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Sample records for zig-zag optical path

  1. Modulational Instability and Quantum Discrete Breather States of Cold Bosonic Atoms in a Zig-Zag Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Xia; Xie, Jiayu; Wu, Tianle; Tang, Bing

    2018-07-01

    A theoretical study on modulational instability and quantum discrete breather states in a system of cold bosonic atoms in zig-zag optical lattices is presented in this work. The time-dependent Hartree approximation is employed to deal with the multiple body problem. By means of a linear stability analysis, we analytically study the modulational instability, and estimate existence conditions of the bright stationary localized solutions for different values of the second-neighbor hopping constant. On the other hand, we get analytical bright stationary localized solutions, and analyze the influence of the second-neighbor hopping on their existence conditions. The predictions of the modulational instability analysis are shown to be reliable. Using these stationary localized single-boson wave functions, the quantum breather states corresponding to the system with different types of nonlinearities are constructed.

  2. Communication: electronic band gaps of semiconducting zig-zag carbon nanotubes from many-body perturbation theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Umari, P; Petrenko, O; Taioli, S; De Souza, M M

    2012-05-14

    Electronic band gaps for optically allowed transitions are calculated for a series of semiconducting single-walled zig-zag carbon nanotubes of increasing diameter within the many-body perturbation theory GW method. The dependence of the evaluated gaps with respect to tube diameters is then compared with those found from previous experimental data for optical gaps combined with theoretical estimations of exciton binding energies. We find that our GW gaps confirm the behavior inferred from experiment. The relationship between the electronic gap and the diameter extrapolated from the GW values is also in excellent agreement with a direct measurement recently performed through scanning tunneling spectroscopy.

  3. Thermal Lens Measurement in Diode-Pumped Nd:YAG Zig-Zag Slab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoak, M. C.; Kay, R. B.; Coyle, D. B.; Hopf, D.

    1998-01-01

    A major advantage that solid state zig-zag slab lasers have over conventional rod-based designs is that a much weaker thermal lens is produced in the slab when side-pumped with Quasi-CW laser diode arrays, particularly if the pump radiation is kept well away from the Brewster-cut ends. This paper reports on a rather strong thermal lens produced when diode pump radiation is collimated into a narrow portion of the zig-zag slab. The collimation of multi-bar pump packages to increase brightness and improve overlap is a direct consequence of designs which seek to maximize performance and efficiency. Our slab design employed a 8.1 cm x 2.5 mm x 5 mm slab with opposing Brewster end faces. It was pumped through the 2.5 mm direction by seven laser diode array packages, each housing four 6OW diode bars, 1 cm in width. The pump face, anti-reflection (AR) coated at 809 nm, was 6.8 cm in width and the 8.1 cm opposing side, high-reflection (HR) coated at 809 nm, reflected the unabsorbed pump beam for a second pass through the slab.

  4. Soliton Analysis in Complex Molecular Systems: A Zig-Zag Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, P. L.; Savin, A. V.; Zolotaryuk, A. V.

    1997-06-01

    A simple numerical method for seeking solitary wavesolutions of a permanent profile in molecular systems of big complexity is presented. The method is essentially based on the minimization of a finite-dimensional function which is chosen under an appropriate discretization of time derivatives in equations of motion. In the present paper, it is applied to a zig-zag chain backbone of coupled particles, each of which has twodegrees of freedom (longitudinal and transverse). Both topological and nontopological soliton solutions are treated for this chain when it is (i) subjected to a two-dimensional periodic substrate potential or (ii) considered as an isolated object, respectively. In the first case, which may be considered as a zig-zag generalization of the Frenkel-Kontorova chain model, two types of kink solutions with different topological charges, describing vacancies of one or two atoms (I- or II-kinks) and defects with excess one or two atoms in the chain (I- or II-antikinks), have been found. The second case (isolated chain) is a generalization of the well-known Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain model, which takes into account transverse degrees of freedom of the chain molecules. Two types of stable nontopological soliton solutions which describe either (i) a supersonic solitary wave of longitudinal stretching accompanied by transverse slendering or (ii) supersonic pulses of longitudinal compression propagating together with localized transverse thickening (bulge) have been obtained.

  5. The Effect of Acceleration Sprint and Zig-zag Drill Combination to Increase Students’ Speed and Agility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bana, O.; Mintarto, E.; Kusnanik, N. W.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the following factors: (1) how far the effect of exercise acceleration sprint on the speed and agility (2) how much influence the zig-zag drill combination to the speed and agility (3) and is there any difference between the effects of exercise acceleration sprint and practice zig-zag drill combination of the speed and agility. This research is quantitative with quasi-experimental approach. The design of this study is matching only design.This study was conducted on 33 male students who take part in extracurricular and divided into 3 groups with 11 students in each group. Group 1 was given training of acceleration sprint, group 2 was given zig-zag training combination drills of conventional and exercises for group 3, for 8 weeks. The data collection was using sprint 30 meter to test the speed and agility t-test to test agility. Data were analyzed using t-test and analysis of variance. The conclusion of the research is (1) there is a significant effect of exercise acceleration sprint for the speed and agility, (2) there is a significant influence combination zig-zag drills, on speed and agility (3) and exercise acceleration sprint have more effect on the speed and agility.

  6. Cubic Zig-Zag Enrichment of the Classical Kirchhoff Kinematics for Laminated and Sandwich Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed anaylsis and examples are presented that show how to enrich the kinematics of classical Kirchhoff plate theory by appending them with a set of continuous piecewise-cubic functions. This analysis is used to obtain functions that contain the effects of laminate heterogeneity and asymmetry on the variations of the inplane displacements and transverse shearing stresses, for use with a {3, 0} plate theory in which these distributions are specified apriori. The functions used for the enrichment are based on the improved zig-zag plate theory presented recently by Tessler, Di Scuva, and Gherlone. With the approach presented herein, the inplane displacements are represented by a set of continuous piecewise-cubic functions, and the transverse shearing stresses and strains are represented by a set of piecewise-quadratic functions that are discontinuous at the ply interfaces.

  7. Two-dimensional thermography image retrieval from zig-zag scanned data with TZ-SCAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Ryohei; Arai, Kohei

    2008-10-01

    TZ-SCAN is a simple and low cost thermal imaging device which consists of a single point radiation thermometer on a tripod with a pan-tilt rotator, a DC motor controller board with a USB interface, and a laptop computer for rotator control, data acquisition, and data processing. TZ-SCAN acquires a series of zig-zag scanned data and stores the data as CSV file. A 2-D thermal distribution image can be retrieved by using the second quefrency peak calculated from TZ-SCAN data. An experiment is conducted to confirm the validity of the thermal retrieval algorithm. The experimental result shows efficient accuracy for 2-D thermal distribution image retrieval.

  8. An Implementation of RC4+ Algorithm and Zig-zag Algorithm in a Super Encryption Scheme for Text Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiman, M. A.; Amalia; Chayanie, N. I.

    2018-03-01

    Cryptography is the art and science of using mathematical methods to preserve message security. There are two types of cryptography, namely classical and modern cryptography. Nowadays, most people would rather use modern cryptography than classical cryptography because it is harder to break than the classical one. One of classical algorithm is the Zig-zag algorithm that uses the transposition technique: the original message is unreadable unless the person has the key to decrypt the message. To improve the security, the Zig-zag Cipher is combined with RC4+ Cipher which is one of the symmetric key algorithms in the form of stream cipher. The two algorithms are combined to make a super-encryption. By combining these two algorithms, the message will be harder to break by a cryptanalyst. The result showed that complexity of the combined algorithm is θ(n2 ), while the complexity of Zig-zag Cipher and RC4+ Cipher are θ(n2 ) and θ(n), respectively.

  9. Zig-zag tape influence in NREL Phase VI wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Iradi, Sugoi; Munduate, Xabier

    2014-06-01

    Two bladed 10 metre diameter wind turbine was tested in the 24.4m × 36.6m NASA-Ames wind tunnel (Phase VI). These experiments have been extensively used for validation purposes for CFD and other engineering tools. The free transition case (S), has been, and is, the most employed one for validation purposes, and consist in a 3° pitch case with a rotational speed of 72rpm upwind configuration with and without yaw misalignment. However, there is another less visited case (M) where identical configuration was tested but with the inclusion of a zig-zag tape. This was called transition fixed sequence. This paper shows the differences between the free and the fix transition cases, that should be more appropriate for comparison with fully turbulent simulations. Steady k-ω SST fully turbulent computations performed with WMB CFD method are compared with the experiments showing, better predictions in the attached flow region when it is compared with the transition fixed experiments. This work wants to prove the utility of M case (transition fixed) and show its differences respect the S case (free transition) for validation purposes.

  10. Co-assembly of Zn(SPh){sub 2} and organic linkers into helical and zig-zag polymer chains

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yi; Yu Lingmin; Loo, Say Chye Joachim

    2012-07-15

    Two novel one-dimensional coordination polymers, single helicate [Zn(SPh){sub 2}(TPyTA)(EG)]{sub n} (EG=ethylene glycol) (1) and zig-zag structure [Zn(SPh){sub 2}(BPyVB)]{sub n} (2), were synthesized under solvothermal conditions at 150 Degree-Sign C or room temperature by the co-assembly of Zn(SPh){sub 2} and organic linkers such as 2,4,6-tri(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPyTA) and 1,3-bis(trans-4-pyridylvinyl)benzene (BPyVB). X-ray crystallography study reveals that both polymers 1 and 2 crystallize in space group P2{sub 1}/c of the monoclinic system. The solid-state UV-vis absorption spectra show that 1 and 2 have maxium absorption onsets at 400 nm and 420 nm, respectively. TGA analysis indicates that 1 and 2 are stable up tomore » 110 Degree-Sign C and 210 Degree-Sign C. - Graphical abstract: Two novel one-dimensional coordination polymers, single helicate [Zn(SPh){sub 2}(TPyTA)(EG)]{sub n} (1) and zig-zag structure [Zn(SPh){sub 2}(BPyVB)]{sub n} (2), were synthesized. Solid-state UV-vis absorptions show that 1 and 2 have maxium absorption onsets at 400 nm and 420 nm, respectively. TGA analysis indicates that 1 and 2 are stable up to 110 Degree-Sign C and 210 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two novel one-dimensional coordination polymers have been synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TPyTA results in helical structures in 1 while BPyVB leads to zig-zag chains in 2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid-state UV-vis absorption spectra and TGA analysis of the title polymers were studied.« less

  11. Reversible conformational transition gives rise to 'zig-zag' temperature dependence of the rate constant of irreversible thermoinactivation of enzymes.

    PubMed

    Levitsky VYu; Melik-Nubarov, N S; Siksnis, V A; Grinberg VYa; Burova, T V; Levashov, A V; Mozhaev, V V

    1994-01-15

    We have obtained unusual 'zig-zag' temperature dependencies of the rate constant of irreversible thermoinactivation (k(in)) of enzymes (alpha-chymotrypsin, covalently modified alpha-chymotrypsin, and ribonuclease) in a plot of log k(in) versus reciprocal temperature (Arrhenius plot). These dependencies are characterized by the presence of both ascending and descending linear portions which have positive and negative values of the effective activation energy (Ea), respectively. A kinetic scheme has been suggested that fits best for a description of these zig-zag dependencies. A key element of this scheme is the temperature-dependent reversible conformational transition of enzyme from the 'low-temperature' native state to a 'high-temperature' denatured form; the latter form is significantly more stable against irreversible thermoinactivation than the native enzyme. A possible explanation for a difference in thermal stabilities is that low-temperature and high-temperature forms are inactivated according to different mechanisms. Existence of the suggested conformational transition was proved by the methods of fluorescence spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The values of delta H and delta S for this transition, determined from calorimetric experiments, are highly positive; this fact underlies a conclusion that this heat-induced transition is caused by an unfolding of the protein molecule. Surprisingly, in the unfolded high-temperature conformation, alpha-chymotrypsin has a pronounced proteolytic activity, although this activity is much smaller than that of the native enzyme.

  12. Thermal analysis of smart composite laminated angle-ply using higher order shear deformation theory with zig zag function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YagnaSri, P.; Siddiqui, Maimuna; Vijaya Nirmala, M.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the work is to develop the higher order theory for piezoelectric composite laminated plates with zigzag function and to determine the thermal characteristics of piezoelectric laminated plate with zig zag function for different aspect ratios (a/h), thickness ratios (z/h) and voltage and also to evaluate electric potential function by solving second order differential equation satisfying electric boundary conditions along the thickness direction of piezoelectric layer. The related functions and derivations for equation of motion are obtained using the dynamic version of the principle of virtual work or Hamilton’s principle. The solutions are obtained by using Navier’s stokes method for anti-symmetric angle-ply with specific type of simply supported boundary conditions. Computer programs have been developed for realistic prediction of stresses and deflections for various sides to thickness ratios (a/h) and voltages.

  13. Photo-oxidative doping in π-conjugated zig-zag chain of carbon atoms with sulfur-functional group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeura-Sekiguchi, Hiromi; Sekiguchi, Tetsuhiro

    2017-12-01

    Photo-oxidative doping processes were studied for the trans-polyacetylene backbone with the -SCH3 side group as a chemically representative of the precisely controlled S-functionalized zig-zag graphene nanoribbon edge. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy indicates that photochemical reaction of S-CH3 with atmospheric O2 forms selectively oxidized products such as -S(O)CH3 and -SO3- bound to the polyacetylene (PA) backbone. Using the correlation between the oxidation states of sulfur and the XANES peak positions, the partial charge distribution of CH3Sδ+-PAδ- has been estimated. Such positively charged sulfur atoms can attract higher electronegative oxygen atoms and expect to enhance the photooxidization capabilities. The formation of the -SO3- side group is evidently responsible for hole doping into the PA backbone. The results can provide some strategy for area-selective and controllable doping processes of atomic-scale molecular systems with the assistance of UV light.

  14. Chromatin conformation in living cells: support for a zig-zag model of the 30 nm chromatin fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rydberg, B.; Holley, W. R.; Mian, I. S.; Chatterjee, A.

    1998-01-01

    A new method was used to probe the conformation of chromatin in living mammalian cells. The method employs ionizing radiation and is based on the concept that such radiation induces correlated breaks in DNA strands that are in spatial proximity. Human dermal fibroblasts in G0 phase of the cell cycle and Chinese hamster ovary cells in mitosis were irradiated by X-rays or accelerated ions. Following lysis of the cells, DNA fragments induced by correlated breaks were end-labeled and separated according to size on denaturing polyacrylamide gels. A characteristic peak was obtained for a fragment size of 78 bases, which is the size that corresponds to one turn of DNA around the nucleosome. Additional peaks between 175 and 450 bases reflect the relative position of nearest-neighbor nucleosomes. Theoretical calculations that simulate the indirect and direct effect of radiation on DNA demonstrate that the fragment size distributions are closely related to the chromatin structure model used. Comparison of the experimental data with theoretical results support a zig-zag model of the chromatin fiber rather than a simple helical model. Thus, radiation-induced damage analysis can provide information on chromatin structure in the living cell. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  15. Circular zig-zag scan video format

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.M.

    1992-06-09

    A circular, ziz-zag scan for use with vidicon tubes is disclosed. A sine wave is generated, rectified and its fourth root extracted. The fourth root, and its inverse, are used to generate horizontal ramp and sync signals. The fourth root is also used to generate a vertical sync signal, and the vertical sync signal, along with the horizontal sync signal, are used to generate the vertical ramp signal. Cathode blanking and preamplifier clamp signals are also obtained from the vertical sync signal. 10 figs.

  16. Circular zig-zag scan video format

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, C. Glen; Simmons, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    A circular, ziz-zag scan for use with vidicon tubes. A sine wave is generated, rectified and its fourth root extracted. The fourth root, and its inverse, are used to generate horizontal ramp and sync signals. The fourth root is also used to generate a vertical sync signal, and the vertical sync signal, along with the horizontal sync signal, are used to generate the vertical ramp signal. Cathode blanking and preamplifier clamp signals are also obtained from the vertical sync signal.

  17. The Zig-zag Instability of Streamlined Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillet, Thibault; Coux, Martin; Quere, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2017-11-01

    When a floating bluff body, like a sphere, impacts water with a vertical velocity, its trajectory is straight and the depth of its dive increases with its initial velocity. Even though we observe the same phenomenon at low impact speed for axisymmetric streamlined bodies, the trajectory is found to deviate from the vertical when the velocity overcomes a critical value. This instability results from a competition between the destabilizing torque of the lift and the stabilizing torque of the Archimede's force. Balancing these torques yields a prediction on the critical velocity above which the instability appears. This theoretical value is found to depend on the position of the gravity center of the projectile and predicts with a full agreement the behaviour observed in our different experiments. Project funded by DGA.

  18. The slab geometry laser. I - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, J. M.; Kane, T. J.; Kuhn, K.; Byer, R. L.; Unternahrer, J.

    1984-01-01

    Slab geometry solid-state lasers offer significant performance improvements over conventional rod-geometry lasers. A detailed theoretical description of the thermal, stress, and beam-propagation characteristics of a slab laser is presented. The analysis includes consideration of the effects of the zig-zag optical path, which eliminates thermal and stress focusing and reduces residual birefringence.

  19. Multiple-Path-Length Optical Absorbance Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An optical absorbance cell that offers a selection of multiple optical path lengths has been developed as part of a portable spectrometric instrument that measures absorption spectra of small samples of water and that costs less than does a conventional, non-portable laboratory spectrometer. The instrument is intended, more specifically, for use in studying colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in seawater, especially in coastal regions. Accurate characterization of CDOM is necessary for building bio-optical mathematical models of seawater. The multiple path lengths of the absorption cell afford a wide range of sensitivity needed for measuring the optical absorbances associated with the wide range of concentrations of CDOM observed in nature. The instrument operates in the wavelength range of 370 to 725 nm. The major subsystems of the instrument (see figure) include a color-balanced light source; the absorption cell; a peristaltic pump; a high-precision, low-noise fiber optic spectrometer; and a laptop or other personal computer. A fiber-optic cable transmits light from the source to the absorption cell. Other optical fibers transmit light from the absorption cell to the spectrometer,

  20. 45 Km Horizontal Path Optical Link Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, A.; Ceniceros, J.; Novak, M.; Jeganathan, M.; Portillo, A.; Erickson, D.; Depew, J.; Sanii, B.; Lesh, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    Mountain-top to mountain-top optical link experiments have been initiated at JPL, in order to perform a systems level evaluation of optical communications. Progress made so far is reported. ne NASA, JPL developed optical communications demonstrator (OCD) is used to transmit a laser signal from Strawberry Peak (SP), located in the San Bernadino mountains of California. This laser beam is received by a 0.6 m aperture telescope at JPL's Table Mountain Facility (TMF), located in Wrightwood, California. The optical link is bi-directional with the TMF telescope transmitting a continuous 4-wave (cw) 780 run beacon and the OCD sending back a 840 nm, 100 - 500 Mbps pseudo noise (PN) modulated, laser beam. The optical link path is at an average altitude of 2 km above sea level, covers a range of 46.8 km and provides an atmospheric channel equivalent to approx. 4 air masses. Average received power measured at either end fall well within the uncertainties predicted by link analysis. The reduction in normalized intensity variance (sigma(sup 2, sub I)) for the 4-beam beacon, compared to each individual beam, at SP, was from approx. 0.68 to 0.22. With some allowance for intra-beam mis-alignment, this is consistent with incoherent averaging. The sigma(sup2, sub I) measured at TMF approx. 0.43 +/- 0.22 exceeded the expected aperture averaged value of less than 0.1, probably because of beam wander. The focused spot sizes of approx. 162 +/- 6 microns at the TMF Coude and approx. 64 +/- 3 microns on the OCD compare to the predicted size range of 52 - 172 microns and 57 - 93 microns, respectively. This is consistent with 4 - 5 arcsec of atmospheric "seeing". The preliminary evaluation of OCD's fine tracking indicates that the uncompensated tracking error is approx. 3.3 micro rad compared to approx. 1.7 micro rad observed in the laboratory. Fine tracking performance was intermittent, primarily due to beacon fades on the OCD tracking sensor. The best bit error rates observed while

  1. Optical path switching based differential absorption radiometry for substance detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An optical path switch divides sample path radiation into a time series of alternating first polarized components and second polarized components. The first polarized components are transmitted along a first optical path and the second polarized components along a second optical path. A first gasless optical filter train filters the first polarized components to isolate at least a first wavelength band thereby generating first filtered radiation. A second gasless optical filter train filters the second polarized components to isolate at least a second wavelength band thereby generating second filtered radiation. A beam combiner combines the first and second filtered radiation to form a combined beam of radiation. A detector is disposed to monitor magnitude of at least a portion of the combined beam alternately at the first wavelength band and the second wavelength band as an indication of the concentration of the substance in the sample path.

  2. Optical path switching based differential absorption radiometry for substance detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An optical path switch divides sample path radiation into a time series of alternating first polarized components and second polarized components. The first polarized components are transmitted along a first optical path and the second polarized components along a second optical path. A first gasless optical filter train filters the first polarized components to isolate at least a first wavelength band thereby generating first filtered radiation. A second gasless optical filter train filters the second polarized components to isolate at least a second wavelength band thereby generating second filtered radiation. A beam combiner combines the first and second filtered radiation to form a combined beam of radiation. A detector is disposed to monitor magnitude of at least a portion of the combined beam alternately at the first wavelength band and the second wavelength band as an indication of the concentration of the substance in the sample path.

  3. Folded-path optical analysis gas cell

    DOEpatents

    Carangelo, R.M.; Wright, D.D.

    1995-08-08

    A folded-path gas cell employs an elliptical concave mirror in confronting relationship to two substantially spherical concave mirrors. At least one of the spherical mirrors, and usually both, are formed with an added cylindrical component to increase orthogonal foci coincidence and thereby to increase the radiation energy throughput characteristic of the cell. 10 figs.

  4. OPEN PATH OPTICAL SENSING OF PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the concepts behind recent developments in optical remote sensing (ORS) and the results from experiments. Airborne fugitive and fine particulate matter (PM) from various sources contribute to exceedances of state and federal PM and visibility standards. Recent...

  5. Optical Path Switching Based Differential Absorption Radiometry for Substance Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system and method are provided for detecting one or more substances. An optical path switch divides sample path radiation into a time series of alternating first polarized components and second polarized components. The first polarized components are transmitted along a first optical path and the second polarized components along a second optical path. A first gasless optical filter train filters the first polarized components to isolate at least a first wavelength band thereby generating first filtered radiation. A second gasless optical filter train filters the second polarized components to isolate at least a second wavelength band thereby generating second filtered radiation. The first wavelength band and second wavelength band are unique. Further, spectral absorption of a substance of interest is different at the first wavelength band as compared to the second wavelength band. A beam combiner combines the first and second filtered radiation to form a combined beam of radiation. A detector is disposed to monitor magnitude of at least a portion of the combined beam alternately at the first wavelength band and the second wavelength band as an indication of the concentration of the substance in the sample path.

  6. Low cost paths to binary optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Arthur; Domash, Lawrence

    1993-01-01

    Application of binary optics has been limited to a few major laboratories because of the limited availability of fabrication facilities such as e-beam machines and the lack of standardized design software. Foster-Miller has attempted to identify low cost approaches to medium-resolution binary optics using readily available computer and fabrication tools, primarily for the use of students and experimenters in optical computing. An early version of our system, MacBEEP, made use of an optimized laser film recorder from the commercial typesetting industry with 10 micron resolution. This report is an update on our current efforts to design and build a second generation MacBEEP, which aims at 1 micron resolution and multiple phase levels. Trails included a low cost scanning electron microscope in microlithography mode, and alternative laser inscribers or photomask generators. Our current software approach is based on Mathematica and PostScript compatibility.

  7. Understanding and applying open-path optical sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virag, Peter; Kricks, Robert J.

    1999-02-01

    During the last 10 years, open-path air monitors have evolved to yield reliable and effective measurements of single and multiple compounds on a real-time basis. To many individuals within the optical remote sensing community, the attributes of open-path and its the potential uses seem unlimited. Then why has the market has been stagnant for the last few years? The reason may center on how open-path information is applied and how well the end user understands that information. We constantly try to compare open-path data to risk/health or safety levels that are based for use at a single point and for a specific averaging period often far longer than a typical open-path data point. Often this approach is perceived as putting a square peg in a round hole. This perception may be well founded, as open-path data at times may need to go through extensive data manipulation and assumptions before it can be applied. This paper will review pervious open-path monitoring programs and their success in applying the data collected. We will also look at how open-path data is being currently used, some previous pitfalls in data use, alternate methods of data interpretation, and how open-path data can be best practically applied to fit current needs.

  8. The Relaxation of Vicinal (001) with ZigZag [110] Steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Micah; Hamouda, Ajmi Bh; González-Cabrera, Diego Luis; Einstein, Theodore L.

    2012-02-01

    This talk presents a kinetic Monte Carlo study of the relaxation dynamics of [110] steps on a vicinal (001) simple cubic surface. This system is interesting because [110] steps have different elementary excitation energetics and favor step diffusion more than close-packed [100] steps. In this talk we show how this leads to relaxation dynamics showing greater fluctuations on a shorter time scale for [110] steps as well as 2-bond breaking processes being rate determining in contrast to 3-bond breaking processes for [100] steps. The existence of a steady state is shown via the convergence of terrace width distributions at times much longer than the relaxation time. In this time regime excellent fits to the modified generalized Wigner distribution (as well as to the Berry-Robnik model when steps can overlap) were obtained. Also, step-position correlation function data show diffusion-limited increase for small distances along the step as well as greater average step displacement for zigzag steps compared to straight steps for somewhat longer distances along the step. Work supported by NSF-MRSEC Grant DMR 05-20471 as well as a DOE-CMCSN Grant.

  9. Flapping, wobbling, and zig-zagging: Tomographic PIV measurements of Antarctic sea butterfly ``flying'' underwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, D.; Webster, D. R.; Yen, J.

    2015-11-01

    A portable tomographic PIV technique was used to study the fluid dynamics and kinematics of sea butterflies in Antarctica. Antarctic pteropods (or sea butterflies), which are currently threatened by ocean acidification, swim in seawater with a pair of gelatinous parapodia (or ``wings'') via a unique propulsion mechanism. Both power and recovery strokes propel the organism (1.5 - 5 mm in size) upward in a sawtooth-like trajectory with average speed of 14 - 30 mm/s and pitch the shell forwards-and-backwards at 1.9 - 3 Hz. The pitching motion effectively positions the parapodia such that they stroke downward during both the power and recovery strokes. Reynolds numbers defined for flapping, translating, and pitching (i.e. Ref, ReU, and ReΩ) characterize the motion of the pteropod. For Ref <50, the shell does not pitch and the pteropod swims abnormally. We present a detailed comparison of the volumetric fluid velocity fields induced by pteropods swimming upwards with Ref = 80 and 180. The pteropod at the lower Ref creates an attached shear flow along the parapodia and pushes fluid in a method analogous to a paddle. In contrast, at higher Ref, the flow along the parapodia separates and generates complex vortex structures.

  10. Application of silicon zig-zag wall arrays for anodes of Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G. V.; Rumyantsev, A. M.; Levitskii, V. S.; Beregulin, E. V.; Zhdanov, V. V.; Terukov, E. I.; Astrova, E. V.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic tests of anodes based on zigzag wall arrays fabricated by the electrochemical etching and post-anodization treatment of silicon have been performed. Compared with anodes based on nanowires and planar thin films, these structures have several advantages. An ex situ analysis of the morphology and structural transformations in a material subjected to cyclic lithiation was conducted by electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The effect of geometrical parameters and a cycling mode on the degradation rate was studied. It is shown that a significant rise in the cycle life of the anode can be obtained by the restriction of the inserted amount of lithium. The anode, subjected to galvanostatic cycling at a rate C/2.8 at a limited charge capacity of 1000 mA · h g-1, demonstrates no degradation after 1200 cycles.

  11. Dense zig-zag microstructures in YSZ thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stender, Dieter; Schäuble, Nina; Weidenkaff, Anke; Montagne, Alex; Ghisleni, Rudy; Michler, Johann; Schneider, Christof W.; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The very brittle oxygen ion conductor yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is a typical solid electrolyte for miniaturized thin film fuel cells. In order to decrease the fuel cell operating temperature, the thickness of yttria stabilized zirconia thin films is reduced. Often, these thin membranes suffer from mechanical failure and gas permeability. To improve these mechanical issues, a glancing angle deposition approach is used to grow yttria stabilized zirconia thin films with tilted columnar structures. Changes of the material flux direction during the deposition result in a dense, zigzag-like structure with columnar crystallites. This structure reduces the elastic modulus of these membranes as compared to columnar yttria stabilized zirconia thin films as monitored by nano-indentation which makes them more adaptable to applied stress.

  12. On the optical path length in refracting media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasbun, Javier E.

    2018-04-01

    The path light follows as it travels through a substance depends on the substance's index of refraction. This path is commonly known as the optical path length (OPL). In geometrical optics, the laws of reflection and refraction are simple examples for understanding the path of light travel from source to detector for constant values of the traveled substances' refraction indices. In more complicated situations, the Euler equation can be quite useful and quite important in optics courses. Here, the well-known Euler differential equation (EDE) is used to obtain the OPL for several index of refraction models. For pedagogical completeness, the OPL is also obtained through a modified Monte Carlo (MC) method, versus which the various results obtained through the EDE are compared. The examples developed should be important in projects involving undergraduate as well as graduate students in an introductory optics course. A simple matlab script (program) is included that can be modified by students who wish to pursue the subject further.

  13. All-optical, thermo-optical path length modulation based on the vanadium-doped fibers.

    PubMed

    Matjasec, Ziga; Campelj, Stanislav; Donlagic, Denis

    2013-05-20

    This paper presents an all-fiber, fully-optically controlled, optical-path length modulator based on highly absorbing optical fiber. The modulator utilizes a high-power 980 nm pump diode and a short section of vanadium-co-doped single mode fiber that is heated through absorption and a non-radiative relaxation process. The achievable path length modulation range primarily depends on the pump's power and the convective heat-transfer coefficient of the surrounding gas, while the time response primarily depends on the heated fiber's diameter. An absolute optical length change in excess of 500 µm and a time-constant as short as 11 ms, were demonstrated experimentally. The all-fiber design allows for an electrically-passive and remote operation of the modulator. The presented modulator could find use within various fiber-optics systems that require optical (remote) path length control or modulation.

  14. Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor for Early Detection of Rocky Slopes Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minardo, Aldo; Picarelli, Luciano; Coscetta, Agnese; Zeni, Giovanni; Esposito, Giuseppe; Sacchi, Marco; Matano, Fabio; Caccavale, Mauro; Luigi, Zeni

    2014-05-01

    sensor, no preliminary information about the possible displacement locations of rocks are required in advance. The sensing cable can be simply deployed in a zig-zag pattern path along the slope, for hundreds of meters, and the system will remotely detect and locate any displacements wherever they occur along the fiber cable path, so representing a powerful tool for early warning against possible rock slides. [1] J. M. López-Higuera, L. R. Cobo, A. Q. Incera, A. Cobo, " Fiber Optic Sensors in Structural Health Monitoring", Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 29, pp.586-608, 2011. [2] A. Minardo, R. Bernini, L. Zeni, "Numerical analysis of single pulse and differential pulse-width pair BOTDA systems in the high spatial resolution regime", Optics Express, vol. 19, pp. 19233-19244, 2011. [3] A. Minardo, R. Bernini, L. Amato, L. Zeni, "Bridge monitoring using Brillouin fiber-optic sensors", IEEE Sensor Journal, Vol. 12 (1), pp. 145-150, 2012. [4] R. Bernini, A. Minardo, S. Ciaramella, V. Minutolo, L. Zeni, "Distributed strain measurement along a concrete beam via stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers", International Journal of Geophysics, Vol. 2011, pp. 1-5, doi:10.1155/2011/710941, 2011.

  15. Characterizing the propagation path in moderate to strong optical turbulence.

    PubMed

    Vetelino, Frida Strömqvist; Clare, Bradley; Corbett, Kerry; Young, Cynthia; Grant, Kenneth; Andrews, Larry

    2006-05-20

    In February 2005 a joint atmospheric propagation experiment was conducted between the Australian Defence Science and Technology Organisation and the University of Central Florida. A Gaussian beam was propagated along a horizontal 1500 m path near the ground. Scintillation was measured simultaneously at three receivers of diameters 1, 5, and 13 mm. Scintillation theory combined with a numerical scheme was used to infer the structure constant C2n, the inner scale l0, and the outer scale L0 from the optical measurements. At the same time, C2n measurements were taken by a commercial scintillometer, set up parallel to the optical path. The C2n values from the inferred scheme and the commercial scintillometer predict the same behavior, but the inferred scheme consistently gives slightly smaller C2n values.

  16. In-line optical fiber metallic mirror reflector for monolithic common path optical coherence tomography probes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanwarpal; Reddy, Rohith; Sharma, Gargi; Verma, Yogesh; Gardecki, Joseph A; Tearney, Guillermo

    2018-03-01

    Endoscopic optical coherence tomography probes suffer from various artifacts due to dispersion imbalance and polarization mismatch between reference and sample arm light. Such artifacts can be minimized using a common path approach. In this work, we demonstrate a miniaturized common path probe for optical coherence tomography using an inline fiber mirror. A common path optical fiber probe suitable for performing high-resolution endoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging was developed. To achieve common path functionality, an inline fiber mirror was fabricated using a thin gold layer. A commercially available swept source engine was used to test the designed probe in a cadaver human coronary artery ex vivo. We achieved a sensitivity of 104 dB for this probe using a swept source optical coherence tomography system. To test the probe, images of a cadaver human coronary artery were obtained, demonstrating the quality that is comparable to those obtained by OCT systems with separate reference arms. Additionally, we demonstrate recovery of ranging depth by use of a Michelson interferometer in the detection path. We developed a miniaturized monolithic inline fiber mirror-based common path probe for optical coherence tomography. Owing to its simplicity, our design will be helpful in endoscopic applications that require high-resolution probes in a compact form factor while reducing system complexity. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:230-235, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Common path endoscopic probes for optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kanwarpal; Gardecki, Joseph A.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2017-02-01

    Background: Dispersion imbalance and polarization mismatch between the reference and sample arm signals can lead to image quality degradation in optical coherence tomography (OCT). One approach to reduce these image artifacts is to employ a common-path geometry in fiber-based probes. In this work, we report an 800 um diameter all-fiber common-path monolithic probe for coronary artery imaging where the reference signal is generated using an inline fiber partial reflector. Methods: Our common-path probe was designed for swept-source based Fourier domain OCT at 1310 nm wavelength. A face of a coreless fiber was coated with gold and spliced to a standard SMF-28 single mode fiber creating an inline partial reflector, which acted as a reference surface. The other face of the coreless fiber was shaped into a ball lens for focusing. The optical elements were assembled within a 560 µm diameter drive shaft, which was attached to a rotary junction. The drive shaft was placed inside a transparent sheath having an outer diameter of 800 µm. Results: With a source input power of 30mW, the inline common-path probe achieved a sensitivity of 104 dB. Images of human finger skin showed the characteristic layers of skin as well as features such as sweat ducts. Images of coronary arteries ex vivo obtained with this probe enabled visualization of the characteristic architectural morphology of the normal artery wall and known features of atherosclerotic plaque. Conclusion: In this work, we have demonstrated a common path OCT probe for cardiovascular imaging. The probe is easy to fabricate, will reduce system complexity and overall cost. We believe that this design will be helpful in endoscopic applications that require high resolution and a compact form factor.

  18. Adaptive optics compensation over a 3 km near horizontal path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Ruth; Dainty, Chris

    2008-10-01

    We present results of adaptive optics compensation at the receiver of a 3km optical link using a beacon laser operating at 635nm. The laser is transmitted from the roof of a seven-storey building over a near horizontal path towards a 127 mm optical receiver located on the second-floor of the Applied Optics Group at the National University of Ireland, Galway. The wavefront of the scintillated beam is measured using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) with high-speed CMOS camera capable of frame rates greater than 1kHz. The strength of turbulence is determined from the fluctuations in differential angle-of-arrival in the wavefront sensor measurements and from the degree of scintillation in the pupil plane. Adaptive optics compensation is applied using a tip-tilt mirror and 37 channel membrane mirror and controlled using a single desktop computer. The performance of the adaptive optics system in real turbulence is compared with the performance of the system in a controlled laboratory environment, where turbulence is generated using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator.

  19. Astigmatism corrected common path probe for optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanwarpal; Yamada, Daisuke; Tearney, Guillermo

    2017-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) catheters for intraluminal imaging are subject to various artifacts due to reference-sample arm dispersion imbalances and sample arm beam astigmatism. The goal of this work was to develop a probe that minimizes such artifacts. Our probe was fabricated using a single mode fiber at the tip of which a glass spacer and graded index objective lens were spliced to achieve the desired focal distance. The signal was reflected using a curved reflector to correct for astigmatism caused by the thin, protective, transparent sheath that surrounds the optics. The probe design was optimized using Zemax, a commercially available optical design software. Common path interferometric operation was achieved using Fresnel reflection from the tip of the focusing graded index objective lens. The performance of the probe was tested using a custom designed spectrometer-based OCT system. The probe achieved an axial resolution of 15.6 μm in air, a lateral resolution 33 μm, and a sensitivity of 103 dB. A scattering tissue phantom was imaged to test the performance of the probe for astigmatism correction. Images of the phantom confirmed that this common-path, astigmatism-corrected OCT imaging probe had minimal artifacts in the axial, and lateral dimensions. In this work, we developed an astigmatism-corrected, common path probe that minimizes artifacts associated with standard OCT probes. This design may be useful for OCT applications that require high axial and lateral resolutions. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:312-318, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Random fluctuations of optical signal path delay in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kral, L.; Prochazka, I.; Hamal, K.

    2006-09-01

    Atmospheric turbulence induces random delay fluctuations to any optical signal transmitted through the air. These fluctuations can influence for example the measurement precision of laser rangefinders. We have found an appropriate theoretical model based on geometrical optics that allows us to predict the amplitude of the random delay fluctuations for different observing conditions. We have successfully proved the applicability of this model by a series of experiments, directly determining the amplitude of the turbulence-induced pulse delay fluctuations by analysis of a high precision laser ranging data. Moreover, we have also shown that a standard theoretical approach based on diffractive propagation of light through inhomogeneous media and implemented using the GLAD software is not suitable for modeling of the optical signal delay fluctuations caused by the atmosphere. These models based on diffractive propagation predict the turbulence-induced optical path length fluctuations of the order of micrometers, whereas the fluctuations predicted by the geometrical optics model (in agreement with our experimental data) are generally larger by two orders of magnitude, i.e. in the submillimeter range. The reason of this discrepancy is a subject to discussion.

  1. Experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE).

    PubMed

    Kozicki, Bartłomiej; Takara, Hidehiko; Tsukishima, Yukio; Yoshimatsu, Toshihide; Yonenaga, Kazushige; Jinno, Masahiko

    2010-10-11

    We describe experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE) architecture. We employ optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation format and bandwidth-variable optical cross-connects (OXC) to generate, transmit and receive optical paths with bandwidths of up to 1 Tb/s. We experimentally demonstrate elastic optical path setup and spectrally-efficient transmission of multiple channels with bit rates ranging from 40 to 140 Gb/s between six nodes of a mesh network. We show dynamic bandwidth scalability for optical paths with bit rates of 40 to 440 Gb/s. Moreover, we demonstrate multihop transmission of a 1 Tb/s optical path over 400 km of standard single-mode fiber (SMF). Finally, we investigate the filtering properties and the required guard band width for spectrally-efficient allocation of optical paths in SLICE.

  2. Vapor and liquid optical monitoring with sculptured Bragg microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva-Ramirez, Manuel; Gil-Rostra, Jorge; López-Santos, Maria Carmen; González-Elipe, Agustín R.; Yubero, Francisco

    2017-10-01

    Sculptured porous Bragg microcavities (BMs) formed by the successive stacking of columnar SiO2 and TiO2 thin films with a zig-zag columnar microstructure are prepared by glancing angle deposition. These BMs act as wavelength-dependent optical retarders. This optical behavior is attributed to a self-structuration of the stacked layers involving the lateral association of nanocolumns in the direction perpendicular to the main flux of particles during the multilayer film growth, as observed by focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy. The retardance of these optically active BMs can be modulated by dynamic infiltration of their open porosity with vapors, liquids, or solutions with different refractive indices. The tunable birefringence of these nanostructured photonic systems has been successfully simulated with a simple model that assumes that each layer within the BMs stack has uniaxial birefringence. The sculptured BMs have been incorporated as microfluidic chips for optical transduction for label-free vapor and liquid sensing. Several examples of the detection performance of these chips, working either in reflection or transmission configuration, for the optical monitoring of vapor and liquids of different refractive indices and aqueous solutions of glucose flowing through the microfluidic chips are described.

  3. LCRD Update and Path to Optical Relay Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, David

    2017-01-01

    Speaker and Presenter at the Lincoln Laboratory Communications Workshop on May 23, 2017 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, MA. This presentation discusses a concept for an evolution of NASAs optical communications near-Earth relay architecture. NASA's Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) is a joint project between NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology (JPL), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT LL). LCRD will provide a minimum of two years of high data rate optical communications service experiments in geosynchronous orbit (GEO) following launch in 2019. This presentation will provide an update of the LCRD mission status and planned capabilities and experiments, followed by a discussion of the path from LCRD to operational network capabilities.

  4. Vapor and liquid optical monitoring with sculptured Bragg microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva-Ramirez, Manuel; Gil-Rostra, Jorge; López-Santos, Maria C.; González-Elipe, Agustín. R.; Yubero, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    Sculptured porous Bragg Microcavities (BMs) formed by the successive stacking of columnar SiO2 and TiO2 thin films with zig-zag columnar microstructure are prepared by glancing angle deposition. These BMs act as wavelength dependent optical retarders. This optical behavior is attributed to a self-structuration mechanism involving a fence-bundling association of nanocolumns as observed by Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy. The retardance of these optically active BMs can be modulated by dynamic infiltration of their open porosity with vapors, liquids or solutions with different refractive indices. The tunable birefringence of these nanostructured photonic systems have been successfully simulated with a simple model that assumes that each layer within the BMs stack has uniaxial birefringence. This type of self-associated nanostructures has been incorporated to microfluidic chips for free label vapor and liquid sensing. Several examples of the detection performance of these chips, working either in reflection or transmission configuration, for the optical characterization of vapor and liquids of different refractive index and aqueous solutions of glucose flowing through the microfluidic chips are described.

  5. Optical Path Difference Fluctations at the CHARA Interferometric Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merand, A.; ten Brummelaar, T. A.; McAlister, H. A.; Ridgway, S. T.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N. H.; Bagnuolo, W. G.; Hrynevych, M.; Shure, M. A.

    2001-05-01

    Commissioning observations at the CHARA Array have been carried out with the two south telescopes, with a telescope separation of 34 meters. Due to the size of the array (>340 meters across) and the optical delay geometry, the beams travel horizontal distances of approximately 200 meters, with a number of reflections in the telescope coude area and the optical delay and beam combination areas. Stellar and laboratory observations have been analyzed to determine the variations of the optical path, as revealed by shifts in the interference pattern. The power spectra of the OPD variations are diagnostic of the atmospheric turbulence characteristics, and of any internal vibrations in the laboratory. Results of the OPD analysis will be compared to similar studies at other interferometric facilities. The CHARA Array, a six-telescope O/IR interferometric array operated by Georgia State University on Mt. Wilson, Calfornia, was funded by the National Science Foundation, the W.M. Keck Foundation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, and Georgia State University.

  6. Automatic alignment of double optical paths in excimer laser amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Hua, Hengqi; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Yi, Aiping; Zhao, Jun

    2013-05-01

    A kind of beam automatic alignment method used for double paths amplification in the electron pumped excimer laser system is demonstrated. In this way, the beams from the amplifiers can be transferred along the designated direction and accordingly irradiate on the target with high stabilization and accuracy. However, owing to nonexistence of natural alignment references in excimer laser amplifiers, two cross-hairs structure is used to align the beams. Here, one crosshair put into the input beam is regarded as the near-field reference while the other put into output beam is regarded as the far-field reference. The two cross-hairs are transmitted onto Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) by image-relaying structures separately. The errors between intersection points of two cross-talk images and centroid coordinates of actual beam are recorded automatically and sent to closed loop feedback control mechanism. Negative feedback keeps running until preset accuracy is reached. On the basis of above-mentioned design, the alignment optical path is built and the software is compiled, whereafter the experiment of double paths automatic alignment in electron pumped excimer laser amplifier is carried through. Meanwhile, the related influencing factors and the alignment precision are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the alignment system can achieve the aiming direction of automatic aligning beams in short time. The analysis shows that the accuracy of alignment system is 0.63μrad and the beam maximum restoration error is 13.75μm. Furthermore, the bigger distance between the two cross-hairs, the higher precision of the system is. Therefore, the automatic alignment system has been used in angular multiplexing excimer Main Oscillation Power Amplification (MOPA) system and can satisfy the requirement of beam alignment precision on the whole.

  7. CFO compensation method using optical feedback path for coherent optical OFDM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Sang-Rok; Hwang, In-Ki; Kang, Hun-Sik; Chang, Sun Hyok; Lee, Seung-Woo; Lee, Joon Ki

    2017-07-01

    We investigate feasibility of carrier frequency offset (CFO) compensation method using optical feedback path for coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) system. Recently proposed CFO compensation algorithms provide wide CFO estimation range in electrical domain. However, their practical compensation range is limited by sampling rate of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). This limitation has not drawn attention, since the ADC sampling rate was high enough comparing to the data bandwidth and CFO in the wireless OFDM system. For CO-OFDM, the limitation is becoming visible because of increased data bandwidth, laser instability (i.e. large CFO) and insufficient ADC sampling rate owing to high cost. To solve the problem and extend practical CFO compensation range, we propose a CFO compensation method having optical feedback path. By adding simple wavelength control for local oscillator, the practical CFO compensation range can be extended to the sampling frequency range. The feasibility of the proposed method is experimentally investigated.

  8. Semiclassical Path Integral Calculation of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Provazza, Justin; Segatta, Francesco; Garavelli, Marco; Coker, David F

    2018-02-13

    Computation of nonlinear optical response functions allows for an in-depth connection between theory and experiment. Experimentally recorded spectra provide a high density of information, but to objectively disentangle overlapping signals and to reach a detailed and reliable understanding of the system dynamics, measurements must be integrated with theoretical approaches. Here, we present a new, highly accurate and efficient trajectory-based semiclassical path integral method for computing higher order nonlinear optical response functions for non-Markovian open quantum systems. The approach is, in principle, applicable to general Hamiltonians and does not require any restrictions on the form of the intrasystem or system-bath couplings. This method is systematically improvable and is shown to be valid in parameter regimes where perturbation theory-based methods qualitatively breakdown. As a test of the methodology presented here, we study a system-bath model for a coupled dimer for which we compare against numerically exact results and standard approximate perturbation theory-based calculations. Additionally, we study a monomer with discrete vibronic states that serves as the starting point for future investigation of vibronic signatures in nonlinear electronic spectroscopy.

  9. Flowing Air-Water Cooled Slab Nd: Glass Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Baida; Cai, Bangwei; Liao, Y.; Xu, Shifa; Xin, Z.

    1989-03-01

    A zig-zag optical path slab geometry Nd: glass laser cooled through flowing air-water is developed by us. Theoretical studies on temperature distribution of slab and rod configurations in the unsteady state clarify the advantages of the slab geometry laser. The slab design and processing are also reported. In our experiments main laser output characteristics, e. g. laser efficiency, polarization, far-field divergence angle as well as resonator misalignment are investigated. The slab phosphate glass laser in combination with a crossed Porro-prism resonator demonstrates a good laser performance.

  10. Research on the Calculation Method of Optical Path Difference of the Shanghai Tian Ma Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J.; Fu, L.; Jiang, Y. B.; Liu, Q. H.; Gou, W.; Yan, F.

    2016-03-01

    Based on the Shanghai Tian Ma Telescope (TM), an optical path difference calculation method of the shaped Cassegrain antenna is presented in the paper. Firstly, the mathematical model of the TM optics is established based on the antenna reciprocity theorem. Secondly, the TM sub-reflector and main reflector are fitted by the Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS). Finally, the method of optical path difference calculation is implemented, and the expanding application of the Ruze optical path difference formulas in the TM is researched. The method can be used to calculate the optical path difference distributions across the aperture field of the TM due to misalignment like the axial and lateral displacements of the feed and sub-reflector, or the tilt of the sub-reflector. When the misalignment quantity is small, the expanding Ruze optical path difference formulas can be used to calculate the optical path difference quickly. The paper supports the real-time measurement and adjustment of the TM structure. The research has universality, and can provide reference for the optical path difference calculation of other radio telescopes with shaped surfaces.

  11. Peano-like paths for subaperture polishing of optical aspherical surfaces.

    PubMed

    Tam, Hon-Yuen; Cheng, Haobo; Dong, Zhichao

    2013-05-20

    Polishing can be more uniform if the polishing path provides uniform coverage of the surface. It is known that Peano paths can provide uniform coverage of planar surfaces. Peano paths also contain short path segments and turns: (1) all path segments have the same length, (2) path segments are mutually orthogonal at the turns, and (3) path segments and turns are uniformity distributed over the domain surface. These make Peano paths an attractive candidate among polishing tool paths because they enhance multidirectional approaches of the tool to each surface location. A method for constructing Peano paths for uniform coverage of aspherical surfaces is proposed in this paper. When mapped to the aspherical surface, the path also contains short path segments and turns, and the above attributes are approximately preserved. Attention is paid so that the path segments are still well distributed near the vertex of the surface. The proposed tool path was used in the polishing of a number of parabolic BK7 specimens using magnetorheological finishing (MRF) and pitch with cerium oxide. The results were rather good for optical lenses and confirm that a Peano-like path was useful for polishing, for MRF, and for pitch polishing. In the latter case, the surface roughness achieved was 0.91 nm according to WYKO measurement.

  12. A 2-dimensional optical architecture for solving Hamiltonian path problem based on micro ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri, Nadim; Jalili, Saeed; Ahmadi, Vahid; Rasoulzadeh Zali, Aref; Goliaei, Sama

    2015-01-01

    The problem of finding the Hamiltonian path in a graph, or deciding whether a graph has a Hamiltonian path or not, is an NP-complete problem. No exact solution has been found yet, to solve this problem using polynomial amount of time and space. In this paper, we propose a two dimensional (2-D) optical architecture based on optical electronic devices such as micro ring resonators, optical circulators and MEMS based mirror (MEMS-M) to solve the Hamiltonian Path Problem, for undirected graphs in linear time. It uses a heuristic algorithm and employs n+1 different wavelengths of a light ray, to check whether a Hamiltonian path exists or not on a graph with n vertices. Then if a Hamiltonian path exists, it reports the path. The device complexity of the proposed architecture is O(n2).

  13. Evaluation of internal refraction with the optical path difference scan.

    PubMed

    Muftuoglu, Orkun; Erdem, Uzeyir

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate internal refraction and its relation to other optical properties of the eye across a large range of refractive errors, which can provide useful information for the assessment and design of intraocular lenses and corneal ablation patterns. Cohort study. Three hundred ninety-four eyes of 197 healthy subjects with a mean age of 27+/-7 years (range, 18-42). All eyes underwent optical path difference scans to evaluate corneal topography, whole and internal ocular refraction (determined by the subtraction of corneal refraction from whole ocular refraction), and total and higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were assessed. After the conversion of any spherocylindrical refractive errors to vectorial data (sphere equivalent, blurring strength; cylinder, J(0) [power of Jackson cross cylinder at 90 degrees and 180 degrees] and J45 [power of Jackson cross cylinder at 45 degrees and 135 degrees]), the distribution of internal refraction among refraction groups (high myopes, low to moderate myopes, hyperopes, mixed astigmats, and emmetropes) and relationships between internal refraction, corneal refraction, and wavefront aberrations were analyzed. The compensation relation and its rate between corneal and internal astigmatism was assessed by the compensation factor (CF). Whole ocular power and astigmatism, corneal power and astigmatism, internal power and astigmatism, CF for astigmatic data, location of the highest internal refraction zone, and wavefront aberrations. The highest refraction zone was mostly (90%) located in the center in myopes, whereas it was located at the nasal side (71%) in hyperopes. There was a significant correlation between whole ocular and internal powers (P<0.01), but no correlation was observed between corneal and internal powers (P>0.05). Internal astigmatism was mostly against the rule. The mean CF J(0) was 0.63+/-3.78 and CF J(45) was 0.57+/-2.47. The magnitude of the internal astigmatism under the 3-mm zone was correlated with the magnitude

  14. Architecture and design of optical path networks utilizing waveband virtual links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Yusaku; Mori, Yojiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Ken-ichi

    2016-02-01

    We propose a novel optical network architecture that uses waveband virtual links, each of which can carry several optical paths, to directly bridge distant node pairs. Future photonic networks should not only transparently cover extended areas but also expand fiber capacity. However, the traversal of many ROADM nodes impairs the optical signal due to spectrum narrowing. To suppress the degradation, the bandwidth of guard bands needs to be increased, which degrades fiber frequency utilization. Waveband granular switching allows us to apply broader pass-band filtering at ROADMs and to insert sufficient guard bands between wavebands with minimum frequency utilization offset. The scheme resolves the severe spectrum narrowing effect. Moreover, the guard band between optical channels in a waveband can be minimized, which increases the number of paths that can be accommodated per fiber. In the network, wavelength path granular routing is done without utilizing waveband virtual links, and it still suffers from spectrum narrowing. A novel network design algorithm that can bound the spectrum narrowing effect by limiting the number of hops (traversed nodes that need wavelength path level routing) is proposed in this paper. This algorithm dynamically changes the waveband virtual link configuration according to the traffic distribution variation, where optical paths that need many node hops are effectively carried by virtual links. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the number of necessary fibers is reduced by 23% compared with conventional optical path networks.

  15. Optimization Study of Hydrogen Gas Adsorption on Zig-zag Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes: The Artificial Neural Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasruddin; Lestari, M.; Supriyadi; Sholahudin

    2018-03-01

    The use of hydrogen gas in fuel cell technology has a huge opportunity to be applied in upcoming vehicle technology. One of the most important problems in fuel cell technology is the hydrogen storage. The adsorption of hydrogen in carbon-based materials attracts a lot of attention because of its reliability. This study investigated the adsorption of hydrogen gas in Single-walled Carbon Nano Tubes (SWCNT) with chilarity of (0, 12), (0, 15), and (0, 18) to find the optimum chilarity. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) can be used to predict the hydrogen storage capacity at different pressure and temperature conditions appropriately, using simulated series of data. The Artificial Neural Network is modeled as a predictor of the hydrogen adsorption capacity which provides solutions to some deficiencies in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In a previous study, ANN configurations have been developed for 77k, 233k, and 298k temperatures in hydrogen gas storage. To prepare this prediction, ANN is modeled to find out the configurations that exist in the set of training and validation of specified data selection, the distance between data, and the number of neurons that produce the smallest error. This configuration is needed to make an accurate artificial neural network. The configuration of neural network was then applied to this research. The neural network analysis results show that the best configuration of artificial neural network in hydrogen storage is at 233K temperature i.e. on SWCNT with chilarity of (0.12).

  16. The zig-zag walk with scattering and absorption on the real half line and in a lattice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The Darwin-Hamilton equations, describing one-dimensional transport with scattering and absorption, are expanded into a recursion. The solution involves ballot numbers. The recurrence probability as function of scattering order is given by Catalan numbers. To reproduce this analytical result in a lattice model, a novel relation between Narayana and Catalan numbers is derived.

  17. All-Optical Wavelength-Path Service With Quality Assurance by Multilayer Integration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Mikio; Tanaka, Shinya; Satomi, Shuichi; Ryu, Shiro; Asano, Shoichiro

    2006-09-01

    In the future all-optical network controlled by generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS), the wavelength path between end nodes will change dynamically. This inevitably means that the fiber parameters along the wavelength path will also vary. This variation in fiber parameters influences the signal quality of high-speed-transmission system (bit rates over 40 Gb/s). Therefore, at a path setup, the fiber-parameter effect should be adequately compensated. Moreover, the path setup must be completed fast enough to meet the network-application demands. To realize the rapid setup of adequate paths, a multilayer integration system for all-optical wavelength-path quality assurance is proposed. This multilayer integration system is evaluated in a field trial. In the trial, the GMPLS control plane, measurement plane, and data plane coordinated to maintain the quality of a 40-Gb/s wavelength path that would otherwise be degraded by the influence of chromatic dispersion. It is also demonstrated that the multilayer integration system can assure the signal quality in the face of not only chromatic dispersion but also degradation in the optical signal-to-noise ratio by the use of a 2R regeneration system. Our experiments confirm that the proposed multilayer integration system is an essential part of future all-optical networks.

  18. Aerosol optical properties inferred from in-situ and path-averaged measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Binsbergen, Sven A.; Grossmann, Peter; Cohen, Leo H.; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Stein, Karin U.

    2017-09-01

    This paper compares in-situ and path-averaged measurements of the electro-optical transmission, with emphasis on aerosol effects. The in-situ sensors consisted of optical particle counters (OPC) and a visibility meter, the path-averaged data was provided by a 7-wavelength transmissometer (MSRT) and a scintillometer (BLS). Data was collected at a test site in Northern Germany. A retrieval algorithm was developed to infer characteristics of the aerosol size distribution (Junge approximation) from the MSRT data. A comparison of the various sensors suggests that the optical particle counters are over-optimistic in their estimate of the transmission.

  19. New Remote Gas Sensor Using Rapid Electro-Optical Path Switching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, G. W.; Lebel, P. J.; Wallio, H. A.; Vay, S. A.; Wang, L. G.

    1994-01-01

    Innovative gas filter correlation radiometer (GFCR) features nonmechanical switching of internal optical paths. Incoming radiation switched electro-optically, by means of polarization, between two optical paths, one of which contains correlation gas cell while other does not. Advantages include switching speed, 2 to 3 orders of magnitude faster than mechanical techniques, and high reliability. Applications include regional studies of atmospheric chemistry from either manned or unmanned aircraft as well as satellite studies of global distributions, sources and sink mechanisms for key species involved in chemistry of troposphere. Commercial applications: ability to survey many miles of natural gas pipelines rapidly from aircraft, pinpointing gas leaks by measuring methane at 2.3 micrometers.

  20. Turbulence effects in a horizontal propagation path close to ground: implications for optics detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöqvist, Lars; Allard, Lars; Gustafsson, Ove; Henriksson, Markus; Pettersson, Magnus

    2011-11-01

    Atmospheric turbulence effects close to ground may affect the performance of laser based systems severely. The variations in the refractive index along the propagation path cause effects such as beam wander, intensity fluctuations (scintillations) and beam broadening. Typical geometries of interest for optics detection include nearly horizontal propagation paths close to the ground and up to kilometre distance to the target. The scintillations and beam wander affect the performance in terms of detection probability and false alarm rate. Of interest is to study the influence of turbulence in optics detection applications. In a field trial atmospheric turbulence effects along a 1 kilometre horizontal propagation path were studied using a diode laser with a rectangular beam profile operating at 0.8 micrometer wavelength. Single-path beam characteristics were registered and analysed using photodetectors arranged in horizontal and vertical directions. The turbulence strength along the path was determined using a scintillometer and single-point ultrasonic anemometers. Strong scintillation effects were observed as a function of the turbulence strength and amplitude characteristics were fitted to model distributions. In addition to the single-path analysis double-path measurements were carried out on different targets. Experimental results are compared with existing theoretical turbulence laser beam propagation models. The results show that influence from scintillations needs to be considered when predicting performance in optics detection applications.

  1. Crystal structures and theoretical studies of polyphosphate LiZnP3O9 for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhiqing; Su, Xin; Ding, Hanqin; Li, Hongyi

    2018-06-01

    Nonlinear optical materials have attracted worldwide attention owing to their wide range of applications, specially in the laser field. Phosphates with noncentrosymmetric structures are potential candidates for novel ultraviolet (UV)-NLO materials, because they usually display short UV cut-off edges. In this work, a polyphosphate, the LiZnP3O9 polyphosphate crystals were grown through spontaneous crystallization from high-temperature melts. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group P212121 with unit cell parameters a = 8.330(3) Å, b = 8.520(3) Å, c = 8.635(3) Å, and Z = 4. In the structure, all the P atoms are coordinated by four oxygen atoms forming the [PO4] tetrahedra and further connected to generate a zig-zag [PO3]∞ anionic framework. Thermal analysis, IR spectroscopy, UV-vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectrum and powder second harmonic generation measurements are performed. In addition, the first-principles calculation was employed for better understanding the structure-property relationships of LiZnP3O9.

  2. Modeling heading and path perception from optic flow in the case of independently moving objects

    PubMed Central

    Raudies, Florian; Neumann, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Humans are usually accurate when estimating heading or path from optic flow, even in the presence of independently moving objects (IMOs) in an otherwise rigid scene. To invoke significant biases in perceived heading, IMOs have to be large and obscure the focus of expansion (FOE) in the image plane, which is the point of approach. For the estimation of path during curvilinear self-motion no significant biases were found in the presence of IMOs. What makes humans robust in their estimation of heading or path using optic flow? We derive analytical models of optic flow for linear and curvilinear self-motion using geometric scene models. Heading biases of a linear least squares method, which builds upon these analytical models, are large, larger than those reported for humans. This motivated us to study segmentation cues that are available from optic flow. We derive models of accretion/deletion, expansion/contraction, acceleration/deceleration, local spatial curvature, and local temporal curvature, to be used as cues to segment an IMO from the background. Integrating these segmentation cues into our method of estimating heading or path now explains human psychophysical data and extends, as well as unifies, previous investigations. Our analysis suggests that various cues available from optic flow help to segment IMOs and, thus, make humans' heading and path perception robust in the presence of such IMOs. PMID:23554589

  3. Design of differential optical absorption spectroscopy long-path telescopes based on fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Merten, André; Tschritter, Jens; Platt, Ulrich

    2011-02-10

    We present a new design principle of telescopes for use in the spectral investigation of the atmosphere and the detection of atmospheric trace gases with the long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. A combination of emitting and receiving fibers in a single bundle replaces the commonly used coaxial-Newton-type combination of receiving and transmitting telescope. This very simplified setup offers a higher light throughput and simpler adjustment and allows smaller instruments, which are easier to handle and more portable. The higher transmittance was verified by ray-tracing calculations, which result in a theoretical factor threefold improvement in signal intensity compared with the old setup. In practice, due to the easier alignment and higher stability, up to factor of 10 higher signal intensities were found. In addition, the use of a fiber optic light source provides a better spectral characterization of the light source, which results in a lower detection limit for trace gases studied with this instrument. This new design will greatly enhance the usability and the range of applications of active DOAS instruments.

  4. Greedy algorithms for diffuse optical tomography reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dileep, B. P. V.; Das, Tapan; Dutta, Pranab K.

    2018-03-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive imaging modality that reconstructs the optical parameters of a highly scattering medium. However, the inverse problem of DOT is ill-posed and highly nonlinear due to the zig-zag propagation of photons that diffuses through the cross section of tissue. The conventional DOT imaging methods iteratively compute the solution of forward diffusion equation solver which makes the problem computationally expensive. Also, these methods fail when the geometry is complex. Recently, the theory of compressive sensing (CS) has received considerable attention because of its efficient use in biomedical imaging applications. The objective of this paper is to solve a given DOT inverse problem by using compressive sensing framework and various Greedy algorithms such as orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), compressive sampling matching pursuit (CoSaMP), and stagewise orthogonal matching pursuit (StOMP), regularized orthogonal matching pursuit (ROMP) and simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit (S-OMP) have been studied to reconstruct the change in the absorption parameter i.e, Δα from the boundary data. Also, the Greedy algorithms have been validated experimentally on a paraffin wax rectangular phantom through a well designed experimental set up. We also have studied the conventional DOT methods like least square method and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) for comparison. One of the main features of this work is the usage of less number of source-detector pairs, which can facilitate the use of DOT in routine applications of screening. The performance metrics such as mean square error (MSE), normalized mean square error (NMSE), structural similarity index (SSIM), and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) have been used to evaluate the performance of the algorithms mentioned in this paper. Extensive simulation results confirm that CS based DOT reconstruction outperforms the conventional DOT imaging methods in terms of

  5. Using refraction in thick glass plates for optical path length modulation in low coherence interferometry.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Niklas; Schlobohm, Jochen; Pösch, Andreas; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2017-09-01

    In Michelson interferometer setups the standard way to generate different optical path lengths between a measurement arm and a reference arm relies on expensive high precision linear stages such as piezo actuators. We present an alternative approach based on the refraction of light at optical interfaces using a cheap stepper motor with high gearing ratio to control the rotation of a glass plate. The beam path is examined and a relation between angle of rotation and change in optical path length is devised. As verification, an experimental setup is presented, and reconstruction results from a measurement standard are shown. The reconstructed step height from this setup lies within 1.25% of the expected value.

  6. In-situ and path-averaged measurements of aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Binsbergen, Sven A.; Grossmann, Peter; February, Faith J.; Cohen, Leo H.; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Stein, Karin U.

    2017-09-01

    This paper compares in-situ and path-averaged measurements of the electro-optical transmission, with emphasis on aerosol effects. The in-situ sensors consisted of optical particle counters (OPC), the path-averaged data was provided by a 7-wavelength transmissometer (MSRT) and scintillometers (BLS). Data were collected at two sites: a homogeneous test site in Northern Germany, and over the inhomogeneous False Bay near Cape Town, South Africa. A retrieval algorithm was developed to infer characteristics of the aerosol size distribution (Junge approximation) from the MSRT data. A comparison of the various sensors suggests that the optical particle counters are over optimistic in their estimate of the transmission. For the homogeneous test site, in-situ and path-averaged sensors yield similar results. For the inhomogeneous test site, sensors may react differently or temporally separated to meteorological events such as a change in wind speed and/or direction.

  7. Elastic transducers incorporating finite-length optical paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Kara J.; Washabaugh, Peter D.

    1995-08-01

    Frequently, when designing a structure to incorporate integrated sensors, one sacrifices the stiffness of the system to improve sensitivity. However, the use of interferometric displacement sensors that tessellate throughout the volume of a structure has the potential to allow the precision and range of the component measurement to scale with the geometry of the device rather than the maximum strain in the structure. The design of stiff structures that measure all six resultant-load components is described. In addition, an advanced torsion sensor and a linear acceleration transducer are also discussed. Finally, invariant paths are presented that allow the in situ integrity of a structural volume to be monitored with a single pair of displacement sensors.

  8. An automatic alignment system for measuring optical path of transmissometer based on light beam scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shudao; Ma, Zhongliang; Wang, Min; Peng, Shuling

    2018-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel alignment system based on the measurement of optical path using a light beam scanning mode in a transmissometer. The system controls both the probe beam and the receiving field of view while scanning in two vertical directions. The system then calculates the azimuth angle of the transmitter and the receiver to determine the precise alignment of the optical path. Experiments show that this method can determine the alignment angles in less than 10 min with errors smaller than 66 μrad in the azimuth. This system also features high collimation precision, process automation and simple installation.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of d10 metal complexes of 3-Me-5-FcPz: Structural, theoretical and third order nonlinear optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, Kabali; Thirumoorthy, Krishnan; Vinitha, G.; Soni, Kiran; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S. P.; Palanisami, Nallasamy

    2017-01-01

    The d10 metal complexes based on 3-methyl-5-ferrocenyl-1H-pyrazole (L = 3-Me-5-FcPz) ligand [M(L)4(NO3)2] Zn=(1) and Cd=(2), [Hg(L)4(NO3)2].dmf (3) have been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, NMR, UV-Vis and elemental analysis. The molecular structure of compound 2 and its crystal packing were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The nitrate anions are also involved in intermolecular hydrogen bonding with adjacent ferrocene units and it forms zig-zag one-dimensional polymeric structure. UV-Vis investigations on the positive solvatochromic behavior of 1-3 revealed that the solvation of the push-pull character increases with increasing polarity. The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of 1-3 have been determined by Z-scan technique and the results indicate that compounds 1-3 exhibits the strong self-defocusing effect. The nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) values are calculated in the order of 10-6 esu.

  10. A Path to High-Efficiency Optical Coupling for HIRMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Brown, Ari-David; Costen, Nicholas; Franz, David; Kutyrev, Alexander; Mikula, Vilem; Miller, Kevin H.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Oxborrow, Joseph; Rostem, Karwan; Wollack, Edward J.

    2018-05-01

    The high-resolution mid-infrared spectrometer (HIRMES) under development for Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy is an instrument operating in the 25-122 μm spectral range with a spectral resolution R = Δλ/λ 100,000 and has two absorber-coupled transition edge sensor bolometric detector focal planes. We have developed novel NbTiN low-stress absorber coatings which have the required optical impedance across the HIRMES operating band. The low intrinsic stress of these coatings allow for a peak-to-valley corrugation amplitude < 5 μm of the 450 nm thick, 1.4 mm × 1.7 mm detector pixels. Furthermore, these coatings have a superconducting transition temperature 10 K, which allows them to simultaneously serve as an absorber in the desired signal band and a rejection filter at long wavelengths. This attribute makes them especially attractive for ultrasensitive absorber-coupled bolometric detector applications, because it helps in controlling the optical loading from out-of-band radiation. We also discuss a novel method for integrating a wedged-reflective absorber termination to the detector array.

  11. System for interferometric distortion measurements that define an optical path

    DOEpatents

    Bokor, Jeffrey; Naulleau, Patrick

    2003-05-06

    An improved phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer can measure both distortion and wavefront aberration. In the preferred embodiment, the interferometer employs an object-plane pinhole array comprising a plurality of object pinholes located between the test optic and the source of electromagnetic radiation and an image-plane mask array that is positioned in the image plane of the test optic. The image-plane mask array comprises a plurality of test windows and corresponding reference pinholes, wherein the positions of the plurality of pinholes in the object-plane pinhole array register with those of the plurality of test windows in image-plane mask array. Electromagnetic radiation that is directed into a first pinhole of object-plane pinhole array thereby creating a first corresponding test beam image on the image-plane mask array. Where distortion is relatively small, it can be directly measured interferometrically by measuring the separation distance between and the orientation of the test beam and reference-beam pinhole and repeating this process for at least one other pinhole of the plurality of pinholes of the object-plane pinhole array. Where the distortion is relative large, it can be measured by using interferometry to direct the stage motion, of a stage supporting the image-plane mask array, and then use the final stage motion as a measure of the distortion.

  12. Non-common path aberration correction in an adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope.

    PubMed

    Sulai, Yusufu N; Dubra, Alfredo

    2014-09-01

    The correction of non-common path aberrations (NCPAs) between the imaging and wavefront sensing channel in a confocal scanning adaptive optics ophthalmoscope is demonstrated. NCPA correction is achieved by maximizing an image sharpness metric while the confocal detection aperture is temporarily removed, effectively minimizing the monochromatic aberrations in the illumination path of the imaging channel. Comparison of NCPA estimated using zonal and modal orthogonal wavefront corrector bases provided wavefronts that differ by ~λ/20 in root-mean-squared (~λ/30 standard deviation). Sequential insertion of a cylindrical lens in the illumination and light collection paths of the imaging channel was used to compare image resolution after changing the wavefront correction to maximize image sharpness and intensity metrics. Finally, the NCPA correction was incorporated into the closed-loop adaptive optics control by biasing the wavefront sensor signals without reducing its bandwidth.

  13. Non-common path aberration correction in an adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope

    PubMed Central

    Sulai, Yusufu N.; Dubra, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The correction of non-common path aberrations (NCPAs) between the imaging and wavefront sensing channel in a confocal scanning adaptive optics ophthalmoscope is demonstrated. NCPA correction is achieved by maximizing an image sharpness metric while the confocal detection aperture is temporarily removed, effectively minimizing the monochromatic aberrations in the illumination path of the imaging channel. Comparison of NCPA estimated using zonal and modal orthogonal wavefront corrector bases provided wavefronts that differ by ~λ/20 in root-mean-squared (~λ/30 standard deviation). Sequential insertion of a cylindrical lens in the illumination and light collection paths of the imaging channel was used to compare image resolution after changing the wavefront correction to maximize image sharpness and intensity metrics. Finally, the NCPA correction was incorporated into the closed-loop adaptive optics control by biasing the wavefront sensor signals without reducing its bandwidth. PMID:25401020

  14. Optical path difference microscopy with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hai; Agbana, Temitope E; Pozzi, Paolo; Soloviev, Oleg; Verhaegen, Michel; Vdovin, Gleb

    2017-06-01

    In this Letter, we show that a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor can be used for the quantitative measurement of the specimen optical path difference (OPD) in an ordinary incoherent optical microscope, if the spatial coherence of the illumination light in the plane of the specimen is larger than the microscope resolution. To satisfy this condition, the illumination numerical aperture should be smaller than the numerical aperture of the imaging lens. This principle has been successfully applied to build a high-resolution reference-free instrument for the characterization of the OPD of micro-optical components and microscopic biological samples.

  15. Optical modeling based on mean free path calculations for quantum dot phosphors applied to optoelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Shin, Min-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jun; Kim, Young-Joo

    2017-02-20

    We proposed an optical simulation model for the quantum dot (QD) nanophosphor based on the mean free path concept to understand precisely the optical performance of optoelectronic devices. A measurement methodology was also developed to get the desired optical characteristics such as the mean free path and absorption spectra for QD nanophosphors which are to be incorporated into the simulation. The simulation results for QD-based white LED and OLED displays show good agreement with the experimental values from the fabricated devices in terms of spectral power distribution, chromaticity coordinate, CCT, and CRI. The proposed simulation model and measurement methodology can be applied easily to the design of lots of optoelectronics devices using QD nanophosphors to obtain high efficiency and the desired color characteristics.

  16. Optical path design of phase contrast imaging on HL-2A tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiyun, CHENG; Yi, YU; Shaobo, GONG; Min, XU; Tao, LAN; Wei, JIANG; Boda, YUAN; Yifan, WU; Lin, NIE; Rui, KE; Ting, LONG; Dong, GUO; Minyou, YE; Xuru, DUAN

    2017-12-01

    A phase contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostic has recently been developed on HL-2A tokamak. It can diagnose plasma density fluctuations with maximum wave number of 15 cm-1 and wave number resolution of 2 cm-1. The time resolution reaches 2 μs. A 10.6 μm CO2 laser is expanded to a beam with a diameter of 30 mm and injected into the plasma as an incident beam, injecting into plasma. The emerging scattered and unscattered beams are contrasted by a phase plate. The ideas of optical path design are presented in this paper, together with the parameters of the main optical components. The whole optical path of PCI is not only carefully designed, but also constructed on HL-2A. First calibration results show the ability of this system to catch plasma turbulence in a wide frequency domain.

  17. Microscopic optical path length difference and polarization measurement system for cell analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satake, H.; Ikeda, K.; Kowa, H.; Hoshiba, T.; Watanabe, E.

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, noninvasive, nonstaining, and nondestructive quantitative cell measurement techniques have become increasingly important in the medical field. These cell measurement techniques enable the quantitative analysis of living cells, and are therefore applied to various cell identification processes, such as those determining the passage number limit during cell culturing in regenerative medicine. To enable cell measurement, we developed a quantitative microscopic phase imaging system based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that measures the optical path length difference distribution without phase unwrapping using optical phase locking. The applicability of our phase imaging system was demonstrated by successful identification of breast cancer cells amongst normal cells. However, the cell identification method using this phase imaging system exhibited a false identification rate of approximately 7%. In this study, we implemented a polarimetric imaging system by introducing a polarimetric module to one arm of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer of our conventional phase imaging system. This module was comprised of a quarter wave plate and a rotational polarizer on the illumination side of the sample, and a linear polarizer on the optical detector side. In addition, we developed correction methods for the measurement errors of the optical path length and birefringence phase differences that arose through the influence of elements other than cells, such as the Petri dish. As the Petri dish holding the fluid specimens was transparent, it did not affect the amplitude information; however, the optical path length and birefringence phase differences were affected. Therefore, we proposed correction of the optical path length and birefringence phase for the influence of elements other than cells, as a prerequisite for obtaining highly precise phase and polarimetric images.

  18. Integrating cell on chip—Novel waveguide platform employing ultra-long optical paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fohrmann, Lena Simone; Sommer, Gerrit; Pitruzzello, Giampaolo; Krauss, Thomas F.; Petrov, Alexander Yu.; Eich, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    Optical waveguides are the most fundamental building blocks of integrated optical circuits. They are extremely well understood, yet there is still room for surprises. Here, we introduce a novel 2D waveguide platform which affords a strong interaction of the evanescent tail of a guided optical wave with an external medium while only employing a very small geometrical footprint. The key feature of the platform is its ability to integrate the ultra-long path lengths by combining low propagation losses in a silicon slab with multiple reflections of the guided wave from photonic crystal (PhC) mirrors. With a reflectivity of 99.1% of our tailored PhC-mirrors, we achieve interaction paths of 25 cm within an area of less than 10 mm2. This corresponds to 0.17 dB/cm effective propagation which is much lower than the state-of-the-art loss of approximately 1 dB/cm of single mode silicon channel waveguides. In contrast to conventional waveguides, our 2D-approach leads to a decay of the guided wave power only inversely proportional to the optical path length. This entirely different characteristic is the major advantage of the 2D integrating cell waveguide platform over the conventional channel waveguide concepts that obey the Beer-Lambert law.

  19. Complete description of the optical path difference of a novel spectral zooming imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Wu, Haiying; Qi, Chun

    2018-03-01

    A complete description of the optical path difference of a novel spectral zooming imaging spectrometer (SZIS) is presented. SZIS is designed based on two identical Wollaston prisms with an adjustable air gap. Thus, interferogram with arbitrary spectral resolution and great reduction of spectral image size can be conveniently formed to adapt to different application requirements. Ray tracing modeling in arbitrary incidence with a quasi-parallel-plate approximation scheme is proposed to analyze the optical path difference of SZIS. In order to know the characteristics of the apparatus, exact calculations of the corresponding spectral resolution and field of view are both derived and analyzed in detail. We also present a comparison of calculation and experiment to prove the validity of the theory.

  20. Chinese vinegar classification via volatiles using long-optical-path infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Dong, D; Zheng, W; Jiao, L; Lang, Y; Zhao, X

    2016-03-01

    Different brands of Chinese vinegar are similar in appearance, color and aroma, making their discrimination difficult. The compositions and concentrations of the volatiles released from different vinegars vary by raw material and brewing process and thus offer a means to discriminate vinegars. In this study, we enhanced the detection sensitivity of the infrared spectrometer by extending its optical path. We measured the infrared spectra of the volatiles from 5 brands of Chinese vinegar and observed the spectral characteristics corresponding to alcohols, esters, acids, furfural, etc. Different brands of Chinese vinegar had obviously different infrared spectra and could be classified through chemometrics analysis. Furthermore, we established classification models and demonstrated their effectiveness for classifying different brands of vinegar. This study demonstrates that long-optical-path infrared spectroscopy has the ability to discriminate Chinese vinegars with the advantages that it is fast and non-destructive and eliminates the need for sampling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Benefit of adaptive FEC in shared backup path protected elastic optical network.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong; Dai, Hua; Wang, Chao; Li, Yongcheng; Bose, Sanjay K; Shen, Gangxiang

    2015-07-27

    We apply an adaptive forward error correction (FEC) allocation strategy to an Elastic Optical Network (EON) operated with shared backup path protection (SBPP). To maximize the protected network capacity that can be carried, an Integer Linear Programing (ILP) model and a spectrum window plane (SWP)-based heuristic algorithm are developed. Simulation results show that the FEC coding overhead required by the adaptive FEC scheme is significantly lower than that needed by a fixed FEC allocation strategy resulting in higher network capacity for the adaptive strategy. The adaptive FEC allocation strategy can also significantly outperform the fixed FEC allocation strategy both in terms of the spare capacity redundancy and the average FEC coding overhead needed per optical channel. The proposed heuristic algorithm is efficient and not only performs closer to the ILP model but also does much better than the shortest-path algorithm.

  2. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) Update and the Path Towards Optical Relay Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, David J.; Edwards, Bernard L.; Staren, John W.

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a concept for an evolution of NASA's optical communications near Earth relay architecture. NASA's Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD), a joint project between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory - California Institute of Technology (JPL), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT LL). LCRD will provide a minimum of two years of high data rate optical communications service experiments in geosynchronous orbit (GEO), following launch in 2019. This paper will provide an update of the LCRD mission status and planned capabilities and experiments, followed by a discussion of the path from LCRD to operational network capabilities.

  3. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) Update and the Path Towards Optical Relay Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, David J.; Edwards, Bernard L.; Staren, John W.

    2017-01-01

    This Presentation provides a concept for an evolution of NASAs optical communications near Earth relay architecture. NASA's Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD), a joint project between NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory - California Institute of Technology (JPL), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT LL). LCRD will provide a minimum of two years of high data rate optical communications service experiments in geosynchronous orbit (GEO), following launch in 2019. This paper will provide an update of the LCRD mission status and planned capabilities and experiments, followed by a discussion of the path from LCRD to operational network capabilities.

  4. Common path ball lens probe for optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kanwarpal; Yamada, Daisuke; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2016-02-01

    Background: Common path probes are highly desirable for optical coherence tomography (OCT) as they reduce system complexity and cost. In this work we report an all-fiber common path side viewing monolithic probe for coronary artery imaging. Methods: Our common path probe was designed for spectrometer based Fourier domain OCT at 1310 nm wavelength. Light from the fiber expands in the coreless fiber region and then focussed by the ball lens. Reflection from ball lens-air interface served as reference signal. The monolithic ball lens probe was assembled within a 560 µmouter diameter drive shaft which was attached to a rotary junction. The drive shaft was placed inside an outer, transparent sheath of 800 µm diameter. Results: With a source input power of 25 mW, we could achieve sensitivity of 100.5 dB. The axial resolution of the system was found to be 15.6 µm in air and the lateral resolution (full width half maximum) was approximately 49 µm. As proof of principal, images of skin acquired using this probe demonstrated clear visualization of the stratum corneum, epidermis, and papillary dermis, along with sweat ducts. Conclusion: In this work we have demonstrated a monolithic, ball lens common, path probe for OCT imaging. The designed ball lens probe is easy to fabricate using a laser splicer. Based on the features and capability of common path probes to provide a simpler solution for OCT, we believe that this development will be an important enhancement for certain types of catheters.

  5. Simulation of the fixed optical path difference of near infrared wind imaging interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Piao; Zhang, Chunmin; Yan, Tingyu; Liu, Dongdong; Li, Yanfen

    2017-02-01

    As an important part of the earth, atmosphere plays a vital role in filtering the solar radiation, adjusting the temperature and organizing the water circulation and keeping human survival. The passive atmospheric wind measurement is based on the imaging interferometer technology and Doppler effect of electromagnetic wave. By using the wind imaging interferometer to get four interferograms of airglow emission lines, the atmospheric wind velocity, temperature, pressure and emission rate can be derived. Exploring the multi-functional and integrated innovation of detecting wind temperature, wind velocity and trace gas has become a research focus in the field. In the present paper, the impact factors of the fixed optical path difference(OPD) of near infrared wind imaging interferometer(NIWII) are analyzed and the optimum value of the fixed optical path difference is simulated, yielding the optimal results of the fixed optical path difference is 20 cm in near infrared wave band (the O2(a1Δg) airglow emission at 1.27 microns). This study aims at providing theoretical basis and technical support for the detection of stratosphere near infrared wind field and giving guidance for the design and development of near infrared wind imaging interferometer.

  6. 128×128 three-dimensional MEMS optical switch module with simultaneous optical path connection for optical cross-connect systems.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Masato; Yamaguchi, Joji; Nemoto, Naru; Kawajiri, Yuko; Hirata, Hirooki; Uchiyama, Shingo; Makihara, Mitsuhiro; Sakata, Tomomi; Shimoyama, Nobuhiro; Oda, Kazuhiro

    2011-07-20

    A 128×128 three-dimensional MEMS optical switch module and a switching-control algorithm for high-speed connection and optical power stabilization are described. A prototype switch module enables the simultaneous switching of all optical paths. The insertion loss is less than 4.6 dB and is 2.3 dB on average. The switching time is less than 38 ms and is 8 ms on average. We confirmed that the maximum optical power can be obtained and optical power stabilization control is possible. The results confirm that the module is suitable for practical use in optical cross-connect systems. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  7. The CHARA array adaptive optics I: common-path optical and mechanical design, and preliminary on-sky results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Xiao; Sturmann, Laszlo; Monnier, John D.; ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Sturmann, Judit; Ridgway, Stephen T.; Ireland, Michael J.; Turner, Nils H.; McAlister, Harold A.

    2014-07-01

    The CHARA array is an optical interferometer with six 1-meter diameter telescopes, providing baselines from 33 to 331 meters. With sub-milliarcsecond angular resolution, its versatile visible and near infrared combiners offer a unique angle of studying nearby stellar systems by spatially resolving their detailed structures. To improve the sensitivity and scientific throughput, the CHARA array was funded by NSF-ATI in 2011 to install adaptive optics (AO) systems on all six telescopes. The initial grant covers Phase I of the AO systems, which includes on-telescope Wavefront Sensors (WFS) and non-common-path (NCP) error correction. Meanwhile we are seeking funding for Phase II which will add large Deformable Mirrors on telescopes to close the full AO loop. The corrections of NCP error and static aberrations in the optical system beyond the WFS are described in the second paper of this series. This paper describes the design of the common-path optical system and the on-telescope WFS, and shows the on-sky commissioning results.

  8. Non-mechanical optical path switching and its application to dual beam spectroscopy including gas filter correlation radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor); Wang, Liang-Guo (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A non-mechanical optical switch is developed for alternately switching a monochromatic or quasi-monochromatic light beam along two optical paths. A polarizer polarizes light into a single, e.g., vertical component which is then rapidly modulated into vertical and horizontal components by a polarization modulator. A polarization beam splitter then reflects one of these components along one path and transmits the other along the second path. In the specific application of gas filter correlation radiometry, one path is directed through a vacuum cell and one path is directed through a gas correlation cell containing a desired gas. Reflecting mirrors cause these two paths to intersect at a second polarization beam splitter which reflects one component and transmits the other to recombine them into a polarization modulated beam which can be detected by an appropriate single sensor.

  9. Cloud Optical Depths and Liquid Water Paths at the NSA CART

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J C.; Barnard, James C.; Zhong, Shiyuan

    2000-03-14

    Cloud optical depths have been measured using multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSRs) at Barrow and Atqasuk, and liquid water paths have been measured at Barrow using a microwave radiometer (MWR) during the warm season (June-September) in 1999. Comparisons have been made between these quantities and the corresponding ones determined from the ECMWF GCM. Hour-by-hour comparisons of cloud optical depths show considerable scatter. The scatter is reduced, but is still substantial, when the averaging period is increased to ''daily'' averages, i.e., the time period each day over which the MFRSR can make measurements. This period varied between 18 hours in Junemore » and 6 hours in September. Preliminary results indicate that, for measured cloud optical depths less than approximately 25, the ECMWF has a low bias in its predictions, consistent with a low bias in predicted liquid water path. Based on a more limited set of data, the optical depths at Atqasuk were found to be generally lower than those at Barrow, a trend at least qualitatively captured by the ECMWF model. Analyses to identify the cause of the biases and the considerable scatter in the predictions are continuing.« less

  10. OVMS: the optical path difference and vibration monitoring system for the LBT and its interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kürster, M.; Bertram, T.; Borelli, J. L.; Brix, M.; Gässler, W.; Herbst, T. M.; Naranjo, V.; Pott, J.-U.; Trowitzsch, J.; Connors, T. E.; Hinz, P. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Ashby, D. S.; Brynnel, J. G.; Cushing, N. J.; Edgin, T.; Esguerra, J. D.; Green, R. F.; Kraus, J.; Little, J.; Beckmann, U.; Weigelt, G. P.

    2010-07-01

    Characterisation, mitigation and correction of telescope vibrations have proven to be crucial for the performance of astronomical infrared interferometers. The project teams of the interferometers for the LBT, LINC-NIRVANA and LBTI, and LBT Observatory (LBTO) have embarked on a joint effort to implement an accelerometer-based vibration measurement system distributed over the optical elements of the LBT. OVMS, the Optical Path Difference and Vibration Monitoring System will serve to (i) ensure conditions suitable for adaptive optics (AO) and interferometric (IF) observations and (ii) utilize vibration information, converted into tip-tilt and optical path difference data, in the control strategies of the LBT adaptive secondary mirrors and the beam combining interferometers. The system hardware is mainly developed by Steward Observatory's LBTI team and its installation at the LBT is underway. The OVMS software development and associated computer infrastructure is the responsibility of the LINC-NIRVANA team at MPIA Heidelberg. Initially, the OVMS will fill a data archive provided by LBTO that will be used to study vibration data and correlate them with telescope movements and environmental parameters thereby identifiying sources of vibrations and to eliminate or mitigate them. Data display tools will help LBTO staff to keep vibrations within predefined thresholds for quiet conditions for AO and IF observations. Later-on real-time data from the OVMS will be fed into the control loops of the AO systems and IF instruments in order to permit the correction of vibration signals with frequencies up to 450 Hz.

  11. Measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural sites using open-path optical remote sensing method.

    PubMed

    Ro, Kyoung S; Johnson, Melvin H; Varma, Ravi M; Hashmonay, Ram A; Hunt, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    Improved characterization of distributed emission sources of greenhouse gases such as methane from concentrated animal feeding operations require more accurate methods. One promising method is recently used by the USEPA. It employs a vertical radial plume mapping (VRPM) algorithm using optical remote sensing techniques. We evaluated this method to estimate emission rates from simulated distributed methane sources. A scanning open-path tunable diode laser was used to collect path-integrated concentrations (PICs) along different optical paths on a vertical plane downwind of controlled methane releases. Each cycle consists of 3 ground-level PICs and 2 above ground PICs. Three- to 10-cycle moving averages were used to reconstruct mass equivalent concentration plum maps on the vertical plane. The VRPM algorithm estimated emission rates of methane along with meteorological and PIC data collected concomitantly under different atmospheric stability conditions. The derived emission rates compared well with actual released rates irrespective of atmospheric stability conditions. The maximum error was 22 percent when 3-cycle moving average PICs were used; however, it decreased to 11% when 10-cycle moving average PICs were used. Our validation results suggest that this new VRPM method may be used for improved estimations of greenhouse gas emission from a variety of agricultural sources.

  12. Studies of free-space optical links through simulated boundary layer and long-path turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasiczko, Linda; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Milner, Stuart D.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2004-02-01

    There is recent interest from the US Department of Defense in free space optical communication networks involving aircraft flying at various altitudes. The optical links between these aircraft may be as long as 100km, and involve communication between network nodes that are moving at sub-sonic speeds. An unresolved issue for links of this kind between pairs of aircraft is the effect of boundary layer turbulence near each aircraft, as well as along the atmospheric path between them. The deployment of optical wireless links in several different scenarios will be described. These include links near to the ground for which the turbulence parameter Cn2 varies along the path between transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX), high altitude links between aircraft, and ground to aircraft links. The last two of these may involve boundary layer turbulence near the aircraft node where the turbulence is localized either at the TX or at the RX. Some of the theoretical approaches to examining these situations will be described, as well as an ongoing program of research to examine these situations experimentally. Ways to mitigate the effects of node motion, and scintillation at the RX will be discussed, including the use of non-imaging concentrators at the RX.

  13. Changes in diffusion path length with old age in diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnéry, Clément; Leclerc, Paul-Olivier; Desjardins, Michèle; Hoge, Rick; Bherer, Louis; Pouliot, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    Diffuse, optical near infrared imaging is increasingly being used in various neurocognitive contexts where changes in optical signals are interpreted through activation maps. Statistical population comparison of different age or clinical groups rely on the relative homogeneous distribution of measurements across subjects in order to infer changes in brain function. In the context of an increasing use of diffuse optical imaging with older adult populations, changes in tissue properties and anatomy with age adds additional confounds. Few studies investigated these changes with age. Duncan et al. measured the so-called diffusion path length factor (DPF) in a large population but did not explore beyond the age of 51 after which physiological and anatomical changes are expected to occur [Pediatr. Res. 39(5), 889-894 (1996)]. With increasing interest in studying the geriatric population with optical imaging, we studied changes in tissue properties in young and old subjects using both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided Monte-Carlo simulations and time-domain diffuse optical imaging. Our results, measured in the frontal cortex, show changes in DPF that are smaller than previously measured by Duncan et al. in a younger population. The origin of these changes are studied using simulations and experimental measures.

  14. Development of a visible light transmission (VLT) measurement system using an open-path optical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurulain, S.; Manap, H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes about a visible light transmission (VLT) measurement system using an optical method. VLT rate plays an important role in order to determine the visibility of a medium. Current instrument to measure visibility has a gigantic set up, costly and mostly fails to function at low light condition environment. This research focuses on the development of a VLT measurement system using a simple experimental set-up and at a low cost. An open path optical technique is used to measure a few series of known-VLT thin film that act as sample of different visibilities. This measurement system is able to measure the light intensity of these thin films within the visible light region (535-540 nm) and the response time is less than 1s.

  15. Arc-evaporated carbon films: optical properties and electron mean free paths

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.W.; Arakawa, E.T.; Dolfini, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes briefly a method which can be used to calculate inelastic mean free paths for electrons with energies in the range of interest for the interpretation of surface phenomena. This method requires a knowledge of the optical properties of the material for the photon energies associated with the oscillator strength of the valence electrons. However, in general it is easier to obtain accurate values of the required properties than it is to measure the electron attenuation lengths in the energy region of interest. This technique, demonstrated here for arc-evaporated carbon, can be used for any material for whichmore » the optical properties can be measured over essentially the whole energy range corresponding to the valence electron response.« less

  16. Common-path low-coherence interferometry fiber-optic sensor guided microincision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kang; Kang, Jin U.

    2011-09-01

    We propose and demonstrate a common-path low-coherence interferometry (CP-LCI) fiber-optic sensor guided precise microincision. The method tracks the target surface and compensates the tool-to-surface relative motion with better than +/-5 μm resolution using a precision micromotor connected to the tool tip. A single-fiber distance probe integrated microdissector was used to perform an accurate 100 μm incision into the surface of an Intralipid phantom. The CP-LCI guided incision quality in terms of depth was evaluated afterwards using three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography imaging, which showed significant improvement of incision accuracy compared to free-hand-only operations.

  17. Common-path low-coherence interferometry fiber-optic sensor guided microincision

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kang; Kang, Jin U.

    2011-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a common-path low-coherence interferometry (CP-LCI) fiber-optic sensor guided precise microincision. The method tracks the target surface and compensates the tool-to-surface relative motion with better than ±5 μm resolution using a precision micromotor connected to the tool tip. A single-fiber distance probe integrated microdissector was used to perform an accurate 100 μm incision into the surface of an Intralipid phantom. The CP-LCI guided incision quality in terms of depth was evaluated afterwards using three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography imaging, which showed significant improvement of incision accuracy compared to free-hand-only operations. PMID:21950912

  18. Optical efficiency of solar concentrators by a reverse optical path method.

    PubMed

    Parretta, A; Antonini, A; Milan, E; Stefancich, M; Martinelli, G; Armani, M

    2008-09-15

    A method for the optical characterization of a solar concentrator, based on the reverse illumination by a Lambertian source and measurement of intensity of light projected on a far screen, has been developed. It is shown that the projected light intensity is simply correlated to the angle-resolved efficiency of a concentrator, conventionally obtained by a direct illumination procedure. The method has been applied by simulating simple reflective nonimaging and Fresnel lens concentrators.

  19. Research on optimal path planning algorithm of task-oriented optical remote sensing satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yunhe; Xu, Shengli; Liu, Fengjing; Yuan, Jingpeng

    2015-08-01

    GEO task-oriented optical remote sensing satellite, is very suitable for long-term continuous monitoring and quick access to imaging. With the development of high resolution optical payload technology and satellite attitude control technology, GEO optical remote sensing satellites will become an important developing trend for aerospace remote sensing satellite in the near future. In the paper, we focused on GEO optical remote sensing satellite plane array stare imaging characteristics and real-time leading mission of earth observation mode, targeted on satisfying needs of the user with the minimum cost of maneuver, and put forward the optimal path planning algorithm centered on transformation from geographic coordinate space to Field of plane, and finally reduced the burden of the control system. In this algorithm, bounded irregular closed area on the ground would be transformed based on coordinate transformation relations in to the reference plane for field of the satellite payload, and then using the branch and bound method to search for feasible solutions, cutting off the non-feasible solution in the solution space based on pruning strategy; and finally trimming some suboptimal feasible solutions based on the optimization index until a feasible solution for the global optimum. Simulation and visualization presentation software testing results verified the feasibility and effectiveness of the strategy.

  20. Characterization of the Los Alamos IPG YLR-6000 fiber laser using multiple optical paths and laser focusing optics

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, John O; Bernal, John E

    2009-01-01

    Fiber laser technology has been identified as the replacement power source for the existing Los Alamos TA-55 production laser welding system. An IPG YLR-6000 fiber laser was purchased, installed at SM-66 R3, and accepted in February 2008. No characterization of the laser and no welding was performed in the Feb 2008 to May 2009 interval. T. Lienert and J. Bernal (Ref. 1, July 2009) determined the existing 200 mm Rofin collimator and focus heads used with the Rofin diode pumped lasers were inadequate for use with the IPG laser due to clipping of the IPG laser beam. Further efforts inmore » testing of the IPG laser with Optoskand fiber delivery optics and a Rofin 120 mm collimator proved problematic due to optical fiber damage. As a result, IPG design optical fibers were purchased as replacements for subsequent testing. Within the same interval, an IPG fiber-to-fiber (F2F) connector, custom built for LANL, (J. Milewski, S. Gravener, Ref.2) was demonstrated and accepted at IPG Oxford, MA in August 2009. An IPG service person was contracted to come to LANL to assist in the installation, training, troubleshooting and characterization of the multiple beam paths and help perform laser head optics characterization. The statement of work is provided below: In summary the laser system, optical fibers, F2F connector, Precitec head, and a modified Rofin type (w/120mm Optoskand collimator) IWindowIBoot system focus head (Figure 1) were shown to perform well at powers up to 6 kW CW. Power measurements, laser spot size measurements, and other characterization data and lessons learned are contained within this report. In addition, a number of issues were identified that will require future resolution.« less

  1. Observation of Biological Tissues Using Common Path Optical Coherence Tomography with Gold Coated Conical Tip Lens Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, K.; Sugiyama, J.; Totsuka, M.; Imanaka, S.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed a high lateral resolution common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography(OCT) system with the use of a chemically etched single mode fiber. In our experiments, single mode optical fiber for 1310nm was used for preparing the tapered tips. Our system used a conical microlens that was chemically etched by selective chemical etching technique using an etching solution of buffered hydrofluoric acid (BHF). From experimental results, we verified that our proposed optical coherence tomography system could operate as a common-path Fourier domain OCT system and conical tip lens fiber was very useful for a high lateral resolution common-path Fourier domain OCT system. Furthermore, we could observe a surface of paramecium bursaria and symbiotic chlorella in the paramecium bursaria using gold coated conical-tip fiber in the water.

  2. Beam splitter and method for generating equal optical path length beams

    DOEpatents

    Qian, Shinan; Takacs, Peter

    2003-08-26

    The present invention is a beam splitter for splitting an incident beam into first and second beams so that the first and second beams have a fixed separation and are parallel upon exiting. The beam splitter includes a first prism, a second prism, and a film located between the prisms. The first prism is defined by a first thickness and a first perimeter which has a first major base. The second prism is defined by a second thickness and a second perimeter which has a second major base. The film is located between the first major base and the second major base for splitting the incident beam into the first and second beams. The first and second perimeters are right angle trapezoidal shaped. The beam splitter is configured for generating equal optical path length beams.

  3. Speckle reduction during all-fiber common-path optical coherence tomography of the cavernous nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitchian, Shahab; Fiddy, Michael; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2009-02-01

    Improvements in identification, imaging, and visualization of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery, which are responsible for erectile function, may improve nerve preservation and postoperative sexual potency. In this study, we use a rat prostate, ex vivo, to evaluate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a diagnostic tool for real-time imaging and identification of the cavernous nerves. A novel OCT system based on an all single-mode fiber common-path interferometer-based scanning system is used for this purpose. A wavelet shrinkage denoising technique using Stein's unbiased risk estimator (SURE) algorithm to calculate a data-adaptive threshold is implemented for speckle noise reduction in the OCT image. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was improved by 9 dB and the image quality metrics of the cavernous nerves also improved significantly.

  4. Analysis of the Sagnac interference imaging spectrometer with a variable optical path difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Jingjing; Gao, Peng; Hu, Xiaochen; Zhang, Chunmin; Wang, Xia

    2018-03-01

    The Sagnac interference imaging spectrometer with a variable optical path difference (OPD) is proposed in this paper, which employs two wedge prisms coupled with a modified Sagnac interferometer, and produces a variable OPD through the moving wedge prism. Compared with the conventional imaging spectrometer, the Sagnac interference imaging spectrometer shows its advantages of miniaturization and insensitive to the non-uniform variation of the moving speed and the environment vibration. The exact expression of the OPD as a function of different parameters is derived, and the influences of the moving displacement, wedge angle and acute angles on the OPD are analyzed and discussed within the scope of engineering design. This study provides an important theoretical and practical guidance for the engineering of the Sagnac interference imaging spectrometer.

  5. My Path Into X-Ray, Optics and Pressure: Experiences and Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, William

    2013-04-01

    A successful career path in science is rarely formulaic or achieved by following a predefined set of actions. Sustained commitment, perseverance, performance and relationships are all key ingredients. Judicious selection of opportunities (research projects, employers, etc.) can lead to significant scientific accomplishments and career advancements. In this presentation I will review the trajectory of my scientific career spanning my experiences from the Westinghouse STS and ISEF, through Caltech and Harvard to my current position of High Pressure Physics Group Leader at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. I will discuss my involvement in some exciting research projects using x-ray synchrotron sources and optical spectroscopy to study static and dynamic properties of materials at high-pressures. In addition, I will share my perspectives on the importance of excellence, preparedness and the value of professional relationships.

  6. Optical image encryption scheme with multiple light paths based on compressive ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jinan; Yang, Xiulun; Meng, Xiangfeng; Wang, Yurong; Yin, Yongkai; Sun, Xiaowen; Dong, Guoyan

    2018-02-01

    An optical image encryption method with multiple light paths is proposed based on compressive ghost imaging. In the encryption process, M random phase-only masks (POMs) are generated by means of logistic map algorithm, and these masks are then uploaded to the spatial light modulator (SLM). The collimated laser light is divided into several beams by beam splitters as it passes through the SLM, and the light beams illuminate the secret images, which are converted into sparse images by discrete wavelet transform beforehand. Thus, the secret images are simultaneously encrypted into intensity vectors by ghost imaging. The distances between the SLM and secret images vary and can be used as the main keys with original POM and the logistic map algorithm coefficient in the decryption process. In the proposed method, the storage space can be significantly decreased and the security of the system can be improved. The feasibility, security and robustness of the method are further analysed through computer simulations.

  7. Effective optical path length for tandem diffuse cubic cavities as gas absorption cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Gao, Q.; Zhang, Y. G.; Zhang, Z. G.; Wu, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Tandem diffuse cubic cavities designed by connecting two single diffuse cubic-shaped cavities, A and B, with an aperture (port fraction fap) in the middle of the connecting baffle was developed as a gas absorption cell. The effective optical path length (EOPL) was evaluated by comparing the oxygen absorption signal in the cavity and in air based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Experimental results manifested an enhancement of EOPL for the tandem diffuse cubic cavities as the decrease of fap and can be expressed as the sum of EOPL of two single cubic cavities at fap < 0.01, which coincided well with theoretical analysis. The simulating EOPL was smaller than experimental results at fap > 0.01, which indicated that back scattering light from cavity B to cavity A cannot be ignored at this condition.

  8. Statistical analysis of measured free-space laser signal intensity over a 2.33 km optical path.

    PubMed

    Tunick, Arnold

    2007-10-17

    Experimental research is conducted to determine the characteristic behavior of high frequency laser signal intensity data collected over a 2.33 km optical path. Results focus mainly on calculated power spectra and frequency distributions. In addition, a model is developed to calculate optical turbulence intensity (C(n)/2) as a function of receiving and transmitting aperture diameter, log-amplitude variance, and path length. Initial comparisons of calculated to measured C(n)/2 data are favorable. It is anticipated that this kind of signal data analysis will benefit laser communication systems development and testing at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and elsewhere.

  9. Optical Frequency Comb Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with Resolution Exceeding the Limit Set by the Optical Path Difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra; Rutkowski, Lucile; Johanssson, Alexandra C.; Khodabakhsh, Amir; Maslowski, Piotr; Kowzan, Grzegorz; Lee, Kevin; Fermann, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) based on optical frequency combs (OFC) allow detection of broadband molecular spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios within acquisition times orders of magnitude shorter than traditional FTIRs based on thermal sources. Due to the pulsed nature of OFCs the interferogram consists of a series of bursts rather than a single burst at zero optical path difference (OPD). The comb mode structure can be resolved by acquiring multiple bursts, in both mechanical FTS systems and dual-comb spectroscopy. However, in all existing demonstrations the resolution was ultimately limited either by the maximum available OPD between the interferometer arms or by the total acquisition time enabled by the storage memory. We present a method that provides spectral resolution exceeding the limit set by the maximum OPD using an interferogram containing only a single burst. The method allows measurements of absorption lines narrower than the OPD-limited resolution without any influence of the instrumental lineshape function. We demonstrate this by measuring undistorted CO2 and CO absorption lines with linewidth narrower than the OPD-limited resolution using OFC-based mechanical FTS in the near- and mid-infrared wavelength ranges. The near-infrared system is based on an Er:fiber femtosecond laser locked to a high finesse cavity, while the mid-infrared system is based on a Tm:fiber-laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator coupled to a multi-pass cell. We show that the method allows acquisition of high-resolution molecular spectra with interferometer length orders of magnitude shorter than traditional FTIR. Mandon, J., G. Guelachvili, and N. Picque, Nat. Phot., 2009. 3(2): p. 99-102. Zeitouny, M., et al., Ann. Phys., 2013. 525(6): p. 437-442. Zolot, A.M., et al., Opt. Lett., 2012. 37(4): p. 638-640.

  10. Optical path of infrared neural stimulation in the guinea pig and cat cochlea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajguru, Suhrud M.; Hwang, Margaret; Moreno, Laura E.; Matic, Agnella I.; Stock, Stuart R.; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2011-03-01

    It has been demonstrated previously that infrared neural stimulation (INS) can be used to stimulate spiral ganglion cells in the cochlea. With INS, neural stimulation can be achieved without direct contact of the radiation source and the tissue and is spatially well resolved. The presence of fluids or bone between the target structure and the radiation source may lead to absorption or scattering of the radiation and limit the efficacy of INS. To develop INS based cochlear implants, it is critical to determine the beam path of the radiation in the cochlea. In the present study, we utilized noninvasive X-ray microtomography (microCT) to visualize the orientation and location of the optical fiber within the guinea pig and cat cochlea. Overall, the results indicated that the optical fiber was directed towards the spiral ganglion cells in the cochlea and not the nerve fibers in the center of the modiolus. The fiber was approximately 300 μm away from the target structures. In future studies, results from the microCT will be correlated with physiology obtained from recordings in the midbrain.

  11. Simultaneous Water Vapor and Dry Air Optical Path Length Measurements and Compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrere, D.; Hinz, P.; Downey, E.; Boehm, M.; Danchi, W. C.; Durney, O.; Ertel, S.; Hill, J. M.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Mennesson, B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer uses a near-infrared camera to measure the optical path length variations between the two AO-corrected apertures and provide high-angular resolution observations for all its science channels (1.5-13 microns). There is however a wavelength dependent component to the atmospheric turbulence, which can introduce optical path length errors when observing at a wavelength different from that of the fringe sensing camera. Water vapor in particular is highly dispersive and its effect must be taken into account for high-precision infrared interferometric observations as described previously for VLTI/MIDI or the Keck Interferometer Nuller. In this paper, we describe the new sensing approach that has been developed at the LBT to measure and monitor the optical path length fluctuations due to dry air and water vapor separately. After reviewing the current performance of the system for dry air seeing compensation, we present simultaneous H-, K-, and N-band observations that illustrate the feasibility of our feed forward approach to stabilize the path length fluctuations seen by the LBTI nuller uses a near-infrared camera to measure the optical path length variations between the two AO-corrected apertures and provide high-angular resolution observations for all its science channels (1.5-13 microns). There is however a wavelength dependent component to the atmospheric turbulence, which can introduce optical path length errors when observing at a wavelength different from that of the fringe sensing camera. Water vapor in particular is highly dispersive and its effect must be taken into account for high-precision infrared interferometric observations as described previously for VLTI MIDI or the Keck Interferometer Nuller. In this paper, we describe the new sensing approach that has been developed at the LBT to measure and monitor the optical path length fluctuations due to dry air and water vapor separately. After reviewing the current

  12. Horizontal Line-of-Sight Turbulence Over Near-Ground Paths and Implications for Adaptive Optics Corrections in Laser Communications.

    PubMed

    Levine, B M; Martinsen, E A; Wirth, A; Jankevics, A; Toledo-Quinones, M; Landers, F; Bruno, T L

    1998-07-20

    Atmospheric turbulence over long horizontal paths perturbs phase and can also cause severe intensity scintillation in the pupil of an optical communications receiver, which limits the data rate over which intensity-based modulation schemes can operate. The feasibility of using low-order adaptive optics by applying phase-only corrections over horizontal propagation paths is investigated. A Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor was built and data were gathered on paths 1 m above ground and between a 1- and 2.5-km range. Both intensity fluctuations and optical path fluctuation statistics were gathered within a single frame, and the wave-front reconstructor was modified to allow for scintillated data. The temporal power spectral density for various Zernike polynomial modes was used to determine the effects of the expected corrections by adaptive optics. The slopes of the inertial subrange of turbulence were found to be less than predicted by Kolmogorov theory with an infinite outer scale, and the distribution of variance explained by increasing order was also found to be different. Statistical analysis of these data in the 1-km range indicates that at communications wavelengths of 1.3 mum, a significant improvement in transmitted beam quality could be expected most of the time, to a performance of 10% Strehl ratio or better.

  13. A common-path optical coherence tomography based electrode for structural imaging of nerves and recording of action potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. Shahidul; Haque, Md. Rezuanul; Oh, Christian M.; Wang, Yan; Park, B. Hyle

    2013-03-01

    Current technologies for monitoring neural activity either use different variety of electrodes (electrical recording) or require contrast agents introduced exogenously or through genetic modification (optical imaging). Here we demonstrate an optical method for non-contact and contrast agent free detection of nerve activity using phase-resolved optical coherence tomography (pr-OCT). A common-path variation of the pr-OCT is recently implemented and the developed system demonstrated the capability to detect rapid transient structural changes that accompany neural spike propagation. No averaging over multiple trials was required, indicating its capability of single-shot detection of individual impulses from functionally stimulated Limulus optic nerve. The strength of this OCT-based optical electrode is that it is a contactless method and does not require any exogenous contrast agent. With further improvements in accuracy and sensitivity, this optical electrode will play a complementary role to the existing recording technologies in future.

  14. Observations of cloud liquid water path over oceans: Optical and microwave remote sensing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Rossow, William B.

    1994-01-01

    Published estimates of cloud liquid water path (LWP) from satellite-measured microwave radiation show little agreement, even about the relative magnitudes of LWP in the tropics and midlatitudes. To understand these differences and to obtain more reliable estimate, optical and microwave LWP retrieval methods are compared using the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) data. Errors in microwave LWP retrieval associated with uncertainties in surface, atmosphere, and cloud properties are assessed. Sea surface temperature may not produce great LWP errors, if accurate contemporaneous measurements are used in the retrieval. An uncertainty of estimated near-surface wind speed as high as 2 m/s produces uncertainty in LWP of about 5 mg/sq cm. Cloud liquid water temperature has only a small effect on LWP retrievals (rms errors less than 2 mg/sq cm), if errors in the temperature are less than 5 C; however, such errors can produce spurious variations of LWP with latitude and season. Errors in atmospheric column water vapor (CWV) are strongly coupled with errors in LWP (for some retrieval methods) causing errors as large as 30 mg/sq cm. Because microwave radiation is much less sensitive to clouds with small LWP (less than 7 mg/sq cm) than visible wavelength radiation, the microwave results are very sensitive to the process used to separate clear and cloudy conditions. Different cloud detection sensitivities in different microwave retrieval methods bias estimated LWP values. Comparing ISCCP and SSM/I LWPs, we find that the two estimated values are consistent in global, zonal, and regional means for warm, nonprecipitating clouds, which have average LWP values of about 5 mg/sq cm and occur much more frequently than precipitating clouds. Ice water path (IWP) can be roughly estimated from the differences between ISCCP total water path and SSM/I LWP for cold, nonprecipitating clouds. IWP in the winter hemisphere is about

  15. Creating a palliative and end-of-life program in a cure-oriented pediatric setting: the zig-zag method.

    PubMed

    Harper, Joann; Hinds, Pamela S; Baker, Justin N; Hicks, Judy; Spunt, Sheri L; Razzouk, Bassem I

    2007-01-01

    Children living with and dying of advanced-stage cancer suffer physically, emotionally, and spiritually. Relief of their suffering requires comprehensive, compassionate palliative and end-of-life (EoL) care.However, an EoL care program might appear inconsistent with the mission of a pediatric oncology research center committed to seeking cures. Here the authors describe the methods used to achieve full institutional commitment to their EoL care program and those used to build the program's philosophical, research, and educational foundations after they received approval. The authors convened 10 focus groups to solicit staff perceptions of the hospital's current palliative and EoL care. They also completed baseline medical record reviews of 145 patient records to identify key EoL characteristics. The authors then crafted a vision statement and a strategic plan, implemented new research protocols,and established publication and funding trajectories. They conclude that establishing a state-of-the-art palliative and EoL program in a cure-oriented pediatric setting is achievable via consensus building and recruitment of diverse institutional resources.

  16. Zig-Zagging in Geometrical Reasoning in Technological Collaborative Environments: A Mathematical Working Space-Framed Study Concerning Cognition and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez-Chacón, Inés Ma.; Romero Albaladejo, Isabel Ma.; del Mar García López, Ma.

    2016-01-01

    This study highlights the importance of cognition-affect interaction pathways in the construction of mathematical knowledge. Scientific output demands further research on the conceptual structure underlying such interaction aimed at coping with the high complexity of its interpretation. The paper discusses the effectiveness of using a dynamic…

  17. Generation of elliptical and circular vector hollow beams with different polarizations by a Mach-Zehnder-type optical path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhizhang; Pei, Chunying; Xia, Meng; Yin, Yaling; Xia, Yong; Yin, Jianping

    2018-01-01

    We present an experimental approach to convert linearly polarized Gaussian beams into elliptical and circular vector hollow beams (VHBs) with different polarization states. The scheme employed is based on a Mach-Zehnder-type optical path combined with a reflective spatial light modulator (SLM) in each path. The resulting VHBs have radial, azimuthal, and other polarization states. Our studies also show that the size of the generated VHBs remains constant during the propagation in free space over a certain distance, and can be controlled by the axial ratio of the SLM’s binary phase plate. These studies deliver great optical parameters and hold promising applications in the fields of optical trapping and manipulation of particles.

  18. Simultaneous water vapor and dry air optical path length measurements and compensation with the large binocular telescope interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defrère, D.; Hinz, P.; Downey, E.; Böhm, M.; Danchi, W. C.; Durney, O.; Ertel, S.; Hill, J. M.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Mennesson, B.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Montoya, M.; Pott, J.-U.; Skemer, A.; Spalding, E.; Stone, J.; Vaz, A.

    2016-08-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer uses a near-infrared camera to measure the optical path length variations between the two AO-corrected apertures and provide high-angular resolution observations for all its science channels (1.5-13 microns). There is however a wavelength dependent component to the atmospheric turbulence, which can introduce optical path length errors when observing at a wavelength different from that of the fringe sensing camera. Water vapor in particular is highly dispersive and its effect must be taken into account for high-precision infrared interferometric observations as described previously for VLTI/MIDI or the Keck Interferometer Nuller. In this paper, we describe the new sensing approach that has been developed at the LBT to measure and monitor the optical path length fluctuations due to dry air and water vapor separately. After reviewing the current performance of the system for dry air seeing compensation, we present simultaneous H-, K-, and N-band observations that illustrate the feasibility of our feedforward approach to stabilize the path length fluctuations seen by the LBTI nuller.

  19. Mapping optical path length and image enhancement using quantitative orientation-independent differential interference contrast microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Shribak, Michael; Larkin, Kieran G.; Biggs, David

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. We describe the principles of using orientation-independent differential interference contrast (OI-DIC) microscopy for mapping optical path length (OPL). Computation of the scalar two-dimensional OPL map is based on an experimentally received map of the OPL gradient vector field. Two methods of contrast enhancement for the OPL image, which reveal hardly visible structures and organelles, are presented. The results obtained can be used for reconstruction of a volume image. We have confirmed that a standard research grade light microscope equipped with the OI-DIC and 100×/1.3 NA objective lens, which was not specially selected for minimum wavefront and polarization aberrations, provides OPL noise level of ∼0.5  nm and lateral resolution if ∼300  nm at a wavelength of 546 nm. The new technology is the next step in the development of the DIC microscopy. It can replace standard DIC prisms on existing commercial microscope systems without modification. This will allow biological researchers that already have microscopy setups to expand the performance of their systems. PMID:28060991

  20. Status and Path Forward for the Large Ultraviolet Optical Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR) Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crooke, Julie A.; Roberge, Aki; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Mandell, Avram M.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Rioux, Norman M.; Perez, Mario R.; Smith, Erin C.

    2016-01-01

    In preparation of the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has commenced a process for the astronomical community to study several large mission concepts leveraging the lessons learned from past Decadal Surveys. This will enable the Decadal Survey committee to make more informed recommendations to NASA on its astrophysics science and mission priorities with respect to cost and risk. Four astrophysics large mission concepts were identified. Each of them had a Science and Technology Definition Teem(STDT) chartered to produce scientifically compelling, feasible, and executable design reference mission (DRM)concepts to present to the 2020 Decadal Survey. In addition, The Aerospace Corporation will perform an independent cost and technical evaluation (CATE) of each of these mission concept studies in advance of the 2020 Decadal Survey by interacting with the STDTs to provide detailed technical details on certain areas for which deep dives are appropriate. This paper presents the status and path forward for one of the four large mission concepts, namely, the Large UltraViolet, Optical, InfraRed surveyor (LUVOIR).

  1. Arc-evaporated carbon films: Optical properties and electron mean free paths

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, E.T.; Dolfini, S.M.; Ashley, J.C.

    1985-06-15

    The real and imaginary parts of the complex refractive index, n(..omega..) = n(..omega..)+ik(..omega..), of arc-evaporated carbon films have been obtained over the range of photon energies h..omega.. from 0.5 to 62.0 eV. Values of k(..omega..) obtained from transmission measurements in this energy range were combined with values of k(..omega..) from the literature in the infrared and soft-x-ray regions. A Kramers-Kronig analysis then yielded the values of n(..omega..). The density of the arc-evaporated carbon films was found to be 1.90 +- 0.05 g cm/sup -3/ by the ''sink-float'' method, and their thicknesses were determined optically. A sum-rule calculation yielded the effectivemore » numbers of valence and core electrons to be 4.2 and 1.8, respectively. The experimental values determined for n(..omega..) have been used to estimate values of the inelastic mean free path ..lambda..(E) for electrons of energy E from 200 to 3000 eV in amorphous carbon. Good agreement is found between ..lambda..(E) and experimentally determined values of electron attenuation length L(E) from the literature.« less

  2. Status and path forward for the large ultraviolet/optical/infrared surveyor (LUVOIR) mission concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crooke, Julie A.; Roberge, Aki; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Mandell, Avi M.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Rioux, Norman M.; Perez, Mario R.; Smith, Erin C.

    2016-07-01

    In preparation of the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has commenced a process for the astronomical community to study several large mission concepts leveraging the lessons learned from past Decadal Surveys. This will enable the Decadal Survey committee to make more informed recommendations to NASA on its astrophysics science and mission priorities with respect to cost and risk. Four astrophysics large mission concepts were identified. Each of them had a Science and Technology Definition Teem (STDT) chartered to produce scientifically compelling, feasible, and executable design reference mission (DRM) concepts to present to the 2020 Decadal Survey. In addition, The Aerospace Corporation will perform an independent cost and technical evaluation (CATE) of each of these mission concept studies in advance of the 2020 Decadal Survey, by interacting with the STDTs to provide detailed technical details on certain areas for which "deep dives" are appropriate. This paper presents the status and path forward for one of the four large mission concepts, namely, the Large UltraViolet, Optical, InfraRed surveyor (LUVOIR).

  3. Vehicle path-planning in three dimensions using optics analogs for optimizing visibility and energy cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Neil C.; Lewis, David H.

    1989-01-01

    Path planning is an important issue for space robotics. Finding safe and energy-efficient paths in the presence of obstacles and other constraints can be complex although important. High-level (large-scale) path planning for robotic vehicles was investigated in three-dimensional space with obstacles, accounting for: (1) energy costs proportional to path length; (2) turn costs where paths change trajectory abruptly; and (3) safety costs for the danger associated with traversing a particular path due to visibility or invisibility from a fixed set of observers. Paths optimal with respect to these cost factors are found. Autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicles were considered operating either in a space environment around satellites and space platforms, or aircraft, spacecraft, or smart missiles operating just above lunar and planetary surfaces. One class of applications concerns minimizing detection, as for example determining the best way to make complex modifications to a satellite without being observed by hostile sensors; another example is verifying there are no paths (holes) through a space defense system. Another class of applications concerns maximizing detection, as finding a good trajectory between mountain ranges of a planet while staying reasonably close to the surface, or finding paths for a flight between two locations that maximize the average number of triangulation points available at any time along the path.

  4. Pillar cuvettes: capillary-filled, microliter quartz cuvettes with microscale path lengths for optical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Holzner, Gregor; Kriel, Frederik Hermanus; Priest, Craig

    2015-05-05

    The goal of most analytical techniques is to reduce the lower limit of detection; however, it is sometimes necessary to do the opposite. High sample concentrations or samples with high molar absorptivity (e.g., dyes and metal complexes) often require multiple dilution steps or laborious sample preparation prior to spectroscopic analysis. Here, we demonstrate dilution-free, one-step UV-vis spectroscopic analysis of high concentrations of platinum(IV) hexachloride in a micropillar array, that is, "pillar cuvette". The cuvette is spontaneously filled by wicking of the liquid sample into the micropillar array. The pillar height (thus, the film thickness) defines the optical path length, which was reduced to between 10 and 20 μm in this study (3 orders of magnitude smaller than in a typical cuvette). Only one small droplet (∼2 μL) of sample is required, and the dispensed volume need not be precise or even known to the analyst for accurate spectroscopy measurements. For opaque pillars, we show that absorbance is linearly related to platinum concentration (the Beer-Lambert Law). For fully transparent or semitransparent pillars, the measured absorbance was successfully corrected for the fractional surface coverage of the pillars and the transmittance of the pillars and reference. Thus, both opaque and transparent pillars can be applied to absorbance spectroscopy of high absorptivity, microliter samples. It is also shown here that the pillar array has a useful secondary function as an integrated (in-cuvette) filter for particulates. For pillar cuvette measurements of platinum solutions spiked with 6 μm diameter polystyrene spheres, filtered and unfiltered samples gave identical spectra.

  5. Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Hugo; Sinclair, Laura C.; Swann, William C.; Nelson, Craig W.; Deschênes, Jean-Daniel; Baumann, Esther; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R.; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R.

    2018-01-01

    The ability to distribute the precise time and frequency from an optical clock to remote platforms could enable future precise navigation and sensing systems. Here we demonstrate tight, real-time synchronization of a remote microwave clock to a master optical clock over a turbulent 4-km open air path via optical two-way time-frequency transfer. Once synchronized, the 10-GHz frequency signals generated at each site agree to 10−14 at one second and below 10−17 at 1000 seconds. In addition, the two clock times are synchronized to ±13 fs over an 8-hour period. The ability to phase-synchronize 10-GHz signals across platforms supports future distributed coherent sensing, while the ability to time-synchronize multiple microwave-based clocks to a high-performance master optical clock supports future precision navigation/timing systems. PMID:29607352

  6. Photon path distribution and optical responses of turbid media: theoretical analysis based on the microscopic Beer-Lambert law.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Y

    2001-08-01

    A concise theoretical treatment has been developed to describe the optical responses of a highly scattering inhomogeneous medium using functions of the photon path distribution (PPD). The treatment is based on the microscopic Beer-Lambert law and has been found to yield a complete set of optical responses by time- and frequency-domain measurements. The PPD is defined for possible photons having a total zigzag pathlength of l between the points of light input and detection. Such a distribution is independent of the absorption properties of the medium and can be uniquely determined for the medium under quantification. Therefore, the PPD can be calculated with an imaginary reference medium having the same optical properties as the medium under quantification except for the absence of absorption. One of the advantages of this method is that the optical responses, the total attenuation, the mean pathlength, etc are expressed by functions of the PPD and the absorption distribution.

  7. Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Hugo; Sinclair, Laura C; Swann, William C; Nelson, Craig W; Deschênes, Jean-Daniel; Baumann, Esther; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R

    2016-04-01

    The ability to distribute the precise time and frequency from an optical clock to remote platforms could enable future precise navigation and sensing systems. Here we demonstrate tight, real-time synchronization of a remote microwave clock to a master optical clock over a turbulent 4-km open air path via optical two-way time-frequency transfer. Once synchronized, the 10-GHz frequency signals generated at each site agree to 10 -14 at one second and below 10 -17 at 1000 seconds. In addition, the two clock times are synchronized to ±13 fs over an 8-hour period. The ability to phase-synchronize 10-GHz signals across platforms supports future distributed coherent sensing, while the ability to time-synchronize multiple microwave-based clocks to a high-performance master optical clock supports future precision navigation/timing systems.

  8. APPLYING OPEN-PATH OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY TO HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-dispersive infrared absorption has been used to measure gaseous emissions for both stationary and mobile sources. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used for stationary sources as both extractive and open-path methods. We have applied the open-path method for bo...

  9. Slant-path coherent free space optical communications over the maritime and terrestrial atmospheres with the use of adaptive optics for beam wavefront correction.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Gao, Wenbo; Cvijetic, Milorad

    2017-01-10

    As a continuation of our previous work [Appl. Opt.54, 1453 (2015)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.54.001453] in which we have studied the performance of coherent free space optical (FSO) communication systems operating over a horizontal path, in this paper we study the coherent FSO system operating over a general slant path. We evaluated system bit-error-rate (BER) in the case when the quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulation format is applied and when an adaptive optics (AO) system is employed to mitigate the air turbulence effects for both maritime and terrestrial air transmission scenarios. We adopted a multiple-layer scheme to efficiently model the FSO slant-path links. The atmospheric channel fading was characterized by the wavefront phase distortions and the log-amplitude fluctuations. We derived analytical expressions to characterize log-amplitude fluctuations of air turbulence by asserting the aperture averaging within the frame of the multiple-layer model. The obtained results showed that use of AO enabled improvement of system performance for both uplinks and downlinks, and also revealed that it is more beneficial for the FSO downlinks. Also, AO employment brought larger enhancements in BER performance for the maritime slant-path FSO links than for the terrestrial ones, with an additional striking increase in performance when the AO correction is combined with the aperture averaging.

  10. Floquet Engineering of Optical Solenoids and Quantized Charge Pumping along Tailored Paths in Two-Dimensional Chern Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Botao; Ünal, F. Nur; Eckardt, André

    2018-06-01

    The insertion of a local magnetic flux, as the one created by a thin solenoid, plays an important role in gedanken experiments of quantum Hall physics. By combining Floquet engineering of artificial magnetic fields with the ability of single-site addressing in quantum gas microscopes, we propose a scheme for the realization of such local solenoid-type magnetic fields in optical lattices. We show that it can be employed to manipulate and probe elementary excitations of a topological Chern insulator. This includes quantized adiabatic charge pumping along tailored paths inside the bulk, as well as the controlled population of edge modes.

  11. Asymmetric transmission and optical low-pass filtering in a stack of random media with graded transport mean free path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingi, J.; Hemalatha, M.; Anita, R. W.; Vijayan, C.; Murukeshan, V. M.

    2015-11-01

    Light transport and the physical phenomena related to light propagation in random media are very intriguing, they also provide scope for new paradigms of device functionality, most of which remain unexplored. Here we demonstrate, experimentally and by simulation, a novel kind of asymmetric light transmission (diffusion) in a stack of random media (SRM) with graded transport mean free path. The structure is studied in terms of transmission, of photons propagated through and photons generated within the SRM. It is observed that the SRM exhibits asymmetric transmission property with a transmission contrast of 0.25. In addition, it is shown that the SRM works as a perfect optical low-pass filter with a well-defined cutoff wavelength at 580 nm. Further, the photons generated within the SRM found to exhibit functionality similar to an optical diode with a transmission contrast of 0.62. The basis of this functionality is explained in terms of wavelength dependent photon randomization and the graded transport mean free path of SRM.

  12. Quasi Path Restoration: A post-failure recovery scheme over pre-allocated backup resource for elastic optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Dharmendra Singh; Babu, Sarath; Manoj, B. S.

    2018-03-01

    Spectrum conflict during primary and backup routes assignment in elastic optical networks results in increased resource consumption as well as high Bandwidth Blocking Probability. In order to avoid such conflicts, we propose a new scheme, Quasi Path Restoration (QPR), where we divide the available spectrum into two: (1) primary spectrum (for primary routes allocation) and (2) backup spectrum (for rerouting the data on link failures). QPR exhibits three advantages over existing survivable strategies such as Shared Path Protection (SPP), Primary First Fit Backup Last Fit (PFFBLF), Jointly Releasing and re-establishment Defragmentation SPP (JRDSSPP), and Path Restoration (PR): (1) the conflict between primary and backup spectrum during route assignment is completely eliminated, (2) upon a link failure, connection recovery requires less backup resources compared to SPP, PFFBLF, and PR, and (3) availability of the same backup spectrum on each link improves the recovery guarantee. The performance of our scheme is analyzed with different primary backup spectrum partitions on varying connection-request demands and number of frequency slots. Our results show that QPR provides better connection recovery guarantee and Backup Resources Utilization (BRU) compared to bandwidth recovery of PR strategy. In addition, we compare QPR with Shared Path Protection and Primary First-Fit Backup Last Fit strategies in terms of Bandwidth Blocking Probability (BBP) and average frequency slots per connection request. Simulation results show that BBP of SPP, PFFBLF, and JRDSPP varies between 18.59% and 14.42%, while in QPR, BBP ranges from 2.55% to 17.76% for Cost239, NSFNET, and ARPANET topologies. Also, QPR provides bandwidth recovery between 93.61% and 100%, while in PR, the recovery ranges from 86.81% to 98.99%. It is evident from our analysis that QPR provides a reasonable trade-off between bandwidth blocking probability and connection recoverability.

  13. Directional Radiometry and Radiative Transfer: the Convoluted Path From Centuries-old Phenomenology to Physical Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    This Essay traces the centuries-long history of the phenomenological disciplines of directional radiometry and radiative transfer in turbid media, discusses their fundamental weaknesses, and outlines the convoluted process of their conversion into legitimate branches of physical optics.

  14. [Research on diagnosis of gas-liquid detonation exhaust based on double optical path absortion spectroscopy technique].

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiao-Jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-Sheng

    2014-03-01

    The effect detection of detonation exhaust can provide measurement data for exploring the formation mechanism of detonation, the promotion of detonation efficiency and the reduction of fuel waste. Based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technique combined with double optical path cross-correlation algorithm, the article raises the diagnosis method to realize the on-line testing of detonation exhaust velocity, temperature and H2O gas concentration. The double optical path testing system is designed and set up for the valveless pulse detonation engine with the diameter of 80 mm. By scanning H2O absorption lines of 1343nm with a high frequency of 50 kHz, the on-line detection of gas-liquid pulse detonation exhaust is realized. The results show that the optical testing system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technique can capture the detailed characteristics of pulse detonation exhaust in the transient process of detonation. The duration of single detonation is 85 ms under laboratory conditions, among which supersonic injection time is 5.7 ms and subsonic injection time is 19.3 ms. The valveless pulse detonation engine used can work under frequency of 11 Hz. The velocity of detonation overflowing the detonation tube is 1,172 m x s(-1), the maximum temperature of detonation exhaust near the nozzle is 2 412 K. There is a transitory platform in the velocity curve as well as the temperature curve. H2O gas concentration changes between 0-7% during detonation under experimental conditions. The research can provide measurement data for the detonation process diagnosis and analysis, which is of significance to advance the detonation mechanism research and promote the research of pulse detonation engine control technology.

  15. Optical-Path-Difference Linear Mechanism for the Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blavier, Jean-Francois L.; Heverly, Matthew C.; Key, Richard W.; Sander, Stanley P.

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a mechanism that uses flex-pivots in a parallelogram arrangement to provide frictionless motion with an unlimited lifetime. A voicecoil actuator drives the parallelogram over the required 5-cm travel. An optical position sensor provides feedback for a servo loop that keeps the velocity within 1 percent of expected value. Residual tip/tilt error is compensated for by a piezo actuator that drives the interferometer mirror. This mechanism builds on previous work that targeted ground-based measurements. The main novelty aspects include cryogenic and vacuum operation, high reliability for spaceflight, compactness of the design, optical layout compatible with the needs of an imaging FTS (i.e. wide overall field-of-view), and mirror optical coatings to cover very broad wavelength range (i.e., 0.26 to 15 m).

  16. Improved diffusing wave spectroscopy based on the automatized determination of the optical transport and absorption mean free path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Reufer, Mathias; Gaudino, Danila; Scheffold, Frank

    2017-11-01

    Diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) can be employed as an optical rheology tool with numerous applications for studying the structure, dynamics and linear viscoelastic properties of complex fluids, foams, glasses and gels. To carry out DWS measurements, one first needs to quantify the static optical properties of the sample under investigation, i.e. the transport mean free path l * and the absorption length l a. In the absence of absorption this can be done by comparing the diffuse optical transmission to a calibration sample whose l * is known. Performing this comparison however is cumbersome, time consuming, and prone to mistakes by the operator. Moreover, already weak absorption can lead to significant errors. In this paper, we demonstrate the implementation of an automatized approach, based on which the DWS measurement procedure can be simplified significantly. By comparison with a comprehensive set of calibration measurements we cover the entire parameter space relating measured count rates ( CR t , CR b ) to ( l *, l a). Based on this approach we can determine l * and la of an unknown sample accurately thus making the additional measurement of a calibration sample obsolete. We illustrate the use of this approach by monitoring the coarsening of a commercially available shaving foam with DWS.

  17. Transverse Pupil Shifts for Adaptive Optics Non-Common Path Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloemhof, Eric E.

    2011-01-01

    A simple new way of obtaining absolute wavefront measurements with a laboratory Fizeau interferometer was recently devised. In that case, the observed wavefront map is the difference of two cavity surfaces, those of the mirror under test and of an unknown reference surface on the Fizeau s transmission flat. The absolute surface of each can be determined by applying standard wavefront reconstruction techniques to two grids of absolute surface height differences of the mirror under test, obtained from pairs of measurements made with slight transverse shifts in X and Y. Adaptive optics systems typically provide an actuated periscope between wavefront sensor (WFS) and commonmode optics, used for lateral registration of deformable mirror (DM) to WFS. This periscope permits independent adjustment of either pupil or focal spot incident on the WFS. It would be used to give the required lateral pupil motion between common and non-common segments, analogous to the lateral shifts of the two phase contributions in the lab Fizeau. The technique is based on a completely new approach to calibration of phase. It offers unusual flexibility with regard to the transverse spatial frequency scales probed, and will give results quite quickly, making use of no auxiliary equipment other than that built into the adaptive optics system. The new technique may be applied to provide novel calibration information about other optical systems in which the beam may be shifted transversely in a controlled way.

  18. Testing of Cerex Open-Path Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy Systems for Fenceline Monitoring Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of cost-effective, time-resolved fenceline measurement methods that facilitate improved emissions mitigation strategies is of growing interest to both industry and regulators. Ground-based optical remote sensing (ORS) is a well-known class of technical approaches use...

  19. Testing of Cerex Open-Path Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy System for Fenceline Monitoring Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of cost-effective, time-resolved fenceline measurement methods that facilitate improved emissions mitigation strategies is of growing interest to both industry and regulators. Ground-based optical remote sensing (ORS) is a well-known class of technical approaches use...

  20. Cross-Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography with Active Maintenance of the Circular Polarization of a Sounding Wave in a Common Path System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelikonov, V. M.; Romashov, V. N.; Shabanov, D. V.; Ksenofontov, S. Yu.; Terpelov, D. A.; Shilyagin, P. A.; Gelikonov, G. V.; Vitkin, I. A.

    2018-05-01

    We consider a cross-polarization optical coherence tomography system with a common path for the sounding and reference waves and active maintenance of the circular polarization of a sounding wave. The system is based on the formation of birefringent characteristics of the total optical path, which are equivalent to a quarter-wave plate with a 45° orientation of its optical axes with respect to the linearly polarized reference wave. Conditions under which any light-polarization state can be obtained using a two-element phase controller are obtained. The dependence of the local cross-scattering coefficient of light in a model medium and biological tissue on the sounding-wave polarization state is demonstrated. The necessity of active maintenance of the circular polarization of a sounding wave in this common path system (including a flexible probe) is shown to realize uniform optimal conditions for cross-polarization studies of biological tissue.

  1. Common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography of irradiated human skin and ventilated isolated rabbit lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, A.; Wendel, M.; Knels, L.; Knuschke, P.; Mehner, M.; Koch, T.; Boller, D.; Koch, P.; Koch, E.

    2005-08-01

    A compact common path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system based on a broadband superluminescence diode is used for biomedical imaging. The epidermal thickening of human skin after exposure to ultraviolet radiation is measured to proof the feasibility of FD-OCT for future substitution of invasive biopsies in a long term study on natural UV skin protection. The FD-OCT system is also used for imaging lung parenchyma. FD-OCT images of a formalin fixated lung show the same alveolar structure as scanning electron microscopy images. In the ventilated and blood-free perfused isolated rabbit lung FD-OCT is used for real-time cross-sectional image capture of alveolar mechanics throughout tidal ventilation. The alveolar mechanics changing from alternating recruitment-derecruitment at zero positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to persistent recruitment after applying a PEEP of 5 cm H2O is observed in the OCT images.

  2. Measurement of optical intensity fluctuation over an 11.8 km turbulent path.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yijun; Ma, Jing; Tan, Liying; Yu, Siyuan; Du, Wenhe

    2008-05-12

    An 11.8km optical link is established to examine the intensity fluctuation of the laser beam transmission through atmosphere turbulence. Probability density function, fade statistic, and high-frequency spectrum are researched based on the analysis of the experimental data collected in each season of a year, including both weak and strong fluctuation cases. Finally, the daily variation curve of scintillation index is given, compared with the variation of refractive-index structure parameter C(n) (2), which is calculated from the experimental data of angle of arrival. This work provides the experimental results that are helpful to the atmospheric propagation research and the free-space optical communication system design.

  3. The Path to a UV/optical/IR Flagship: ATLAST and Its Predecessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Oegerle, William; Postman, Marc; Rioux, Norman; Stahl, H. Philip; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The recently completed study for the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Telescope (ATLAST) was the culmination of three years of work that built upon earlier engineering designs, science objectives, and sustained recommendations for technology investments. Since the mid-1980s, multiple teams of astronomers, technologists, and engineers have developed concepts for a large-aperture UV/optical/IR space observatory to follow the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Especially over the past decade, technology advances and exciting scientific results has led to growing support for development in the 2020s of a large UVOIR space observatory. Here we summarize the history of major mission designs, scientific goals, key technology recommendations, community workshops and conferences, and recommendations to NASA for a major UV/optical/IR observatory to follow HST. We conclude with a capsule summary of the ATLAST reference design developed over the past three years.

  4. Spectrum efficient distance-adaptive paths for fixed and fixed-alternate routing in elastic optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Anuj; Bhatia, Vimal; Prakash, Shashi

    2018-01-01

    Efficient utilization of spectrum is a key concern in the soon to be deployed elastic optical networks (EONs). To perform routing in EONs, various fixed routing (FR), and fixed-alternate routing (FAR) schemes are ubiquitously used. FR, and FAR schemes calculate a fixed route, and a prioritized list of a number of alternate routes, respectively, between different pairs of origin o and target t nodes in the network. The route calculation performed using FR and FAR schemes is predominantly based on either the physical distance, known as k -shortest paths (KSP), or on the hop count (HC). For survivable optical networks, FAR usually calculates link-disjoint (LD) paths. These conventional routing schemes have been efficiently used for decades in communication networks. However, in this paper, it has been demonstrated that these commonly used routing schemes cannot utilize the network spectral resources optimally in the newly introduced EONs. Thus, we propose a new routing scheme for EON, namely, k -distance adaptive paths (KDAP) that efficiently utilizes the benefit of distance-adaptive modulation, and bit rate-adaptive superchannel capability inherited by EON to improve spectrum utilization. In the proposed KDAP, routes are found and prioritized on the basis of bit rate, distance, spectrum granularity, and the number of links used for a particular route. To evaluate the performance of KSP, HC, LD, and the proposed KDAP, simulations have been performed for three different sized networks, namely, 7-node test network (TEST7), NSFNET, and 24-node US backbone network (UBN24). We comprehensively assess the performance of various conventional, and the proposed routing schemes by solving both the RSA and the dual RSA problems under homogeneous and heterogeneous traffic requirements. Simulation results demonstrate that there is a variation amongst the performance of KSP, HC, and LD, depending on the o - t pair, and the network topology and its connectivity. However, the proposed

  5. MODELING TIME DISPERSION DUE TO OPTICAL PATH LENGTH DIFFERENCES IN SCINTILLATION DETECTORS*

    PubMed Central

    Moses, W.W.; Choong, W.-S.; Derenzo, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    We characterize the nature of the time dispersion in scintillation detectors caused by path length differences of the scintillation photons as they travel from their generation point to the photodetector. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we find that the initial portion of the distribution (which is the only portion that affects the timing resolution) can usually be modeled by an exponential decay. The peak amplitude and decay time depend both on the geometry of the crystal, the position within the crystal that the scintillation light originates from, and the surface finish. In a rectangular parallelpiped LSO crystal with 3 mm × 3 mm cross section and polished surfaces, the decay time ranges from 10 ps (for interactions 1 mm from the photodetector) up to 80 ps (for interactions 50 mm from the photodetector). Over that same range of distances, the peak amplitude ranges from 100% (defined as the peak amplitude for interactions 1 mm from the photodetector) down to 4% for interactions 50 mm from the photodetector. Higher values for the decay time are obtained for rough surfaces, but the exact value depends on the simulation details. Estimates for the decay time and peak amplitude can be made for different cross section sizes via simple scaling arguments. PMID:25729464

  6. Modeling Time Dispersion Due to Optical Path Length Differences in Scintillation Detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Moses, W. W.; Choong, W. -S.; Derenzo, S. E.

    2014-08-20

    In this paper, we characterize the nature of the time dispersion in scintillation detectors caused by path length differences of the scintillation photons as they travel from their generation point to the photodetector. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we find that the initial portion of the distribution (which is the only portion that affects the timing resolution) can usually be modeled by an exponential decay. The peak amplitude and decay time depend both on the geometry of the crystal, the position within the crystal that the scintillation light originates from, and the surface finish. In a rectangular parallelpiped LSO crystal withmore » 3 mm × 3 mm cross section and polished surfaces, the decay time ranges from 10 ps (for interactions 1 mm from the photodetector) up to 80 ps (for interactions 50 mm from the photodetector). Over that same range of distances, the peak amplitude ranges from 100% (defined as the peak amplitude for interactions 1 mm from the photodetector) down to 4% for interactions 50 mm from the photodetector. Higher values for the decay time are obtained for rough surfaces, but the exact value depends on the simulation details. Finally, estimates for the decay time and peak amplitude can be made for different cross section sizes via simple scaling arguments.« less

  7. Path to a UV/Optical/IR Flagship: Review of ATLAST and Its Predecessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Oegerle, William; Rioux, Norman; Stahl, H. Philip; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Our recently completed study for the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) was the culmination of three years of initially internally funded work that built upon earlier engineering designs, science objectives, and technology priorities. Beginning in the mid-1980s, multiple teams of astronomers, technologists, and engineers developed concepts for a large-aperture UV/optical/IR space observatory intended to follow the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Here, we summarize since the first significant conferences on major post-HST ultraviolet, optical, and infrared (UVOIR) observatories the history of designs, scientific goals, key technology recommendations, and community workshops. Although the sophistication of science goals and the engineering designs both advanced over the past three decades, we note the remarkable constancy of major characteristics of large post-HST UVOIR concepts. As it has been a priority goal for NASA and science communities for a half-century, and has driven much of the technology priorities for major space observatories, we include the long history of concepts for searching for Earth-like worlds. We conclude with a capsule summary of our ATLAST reference designs developed by four partnering institutions over the past three years, which was initiated in 2013 to prepare for the 2020 National Academies' Decadal Survey.

  8. Method of increasing power within an optical cavity with long path lengths

    SciTech Connect

    Leen, John Brian; Bramall, Nathan E.

    A cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy instrument has an optical cavity with two or more cavity mirrors, one mirror of which having a hole or other aperture for injecting a light beam, and the same or another mirror of which being partially transmissive to allow exit of light to a detector. A spherical-spherical configuration with at least one astigmatic mirror or a spherical-cylindrical configuration where the spherical mirror could also be astigmatic prevents a reentrant condition wherein the injected beam would prematurely exit the cavity through the aperture. This combination substantially increases the number of passes of the injected beam through amore » sample volume for sensitive detection of chemical species even in less than ideal conditions including low power laser or LED sources, poor mirror reflectivity or detector noise at the wavelengths of interest, or cavity alignment issues such as vibration or temperature and pressure changes.« less

  9. Development of a portable active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy system for volcanic gas measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vita, Fabio; Kern, Christoph; Inguaggiato, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) has been an effective tool for measuring atmospheric trace gases for several decades. However, instruments were large, heavy and power-inefficient, making their application to remote environments extremely challenging. Recent developments in fibre-coupling telescope technology and the availability of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDS) have now allowed us to design and construct a lightweight, portable, low-power LP-DOAS instrument for use at remote locations and specifically for measuring degassing from active volcanic systems. The LP-DOAS was used to measure sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from La Fossa crater, Vulcano, Italy, where column densities of up to 1.2 × 1018 molec cm−2 (~ 500 ppmm) were detected along open paths of up to 400 m in total length. The instrument's SO2 detection limit was determined to be 2 × 1016 molec cm−2 (~ 8 ppmm), thereby making quantitative detection of even trace amounts of SO2 possible. The instrument is capable of measuring other volcanic volatile species as well. Though the spectral evaluation of the recorded data showed that chlorine monoxide (ClO) and carbon disulfide (CS2) were both below the instrument's detection limits during the experiment, the upper limits for the X / SO2 ratio (X = ClO, CS2) could be derived, and yielded 2 × 10−3 and 0.1, respectively. The robust design and versatility of the instrument make it a promising tool for monitoring of volcanic degassing and understanding processes in a range of volcanic systems.

  10. Observation of halogen species in the Amundsen Gulf, Arctic, by active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pöhler, Denis; Vogel, Leif; Frieß, Udo; Platt, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    In the polar tropospheric boundary layer, reactive halogen species (RHS) are responsible for ozone depletion as well as the oxidation of elemental mercury and dimethyl sulphide. After polar sunrise, air masses enriched in reactive bromine cover areas of several million square kilometers. Still, the source and release mechanisms of halogens are not completely understood. We report measurements of halogen oxides performed in the Amundsen Gulf, Arctic, during spring 2008. Active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) measurements were set up offshore, several kilometers from the coast, directly on the sea ice, which was never done before. High bromine oxide concentrations were detected frequently during sunlight hours with a characteristic daily cycle showing morning and evening maxima and a minimum at noon. The, so far, highest observed average mixing ratio in the polar boundary layer of 41 pmol/mol (equal to pptv) was detected. Only short sea ice contact is required to release high amounts of bromine. An observed linear decrease of maximum bromine oxide levels with ambient temperature during sunlight, between -24 °C and -15 °C, provides indications on the conditions required for the emission of RHS. In addition, the data indicate the presence of reactive chlorine in the Arctic boundary layer. In contrast to Antarctica, iodine oxide was not detected above a detection limit of 0.3 pmol/mol. PMID:20160121

  11. Effectively infinite optical path-length created using a simple cubic photonic crystal for extreme light trapping

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, Brian J.; Kuang, Ping; Hsieh, Mei-Li

    A 900 nm thick TiO 2 simple cubic photonic crystal with lattice constant 450 nm was fabricated and used to experimentally validate a newly-discovered mechanism for extreme light-bending. Absorption enhancement was observed extending 1–2 orders of magnitude over that of a reference TiO 2 film. Several enhancement peaks in the region from 600–950 nm were identified, which far exceed both the ergodic fundamental limit and the limit based on surface-gratings, with some peaks exceeding 100 times enhancement. These results are attributed to radically sharp refraction where the optical path length approaches infinity due to the Poynting vector lying nearly parallelmore » to the photonic crystal interface. The observed phenomena follow directly from the simple cubic symmetry of the photonic crystal, and can be achieved by integrating the light-trapping architecture into the absorbing volume. These results are not dependent on the material used, and can be applied to any future light trapping applications such as phosphor-converted white light generation, water-splitting, or thin-film solar cells, where increased response in areas of weak absorption is desired.« less

  12. Target acquisition modeling over the exact optical path: extending the EOSTAR TDA with the TOD sensor performance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijk, J.; Bijl, P.; Oppeneer, M.; ten Hove, R. J. M.; van Iersel, M.

    2017-10-01

    The Electro-Optical Signal Transmission and Ranging (EOSTAR) model is an image-based Tactical Decision Aid (TDA) for thermal imaging systems (MWIR/LWIR) developed for a sea environment with an extensive atmosphere model. The Triangle Orientation Discrimination (TOD) Target Acquisition model calculates the sensor and signal processing effects on a set of input triangle test pattern images, judges their orientation using humans or a Human Visual System (HVS) model and derives the system image quality and operational field performance from the correctness of the responses. Combination of the TOD model and EOSTAR, basically provides the possibility to model Target Acquisition (TA) performance over the exact path from scene to observer. In this method ship representative TOD test patterns are placed at the position of the real target, subsequently the combined effects of the environment (atmosphere, background, etc.), sensor and signal processing on the image are calculated using EOSTAR and finally the results are judged by humans. The thresholds are converted into Detection-Recognition-Identification (DRI) ranges of the real target. In experiments is shown that combination of the TOD model and the EOSTAR model is indeed possible. The resulting images look natural and provide insight in the possibilities of combining the two models. The TOD observation task can be done well by humans, and the measured TOD is consistent with analytical TOD predictions for the same camera that was modeled in the ECOMOS project.

  13. Effectively infinite optical path-length created using a simple cubic photonic crystal for extreme light trapping

    DOE PAGES

    Frey, Brian J.; Kuang, Ping; Hsieh, Mei-Li; ...

    2017-06-23

    A 900 nm thick TiO 2 simple cubic photonic crystal with lattice constant 450 nm was fabricated and used to experimentally validate a newly-discovered mechanism for extreme light-bending. Absorption enhancement was observed extending 1–2 orders of magnitude over that of a reference TiO 2 film. Several enhancement peaks in the region from 600–950 nm were identified, which far exceed both the ergodic fundamental limit and the limit based on surface-gratings, with some peaks exceeding 100 times enhancement. These results are attributed to radically sharp refraction where the optical path length approaches infinity due to the Poynting vector lying nearly parallelmore » to the photonic crystal interface. The observed phenomena follow directly from the simple cubic symmetry of the photonic crystal, and can be achieved by integrating the light-trapping architecture into the absorbing volume. These results are not dependent on the material used, and can be applied to any future light trapping applications such as phosphor-converted white light generation, water-splitting, or thin-film solar cells, where increased response in areas of weak absorption is desired.« less

  14. Backscattering enhancement factor dependence of a Laguerre-Gaussian laser beam propagating on the location path in the atmosphere on optical turbulence intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rytchkov, D. S.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents the results of a study of the backscattering enhancement factor (BSE) dependence of vortex LaguerreGaussian beams propagating on monostatic location paths in the atmosphere on optical turbulence intensity. The numeric simulation split-step method of laser beam propagation was used to obtain BSE factor values of a laser beam propagated on monostatic location path in the turbulent atmosphere and reflected from a diffuse target. It is shown that BSE factor of the averaged intensity of a backscattered vortex laser beam of any topological charge is less than BSE factor values of backscattered Gaussian beam in arbitrary turbulent conditions.

  15. Rapid, optical measurement of the atmospheric pressure on a fast research aircraft using open-path TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, B.; Afchine, A.; Ebert, V.

    2014-05-01

    Because of the high travel speed, the complex flow dynamics around an aircraft and the complex dependency of the fluid dynamics on numerous airborne parameters, it is quite difficult to obtain accurate pressure values at a specific instrument location of an aircraft's fuselage. Complex simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can in theory computationally "transfer" pressure values from one location to another. However, for long flight patterns, this process is inconvenient and cumbersome. Furthermore these CFD transfer models require a local experimental validation, which is rarely available. In this paper, we describe an integrated approach for a spectroscopic, calibration-free, in-flight pressure determination in an open-path White cell on an aircraft fuselage using ambient, atmospheric water vapour as the "sensor species". The presented measurements are realized with the HAI (Hygrometer for Atmospheric Investigations) instrument, built for multiphase water detection via calibration-free TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy). The pressure determination is based on raw data used for H2O concentration measurement, but with a different post-flight evaluation method, and can therefore be conducted at deferred time intervals on any desired flight track. The spectroscopic pressure is compared in-flight with the static ambient pressure of the aircraft avionic system and a micro-mechanical pressure sensor, located next to the open-path cell, over a pressure range from 150 hPa to 800 hPa, and a water vapour concentration range of more than three orders of magnitude. The correlation between the micro-mechanical pressure sensor measurements and the spectroscopic pressure measurements show an average deviation from linearity of only 0.14% and a small offset of 9.5 hPa. For the spectroscopic pressure evaluation we derive measurement uncertainties under laboratory conditions of 3.2% and 5.1% during in flight operation on the HALO airplane

  16. Rapid, optical measurement of the atmospheric pressure on a fast research aircraft using open-path TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, B.; Afchine, A.; Ebert, V.

    2014-11-01

    Because of the high travel speed, the complex flow dynamics around an aircraft, and the complex dependency of the fluid dynamics on numerous airborne parameters, it is quite difficult to obtain accurate pressure values at a specific instrument location of an aircraft's fuselage. Complex simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can in theory computationally "transfer" pressure values from one location to another. However, for long flight patterns, this process is inconvenient and cumbersome. Furthermore, these CFD transfer models require a local experimental validation, which is rarely available. In this paper, we describe an integrated approach for a spectroscopic, calibration-free, in-flight pressure determination in an open-path White cell on an aircraft fuselage using ambient, atmospheric water vapour as the "sensor species". The presented measurements are realised with the HAI (Hygrometer for Atmospheric Investigations) instrument, built for multiphase water detection via calibration-free TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy). The pressure determination is based on raw data used for H2O concentration measurement, but with a different post-flight evaluation method, and can therefore be conducted at deferred time intervals on any desired flight track. The spectroscopic pressure is compared in-flight with the static ambient pressure of the aircraft avionic system and a micro-mechanical pressure sensor, located next to the open-path cell, over a pressure range from 150 to 800 hPa, and a water vapour concentration range of more than 3 orders of magnitude. The correlation between the micro-mechanical pressure sensor measurements and the spectroscopic pressure measurements shows an average deviation from linearity of only 0.14% and a small offset of 9.5 hPa. For the spectroscopic pressure evaluation we derive measurement uncertainties under laboratory conditions of 3.2 and 5.1% during in-flight operation on the HALO airplane. Under

  17. Efficient use of strong light for high photosynthetic productivity: interrelationships between the optical path, the optimal population density and cell-growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Amos; Cheng-Wu, Zhang; Zarmi, Yair

    2003-07-01

    The interrelationships between the optical path in flat plate reactors and photosynthetic productivity were elucidated. In preliminary works, a great surge in photosynthetic productivity was attained in flat plate photoreactors with an ultra short (e.g. 1.0 cm) optical path, in which extremely high culture density was facilitated by vigorous stirring and strong light. This surge in net photosynthetic efficiency was associated with a very significant increase in the optimal population density facilitated by the very short optical path (OP). A salient feature of these findings concerns the necessity to address growth inhibition (GI) which becomes increasingly manifested as cell concentration rises above a certain, species-specific, threshold (e.g. 1-2 billion cells of Nannochloropsis sp. ml(-1)). Indeed, ultrahigh cell density cultures may be established and sustained only if growth inhibition is continuously, or at least frequently, removed. Nannochloropsis culture from which GI was not removed, yielded 60 mg(-1) h(-1), yielding 260 mg l(-1) h(-1) when GI was removed. Two basic factors crucial for obtaining maximal photosynthetic productivity and efficiency in strong photon irradiance are defined: (1) areal cell density must be optimal, as high as possible (cell growth inhibition having been eliminated), insuring the average photon irradiance (I(av)) available per cell is falling at the end of the linear phase of the PI(av) curve, relating rate of photosynthesis to I(av), i.e. approximately photon irradiance per cell. (2) The light-dark (L-D) cycle period, which is determined by travel time of cells between the dark and the light volumes along the optical path, should be made as short as practically feasible, so as to approach, as much as possible the photosynthetic unit turnover time. This is obtainable in flat plate reactors by reducing the OP to as small a magnitude as is practically feasible.

  18. Robot-assisted three-dimensional registration for cochlear implant surgery using a common-path swept-source optical coherence tomography probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurbani, Saumya S.; Wilkening, Paul; Zhao, Mingtao; Gonenc, Berk; Cheon, Gyeong Woo; Iordachita, Iulian I.; Chien, Wade; Taylor, Russell H.; Niparko, John K.; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-05-01

    Cochlear implantation offers the potential to restore sensitive hearing in patients with severe to profound deafness. However, surgical placement of the electrode array within the cochlea can produce trauma to sensorineural components, particularly if the initial turn of the cochlea is not successfully navigated as the array is advanced. In this work, we present a robot-mounted common-path swept-source optical coherence tomography endoscopic platform for three-dimensional (3-D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) registration and preoperative surgical planning for cochlear implant surgery. The platform is composed of a common-path 600-μm diameter fiber optic rotary probe attached to a five degrees of freedom robot capable of 1 μm precision movement. The system is tested on a dry fixed ex vivo human temporal bone, and we demonstrate the feasibility of a 3-D OCT registration of the cochlea to accurately describe the spatial and angular profiles of the canal formed by the scala tympani into the first cochlear turn.

  19. Effects of Corrugated Temperature Sheets on Optical Propagation along Quasi-Horizontal Paths in the Stably Stratified Atmosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-11

    diameter) are consistent with theoretical predictions based on Taylor’s frozen- turbulence hypothesis and the geometrical - optics approximation. Short...theoretical predictions based on Taylor’s frozen- turbulence hypothesis and the geometrical - optics approximation. Short-term (less than a few seconds... turbulent , quasi-horizontal interfaces, or “sheets”. Collocated in- situ and optical field measurements conducted in the atmospheric surface layer

  20. Comparison of micrometeorological methods using open-path optical instruments for measuring methane emission from agricultural sites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, we evaluated the accuracies of two relatively new micrometeorological methods using open-path tunable diode laser absorption spectrometers: vertical radial plume mapping method (US EPA OTM-10) and the backward Lagragian stochastic method (Wintrax®). We have evaluated the accuracy of t...

  1. Near common-path optical fiber interferometer for potentially fast on-line microscale-nanoscale surface measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiangqian; Wang, Kaiwei; Martin, Haydn

    2006-12-01

    We introduce a new surface measurement method for potential online application. Compared with our previous research, the new design is a significant improvement. It also features high stability because it uses a near common-path configuration. The method should be of great benefit to advanced manufacturing, especially for quality and process control in ultraprecision manufacturing and on the production line. Proof-of-concept experiments have been successfully conducted by measuring the system repeatability and the displacements of a mirror surface.

  2. Optical properties and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter along a flow-path continuum from soil pore waters to the Kolyma River mainstem, East Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Karen E.; Sobczak, William V.; Mann, Paul J.; Holmes, Robert M.

    2016-04-01

    The Kolyma River in northeast Siberia is among the six largest Arctic rivers and drains a region underlain by vast deposits of Holocene-aged peat and Pleistocene-aged loess known as yedoma, most of which is currently stored in ice-rich permafrost throughout the region. These peat and yedoma deposits are important sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to inland waters that in turn play a significant role in the transport and ultimate remineralization of organic carbon to CO2 and CH4 along the terrestrial flow-path continuum. The turnover and fate of terrigenous DOM during offshore transport largely depends upon the composition and amount of carbon released to inland and coastal waters. Here, we measured the ultraviolet-visible optical properties of chromophoric DOM (CDOM) from a geographically extensive collection of waters spanning soil pore waters, streams, rivers, and the Kolyma River mainstem throughout a ˜ 250 km transect of the northern Kolyma River basin. During the period of study, CDOM absorption coefficients were found to be robust proxies for the concentration of DOM, whereas additional CDOM parameters such as spectral slopes (S) were found to be useful indicators of DOM quality along the flow path. In particular, the spectral slope ratio (SR) of CDOM demonstrated statistically significant differences between all four water types and tracked changes in the concentration of bioavailable DOC, suggesting that this parameter may be suitable for clearly discriminating shifts in organic matter characteristics among water types along the full flow-path continuum across this landscape. However, despite our observations of downstream shifts in DOM composition, we found a relatively constant proportion of DOC that was bioavailable ( ˜ 3-6 % of total DOC) regardless of relative water residence time along the flow path. This may be a consequence of two potential scenarios allowing for continual processing of organic material within the system, namely (a

  3. Solid-state laser sources for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.; Kane, T.; Eggleston, J.; Long, S. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Recent progress in slab-geometry and conventional rod Nd:YAG solid-state lasers for applications in remote sensing is presented. Developments in slab geometry lasers, which were aimed at improving pulse energy and tuning range, have been based on the use of a Nd:glass substrate with a zig-zag optical path, with selective Raman shifting in gases and harmonic generation in LiNbO3 and KDP to extend the tuning range into the UV and visible regions. The theoretically predicted advantages of the elimination of birefringence and thermal and stress-induced focusing in the slab-geometry laser have been confirmed in measurements on a test-bed Nd:glass system, and a CW lamp pumped Nd:YAG oscillator, which have also demonstrated an order of magnitude improvement in laser performance. A single axial mode Nd:YAG oscillator has also been designed which, operating in a 3-msec quasi-CW mode, has a chirp rate of 30 kHz/microsec and a free-running stability of + or - 20 MHz. With chirp compensation, this stability is adequate for wind velocity measurements by coherent lidar.

  4. Design of a Shadowband Spectral Radiometer for the Retrieval of Thin Cloud Optical Depth, Liquid Water Path, and the Effective Radius

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomew M. J.; Reynolds, R. M.; Vogelmann, A. M.

    2011-11-01

    The design and operation of a Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) described here was used to measure the radiative intensity of the solar aureole and enable the simultaneous retrieval of cloud optical depth, drop effective radius, and liquid water path. The instrument consists of photodiode sensors positioned beneath two narrow metal bands that occult the sun by moving alternately from horizon to horizon. Measurements from the narrowband 415-nm channel were used to demonstrate a retrieval of the cloud properties of interest. With the proven operation of the relatively inexpensive TCRSR instrument, its usefulness for retrieving aerosol properties under cloud-free skiesmore » and for ship-based observations is discussed.« less

  5. Monitoring of the degradation in the rat's articular cartilage inducing osteoarthritis using common-path Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, D. H.; Park, S. H.; Kim, B. Y.; Lee, M. Y.; Baik, H. K.; Seo, J. H.; Kang, J. U.; Song, C. G.

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this experiment is to evaluate the utility and limitations of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for real-time, high-resolution structural analysis. We monitored the degradation of the rat's articular cartilage inducing osteoarthritis (OA) and the change of the rat's articular cartilage recovery by treatment medication, using our developed common-path Fourier-domain (CP-FD) OCT. Also, we have done a comparative analysis the rat's articular cartilage and OA grade. To observe the progression of OA, we induced OA by injecting the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) into the right knee joint. After the injection of MIA, we sacrificed the rats at intervals of 3 days and obtained OCT and histological images. OCT and histological images showed the OA progress of similar pattern. These results illustrated the potential for non-invasive diagnosis about the grade of OA using CP-FD OCT.

  6. A Microwave Radiometric Method to Obtain the Average Path Profile of Atmospheric Temperature and Humidity Structure Parameters and Its Application to Optical Propagation System Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.; Vyhnalek, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The values of the key atmospheric propagation parameters Ct2, Cq2, and Ctq are highly dependent upon the vertical height within the atmosphere thus making it necessary to specify profiles of these values along the atmospheric propagation path. The remote sensing method suggested and described in this work makes use of a rapidly integrating microwave profiling radiometer to capture profiles of temperature and humidity through the atmosphere. The integration times of currently available profiling radiometers are such that they are approaching the temporal intervals over which one can possibly make meaningful assessments of these key atmospheric parameters. Since these parameters are fundamental to all propagation conditions, they can be used to obtain Cn2 profiles for any frequency, including those for an optical propagation path. In this case the important performance parameters of the prevailing isoplanatic angle and Greenwood frequency can be obtained. The integration times are such that Kolmogorov turbulence theory and the Taylor frozen-flow hypothesis must be transcended. Appropriate modifications to these classical approaches are derived from first principles and an expression for the structure functions are obtained. The theory is then applied to an experimental scenario and shows very good results.

  7. Design and Development of an Optical Path Difference Scan Mechanism for Fourier Transform Spectrometers using High Displacement RAINBOW Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Hardy, Robin C.; Dausch, David E.

    1997-01-01

    A new piezoelectric drive mechanism has been developed for optical translation in space-based spectrometer systems. The mechanism utilizes a stack of RAINBOW high displacement piezoelectric actuators to move optical components weighing less than 250 grams through a one centimeter travel. The mechanism uses the direct motion of the piezoelectric devices, stacked such that the displacement of the individual RAINBOW actuators is additive. A prototype device has been built which utilizes 21 RAINBOWs to accomplish the necessary travel. The mechanism weighs approximately 0.6 kilograms and uses less than 2 Watts of power at a scanning frequency of 0.5 Hertz, significantly less power than that required by state-of-the-art motor systems.

  8. Reducing the Surface Performance Requirements of a Primary Mirror by Adding a Deformable Mirror in its Optical Path

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) mirrors been proposed for use in future imaging satellites. Compared to traditional glass -based mirrors, CFRP...SUBJECT TERMS carbon fiber reinforced polymer mirror, adaptive optics, deformable mirror, surface figure error 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 79 16. PRICE CODE...Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering iv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT In recent years, carbon fiber reinforced

  9. Shedding light on the variability of optical skin properties: finding a path towards more accurate prediction of light propagation in human cutaneous compartments

    PubMed Central

    Mignon, C.; Tobin, D. J.; Zeitouny, M.; Uzunbajakava, N. E.

    2018-01-01

    Finding a path towards a more accurate prediction of light propagation in human skin remains an aspiration of biomedical scientists working on cutaneous applications both for diagnostic and therapeutic reasons. The objective of this study was to investigate variability of the optical properties of human skin compartments reported in literature, to explore the underlying rational of this variability and to propose a dataset of values, to better represent an in vivo case and recommend a solution towards a more accurate prediction of light propagation through cutaneous compartments. To achieve this, we undertook a novel, logical yet simple approach. We first reviewed scientific articles published between 1981 and 2013 that reported on skin optical properties, to reveal the spread in the reported quantitative values. We found variations of up to 100-fold. Then we extracted the most trust-worthy datasets guided by a rule that the spectral properties should reflect the specific biochemical composition of each of the skin layers. This resulted in the narrowing of the spread in the calculated photon densities to 6-fold. We conclude with a recommendation to use the identified most robust datasets when estimating light propagation in human skin using Monte Carlo simulations. Alternatively, otherwise follow our proposed strategy to screen any new datasets to determine their biological relevance. PMID:29552418

  10. Motion-compensated hand-held common-path Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography probe for image-guided intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Song, Cheol; Liu, Xuan; Kang, Jin U.

    2013-03-01

    A motion-compensated hand-held common-path Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography imaging probe has been developed for image guided intervention during microsurgery. A hand-held prototype instrument was designed and fabricated by integrating an imaging fiber probe inside a stainless steel needle which is attached to the ceramic shaft of a piezoelectric motor housed in an aluminum handle. The fiber probe obtains A-scan images. The distance information was extracted from the A-scans to track the sample surface distance and a fixed distance was maintained by a feedback motor control which effectively compensated hand tremor and target movements in the axial direction. Graphical user interface, real-time data processing, and visualization based on a CPU-GPU hybrid programming architecture were developed and used in the implantation of this system. To validate the system, free-hand optical coherence tomography images using various samples were obtained. The system can be easily integrated into microsurgical tools and robotics for a wide range of clinical applications. Such tools could offer physicians the freedom to easily image sites of interest with reduced risk and higher image quality.

  11. A path to asteroid bulk densities: Simultaneous size and shape optimization from optical lightcurves and Keck disk-resolved data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanus, Josef; Viikinkoski, Matti; Marchis, Franck; Durech, Josef

    2015-11-01

    A reliable bulk density of an asteroid can be determined from the knowledge of its volume and mass. This quantity provides hints on the internal structure of asteroids and their origin. We compute volume of several asteroids by scaling sizes of their 3D shape models to fit the disk-resolved images, which are available in the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) and the Virtual Observatory Binary Asteroids Database (VOBAD). The size of an asteroid is optimized together with its shape by the All-Data Asteroid Modelling inversion algorithm (ADAM, Viikinkoski et al., 2015, A&A, 576, A8), while the spin state of the original convex shape model from the DAMIT database is only used as an initial guess for the modeling. Updated sets of optical lightcurves are usually employed. Thereafter, we combine obtained volume with mass estimates available in the literature and derive bulk densities for tens of asteroids with a typical accuracy of 20-50%.On top of that, we also provide a list of asteroids, for which (i) there are already mass estimates with reported uncertainties better than 20% or their masses will be most likely determined in the future from Gaia astrometric observations, and (ii) their 3D shape models are currently unknown. Additional optical lightcurves are necessary in order to determine convex shape models of these asteroids. Our web page (https://asteroid-obs.oca.eu/foswiki/bin/view/Main/Photometry) contains additional information about this observation campaign.

  12. Optical properties and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter along a flow-path continuum from soil pore waters to the Kolyma River, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, K. E.; Sobczak, W. V.; Mann, P. J.; Holmes, R. M.

    2015-08-01

    The Kolyma River in Northeast Siberia is among the six largest arctic rivers and drains a region underlain by vast deposits of Holocene-aged peat and Pleistocene-aged loess known as yedoma, most of which is currently stored in ice-rich permafrost throughout the region. These peat and yedoma deposits are important sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to inland waters that in turn play a significant role in the transport and ultimate remineralization of organic carbon to CO2 and CH4 along the terrestrial flow-path continuum. The turnover and fate of terrigenous DOM during offshore transport will largely depend upon the composition and amount of carbon released to inland and coastal waters. Here, we measured the optical properties of chromophoric DOM (CDOM) from a geographically extensive collection of waters spanning soil pore waters, streams, rivers, and the Kolyma River mainstem throughout a ∼ 250 km transect of the northern Kolyma River basin. During the period of study, CDOM absorbance values were found to be robust proxies for the concentration of DOM, whereas additional CDOM parameters such as spectral slopes (S) were found to be useful indicators of DOM quality along the flow-path. In particular, CDOM absorption at 254 nm showed a strong relationship with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations across all water types (r2 = 0.958, p < 0.01). The spectral slope ratio (SR) of CDOM demonstrated statistically significant differences between all four water types and tracked changes in the concentration of bioavailable DOC, suggesting that this parameter may be suitable for clearly discriminating shifts in organic matter characteristics among water types along the full flow-path continuum across this landscape. The heterogeneity of environmental characteristics and extensive continuous permafrost of the Kolyma River basin combine to make this a critical region to investigate and monitor. With ongoing and future permafrost degradation, peat and yedoma

  13. Path Expressions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS Carnegie-Mellon University Computer Science Dept Pittsburgh, Pa 15213 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAMF AND ADDRESS...programmer. Example 1. A communciation between two procasses is initiated by declaring a buffer which can hold a message whose interpretation is Known...words, the functions named in a path are automatically embedded in a critical region specific for that path.) The computation of the next state in

  14. Tomographic multiaxis-differential optical absorption spectroscopy observations of Sun-illuminated targets: a technique providing well-defined absorption paths in the boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frins, Erna; Bobrowski, Nicole; Platt, Ulrich; Wagner, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    A novel experimental procedure to measure the near-surface distribution of atmospheric trace gases by using passive multiaxis differential absorption optical spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) is proposed. The procedure consists of pointing the receiving telescope of the spectrometer to nonreflecting surfaces or to bright targets placed at known distances from the measuring device, which are illuminated by sunlight. We show that the partial trace gas absorptions between the top of the atmosphere and the target can be easily removed from the measured total absorption. Thus it is possible to derive the average concentration of trace gases such as NO2, HCHO, SO2, H2O, Glyoxal, BrO, and others along the line of sight between the instrument and the target similar to the well-known long-path DOAS observations (but with much less expense). If tomographic arrangements are used, even two- or three-dimensional trace gas distributions can be retrieved. The basic assumptions of the proposed method are confirmed by test measurements taken across the city of Heidelberg.

  15. SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.

    Remarks made in the author{close_quote}s acceptance lecture for the 1995 Edward Teller Medal are presented and expanded. Topics covered include research on nuclear-pumped lasers, the first direct e-beam-pumped laser, direct energy conversion and advanced fuel fusion, plus recent work on inertial electrostatic confinement. {open_quote}{open_quote}Patience{close_quote}{close_quote} and {open_quote}{open_quote}optimism{close_quote}{close_quote} are viewed as essential elements needed by scientists following the {open_quote}{open_quote}zig-zag{close_quote}{close_quote} path to fusion energy production. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Estimate of the Impact of Absorbing Aerosol Over Cloud on the MODIS Retrievals of Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius Using Two Independent Retrievals of Liquid Water Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Eric M.; Harshvardhan; Platnick, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Two independent satellite retrievals of cloud liquid water path (LWP) from the NASA Aqua satellite are used to diagnose the impact of absorbing biomass burning aerosol overlaying boundary-layer marine water clouds on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) retrievals of cloud optical thickness (tau) and cloud droplet effective radius (r(sub e)). In the MODIS retrieval over oceans, cloud reflectance in the 0.86-micrometer and 2.13-micrometer bands is used to simultaneously retrieve tau and r(sub e). A low bias in the MODIS tau retrieval may result from reductions in the 0.86-micrometer reflectance, which is only very weakly absorbed by clouds, owing to absorption by aerosols in cases where biomass burning aerosols occur above water clouds. MODIS LWP, derived from the product of the retrieved tau and r(sub e), is compared with LWP ocean retrievals from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E), determined from cloud microwave emission that is transparent to aerosols. For the coastal Atlantic southern African region investigated in this study, a systematic difference between AMSR-E and MODIS LWP retrievals is found for stratocumulus clouds over three biomass burning months in 2005 and 2006 that is consistent with above-cloud absorbing aerosols. Biomass burning aerosol is detected using the ultraviolet aerosol index from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite. The LWP difference (AMSR-E minus MODIS) increases both with increasing tau and increasing OMI aerosol index. During the biomass burning season the mean LWP difference is 14 g per square meters, which is within the 15-20 g per square meter range of estimated uncertainties in instantaneous LWP retrievals. For samples with only low amounts of overlaying smoke (OMI AI less than or equal to 1) the difference is 9.4, suggesting that the impact of smoke aerosols on the mean MODIS LWP is 5.6 g per square meter. Only for scenes with OMI aerosol index greater than 2 does the

  17. Comparisons of Cn2 measurements and power-in-fiber data from two long-path free-space optical communication experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parenti, Ronald R.; Michael, Steven; Roth, Jeffrey M.; Yarnall, Timothy M.

    2010-08-01

    Over a two-year period beginning in early 2008, MIT Lincoln Laboratory conducted two free-space optical communication experiments designed to test the ability of spatial beam diversity, symbol encoding, and interleaving to reduce the effects of turbulence-induced scintillation. The first of these exercises demonstrated a 2.7 Gb/s link over a ground-level 5.4 km horizontal path. Signal detection was accomplished through the use of four spatially-separated 12 mm apertures that coupled the received light into pre-amplified single-mode fiber detectors. Similar equipment was used in a second experiment performed in the fall of 2009, which demonstrated an error-free air-to-ground link at propagation ranges up to 60 km. In both of these tests power levels at all fiber outputs were sampled at 1 msec intervals, which enabled a high-rate characterization of the received signal fluctuations. The database developed from these experiments encompasses a wide range of propagation geometries and turbulence conditions. This information has subsequently been analyzed in an attempt to correlate estimates of the turbulence profile with measurements of the scintillation index, characteristic fading time constant, scintillation patch size, and the shape parameters of the statistical distributions of the received signals. Significant findings include observations of rapid changes in the scintillation index driven by solar flux variations, consistent similarities in the values of the alpha and beta shape parameters of the gamma-gamma distribution function, and strong evidence of channel reciprocity. This work was sponsored by the Department of Defense, RRCO DDR&E, under Air Force Contract FA8721-05-C-0002. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the authors and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government.

  18. Evaluation of Acoustic Propagation Paths into the Human Head

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    pressure amplitude) via the alternate propagation paths. A 3D finite-element solid mesh was constructed using a digital image database of an adult...optics, rays are used to depict the path or paths taken as a light wave travels through a lens. However, in optics, the eikonal equation can be solved

  19. Slant Path Low Visibility Atmospheric Conditions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    situation. a) An optical propagation slant test path , of a length over which infrared transmissometer measurements can be made that are in a magnitude...transmission measure - ments which are close to 100% and therefore do not accurately relate to absolute transmissivity. A path which is too long will result in...is available for measurement of backscatter cross section along the chosen transmissometer path . 3. Rough Cross Cut of the Works unde Contract in

  20. A 48Cycles/MB H.264/AVC Deblocking Filter Architecture for Ultra High Definition Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dajiang; Zhou, Jinjia; Zhu, Jiayi; Goto, Satoshi

    In this paper, a highly parallel deblocking filter architecture for H.264/AVC is proposed to process one macroblock in 48 clock cycles and give real-time support to QFHD@60fps sequences at less than 100MHz. 4 edge filters organized in 2 groups for simultaneously processing vertical and horizontal edges are applied in this architecture to enhance its throughput. While parallelism increases, pipeline hazards arise owing to the latency of edge filters and data dependency of deblocking algorithm. To solve this problem, a zig-zag processing schedule is proposed to eliminate the pipeline bubbles. Data path of the architecture is then derived according to the processing schedule and optimized through data flow merging, so as to minimize the cost of logic and internal buffer. Meanwhile, the architecture's data input rate is designed to be identical to its throughput, while the transmission order of input data can also match the zig-zag processing schedule. Therefore no intercommunication buffer is required between the deblocking filter and its previous component for speed matching or data reordering. As a result, only one 24×64 two-port SRAM as internal buffer is required in this design. When synthesized with SMIC 130nm process, the architecture costs a gate count of 30.2k, which is competitive considering its high performance.

  1. Imaging electron flow from collimating contacts in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, S.; Lee, G. H.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Kim, P.; Westervelt, R. M.

    2018-04-01

    The ballistic motion of electrons in graphene opens exciting opportunities for electron-optic devices based on collimated electron beams. We form a collimating contact in a hBN-encapsulated graphene hall bar by adding zigzag contacts on either side of an electron emitter that absorb stray electrons; collimation can be turned off by floating the zig-zag contacts. The electron beam is imaged using a liquid-He cooled scanning gate microscope (SGM). The tip deflects electrons as they pass from the collimating contact to a receiving contact on the opposite side of the channel, and an image of electron flow can be made by displaying the change in transmission as the tip is raster scanned across the sample. The angular half width Δθ of the electron beam is found by applying a perpendicular magnetic field B that bends electron paths into cyclotron orbits. The images reveal that the electron flow from the collimating contact drops quickly at B  =  0.05 T when the electron orbits miss the receiving contact. The flow for the non-collimating case persists longer, up to B  =  0.19 T, due to the broader range of entry angles. Ray-tracing simulations agree well with the experimental images. By fitting the fields B at which the magnitude of electron flow drops in the experimental SGM images, we find Δθ  =  9° for electron flow from the collimating contact, compared with Δθ  =  54° for the non-collimating case.

  2. Vibrational Analysis of a Shipboard Free Electron Laser Beam Path

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    2 Figure 2. Optical Extraction (η) vs. Separation and Electron Beam Tilt for a Notional FEL Oscillator . (From [1...in Figure 2. Figure 2. Optical Extraction (η) vs. Separation and Electron Beam Tilt for a Notional FEL Oscillator . (From [1]) The narrow beam...3 is a top down view of the entire electron beam path. Figure 3. Electron Beam Line of a Notional FEL Oscillator . 2. Optical Path The optical

  3. Path coloring on the Mesh

    SciTech Connect

    Rabani, Y.

    In the minimum path coloring problem, we are given a list of pairs of vertices of a graph. We are asked to connect each pair by a colored path. Paths of the same color must be edge disjoint. Our objective is to minimize the number of colors used. This problem was raised by Aggarwal et al and Raghavan and Upfal as a model for routing in all-optical networks. It is also related to questions in circuit routing. In this paper, we improve the O (ln N) approximation result of Kleinberg and Tardos for path coloring on the N x Nmore » mesh. We give an O(1) approximation algorithm to the number of colors needed, and a poly(ln ln N) approximation algorithm to the choice of paths and colors. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first sub-logarithmic bounds for any network other than trees, rings, or trees of rings. Our results are based on developing new techniques for randomized rounding. These techniques iteratively improve a fractional solution until it approaches integrality. They are motivated by the method used by Leighton, Maggs, and Rao for packet routing.« less

  4. Optical Remote Sensing for Fence-Line Monitoring using Open-Path Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) mono-static system for multiple target compounds in the Mid IR 7-13um (Fingerprint) region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemek, P. G.

    2017-12-01

    Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) are quickly replacing Tunable Diode Lasers (TDL) for multi-target species identification and quantification in both extractive and open-path (OP) Optical Remote Sensing (ORS) fence-line instrumentation. As was seen with TDL incorporation and pricing drops as the adoption by the telecommunications industry and its current scaling has improved robustness and pricing, the QCL is also, albiet more slowly, becoming a mature market. There are several advantages of QCLs over conventional TDLs such as improved brightness and beam density, high resolution, as well as the incorporation of external etalons or internal gratings to scan over wide spectral areas. QCLs typically operate in the Mid infra-red (MIR) as opposed to the Near-Infrared (NIR) region used with TDL. The MidIR is a target rich absorption band area where compounds have high absorbtivity coefficients resulting in better detection limits as compared to TDL instruments. The use of novel chemometrics and more sensitive non-cryo-cooled detectors has allowed some of the first QCL open-path instruments in both active and passive operation. Data and field studies of one of the newest QCL OP systems is presented that allows one system to measure multiple target compounds. Multiple QCL spectral regions may be stitched together to increase the capability of QCLs over TDL OP systems. A comparison of several ORS type systems will be presented.

  5. Portable open-path optical remote sensing (ORS) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) instrumentation miniaturization and software for point and click real-time analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemek, Peter G.; Plowman, Steven V.

    2010-04-01

    Advances in hardware have miniaturized the emissions spectrometer and associated optics, rendering them easily deployed in the field. Such systems are also suitable for vehicle mounting, and can provide high quality data and concentration information in minutes. Advances in software have accompanied this hardware evolution, enabling the development of portable point-and-click OP-FTIR systems that weigh less than 16 lbs. These systems are ideal for first-responders, military, law enforcement, forensics, and screening applications using optical remote sensing (ORS) methodologies. With canned methods and interchangeable detectors, the new generation of OP-FTIR technology is coupled to the latest forward reference-type model software to provide point-and-click technology. These software models have been established for some time. However, refined user-friendly models that use active, passive, and solar occultation methodologies now allow the user to quickly field-screen and quantify plumes, fence-lines, and combustion incident scenarios in high-temporal-resolution. Synthetic background generation is now redundant as the models use highly accurate instrument line shape (ILS) convolutions and several other parameters, in conjunction with radiative transfer model databases to model a single calibration spectrum to collected sample spectra. Data retrievals are performed directly on single beam spectra using non-linear classical least squares (NLCLS). Typically, the Hitran line database is used to generate the initial calibration spectrum contained within the software.

  6. Optical system and method for gas detection and monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A. (Inventor); Sinko, John Elihu (Inventor); Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor); Hendrickson, Adam Gail (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A free-space optical path of an optical interferometer is disposed in an environment of interest. A light beam is guided to the optical interferometer using a single-mode optical fiber. The light beam traverses the interferometer's optical path. The light beam guided to the optical path is combined with the light beam at the end of the optical path to define an output light. A temporal history of the output light is recorded.

  7. The Thinnest Path Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-22

    their corresponding transmission powers . At first glance, one may wonder whether the thinnest path problem is simply a shortest path problem with the...nature of the shortest path problem. Another aspect that complicates the problem is the choice of the transmission power at each node (within a maximum...fixed transmission power at each node (in this case, the resulting hypergraph degenerates to a standard graph), the thinnest path problem is NP

  8. Fluidic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitesides, George M.; Tang, Sindy K. Y.

    2006-09-01

    Fluidic optics is a new class of optical system with real-time tunability and reconfigurability enabled by the introduction of fluidic components into the optical path. We describe the design, fabrication, operation of a number of fluidic optical systems, and focus on three devices, liquid-core/liquid-cladding (L2) waveguides, microfluidic dye lasers, and diffraction gratings based on flowing, crystalline lattices of bubbles, to demonstrate the integration of microfluidics and optics. We fabricate these devices in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with soft-lithographic techniques. They are simple to construct, and readily integrable with microanalytical or lab-on-a-chip systems.

  9. Transition path time distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laleman, M.; Carlon, E.; Orland, H.

    2017-12-01

    Biomolecular folding, at least in simple systems, can be described as a two state transition in a free energy landscape with two deep wells separated by a high barrier. Transition paths are the short part of the trajectories that cross the barrier. Average transition path times and, recently, their full probability distribution have been measured for several biomolecular systems, e.g., in the folding of nucleic acids or proteins. Motivated by these experiments, we have calculated the full transition path time distribution for a single stochastic particle crossing a parabolic barrier, including inertial terms which were neglected in previous studies. These terms influence the short time scale dynamics of a stochastic system and can be of experimental relevance in view of the short duration of transition paths. We derive the full transition path time distribution as well as the average transition path times and discuss the similarities and differences with the high friction limit.

  10. Pulled Motzkin paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janse van Rensburg, E. J.

    2010-08-01

    In this paper the models of pulled Dyck paths in Janse van Rensburg (2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 215001) are generalized to pulled Motzkin path models. The generating functions of pulled Motzkin paths are determined in terms of series over trinomial coefficients and the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its endpoint (see Orlandini and Whittington (2004 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37 5305-14)) is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the endpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh f))/(2sinh f) → f as f → ∞, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. In addition, the elastic response of a Motzkin path pulled at its midpoint is shown to be R(f) = 0 for forces pushing the midpoint toward the adsorbing line and R(f) = f(1 + 2cosh (f/2))/sinh (f/2) → 2f as f → ∞, for forces pulling the path away from the X-axis. Formal combinatorial identities arising from pulled Motzkin path models are also presented. These identities are the generalization of combinatorial identities obtained in directed paths models to their natural trinomial counterparts.

  11. Optical pumping in a whispering-mode optical waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-08-11

    A device and method for optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide are described. Both a helical ribbon and cylinder are disclosed which incorporate an additional curvature for confining the beam to increase intensity. An optical pumping medium is disposed in the optical path of the beam as it propagates along the waveguide. Optical pumping is enhanced by the high intensities of the beam and long interaction path lengths which are achieved in a small volume.

  12. Zero-Slack, Noncritical Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Jacob V., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The critical path method/program evaluation and review technique method of project scheduling is based on the importance of managing a project's critical path(s). Although a critical path is the longest path through a network, its location in large projects is facilitated by the computation of activity slack. However, logical fallacies in…

  13. Imparting protean behavior to mobile robots accomplishing patrolling tasks in the presence of adversaries.

    PubMed

    Curiac, Daniel-Ioan; Volosencu, Constantin

    2015-10-08

    Providing unpredictable trajectories for patrol robots is essential when coping with adversaries. In order to solve this problem we developed an effective approach based on the known protean behavior of individual prey animals-random zig-zag movement. The proposed bio-inspired method modifies the normal robot's path by incorporating sudden and irregular direction changes without jeopardizing the robot's mission. Such a tactic is aimed to confuse the enemy (e.g. a sniper), offering less time to acquire and retain sight alignment and sight picture. This idea is implemented by simulating a series of fictive-temporary obstacles that will randomly appear in the robot's field of view, deceiving the obstacle avoiding mechanism to react. The new general methodology is particularized by using the Arnold's cat map to obtain the timely random appearance and disappearance of the fictive obstacles. The viability of the proposed method is confirmed through an extensive simulation case study.

  14. A Path to Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegemoller, William; Stegemoller, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    The path taken and the turns made as a turtle traces a polygon are examined to discover an important theorem in geometry. A unique tool, the Angle Adder, is implemented in the investigation. (Contains 9 figures.)

  15. Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Wheeler, David R.; Simonson, Robert J.

    2010-09-21

    A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

  16. Air Vehicle Path Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-13

    6-18 6.13. Apollonius Circle for the Case of Two Unequal Power Radars . . . 6-20 6.14. Solution Triangle...Voronoi edge is an Apollonius circle [32, 19]. In this section, we are concerned with the optimality of the Voronoi path for the two radar exposure...Comparison of Cost vs. Path Length for Constrained Trajectories Around and Between Two Radars 6-18 from the two radars is an Apollonius circle

  17. Paths to nursing leadership.

    PubMed

    Bondas, Terese

    2006-07-01

    The aim was to explore why nurses enter nursing leadership and apply for a management position in health care. The study is part of a research programme in nursing leadership and evidence-based care. Nursing has not invested enough in the development of nursing leadership for the development of patient care. There is scarce research on nurses' motives and reasons for committing themselves to a career in nursing leadership. A strategic sample of 68 Finnish nurse leaders completed a semistructured questionnaire. Analytic induction was applied in an attempt to generate a theory. A theory, Paths to Nursing Leadership, is proposed for further research. Four different paths were found according to variations between the nurse leaders' education, primary commitment and situational factors. They are called the Path of Ideals, the Path of Chance, the Career Path and the Temporary Path. Situational factors and role models of good but also bad nursing leadership besides motivational and educational factors have played a significant role when Finnish nurses have entered nursing leadership. The educational requirements for nurse leaders and recruitment to nursing management positions need serious attention in order to develop a competent nursing leadership.

  18. The use of Long-Lived Tracer Observations to Examine Transport Characteristics in the Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingenfelser, Gretchen Scott

    This thesis explores the problem of uniformly aligning Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals (FLCs) over large areas whilst retaining bistability. A novel high tilt alignment (HTA) is presented and its electro-optic performance is compared to the traditional surface stabilised (SS) alignment using three different devices; test cells, displays and all-fibre optic devices. Evidence is presented to show that the SS alignment has a small surface pretilt of the director which reduces the number of zig-zag defects in parallel aligned cells. This is related to the layer structure and a review of the latest proposed structures of SS devices is presented. The HTA device is shown to have many advantages over the SS device; no zig-zag defects, excellent bistability in up to 6 mum thick cells, good mechanical stability and excellent viewing characteristics when multiplexed. These properties are explored and culminate in the production of two FLC displays, one HTA and one SS aligned. The properties of these displays are compared. In order to improve the appearance and frame time of the displays, multiplexing schemes were investigated, including a novel two slot scheme that was successfully used to drive both displays. It was found that the SS display could be driven in a reverse contrast mode by taking advantage of the relaxation process. This decreased the line address time and produced a higher contrast display. A nematic LC all-fibre optic polariser was produced with excellent extinction ratio (45 dB) and low loss (0.2 dB) using evanescent field coupling. A nematic LC modulator was then demonstrated using a novel electrode arrangement. A modulation depth of 28 dB was achieved using low voltages ( 10V) but with 10 kHz but the modulation depth was poor (8.2 dB) because of the unsuitable refractive indices. The potential and uses of LC all-fibre optic devices are discussed.

  19. OPEN PATH AMBIENT MEASUREMENTS OF POLLUTANTS WITH A DOAS SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) has been in operation since August 1991 at the U.S. EPA in RTP, NC. he analyzer unit is located in an environmentally-controlled shelter in the EPA parking lot. our separate open optical paths have been established, ranging fr...

  20. Mobile transporter path planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baffes, Paul; Wang, Lui

    1990-01-01

    The use of a genetic algorithm (GA) for solving the mobile transporter path planning problem is investigated. The mobile transporter is a traveling robotic vehicle proposed for the space station which must be able to reach any point of the structure autonomously. Elements of the genetic algorithm are explored in both a theoretical and experimental sense. Specifically, double crossover, greedy crossover, and tournament selection techniques are examined. Additionally, the use of local optimization techniques working in concert with the GA are also explored. Recent developments in genetic algorithm theory are shown to be particularly effective in a path planning problem domain, though problem areas can be cited which require more research.

  1. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Kolle, Stefan; Weaver, James C.; Ortiz, Christine; Aizenberg, Joanna; Kolle, Mathias

    2015-02-01

    Many species rely on diverse selections of entirely organic photonic structures for the manipulation of light and the display of striking colours. Here we report the discovery of a mineralized hierarchical photonic architecture embedded within the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet Patella pellucida. The bright colour of the limpet’s stripes originates from light interference in a periodically layered zig-zag architecture of crystallographically co-oriented calcite lamellae. Beneath the photonic multilayer, a disordered array of light-absorbing particles provides contrast for the blue colour. This unique mineralized manifestation of a synergy of two distinct optical elements at specific locations within the continuum of the limpet’s translucent protective shell ensures the vivid shine of the blue stripes, which can be perceived under water from a wide range of viewing angles. The stripes’ reflection band coincides with the spectral range of minimal light absorption in sea water, raising intriguing questions regarding their functional significance.

  2. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Kolle, Stefan; Weaver, James C; Ortiz, Christine; Aizenberg, Joanna; Kolle, Mathias

    2015-02-26

    Many species rely on diverse selections of entirely organic photonic structures for the manipulation of light and the display of striking colours. Here we report the discovery of a mineralized hierarchical photonic architecture embedded within the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet Patella pellucida. The bright colour of the limpet's stripes originates from light interference in a periodically layered zig-zag architecture of crystallographically co-oriented calcite lamellae. Beneath the photonic multilayer, a disordered array of light-absorbing particles provides contrast for the blue colour. This unique mineralized manifestation of a synergy of two distinct optical elements at specific locations within the continuum of the limpet's translucent protective shell ensures the vivid shine of the blue stripes, which can be perceived under water from a wide range of viewing angles. The stripes' reflection band coincides with the spectral range of minimal light absorption in sea water, raising intriguing questions regarding their functional significance.

  3. Efficient Dual Head Nd:YAG 100mJ Oscillator for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, Donald B.; Stysley, Paul R.; Kay, Richard b.; Poulios, Demetrios

    2007-01-01

    A diode pumped, Nd:YAG laser producing 100 mJ Q-switched pulses and employing a dual-pump head scheme in an unstable resonator configuration is described. Each head contains a side pumped zig-zag slab and four 6-bar QCW 808 nm diodes arrays which are de-rated 23%. Denoting 'z' as the lasing axis, the pump directions were along the x-axis in one head and the y-axis in the other, producing a circularized thermal lens, more typical in laser rod-based cavities. The dual head design's effective thermal lens is now corrected with a proper HR mirror curvature selection. This laser has demonstrated over 100 mJ output with high optical efficiency (24%), good TEM(sub 00) beam quality, and high pointing stability.

  4. The HALNA project: Diode-pumped solid-state laser for inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, T.; Ikegawa, T.; Kawanaka, J.; Miyanaga, N.; Nakatsuka, M.; Izawa, Y.; Matsumoto, O.; Yasuhara, R.; Kurita, T.; Sekine, T.; Miyamoto, M.; Kan, H.; Furukawa, H.; Motokoshi, S.; Kanabe, T.

    2006-06-01

    High-enery, rep.-rated, diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) is one of leading candidates for inertial fusion energy driver (IFE) and related laser-driven high-field applications. The project for the development of IFE laser driver in Japan, HALNA (High Average-power Laser for Nuclear Fusion Application) at ILE, Osaka University, aims to demonstrate 100-J pulse energy at 10 Hz rep. rate with 5 times diffraction limited beam quality. In this article, the advanced solid-state laser technologies for one half scale of HALNA (50 J, 10 Hz) are presented including thermally managed slab amplifier of Nd:phosphate glass and zig-zag optical geometry, and uniform, large-area diode-pumping.

  5. A path planning method used in fluid jet polishing eliminating lightweight mirror imprinting effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenzong; Fan, Bin; Shi, Chunyan; Wang, Jia; Zhuo, Bin

    2014-08-01

    With the development of space technology, the design of optical system tends to large aperture lightweight mirror with high dimension-thickness ratio. However, when the lightweight mirror PV value is less than λ/10 , the surface will show wavy imprinting effect obviously. Imprinting effect introduced by head-tool pressure has become a technological barrier in high-precision lightweight mirror manufacturing. Fluid jet polishing can exclude outside pressure. Presently, machining tracks often used are grating type path, screw type path and pseudo-random path. On the edge of imprinting error, the speed of adjacent path points changes too fast, which causes the machine hard to reflect quickly, brings about new path error, and increases the polishing time due to superfluous path. This paper presents a new planning path method to eliminate imprinting effect. Simulation results show that the path of the improved grating path can better eliminate imprinting effect compared to the general path.

  6. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  7. Optical Circuit Switched Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method embodied in an optical circuit switched protocol for the transmission of data through a network. The optical circuit switched protocol is an all-optical circuit switched network and includes novel optical switching nodes for transmitting optical data packets within a network. Each optical switching node comprises a detector for receiving the header, header detection logic for translating the header into routing information and eliminating the header, and a controller for receiving the routing information and configuring an all optical path within the node. The all optical path located within the node is solely an optical path without having electronic storage of the data and without having optical delay of the data. Since electronic storage of the header is not necessary and the initial header is eliminated by the first detector of the first switching node. multiple identical headers are sent throughout the network so that subsequent switching nodes can receive and read the header for setting up an optical data path.

  8. An Unplanned Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarvey, Lynn M.; Sterenberg, Gladys Y.; Long, Julie S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors elucidate what they saw as three important challenges to overcome along the path to becoming elementary school mathematics teacher leaders: marginal interest in math, low self-confidence, and teaching in isolation. To illustrate how these challenges were mitigated, they focus on the stories of two elementary school teachers--Laura and…

  9. Aerosol Radiative Forcing Estimates from South Asian Clay Brick Production Based on Direct Emission Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyant, C.; Athalye, V.; Ragavan, S.; Rajarathnam, U.; Kr, B.; Lalchandani, D.; Maithel, S.; Malhotra, G.; Bhanware, P.; Thoa, V.; Phuong, N.; Baum, E.; Bond, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    About 150-200 billion clay bricks are produced in India every year. Most of these bricks are fired in small-scale traditional kilns that burn coal or biomass without pollution controls. Reddy and Venkataraman (2001) estimated that 8% of fossil fuel related PM2.5 emissions and 23% of black carbon emissions in India are released from brick production. Few direct emissions measurements have been done in this industry and black carbon emissions, in particular, have not been previously measured. In this study, 9 kilns representing five common brick kiln technologies were tested for aerosol properties and gaseous pollutant emissions, including optical scattering and absorption and thermal-optical OC/EC. Simple relationships are then used to estimate the radiative-forcing impact. Kiln design and fuel quality greatly affect the overall emission profiles and relative climate warming. Batch production kilns, such as the Downdraft kiln, produce the most PM2.5 (0.97 gPM2.5/fired brick) with an OC/EC fraction of 0.3. Vertical Shaft Brick kilns using internally mixed fuels produce the least PM (0.09 gPM2.5/kg fired brick) with the least EC (OC/EC = 16.5), but these kilns are expensive to implement and their use throughout Southern Asia is minimal. The most popular kiln in India, the Bull's Trench kiln, had fewer emissions per brick than the Downdraft kiln, but an even higher EC fraction (OC/EC = 0.05). The Zig-zag kiln is similar in structure to the Bull's Trench kiln, but the emission factors are significantly lower: 50% reduction for CO, 17% for PM2.5 and 60% for black carbon. This difference in emissions suggests that converting traditional Bull's Trench kilns into less polluting Zig-zag kilns would result in reduced atmospheric warming from brick production.

  10. Optical multi-species gas monitoring sensor and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Polzin, Kurt A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The system includes at least one light source generating light energy having a corresponding wavelength. The system's sensor is based on an optical interferometer that receives light energy from each light source. The interferometer includes a free-space optical path disposed in an environment of interest. The system's sensor includes an optical device disposed in the optical path that causes light energy of a first selected wavelength to continue traversing the optical path whereas light energy of at least one second selected wavelength is directed away from the optical path. The interferometer generates an interference between the light energy of the first selected wavelength so-traversing the optical path with the light energy at the corresponding wavelength incident on the optical interferometer. A first optical detector detects the interference. At least one second detector detects the light energy at the at least one second selected wavelength directed away from the optical path.

  11. Improved Electro-Optical Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Bruce N.; Cooper, Ronald F.

    1994-01-01

    Improved single-pole, double-throw electro-optical switches operate in switching times less than microsecond developed for applications as optical communication systems and networks of optical sensors. Contain no moving parts. In comparison with some prior electro-optical switches, these are simpler and operate with smaller optical losses. Beam of light switched from one output path to other by applying, to electro-optical crystal, voltage causing polarization of beam of light to change from vertical to horizontal.

  12. Entanglement by Path Identity.

    PubMed

    Krenn, Mario; Hochrainer, Armin; Lahiri, Mayukh; Zeilinger, Anton

    2017-02-24

    Quantum entanglement is one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and forms the basis of quantum information technologies. Here we present a novel method for the creation of quantum entanglement in multipartite and high-dimensional systems. The two ingredients are (i) superposition of photon pairs with different origins and (ii) aligning photons such that their paths are identical. We explain the experimentally feasible creation of various classes of multiphoton entanglement encoded in polarization as well as in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces-starting only from nonentangled photon pairs. For two photons, arbitrary high-dimensional entanglement can be created. The idea of generating entanglement by path identity could also apply to quantum entities other than photons. We discovered the technique by analyzing the output of a computer algorithm. This shows that computer designed quantum experiments can be inspirations for new techniques.

  13. Entanglement by Path Identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenn, Mario; Hochrainer, Armin; Lahiri, Mayukh; Zeilinger, Anton

    2017-02-01

    Quantum entanglement is one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and forms the basis of quantum information technologies. Here we present a novel method for the creation of quantum entanglement in multipartite and high-dimensional systems. The two ingredients are (i) superposition of photon pairs with different origins and (ii) aligning photons such that their paths are identical. We explain the experimentally feasible creation of various classes of multiphoton entanglement encoded in polarization as well as in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces—starting only from nonentangled photon pairs. For two photons, arbitrary high-dimensional entanglement can be created. The idea of generating entanglement by path identity could also apply to quantum entities other than photons. We discovered the technique by analyzing the output of a computer algorithm. This shows that computer designed quantum experiments can be inspirations for new techniques.

  14. Large volume multiple-path nuclear pumped laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohl, F.; Deyoung, R. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Large volumes of gas are excited by using internal high reflectance mirrors that are arranged so that the optical path crosses back and forth through the excited gaseous medium. By adjusting the external dielectric mirrors of the laser, the number of paths through the laser cavity can be varied. Output powers were obtained that are substantially higher than the output powers of previous nuclear laser systems.

  15. A growth path for deep space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layland, J. W.; Smith, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    Increased Deep Space Network (DPN) receiving capability far beyond that now available for Voyager is achievable through a mix of increased antenna aperture and increased frequency of operation. In this note a sequence of options are considered: adding midsized antennas for arraying with the existing network at X-band; converting to Ka-band and adding array elements; augmenting the DSN with an orbiting Ka-band station; and augmenting the DSN with an optical receiving capability, either on the ground or in space. Costs of these options are compared as means of achieving significantly increased receiving capability. The envelope of lowest costs projects a possible path for moving from X-band to Ka-band and thence to optical frequencies, and potentially for moving from ground-based to space-based apertures. The move to Ka-band is clearly of value now, with development of optical communications technology a good investment for the future.

  16. California PATH : 1997 annual report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    The California Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways Program (PATH) has been leading the way in ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) research since PATHs founding in 1986, before the term ITS or its predecessor IVHS (Intelligent Vehicle H...

  17. California PATH : 1996 annual report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-01-01

    The California Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways Program (PATH ) has been leading the way in ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) research since PATH's founding in 1986, before the term ITS or its predecessor IVHS (Intelligent Vehicle Hi...

  18. JAVA PathFinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehhtz, Peter

    2005-01-01

    JPF is an explicit state software model checker for Java bytecode. Today, JPF is a swiss army knife for all sort of runtime based verification purposes. This basically means JPF is a Java virtual machine that executes your program not just once (like a normal VM), but theoretically in all possible ways, checking for property violations like deadlocks or unhandled exceptions along all potential execution paths. If it finds an error, JPF reports the whole execution that leads to it. Unlike a normal debugger, JPF keeps track of every step how it got to the defect.

  19. The Thinnest Path Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    of vertices located within the d-dimensional sphere centered at vi 1In [3], it is referred to as the forward hyperarcs. 3 replacements Fig. 1: (a...kr ← kr + 1 · Set the parent of vkr+1 to v ∗ While v can reach vkl−1 · Enqueue vkl−1 and kl ← kl − 1 · Set the parent of vkl−1 to v 3. If the Queue... parent of this vertex on this path. This allows us to take the set union operation when we update the neighbors of this vertex. Given below is the

  20. Portage and Path Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Lin, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    We examine portage sites in the U.S. South, Mid-Atlantic, and Midwest, including those on the fall line, a geomorphological feature in the southeastern U.S. marking the final rapids on rivers before the ocean. Historically, waterborne transport of goods required portage around the falls at these points, while some falls provided water power during early industrialization. These factors attracted commerce and manufacturing. Although these original advantages have long since been made obsolete, we document the continuing importance of these portage sites over time. We interpret these results as path dependence and contrast explanations based on sunk costs interacting with decreasing versus increasing returns to scale. PMID:23935217

  1. Multipass optical device and process for gas and analyte determination

    DOEpatents

    Bernacki, Bruce E [Kennewick, WA

    2011-01-25

    A torus multipass optical device and method are described that provide for trace level determination of gases and gas-phase analytes. The torus device includes an optical cavity defined by at least one ring mirror. The mirror delivers optical power in at least a radial and axial direction and propagates light in a multipass optical path of a predefined path length.

  2. Folded path LWIR system for SWAP constrained platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleet, Erin F.; Wilson, Michael L.; Linne von Berg, Dale; Giallorenzi, Thomas; Mathieu, Barry

    2014-06-01

    Folded path reflection and catadioptric optics are of growing interest, especially in the long wave infrared (LWIR), due to continuing demands for reductions in imaging system size, weight and power (SWAP). We present the optical design and laboratory data for a 50 mm focal length low f/# folded-path compact LWIR imaging system. The optical design uses 4 concentric aspheric mirrors, each of which is described by annular aspheric functions well suited to the folded path design space. The 4 mirrors are diamond turned onto two thin air-spaced aluminum plates which can be manually focused onto the uncooled LWIR microbolometer array detector. Stray light analysis will be presented to show how specialized internal baffling can be used to reduce stray light propagation through the folded path optical train. The system achieves near diffraction limited performance across the FOV with a 15 mm long optical train and a 5 mm back focal distance. The completed system is small enough to reside within a 3 inch diameter ball gimbal.

  3. Optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1984-01-01

    A device and method for optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide. Both a helical ribbon and cylinder are disclosed which incorporate an additional curvature for confining the beam to increase intensity. An optical pumping medium is disposed in the optical path of the beam as it propagates along the waveguide. Optical pumping is enhanced by the high intensities of the beam and long interaction pathlengths which are achieved in a small volume.

  4. pathChirp: Efficient Available Bandwidth Estimation for Network Paths

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, Les

    2003-04-30

    This paper presents pathChirp, a new active probing tool for estimating the available bandwidth on a communication network path. Based on the concept of ''self-induced congestion,'' pathChirp features an exponential flight pattern of probes we call a chirp. Packet chips offer several significant advantages over current probing schemes based on packet pairs or packet trains. By rapidly increasing the probing rate within each chirp, pathChirp obtains a rich set of information from which to dynamically estimate the available bandwidth. Since it uses only packet interarrival times for estimation, pathChirp does not require synchronous nor highly stable clocks at the sendermore » and receiver. We test pathChirp with simulations and Internet experiments and find that it provides good estimates of the available bandwidth while using only a fraction of the number of probe bytes that current state-of-the-art techniques use.« less

  5. 757 Path Loss Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, Kent; Huffman, Mitch; Eppic, Brian; White, Harrison

    2005-01-01

    Path Loss Measurements were obtained on three (3) GPS equipped 757 aircraft. Systems measured were Marker Beacon, LOC, VOR, VHF (3), Glide Slope, ATC (2), DME (2), TCAS, and GPS. This data will provide the basis for assessing the EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) safety margins of comm/nav (communication and navigation) systems to portable electronic device emissions. These Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) include all devices operated in or around the aircraft by crews, passengers, servicing personnel, as well as the general public in the airport terminals. EMI assessment capability is an important step in determining if one system-wide PED EMI policy is appropriate. This data may also be used comparatively with theoretical analysis and computer modeling data sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and others.

  6. Path Integral Metadynamics.

    PubMed

    Quhe, Ruge; Nava, Marco; Tiwary, Pratyush; Parrinello, Michele

    2015-04-14

    We develop a new efficient approach for the simulation of static properties of quantum systems using path integral molecular dynamics in combination with metadynamics. We use the isomorphism between a quantum system and a classical one in which a quantum particle is mapped into a ring polymer. A history dependent biasing potential is built as a function of the elastic energy of the isomorphic polymer. This enhances fluctuations in the shape and size of the necklace in a controllable manner and allows escaping deep energy minima in a limited computer time. In this way, we are able to sample high free energy regions and cross barriers, which would otherwise be insurmountable with unbiased methods. This substantially improves the ability of finding the global free energy minimum as well as exploring other metastable states. The performance of the new technique is demonstrated by illustrative applications on model potentials of varying complexity.

  7. Tortuous Pore Path Through the Glaucomatous Lamina Cribrosa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Lucy, Katie A; Schuman, Joel S; Sigal, Ian A; Bilonick, Richard A; Lu, Chen; Liu, Jonathan; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Nadler, Zachary; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Kagemann, Larry; Fujimoto, James G; Wollstein, Gadi

    2018-05-08

    The lamina cribrosa is a primary site of damage in glaucoma. While mechanical distortion is hypothesized to cause reduction of axoplasmic flow, little is known about how the pores, which contains the retinal ganglion cell axons, traverse the lamina cribrosa. We investigated lamina cribrosa pore paths in vivo to quantify differences in tortuosity of pore paths between healthy and glaucomatous eyes. We imaged 16 healthy, 23 glaucoma suspect and 48 glaucomatous eyes from 70 subjects using a swept source optical coherence tomography system. The lamina cribrosa pores were automatically segmented using a previously described segmentation algorithm. Individual pore paths were automatically tracked through the depth of the lamina cribrosa using custom software. Pore path convergence to the optic nerve center and tortuosity was quantified for each eye. We found that lamina cribrosa pore pathways traverse the lamina cribrosa closer to the optic nerve center along the depth of the lamina cribrosa regardless of disease severity or diagnostic category. In addition, pores of glaucoma eyes take a more tortuous path through the lamina cribrosa compared to those of healthy eyes, suggesting a potential mechanism for reduction of axoplasmic flow in glaucoma.

  8. Interactive cutting path analysis programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiner, J. M.; Williams, D. S.; Colley, S. R.

    1975-01-01

    The operation of numerically controlled machine tools is interactively simulated. Four programs were developed to graphically display the cutting paths for a Monarch lathe, Cintimatic mill, Strippit sheet metal punch, and the wiring path for a Standard wire wrap machine. These programs are run on a IMLAC PDS-ID graphic display system under the DOS-3 disk operating system. The cutting path analysis programs accept input via both paper tape and disk file.

  9. Electro-Optic Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    Electro - Optic Propagation Stephen Doss-Hammel SPAWARSYSCEN San Diego code 2858 49170 Propagation Path San Diego, CA 92152-7385 phone: (619...scenarios to extend the capabilities of TAWS to surface and low altitude situations. OBJECTIVES The electro - optical propagation objectives are: 1...development of a new propagation assessment tool called EOSTAR ( Electro - Optical Signal Transmission and Ranging). The goal of the EOSTAR project is to

  10. Electro-Optic Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-30

    Electro - Optic Propagation Stephen Doss-Hammel SPAWARSYSCEN San Diego code 2858 49170 Propagation Path San Diego, CA 92152-7385 phone: (619...OBJECTIVES The electro - optical propagation objectives are: 1) The acquisition and analysis of mid-wave and long-wave infrared transmission and...elements to the electro - optical propagation model development. The first element is the design and execution of field experiments to generate useful

  11. D4Z - a new renumbering for iterative solution of ground-water flow and solute- transport equations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kipp, K.L.; Russell, T.F.; Otto, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    D4 zig-zag (D4Z) is a new renumbering scheme for producing a reduced matrix to be solved by an incomplete LU preconditioned, restarted conjugate-gradient iterative solver. By renumbering alternate diagonals in a zig-zag fashion, a very low sensitivity of convergence rate to renumbering direction is obtained. For two demonstration problems involving groundwater flow and solute transport, iteration counts are related to condition numbers and spectra of the reduced matrices.

  12. Path connectivity based spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jiawei; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Xinbo; Gu, Wanyi

    2013-01-28

    Optical networks with flexible bandwidth provisioning have become a very promising networking architecture. It enables efficient resource utilization and supports heterogeneous bandwidth demands. In this paper, two novel spectrum defragmentation approaches, i.e. Maximum Path Connectivity (MPC) algorithm and Path Connectivity Triggering (PCT) algorithm, are proposed based on the notion of Path Connectivity, which is defined to represent the maximum variation of node switching ability along the path in flexible bandwidth networks. A cost-performance-ratio based profitability model is given to denote the prons and cons of spectrum defragmentation. We compare these two proposed algorithms with non-defragmentation algorithm in terms of blocking probability. Then we analyze the differences of defragmentation profitability between MPC and PCT algorithms.

  13. Laser-Based Production of Metallic Conducting Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedder, Christian; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Wissenbach, Konrad; Pirch, Norbert

    For numerous devices such as OLEDs, solar cells or heated windows conducting paths are needed for collecting or distributing electricity on poorly or non-conducting surfaces. With established techniques the metallic paths can only be produced with a great deal of effort, incurring high costs for plant, equipment and energy. A new laser based process to manufacture conducting paths allows for writing narrow paths (down to 35 μm width) of Al, Cu, Ag or similar materials onto flat surfaces of glass (plain or coated with ITO) and silicon wafers by melting and vaporizing a metal foil through optical energy at high speeds of up to 2.5 m/s.

  14. Reconfigurable data path processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohoe, Gregory (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A reconfigurable data path processor comprises a plurality of independent processing elements. Each of the processing elements advantageously comprising an identical architecture. Each processing element comprises a plurality of data processing means for generating a potential output. Each processor is also capable of through-putting an input as a potential output with little or no processing. Each processing element comprises a conditional multiplexer having a first conditional multiplexer input, a second conditional multiplexer input and a conditional multiplexer output. A first potential output value is transmitted to the first conditional multiplexer input, and a second potential output value is transmitted to the second conditional multiplexer output. The conditional multiplexer couples either the first conditional multiplexer input or the second conditional multiplexer input to the conditional multiplexer output, according to an output control command. The output control command is generated by processing a set of arithmetic status-bits through a logical mask. The conditional multiplexer output is coupled to a first processing element output. A first set of arithmetic bits are generated according to the processing of the first processable value. A second set of arithmetic bits may be generated from a second processing operation. The selection of the arithmetic status-bits is performed by an arithmetic-status bit multiplexer selects the desired set of arithmetic status bits from among the first and second set of arithmetic status bits. The conditional multiplexer evaluates the select arithmetic status bits according to logical mask defining an algorithm for evaluating the arithmetic status bits.

  15. Analysis of crossing path crashes

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-07-01

    This report defines the problem of crossing path crashes in the United States. This crash type involves one moving vehicle that cuts across the path of another when their initial approach comes from either lateral or opposite directions and they typi...

  16. Path homogeneity along a horizontal line-of-sight path during the FESTER experiment: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunter, W. H.; Maritz, B.; Koago, M.; Wainman, C. K.; Gardener, M. E.; February, F.; van Eijk, A. M. J.

    2016-10-01

    The First European South African Experiment (FESTER) was conducted over about a 10 month period at the Institute of Maritime Technology (IMT) in False Bay, South Africa. One of the important goals was the establishment of the air-sea temperature difference (ASTD) homogeneity along the main propagation link atmospheric path since it is a basic assumption for most of the atmospheric turbulence models (caused by refractive index variations). The ASTD was measured from a small scientific work boat (called Sea Lab) moving along a straight in- and outbound track along the main propagation link path. The air temperature on-board was measured using standard weather sensors, while the sea surface temperature was measured using a long wavelength infrared radiometer, which was compared to the bulk sea temperature half a meter below the sea surface. This was obtained by an under water temperature sensor mounted on a `surfboard' that was towed alongside Sea Lab. Vertical water temperature profiles were also measured along the main propagation path in order to determine the depth of the surface mixed layer and thermocline using a Conductivity Temperature Depth profiler (CTD). First results investigated the ASTD variation along the horizontal line-of-sight path used by the principal electro-optic transmission link monitoring equipment (i.e. scintillometer and multi-spectral radiometer-transmissometer system).

  17. Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.; Roberts, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences associated with development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in the two less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in the more developed sites. Thematically, people in the two less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community-based solutions, while people in the more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in the two water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in the water-rich sites. Thematically, people in the two water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in the water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

  18. Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; Roberts, C. M.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences based on development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in more developed sites. Thematically, people in less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community based solutions, while people in more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in water-rich sites. Thematically, people in water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

  19. Apodization of beams in an optical interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Lawrence L. (Inventor); Dutta, Kalyan (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An interferometry apparatus comprises one or more beam generators, a detector, and a plurality of optical paths along which one or more beams of light propagate. Disposed along at least one of the optical paths is an apodization mask to shape one of the beams.

  20. Nonadiabatic quantum path analysis of high-order harmonic generation: Role of the carrier-envelope phase on short and long paths

    SciTech Connect

    Sansone, G.; Stagira, S.; Nisoli, M.

    2004-07-01

    High-order harmonic generation process in the few- and multiple-optical-cycle regime is theoretically investigated, using the saddle-point method generalized to account for nonadiabatic effects. The influence of the carrier-envelope phase of the driving pulses on the various electron quantum paths is analyzed. We demonstrate that the short and long quantum paths are influenced in different ways by the carrier-envelope phase. In particular, we show that clear phase effects are visible on the long quantum paths even in the multiple-optical-cycle regime, while the short quantum paths are significantly influenced by the carrier-envelope phase only in the few-optical-cycle regime.

  1. Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

  2. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  3. Optimal Paths in Gliding Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolek, Artur

    Underwater gliders are robust and long endurance ocean sampling platforms that are increasingly being deployed in coastal regions. This new environment is characterized by shallow waters and significant currents that can challenge the mobility of these efficient (but traditionally slow moving) vehicles. This dissertation aims to improve the performance of shallow water underwater gliders through path planning. The path planning problem is formulated for a dynamic particle (or "kinematic car") model. The objective is to identify the path which satisfies specified boundary conditions and minimizes a particular cost. Several cost functions are considered. The problem is addressed using optimal control theory. The length scales of interest for path planning are within a few turn radii. First, an approach is developed for planning minimum-time paths, for a fixed speed glider, that are sub-optimal but are guaranteed to be feasible in the presence of unknown time-varying currents. Next the minimum-time problem for a glider with speed controls, that may vary between the stall speed and the maximum speed, is solved. Last, optimal paths that minimize change in depth (equivalently, maximize range) are investigated. Recognizing that path planning alone cannot overcome all of the challenges associated with significant currents and shallow waters, the design of a novel underwater glider with improved capabilities is explored. A glider with a pneumatic buoyancy engine (allowing large, rapid buoyancy changes) and a cylindrical moving mass mechanism (generating large pitch and roll moments) is designed, manufactured, and tested to demonstrate potential improvements in speed and maneuverability.

  4. Optical microphone

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2000-01-11

    An optical microphone includes a laser and beam splitter cooperating therewith for splitting a laser beam into a reference beam and a signal beam. A reflecting sensor receives the signal beam and reflects it in a plurality of reflections through sound pressure waves. A photodetector receives both the reference beam and reflected signal beam for heterodyning thereof to produce an acoustic signal for the sound waves. The sound waves vary the local refractive index in the path of the signal beam which experiences a Doppler frequency shift directly analogous with the sound waves.

  5. Perfect discretization of path integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2012-05-01

    In order to obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of General Relativity these generically break diffeomorphism symmetry, which has severe consequences since these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. In this article we consider the path integral of reparametrization invariant systems as a toy example and present an improvement procedure for the discretized propagator. Fixed points and convergence of the procedure are discussed. Furthermore we show that a reparametrization invariant path integral implies discretization independence and acts as a projector onto physical states.

  6. Comparison of primary optics in amonix CPV arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Aditya; Kinsey, Geoffrey S.; Liu, Mingguo; Bagienski, William; Garboushian, Vahan

    2012-10-01

    The Amonix CPV system utilizes an acrylic Fresnel lens Primary Optical Element (POE) and a reflective Secondary Optical Element (SOE). Improvements in the optical design have contributed to more than 10% increase in rated power last year. In order to further optimize the optical power path, Amonix is looking at various trade-offs in optics, including, concentration, optical materials, reliability, and cost. A comparison of optical materials used for manufacturing the primary optical element and optical design trade off's used to maximize power output will be presented. Optimization of the power path has led to the demonstration of a module lens-area efficiency of 35% in outdoor testing at Amonix.

  7. Generation of Path-Encoded Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamasco, N.; Menotti, M.; Sipe, J. E.; Liscidini, M.

    2017-11-01

    We study the generation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states of three path-encoded photons. Inspired by the seminal work of Bouwmeester et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1345 (1999), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.1345] on polarization-entangled GHZ states, we find a corresponding path representation for the photon states of an optical circuit, identify the elements required for the state generation, and propose a possible implementation of our strategy. Besides the practical advantage of employing an integrated system that can be fabricated with proven lithographic techniques, our example suggests that it is possible to enhance the generation efficiency by using microring resonators.

  8. An Introduction to Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Lee M.

    1977-01-01

    The analytical procedure of path analysis is described in terms of its use in nonexperimental settings in the social sciences. The description assumes a moderate statistical background on the part of the reader. (JKS)

  9. Formal language constrained path problems

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.

    1997-07-08

    In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvablemore » efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.« less

  10. Heralded amplification of path entangled quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, F.; Verbanis, E.; Caprara Vivoli, V.; Martin, A.; Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.; Thew, R. T.

    2017-06-01

    Device-independent quantum key distribution (DI-QKD) represents one of the most fascinating challenges in quantum communication, exploiting concepts of fundamental physics, namely Bell tests of nonlocality, to ensure the security of a communication link. This requires the loophole-free violation of a Bell inequality, which is intrinsically difficult due to losses in fibre optic transmission channels. Heralded photon amplification (HPA) is a teleportation-based protocol that has been proposed as a means to overcome transmission loss for DI-QKD. Here we demonstrate HPA for path entangled states and characterise the entanglement before and after loss by exploiting a recently developed displacement-based detection scheme. We demonstrate that by exploiting HPA we are able to reliably maintain high fidelity entangled states over loss-equivalent distances of more than 50 km.

  11. Astronomers Trace Microquasar's Path Back in Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Astronomers have traced the orbit through our Milky Way Galaxy of a voracious neutron star and a companion star it is cannibalizing, and conclude that the pair joined more than 30 million years ago and probably were catapulted out of a cluster of stars far from the Galaxy's center. Path of Microquasar and Sun Path of Microquasar (red) and Sun (yellow) through the Milky Way Galaxy for the past 230 million years. Animations: GIF Version MPEG Version CREDIT: Mirabel & Rodrigues, NRAO/AUI/NSF The pair of stars, called Scorpius X-1, form a "microquasar," in which material sucked from the "normal" star forms a rapidly-rotating disk around the superdense neutron star. The disk becomes so hot it emits X-rays, and also spits out "jets" of subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light. Using precise positional data from the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and from optical telescopes, Felix Mirabel, an astrophysicist at the Institute for Astronomy and Space Physics of Argentina and French Atomic Energy Commission, and Irapuan Rodrigues, also of the French Atomic Energy Commission, calculated that Scorpius X-1 is not orbiting the Milky Way's center in step with most other stars, but instead follows an eccentric path far above and below the Galaxy's plane. Scorpius X-1, discovered with a rocket-borne X-ray telescope in 1962, is about 9,000 light-years from Earth. It is the brightest continuous source of X-rays beyond the Solar System. The 1962 discovery and associated work earned a share of the 2002 Nobel Prize in physics for Riccardo Giacconi. Mirabel and Rodrigues used a number of published observations to calculate the path of Scorpius X-1 over the past few million years. "This is the most accurate determination we have made of the path of an X-ray binary," said Mirabel. By tracing the object's path backward in time, the scientists were able to conclude that the neutron star and its companion have been traveling together for more than 30

  12. Optics from Euclid to Huygens.

    PubMed

    Herzberger, M

    1966-09-01

    The salient contributions of writers on optics from Euclid to Newton and Huygens are outlined, with a workable bibliography, to encourage present-day workers to restudy the classical writings and to find ideas that lie outside the paths that orthodox optical science has taken.

  13. Multigranular integrated services optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Oliver; Yin, Leping; Xu, Huan; Liao, Ming

    2006-12-01

    Based on all-optical switches without requiring fiber delay lines and optical-electrical-optical interfaces, the multigranular optical switching (MGOS) network integrates three transport services via unified core control to efficiently support bursty and stream traffic of subwavelength to multiwavelength bandwidth. Adaptive robust optical burst switching (AR-OBS) aggregates subwavelength burst traffic into asynchronous light-rate bursts, transported via slotted-time light paths established by fast two-way reservation with robust blocking recovery control. Multiwavelength optical switching (MW-OS) decomposes multiwavelength stream traffic into a group of timing-related light-rate streams, transported via a light-path group to meet end-to-end delay-variation requirements. Optical circuit switching (OCS) simply converts wavelength stream traffic from an electrical-rate into a light-rate stream. The MGOS network employs decoupled routing, wavelength, and time-slot assignment (RWTA) and novel group routing and wavelength assignment (GRWA) to select slotted-time light paths and light-path groups, respectively. The selected resources are reserved by the unified multigranular robust fast optical reservation protocol (MG-RFORP). Simulation results show that elastic traffic is efficiently supported via AR-OBS in terms of loss rate and wavelength utilization, while connection-oriented wavelength traffic is efficiently supported via wavelength-routed OCS in terms of connection blocking and wavelength utilization. The GRWA-tuning result for MW-OS is also shown.

  14. Multifold paths of neutrons in the three-beam interferometer detected by a tiny energy kick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geppert-Kleinrath, Hermann; Denkmayr, Tobias; Sponar, Stephan; Lemmel, Hartmut; Jenke, Tobias; Hasegawa, Yuji

    2018-05-01

    A neutron optical experiment is presented to investigate the paths taken by neutrons in a three-beam interferometer. In various beam paths of the interferometer, the energy of the neutrons is partially shifted so that the faint traces are left along the beam path. By ascertaining an operational meaning to "the particle's path," which-path information is extracted from these faint traces with minimal perturbations. Theory is derived by simply following the time evolution of the wave function of the neutrons, which clarifies the observation in the framework of standard quantum mechanics. Which-way information is derived from the intensity, sinusoidally oscillating in time at different frequencies, which is considered to result from the interfering cross terms between stationary main component and the energy-shifted which-way signals. Final results give experimental evidence that the (partial) wave functions of the neutrons in each beam path are superimposed and present in multiple locations in the interferometer.

  15. NACA Flight-Path Angle and Air-Speed Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Donald G

    1926-01-01

    A new trailing bomb-type instrument for photographically recording the flight-path angle and air speed of aircraft in unaccelerated flight is described. The instrument consists essentially of an inclinometer, air-speed meter and a film-drum case. The inclinometer carries an oil-damped pendulum which records optically the flight-path angle upon a rotating motor-driven film drum. The air-speed meter consists of a taut metal diaphragm of high natural frequency which is acted upon by the pressure difference of a Prandtl type Pitot-static tube. The inclinometer record and air-speed record are made optically on the same sensitive film. Two records taken by this instrument are shown.

  16. Short paths in expander graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinberg, J.; Rubinfeld, R.

    Graph expansion has proved to be a powerful general tool for analyzing the behavior of routing algorithms and the interconnection networks on which they run. We develop new routing algorithms and structural results for bounded-degree expander graphs. Our results are unified by the fact that they are all based upon, and extend, a body of work asserting that expanders are rich in short, disjoint paths. In particular, our work has consequences for the disjoint paths problem, multicommodify flow, and graph minor containment. We show: (i) A greedy algorithm for approximating the maximum disjoint paths problem achieves a polylogarithmic approximation ratiomore » in bounded-degree expanders. Although our algorithm is both deterministic and on-line, its performance guarantee is an improvement over previous bounds in expanders. (ii) For a multicommodily flow problem with arbitrary demands on a bounded-degree expander, there is a (1 + {epsilon})-optimal solution using only flow paths of polylogarithmic length. It follows that the multicommodity flow algorithm of Awerbuch and Leighton runs in nearly linear time per commodity in expanders. Our analysis is based on establishing the following: given edge weights on an expander G, one can increase some of the weights very slightly so the resulting shortest-path metric is smooth - the min-weight path between any pair of nodes uses a polylogarithmic number of edges. (iii) Every bounded-degree expander on n nodes contains every graph with O(n/log{sup O(1)} n) nodes and edges as a minor.« less

  17. UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    Long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using a picosecond UV laser as a light source was developed in our institute. Tropospheric OH radicals are measured by their rotational absorption lines around 308 nm. The spectra are obtained using a high resolution spectrograph. The detection system has been improved over the formerly used optomechanical scanning device by application of a photodiode array which increased the observed spectral range by a factor of 6 and which utilizes the light much more effectively leading to a considerable reduction of the measurement time. This technique provides direct measurements of OH because the signal is given by the product of the absorption coefficient and the OH concentration along the light path according to Lambert-Beers law. No calibration is needed. Since the integrated absorption coefficient is well known the accuracy of the measurement essentially depends on the extent to which the OH absorption pattern can be detected in the spectra. No interference by self generated OH radicals in the detection lightpath has been observed. The large bandwidth (greater than 0.15 nm) and the high spectral resolution (1.5 pm) allows absolute determination of interferences by other trace gas absorptions. The measurement error is directly accessible from the absorption-signal to baseline-noise ratio in the spectra. The applicability of the method strongly depends on visibility. Elevated concentrations of aerosols lead to considerable attenuation of the laser light which reduces the S/N-ratio. In the moderately polluted air of Julich, where we performed a number of OH measurement spectra. In addition absorption features of unidentified species were frequently detected. A quantitative deconvolution even of the known species is not easy to achieve and can leave residual structures in the spectra. Thus interferences usually increase the noise and deteriorate the OH detection sensitivity. Using diode arrays for sensitive

  18. Dual beam optical interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A dual beam interferometer device is disclosed that enables moving an optics module in a direction, which changes the path lengths of two beams of light. The two beams reflect off a surface of an object and generate different speckle patterns detected by an element, such as a camera. The camera detects a characteristic of the surface.

  19. Multiple paths in complex tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galanter, Eugene; Wiegand, Thomas; Mark, Gloria

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between utility judgments of subtask paths and the utility of the task as a whole was examined. The convergent validation procedure is based on the assumption that measurements of the same quantity done with different methods should covary. The utility measures of the subtasks were obtained during the performance of an aircraft flight controller navigation task. Analyses helped decide among various models of subtask utility combination, whether the utility ratings of subtask paths predict the whole tasks utility rating, and indirectly, whether judgmental models need to include the equivalent of cognitive noise.

  20. An Open-path Laser Transmissometer for Atmospheric Extinction Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chandran, P. M. Satheesh; Krishnakumar, C. P.; Varma, Ravi

    2011-10-20

    A transmissometer is an optical instrument which measures transmitted intensity of monochromatic light over a fixed pathlength. Prototype of a simple laser transmissometer has been developed for transmission (or extinction) measurements through suspended absorbers and scatterers in the atmosphere over tens of meters. Instrument consists of a continuous green diode pumped solid state laser, transmission optics, photodiode detectors and A/D data acquisition components. A modulated laser beam is transmitted and subsequently reflected and returned to the unit by a retroreflecting mirror assembly placed several tens of meters away. Results from an open-path field measurement of the instrument are described.

  1. MAS Bulletin. GY-90 Fiber Optic Gyro

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-20

    487 GY.9O Fiber Optic Gyro Background. Elettronica San Giorgio ELSAG S.p.A., Genoa, Italy, has developed a fiber optic gyro (FOG) for use on short...to the length of ELSAG S.p.A., Naval Systems Division, Via G. Puccini, 2-16154 the optical path and an extremely long optical path can be Genoa, Italy...Telephone 39 10/60011, Fax 39 10/607329, Telex achieved in a small size by using a many-turn coil of optical fiber. 270660/213847 ELSAG 1. There are

  2. Prism Window for Optical Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    A prism window has been devised for use, with an autocollimator, in aligning optical components that are (1) required to be oriented parallel to each other and/or at a specified angle of incidence with respect to a common optical path and (2) mounted at different positions along the common optical path. The prism window can also be used to align a single optical component at a specified angle of incidence. Prism windows could be generally useful for orienting optical components in manufacture of optical instruments. "Prism window" denotes an application-specific unit comprising two beam-splitter windows that are bonded together at an angle chosen to obtain the specified angle of incidence.

  3. Perceived Shrinkage of Motion Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinico, Michele; Parovel, Giulia; Casco, Clara; Anstis, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    We show that human observers strongly underestimate a linear or circular trajectory that a luminous spot follows in the dark. At slow speeds, observers are relatively accurate, but, as the speed increases, the size of the path is progressively underestimated, by up to 35%. The underestimation imposes little memory load and does not require…

  4. Career Paths in Environmental Sciences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Career paths, current and future, in the environmental sciences will be discussed, based on experiences and observations during the author's 40 + years in the field. An emphasis will be placed on the need for integrated, transdisciplinary systems thinking approaches toward achie...

  5. Employer Resource Manual. Project Path.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Karen R.; Del George, Eve

    Project Path at Illinois' College of DuPage was established to provide pre-employment training and career counseling for disabled students. To encourage the integration of qualified individuals with disabilities into the workplace, the project compiled this resource manual for area businesses, providing tips for interacting with disabled people…

  6. Pitfalls in the consultant's path.

    PubMed

    Short, D

    If the consultant is to retain his skill and reputation, he must be constantly aware of the pitfalls that lie in his path. This article discusses the temptations of greed, dishonesty, arrogance, alcohol and drug abuse, and neglect of family and recreation.

  7. Optical remote measurement of toxic gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, W. B.; Kagann, R. H.; McClenny, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    Enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 has resulted in increased ambient air monitoring needs for industry, some of which may be met efficiently using open-path optical remote sensing techniques. These techniques include Fourier transform spectroscopy, differential optical absorption spectroscopy, laser long-path absorption, differential absorption lidar, and gas cell correlation spectroscopy. With this regulatory impetus, it is an opportune time to consider applying these technologies to the remote and/or path-averaged measurement and monitoring of toxic gases covered by the CAAA. This article reviews the optical remote sensing technology and literature for that application.

  8. Malthus on long swings: the general case.

    PubMed

    Dooley, P C

    1988-02-01

    3 major assumptions provided the basis to Malthus' theory of population: food is necessary to human existence; passion between man and woman is necessary and will continue nearly in its present state; and the power of population is indefinitely greater than the earth's power to produce subsistence for humans. With this as his base, Malthus proposed the thesis that strong and constant forces need to hold the superior power of population over subsistence in check. The forces include both positive checks, e.g., infant mortality, and preventive checks, e.g., foregoing early marriage. Malthus evidently had a theory of long swings in mind because he began his essay questioning whether humankind will experience unlimited improvement or a state oscillating between happiness and misery. Waterman (1987) offers a new interpretation of Malthus' theory of long swings, concluding that "the Malthusian theory of oscillations' as sketched in the 'Essay on Population' may justly be represented by a zig-zag path of real wages." 2 questions arise: does the text literally mean what Waterman suggests; and is the text consistent with Malthus' general position. The quotation offered by Wasserman focuses on a special case that illustrates how oscillations might take place but fails to represent Malthus' general position. In any society the population's response to wages determines the "level" of subsistence. Due to the different living habits in each state, the subsistence level varies from state to state, and Malthus devotes much of the 1st "Essay" to discussing what determines the living habits and the subsistence level in different countries. In Malthus' theory of long swings, real wages do not follow a "zig-zag" path. This is due to the fact that neither the accumulation of capital nor the growth of population behaves as he proposes. Whenever the rate of profit is sufficiently attractive, capital accumulates, and the response of population to a change in wages depends on a complex of

  9. Influence of visual path information on human heading perception during rotation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Chen, Jing; Peng, Xiaozhe

    2009-03-31

    How does visual path information influence people's perception of their instantaneous direction of self-motion (heading)? We have previously shown that humans can perceive heading without direct access to visual path information. Here we vary two key parameters for estimating heading from optic flow, the field of view (FOV) and the depth range of environmental points, to investigate the conditions under which visual path information influences human heading perception. The display simulated an observer traveling on a circular path. Observers used a joystick to rotate their line of sight until deemed aligned with true heading. Four FOV sizes (110 x 94 degrees, 48 x 41 degrees, 16 x 14 degrees, 8 x 7 degrees) and depth ranges (6-50 m, 6-25 m, 6-12.5 m, 6-9 m) were tested. Consistent with our computational modeling results, heading bias increased with the reduction of FOV or depth range when the display provided a sequence of velocity fields but no direct path information. When the display provided path information, heading bias was not influenced as much by the reduction of FOV or depth range. We conclude that human heading and path perception involve separate visual processes. Path helps heading perception when the display does not contain enough optic-flow information for heading estimation during rotation.

  10. Virtually assisted optical colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Joseph; Qiu, Feng; Kaufman, Arie

    2008-03-01

    We present a set of tools used to enhance the optical colonoscopy procedure in a novel manner with the aim of improving both the accuracy and efficiency of this procedure. In order to better present the colon information to the gastroenterologist performing a conventional (optical) colonoscopy, we undistort the radial distortion of the fisheye view of the colonoscope. The radial distortion is modeled with a function that converts the fisheye view to the perspective view, where the shape and size of polyps can be more readily observed. The conversion, accelerated on the graphics processing unit and running in real-time, calculates the corresponding position in the fisheye view of each pixel on the perspective image. We also merge our previous work in computer-aided polyp detection for virtual colonoscopy into the optical colonoscopy environment. The physical colonoscope path in the optical colonoscopy is approximated with the hugging corner shortest path, which is correlated with the centerline in the virtual colonoscopy. With the estimated distance that the colonoscope has been inserted, we are able to provide the gastroenterologist with visual cues along the observation path as to the location of possible polyps found by the detection process. In order to present the information to the gastroenterologist in a non-intrusive manner, we have developed a friendly user interface to enhance the optical colonoscopy without being cumbersome, distracting, or resulting in a more lackadaisical inspection by the gastroenterologist.

  11. Enzymatic reaction paths as determined by transition path sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterson, Jean Emily

    Enzymes are biological catalysts capable of enhancing the rates of chemical reactions by many orders of magnitude as compared to solution chemistry. Since the catalytic power of enzymes routinely exceeds that of the best artificial catalysts available, there is much interest in understanding the complete nature of chemical barrier crossing in enzymatic reactions. Two specific questions pertaining to the source of enzymatic rate enhancements are investigated in this work. The first is the issue of how fast protein motions of an enzyme contribute to chemical barrier crossing. Our group has previously identified sub-picosecond protein motions, termed promoting vibrations (PVs), that dynamically modulate chemical transformation in several enzymes. In the case of human heart lactate dehydrogenase (hhLDH), prior studies have shown that a specific axis of residues undergoes a compressional fluctuation towards the active site, decreasing a hydride and a proton donor--acceptor distance on a sub-picosecond timescale to promote particle transfer. To more thoroughly understand the contribution of this dynamic motion to the enzymatic reaction coordinate of hhLDH, we conducted transition path sampling (TPS) using four versions of the enzymatic system: a wild type enzyme with natural isotopic abundance; a heavy enzyme where all the carbons, nitrogens, and non-exchangeable hydrogens were replaced with heavy isotopes; and two versions of the enzyme with mutations in the axis of PV residues. We generated four separate ensembles of reaction paths and analyzed each in terms of the reaction mechanism, time of barrier crossing, dynamics of the PV, and residues involved in the enzymatic reaction coordinate. We found that heavy isotopic substitution of hhLDH altered the sub-picosecond dynamics of the PV, changed the favored reaction mechanism, dramatically increased the time of barrier crossing, but did not have an effect on the specific residues involved in the PV. In the mutant systems

  12. EUVL masks: paving the path for commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangat, Pawitter J. S.; Hector, Scott D.

    2001-09-01

    Optical projection lithography has been the principal vehicle of semiconductor manufacturing for more than 20 years and is marching aggressively to satisfy the needs of semiconductor manufacturers for 100nm devices. However, the complexity of optical lithography continues to increase as wavelength reduction continues to 157nm. Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL), with wavelength from 13-14 nm, is evolving as a leading next generation lithography option for semiconductor industry to stay on the path laid by Moore's Law. Masks are a critical part of the success of any technology and are considered to be high risk both for optical lithography and NGL technologies for sub-100nm lithography. Two key areas of EUV mask fabrication are reflective multilayer deposition and absorber patterning. In the case of reflective multilayers, delivering defect free multilayers for mask blanks is the biggest challenge. Defect mitigation is being explored as a possible option to smooth the multilayer defects in addition to optimization of the deposition process to reduce defect density. The mask patterning process needs focus on the defect-free absorber stack patterning process, mask cleaning, inspection and repair. In addition, there is considerable effort to understand by simulations, the defect printability, thermal and mechanical distortions, and non-telecentric illumination, to mention a few. To protect the finished mask from defects added during use, a removable pellicle strategy combined with thermophoretic protection during exposure is being developed. Recent migration to square form factor using low thermal expansion material (LTEM) is advantageous as historical developments in optical masks can be applied to EUV mask patterning. This paper addresses recent developments in the EUV mask patterning and highlights critical manufacturing process controls needed to fabricate defect-free full field masks with CD and image placement specifications for sub-70nm node lithography. No

  13. DiversePathsJ: diverse shortest paths for bioimage analysis.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Virginie; Haubold, Carsten; Hamprecht, Fred A; Unser, Michael

    2018-02-01

    We introduce a formulation for the general task of finding diverse shortest paths between two end-points. Our approach is not linked to a specific biological problem and can be applied to a large variety of images thanks to its generic implementation as a user-friendly ImageJ/Fiji plugin. It relies on the introduction of additional layers in a Viterbi path graph, which requires slight modifications to the standard Viterbi algorithm rules. This layered graph construction allows for the specification of various constraints imposing diversity between solutions. The software allows obtaining a collection of diverse shortest paths under some user-defined constraints through a convenient and user-friendly interface. It can be used alone or be integrated into larger image analysis pipelines. http://bigwww.epfl.ch/algorithms/diversepathsj. michael.unser@epfl.ch or fred.hamprecht@iwr.uni-heidelberg.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Spreading paths in partially observed social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2012-03-01

    Understanding how and how far information, behaviors, or pathogens spread in social networks is an important problem, having implications for both predicting the size of epidemics, as well as for planning effective interventions. There are, however, two main challenges for inferring spreading paths in real-world networks. One is the practical difficulty of observing a dynamic process on a network, and the other is the typical constraint of only partially observing a network. Using static, structurally realistic social networks as platforms for simulations, we juxtapose three distinct paths: (1) the stochastic path taken by a simulated spreading process from source to target; (2) the topologically shortest path in the fully observed network, and hence the single most likely stochastic path, between the two nodes; and (3) the topologically shortest path in a partially observed network. In a sampled network, how closely does the partially observed shortest path (3) emulate the unobserved spreading path (1)? Although partial observation inflates the length of the shortest path, the stochastic nature of the spreading process also frequently derails the dynamic path from the shortest path. We find that the partially observed shortest path does not necessarily give an inflated estimate of the length of the process path; in fact, partial observation may, counterintuitively, make the path seem shorter than it actually is.

  15. Spreading paths in partially observed social networks.

    PubMed

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2012-03-01

    Understanding how and how far information, behaviors, or pathogens spread in social networks is an important problem, having implications for both predicting the size of epidemics, as well as for planning effective interventions. There are, however, two main challenges for inferring spreading paths in real-world networks. One is the practical difficulty of observing a dynamic process on a network, and the other is the typical constraint of only partially observing a network. Using static, structurally realistic social networks as platforms for simulations, we juxtapose three distinct paths: (1) the stochastic path taken by a simulated spreading process from source to target; (2) the topologically shortest path in the fully observed network, and hence the single most likely stochastic path, between the two nodes; and (3) the topologically shortest path in a partially observed network. In a sampled network, how closely does the partially observed shortest path (3) emulate the unobserved spreading path (1)? Although partial observation inflates the length of the shortest path, the stochastic nature of the spreading process also frequently derails the dynamic path from the shortest path. We find that the partially observed shortest path does not necessarily give an inflated estimate of the length of the process path; in fact, partial observation may, counterintuitively, make the path seem shorter than it actually is.

  16. Path querying system on mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xing; Wang, Yifei; Tian, Yuan; Wu, Lun

    2006-01-01

    Traditional approaches to path querying problems are not efficient and convenient under most circumstances. A more convenient and reliable approach to this problem has to be found. This paper is devoted to a path querying solution on mobile devices. By using an improved Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm and a natural language translating module, this system can help people find the shortest path between two places through their cell phones or other mobile devices. The chosen path is prompted in text of natural language, as well as a map picture. This system would be useful in solving best path querying problems and have potential to be a profitable business system.

  17. FIELD EVALUATION OF A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING GASEOUS FLUXES FROM AREA SOURCES USING OPEN-PATH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes preliminary results from a field experiment designed to evaluate a new approach to quantifying gaseous fugitive emissions from area air pollution sources. The new approach combines path-integrated concentration data acquired with any path-integrated optical re...

  18. INNOVATIVE APPROACH FOR MEASURING AMMONIA AND METHANE FLUXES FROM A HOG FARM USING OPEN-PATH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a new approach to quantify emissions from area air pollution sources. The approach combines path-integrated concentration data acquired with any path-integrated optical remote sensing (PI-ORS) technique and computed tomography (CT) technique. In this study, an...

  19. FIELD EVALUATION OF A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING GASEOUS FLUXES FROM AREA SOURCES USING OPEN-PATH FTIR

    EPA Science Inventory


    The paper gives preliminary results from a field evaluation of a new approach for quantifying gaseous fugitive emissions of area air pollution sources. The approach combines path-integrated concentration data acquired with any path-integrated optical remote sensing (PI-ORS) ...

  20. Spin Path Integrals and Generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brannen, Carl

    2010-11-01

    The spin of a free electron is stable but its position is not. Recent quantum information research by G. Svetlichny, J. Tolar, and G. Chadzitaskos have shown that the Feynman position path integral can be mathematically defined as a product of incompatible states; that is, as a product of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs). Since the more common use of MUBs is in finite dimensional Hilbert spaces, this raises the question “what happens when spin path integrals are computed over products of MUBs?” Such an assumption makes spin no longer stable. We show that the usual spin-1/2 is obtained in the long-time limit in three orthogonal solutions that we associate with the three elementary particle generations. We give applications to the masses of the elementary leptons.

  1. Physarum can compute shortest paths.

    PubMed

    Bonifaci, Vincenzo; Mehlhorn, Kurt; Varma, Girish

    2012-09-21

    Physarum polycephalum is a slime mold that is apparently able to solve shortest path problems. A mathematical model has been proposed by Tero et al. (Journal of Theoretical Biology, 244, 2007, pp. 553-564) to describe the feedback mechanism used by the slime mold to adapt its tubular channels while foraging two food sources s(0) and s(1). We prove that, under this model, the mass of the mold will eventually converge to the shortest s(0)-s(1) path of the network that the mold lies on, independently of the structure of the network or of the initial mass distribution. This matches the experimental observations by Tero et al. and can be seen as an example of a "natural algorithm", that is, an algorithm developed by evolution over millions of years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Path similarity skeleton graph matching.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiang; Latecki, Longin Jan

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a novel framework to for shape recognition based on object silhouettes. The main idea is to match skeleton graphs by comparing the shortest paths between skeleton endpoints. In contrast to typical tree or graph matching methods, we completely ignore the topological graph structure. Our approach is motivated by the fact that visually similar skeleton graphs may have completely different topological structures. The proposed comparison of shortest paths between endpoints of skeleton graphs yields correct matching results in such cases. The skeletons are pruned by contour partitioning with Discrete Curve Evolution, which implies that the endpoints of skeleton branches correspond to visual parts of the objects. The experimental results demonstrate that our method is able to produce correct results in the presence of articulations, stretching, and occlusion.

  3. Open-path, closed-path and reconstructed aerosol extinction at a rural site.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Timothy D; Prenni, Anthony J; Renfro, James R; McClure, Ethan; Hicks, Bill; Onasch, Timothy B; Freedman, Andrew; McMeeking, Gavin R; Chen, Ping

    2018-04-09

    The Handix Scientific Open-Path Cavity Ringdown Spectrometer (OPCRDS) was deployed during summer 2016 in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM). Extinction coefficients from the relatively new OPCRDS and from a more well-established extinction instrument agreed to within 7%. Aerosol hygroscopic growth (f(RH)) was calculated from the ratio of ambient extinction measured by the OPCRDS to dry extinction measured by a closed-path extinction monitor (Aerodyne's Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Particulate Matter Extinction Monitor, CAPS PMex). Derived hygroscopicity (RH < 95%) from this campaign agreed with data from 1995 at the same site and time of year, which is noteworthy given the decreasing trend for organics and sulfate in the eastern U.S. However, maximum f(RH) values in 1995 were less than half as large as those recorded in 2016-possibly due to nephelometer truncation losses in 1995. Two hygroscopicity parameterizations were investigated using high time resolution OPCRDS+CAPS PMex data, and the K ext model was more accurate than the γ model. Data from the two ambient optical instruments, the OPCRDS and the open-path nephelometer, generally agreed; however, significant discrepancies between ambient scattering and extinction were observed, apparently driven by a combination of hygroscopic growth effects, which tend to increase nephelometer truncation losses and decrease sensitivity to the wavelength difference between the two instruments as a function of particle size. There was not a statistically significant difference in the mean reconstructed extinction values obtained from the original and the revised IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments) equations. On average IMPROVE reconstructed extinction was ~25% lower than extinction measured by the OPCRDS, which suggests that the IMPROVE equations and 24-hr aerosol data are moderately successful in estimating current haze levels at GRSM. However, this conclusion is limited by the coarse

  4. Common-Path Interferometric Wavefront Sensing for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, James Kent

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an optical configuration for a common-path phase-shifting interferometric wavefront sensor.1 2 This sensor has a host of attractive features which make it well suited for space-based adaptive optics. First, it is strictly reflective and therefore operates broadband, second it is common mode and therefore does not suffer from systematic errors (like vibration) that are typical in other interferometers, third it is a phase-shifting interferometer and therefore benefits from both the sensitivity of interferometric sensors as well as the noise rejection afforded by synchronous detection. Unlike the Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor, it has nearly uniform sensitivity to all pupil modes. Optical configuration, theory and simulations for such a system will be discussed along with predicted performance.

  5. Time optimal paths for high speed maneuvering

    SciTech Connect

    Reister, D.B.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent theoretical results have completely solved the problem of determining the minimum length path for a vehicle with a minimum turning radius moving from an initial configuration to a final configuration. Time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle are a subset of the minimum length paths. This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of axes of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduces concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature ofmore » the time optimal paths. We explore the properties of the optimal paths and present some experimental results for a mobile robot following an optimal path.« less

  6. Copper foil provides uniform heat sink path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, I. E., Jr.; Schreihans, F. A.

    1966-01-01

    Thermal path prevents voids and discontinuities which make heat sinks in electronic equipment inefficient. The thermal path combines the high thermal conductivity of copper with the resiliency of silicone rubber.

  7. Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 71 NIST Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) for use in quantitative surface analyses by AES and XPS.

  8. Multiple paths to encephalization and technical civilizations.

    PubMed

    Schwartzman, David; Middendorf, George

    2011-12-01

    We propose consideration of at least two possible evolutionary paths for the emergence of intelligent life with the potential for technical civilization. The first is the path via encephalization of homeothermic animals; the second is the path to swarm intelligence of so-called superorganisms, in particular the social insects. The path to each appears to be facilitated by environmental change: homeothermic animals by decreased climatic temperature and for swarm intelligence by increased oxygen levels.

  9. Arbitrary unitary transformations on optical states using a quantum memory

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Geoff T.; Pinel, Olivier; Hosseini, Mahdi

    2014-12-04

    We show that optical memories arranged along an optical path can perform arbitrary unitary transformations on frequency domain optical states. The protocol offers favourable scaling and can be used with any quantum memory that uses an off-resonant Raman transition to reversibly transfer optical information to an atomic spin coherence.

  10. Overview of FDA approval paths optical surgical navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Paula M.

    2017-02-01

    The development of drugs and devices to guide surgical resection of tumors in the United States requires the approval of the US Food and Drug Administration. Because these combine a drug and a device, the regulatory pathways can be confusing, particularly to academics or small companies. This paper discusses some of the issues and provides some guidance in this area.

  11. Terrain and refractivity effects on non-optical paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, Amalia E.

    1994-07-01

    The split-step parabolic equation (SSPE) has been used extensively to model tropospheric propagation over the sea, but recent efforts have extended this method to propagation over arbitrary terrain. At the Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center (NCCOSC), Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Division, a split-step Terrain Parabolic Equation Model (TPEM) has been developed that takes into account variable terrain and range-dependent refractivity profiles. While TPEM has been previously shown to compare favorably with measured data and other existing terrain models, two alternative methods to model radiowave propagation over terrain, implemented within TPEM, will be presented that give a two to ten-fold decrease in execution time. These two methods are also shown to agree well with measured data.

  12. Attention trees and semantic paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura

    2007-02-01

    In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial

  13. Evaluation of guidewire path reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Noël, Peter B.; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Dmochowski, Jacek

    2008-01-01

    The number of minimally invasive vascular interventions is increasing. In these interventions, a variety of devices are directed to and placed at the site of intervention. The device used in almost all of these interventions is the guidewire, acting as a monorail for all devices which are delivered to the intervention site. However, even with the guidewire in place, clinicians still experience difficulties during the interventions. As a first step toward understanding these difficulties and facilitating guidewire and device guidance, we have investigated the reproducibility of the final paths of the guidewire in vessel phantom models on different factors: user, materials and geometry. Three vessel phantoms (vessel diameters ∼4 mm) were constructed having tortuousity similar to the internal carotid artery from silicon tubing and encased in Sylgard elastomer. Several trained users repeatedly passed two guidewires of different flexibility through the phantoms under pulsatile flow conditions. After the guidewire had been placed, rotational c-arm image sequences were acquired (9 in. II mode, 0.185 mm pixel size), and the phantom and guidewire were reconstructed (5123, 0.288 mm voxel size). The reconstructed volumes were aligned. The centerlines of the guidewire and the phantom vessel were then determined using region-growing techniques. Guidewire paths appear similar across users but not across materials. The average root mean square difference of the repeated placement was 0.17±0.02 mm (plastic-coated guidewire), 0.73±0.55 mm (steel guidewire) and 1.15±0.65 mm (steel versus plastic-coated). For a given guidewire, these results indicate that the guidewire path is relatively reproducible in shape and position. PMID:18561663

  14. Optics assembly for high power laser tools

    DOEpatents

    Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-06-07

    There is provided a high power laser rotational optical assembly for use with, or in high power laser tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the optical assembly finds applications in performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations. The optical assembly has rotational seals and bearing configurations to avoid contamination of the laser beam path and optics.

  15. Communication path for extreme environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Betts, Bradley J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Methods and systems for using one or more radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs), or other suitable signal transmitters and/or receivers, to provide a sensor information communication path, to provide location and/or spatial orientation information for an emergency service worker (ESW), to provide an ESW escape route, to indicate a direction from an ESW to an ES appliance, to provide updated information on a region or structure that presents an extreme environment (fire, hazardous fluid leak, underwater, nuclear, etc.) in which an ESW works, and to provide accumulated thermal load or thermal breakdown information on one or more locations in the region.

  16. Processor Would Find Best Paths On Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, Silvio P.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit image-data processor finds path of least cost from specified origin to any destination on map. Cost of traversal assigned to each picture element of map. Path of least cost from originating picture element to every other picture element computed as path that preserves as much as possible of signal transmitted by originating picture element. Dedicated microprocessor at each picture element stores cost of traversal and performs its share of computations of paths of least cost. Least-cost-path problem occurs in research, military maneuvers, and in planning routes of vehicles.

  17. Limb Sensing, on the Path to Better Weather Forecasting.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordley, L. L.; Marshall, B. T.; Lachance, R. L.; Fritts, D. C.; Fisher, J.

    2017-12-01

    Earth limb observations from orbiting sensors have a rich history. The cold space background, long optical paths, and limb geometry provide formidable advantages for calibration, sensitivity and retrieval of vertically well-resolved geophysical parameters. The measurement of limb ray refraction now provides temperature and pressure profiles unburdened by requirements of spectral calibration or gas concentration knowledge, leading to reliable long-term trends. This talk discusses those advantages and our relevant achievements with data from the SOFIE instrument on the AIM satellite. We then describe a path to advances in calibration, sensitivity, profile fidelity, and synergy between limb sensors and nadir sounders. These advances also include small-sat compatible size, elimination of on-board calibration systems and simple static designs, dramatically reducing risk, complexity and cost. Finally, we show how these advances, made possible by modern ADCS, FPA and GPS capabilities, will lead to improvements in weather forecasting and climate observation.

  18. Optimum gradient of mountain paths.

    PubMed

    Minetti, A E

    1995-11-01

    By combining the experiment results of R. Margaria (Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Memorie 7: 299-368, 1938), regarding the metabolic cost of gradient locomotion, together with recent insights on gait biomechanics, a prediction about the most economical gradient of mountain paths (approximately 25%) is obtained and interpreted. The pendulum-like mechanism of walking produces a waste of mechanical work against gravity within the gradient range of up to 15% (the overall efficiency is dominated by the low transmission efficiency), whereas for steeper values only the muscular efficiency is responsible for the (slight) metabolic change (per meter of vertical displacement) with respect to gradient. The speeds at the optimum gradient turned out to be approximately 0.65 m/s (+0.16 m/s vertical) and 1.50 m/s (-0.36 m/s vertical), for uphill and downhill walking, respectively, and the ascensional energy expenditure was 0.4 and 2.0 ml O2.kg body mass-1.vertical m-1 climbed or descended. When the metabolic power becomes a burden, as in high-altitude mountaineering, the optimum gradient should be reduced. A sample of real mountain path gradients, experimentally measured, mimics the obtained predictions.

  19. Integral transforms of the quantum mechanical path integral: Hit function and path-averaged potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, James P.; Gerber, Urs; Schubert, Christian; Trejo, Maria Anabel; Weber, Axel

    2018-04-01

    We introduce two integral transforms of the quantum mechanical transition kernel that represent physical information about the path integral. These transforms can be interpreted as probability distributions on particle trajectories measuring respectively the relative contribution to the path integral from paths crossing a given spatial point (the hit function) and the likelihood of values of the line integral of the potential along a path in the ensemble (the path-averaged potential).

  20. Integral transforms of the quantum mechanical path integral: Hit function and path-averaged potential.

    PubMed

    Edwards, James P; Gerber, Urs; Schubert, Christian; Trejo, Maria Anabel; Weber, Axel

    2018-04-01

    We introduce two integral transforms of the quantum mechanical transition kernel that represent physical information about the path integral. These transforms can be interpreted as probability distributions on particle trajectories measuring respectively the relative contribution to the path integral from paths crossing a given spatial point (the hit function) and the likelihood of values of the line integral of the potential along a path in the ensemble (the path-averaged potential).

  1. Open Path Trace Gas Laser Sensors for UAV Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadman, S.; Mchale, L.; Rose, C.; Yalin, A.

    2015-12-01

    Novel trace gas sensors based on open-path Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy (CRDS) are being developed to enable remote and mobile deployments including on small unmanned aerial systems (UAS). Relative to established closed-path CRDS instruments, the use of open-path configurations allows removal of the bulky and power hungry vacuum and flow system, potentially enabling lightweight and low power instruments with high sensitivity. However, open path operation introduces new challenges including the need to maintain mirror cleanliness, mitigation of particle optical effects, and the need to measure spectral features that are relatively broad. The present submission details open-path CRDS instruments for ammonia and methane and their planned use in UAS studies. The ammonia sensor uses a quantum cascade laser at 10.3 mm in a configuration in which the laser frequency is continuously swept and a trigger circuit and acousto-optic modulator (AOM) extinguish the light when the laser is resonant with the cavity. Ring-down signals are measured with a two-stage thermoelectrically cooled MCT photodetector. The cavity mirrors have reflectivity of 0.9995 and a noise equivalent absorption of 1.5 ppb Hz-1/2 was demonstrated. A first version of the methane sensor operated at 1.7um with a telecom diode laser while the current version operates at 3.6 um with an interband cascade laser (stronger absorption). We have performed validation measurements against known standards for both sensors. Compact optical assemblies are being developed for UAS deployment. For example, the methane sensor head will have target mass of <4 kg and power draw <40 W. A compact single board computer and DAQ system is being designed for sensor control and signal processing with target mass <1 kg and power draw <10 W. The sensor size and power parameters are suitable for UAS deployment on both fixed wing and rotor style UAS. We plan to deploy the methane sensor to measure leakage and emission of methane from

  2. Optical superheterodyne receiver.

    PubMed

    Lucy, R F; Lang, K; Peters, C J; Duval, K

    1967-08-01

    Optical communications experiments at 6328 A, comparing the fading characteristics of coherent and noncoherent optical detection, have been performed over a 1-km real atmospheric path in different weather conditions. The results show that fading is less severe for noncoherent detection and that the fading characteristic for both types vary significantly with weather conditions. In addition, the similarity of optical FM to rf FM is demonstrated. The measurements were performed using a remote laser transmitter and an optical superheterodyne receiver operating simultaneously in both a coherent and noncoherent detection mode. The receiver, tunable over a frequency range of 1 GHz at the IF difference frequency of 30 MHz, has automatic frequency control and also uses a precision angle tracking servo to maintain receiver spatial alignment with a remote transmitter. The angle and frequency tracking capability permit operation between moving transmitter and receiver terminals.

  3. Integrated assignment and path planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphey, Robert A.

    2005-11-01

    A surge of interest in unmanned systems has exposed many new and challenging research problems across many fields of engineering and mathematics. These systems have the potential of transforming our society by replacing dangerous and dirty jobs with networks of moving machines. This vision is fundamentally separate from the modern view of robotics in that sophisticated behavior is realizable not by increasing individual vehicle complexity, but instead through collaborative teaming that relies on collective perception, abstraction, decision making, and manipulation. Obvious examples where collective robotics will make an impact include planetary exploration, space structure assembly, remote and undersea mining, hazardous material handling and clean-up, and search and rescue. Nonetheless, the phenomenon driving this technology trend is the increasing reliance of the US military on unmanned vehicles, specifically, aircraft. Only a few years ago, following years of resistance to the use of unmanned systems, the military and civilian leadership in the United States reversed itself and have recently demonstrated surprisingly broad acceptance of increasingly pervasive use of unmanned platforms in defense surveillance, and even attack. However, as rapidly as unmanned systems have gained acceptance, the defense research community has discovered the technical pitfalls that lie ahead, especially for operating collective groups of unmanned platforms. A great deal of talent and energy has been devoted to solving these technical problems, which tend to fall into two categories: resource allocation of vehicles to objectives, and path planning of vehicle trajectories. An extensive amount of research has been conducted in each direction, yet, surprisingly, very little work has considered the integrated problem of assignment and path planning. This dissertation presents a framework for studying integrated assignment and path planning and then moves on to suggest an exact

  4. Choosing Your Geosciences Career Path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paluszkiewicz, T.

    2002-12-01

    There are many possibilities for rewarding careers in the geosciences including positions in academia, government, industry, and other parts of the private sector. How do you choose the right path to meet your goals and needs and find the right career? What are the tradeoffs and strategic moves that you should make at different stages in your career? Some of the pros and cons between soft-money research, government research, and management and industry positions are discussed from a personal perspective. In addition this presentation will provide some perspective on different career choices as seen by program managers in funding agencies. The competing priorities between work life and private life are discussed with the some thoughts on compromising between "having it all" and finding what works for you.

  5. The Chinese path to individualization.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yunxiang

    2010-09-01

    This article explores the rise of the individual and the consequential individualization of society which should be viewed as a reflexive part of China's state-sponsored quest for modernity. It traces the origin of the individualization process to the Maoist era, arguing that some collectivist programmes of social engineering and the socialist path of modernization under Maoism ironically resulted in a partial individualization of Chinese society. Examining profound social changes during the three decades of the post-Mao reforms, the article reveals a number of similarities with the individualization process in Western Europe but also demonstrates some important differences. In the last section, the theoretical implications of the Chinese case in light of Ulrich Beck's theory of individualization and second modernity are discussed. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2010.

  6. Flexible-Path Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, B.; Adler, M.; Alkalai, L.; Burdick, G.; Coulter, D.; Jordan, F.; Naderi, F.; Graham, L.; Landis, R.; Drake, B.; hide

    2010-01-01

    In the fourth quarter of 2009 an in-house, multi-center NASA study team briefly examined "Flexible Path" concepts to begin understanding characteristics, content, and roles of potential missions consistent with the strategy proposed by the Augustine Committee. We present an overview of the study findings. Three illustrative human/robotic mission concepts not requiring planet surface operations are described: assembly of very large in-space telescopes in cis-lunar space; exploration of near Earth objects (NEOs); exploration of Mars' moon Phobos. For each, a representative mission is described, technology and science objectives are outlined, and a basic mission operations concept is quantified. A fourth type of mission, using the lunar surface as preparation for Mars, is also described. Each mission's "capability legacy" is summarized. All four illustrative missions could achieve NASA's stated human space exploration objectives and advance human space flight toward Mars surface exploration. Telescope assembly missions would require the fewest new system developments. NEO missions would offer a wide range of deep-space trip times between several months and two years. Phobos exploration would retire several Marsclass risks, leaving another large remainder set (associated with entry, descent, surface operations, and ascent) for retirement by subsequent missions. And extended lunar surface operations would build confidence for Mars surface missions by addressing a complementary set of risks. Six enabling developments (robotic precursors, ISS exploration testbed, heavy-lift launch, deep-space-capable crew capsule, deep-space habitat, and reusable in-space propulsion stage) would apply across multiple program sequence options, and thus could be started even without committing to a specific mission sequence now. Flexible Path appears to be a viable strategy, with meaningful and worthy mission content.

  7. Variable path length spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, Patrick E.; McCarty, Jerry E.; Haggard, Ricky A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact, variable pathlength, fiber optic probe for spectrophotometric measurements of fluids in situ. The probe comprises a probe body with a shaft having a polished end penetrating one side of the probe, a pair of optic fibers, parallel and coterminous, entering the probe opposite the reflecting shaft, and a collimating lens to direct light from one of the fibers to the reflecting surface of the shaft and to direct the reflected light to the second optic fiber. The probe body has an inlet and an outlet port to allow the liquid to enter the probe body and pass between the lens and the reflecting surface of the shaft. A linear stepper motor is connected to the shaft to cause the shaft to advance toward or away from the lens in increments so that absorption measurements can be made at each of the incremental steps. The shaft is sealed to the probe body by a bellows seal to allow freedom of movement of the shaft and yet avoid leakage from the interior of the probe.

  8. Slant Path Low Visibility Atmospheric Conditions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    precipitation rate ; humidity; aerosol concentration; Particle spectrum; local aeiosol inhomogeneities; air * -Q.!ZIBS’IRACT: A slant path for...test path , of a length over which infrared transmissometer measurements can be made that are in a magnitude range permitting accurate measurements under...and therefore do not accurately relate to absolute transmissivity. A path which is too long will result in transmission measurements which are very low

  9. Path-Goal Theory of Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    PATH-GOAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP Robert J. House, et al Washington University AD-A009 513 Prepared for: Office of Naval Research April 1975...NUMBER^ READ »ITRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM *- TITLE (mö Submit) PATH-GOAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP t. TYPE OF REPORT ft PERIOD COVERED... Theory -Contingency Factors - Leadership Style 20. ABSTRACT (Conllnuo an rmvttc cmy an« Idonlllr kr Meek mmtbor) The paper reviews the path-goal

  10. Path-Following Solutions Of Nonlinear Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barger, Raymond L.; Walters, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes some path-following techniques for solution of nonlinear equations and compares with other methods. Use of multipurpose techniques applicable at more than one stage of path-following computation results in system relatively simple to understand, program, and use. Comparison of techniques with method of parametric differentiation (MPD) reveals definite advantages for path-following methods. Emphasis in investigation on multiuse techniques being applied at more than one stage of path-following computation. Incorporation of multipurpose techniques results in concise computer code relatively simple to use.

  11. Piezoelectric Diffraction-Based Optical Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spremo, Stevan; Fuhr, Peter; Schipper, John

    2003-01-01

    Piezoelectric diffraction-based optoelectronic devices have been invented to satisfy requirements for switching signals quickly among alternative optical paths in optical communication networks. These devices are capable of operating with switching times as short as microseconds or even nanoseconds in some cases.

  12. High bandwidth underwater optical communication.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Frank; Radic, Stojan

    2008-01-10

    We report error-free underwater optical transmission measurements at 1 Gbit/s (10(9) bits/s) over a 2 m path in a laboratory water pipe with up to 36 dB of extinction. The source at 532 nm was derived from a 1064 nm continuous-wave laser diode that was intensity modulated, amplified, and frequency doubled in periodically poled lithium niobate. Measurements were made over a range of extinction by the addition of a Mg(OH)(2) and Al(OH)(3) suspension to the water path, and we were not able to observe any evidence of temporal pulse broadening. Results of Monte Carlo simulations over ocean water paths of several tens of meters indicate that optical communication data rates >1 Gbit/s can be supported and are compatible with high-capacity data transfer applications that require no physical contact.

  13. OPEN PATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR ACQUISITION OF FUGITIVE EMISSION FLUX DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollutant emission from unconfined sources is an increasingly important environmental issue. The U.S. EPA has developed a gorund-based optical remote sensing method that enables direct measurement of fugitive emission flux from large area sources. Open-path Fourier transfor...

  14. Decision paths in complex tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galanter, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Complex real world action and its prediction and control has escaped analysis by the classical methods of psychological research. The reason is that psychologists have no procedures to parse complex tasks into their constituents. Where such a division can be made, based say on expert judgment, there is no natural scale to measure the positive or negative values of the components. Even if we could assign numbers to task parts, we lack rules i.e., a theory, to combine them into a total task representation. We compare here two plausible theories for the amalgamation of the value of task components. Both of these theories require a numerical representation of motivation, for motivation is the primary variable that guides choice and action in well-learned tasks. We address this problem of motivational quantification and performance prediction by developing psychophysical scales of the desireability or aversiveness of task components based on utility scaling methods (Galanter 1990). We modify methods used originally to scale sensory magnitudes (Stevens and Galanter 1957), and that have been applied recently to the measure of task 'workload' by Gopher and Braune (1984). Our modification uses utility comparison scaling techniques which avoid the unnecessary assumptions made by Gopher and Braune. Formula for the utility of complex tasks based on the theoretical models are used to predict decision and choice of alternate paths to the same goal.

  15. High throughput optical scanner

    DOEpatents

    Basiji, David A.; van den Engh, Gerrit J.

    2001-01-01

    A scanning apparatus is provided to obtain automated, rapid and sensitive scanning of substrate fluorescence, optical density or phosphorescence. The scanner uses a constant path length optical train, which enables the combination of a moving beam for high speed scanning with phase-sensitive detection for noise reduction, comprising a light source, a scanning mirror to receive light from the light source and sweep it across a steering mirror, a steering mirror to receive light from the scanning mirror and reflect it to the substrate, whereby it is swept across the substrate along a scan arc, and a photodetector to receive emitted or scattered light from the substrate, wherein the optical path length from the light source to the photodetector is substantially constant throughout the sweep across the substrate. The optical train can further include a waveguide or mirror to collect emitted or scattered light from the substrate and direct it to the photodetector. For phase-sensitive detection the light source is intensity modulated and the detector is connected to phase-sensitive detection electronics. A scanner using a substrate translator is also provided. For two dimensional imaging the substrate is translated in one dimension while the scanning mirror scans the beam in a second dimension. For a high throughput scanner, stacks of substrates are loaded onto a conveyor belt from a tray feeder.

  16. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis VI.

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Calvin, M.

    1949-06-30

    This paper is a compilation of the essential results of our experimental work in the determination of the path of carbon in photosynthesis. There are discussions of the dark fixation of photosynthesis and methods of separation and identification including paper chromatography and radioautography. The definition of the path of carbon in photosynthesis by the distribution of radioactivity within the compounds is described.

  17. Cooperative organic mine avoidance path planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Christopher B.; Piatko, Christine D.; Peterson, Adam V.; Donnald, Creighton R.; Cohen, David

    2005-06-01

    The JHU/APL Path Planning team has developed path planning techniques to look for paths that balance the utility and risk associated with different routes through a minefield. Extending on previous years' efforts, we investigated real-world Naval mine avoidance requirements and developed a tactical decision aid (TDA) that satisfies those requirements. APL has developed new mine path planning techniques using graph based and genetic algorithms which quickly produce near-minimum risk paths for complicated fitness functions incorporating risk, path length, ship kinematics, and naval doctrine. The TDA user interface, a Java Swing application that obtains data via Corba interfaces to path planning databases, allows the operator to explore a fusion of historic and in situ mine field data, control the path planner, and display the planning results. To provide a context for the minefield data, the user interface also renders data from the Digital Nautical Chart database, a database created by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency containing charts of the world's ports and coastal regions. This TDA has been developed in conjunction with the COMID (Cooperative Organic Mine Defense) system. This paper presents a description of the algorithms, architecture, and application produced.

  18. Global Coordinates and Exact Aberration Calculations Applied to Physical Optics Modeling of Complex Optical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, G.; Barnard, C.; Viswanathan, V.

    1986-11-01

    Historically, wave optics computer codes have been paraxial in nature. Folded systems could be modeled by "unfolding" the optical system. Calculation of optical aberrations is, in general, left for the analyst to do with off-line codes. While such paraxial codes were adequate for the simpler systems being studied 10 years ago, current problems such as phased arrays, ring resonators, coupled resonators, and grazing incidence optics require a major advance in analytical capability. This paper describes extension of the physical optics codes GLAD and GLAD V to include a global coordinate system and exact ray aberration calculations. The global coordinate system allows components to be positioned and rotated arbitrarily. Exact aberrations are calculated for components in aligned or misaligned configurations by using ray tracing to compute optical path differences and diffraction propagation. Optical path lengths between components and beam rotations in complex mirror systems are calculated accurately so that coherent interactions in phased arrays and coupled devices may be treated correctly.

  19. Optimization of educational paths for higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasyev, Alexandr A.; Agarkov, Gavriil; Medvedev, Aleksandr

    2017-11-01

    In our research, we combine the theory of economic behavior and the methodology of increasing efficiency of the human capital to estimate the optimal educational paths. We provide an optimization model for higher education process to analyze possible educational paths for each rational individual. The preferences of each rational individual are compared to the best economically possible educational path. The main factor of the individual choice, which is formed by the formation of optimal educational path, deals with higher salaries level in the chosen economic sector after graduation. Another factor that influences on the economic profit is the reduction of educational costs or the possibility of the budget support for the student. The main outcome of this research consists in correction of the governmental policy of investment in human capital based on the results of educational paths optimal control.

  20. Evolution paths for advanced automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healey, Kathleen J.

    1990-01-01

    As Space Station Freedom (SSF) evolves, increased automation and autonomy will be required to meet Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) objectives. As a precursor to the use of advanced automation within the SSFP, especially if it is to be used on SSF (e.g., to automate the operation of the flight systems), the underlying technologies will need to be elevated to a high level of readiness to ensure safe and effective operations. Ground facilities supporting the development of these flight systems -- from research and development laboratories through formal hardware and software development environments -- will be responsible for achieving these levels of technology readiness. These facilities will need to evolve support the general evolution of the SSFP. This evolution will include support for increasing the use of advanced automation. The SSF Advanced Development Program has funded a study to define evolution paths for advanced automaton within the SSFP's ground-based facilities which will enable, promote, and accelerate the appropriate use of advanced automation on-board SSF. The current capability of the test beds and facilities, such as the Software Support Environment, with regard to advanced automation, has been assessed and their desired evolutionary capabilities have been defined. Plans and guidelines for achieving this necessary capability have been constructed. The approach taken has combined indepth interviews of test beds personnel at all SSF Work Package centers with awareness of relevant state-of-the-art technology and technology insertion methodologies. Key recommendations from the study include advocating a NASA-wide task force for advanced automation, and the creation of software prototype transition environments to facilitate the incorporation of advanced automation in the SSFP.

  1. The Path of Human Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feibel, C. S.

    2004-12-01

    A complex series of evolutionary steps, contingent upon a dynamic environmental context and a long biological heritage, have led to the ascent of Homo sapiens as a dominant component of the modern biosphere. In a field where missing links still abound and new discoveries regularly overturn theoretical paradigms, our understanding of the path of human evolution has made tremendous advances in recent years. Two major trends characterize the development of the hominin clade subsequent to its origins with the advent of upright bipedalism in the Late Miocene of Africa. One is a diversification into two prominent morphological branches, each with a series of 'twigs' representing evolutionary experimentation at the species or subspecies level. The second important trend, which in its earliest manifestations cannot clearly be ascribed to one or the other branch, is the behavioral complexity of an increasing reliance on technology to expand upon limited inherent morphological specializations and to buffer the organism from its environment. This technological dependence is directly associated with the expansion of hominin range outside Africa by the genus Homo, and is accelerated in the sole extant form Homo sapiens through the last 100 Ka. There are interesting correlates between the evolutionary and behavioral patterns seen in the hominin clade and environmental dynamics of the Neogene. In particular, the tempo of morphological and behavioral innovation may be tracking major events in Neogene climatic development as well as reflecting intervals of variability or stability. Major improvements in analytical techniques, coupled with important new collections and a growing body of contextual data are now making possible the integration of global, regional and local environmental archives with an improved biological understanding of the hominin clade to address questions of coincidence and causality.

  2. Dislocation Onset and Glide in Carbon Nanotubes under Torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrica, Traian; Zhang, Dong-Bo; James, Richard

    2009-03-01

    The torsional plastic response of carbon nanotubes is comprehensively described in the objective molecular dynamics framework [1-3]. It is shown that an (n,m) tube is prone to slip along a nearly-axial helical path, which introduces a distinct (+1,-1) change in the wrapping index. The low energy realization occurs without loss of mass, via nucleation of a 5-7-7-5 dislocation dipole, followed by a nearly-axial glide of the 5-7 dislocation. The onset of plasticity depends not only on chirality but also on handedness. For a given handedness of the applied twist, chiral tubes of opposed handedness are most susceptible to yield. A right-handed applied twist on an armchair (zig-zag) tube leads to a right- (left-) handed tube. [4pt] [1] T. Dumitrica and R.D. James, Objective Molecular Dynamics, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 55, 2206 (2007). [0pt] [2] D.-B. Zhang, M. Hua, and T. Dumitrica, Stability of Polycrystalline and Wurtzite Si Nanowires via Symmetry-Adapted Tight-Binding Objective Molecular Dynamics, Journal of Chemical Physics 128, 084104 (2008). [0pt] [3] D.-B. Zhang and T. Dumitrica, Elasticity of Ideal Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes via Symmetry-Adapted Tight-Binding Objective Modeling, Applied Physics Letters 93, 031919 (2008).

  3. Interpretation of Fracture Toughness and R-Curve Behavior by Direct Observation of Microfracture Process in Ti-Based Dendrite-Containing Amorphous Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Changwoo; Kim, Choongnyun Paul; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lee, Sunghak

    2015-04-01

    Fracture properties of Ti-based amorphous alloys containing ductile β dendrites were explained by directly observing microfracture processes. Three Ti-based amorphous alloys were fabricated by adding Ti, Zr, V, Ni, Al, and Be into a Ti-6Al-4V alloy by a vacuum arc melting method. The effective sizes of dendrites varied from 63 to 104 μm, while their volume fractions were almost constant within the range from 74 to 76 pct. The observation of the microfracture of the alloy containing coarse dendrites revealed that a microcrack initiated at the amorphous matrix of the notch tip and propagated along the amorphous matrix. In the alloy containing fine dendrites, the crack propagation was frequently blocked by dendrites, and many deformation bands were formed near or in front of the propagating crack, thereby resulting in a zig-zag fracture path. Crack initiation toughness was almost the same at 35 to 36 MPa√m within error ranges in the three alloys because it was heavily affected by the stress applied to the specimen at the time of crack initiation at the crack tip as well as strength levels of the alloys. According to the R-curve behavior, however, the best overall fracture properties in the alloy containing fine dendrites were explained by mechanisms of blocking of the crack growth and crack blunting and deformation band formation at dendrites.

  4. How Cristiano Ronaldo performs his knuckleball?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Caroline; Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Quere, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2012-11-01

    A soccer ball kicked at very low spin can exhibit a zigzag trajectory. Along its straight path, the ball deviates laterally from about 0.2 m, that is to say one ball diameter. One zig zag happens as the ball travelled about 15 m. As the deviation direction seems unpredictable, this effect is highly annoying for goalkeepers. That why Cristiano Ronaldo and many soccer players are looking for this phenomenon. Those trajectories called knuckleballs are also observed on volleyball and baseball. We study experimentally indoor knuckleballs for different balls varying from soccer balls to smooth spheres. We show that knuckle effect doesn't derive from ball deformations at foot impact or ball seams. Actually, aerodynamic lift forces on a smooth sphere are fluctuating and are responsible for knuckleballs. From this study, we deduce side force intensity exerted on smooth spheres and sport balls for typical game Reynolds number (Re ~104 -106). Finally we discuss required conditions to observe a knuckleball on the sport field.

  5. Synergy of multi-scale toughening and protective mechanisms at hierarchical branch-stem interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Ulrich; Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang; Konnerth, Johannes; Maier, Günther A.; Keckes, Jozef

    2015-09-01

    Biological materials possess a variety of artful interfaces whose size and properties are adapted to their hierarchical levels and functional requirements. Bone, nacre, and wood exhibit an impressive fracture resistance based mainly on small crystallite size, interface organic adhesives and hierarchical microstructure. Currently, little is known about mechanical concepts in macroscopic biological interfaces like the branch-stem junction with estimated 1014 instances on earth and sizes up to few meters. Here we demonstrate that the crack growth in the upper region of the branch-stem interface of conifer trees proceeds along a narrow predefined region of transversally loaded tracheids, denoted as sacrificial tissue, which fail upon critical bending moments on the branch. The specific arrangement of the tracheids allows disconnecting the overloaded branch from the stem in a controlled way by maintaining the stem integrity. The interface microstructure based on the sharply adjusted cell orientation and cell helical angle secures a zig-zag crack propagation path, mechanical interlock closing after the bending moment is removed, crack gap bridging and self-repairing by resin deposition. The multi-scale synergetic concepts allows for a controllable crack growth between stiff stem and flexible branch, as well as mechanical tree integrity, intact physiological functions and recovery after the cracking.

  6. Path integration: effect of curved path complexity and sensory system on blindfolded walking.

    PubMed

    Koutakis, Panagiotis; Mukherjee, Mukul; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Blanke, Daniel J; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2013-02-01

    Path integration refers to the ability to integrate continuous information of the direction and distance traveled by the system relative to the origin. Previous studies have investigated path integration through blindfolded walking along simple paths such as straight line and triangles. However, limited knowledge exists regarding the role of path complexity in path integration. Moreover, little is known about how information from different sensory input systems (like vision and proprioception) contributes to accurate path integration. The purpose of the current study was to investigate how sensory information and curved path complexity affect path integration. Forty blindfolded participants had to accurately reproduce a curved path and return to the origin. They were divided into four groups that differed in the curved path, circle (simple) or figure-eight (complex), and received either visual (previously seen) or proprioceptive (previously guided) information about the path before they reproduced it. The dependent variables used were average trajectory error, walking speed, and distance traveled. The results indicated that (a) both groups that walked on a circular path and both groups that received visual information produced greater accuracy in reproducing the path. Moreover, the performance of the group that received proprioceptive information and later walked on a figure-eight path was less accurate than their corresponding circular group. The groups that had the visual information also walked faster compared to the group that had proprioceptive information. Results of the current study highlight the roles of different sensory inputs while performing blindfolded walking for path integration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Quasi-monolithic tunable optical resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbore, Mark (Inventor); Tapos, Francisc (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An optical resonator has a piezoelectric element attached to a quasi-monolithic structure. The quasi-monolithic structure defines an optical path. Mirrors attached to the structure deflect light along the optical path. The piezoelectric element controllably strains the quasi-monolithic structure to change a length of the optical path by about 1 micron. A first feedback loop coupled to the piezoelectric element provides fine control over the cavity length. The resonator may include a thermally actuated spacer attached to the cavity and a mirror attached to the spacer. The thermally actuated spacer adjusts the cavity length by up to about 20 microns. A second feedback loop coupled to the sensor and heater provides a coarse control over the cavity length. An alternative embodiment provides a quasi-monolithic optical parametric oscillator (OPO). This embodiment includes a non-linear optical element within the resonator cavity along the optical path. Such an OPO configuration is broadly tunable and capable of mode-hop free operation for periods of 24 hours or more.

  8. Visualization of defect-induced excitonic properties of the edges and grain boundaries in synthesized monolayer molybdenum disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newaz, Akm; Yore, A. E.; Miller, A.; Crumrine, W.; Redd, B.; Tuck, J. A.; Wang, Bin; Smithe, K. K. H.; Pop, E.

    Understanding nanoscale optical behavior of the edges and grain boundaries of synthetically grown transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) is vital for optimizing their optoelectronic properties. Here we present our experimental work on spatial photoluminescence (PL) scanning of large size (>= 50 μ m) monolayer MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a diffraction limited blue laser beam spot (wavelength 405 nm) with a beam diameter as small as 200 nm allowing us to probe nanoscale excitonic phenomena which was not observed before. We have found several important features: (i) there exists a sub-micron width strip ( 500 nm) along the edges that fluoresces 1000 % brighter than the region far inside; (ii) there is another brighter wide region consisting of parallel fluorescing lines ending at the corners of the zig-zag peripheral edges; (iii) there is a giant blue shifted A-excitonic peak, as large as 120 meV, in the PL spectra from the edges. Using density functional theory calculations, we attribute this giant blue shift to the adsorption of oxygen dimers at the edges, which reduces the excitonic binding energy. Our results offer an attractive route to tailor optical properties at the TMDC edges through defect engineering. AFOSR Grant FA9550-14-1-0251, NSF EFRI 2-DARE Grant 1542883, NSF Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant DGE-114747.

  9. [Optical-fiber Fourier transform spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Li, Bao-sheng; Liu, Yan; Zhai, Yu-feng; Wang, An

    2006-10-01

    A novel Fourier transform spectrum analyzer based on a single mode fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer is reported. An optical fiber Fourier transform spectrometer, with bulk optics components replaced by fiber optical components and with the moving mirror replaced by a piezoelectric element fiber stretcher was constructed. The output spectrum of a LD below threshold was measured. Experiment result agrees with that by using grating spectrum analyzer, showing the feasibility of the optic fiber Fourier transform spectrometer for practical spectrum measurement. Spectrum resolution -7 cm(-1) was obtained in our experiment. The resolution can be further improved by increasing the maximum optical path difference.

  10. Controlling lightwave in Riemann space by merging geometrical optics with transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yichao; Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2018-01-11

    In geometrical optical design, we only need to choose a suitable combination of lenses, prims, and mirrors to design an optical path. It is a simple and classic method for engineers. However, people cannot design fantastical optical devices such as invisibility cloaks, optical wormholes, etc. by geometrical optics. Transformation optics has paved the way for these complicated designs. However, controlling the propagation of light by transformation optics is not a direct design process like geometrical optics. In this study, a novel mixed method for optical design is proposed which has both the simplicity of classic geometrical optics and the flexibility of transformation optics. This mixed method overcomes the limitations of classic optical design; at the same time, it gives intuitive guidance for optical design by transformation optics. Three novel optical devices with fantastic functions have been designed using this mixed method, including asymmetrical transmissions, bidirectional focusing, and bidirectional cloaking. These optical devices cannot be implemented by classic optics alone and are also too complicated to be designed by pure transformation optics. Numerical simulations based on both the ray tracing method and full-wave simulation method are carried out to verify the performance of these three optical devices.

  11. Robot path planning using a genetic algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleghorn, Timothy F.; Baffes, Paul T.; Wang, Liu

    1988-01-01

    Robot path planning can refer either to a mobile vehicle such as a Mars Rover, or to an end effector on an arm moving through a cluttered workspace. In both instances there may exist many solutions, some of which are better than others, either in terms of distance traversed, energy expended, or joint angle or reach capabilities. A path planning program has been developed based upon a genetic algorithm. This program assumes global knowledge of the terrain or workspace, and provides a family of good paths between the initial and final points. Initially, a set of valid random paths are constructed. Successive generations of valid paths are obtained using one of several possible reproduction strategies similar to those found in biological communities. A fitness function is defined to describe the goodness of the path, in this case including length, slope, and obstacle avoidance considerations. It was found that with some reproduction strategies, the average value of the fitness function improved for successive generations, and that by saving the best paths of each generation, one could quite rapidly obtain a collection of good candidate solutions.

  12. Automated flight path planning for virtual endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Paik, D S; Beaulieu, C F; Jeffrey, R B; Rubin, G D; Napel, S

    1998-05-01

    In this paper, a novel technique for rapid and automatic computation of flight paths for guiding virtual endoscopic exploration of three-dimensional medical images is described. While manually planning flight paths is a tedious and time consuming task, our algorithm is automated and fast. Our method for positioning the virtual camera is based on the medial axis transform but is much more computationally efficient. By iteratively correcting a path toward the medial axis, the necessity of evaluating simple point criteria during morphological thinning is eliminated. The virtual camera is also oriented in a stable viewing direction, avoiding sudden twists and turns. We tested our algorithm on volumetric data sets of eight colons, one aorta and one bronchial tree. The algorithm computed the flight paths in several minutes per volume on an inexpensive workstation with minimal computation time added for multiple paths through branching structures (10%-13% per extra path). The results of our algorithm are smooth, centralized paths that aid in the task of navigation in virtual endoscopic exploration of three-dimensional medical images.

  13. Dissociable cognitive mechanisms underlying human path integration.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Jan M; Berthoz, Alain; Wolbers, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Path integration is a fundamental mechanism of spatial navigation. In non-human species, it is assumed to be an online process in which a homing vector is updated continuously during an outward journey. In contrast, human path integration has been conceptualized as a configural process in which travelers store working memory representations of path segments, with the computation of a homing vector only occurring when required. To resolve this apparent discrepancy, we tested whether humans can employ different path integration strategies in the same task. Using a triangle completion paradigm, participants were instructed either to continuously update the start position during locomotion (continuous strategy) or to remember the shape of the outbound path and to calculate home vectors on basis of this representation (configural strategy). While overall homing accuracy was superior in the configural condition, participants were quicker to respond during continuous updating, strongly suggesting that homing vectors were computed online. Corroborating these findings, we observed reliable differences in head orientation during the outbound path: when participants applied the continuous updating strategy, the head deviated significantly from straight ahead in direction of the start place, which can be interpreted as a continuous motor expression of the homing vector. Head orientation-a novel online measure for path integration-can thus inform about the underlying updating mechanism already during locomotion. In addition to demonstrating that humans can employ different cognitive strategies during path integration, our two-systems view helps to resolve recent controversies regarding the role of the medial temporal lobe in human path integration.

  14. Measuring phonon mean free path distributions by probing quasiballistic phonon transport in grating nanostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Zeng, Lingping; Collins, Kimberlee C.; Hu, Yongjie; ...

    2015-11-27

    Heat conduction in semiconductors and dielectrics depends upon their phonon mean free paths that describe the average travelling distance between two consecutive phonon scattering events. Nondiffusive phonon transport is being exploited to extract phonon mean free path distributions. Here, we describe an implementation of a nanoscale thermal conductivity spectroscopy technique that allows for the study of mean free path distributions in optically absorbing materials with relatively simple fabrication and a straightforward analysis scheme. We pattern 1D metallic grating of various line widths but fixed gap size on sample surfaces. The metal lines serve as both heaters and thermometers in time-domainmore » thermoreflectance measurements and simultaneously act as wiregrid polarizers that protect the underlying substrate from direct optical excitation and heating. We demonstrate the viability of this technique by studying length-dependent thermal conductivities of silicon at various temperatures. The thermal conductivities measured with different metal line widths are analyzed using suppression functions calculated from the Boltzmann transport equation to extract the phonon mean free path distributions with no calibration required. Furthermore, this table-top ultrafast thermal transport spectroscopy technique enables the study of mean free path spectra in a wide range of technologically important materials.« less

  15. An Anatomically Constrained Model for Path Integration in the Bee Brain.

    PubMed

    Stone, Thomas; Webb, Barbara; Adden, Andrea; Weddig, Nicolai Ben; Honkanen, Anna; Templin, Rachel; Wcislo, William; Scimeca, Luca; Warrant, Eric; Heinze, Stanley

    2017-10-23

    Path integration is a widespread navigational strategy in which directional changes and distance covered are continuously integrated on an outward journey, enabling a straight-line return to home. Bees use vision for this task-a celestial-cue-based visual compass and an optic-flow-based visual odometer-but the underlying neural integration mechanisms are unknown. Using intracellular electrophysiology, we show that polarized-light-based compass neurons and optic-flow-based speed-encoding neurons converge in the central complex of the bee brain, and through block-face electron microscopy, we identify potential integrator cells. Based on plausible output targets for these cells, we propose a complete circuit for path integration and steering in the central complex, with anatomically identified neurons suggested for each processing step. The resulting model circuit is thus fully constrained biologically and provides a functional interpretation for many previously unexplained architectural features of the central complex. Moreover, we show that the receptive fields of the newly discovered speed neurons can support path integration for the holonomic motion (i.e., a ground velocity that is not precisely aligned with body orientation) typical of bee flight, a feature not captured in any previously proposed model of path integration. In a broader context, the model circuit presented provides a general mechanism for producing steering signals by comparing current and desired headings-suggesting a more basic function for central complex connectivity, from which path integration may have evolved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Membrane adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Dan K.; Wilkes, James M.; Ruggiero, Eric J.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2005-08-01

    An innovative adaptive optic is discussed that provides a range of capabilities unavailable with either existing, or newly reported, research devices. It is believed that this device will be inexpensive and uncomplicated to construct and operate, with a large correction range that should dramatically relax the static and dynamic structural tolerances of a telescope. As the areal density of a telescope primary is reduced, the optimal optical figure and the structural stiffness are inherently compromised and this phenomenon will require a responsive, range-enhanced wavefront corrector. In addition to correcting for the aberrations in such innovative primary mirrors, sufficient throw remains to provide non-mechanical steering to dramatically improve the Field of regard. Time dependent changes such as thermal disturbances can also be accommodated. The proposed adaptive optic will overcome some of the issues facing conventional deformable mirrors, as well as current and proposed MEMS-based deformable mirrors and liquid crystal based adaptive optics. Such a device is scalable to meter diameter apertures, eliminates high actuation voltages with minimal power consumption, provides long throw optical path correction, provides polychromatic dispersion free operation, dramatically reduces the effects of adjacent actuator influence, and provides a nearly 100% useful aperture. This article will reveal top-level details of the proposed construction and include portions of a static, dynamic, and residual aberration analysis. This device will enable certain designs previously conceived by visionaries in the optical community.

  17. The terminal area automated path generation problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsin, C.-C.

    1977-01-01

    The automated terminal area path generation problem in the advanced Air Traffic Control System (ATC), has been studied. Definitions, input, output and the interrelationships with other ATC functions have been discussed. Alternatives in modeling the problem have been identified. Problem formulations and solution techniques are presented. In particular, the solution of a minimum effort path stretching problem (path generation on a given schedule) has been carried out using the Newton-Raphson trajectory optimization method. Discussions are presented on the effect of different delivery time, aircraft entry position, initial guess on the boundary conditions, etc. Recommendations are made on real-world implementations.

  18. The path integral on the pseudosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosche, C.; Steiner, F.

    1988-02-01

    A rigorous path integral treatment for the d-dimensional pseudosphere Λd-1 , a Riemannian manifold of constant negative curvature, is presented. The path integral formulation is based on a canonical approach using Weyl-ordering and the Hamiltonian path integral defined on midpoints. The time-dependent and energy-dependent Feynman kernels obtain different expressions in the even- and odd-dimensional cases, respectively. The special case of the three-dimensional pseudosphere, which is analytically equivalent to the Poincaré upper half plane, the Poincaré disc, and the hyperbolic strip, is discussed in detail including the energy spectrum and the normalised wave-functions.

  19. Proceedings of the Antenna Applications Symposium Held at Monticello, Illinois on 21-23 September 1983. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    are the zig-zag [12] and the yagi. A zig-zag antenna is the two-dimensional equivalent of a helix . It may be printed unto a supporting substrate and...In the last decade the advances have been subtle, but none-the-less important in optimizing performance of broadband systems. This paper describes some...geometry commonly used is the planar spiral/ helix antenna. Figure 4 shows a single-mode 2 inch diameter spiral/ helix antenna designed to operate

  20. Method and apparatus for reducing the harmonic currents in alternating-current distribution networks

    DOEpatents

    Beverly, Leon H.; Hance, Richard D.; Kristalinski, Alexandr L.; Visser, Age T.

    1996-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method reduce the harmonic content of AC line and neutral line currents in polyphase AC source distribution networks. The apparatus and method employ a polyphase Zig-Zag transformer connected between the AC source distribution network and a load. The apparatus and method also employs a mechanism for increasing the source neutral impedance of the AC source distribution network. This mechanism can consist of a choke installed in the neutral line between the AC source and the Zig-Zag transformer.

  1. Method and apparatus for reducing the harmonic currents in alternating-current distribution networks

    DOEpatents

    Beverly, L.H.; Hance, R.D.; Kristalinski, A.L.; Visser, A.T.

    1996-11-19

    An improved apparatus and method reduce the harmonic content of AC line and neutral line currents in polyphase AC source distribution networks. The apparatus and method employ a polyphase Zig-Zag transformer connected between the AC source distribution network and a load. The apparatus and method also employs a mechanism for increasing the source neutral impedance of the AC source distribution network. This mechanism can consist of a choke installed in the neutral line between the AC source and the Zig-Zag transformer. 23 figs.

  2. Platinum atomic wire encapsulated in gold nanotubes: A first principle study

    SciTech Connect

    Nigam, Sandeep, E-mail: snigam@barc.gov.in; Majumder, Chiranjib; Sahoo, Suman K.

    2014-04-24

    The nanotubes of gold incorporated with platinum atomic wire have been investigated by means of firstprinciples density functional theory with plane wave pseudopotential approximation. The structure with zig-zag chain of Pt atoms in side gold is found to be 0.73 eV lower in energy in comparison to straight chain of platinum atoms. The Fermi level of the composite tube was consisting of d-orbitals of Pt atoms. Further interaction of oxygen with these tubes reveals that while tube with zig-zag Pt prefers dissociative adsorption of oxygen molecule, the gold tube with linear Pt wire favors molecular adsorption.

  3. High energy, high average power solid state green or UV laser

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Norton, Mary; Dane, C. Brent

    2004-03-02

    A system for producing a green or UV output beam for illuminating a large area with relatively high beam fluence. A Nd:glass laser produces a near-infrared output by means of an oscillator that generates a high quality but low power output and then multi-pass through and amplification in a zig-zag slab amplifier and wavefront correction in a phase conjugator at the midway point of the multi-pass amplification. The green or UV output is generated by means of conversion crystals that follow final propagation through the zig-zag slab amplifier.

  4. The structure of 110 tilt boundaries in large area solar silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ast, D. G.; Cunningham, B.; Vaudin, M.

    1982-01-01

    The models of Hornstra and their connection to the repeating group description of grain boundaries (7-10) are discussed. A model for the Sigma = 27 boundary containing a zig-zag arrangement of dislocations is constructed and it is shown that zig-zag models can account for the contrast features observed in high resolution transmission electron micrographs of second and third order twin boundaries in silicon. The boundaries discussed are symmetric with a 110 tilt axis and a (110) boundary plane in the median lattice (the median plane). The median lattice is identical in structure and halfway in orientation between the crystal lattices either side of the boundary.

  5. The slant path atmospheric refraction calibrator - An instrument to measure the microwave propagation delays induced by atmospheric water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Steven J.; Bender, Peter L.

    1992-01-01

    The water vapor-induced propagation delay experienced by a radio signal traversing the atmosphere is characterized by the Slant Path Atmospheric Refraction Calibrator (SPARC), which measures the difference in the travel times between an optical and a microwave signal propagating along the same atmospheric path with an accuracy of 15 picosec or better. Attention is given to the theoretical and experimental issues involved in measuring the delay induced by water vapor; SPARC measurements conducted along a 13.35-km ground-based path are presented, illustrating the instrument's stability, precision, and accuracy.

  6. Implications of path tolerance and path characteristics on critical vehicle manoeuvres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundahl, K.; Frisk, E.; Nielsen, L.

    2017-12-01

    Path planning and path following are core components in safe autonomous driving. Typically, a path planner provides a path with some tolerance on how tightly the path should be followed. Based on that, and other path characteristics, for example, sharpness of curves, a speed profile needs to be assigned so that the vehicle can stay within the given tolerance without going unnecessarily slow. Here, such trajectory planning is based on optimal control formulations where critical cases arise as on-the-limit solutions. The study focuses on heavy commercial vehicles, causing rollover to be of a major concern, due to the relatively high centre of gravity. Several results are obtained on required model complexity depending on path characteristics, for example, quantification of required path tolerance for a simple model to be sufficient, quantification of when yaw inertia needs to be considered in more detail, and how the curvature rate of change interplays with available friction. Overall, in situations where the vehicle is subject to a wide range of driving conditions, from good transport roads to more tricky avoidance manoeuvres, the requirements on the path following will vary. For this, the provided results form a basis for real-time path following.

  7. Adsorption--from theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, A

    2001-10-08

    of adsorption up to the 1918s has been following rather a zig-zag path, this arm of surface science is now generally considered to have become a well-defined branch of physical science representing an intrinsically interdisciplinary area between chemistry, physics, biology and engineering. This review presents in brief the history of adsorption and highlights the progress in theoretical description of the phenomenon under consideration. The paper deals with the above problems critically, showing the development of adsorption, presenting some of the latest important results and giving a source of up-to-date literature on it. Moreover, in this paper the most important aspects are overviewed referring to today's trends and visions in application of adsorption science in industry, environmental protection and in environmental analysis. The relationship between development of adsorption theory and adsorption practice is pointed out. Current understanding and perspectives pertaining to applications of adsorption phenomena on laboratory and on industrial scale as well as environmental protection are discussed and illustrated by means of a few spectacular examples.

  8. Detailed Comparisons of COMBAT Data to Wave-Optics Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-18

    2010 along the path between Mauna Loa and Haleakala and is one of many to investigate atmospheric effects in long horizontal optical paths [1-7]. The...Relatively strong jitter sources near transmitter ( atmosphere or telescope). Rationale: Turbulence -induced scintillation alone does not explain the...Characterization of atmospheric turbulence effects over 149 km propagation path using multi-wavelength laser beacons,” in Proceedings of the 2010 AMOS

  9. Large dynamic range optical vector analyzer based on optical single-sideband modulation and Hilbert transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Min; Pan, Shilong; Zhao, Yongjiu

    2016-07-01

    A large dynamic range optical vector analyzer (OVA) based on optical single-sideband modulation is proposed and demonstrated. By dividing the optical signal after optical device under test into two paths, reversing the phase of one swept sideband using a Hilbert transformer in one path, and detecting the two signals from the two paths with a balanced photodetector, the measurement errors induced by the residual -1st-order sideband and the high-order sidebands can be eliminated and the dynamic range of the measurement is increased. In a proof-of-concept experiment, the stimulated Brillouin scattering and a fiber Bragg grating are measured by OVAs with and without the Hilbert transform and balanced photodetection. Results show that about 40-dB improvement in the measurement dynamic range is realized by the proposed OVA.

  10. Identifying decohering paths in closed quantum systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas

    1990-01-01

    A specific proposal is discussed for how to identify decohering paths in a wavefunction of the universe. The emphasis is on determining the correlations among subsystems and then considering how these correlations evolve. The proposal is similar to earlier ideas of Schroedinger and of Zeh, but in other ways it is closer to the decoherence functional of Griffiths, Omnes, and Gell-Mann and Hartle. There are interesting differences with each of these which are discussed. Once a given coarse-graining is chosen, the candidate paths are fixed in this scheme, and a single well defined number measures the degree of decoherence for each path. The normal probability sum rules are exactly obeyed (instantaneously) by these paths regardless of the level of decoherence. Also briefly discussed is how one might quantify some other aspects of classicality. The important role that concrete calculations play in testing this and other proposals is stressed.

  11. AEDT sensor path methods using BADA4

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-06-01

    This report documents the development and use of sensor path data processing in the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAAs) Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT). The methods are primarily intended to assist analysts with using AEDT to determ...

  12. Distributed multiple path routing in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang; Wang, San-Xiu; Wu, Ling-Wei; Mei, Pan; Yang, Xu-Hua; Wen, Guang-Hui

    2016-12-01

    Routing in complex transmission networks is an important problem that has garnered extensive research interest in the recent years. In this paper, we propose a novel routing strategy called the distributed multiple path (DMP) routing strategy. For each of the O-D node pairs in a given network, the DMP routing strategy computes and stores multiple short-length paths that overlap less with each other in advance. And during the transmission stage, it rapidly selects an actual routing path which provides low transmission cost from the pre-computed paths for each transmission task, according to the real-time network transmission status information. Computer simulation results obtained for the lattice, ER random, and scale-free networks indicate that the strategy can significantly improve the anti-congestion ability of transmission networks, as well as provide favorable routing robustness against partial network failures.

  13. 14 CFR 23.57 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., landing gear retraction must not be initiated until the airplane is airborne. (c) During the takeoff path... three-engine airplanes; (iii) 1.7 percent for four-engine airplanes; and (4) Except for gear retraction...

  14. 14 CFR 25.111 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... gear retraction may not be begun until the airplane is airborne. (c) During the takeoff path... changed, except for gear retraction and automatic propeller feathering, and no change in power or thrust...

  15. 14 CFR 25.111 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... gear retraction may not be begun until the airplane is airborne. (c) During the takeoff path... changed, except for gear retraction and automatic propeller feathering, and no change in power or thrust...

  16. 14 CFR 25.111 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... gear retraction may not be begun until the airplane is airborne. (c) During the takeoff path... changed, except for gear retraction and automatic propeller feathering, and no change in power or thrust...

  17. 14 CFR 25.111 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... gear retraction may not be begun until the airplane is airborne. (c) During the takeoff path... changed, except for gear retraction and automatic propeller feathering, and no change in power or thrust...

  18. 14 CFR 25.111 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... gear retraction may not be begun until the airplane is airborne. (c) During the takeoff path... changed, except for gear retraction and automatic propeller feathering, and no change in power or thrust...

  19. NASA Exploration Forum: Human Path to Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-29

    Robert Lightfoot, NASA Associate Adminstrator, delivers closing remarks at an Exploration Forum showcasing NASA's human exploration path to Mars in the James E. Webb Auditorium at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, April 29, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  20. NASA Exploration Forum: Human Path to Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-29

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks during an Exploration Forum showcasing NASA's human exploration path to Mars in the James E. Webb Auditorium at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, April 29, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  1. Low-coherence interferometric sensor system utilizing an integrated optics configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plissi, M. V.; Rogers, A. J.; Brassington, D. J.; Wilson, M. G. F.

    1995-08-01

    The implementation of a twin Mach-Zehnder reference interferometer in an integrated optics substrate is described. From measurements of the fringe visibilities, an identification of the fringe order is attempted as a way to provide an absolute sensor for any parameter capable of modifying the difference in path length between two interfering optical paths.

  2. Path Finding for Maximum Value of Information in Multi-Modal Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Gjanci, Petrika; Petrioli, Chiara; Basagni, Stefano

    Here, we consider underwater multi-modal wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) suitable for applications on submarine surveillance and monitoring, where nodes offload data to a mobile autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) via optical technology, and coordinate using acoustic communication. Sensed data are associated with a value, decaying in time. In this scenario, we address the problem of finding the path of the AUV so that the Value of Information (VoI) of the data delivered to a sink on the surface is maximized. We define a Greedy and Adaptive AUV Path-finding (GAAP) heuristic that drives the AUV to collect data from nodes depending onmore » the VoI of their data. For benchmarking the performance of AUV path-finding heuristics, we define an integer linear programming (ILP) formulation that accurately models the considered scenario, deriving a path that drives the AUV to collect and deliver data with the maximum VoI. In our experiments GAAP consistently delivers more than 80 percent of the theoretical maximum VoI determined by the ILP model. We also compare the performance of GAAP with that of other strategies for driving the AUV among sensing nodes, namely, random paths, TSP-based paths and a “lawn mower”-like strategy. Our results show that GAAP always outperforms every other heuristic in terms of delivered VoI, also obtaining higher energy efficiency.« less

  3. Path Finding for Maximum Value of Information in Multi-Modal Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    DOE PAGES

    Gjanci, Petrika; Petrioli, Chiara; Basagni, Stefano; ...

    2017-05-19

    Here, we consider underwater multi-modal wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) suitable for applications on submarine surveillance and monitoring, where nodes offload data to a mobile autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) via optical technology, and coordinate using acoustic communication. Sensed data are associated with a value, decaying in time. In this scenario, we address the problem of finding the path of the AUV so that the Value of Information (VoI) of the data delivered to a sink on the surface is maximized. We define a Greedy and Adaptive AUV Path-finding (GAAP) heuristic that drives the AUV to collect data from nodes depending onmore » the VoI of their data. For benchmarking the performance of AUV path-finding heuristics, we define an integer linear programming (ILP) formulation that accurately models the considered scenario, deriving a path that drives the AUV to collect and deliver data with the maximum VoI. In our experiments GAAP consistently delivers more than 80 percent of the theoretical maximum VoI determined by the ILP model. We also compare the performance of GAAP with that of other strategies for driving the AUV among sensing nodes, namely, random paths, TSP-based paths and a “lawn mower”-like strategy. Our results show that GAAP always outperforms every other heuristic in terms of delivered VoI, also obtaining higher energy efficiency.« less

  4. Performance analysis of CCSDS path service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1989-01-01

    A communications service, called Path Service, is currently being developed by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) to provide a mechanism for the efficient transmission of telemetry data from space to ground for complex space missions of the future. This is an important service, due to the large volumes of telemetry data that will be generated during these missions. A preliminary analysis of performance of Path Service is presented with respect to protocol-processing requirements and channel utilization.

  5. A career path in clinical pathways.

    PubMed

    Bower, K A

    1998-03-01

    Much like the development of a clinical path, the creation of a career path requires knowledge of patterns of behavior, needs for standardized education and skill development, along with variance analysis and individualized care. This nationally known nursing entrepreneur tells the story of her involvement in the development of case management and clinical pathways and how she turned that into a successful business that has changed how patient care is managed nationally and internationally.

  6. AFMS Flight Path: Building Future Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-12

    small numbers of deactivated squadrons were reactivated. In general, the Flight Path maintains the four squadron framework of OMG with an additional...MC fill all but two. Vast differences in rank and promotion rates further bias the AFMS to a non-DOPMA corps led entity . The Flight Path has done...Aeromedical Squadron (AMDS) can combine into an Aeromedical Dental Squadron ( ADOS ) or can reside as flights under the Medical Operations Squadron

  7. A Path Algorithm for Constrained Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Many least-square problems involve affine equality and inequality constraints. Although there are a variety of methods for solving such problems, most statisticians find constrained estimation challenging. The current article proposes a new path-following algorithm for quadratic programming that replaces hard constraints by what are called exact penalties. Similar penalties arise in l1 regularization in model selection. In the regularization setting, penalties encapsulate prior knowledge, and penalized parameter estimates represent a trade-off between the observed data and the prior knowledge. Classical penalty methods of optimization, such as the quadratic penalty method, solve a sequence of unconstrained problems that put greater and greater stress on meeting the constraints. In the limit as the penalty constant tends to ∞, one recovers the constrained solution. In the exact penalty method, squared penalties!are replaced by absolute value penalties, and the solution is recovered for a finite value of the penalty constant. The exact path-following method starts at the unconstrained solution and follows the solution path as the penalty constant increases. In the process, the solution path hits, slides along, and exits from the various constraints. Path following in Lasso penalized regression, in contrast, starts with a large value of the penalty constant and works its way downward. In both settings, inspection of the entire solution path is revealing. Just as with the Lasso and generalized Lasso, it is possible to plot the effective degrees of freedom along the solution path. For a strictly convex quadratic program, the exact penalty algorithm can be framed entirely in terms of the sweep operator of regression analysis. A few well-chosen examples illustrate the mechanics and potential of path following. This article has supplementary materials available online. PMID:24039382

  8. Common-Path Wavefront Sensing for Advanced Coronagraphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Serabyn, Eugene; Mawet, Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    Imaging of faint companions around nearby stars is not limited by either intrinsic resolution of a coronagraph/telescope system, nor is it strictly photon limited. Typically, it is both the magnitude and temporal variation of small phase and amplitude errors imparted to the electric field by elements in the optical system which will limit ultimate performance. Adaptive optics systems, particularly those with multiple deformable mirrors, can remove these errors, but they need to be sensed in the final image plane. If the sensing system is before the final image plane, which is typical for most systems, then the non-common path optics between the wavefront sensor and science image plane will lead to un-sensed errors. However, a new generation of high-performance coronagraphs naturally lend themselves to wavefront sensing in the final image plane. These coronagraphs and the wavefront sensing will be discussed, as well as plans for demonstrating this with a high-contrast system on the ground. Such a system will be a key system-level proof for a future space-based coronagraph mission, which will also be discussed.

  9. Computing Diffeomorphic Paths for Large Motion Interpolation.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dohyung; Jeffrey, Ho; Vemuri, Baba C

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel framework for computing a path of diffeomorphisms between a pair of input diffeomorphisms. Direct computation of a geodesic path on the space of diffeomorphisms Diff (Ω) is difficult, and it can be attributed mainly to the infinite dimensionality of Diff (Ω). Our proposed framework, to some degree, bypasses this difficulty using the quotient map of Diff (Ω) to the quotient space Diff ( M )/ Diff ( M ) μ obtained by quotienting out the subgroup of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms Diff ( M ) μ . This quotient space was recently identified as the unit sphere in a Hilbert space in mathematics literature, a space with well-known geometric properties. Our framework leverages this recent result by computing the diffeomorphic path in two stages. First, we project the given diffeomorphism pair onto this sphere and then compute the geodesic path between these projected points. Second, we lift the geodesic on the sphere back to the space of diffeomerphisms, by solving a quadratic programming problem with bilinear constraints using the augmented Lagrangian technique with penalty terms. In this way, we can estimate the path of diffeomorphisms, first, staying in the space of diffeomorphisms, and second, preserving shapes/volumes in the deformed images along the path as much as possible. We have applied our framework to interpolate intermediate frames of frame-sub-sampled video sequences. In the reported experiments, our approach compares favorably with the popular Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping framework (LDDMM).

  10. Path optimization with limited sensing ability

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sung Ha, E-mail: kang@math.gatech.edu; Kim, Seong Jun, E-mail: skim396@math.gatech.edu; Zhou, Haomin, E-mail: hmzhou@math.gatech.edu

    2015-10-15

    We propose a computational strategy to find the optimal path for a mobile sensor with limited coverage to traverse a cluttered region. The goal is to find one of the shortest feasible paths to achieve the complete scan of the environment. We pose the problem in the level set framework, and first consider a related question of placing multiple stationary sensors to obtain the full surveillance of the environment. By connecting the stationary locations using the nearest neighbor strategy, we form the initial guess for the path planning problem of the mobile sensor. Then the path is optimized by reducingmore » its length, via solving a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), while maintaining the complete scan of the environment. Furthermore, we use intermittent diffusion, which converts the ODEs into stochastic differential equations (SDEs), to find an optimal path whose length is globally minimal. To improve the computation efficiency, we introduce two techniques, one to remove redundant connecting points to reduce the dimension of the system, and the other to deal with the entangled path so the solution can escape the local traps. Numerical examples are shown to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.« less

  11. Optical source and apparatus for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, Donald Barry (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An optical amplifier is configured to amplify an injected seed optical pulse. The optical amplifier may include two or more gain sections coupled to form a continuous solid waveguide along a primary optical path. Each gain section may include: (i) an optical isolator forming an input to that gain section; (ii) a doped optical fiber having a first end coupled to the optical isolator and having a second end; (iii) a plurality of pump laser diodes; (iv) a controller providing drive signals to each of the plurality, the controller being configured to provide at least pulsed drive signals; and (v) an optical coupler having a first input port coupled to the second end, and a second input port coupled to the plurality and an output port.

  12. Low Energy Spectrum of Proximate Kitaev Spin Liquid α -RuCl3 by Terahertz Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Arielle; Wu, Liang; Kelley, Paige; Banerjee, Arnab; Bridges, Craig; Yan, Jiaqiang; Nagler, Stephen; Mandrus, David; Orenstein, Joseph

    A Quantum Spin Liquid (QSL) is an ultra-quantum state of matter with no ordered ground state. Recently, a route to a QSL identified by Kitaev has received a great deal of attention. The compound α -RuCl3, in which Ru atoms form a honeycomb lattice, has been shown to possess Kitaev exchange interactions, although a smaller Heisenberg interaction exists and leads to a zig-zag antiferromagnetic state below 7 K. Because of proximity to the exactly-solvable Kitaev spin-liquid model, this material is considered a potential host for Majorana-like modes. In this work, we use time-domain terahertz (THz) Spectroscopy to probe the low-energy excitations of α -RuCl3. We observe the emergence of a sharp magnetic spin-wave absorption peak below the AFM ordering temperature at 7 K on top of a broad continuum that persists up to room temperature. Additionally we report the polarization dependence of the THz absorption, which reveals optical birefringence, indicating the presence of large monoclinic domains.

  13. SciTech Connect

    Li, Ling; Kolle, Stefan; Weaver, James C.

    Many species rely on diverse selections of entirely organic photonic structures for the manipulation of light and the display of striking colours. Here we report the discovery of a mineralized hierarchical photonic architecture embedded within the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet Patella pellucida. The bright colour of the limpet’s stripes originates from light interference in a periodically layered zig-zag architecture of crystallographically co-oriented calcite lamellae. Beneath the photonic multilayer, a disordered array of light-absorbing particles provides contrast for the blue colour. This unique mineralized manifestation of a synergy of two distinct optical elements at specific locations within the continuummore » of the limpet’s translucent protective shell ensures the vivid shine of the blue stripes, which can be perceived under water from a wide range of viewing angles. The stripes’ reflection band coincides with the spectral range of minimal light absorption in sea water, raising intriguing questions regarding their functional significance.« less

  14. Undulated oxo-centered layers in PbLn3O4(VO4) (Ln= La and Nd) and relationship with Nd4O4(GeO4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmont, Marie; Mentré, Olivier; Henry, Natacha; Pautrat, Alain; Leclercq, Bastien; Capet, Frédéric; Djelal, Nora; Roussel, Pascal

    2018-04-01

    Single crystals of PbLa3O4(VO4) have been synthesized using the flux growth technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure of the tittle phase was solved by charge flipping and refined to R1 = 0.024 (wR2 = 0.031) for 2777 reflections [I>3σ(I)]. The compound is orthorhombic and crystallized in the space group Cmcm: a = 5.8686(6)Å, b = 17.898(2)Å, c = 7.9190(7)Å, V = 831.8(1)Å3, Z = 4. The structure is built on [PbLa3O4]3+ layers with zig-zag cross-sections, surrounded by isolated (VO4)3- tetrahedra. Its crystal structure shows direct relationship with the isoformular Nd4O4(GeO4) compound which crystallized in the primitive non centrosymmetric Pb21m sub-group. Its stability in temperature and under air was checked as well as optical properties. In a second part, lanthanum was substituted by neodymium giving rise to a paramagnet and f→ f electronic excitations superposed to the broad absorption front below 3.05 eV related to the presence of VO4 groups.

  15. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Ling; Kolle, Stefan; Weaver, James C.; ...

    2015-02-26

    Many species rely on diverse selections of entirely organic photonic structures for the manipulation of light and the display of striking colours. Here we report the discovery of a mineralized hierarchical photonic architecture embedded within the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet Patella pellucida. The bright colour of the limpet’s stripes originates from light interference in a periodically layered zig-zag architecture of crystallographically co-oriented calcite lamellae. Beneath the photonic multilayer, a disordered array of light-absorbing particles provides contrast for the blue colour. This unique mineralized manifestation of a synergy of two distinct optical elements at specific locations within the continuummore » of the limpet’s translucent protective shell ensures the vivid shine of the blue stripes, which can be perceived under water from a wide range of viewing angles. The stripes’ reflection band coincides with the spectral range of minimal light absorption in sea water, raising intriguing questions regarding their functional significance.« less

  16. Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering in highly scattering random media: The transition to diffusing wave spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizheva, Kostadinka K.; Siegel, Andy M.; Boas, David A.

    1998-12-01

    We used low coherence interferometry to measure Brownian motion within highly scattering random media. A coherence gate was applied to resolve the optical path-length distribution and to separate ballistic from diffusive light. Our experimental analysis provides details on the transition from single scattering to light diffusion and its dependence on the system parameters. We found that the transition to the light diffusion regime occurs at shorter path lengths for media with higher scattering anisotropy or for larger numerical aperture of the focusing optics.

  17. [System design of open-path natural gas leakage detection based on Fresnel lens].

    PubMed

    Xia, Hui; Liu, Wen-Qing; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Kan, Rui-Feng; Cui, Yi-Ben; Wang, Min; He, Ying; Cui, Xiao-Juan; Ruan, Jun; Geng, Hui

    2009-03-01

    Based on the technology of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) in conjunction with second harmonic wave detection, a long open-path TDLAS system using a 1.65 microm InGaAsP distributed feedback laser was developed, which is used for detecting pipeline leakage. In this system, a high cost performance Fresnel lens is used as the receiving optical system, which receives the laser-beam reflected by a solid corner cube reflector, and focuses the receiving laser-beam to the InGaAs detector. At the same time, the influences of the concentration to the fluctuation of light intensity were taken into account in the process of measurement, and were eliminated by the method of normalized light intensity. As a result, the measurement error caused by the fluctuation of light intensity was made less than 1%. The experiment of natural gas leakage detection was simulated, and the detection sensitivity is 0.1 x 10(-6) (ratio by volume) with a total path of 320 m. According to the receiving light efficiency of the optical system and the detectable minimum light intensity of the detector, the detectable maximal optical path of the system was counted to be 2 000 m. The results of experiment show that it is a feasible design to use the Fresnel lens as the receiving optical system and can satisfy the demand of the leakage detection of natural gas.

  18. Raman scattering in a whispering mode optical waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1982-01-01

    A device and method for Raman scattering in a whispering mode optical waveguide. Both a helical ribbon and cylinder are disclosed which incorporate an additional curvature .rho. p for confining the beam to increase intensity. A Raman scattering medium is disposed in the optical path of the beam as it propagates along the waveguide. Raman scattering is enhanced by the high intensities of the beam and long interaction path lengths which are achieved in a small volume.

  19. Method and apparatus for optical communication by frequency modulation

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, Gordon J.

    1988-01-01

    Laser optical communication according to this invention is carried out by producing multi-frequency laser beams having different frequencies, splitting one or more of these constituent beams into reference and signal beams, encoding information on the signal beams by frequency modulation and detecting the encoded information by heterodyne techniques. Much more information can be transmitted over optical paths according to the present invention than with the use of only one path as done previously.

  20. Selective influence of prior allocentric knowledge on the kinesthetic learning of a path.

    PubMed

    Lafon, Matthieu; Vidal, Manuel; Berthoz, Alain

    2009-04-01

    Spatial cognition studies have described two main cognitive strategies involved in the memorization of traveled paths in human navigation. One of these strategies uses the action-based memory (egocentric) of the traveled route or paths, which involves kinesthetic memory, optic flow, and episodic memory, whereas the other strategy privileges a survey memory of cartographic type (allocentric). Most studies have dealt with these two strategies separately, but none has tried to show the interaction between them in spite of the fact that we commonly use a map to imagine our journey and then proceed using egocentric navigation. An interesting question is therefore: how does prior allocentric knowledge of the environment affect the egocentric, purely kinesthetic navigation processes involved in human navigation? We designed an experiment in which blindfolded subjects had first to walk and memorize a path with kinesthetic cues only. They had previously been shown a map of the path, which was either correct or distorted (consistent shrinking or growing). The latter transformations were studied in order to observe what influence a distorted prior knowledge could have on spatial mechanisms. After having completed the first learning travel along the path, they had to perform several spatial tasks during the testing phase: (1) pointing towards the origin and (2) to specific points encountered along the path, (3) a free locomotor reproduction, and (4) a drawing of the memorized path. The results showed that prior cartographic knowledge influences the paths drawn and the spatial inference capacity, whereas neither locomotor reproduction nor spatial updating was disturbed. Our results strongly support the notion that (1) there are two independent neural bases underlying these mechanisms: a map-like representation allowing allocentric spatial inferences, and a kinesthetic memory of self-motion in space; and (2) a common use of, or a switching between, these two strategies is

  1. Optical Carry Adder.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    AOM’s) with the deflected beam as the modulator "on" state. These AOM’s ( TeO2 crystals, manufactured by Newport E.O. Systems) have high deflection...caused by the slow acoustic propagation (4.2 - 105 cm/s for TeO2 ), but this delay can be minimized by placing the laser beam close to the acoustic...dependent jitter in the optical carry to below 1 ns, the total carry path must be less than 30 cm long (or 20 cm in glass , 14 cm in LiNbO 3). Thus, a 32

  2. Optical fibers for the distribution of frequency and timing references

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    An optical fiber communications link was installed for the purpose of evaluating the applicability of optical fiber technology to the distribution of frequency and timing reference signals. It incorporated a 1.5km length of optical fiber cable containing two multimode optical fibers. The two fibers were welded together at one end of the cable to attain a path length of 3km. Preliminary measurements made on this link, including Allan variance and power spectral density of phase noise are reported.

  3. Light absorption cell combining variable path and length pump

    DOEpatents

    Prather, W.S.

    1993-12-07

    A device is described for use in making spectrophotometric measurements of fluid samples. In particular, the device is a measurement cell containing a movable and a fixed lens with a sample of the fluid there between and through which light shines. The cell is connected to a source of light and a spectrophotometer via optic fibers. Movement of the lens varies the path length and also pumps the fluid into and out of the cell. Unidirectional inlet and exit valves cooperate with the movable lens to assure a one-way flow of fluid through the cell. A linear stepper motor controls the movement of the lens and cycles it from a first position closer to the fixed lens and a second position farther from the fixed lens, preferably at least 10 times per minute for a nearly continuous stream of absorption spectrum data. 2 figures.

  4. Light absorption cell combining variable path and length pump

    DOEpatents

    Prather, William S.

    1993-01-01

    A device for use in making spectrophotometric measurements of fluid samples. In particular, the device is a measurement cell containing a movable and a fixed lens with a sample of the fluid therebetween and through which light shines. The cell is connected to a source of light and a spectrophotometer via optic fibers. Movement of the lens varies the path length and also pumps the fluid into and out of the cell. Unidirectional inlet and exit valves cooperate with the movable lens to assure a one-way flow of fluid through the cell. A linear stepper motor controls the movement of the lens and cycles it from a first position closer to the fixed lens and a second position farther from the fixed lens, preferably at least 10 times per minute for a nearly continuous stream of absorption spectrum data.

  5. Common path point diffraction interferometer using liquid crystal phase shifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A common path point diffraction interferometer uses dyed, parallel nematic liquid crystals which surround an optically transparent microsphere. Coherent, collimated and polarized light is focused on the microsphere at a diameter larger than that of the microsphere. A portion of the focused light passes through the microsphere to form a spherical wavefront reference beam and the rest of the light is attenuated by the dyed liquid crystals to form an object beam. The two beams form an interferogram which is imaged by a lens onto an electronic array sensor and into a computer which determines the wavefront of the object beam. The computer phase shifts the interferogram by stepping up an AC voltage applied across the liquid crystals without affecting the reference beam.

  6. High temperature, minimally invasive optical sensing modules

    DOEpatents

    Riza, Nabeel Agha [Oviedo, FL; Perez, Frank [Tujunga, CA

    2008-02-05

    A remote temperature sensing system includes a light source selectively producing light at two different wavelengths and a sensor device having an optical path length that varies as a function of temperature. The sensor receives light emitted by the light source and redirects the light along the optical path length. The system also includes a detector receiving redirected light from the sensor device and generating respective signals indicative of respective intensities of received redirected light corresponding to respective wavelengths of light emitted by the light source. The system also includes a processor processing the signals generated by the detector to calculate a temperature of the device.

  7. Patch-based frame interpolation for old films via the guidance of motion paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Tianran; Ding, Youdong; Yu, Bing; Huang, Xi

    2018-04-01

    Due to improper preservation, traditional films will appear frame loss after digital. To deal with this problem, this paper presents a new adaptive patch-based method of frame interpolation via the guidance of motion paths. Our method is divided into three steps. Firstly, we compute motion paths between two reference frames using optical flow estimation. Then, the adaptive bidirectional interpolation with holes filled is applied to generate pre-intermediate frames. Finally, using patch match to interpolate intermediate frames with the most similar patches. Since the patch match is based on the pre-intermediate frames that contain the motion paths constraint, we show a natural and inartificial frame interpolation. We test different types of old film sequences and compare with other methods, the results prove that our method has a desired performance without hole or ghost effects.

  8. Minimal entropy probability paths between genome families.

    PubMed

    Ahlbrandt, Calvin; Benson, Gary; Casey, William

    2004-05-01

    We develop a metric for probability distributions with applications to biological sequence analysis. Our distance metric is obtained by minimizing a functional defined on the class of paths over probability measures on N categories. The underlying mathematical theory is connected to a constrained problem in the calculus of variations. The solution presented is a numerical solution, which approximates the true solution in a set of cases called rich paths where none of the components of the path is zero. The functional to be minimized is motivated by entropy considerations, reflecting the idea that nature might efficiently carry out mutations of genome sequences in such a way that the increase in entropy involved in transformation is as small as possible. We characterize sequences by frequency profiles or probability vectors, in the case of DNA where N is 4 and the components of the probability vector are the frequency of occurrence of each of the bases A, C, G and T. Given two probability vectors a and b, we define a distance function based as the infimum of path integrals of the entropy function H( p) over all admissible paths p(t), 0 < or = t< or =1, with p(t) a probability vector such that p(0)=a and p(1)=b. If the probability paths p(t) are parameterized as y(s) in terms of arc length s and the optimal path is smooth with arc length L, then smooth and "rich" optimal probability paths may be numerically estimated by a hybrid method of iterating Newton's method on solutions of a two point boundary value problem, with unknown distance L between the abscissas, for the Euler-Lagrange equations resulting from a multiplier rule for the constrained optimization problem together with linear regression to improve the arc length estimate L. Matlab code for these numerical methods is provided which works only for "rich" optimal probability vectors. These methods motivate a definition of an elementary distance function which is easier and faster to calculate, works on non

  9. Path optimization method for the sign problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Akira; Mori, Yuto; Kashiwa, Kouji

    2018-03-01

    We propose a path optimization method (POM) to evade the sign problem in the Monte-Carlo calculations for complex actions. Among many approaches to the sign problem, the Lefschetz-thimble path-integral method and the complex Langevin method are promising and extensively discussed. In these methods, real field variables are complexified and the integration manifold is determined by the flow equations or stochastically sampled. When we have singular points of the action or multiple critical points near the original integral surface, however, we have a risk to encounter the residual and global sign problems or the singular drift term problem. One of the ways to avoid the singular points is to optimize the integration path which is designed not to hit the singular points of the Boltzmann weight. By specifying the one-dimensional integration-path as z = t +if(t)(f ɛ R) and by optimizing f(t) to enhance the average phase factor, we demonstrate that we can avoid the sign problem in a one-variable toy model for which the complex Langevin method is found to fail. In this proceedings, we propose POM and discuss how we can avoid the sign problem in a toy model. We also discuss the possibility to utilize the neural network to optimize the path.

  10. Perfect discretization of reparametrization invariant path integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, Benjamin; Dittrich, Bianca; Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2011-05-01

    To obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of gravity and reparametrization-invariant systems, the latter of which we consider here as a toy example, discretizations generically break diffeomorphism and reparametrization symmetry, respectively. This has severe implications, as these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. Indeed we will show that a discretized path integral with reparametrization-invariance is necessarily also discretization independent and therefore uniquely determined by the corresponding continuum quantum mechanical propagator. We use this insight to develop an iterative method for constructing such a discretized path integral, akin to a Wilsonian RG flow. This allows us to address the problem of discretization ambiguities and of an anomaly-free path integral measure for such systems. The latter is needed to obtain a path integral, that can act as a projector onto the physical states, satisfying the quantum constraints. We will comment on implications for discrete quantum gravity models, such as spin foams.

  11. Wave-Optics Analysis of Pupil Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Bruce H.; Bos, Brent J.

    2006-01-01

    Pupil imaging performance is analyzed from the perspective of physical optics. A multi-plane diffraction model is constructed by propagating the scalar electromagnetic field, surface by surface, along the optical path comprising the pupil imaging optical system. Modeling results are compared with pupil images collected in the laboratory. The experimental setup, although generic for pupil imaging systems in general, has application to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) optical system characterization where the pupil images are used as a constraint to the wavefront sensing and control process. Practical design considerations follow from the diffraction modeling which are discussed in the context of the JWST Observatory.

  12. A Unified Model of Heading and Path Perception in Primate MSTd

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Oliver W.; Browning, N. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Self-motion, steering, and obstacle avoidance during navigation in the real world require humans to travel along curved paths. Many perceptual models have been proposed that focus on heading, which specifies the direction of travel along straight paths, but not on path curvature, which humans accurately perceive and is critical to everyday locomotion. In primates, including humans, dorsal medial superior temporal area (MSTd) has been implicated in heading perception. However, the majority of MSTd neurons respond optimally to spiral patterns, rather than to the radial expansion patterns associated with heading. No existing theory of curved path perception explains the neural mechanisms by which humans accurately assess path and no functional role for spiral-tuned cells has yet been proposed. Here we present a computational model that demonstrates how the continuum of observed cells (radial to circular) in MSTd can simultaneously code curvature and heading across the neural population. Curvature is encoded through the spirality of the most active cell, and heading is encoded through the visuotopic location of the center of the most active cell's receptive field. Model curvature and heading errors fit those made by humans. Our model challenges the view that the function of MSTd is heading estimation, based on our analysis we claim that it is primarily concerned with trajectory estimation and the simultaneous representation of both curvature and heading. In our model, temporal dynamics afford time-history in the neural representation of optic flow, which may modulate its structure. This has far-reaching implications for the interpretation of studies that assume that optic flow is, and should be, represented as an instantaneous vector field. Our results suggest that spiral motion patterns that emerge in spatio-temporal optic flow are essential for guiding self-motion along complex trajectories, and that cells in MSTd are specifically tuned to extract complex trajectory

  13. Multispectral scanner optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, R. C.; Koch, N. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An optical system for use in a multispectral scanner of the type used in video imaging devices is disclosed. Electromagnetic radiation reflected by a rotating scan mirror is focused by a concave primary telescope mirror and collimated by a second concave mirror. The collimated beam is split by a dichroic filter which transmits radiant energy in the infrared spectrum and reflects visible and near infrared energy. The long wavelength beam is filtered and focused on an infrared detector positioned in a cryogenic environment. The short wavelength beam is dispersed by a pair of prisms, then projected on an array of detectors also mounted in a cryogenic environment and oriented at an angle relative to the optical path of the dispersed short wavelength beam.

  14. Obtaining tight bounds on higher-order interferences with a 5-path interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauten, Thomas; Keil, Robert; Kaufmann, Thomas; Pressl, Benedikt; Brukner, Časlav; Weihs, Gregor

    2017-03-01

    Within the established theoretical framework of quantum mechanics, interference always occurs between pairs of paths through an interferometer. Higher order interferences with multiple constituents are excluded by Born’s rule and can only exist in generalized probabilistic theories. Thus, high-precision experiments searching for such higher order interferences are a powerful method to distinguish between quantum mechanics and more general theories. Here, we perform such a test in an optical multi-path interferometer, which avoids crucial systematic errors, has access to the entire phase space and is more stable than previous experiments. Our results are in accordance with quantum mechanics and rule out the existence of higher order interference terms in optical interferometry to an extent that is more than four orders of magnitude smaller than the expected pairwise interference, refining previous bounds by two orders of magnitude.

  15. A taxonomy of integral reaction path analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grcar, Joseph F.; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.

    2004-12-23

    W. C. Gardiner observed that achieving understanding through combustion modeling is limited by the ability to recognize the implications of what has been computed and to draw conclusions about the elementary steps underlying the reaction mechanism. This difficulty can be overcome in part by making better use of reaction path analysis in the context of multidimensional flame simulations. Following a survey of current practice, an integral reaction flux is formulated in terms of conserved scalars that can be calculated in a fully automated way. Conditional analyses are then introduced, and a taxonomy for bidirectional path analysis is explored. Many examplesmore » illustrate the resulting path analysis and uncover some new results about nonpremixed methane-air laminar jets.« less

  16. Circular common-path point diffraction interferometer.

    PubMed

    Du, Yongzhao; Feng, Guoying; Li, Hongru; Vargas, J; Zhou, Shouhuan

    2012-10-01

    A simple and compact point-diffraction interferometer with circular common-path geometry configuration is developed. The interferometer is constructed by a beam-splitter, two reflection mirrors, and a telescope system composed by two lenses. The signal and reference waves travel along the same path. Furthermore, an opaque mask containing a reference pinhole and a test object holder or test window is positioned in the common focal plane of the telescope system. The object wave is divided into two beams that take opposite paths along the interferometer. The reference wave is filtered by the reference pinhole, while the signal wave is transmitted through the object holder. The reference and signal waves are combined again in the beam-splitter and their interference is imaged in the CCD. The new design is compact, vibration insensitive, and suitable for the measurement of moving objects or dynamic processes.

  17. Paths to Licensure: Things Physicists Should Know

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Gay; Stewart, John

    2016-03-01

    The path to licensure can be quite complicated, and can thwart a physics department's efforts to produce more and better prepared high school physics teachers. Each state has different pathways to licensure. Acronyms like CAEP and SPA are not within the normal physicist's vocabulary. Some understanding of this topic can allow physics faculty advisers to help our students so that fewer are derailed on their path to the classroom, or take a path that will leave them less well prepared if they do find themselves there. Examples of different approaches that work within state licensure systems from two different states will be presented. Physics teacher preparation efforts in both Arkansas and West Virginia have been supported in part by the Physics Teacher Education Coalition (PhysTEC).

  18. Aero-Optical Wavefront Propagation and Refractive Fluid Interfaces in Large-Reynolds-Number Compressible Turbulent Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-31

    are utilized with the eikonal equation of geometrical optics to propagate computationally the optical wavefronts in the near field. As long as the...aero-optical interactions. In terms of the refractive index field n and the optical path length (OPL), the eikonal equation is: |∇ (OPL)| = n , (9) (e.g...ray n(`, t) d` . (10) The OPL integral corresponds to inverting the eikonal equation 9. The physical distance along the beam propagation path for

  19. A Dynamic Bayesian Observer Model Reveals Origins of Bias in Visual Path Integration.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarasimhan, Kaushik J; Petsalis, Marina; Park, Hyeshin; DeAngelis, Gregory C; Pitkow, Xaq; Angelaki, Dora E

    2018-06-20

    Path integration is a strategy by which animals track their position by integrating their self-motion velocity. To identify the computational origins of bias in visual path integration, we asked human subjects to navigate in a virtual environment using optic flow and found that they generally traveled beyond the goal location. Such a behavior could stem from leaky integration of unbiased self-motion velocity estimates or from a prior expectation favoring slower speeds that causes velocity underestimation. Testing both alternatives using a probabilistic framework that maximizes expected reward, we found that subjects' biases were better explained by a slow-speed prior than imperfect integration. When subjects integrate paths over long periods, this framework intriguingly predicts a distance-dependent bias reversal due to buildup of uncertainty, which we also confirmed experimentally. These results suggest that visual path integration in noisy environments is limited largely by biases in processing optic flow rather than by leaky integration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Teaching quantum physics by the sum over paths approach and GeoGebra simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malgieri, M.; Onorato, P.; De Ambrosis, A.

    2014-09-01

    We present a research-based teaching sequence in introductory quantum physics using the Feynman sum over paths approach. Our reconstruction avoids the historical pathway, and starts by reconsidering optics from the standpoint of the quantum nature of light, analysing both traditional and modern experiments. The core of our educational path lies in the treatment of conceptual and epistemological themes, peculiar of quantum theory, based on evidence from quantum optics, such as the single photon Mach-Zehnder and Zhou-Wang-Mandel experiments. The sequence is supported by a collection of interactive simulations, realized in the open source GeoGebra environment, which we used to assist students in learning the basics of the method, and help them explore the proposed experimental situations as modeled in the sum over paths perspective. We tested our approach in the context of a post-graduate training course for pre-service physics teachers; according to the data we collected, student teachers displayed a greatly improved understanding of conceptual issues, and acquired significant abilities in using the sum over path method for problem solving.

  1. Tornado Intensity Estimated from Damage Path Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Elsner, James B.; Jagger, Thomas H.; Elsner, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s−1 for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93) [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width. PMID:25229242

  2. Tornado intensity estimated from damage path dimensions.

    PubMed

    Elsner, James B; Jagger, Thomas H; Elsner, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s(-1) for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93) [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width.

  3. Which coordinate system for modelling path integration?

    PubMed

    Vickerstaff, Robert J; Cheung, Allen

    2010-03-21

    Path integration is a navigation strategy widely observed in nature where an animal maintains a running estimate, called the home vector, of its location during an excursion. Evidence suggests it is both ancient and ubiquitous in nature, and has been studied for over a century. In that time, canonical and neural network models have flourished, based on a wide range of assumptions, justifications and supporting data. Despite the importance of the phenomenon, consensus and unifying principles appear lacking. A fundamental issue is the neural representation of space needed for biological path integration. This paper presents a scheme to classify path integration systems on the basis of the way the home vector records and updates the spatial relationship between the animal and its home location. Four extended classes of coordinate systems are used to unify and review both canonical and neural network models of path integration, from the arthropod and mammalian literature. This scheme demonstrates analytical equivalence between models which may otherwise appear unrelated, and distinguishes between models which may superficially appear similar. A thorough analysis is carried out of the equational forms of important facets of path integration including updating, steering, searching and systematic errors, using each of the four coordinate systems. The type of available directional cue, namely allothetic or idiothetic, is also considered. It is shown that on balance, the class of home vectors which includes the geocentric Cartesian coordinate system, appears to be the most robust for biological systems. A key conclusion is that deducing computational structure from behavioural data alone will be difficult or impossible, at least in the absence of an analysis of random errors. Consequently it is likely that further theoretical insights into path integration will require an in-depth study of the effect of noise on the four classes of home vectors. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd

  4. Converging Towards the Optimal Path to Extinction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    the reproductive rate R0 should be greater than but very close to 1. However, most real diseases have R0 larger than 1.5, which translates into a...can analytically find an expression for the action along the optimal path. The expression for the action is a function of k and the reproductive number...the optimal path for a range of values of the reproductive number R0. In contrast to the prior two examples, here the action must be computed

  5. Finding False Paths in Sequential Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrosova, A. Yu.; Andreeva, V. V.; Chernyshov, S. V.; Rozhkova, S. V.; Kudin, D. V.

    2018-02-01

    Method of finding false paths in sequential circuits is developed. In contrast with heuristic approaches currently used abroad, the precise method based on applying operations on Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (ROBDDs) extracted from the combinational part of a sequential controlling logic circuit is suggested. The method allows finding false paths when transfer sequence length is not more than the given value and obviates the necessity of investigation of combinational circuit equivalents of the given lengths. The possibilities of using of the developed method for more complicated circuits are discussed.

  6. Local Free Space Mapping and Path Guidance,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Free Space Mapping and Path Guidance 12. PERSONIAL UTI4OFS) William T. Cex and Nancy L. Campbell 1s. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. iME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT...84 JAN 52 A" 1OMON MAYBOfUSED NMlLEMIAUSTEO UNCLASSIFIED ALL OTHE EDTIN A’.SL Y2.7cesson For 7 *5~ IT D, TA ........... iCL ... . LOCAL FREE SPACE ... MAPPING AND PATH GUIDANCE By Distribuition/ Availabiliuy C0e William T. Gex and Nancy L. Campbell I Avail and/or Naval Ocean Systems Center ist speci1 l

  7. NASA's Flexible Path for the Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, James F.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of human exploration of Mars has been a topic in science fiction for close to a century. For the past 50 years it has been a major thrust in NASAs space mission planning. Currently, NASA is pursuing a flexible development path with the final goal to have humans on Mars. To reach Mars, new hardware will have to be developed and many technology hurdles will have to be overcome. This presentation discusses Mars and its Moons; the flexible path currently being followed; the hardware under development to support exploration; and the technical and organizational challenges that must be overcome to realize the age old dream of humans traveling to Mars.

  8. Mars PathFinder Rover Traverse Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This figure contains an azimuth-elevation projection of the 'Gallery Panorama.' The original Simple Cylindrical mosaic has been reprojected to the inside of a sphere so that lines of constant azimuth radiate from the center and lines of constant elevation are concentric circles. This projection preserves the resolution of the original panorama. Overlaid onto the projected Martian surface is a delineation of the Sojourner rover traverse path during the 83 Sols (Martian days) of Pathfinder surface operations. The rover path was reproduced using IMP camera 'end of day' and 'Rover movie' image sequences and rover vehicle telemetry data as references.

  9. Exploring Career Paths. A Guide for Students and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This five-section guide is designed to help students and their parents explore career paths. The first part of the guide is an introduction to the concept of career paths and an explanation of the steps students follow in exploring career paths. The second section, which makes up most of the booklet, covers five steps for exploring career paths:…

  10. Channel Capacity Calculation at Large SNR and Small Dispersion within Path-Integral Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznichenko, A. V.; Terekhov, I. S.

    2018-04-01

    We consider the optical fiber channel modelled by the nonlinear Shrödinger equation with additive white Gaussian noise. Using Feynman path-integral approach for the model with small dispersion we find the first nonzero corrections to the conditional probability density function and the channel capacity estimations at large signal-to-noise ratio. We demonstrate that the correction to the channel capacity in small dimensionless dispersion parameter is quadratic and positive therefore increasing the earlier calculated capacity for a nondispersive nonlinear optical fiber channel in the intermediate power region. Also for small dispersion case we find the analytical expressions for simple correlators of the output signals in our noisy channel.

  11. An Experimental Device for Real Time Determination of Slant Path Atmospheric Contrast Transmittance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    copies ftom th Defense Technical Information Caster. AN others ioM apply to the National Technical Information Service. UNCLASSIFIED SECURITV...EXPERIMENTAL DEVICE FOR REAL TIME DETERMINATION OF SLANT PATH ATMOSPHERIC CONTRAST TRANSMITTANCE Richard W. Johnson 1. INTRODUCTION 2. BASIC CONCEPTS As...and z is an altitude parameter. primary optical channel uses a cosine corrected and PE- ASSIG SYSTM DEPIS1ttt STAGE I DSIN STAGEM Pgormiy TES

  12. Full optical model of micro-endoscope with optical coherence microscopy, multiphoton microscopy and visible capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, David; Kiekens, Kelli C.; Syson, Nikolas C.; Romano, Gabriella; Baker, Tressa; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2018-02-01

    While Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM), Multiphoton Microscopy (MPM), and narrowband imaging are powerful imaging techniques that can be used to detect cancer, each imaging technique has limitations when used by itself. Combining them into an endoscope to work in synergy can help achieve high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis at the point of care. Such complex endoscopes have an elevated risk of failure, and performing proper modelling ensures functionality and minimizes risk. We present full 2D and 3D models of a multimodality optical micro-endoscope to provide real-time detection of carcinomas, called a salpingoscope. The models evaluate the endoscope illumination and light collection capabilities of various modalities. The design features two optical paths with different numerical apertures (NA) through a single lens system with a scanning optical fiber. The dual path is achieved using dichroic coatings embedded in a triplet. A high NA optical path is designed to perform OCM and MPM while a low NA optical path is designed for the visible spectrum to navigate the endoscope to areas of interest and narrowband imaging. Different tests such as the reflectance profile of homogeneous epithelial tissue were performed to adjust the models properly. Light collection models for the different modalities were created and tested for efficiency. While it is challenging to evaluate the efficiency of multimodality endoscopes, the models ensure that the system is design for the expected light collection levels to provide detectable signal to work for the intended imaging.

  13. Optical Eigenvector.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    it necessary and identify by blckci -. mbrr, ’At tile bneginninp, of this contract , bot], -,-j- .lc the rest of the optical community imagined * that...simple analog optical computer,, could produce satisfactory solutions to elgenproblems. Earl’ - in this contract we improved optical computing... contract both we and the rest of the optical community imagined that simple analog optical computers could produce . satisfactory solutions to

  14. Optical microspectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2004-05-25

    An optical microspectrometer comprises a grism to disperse the spectra in a line object. A single optical microspectrometer can be used to sequentially scan a planar object, such as a dye-tagged microchip. Because the optical microspectrometer is very compact, multiple optical microspectrometers can be arrayed to provide simultaneous readout across the width of the planar object The optical microspectrometer can be fabricated with lithographic process, such as deep X-ray lithography (DXRL), with as few as two perpendicular exposures.

  15. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.

    1992-01-01

    The present calculations of the performance of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters (FADOF) on IR transitions indicate that such filters may furnish high transmission, narrow-pass bandwidth, and low equivalent noise bandwidth under optimum operating conditions. A FADOF consists of an atomic vapor cell between crossed polarizers that are subject to a dc magnetic field along the optical path; when linearly polarized light travels along the direction of the magnetic field through the dispersive atomic vapor, a polarization rotation occurs. If FADOF conditions are suitably adjusted, a maximum transmission with very narrow bandwidth is obtained.

  16. Scanning optical microscope with long working distance objective

    DOEpatents

    Cloutier, Sylvain G.

    2010-10-19

    A scanning optical microscope, including: a light source to generate a beam of probe light; collimation optics to substantially collimate the probe beam; a probe-result beamsplitter; a long working-distance, infinity-corrected objective; scanning means to scan a beam spot of the focused probe beam on or within a sample; relay optics; and a detector. The collimation optics are disposed in the probe beam. The probe-result beamsplitter is arranged in the optical paths of the probe beam and the resultant light from the sample. The beamsplitter reflects the probe beam into the objective and transmits resultant light. The long working-distance, infinity-corrected objective is also arranged in the optical paths of the probe beam and the resultant light. It focuses the reflected probe beam onto the sample, and collects and substantially collimates the resultant light. The relay optics are arranged to relay the transmitted resultant light from the beamsplitter to the detector.

  17. A Comparison of Two Path Planners for Planetary Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarokh, M.; Shiller, Z.; Hayati, S.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents two path planners suitable for planetary rovers. The first is based on fuzzy description of the terrain, and genetic algorithm to find a traversable path in a rugged terrain. The second planner uses a global optimization method with a cost function that is the path distance divided by the velocity limit obtained from the consideration of the rover static and dynamic stability. A description of both methods is provided, and the results of paths produced are given which show the effectiveness of the path planners in finding near optimal paths. The features of the methods and their suitability and application for rover path planning are compared

  18. Optical sensor of magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Butler, M.A.; Martin, S.J.

    1986-03-25

    An optical magnetic field strength sensor for measuring the field strength of a magnetic field comprising a dilute magnetic semi-conductor probe having first and second ends, longitudinally positioned in the magnetic field for providing Faraday polarization rotation of light passing therethrough relative to the strength of the magnetic field. Light provided by a remote light source is propagated through an optical fiber coupler and a single optical fiber strand between the probe and the light source for providing a light path therebetween. A polarizer and an apparatus for rotating the polarization of the light is provided in the light path and a reflector is carried by the second end of the probe for reflecting the light back through the probe and thence through the polarizer to the optical coupler. A photo detector apparatus is operably connected to the optical coupler for detecting and measuring the intensity of the reflected light and comparing same to the light source intensity whereby the magnetic field strength may be calculated.

  19. Optical mounts for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimovich, Mark E.; Griffee, Jonathan C.; Goodding, James C.

    2009-08-01

    Development and testing of a lightweight-kinematic optical mount with integrated passive vibration-and-shock mitigation technologies and simple / robust optical alignment functionality is presented. Traditionally, optical mounts are designed for use in laboratory environments where the thermal-mechanical environments are carefully controlled to preserve beam path conditions and background disturbances are minimized to facilitate precise optically based measurements. Today's weapon and surveillance systems, however, have optical sensor suites where static and dynamic alignment performance in the presence of harsh operating environments is required to nearly the same precision and where the system cannot afford the mass of laboratory-grade stabilized mounting systems. Jitter and alignment stability is particularly challenging for larger optics operating within moving vehicles and aircraft where high shock and significant temperature excursions occur. The design intent is to have the mount be suitable for integration into existing defense and security optical systems while also targeting new commercial and military components for improved structural dynamic and thermal distortion performance. A mount suitable for moderate-sized optics and an integrated disturbance-optical metrology system are described. The mount design has performance enhancements derived from the integration of proven aerospace mechanical vibration and shock mitigation technologies (i.e. multi-axis passive isolation and integral damping), precision alignment adjustment and lock-out functionality, high dimensional stability materials and design practices which provide benign optical surface figure errors under harsh thermal-mechanical loading. Optical jitter, alignment, and wave-front performance testing of an eight-inch-aperture optical mount based on this design approach are presented to validate predicted performance improvements over an existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) design.

  20. A multi-ring optical packet and circuit integrated network with optical buffering.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Hideaki; Shinada, Satoshi; Miyazawa, Takaya; Harai, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Wataru; Saito, Tatsuhiko; Matsunaga, Koji; Toyozumi, Tatuya; Wada, Naoya

    2012-12-17

    We newly developed a 3 × 3 integrated optical packet and circuit switch-node. Optical buffers and burst-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifiers with the gain flatness are installed in the 3 × 3 switch-node. The optical buffer can prevent packet collisions and decrease packet loss. We constructed a multi-ring optical packet and circuit integrated network testbed connecting two single-ring networks and a client network by the 3 × 3 switch-node. For the first time, we demonstrated 244 km fiber transmission and 5-node hopping of multiplexed 14-wavelength 10 Gbps optical paths and 100 Gbps optical packets encapsulating 10 Gigabit Ethernet frames on the testbed. Error-free (frame error rate < 1 × 10(-4)) operation was achieved with optical packets of various packet lengths. In addition, successful avoidance of packet collisions by optical buffers was confirmed.

  1. Long-distance thermal temporal ghost imaging over optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Hao; You, Lixing; Wang, Zhen; Huang, Yidong

    2018-02-01

    A thermal ghost imaging scheme between two distant parties is proposed and experimentally demonstrated over long-distance optical fibers. In the scheme, the weak thermal light is split into two paths. Photons in one path are spatially diffused according to their frequencies by a spatial dispersion component, then illuminate the object and record its spatial transmission information. Photons in the other path are temporally diffused by a temporal dispersion component. By the coincidence measurement between photons of two paths, the object can be imaged in a way of ghost imaging, based on the frequency correlation between photons in the two paths. In the experiment, the weak thermal light source is prepared by the spontaneous four-wave mixing in a silicon waveguide. The temporal dispersion is introduced by single mode fibers of 50 km, which also could be looked as a fiber link. Experimental results show that this scheme can be realized over long-distance optical fibers.

  2. Portable open-path chemical sensor using a quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, Paul; Lwin, Maung; Huntley, Reuven; Chhabra, Amandeep; Moshary, Fred; Gross, Barry; Ahmed, Samir

    2009-05-01

    Remote sensing of enemy installations or their movements by trace gas detection is a critical but challenging military objective. Open path measurements over ranges of a few meters to many kilometers with sensitivity in the parts per million or billion regime are crucial in anticipating the presence of a threat. Previous approaches to detect ground level chemical plumes, explosive constituents, or combustion have relied on low-resolution, short range Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), or low-sensitivity near-infrared differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). As mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) sources have improved in cost and performance, systems based on QCL's that can be tailored to monitor multiple chemical species in real time are becoming a viable alternative. We present the design of a portable, high-resolution, multi-kilometer open path trace gas sensor based on QCL technology. Using a tunable (1045-1047cm-1) QCL, a modeled atmosphere and link-budget analysis with commercial component specifications, we show that with this approach, accuracy in parts per billion ozone or ammonia can be obtained in seconds at path lengths up to 10 km. We have assembled an open-path QCL sensor based on this theoretical approach at City College of New York, and we present preliminary results demonstrating the potential of QCLs in open-path sensing applications.

  3. Optically tunable optical filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Robert T. B.; Wah, Christopher; Iizuka, Keigo; Shimotahira, Hiroshi

    1995-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an optically tunable optical filter that uses photorefractive barium titanate. With our filter we implement a spectrum analyzer at 632.8 nm with a resolution of 1.2 nm. We simulate a wavelength-division multiplexing system by separating two semiconductor laser diodes, at 1560 nm and 1578 nm, with the same filter. The filter has a bandwidth of 6.9 nm. We also use the same filter to take 2.5-nm-wide slices out of a 20-nm-wide superluminescent diode centered at 840 nm. As a result, we experimentally demonstrate a phenomenal tuning range from 632.8 to 1578 nm with a single filtering device.

  4. Evanescent-wave photoacoustic spectroscopy with optical micro/nano fibers.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yingchun; Jin, Wei; Ho, Lut Hoi; Liu, Zhibo

    2012-01-15

    We demonstrate gas detection based on evanescent-wave photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy with tapered optical fibers. Evanescent-field instead of open-path absorption is exploited for PA generation, and a quartz tuning fork is used for PA detection. A tapered optical fiber with a diameter down to the wavelength scale demonstrates detection sensitivity similar to an open-path system but with the advantages of easier optical alignment, smaller insertion loss, and multiplexing capability.

  5. Optical switch based on thermocapillarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Tomomi; Makihara, Mitsuhiro; Togo, Hiroyoshi; Shimokawa, Fusao; Kaneko, Kazumasa

    2001-11-01

    Space-division optical switches are essential for the protection, optical cross-connects (OXCs), and optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs) needed in future fiber-optic communication networks. For applications in these areas, we proposed a thermocapillarity switch called oil-latching interfacial-tension variation effect (OLIVE) switch. An OLIVE switch is a micro-mechanical optical switch fabricated on planar lightwave circuits (PLC) using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. It consists of a crossing waveguide that has a groove at each crossing point and a pair of microheaters. The groove is partially filled with the refractive-index-matching liquid, and optical signals are switched according to the liquid's position in the groove, i.e., whether it is passing straight through the groove or reflecting at the sidewall of the groove. The liquid is driven by thermocapillarity and latched by capillarity. Using the total internal reflection to switch the optical path, the OLIVE switch exhibits excellent optical characteristics, such as high transparency (insertion loss: < 2 dB), high extinction ratio (> 50 dB), and low crosstalk (< -50 dB). Moreover, since this switch has a simple structure and bi-stability, it has wide variety of applications in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks.

  6. Path profiles of Cn2 derived from radiometer temperature measurements and geometrical ray tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyhnalek, Brian E.

    2017-02-01

    Atmospheric turbulence has significant impairments on the operation of Free-Space Optical (FSO) communication systems, in particular temporal and spatial intensity fluctuations at the receiving aperture resulting in power surges and fades, changes in angle of arrival, spatial coherence degradation, etc. The refractive index structure parameter C 2 n is a statistical measure of the strength of turbulence in the atmosphere and is highly dependent upon vertical height. Therefore to understand atmospheric turbulence effects on vertical FSO communication links such as space-to-ground links, it is necessary to specify C 2 n profiles along the atmospheric propagation path. To avoid the limitations on the applicability of classical approaches, propagation simulation through geometrical ray tracing is applied. This is achieved by considering the atmosphere along the optical propagation path as a spatial distribution of spherical bubbles with varying relative refractive index deviations representing turbulent eddies. The relative deviations of the refractive index are statistically determined from altitude-dependent and time varying temperature fluctuations, as measured by a microwave profiling radiometer. For each representative atmosphere ray paths are analyzed using geometrical optics, which is particularly advantageous in situations of strong turbulence where there is severe wavefront distortion and discontinuity. The refractive index structure parameter is then determined as a function of height and time.

  7. Path Profiles of Cn2 Derived from Radiometer Temperature Measurements and Geometrical Ray Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vyhnalek, Brian E.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence has significant impairments on the operation of Free-Space Optical (FSO) communication systems, in particular temporal and spatial intensity fluctuations at the receiving aperture resulting in power surges and fades, changes in angle of arrival, spatial coherence degradation, etc. The refractive index structure parameter Cn2 is a statistical measure of the strength of turbulence in the atmosphere and is highly dependent upon vertical height. Therefore to understand atmospheric turbulence effects on vertical FSO communication links such as space-to-ground links, it is necessary to specify Cn2 profiles along the atmospheric propagation path. To avoid the limitations on the applicability of classical approaches, propagation simulation through geometrical ray tracing is applied. This is achieved by considering the atmosphere along the optical propagation path as a spatial distribution of spherical bubbles with varying relative refractive index deviations representing turbulent eddies. The relative deviations of the refractive index are statistically determined from altitude-dependent and time-varying temperature fluctuations, as measured by a microwave profiling radiometer. For each representative atmosphere ray paths are analyzed using geometrical optics, which is particularly advantageous in situations of strong turbulence where there is severe wavefront distortion and discontinuity. The refractive index structure parameter is then determined as a function of height and time.

  8. Minimising back reflections from the common path objective in a fundus camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swat, A.

    2016-11-01

    Eliminating back reflections is critical in the design of a fundus camera with internal illuminating system. As there is very little light reflected from the retina, even excellent antireflective coatings are not sufficient suppression of ghost reflections, therefore the number of surfaces in the common optics in illuminating and imaging paths shall be minimised. Typically a single aspheric objective is used. In the paper an alternative approach, an objective with all spherical surfaces, is presented. As more surfaces are required, more sophisticated method is needed to get rid of back reflections. Typically back reflections analysis, comprise treating subsequent objective surfaces as mirrors, and reflections from the objective surfaces are traced back through the imaging path. This approach can be applied in both sequential and nonsequential ray tracing. It is good enough for system check but not very suitable for early optimisation process in the optical system design phase. There are also available standard ghost control merit function operands in the sequential ray-trace, for example in Zemax system, but these don't allow back ray-trace in an alternative optical path, illumination vs. imaging. What is proposed in the paper, is a complete method to incorporate ghost reflected energy into the raytracing system merit function for sequential mode which is more efficient in optimisation process. Although developed for the purpose of specific case of fundus camera, the method might be utilised in a wider range of applications where ghost control is critical.

  9. Motion on Cycloid Paths: A Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, P.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a high school laboratory project whose theme is the motion of a small ball on cycloidal tracks. Models were built both of a brachistochrone and of a Huygens pendulum clock whose bob is constrained to move on a cycloidal path. Photogates and a data acquisition system were employed in order to investigate experimentally the…

  10. The Erratic Path of Hungarian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Jon

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the path of funding higher education in Hungary, where funding cuts have resulted in understaffing, escalating tuition, growing student debt, and declining enrollment. Graduation rates are low, government policies favor vocational disciplines, and the system of preparation and access gives preference to students from wealthier…

  11. Quad-rotor flight path energy optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, Edward

    Quad-Rotor unmanned areal vehicles (UAVs) have been a popular area of research and development in the last decade, especially with the advent of affordable microcontrollers like the MSP 430 and the Raspberry Pi. Path-Energy Optimization is an area that is well developed for linear systems. In this thesis, this idea of path-energy optimization is extended to the nonlinear model of the Quad-rotor UAV. The classical optimization technique is adapted to the nonlinear model that is derived for the problem at hand, coming up with a set of partial differential equations and boundary value conditions to solve these equations. Then, different techniques to implement energy optimization algorithms are tested using simulations in Python. First, a purely nonlinear approach is used. This method is shown to be computationally intensive, with no practical solution available in a reasonable amount of time. Second, heuristic techniques to minimize the energy of the flight path are tested, using Ziegler-Nichols' proportional integral derivative (PID) controller tuning technique. Finally, a brute force look-up table based PID controller is used. Simulation results of the heuristic method show that both reliable control of the system and path-energy optimization are achieved in a reasonable amount of time.

  12. Visualizing Transmedia Networks: Links, Paths and Peripheries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruppel, Marc Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    'Visualizing Transmedia Networks: Links, Paths and Peripheries' examines the increasingly complex rhetorical intersections between narrative and media ("old" and "new") in the creation of transmedia fictions, loosely defined as multisensory and multimodal stories told extensively across a diverse media set. In order…

  13. An analysis of running skyline load path.

    Treesearch

    Ward W. Carson; Charles N. Mann

    1971-01-01

    This paper is intended for those who wish to prepare an algorithm to determine the load path of a running skyline. The mathematics of a simplified approach to this running skyline design problem are presented. The approach employs assumptions which reduce the complexity of the problem to the point where it can be solved on desk-top computers of limited capacities. The...

  14. Stochastic Evolutionary Algorithms for Planning Robot Paths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Aghazarian, Hrand; Huntsberger, Terrance; Terrile, Richard

    2006-01-01

    A computer program implements stochastic evolutionary algorithms for planning and optimizing collision-free paths for robots and their jointed limbs. Stochastic evolutionary algorithms can be made to produce acceptably close approximations to exact, optimal solutions for path-planning problems while often demanding much less computation than do exhaustive-search and deterministic inverse-kinematics algorithms that have been used previously for this purpose. Hence, the present software is better suited for application aboard robots having limited computing capabilities (see figure). The stochastic aspect lies in the use of simulated annealing to (1) prevent trapping of an optimization algorithm in local minima of an energy-like error measure by which the fitness of a trial solution is evaluated while (2) ensuring that the entire multidimensional configuration and parameter space of the path-planning problem is sampled efficiently with respect to both robot joint angles and computation time. Simulated annealing is an established technique for avoiding local minima in multidimensional optimization problems, but has not, until now, been applied to planning collision-free robot paths by use of low-power computers.

  15. Star-Paths, Stones and Horizon Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Bernadette

    2015-05-01

    Archaeoastronomers tend to approach ancient monuments focusing on the landscape and the horizon calendar events of sun and moon and, due to problems with precession, generally ignore the movement of the stars. However, locating the position of solar calendar points on the horizon can have other uses apart from calendar and/or cosmological purposes. This paper firstly suggests that the stars do not need to be ignored. By considering the evidence of the Phaenomena, a sky poem by Aratus of Soli, a third century BC Greek poet, and his use of second millennium BC star lore fragments, this paper argues that the stars were a part of the knowledge of horizon astronomy. Aratus' poem implied that the horizon astronomy of the late Neolithic and Bronze Age periods included knowledge of star-paths or 'linear constellations' that were defined by particular horizon calendar events and other azimuths. Knowledge of such star-paths would have enabled navigation and orientation, and by using permanent markers, constructed or natural, to define these paths, they were immune to precession as the stones could redefine a star-path for a future generation. Finally the paper presents other possible intentions behind the diverse orientation of passage tombs and some megalithic sites.

  16. Planning Flight Paths of Autonomous Aerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Sharma, Shivanjli

    2009-01-01

    Algorithms for planning flight paths of autonomous aerobots (robotic blimps) to be deployed in scientific exploration of remote planets are undergoing development. These algorithms are also adaptable to terrestrial applications involving robotic submarines as well as aerobots and other autonomous aircraft used to acquire scientific data or to perform surveying or monitoring functions.

  17. NASA Exploration Forum: Human Path to Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-29

    Sam Scimemi, Director of NASA's International Space Station Division, speaks during an Exploration Forum showcasing NASA's human exploration path to Mars in the James E. Webb Auditorium at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, April 29, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  18. Service-Learning Partnerships: Paths of Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorado, Silvia; Giles, Dwight E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This article furthers research and theory on the initiation and development of service-learning partnerships. It identifies three paths of engagement between university and community agencies: tentative engagement, aligned engagement, and committed engagement. This conceptualization helps to understand how service-learning partnerships evolve over…

  19. Explore the Many Paths to Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    The road to leadership is not necessarily one that educators plan carefully with a series of logical steps. Certainly some educators start as teachers and then systematically work through a traditional hierarchy on their way to the superintendency. No matter their role or their path, education leaders demand more from themselves and others and…

  20. Gender Differences in Career Paths in Banking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Sandra; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analyzed career paths of middle managers in bank. Study of matched pairs found that men (n=25) advanced faster and reached middle management through fewer promotions and positions than did women (n=25). Men had significantly more work experience outside of banking. In banking careers, men held more jobs in lending, whereas women occupied more…

  1. Taking a Technological Path to Poetry Prewriting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2002-01-01

    Offers a strong rationale for the idea that the journey of writing good poetry begins on a path that infuses technology into the first stage of the writing process. Presents several ideas of ways to incorporate technology into the prewriting poetry experience. Concludes that by making technology an ingredient, the true potential for synergy…

  2. NASA Exploration Forum: Human Path to Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-29

    David Miller, NASA Chief Technologist, participate in a panel discussion during an Exploration Forum showcasing NASA's human exploration path to Mars in the James E. Webb Auditorium at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, April 29, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  3. NASA Exploration Forum: Human Path to Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-29

    John Grunsfeld, NASA Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate, speaks during an Exploration Forum showcasing NASA's human exploration path to Mars in the James E. Webb Auditorium at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, April 29, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  4. NASA Exploration Forum: Human Path to Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-29

    Jason Crusan, Director of NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Division, speaks during an Exploration Forum showcasing NASA's human exploration path to Mars in the James E. Webb Auditorium at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, April 29, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  5. NASA Exploration Forum: Human Path to Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-29

    Randy Lillard, Program Executive for Technology Demonstration Missions of NASA's Space Technology Mission DIrectorate, speaks about the upcoming Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator demonstration during an Exploration Forum showcasing NASA's human exploration path to Mars in the James E. Webb Auditorium at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, April 29, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  6. NASA Exploration Forum: Human Path to Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-29

    Randy Lillard, Program Executive for Technology Demonstration Missions of NASA's Space Technology Mission DIrectorate, speaks during an Exploration Forum showcasing NASA's human exploration path to Mars in the James E. Webb Auditorium at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, April 29, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  7. NASA Exploration Forum: Human Path to Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-29

    Ellen Stofan, NASA Chief Scientist, left, and David Miller, NASA Chief Technologist, right, participate in a panel discussion during an Exploration Forum showcasing NASA's human exploration path to Mars in the James E. Webb Auditorium at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, April 29, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  8. Covariant path integrals on hyperbolic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Joe

    1997-11-01

    DeWitt's covariant formulation of path integration [B. De Witt, "Dynamical theory in curved spaces. I. A review of the classical and quantum action principles," Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 377-397 (1957)] has two practical advantages over the traditional methods of "lattice approximations;" there is no ordering problem, and classical symmetries are manifestly preserved at the quantum level. Applying the spectral theorem for unbounded self-adjoint operators, we provide a rigorous proof of the convergence of certain path integrals on Riemann surfaces of constant curvature -1. The Pauli-DeWitt curvature correction term arises, as in DeWitt's work. Introducing a Fuchsian group Γ of the first kind, and a continuous, bounded, Γ-automorphic potential V, we obtain a Feynman-Kac formula for the automorphic Schrödinger equation on the Riemann surface ΓH. We analyze the Wick rotation and prove the strong convergence of the so-called Feynman maps [K. D. Elworthy, Path Integration on Manifolds, Mathematical Aspects of Superspace, edited by Seifert, Clarke, and Rosenblum (Reidel, Boston, 1983), pp. 47-90] on a dense set of states. Finally, we give a new proof of some results in C. Grosche and F. Steiner, "The path integral on the Poincare upper half plane and for Liouville quantum mechanics," Phys. Lett. A 123, 319-328 (1987).

  9. Path integration in tactile perception of shapes.

    PubMed

    Moscatelli, Alessandro; Naceri, Abdeldjallil; Ernst, Marc O

    2014-11-01

    Whenever we move the hand across a surface, tactile signals provide information about the relative velocity between the skin and the surface. If the system were able to integrate the tactile velocity information over time, cutaneous touch may provide an estimate of the relative displacement between the hand and the surface. Here, we asked whether humans are able to form a reliable representation of the motion path from tactile cues only, integrating motion information over time. In order to address this issue, we conducted three experiments using tactile motion and asked participants (1) to estimate the length of a simulated triangle, (2) to reproduce the shape of a simulated triangular path, and (3) to estimate the angle between two-line segments. Participants were able to accurately indicate the length of the path, whereas the perceived direction was affected by a direction bias (inward bias). The response pattern was thus qualitatively similar to the ones reported in classical path integration studies involving locomotion. However, we explain the directional biases as the result of a tactile motion aftereffect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prescription Pain Medicines - An Addictive Path?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Addictive Path? Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. Many Americans may have been startled last summer when an Associated Press (AP) analysis of U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration statistics showed that ...

  11. NASA Exploration Forum: Human Path to Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-29

    William Gerstenmaier, NASA Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations, speaks during an Exploration Forum showcasing NASA's human exploration path to Mars in the James E. Webb Auditorium at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, April 29, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  12. Comparison of classical reaction paths and tunneling paths studied with the semiclassical instanton theory.

    PubMed

    Meisner, Jan; Markmeyer, Max N; Bohner, Matthias U; Kästner, Johannes

    2017-08-30

    Atom tunneling in the hydrogen atom transfer reaction of the 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenyl radical to 3,5-di-tert-butylneophyl, which has a short but strongly curved reaction path, was investigated using instanton theory. We found the tunneling path to deviate qualitatively from the classical intrinsic reaction coordinate, the steepest-descent path in mass-weighted Cartesian coordinates. To perform that comparison, we implemented a new variant of the predictor-corrector algorithm for the calculation of the intrinsic reaction coordinate. We used the reaction force analysis method as a means to decompose the reaction barrier into structural and electronic components. Due to the narrow energy barrier, atom tunneling is important in the abovementioned reaction, even above room temperature. Our calculated rate constants between 350 K and 100 K agree well with experimental values. We found a H/D kinetic isotope effect of almost 10 6 at 100 K. Tunneling dominates the protium transfer below 400 K and the deuterium transfer below 300 K. We compared the lengths of the tunneling path and the classical path for the hydrogen atom transfer in the reaction HCl + Cl and quantified the corner cutting in this reaction. At low temperature, the tunneling path is about 40% shorter than the classical path.

  13. Homing by path integration when a locomotion trajectory crosses itself.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naohide; Meléndez, Jayleen A; Menzies, Derek T

    2014-01-01

    Path integration is a process with which navigators derive their current position and orientation by integrating self-motion signals along a locomotion trajectory. It has been suggested that path integration becomes disproportionately erroneous when the trajectory crosses itself. However, there is a possibility that this previous finding was confounded by effects of the length of a traveled path and the amount of turns experienced along the path, two factors that are known to affect path integration performance. The present study was designed to investigate whether the crossover of a locomotion trajectory truly increases errors of path integration. In an experiment, blindfolded human navigators were guided along four paths that varied in their lengths and turns, and attempted to walk directly back to the beginning of the paths. Only one of the four paths contained a crossover. Results showed that errors yielded from the path containing the crossover were not always larger than those observed in other paths, and the errors were attributed solely to the effects of longer path lengths or greater degrees of turns. These results demonstrated that path crossover does not always cause significant disruption in path integration processes. Implications of the present findings for models of path integration are discussed.

  14. Accurate cell counts in live mouse embryos using optical quadrature and differential interference contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warger, William C., II; Newmark, Judith A.; Zhao, Bing; Warner, Carol M.; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2006-02-01

    Present imaging techniques used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics are unable to produce accurate cell counts in developing embryos past the eight-cell stage. We have developed a method that has produced accurate cell counts in live mouse embryos ranging from 13-25 cells by combining Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) and Optical Quadrature Microscopy. Optical Quadrature Microscopy is an interferometric imaging modality that measures the amplitude and phase of the signal beam that travels through the embryo. The phase is transformed into an image of optical path length difference, which is used to determine the maximum optical path length deviation of a single cell. DIC microscopy gives distinct cell boundaries for cells within the focal plane when other cells do not lie in the path to the objective. Fitting an ellipse to the boundary of a single cell in the DIC image and combining it with the maximum optical path length deviation of a single cell creates an ellipsoidal model cell of optical path length deviation. Subtracting the model cell from the Optical Quadrature image will either show the optical path length deviation of the culture medium or reveal another cell underneath. Once all the boundaries are used in the DIC image, the subtracted Optical Quadrature image is analyzed to determine the cell boundaries of the remaining cells. The final cell count is produced when no more cells can be subtracted. We have produced exact cell counts on 5 samples, which have been validated by Epi-Fluorescence images of Hoechst stained nuclei.

  15. Optical to optical interface device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, D. S.; Vohl, P.; Nisenson, P.

    1972-01-01

    The development, fabrication, and testing of a preliminary model of an optical-to-optical (noncoherent-to-coherent) interface device for use in coherent optical parallel processing systems are described. The developed device demonstrates a capability for accepting as an input a scene illuminated by a noncoherent radiation source and providing as an output a coherent light beam spatially modulated to represent the original noncoherent scene. The converter device developed under this contract employs a Pockels readout optical modulator (PROM). This is a photosensitive electro-optic element which can sense and electrostatically store optical images. The stored images can be simultaneously or subsequently readout optically by utilizing the electrostatic storage pattern to control an electro-optic light modulating property of the PROM. The readout process is parallel as no scanning mechanism is required. The PROM provides the functions of optical image sensing, modulation, and storage in a single active material.

  16. OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper outlines recent developments in using optical remote sensing (ORS) instruments for air quality monitoring both for gaseous pollutants and airborne particulate matter (PM). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been using open-path Fourier transform infrared...

  17. Optical probe

    DOEpatents

    Hencken, Kenneth; Flower, William L.

    1999-01-01

    A compact optical probe is disclosed particularly useful for analysis of emissions in industrial environments. The instant invention provides a geometry for optically-based measurements that allows all optical components (source, detector, rely optics, etc.) to be located in proximity to one another. The geometry of the probe disclosed herein provides a means for making optical measurements in environments where it is difficult and/or expensive to gain access to the vicinity of a flow stream to be measured. Significantly, the lens geometry of the optical probe allows the analysis location within a flow stream being monitored to be moved while maintaining optical alignment of all components even when the optical probe is focused on a plurality of different analysis points within the flow stream.

  18. Optical Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. R.

    2005-08-01

    1. Optical solitons in fibres: theoretical review A. Hasegawa; 2. Solitons in optical fibres: an experimental account L. F. Mollenauer; 3. All-optical long-distance soliton-based transmission systems K. Smith and L. F. Mollenauer; 4. Nonlinear propagation effects in optical fibres: numerical studies K. J. Blow and N. J. Doran; 5. Soliton-soliton interactions C. Desem and P. L. Chu; 6. Soliton amplification in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers and its application to soliton communication M. Nakazawa; 7. Nonlinear transformation of laser radiation and generation of Raman solitons in optical fibres E. M. Dianov, A. B. Grudinin, A. M. Prokhorov and V. N. Serkin; 8. Generation and compression of femtosecond solitons in optical fibers P. V. Mamyshev; 9. Optical fibre solitons in the presence of higher order dispersion and birefringence C. R. Menyuk and Ping-Kong A. Wai; 10. Dark optical solitons A. M. Weiner; 11. Soliton Raman effects J. R. Taylor; Bibliography; Index.

  19. Optical Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. R.

    1992-04-01

    1. Optical solitons in fibres: theoretical review A. Hasegawa; 2. Solitons in optical fibres: an experimental account L. F. Mollenauer; 3. All-optical long-distance soliton-based transmission systems K. Smith and L. F. Mollenauer; 4. Nonlinear propagation effects in optical fibres: numerical studies K. J. Blow and N. J. Doran; 5. Soliton-soliton interactions C. Desem and P. L. Chu; 6. Soliton amplification in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers and its application to soliton communication M. Nakazawa; 7. Nonlinear transformation of laser radiation and generation of Raman solitons in optical fibres E. M. Dianov, A. B. Grudinin, A. M. Prokhorov and V. N. Serkin; 8. Generation and compression of femtosecond solitons in optical fibers P. V. Mamyshev; 9. Optical fibre solitons in the presence of higher order dispersion and birefringence C. R. Menyuk and Ping-Kong A. Wai; 10. Dark optical solitons A. M. Weiner; 11. Soliton Raman effects J. R. Taylor; Bibliography; Index.

  20. Temporal laser pulse manipulation using multiple optical ring-cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor); Kojima, Jun (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An optical pulse stretcher and a mathematical algorithm for the detailed calculation of its design and performance is disclosed. The optical pulse stretcher has a plurality of optical cavities, having multiple optical reflectors such that an optical path length in each of the optical cavities is different. The optical pulse stretcher also has a plurality of beam splitters, each of which intercepts a portion of an input optical beam and diverts the portion into one of the plurality of optical cavities. The input optical beam is stretched and a power of an output beam is reduced after passing through the optical pulse stretcher and the placement of the plurality of optical cavities and beam splitters is optimized through a model that takes into account optical beam divergence and alignment in the pluralities of the optical cavities. The optical pulse stretcher system can also function as a high-repetition-rate (MHz) laser pulse generator, making it suitable for use as a stroboscopic light source for high speed ballistic projectile imaging studies, or it can be used for high speed flow diagnostics using a laser light sheet with digital particle imaging velocimetry. The optical pulse stretcher system can also be implemented using fiber optic components to realize a rugged and compact optical system that is alignment free and easy to use.

  1. Optical keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, James T.; Feichtner, John D.; Phillips, Thomas E.

    2001-01-01

    An optical keyboard includes an optical panel having optical waveguides stacked together. First ends of the waveguides define an inlet face, and opposite ends thereof define a screen. A projector transmits a light beam outbound through the waveguides for display on the screen as a keyboard image. A light sensor is optically aligned with the inlet face for sensing an inbound light beam channeled through the waveguides from the screen upon covering one key of the keyboard image.

  2. Arena geometry and path shape: when rats travel in straight or in circuitous paths?

    PubMed

    Yaski, Osnat; Portugali, Juval; Eilam, David

    2011-12-01

    We show here that the global geometry of the environment affects the shape of the paths of travel in rats. To examine this, individual rats were introduced into an unfamiliar arena. One group of rats (n=8) was tested in a square arena (2 m × 2 m), and the other group (n=8) in a round arena (2 m diameter). Testing was in a total darkness, since in the absence of visual information the geometry is not perceived immediately and the extraction of environment shape is slower. We found that while the level of the rats' activity did not seem to differ between both arenas, path shape differed significantly. When traveling along the perimeter, path shape basically followed the arena walls, with perimeter paths curving along the walls of the round arena, while being straight along the walls of the square arena. A similar impact of arena geometry was observed for travel away from the arena walls. Indeed, when the rats abandoned the arena walls to crosscut through the center of the arena, their center paths were circuitous in the round arena and relatively straight in the square arena. We suggest that the shapes of these paths are exploited for the same spatial task: returning back to a familiar location in the unsighted environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Transition path time distribution and the transition path free energy barrier.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Eli

    2016-10-19

    The recent experimental measurement of the transition path time distributions of proteins presents several challenges to theory. Firstly, why do the fits of the experimental data to a theoretical expression lead to barrier heights which are much lower than the free energies of activation of the observed transitions? Secondly, there is the theoretical question of determining the transition path time distribution, without invoking the Smoluchowski limit. In this paper, we derive an exact expression for a transition path time distribution which is valid for arbitrary memory friction using the normal mode transformation which underlies Kramers' rate theory. We then recall that for low barriers, there is a noticeable difference between the transition path time distribution obtained with absorbing boundary conditions and free boundary conditions. For the former, the transition times are shorter, since recrossings of the boundaries are disallowed. As a result, if one uses the distribution based on absorbing boundary conditions to fit the experimental data, one will find that the transition path barrier will be larger than the values found based on a theory with free boundary conditions. We then introduce the paradigm of a transition path barrier height, and show that one should always expect it to be much smaller than the activation energy.

  4. Optic neuritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when it becomes suddenly ... may include: Color vision testing MRI of the brain , including special images of the optic nerve Visual acuity testing Visual field testing Examination of the ...

  5. Path Finding on High-Dimensional Free Energy Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Leines, Grisell; Ensing, Bernd

    2012-07-01

    We present a method for determining the average transition path and the free energy along this path in the space of selected collective variables. The formalism is based upon a history-dependent bias along a flexible path variable within the metadynamics framework but with a trivial scaling of the cost with the number of collective variables. Controlling the sampling of the orthogonal modes recovers the average path and the minimum free energy path as the limiting cases. The method is applied to resolve the path and the free energy of a conformational transition in alanine dipeptide.

  6. Path integral learning of multidimensional movement trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, João; Santos, Cristina; Costa, Lino

    2013-10-01

    This paper explores the use of Path Integral Methods, particularly several variants of the recent Path Integral Policy Improvement (PI2) algorithm in multidimensional movement parametrized policy learning. We rely on Dynamic Movement Primitives (DMPs) to codify discrete and rhythmic trajectories, and apply the PI2-CMA and PIBB methods in the learning of optimal policy parameters, according to different cost functions that inherently encode movement objectives. Additionally we merge both of these variants and propose the PIBB-CMA algorithm, comparing all of them with the vanilla version of PI2. From the obtained results we conclude that PIBB-CMA surpasses all other methods in terms of convergence speed and iterative final cost, which leads to an increased interest in its application to more complex robotic problems.

  7. Volcanic eruption induced WWVB transmission path interruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckmaster, H. A.; Hansen, C. H.

    1985-07-01

    It is reported that the 60 kHz transmission of WWVB from Fort Collins, Colorado, was not received in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, for about 11 h from 1109 UT to 2153 UT on July 23, 1980. It is suggested that this transmission path interruption is correlated with the 15 km height ash cloud due to the July 22, 1980 volcanic eruption of Mount St. Helens as it drifted eastward interrupting both the ground- and first hop sky-wave paths and that this ash cloud is the source of the conductivity and/or ionization necessary to produce this interruption. Small phase retardations are also reported which could be correlated with other Mount St. Helens volcanic events during May-July 1980.

  8. A path model of aircraft noise annoyance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. M.

    1984-09-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a path model of aircraft noise annoyance by using noise and social survey data collected in the vicinity of Toronto International Airport. Path analysis is used to estimate the direct and indirect effects of seventeen independent variables on individual annoyance. The results show that the strongest direct effects are for speech interference, attitudes toward aircraft operations, sleep interruption and personal sensitivity to noise. The strongest indirect effects are for aircraft Leq(24) and sensitivity. Overall the model explains 41 percent of the variation in the annoyance reported by the 673 survey respondents. The findings both support and extend existing statements in the literature on the antecedents of annoyance.

  9. Epidemic extinction paths in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindes, Jason; Schwartz, Ira B.

    2017-05-01

    We study the extinction of long-lived epidemics on finite complex networks induced by intrinsic noise. Applying analytical techniques to the stochastic susceptible-infected-susceptible model, we predict the distribution of large fluctuations, the most probable or optimal path through a network that leads to a disease-free state from an endemic state, and the average extinction time in general configurations. Our predictions agree with Monte Carlo simulations on several networks, including synthetic weighted and degree-distributed networks with degree correlations, and an empirical high school contact network. In addition, our approach quantifies characteristic scaling patterns for the optimal path and distribution of large fluctuations, both near and away from the epidemic threshold, in networks with heterogeneous eigenvector centrality and degree distributions.

  10. Epidemic extinction paths in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Hindes, Jason; Schwartz, Ira B

    2017-05-01

    We study the extinction of long-lived epidemics on finite complex networks induced by intrinsic noise. Applying analytical techniques to the stochastic susceptible-infected-susceptible model, we predict the distribution of large fluctuations, the most probable or optimal path through a network that leads to a disease-free state from an endemic state, and the average extinction time in general configurations. Our predictions agree with Monte Carlo simulations on several networks, including synthetic weighted and degree-distributed networks with degree correlations, and an empirical high school contact network. In addition, our approach quantifies characteristic scaling patterns for the optimal path and distribution of large fluctuations, both near and away from the epidemic threshold, in networks with heterogeneous eigenvector centrality and degree distributions.

  11. Broadband Phase Spectroscopy over Turbulent Air Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgetta, Fabrizio R.; Rieker, Gregory B.; Baumann, Esther; Swann, William C.; Sinclair, Laura C.; Kofler, Jon; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R.

    2015-09-01

    Broadband atmospheric phase spectra are acquired with a phase-sensitive dual-frequency-comb spectrometer by implementing adaptive compensation for the strong decoherence from atmospheric turbulence. The compensation is possible due to the pistonlike behavior of turbulence across a single spatial-mode path combined with the intrinsic frequency stability and high sampling speed associated with dual-comb spectroscopy. The atmospheric phase spectrum is measured across 2 km of air at each of the 70 000 comb teeth spanning 233 cm-1 across hundreds of near-infrared rovibrational resonances of CO2 , CH4 , and H2O with submilliradian uncertainty, corresponding to a 10-13 refractive index sensitivity. Trace gas concentrations extracted directly from the phase spectrum reach 0.7 ppm uncertainty, demonstrated here for CO2 . While conventional broadband spectroscopy only measures intensity absorption, this approach enables measurement of the full complex susceptibility even in practical open path sensing.

  12. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Farah, J.

    1999-04-06

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 23 figs.

  13. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Farah, J.

    1995-05-30

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 29 figs.

  14. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Farah, John

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically.

  15. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Farah, John

    1999-01-01

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically.

  16. Rangeland and Oak Relationships

    Treesearch

    Dick R. McCleery

    1991-01-01

    Hardwood rangelands are becoming an endangered resource on the Central Coast of California. Straightforward inventory processes and management guidelines on which to base sound management decisions provide the landowner the tools to protect and utilize these important hardwood resources. Utilizing a WOODLAND INFORMATION STICK and a ZIG ZAG TRANSECT, landowners can...

  17. Absence of long range order in SrDy2O4 frustrated magnet due to trapped defects from a dimensionality crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Nicolas; Fennell, Amy; Uldry, Anne-Christine; Delley, Bernard; Sibille, Romain; White, Jonathan; Niedermayer, Christof; Pomjakushin, Vladimir; Kenzelmann, Michel; Prevost, Bobby; Desilets-Benoit, Alexandre; Bianchi, Andrea D.; Dabkowska, Hanna A.; Nilsen, Goran; Regnault, Louis-Pierre

    The simultaneous occurence of geometrical frustration and low dimensionality can lead to strongly correlated fluctuating ground states. In the SrLn2O4 compounds, the Ln magnetic ions form one-dimensional (1D) zig-zag chains that have both of these characteristics, offering a playground to study novel states of matter. In SrDy2O4, the two inequivalent Dy3+ sites are Ising-like with perpendicular easy-axes, favouring the decoupling of neighbouring zig-zag chains. No long range order is observed down to T = 60 mK in zero field but diffuse neutron scattering indicates short range correlations that are consistent with those of the 1D Ising zig-zag chain model. AC susceptibility measurements indicate a slowing down of the fluctuations at low temperatures. We attribute this behaviour to the domain walls in the zig-zag chains. Experimental evidence of a dimensionality crossover at low temperatures in SrDy2O4 suggest that the domains walls are trapped because of interchain interactions, precluding long-range order to the lowest temperatures.

  18. Nonlinear modeling of crystal system transition of black phosphorus using continuum-DFT model.

    PubMed

    Setoodeh, A R; Farahmand, H

    2018-01-24

    In this paper, the nonlinear behavior of black phosphorus crystals is investigated in tandem with dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) analysis under uniaxial loadings. From the identified anisotropic behavior of black phosphorus due to its morphological anisotropy, a hyperelastic anisotropic (HA) model named continuum-DFT is established to predict the nonlinear behavior of the material. In this respect, uniaxial Cauchy stresses are employed on both the DFT-D and HA models along the zig-zag and armchair directions. Simultaneously, the transition of the crystal system is recognized at about 4.5 GPa of the applied uniaxial tensile stress along the zig-zag direction on the DFT-D simulation in the nonlinear region. In order to develop the nonlinear continuum model, unknown constants are surveyed with the optimized least square technique. In this regard, the continuum model is obtained to reproduce the Cauchy stress-stretch and density of strain-stretch results of the DFT-D simulation. Consequently, the modified HA model is introduced to characterize the nonlinear behavior of black phosphorus along the zig-zag direction. More importantly, the specific transition of the crystal system is successfully predicted in the new modified continuum-DFT model. The results reveal that the multiscale continuum-DFT model is well defined to replicate the nonlinear behavior of black phosphorus along the zig-zag and armchair directions.

  19. PERFORMANCE OF AN AIR CLASSIFIER TO REMOVE LIGHT ORGANIC CONTAMINATION FROM ALUMINUM RECOVERED FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE BY EDDY CURRENT SEPARATION. TEST NO. 5.03, RECOVERY 1, NEW ORLEANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a test in which aluminum cans recovered from municipal waste, together with known amounts of contaminant, were processed by a 'zig-zag' vertical air classifier to remove aerodynamically light contaminant. Twelve test runs were conducted; the proportions of co...

  20. Assessment of air pollutant emissions from brick kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajarathnam, Uma; Athalye, Vasudev; Ragavan, Santhosh; Maithel, Sameer; Lalchandani, Dheeraj; Kumar, Sonal; Baum, Ellen; Weyant, Cheryl; Bond, Tami

    2014-12-01

    India has more than 100,000 brick kilns producing around 250 billion bricks annually. Indian brick industry is often a small scale industry and third largest consumer of coal in the country. With the growing demand for building materials and characterised by lack of pollution control measures the brick industry has a potential to cause adverse effects on the environment. This paper presents assessment of five brick making technologies based on the measurements carried out at seventeen individual brick kilns. Emissions of PM, SO2, CO and CO2 were measured and these emissions were used to estimate the emission factors for comparing the emissions across different fuel or operating conditions. Estimated emission from brick kilns in South Asia are about 0.94 million tonnes of PM; 3.9 million tonnes of CO and 127 million tonnes of CO2 per year. Among various technologies that are widely used in India, Zig zag and vertical shaft brick kilns showed better performance in terms of emissions over the traditional fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns. This suggests that the replacement of traditional technologies with Zig zag, vertical shaft brick kilns or other cleaner kiln technologies will contribute towards improvements in the environmental performance of brick kiln industry in the country. Zig zag kilns appear to be the logical replacement because of low capital investment, easy integration with the existing production process, and the possibility of retrofitting fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns into Zig zag firing.

  1. On the spider that spits the solution of a nonsmooth oscillator.

    PubMed

    Goeleven, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Spitting spiders (Scytodes sp.) spit a mixture of silk and glue at their prey during attack. In this note, we show that a nonsmooth oscillator can be used as a biomechanical model to describe the zig-zag patterns produced by the spit of the spider Scytodes thoracica. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Understanding Learning Disabilities: Guide for Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC. Office of Student Affairs.

    This guide provides information about the nature of learning disabilities in higher education and about ways of assisting students with learning disabilities at Georgetown University (Washington, D.C.) to fulfill their potential. The booklet uses the metaphor of a "zig zag lightning in the brain" to describe the erratic thinking style…

  3. Do-It-Yourself Critical Path Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward P., Jr.

    This report describes the critical path method (CPM), a system for planning and scheduling work to get the best time-cost combination for any particular job. With the use of diagrams, the report describes how CPM works on a step-by-step basis. CPM uses a network to show which parts of a job must be done and how they would eventually fit together…

  4. Depolarization on Earth-space paths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Sources of depolarization effects on the propagation paths of orthogonally-polarized information channels are considered. The main sources of depolarization at millimeter wave frequencies are hydrometeor absorption and scattering in the troposphere. Terms are defined. Mathematical formulations for the effects of the propagation medium characteristics and antenna performance on signals in dual polarization Earth-space links are presented. Techniques for modeling rain and ice depolarization are discussed.

  5. Vertical flight path steering system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a vertical flight path angle steering system for aircraft, utilizing a digital flight control computer which processes pilot control inputs and aircraft response parameters into suitable elevator commands and control information for display to the pilot on a cathode ray tube. The system yields desirable airplane control handling qualities and responses as well as improvements in pilot workload and safety during airplane operation in the terminal area and under windshear conditions.

  6. All new custom path photo book creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wiley; Muzzolini, Russ

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present an all new custom path to allow consumers to have full control to their photos and the format of their books, while providing them with guidance to make their creation fast and easy. The users can choose to fully automate the initial creation, and then customize every page. The system manage many design themes along with numerous design elements, such as layouts, backgrounds, embellishments and pattern bands. The users can also utilize photos from multiple sources including their computers, Shutterfly accounts, Shutterfly Share sites and Facebook. The users can also use a photo as background, add, move and resize photos and text - putting what they want where they want instead of being confined to templates. The new path allows users to add embellishments anywhere in the book, and the high-performance platform can support up to 1,000 photos per book and up to 25 pictures per page. The path offers either Smart Autofill or Storyboard features allowing customers to populate their books with photos so they can add captions and customize the pages.

  7. Designing the Alluvial Riverbeds in Curved Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macura, Viliam; Škrinár, Andrej; Štefunková, Zuzana; Muchová, Zlatica; Majorošová, Martina

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the method of determining the shape of the riverbed in curves of the watercourse, which is based on the method of Ikeda (1975) developed for a slightly curved path in sandy riverbed. Regulated rivers have essentially slightly and smoothly curved paths; therefore, this methodology provides the appropriate basis for river restoration. Based on the research in the experimental reach of the Holeška Brook and several alluvial mountain streams the methodology was adjusted. The method also takes into account other important characteristics of bottom material - the shape and orientation of the particles, settling velocity and drag coefficients. Thus, the method is mainly meant for the natural sand-gravel material, which is heterogeneous and the particle shape of the bottom material is very different from spherical. The calculation of the river channel in the curved path provides the basis for the design of optimal habitat, but also for the design of foundations of armouring of the bankside of the channel. The input data is adapted to the conditions of design practice.

  8. Path description of coordinate-space amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdoǧan, Ozan; Sterman, George

    2017-06-01

    We develop a coordinate version of light-cone-ordered perturbation theory, for general time-ordered products of fields, by carrying out integrals over one light-cone coordinate for each interaction vertex. The resulting expressions depend on the lengths of paths, measured in the same light-cone coordinate. Each path is associated with a denominator equal to a "light-cone deficit," analogous to the "energy deficits" of momentum-space time- or light-cone-ordered perturbation theory. In effect, the role played by intermediate states in momentum space is played by paths between external fields in coordinate space. We derive a class of identities satisfied by coordinate diagrams, from which their imaginary parts can be derived. Using scalar QED as an example, we show how the eikonal approximation arises naturally when the external points in a Green function approach the light cone, and we give applications to products of Wilson lines. Although much of our discussion is directed at massless fields in four dimensions, we extend the formalism to massive fields and dimensional regularization.

  9. Optimum flight paths of turbojet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miele, Angelo

    1955-01-01

    The climb of turbojet aircraft is analyzed and discussed including the accelerations. Three particular flight performances are examined: minimum time of climb, climb with minimum fuel consumption, and steepest climb. The theoretical results obtained from a previous study are put in a form that is suitable for application on the following simplifying assumptions: the Mach number is considered an independent variable instead of the velocity; the variations of the airplane mass due to fuel consumption are disregarded; the airplane polar is assumed to be parabolic; the path curvatures and the squares of the path angles are disregarded in the projection of the equation of motion on the normal to the path; lastly, an ideal turbojet with performance independent of the velocity is involved. The optimum Mach number for each flight condition is obtained from the solution of a sixth order equation in which the coefficients are functions of two fundamental parameters: the ratio of minimum drag in level flight to the thrust and the Mach number which represents the flight at constant altitude and maximum lift-drag ratio.

  10. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication

    PubMed Central

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness). While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research) and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars). PMID:26325076

  11. Auditory perception of motor vehicle travel paths.

    PubMed

    Ashmead, Daniel H; Grantham, D Wesley; Maloff, Erin S; Hornsby, Benjamin; Nakamura, Takabun; Davis, Timothy J; Pampel, Faith; Rushing, Erin G

    2012-06-01

    These experiments address concerns that motor vehicles in electric engine mode are so quiet that they pose a risk to pedestrians, especially those with visual impairments. The "quiet car" issue has focused on hybrid and electric vehicles, although it also applies to internal combustion engine vehicles. Previous research has focused on detectability of vehicles, mostly in quiet settings. Instead, we focused on the functional ability to perceive vehicle motion paths. Participants judged whether simulated vehicles were traveling straight or turning, with emphasis on the impact of background traffic sound. In quiet, listeners made the straight-or-turn judgment soon enough in the vehicle's path to be useful for deciding whether to start crossing the street. This judgment is based largely on sound level cues rather than the spatial direction of the vehicle. With even moderate background traffic sound, the ability to tell straight from turn paths is severely compromised. The signal-to-noise ratio needed for the straight-or-turn judgment is much higher than that needed to detect a vehicle. Although a requirement for a minimum vehicle sound level might enhance detection of vehicles in quiet settings, it is unlikely that this requirement would contribute to pedestrian awareness of vehicle movements in typical traffic settings with many vehicles present. The findings are relevant to deliberations by government agencies and automobile manufacturers about standards for minimum automobile sounds and, more generally, for solutions to pedestrians' needs for information about traffic, especially for pedestrians with sensory impairments.

  12. Modeled Impact of Cirrus Cloud Increases Along Aircraft Flight Paths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David; Lonergan, P.; Shah, K.

    1999-01-01

    The potential impact of contrails and alterations in the lifetime of background cirrus due to subsonic airplane water and aerosol emissions has been investigated in a set of experiments using the GISS GCM connected to a q-flux ocean. Cirrus clouds at a height of 12-15km, with an optical thickness of 0.33, were input to the model "x" percentage of clear-sky occasions along subsonic aircraft flight paths, where x is varied from .05% to 6%. Two types of experiments were performed: one with the percentage cirrus cloud increase independent of flight density, as long as a certain minimum density was exceeded; the other with the percentage related to the density of fuel expenditure. The overall climate impact was similar with the two approaches, due to the feedbacks of the climate system. Fifty years were run for eight such experiments, with the following conclusions based on the stable results from years 30-50 for each. The experiments show that adding cirrus to the upper troposphere results in a stabilization of the atmosphere, which leads to some decrease in cloud cover at levels below the insertion altitude. Considering then the total effect on upper level cloud cover (above 5 km altitude), the equilibrium global mean temperature response shows that altering high level clouds by 1% changes the global mean temperature by 0.43C. The response is highly linear (linear correlation coefficient of 0.996) for high cloud cover changes between 0. 1% and 5%. The effect is amplified in the Northern Hemisphere, more so with greater cloud cover change. The temperature effect maximizes around 10 km (at greater than 40C warming with a 4.8% increase in upper level clouds), again more so with greater warming. The high cloud cover change shows the flight path influence most clearly with the smallest warming magnitudes; with greater warming, the model feedbacks introduce a strong tropical response. Similarly, the surface temperature response is dominated by the feedbacks, and shows

  13. MinePath: Mining for Phenotype Differential Sub-paths in Molecular Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Koumakis, Lefteris; Kartsaki, Evgenia; Chatzimina, Maria; Zervakis, Michalis; Vassou, Despoina; Marias, Kostas; Moustakis, Vassilis; Potamias, George

    2016-01-01

    Pathway analysis methodologies couple traditional gene expression analysis with knowledge encoded in established molecular pathway networks, offering a promising approach towards the biological interpretation of phenotype differentiating genes. Early pathway analysis methodologies, named as gene set analysis (GSA), view pathways just as plain lists of genes without taking into account either the underlying pathway network topology or the involved gene regulatory relations. These approaches, even if they achieve computational efficiency and simplicity, consider pathways that involve the same genes as equivalent in terms of their gene enrichment characteristics. Most recent pathway analysis approaches take into account the underlying gene regulatory relations by examining their consistency with gene expression profiles and computing a score for each profile. Even with this approach, assessing and scoring single-relations limits the ability to reveal key gene regulation mechanisms hidden in longer pathway sub-paths. We introduce MinePath, a pathway analysis methodology that addresses and overcomes the aforementioned problems. MinePath facilitates the decomposition of pathways into their constituent sub-paths. Decomposition leads to the transformation of single-relations to complex regulation sub-paths. Regulation sub-paths are then matched with gene expression sample profiles in order to evaluate their functional status and to assess phenotype differential power. Assessment of differential power supports the identification of the most discriminant profiles. In addition, MinePath assess the significance of the pathways as a whole, ranking them by their p-values. Comparison results with state-of-the-art pathway analysis systems are indicative for the soundness and reliability of the MinePath approach. In contrast with many pathway analysis tools, MinePath is a web-based system (www.minepath.org) offering dynamic and rich pathway visualization functionality, with the

  14. MinePath: Mining for Phenotype Differential Sub-paths in Molecular Pathways.

    PubMed

    Koumakis, Lefteris; Kanterakis, Alexandros; Kartsaki, Evgenia; Chatzimina, Maria; Zervakis, Michalis; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Vassou, Despoina; Kafetzopoulos, Dimitris; Marias, Kostas; Moustakis, Vassilis; Potamias, George

    2016-11-01

    Pathway analysis methodologies couple traditional gene expression analysis with knowledge encoded in established molecular pathway networks, offering a promising approach towards the biological interpretation of phenotype differentiating genes. Early pathway analysis methodologies, named as gene set analysis (GSA), view pathways just as plain lists of genes without taking into account either the underlying pathway network topology or the involved gene regulatory relations. These approaches, even if they achieve computational efficiency and simplicity, consider pathways that involve the same genes as equivalent in terms of their gene enrichment characteristics. Most recent pathway analysis approaches take into account the underlying gene regulatory relations by examining their consistency with gene expression profiles and computing a score for each profile. Even with this approach, assessing and scoring single-relations limits the ability to reveal key gene regulation mechanisms hidden in longer pathway sub-paths. We introduce MinePath, a pathway analysis methodology that addresses and overcomes the aforementioned problems. MinePath facilitates the decomposition of pathways into their constituent sub-paths. Decomposition leads to the transformation of single-relations to complex regulation sub-paths. Regulation sub-paths are then matched with gene expression sample profiles in order to evaluate their functional status and to assess phenotype differential power. Assessment of differential power supports the identification of the most discriminant profiles. In addition, MinePath assess the significance of the pathways as a whole, ranking them by their p-values. Comparison results with state-of-the-art pathway analysis systems are indicative for the soundness and reliability of the MinePath approach. In contrast with many pathway analysis tools, MinePath is a web-based system (www.minepath.org) offering dynamic and rich pathway visualization functionality, with the

  15. Optical Micromachining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under an SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) with Marshall Space Flight Center, Potomac Photonics, Inc., constructed and demonstrated a unique tool that fills a need in the area of diffractive and refractive micro-optics. It is an integrated computer-aided design and computer-aided micro-machining workstation that will extend the benefits of diffractive and micro-optic technology to optical designers. Applications of diffractive optics include sensors and monitoring equipment, analytical instruments, and fiber optic distribution and communication. The company has been making diffractive elements with the system as a commercial service for the last year.

  16. Methodology for Augmenting Existing Paths with Additional Parallel Transects

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, John E.

    2013-09-30

    Visual Sample Plan (VSP) is sample planning software that is used, among other purposes, to plan transect sampling paths to detect areas that were potentially used for munition training. This module was developed for application on a large site where existing roads and trails were to be used as primary sampling paths. Gap areas between these primary paths needed to found and covered with parallel transect paths. These gap areas represent areas on the site that are more than a specified distance from a primary path. These added parallel paths needed to optionally be connected together into a single path—themore » shortest path possible. The paths also needed to optionally be attached to existing primary paths, again with the shortest possible path. Finally, the process must be repeatable and predictable so that the same inputs (primary paths, specified distance, and path options) will result in the same set of new paths every time. This methodology was developed to meet those specifications.« less

  17. Detection, Evaluation, and Optimization of Optical Signals Generated by Fiber Optic Bragg Gratings Under Dynamic Excitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Lekki, John; Lock, James A.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic response of a fiber optic Bragg grating to mechanical vibrations is examined both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical expressions describing the consequences of changes in the grating's reflection spectrum are derived for partially coherent beams in an interferometer. The analysis is given in terms of the dominant wavelength, optical bandwidth, and optical path difference of the interfering signals. Changes in the reflection spectrum caused by a periodic stretching and compression of the grating were experimentally measured using an unbalanced Michelson interferometer, a Michelson interferometer with a non-zero optical path difference. The interferometer's sensitivity to changes in dominant wavelength of the interfering beams was measured as a function of interferometer unbalance and was compared to theoretical predictions. The theoretical analysis enables the user to determine the optimum performance for an unbalanced interferometer.

  18. Field evaluation of open and closed-path CO2 flux systems over asphalt surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoev, I.; Santos, E.

    2016-12-01

    Eddy covariance (EC) is a widely used method for quantifying surface fluxes of heat, water vapor and carbon dioxide between ecosystems and the atmosphere. A typical EC system consists of an ultrasonic anemometer measuring the 3D wind vector and a fast-response infrared gas analyzer for sensing the water vapor and CO2 density in the air. When using an open-path analyzer that detects the constituent's density in situ a correction for concurrent air temperature and humidity fluctuations must be applied, Webb et al. (1980). In environments with small magnitudes of CO2 flux (<5µmol m-2 s-1) and in the presence of high sensible heat flux, like wintertime over boreal forest, open-path flux measurements have been challenging since the magnitude of the density corrections are as large as the uncorrected CO2 flux itself. A new technology merging the sensing paths of the gas analyzer and the sonic anemometer has been recently developed. This new integrated instrument allows a direct measurement of CO2 mixing ratio in the open air and has the potential to improve the quality of the temperature related density corrections by synchronously measuring the sensible heat flux in the optical path of the gas analyzer. We evaluate the performance and the accuracy of this new sensor over a large parking lot with an asphalt surface where the CO2 fluxes are considered low and the interfering sensible heat fluxes are above 200 Wm-2. A co-located closed-path EC system is used as a reference measurement to examine any systematic biases and apparent CO2 uptake observed with open-path sensors under high sensible heat flux regimes. Half-hour mean and variance of CO2 and water vapor concentrations are evaluated. The relative spectral responses, covariances and corrected turbulent fluxes using a common sonic anemometer are analyzed. The influence of sensor separation and frequency response attenuation on the density corrections is discussed.

  19. A Classroom Demonstration of Rayleigh Light Scattering in Optically Active and Inactive Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecina, Monica Avalos; Smith, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that the concept of optical activity is vague to students because it is difficult for instructors to demonstrate the phenomenon in the classroom. Presents a demonstration that allows students to observe and manipulate the optical path of polarized light through optically inactive and active solutions. (CCM)

  20. Optically reconfigurable patterning for control of the propagation characteristics of a planar waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Klittnick, A.; Clark, N. A.; Keller, P.

    2008-10-01

    We demonstrate an easily fabricated all-optical and freely reconfigurable method of controlling the propagating characteristics of the optic path within a planar waveguide with low insertion losses by employing the optical patterning of the refractive index of an erasable and rewriteable photosensitive liquid crystal polymer cladding layer.