E2) may attenuate myostatin expression. Eight males and eight females performed 7 sets of 10 reps of eccentric contractions of the knee extensors at 150% 1-RM. Each female performed the eccentric exercise bout on a day that fell within her mid-luteal phase (d 21-23 of her 28-d cycle). Blood and muscle samples were obtained before and 6 and 24 h after exercise, while additional blood samples were obtained at 48 and 72 h after exercise. Serum E2 and myostatin LAP/propeptide (LAP/pro) levels were determined with ELISA, and myostatin mRNA expression determined using RT-PCR. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and bivariate correlations (p < 0.05). Females had greater levels of serum E2 throughout the 72- h sampling period (p < 0.05). While males had greater body mass and fat-free mass, neither was correlated to the pre-exercise levels of myostatin mRNA and LAP/pro for either gender (p > 0.05). Compared to pre-exercise, males had significant increases (p < 0.05) in LAP/propetide and mRNA of 78% and 28%, respectively, at 24 h post-exercise, whereas females underwent respective decreases of 10% and 21%. E2 and LAP/propeptide were correlated at 6 h (r = -0.804, p = 0.016) and 24 h post- exercise (r = -0.841, p = 0.009) in males, whereas in females E2 levels were correlated to myostatin mRNA at 6 h (r =0.739, p = 0.036) and 24 h (r = 0.813, p = 0.014) post-exercise and LAP/propeptide at 6 h (r = 0.713, p = 0.047) and 24 h (r = 0.735, p = 0.038). In females, myostatin mRNA expression and serum LAP/propeptide levels do not appear to be significantly up-regulated following eccentric exercise, and may be due to higher levels of circulating E2. Key Points The pre-exercise levels of myostatin mRNA and propeptide were not significantly different between genders, and

  14. Tumor 5-FU-related mRNA Expression and Efficacy of Oral Fluoropyrimidines in Adjuvant Chemotherapy of Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Koda, Keiji; Miyauchi, Hideaki; Kosugi, Chihiro; Kaiho, Takashi; Takiguchi, Nobuhiro; Kobayashi, Susumu; Maruyama, Takashi; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2016-10-01

    It has not been elucidated whether the clinical efficacy of oral fluoropyrimidines for adjuvant chemotherapy of colorectal cancer varies with tumor biological characteristics. A multicenter randomized trial was performed comparing oral tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil (S-1) and uracil-tegafur/ leucovorin (UFT/LV) as adjuvant therapy for stage III colorectal cancer. Postoperative survival was compared based on the 5-FU-related mRNA levels in cancer tissues. Among patients with tumor expressing dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) mRNA within the 66.7th percentile (lower 2/3) of all cases, overall survival (OS) was significantly better in the S-1 than in the UFT/LV group. In the S-1 group, patients with low DPD-expressing tumors had significantly better OS than those with highly expressing tumors. Patients with low thymidine synthase (TS)-expressing tumors had significantly better OS than those with highly expressing tumors. The efficacy of oral fluoropyrimidines as adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer may be influenced by the level of 5-FU-related mRNA in cancer tissues. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Enrofloxacin and Probiotic Lactobacilli Influence PepT1 and LEAP-2 mRNA Expression in Poultry.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Ivelina; Milanova, Aneliya; Danova, Svetla; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2016-12-01

    Expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP-2) in chickens can be influenced by food deprivation, pathological conditions and drug administration. Effect of three putative probiotic Lactobacillus strains and enrofloxacin on the expression of PepT1 and LEAP-2 mRNA was investigated in Ross 308 chickens. One-day-old chicks (n = 24) were allocated to following groups: control (without treatment); group treated with probiotics via feed; group treated with a combination of probiotics and enrofloxacin; and a group given enrofloxacin only. The drug was administered at a dose of 10 mg kg -1 , via drinking water for 5 days. Samples from liver, duodenum and jejunum were collected 126 h after the start of the treatment. Expression levels of PepT1 and LEAP-2 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and were statistically evaluated by Mann-Whitney test. Enrofloxacin administered alone or in combination with probiotics provoked a statistically significant up-regulation of PepT1 mRNA levels in the measured organ sites. These changes can be attributed to a tendency of improvement in utilization of dietary peptide and in body weight gain. LEAP-2 mRNA expression levels did not change significantly in enrofloxacin-treated chickens in comparison with control group.

  16. Expression and significance of CD44s, CD44v6, and nm23 mRNA in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Jun; Yan, Pei-Song; Li, Jun; Jia, Jing-Fen

    2005-11-14

    To investigate the relationship between the expression levels of nm23 mRNA, CD44s, and CD44v6, and oncogenesis, development and metastasis of human gastric adenocarcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, intraductal carcinoma of breast, and lung cancer. Using tissue microarray by immuhistochemical (IHC) staining and in situ hybridization (ISH), we examined the expression levels of nm23 mRNA, CD44s, and CD44v6 in 62 specimens of human gastric adenocarcinoma and 62 specimens of colorectal adenocarcinoma; the expression of CD44s and CD44v6 in 120 specimens of intraductal carcinoma of breast and 20 specimens of normal breast tissue; the expression of nm23 mRNA in 72 specimens of human lung cancer and 23 specimens of normal tissue adjacent to cancer. The expression of nm23 mRNA in the tissues of gastric and colorectal adenocarcinoma was not significantly different from that in the normal tissues adjacent to cancer (P>0.05), and was not associated with the invasion of tumor and the pathology grade of adenocarcinoma (P>0.05). However, the expression of nm23 mRNA was correlated negatively to the lymph node metastasis of gastric and colorectal adenocarcinoma (r = -0.49, P<0.01; r = -4.93, P<0.01). The expression of CD44s in the tissues of gastric and colorectal adenocarcinoma was significantly different from that in the normal tissues adjacent to cancer (P<0.05; P<0.01). CD44v6 was expressed in the tissues of gastric and colorectal adenocarcinoma only, the expression of CD44v6 was significantly associated with the lymph node metastasis, invasion and pathological grade of the tumor (r = 0.47, P<0.01; r = 5.04, P<0.01). CD44s and CD44v6 were expressed in intraductal carcinoma of breast, the expression of CD44s and CD44v6 was significantly associated with lymph node metastases and invasion (P<0.01). However, neither of them was expressed in the normal breast tissue. In addition, the expression of CD44v6 was closely related to the degree of cell differentiation of intraductal

  17. Mammalian Peptidylglycine α-Amidating Monooxygenase mRNA Expression Can Be Modulated by the La Autoantigen

    PubMed Central

    Brenet, Fabienne; Dussault, Nadège; Borch, Jonas; Ferracci, Géraldine; Delfino, Christine; Roepstorff, Peter; Miquelis, Raymond; Ouafik, L'Houcine

    2005-01-01

    Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM; EC 1.14.17.3) catalyzes the COOH-terminal α-amidation of peptidylglycine substrates, yielding amidated products. We have previously reported a putative regulatory RNA binding protein (PAM mRNA-BP) that binds specifically to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of PAM-mRNA. Here, the PAM mRNA-BP was isolated and revealed to be La protein using affinity purification onto a 3′ UTR PAM RNA, followed by tandem mass spectrometry identification. We determined that the core binding sequence is approximately 15-nucleotides (nt) long and is located 471 nt downstream of the stop codon. Moreover, we identified the La autoantigen as a protein that specifically binds the 3′ UTR of PAM mRNA in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, La protein overexpression caused a nuclear retention of PAM mRNAs and resulted in the down-regulation of endogenous PAM activity. Most interestingly, the nuclear retention of PAM mRNA is lost upon expressing the La proteins that lack a conserved nuclear retention element, suggesting a direct association between PAM mRNA and La protein in vivo. Reporter assays using a chimeric mRNA that combined luciferase and the 3′ UTR of PAM mRNA demonstrated a decrease of the reporter activity due to an increase in the nuclear localization of reporter mRNAs, while the deletion of the 15-nt La binding site led to their clear-cut cytoplasmic relocalization. The results suggest an important role for the La protein in the modulation of PAM expression, possibly by mechanisms that involve a nuclear retention and perhaps a processing of pre-PAM mRNA molecules. PMID:16107699

  18. Gravitational loading of a simulated launch alters mRNA expression in osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1996-01-01

    Serum-deprived mouse osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1a) were centrifuged under a regime designed to simulate a space shuttle launch (maximum of 3g). Messenger RNA levels for eight genes involved in bone growth and maintenance were determined using RT-PCR. Following 30 min of centrifugation, mRNA level for early response gene c-fos was significantly increased 89% (P < 0.05). The c-fos induction was transient and returned to control levels after 3 h. The mRNA level for the mineralization marker gene osteocalcin was significantly decreased to 44% of control level (P < 0.005) 3 h after centrifugation. No changes in mRNA levels were detected for c-myc, TGFbeta1, TGFbeta2, cyclophilin A, or actin. No basal mRNA level for TGFbeta3 was detected. In addition, no change in the steady-state synthesis of prostaglandin E2 was detected, possibly due to lack of lipid substrates in serum-deprived cells, suggesting that the increase in c-fos mRNA in response to gravitational loading is a result of mechanical stimulation. These results indicate that a small magnitude mechanical loading, such as that experienced during a shuttle launch, can alter mRNA levels in quiescent osteoblastic cells.

  19. Expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mRNA isoforms in normal and basal forebrain cholinergic lesioned rat brain.

    PubMed

    Löffler, T; Al-Robaiy, S; Bigl, M; Eschrich, K; Schliebs, R

    2001-06-01

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase is one of the key enzymes in the gluconeogenic pathway predominantly occurring in liver, kidney and muscle. In the brain, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase has been suggested to be an astrocyte-specific enzyme but the functional importance of glyconeogenesis in the brain is still unclear. To further elucidate the cellular source of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in the brain, non-radioactive in situ hybridizations were performed using digoxigenin-labeled RNA probes based on the sequence of recently cloned rat liver and muscle fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase cDNAs. In situ hybridization using a riboprobe for the liver isoform revealed a location of the hybridization signal mainly in neurons, while rat muscle fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mRNA was detected in both neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampal formation and in layer I of the cerebral cortex.RT-PCR using RNA preparations of rat astrocytes, neurons, and adult whole brain demonstrated a localization of liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mRNA isoform in neurons but not in astrocytes. The muscle fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mRNA isoform could be detected by RT-PCR in total rat brain, astrocytic, and neuronal mRNA preparations. The isoforms of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mRNA seemingly demonstrate a distinct cellular expression pattern in rat brain suggesting a role of glyconeogenesis in both neurons and glial cells.

  20. Time-dependent effects of intermittent hydrostatic pressure on articular chondrocyte type II collagen and aggrecan mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Smith, R L; Lin, J; Trindade, M C; Shida, J; Kajiyama, G; Vu, T; Hoffman, A R; van der Meulen, M C; Goodman, S B; Schurman, D J; Carter, D R

    2000-01-01

    The normal loading of joints during daily activities causes the articular cartilage to be exposed to high levels of intermittent hydrostatic pressure. This study quantified effects of intermittent hydrostatic pressure on expression of mRNA for important extracellular matrix constituents. Normal adult bovine articular chondrocytes were isolated and tested in primary culture, either as high-density monolayers or formed aggregates. Loaded cells were exposed to 10 MPa of intermittent hydrostatic pressure at a frequency of 1 Hz for periods of 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hrs. Other cells were intermittently loaded for a period of 4 hrs per day for 4 days. Semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were used to assess mRNA signal levels for collagen types II and I and aggrecan. The results showed that type II collagen mRNA signal levels exhibited a biphasic pattern, with an initial increase of approximately five-fold at 4 and 8 hrs that subsequently decreased by 24 hrs. In contrast, aggrecan mRNA signal increased progressively up to three-fold throughout the loading period. Changing the loading profile to 4 hrs per day for 4 days increased the mRNA signal levels for type II collagen nine-fold and for aggrecan twenty-fold when compared to unloaded cultures. These data suggest that specific mechanical loading protocols may be required to optimally promote repair and regeneration of diseased joints.

  1. Neuroleptic Drugs and PACAP Differentially Affect the mRNA Expression of Genes Encoding PAC1/VPAC Type Receptors.

    PubMed

    Jóźwiak-Bębenista, Marta; Kowalczyk, Edward

    2017-04-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide playing an important role as a neuromodulator. It has been indicated that PACAP is associated with mental diseases, and that regulation of the PACAPergic signals could be a potential target for the treatment of such psychiatric states as schizophrenia. Recent studies have suggested that action of neuroleptic drugs is mediated not only by dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission, but also via neuropeptides which may act both as neurotransmitters and as neuromodulators. The present study examines whether currently-used neuroleptics influence the action of PACAP receptors, whose expression is altered in a schizophrenic patient. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine the effects of haloperidol, olanzapine and amisulpride on the expression of genes coding PAC1/VPAC type receptors in the T98G glioblastoma cell line, as an example of an in vitro model of glial cells. PAC1 mRNA expression fell after 24-h incubation with haloperidol or olanzapine; however the effect was not maintained after 72 h, and haloperidol even up-regulated PAC1 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. All the examined drugs decreased VPAC2 mRNA expression, especially after 72-h incubation. Haloperidol (typical neuroleptic) was distinctly more potent than atypical neuroleptic drugs (olanzapine and amisulpride). In addition, PACAP increased PAC1 and VPAC2 mRNA expression. In conclusion, our findings suggest PACAP receptors may be involved in the mechanism of typical and atypical neuroleptic drugs.

  2. The NO signaling pathway differentially regulates KCC3a and KCC3b mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Di Fulvio, Mauricio; Lauf, Peter K; Adragna, Norma C

    2003-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) donors and protein kinase G (PKG) acutely up-regulate K-Cl cotransporter-1 and -3 (KCC1 and KCC3) mRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we report the presence, relative abundance, and regulation by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) of the novel KCC3a and KCC3b mRNAs, in primary cultures of rat VSMCs. KCC3a and KCC3b mRNAs were expressed in an approximate 3:1 ratio, as determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis. SNP as well as YC-1 and 8-Br-cGMP, a NO-independent stimulator of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and PKG, respectively, increased KCC3a and KCC3b mRNA expression by 2.5-fold and 8.1-fold in a time-dependent manner, following a differential kinetics. Stimulation of the NO/sGC/PKG signaling pathway with either SNP, YC-1, or 8-Br-cGMP decreased the KCC3a/KCC3b ratio from 3.0+/-0.4 to 0.9+/-0.1. This is the first report on a differential regulation by the NO/sGC/PKG signaling pathway of a cotransporter and of KCC3a and KCC3b mRNA expression.

  3. Emodin down-regulates expression of TRPV1 mRNA and its function in DRG neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sui, Feng; Huo, Hai-Ru; Zhang, Chang-Bin; Yang, Na; Guo, Jian-You; Du, Xin-Liang; Zhao, Bao-Sheng; Liu, Hong-Bin; Li, Lan-Fang; Guo, Shu-Ying; Jiang, Ting-Liang

    2010-01-01

    Emodin is a principle ingredient isolated from rhubarb rhizome, which is commonly used for constipation or pain-related diseases in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practice. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 ion channel proteins (TRPV1) are abundantly expressed in the peripheral sensory neurons and are assumed to act as a kind of nociceptor involved in the perception of pain and development of hyperalgesia. The aim of this study was to further unravel the analgesic mechanisms of rhubarb through investigating the effects of its main constitutive ingredient emodin on the expression of TRPV1 mRNA as well as on its calcium- mediating functions in vitro. The primary DRG neurons with a high purity and viability were obtained, and the TRPV1 mRNA expression levels were examined by using real-time RT-PCR and the elevated amplitudes of intracellular [Ca(2+)]i in the DRG neurons evoked by TRPV1 agonist capsaicin were examined by confocal microscopy. The results showed that emodin could significantly down-regulate both the mRNA expression of TRPV1 and the capsaicin-evoked intracellular fluorescent intensity in the DRG neurons under both 37 degrees C and 39 degrees C in vitro. Concomitantly, all of the changes induced by emodin could not be blocked by pretreatment of the primary neurons with capsazepine, an antagonist of TRPV1. In conclusion, we established that the mRNA expression level of TRPV1 and its calcium-mediating function in naive DRG neurons could be down-regulated by emodin through perhaps the non-TRPV1 channel pathways, and this might be the molecular mechanisms for rhubarb to inhibit hyperalgesia induced by inflammatory stimuli.

  4. Adenovirus-mediated interference of FABP4 regulates mRNA expression of ADIPOQ, LEP and LEPR in bovine adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Wei, S; Zan, L S; Wang, H B; Cheng, G; Du, M; Jiang, Z; Hausman, G J; McFarland, D C; Dodson, M V

    2013-02-27

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is an important adipocyte gene, with roles in fatty acid transport and fat deposition in animals as well as human metabolic syndrome. However, little is known about the functional regulation of FABP4 at the cellular level in bovine. We designed and selected an effective shRNA (small hairpin RNA) against bovine FABP4, constructed a corresponding adenovirus (AD-FABP4), and then detected its influence on mRNA expression of four differentiation-related genes (PPAR(y), CEBPA, CEBPB, and SREBF1) and three lipid metabolism-related genes (ADIPOQ, LEP and LEPR) of adipocytes. The FABP4 mRNA content, derived from bovine adipocytes, decreased by 41% (P < 0.01) after 24 h and 66% (P < 0.01) after 72 h of AD-FABP4 infection. However, lower mRNA content of FABP4 did not significantly alter levels of differentiation-related gene expression at 24 h following AD-FABP4 treatment of bovine-derived preadipocytes (P = 0.54, 0.78, 0.89, and 0.94, respectively). Meanwhile, knocking down (partially silencing) FABP4 significantly decreased ADIPOQ (P < 0.05) and LEP (P < 0.01) gene expression after 24 h of AD-FABP4 treatment, decreased ADIPOQ (P < 0.01) and LEP (P < 0.01) gene expression, but increased LEPR mRNA expression (P < 0.01) after a 72-h treatment of bovine preadipocytes. We conclude that FABP4 plays a role in fat deposition and metabolic syndrome by regulating lipid metabolism-related genes (such as ADIPOQ, LEP and LEPR), without affecting the ability of preadipocytes to differentiate into adipocytes.

  5. [Expression and significance of P-gp/mdr1 mRNA, MRP and LRP in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Li, Le; Su, Li-ping; Ma, Li; Zhao, Jin; Zhu, Lei; Zhou, Yong-an

    2009-03-01

    To explore the expression and clinical significance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/mdr1mRNA, multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and lung resistance protein (LRP) in newly diagnosed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. mdr1 mRNA of in 41 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was assayed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The expressions of P-gp, MRP and LRP proteins in lymph node viable blasts were identified by flow cytometry. The results were compared with those obtained from control cases, and the correlation of the changes with clinical outcomes was analyzed. (1) Among the 41 cases, the positive expression of P-gp protein was detected in 8 cases, MRP in 7 cases, LRP in 15 cases, and mdr 1 mRNA in 11 cases. (2) The P-gp and LRP levels in NHL were significantly higher than those in control group, but MRP wasn't. The P-gp over-expression was significantly associated with mdr1mRNA (r = 0.396, P = 0.01). No correlation was showed among the expressions of P-gp, MRP and LRP. (3) Patients with P-gp expression had a poorer outcome of chemotherapy than those with P-gp-negative (P = 0.005). P-gp expression was significantly associated with higher clinical stage (P = 0.046) and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase level (P = 0.032), but not associated with malignant degree (P = 0.298). MRP had no impact on the outcome of chemotherapy (P = 0.212), and wasn't significantly associated with higher clinical stage (P = 0.369), elevated LDH (P = 0.762) and higher malignant degree (P = 0.451). Patients with LRP expression had a poorer outcome of chemotherapy than those LRP-negative (P = 0.012). LRP expression was significantly associated with higher clinical stage (P = 0.0019), elevated LDH (P = 0.02) and higher malignant degree (P = 0.01). The data of this study indicate that P-gp and LRP expressions but not MRP expression are important in the mechanism of drug resistance associated with a poor clinical outcome in previously untreated NHL.

  6. Increased mRNA expression of selected antimicrobial peptides around ovulation and during inflammatory processes in the bovine endometrium postpartum.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M; Peter, S; Gärtner, M A; Michel, G; Jung, M; Einspanier, R; Gabler, C

    2016-11-01

    In the uterus, the first pathogen confrontations take place at the luminal endometrial epithelium. Therefore, it is required that these cells have the potential to recognize and respond to a bacterial infection. Antimicrobial peptides (AMP), part of the innate immune system in addition to cytokines, are principal effector molecules of mucosal immunity against pathogens. One important family of AMP that can permeabilize bacterial membranes is the beta-defensin (DEFB) family, which includes the following members: DEFB1, DEFB4A, and DEFB5, lingual AMP, and tracheal AMP. The bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein is also a cationic AMP that results in the death of bacteria. Another AMP family is the S100 calcium-binding protein (S100A) family including the following members: S100A8, S100A9, S100A11, and S100A12. These AMP exert their antimicrobial action through chelation of several ions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate mRNA expression patterns of selected AMP in bovine endometrial cells collected (1) at different stages of the estrous cycle (postovulatory, early-to-mid luteal, late luteal, and pre-ovulatory phase); (2) during the puerperium depending on uterine health status (healthy, subclinical, or clinical endometritis) starting on Day 24 to 30 postpartum for 3 weeks on a weekly basis; and (3) in vitro after co-culturing with Bacillus pumilus at three different multiplicities of infection (MOI 1, 5, and 10) up to 6 hours. The results reported that the mRNA expression of all candidate AMP, except DEFB1, S100A8, and S100A9, was estrous cycle dependent. In particular, around the time of ovulation, the transcription level of most AMP was higher (P < 0.05) compared with the luteal phase. Almost all candidate AMP mRNA expression was dependent on uterine health status, with a higher transcription level (P < 0.05) in inflamed endometrial tissues, especially during the late stage of the puerperium (Day 45-51 postpartum). Members of the DEFB family

  7. LDOC1 mRNA is differentially expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and predicts overall survival in untreated patients

    PubMed Central

    Duzkale, Hatice; Schweighofer, Carmen D.; Coombes, Kevin R.; Barron, Lynn L.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; O'Brien, Susan; Wierda, William G.; Pfeifer, John; Majewski, Tadeusz; Czerniak, Bogdan A.; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Freireich, Emil J; Keating, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    We previously identified LDOC1 as one of the most significantly differentially expressed genes in untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients with respect to the somatic mutation status of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region genes. However, little is known about the normal function of LDOC1, its contribution to the pathophysiology of CLL, or its prognostic significance. In this study, we have investigated LDOC1 mRNA expression in a large cohort of untreated CLL patients, as well as in normal peripheral blood B-cell (NBC) subsets and primary B-cell lymphoma samples. We have confirmed that LDOC1 is dramatically down-regulated in mutated CLL cases compared with unmutated cases, and have identified a new splice variant, LDOC1S. We show that LDOC1 is expressed in NBC subsets (naive > memory), suggesting that it may play a role in normal B-cell development. It is also expressed in primary B-cell lymphoma samples, in which its expression is associated with somatic mutation status. In CLL, we show that high levels of LDOC1 correlate with biomarkers of poor prognosis, including cytogenetic markers, unmutated somatic mutation status, and ZAP70 expression. Finally, we demonstrate that LDOC1 mRNA expression is an excellent predictor of overall survival in untreated CLL patients. PMID:21310924

  8. Differential regulation of amyloid-. beta. -protein mRNA expression within hippocampal neuronal subpopulations in Alzheimer disease

    SciT

    Higgins, G.A.; Lewis, D.A.; Bahmanyar, S.

    1988-02-01

    The authors have mapped the neuroanatomical distribution of amyloid-..beta..-protein mRNA within neuronal subpopulations of the hippocampal formation in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), normal aged human, and patients with Alzheimer disease. Amyloid-..beta..-protein mRNA appears to be expressed in all hippocampal neurons, but at different levels of abundance. In the central nervous system of monkey and normal aged human, image analysis shows that neurons of the dentate gyrus and cornu Ammonis fields contain a 2.5-times-greater hybridization signal than is present in neurons of the subiculum and entorhinal cortex. In contrast, in the Alzheimer disease hippocampal formation, the levels of amyloid-..beta..-protein mRNAmore » in the cornu Ammonis field 3 and parasubiculum are equivalent. These findings suggest that within certain neuronal subpopulations cell type-specific regulation of amyloid-..beta..-protein gene expression may be altered in Alzheimer disease.« less

  9. Detection of MMP-9 and TIMP-3 mRNA expression in the villi of patients undergoing early spontaneous abortion: A report of 30 cases.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangli; Qi, Yuxia

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor (TIMP)-3 expression with spontaneous abortion (SA) during early pregnancy. The villus tissues of 30 SA cases and 20 requested abortion cases were collected during surgery and constituted the SA and normal abortion (NA) groups, respectively. The total villous RNA was extracted and the expression levels of MMP -9 and TIMP-3 mRNA were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay to calculate the MMP-9/TIMP-3 mRNA ratio. The MMP-9 mRNA expression level and MMP-9/TIMP-3 mRNA ratio of the SA group were significantly higher than those of the NA group (P<0.01), while the TIMP-3 mRNA levels of the two groups were similar (P>0.05). The MMP-9 mRNA expression level of the SA group was higher than that of the NA group; thus, the MMP-9/TIMP-3 mRNA ratio was higher. These results suggest that the expression level of MMP-9 mRNA and the MMP-9/TIMP-3 mRNA ratio are associated with SA.

  10. Depletion of mRNA export regulator DBP5/DDX19, GLE1 or IPPK that is a key enzyme for the production of IP6, resulting in differentially altered cytoplasmic mRNA expression and specific cell defect

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Masumi; Yamanaka, Yasutaka; Shigemoto, Maki; Kitadani, Yuya; Kobayashi, Yuhko; Kambe, Taiho; Nagao, Masaya; Kobayashi, Issei; Okumura, Katsuzumi

    2018-01-01

    DBP5, also known as DDX19, GLE1 and inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) function in messenger RNA (mRNA) export at the cytoplasmic surface of the nuclear pore complex in eukaryotic cells. DBP5 is a DEAD-box RNA helicase, and its activity is stimulated by interactions with GLE1 and IP6. In addition, these three factors also have unique role(s). To investigate how these factors influenced the cytoplasmic mRNA expression and cell phenotype change, we performed RNA microarray analysis to detect the effect and function of DBP5, GLE1 and IP6 on the cytoplasmic mRNA expression. The expression of some cytoplasmic mRNA subsets (e.g. cell cycle, DNA replication) was commonly suppressed by the knock-down of DBP5, GLE1 and IPPK (IP6 synthetic enzyme). The GLE1 knock-down selectively reduced the cytoplasmic mRNA expression required for mitotic progression, results in an abnormal spindle phenotype and caused the delay of mitotic process. Meanwhile, G1/S cell cycle arrest was observed in DBP5 and IPPK knock-down cells. Several factors that function in immune response were also down-regulated in DBP5 or IPPK knock-down cells. Thereby, IFNβ-1 mRNA transcription evoked by poly(I:C) treatment was suppressed. These results imply that DBP5, GLE1 and IP6 have a conserved and individual function in the cytoplasmic mRNA expression. Variations in phenotype are due to the difference in each function of DBP5, GLE1 and IPPK in intracellular mRNA metabolism. PMID:29746542

  11. Rifampin modulation of xeno- and endobiotic conjugating enzyme mRNA expression and associated microRNAs in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gufford, Brandon T; Robarge, Jason D; Eadon, Michael T; Gao, Hongyu; Lin, Hai; Liu, Yunlong; Desta, Zeruesenay; Skaar, Todd C

    2018-04-01

    Rifampin is a pleiotropic inducer of multiple drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. This work utilized a global approach to evaluate rifampin effects on conjugating enzyme gene expression with relevance to human xeno- and endo-biotic metabolism. Primary human hepatocytes from 7 subjects were treated with rifampin (10 μmol/L, 24 hours). Standard methods for RNA-seq library construction, EZBead preparation, and NextGen sequencing were used to measure UDP-glucuronosyl transferase UGT, sulfonyltransferase SULT, N acetyltransferase NAT, and glutathione-S-transferase GST mRNA expression compared to vehicle control (0.01% MeOH). Rifampin-induced (>1.25-fold) mRNA expression of 13 clinically important phase II drug metabolizing genes and repressed (>1.25-fold) the expression of 3 genes ( P  <   .05). Rifampin-induced miRNA expression changes correlated with mRNA changes and miRNAs were identified that may modulate conjugating enzyme expression. NAT2 gene expression was most strongly repressed (1.3-fold) by rifampin while UGT1A4 and UGT1A1 genes were most strongly induced (7.9- and 4.8-fold, respectively). Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling (PBPK) was used to simulate the clinical consequences of rifampin induction of CYP3A4- and UGT1A4-mediated midazolam metabolism. Simulations evaluating isolated UGT1A4 induction predicted increased midazolam N-glucuronide exposure (~4-fold) with minimal reductions in parent midazolam exposure (~10%). Simulations accounting for simultaneous induction of both CYP3A4 and UGT1A4 predicted a ~10-fold decrease in parent midazolam exposure with only a ~2-fold decrease in midazolam N-glucuronide metabolite exposure. These data reveal differential effects of rifampin on the human conjugating enzyme transcriptome and potential associations with miRNAs that form the basis for future mechanistic studies to elucidate the interplay of conjugating enzyme regulatory elements.

  12. RANKL/RANK/OPG cytokine receptor system: mRNA expression pattern in BPH, primary and metastatic prostate cancer disease.

    PubMed

    Christoph, Frank; König, Frank; Lebentrau, Steffen; Jandrig, Burkhard; Krause, Hans; Strenziok, Romy; Schostak, Martin

    2018-02-01

    The cytokine system RANKL (receptor activator of NF-κB ligand), its receptor RANK and the antagonist OPG (osteoprotegerin) play a critical role in bone turnover. Our investigation was conducted to describe the gene expression at primary tumour site in prostate cancer patients and correlate the results with Gleason Score and PSA level. Seventy-one samples were obtained from prostate cancer patients at the time of radical prostatectomy and palliative prostate resection (n = 71). Patients with benign prostate hyperplasia served as controls (n = 60). We performed real-time RT-PCR after microdissection of the samples. The mRNA expression of RANK was highest in tumour tissue from patients with bone metastases (p < 0.001) as compared to BPH or locally confined tumours, also shown in clinical subgroups distinguished by Gleason Score (< 7 or ≥ 7, p = 0.028) or PSA level (< 10 or ≥ 10 µg/l, p = 0.004). RANKL and OPG mRNA expression was higher in tumour tissue from patients with metastatic compared to local disease. The RANKL/OPG ratio was low in normal prostate tissue and high tumours with bone metastases (p < 0.05). Expression of all three cytokines was high in BPH tissue but did not exceed as much as in the tumour tissue. We demonstrated that RANK, RANKL and OPG are directly expressed by prostate cancer cells at the primary tumour site and showed a clear correlation with Gleason Score, serum PSA level and advanced disease. In BPH, mRNA expression is also detectable, but RANK expression does not exceed as much as compared to tumour tissue.

  13. The effects of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in osteopenia women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang Sun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyo Jin

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in elderly osteopenia women. We selected 11 people of elderly osteopenia women and loaded a single bout pilates exercise about RPE 10-14 level. The blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 60 minute after pilates exercise, then examined calcium metabolic markers in serum and extracted peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from whole blood and confirmed mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines from PBMC. To clarify the changes during exercise, we designed repeated measure ANOVA as the control group to perform blood sampling without exercise. As a result, serum P showed significant interaction effect between group and time (p<.001), the pilates exercise group decreased about 9% at immediately after exercise and 13% during recovery after exercise (p<.05), while the control group showed a tendency to increase. Serum CK also showed a significant interaction between group and time (p<.05), the pilates group significantly increased at immediately after exercise and during recovery after exercise (p<.05) but the control group didn't have changes. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression in PBMC was significantly increased in the pilates group (p<.01, p<.05), although INF-γ mRNA expression didn't show statistically significant difference, it tended to increase in the pilates group (NS). These results suggested that a single bout pilates exercise of elderly osteopenia women cause hypophosphatemia with temporary muscle damage, and it leading high turnover bone metabolic state with to activate both of bone formation and bone resorption.

  14. The effects of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in osteopenia women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Sun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyo Jin

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in elderly osteopenia women. [Methods] We selected 11 people of elderly osteopenia women and loaded a single bout pilates exercise about RPE 10-14 level. The blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 60 minute after pilates exercise, then examined calcium metabolic markers in serum and extracted peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from whole blood and confirmed mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines from PBMC. To clarify the changes during exercise, we designed repeated measure ANOVA as the control group to perform blood sampling without exercise. [Results] As a result, serum P showed significant interaction effect between group and time (p<.001), the pilates exercise group decreased about 9% at immediately after exercise and 13% during recovery after exercise (p<.05), while the control group showed a tendency to increase. Serum CK also showed a significant interaction between group and time (p<.05), the pilates group significantly increased at immediately after exercise and during recovery after exercise (p<.05) but the control group didn’t have changes. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression in PBMC was significantly increased in the pilates group (p<.01, p<.05), although INF-γ mRNA expression didn’t show statistically significant difference, it tended to increase in the pilates group (NS). [Conclusion] These results suggested that a single bout pilates exercise of elderly osteopenia women cause hypophosphatemia with temporary muscle damage, and it leading high turnover bone metabolic state with to activate both of bone formation and bone resorption. PMID:25566441

  15. Effects of simulated microgravity on microRNA and mRNA expression profile of rat soleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hongjie; Wu, Feng; Cao, Hongqing; Kan, Guanghan; Zhang, Hongyu; Yeung, Ella W.; Shang, Peng; Dai, Zhongquan; Li, Yinghui

    2015-02-01

    Spaceflight induces muscle atrophy but mechanism is not well understood. Here, we quantified microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNA shifts of rat soleus in response to microgravity. MiRNAs and mRNA microarray of soleus after tail suspension (TS) for 7 and 14 days were performed followed by target gene and function annotation analysis and qRT-PCR. Relative muscle mass lost by 37.0% in TS-7 but less than 10% in the following three weeks. TS altered 23 miRNAs and 1313 mRNAs with at least 2-fold. QRT-PCR confirmed some of these changes. MiR-214, miR-486-5p and miR-221 continuously decreased. MiR-674 and Let-7e decreased only in TS-7, while miR-320b and miR-187 decreased only in TS-14. But there was no alteration of miR-320 and miR-206 in both time point. For mRNA detection, actn3 (5.1-fold and 13.8-fold) and myh4 (38-fold and 51.6-fold) increased abundantly and a3galt2 decreased. Predicted targeted genes (whyz, ywhaz and SFRP2) of altered miRNAs decreased. GO terms and cellular pathway of these alteration showed enrichment in regulation of muscle metabolism. Integration analysis of the miRNA and mRNA expression profiles confirmed that eleven genes were differently regulated by four miRNAs. This is the first study that showed expression pattern and synergistical regulation of miRNA and mRNA in rat soleus of TS for up to 14 days.

  16. PNPase autocontrols its expression by degrading a double-stranded structure in the pnp mRNA leader

    PubMed Central

    Jarrige, Anne-Charlotte; Mathy, Nathalie; Portier, Claude

    2001-01-01

    Polynucleotide phosphorylase synthesis is autocontrolled at a post-transcriptional level in an RNase III-dependent mechanism. RNase III cleaves a long stem–loop in the pnp leader, which triggers pnp mRNA instability, resulting in a decrease in the synthesis of polynucleotide phosphorylase. The staggered cleavage by RNase III removes the upper part of the stem–loop structure, creating a duplex with a short 3′ extension. Mutations or high temperatures, which destabilize the cleaved stem–loop, decrease expression of pnp, while mutations that stabilize the stem increase expression. We propose that the dangling 3′ end of the duplex created by RNase III constitutes a target for polynucleotide phosphorylase, which binds to and degrades the upstream half of this duplex, hence inducing pnp mRNA instability. Consistent with this interpretation, a pnp mRNA starting at the downstream RNase III processing site exhibits a very low level of expression, regardless of the presence of polynucleotide phosphorylase. Moreover, using an in vitro synthesized pnp leader transcript, it is shown that polynucleotide phosphorylase is able to digest the duplex formed after RNase III cleavage. PMID:11726520

  17. Limb segment vibration modulates spinal reflex excitability and muscle mRNA expression after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shuo-Hsiu; Tseng, Shih-Chiao; McHenry, Colleen L.; Littmann, Andrew E.; Suneja, Manish; Shields, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We investigated the effect of various doses of vertical oscillation (vibration) on soleus H-reflex amplitude and post-activation depression in individuals with and without SCI. We also explored the acute effect of short-term limb vibration on skeletal muscle mRNA expression of genes associated with spinal plasticity. Methods Six healthy adults and five chronic complete SCI subjects received vibratory stimulation of their tibia over three different gravitational accelerations (0.3g, 0.6g, and 1.2g) at a fixed frequency (30 Hz). Soleus H-reflexes were measured before, during, and after vibration. Two additional chronic complete SCI subjects had soleus muscle biopsies 3 h following a single bout of vibration. Results H-reflex amplitude was depressed over 83% in both groups during vibration. This vibratory-induced inhibition lasted over 2 min in the control group, but not in the SCI group. Post-activation depression was modulated during the long-lasting vibratory inhibition. A single bout of mechanical oscillation altered mRNA expression from selected genes associated with synaptic plasticity. Conclusions Vibration of the lower leg inhibits the H-reflex amplitude, influences post-activation depression, and alters skeletal muscle mRNA expression of genes associated with synaptic plasticity. Significance Limb segment vibration may offer a long term method to reduce spinal reflex excitability after SCI. PMID:21963319

  18. Attachment, proliferation and collagen type I mRNA expression of human gingival fibroblasts on different biodegradable membranes.

    PubMed

    Hakki, Sema S; Korkusuz, Petek; Purali, Nuhan; Bozkurt, Buket; Kus, Mahmut; Duran, Ismet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate adhesion, proliferation and type I collagen (COL I) mRNA expression of gingival fibroblasts on different membranes used in periodontal applications. Collagen (C), acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and polylactic acid; polyglycolic acid; lactide/glycolide copolymer (PLGA) biodegradable membranes were combined with gingival fibroblasts in culture and incubated for 48 h. Cell adhesion was examined with scanning electron and confocal microscopy. MTT assay was used to measure proliferation. COL I mRNA expression was assessed using quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). The PLGA group exhibited the lowest cell survival on day 5 and 10, and lowest cell proliferation on days 5, 10 and 14. While cell proliferation was similar in C and ADM groups, the C membrane showed a slightly greater increase in viable cells to day 10. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the results of proliferation and MTT assays. The highest COL I mRNA expression was noted in the PLGA membrane group when compared to the C (p < 0.01) and ADM (p < 0.05) membrane groups. These data revealed that adherence and proliferation of primary gingival fibroblasts on collagen-based C and ADM membranes is better than that seen with PLGA membranes, and thus may be preferable in the treatment of gingival recession defects.

  19. Effect of short-term training on GLUT-4 mRNA and protein expression in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kraniou, Giorgos N; Cameron-Smith, David; Hargreaves, Mark

    2004-09-01

    Six untrained, male subjects (23 +/- 1 years old, 84 +/- 5 kg, (O(2)peak)= 3.7 +/- 0.8 l min(-1)) exercised for 60 min at 75 +/- 1%(O(2)peak) on 7 consecutive days. Muscle samples were obtained before the start of cycle exercise training and 24 h after the first and seventh exercise sessions and analysed for citrate synthase activity, glycogen and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) mRNA and protein expression. Exercise training increased (P < 0.05) citrate synthase by approximately 20% and muscle glycogen concentration by approximately 40%. GLUT-4 mRNA levels 24 h after the first and seventh exercise sessions were similar to those measured before the start of exercise training. In contrast, GLUT-4 protein expression was increased after 7 days of exercise training (12.4 +/- 1.5 versus 3.4 +/- 1.0 arbitray units (a.u.), P < 0.05) and although it tended to be higher 24 h after the first exercise session (6.0 +/- 3.0 versus 3.4 +/- 1.0 a.u.), this was not significantly different (P= 0.09). These results support the suggestion that the adaptive increase in skeletal muscle GLUT-4 protein expression with short-term exercise training arises from the repeated, transient increases in GLUT-gene transcription following each exercise bout leading to a gradual accumulation of GLUT-4 protein, despite GLUT-4 mRNA returning to basal levels between exercise stimuli.

  20. TGF-beta antisense oligonucleotides reduce mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases in cultured wound-healing-related cells.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Katrin; Riedel, Frank; Germann, Günter; Hörmann, Karl; Sauerbier, Michael

    2005-02-01

    The pathology of chronic dermal ulcers is characterized by excessive proteolytic activity which degrades extracellular matrix. The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has been identified as an important component of wound healing. Recent developments in molecular therapy offer exciting prospects for the modulation of wound healing, specifically those targeting TGF-beta. We investigated the effect of TGF-beta antisense oligonucleotides on the mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases in cultured human keratinocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells using multiplex RT-PCR. The treatment of keratinocytes and fibroblasts with TGF-beta antisense oligonucleotides resulted in a significant decrease of expression of mRNA of MMP-1 and MMP-9 compared to controls. Accordingly, a decreased expression of MMP-1 mRNA in endothelial cells was detectable. Other MMPs were not affected. Affecting all dermal wound-healing-related cell types, TGF-beta antisense oligonucleotide technology may be a potential therapeutic option for the inhibition of proteolytic tissue destruction in chronic wounds. Pharmaceutical intervention in this area ultimately may help clinicians to proactively intervene in an effort to prevent normal wounds from becoming chronic.

  1. FLT3-ITD and MLL-PTD influence the expression of MDR-1, MRP-1, and BCRP mRNA but not LRP mRNA assessed with RQ-PCR method in adult acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nasilowska-Adamska, Barbara; Solarska, Iwona; Paluszewska, Monika; Malinowska, Iwona; Jedrzejczak, Wieslaw W; Warzocha, Krzysztof

    2014-04-01

    Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) and mixed-lineage leukemia gene-partial tandem duplication (MLL-PTD) are aberrations associated with leukemia which indicate unsatisfactory prognosis. Downstream regulatory targets of FLT3-ITD and MLL-PTD are not well defined. We have analyzed the expression of MDR-1, multidrug resistant protein-1 (MRP-1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and lung resistance protein (LRP) messenger RNA (mRNA) in relation to the mutational status of FLT3-ITD and MLL-PTD in 185 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) adult patients. The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method was performed to assess the expression of the MDR-1, MRP-1, BCRP, and LRP mRNA, and the results were presented as coefficients calculated using an intermediate method according to Pfaffl's rule. Significantly higher expressions of MDR-1 mRNA were found in patients who did not harbor FLT3-ITD (0.20 vs. 0.05; p = 0.0001) and MRP-1 mRNA in patients with this mutation (0.96 vs. 0.70; p = 0.002) and of BCRP mRNA in patients with MLL-PTD (0.61 vs. 0.38; p = 0.03). In univariate analysis, the high expression of MDR-1 mRNA (≥0.1317) negatively influenced the outcome of induction therapy (p = 0.05), whereas the high expression of BCRP mRNA (≥1.1487) was associated with a high relapse rate (RR) (p = 0.013). We found that the high expression of MDR-1 (≥0.1317), MRP-1 (≥0.8409), and BCRP mRNA (≥1.1487) significantly influenced disease-free survival (DFS; p = 0.059, 0.032, and 0.009, respectively) and overall survival (0.048, 0.014, and 0.059, respectively). Moreover, a high expression of BCRP mRNA (≥1.1487) proved to be an independent prognostic factor for RR (p = 0.01) and DFS (p = 0.002) in multivariate analysis. The significant correlation between the expression of MDR-1, MRP-1, and BCRP mRNA and FLT3-ITD or MLL-PTD in AML patients requires further investigation.

  2. A circadian neuropeptide PDF in the honeybee, Apis mellifera: cDNA cloning and expression of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Miho; Sato, Seiji; Takeda, Yukimasa; Sumida, Kazunori; Koga, Keita; Itoh, Tsunao; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki; Shimohigashi, Miki

    2011-12-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a pacemaker hormone regulating the locomotor rhythm in insects. In the present study, we cloned the cDNAs encoding the Apis PDF precursor protein, and found that there are at least seven different pdf mRNAs yielded by an alternative splicing site and five alternative polyadenylation sites in the 5'UTR and 3'UTR regions. The amino acid sequence of Apis PDF peptide has a characteristic novel amino acid residue, aspargine (Asn), at position 17. Quantitative real-time PCR of total and 5'UTR insertion-type pdf mRNAs revealed, for the first time, that the expression levels change in a circadian manner with a distinct trough at the beginning of night in LD conditions, and at the subjective night under DD conditions. In contrast, the expression level of 5'UTR deletion-type pdf mRNAs was about half of that of the insertion type, and the expression profile failed to show a circadian rhythm. As the expression profile of the total pdf mRNA exhibited a circadian rhythm, transcription regulated at the promoter region was supposed to be controlled by some of the clock components. Whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that 14 lateral neurons at the frontal margin of the optic lobe express these mRNA isoforms. PDF expressing cells examined with a newly produced antibody raised against Apis PDF were also found to have a dense supply of axon terminals in the optic lobes and the central brain.

  3. Activated but not resting T cells or thymocytes express colony-stimulating factor 1 mRNA without co-expressing c-fms mRNA.

    PubMed

    Cerdan, C; Courcoul, M; Razanajaona, D; Pierrès, A; Maroc, N; Lopez, M; Mannoni, P; Mawas, C; Olive, D; Birg, F

    1990-02-01

    Following the observation that, besides acute myeloid leukemia cells, acute lymphoid leukemia cells of either B or T phenotype could express the transcript for the colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), a growth factor known to be restricted to the monocytic-macrophage lineage, various sources of resting and/or activated T cells and thymocytes were screened for expression of this hemopoietic growth factor. We report here that the CSF-1 transcript was rapidly (7 h) induced in T cells by a variety of stimuli, but was not detectable in either resting T cells or thymocytes. In addition, secretion of CSF-1 was detectable in the supernatants of activated T cells by 72 h, with a peak around 92-120 h. In contrast to activated monocytes, the transcript of the c-fms proto-oncogene, the product of which is the receptor for CSF-1, was not detectable in either resting or activated T cells. This observation could be relevant to the intimate relationships between T cells and antigen-presenting cells during immune responses.

  4. VGLUT2 mRNA and protein expression in the visual thalamus and midbrain of prosimian galagos (Otolemur garnetti)

    PubMed Central

    Balaram, Pooja; Takahata, Toru; Kaas, Jon H

    2011-01-01

    Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) control the storage and presynaptic release of glutamate in the central nervous system, and are involved in the majority of glutamatergic transmission in the brain. Two VGLUT isoforms, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, are known to characterize complementary distributions of glutamatergic neurons in the rodent brain, which suggests that they are each responsible for unique circuits of excitatory transmission. In rodents, VGLUT2 is primarily utilized in thalamocortical circuits, and is strongly expressed in the primary sensory nuclei, including all areas of the visual thalamus. The distribution of VGLUT2 in the visual thalamus and midbrain has yet to be characterized in primate species. Thus, the present study describes the expression of VGLUT2 mRNA and protein across the visual thalamus and superior colliculus of prosimian galagos to provide a better understanding of glutamatergic transmission in the primate brain. VGLUT2 is strongly expressed in all six layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, and much less so in the intralaminar zones, which correspond to retinal and superior collicular inputs, respectively. The parvocellular and magnocellular layers expressed VGLUT2 mRNA more densely than the koniocellular layers. A patchy distribution of VGLUT2 positive terminals in the pulvinar complex possibly reflects inputs from the superior colliculus. The upper superficial granular layers of the superior colliculus, with inputs from the retina, most densely expressed VGLUT2 protein, while the lower superficial granular layers, with projections to the pulvinar, most densely expressed VGLUT2 mRNA. The results are consistent with the conclusion that retinal and superior colliculus projections to the thalamus depend highly on the VGLUT2 transporter, as do cortical projections from the magnocellular and parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus and neurons of the pulvinar complex. PMID:22984342

  5. VGLUT2 mRNA and protein expression in the visual thalamus and midbrain of prosimian galagos (Otolemur garnetti).

    PubMed

    Balaram, Pooja; Takahata, Toru; Kaas, Jon H

    2011-03-01

    Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) control the storage and presynaptic release of glutamate in the central nervous system, and are involved in the majority of glutamatergic transmission in the brain. Two VGLUT isoforms, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, are known to characterize complementary distributions of glutamatergic neurons in the rodent brain, which suggests that they are each responsible for unique circuits of excitatory transmission. In rodents, VGLUT2 is primarily utilized in thalamocortical circuits, and is strongly expressed in the primary sensory nuclei, including all areas of the visual thalamus. The distribution of VGLUT2 in the visual thalamus and midbrain has yet to be characterized in primate species. Thus, the present study describes the expression of VGLUT2 mRNA and protein across the visual thalamus and superior colliculus of prosimian galagos to provide a better understanding of glutamatergic transmission in the primate brain. VGLUT2 is strongly expressed in all six layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, and much less so in the intralaminar zones, which correspond to retinal and superior collicular inputs, respectively. The parvocellular and magnocellular layers expressed VGLUT2 mRNA more densely than the koniocellular layers. A patchy distribution of VGLUT2 positive terminals in the pulvinar complex possibly reflects inputs from the superior colliculus. The upper superficial granular layers of the superior colliculus, with inputs from the retina, most densely expressed VGLUT2 protein, while the lower superficial granular layers, with projections to the pulvinar, most densely expressed VGLUT2 mRNA. The results are consistent with the conclusion that retinal and superior colliculus projections to the thalamus depend highly on the VGLUT2 transporter, as do cortical projections from the magnocellular and parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus and neurons of the pulvinar complex.

  6. Correlation between mutations and mRNA expression of APC and MUTYH genes: new insight into hereditary colorectal polyposis predisposition.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Gitana Maria; Fantini, Fabiana; De Iure, Sabrina; Di Nicola, Marta; Palka, Giandomenico; Valanzano, Rosa; Di Gregorio, Patrizia; Stigliano, Vittoria; Genuardi, Maurizio; Battista, Pasquale; Cama, Alessandro; Curia, Maria Cristina

    2015-10-28

    Transcript dosage imbalance may influence the transcriptome. To gain insight into the role of altered gene expression in hereditary colorectal polyposis predisposition, in the present study we analyzed absolute and allele-specific expression (ASE) of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and mutY Homolog (MUTYH) genes. We analyzed DNA and RNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 49 familial polyposis patients and 42 healthy blood donors selected according similar gender and age. Patients were studied for germline alterations in both genes using dHPLC, MLPA and automated sequencing. APC and MUTYH mRNA expression levels were investigated by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis using TaqMan assay and by ASE assays using dHPLC-based primer extension. Twenty out of 49 patients showed germline mutations: 14 in APC gene and six in MUTYH gene. Twenty-nine patients did not show mutations in both genes. Results from qRT-PCR indicated that gene expression of both APC and MUTYH was reduced in patients analyzed. In particular, a significant reduction in APC expression was observed in patients without APC germline mutation vs control group (P < 0.05) while APC expression in the mutation carrier patients, although lower compared to control individuals, did not show statistical significance. On the other hand a significant reduced MUTYH expression was detected in patients with MUTYH mutations vs control group (P < 0.05). Altered ASE of APC was detected in four out of eight APC mutation carriers. In particular one case showed a complete loss of one allele. Among APC mutation negative cases, 4 out of 13 showed a moderate ASE. ASE of MUTYH did not show any altered expression in the cases analyzed. Spearman's Rho Test analysis showed a positive and significant correlation between APC and MUTYH genes both in cases and in controls (P = 0.020 and P < 0.001). APC and MUTYH showed a reduced germline expression, not always corresponding to gene

  7. Comparative Analysis of mRNA Isoform Expression in Cardiac Hypertrophy and Development Reveals Multiple Post-Transcriptional Regulatory Modules

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Yeon; Li, Wencheng; Zheng, Dinghai; Zhai, Peiyong; Zhao, Yun; Matsuda, Takahisa; Vatner, Stephen F.; Sadoshima, Junichi; Tian, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is enlargement of the heart in response to physiological or pathological stimuli, chiefly involving growth of myocytes in size rather than in number. Previous studies have shown that the expression pattern of a group of genes in hypertrophied heart induced by pressure overload resembles that at the embryonic stage of heart development, a phenomenon known as activation of the “fetal gene program”. Here, using a genome-wide approach we systematically defined genes and pathways regulated in short- and long-term cardiac hypertrophy conditions using mice with transverse aortic constriction (TAC), and compared them with those regulated at different stages of embryonic and postnatal development. In addition, exon-level analysis revealed widespread mRNA isoform changes during cardiac hypertrophy resulting from alternative usage of terminal or internal exons, some of which are also developmentally regulated and may be attributable to decreased expression of Fox-1 protein in cardiac hypertrophy. Genes with functions in certain pathways, such as cell adhesion and cell morphology, are more likely to be regulated by alternative splicing. Moreover, we found 3′UTRs of mRNAs were generally shortened through alternative cleavage and polyadenylation in hypertrophy, and microRNA target genes were generally de-repressed, suggesting coordinated mechanisms to increase mRNA stability and protein production during hypertrophy. Taken together, our results comprehensively delineated gene and mRNA isoform regulation events in cardiac hypertrophy and revealed their relations to those in development, and suggested that modulation of mRNA isoform expression plays an importance role in heart remodeling under pressure overload. PMID:21799842

  8. Actions of hypoxia on catecholamine synthetic enzyme mRNA expression before and after development of adrenal innervation in the sheep fetus

    PubMed Central

    Adams, M B; McMillen, I C

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated adrenal mRNA expression of the catecholamine synthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) following acute hypoxia in fetal sheep before (< 105 days gestation, n = 20) and after (> 125 days gestation, n = 20) the development of adrenal innervation and following pretreatment with the nicotinic receptor anatgonist hexamethonium (n = 12). Total RNA was extracted from fetal adrenal glands collected at specific time points at 3-20 h after the onset of either hypoxia (∼50% reduction in fetal arterial oxygen saturation (SO2) for 30 min), or normoxia. Before 105 days, there was a decrease in adrenal TH mRNA expression at 20 h after hypoxia and adrenal TH mRNA expression was directly related to the changes in arterial PO2 measured during normoxia and hypoxia. After 125 days, adrenal TH mRNA levels were suppressed for up to 12 h following hypoxia. In both age groups, adrenal PNMT mRNA expression increased at 3-5 h after hypoxia and was inversely related to the changes in fetal arterial PO2 during normoxia or hypoxia. After 125 days, the administration of hexamethonium (25 mg kg−1, I. V.) reduced TH mRNA but not PNMT mRNA expression after normoxia. After hexamethonium pretreatment, there was no significant change in either adrenal TH or PNMT mRNA expression following hypoxia. We conclude that acute hypoxia differentially regulates adrenal TH and PNMT mRNA expression in the fetal sheep both before and after the development of adrenal innervation. After the development of adrenal innervation, however, the effect of acute hypoxia upon adrenal TH and PNMT mRNA expression is dependent upon neurogenic input acting via nicotinic receptors. PMID:11118487

  9. Overview of long non-coding RNA and mRNA expression in response to methamphetamine treatment in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Kun; Long, Lingling; Zhang, Xudong; Qu, Hongke; Deng, Haixiao; Ding, Yanjun; Cai, Jifeng; Wang, Shuchao; Wang, Mi; Liao, Lvshuang; Huang, Jufang; Yi, Chun-Xia; Yan, Jie

    2017-10-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) display multiple functions including regulation of neuronal injury. However, their impact in methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity has rarely been reported. Here, using microarray analysis, we investigated the expression profiling of lncRNAs and mRNAs in primary cultured prefrontal cortical neurons after METH treatment. We observed a difference in lncRNA and mRNA expression between the experimental and sham control groups. Using bioinformatics, we analyzed the highest enriched gene ontology (GO) terms of biological process, cellular component, and molecular function, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and pathway network analysis. Furthermore, an lncRNA-mRNA co-expression sub-network for aberrantly expressed terms revealed possible interactions of lncRNA NR_110713 and NR_027943 with their related genes. Afterwards, three lncRNAs (NR_110713, NR_027943, GAS5) and two mRNAs (Ddit3, Casp12) were targeted to validate the microarray data by qRT-PCR. This presented an overview of lncRNA and mRNA expression profiling and indicated that lncRNA might participate in METH-induced neuronal apoptosis by regulating the coding genes of neurons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Myostatin mRNA expression and its association with body weight and carcass traits in Yunnan Wuding chicken.

    PubMed

    Liu, L X; Dou, T F; Li, Q H; Rong, H; Tong, H Q; Xu, Z Q; Huang, Y; Gu, D H; Chen, X B; Ge, C R; Jia, J J

    2016-12-02

    Myostatin (MSTN) is expressed in the myotome and developing skeletal muscles, and acts to regulate the number of muscle fibers. Wuding chicken large body, developed muscle, high disease resistance, and tender, delicious meat, and are not selected for fast growth. Broiler chickens (Avian broiler) are selected for fast growth and have a large body size and high muscle mass. Here, 240 one-day-old chickens (120 Wuding chickens and 120 broilers) were examined. Twenty chickens from each breed were sacrificed at days 1, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150. Breast and leg muscle samples were collected within 20 min of sacrifice to investigate the effects of MSTN gene expression on growth performance and carcass traits. Body weight, carcass traits, and skeletal muscle mass in Wuding chickens were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those in broiler chickens at all time points. Breast muscle MSTN mRNA was lower in Wuding chickens than in broilers before day 30 (P < 0.05). After day 30, breast muscle MSTN expression was higher in Wuding chicken than in broilers (P < 0.05). Leg muscle MSTN mRNA expression was higher in Wuding chicken than in broilers at all ages except for day 60 (P < 0.05). Correlation analysis revealed that breast muscle MSTN expression has a greater effect in slow growing Wuding chickens than in the fast growing broilers. In contract, leg muscle MSTN mRNA level has a greater effect in broilers than in Wuding chickens. MSTN regulates growth performance and carcass traits in chickens.

  11. [Gene copy number, mRNA transcription and protein expression of PD-1 gene in primary hepatocarcinoma patients].

    PubMed

    Fan, Hui-Min; Wu, Ling-Jie; Hu, Feng-Yu; Yang, Zhan

    2012-08-01

    To study the gene copy number, mRNA transcription and protien expression of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) gene in primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) patients and normal control individuals (NC) who are anti-HBs positive, and to investigate the variations in PD-1 gene copy numbers and its relationship with PHC. Real-time PCR was adopted to detect the PD-1 gene copy numbers and their mRNA expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 24 samples of PHC patients and 26 of NC. Protein expression level of PD-1 on CD8+ T was analyzed by flow cytometry. In terms of number of PD-1 gene copy numbers, the percentage of cases of haploid (single) was 34.62% and 4.17% in PHC group and control group respectively while the percentage of cases of diploid (double) was 61.54% and 95.83% respectively. The difference between the two was statistically significant (chi2 = 7.639, P = 0.006). The rate of cases with double PD-1 gene copy numbers was found to be higher in patients with PHC than in control group. It was also found that the average expression of PD-1 mRNA was 2.35E-03 in control group and 1.23E-03 in PHC group. The expression level was significant lower in PHC group than that in control group when compared by using Mann-whitey technic (U = 153, P = 0.009). Furthermore, the frequency of PD-1 protein expression on CD8+ T cells was 3.72 +/- 0.32 in control group and 16.13 +/- 1.68 in PHC group. The level of PD-1 mRNA expression was higher in PHC and significant differences was shown between two groups (t = -7.073, P = 0.000). Our study suggests that the variation in PD-1 gene copy number may trigger primary hepatocellular carcinoma to HBV carriers. The relationship between the variation of PD-1 gene copy numbers and its association with primary hepatocellular carcinoma is worth further focus.

  12. The Csr system regulates genome-wide mRNA stability and transcription and thus gene expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Esquerré, Thomas; Bouvier, Marie; Turlan, Catherine; Carpousis, Agamemnon J; Girbal, Laurence; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel

    2016-04-26

    Bacterial adaptation requires large-scale regulation of gene expression. We have performed a genome-wide analysis of the Csr system, which regulates many important cellular functions. The Csr system is involved in post-transcriptional regulation, but a role in transcriptional regulation has also been suggested. Two proteins, an RNA-binding protein CsrA and an atypical signaling protein CsrD, participate in the Csr system. Genome-wide transcript stabilities and levels were compared in wildtype E. coli (MG1655) and isogenic mutant strains deficient in CsrA or CsrD activity demonstrating for the first time that CsrA and CsrD are global negative and positive regulators of transcription, respectively. The role of CsrA in transcription regulation may be indirect due to the 4.6-fold increase in csrD mRNA concentration in the CsrA deficient strain. Transcriptional action of CsrA and CsrD on a few genes was validated by transcriptional fusions. In addition to an effect on transcription, CsrA stabilizes thousands of mRNAs. This is the first demonstration that CsrA is a global positive regulator of mRNA stability. For one hundred genes, we predict that direct control of mRNA stability by CsrA might contribute to metabolic adaptation by regulating expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism and transport independently of transcriptional regulation.

  13. Effect of long real space flight on the whole genome mRNA expression properties in medaka Oryzias latipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Olga; Gusev, Oleg; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Poddubko, Svetlana

    The current study is addressed to the complex analysis of whole genome mRNA expression profile and properties of splicing variants formation in different organs of medaka fish exposed to prolonged space flight in the frame of joint Russia-Japan research program “Aquarium-AQH”. The fish were kept in the AQH joint-aquariums system in October-December 2013, followed by fixation in RNA-preserving buffers and freezing during the space flight. The samples we returned to the Earth frozen in March 2013 and mRNAs from four fish were sequenced in organ-specific manner using HiSeq Illumina sequencing platform. The ground group fish treated in the same way was used as a control. The comparison between the groups revealed space group-specific specific mRNA expression pattern. More than 50 genes (including several types of myosins) were down-regulated in the space group. Moreover, we found an evidence for formation of space group-specific splicing variants of mRNA. Taking together, the data suggest that in spite of aquatic environment, space flight-associated factors have a strong effect on the activity of fish genome. This work was supported in part by subsidy of the Russian Government to support the Program of competitive growth of Kazan Federal University among world class academic centres and universities.

  14. Occupational Toluene Exposure Induces Cytochrome P450 2E1 mRNA Expression in Peripheral Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Cantú, Ania; Castorena-Torres, Fabiola; de León, Mario Bermúdez; Cisneros, Bulmaro; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rojas-García, Aurora E.; Aguilar-Salinas, Alberto; Manno, Maurizio; Albores, Arnulfo

    2006-01-01

    Print workers are exposed to organic solvents, of which the systemic toxicant toluene is a main component. Toluene induces expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), an enzyme involved in its own metabolism and that of other protoxicants, including some procarcinogens. Therefore, we investigated the association between toluene exposure and the CYP2E1 response, as assessed by mRNA content in peripheral lymphocytes or the 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (6OH-CHZ)/chlorzoxazone (CHZ) quotient (known as CHZ metabolic ratio) in plasma, and the role of genotype (5′-flanking region RsaI/PstI polymorphic sites) in 97 male print workers. The geometric mean (GM) of toluene concentration in the air was 52.80 ppm (10–760 ppm); 54% of the study participants were exposed to toluene concentrations that exceeded the maximum permissible exposure level (MPEL). The GM of urinary hippuric acid at the end of a work shift (0.041 g/g creatinine) was elevated relative to that before the shift (0.027 g/g creatinine; p < 0.05). The GM of the CHZ metabolic ratio was 0.33 (0–9.3), with 40% of the subjects having ratios below the GM. However, the average CYP2E1 mRNA level in peripheral lymphocytes was 1.07 (0.30–3.08), and CYP2E1 mRNA levels within subjects correlated with the toluene exposure ratio (environmental toluene concentration:urinary hippuric acid concentration) (p = 0.014). Genotype did not alter the association between the toluene exposure ratio and mRNA content. In summary, with further validation, CYP2E1 mRNA content in peripheral lymphocytes could be a sensitive and noninvasive biomarker for the continuous monitoring of toluene effects in exposed persons. PMID:16581535

  15. Population density approach for discrete mRNA distributions in generalized switching models for stochastic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Stinchcombe, Adam R; Peskin, Charles S; Tranchina, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    We present a generalization of a population density approach for modeling and analysis of stochastic gene expression. In the model, the gene of interest fluctuates stochastically between an inactive state, in which transcription cannot occur, and an active state, in which discrete transcription events occur; and the individual mRNA molecules are degraded stochastically in an independent manner. This sort of model in simplest form with exponential dwell times has been used to explain experimental estimates of the discrete distribution of random mRNA copy number. In our generalization, the random dwell times in the inactive and active states, T_{0} and T_{1}, respectively, are independent random variables drawn from any specified distributions. Consequently, the probability per unit time of switching out of a state depends on the time since entering that state. Our method exploits a connection between the fully discrete random process and a related continuous process. We present numerical methods for computing steady-state mRNA distributions and an analytical derivation of the mRNA autocovariance function. We find that empirical estimates of the steady-state mRNA probability mass function from Monte Carlo simulations of laboratory data do not allow one to distinguish between underlying models with exponential and nonexponential dwell times in some relevant parameter regimes. However, in these parameter regimes and where the autocovariance function has negative lobes, the autocovariance function disambiguates the two types of models. Our results strongly suggest that temporal data beyond the autocovariance function is required in general to characterize gene switching.

  16. VGLUT1 mRNA and protein expression in the visual system of prosimian galagos (Otolemur garnetti)

    PubMed Central

    Balaram, Pooja; Hackett, Troy A; Kaas, Jon H

    2011-01-01

    The presynaptic storage and release of glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter, is modulated by a family of transport proteins known as vesicular glutamate transporters. Vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) is widely distributed in the central nervous system of most mammalian and nonmammalian species, and regulates the uptake of glutamate into synaptic vesicles as well as the transport of filled glutamatergic vesicles to the terminal membrane during excitatory transmission. In rodents, VGLUT1 mRNA is primarily found in the neocortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus, and the VGLUT1 transport protein is involved in intercortical and corticothalamic projections that remain distinct from projections involving other VGLUT isoforms. With the exception of a few thalamic sensory nuclei, VGLUT1 mRNA is absent from subcortical areas and does not colocalize with other VGLUT mRNAs. VGLUT1 is similarly restricted to a few thalamic association nuclei and does not colocalize with other VGLUT proteins. However, recent work in primates has shown that VGLUT1 mRNA is also found in several subcortical nuclei as well as cortical areas, and that VGLUT1 may overlap with other VGLUT isoforms in glutamatergic projections. In order to expand current knowledge of VGLUT1 distributions in primates and gain insight on glutamatergic transmission in the visual system of primate species, we examined VGLUT1 mRNA and protein distributions in the lateral geniculate nucleus, pulvinar complex, superior colliculus, V1, V2, and the middle temporal area (MT) of prosimian galagos. We found that, similar to other studies in primates, VGLUT1 mRNA and protein are widely distributed in both subcortical and cortical areas. However, glutamatergic projections involving VGLUT1 are largely limited to intrinsic connections within subcortical and cortical areas, as well as the expected intercortical and corticothalamic projections. Additionally, VGLUT1 expression in galagos allowed us to identify laminar

  17. The Expression and Significance of Feces Cyclooxygensae-2 mRNA in Colorectal Cancer and Colorectal Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaofeng; Kong, Lixia; Liao, Suhuan; Lu, Jing; Ma, Lin; Long, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aim: This study aims to explore the expression and significance of feces cyclooxygensae-2 (COX-2) mRNA in colorectal cancer and colorectal adenomas. Materials and Methods: The expression of feces COX-2 mRNA in colorectal cancer (n = 28), colorectal adenomas (n = 54), and normal control group (n = 11) were examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The positive rate of fecal occult blood test (FOBT) were detected in colorectal cancer (n = 30), colorectal adenomas (n = 56), and normal control group (n = 11); the sensitivity of the two methods was also compared. Results: The positive rate of feces COX-2 mRNA in colorectal cancer was 82.1% (25/28), which was significantly higher than colorectal adenomas 59.3% (32/54), and normal tissues 18.2% (2/11), the difference being significant between the three groups (χ2= 13.842, P = 0.001). The positive rate of FOBT in colorectal cancer was 73.3% (10/30), which was significantly higher than colorectal adenomas 10.7% (6/56) and normal tissues 9.1% (1/11), the difference being significant between these three groups (χ2= 7.525, P = 0.023). There was no significant association between feces COX-2 expression and various clinical pathological features of colorectal cancer and colorectal adenomas (P > 0.05). The sensitivity of the RT-PCR method is higher than FOBT, however, the specificity of FOBT is slightly higher than RT-PCR. Conclusions: High expression of feces COX-2 mRNA in colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer is a common event; it is an early event in the development of colorectal adenomas to colorectal cancer. Feces COX-2 mRNA has a high sensitivity for detect colorectal cancer; combination with FOBT will be the best alternative. Feces COX-2 can be potentially used in the early diagnosis and screening of colorectal cancer. PMID:28139497

  18. Amitriptyline induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression through ERK-dependent modulation of multiple BDNF mRNA variants in primary cultured rat cortical astrocytes and microglia.

    PubMed

    Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Kajitani, Naoto; Kaneko, Masahiro; Shigetou, Takahiro; Kasai, Miho; Matsumoto, Chie; Yokoe, Toshiki; Azuma, Honami; Takebayashi, Minoru; Morioka, Norimitsu; Nakata, Yoshihiro

    2016-03-01

    A significant role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been previously implicated in the therapeutic effect of antidepressants. To ascertain the contribution of specific cell types in the brain that produce BDNF following antidepressant treatment, the effects of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline on rat primary neuronal, astrocytic and microglial cortical cultures were examined. Amitriptyline increased the expression of BDNF mRNA in astrocytic and microglial cultures but not neuronal cultures. Antidepressants with distinct mechanisms of action, such as clomipramine, duloxetine and fluvoxamine, also increased BDNF mRNA expression in astrocytic and microglial cultures. There are multiple BDNF mRNA variants (exon I, IIA, IV and VI) expressed in astrocytes and microglia and the variant induced by antidepressants has yet to be elaborated. Treatment with antidepressants increased the expression of exon I, IV and VI in astrocyte and microglia. Clomipramine alone significantly upregulated expression of exon IIA. The amitriptyline-induced expression of both total and individual BDNF mRNA variants (exon I, IV and VI) were blocked by MEK inhibitor U0126, indicating MEK/ERK signaling is required in the expression of BDNF. These findings indicate that non-neural cells are a significant target of antidepressants and further support the contention that glial production of BDNF is crucial role in the therapeutic effect of antidepressants. The current data suggest that targeting of glial function could lead to the development of antidepressants with a truly novel mechanism of action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. MCT1 and MCT4 kinetic of mRNA expression in different tissues after aerobic exercise at maximal lactate steady state workload.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, G G; Gobatto, C A; de Barros Manchado-Gobatto, F; Teixeira, L Fm; Dos Reis, I Gm; Caperuto, L C; Papoti, M; Bordin, S; Cavaglieri, C R; Verlengia, R

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the mRNA expression of monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 4 (MCT1 and MCT4) in skeletal muscle (soleus, red and white gastrocnemius), heart and liver tissues in mice submitted to a single bout of swimming exercise at the maximal lactate steady state workload (MLSSw). After 72 h of MLSS test, the animals were submitted to a swimming exercise session for 25 min at individual MLSSw. Tissues and muscle samples were obtained at rest (control, n=5), immediately (n=5), 5 h (n=5) and 10 h (n=5) after exercise for determination of the MCT1 and MCT4 mRNA expression (RT-PCR). The MCT1 mRNA expression in liver increased after 10 h in relation to the control, immediate and 5 h groups, but the MCT4 remained unchanged. The MCT1 mRNA expression in heart increased by 31 % after 10 h when compared to immediate, but no differences were observed in relation to the control group. No significant differences were observed for red gastrocnemius in MCT1 and MCT4 mRNA expression. However, white gastrocnemius increased MCT1 mRNA expression immediately when compared to rest, 5 and 10 h test groups. In soleus muscle, the MCT1 mRNA expression increased immediately, 5 and 10 h after exercise when compared to the control. In relation to MCT4 mRNA expression, the soleus increased immediately and 10 h after acute exercise when compared to the control group. The soleus, liver and heart were the main tissues that showed improved the MCT1 mRNA expression, indicating its important role in controlling MLSS concentration in mice.

  20. Integrated Analysis of Dysregulated ncRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in Humans Exposed to Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Shvedova, Anna A.; Yanamala, Naveena; Kisin, Elena R.; Khailullin, Timur O.; Birch, M. Eileen; Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M.

    2016-01-01

    Background As the application of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in consumer products continues to rise, studies have expanded to determine the associated risks of exposure on human and environmental health. In particular, several lines of evidence indicate that exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) could pose a carcinogenic risk similar to asbestos fibers. However, to date the potential markers of MWCNT exposure are not yet explored in humans. Methods In the present study, global mRNA and ncRNA expression profiles in the blood of exposed workers, having direct contact with MWCNT aerosol for at least 6 months (n = 8), were compared with expression profiles of non-exposed (n = 7) workers (e.g., professional and/or technical staff) from the same manufacturing facility. Results Significant changes in the ncRNA and mRNA expression profiles were observed between exposed and non-exposed worker groups. An integrative analysis of ncRNA-mRNA correlations was performed to identify target genes, functional relationships, and regulatory networks in MWCNT-exposed workers. The coordinated changes in ncRNA and mRNA expression profiles revealed a set of miRNAs and their target genes with roles in cell cycle regulation/progression/control, apoptosis and proliferation. Further, the identified pathways and signaling networks also revealed MWCNT potential to trigger pulmonary and cardiovascular effects as well as carcinogenic outcomes in humans, similar to those previously described in rodents exposed to MWCNTs. Conclusion This study is the first to investigate aberrant changes in mRNA and ncRNA expression profiles in the blood of humans exposed to MWCNT. The significant changes in several miRNAs and mRNAs expression as well as their regulatory networks are important for getting molecular insights into the MWCNT-induced toxicity and pathogenesis in humans. Further large-scale prospective studies are necessary to validate the potential applicability of such changes in mRNAs and mi

  1. Serum vaspin levels and vaspin mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mm, Wei Qian; Fan, Jianxia; Khor, Shuzin; Song, Mengfan; Hong, Wei; Dai, Xiaobei

    2014-11-01

    To compare serum vaspin level and mRNA and protein levels of vaspin in adipose tissue in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and normal glucose tolerance (NGR), along with the correlation between serum vaspin level with fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and birth-weight. Thirty-seven women with GDM and 36 with NGR were enrolled. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), FINS and vaspin levels were measured. The mRNA and protein levels were detected using RT-PCR and Western blot. Pearson correlation analysis (PCA) was performed to reveal the correlation between serum vaspin level and FINS, HOMA-IR. Spearman correlation analysis (SCA) was conducted to examine the association between serum vaspin level and birth-weight. HDL-C level in GDM was lower than NGR group (P<0.05), and there were no statistical differences in TC, TG, LDL-C, FPG, FINS and HOMA-IR between the two groups. Serum vaspin level, mRNA and protein expression levels of vaspin in GDM were higher than NGR group (P<0.05). Serum vaspin level was not significantly correlated with FINS and HOMA-IR, but had a positive correlation with birth-weight (P=0.023). Serum vaspin level cannot serve as an independent predictor of IR. The increased serum vaspin level and increased vaspin mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissues in GDM women indicate that vaspin may be involved in the pathogenesis of GDM, but its exact mechanism needs further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlation between ZBED6 Gene Upstream CpG Island methylation and mRNA expression in cattle.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Zi-Jing; He, Hua; Cao, Xiu-Kai; Song, Cheng-Chuang; Liu, Kun-Peng; Lan, Xian-Yong; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Qi, Xing-Lei; Bai, Yue-Yu; Chen, Hong

    2017-04-03

    DNA methylation is essential for the regulation of gene expression and important roles in muscle development. To assess the extent of epigenetic modifications and gene expression on the differentially methylated region (DMR) in ZBED6, we simultaneously examined DNA methylation and expression in six tissues from two different developmental stages (fetal bovine and adult bovine). The DNA methylation pattern was compared using bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP) and combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA). The result of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that ZBED6 has a broad tissue distribution and is highly expressed in adult bovine (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The DNA methylation level was significantly different in liver, lung and spleen between the two cattle groups (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The adult bovine group exhibited a significantly higher mRNA level and lower DNA methylation level than the fetal bovine group in liver, lung, and spleen. No significant association was detected between DNA methylation level and muscle, heart, and kidney at two different stages. In this study, the statistical analyses indicated that DNA methylation patterns are associated with mRNA level in some tissues, these results may be a useful parameter to investigate muscle developmental in cattle and as a model for studies in other species, potentially contributing to an improvement of growth performance selection in beef cattle breeding program.

  3. Naproxen sodium decreases prostaglandins secretion from cultured human endometrial stromal cells modulating metabolizing enzymes mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Carrarelli, Patrizia; Funghi, Lucia; Bruni, Simone; Luisi, Stefano; Arcuri, Felice; Petraglia, Felice

    2016-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea, defined as painful cramps occurring immediately before or during the menstrual period, is a common symptom of different gynecological diseases. An acute uterine inflammatory response driven by prostaglandins (PGs) is responsible for painful symptoms. Progesterone withdrawal is responsible for activation of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) enzyme and decrease of hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPDG) with consequent increased secretion of PGs secretion, inducing uterine contractility and pain. The most widely used drugs for the treatment of pelvic pain associated with menstrual cycle are non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The uterine site of action of these drugs is still not defined and the present study evaluated the effect of naproxen sodium in cultured human endometrial stromal cells (HESC) collected from healthy women. PGE2 release was measured by ELISA; COX-2 and HPDG mRNA expression were assessed by qRT-PCR. Naproxen sodium did not affect HESC vitality. Naproxen sodium significantly decreased PGE2 secretion (p < 0.01) and COX-2 mRNA expression (p < 0.01). TNF-α induced PGE2 release was reduced in presence of naproxen sodium (p < 0.05), in association with decreased COX-2 and increased HPDG mRNAs expression. Naproxen sodium decreases endometrial PGE2 release induced by inflammatory stimulus acting on endometrial COX-2 and HPDG expression, suggesting endometrial synthesis of prostaglandins as a possible target for reduction of uterine inflammatory mechanism in dysmenorrhea.

  4. Selenium Deficiency Affects the mRNA Expression of Inflammatory Factors and Selenoprotein Genes in the Kidneys of Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiu-Li; Xu, Bo; Huang, Xiao-Dan; Gao, Yu-Hong; Chen, Yu; Shan, An-Shan

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of Se deficiency on the transcription of inflammatory factors and selenoprotein genes in the kidneys of broiler chicks. One hundred fifty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to two groups fed with either a low-Se diet (L group, 0.033 mg/kg Se) or an adequate Se diet (C group, 0.2 mg/kg Se). The levels of uric acid (UA) and creatinine (Cr) in the serum and the mRNA levels of 6 inflammatory factors and 25 selenoprotein genes in the kidneys were measured as the clinical signs of Se deficiency occurred at 20 days old. The results indicated that the contents of UA and Cr in the serum increased in L group (p < 0.05), and the mRNA levels of the inflammatory factors (NF-κB, iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α) increased in L group (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the mRNA levels of PTGEs and HO-1 were not changed. In addition, 25 selenoprotein transcripts displayed ubiquitous expression in the kidneys of the chicks. The mRNA levels of 14 selenoprotein genes (Dio1, Dio2, GPx3, Sepp1, SelH, SelI, SelK, Sepn1, SelO, SelW, Sep15, SelT, SelU, and SelS) decreased, and 9 selenoprotein genes (GPx1, GPx2, GPx4, SelPb, Txnrd1, Txnrd2, Txnrd3, SPS2, and SelM) increased in L group (p < 0.05), but the Dio3 and Sepx1 mRNA levels did not change. The results indicated that Se deficiency resulted in kidney dysfunction, activation of the NF-κB pathway, and a change in selenoprotein gene expression. The changes of inflammatory factor and selenoprotein gene expression levels were directly related to the abnormal renal functions induced by Se deficiency.

  5. The effects of pilates exercise on lipid metabolism and inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression in female undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Chang-Sun

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to verify the effects of Pilates exercise by observing the impact of 8 weeks of Pilates exercise on lipid metabolism and inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in female undergraduates in their 20s who had no prior experience in Pilates exercise and had not exercised in the previous 6 months. There were 18 subjects with no prior experience in Pilates exercise. The subjects were separated into the Pilates exercise group (n = 9) and the non-exercise control group (n = 9). The former performed Pilates exercise for 60-70 minutes over 8 weeks with a gradual strength increase of 9-16 in the Rating of Perceived Exercise (RPE). The body composition, creatine kinase in the bloodstream and lipid metabolism (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, TG) were measured before and after the experiment and Real-Time PCR was used to investigate the mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-⍺. The creatine kinase (CK) in the blood had significant differences between the groups. The test group showed significant increase compared to the control group after 8 weeks of Pilates exercise (p = 0.007). Lipid analysis showed that the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly different in the two groups (p = 0.049), with the Pilates exercise group exhibiting significantly higher levels compared to the control group. No significant differences were observed in the levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). IL-6 mRNA expression did not show significant differences between the groups either. Timing and TNF-α mRNA expression showed significant effect in both the exercise and the control groups (p = 0.013) but no correlation. It was found from the study that Pilates exercise for 8 weeks affected CK expression (the muscle damage marker) and induced positive changes in the levels of high-density lipoprotein.

  6. The effects of pilates exercise on lipid metabolism and inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression in female undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Chang-Sun

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to verify the effects of Pilates exercise by observing the impact of 8 weeks of Pilates exercise on lipid metabolism and inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in female undergraduates in their 20s who had no prior experience in Pilates exercise and had not exercised in the previous 6 months. [Methods] There were 18 subjects with no prior experience in Pilates exercise. The subjects were separated into the Pilates exercise group (n = 9) and the non-exercise control group (n = 9). The former performed Pilates exercise for 60-70 minutes over 8 weeks with a gradual strength increase of 9-16 in the Rating of Perceived Exercise (RPE). The body composition, creatine kinase in the bloodstream and lipid metabolism (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, TG) were measured before and after the experiment and Real-Time PCR was used to investigate the mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-⍺. [Results] The creatine kinase (CK) in the blood had significant differences between the groups. The test group showed significant increase compared to the control group after 8 weeks of Pilates exercise (p = 0.007). Lipid analysis showed that the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly different in the two groups (p = 0.049), with the Pilates exercise group exhibiting significantly higher levels compared to the control group. No significant differences were observed in the levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). IL-6 mRNA expression did not show significant differences between the groups either. Timing and TNF-α mRNA expression showed significant effect in both the exercise and the control groups (p = 0.013) but no correlation. [Conclusion] It was found from the study that Pilates exercise for 8 weeks affected CK expression (the muscle damage marker) and induced positive changes in the levels of high-density lipoprotein. PMID:25566463

  7. Expression of cholinesterase gene(s) in human brain tissues: translational evidence for multiple mRNA species.

    PubMed Central

    Soreq, H; Zevin-Sonkin, D; Razon, N

    1984-01-01

    To resolve the origin(s) of the molecular heterogeneity of human nervous system cholinesterases (ChEs), we used Xenopus oocytes, which produce biologically active ChE when microinjected with unfractionated brain mRNA. The RNA was prepared from primary gliomas, meningiomas and embryonic brain, each of which expresses ChE activity with distinct substrate specificities and molecular forms. Sucrose gradient fractionation of DMSO-denatured mRNA from these sources revealed three size classes of ChE-inducing mRNAs, sedimenting at approximately 32S, 20S and 9S. The amounts of these different classes of ChE-inducing mRNAs varied between the three tissue sources examined. To distinguish between ChEs produced in oocytes and having different substrate specificities, their activity was determined in the presence of selective inhibitors. Both 'true' (acetylcholine hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.7) and 'pseudo' (acylcholine acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.8) multimeric cholinesterase activities were found in the mRNA-injected oocytes. Moreover, human brain mRNAs inducing 'true' and 'pseudo' ChE activities had different size distribution, indicating that different mRNAs might be translated into various types of ChEs. These findings imply that the heterogeneity of ChEs in the human nervous system is not limited to the post-translational level, but extends to the level of mRNA. PMID:6745236

  8. Definition of the complete Schistosoma mansoni hemoglobinase mRNA sequence and gene expression in developing parasites.

    PubMed

    el Meanawy, M A; Aji, T; Phillips, N F; Davis, R E; Salata, R A; Malhotra, I; McClain, D; Aikawa, M; Davis, A H

    1990-07-01

    Schistosoma mansoni uses a variety of proteases termed hemoglobinases to obtain nutrition from host globin. Previous reports have characterized cDNAs encoding 1 of these enzymes. However, these sequences did not define the primary structures of the mRNA and protein. The complete sequence of the 1390 base mRNA has now been determined. It encodes a 50 kDa primary translation product. In vitro translations coupled with immunoprecipitations and Western blots of parasite lysates allowed visualization of the 50 kDa form. Production of the 31 kDa mature hemoglobinase from the 50 kDa species involves removal of both NH2 and COOH terminal residues from the primary translation product. Expression of hemoglobinase mRNA and protein was examined during larval parasite development. Low levels were observed in young schistosomula. After 6-9 days in culture, high hemoglobinase levels were seen which correlated with the onset of red blood cell feeding. Immunoelectron microscopy was employed to examine hemoglobinase location and function. In adult worms the enzyme was associated with the gut lumen and gut epithelium. In cercariae, the protease was observed in the head gland, suggesting new roles for the protease.

  9. Biological mechanism analysis of acute renal allograft rejection: integrated of mRNA and microRNA expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shi-Ming; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Xue-Mei; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Li, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Yu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Renal transplantation is the preferred method for most patients with end-stage renal disease, however, acute renal allograft rejection is still a major risk factor for recipients leading to renal injury. To improve the early diagnosis and treatment of acute rejection, study on the molecular mechanism of it is urgent. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profile and mRNA expression profile of acute renal allograft rejection and well-functioning allograft downloaded from ArrayExpress database were applied to identify differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs and DE mRNAs. DE miRNAs targets were predicted by combining five algorithm. By overlapping the DE mRNAs and DE miRNAs targets, common genes were obtained. Differentially co-expressed genes (DCGs) were identified by differential co-expression profile (DCp) and differential co-expression enrichment (DCe) methods in Differentially Co-expressed Genes and Links (DCGL) package. Then, co-expression network of DCGs and the cluster analysis were performed. Functional enrichment analysis for DCGs was undergone. A total of 1270 miRNA targets were predicted and 698 DE mRNAs were obtained. While overlapping miRNA targets and DE mRNAs, 59 common genes were gained. We obtained 103 DCGs and 5 transcription factors (TFs) based on regulatory impact factors (RIF), then built the regulation network of miRNA targets and DE mRNAs. By clustering the co-expression network, 5 modules were obtained. Thereinto, module 1 had the highest degree and module 2 showed the most number of DCGs and common genes. TF CEBPB and several common genes, such as RXRA, BASP1 and AKAP10, were mapped on the co-expression network. C1R showed the highest degree in the network. These genes might be associated with human acute renal allograft rejection. We conducted biological analysis on integration of DE mRNA and DE miRNA in acute renal allograft rejection, displayed gene expression patterns and screened out genes and TFs that may be related to acute renal allograft

  10. Biological mechanism analysis of acute renal allograft rejection: integrated of mRNA and microRNA expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shi-Ming; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Xue-Mei; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Li, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Yu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Renal transplantation is the preferred method for most patients with end-stage renal disease, however, acute renal allograft rejection is still a major risk factor for recipients leading to renal injury. To improve the early diagnosis and treatment of acute rejection, study on the molecular mechanism of it is urgent. Methods: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profile and mRNA expression profile of acute renal allograft rejection and well-functioning allograft downloaded from ArrayExpress database were applied to identify differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs and DE mRNAs. DE miRNAs targets were predicted by combining five algorithm. By overlapping the DE mRNAs and DE miRNAs targets, common genes were obtained. Differentially co-expressed genes (DCGs) were identified by differential co-expression profile (DCp) and differential co-expression enrichment (DCe) methods in Differentially Co-expressed Genes and Links (DCGL) package. Then, co-expression network of DCGs and the cluster analysis were performed. Functional enrichment analysis for DCGs was undergone. Results: A total of 1270 miRNA targets were predicted and 698 DE mRNAs were obtained. While overlapping miRNA targets and DE mRNAs, 59 common genes were gained. We obtained 103 DCGs and 5 transcription factors (TFs) based on regulatory impact factors (RIF), then built the regulation network of miRNA targets and DE mRNAs. By clustering the co-expression network, 5 modules were obtained. Thereinto, module 1 had the highest degree and module 2 showed the most number of DCGs and common genes. TF CEBPB and several common genes, such as RXRA, BASP1 and AKAP10, were mapped on the co-expression network. C1R showed the highest degree in the network. These genes might be associated with human acute renal allograft rejection. Conclusions: We conducted biological analysis on integration of DE mRNA and DE miRNA in acute renal allograft rejection, displayed gene expression patterns and screened out genes and TFs that may

  11. m-RNA mammaglobin expression in metastatic breast cancer patient at Medan city, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimbun, S.; Siregar, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common causes of women’s death in the world. Metastatic spread presents a major clinical problem in about 30% of the patients. The study aims to investigate the clinical reliability of mammaglobin mRNA as a marker of circulating cancer cells in breast cancer patients. The positivity of blood was analyzed in relation to clinical and pathological characteristics. This study was on 29 breast cancer patients (13 metastatic, 16 non- metastatic patients), where28 were invasive intraductal carcinoma type and 1 was invasive lobular carcinoma type. Breast cancer patients were according to the histologic grade into grade I (7 patients),grade II (6 patients) and grade III (15 patients). All individuals included in this study were subjected to detection of mammaglobin m-RNA of circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood using RT-PCR technique. Positivity for mammaglobin in blood samples was in 38% of patients with metastatic but not in the non-metastatic patients. The presence of mammaglobin correlated with metastatic tumor (P = 0.011). Mammaglobin overexpression in breast tissue was significantly positive in low-grade tumors (I and II).

  12. Local Context Finder (LCF) reveals multidimensional relationships among mRNA expression profiles of Arabidopsis responding to pathogen infection

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Fumiaki; Glazebrook, Jane

    2003-01-01

    A major task in computational analysis of mRNA expression profiles is definition of relationships among profiles on the basis of similarities among them. This is generally achieved by pattern recognition in the distribution of data points representing each profile in a high-dimensional space. Some drawbacks of commonly used pattern recognition algorithms stem from their use of a globally linear space and/or limited degrees of freedom. A pattern recognition method called Local Context Finder (LCF) is described here. LCF uses nonlinear dimensionality reduction for pattern recognition. Then it builds a network of profiles based on the nonlinear dimensionality reduction results. LCF was used to analyze mRNA expression profiles of the plant host Arabidopsis interacting with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. In one case, LCF revealed two dimensions essential to explain the effects of the NahG transgene and the ndr1 mutation on resistant and susceptible responses. In another case, plant mutants deficient in responses to pathogen infection were classified on the basis of LCF analysis of their profiles. The classification by LCF was consistent with the results of biological characterization of the mutants. Thus, LCF is a powerful method for extracting information from expression profile data. PMID:12960373

  13. Correlation analysis of the mRNA and miRNA expression profiles in the nascent synthetic allotetraploid Raphanobrassica

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Bingyuan; Wang, Ruihua; Wang, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Raphanobrassica is an allopolyploid species derived from inter-generic hybridization that combines the R genome from R. sativus and the C genome from B. oleracea var. alboglabra. In the present study, we used a high-throughput sequencing method to identify the mRNA and miRNA profiles in Raphanobrassica and its parents. A total of 33,561 mRNAs and 283 miRNAs were detected, 9,209 mRNAs and 134 miRNAs were differentially expressed respectively, 7,633 mRNAs and 39 miRNAs showed ELD expression, 5,219 mRNAs and 57 miRNAs were non-additively expressed in Raphanobrassica. Remarkably, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were up-regulated and maternal bias was detected in Raphanobrassica. In addition, a miRNA-mRNA interaction network was constructed based on reverse regulated miRNA-mRNAs, which included 75 miRNAs and 178 mRNAs, 31 miRNAs were non-additively expressed target by 13 miRNAs. The related target genes were significantly enriched in the GO term ‘metabolic processes’. Non-additive related target genes regulation is involved in a range of biological pathways, like providing a driving force for variation and adaption in this allopolyploid. The integrative analysis of mRNA and miRNA profiling provides more information to elucidate gene expression mechanism and may supply a comprehensive and corresponding method to study genetic and transcription variation of allopolyploid. PMID:27874043

  14. The Andes Hantavirus NSs Protein Is Expressed from the Viral Small mRNA by a Leaky Scanning Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Solis, Loretto; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P.; Pino, Karla; Tischler, Nicole D.; Ohlmann, Théophile; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    The small mRNA (SmRNA) of all Bunyaviridae encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein. In 4 out of 5 genera in the Bunyaviridae, the smRNA encodes an additional nonstructural protein denominated NSs. In this study, we show that Andes hantavirus (ANDV) SmRNA encodes an NSs protein. Data show that the NSs protein is expressed in the context of an ANDV infection. Additionally, our results suggest that translation initiation from the NSs initiation codon is mediated by ribosomal subunits that have bypassed the upstream N protein initiation codon through a leaky scanning mechanism. PMID:22156529

  15. The Andes hantavirus NSs protein is expressed from the viral small mRNA by a leaky scanning mechanism.

    PubMed

    Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Solis, Loretto; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P; Pino, Karla; Tischler, Nicole D; Ohlmann, Théophile; Darlix, Jean-Luc; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2012-02-01

    The small mRNA (SmRNA) of all Bunyaviridae encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein. In 4 out of 5 genera in the Bunyaviridae, the smRNA encodes an additional nonstructural protein denominated NSs. In this study, we show that Andes hantavirus (ANDV) SmRNA encodes an NSs protein. Data show that the NSs protein is expressed in the context of an ANDV infection. Additionally, our results suggest that translation initiation from the NSs initiation codon is mediated by ribosomal subunits that have bypassed the upstream N protein initiation codon through a leaky scanning mechanism.

  16. [Effects of the escharectomy during burn shock stage on expression of glucose translator-4 mRNA in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue].

    PubMed

    Shuai, Xiu-rong; Liu, Tong-fa; Guo, Zhen-rong; Yu, Shun-xian; He, Peng-fei; Yuan, Wen-zhou; Li, Feng; He, Li-xin

    2004-04-07

    To investigate the effect of the escharectomy during burn shock stage on expression of glucose translator-4 (GLUT4) mRNA in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. 30% TBSA scalded rats were employed. Escharectomy were conducted at 8 h, 24 h, 168 h after burns respectively. Insulin, glucagon, cortisol and glucose levels in serum were analyzed. RT-PCR were employed to analyze GLUT4 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Glucagon, cortisol and glucose levels in serum were declined in groups which escharectomy were conducted during burn shock stage. GLUT4 mRNA expression in both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue were downregulated after burns and escharectomy conducted during burn shock stage made it restored to near normal. GLUT4 mRNA expression will declined after major burns in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Escharectomy during shock stage could make it upregulated, which will be helpful to improve glucose metabolism and hypermetabolism after major burns.

  17. MicroRNA, mRNA, and protein expression link development and aging in human and macaque brain

    PubMed Central

    Somel, Mehmet; Guo, Song; Fu, Ning; Yan, Zheng; Hu, Hai Yang; Xu, Ying; Yuan, Yuan; Ning, Zhibin; Hu, Yuhui; Menzel, Corinna; Hu, Hao; Lachmann, Michael; Zeng, Rong; Chen, Wei; Khaitovich, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Changes in gene expression levels determine differentiation of tissues involved in development and are associated with functional decline in aging. Although development is tightly regulated, the transition between development and aging, as well as regulation of post-developmental changes, are not well understood. Here, we measured messenger RNA (mRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and protein expression in the prefrontal cortex of humans and rhesus macaques over the species' life spans. We find that few gene expression changes are unique to aging. Instead, the vast majority of miRNA and gene expression changes that occur in aging represent reversals or extensions of developmental patterns. Surprisingly, many gene expression changes previously attributed to aging, such as down-regulation of neural genes, initiate in early childhood. Our results indicate that miRNA and transcription factors regulate not only developmental but also post-developmental expression changes, with a number of regulatory processes continuing throughout the entire life span. Differential evolutionary conservation of the corresponding genomic regions implies that these regulatory processes, although beneficial in development, might be detrimental in aging. These results suggest a direct link between developmental regulation and expression changes taking place in aging. PMID:20647238

  18. Integrated Phloem Sap mRNA and Protein Expression Analysis Reveals Phytoplasma-infection Responses in Mulberry.

    PubMed

    Gai, Yingping; Yuan, Shuo-Shuo; Liu, Zhao-Yang; Zhao, Huai-Ning; Liu, Qi; Qin, Yong-Li; Fang, Li-Jing; Ji, Xian-Ling

    2018-05-30

    To gain insight into the response of mulberry to phytoplasma-infection, the expression profiles of mRNAs and proteins in mulberry phloem sap were examined. A total of 955 unigenes and 136 proteins were found to be differentially expressed between the healthy and infected phloem sap. These differentially expressed mRNAs and proteins are involved in signalling, hormone metabolism, stress responses, etc. Interestingly, we found that both the mRNA and protein levels of the major latex protein-like 329 ( MuMLPL329 ) gene were increased in the infected phloem saps. Expression of the MuMLPL329 gene was induced by pathogen inoculation and was responsive to jasmonic acid. Ectopic expression of MuMLPL329 in Arabidopsis enhances transgenic plant resistance to Botrytis cinerea, Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 ( Pst. DC3000 ) and phytoplasma. Further analysis revealed that MuMLPL329 can enhance the expression of some defense genes and might be involved in altering flavonoid content resulting in increased resistance of plants to pathogen infection. Finally, the roles of the differentially expressed mRNAs and proteins and the potential molecular mechanisms of their changes were discussed. It was likely that the phytoplasma-responsive mRNAs and proteins in the phloem saps were involved in multiple pathways of mulberry responses to phytoplasma-infection, and their changes may be partially responsible for some symptoms in the phytoplasma infected plants. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. SEIZURE ACTIVITY INVOLVED IN THE UP-REGULATION OF BDNF mRNA EXPRESSION BY ACTIVATION OF CENTRAL MU OPIOID RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, H. N.; KO, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical-induced seizures up-regulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of endogenous opioids preferentially activating μ opioid receptor (MOR) could also increase BDNF mRNA expression. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent i.c.v. administration of synthetic MOR-selective agonists in rats can modulate both seizure activity and up-regulation of BDNF mRNA expression. Effects and potencies of i.c.v. administration of morphine and [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO), were directly investigated by scoring behavioral seizures and measuring BDNF mRNA expression. In addition, effects of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and antiepileptic drugs, diazepam, phenobarbital, and valproate, on i.c.v. MOR agonist-induced behavioral seizures and up-regulation of BDNF mRNA expression were determined. A single i.c.v. administration of morphine (10–100 μg) or DAMGO (0.15–1.5 μg) dose-dependently elicited behavioral seizures and increased BDNF mRNA expression in the widespread brain regions. However, subcutaneous administration of MOR agonists neither produced behavioral seizures nor increased BDNF mRNA expression. Pretreatment with naloxone 1 mg/kg significantly reduced behavioral seizure scores and the up-regulation of BDNF mRNA expression elicited by i.c.v. morphine or DAMGO. Similarly, diazepam 10 mg/kg and phenobarbital 40 mg/kg significantly blocked i.c.v. MOR agonist-induced actions. Pretreatment with valproate 300 mg/kg only attenuated behavioral seizures, but it did not affect morphine-induced increase of BDNF mRNA expression. This study provides supporting evidence that seizure activity plays an important role in the up-regulation of BDNF mRNA expression elicited by central MOR activation and that decreased inhibitory action of GABAergic system through the modulation on GABA receptor synaptic function by central MOR activation is involved in its regulation of BDNF mRNA

  20. Altered PIWI-LIKE 1 and PIWI-LIKE 2 mRNA expression in ejaculated spermatozoa of men with impaired sperm characteristics.

    PubMed

    Giebler, Maria; Greither, Thomas; Müller, Lisa; Mösinger, Carina; Behre, Hermann M

    2018-01-01

    In about half the cases of involuntary childlessness, a male infertility factor is involved. The PIWI-LIKE genes, a subclade of the Argonaute protein family, are involved in RNA silencing and transposon control in the germline. Knockout of murine Piwi-like 1 and 2 homologs results in complete infertility in males. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the mRNA expression of human PIWI-LIKE 1-4 genes is altered in ejaculated spermatozoa of men with impaired sperm characteristics. Ninety male participants were included in the study, among which 47 were with normozoospermia, 36 with impaired semen characteristics according to the World Health Organization (WHO) manual, 5 th edition, and 7 with azoospermia serving as negative control for the PIWI-LIKE 1-4 mRNA expression in somatic cells in the ejaculate. PIWI-LIKE 1-4 mRNA expression in the ejaculated spermatozoa of the participants was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. In nonazoospermic men, PIWI-LIKE 1-4 mRNA was measurable in ejaculated spermatozoa in different proportions. PIWI-LIKE 1 (100.0%) and PIWI-LIKE 2 (49.4%) were more frequently expressed than PIWI-LIKE 3 (9.6%) and PIWI-LIKE 4 (15.7%). Furthermore, a decreased PIWI-LIKE 2 mRNA expression showed a significant correlation with a decreased sperm count (P = 0.022) and an increased PIWI-LIKE 1 mRNA expression with a decreased progressive motility (P = 0.048). PIWI-LIKE 1 and PIWI-LIKE 2 mRNA expression exhibited a significant association with impaired sperm characteristics and may be a useful candidate for the evaluation of the impact of PIWI-LIKE 1-4 mRNA expression on male infertility.

  1. Profiles of mRNA expression of related genes in the duck hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis during embryonic and early post-hatch development.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan; Liu, Hongxiang; Song, Chi; Xu, Wenjuan; Ji, Gaige; Zhu, Chunhong; Shu, Jingting; Li, Huifang

    2015-03-15

    In this study, the ontogeny of body and liver weight and the pattern of related gene mRNA expression in the hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis (HPGA) of two different duck breeds (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) were compared during embryonic and post-hatch development. Duck hypothalamic growth hormone release hormone (GHRH), somatostatin (SS), pituitary growth hormone (GH), liver growth hormone receptor (GHR) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) mRNA were first detected on the 13th embryonic day. During early duck development, SS maintained a lower expression status, whereas the other four genes exhibited highly significant variations in an age-specific manner. Highly significant breed specificity was observed with respect to hepatic IGF-1 mRNA expression, which showed a significant breed-age interaction effect. Compared with previous studies on chickens, significant species differences were observed regarding the mRNA expression of bird embryonic HPGA-related genes. During early development, highly significant breed and age specificity were observed with respect to developmental changes in body and liver weight, and varying degrees of significant linear correlation were found between these performances and the mRNA expression of HPGA-related genes in the duck HPGA. These results suggest that different genetic backgrounds may lead to differences in duck growth and HPGA-related gene mRNA expression, and the differential mRNA expression of related genes in the duck HPGA may be particularly important in the early growth of ducks. Furthermore, hepatic IGF-1 mRNA expression presented highly significant breed specificity, and evidence suggests the involvement of hepatic IGF-1 in mediating genetic effects on embryo and offspring growth in ducks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Aromatase, steroid-5-alpha-reductase type 1 and type 2 mRNA expression in gonads and in brain of Xenopus laevis during ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Urbatzka, R; Lutz, I; Kloas, W

    2007-01-01

    The key enzymes involved in the production of endogenous sex steroids are steroid-5-alpha-reductase and aromatase converting testosterone (T) into dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and into estradiol (E2), respectively. To gain more insights into the molecular mechanisms of sexual differentiation of amphibians, we determined the mRNA expression of steroid-5-alpha-reductase type1 (Srd5a1), type2 (Srd5a2) and aromatase (Aro) during ontogeny starting from the egg and ending after completion of metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis. Expression of all three enzymes was measured by means of semi-quantitative RT-PCR, determining for the first time Srd5a1 and Srd5a2 mRNA expression in amphibians. mRNA was analyzed in whole body homogenates from stage 12 to 48, while brain and gonads with kidney were studied separately from stage 48 to 66. Different ontogenetic mRNA expression patterns were observed for all genes analyzed, revealing early mRNA expression of Srd5a1 already in the egg at stage 12 whereas Srd5a2 and Aro was detected at stage 39. Sex-specific mRNA expressions of Srd5a2 and of Aro were determined in the gonads with kidney but not in brain. Srd5a2 was two-fold higher expressed in testes than in ovaries while Aro mRNA was ten-fold higher in ovaries. No gender-specific mRNA expression was observed for Srd5a1 in gonads and in brain. The ontogenetic patterns of Aro, Srd5a1 and Srd5a2 suggest that these genes are involved in sexual differentiation of gonads and brain already in early developmental stages. Especially in gonads Srd5a2 seems to be important for physiological regulation of testis development while Aro is associated with the development of ovaries.

  3. Changes in the mRNA expression of structural proteins, hormone synthesis and secretion from bovine placentome sections after DDT and DDE treatment.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska, A; Mlynarczuk, J; Kotwica, J

    2017-01-15

    Disorders in the barrier function and secretory activity of the placenta can be caused by xenobiotics (XB) present in the environment and their accumulation in tissues of living organisms. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2,-bis-4-chlorophenyl-ethane (DDT) and its metabolite 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-4-chlorophenyl-ethene (DDE) (for 24 or 48h) at doses of 1, 10 or 100ng/ml on the function of cow placentome sections in the second trimester of pregnancy. DDT and DDE affected neither (P>0.05) the viability nor hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1α) mRNA expression of the sections. XB decreased (P<0.05) connexin (Cx) 26, 32, 43 and placenta-specific 1 (PLAC-1) mRNA expression but did not affect (P>0.05) keratin 8 (KRT8) mRNA expression. DDT and DDE also reduced (P<0.05) prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) synthase (PGFS) mRNA expression, while DDT increased (P<0.05) prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthase (PGES) mRNA expression. Neither cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA expression nor PGF2α and PGE2 secretion were affected. Both DDT and DDE increased (P<0.05) neurophysin I/oxytocin (NP1/OT) mRNA expression and oxytocin (OT), oestradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) secretion while DDT stimulated only 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD) and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) mRNA expression (P<0.05). In summary, DDT and DDE impaired the barrier function and secretory activity of the placenta. Thus, these compounds can disrupt trophoblast invasion, myometrium contractility and gas/nutrient exchange throughout pregnancy in cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pacing-induced regional differences in adenosine receptors mRNA expression in a swine model of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Del Ry, Silvia; Cabiati, Manuela; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Aquaro, Giovanni D; Martino, Alessandro; Mattii, Letizia; Morales, Maria-Aurora

    2012-01-01

    The adenosinergic system is essential in the mediation of intrinsic protection and myocardial resistance to insult; it may be considered a cardioprotective molecule and adenosine receptors (ARs) represent potential therapeutic targets in the setting of heart failure (HF). The aim of the study was to test whether differences exist between mRNA expression of ARs in the anterior left ventricle (LV) wall (pacing site: PS) compared to the infero septal wall (opposite region: OS) in an experimental model of dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiac tissue was collected from LV PS and OS of adult male minipigs with pacing-induced HF (n = 10) and from a control group (C, n = 4). ARs and TNF-α mRNA expression was measured by Real Time-PCR and the results were normalized with the three most stably expressed genes (GAPDH, HPRT1, TBP). Immunohistochemistry analysis was also performed. After 3 weeks of pacing higher levels of expression for each analyzed AR were observed in PS except for A(1)R (A(1)R: C = 0.6±0.2, PS = 0.1±0.04, OS = 0.04±0.01, p<0.0001 C vs. PS and OS respectively; A(2A)R: C = 1.04±0.59, PS = 2.62±0.79, OS = 2.99±0.79; A(2B)R: C = 1.2±0.1, PS = 5.59±2.3, OS = 1.59±0.46; A(3)R: C = 0.76±0.18, PS = 8.40±3.38, OS = 4.40±0.83). Significant contractile impairment and myocardial hypoperfusion were observed at PS after three weeks of pacing as compared to OS. TNF-α mRNA expression resulted similar in PS (6.3±2.4) and in OS (5.9±2.7) although higher than in control group (3.4±1.5). ARs expression was mainly detected in cardiomyocytes. This study provided new information on ARs local changes in the setting of LV dysfunction and on the role of these receptors in relation to pacing-induced abnormalities of myocardial perfusion and contraction. These results suggest a possible therapeutic role of adenosine in patients with HF and dyssynchronous LV contraction.

  5. Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} regulates interleukin-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} mRNA expression

    SciT

    Chung, Eric; Jakinovich, Paul; Bae, Aekyung

    Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} (PLC{delta}{sub 1}) is a widely expressed highly active PLC isoform, modulated by Ca{sup 2+} that appears to operate downstream from receptor signaling and has been linked to regulation of cytokine production. Here we investigated whether PLC{delta}{sub 1} modulated expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in rat C6 glioma cells. Expression of PLC{delta}{sub 1} was specifically suppressed by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the effects on cytokine mRNA expression, stimulated by the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were examined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that PLC{delta}{sub 1}more » knockdown enhanced expression IL-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) mRNA by at least 100 fold after 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA treatment. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knock down caused persistently high Nf{kappa}b levels at 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA-treated cells. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown was also associated with elevated nuclear levels of c-Jun after 30 min of LPS stimulation, but did not affect LPS-stimulated p38 or p42/44 MAPK phosphorylation, normally associated with TLR activation of cytokine gene expression; rather, enhanced protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of cellular proteins was observed in the absence of LPS stimulation. An inhibitor of PKC, bisindolylmaleimide II (BIM), reversed phosphorylation, prevented elevation of nuclear c-Jun levels, and inhibited LPS-induced increases of IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} mRNA's induced by PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown. Our results show that loss of PLC{delta}{sub 1} enhances PKC/c-Jun signaling and up-modulates pro-inflammatory cytokine gene transcription in concert with the TLR-stimulated p38MAPK/Nf{kappa}b pathway. Our findings are consistent with the idea that PLC{delta}{sub 1} is

  6. Validation of Reference Genes in mRNA Expression Analysis Applied to the Study of Asthma.

    PubMed

    Segundo-Val, Ignacio San; Sanz-Lozano, Catalina S

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction is the most used technique for the study of gene expression. To correct putative experimental errors of this technique is necessary normalizing the expression results of the gene of interest with the obtained for reference genes. Here, we describe an example of the process to select reference genes. In this particular case, we select reference genes for expression studies in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of asthmatic patients.

  7. Effect of hyperosmotic conditions on flavin-containing monooxygenase activity, protein and mRNA expression in rat kidney

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Gabriela; Coburn, Cary; Currás-Collazo, Margarita; Guillén, Gabriel; Schlenk, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Flavin-containing monooxigenases (FMOs) are a polymorphic family of drug and pesticide metabolizing enzymes, found in the smooth endoplasmatic reticulum that catalyze the oxidation of soft nucleophilic heteroatom substances to their respective oxides. Previous studies in euryhaline fishes have indicated induction of FMO expression and activity in vivo under hyperosmotic conditions. In this study we evaluated the effect of hypersaline conditions in rat kidney. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneal with 3.5 M NaCl at a doses ranging from 0.3 cm3/100 g to 0.6 cm3/100 g in two separate treatments. Three hours after injection, FMO activities and FMO1 protein was examined in the first experiment, and the expression of FMO1 mRNA was measured in the second experiment from kidneys after treatment with NaCl. A positive significant correlation was found between FMO1 protein expression and plasma osmolarity (p < 0.05, r = 0.6193). Methyl-p-tolyl sulfide oxidase showed a statistically significant increase in FMO activity, and a positive correlation was observed between plasma osmolarity and production of FMO1-derived (R)-methyl-p-tolyl sulfoxide (p < 0.05, r = 0.6736). Expression of FMO1 mRNA was also positively correlated with plasma osmolality (p < 0.05, r = 0.8428). Similar to studies in fish, these results suggest that expression and activities of FMOs may be influenced by hyperosmotic conditions in the kidney of rats. PMID:19429252

  8. TFF2 mRNA transcript expression marks a gland progenitor cell of the gastric oxyntic mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Quante, Michael; Marrache, Frederic; Goldenring, James R.; Wang, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Gastric stem cells are located in the isthmus of the gastric glands, and give rise to epithelial progenitors that undergo bipolar migration and differentiation into pit and oxyntic lineages. While gastric mucus neck cells, located below the isthmus, express trefoil factor family 2 (TFF2) protein, TFF2 mRNA transcripts are concentrated in cells above the neck region in normal corpus mucosa, suggesting that TFF2 transcription is a marker of gastric progenitor cells. Methods Using a BAC strategy, we generated a transgenic mouse with a tamoxifen-inducible Cre under the control of the TFF2 promoter (TFF2-BAC-CreERT2) and analyzed the lineage derivation from TFF2 mRNA transcript-expressing (TTE) cells. Results TTE cells were localized to the isthmus, above and distinct from TFF2 protein-expressing mucus neck cells. Lineage tracing revealed that these cells migrated towards the bottom of the gland within 20 days, giving rise to parietal, mucous neck and chief cells, but not to ECL cells. Surface mucus cells were not derived from TTE cells, and the progeny of the TTE lineage did not survive beyond 200 days. TTE cells were localized in the isthmus adjacent to Dclk1+ putative progenitor cells. Induction of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) with DMP-777-induced acute parietal cell loss revealed that this metaplastic phenotype might arise in part through transdiferentiation of chief cells as opposed to expansion of mucus neck or progenitor cells. Conclusion TFF2-transcript-expressing cells are progenitors for mucus neck, parietal and zymogenic, but not for pit or ECL cell lineages in the oxyntic gastric mucosa. PMID:20708616

  9. Human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 mRNA expression as an oxidative stress exposure biomarker of cooking oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Cherng, Shur-Hueih; Huang, Kuo Hao; Yang, Sen-Chih; Wu, Tzu-Chin; Yang, Jia-Ling; Lee, Huei

    2002-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that the exposure to carcinogenic components formed during the cooking of food might be associated with lung cancer risk of Chinese women. Previous studies have confirmed that cooking oil fumes from frying fish (COF) contained relatively high amount of benzo[a]pyrene, 2-methyl-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] qunoxaline, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene, reported in fumes from heated soybean oil. Thus, we consider that oxidative stress induced by COF may play a role in lung cancer development among Chinese women. To verify whether the oxidative DNA damage was induced by COF, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis data showed that the levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanine (8-OH dG) were increased in a dose-dependent manner when calf thymus DNA reacted with various concentrations of COF. Since human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) was a repair enzyme for removing 8- OH dG from damaged DNA, we hypothesized that hOGG1 mRNA may be used to assess the risk of oxidative damage induced by the exposure of COF. The results from reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that the hOGG1 mRNA expression was induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and COF in human lung adenocarcinoma CL-3 cells. To elucidate whether hOGG1 mRNA expression was an exposure biomarker of COF, a cross-sectional study of 238 subjects including 94 professional cooks, 43 housewives, and 101 COF-nonexposed control subjects was conducted. The hOGG1 mRNA expression frequencies of COF-exposed cooks (27 of 94, 28.7%) and housewives (6 of 43, 14%) were significantly higher than those of control subjects (4 of 101, 4%). After adjusting for age, sex, and smoking and drinking status, the odds risks (ORs) of housewives versus control and cooks versus control were 3.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.95-16.62) and 10.12 (95% CI = 2.83-36.15), respectively. These results indicated that hOGG1 may be adequate to act as an exposure biomarker to assess the oxidative

  10. Promoter Variant-Dependent mRNA Expression of the MEF2A in Longissimus Dorsi Muscle in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Starzyński, Rafał Radosław; Wicińska, Krystyna; Flisikowski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A) gene encodes a member of the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) protein family that is involved in vertebrate skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle development and differentiation during myogenesis. According to recent studies, MEF2 genes might be major regulators of postnatal skeletal muscle growth; thus, they are considered to be important, novel candidates for muscle development and body growth in farm animals. The aim of the present study was to search for polymorphisms in the bovine MEF2A gene and analyze their effect on the MEF2A mRNA expression level in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Polish Holstein-Fresian cattle. In total, 4094 bp of the whole coding sequence and the promoter region of MEF2A were re-sequenced in 30 animals, resulting in the detection of 6 novel variants as well as one previously reported SNP. Three linked mutations in the promoter region (-780T/G, g.-768T/G, and g.-222A/G) and only two genotypes were identified in two Polish breeds (TTA/TTA and TTA/GGG). Three SNPs in the coding region [g.1599G/A (421aa), g.1626G/A (429aa), and g.1641G/A (434aa)] appeared to be silent substitutions and segregated as two intragene haplotypes: GGG and AAA. Expression analysis showed that the mutations in the promoter region are highly associated with the MEF2A mRNA level in the longissimus dorsi muscle of bulls carrying two different genotypes. The higher MEF2A mRNA level was estimated in the muscle of bulls carrying the TTA/TTA (p<0.01) genotype as compared with those with TTA/GGG. The results obtained suggest that the nucleotide sequence mutation in MEF2A might be useful marker for body growth traits in cattle. PMID:22320864

  11. RNA editing and regulation of Drosophila 4f-rnp expression by sas-10 antisense readthrough mRNA transcripts

    PubMed Central

    PETERS, NICK T.; ROHRBACH, JUSTIN A.; ZALEWSKI, BRIAN A.; BYRKETT, COLLEEN M.; VAUGHN, JACK C.

    2003-01-01

    We have previously described an example of extensively A-to-G edited cDNA derived from adult heads of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. In that study, the source of the predicted antisense RNA pairing strand for template recognition by dADAR editase was not identified, and the biological significance of the observed hyperediting was not known. Here, we address each of these questions. 4f-rnp and sas-10 are closely adjacent X-linked genes located on opposite DNA strands that produce convergent transcripts. We show that developmentally regulated antisense sas-10 readthrough mRNA arises by activation of an upstream promoter P2 during the late embryo stage of fly development. The sas-10 readthrough transcripts pair with 4f-rnp mRNA to form double-stranded molecules, as indicated by A-to-G editing observed in both RNA strands. It would be predicted that perfect RNA duplexes would be targeted for modification/degradation by enzyme pathways that recognize double-stranded RNAs, leading to decline in 4f-rnp mRNA levels, and this is what we observe. The observation using quantitative RT-PCR that sas-10 readthrough and 4f-rnp transcript levels are inversely related suggests a role for the antisense RNA in posttranscriptional regulation of 4f-rnp gene expression during development. Potential molecular mechanisms that could lead to this result are discussed, one of which is targeted transcript degradation via the RNAi pathway. Insofar as the dADAR editase and RNAi pathways are known to be constitutive in this system, it is likely that control of antisense RNA transcription is the rate-limiting factor. The results provide insight into roles of naturally occurring antisense RNAs in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. PMID:12756328

  12. Peripheral mRNA expression of pluripotency markers in bipolar disorder and the effect of long-term lithium treatment.

    PubMed

    Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Ewa; Tarnowski, Maciej; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Michalak, Michal; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2016-10-01

    The aim was to evaluate the peripheral mRNA expression of pluripotency master transcriptional factors such as octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), sex-determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2) and homeobox protein Nanog, in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and the effect of long-term lithium treatment. Fifteen BD patients (aged 53±7years) not treated with lithium, with duration of illness>10years, 15 BD patients (aged 55±6years) treated with lithium for 8-40 years (mean 16years) and 15 control subjects (aged 50±5years) were included. Assessment of the mRNA levels of pluripotency markers (Oct-4, Sox 2 and Nanog) was performed, using the Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RQ-PCR) procedure, and the number of CD34+ very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) was measured by flow cytometric analysis. In those BD patients not treated with lithium the expression of all three pluripotency genes was significantly higher than that in the control subjects. Oct-4, Sox2 and Nanog also positively correlated with the number of CD34+ VSELs/[ul] in this group. In the lithium-treated patients the mRNA levels of Nanog were significantly higher than in the control individuals and correlated with the number and % of CD34+ VSELs. The overexpression of the pluripotency master transcriptional factors in patients with a long duration of BD not treated with lithium, may contribute to the pathogenesis of the illness and make them potential biological markers of BD. Long-term lithium treatment may attenuate these excessive regenerative processes, especially in relation to the transcription factors Oct-4 and Sox2. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  13. Glutathione-responsive nano-transporter-mediated siRNA delivery: silencing the mRNA expression of Ras.

    PubMed

    Doss, C George Priya; Debottam, S; Debajyoti, C

    2013-06-01

    Gene therapy through antisense technology via intracellular delivery of a gene-silencing element is a promising approach to treat critical diseases like cancers. Ras acts as molecular switch, considered as one of the proto-oncogenes whose modification or mutation may promote tumor formation. The recent trends of nano-carrier-based drug delivery have gained superiority and proved to be 100 times more potent in drug delivery compared to standard therapies. The nano-based drug delivery has provided the basis of achieving successful target-specific drug delivery. Glutathione (GSH) is considered as one of the best and ubiquitous internal stimulus for swift destabilization of nano-transporters inside cells to accomplish proficient intracellular drug release. This concept has given a new hope to oncologists of modifying the existing drugs to be delivered to their desired destination. RNA interference is a primary tool in functional genomics to selectively silence messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, which can be exploited quickly to develop novel drugs against lethal disease target. Silencing of mRNA molecules using siRNA has also come of age to become one of the latest weapons developed in the concept of gene therapy. However, this strategy has severely failed to achieve target specificity especially to a tumor cell. In this context, we have proposed the incorporation of an antisense siRNA packed inside a GSH-responsive nano-transporter to be delivered specifically to a tumor cell against the sense mRNA of the Ras protein. It will limit the Ras-mediated activation of other proteins and transcription factors. Thus, it will knock down several differential gene expressions being regulated by Ras-activated pathways like enzyme-linked receptor kinase pathway. Henceforth, gene silencing technology through nano-drug delivery can be combined as a single weapon to terminate malignancy.

  14. A Systematic Analysis on mRNA and MicroRNA Expression in Runting and Stunting Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiping; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ma, Jinge; Li, Bixiao; Lin, Shudai; Nie, Qinghua; Luo, Qingbin; Zhang, Xiquan

    2015-01-01

    Runting and stunting syndrome (RSS), which is characterized by lower body weight, widely occurs in broilers. Some RSS chickens simply exhibit slow growth without pathological changes. An increasing number of studies indicate that broiler strains differ in susceptibility to infectious diseases, most likely due to their genetic differences. The objective of this study was to detect the differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs in RSS and normal chickens. By integrating miRNA with mRNA expression profiling, potential molecular mechanisms involved in RSS could be further explored. Twenty-two known miRNAs and 1,159 genes were differentially expressed in RSS chickens compared with normal chickens (P < 0.05). qPCR validation results displayed similar patterns. The differentially expressed genes were primarily involved in energy metabolism pathways. The antisense transcripts were extensively expressed in chicken liver albeit with reduced abundance. Dual-luciferase reporter assay indicated that gga-miR-30b/c directly target CARS through binding to its 3′UTR. The miR-30b/c: CARS regulation mainly occurred in liver. In thigh muscle and the hypothalamus, miR-30b/c are expressed at higher levels in RSS chickens compared with normal chickens from 2 to 6 w of age, and notably significant differences are observed at 4 w of age. PMID:26010155

  15. [Influence of macrophages on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor mRNA, homeobox B2 mRNA, and integrin alpha nu beta3 in vascular endothelial strain].

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Xiao-qi; Ming, Jia; Liu, Xu-sheng; Xu, Hui; Cheng, Tian-min

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the influence of macrophages on the expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor (KDR) mRNA, homeobox B2 (HOXB2) mRNA, and integrin alpha nu beta3 in vitro in vascular endothelial strain. Human umbilical vein cells (ECV304) were cultured in vitro and divided into 4 groups, i.e. (1) ECV304 group, (2) ECV304 + conA group [with conA (25 microg/ml in culture) added to ECV304], (3) ECV304 + U937 group (with 1 x 10(5)/ml of U937 cells added to 1 x 10(5)/ml ECV 304), (4) ECV304 + U937 + conA group [with 1 x 10(5)/ml of U937 cells and conA (25 microg/ml in culture)] groups. Forty-eight hours after culturing, the expression of integrin receptor alpha nu beta3 and the changes in the expression of KDR mRNA and HOXB2 mRNA in each group were determined by immunofluorescent technique and RT-PCR, respectively. The expression of integrin receptor alpha nu beta3, KDR mRNA, and HOXB2 mRNA in ECV304 group were 6.7 +/- 1.5, 0.633 +/- 0.012, and 0.674 +/- 0.004, respectively, while those in ECV304 + U937 + conA group (10.2 +/- 1.7, 0.879 +/- 0.003, 0.947 +/- 0.003) were obviously more upregulated when compared with those in ECV304 group (P < 0.01). No difference in the above indices was found between ECV304 and ECV304 + conA, ECV304 + U937 groups (P > 0.05). Macrophages activated by ConA can accelerate the proliferation, migration and adhesion to the basement membrane matrix of vascular endothelial cells through the influence on the expression of KDR mRNA, HOXB2 mRNA and integrin alpha nu beta3, and through this pathway the angiogenesis is modulated.

  16. Abnormal mRNA Expression Levels of Telomere-Binding Proteins Represent Biomarkers in Myelodysplastic Syndromes: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoshan; Yan, Rongdi; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Bin; Sun, Hu; Cui, Xing

    2017-08-02

    As evidence was shown that abnormal shortening of telomeres begins to accumulate in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between the mRNA expression levels of telomere-binding proteins (TRF1/TRF2/TIN2/TPP1/POT1/RAP1) and the risk level in MDS. There were 40 patients with MDS and 40 normal controls in this study. Methods including telomere content assays and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to examine the mRNA levels of TRF1/TRF2/TIN2/TPP1/POT1/RAP1 in patients with MDS. Compared to the normal group used as a control, the mRNA expression levels of RAP1/POT1/TPP1 of the patients with MDS were decreased, whereas their levels of TRF1/TRF2 and TIN2 were increased. A positive correlation was found between the TRF1, TRF2, and TIN2 mRNA expression levels and the risk level of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the World Health Organization Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) criteria; however, a negative correlation was found between RAP1/POT1/TPP1 mRNA expression levels and the risk levels of IPSS and WPSS criteria. Because the reduction of TRF1/TRF2/TIN2 mRNA expression and the increase of RAP1/POT1/TPP1 mRNA expression are closely related to the risk levels of the IPSS and WPSS criteria in MDS, it is thought that these telomere-binding proteins could lead to abnormal telomere length and function, which cause chromosomal abnormalities in MDS. With this evidence, we suggest that those proteins' mRNA expressions could be used as biomarkers for the assessment of the risk degree of MDS patients.

  17. SIRT1 and FOXO1 mRNA expression in PBMC correlates to physical activity in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Taka, Chihiro; Hayashi, Ryuji; Shimokawa, Kazuki; Tokui, Kotaro; Okazawa, Seisuke; Kambara, Kenta; Inomata, Minehiko; Yamada, Toru; Matsui, Shoko; Tobe, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is considered as one of the most important prognostic predictors in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Longevity gene, SIRT1, is reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of COPD by regulating the signaling pathways of oxidative stress, inflammation, and aging. We hypothesize that SIRT1 and related genes are also associated with the benefits of PA in COPD patients. Methods Eighteen COPD outpatients were enrolled in this study, and their PA level was assessed with an accelerometer. We assessed the SIRT1 and related genes mRNA expression levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of the subjects. We carried out respiratory function testing, blood gas analysis, the 6-minute walk test, and measurement of the cross-sectional area of the erector spinae muscles (ESMCSA) by chest computed tomography. We analyzed the association of PA with the results of each of the examinations. Results The mean age was 72±9 years, and the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 1.4±0.56 L (52%±19% predicted). Our findings revealed a correlation between the daily PA and ESMCSA. The SIRT1 and Forkhead box O (FOXO)1 mRNA expression levels in PBMCs were positively correlated with moderate-PA time (r=0.60, p=0.008 for SIRT1 and r=0.59, p=0.01 for FOXO1). PMID:29138552

  18. mRNA Expression Signatures of Human Skeletal Muscle Atrophy Identify a Natural Compound that Increases Muscle Mass

    PubMed Central

    Kunkel, Steven D.; Suneja, Manish; Ebert, Scott M.; Bongers, Kale S.; Fox, Daniel K.; Malmberg, Sharon E.; Alipour, Fariborz; Shields, Richard K.; Adams, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that lacks a pharmacologic therapy. To develop a potential therapy, we identified 63 mRNAs that were regulated by fasting in both human and mouse muscle, and 29 mRNAs that were regulated by both fasting and spinal cord injury in human muscle. We used these two unbiased mRNA expression signatures of muscle atrophy to query the Connectivity Map, which singled out ursolic acid as a compound whose signature was opposite to those of atrophy-inducing stresses. A natural compound enriched in apples, ursolic acid reduced muscle atrophy and stimulated muscle hypertrophy in mice. It did so by enhancing skeletal muscle insulin/IGF-I signaling, and inhibiting atrophy-associated skeletal muscle mRNA expression. Importantly, ursolic acid’s effects on muscle were accompanied by reductions in adiposity, fasting blood glucose and plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. These findings identify a potential therapy for muscle atrophy and perhaps other metabolic diseases. PMID:21641545

  19. Expression of tomato prosystemin gene in Arabidopsis reveals systemic translocation of its mRNA and confers necrotrophic fungal resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyan; Yu, Pengli; Zhao, Jiuhai; Jiang, Hongling; Wang, Haiyang; Zhu, Yingfang; Botella, Miguel A; Šamaj, Jozef; Li, Chuanyou; Lin, Jinxing

    2018-01-01

    Systemin (SYS), an octadecapeptide hormone processed from a 200-amino-acid precursor (prosystemin, PS), plays a central role in the systemic activation of defense genes in tomato in response to herbivore and pathogen attacks. However, whether PS mRNA is transferable and its role in systemic defense responses remain unknown. We created the transgenic tomato PS gene tagged with the green fluorescent protein (PS-GFP) using a shoot- or root-specific promoter, and the constitutive 35S promoter in Arabidopsis. Subcellular localization of PS-/SYS-GFP was observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy and gene transcripts were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. In Arabidopsis, PS protein can be processed and SYS is secreted. Shoot-/root-specific expression of PS-GFP in Arabidopsis, and grafting experiments, revealed that the PS mRNA moves in a bi-directional manner. We also found that ectopic expression of PS improves Arabidopsis resistance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea, consistent with substantial upregulation of the transcript levels of specific pathogen-responsive genes. Our results provide novel insights into the multifaceted mechanism of SYS signaling transport and its potential application in genetic engineering for increasing pathogen resistance across diverse plant families. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. UV-laser microdissection and mRNA expression analysis of individual neurons from postmortem Parkinson's disease brains.

    PubMed

    Gründemann, Jan; Schlaudraff, Falk; Liss, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Cell specificity of gene expression analysis is essential to avoid tissue sample related artifacts, in particular when the relative number of target cells present in the compared tissues varies dramatically, e.g., when comparing dopamine neurons in midbrain tissues from control subjects with those from Parkinson's disease (PD) cases. Here, we describe a detailed protocol that combines contact-free UV-laser microdissection and quantitative PCR of reverse-transcribed RNA of individual neurons from postmortem human midbrain tissue from PD patients and unaffected controls. Among expression changes in a variety of dopamine neuron marker, maintenance, and cell-metabolism genes, we found that α-synuclein mRNA levels were significantly elevated in individual neuromelanin-positive dopamine midbrain neurons from PD brains when compared to those from matched controls.

  1. HuR (Elavl1) and HuB (Elavl2) Stabilize Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 mRNA During Seizure-Induced Mmp-9 Expression in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zybura-Broda, Katarzyna; Wolder-Gontarek, Malgorzata; Ambrozek-Latecka, Magdalena; Choros, Artur; Bogusz, Agnieszka; Wilemska-Dziaduszycka, Joanna; Rylski, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (Mmp-9) is involved in different general and cell-type–specific processes, both in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Moreover, it is implicated in an induction or progression of various human disorders, including diseases of the central nervous system. Mechanisms regulating activity-driven Mmp-9 expression in neurons are still not fully understood. Here, we show that stabilization of Mmp-9 mRNA is one of the factors responsible for the neuronal activity-evoked upregulation of Mmp-9 mRNA expression in hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the molecular mechanism related to this stabilization is dependent on the neuronal seizure-triggered transiently increased binding of the mRNA stability-inducing protein, HuR, to ARE1 and ARE4 motifs of the 3′UTR for Mmp-9 mRNA as well as the stably augmented association of another mRNA-stabilizing protein, HuB, to the ARE1 element of the 3′UTR. Intriguingly, we demonstrate further that both HuR and HuB are crucial for an incidence of Mmp-9 mRNA stabilization after neuronal activation. This study identifies Mmp-9 mRNA as the first HuB target regulated by mRNA stabilization in neurons. Moreover, these results are the first to describe an existence of HuR-dependent mRNA stabilization in neurons of the brain. PMID:29686606

  2. Final report: FASEB Summer Research Conference on ''Post-transcriptional control of gene expression: Effectors of mRNA decay'' [agenda and attendees list

    SciT

    Maquat, Lynne

    2002-12-01

    The goal of this meeting was to provide an interactive forum for scientists working on prokaryotic and eukaryotic mRNA decay. A special seminar presented by a leader in the field of mRNA decay in S. cerevisiae focused on what is known and what needs to be determined, not only for yeast but for other organisms. The large attendance (110 participants) reflects the awareness that mRNA decay is a key player in gene regulation in a way that is affected by the many steps that precede mRNA formation. Sessions were held on the following topics: mRNA transport and mRNP; multicomponent eukaryoticmore » nucleases; nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and nonsense-associated altered splicing; Cis-acting sequences/Trans-acting factors of mRNA decay; translational accuracy; multicomponent bacterial nucleases; interplay between mRNA polyadenylation, translation and decay in prokaryotes and prokaryotic organelles; and RNA interference and other RNA mediators of gene expression. In addition to the talks and two poster sessions, there were three round tables: (1) Does translation occur in the nucleus? (2) Differences and similarities in the mechanisms of mRNA decay in different eukaryotes, and (3) RNA surveillance in bacteria?« less

  3. A Transposon in Comt Generates mRNA Variants and Causes Widespread Expression and Behavioral Differences among Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xusheng; Miles, Michael F.; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a key enzyme responsible for the degradation of dopamine and norepinephrine. COMT activity influences cognitive and emotional states in humans and aggression and drug responses in mice. This study identifies the key sequence variant that leads to differences in Comt mRNA and protein levels among mice, and that modulates synaptic function and pharmacological and behavioral traits. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined Comt expression in multiple tissues in over 100 diverse strains and several genetic crosses. Differences in expression map back to Comt and are generated by a 230 nt insertion of a B2 short interspersed element (B2 SINE) in the proximal 3′ UTR of Comt in C57BL/6J. This transposon introduces a premature polyadenylation signal and creates a short 3′ UTR isoform. The B2 SINE is shared by a subset of strains, including C57BL/6J, A/J, BALB/cByJ, and AKR/J, but is absent in others, including DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, SJL/J, and wild subspecies. The short isoform is associated with increased protein expression in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus relative to the longer ancestral isoform. The Comt variant causes downstream differences in the expression of genes involved in synaptic function, and also modulates phenotypes such as dopamine D1 and D2 receptor binding and pharmacological responses to haloperidol. Conclusions/Significance We have precisely defined the B2 SINE as the source of variation in Comt and demonstrated that a transposon in a 3′ UTR can alter mRNA isoform use and modulate behavior. The recent fixation of the variant in a subset of strains may have contributed to the rapid divergence of inbred strains. PMID:20808911

  4. Amphiphysin I but not dynamin I nor synaptojanin mRNA expression increased after repeated methamphetamine administration in the rat cerebrum and cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Hamamura, Mitsuko; Okouchi, Jiro; Ozawa, Hidetoshi; Kimuro, Yoshihiko; Iwaki, Akiko; Fukumaki, Yasuyuki

    2013-07-01

    Dopamine increases/decreases synaptic vesicle recycling and in schizophrenia the proteins/mRNA is decreased. We isolated cDNA clone, similar to amphiphysin 1 (vesicle protein) mRNA from the neocortex of rats injected repeatedly with methamphetamine using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) differential display. This clone is highly homologous to the 3' region of the human amphiphysin gene. PCR extension study using a primer specific for the rat amphiphysin 1 gene and a primer located within the clone revealed that it is the 3' UTR region of the rat amphiphysin 1 gene. Furthermore, in situ hybridization revealed that amphiphysin 1 mRNA is expressed in the cerebrum, medial thalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum. In the cerebellum, amphiphysin mRNA expression was confined to upper granule cell layer. Repeated methamphetamine administration increased amphiphysin I mRNA expression in both anterior part of the cerebrum, and the cerebellum. However, the repeated administration did not alter mRNA expression of the other vesicle proteins, synaptotagmin I, synapsin I, synaptojanin and dynamin I, we conclude that the repeated administration selectively increased amphiphysin 1 mRNA expression. Thus, amphiphysin 1 does not work as synaptic recycling, but it is suggested, as a part of pathogenesis of brain tissue injury (under Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺ devoid environment) in repeated methamphetamine-injected states, the gene regulate actin-asssembly, learning, cell stress signaling and cell polarity.

  5. Increased expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase mRNA in rat substantia nigra after an ibotenic acid lesion in the caudate-putamen.

    PubMed

    Lindefors, N; Brené, S; Persson, H

    1990-04-01

    In situ hybridization histochemistry and RNA blots were used to study expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNA in rat caudate-nucleus and substantia nigra. In situ hybridization combined with computerized image analysis revealed that in the intact substantia nigra reticulata the cross-section area of GAD mRNA positive neurons were 25% larger in the dorsolateral part as compared with the ventromedial part. A unilateral ibotenic acid injection in caudate-putamen lesioned neurons, some of which project to the ipsilateral substantia nigra. An increased level of GAD mRNA was observed in substantia nigra ipsilateral to the lesion. Computerized image analysis of sections from in situ hybridization revealed an increase in the number of silver grains over GAD mRNA positive neurons in the dorsolateral substantia nigra reticulata ipsilateral to the lesion. However, no change was observed in the ventromedial part suggesting that GAD mRNA expression in this part of the nigra is less sensitive to inhibition by caudate-putamen afferents. In agreement with in situ experiments, RNA blots showed a 2-fold increased level of GAD mRNA in substantia nigra ipsilateral to the lesion. The increased GAD mRNA expression in the deafferented substantia nigra suggests a disinhibition of nigral GABA neurons, resulting in an increased utilization of GABA in these substantia nigra neurons.

  6. Oxytocin receptor mRNA expression in rat brain: implications for behavioral integration and reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, N L

    1998-11-01

    The nonapeptide, oxytocin (OT), has been implicated in a wide range of physiological, behavioral and pharmacological effects related to learning and memory, parturition and lactation, maternal and sexual behavior, and the formation of social attachments. Specific G-protein linked membrane bound OT receptors mediate OTs effects. The unavailability of highly selective pharmacological ligands that discriminate the OT receptor from the highly homologous vasopressin receptors (V1a, V1b and V2 subtypes) has made it difficult to confirm specific effects of oxytocin, particularly in brain regions where OT and multiple AVP receptor subtypes may be coexpressed. Here, data on the oxytocin receptor (OTR) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) localization in brain are presented in the context of a model that proposes a reproductive state-dependent role for steroid-hormone restructuring of neural circuits, and a role for oxytocin in the integration of neural transmission in pathways subserving: (1) steroid-sensitive reproductive behaviors; (2) learning; and (3) reinforcement. It is hypothesized that social attachments emerge as a consequence of a conditioned association between OT-related activity in these pathways and the eliciting stimulus.

  7. Possible involvement of AMPK in acute exercise-induced expression of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT4 mRNA in fast-twitch skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Takimoto, Masaki; Takeyama, Mirei; Hamada, Taku

    2013-11-01

    The regulatory mechanisms responsible for acute exercise-induced expression of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT4 mRNA in skeletal muscle remain unclear. 5'-adenosine-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key signaling molecule that regulates gene expression at the mRNA level. We examined whether AMPK activation is involved in acute exercise-induced expression of MCT1 and MCT4 mRNA in fast-twitch muscle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to an acute bout of either 5min high-intensity intermittent swimming (HIS) or 6-h low-intensity prolonged swimming (LIS). The effects of acute exercise on the phosphorylation of AMPK (p-AMPK), calcium/calmodulin pendent kinase II (p-CaMKII), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38MAPK), and MCTs mRNA were analyzed in vivo. To observe the direct effects of AMPK activation on MCTs mRNA, the effects of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), caffeine, and dantrolene were analyzed in vitro using an isolated muscle incubation model. The p-AMPK increased in response to both HIS and LIS, although the p-CaMKII and p-p38MAPK were increased only following HIS. Irrespective of exercise intensity, MCT1 and MCT4 mRNA was also transiently upregulated by both HIS and LIS. Direct exposure of the epitrochlearis muscle to 0.5mmol/L AICAR or 1mmol/L caffeine, which activated p-AMPK increased both MCT1 and MCT4 mRNA levels. When pAMPK was inhibited by dantrolene, neither MCT1 nor MCT4 mRNA was increased. These results suggest that acute exercise-induced increases in MCT1 and MCT4 mRNA expression may be possibly mediated by AMPK activation, at least in part in fast-twitch muscle. © 2013.

  8. Parallel mRNA, proteomics and miRNA expression analysis in cell line models of the intestine.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Finbarr; Keenan, Joanne; Aherne, Sinead; O'Neill, Fiona; Clarke, Colin; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Breen, Laura; Barron, Niall; Clynes, Martin; Horgan, Karina; Doolan, Padraig; Murphy, Richard

    2017-11-07

    To identify miRNA-regulated proteins differentially expressed between Caco2 and HT-29: two principal cell line models of the intestine. Exponentially growing Caco-2 and HT-29 cells were harvested and prepared for mRNA, miRNA and proteomic profiling. mRNA microarray profiling analysis was carried out using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST array. miRNA microarray profiling analysis was carried out using the Affymetrix Genechip miRNA 3.0 array. Quantitative Label-free LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis was performed using a Dionex Ultimate 3000 RSLCnano system coupled to a hybrid linear ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Peptide identities were validated in Proteome Discoverer 2.1 and were subsequently imported into Progenesis QI software for further analysis. Hierarchical cluster analysis for all three parallel datasets (miRNA, proteomics, mRNA) was conducted in the R software environment using the Euclidean distance measure and Ward's clustering algorithm. The prediction of miRNA and oppositely correlated protein/mRNA interactions was performed using TargetScan 6.1. GO biological process, molecular function and cellular component enrichment analysis was carried out for the DE miRNA, protein and mRNA lists via the Pathway Studio 11.3 Web interface using their Mammalian database. Differential expression (DE) profiling comparing the intestinal cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2 identified 1795 Genes, 168 Proteins and 160 miRNAs as DE between the two cell lines. At the gene level, 1084 genes were upregulated and 711 were downregulated in the Caco-2 cell line relative to the HT-29 cell line. At the protein level, 57 proteins were found to be upregulated and 111 downregulated in the Caco-2 cell line relative to the HT-29 cell line. Finally, at the miRNAs level, 104 were upregulated and 56 downregulated in the Caco-2 cell line relative to the HT-29 cell line. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of the DE mRNA identified cell adhesion, migration and ECM organization, cellular lipid

  9. Parallel mRNA, proteomics and miRNA expression analysis in cell line models of the intestine

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Finbarr; Keenan, Joanne; Aherne, Sinead; O’Neill, Fiona; Clarke, Colin; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Breen, Laura; Barron, Niall; Clynes, Martin; Horgan, Karina; Doolan, Padraig; Murphy, Richard

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify miRNA-regulated proteins differentially expressed between Caco2 and HT-29: two principal cell line models of the intestine. METHODS Exponentially growing Caco-2 and HT-29 cells were harvested and prepared for mRNA, miRNA and proteomic profiling. mRNA microarray profiling analysis was carried out using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST array. miRNA microarray profiling analysis was carried out using the Affymetrix Genechip miRNA 3.0 array. Quantitative Label-free LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis was performed using a Dionex Ultimate 3000 RSLCnano system coupled to a hybrid linear ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Peptide identities were validated in Proteome Discoverer 2.1 and were subsequently imported into Progenesis QI software for further analysis. Hierarchical cluster analysis for all three parallel datasets (miRNA, proteomics, mRNA) was conducted in the R software environment using the Euclidean distance measure and Ward’s clustering algorithm. The prediction of miRNA and oppositely correlated protein/mRNA interactions was performed using TargetScan 6.1. GO biological process, molecular function and cellular component enrichment analysis was carried out for the DE miRNA, protein and mRNA lists via the Pathway Studio 11.3 Web interface using their Mammalian database. RESULTS Differential expression (DE) profiling comparing the intestinal cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2 identified 1795 Genes, 168 Proteins and 160 miRNAs as DE between the two cell lines. At the gene level, 1084 genes were upregulated and 711 were downregulated in the Caco-2 cell line relative to the HT-29 cell line. At the protein level, 57 proteins were found to be upregulated and 111 downregulated in the Caco-2 cell line relative to the HT-29 cell line. Finally, at the miRNAs level, 104 were upregulated and 56 downregulated in the Caco-2 cell line relative to the HT-29 cell line. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of the DE mRNA identified cell adhesion, migration and ECM

  10. [Effect of qihuang decoction on mRNA expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase-3, 9 in intestinal mucosa epithelium of ischemia/reperfusion injured rats].

    PubMed

    Yu, Qing-Sheng; Yu, Hong-Liang; Pan, Jin-Fang

    2011-02-01

    To observe the effect of Qihuang Decoction (QHD) on mRNA expression of apoptosis genes Bcl-2, Bax, and signal transduction molecules Caspase-3, 9 in intestinal mucosa epithelium of ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) injured rats. Forty Wistar rats were randomized equally into 4 groups, the control group, the model group, the glutamine group, and the QHD group. Rats in the latter two groups were gastric infused with glutamine and QHD respectively for 3 days, but saline was infused instead to rats in the control group and model group. After then, except those in the control group intervened only by sham operation, rats were made into I/R injured model by 45 min occlusion of superior mesenteric artery followed by 1 h reperfusion. Immediately after modeling, mRNA expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, and Caspase-9 in intestinal mucosa epithelium of rats were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Compared with the control group, mRNA expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 were higher in the other three groups (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, Bcl-2 mRNA expression was higher, while the expressions of the other three indices were lower in both the glutamine group and the QHD group (P < 0.05); and comparisons between the glutamine group and the QHD group showed a more depressed Bax mRNA expression (0.281 +/- 0.087 vs 0.350 +/- 0.053) and higher Bcl-2/Bax ratio (1.648 vs 1. 374) in the QHD group. QHD can reduce the I/R injury in the intestinal mucosa epithelium by inhibiting the cell apoptosis. The mechanism may be correlated with increased Bcl-2 mRNA expressions and decreased mRNA expressions of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9.

  11. THE M-RNA, EXPRESSION OF SERCA2 AND NCX1 IN THE PROCESS OF PHARMACOLOGICAL CELL PROTECTION IN EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE PANCREATITIS INDUCED BY TAUROCHOLATE.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Enio Rodrigues; Cunha, José Eduardo Monteiro; Kubrusly, Marcia Saldanha; Coelho, Ana Maria; Sanpietri, Sandra N; Nader, Helena B; Tersariol, Ivarne L S; Lima, Marcelo A; Chaib, Eleazar; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro

    2018-06-21

    Intracellular calcium overload is known to be a precipitating factor of pancreatic cell injury in acute pancreatitis (AP). Intracellular calcium homeostasis depends of Plasmatic Membrane Calcium ATPase (PMCA), Sarcoplasmic Endothelial Reticulum Calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA 2) and the Sodium Calcium Exchanger (NCX1). The antioxidant melatonin (Mel) and Trisulfate Disaccharide (TD) that accelerates NCX1 action could reduce the cell damage determined by the AP. To evaluate m-RNA expressions of SERCA2 and NCX1 in acute pancreatitis induced by sodium taurocholate in Wistar rats pre-treated with melatonin and/or TD. Wistar rats were divided in groups: 1) without AP; 2) AP without pre-treatment; 3) AP and Melatonin; 4) AP and TD; 5) AP and Melatonin associated to TD. Pancreatic tissue samples were collected for detection of SERCA2 and NCX1 m-R NA levels by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased m-RNA expression of SERCA2 in the melatonin treated group, without increase of m-RNA expression of the NCX1. The TD did not affect levels of SERCA2 and NCX1 m-RNA expressions. The combined melatonin and TD treatment reduced the m-RNA expression of SERCA2. The effect of melatonin is restricted to increased m-RNA expression of SERCA2. Although TD does not affect gene expression, its action in accelerating calcium exchanger function can explain the slightest expression of SERCA2 m-RNA when associated with Melatonin, perhaps by a joint action of drugs with different and but possibly complementary mechanisms.

  12. O6-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase (MGMT) mRNA Expression Predicts Outcome in Malignant Glioma Independent of MGMT Promoter Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Kreth, Simone; Thon, Niklas; Eigenbrod, Sabina; Lutz, Juergen; Ledderose, Carola; Egensperger, Rupert; Tonn, Joerg C.; Kretzschmar, Hans A.; Hinske, Ludwig C.; Kreth, Friedrich W.

    2011-01-01

    Background We analyzed prospectively whether MGMT (O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) mRNA expression gains prognostic/predictive impact independent of MGMT promoter methylation in malignant glioma patients undergoing radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide or temozolomide alone. As DNA-methyltransferases (DNMTs) are the enzymes responsible for setting up and maintaining DNA methylation patterns in eukaryotic cells, we analyzed further, whether MGMT promoter methylation is associated with upregulation of DNMT expression. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult patients with a histologically proven malignant astrocytoma (glioblastoma: N = 53, anaplastic astrocytoma: N = 10) were included. MGMT promoter methylation was determined by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and sequencing analysis. Expression of MGMT and DNMTs mRNA were analysed by real-time qPCR. Prognostic factors were obtained from proportional hazards models. Correlation between MGMT mRNA expression and MGMT methylation status was validated using data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database (N = 229 glioblastomas). Low MGMT mRNA expression was strongly predictive for prolonged time to progression, treatment response, and length of survival in univariate and multivariate models (p<0.0001); the degree of MGMT mRNA expression was highly correlated with the MGMT promoter methylation status (p<0.0001); however, discordant findings were seen in 12 glioblastoma patients: Patients with methylated tumors with high MGMT mRNA expression (N = 6) did significantly worse than those with low transcriptional activity (p<0.01). Conversely, unmethylated tumors with low MGMT mRNA expression (N = 6) did better than their counterparts. A nearly identical frequency of concordant and discordant findings was obtained by analyzing the TCGA database (p<0.0001). Expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3b was strongly upregulated in tumor tissue, but not correlated with MGMT promoter methylation and MGMT

  13. Presence of claudins mRNA in the brain. Selective modulation of expression by kindling epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Mónica; González-Mariscal, Lorenza; Gutiérrez, Rafael

    2002-08-15

    In the central nervous system, the junctional types that establish and maintain tissue architecture include gap junctions, for cytoplasmic connectivity, and tight junctions, for paracellular and/or cell polarity barriers. Connexins are the integral membrane proteins of gap junctions, whereas occludin and members of the multigene family of claudins form tight junctions. In the brain, there are no transendothelial pathways, as continuous tight junctions are present between the endothelial cells. Thus, they provide a continuous cellular barrier between the blood and the insterstitial fluid. However, several brain pathologies, including epilepsy, are known to alter the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and to cause edema. Therefore, since claudins, as constitutive proteins of tight junctions are likely candidates for modulation under pathological states, we explored their normal pattern of expression in the brain and its modulation by seizures. We found that several members of this family are normally expressed in the hippocampus and cortex. Interestingly, claudin-7 is expressed in the hippocampus but not in the cortex. On the other hand, the expression of claudin-8 is selectively down-regulated in the hippocampus as kindling evolves. These results link for the first time the modulation of expression of a tight junction protein to abnormal neuronal synchronization that could probably be reflected in permeability changes of the blood-brain barrier or edema.

  14. Chemoreflex Activity Increases Prostaglandin Endoperoxide Synthase mRNA Expression in the Late-Gestation Fetal Sheep Brain

    PubMed Central

    Fraites, Melanie J. P.; Wood, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Fetal sheep defend blood pressure, blood volume, and blood gases using baro- and chemoreflexes that influence autonomic and neuroendocrine responses. The local generation of prostanoids within the fetal brain is also an important component in activating hormone responses to these stimuli, but the relationship between the reflexes and prostanoid biosynthesis is unclear. The present study was performed to test the hypothesis that the abundances of prostaglandin biosynthetic enzymes in the fetal brain are dependent upon the activity of the baro- and chemoreflex pathways. We subjected chronically catheterized fetal sheep in late gestation to a 10-minute period of brachiocephalic occlusion (BCO), a stimulus that provokes brisk cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses. We compared the central nervous system abundance of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthases 1 and 2 (PGHS-1 and PGHS-2) after BCO to (1) fetal sheep that had been subjected to BCO after chronic sinoaortic denervation plus bilateral vagotomy and (2) fetal sheep in which the N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, ketamine, had been administered prior to BCO. Abundances of messenger RNA (mRNA) for PGHS-1 and of mRNA and protein for PGHS-2 in fetal hippocampus were reduced significantly by either prior denervation or ketamine administration. Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthases 1 and 2 mRNA in pituitary were decreased and increased, respectively, by ketamine pretreatment. The results of this study are consistent with the conclusion that the expression of PGHS-1 and -2 in fetal hippocampus and pituitary are influenced by the baro- and/or chemoreflex pathways within the fetal brain in late gestation. PMID:21846688

  15. Quantification of Chitinase mRNA Levels in Human and Mouse Tissues by Real-Time PCR: Species-Specific Expression of Acidic Mammalian Chitinase in Stomach Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Misa; Togashi, Yuto; Tsuda, Kyoko; Okawa, Kazuaki; Kamaya, Minori; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Sugahara, Yasusato; Oyama, Fumitaka

    2013-01-01

    Chitinase hydrolyzes chitin, which is an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine polymer that is present in a wide range of organisms, including insects, parasites and fungi. Although mammals do not contain any endogenous chitin, humans and mice express two active chitinases, chitotriosidase (Chit1) and acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase). Because the level of expression of these chitinases is increased in many inflammatory conditions, including Gaucher disease and mouse models of asthma, both chitinases may play important roles in the pathophysiologies of these and other diseases. We recently established a quantitative PCR system using a single standard DNA and showed that AMCase mRNA is synthesized at extraordinarily high levels in mouse stomach tissues. In this study, we applied this methodology to the quantification of chitinase mRNAs in human tissues and found that both chitinase mRNAs were widely expressed in normal human tissues. Chit1 mRNA was highly expressed in the human lung, whereas AMCase mRNA was not overexpressed in normal human stomach tissues. The levels of these mRNAs in human tissues were significantly lower than the levels of housekeeping genes. Because the AMCase expression levels were quite different between the human and mouse stomach tissues, we developed a quantitative PCR system to compare the mRNA levels between human and mouse tissues using a human-mouse hybrid standard DNA. Our analysis showed that Chit1 mRNA is expressed at similar levels in normal human and mouse lung. In contrast, the AMCase expression level in human stomach was significantly lower than that expression level observed in mouse stomach. These mRNA differences between human and mouse stomach tissues were reflecting differences in the chitinolytic activities and levels of protein expression. Thus, the expression level of the AMCase in the stomach is species-specific. PMID:23826286

  16. mRNA Expression Profiling of Laser Microbeam Microdissected Cells from Slender Embryonic Structures

    PubMed Central

    Scheidl, Stefan J.; Nilsson, Sven; Kalén, Mattias; Hellström, Mats; Takemoto, Minoru; Håkansson, Joakim; Lindahl, Per

    2002-01-01

    Microarray hybridization has rapidly evolved as an important tool for genomic studies and studies of gene regulation at the transcriptome level. Expression profiles from homogenous samples such as yeast and mammalian cell cultures are currently extending our understanding of biology, whereas analyses of multicellular organisms are more difficult because of tissue complexity. The combination of laser microdissection, RNA amplification, and microarray hybridization has the potential to provide expression profiles from selected populations of cells in vivo. In this article, we present and evaluate an experimental procedure for global gene expression analysis of slender embryonic structures using laser microbeam microdissection and laser pressure catapulting. As a proof of principle, expression profiles from 1000 cells in the mouse embryonic (E9.5) dorsal aorta were generated and compared with profiles for captured mesenchymal cells located one cell diameter further away from the aortic lumen. A number of genes were overexpressed in the aorta, including 11 previously known markers for blood vessels. Among the blood vessel markers were endoglin, tie-2, PDGFB, and integrin-β1, that are important regulators of blood vessel formation. This demonstrates that microarray analysis of laser microbeam micro-dissected cells is sufficiently sensitive for identifying genes with regulative functions. PMID:11891179

  17. mRNA expression profiling of laser microbeam microdissected cells from slender embryonic structures.

    PubMed

    Scheidl, Stefan J; Nilsson, Sven; Kalén, Mattias; Hellström, Mats; Takemoto, Minoru; Håkansson, Joakim; Lindahl, Per

    2002-03-01

    Microarray hybridization has rapidly evolved as an important tool for genomic studies and studies of gene regulation at the transcriptome level. Expression profiles from homogenous samples such as yeast and mammalian cell cultures are currently extending our understanding of biology, whereas analyses of multicellular organisms are more difficult because of tissue complexity. The combination of laser microdissection, RNA amplification, and microarray hybridization has the potential to provide expression profiles from selected populations of cells in vivo. In this article, we present and evaluate an experimental procedure for global gene expression analysis of slender embryonic structures using laser microbeam microdissection and laser pressure catapulting. As a proof of principle, expression profiles from 1000 cells in the mouse embryonic (E9.5) dorsal aorta were generated and compared with profiles for captured mesenchymal cells located one cell diameter further away from the aortic lumen. A number of genes were overexpressed in the aorta, including 11 previously known markers for blood vessels. Among the blood vessel markers were endoglin, tie-2, PDGFB, and integrin-beta1, that are important regulators of blood vessel formation. This demonstrates that microarray analysis of laser microbeam micro-dissected cells is sufficiently sensitive for identifying genes with regulative functions.

  18. Gene Expression (mRNA) Markers for Differentiating between Malignant and Benign Follicular Thyroid Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Wojtas, Bartosz; Pfeifer, Aleksandra; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Malgorzata; Krajewska, Jolanta; Czarniecka, Agnieszka; Kukulska, Aleksandra; Eszlinger, Markus; Musholt, Thomas; Stokowy, Tomasz; Swierniak, Michal; Stobiecka, Ewa; Chmielik, Ewa; Rusinek, Dagmara; Tyszkiewicz, Tomasz; Halczok, Monika; Hauptmann, Steffen; Lange, Dariusz; Jarzab, Michal; Paschke, Ralf; Jarzab, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing between follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) and follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) constitutes a long-standing diagnostic problem resulting in equivocal histopathological diagnoses. There is therefore a need for additional molecular markers. To identify molecular differences between FTC and FTA, we analyzed the gene expression microarray data of 52 follicular neoplasms. We also performed a meta-analysis involving 14 studies employing high throughput methods (365 follicular neoplasms analyzed). Based on these two analyses, we selected 18 genes differentially expressed between FTA and FTC. We validated them by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in an independent set of 71 follicular neoplasms from formaldehyde-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue material. We confirmed differential expression for 7 genes (CPQ, PLVAP, TFF3, ACVRL1, ZFYVE21, FAM189A2, and CLEC3B). Finally, we created a classifier that distinguished between FTC and FTA with an accuracy of 78%, sensitivity of 76%, and specificity of 80%, based on the expression of 4 genes (CPQ, PLVAP, TFF3, ACVRL1). In our study, we have demonstrated that meta-analysis is a valuable method for selecting possible molecular markers. Based on our results, we conclude that there might exist a plausible limit of gene classifier accuracy of approximately 80%, when follicular tumors are discriminated based on formalin-fixed postoperative material. PMID:28574441

  19. Gene Expression (mRNA) Markers for Differentiating between Malignant and Benign Follicular Thyroid Tumours.

    PubMed

    Wojtas, Bartosz; Pfeifer, Aleksandra; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Malgorzata; Krajewska, Jolanta; Czarniecka, Agnieszka; Kukulska, Aleksandra; Eszlinger, Markus; Musholt, Thomas; Stokowy, Tomasz; Swierniak, Michal; Stobiecka, Ewa; Chmielik, Ewa; Rusinek, Dagmara; Tyszkiewicz, Tomasz; Halczok, Monika; Hauptmann, Steffen; Lange, Dariusz; Jarzab, Michal; Paschke, Ralf; Jarzab, Barbara

    2017-06-02

    Distinguishing between follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) and follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) constitutes a long-standing diagnostic problem resulting in equivocal histopathological diagnoses. There is therefore a need for additional molecular markers. To identify molecular differences between FTC and FTA, we analyzed the gene expression microarray data of 52 follicular neoplasms. We also performed a meta-analysis involving 14 studies employing high throughput methods (365 follicular neoplasms analyzed). Based on these two analyses, we selected 18 genes differentially expressed between FTA and FTC. We validated them by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in an independent set of 71 follicular neoplasms from formaldehyde-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue material. We confirmed differential expression for 7 genes ( CPQ , PLVAP , TFF3 , ACVRL1 , ZFYVE21 , FAM189A2 , and CLEC3B ). Finally, we created a classifier that distinguished between FTC and FTA with an accuracy of 78%, sensitivity of 76%, and specificity of 80%, based on the expression of 4 genes ( CPQ , PLVAP , TFF3 , ACVRL1 ). In our study, we have demonstrated that meta-analysis is a valuable method for selecting possible molecular markers. Based on our results, we conclude that there might exist a plausible limit of gene classifier accuracy of approximately 80%, when follicular tumors are discriminated based on formalin-fixed postoperative material.

  20. Cytochrome P450-2C11 mRNA is not expressed in endothelial cells dissected from rat renal arterioles.

    PubMed

    Heil, Sandra G; De Vriese, An S; Kluijtmans, Leo A J; Dijkman, Henry; van Strien, Denise; Akkers, Robert; Blom, Henk J

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes (CYP2C and CYP2J) are involved in the production of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, which are postulated as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs). We hypothesized that if CYP2C11 is involved in the EDHF-mediated responses, its mRNA should be expressed in endothelial cells. We, therefore, examined the mRNA expression of CYP2C11 in endothelial cells of renal arterioles. Laser microdissection was applied to isolate endothelial cells from the renal arterioles of 4 male and 4 female Wistar rats. As a positive control of CYP2C11 expression, hepatocytes were also dissected from these rats. RNA was isolated and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) analysis was applied. Q-PCR analysis showed that CYP2C11 mRNA was not expressed in laser microdissected endothelial cells of renal arterioles of male and female rats. CYP2C11 mRNA expression was highly abundant in hepatocytes dissected from male livers, but in female livers hardly any CYP2C11 mRNA was detected. We have shown that endothelial cells can be dissected from small renal arterioles by laser microdissection to study the mRNA expression of specific genes by Q-PCR. Using this novel tool, we demonstrated that the CYP2C11 mRNA was not expressed in the endothelial cells of renal arterioles. Therefore, we speculate that CYP2C11 does not contribute to the EDHF-mediated responses in renal arterioles. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The association of the placental Hypoxia-inducible factor1-α polymorphisms and HIF1-α mRNA expression with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Harati-Sadegh, Mahdiyeh; Kohan, Leila; Teimoori, Batool; Mehrabani, Mehrnaz; Salimi, Saeedeh

    2018-07-01

    Evidence has confirmed that placental/fetal hypoxia plays a key role in both endothelial cell dysfunction and PE pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether maternal/placental hypoxia-inducible factor1-α (HIF1-α) C1772T (rs11549465) and/or G1790A (rs11549467) polymorphisms and HIF1-α mRNA expression are associated with PE development. The blood samples of 203 PE and 202 control women and the placenta of 86 PE and 84 control women were collected after delivery. The HIF1-α polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR- RFLP method. The mRNA expression levels were measured by Quantitative Real -Time PCR. The present study found no association between maternal HIF1-α rs11549465 and rs11549467 and placental rs11549467 polymorphisms and PE. However, the placental rs11549465 polymorphism was associated with PE in the dominant model. The CT/GG combined genotypes and TG haplotype of placental rs11549465 and rs11549467 polymorphisms were associated with higher risk of PE. The HIF1-α mRNA expression was 3-fold higher in the PE women. The rs11549465 TT genotype was associated with higher HIF1-α mRNA expression in PE women and in total population and rs11549467 GA genotype was associated with higher mRNA expression in total population. The relative mRNA expression of HIF1-α gene was higher in presence of CC/GA, TT/GG and TT/GA combined genotypes. This study found an association between placental but not maternal HIF1-α rs11549465 polymorphism and PE in the dominant model. The HIF1-α mRNA expression was higher in the placenta of PE women and was associated with rs11549465 and rs11549467 polymorphisms. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Associations of ACE Gene Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism, ACE Activity, and ACE mRNA Expression with Hypertension in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    He, Qingfang; Fan, Chunhong; Yu, Min; Wallar, Gina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Wang, Lixin; Zhang, Xinwei; Hu, Ruying

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to explore the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D, rs4646994) polymorphism, plasma ACE activity, and circulating ACE mRNA expression with essential hypertension (EH) in a Chinese population. In addition, a new detection method for circulating ACE mRNA expression was explored. Methods The research was approved by the ethics committee of Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control. Written informed consent was obtained prior to the investigation. 221 hypertensives (cases) and 221 normotensives (controls) were interviewed, subjected to a physical examination, and provided blood for biochemical and genetic tests. The ACE mRNA expression was analyzed by real time fluorescent quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (FQ-RT-PCR). We performed logistic regression to assess associations of ACE I/D genotypes, ACE activity, and ACE mRNA expression levels with hypertension. Results The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the additive model (ID, DD versus II) of the ACE genotype revealed an association with hypertension with adjusted OR of 1.43(95% CI: 1.04-1.97), and ACE ID genotype with adjusted OR of 1.72(95% CI: 1.01-2.92), DD genotype with adjusted OR of 1.94(95% CI: 1.01-3.73), respectively. In addition, our data also indicate that plasma ACE activity (adjusted OR was 1.13(95% CI: 1.08-1.18)) was significantly related to hypertension. However, the plasma ACE mRNA expressions were not different between the cases and controls. Conclusion ACE I/D polymorphism and ACE activity revealed significant influence on hypertension, while circulating ACE mRNA expression was not important factors associated with hypertension in this Chinese population. The detection of circulating ACE mRNA expression by FQ-RT-PCR might be a useful method for early screening and monitoring of EH. PMID:24098401

  3. Delayed inflammatory mRNA and protein expression after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces secondary tissue damage that is associated with inflammation. We have previously demonstrated that inflammation-related gene expression after SCI occurs in two waves - an initial cluster that is acutely and transiently up-regulated within 24 hours, and a more delayed cluster that peaks between 72 hours and 7 days. Here we extend the microarray analysis of these gene clusters up to 6 months post-SCI. Methods Adult male rats were subjected to mild, moderate or severe spinal cord contusion injury at T9 using a well-characterized weight-drop model. Tissue from the lesion epicenter was obtained 4 hours, 24 hours, 7 days, 28 days, 3 months or 6 months post-injury and processed for microarray analysis and protein expression. Results Anchor gene analysis using C1qB revealed a cluster of genes that showed elevated expression through 6 months post-injury, including galectin-3, p22PHOX, gp91PHOX, CD53 and progranulin. The expression of these genes occurred primarily in microglia/macrophage cells and was confirmed at the protein level using both immunohistochemistry and western blotting. As p22PHOX and gp91PHOX are components of the NADPH oxidase enzyme, enzymatic activity and its role in SCI were assessed and NADPH oxidase activity was found to be significantly up-regulated through 6 months post-injury. Further, treating rats with the nonspecific, irreversible NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodinium (DPI) reduced both lesion volume and expression of chronic gene cluster proteins one month after trauma. Conclusions These data demonstrate that inflammation-related genes are chronically up-regulated after SCI and may contribute to further tissue loss. PMID:21975064

  4. Nutritional status alters saccharin intake and sweet receptor mRNA expression in rat taste buds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Yan, Jianqun; Suo, Yi; Li, Jinrong; Wang, Qian; Lv, Bo

    2010-04-14

    Sweet taste usually signifies the presence of caloric food. It is commonly accepted that a close association exists among sweet taste perception, preference, and nutritional status. However, the mechanisms involved remain unknown. To investigate whether nutritional status affects the preference for palatable solutions and alters sweet taste receptor gene expression in rats, we measured saccharin intake and preference using a two-bottle preference test, and changes in body weight, plasma leptin levels, and gene expression for the sweet taste receptor in taste buds in high-fat diet-induced obese rats and chronically diet-restricted rats. We found that the consumption and preference ratios for 0.01 and 0.04 M saccharin were significantly lower in the high-fat diet-induced obese rats than in the normal diet rats, while the serum leptin levels were markedly increased in obese rats. Consistent with the changes in saccharin intake, the gene expression level of the sweet taste receptor T1R3 was significantly decreased in the high-fat diet-induced obese rats compared with the control rats. By contrast, the chronically diet-restricted rats showed remarkably enhanced consumption and preference for 0.04 M saccharin. The serum leptin concentration was decreased, and the gene expression of the leptin receptor was markedly increased in the taste buds. In conclusion, our results suggest that nutritional status alters saccharin preference and the expression of T1R3 in taste buds. These processes may be involved in the mechanisms underlying the modulation of peripheral sweet taste sensitivity, in which leptin plays a role. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of long non-coding RNA and mRNA expression in βΒ2-crystallin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yin; Xiong, Kang; Ren, Han-Xiao; Li, Wen-Jie

    2018-05-01

    βΒ2-crystallin (CRYBB2) is expressed at an increased level in the postnatal lens cortex and is associated with cataracts. Improved understanding of the underlying biology of cataracts is likely to be critical for the development of early detection strategies and new therapeutics. The present study aimed to identify long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs associated with CRYBB2 knockdown (KO)-induced cataracts. RNAs from 3 non-treated mice and 3 CRYBB2 KO mice were analyzed using the Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Gene 2.0 ST array. A total of 149 lncRNAs and 803 mRNAs were identified to have upregulated expression, including Snora73b, Klk1b22 and Rnu3a, while the expression levels of 180 lncRNAs and 732 mRNAs were downregulated in CRYBB2 KO mice, including Snord82, Snhg9 and Foxn3. This lncRNA and mRNA expression profile of mice with CRYBB2 KO provides a basis for studying the genetic mechanisms of cataract progression.

  6. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of interleukin-8 gene in Japanese sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicus).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lihua; Zhang, Hanhua; Yang, Keng; Jiang, Shigui

    2009-05-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8), the first known chemokine, is a CXC chemokine, which is cable of attracting neutrophils and inducing them to release lysozomal enzymes, triggering the respiratory burst. In the present study, the cDNA of an IL-8 was cloned from Japanese sea perch Lateolabrax japonicus (designated LjIL-8) by homology cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of LjIL-8 consisted of 803 nucleotides with a canonical polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA and a poly(A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 300 bp encoding a polypeptide of 99 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 6.6 kDa. The high identity of LjIL-8 with IL-8 in other organisms indicated that LjIL-8 should be a new member of the IL-8 family. By fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR, mRNA transcript of LjIL-8 was detectable in all the examined tissues with higher level in spleen and head-kidney. The temporal expression of LjIL-8 mRNA in the spleen was up-regulated by lipopolyssacharide (LPS) stimulation and reached the maximum level at 6 h post-stimulation, and then dropped back to the original level gradually. These results indicated that LjIL-8 was a constitutive and inducible acute-phase protein that perhaps involved in the immune defense of L. japonicus.

  7. PCB-associated changes in mRNA expression in killer whales (Orcinus orca) from the NE Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Buckman, Andrea H; Veldhoen, Nik; Ellis, Graeme; Ford, John K B; Helbing, Caren C; Ross, Peter S

    2011-12-01

    Killer whales in the NE Pacific Ocean are among the world's most PCB-contaminated marine mammals, raising concerns about implications for their health. Sixteen health-related killer whale mRNA transcripts were analyzed in blubber biopsies collected from 35 free-ranging killer whales in British Columbia using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We observed PCB-related increases in the expression of five gene targets, including the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR; r(2) = 0.83; p < 0.001), thyroid hormone α receptor (TRα; r(2) = 0.64; p < 0.001), estrogen α receptor (ERα; r(2) = 0.70; p < 0.001), interleukin 10 (IL-10; r(2) = 0.74 and 0.68, males and females, respectively; p < 0.001), and metallothionein 1 (MT1; r(2) = 0.58; p < 0.001). Best-fit models indicated that population (dietary preference), age, and sex were not confounding factors, except for IL-10, where males differed from females. While the population-level consequences are unclear, the PCB-associated alterations in mRNA abundance of such pivotal end points provide compelling evidence of adverse physiological effects of persistent environmental contaminants in these endangered killer whales.

  8. Prostaglandin E1 reduces the glomerular mRNA expression of monocyte-chemoattractant protein 1 in anti-thymocyte antibody-induced glomerular injury.

    PubMed

    Jocks, T; Zahner, G; Freudenberg, J; Wolf, G; Thaiss, F; Helmchen, U; Stahl, R A

    1996-06-01

    To study whether prostaglandins (PG) can regulate the mRNA expression of monocyte-chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) in glomerular immune injury, MCP-1 mRNA levels were evaluated in anti-thymocyte antibody (ATS) -induced glomerular injury by Northern blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Immune injury was induced in vivo by the intravenous application of ATS to male Wistar rats and in vitro by the perfusion of isolated rat kidneys with ATS and rat serum. In vivo 3 h and 5 days after antibody application, glomerular mRNA expression of MCP-1 was markedly enhanced compared with controls. In the isolated perfused kidney, antibody and complement also induced an increase in MCP-1 expression at 10 min and 60 min after antibody perfusion. When the rats were treated with PGE (250 micrograms, twice daily), the increase in MCP-1 expression was reduced. This was associated with a reduction of intraglomerular recruitment of monocytes/macrophages. In the isolated perfused kidneys, PGE1 (1 mg/L) prevented the antibody- and rat serum-stimulated increase in glomerular MCP-1 mRNA expression. These data demonstrate that PGE1 reduces glomerular MCP-1 mRNA expression in glomerulonephritis and in the isolated perfused rat kidney after induction of immune injury with antibody and complement. The data suggest that prostaglandins might mediate MCP-1 effects in glomerular immune injuries.

  9. Expression of C-type lectin receptor mRNA in chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Han, Seung-Ho; Byun, Jae Yong; Park, Moon Suh; Kim, Young Il; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2017-06-01

    The levels of expression of various C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) messenger ribo nucleic acids (mRNAs) were significantly higher in cholesteatomas than in normal skin, suggesting that these CLRs may be involved in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. Altered expression of pattern recognition receptors may be associated with immune responses in patients with cholesteatoma. This study assessed the levels of expression of CLR mRNAs in normal skin and in cholesteatoma. Cholesteatoma specimens were obtained from 38 patients with acquired cholesteatoma. The levels of expression of various CLR mRNAs were assessed quantitatively using real-time RT-PCR (Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) and correlated with age, sex, the presence of bacteria, hearing level, frequency of surgery, and degree of ossicle destruction. The levels of CD206 (cluster of differentiation 206), DEC-205 (Dendritic and epithelial cell-205), MGL (monoacylglycerol lipase), CLEC5A (C-type lectin domain family 5 member A), Dectin-2 (dendrite cell-associated C-type lectin-2), BDCA2 (Blood dendritic cell antigen 2), Mincle, DCIR (dendritic cell immunoreceptor), Dectin-1, MICL (Myeloid inhibitory C type-like lectin), and CLEC12B (C-type lectin domain family 12, member B) mRNAs were significantly higher in cholesteatoma than in control skin samples (p < 0.05). The levels of CLEC5A (C-type lectin domain family 5 member) and Dectin-1 mRNAs were significantly higher in cholesteatomas with ≥2 than ≤1 destroyed ossicles (p < 0.05), and the levels of MGL, Mincle, Dectin-1, and CLEC12B mRNAs were significantly higher in recurrent than initial cholesteatoma specimens (p < 0.05). The level of CLEC5A mRNAs was significantly higher in patients with severe than mild-to-moderate hearing loss (p < 0.05).

  10. A protein and mRNA expression-based classification of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Setia, Namrata; Agoston, Agoston T; Han, Hye S; Mullen, John T; Duda, Dan G; Clark, Jeffrey W; Deshpande, Vikram; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Srivastava, Amitabh; Lennerz, Jochen K; Hong, Theodore S; Kwak, Eunice L; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2016-07-01

    The overall survival of gastric carcinoma patients remains poor despite improved control over known risk factors and surveillance. This highlights the need for new classifications, driven towards identification of potential therapeutic targets. Using sophisticated molecular technologies and analysis, three groups recently provided genetic and epigenetic molecular classifications of gastric cancer (The Cancer Genome Atlas, 'Singapore-Duke' study, and Asian Cancer Research Group). Suggested by these classifications, here, we examined the expression of 14 biomarkers in a cohort of 146 gastric adenocarcinomas and performed unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis using less expensive and widely available immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Ultimately, we identified five groups of gastric cancers based on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positivity, microsatellite instability, aberrant E-cadherin, and p53 expression; the remaining cases constituted a group characterized by normal p53 expression. In addition, the five categories correspond to the reported molecular subgroups by virtue of clinicopathologic features. Furthermore, evaluation between these clusters and survival using the Cox proportional hazards model showed a trend for superior survival in the EBV and microsatellite-instable related adenocarcinomas. In conclusion, we offer as a proposal a simplified algorithm that is able to reproduce the recently proposed molecular subgroups of gastric adenocarcinoma, using immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques.

  11. Intervention of rosiglitazone on myocardium Glut-4 mRNA expression during ischemia-reperfusion injury in cardio-pulmonary bypass in dogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Liang, Guiyou; Xu, Gang; Liu, Daxin; Cai, Qingyong; Gao, Zhenyu

    2013-01-01

    During cardiac pulmonary bypass (CPB), myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) induces heart glucose metabolism impairment. Our previous research showed that the decreased glucose utilization is due to decreased glucose transporter-4 (Glut-4) expression and translocation to myocyte surface membranes. This study further examined whether rosiglitazone, a synthetic agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, could intervene glucose metabolism by regulating Glut-4 mRNA during I/R in dogs. Cardiac ischemia was induced by cardiopulmonary bypass for 30 or 120 min. Plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were measured at pre-bypass (control), aortic cross-clamp off (I/R) at 15, 45, and 75 min. The left ventricle biopsies were taken for the expression of Glut-4 mRNA by real-time RT-PCR. In dogs receiving 120 min ischemia, coronary arterial, venous glucose concentrations, plasma insulin levels, and insulin resistant index (IRI) were increased, but the expression of Glut-4 mRNA was decreased obviously at 15 min of reperfusion, and recovered gradually. On the other hand, these changes were relatively mild in dogs treated with rosiglitazone in cardioplegic solution and expression of Glut-4 mRNA was increased remarkably. It is concluded that the decrease in total amount of Glut-4 mRNA expression could be one of the important molecular mechanisms, which causes the myocardium insulin resistance. The longer the ischemia period, the decrease in amount of Glut-4 mRNA was more dramatic. Adding rosiglitazone into the cardioplegic solution during I/R can increase the amount of Glut-4 mRNA expression, mitigate the myocardium insulin resistance and improve the myocardium I/R injury during CPB.

  12. miR-143 decreases COX-2 mRNA stability and expression in pancreatic cancer cells

    SciT

    Pham, Hung; Department of Medicine, Veterans Affair Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA 90073; Ekaterina Rodriguez, C.

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •Pancreatic cancer cells express low miR-143 levels and elevated p-MEK, p-MAPK and RREB1. •MEK inhibitors U0126 and PD98059 increase miR-143 expression. •miR-143 decreases COX-2 mRNA stability and expression and PGE{sub 2}. •miR-143 decreases p-p38MAPK, p-MEK, p-MAPK and RREB1 expression. -- Abstract: Small non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNA), inhibit the translation or accelerate the degradation of message RNA (mRNA) by targeting the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) in regulating growth and survival through gene suppression. Deregulated miRNA expression contributes to disease progression in several cancers types, including pancreatic cancers (PaCa). PaCa tissues and cells exhibit decreased miRNA, elevated cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and increased prostaglandinmore » E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) resulting in increased cancer growth and metastases. Human PaCa cell lines were used to demonstrate that restoration of miRNA-143 (miR-143) regulates COX-2 and inhibits cell proliferation. miR-143 were detected at fold levels of 0.41 ± 0.06 in AsPC-1, 0.20 ± 0.05 in Capan-2 and 0.10 ± 0.02 in MIA PaCa-2. miR-143 was not detected in BxPC-3, HPAF-II and Panc-1 which correlated with elevated mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) and MAPK kinase (MEK) activation. Treatment with 10 μM of MEK inhibitor U0126 or PD98059 increased miR-143, respectively, by 187 ± 18 and 152 ± 26-fold in BxPC-3 and 182 ± 7 and 136 ± 9-fold in HPAF-II. miR-143 transfection diminished COX-2 mRNA stability at 60 min by 2.6 ± 0.3-fold in BxPC-3 and 2.5 ± 0.2-fold in HPAF-II. COX-2 expression and cellular proliferation in BxPC-3 and HPAF-II inversely correlated with increasing miR-143. PGE{sub 2} levels decreased by 39.3 ± 5.0% in BxPC-3 and 48.0 ± 3.0% in HPAF-II transfected with miR-143. Restoration of miR-143 in PaCa cells suppressed of COX-2, PGE{sub 2}, cellular proliferation and MEK/MAPK activation, implicating this pathway in regulating miR-143 expression.« less

  13. 9-cis-retinoic acid increases apolipoprotein AI secretion and mRNA expression in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Haghpassand, M; Moberly, J B

    1995-10-01

    HepG2 cells were studied as a model for regulation of hepatic apolipoprotein AI (apo AI) secretion and gene expression by 9-cis-retinoic acid. HepG2 cells cultured on plastic dishes were exposed to 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) for 48 h with a complete media change at 24 h. Apo AI mass in cultured media was determined by ELISA, by quantitative immunoblotting and by steady-state 35S-methionine labeling. Messenger RNA levels were determined by RNase protection using probes for apo AI and the housekeeping gene, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH). 9-cis-RA increased secretion of apo AI by 52% at doses of 10 and 1 microM (6.3 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.2 +/- 0.3; P < 0.005; 6.1 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.0 +/- 0.7 ng of apo AI/mg cell protein, P < 0.05) and by 35% at 0.1 microM (5.5 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.1 +/- 0.4 ng apo AI/mg protein, P < 0.05, n = 4). Immunoblotting results were consistent with results from ELISA (70% increase at 10 microM 9-cis-RA, P < 0.001; 34% increase at 1 microM, P < 0.005, n = 3). Metabolically labeled apoAI in the medium was increased by 39% following steady-state labeling in the presence of 10 microM 9-cis-RA (597 +/- 7 vs. 430 +/- 13 DPM/microliters media; P < 0.001; n = 4). 9-cis-RA (10 microM) also increased HepG2 cell apo AI mRNA expression by 76% (68 700 +/- 400 vs. 38 900 +/- 2700 DPM, P < 0.01, n = 4), whereas expression of G3PDH mRNA was slightly decreased (14%, P < 0.05). Thus, 9-cis-RA stimulates apo AI expression in HepG2 cells, suggesting a role for retinoids in activating endogenous apo AI gene expression.

  14. The Effects of Exercise on Expression of CYP19 and StAR mRNA in Steroid-Induced Polycystic Ovaries of Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Aghaie, Fatemeh; Khazali, Homayoun; Hedayati, Mehdi; Akbarnejad, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent female endocrine disorder that affects 5-10% of women. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. The aim of the present research is to evaluate the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and aromatase (CYP19) mRNA in the ovaries of an estradiol valerate (EV)-induced PCOS rat model, and the effect of treadmill and running wheel (voluntary) exercise on these parameters. In this experimental study, we divided adult female Wistar rats that weighed approximately 220 ± 20 g initially into control (n=10) and PCOS (n=30). Subsequently, PCOS group were divided to PCOS, PCOS with treadmill exercise (P-ExT), and PCOS with running wheel exercise (P-ExR) groups (n=10 per group). The expressions of StAR and CYP19 mRNA in the ovaries were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA using SPSS software, version 16. The data were assessed at α=0.05. There was significantly lower mRNA expression of CYP19 in the EV-induced PCOS, running wheel and treadmill exercise rats compared to the control group (P<0.001). Treadmill exercise (P=0.972) and running wheel exercise (P=0.839) had no significant effects on CYP19 mRNA expression compared to the PCOS group. mRNA expression of StAR in the ovaries of the PCOS group indicated an increasing trend compared to the control group, however this was not statistically significant (P=0.810). We observed that 8 weeks of running wheel and treadmill exercises could not statistically decrease StAR mRNA expression compared to the PCOS group (P=0.632). EV-induced PCOS in rats decreased CYP19 mRNA expression, but had no effect on StAR mRNA expression. We demonstrated that running wheel and moderate treadmill exercise could not modify CYP19 and StAR mRNA expressions. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of growth hormone treatment on the pituitary expression of GHRH receptor mRNA in uremic rats.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Susana; Rodríguez, Julián; Santos, Fernando; Weruaga, Ana; Fernández, Marta; Carbajo, Eduardo; García, Enrique

    2002-09-01

    A decreased ability of pituitary cells to secrete growth hormone (GH) in response to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) stimulation has been shown in young uremic rats. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of uremia and GH treatment on pituitary GHRH receptor expression. Pituitary GHRH receptor mRNA levels were analyzed by RNase protection assay in young female rats made uremic by subtotal nephrectomy, either untreated (UREM) or treated with 10 IU/kg/day of GH (UREM-GH), and normal renal function animals fed ad libitum (SAL) or pair-fed with the UREM group (SPF). Rats were sacrificed 14 days after the second stage nephrectomy. Renal failure was confirmed by concentrations (X +/- SEM) of serum urea nitrogen (mmol/L) and creatinine (micromol/L) in UREM (20 +/- 1 and 89.4 +/- 4.5) and UREM-GH (16 +/- 1 and 91.4 +/- 6.9) that were much higher (P < 0.001) than those of sham animals (SAL, 3 +/- 0 and 26.5 +/- 2.2; SPF, 4 +/- 0 and 26.5 +/- 2.1). UREM rats became growth retarded as shown by a daily longitudinal tibia growth rate below (P < 0.05) that observed in SAL animals (156 +/- 3 vs. 220 +/- 5 microm/day). GH treatment resulted in significant growth rate acceleration (213 +/- 6 microm/day). GHRH receptor mRNA levels were no different among the SAL (0.43 +/- 0.03), SPF (0.43 +/- 0.08) and UREM (0.44 +/- 0.04) groups, whereas UREM-GH rats had significantly higher values (0.72 +/- 0.07). The status of pituitary GHRH receptor is not modified by nutritional deficit or by severe uremia causing growth retardation. By contrast, the growth promoting effect of GH administration is associated with stimulated GHRH receptor gene expression.

  16. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and mRNA expression for melatonin synthesis rate-limiting enzyme in recurrent depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Gałecki, Piotr; Szemraj, Janusz; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Bieńkiewicz, Małgorzata; Gałecka, Elzbieta; Florkowski, Antoni; Lewiński, Andrzej; Karbownik-Lewińska, Małgorzata

    2010-05-01

    Depressive disorder (DD) is characterised by disturbances in blood melatonin concentration. It is well known that melatonin is involved in the control of circadian rhythms, sleep included. The use of melatonin and its analogues has been found to be effective in depression therapy. Melatonin synthesis is a multistage process, where the last stage is catalysed by acetylserotonin methyltransferase (ASMT), the reported rate-limiting melatonin synthesis enzyme. Taking into account the significance of genetic factors in depression development, the gene for ASMT may become an interesting focus for studies in patients with recurrent DD. The goal of the study was to evaluate two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs4446909; rs5989681) of the ASMT gene, as well as mRNA expression for ASMT in recurrent DD-affected patients. We genotyped two polymorphisms in a group of 181 recurrent DD patients and in 149 control subjects. The study was performed using the polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The distribution of genotypes in both studied SNPs in the ASMT gene differed significantly between DD and healthy subjects. The presence of AA genotype of rs4446909 polymorphism and of GG genotype of rs5989681 polymorphism was associated with lower risk for having recurrent DD. In turn, patients with depression were characterised by reduced mRNA expression for ASMT. In addition, ASMT transcript level in both recurrent DD patients and in healthy subjects depended significantly on genotype distributions in both polymorphisms. In conclusion, our results suggest the ASMT gene as a susceptibility gene for recurrent DD.

  17. Prognostic value of alcohol dehydrogenase mRNA expression in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Erna; Wei, Haotang; Liao, Xiwen; Xu, Yang; Li, Shu; Zeng, Xiaoyun

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have reported that alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes possess diagnostic value in gastric cancer (GC). However, the prognostic value of ADH isoenzymes in GC remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify the prognostic value of ADH genes in patients with GC. The prognostic value of ADH genes was investigated in patients with GC using the Kaplan-Meier plotter tool. Kaplan-Meier plots were used to assess the difference between groups of patients with GC with different prognoses. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the relative risk of GC survival. Overall, 593 patients with GC and 7 ADH genes were included in the survival analysis. High expression of ADH 1A (class 1), α polypeptide ( ADH1A; log-rank P=0.043; HR=0.79; 95% CI: 0.64-0.99), ADH 1B (class 1), β polypeptide ( ADH1B ; log-rank P=1.9×10 -05 ; HR=0.65; 95% CI: 0.53-0.79) and ADH 5 (class III), χ polypeptide ( ADH5 ; log-rank P=0.0011; HR=0.73; 95% CI: 0.6-0.88) resulted in a significantly decreased risk of mortality in all patients with GC compared with patients with low expression of those genes. Furthermore, protective effects may additionally be observed in patients with intestinal-type GC with high expression of ADH1B (log-rank P=0.031; HR=0.64; 95% CI: 0.43-0.96) and patients with diffuse-type GC with high expression of ADH1A (log-rank P=0.014; HR=0.51; 95% CI: 0.3-0.88), ADH1B (log-rank P=0.04; HR=0.53; 95% CI: 0.29-0.98), ADH 4 (class II), π polypeptide (log-rank P=0.033; HR=0.58; 95% CI: 0.35-0.96) and ADH 6 (class V) (log-rank P=0.037; HR=0.59; 95% CI: 0.35-0.97) resulting in a significantly decreased risk of mortality compared with patients with low expression of those genes. In contrast, patients with diffuse-type GC with high expression of ADH5 (log-rank P=0.044; HR=1.66; 95% CI: 1.01-2.74) were significantly correlated with a poor prognosis. The results of the present study suggest that ADH1A and ADH1B may be potential

  18. Prognostic value of alcohol dehydrogenase mRNA expression in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Erna; Wei, Haotang; Liao, Xiwen; Xu, Yang; Li, Shu; Zeng, Xiaoyun

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes possess diagnostic value in gastric cancer (GC). However, the prognostic value of ADH isoenzymes in GC remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify the prognostic value of ADH genes in patients with GC. The prognostic value of ADH genes was investigated in patients with GC using the Kaplan-Meier plotter tool. Kaplan-Meier plots were used to assess the difference between groups of patients with GC with different prognoses. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the relative risk of GC survival. Overall, 593 patients with GC and 7 ADH genes were included in the survival analysis. High expression of ADH 1A (class 1), α polypeptide (ADH1A; log-rank P=0.043; HR=0.79; 95% CI: 0.64–0.99), ADH 1B (class 1), β polypeptide (ADH1B; log-rank P=1.9×10−05; HR=0.65; 95% CI: 0.53–0.79) and ADH 5 (class III), χ polypeptide (ADH5; log-rank P=0.0011; HR=0.73; 95% CI: 0.6–0.88) resulted in a significantly decreased risk of mortality in all patients with GC compared with patients with low expression of those genes. Furthermore, protective effects may additionally be observed in patients with intestinal-type GC with high expression of ADH1B (log-rank P=0.031; HR=0.64; 95% CI: 0.43–0.96) and patients with diffuse-type GC with high expression of ADH1A (log-rank P=0.014; HR=0.51; 95% CI: 0.3–0.88), ADH1B (log-rank P=0.04; HR=0.53; 95% CI: 0.29–0.98), ADH 4 (class II), π polypeptide (log-rank P=0.033; HR=0.58; 95% CI: 0.35–0.96) and ADH 6 (class V) (log-rank P=0.037; HR=0.59; 95% CI: 0.35–0.97) resulting in a significantly decreased risk of mortality compared with patients with low expression of those genes. In contrast, patients with diffuse-type GC with high expression of ADH5 (log-rank P=0.044; HR=1.66; 95% CI: 1.01–2.74) were significantly correlated with a poor prognosis. The results of the present study suggest that ADH1A and ADH1B may

  19. Dietary nickel chloride induces oxidative stress, apoptosis and alters Bax/Bcl-2 and caspase-3 mRNA expression in the cecal tonsil of broilers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bangyuan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Huang, Jianying

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary NiCl2 on antioxidant function, apoptosis, and the protein expression, mRNA expression and contents of the bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 in the cecal tonsil of broilers. 280 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet or the same basal diet supplemented with 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. The activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px, and the ability to inhibit hydroxy radical, and GSH content were significantly decreased in all experimental groups. MDA content was significantly increased. The protein expression, mRNA expression and contents of bcl-2 were decreased, and bax and caspase-3 were increased in all experimental groups. The percentages of apoptotic lymphocytes were significantly increased. In conclusion, dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg caused oxidative stress, and then induced decreased the protein expression, mRNA expression and the contents of bcl-2, and increased protein expression, mRNA expression and the contents of bax and caspase-3 proteins in the cecal tonsil. The local intestinal mucosal immunity could finally be impaired due to the oxidative stress and apoptosis in the cecal tonsil caused by NiCl2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alternative mRNA polyadenylation in eukaryotes: an effective regulator of gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Carol S.; Moreira, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Alternative RNA processing mechanisms, including alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation, are increasingly recognized as important regulators of gene expression. This article will focus on what has recently been described about alternative polyadenylation in development, differentiation, and disease in higher eukaryotes. We will also describe how the evolving global methodologies for examining the cellular transcriptome, both experimental and bioinformatic, are revealing new details about the complex nature of alternative 3′ end formation, as well as interactions with other RNA-mediated and RNA processing mechanisms. PMID:21278855

  1. Regulation of DM-20 mRNA expression and intracellular translocation of glutathione-S-transferase pi isoform during oligodendrocyte differentiation in the adult rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Masaaki; Takeda, Kazuya; Dezawa, Mari

    2016-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that NG2-positive oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) do not express DM-20 mRNA and identified a distinct DM-20 mRNA-positive cell population expressing glutathione-S-transferase pi isoform (GST-pi) in the nucleus (GST-pi(Nuc)) of the adult rat spinal cord. As GST-pi intranuclear localization correlates with progenitor cell properties, we examined the differentiation status of this cell population under the intensive 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) administration method, consisting of intraperitoneal BrdU injections every 2 h for 48 h. We observed that a certain population of proliferating/proliferated cells expressed DM-20 mRNA, and sometimes two proliferating/proliferated cells were observed still attached to each other. We performed triple staining for BrdU, DM-20 mRNA, and NG2 and found pairs of neighboring BrdU-positive cells, which were considered to originate from the same progenitor cells and where both cells expressed DM-20 mRNA. Triple staining for BrdU, DM-20 mRNA, and GST-pi detected proliferating/proliferated cells exhibiting the GST-pi(Nuc)/DM-20 mRNA-positive expression pattern. These findings suggested the presence of a GST-pi(Nuc)/DM-20 mRNA-positive oligodendrocyte-lineage progenitor cell population in the adult rat spinal cord. However, we did not find any pair of neighboring BrdU-positive cells with this expression pattern. These observations collectively support the idea that GST-pi(Nuc)/DM-20 mRNA-expressing cells are the progeny of NG2-positive OPCs rather than a novel type of oligodendrocyte-lineage progenitor cells and that DM-20 mRNA expression is dynamically regulated during differentiation of OPCs into oligodendrocytes.

  2. Effects of hypothermia and cerebral ischemia on cold-inducible RNA-binding protein mRNA expression in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Aijun; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Anmin; Xue, Jinghui

    2010-08-06

    CIRP (cold-inducible RNA-binding protein) mRNA is highly expressed in hypothermic conditions in mammalian cells, and the relationship between CIRP and neuroprotection for cerebral ischemia under hypothermia has been focused upon. At present, however, the expression characteristics of CIRP under hypothermia and cerebral ischemia in vivo are not clearly elucidated. In this study, CIRP mRNA expression in various regions of rat brain was examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). CIRP expression levels were found to be similar in the hippocampus and cortex. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed increasing CIRP mRNA expression in the cortex during the 24-h observation period following treatment with hypothermia or cerebral ischemia, with a greater increase in the hypothermia group. When cerebral ischemia was induced following hypothermia, CIRP mRNA expression in the cortex again showed a significant increasing tendency, but ischemia delayed the appearance of this increase. To reveal the relationship between CIRP and energy metabolism in the rat brain, lactate and pyruvate concentrations in the cortex of the rats treated with hypothermia, ischemia and ischemia after hypothermia were determined by spectrophotometric assay, and levels of phosphofructokinas-1 (PFK-1), the major regulatory enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, in the rat cortex in the three groups was also analyzed by Western blot. Using linear correlation, lactate and pyruvate concentrations, and PFK-1 levels, were each analyzed in the three groups in association with CIRP mRNA expression levels. The analysis did not reveal any correlation between the three metabolic parameters and CIRP mRNA expression induced by hypothermia, suggesting that while playing a role in neuroprotection under hypothermia, CIRP does not affect cerebral energy metabolism. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Correlation between expressions of ERCC1/TS mRNA and effects of gastric cancer to chemotherapy in the short term.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liqi; Li, Guoli; Li, Jieshou; Fan, Chaogang; Xu, Jian; Wu, Bo; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Caihua

    2013-04-01

    To study the correlation between expression levels of ERCC1/TS mRNA and the susceptibility of preoperative chemotherapy for patients with gastric cancer. A total of forty cases with advanced gastric cancer of T3-4N1-2M0 were treated with preoperative chemotherapy according to FLEEOX regimen based on endarterial-intravenous coadministration. Sufficient, fresh gastric tissue specimens were obtained with the help of gastroscope, and the expression levels of ERCC1/TS mRNA were detected by qRT-PCR before chemotherapy. The chemotherapeutic response was evaluated with Choi Criteria after chemotherapy, and pathologic remission extent was observed after surgery. The correlation between the expression levels of ERCC1/TS mRNA before chemotherapy and the chemotherapeutic effect based on imageology and pathology was analyzed. The response rate of Chemotherapy in this cohort was 80.0 % based on imageology and 51.43 % based on pathology. The expression levels of ERCC1/TS mRNA were significantly associated with imageology remission extent (P = 0.033, P = 0.025) and pathologic remission extent (P = 0.044, P = 0.016), respectively. The chemotherapeutic effect on patients with low-expression levels of ERCC1/TS mRNA was better. From the perspective of pathology and imageology evaluating the preoperative chemotherapeutic response for patients with gastric cancer, ERCC1 and TS were used as the molecular predictors and provided prognostic information in this study.

  4. Expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 and 2 receptor mRNA in gallbladder tissue of patients with gallstone or gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wu, Shuo-Dong; Gao, Hong; Shi, Gang; Jin, Jun-Zhe; Kong, Jing; Tian, Zhong; Su, Yang

    2006-03-07

    To detect the expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor 1 (VPCAP1-R)and VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissues of patients with gallstone or gallbladder polyps. The expression of VPCAP1-R and VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissues was detected in 25 patients with gallstone,8 patients with gallbladder polyps and 7 donors of liver transplantation by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The VPCAP2-R mRNA expression level in the control group (1.09+/-0.58) was lower than that in the gallbladder polyp group (1.64+/-0.56) and the gallstone group (1.55+/-0.45) (P<0.05) while the VPCAP1-R mRNA expression level in the control group (1.15+/-0.23) was not apparently different from that in the gallbladder polyp group (1.28+/-0.56) and the gallstone group (1.27+/-0.38). The abnormal expression of VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissue may play a role in the formation of gallbladder stone and gallbladder polyps.

  5. Expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 and 2 receptor mRNA in gallbladder tissue of patients with gallstone or gallbladder polyps

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wu, Shuo-Dong; Gao, Hong; Shi, Gang; Jin, Jun-Zhe; Kong, Jing; Tian, Zhong; Su, Yang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To detect the expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor 1 (VPCAP1-R) and VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissues of patients with gallstone or gallbladder polyps. METHODS: The expression of VPCAP1-R and VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissues was detected in 25 patients with gallstone, 8 patients with gallbladder polyps and 7 donors of liver transplantation by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: The VPCAP2-R mRNA expression level in the control group (1.09±0.58) was lower than that in the gallbladder polyp group (1.64 ± 0.56) and the gallstone group (1.55±0.45) (P < 0.05) while the VPCAP1-R mRNA expression level in the control group (1.15 ± 0.23) was not apparently different from that in the gallbladder polyp group (1.28±0.56) and the gallstone group (1.27 ± 0.38). CONCLUSION: The abnormal expression of VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissue may play a role in the formation of gallbladder stone and gallbladder polyps. PMID:16552823

  6. Adaptative decrease in expression of the mRNA for uncoupling protein and subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase in rat brown adipose tissue during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, I; Giralt, M; Viñas, O; Iglesias, R; Mampel, T; Villarroya, F

    1989-01-01

    Uncoupling-protein (UCP) mRNA expression is decreased to 15% of virgin control levels between days 10 and 15 of pregnancy, and remains at these low values during late pregnancy and lactation. Abrupt weaning of mid-lactating rats causes a slight but significant increase in UCP mRNA. Expression of mRNA for subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase (COII) decreased to half that of virgin control in late pregnancy and during lactation. Whereas COII mRNA expression is in step with the known modifications of brown-fat mitochondria content during the breeding cycle of the rat, UCP mRNA expression appears to be diminished much earlier than the mitochondrial proton-conductance-pathway activity. On the other hand, the reactivity of brown fat to increase expression of UCP and COII mRNAs in response to acute cold or noradrenaline treatment is not impaired during lactation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2557014

  7. Segment-specific expression of alkaline phosphatase in the Tubifex embryo requires DNA replication and mRNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kaoru; Shimizu, Takashi

    2002-04-15

    During embryogenesis of the oligochaete annelid Tubifex, segments VII and VIII specifically express mesodermal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the ventrolateral region. In this study, using specific inhibitors, we examined whether this segment-specific expression of ALP activity depends on DNA replication and RNA transcription. BrdU-incorporation experiments showed that presumptive ALP-expressing cells undergo the last round of DNA replication at 12-24 hr prior to emergence of ALP activity. When this DNA replication was inhibited by aphidicolin, ALP development was completely abrogated in the ventrolateral mesoderm. Similar inhibition of ALP development was also observed in alpha-amanitin-injected embryos. While injection of alpha-amanitin at 24 hr prior to the emergence of ALP activity exerted inhibitory effects on ALP development, injection at 14 hr was no longer effective. In contrast, ALP activity developed normally in cytochalasin-D-treated embryos in which cytokinesis was prevented from occurring for 36 hs prior to appearance of ALP activity. These results suggest that the segment-specific development of ALP activity in the Tubifex embryo depends on DNA replication and mRNA transcription, both of which occur long before the emergence of ALP activity. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. miRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles Reveal Insight into Chitosan-Mediated Regulation of Plant Growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Li, Kecheng; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Chen, Xiaolin; Yang, Haoyue; Li, Pengcheng

    2018-04-18

    Chitosan has been numerously studied as a plant growth regulator and stress tolerance inducer. To investigate the roles of chitosan as bioregulator on plant and unravel its possible metabolic responses mechanisms, we simultaneously investigated mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) expression profiles of wheat seedlings in response to chitosan heptamer. We found 400 chitosan-responsive differentially expressed genes, including 268 up-regulated and 132 down-regulated mRNAs, many of which were related to photosynthesis, primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism, defense responses, and transcription factors. Moreover, miRNAs also participate in chitosan-mediated regulation on plant growth. We identified 87 known and 21 novel miRNAs, among which 56 miRNAs were induced or repressed by chitosan heptamer, such as miRNA156, miRNA159a, miRNA164, miRNA171a, miRNA319, and miRNA1127. The integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in this case provides fundamental information for further investigation of regulation mechanisms of chitosan on plant growth and will facilitate its application in agriculture.

  9. Changes of Klotho protein and Klotho mRNA expression in a hydroxy-L-proline induced hyperoxaluric rat model.

    PubMed

    Jaturakan, Orapun; Buranakarl, Chollada; Dissayabutra, Thasinas; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak; Kijtawornrat, Anusak; Rungsipipat, Anudep

    2017-11-17

    Klotho protein is recognized as having a renoprotective effect and is used as a biomarker for kidney injury. We investigated the level of Klotho protein in hyperoxaluria-induced kidney injury and the effects of vitamin E (Vit E) and vitamin C (Vit C) supplementation. Hyperoxaluria was induced by feeding 2% (w/v) Hydroxy-L-proline (HLP) in the drinking water for 21 days. Rats were divided into 5 groups; control (Group 1, n=7), HLP treated rats that received nothing else (Group 2, n=7), Vit E (Group 3, n=6), Vit C (Group 4, n=6) and both Vit E and Vit C (Group 5, n=7). Vit E (200 mg/kg) was injected on days 1, 6, 11 and 16, while Vit C (500 mg/kg) was given intravenously on days 1 and 11. The Klotho protein levels and oxidative status were measured. The expression level of kidney Klotho protein expression was significantly reduced by HLP-treatment, while the mRNA expression was higher (P<0.05), the plasma and kidney malondialdehyde and kidney superoxide dismutase activities were increased, and the kidney reduced glutathione and urinary total antioxidant status were decreased (P<0.05). All of these changes were ameliorated by administration of Vit E, Vit C or especially the co-administration of both. In conclusion, HLP-induced hyperoxaluria reduced the kidney Klotho protein level, which could be restored by Vit E and/or Vit C.

  10. Changes of Klotho protein and Klotho mRNA expression in a hydroxy-L-proline induced hyperoxaluric rat model

    PubMed Central

    JATURAKAN, Orapun; BURANAKARL, Chollada; DISSAYABUTRA, Thasinas; CHAIYABUTR, Narongsak; KIJTAWORNRAT, Anusak; RUNGSIPIPAT, Anudep

    2017-01-01

    Klotho protein is recognized as having a renoprotective effect and is used as a biomarker for kidney injury. We investigated the level of Klotho protein in hyperoxaluria-induced kidney injury and the effects of vitamin E (Vit E) and vitamin C (Vit C) supplementation. Hyperoxaluria was induced by feeding 2% (w/v) Hydroxy-L-proline (HLP) in the drinking water for 21 days. Rats were divided into 5 groups; control (Group 1, n=7), HLP treated rats that received nothing else (Group 2, n=7), Vit E (Group 3, n=6), Vit C (Group 4, n=6) and both Vit E and Vit C (Group 5, n=7). Vit E (200 mg/kg) was injected on days 1, 6, 11 and 16, while Vit C (500 mg/kg) was given intravenously on days 1 and 11. The Klotho protein levels and oxidative status were measured. The expression level of kidney Klotho protein expression was significantly reduced by HLP-treatment, while the mRNA expression was higher (P<0.05), the plasma and kidney malondialdehyde and kidney superoxide dismutase activities were increased, and the kidney reduced glutathione and urinary total antioxidant status were decreased (P<0.05). All of these changes were ameliorated by administration of Vit E, Vit C or especially the co-administration of both. In conclusion, HLP-induced hyperoxaluria reduced the kidney Klotho protein level, which could be restored by Vit E and/or Vit C. PMID:28943597

  11. Expression of basic fibroblast growth factor mRNA in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mydlo, J H; Michaeli, J; Heston, W D; Fair, W R

    1988-01-01

    In our previous work we demonstrated that prostate-derived growth factor (PrGF) is homologous to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), not acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF). Using Northern blot analysis we now show that the messenger RNA for bFGF but not aFGF is expressed in benign prostatic hyperplastic (BPH) tissue as well as in carcinoma of the prostate (CAP). This not only corroborates our previous results, but suggests that PrGF is produced locally and not merely stored in the prostate. The demonstration of local production of bFGF by prostate tissue may indicate that this growth factor plays a role, either alone or in conjunction with other factors, in the etiology of benign hyperplasia or prostatic cancer.

  12. Volcano plots in analyzing differential expressions with mRNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Li, Wentian

    2012-12-01

    A volcano plot displays unstandardized signal (e.g. log-fold-change) against noise-adjusted/standardized signal (e.g. t-statistic or -log(10)(p-value) from the t-test). We review the basic and interactive use of the volcano plot and its crucial role in understanding the regularized t-statistic. The joint filtering gene selection criterion based on regularized statistics has a curved discriminant line in the volcano plot, as compared to the two perpendicular lines for the "double filtering" criterion. This review attempts to provide a unifying framework for discussions on alternative measures of differential expression, improved methods for estimating variance, and visual display of a microarray analysis result. We also discuss the possibility of applying volcano plots to other fields beyond microarray.

  13. The Arabidopsis polyamine transporter LHR1/PUT3 modulates heat responsive gene expression by enhancing mRNA stability.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yun; Ruan, Qingxia; Chai, Haoxi; Yuan, Yongze; Yang, Wannian; Chen, Junping; Xin, Zhanguo; Shi, Huazhong

    2016-12-01

    Polyamines involve in gene regulation by interacting with and modulating the functions of various anionic macromolecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. In this study, we identified an important function of the polyamine transporter LHR1 (LOWER EXPRESSION OF HEAT RESPONSIVE GENE1) in heat-inducible gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. The lhr1 mutant was isolated through a forward genetic screening for altered expression of the luciferase reporter gene driven by the promoter from the heat-inducible gene AtHSP18.2. The lhr1 mutant showed reduced induction of the luciferase gene in response to heat stress and was more sensitive to high temperature than the wild type. Map-based cloning identified that the LHR1 gene encodes the polyamine transporter PUT3 (POLYAMINE UPTAKE TRANSPORTER 3) localized in the plasma membrane. The LHR1/PUT3 is required for the uptake of extracellular polyamines and plays an important role in stabilizing the mRNAs of several crucial heat stress responsive genes under high temperature. Genome-wide gene expression analysis using RNA-seq identified an array of differentially expressed genes, among which the transcript levels of some of the heat shock protein genes significantly reduced in response to prolonged heat stress in the lhr1 mutant. Our findings revealed an important heat stress response and tolerance mechanism involving polyamine influx which modulates mRNA stability of heat-inducible genes under heat stress conditions. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Investigation of mRNA expression for secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Tien; Lin, Yu-Ting; Kuo, Tzong-Fu

    2007-08-01

    The roles of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) in organ development of vertebrate animals are not well understood. We investigated expression of sFRP2 during embryogenesis of Arbor Acre broiler chicken eggs. Expression of sFRP2 was detected in the folds and lateral layer of developing brains. The sFRP2 signals in the developing eye were marked as a circle along the orbit. In younger embryos on days 3-6, the sFRP2 signals were consistent with growth of the sclerotome, suggesting that sFRP2 may be associated with somite development. Furthermore, with the exception of bones, sFRP2 mRNA was detectable in the interdigital tissue of embryos older than eight days as the limbs matured. This revealed that sFRP2 might play a role in myogenesis. In situ hybridization was also used to analyze the expression of sFRP2 in day 3-10 chick embryos. Signals were expressed in the gray matter of the developing brain coelom, including the optic lobe, metencephalon, myelencephalon, mesencephalon and diencephalon. The developing eyes contained an intercellular distribution of sFRP2 in the pigmented layer of the retina and photoreceptors. Furthermore, sFRP2 was expressed in the mantle layer of the neural tube and notochord. Based on these findings, it seems reasonable to suggest that sFRP2 may play an active role in embryogenesis, especially in development of the neural system, eyes, muscles and limbs.

  15. beta(2)microglobulin mRNA expression levels are prognostic for lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Shrout, J; Yousefzadeh, M; Dodd, A; Kirven, K; Blum, C; Graham, A; Benjamin, K; Hoda, R; Krishna, M; Romano, M; Wallace, M; Garrett-Mayer, E; Mitas, M

    2008-06-17

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common non-cutaneous malignancy in the United States and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death. One of the most important determinants of CRC survival is lymph node metastasis. To determine whether molecular markers might be prognostic for lymph node metastases, we measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR the expression levels of 15 cancer-associated genes in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tissues derived from stage I-IV CRC patients with (n=20) and without (n=18) nodal metastases. Using the mean of the 15 genes as an internal reference control, we observed that low expression of beta(2)microglobulin (B2M) was a strong prognostic indicator of lymph node metastases (area under the curve (AUC)=0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.69-0.94). We also observed that the expression ratio of B2M/Spint2 had the highest prognostic accuracy (AUC=0.87; 95% CI=0.71-0.96) of all potential two-gene combinations. Expression values of Spint2 correlated with the mean of the entire gene set at an R(2) value of 0.97, providing evidence that Spint2 serves not as an independent prognostic gene, but rather as a reliable reference control gene. These studies are the first to demonstrate a prognostic role of B2M at the mRNA level and suggest that low B2M expression levels might be useful for identifying patients with lymph node metastasis and/or poor survival.

  16. The N Terminus of Andes Virus L Protein Suppresses mRNA and Protein Expression in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Patrick; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the structure and function of the 250-kDa L protein of hantaviruses, although it plays a central role in virus genome transcription and replication. When attempting to study Andes virus (ANDV) L protein in mammalian cells, we encountered difficulties. Even in a strong overexpression system, ANDV L protein could not be detected by immunoblotting. Deletion analysis revealed that the 534 N-terminal amino acid residues determine the low-expression phenotype. Inhibition of translation due to RNA secondary structures around the start codon, rapid proteasomal degradation, and reduced half-life time were excluded. However, ANDV L protein expression could be rescued upon mutation of the catalytic PD-E-K motif and further conserved residues of the putative endonuclease at the N terminus of the protein. In addition, wild-type ANDV L rather than expressible L mutants suppressed the level of L mRNA, as well as reporter mRNAs. Wild-type L protein also reduced the synthesis of cellular proteins in the high-molecular-weight range. Using expressible ANDV L mutants as a tool for localization studies, we show that L protein colocalizes with ANDV N and NSs but not Gc protein. A fraction of L protein also colocalized with the cellular processing (P) body component DCP1a. Overall, these data suggest that ANDV L protein possesses a highly active endonuclease at the N terminus suppressing the level of its own as well as heterologous mRNAs upon recombinant expression in mammalian cells. PMID:23576516

  17. Imbalanced expression of RANKL and osteoprotegerin mRNA in pannus tissue of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ainola, M; Mandelin, J; Liljeström, M; Konttinen, Y T; Salo, J

    2008-01-01

    To test if the pannus tissue is characterized by a high receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand to osteoprotegerin (RANKL:OPG) ratio, which could explain local osteoclastogenesis and formation of bony erosions. Messenger RNA and protein expressions of RANKL and OPG in rheumatoid and osteoarthritic tissue samples were measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot/densitometry. Pannus and synovitis fibroblasts explanted from tissue samples were cultured in vitro without and with TNF-alpha, IL-1Beta or IL-17 and analyzed quantitatively for RANKL expression. The ability of pannus fibroblasts to induce formation of multinuclear osteoclast-like cells from human monocytes, with macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) but without RANKL added, was tested. Histochemical staining was used to assess the eventual presence of RANKL and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase positive osteoclast-like cells at the pannus-bone interface. RANKL:OPG ratios of messenger RNA (p<0.05) and protein level were high in pannus (2.06+/-0.73 and 2.2+/-0.65) compared to rheumatoid (0.62+/-0.13 and 1.31+/-0.69) and osteoarthritis (0.62+/-0.32 and 0.52+/-0.16) synovial membranes. Resting and stimulated (p dependent on the cytokine used) pannus fibroblasts produced RANKL in excess (p=0.0005) and unstimulated pannus fibroblasts also effectively induced osteoclast-like cell formation from monocytes in vitro without any exogenous RANKL added. Compatible with these findings, multinuclear osteoclasts-like cells were frequent in the fibroblast- and macrophage-rich pannus tissue at the soft tissue-to-bone interface. The high RANKL:OPG ratio, together with close fibroblast-to-monocyte contacts in pannus tissue, probably favor local generation of bone resorbing osteoclasts at the site of erosion in rheumatoid arthritis.

  18. mRNA expression of corticotropin-releasing factor and urocortin 1 after restraint and foot shock together with alprazolam administration.

    PubMed

    Cespedes, Isabel C; de Oliveira, Amanda R; da Silva, Joelcimar M; da Silva, André V; Sita, Luciane V; Bittencourt, Jackson C

    2010-12-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is expressed in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), and act centrally to provoke stress-like autonomic and behavioral responses. Urocortins 1-3 are additional ligands to the CRF receptors 1 and 2. Ucn 1 neurons are primarily concentrated in the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus and also have been associated with stress responses. It is also known that UCN 1 respond in different ways depending on the stressor presented. Benzodiazepines can act via the CRF peptidergic system and chronic administration of alprazolam does not interfere with CRF mRNA expression in the PVN, but significantly increase Ucn 1 mRNA expression in the EW. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between different stressor stimuli, foot shock (FS) and restraint (R), and the mRNA expression of CRF and Ucn 1 in the PVN and EW using alprazolam (A). We employed fos activation and in situ hybridization. Restraint group presented increased fos-ir and CRF mRNA expression in the PVN compared to FS group. The stress responses of R group were prevented by A. In the EW, fos-ir was higher in the FS group than in the R group, whereas Ucn 1 mRNA expression was higher in the R group than in the FS group. Alprazolam significantly increased fos-ir and Ucn 1 mRNA expression in both groups. Our results show that PVN and EW respond in different ways to the same stressors. Furthermore, EW of stressed animals replies in a complementary way comparing to PVN with the use of Alprazolam. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Colonization by non-pathogenic bacteria alters mRNA expression of cytochromes P450 in originally germ-free mice.

    PubMed

    Jourová, L; Anzenbacher, P; Lišková, B; Matušková, Z; Hermanová, P; Hudcovic, T; Kozáková, H; Hrnčířová, L; Anzenbacherová, E

    2017-11-01

    Gut microbiota provides a wide range of beneficial function for the host and has an immense effect on the host's health state. It has also been shown that gut microbiome is often involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics; however, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between the gut bacteria and the metabolism of drugs by the host are still unclear. To investigate the effect of microbial colonization on messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of liver cytochromes P450 (CYPs), the main drug-metabolizing enzymes, we used germ-free (GF) mice, lacking the intestinal flora and mice monocolonized by non-pathogenic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum NIZO2877 or probiotic bacteria Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 compared to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice. Our results show that the mRNA expression of Cyp1a2 and Cyp2e1 was significantly increased, while the expression of Cyp3a11 mRNA was decreased under GF conditions compared to the SPF mice. The both bacteria L. plantarum NIZO2877 and E. coli Nissle 1917 given to the GF mice decreased the level of Cyp1a2 mRNA and normalized it to the control level. On the other hand, the colonization by these bacteria had no effect on the expression of Cyp3a11 mRNA in the liver of the GF mice (which remained decreased). Surprisingly, monocolonization with chosen bacterial strains has shown a different effect on the expression of Cyp2e1 mRNA in GF mice. Increased level of Cyp2e1 expression observed in the GF mice was found also in mice colonized by L. plantarum NIZO2877 ; however, the colonization with probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 caused a decrease in Cyp2e1 expression and partially restored the SPF mice conditions.

  20. Reduction in the mRNA expression of sVEGFR1 and sVEGFR2 is associated with the selection of dominant follicle in cows.

    PubMed

    Ortega Serrano, P V; Guzmán, A; Hernández-Coronado, C G; Castillo-Juárez, H; Rosales-Torres, A M

    2016-12-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential for follicular development by promoting follicular angiogenesis, as well as for the proliferation and survival of granulosa cells. The biological effects of VEGF are regulated by two membrane receptors, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, and two soluble receptors, sVEGFR1 and sVEGFR2, which play an antagonistic role. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify the mRNA expression pattern of total VEGF, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, sVEGFR1 and sVEGFR2 in bovine preselected follicles (PRF) and post-selected follicles (POF). The mRNA expression of these five genes in both granulosa cells (GC) and theca cells (TC) was compared between follicles classified as PRF and POF based on their diameter and on their ratio of estradiol/progesterone (E2/P4). Results showed a lower expression of mRNA of sVEGFR1 and sVEGFR2 in POF than in PRF (p < .05). Regarding the mRNA expression of total VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, there was no difference between POF and PRF follicles (p > .05). Our results showed that the mRNA expression of VEGFR2 and sVEGFR1 was more abundant than the expression of VEGFR1 and sVEGFR2, while GC was the main source of mRNA for total VEGF. On the other hand, TC was the follicular compartment where the receptors were most expressed. Our results suggest that non-dominant follicles maintain a greater concentration of the mRNA expression of both membrane and soluble VEGF receptors. On the other hand, follicular dominance is related to a reduction in the mRNA expression of sVEGFR1 and sVEGFR2, which may favour VEGF binding with VEGFR2 and, hence, improve the follicular health and development. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Small, synthetic, GC-rich mRNA stem-loop modules 5' proximal to the AUG start-codon predictably tune gene expression in yeast.

    PubMed

    Lamping, Erwin; Niimi, Masakazu; Cannon, Richard D

    2013-07-29

    A large range of genetic tools has been developed for the optimal design and regulation of complex metabolic pathways in bacteria. However, fewer tools exist in yeast that can precisely tune the expression of individual enzymes in novel metabolic pathways suitable for industrial-scale production of non-natural compounds. Tuning expression levels is critical for reducing the metabolic burden of over-expressed proteins, the accumulation of toxic intermediates, and for redirecting metabolic flux from native pathways involving essential enzymes without negatively affecting the viability of the host. We have developed a yeast membrane protein hyper-expression system with critical advantages over conventional, plasmid-based, expression systems. However, expression levels are sometimes so high that they adversely affect protein targeting/folding or the growth and/or phenotype of the host. Here we describe the use of small synthetic mRNA control modules that allowed us to predictably tune protein expression levels to any desired level. Down-regulation of expression was achieved by engineering small GC-rich mRNA stem-loops into the 5' UTR that inhibited translation initiation of the yeast ribosomal 43S preinitiation complex (PIC). Exploiting the fact that the yeast 43S PIC has great difficulty scanning through GC-rich mRNA stem-loops, we created yeast strains containing 17 different RNA stem-loop modules in the 5' UTR that expressed varying amounts of the fungal multidrug efflux pump reporter Cdr1p from Candida albicans. Increasing the length of mRNA stem-loops (that contained only GC-pairs) near the AUG start-codon led to a surprisingly large decrease in Cdr1p expression; ~2.7-fold for every additional GC-pair added to the stem, while the mRNA levels remained largely unaffected. An mRNA stem-loop of seven GC-pairs (∆G = -15.8 kcal/mol) reduced Cdr1p expression levels by >99%, and even the smallest possible stem-loop of only three GC-pairs (∆G = -4.4 kcal/mol) inhibited

  2. Small, synthetic, GC-rich mRNA stem-loop modules 5′ proximal to the AUG start-codon predictably tune gene expression in yeast

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A large range of genetic tools has been developed for the optimal design and regulation of complex metabolic pathways in bacteria. However, fewer tools exist in yeast that can precisely tune the expression of individual enzymes in novel metabolic pathways suitable for industrial-scale production of non-natural compounds. Tuning expression levels is critical for reducing the metabolic burden of over-expressed proteins, the accumulation of toxic intermediates, and for redirecting metabolic flux from native pathways involving essential enzymes without negatively affecting the viability of the host. We have developed a yeast membrane protein hyper-expression system with critical advantages over conventional, plasmid-based, expression systems. However, expression levels are sometimes so high that they adversely affect protein targeting/folding or the growth and/or phenotype of the host. Here we describe the use of small synthetic mRNA control modules that allowed us to predictably tune protein expression levels to any desired level. Down-regulation of expression was achieved by engineering small GC-rich mRNA stem-loops into the 5′ UTR that inhibited translation initiation of the yeast ribosomal 43S preinitiation complex (PIC). Results Exploiting the fact that the yeast 43S PIC has great difficulty scanning through GC-rich mRNA stem-loops, we created yeast strains containing 17 different RNA stem-loop modules in the 5′ UTR that expressed varying amounts of the fungal multidrug efflux pump reporter Cdr1p from Candida albicans. Increasing the length of mRNA stem-loops (that contained only GC-pairs) near the AUG start-codon led to a surprisingly large decrease in Cdr1p expression; ~2.7-fold for every additional GC-pair added to the stem, while the mRNA levels remained largely unaffected. An mRNA stem-loop of seven GC-pairs (∆G = −15.8 kcal/mol) reduced Cdr1p expression levels by >99%, and even the smallest possible stem-loop of only three GC-pairs (

  3. L-DOPA decarboxylase mRNA expression is associated with tumor stage and size in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide. The DDC gene encodes L-DOPA decarboxylase, an enzyme catalyzing the decarboxylation of L-DOPA to dopamine. We have recently shown that DDC mRNA is a significant predictor of patients’ prognosis in colorectal adenocarcinoma and prostate cancer. The aim of the current study was to analyze the DDC mRNA expression in HNSCC patients. Methods 53 malignant tumors were resected from the larynx, pharynx, tongue, buccal mucosa, parotid glands, and nasal cavity, as well as from 34 adjacent non-cancerous tissues of HNSCC patients, and were homogenized. Total RNA was isolated and converted into first-strand cDNA. An ultrasensitive real-time PCR method based on the SYBR Green chemistry was used for DDC mRNA quantification in head and neck tissue specimens. Relative quantification was performed using the comparative Ct (2-ddCt) method. Results DDC mRNA levels were lower in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the larynx and tongue than in adjacent non-cancerous tissue specimens. Furthermore, low DDC mRNA expression was noticed in laryngeal and tongue tumors of advanced TNM stage or bigger size, compared to early-stage or smaller tumors, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between SCCs resected from pharynx, buccal mucosa, or nasal cavity, and their normal counterparts. Conclusion This is the first study examining the DDC mRNA expression in HNSCC. According to our results, DDC mRNA expression may constitute a potential prognostic biomarker in tongue and/or larynx SCCs, which principally represent the overwhelming majority of HNSCC cases. PMID:23083099

  4. L-DOPA decarboxylase mRNA expression is associated with tumor stage and size in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Geomela, Panagiota-Aikaterini; Kontos, Christos K; Yiotakis, Ioannis; Fragoulis, Emmanuel G; Scorilas, Andreas

    2012-10-20

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide. The DDC gene encodes L-DOPA decarboxylase, an enzyme catalyzing the decarboxylation of L-DOPA to dopamine. We have recently shown that DDC mRNA is a significant predictor of patients' prognosis in colorectal adenocarcinoma and prostate cancer. The aim of the current study was to analyze the DDC mRNA expression in HNSCC patients. 53 malignant tumors were resected from the larynx, pharynx, tongue, buccal mucosa, parotid glands, and nasal cavity, as well as from 34 adjacent non-cancerous tissues of HNSCC patients, and were homogenized. Total RNA was isolated and converted into first-strand cDNA. An ultrasensitive real-time PCR method based on the SYBR Green chemistry was used for DDC mRNA quantification in head and neck tissue specimens. Relative quantification was performed using the comparative Ct (2-ddCt) method. DDC mRNA levels were lower in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the larynx and tongue than in adjacent non-cancerous tissue specimens. Furthermore, low DDC mRNA expression was noticed in laryngeal and tongue tumors of advanced TNM stage or bigger size, compared to early-stage or smaller tumors, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between SCCs resected from pharynx, buccal mucosa, or nasal cavity, and their normal counterparts. This is the first study examining the DDC mRNA expression in HNSCC. According to our results, DDC mRNA expression may constitute a potential prognostic biomarker in tongue and/or larynx SCCs, which principally represent the overwhelming majority of HNSCC cases.

  5. The effects of ropivacaine hydrochloride on the expression of CaMK II mRNA in the dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xianjie; Lai, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Tao; Liang, Hua

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we identified the subtype of Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) mRNA in dorsal root ganglion neurons and observed the effects of ropivacaine hydrochloride in different concentration and different exposure time on the mRNA expression. Dorsal root ganglion neurons were isolated from the SD rats and cultured in vitro. The mRNA of the CaMK II subtype in dorsal root ganglion neurons were detected by real-time PCR. As well as, the dorsal root ganglion neurons were treated with ropivacaine hydrochloride in different concentration (1mM,2mM, 3mM and 4mM) for the same exposure time of 4h, or different exposure time (0h,2h,3h,4h and 6h) at the same concentration(3mM). The changes of the mRNA expression of the CaMK II subtype were observed with real-time PCR. All subtype mRNA of the CaMK II, CaMK II α , CaMK II β , CaMK II δ , CaMK II γ , can be detected in dorsal root ganglion neurons. With the increased of the concentration and exposure time of the ropivacaine hydrochloride, all the subtype mRNA expression increased. Ropivacaine hydrochloride up-regulate the CaMK II β , CaMK II δ , CaMK II g mRNA expression with the concentration and exposure time increasing. The nerve blocking or the neurotoxicity of the ropivacaine hydrochloride maybe involved with CaMK II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Gold nanoparticle-based beacon to detect STAT5b mRNA expression in living cells: a case optimized by bioinformatics screen.

    PubMed

    Deng, Dawei; Li, Yang; Xue, Jianpeng; Wang, Jie; Ai, Guanhua; Li, Xin; Gu, Yueqing

    2015-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA), a single-strand ribonucleic acid with functional gene information is usually abnormally expressed in cancer cells and has become a promising biomarker for the study of tumor progress. Hairpin DNA-coated gold nanoparticle (hDAuNP) beacon containing a bare gold nanoparticle (AuNP) as fluorescence quencher and thiol-terminated fluorescently labeled stem-loop-stem oligonucleotide sequences attached by Au-S bond is currently a new nanoscale biodiagnostic platform capable of mRNA detection, in which the design of the loop region sequence is crucial for hybridizing with the target mRNA. Hence, in this study, to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of hDAuNP beacon simultaneously, the loop region of hairpin DNA was screened by bioinformatics strategy. Here, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) mRNA was selected and used as a practical example. The results from the combined characterizations using optical techniques, flow cytometry assay, and cell microscopic imaging showed that after optimization, the as-prepared hDAuNP beacon had higher selectivity and sensitivity for the detection of STAT5b mRNA in living cells, as compared with our previous beacon. Thus, the bioinformatics method may be a promising new strategy for assisting in the designing of the hDAuNP beacon, extending its application in the detection of mRNA expression and the resultant mRNA-based biological processes and disease pathogenesis.

  7. Correlative mRNA and Protein Expression of Middle and Inner Ear Inflammatory Cytokines during Mouse Acute Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Trune, Dennis R.; Kempton, Beth; Hausman, Frances A.; Larrain, Barbara E.; MacArthur, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    Although the inner ear has long been reported to be susceptible to middle ear disease, little is known of the inflammatory mechanisms that might cause permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Recent studies have shown inner ear tissues are capable of expressing inflammatory cytokines during otitis media. However, little quantitative information is available concerning cytokine gene expression in the inner ear and the protein products that result. Therefore, this study was conducted of mouse middle and inner ear during acute otitis media to measure the relationship between inflammatory cytokine genes and their protein products with quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Balb/c mice were inoculated transtympanically with heat-killed Haemophilus influenzae and middle and inner ear tissues collected for either quantitative RT-PCR microarrays or ELISA multiplex arrays. mRNA for several cytokine genes was significantly increased in both the middle and inner ear at 6 hours. In the inner ear, these included MIP-2 (448 fold), IL-6 (126 fold), IL-1β (7.8 fold), IL-10 (10.7 fold), TNFα (1.8 fold), and IL-1α (1.5 fold). The 24 hour samples showed a similar pattern of gene expression, although generally at lower levels. In parallel, the ELISA showed the related cytokines were present in the inner ear at concentrations higher by 2 to 122 fold higher at 18 hours, declining slightly from there at 24 hours. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies to a number of these cytokines demonstrated they occurred in greater amounts in the inner ear tissues. These findings demonstrate considerable inflammatory gene expression and gene products in the inner ear following acute otitis media. These higher cytokine levels suggest one potential mechanism for the permanent hearing loss seen in some cases of acute and chronic otitis media. PMID:25922207

  8. Correlative mRNA and protein expression of middle and inner ear inflammatory cytokines during mouse acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Trune, Dennis R; Kempton, Beth; Hausman, Frances A; Larrain, Barbara E; MacArthur, Carol J

    2015-08-01

    Although the inner ear has long been reported to be susceptible to middle ear disease, little is known of the inflammatory mechanisms that might cause permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Recent studies have shown inner ear tissues are capable of expressing inflammatory cytokines during otitis media. However, little quantitative information is available concerning cytokine gene expression in the inner ear and the protein products that result. Therefore, this study was conducted of mouse middle and inner ear during acute otitis media to measure the relationship between inflammatory cytokine genes and their protein products with quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Balb/c mice were inoculated transtympanically with heat-killed Haemophilus influenzae and middle and inner ear tissues collected for either quantitative RT-PCR microarrays or ELISA multiplex arrays. mRNA for several cytokine genes was significantly increased in both the middle and inner ear at 6 h. In the inner ear, these included MIP-2 (448 fold), IL-6 (126 fold), IL-1β (7.8 fold), IL-10 (10.7 fold), TNFα (1.8 fold), and IL-1α (1.5 fold). The 24 h samples showed a similar pattern of gene expression, although generally at lower levels. In parallel, the ELISA showed the related cytokines were present in the inner ear at concentrations higher by 2-122 fold higher at 18 h, declining slightly from there at 24 h. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies to a number of these cytokines demonstrated they occurred in greater amounts in the inner ear tissues. These findings demonstrate considerable inflammatory gene expression and gene products in the inner ear following acute otitis media. These higher cytokine levels suggest one potential mechanism for the permanent hearing loss seen in some cases of acute and chronic otitis media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Global miRNA expression and correlation with mRNA levels in primary human bone cells

    PubMed Central

    Laxman, Navya; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Mallmin, Hans; Nilsson, Olle; Pastinen, Tomi; Grundberg, Elin; Kindmark, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators that have recently introduced an additional level of intricacy to our understanding of gene regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate miRNA–mRNA interactions that may be relevant for bone metabolism by assessing correlations and interindividual variability in miRNA levels as well as global correlations between miRNA and mRNA levels in a large cohort of primary human osteoblasts (HOBs) obtained during orthopedic surgery in otherwise healthy individuals. We identified differential expression (DE) of 24 miRNAs, and found 9 miRNAs exhibiting DE between males and females. We identified hsa-miR-29b, hsa-miR-30c2, and hsa-miR-125b and their target genes as important modulators of bone metabolism. Further, we used an integrated analysis of global miRNA–mRNA correlations, mRNA-expression profiling, DE, bioinformatics analysis, and functional studies to identify novel target genes for miRNAs with the potential to regulate osteoblast differentiation and extracellular matrix production. Functional studies by overexpression and knockdown of miRNAs showed that, the differentially expressed miRNAs hsa-miR-29b, hsa-miR-30c2, and hsa-miR-125b target genes highly relevant to bone metabolism, e.g., collagen, type I, α1 (COL1A1), osteonectin (SPARC), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osteocalcin (BGLAP), and frizzled-related protein (FRZB). These miRNAs orchestrate the activities of key regulators of osteoblast differentiation and extracellular matrix proteins by their convergent action on target genes and pathways to control the skeletal gene expression. PMID:26078267

  10. Molecular cloning, characterization, tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes during the hibernation and reproductive periods of estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) in Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruidong; Hu, Yuehong; Wang, Huan; Yan, Peng; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Rong; Wu, Xiaobing

    2016-10-01

    Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis, is a critically endangered reptile species unique to China. Little is known about the mechanism of growth- and reproduction-related hormones gene expression in Chinese alligator. Estrogens play important roles in regulating multiple reproduction- and non-reproduction-related functions by binding to their corresponding receptors. Here, the full-length cDNA of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα/ESR1) was cloned and sequenced from Chinese alligator for the first time, which comprises 1764bp nucleotides and encodes a predicted protein of 587 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of ESR1 showed that crocodilians and turtles were the sister-group of birds. The results of real-time quantitative PCR indicated that the ESR1 mRNA was widely expressed in the brain and peripheral tissues. In the brain and pituitary gland, ESR1 was most highly transcribed in the cerebellum. But in other peripheral tissues, ESR1 mRNA expression level was the highest in the ovary. Compared with hibernation period, ESR1 mRNA expression levels were increased significantly in the reproductive period (P<0.05) in cerebellum, pituitary gland, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and ovary, while no significant change in other examined tissues (P>0.05). The ESR1 mRNA expression levels changes during the two periods of different tissues suggested that ESR1 might play an important role in mediation of estrogenic multiple reproductive effects in Chinese alligator. Furthermore, it was the first time to quantify ESR1 mRNA level in the brain of crocodilians, and the distribution and expression of ESR1 mRNA in the midbrain, cerebellum and medulla oblongata was also reported for the first time in reptiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular effects of leptin on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) mRNA expression in rat's adipose and liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, A; Moghadam, A A; Kahrarian, Z; Abbsavaran, R; Yari, K; Alizadeh, E

    2017-08-15

    Leptin is a 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted by adipose tissue that participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of leptin injection on mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and comparison of PPAR-γ mRNA expression in rat's adipose and liver tissue. Twenty adult male rats were divided into the following groups: Group 1asa control (n=10) that did not receive any treatment. Group 2as a treatment (n=10) that received leptin (30 µg ⁄ kg BW) intraperitoneally (ip) for two successive days. Blood samples were taken before and one day after second leptin injection for triglyceride (TG), Free Fatty Acid (FFA), HLD-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol measurement. Total RNA was extractedfrom the adipose tissue and liver tissues of rats.  Adipose and liver tissue cells' cDNA was synthesized to characterize the expression of PPAR-γ. Gene expression of PPAR-γ mRNA was tested by RT- PCR technique. Results show leptin decreases expression of PPAR-γ on rat. Low levels of PPAR-γ mRNA were detected in adipose and liver tissues of treatment rats in comparison to control group. In treatment group, the level of PPAR-γ mRNA in liver tissue was very lower than the adipose tissue. The levels of HDL and FFA in treatment rats were increased whereas serum levels TG, VLDL and LDL were not changed. It is concluded that leptin signal with suppressing of PPAR-γ mRNA expression in rat's adipose and liver tissues can result in lipolysis instead of lipogenesis.

  12. Whole blood FPR1 mRNA expression predicts both non‐small cell and small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vachani, Anil; Pass, Harvey I.; Rom, William N.; Ryden, Kirk; Weiss, Glen J.; Hogarth, D. K.; Runger, George; Richards, Donald; Shelton, Troy; Mallery, David W.

    2018-01-01

    While long‐term survival rates for early‐stage lung cancer are high, most cases are diagnosed in later stages that can negatively impact survival rates. We aim to design a simple, single biomarker blood test for early‐stage lung cancer that is robust to preclinical variables and can be readily implemented in the clinic. Whole blood was collected in PAXgene tubes from a training set of 29 patients, and a validation set of 260 patients, of which samples from 58 patients were prospectively collected in a clinical trial specifically for our study. After RNA was extracted, the expressions of FPR1 and a reference gene were quantified by an automated one‐step Taqman RT‐PCR assay. Elevated levels of FPR1 mRNA in whole blood predicted lung cancer status with a sensitivity of 55% and a specificity of 87% on all validation specimens. The prospectively collected specimens had a significantly higher 68% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Results from patients with benign nodules were similar to healthy volunteers. No meaningful correlation was present between our test results and any clinical characteristic other than lung cancer diagnosis. FPR1 mRNA levels in whole blood can predict the presence of lung cancer. Using this as a reflex test for positive lung cancer screening computed tomography scans has the potential to increase the positive predictive value. This marker can be easily measured in an automated process utilizing off‐the‐shelf equipment and reagents. Further work is justified to explain the source of this biomarker. PMID:29313979

  13. Glypican-3 mRNA expression level in Wilms tumor: correlation with histological type, stage, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Wari, Md Nahidul; Vallonthaiel, Archana George; Ahmed, Aijaz; Saxena, Deepali; Iyer, Venkateswaran K; Mathur, Sandeep R; Agarwala, Sandeep; Bakhshi, Sameer; Srinivas, V; Chattopadhyaya, P; Sharma, Arundhati; Gupta, S Datta; Dinda, Amit

    2017-06-01

    To correlate expression of Glypican-3 in Wilms tumor with histopathology, stage, and outcome. Glypican-3 mRNA expression by real-time PCR on tumor and normal germline samples from 75 fresh nephrectomies for Wilms tumor with fold change after normalization against GAPDH was compared. Survival analysis for event-free and overall survival (EFS, OS) with 2-year follow-up for Glypican-3 overexpression (>1.5 times) and clinicopathological parameters was performed. Glypican-3 was overexpressed in 37/75 (49.3%). It was overexpressed in 77% (10/13) cases with blastema predominance or anaplastic histology, as compared to 44% of other histologies (27/62) (p = 0.03). OS was 73 and 93%, respectively (p = 0.016), for those with and without GPC-3 overexpression. EFS was not significantly different with Glypican-3 overexpression (p = 0.11). All 5 deaths among blastema predominant tumors and 4/5 deaths among triphasic tumors had overexpressed Glypican-3. Most deaths in Stage IV, Stage III, and Stage I + II (5/7, 3/3, 1/1) had GPC-3 overexpression. On multivariate analysis, only histology and stage were found to have independent prognostic value. Glypican-3 overexpression in Wilms tumor correlates with poor OS on univariate analysis. However, only histology and stage have independent prognostic value. Glypican-3 levels may help to stratify intermediate outcome histology (triphasic) and Stage III Wilms tumors.

  14. Sub-cellular mRNA localization modulates the regulation of gene expression by small RNAs in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teimouri, Hamid; Korkmazhan, Elgin; Stavans, Joel; Levine, Erel

    2017-10-01

    Small non-coding RNAs can exert significant regulatory activity on gene expression in bacteria. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in understanding bacterial gene expression by sRNAs. However, recent findings that demonstrate that families of mRNAs show non-trivial sub-cellular distributions raise the question of how localization may affect the regulatory activity of sRNAs. Here we address this question within a simple mathematical model. We show that the non-uniform spatial distributions of mRNA can alter the threshold-linear response that characterizes sRNAs that act stoichiometrically, and modulate the hierarchy among targets co-regulated by the same sRNA. We also identify conditions where the sub-cellular organization of cofactors in the sRNA pathway can induce spatial heterogeneity on sRNA targets. Our results suggest that under certain conditions, interpretation and modeling of natural and synthetic gene regulatory circuits need to take into account the spatial organization of the transcripts of participating genes.

  15. Association between EML4-ALK fusion gene and thymidylate synthase mRNA expression in non-small cell lung cancer tissues

    PubMed Central

    XU, CHUN-WEI; WANG, GANG; WANG, WU-LONG; GAO, WEN-BIN; HAN, CHUAN-JUN; GAO, JING-SHAN; ZHANG, LI-YING; LI, YANG; WANG, LIN; ZHANG, YU-PING; TIAN, YU-WANG; QI, DONG-DONG

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of the mRNA expression of the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene with that of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of EML4-ALK fusion gene and TYMS mRNA in 257 cases of NSCLC. The positive rate of EML4-ALK fusion gene was 4.28% in the NSCLC tissues (11/257), and was higher in nonsmokers than in smokers (P<0.05); TYMS mRNA expression was detected in 63.42% (163/257) of cases. An association of the EML4-ALK fusion gene with TYMS expression was detected; a low expression level of TYMS mRNA was observed more frequently when the EML4-ALK fusion gene was present than when it was not detected (P<0.05). In conclusion, patients positive for the EML4-ALK fusion gene in NSCLC tissues are likely to have a low expression level of TYMS, and may benefit from the first-line chemotherapy drug pemetrexed. PMID:26136951

  16. Association between EML4-ALK fusion gene and thymidylate synthase mRNA expression in non-small cell lung cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chun-Wei; Wang, Gang; Wang, Wu-Long; Gao, Wen-Bin; Han, Chuan-Jun; Gao, Jing-Shan; Zhang, Li-Ying; Li, Yang; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Tian, Yu-Wang; Qi, Dong-Dong

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of the mRNA expression of the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene with that of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of EML4-ALK fusion gene and TYMS mRNA in 257 cases of NSCLC. The positive rate of EML4-ALK fusion gene was 4.28% in the NSCLC tissues (11/257), and was higher in nonsmokers than in smokers (P<0.05); TYMS mRNA expression was detected in 63.42% (163/257) of cases. An association of the EML4-ALK fusion gene with TYMS expression was detected; a low expression level of TYMS mRNA was observed more frequently when the EML4-ALK fusion gene was present than when it was not detected (P<0.05). In conclusion, patients positive for the EML4-ALK fusion gene in NSCLC tissues are likely to have a low expression level of TYMS, and may benefit from the first-line chemotherapy drug pemetrexed.

  17. Evaluation of folate receptor 1 (FOLR1) mRNA expression, its specific promoter methylation and global DNA hypomethylation in type I and type II ovarian cancers.

    PubMed

    Notaro, Sara; Reimer, Daniel; Fiegl, Heidi; Schmid, Gabriel; Wiedemair, Annamarie; Rössler, Julia; Marth, Christian; Zeimet, Alain Gustave

    2016-08-02

    In this retrospective study we evaluated the respective correlations and clinical relevance of FOLR1 mRNA expression, FOLR1 promoter specific methylation and global DNA hypomethylation in type I and type II ovarian cancer. Two hundred fifty four ovarian cancers, 13 borderline tumours and 60 samples of healthy fallopian epithelium and normal ovarian epithelium were retrospectively analysed for FOLR1 expression with RT-PCR. FOLR1 DNA promoter methylation and global DNA hypomethylation (measured by means of LINE1 DNA hypomethylation) were evaluated with MethyLight technique. No correlation between FOLR1 mRNA expression and its specific promoter DNA methylation was found neither in type I nor in type II cancers, however, high FOLR1 mRNA expression was found to be correlated with global DNA hypomethylation in type II cancers (p = 0.033). Strong FOLR1 mRNA expression was revealed for Grades 2-3, FIGO stages III-IV, residual disease > 0, and serous histotype. High FOLR1 expression was found to predict increased platinum sensitivity in type I cancers (odds ratio = 3.288; 1.256-10.75; p = 0.020). One-year survival analysis showed in type I cancers an independent better outcome for strong expression of FOLR1 in FIGO stage III and IV. For the entire follow up period no significant independent outcome for FOLR1 expression was revealed. In type I cancers LINE 1 DNA hypomethylation was found to exhibit a worse PFS and OS which were confirmed to be independent in multivariate COX regression model for both PFS (p = 0.026) and OS (p = 0.012). No correlations were found between FOLR1 expression and its specific promoter methylation, however, high FOLR1 mRNA expression was associated with DNA hypomethylation in type II cancers. FOLR1 mRNA expression did not prove to predict clinical outcome in type II cancers, although strong FOLR1 expression generally denotes ovarian cancers with highly aggressive phenotype. In type I cancers, however, strong FOLR1 expression

  18. Hedgehog signaling pathway is active in GBM with GLI1 mRNA expression showing a single continuous distribution rather than discrete high/low clusters.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Vikas; Das, Tapojyoti; Gulati, Puneet; Biswas, Nidhan K; Rote, Sarang; Chatterjee, Uttara; Ghosh, Samarendra N; Deb, Sumit; Saha, Suniti K; Chowdhury, Anup K; Ghosh, Subhashish; Rudin, Charles M; Mukherjee, Ankur; Basu, Analabha; Dhara, Surajit

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is a valid therapeutic target in a wide range of malignancies. We focus here on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a lethal malignancy of the central nervous system (CNS). By analyzing RNA-sequencing based transcriptomics data on 149 clinical cases of TCGA-GBM database we show here a strong correlation (r = 0.7) between GLI1 and PTCH1 mRNA expression--as a hallmark of the canonical Hh-pathway activity in this malignancy. GLI1 mRNA expression varied in 3 orders of magnitude among the GBM patients of the same cohort showing a single continuous distribution-unlike the discrete high/low-GLI1 mRNA expressing clusters of medulloblastoma (MB). When compared with MB as a reference, the median GLI1 mRNA expression in GBM appeared 14.8 fold lower than that of the "high-Hh" cluster of MB but 5.6 fold higher than that of the "low-Hh" cluster of MB. Next, we demonstrated statistically significant up- and down-regulation of GLI1 mRNA expressions in GBM patient-derived low-passage neurospheres in vitro by sonic hedgehog ligand-enriched conditioned media (shh-CM) and by Hh-inhibitor drug vismodegib respectively. We also showed clinically achievable dose (50 μM) of vismodegib alone to be sufficient to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in these low-passage GBM neurospheres in vitro. Vismodegib showed an effect on the neurospheres, both by down-regulating GLI1 mRNA expression and by inducing apoptosis/cell cycle arrest, irrespective of their relative endogenous levels of GLI1 mRNA expression. We conclude from our study that this single continuous distribution pattern of GLI1 mRNA expression technically puts almost all GBM patients in a single group rather than discrete high- or low-clusters in terms of Hh-pathway activity. That is suggestive of therapies with Hh-pathway inhibitor drugs in this malignancy without a need for further stratification of patients on the basis of relative levels of Hh-pathway activity among them.

  19. Arc/Arg3.1 mRNA expression reveals a sub-cellular trace of prior sound exposure in adult primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Tamara; Matthews, Andrew; Gross, Christina; Mappus, Rudolph C.; Gollnick, Clare; Swanson, Andrew; Bassell, Gary J.; Liu, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Acquiring the behavioral significance of a sound has repeatedly been shown to correlate with long term changes in response properties of neurons in the adult primary auditory cortex. However, the molecular and cellular basis for such changes is still poorly understood. To address this, we have begun examining the auditory cortical expression of an activity-dependent effector immediate early gene (IEG) with documented roles in synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation in the hippocampus: Arc/Arg3.1. For initial characterization, we applied a repeated 10 minute (24 hour separation) sound exposure paradigm to determine the strength and consistency of sound-evoked Arc/Arg3.1 mRNA expression in the absence of explicit behavioral contingencies for the sound. We used 3D surface reconstruction methods in conjunction with fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) to assess the layer-specific sub-cellular compartmental expression of Arc/Arg3.1 mRNA. We unexpectedly found that both the intranuclear and cytoplasmic patterns of expression depended on the prior history of sound stimulation. Specifically, the percentage of neurons with expression only in the cytoplasm increased for repeated versus singular sound exposure, while intranuclear expression decreased. In contrast, the total cellular expression did not differ, consistent with prior IEG studies of primary auditory cortex. Our results were specific for cortical layers 3–6, as there was virtually no sound driven Arc/Arg3.1 mRNA in layers 1–2 immediately after stimulation. Our results are consistent with the kinetics and/or detectability of cortical sub-cellular Arc/Arg3.1 mRNA expression being altered by the initial exposure to the sound, suggesting exposure-induced modifications in the cytoplasmic Arc/Arg3.1 mRNA pool. PMID:21334422

  20. Arc/Arg3.1 mRNA expression reveals a subcellular trace of prior sound exposure in adult primary auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, T N; Matthews, A; Gross, C; Mappus, R C; Gollnick, C; Swanson, A; Bassell, G J; Liu, R C

    2011-05-05

    Acquiring the behavioral significance of sound has repeatedly been shown to correlate with long term changes in response properties of neurons in the adult primary auditory cortex. However, the molecular and cellular basis for such changes is still poorly understood. To address this, we have begun examining the auditory cortical expression of an activity-dependent effector immediate early gene (IEG) with documented roles in synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation in the hippocampus: Arc/Arg3.1. For initial characterization, we applied a repeated 10 min (24 h separation) sound exposure paradigm to determine the strength and consistency of sound-evoked Arc/Arg3.1 mRNA expression in the absence of explicit behavioral contingencies for the sound. We used 3D surface reconstruction methods in conjunction with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to assess the layer-specific subcellular compartmental expression of Arc/Arg3.1 mRNA. We unexpectedly found that both the intranuclear and cytoplasmic patterns of expression depended on the prior history of sound stimulation. Specifically, the percentage of neurons with expression only in the cytoplasm increased for repeated versus singular sound exposure, while intranuclear expression decreased. In contrast, the total cellular expression did not differ, consistent with prior IEG studies of primary auditory cortex. Our results were specific for cortical layers 3-6, as there was virtually no sound driven Arc/Arg3.1 mRNA in layers 1-2 immediately after stimulation. Our results are consistent with the kinetics and/or detectability of cortical subcellular Arc/Arg3.1 mRNA expression being altered by the initial exposure to the sound, suggesting exposure-induced modifications in the cytoplasmic Arc/Arg3.1 mRNA pool. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term systemic angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade regulates mRNA expression of dorsomedial medulla renin-angiotensin system components.

    PubMed

    Gilliam-Davis, Shea; Gallagher, Patricia E; Payne, Valerie S; Kasper, Sherry O; Tommasi, Ellen N; Westwood, Brian M; Robbins, Michael E; Chappell, Mark C; Diz, Debra I

    2011-07-14

    In Fischer 344 (F344) rats, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade for 1 yr with the angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor blocker L-158,809 prevents age-related impairments in metabolic function, similar to transgenic rats with low glial angiotensinogen (Aogen). Brain RAS regulation may contribute to the benefits of long-term systemic AT(1) antagonism. We assessed the mRNA of RAS components in the dorsomedial medulla of F344 rats at 3 (young; n = 8) or 15 mo of age (old; n = 7) and in rats treated from 3 to 15 mo of age with 20 mg/l of the AT(1) receptor antagonist L-158,809 (Old+L; n = 6). Aogen and renin mRNA were lower in the young compared with old group. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mRNA was lower in the old and Old+L compared with the young group. ACE2 and neprilysin expression were significantly higher in Old+L compared with young or old rats. AT(1b), AT(2), and Mas receptor mRNA were higher with treatment. Leptin receptor mRNA was lower in the old rats and this was prevented by L-158,809 treatment. Dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) mRNA was highest in the Old+L group. Aggregate correlate summation revealed a positive relationship for Mas receptor mRNA with food intake. The findings provide evidence for regulation of dorsomedial medullary renin and Aogen mRNA during aging. Long-term AT(1) receptor blockade increases the mRNA of the enzymes ACE2 and neprilysin and the MAS receptor, which could potentially shift the balance from ANG II to ANG-(1-7) and prevent age-related declines in the leptin receptor and its signaling pathway.

  2. Long-term systemic angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade regulates mRNA expression of dorsomedial medulla renin-angiotensin system components

    PubMed Central

    Gilliam-Davis, Shea; Gallagher, Patricia E.; Payne, Valerie S.; Kasper, Sherry O.; Tommasi, Ellen N.; Westwood, Brian M.; Robbins, Michael E.; Chappell, Mark C.

    2011-01-01

    In Fischer 344 (F344) rats, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade for 1 yr with the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker L-158,809 prevents age-related impairments in metabolic function, similar to transgenic rats with low glial angiotensinogen (Aogen). Brain RAS regulation may contribute to the benefits of long-term systemic AT1 antagonism. We assessed the mRNA of RAS components in the dorsomedial medulla of F344 rats at 3 (young; n = 8) or 15 mo of age (old; n = 7) and in rats treated from 3 to 15 mo of age with 20 mg/l of the AT1 receptor antagonist L-158,809 (Old+L; n = 6). Aogen and renin mRNA were lower in the young compared with old group. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mRNA was lower in the old and Old+L compared with the young group. ACE2 and neprilysin expression were significantly higher in Old+L compared with young or old rats. AT1b, AT2, and Mas receptor mRNA were higher with treatment. Leptin receptor mRNA was lower in the old rats and this was prevented by L-158,809 treatment. Dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) mRNA was highest in the Old+L group. Aggregate correlate summation revealed a positive relationship for Mas receptor mRNA with food intake. The findings provide evidence for regulation of dorsomedial medullary renin and Aogen mRNA during aging. Long-term AT1 receptor blockade increases the mRNA of the enzymes ACE2 and neprilysin and the MAS receptor, which could potentially shift the balance from ANG II to ANG-(1–7) and prevent age-related declines in the leptin receptor and its signaling pathway. PMID:21540301

  3. An Integrated Analysis of MicroRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles to Identify RNA Expression Signatures in Lambskin Hair Follicles in Hu Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiaoyang; Sun, Wei; Yin, Jinfeng; Ni, Rong; Su, Rui; Wang, Qingzeng; Gao, Wen; Bao, Jianjun; Yu, Jiarui; Wang, Lihong; Chen, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Wave patterns in lambskin hair follicles are an important factor determining the quality of sheep’s wool. Hair follicles in lambskin from Hu sheep, a breed unique to China, have 3 types of waves, designated as large, medium, and small. The quality of wool from small wave follicles is excellent, while the quality of large waves is considered poor. Because no molecular and biological studies on hair follicles of these sheep have been conducted to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of different wave patterns is currently unknown. The aim of this article was to screen the candidate microRNAs (miRNA) and genes for the development of hair follicles in Hu sheep. Two-day-old Hu lambs were selected from full-sib individuals that showed large, medium, and small waves. Integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles employed high-throughout sequencing technology. Approximately 13, 24, and 18 differentially expressed miRNAs were found between small and large waves, small and medium waves, and medium and large waves, respectively. A total of 54, 190, and 81 differentially expressed genes were found between small and large waves, small and medium waves, and medium and large waves, respectively, by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis. Differentially expressed genes were classified using gene ontology and pathway analyses. They were found to be mainly involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, growth, immune response, and ion transport, and were associated with MAPK and the Notch signaling pathway. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses of differentially-expressed miRNA and genes were consistent with sequencing results. Integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression indicated that, compared to small waves, large waves included 4 downregulated miRNAs that had regulatory effects on 8 upregulated genes and 3 upregulated miRNAs, which in turn influenced 13 downregulated genes. Compared to small waves

  4. Integrating mRNA and miRNA Weighted Gene Co-Expression Networks with eQTLs in the Nucleus Accumbens of Subjects with Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, Tana; Aliev, Fazil; Adkins, Amy; Hack, Laura; Bigdeli, Tim; D. van der Vaart, Andrew; Web, Bradley Todd; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Kalsi, Gursharan; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Miles, Michael F.; Dick, Danielle; Riley, Brien P.; Dumur, Catherine; Vladimirov, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is known to lead to gene expression changes in the brain. After performing weighted gene co-expression network analyses (WGCNA) on genome-wide mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression in Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) of subjects with alcohol dependence (AD; N = 18) and of matched controls (N = 18), six mRNA and three miRNA modules significantly correlated with AD were identified (Bonferoni-adj. p≤ 0.05). Cell-type-specific transcriptome analyses revealed two of the mRNA modules to be enriched for neuronal specific marker genes and downregulated in AD, whereas the remaining four mRNA modules were enriched for astrocyte and microglial specific marker genes and upregulated in AD. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that neuronal specific modules were enriched for genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction and MAPK signaling. Glial-specific modules were predominantly enriched for genes involved in processes related to immune functions, i.e. cytokine signaling (all adj. p≤ 0.05). In mRNA and miRNA modules, 461 and 25 candidate hub genes were identified, respectively. In contrast to the expected biological functions of miRNAs, correlation analyses between mRNA and miRNA hub genes revealed a higher number of positive than negative correlations (χ2 test p≤ 0.0001). Integration of hub gene expression with genome-wide genotypic data resulted in 591 mRNA cis-eQTLs and 62 miRNA cis-eQTLs. mRNA cis-eQTLs were significantly enriched for AD diagnosis and AD symptom counts (adj. p = 0.014 and p = 0.024, respectively) in AD GWAS signals in a large, independent genetic sample from the Collaborative Study on Genetics of Alcohol (COGA). In conclusion, our study identified putative gene network hubs coordinating mRNA and miRNA co-expression changes in the NAc of AD subjects, and our genetic (cis-eQTL) analysis provides novel insights into the etiological mechanisms of AD. PMID:26381263

  5. An Integrated Analysis of miRNA and mRNA Expressions in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lina; Huang, Yanyan; Zhu, Wangyu; Zhou, Shiquan; Zhou, Jihang; Zeng, Fang; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Yongkui; Yu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Using DNA microarrays, we generated both mRNA and miRNA expression data from 6 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and their matching normal control from adjacent tissues to identify potential miRNA markers for diagnostics. We demonstrated that hsa-miR-96 is significantly and consistently up-regulated in all 6 NSCLCs. We validated this result in an independent set of 35 paired tumors and their adjacent normal tissues, as well as their sera that are collected before surgical resection or chemotherapy, and the results suggested that hsa-miR-96 may play an important role in NSCLC development and has great potential to be used as a noninvasive marker for diagnosing NSCLC. We predicted potential miRNA target mRNAs based on different methods (TargetScan and miRanda). Further classification of miRNA regulated genes based on their relationship with miRNAs revealed that hsa-miR-96 and certain other miRNAs tend to down-regulate their target mRNAs in NSCLC development, which have expression levels permissive to direct interaction between miRNAs and their target mRNAs. In addition, we identified a significant correlation of miRNA regulation with genes coincide with high density of CpG islands, which suggests that miRNA may represent a primary regulatory mechanism governing basic cellular functions and cell differentiations, and such mechanism may be complementary to DNA methylation in repressing or activating gene expression. PMID:22046296

  6. Evaluation of DNA methylation and mRNA expression of heat shock proteins in thermal manipulated chicken.

    PubMed

    Vinoth, A; Thirunalasundari, T; Shanmugam, M; Uthrakumar, A; Suji, S; Rajkumar, U

    2018-03-01

    Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis has been demonstrated to enhance the thermotolerance capacity of broilers through epigenetic modifications. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are induced in response to stress for guarding cells against damage. The present study investigates the effect of thermal conditioning during embryogenesis and thermal challenge at 42 days of age on HSP gene and protein expression, DNA methylation and in vitro luciferase assay in brain tissue of Naked Neck (NN) and Punjab Broiler-2 (PB-2) chicken. On the 15th day of incubation, fertile eggs from two breeds, NN and PB-2, were randomly divided in to two groups: control (C)-eggs were incubated under standard incubation conditions, and thermal conditioning (TC)-eggs were exposed to higher incubation temperature (40.5°C) for 3 h on the 15th, 16th, and 17th days of incubation. The chicks obtained from each group were further subdivided and reared under different environmental conditions from the 15th to the 42nd day as normal [N; 25 ± 1 °C, 70% relative humidity (RH)] and heat exposed (HE; 35 ± 1 °C, 50% RH) resulting in four treatment groups (CN, CHE, TCN, and TCHE). The results revealed that HSP promoter activity was stronger in CHE, which had lesser methylation and higher gene expression. The activity of promoter region was lesser in TCHE birds that were thermally manipulated at the embryonic stage, thus reflecting their stress-free condition. This was confirmed by the lower level of mRNA expression of all the HSP genes. In conclusion, thermal conditioning during embryogenesis has a positive impact and improves chicken thermotolerance capacity in postnatal life.

  7. A Higher-Order Generalized Singular Value Decomposition for Comparison of Global mRNA Expression from Multiple Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Ponnapalli, Sri Priya; Saunders, Michael A.; Van Loan, Charles F.; Alter, Orly

    2011-01-01

    The number of high-dimensional datasets recording multiple aspects of a single phenomenon is increasing in many areas of science, accompanied by a need for mathematical frameworks that can compare multiple large-scale matrices with different row dimensions. The only such framework to date, the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD), is limited to two matrices. We mathematically define a higher-order GSVD (HO GSVD) for N≥2 matrices , each with full column rank. Each matrix is exactly factored as Di = UiΣiVT, where V, identical in all factorizations, is obtained from the eigensystem SV = VΛ of the arithmetic mean S of all pairwise quotients of the matrices , i≠j. We prove that this decomposition extends to higher orders almost all of the mathematical properties of the GSVD. The matrix S is nondefective with V and Λ real. Its eigenvalues satisfy λk≥1. Equality holds if and only if the corresponding eigenvector vk is a right basis vector of equal significance in all matrices Di and Dj, that is σi,k/σj,k = 1 for all i and j, and the corresponding left basis vector ui,k is orthogonal to all other vectors in Ui for all i. The eigenvalues λk = 1, therefore, define the “common HO GSVD subspace.” We illustrate the HO GSVD with a comparison of genome-scale cell-cycle mRNA expression from S. pombe, S. cerevisiae and human. Unlike existing algorithms, a mapping among the genes of these disparate organisms is not required. We find that the approximately common HO GSVD subspace represents the cell-cycle mRNA expression oscillations, which are similar among the datasets. Simultaneous reconstruction in the common subspace, therefore, removes the experimental artifacts, which are dissimilar, from the datasets. In the simultaneous sequence-independent classification of the genes of the three organisms in this common subspace, genes of highly conserved sequences but significantly different cell-cycle peak times are correctly classified. PMID

  8. Expression of Flk-1 and Cyclin D2 mRNA in the Myocardium of Rats with Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy and after Treatment with Betulonic Acid Amide.

    PubMed

    Mzhelskaya, M M; Klinnikova, M G; Koldysheva, E V; Lushnikova, E L

    2017-10-01

    The expression of VEGFR2 (Flk-1, according to immunohistochemistry) and of cyclin D2 mRNA (according to real-time PCR) in the myocardium of rats is studied in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy and in response to betulonic acid amide. Doxorubicin alone and in combination with betulonic acid amide causes after 3 days a manifest reduction of cyclin D2 mRNA expression (by 38 and 63%, respectively), while injection of betulonic acid amide alone causes a 23-fold increase of cyclin D2 mRNA expression. An increase of cyclin D2 mRNA expression has been detected in all experimental groups after 14 days of experiment, the most pronounced in response to betulonic acid amide (63 times). The expression of Flk-1 in cardiomyocytes increases significantly in response to both chemical agents starting from day 3 of experiment. These results indicate that doxorubicin and betulonic acid amide induce cytoprotective reactions in the myocardium, first at the intracellular, then at the cellular levels.

  9. Gene expression in scrapie. Cloning of a new scrapie-responsive gene and the identification of increased levels of seven other mRNA transcripts.

    PubMed

    Dandoy-Dron, F; Guillo, F; Benboudjema, L; Deslys, J P; Lasmézas, C; Dormont, D; Tovey, M G; Dron, M

    1998-03-27

    To define genes associated with or responsible for the neurodegenerative changes observed in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, we analyzed gene expression in scrapie-infected mouse brain using "mRNA differential display." The RNA transcripts of eight genes were increased 3-8-fold in the brains of scrapie-infected animals. Five of these genes have not previously been reported to exhibit increased expression in this disease: cathepsin S, the C1q B-chain of complement, apolipoprotein D, and two previously unidentified genes denominated scrapie-responsive gene (ScRG)-1 and ScRG-2, which are preferentially expressed in brain tissue. Increased expression of the three remaining genes, beta2 microglobulin, F4/80, and metallothionein II, has previously been reported to occur in experimental scrapie. Kinetic analysis revealed a concomitant increase in the levels of ScRG-1, cathepsin S, the C1q B-chain of complement, and beta2 microglobulin mRNA as well as glial fibrillary acidic protein and F4/80 transcripts, markers of astrocytosis and microglial activation, respectively. In contrast, the level of ScRG-2, apolipoprotein D, and metallothionein II mRNA was only increased at the terminal stage of the disease. ScRG-1 mRNA was found to be preferentially expressed in glial cells and to code for a short protein of 47 amino acids with a strong hydrophobic N-terminal region.

  10. Sodium lauryl sulphate alters the mRNA expression of lipid-metabolizing enzymes and PPAR signalling in normal human skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Törmä, Hans; Berne, Berit

    2009-12-01

    Detergents irritate skin and affect skin barrier homeostasis. In this study, healthy skin was exposed to 1% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) in water for 24 h. Biopsies were taken 6 h to 8 days post exposure. Lipid patterns were stained in situ and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine mRNA expression of enzymes synthesizing barrier lipids, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and lipoxygenases. The lipid pattern was disorganized from 6 h to 3 days after SLS exposure. Concomitant changes in mRNA expression included: (i) reduction, followed by induction, of ceramide-generating beta-glucocerebrosidase, (ii) increase on day 1 of two other enzymes for ceramide biosynthesis and (iii) persistent reduction of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-B, a key enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. Surprisingly, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis, HMG-CoA reductase, was unaltered. Among putative regulators of barrier lipids synthesis, PPARalpha and PPARgamma exhibited reduced mRNA expression, while PPARbeta/delta and LXRbeta were unaltered. Epidermal lipoxygenase-3, which may generate PPARalpha agonists, exhibited reduced expression. In conclusion, SLS induces reorganization of lipids in the stratum corneum, which play a role in detergents' destruction of the barrier. The changes in mRNA expression of enzymes involved in synthesizing barrier lipids are probably important for the restoration of the barrier.

  11. [Effect of Acupoint Injection on Eosinophil Counts,Protein and mRNA Expressions of Eotaxin in Nasal Mucosa of Allergic Rhinitis Rats].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Hou, Xun-Rui; Li, Li-Hong; Yang, Meng; Liang, Fei-Hong

    2017-04-25

    To observe the effect of acupoint injection on eosinophils (EOS) counts and expression of eotaxin in nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis (AR) rats, so as to reveal its mechanism underlying improving AR. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into normal, model and acupoint injection groups ( n =8 in each group). The AR model was established by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin sensitization. Bilateral "Yingxiang"(LI 20) and "Yintang"(GV 29) were selected for acupoint injection of the mixture solution of lidocaine, dexamethasone, and transfer factor (0.1 mL/acupoint) on the 1 st , 5 th , 9 th , and 13 th day after AR model established, a total of four times. EOS in the nasal mucosa was counted under light microscope after HE staining. Protein and mRNA expressions of eotaxin in the nasal mucosa were detected by immunohistochemical and RT-PCR methods, respectively. Compared with the normal group, EOS counts, protein and mRNA expressions of eotaxin in the nasal mucosa were significantly higher in the model group ( P <0.05). Compared with the model group, EOS counts, protein and mRNA expressions of eotaxin in the nasal mucosa were significantly lower in the acupoint injection group ( P <0.05). Acupoint injection can reduce the nasal mucosa inflammation by suppressing the protein and mRNA expressions of eotaxin, decreasing the infiltration and gathering of EOS in the nasal mucosa.

  12. Expression kinetics of nucleoside-modified mRNA delivered in lipid nanoparticles to mice by various routes.

    PubMed

    Pardi, Norbert; Tuyishime, Steven; Muramatsu, Hiromi; Kariko, Katalin; Mui, Barbara L; Tam, Ying K; Madden, Thomas D; Hope, Michael J; Weissman, Drew

    2015-11-10

    In recent years, in vitro transcribed messenger RNA (mRNA) has emerged as a potential therapeutic platform. To fulfill its promise, effective delivery of mRNA to specific cell types and tissues needs to be achieved. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are efficient carriers for short-interfering RNAs and have entered clinical trials. However, little is known about the potential of LNPs to deliver mRNA. Here, we generated mRNA-LNPs by incorporating HPLC purified, 1-methylpseudouridine-containing mRNA comprising codon-optimized firefly luciferase into stable LNPs. Mice were injected with 0.005-0.250mg/kg doses of mRNA-LNPs by 6 different routes and high levels of protein translation could be measured using in vivo imaging. Subcutaneous, intramuscular and intradermal injection of the LNP-encapsulated mRNA translated locally at the site of injection for up to 10days. For several days, high levels of protein production could be achieved in the lung from the intratracheal administration of mRNA. Intravenous and intraperitoneal and to a lesser extent intramuscular and intratracheal deliveries led to trafficking of mRNA-LNPs systemically resulting in active translation of the mRNA in the liver for 1-4 days. Our results demonstrate that LNPs are appropriate carriers for mRNA in vivo and have the potential to become valuable tools for delivering mRNA encoding therapeutic proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The mRNA expression levels of uncoupling proteins 1 and 2 in mononuclear cells from patients with metabolic disorders: obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Margaryan, Sona; Witkowicz, Agata; Partyka, Anna; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Manukyan, Gayane; Karabon, Lidia

    2017-10-19

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity are metabolic disorders whose major hallmark is insulin resistance. Impaired mitochondrial activity, such as reduced ratio of energy production to respiration, has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are proton carriers, expressed in the mitochondrial inner membrane, that uncouple oxygen consumption by the respiratory chain from ATP synthesis. The aim of the study was to determine transcriptional levels of UCP1 and UCP2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with metabolic disorders: T2DM, obesity and from healthy individuals. The mRNA levels of UCP1, UCP2 were determined by Real-Time PCR method using Applied Biosystems assays. The UCP1 mRNA expression level was not detectable in the majority of studied samples, while very low expression was found in PBMCs from 3 obese persons. UCP2 mRNA expression level was detectable in all samples. The median mRNA expression of UCP2 was lower in all patients with metabolic disorders as compared to the controls (0.20+0.14 vs. 0.010+0.009, p=0.05). When compared separately, the differences of medians UCP2 mRNA expression level between the obese individuals and the controls as well as between the T2DM patients and the controls did not reach statistical significance. Decreased UCP2 gene expression in mononuclear cells from obese and diabetic patients might contribute to the immunological abnormalities in these metabolic disorders and suggests its role as a candidate gene in future studies of obesity and diabetes.

  14. Isoenzyme-specific up-regulation of glutathione transferase and aldo-keto reductase mRNA expression by dietary quercetin in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Odbayar, Tseye-Oidov; Kimura, Toshinori; Tsushida, Tojiro; Ide, Takashi

    2009-05-01

    The impact of quercetin on the mRNA expression of hepatic enzymes involved in drug metabolism was evaluated with a DNA microarray and real-time PCR. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an experimental diet containing either 0, 2.5, 5, 10, or 20 g/kg of quercetin for 15 days. The DNA microarray analysis of the gene expression profile in pooled RNA samples from rats fed diets containing 0, 5, and 20 g/kg of quercetin revealed genes of some isoenzymes of glutathione transferase (Gst) and aldo-keto reductase (Akr) to be activated by this flavonoid. Real-time PCR conducted with RNA samples from individual rats fed varying amounts of quercetin together with the microarray analysis showed that quercetin caused marked dose-dependent increases in the mRNA expression of Gsta3, Gstp1, and Gstt3. Some moderate increases were also noted in the mRNA expression of isoenzymes belonging to the Gstm class. Quercetin also dose-dependently increased the mRNA expression of Akr1b8 and Akr7a3. However, it did not affect the parameters of the other Gst and Akr isoenzymes. It is apparent that quercetin increases the mRNA expression of Gst and Akr involved in drug metabolism in an isoenzyme-specific manner. Inasmuch as Gst and Akr isoenzymes up-regulated in their gene expression are involved in the prevention and attenuation of cancer development, this consequence may account for the chemopreventive propensity of quercetin.

  15. Effects of Thermal Stress on the mRNA Expression of SOD, HSP90, and HSP70 in the Spotted Sea Bass ( Lateolabrax maculatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Moon-Kyeong; Park, Ho-Ra; Yeo, Won-Jun; Han, Kyung-Nam

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the thermal stress response in the spotted sea bass ( Lateolabrax maculatus). Spotted sea basses were exposed to 4 different water temperatures (20, 22, 24, and 28°C) in increasing increments of 2°C/h from 18°C (control) for different time periods (0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h). Subsequently, 3 tissues (liver, muscle, and gill) were isolated, and the levels of SOD, HSP90, and HSP70 mRNA were assessed. SOD mRNA expression was maintained at baseline levels of control fish at all water temperatures in the liver, while muscle and gill tissue showed an increase followed by a decrease over each certain time with higher water temperature. HSP90 mRNA expression increased in the liver at ≤ 24°C over time, but maintained baseline expression at 28°C. In muscle, HSP90 mRNA expression gradually increased at all water temperatures, but increased and then decreased at ≥ 24°C in gill tissue. HSP70 mRNA expression exhibited an increase and then a decrease in liver tissue at 28°C, but mainly showed similar expression patterns to HSP90 in all tissues. These results suggest the activity of a defense mechanism using SOD, HSP90, and HSP70 in the spotted sea bass upon rapid increases in water temperature, where the expression of these genes indicated differences between tissues in the extent of the defense mechanisms. Also, these results indicate that high water temperature and long-term thermal stress exposure can inhibit physiological defense mechanisms.

  16. [Correlation between the mRNA expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and apparent diffusion coefficient on diffusion-weighted imaging in rats' liver fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yuefu; Liang, Xianwen; Han, Xiangjun; Chen, Jianqiang; Zhang, Shufang; Tan, Shun; Li, Qun; Wang, Xiong; Liu, Fan

    2017-02-28

    To explore the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and mRNA expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in different stages of liver fibrosis in rats.
 Methods: A model of liver fibrosis in rats was established by intraperitoneal injection of high-fat diet combined with porcine serum. After drug administration for 4 weeks, 48 rats served as a model group and 12 rats served as a control group, then they underwent diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) scanning. The value of ADC was calculated at b value=800 s/mm2. The rats were sacrificed and carried out pathologic examination after DWI scanning immediately. The mRNA expression of TIMP-1 was detected by real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The rats of hepatic fibrosis were also divided into a S0 group (n=4), a S1 group (n=11), a S2 group (n=12), a S3 group (n=10), and a S4 group (n=9) according to their pathological stage. The value of ADC and the expression of TIMP-1 mRNA among the different stage groups of liver fibrosis were compared, and the correlation between ADC and the TIMP-1 mRNA were analyzed.
 Results: The ADC value and the TIMP-1 mRNA expression were significantly different between the control group and the liver fibrosis group (F=46.54 and 53.87, P<0.05). There were significant differences in the value of ADC between every two groups (all P<0.05), except the control group vs the S1 group, the S1 group vs the S2 group, and the S2 group vs the S3 group (all P>0.05). For the comparison of TIMP-1 mRNA, there was no significant difference between the S1 group and the S2 group, the S3 group and the S4 group (both P>0.05). There were significant differences among the rest of the groups (all P<0.05). Rank correlation analysis showed that there was a negative correlation between the ADC value and the TIMP-1 mRNA expression (r=-0.76, P<0.01).
 Conclusion: When the value of ADC decreases in the progress of rats' liver fibrosis, the mRNA expression of TIMP-1

  17. Effect of electroacupuncture on brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in mouse hippocampus following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianxin; Xu, Huazhou; Tian, Yuanxiang; Hu, Manxiang; Xiao, Hongling

    2013-04-01

    This work aims to observe the effects of electroacupuncture on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in mouse hippocampus following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. The models of mouse cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury were established. A total of 96 healthy mice were randomly assigned into 4 groups, namely, the sham surgery, model, model + electroacupuncture, and mode + hydergine groups. Mice in the model + electroacupuncture group were treated through electroacupuncture at the Shenshu (BL 23), Geshu (BL 17), and Baihui (GV 20) acupoints. Mice in the model+hydergine group were intragastrically administered with hydergine (0.77 mg/kg(-1) x day(-1)). The levels of BDNF mRNA expressions in the hippocampus were ana lyzed through a semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay on days 1 and 7 after the surgeries. BDNF mRNA expressions in the mouse hippocampus of the model group on days 1 and 7 after the surgery were higher than those of the sham surgery group (both P < 0.01). On days 1 and 7 of the electroacupuncture treatment, BDNF mRNA expression in the mouse hippocampus of the model + electroacupuncture group was significantly elevated compared with the model group (both P < 0.01) or the model + hydergine group (both P < 0.01). On days 1 and 7 of the hydergine treatment, BDNF mRNA expression in the mouse hippocampus of the model + hydergine group tended to increase compared with the model group; however, statistical significance was not achieved (both P > 0.05). Electroacupuncture treatment enhances endogenous BDNF expression, which may improve the survival environment for intracerebral neurons and inhibit the apoptosis of hippocampal cells.

  18. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers affect mRNA expression of DNA nucleotide excision repair in skin and muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Sergio, Luiz Philippe S; Campos, Vera Maria A; Vicentini, Solange C; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; de Paoli, Flavia; Fonseca, Adenilson S

    2016-04-01

    Lasers emit light beams with specific characteristics, in which wavelength, frequency, power, fluence, and emission mode properties determine the photophysical, photochemical, and photobiological responses. Low-intensity lasers could induce free radical generation in biological tissues and cause alterations in macromolecules, such as DNA. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) and excision repair cross-complementing group 2 (ERCC2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in biological tissues exposed to low-intensity lasers. Wistar rat (n = 28, 4 for each group) skin and muscle were exposed to low-intensity red (660 nm) and near-infrared (880 nm) lasers at different fluences (25, 50, and 100 J/cm(2)), and samples of these tissues were withdrawn for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and gene expression evaluation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Laser exposure was in continuous wave and power of 100 mW. Data show that ERCC1 and ERCC2 mRNA expressions decrease in skin (p < 0.001) exposed to near-infrared laser, but increase in muscle tissue (p < 0.001). ERCC1 mRNA expression does not alter (p > 0.05), but ERCC2 mRNA expression decreases in skin (p < 0.001) and increases in muscle tissue (p < 0.001) exposed to red laser. Our results show that ERCC1 and ERCC2 mRNA expression is differently altered in skin and muscle tissue exposed to low-intensity lasers depending on wavelengths and fluences used in therapeutic protocols.

  19. Quantification of heat shock protein mRNA expression in warm and cold anoxic turtles (Trachemys scripta) using an external RNA control for normalization.

    PubMed

    Stecyk, Jonathan A W; Couturier, Christine S; Fagernes, Cathrine E; Ellefsen, Stian; Nilsson, Göran E

    2012-03-01

    The mRNA expression of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) and heat-shock cognate 70 (HSC70) was examined in cardiac chambers and telencephalon of warm- (21°C) and cold-acclimated (5°C) turtles (Trachemys scripta) exposed to normoxia, prolonged anoxia or anoxia followed by reoxygenation. Additionally, the suitability of total RNA as well as mRNA from β-actin, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and cyclophilin A (PPIA) for normalizing gene expression data was assessed, as compared to the use of an external RNA control. Measurements of HSP90 and HSC70 mRNA expression revealed that anoxia and reoxygenation have tissue- and gene-specific effects. By and large, the alterations support previous investigations on HSP protein abundance in the anoxic turtle heart and brain, as well as the hypothesized roles of HSP90 and HSC70 during stress and non-stress conditions. However, more prominent was a substantially increased HSP90 and HSC70 mRNA expression in the cardiac chambers with cold acclimation. The finding provides support for the notion that cold temperature induces a number of adaptations in tissues of anoxia-tolerant vertebrates that precondition them for winter anoxia. β-actin, GAPDH and PPIA mRNA expression and total RNA also varied with oxygenation state and acclimation temperature in a tissue- and gene-specific manner, as well as among tissue types, thus disqualifying them as suitable for real-time RT-PCR normalization. Thus, the present data highlights the advantages of normalizing real-time RT-PCR data to an external RNA control, an approach that also allows inter-tissue and potentially inter-species comparisons of target gene expression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sudan III dye strongly induces CYP1A1 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Marumi; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2012-01-01

    Sudan dyes possess a high affinity to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and potently induce its target genes, such as cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, through unknown mechanisms. We investigated a detailed event occurring in cells after binding of Sudan dye to AHR in HepG2 cells. Treatment with 10 µM Sudan III caused rapid translocation of AHR into the nucleus and increased expression levels of human CYP1A1 mRNA by approximately 20-fold after 16 and 24 h. The transactivation was due to the activation of a region located at -1137 to +59 bp from CYP1A1, in particular, four xenobiotic responsive elements (XREs) existing in the region. AHR and the Ah receptor nuclear translocator interacted with XRE sequences in a gel shift assay using nuclear extract from Sudan III--treated HepG2 cells. Moreover, we suggest that constitutive androstane receptor could modify CYP1A1 transactivation by Sudan III. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Improved Brain Expression of Anti-Amyloid β scFv by Complexation of mRNA Including a Secretion Sequence with PEG-based Block Catiomer.

    PubMed

    Perche, Federico; Uchida, Satoshi; Akiba, Hiroki; Lin, Chin-Yu; Ikegami, Masaru; Dirisala, Anjaneyulu; Nakashima, Toshihiro; Itaka, Keiji; Tsumoto, Kohei; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    The ever-increasing number of people living with Alzheimer's disease urges to develop more effective therapies. Despite considerable success, anti-Alzheimer immunotherapy still faces the challenge of intracerebral and intracellular delivery. This work introduces in situ production of anti-amyloid beta (Aβ) antibody after intracerebral injection of PEG-PAsp(DET)/mRNA polyplexes as a novel immunotherapy approach and a safer alternative compared to high systemic antibodies doses or administration of adenovirus encoding anti- Aβ antibodies. We used mRNA encoding three different Aβ-specific scFV with a secretion signal for passive immunotherapy. scFv contained a 6xHis-tag for immuno-detection. The secretion signal from IL2 (IL2ss) was added to allow extracellular engagement of senile plaques. Aβ affinity of scFv was measured by surface plasmon resonance. To allow intracellular delivery, scFv were administered as polyplexes formed with our smart copolymer polyethylene glycol-poly[N'-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-aminoethyl] aspartamide] [PEG-PAsp (DET)]. We evaluated scFv expression in cellulo by Western blot and ELISA, their ability to disaggregate amyloid aggregates by thioflavine T assay. Moreover, in vivo expression and therapeutic activity were evaluated in a murine amyloidosis model, by anti-6xHis-tag ELISA and anti- Aβ ELISA, respectively. The selected anti-amyloid beta scFv showed affinity towards Aβ and disaggregated Aβ fibers in vitro. Whereas both DNA and mRNA transfection led to scFV expression in cancer cells, only mRNA led to detectable scFv expression in primary neurons. In addition, the use of IL2ss increased by 3.4-fold scFv secretion by primary neurons over mRNA polyplexes devoid of secretion signal. In vivo, a 3 to 11- fold of intracranial scFv levels was measured for mRNA compared to DNA polyplexes and higher in vivo scFv levels were obtained with mRNA containing IL2ss over non-secreted mRNA. Intracranial injection of anti-Aβ mRNA polyplexes with IL2ss

  2. [Effects of Guilin Watermelon Frost on the mRNA expressions of basic fibroblast growth factor in patients with uterine cervical columnar ectopy].

    PubMed

    Qiu-Yan, Jiang; Jin-Ling, Song; Hai-Xia, Mo

    2012-01-01

    To study the molecular biological effects of Guilin Watermelon Frost (GWF) on the mRNA expressions of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in patients with uterine uterine cervical columnar ectopy. One hundred and sixty patients with uterine cervical columnar ectopy were assigned to two groups by the random digit table. Patients in the treatment group were treated with local spray of GWF, while those in the control group were local applied with bFGF-collagen sponge. The mRNA expressions of bFGF of the uterine tissue were detected in the two groups before and after treatment using RT-PCR. Before treatment the mRNA expression of bFGF in the uterine cervical columnar ectopy was 0.55 +/- 0.10 in the treatment group and 0.58 +/- 0.13 in the control group, without insignificant difference (P > 0.05). After treatment it significantly increased in the two groups, being 0.82 +/- 0.17 and 0.78 +/- 0.15 respectively, showing statistical difference from before treatment (P < 0.01). But no statistical difference existed between the two groups after treatment (P > 0.05). GWF showed enhancement on the mRNA expressions of bFGF in patients with uterine cervical columnar ectopy.

  3. Sigma receptor antagonists attenuate acute methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia by a mechanism independent of IL-1β mRNA expression in the hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Seminerio, Michael J.; Robson, Matthew J.; McCurdy, Christopher R.; Matsumoto, Rae R.

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine is currently one of the most widely abused drugs worldwide, with hyperthermia being a leading cause of death in methamphetamine overdose situations. Methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia involves a variety of cellular mechanisms, including increases in hypothalamic interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) expression. Methamphetamine also interacts with sigma receptors and previous studies have shown that sigma receptor antagonists mitigate many of the behavioral and physiological effects of methamphetamine, including hyperthermia. The purpose of the current study was to determine if the attenuation of methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia by the sigma receptor antagonists, AZ66 and SN79, is associated with a concomitant attenuation of IL-1β mRNA expression, particularly in the hypothalamus. Methamphetamine produced doseand time-dependent increases in core body temperature and IL-1β mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, striatum, and cortex in male, Swiss Webster mice. Pretreatment with the sigma receptor antagonists, AZ66 and SN79, significantly attenuated methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia, but further potentiated IL-1β mRNA in the mouse hypothalamus when compared to animals treated with methamphetamine alone. These findings suggest sigma receptor antagonists attenuate methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia through a different mechanism from that involved in the modulation of hypothalamic IL-1β mRNA expression. PMID:22820108

  4. RT-qPCR Demonstrates Light-Dependent AtRBCS1A and AtRBCS3B mRNA Expressions in "Arabidopsis thaliana" Leaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ming-Mei; Li, Anna; Feissner, Robert; Ahmad, Talal

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is widely used in diagnosis and research to determine specific m