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Sample records for zim-domain jaz proteins

  1. Regulation of growth-defense balance by the JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ)-MYC transcriptional module

    SciT

    Major, Ian T.; Yoshida, Yuki; Campos, Marcelo L.

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) promotes the degradation of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins to relieve repression on diverse transcription factors (TFs) that execute JA responses. However, little is known about how combinatorial complexity among JAZ–TF interactions maintains control over myriad aspects of growth, development, reproduction, and immunity. We used loss-of-function mutations to define epistatic interactions within the core JA signaling pathway and to investigate the contribution of MYC TFs to JA responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Constitutive JA signaling in a jaz quintuple mutant (jazQ) was largely eliminated by mutations that block JA synthesis or perception. Comparison of jazQ and amore » jazQ myc2 myc3 myc4 octuple mutant validated known functions of MYC2/3/4 in root growth, chlorophyll degradation,and susceptibility to the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. We found that MYC TFs also control both the enhanced resistance of jazQ leaves to insect herbivory and restricted leaf growth of jazQ. Epistatic transcriptional profiles mirrored these phenotypes and further showed that triterpenoid biosynthetic and glucosinolate catabolic genes are up-regulated in jazQ independently of MYC TFs. Lastly, our study highlights the utility of genetic epistasis to unravel the complexities of JAZ–TF interactions and demonstrates that MYC TFs exert master control over a JAZ-repressible transcriptional hierarchy that governs growth–defense balance.« less

  2. Regulation of growth-defense balance by the JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ)-MYC transcriptional module

    DOE PAGES

    Major, Ian T.; Yoshida, Yuki; Campos, Marcelo L.; ...

    2017-06-26

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) promotes the degradation of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins to relieve repression on diverse transcription factors (TFs) that execute JA responses. However, little is known about how combinatorial complexity among JAZ–TF interactions maintains control over myriad aspects of growth, development, reproduction, and immunity. We used loss-of-function mutations to define epistatic interactions within the core JA signaling pathway and to investigate the contribution of MYC TFs to JA responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Constitutive JA signaling in a jaz quintuple mutant (jazQ) was largely eliminated by mutations that block JA synthesis or perception. Comparison of jazQ and amore » jazQ myc2 myc3 myc4 octuple mutant validated known functions of MYC2/3/4 in root growth, chlorophyll degradation,and susceptibility to the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. We found that MYC TFs also control both the enhanced resistance of jazQ leaves to insect herbivory and restricted leaf growth of jazQ. Epistatic transcriptional profiles mirrored these phenotypes and further showed that triterpenoid biosynthetic and glucosinolate catabolic genes are up-regulated in jazQ independently of MYC TFs. Lastly, our study highlights the utility of genetic epistasis to unravel the complexities of JAZ–TF interactions and demonstrates that MYC TFs exert master control over a JAZ-repressible transcriptional hierarchy that governs growth–defense balance.« less

  3. A Jasmonate ZIM-Domain Protein NaJAZd Regulates Floral Jasmonic Acid Levels and Counteracts Flower Abscission in Nicotiana attenuata Plants

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Youngjoo; Baldwin, Ian T.; Galis, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid is an important regulator of plant growth, development and defense. The jasmonate-ZIM domain (JAZ) proteins are key regulators in jasmonate signaling ubiquitously present in flowering plants but their functional annotation remains largely incomplete. Recently, we identified 12 putative JAZ proteins in native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, and initiated systematic functional characterization of these proteins by reverse genetic approaches. In this report, Nicotiana attenuata plants silenced in the expression of NaJAZd (irJAZd) by RNA interference were used to characterize NaJAZd function. Although NaJAZd transcripts were strongly and transiently up-regulated in the rosette leaves by simulated herbivory treatment, we did not observe strong defense-related phenotypes, such as altered herbivore performance or the constitutive accumulation of defense-related secondary metabolites in irJAZd plants compared to wild type plants, both in the glasshouse and the native habitat of Nicotiana attenuata in the Great Basin Desert, Utah, USA. Interestingly, irJAZd plants produced fewer seed capsules than did wild type plants as a result of increased flower abscission in later stages of flower development. The early- and mid-developmental stages of irJAZd flowers had reduced levels of jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine, while fully open flowers had normal levels, but these were impaired in NaMYB305 transcript accumulations. Previously, NaMYB305-silenced plants were shown to have strong flower abscission phenotypes and contained lower NECTARIN 1 transcript levels, phenotypes which are copied in irJAZd plants. We propose that the NaJAZd protein is required to counteract flower abscission, possibly by regulating jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine levels and/or expression of NaMYB305 gene in Nicotiana attenuata flowers. This novel insight into the function of JAZ proteins in flower and seed development highlights the diversity of functions played by jasmonates

  4. Proteomic analysis of JAZ interacting proteins under methyl jasmonate treatment in finger millet.

    PubMed

    Sen, Saswati; Kundu, Sangeeta; Dutta, Samir Kr

    2016-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway in plants is activated against various developmental processes as well as biotic and abiotic stresses. The Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) protein family, the key regulator of plant JA signaling pathway, also participates in phytohormone crosstalk. This is the first study revealing the in vivo interactions of finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) JAZ protein (EcJAZ) under methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment. The aim of the study was to explore not only the JA signaling pathway but also the phytohormone signaling crosstalk of finger millet, a highly important future crop. From the MJ-treated finger millet seedlings, the EcJAZ interacting proteins were purified by affinity chromatography with the EcJAZ-matrix. Twenty-one proteins of varying functionalities were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF Mass spectrometry. Apart from the previously identified JAZ binding proteins, most prominently, EcJAZ was found to interact with transcription factors like NAC, GATA and also with Cold responsive protein (COR), etc. that might have extended the range of functionalities of JAZ proteins. Moreover, to evaluate the interactions of EcJAZ in the JA-co-receptor complex, we generated ten in-silico models containing the EcJAZ degron and the COI1-SKP1 of five monocot cereals viz., rice, wheat, maize, Sorghum and Setaria with JA-Ile or coronatine. Our results indicated that the EcJAZ protein of finger millet could act as the signaling hub for the JA and other phytohormone signaling pathways, in response to a diverse set of stressors and developmental cues to provide survival fitness to the plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. MdHIR proteins repress anthocyanin accumulation by interacting with the MdJAZ2 protein to inhibit its degradation in apples

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke-Qin; Zhao, Xian-Yan; An, Xiu-Hong; Tian, Yi; Liu, Dan-Dan; You, Chun-Xiang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2017-01-01

    In higher plants, jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins negatively regulate the biosynthesis of anthocyanins by interacting with bHLH transcription factors. However, it is largely unknown if and how other regulators are involved in this process. In this study, the apple MdJAZ2 protein was characterized in regards to its function in the negative regulation of anthocyanin accumulation and peel coloration. MdJAZ2 was used as a bait to screen a cDNA library using the yeast two-hybrid method. The hypersensitive induced reaction (HIR) proteins, MdHIR2 and MdHIR4, were obtained from this yeast two-hybrid. The ZIM domain of MdJAZ2 and the PHB domain of the MdHIR proteins are necessary for their interactions. The interactions were further verified using an in vitro pull-down assay. Subsequently, immunoblotting assays demonstrated that MdHIR4 enhanced the stability of the MdJAZ2-GUS protein. Finally, a viral vector-based transformation method showed that MdHIR4 inhibited anthocyanin accumulation and fruit coloration in apple by modulating the expression of genes associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis. PMID:28317851

  6. Genome-wide characterization of JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN transcription repressors in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yukun; Qiao, Linyi; Bai, Jianfang; Wang, Peng; Duan, Wenjing; Yuan, Shaohua; Yuan, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengting; Zhang, Liping; Zhao, Changping

    2017-02-13

    The JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) repressor family proteins are jasmonate co-receptors and transcriptional repressor in jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, and they play important roles in regulating the growth and development of plants. Recently, more and more researches on JAZ gene family are reported in many plants. Although the genome sequencing of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its relatives is complete, our knowledge about this gene family remains vacant. Fourteen JAZ genes were identified in the wheat genome. Structural analysis revealed that the TaJAZ proteins in wheat were as conserved as those in other plants, but had structural characteristics. By phylogenetic analysis, all JAZ proteins from wheat and other plants were clustered into 11 sub-groups (G1-G11), and TaJAZ proteins shared a high degree of similarity with some JAZ proteins from Aegliops tauschii, Brachypodium distachyon and Oryza sativa. The Ka/Ks ratios of TaJAZ genes ranged from 0.0016 to 0.6973, suggesting that the TaJAZ family had undergone purifying selection in wheat. Gene expression patterns obtained by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed differential temporal and spatial regulation of TaJAZ genes under multifarious abiotic stress treatments of high salinity, drought, cold and phytohormone. Among these, TaJAZ7, 8 and 12 were specifically expressed in the anther tissues of the thermosensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) wheat line BS366 and normal control wheat line Jing411. Compared with the gene expression patterns in the normal wheat line Jing411, TaJAZ7, 8 and 12 had different expression patterns in abnormally dehiscent anthers of BS366 at the heading stage 6, suggesting that specific up- or down-regulation of these genes might be associated with the abnormal anther dehiscence in TGMS wheat line. This study analyzed the size and composition of the JAZ gene family in wheat, and investigated stress responsive and differential tissue-specific expression profiles of each

  7. The WRKY57 Transcription Factor Affects the Expression of Jasmonate ZIM-Domain Genes Transcriptionally to Compromise Botrytis cinerea Resistance.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanjuan; Yu, Diqiu

    2016-08-01

    Although necrotrophic pathogens cause many devastating plant diseases, our understanding of the plant defense response to them is limited. Here, we found that loss of function of WRKY57 enhanced the resistance of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) against Botrytis cinerea infection. Further investigation suggested that the negative regulation of WRKY57 against B cinerea depends on the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that WRKY57 directly binds to the promoters of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN1 (JAZ1) and JAZ5, encoding two important repressors of the JA signaling pathway, and activates their transcription. In vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that WRKY57 interacts with nuclear-encoded SIGMA FACTOR BINDING PROTEIN1 (SIB1) and SIB2. Further experiments display that the same domain, the VQ motif, of SIB1 and SIB2 interact with WRKY33 and WRKY57. Moreover, transient transcriptional activity assays confirmed that WRKY57 and WRKY33 competitively regulate JAZ1 and JAZ5, SIB1 and SIB2 further enhance these competitions of WRKY57 to WRKY33. Therefore, coordinated regulation of Arabidopsis against B cinerea by transcription activators and repressors would benefit plants by allowing fine regulation of defense. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Jasmonate induction of the monoterpene linalool confers resistance to rice bacterial blight and its biosynthesis is regulated by JAZ protein in rice.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Shiduku; Hosokawa-Shinonaga, Yumi; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Yamada, Shoko; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in the regulation of host immunity in plants. Recently, we demonstrated that JA signalling has an important role in resistance to rice bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) in rice. Here, we report that many volatile compounds accumulate in response to exogenous application of JA, including the monoterpene linalool. Expression of linalool synthase was up-regulated by JA. Vapour treatment with linalool induced resistance to Xoo, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing linalool synthase were more resistance to Xoo, presumably due to the up-regulation of defence-related genes in the absence of any treatment. JA-induced accumulation of linalool was regulated by OsJAZ8, a rice jasmonate ZIM-domain protein involving the JA signalling pathway at the transcriptional level, suggesting that linalool plays an important role in JA-induced resistance to Xoo in rice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Characterization of a JAZ7 activation-tagged Arabidopsis mutant with increased susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Louise F.; Cevik, Volkan; Grant, Murray; Zhai, Bing; Jones, Jonathan D.G.; Manners, John M.; Kazan, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, jasmonate (JA)-signaling plays a key role in mediating Fusarium oxysporum disease outcome. However, the roles of JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins that repress JA-signaling have not been characterized in host resistance or susceptibility to this pathogen. Here, we found most JAZ genes are induced following F. oxysporum challenge, and screening T-DNA insertion lines in Arabidopsis JAZ family members identified a highly disease-susceptible JAZ7 mutant (jaz7-1D). This mutant exhibited constitutive JAZ7 expression and conferred increased JA-sensitivity, suggesting activation of JA-signaling. Unlike jaz7 loss-of-function alleles, jaz7-1D also had enhanced JA-responsive gene expression, altered development and increased susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen Pst DC3000 that also disrupts host JA-responses. We also demonstrate that JAZ7 interacts with transcription factors functioning as activators (MYC3, MYC4) or repressors (JAM1) of JA-signaling and contains a functional EAR repressor motif mediating transcriptional repression via the co-repressor TOPLESS (TPL). We propose through direct TPL recruitment, in wild-type plants JAZ7 functions as a repressor within the JA-response network and that in jaz7-1D plants, misregulated ectopic JAZ7 expression hyper-activates JA-signaling in part by disturbing finely-tuned COI1-JAZ-TPL-TF complexes. PMID:26896849

  10. Quantitative proteomics reveals a role of JAZ7 in plant defense response to Pseudomonas syringae DC3000.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Meng, Li; Kong, Wenwen; Yin, Zepeng; Wang, Yang; Schneider, Jacqueline D; Chen, Sixue

    2018-03-20

    Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins are key transcriptional repressors regulating various biological processes. Although many studies have studied JAZ proteins by genetic and biochemical analyses, little is known about JAZ7-associated global protein networks and how JAZ7 contributes to bacterial pathogen defense. In this study, we aim to fill this knowledge gap by conducting unbiased large-scale quantitative proteomics using tandem mass tags (TMT). We compared the proteomes of a JAZ7 knock-out line, a JAZ7 overexpression line, as well as the wild type Arabidopsis plants in the presence and absence of Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 infection. Both pairwise comparison and multi-factor analysis of variance reveal that differential proteins are enriched in biological processes such as primary and secondary metabolism, redox regulation, and response to stress. The differential regulation in these pathways may account for the alterations in plant size, redox homeostasis and accumulation of glucosinolates. In addition, possible interplay between genotype and environment is suggested as the abundance of seven proteins is influenced by the interaction of the two factors. Collectively, we demonstrate a role of JAZ7 in pathogen defense and provide a list of proteins that are uniquely responsive to genetic disruption, pathogen infection, or the interaction between genotypes and environmental factors. We report proteomic changes as a result of genetic perturbation of JAZ7, and the contribution of JAZ7 in plant immunity. Specifically, the similarity between the proteomes of a JAZ7 knockout mutant and the wild type plants confirmed the functional redundancy of JAZs. In contrast, JAZ7 overexpression plants were much different, and proteomic analysis of the JAZ7 overexpression plants under Pst DC3000 infection revealed that JAZ7 may regulate plant immunity via ROS modulation, energy balance and glucosinolate biosynthesis. Multiple variate analysis for this two-factor proteomics

  11. JAZ7 negatively regulates dark-induced leaf senescence in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Juan; Zhang, Yixiang; Di, Chao; Zhang, Qunlian; Zhang, Kang; Wang, Chunchao; You, Qi; Yan, Hong; Dai, Susie Y.; Yuan, Joshua S; Xu, Wenying; Su, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins play important roles in plant defence and growth by regulating jasmonate signalling. Through data mining, we discovered that the JAZ7 gene was up-regulated in darkness. In the dark, the jaz7 mutant displayed more severe leaf yellowing, quicker chlorophyll degradation, and higher hydrogen peroxide accumulation compared with wild-type (WT) plants. The mutant phenotype of dark-induced leaf senescence could be rescued in the JAZ7-complemented and -overexpression lines. Moreover, the double mutants of jaz7 myc2 and jaz7 coi1 exhibited delayed leaf senescence. We further employed GeneChip analysis to study the molecular mechanism. Some key genes down-regulated in the triple mutant myc2 myc3 myc4 were up-regulated in the jaz7 mutant under darkness. The Gene Ontology terms ‘leaf senescence’ and ‘cell death’ were significantly enriched in the differentially expressed genes. Combining the genetic and transcriptomic analyses together, we proposed a model whereby darkness can induce JAZ7, which might further block MYC2 to suppress dark-induced leaf senescence. In darkness, the mutation of JAZ7 might partially liberate MYC2/MYC3/MYC4 from suppression, leading the MYC proteins to bind to the G-box/G-box-like motifs in the promoters, resulting in the up-regulation of the downstream genes related to indole-glucosinolate biosynthesis, sulphate metabolism, callose deposition, and JA-mediated signalling pathways. In summary, our genetic and transcriptomic studies established the JAZ7 protein as an important regulator in dark-induced leaf senescence. PMID:26547795

  12. A stable JAZ protein from peach mediates the transition from outcrossing to self-pollination.

    PubMed

    Sherif, Sherif; El-Sharkawy, Islam; Mathur, Jaideep; Ravindran, Pratibha; Kumar, Prakash; Paliyath, Gopinadhan; Jayasankar, Subramanian

    2015-02-13

    Variations in floral display represent one of the core features associated with the transition from allogamy to autogamy in angiosperms. The promotion of autogamy under stress conditions suggests the potential involvement of a signaling pathway with a dual role in both flower development and stress response. The jasmonic acid (JA) pathway is a plausible candidate to play such a role because of its involvement in many plant responses to environmental and developmental cues. In the present study, we used peach (Prunus persica L.) varieties with showy and non-showy flowers to investigate the role of JA (and JA signaling suppressors) in floral display. Our results show that PpJAZ1, a component of the JA signaling pathway in peach, regulates petal expansion during anthesis and promotes self-pollination. PpJAZ1 transcript levels were higher in petals of the non-showy flowers than those of showy flowers at anthesis. Moreover, the ectopic expression of PpJAZ1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) converted the showy, chasmogamous tobacco flowers into non-showy, cleistogamous flowers. Stability of PpJAZ1 was confirmed in vivo using PpJAZ1-GFP chimeric protein. PpJAZ1 inhibited JA-dependent processes in roots and leaves of transgenic plants, including induction of JA-response genes to mechanical wounding. However, the inhibitory effect of PpJAZ1 on JA-dependent fertility functions was weaker, indicating that PpJAZ1 regulates the spatial localization of JA signaling in different plant organs. Indeed, JA-related genes showed differential expression patterns in leaves and flowers of transgenic plants. Our results reveal that under stress conditions – for example, herbivore attacks – stable JAZ proteins such as PpJAZ1 may alter JA signaling in different plant organs, resulting in autogamy as a reproductive assurance mechanism. This represents an additional mechanism by which plant hormone signaling can modulate a vital developmental process in response to stress.

  13. Structural basis of JAZ repression of MYC transcription factors in jasmonate signalling

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Feng; Yao, Jian; Ke, Jiyuan; ...

    2015-08-10

    The plant hormone jasmonate plays crucial roles in regulating plant responses to herbivorous insects and microbial pathogens and is an important regulator of plant growth and development. Key mediators of jasmonate signalling include MYC transcription factors, which are repressed by jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) transcriptional repressors in the resting state. In the presence of active jasmonate, JAZ proteins function as jasmonate co-receptors by forming a hormone-dependent complex with COI1, the F-box subunit of an SCF-type ubiquitin E3 ligase. The hormone-dependent formation of the COI1–JAZ co-receptor complex leads to ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of JAZ repressors and release of MYC proteins frommore » transcriptional repression. The mechanism by which JAZ proteins repress MYC transcription factors and how JAZ proteins switch between the repressor function in the absence of hormone and the co-receptor function in the presence of hormone remain enigmatic. In this paper, we show that Arabidopsis MYC3 undergoes pronounced conformational changes when bound to the conserved Jas motif of the JAZ9 repressor. The Jas motif, previously shown to bind to hormone as a partly unwound helix, forms a complete α-helix that displaces the amino (N)-terminal helix of MYC3 and becomes an integral part of the MYC N-terminal fold. In this position, the Jas helix competitively inhibits MYC3 interaction with the MED25 subunit of the transcriptional Mediator complex. Finally, our structural and functional studies elucidate a dynamic molecular switch mechanism that governs the repression and activation of a major plant hormone pathway.« less

  14. Jasmonate and Phytochrome A Signaling in Arabidopsis Wound and Shade Responses Are Integrated through JAZ1 Stability[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Frances; Okamoto, Haruko; Patrick, Elaine; Harris, Sue-Ré; Wasternack, Claus; Brearley, Charles; Turner, John G.

    2010-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) activates plant defense, promotes pollen maturation, and suppresses plant growth. An emerging theme in JA biology is its involvement in light responses; here, we examine the interdependence of the JA- and light-signaling pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrate that mutants deficient in JA biosynthesis and signaling are deficient in a subset of high irradiance responses in far-red (FR) light. These mutants display exaggerated shade responses to low, but not high, R/FR ratio light, suggesting a role for JA in phytochrome A (phyA) signaling. Additionally, we demonstrate that the FR light–induced expression of transcription factor genes is dependent on CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1), a central component of JA signaling, and is suppressed by JA. phyA mutants had reduced JA-regulated growth inhibition and VSP expression and increased content of cis-(+)-12-oxophytodienoic acid, an intermediate in JA biosynthesis. Significantly, COI1-mediated degradation of JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN1-β-glucuronidase (JAZ1-GUS) in response to mechanical wounding and JA treatment required phyA, and ectopic expression of JAZ1-GUS resulted in exaggerated shade responses. Together, these results indicate that JA and phyA signaling are integrated through degradation of the JAZ1 protein, and both are required for plant responses to light and stress. PMID:20435902

  15. Functional characterization of a novel jasmonate ZIM-domain interactor (NINJA) from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Wu, Shu-Ming; Zhu, Yue; Fan, Qiang; Zhang, Zhen-Nan; Hu, Guang; Peng, Qing-Zhong; Wu, Jia-He

    2017-03-01

    The jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathway plays roles in plant development and defence against biotic and abiotic stresses. We isolated a cotton NINJA (novel interactor of JA ZIM-domain) gene, designated GhNINJA, which contains a 1305 bp open read frame. The GhNINJA gene encodes a 434 amino acid peptide. According to quantitative real-time PCR analysis, GhNINJA is preferentially expressed in roots, and its expression level is greatly induced by Verticillium dahliae infection. Through a virus-induced gene silencing technique, we developed GhNINJA-silenced cotton plants, which had significantly decreased expression of the target gene with an average expression of 6% of the control. The regenerating lateral root growth of silenced plants was largely inhibited compared to the control. Analysis by microscopy demonstrated that the cell length of the root differentiation zone in GhNINJA-silenced plants is significantly shorter than those of the control. Moreover, the silenced plants exhibited higher tolerance to V. dahliae infection compared to the control, which was linked to the increased expression of the defence marker genes PDF1.2 and PR4. Together, these data indicated that knockdown of GhNINJA represses the root growth and enhances the tolerance to V. dahliae. Therefore, GhNINJA gene can be used as a candidate gene to breed the new cultivars for improving cotton yield and disease resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Salicylic Acid Suppresses Jasmonic Acid Signaling Downstream of SCFCOI1-JAZ by Targeting GCC Promoter Motifs via Transcription Factor ORA59[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Van der Does, Dieuwertje; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Koornneef, Annemart; Van Verk, Marcel C.; Rodenburg, Nicole; Pauwels, Laurens; Goossens, Alain; Körbes, Ana P.; Memelink, Johan; Ritsema, Tita; Van Wees, Saskia C.M.; Pieterse, Corné M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Antagonism between the defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in the modulation of the plant immune signaling network, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that suppression of the JA pathway by SA functions downstream of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase Skip-Cullin-F-box complex SCFCOI1, which targets JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressor proteins (JAZs) for proteasome-mediated degradation. In addition, neither the stability nor the JA-induced degradation of JAZs was affected by SA. In silico promoter analysis of the SA/JA crosstalk transcriptome revealed that the 1-kb promoter regions of JA-responsive genes that are suppressed by SA are significantly enriched in the JA-responsive GCC-box motifs. Using GCC:GUS lines carrying four copies of the GCC-box fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene, we showed that the GCC-box motif is sufficient for SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Using plants overexpressing the GCC-box binding APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factors ERF1 or ORA59, we found that SA strongly reduces the accumulation of ORA59 but not that of ERF1. Collectively, these data indicate that the SA pathway inhibits JA signaling downstream of the SCFCOI1-JAZ complex by targeting GCC-box motifs in JA-responsive promoters via a negative effect on the transcriptional activator ORA59. PMID:23435661

  17. Salicylic acid suppresses jasmonic acid signaling downstream of SCFCOI1-JAZ by targeting GCC promoter motifs via transcription factor ORA59.

    PubMed

    Van der Does, Dieuwertje; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Koornneef, Annemart; Van Verk, Marcel C; Rodenburg, Nicole; Pauwels, Laurens; Goossens, Alain; Körbes, Ana P; Memelink, Johan; Ritsema, Tita; Van Wees, Saskia C M; Pieterse, Corné M J

    2013-02-01

    Antagonism between the defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in the modulation of the plant immune signaling network, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that suppression of the JA pathway by SA functions downstream of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase Skip-Cullin-F-box complex SCF(COI1), which targets JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressor proteins (JAZs) for proteasome-mediated degradation. In addition, neither the stability nor the JA-induced degradation of JAZs was affected by SA. In silico promoter analysis of the SA/JA crosstalk transcriptome revealed that the 1-kb promoter regions of JA-responsive genes that are suppressed by SA are significantly enriched in the JA-responsive GCC-box motifs. Using GCC:GUS lines carrying four copies of the GCC-box fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene, we showed that the GCC-box motif is sufficient for SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Using plants overexpressing the GCC-box binding APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factors ERF1 or ORA59, we found that SA strongly reduces the accumulation of ORA59 but not that of ERF1. Collectively, these data indicate that the SA pathway inhibits JA signaling downstream of the SCF(COI1)-JAZ complex by targeting GCC-box motifs in JA-responsive promoters via a negative effect on the transcriptional activator ORA59.

  18. The OsMYB30 Transcription Factor Suppresses Cold Tolerance by Interacting with a JAZ Protein and Suppressing β-Amylase Expression.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yan; Yang, Mei; Hu, Dan; Yang, Zeyu; Ma, Siqi; Li, Xianghua; Xiong, Lizhong

    2017-02-01

    Cold stress is one of the major limiting factors for rice (Oryza sativa) productivity. Several MYB transcriptional factors have been reported as important regulators in the cold stress response, but the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we characterized a cold-responsive R2R3-type MYB gene, OsMYB30, for its regulatory function in cold tolerance in rice. Functional analysis revealed that overexpression of OsMYB30 in rice resulted in increased cold sensitivity, while the osmyb30 knockout mutant showed increased cold tolerance. Microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that a few β-amylase (BMY) genes were down-regulated by OsMYB30. The BMY activity and maltose content, which were decreased and increased in the OsMYB30 overexpression and osmyb30 knockout mutant, respectively, were correlated with the expression patterns of the BMY genes. OsMYB30 was shown to bind to the promoters of the BMY genes. These results suggested that OsMYB30 exhibited a regulatory effect on the breakdown of starch through the regulation of the BMY genes. In addition, application of maltose had a protective effect for cell membranes under cold stress conditions. Furthermore, we identified an OsMYB30-interacting protein, OsJAZ9, that had a significant effect in suppressing the transcriptional activation of OsMYB30 and in the repression of BMY genes mediated by OsMYB30. These results together suggested that OsMYB30 might be a novel regulator of cold tolerance through the negative regulation of the BMY genes by interacting with OsJAZ9 to fine-tune the starch breakdown and the content of maltose, which might contribute to the cold tolerance as a compatible solute. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Top hits in contemporary JAZ: New information on jasmonate signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hoo Sun; Niu, Yajie; Browse, John; Howe, Gregg A.

    2012-01-01

    The phytohormone jasmonate (JA) regulates a wide range of growth, developmental, and defense-related processes during the plant life cycle. Identification of the JAZ family of proteins that repress JA responses has facilitated rapid progress in understanding how this lipid-derived hormone controls gene expression. Recent analysis of JAZ proteins has provided new insight into the nature of the JA receptor, the chemical specificity of signal perception, and cross-talk between JA and other hormone response pathways. Functional diversification of JAZ proteins by alternative splicing, together with the ability of JAZ proteins to homo- and heterodimerize, provide mechanisms to enhance combinatorial diversity and versatility in gene regulation by JA. PMID:19800644

  20. Jasmonate perception by inositol-phosphate-potentiated COI1-JAZ co-receptor

    SciT

    Sheard, Laura B; Tan, Xu; Mao, Haibin

    2011-11-07

    Jasmonates are a family of plant hormones that regulate plant growth, development and responses to stress. The F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) mediates jasmonate signalling by promoting hormone-dependent ubiquitylation and degradation of transcriptional repressor JAZ proteins. Despite its importance, the mechanism of jasmonate perception remains unclear. Here we present structural and pharmacological data to show that the true Arabidopsis jasmonate receptor is a complex of both COI1 and JAZ. COI1 contains an open pocket that recognizes the bioactive hormone (3R,7S)-jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) with high specificity. High-affinity hormone binding requires a bipartite JAZ degron sequence consisting of a conserved {alpha}-helix formore » COI1 docking and a loop region to trap the hormone in its binding pocket. In addition, we identify a third critical component of the jasmonate co-receptor complex, inositol pentakisphosphate, which interacts with both COI1 and JAZ adjacent to the ligand. Our results unravel the mechanism of jasmonate perception and highlight the ability of F-box proteins to evolve as multi-component signalling hubs.« less

  1. Exploring growth-defence trade-offs in Arabidopsis: phytochrome B inactivation requires JAZ10 to suppress plant immunity but not to trigger shade-avoidance responses.

    PubMed

    Cerrudo, Ignacio; Caliri-Ortiz, M Emilia; Keller, Mercedes M; Degano, M Eugenia; Demkura, Patricia V; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2017-05-01

    Under conditions that involve a high risk of competition for light among neighbouring plants, shade-intolerant species often display increased shoot elongation and greater susceptibility to pathogens and herbivores. The functional links between morphological and defence responses to crowding are not well understood. In Arabidopsis, the protein JAZ10 is thought to play a key role connecting the inactivation of the photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB), which takes place under competition for light, with the repression of jasmonate-mediated plant defences. Here, we show that a null mutation of the JAZ10 gene in Arabidopsis did not affect plant growth nor did it suppress the shade-avoidance responses elicited by phyB inactivation. However, the jaz10 mutation restored many of the defence traits that are missing in the phyB mutant, including the ability to express robust responses to jasmonate and to accumulate indolic glucosinolates. Furthermore, the jaz10phyB double mutant showed a significantly increased resistance to the pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea compared with the phyB parental line. Our results demonstrate that, by inactivating JAZ10, it is possible to partially uncouple shade avoidance from defence suppression in Arabidopsis. These findings may provide clues to improve plant resistance to pathogens in crops that are planted at high density. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Jasmonate signalling pathway in strawberry: Genome-wide identification, molecular characterization and expression of JAZs and MYCs during fruit development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Bigotes, Adrián; Figueroa, Nicolás E; Figueroa, Pablo M; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2018-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are signalling molecules involved in stress responses, development and secondary metabolism biosynthesis, although their roles in fleshy-fruit development and ripening processes are not well known. In strawberry fruit, it has been proposed that JAs could regulate the early development through the activation of the JAs biosynthesis. Moreover, it has been reported that JA treatment increases anthocyanin content in strawberry fruit involving the bioactive jasmonate biosynthesis. Nevertheless, JA signalling pathway, of which main components are the COI1-JAZ co-receptor and the MYC transcription factors (TFs), has not been characterized in strawberry until now. Here we identified and characterized the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) JAZ and MYC genes as well as studied their expression during development and ripening stages in commercial strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit. We described twelve putative JAZ proteins and two MYC TFs, which showed high conservation with respect to their orthologs in Arabidopsis thaliana and in other fleshy-fruit species such as Malus × domestica, Vitis vinifera and Solanum lycopersicum as revealed by gene synteny and phylogenetic analyses. Noteworthy, their expression levels exhibited a significant decrease from fruit development to ripening stages in F. × ananassa, along with others of the JA signalling-related genes such as FaNINJA and FaJAMs, encoding for negative regulators of JA responses. Moreover, we found that main JA signalling-related genes such as FaMYC2, and FaJAZ1 are promptly induced by JA treatment at early times in F. × ananassa fruit. These results suggest the conservation of the canonical JA signalling pathway in strawberry and a possible role of this pathway in early strawberry fruit development, which also correlates negatively with the beginning of the ripening process.

  3. Jasmonate signalling pathway in strawberry: Genome-wide identification, molecular characterization and expression of JAZs and MYCs during fruit development and ripening

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Nicolás E.; Figueroa, Pablo M.

    2018-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are signalling molecules involved in stress responses, development and secondary metabolism biosynthesis, although their roles in fleshy-fruit development and ripening processes are not well known. In strawberry fruit, it has been proposed that JAs could regulate the early development through the activation of the JAs biosynthesis. Moreover, it has been reported that JA treatment increases anthocyanin content in strawberry fruit involving the bioactive jasmonate biosynthesis. Nevertheless, JA signalling pathway, of which main components are the COI1-JAZ co-receptor and the MYC transcription factors (TFs), has not been characterized in strawberry until now. Here we identified and characterized the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) JAZ and MYC genes as well as studied their expression during development and ripening stages in commercial strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit. We described twelve putative JAZ proteins and two MYC TFs, which showed high conservation with respect to their orthologs in Arabidopsis thaliana and in other fleshy-fruit species such as Malus × domestica, Vitis vinifera and Solanum lycopersicum as revealed by gene synteny and phylogenetic analyses. Noteworthy, their expression levels exhibited a significant decrease from fruit development to ripening stages in F. × ananassa, along with others of the JA signalling-related genes such as FaNINJA and FaJAMs, encoding for negative regulators of JA responses. Moreover, we found that main JA signalling-related genes such as FaMYC2, and FaJAZ1 are promptly induced by JA treatment at early times in F. × ananassa fruit. These results suggest the conservation of the canonical JA signalling pathway in strawberry and a possible role of this pathway in early strawberry fruit development, which also correlates negatively with the beginning of the ripening process. PMID:29746533

  4. Endogenous Bioactive Jasmonate Is Composed of a Set of (+)-7-iso-JA-Amino Acid Conjugates1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Suhua; Li, Yuwen; Chen, Juan; Yang, Mai; Tong, Jianhua; Xiao, Langtao; Nan, Fajun; Xie, Daoxin

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) regulate a wide range of plant defense and development processes. The bioactive JA is perceived by its receptor COI1 to trigger the degradation of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and subsequently derepress the JAZ-repressed transcription factors for activation of expression of JA-responsive genes. So far, (+)-7-iso-JA-l-Ile has been the only identified endogenous bioactive JA molecule. Here, we designed coronafacic acid (CFA) conjugates with all the amino acids (CFA-AA) to mimic the JA amino acid conjugates, and revealed that (+)-7-iso-JA-Leu, (+)-7-iso-JA-Val, (+)-7-iso-JA-Met, and (+)-7-iso-JA-Ala are new endogenous bioactive JA molecules. Furthermore, our studies uncover the general characteristics for all the bioactive JA molecules, and provide a new strategy to synthetically generate novel active JA molecules. PMID:27756820

  5. NaJAZh Regulates a Subset of Defense Responses against Herbivores and Spontaneous Leaf Necrosis in Nicotiana attenuata Plants[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Youngjoo; Baldwin, Ian T.; Gális, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins function as negative regulators of jasmonic acid signaling in plants. We cloned 12 JAZ genes from native tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata), including nine novel JAZs in tobacco, and examined their expression in plants that had leaves elicited by wounding or simulated herbivory. Most JAZ genes showed strong expression in the elicited leaves, but NaJAZg was mainly expressed in roots. Another novel herbivory-elicited gene, NaJAZh, was analyzed in detail. RNA interference suppression of this gene in inverted-repeat (ir)JAZh plants deregulated a specific branch of jasmonic acid-dependent direct and indirect defenses: irJAZh plants showed greater trypsin protease inhibitor activity, 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides accumulation, and emission of volatile organic compounds from leaves. Silencing of NaJAZh also revealed a novel cross talk in JAZ-regulated secondary metabolism, as irJAZh plants had significantly reduced nicotine levels. In addition, irJAZh spontaneously developed leaf necrosis during the transition to flowering. Because the lesions closely correlated with the elevated expression of programmed cell death genes and the accumulations of salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the leaves, we propose a novel role of the NaJAZh protein as a repressor of necrosis and/or programmed cell death during plant development. PMID:22496510

  6. Jasmonate Regulates the INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION–C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR/DRE BINDING FACTOR1 Cascade and Freezing Tolerance in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yanru; Jiang, Liqun; Wang, Fang; Yu, Diqiu

    2013-01-01

    The INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION (ICE)–C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR/DRE BINDING FACTOR1 (CBF/DREB1) transcriptional pathway plays a critical role in modulating cold stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Dissecting crucial upstream regulatory signals or components of the ICE-CBF/DREB1 cascade will enhance our understanding of plant cold-tolerance mechanisms. Here, we show that jasmonate positively regulates plant responses to freezing stress in Arabidopsis. Exogenous application of jasmonate significantly enhanced plant freezing tolerance with or without cold acclimation. By contrast, blocking endogenous jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling rendered plants hypersensitive to freezing stress. Consistent with the positive role of jasmonate in freezing stress, production of endogenous jasmonate was triggered by cold treatment. In addition, cold induction of genes acting in the CBF/DREB1 signaling pathway was upregulated by jasmonate. Further investigation revealed that several JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, the repressors of jasmonate signaling, physically interact with ICE1 and ICE2 transcription factors. JAZ1 and JAZ4 repress the transcriptional function of ICE1, thereby attenuating the expression of its regulon. Consistent with this, overexpression of JAZ1 or JAZ4 represses freezing stress responses of Arabidopsis. Taken together, our study provides evidence that jasmonate functions as a critical upstream signal of the ICE-CBF/DREB1 pathway to positively regulate Arabidopsis freezing tolerance. PMID:23933884

  7. Jasmonate regulates the inducer of cbf expression-C-repeat binding factor/DRE binding factor1 cascade and freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanru; Jiang, Liqun; Wang, Fang; Yu, Diqiu

    2013-08-01

    The inducer of cbf expression (ICE)-C-repeat binding factor/DRE binding factor1 (CBF/DREB1) transcriptional pathway plays a critical role in modulating cold stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Dissecting crucial upstream regulatory signals or components of the ICE-CBF/DREB1 cascade will enhance our understanding of plant cold-tolerance mechanisms. Here, we show that jasmonate positively regulates plant responses to freezing stress in Arabidopsis. Exogenous application of jasmonate significantly enhanced plant freezing tolerance with or without cold acclimation. By contrast, blocking endogenous jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling rendered plants hypersensitive to freezing stress. Consistent with the positive role of jasmonate in freezing stress, production of endogenous jasmonate was triggered by cold treatment. In addition, cold induction of genes acting in the CBF/DREB1 signaling pathway was upregulated by jasmonate. Further investigation revealed that several jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, the repressors of jasmonate signaling, physically interact with ICE1 and ICE2 transcription factors. JAZ1 and JAZ4 repress the transcriptional function of ICE1, thereby attenuating the expression of its regulon. Consistent with this, overexpression of JAZ1 or JAZ4 represses freezing stress responses of Arabidopsis. Taken together, our study provides evidence that jasmonate functions as a critical upstream signal of the ICE-CBF/DREB1 pathway to positively regulate Arabidopsis freezing tolerance.

  8. Structural insights into alternative splicing-mediated desensitization of jasmonate signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Ke, Jiyuan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Rongzhi; Sugimoto, Koichi; Howe, Gregg A; Xu, H Eric; Zhou, Mingguo; He, Sheng Yang; Melcher, Karsten

    2017-02-14

    Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) transcriptional repressors play a key role in regulating jasmonate (JA) signaling in plants. Below a threshold concentration of jasmonoyl isoleucine (JA-Ile), the active form of JA, the C-terminal Jas motif of JAZ proteins binds MYC transcription factors to repress JA signaling. With increasing JA-Ile concentration, the Jas motif binds to JA-Ile and the COI1 subunit of the SCF COI1 E3 ligase, which mediates ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of JAZ repressors, resulting in derepression of MYC transcription factors. JA signaling subsequently becomes desensitized, in part by feedback induction of JAZ splice variants that lack the C-terminal Jas motif but include an N-terminal cryptic MYC-interaction domain (CMID). The CMID sequence is dissimilar to the Jas motif and is incapable of recruiting SCF COI1 , allowing CMID-containing JAZ splice variants to accumulate in the presence of JA and to re-repress MYC transcription factors as an integral part of reestablishing signal homeostasis. The mechanism by which the CMID represses MYC transcription factors remains elusive. Here we describe the crystal structure of the MYC3-CMID JAZ10 complex. In contrast to the Jas motif, which forms a single continuous helix when bound to MYC3, the CMID adopts a loop-helix-loop-helix architecture with modular interactions with both the Jas-binding groove and the backside of the Jas-interaction domain of MYC3. This clamp-like interaction allows the CMID to bind MYC3 tightly and block access of MED25 (a subunit of the Mediator coactivator complex) to the MYC3 transcriptional activation domain, shedding light on the enigmatic mechanism by which JAZ splice variants desensitize JA signaling.

  9. Jasmonate response decay and defense metabolite accumulation contributes to age-regulated dynamics of plant insect resistance

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ying-Bo; Liu, Yao-Qian; Chen, Dian-Yang; Chen, Fang-Yan; Fang, Xin; Hong, Gao-Jie; Wang, Ling-Jian; Wang, Jia-Wei; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2017-01-01

    Immunity deteriorates with age in animals but comparatively little is known about the temporal regulation of plant resistance to herbivores. The phytohormone jasmonate (JA) is a key regulator of plant insect defense. Here, we show that the JA response decays progressively in Arabidopsis. We show that this decay is regulated by the miR156-targeted SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE9 (SPL9) group of proteins, which can interact with JA ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, including JAZ3. As SPL9 levels gradually increase, JAZ3 accumulates and the JA response is attenuated. We provide evidence that this pathway contributes to insect resistance in young plants. Interestingly however, despite the decay in JA response, older plants are still comparatively more resistant to both the lepidopteran generalist Helicoverpa armigera and the specialist Plutella xylostella, along with increased accumulation of glucosinolates. We propose a model whereby constitutive accumulation of defense compounds plays a role in compensating for age-related JA-response attenuation during plant maturation. PMID:28067238

  10. Extracellular ATP Acts on Jasmonate Signaling to Reinforce Plant Defense.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Diwaker; Zhang, Tong; Koo, Abraham J; Stacey, Gary; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2018-01-01

    Damaged cells send various signals to stimulate defense responses. Recent identification and genetic studies of the plant purinoceptor, P2K1 (also known as DORN1), have demonstrated that extracellular ATP is a signal involved in plant stress responses, including wounding, perhaps to evoke plant defense. However, it remains largely unknown how extracellular ATP induces plant defense responses. Here, we demonstrate that extracellular ATP induces plant defense mediated through activation of the intracellular signaling of jasmonate (JA), a well-characterized defense hormone. In Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) leaves, ATP pretreatment induced resistance against the necrotrophic fungus, Botrytis cinerea The induced resistance was enhanced in the P2K1 receptor overexpression line, but reduced in the receptor mutant, dorn1 - 3 Mining the transcriptome data revealed that ATP induces a set of JA-induced genes. In addition, the P2K1-associated coexpression network contains defense-related genes, including those encoding jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, which play key roles as repressors of JA signaling. We examined whether extracellular ATP impacts the stability of JAZ1 in Arabidopsis. The results showed that the JAZ1 stability decreased in response to ATP addition in a proteasome-dependent manner. This reduction required intracellular signaling via second messengers-cytosolic calcium, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide. Interestingly, the ATP-induced JAZ1 degradation was attenuated in the JA receptor mutant, coi1 , but not in the JA biosynthesis mutant, aos , or upon addition of JA biosynthesis inhibitors. Immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that ATP increases the interaction between COI1 and JAZ1, suggesting direct cross talk between extracellular ATP and JA in intracellular signaling events. Taken together, these results suggest that extracellular ATP signaling directly impacts the JA signaling pathway to maximize plant defense responses. © 2018

  11. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the TIFY Gene Family in Grape

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yucheng; Gao, Min; Singer, Stacy D.; Fei, Zhangjun; Wang, Hua; Wang, Xiping

    2012-01-01

    Background The TIFY gene family constitutes a plant-specific group of genes with a broad range of functions. This family encodes four subfamilies of proteins, including ZML, TIFY, PPD and JASMONATE ZIM-Domain (JAZ) proteins. JAZ proteins are targets of the SCFCOI1 complex, and function as negative regulators in the JA signaling pathway. Recently, it has been reported in both Arabidopsis and rice that TIFY genes, and especially JAZ genes, may be involved in plant defense against insect feeding, wounding, pathogens and abiotic stresses. Nonetheless, knowledge concerning the specific expression patterns and evolutionary history of plant TIFY family members is limited, especially in a woody species such as grape. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of two TIFY, four ZML, two PPD and 11 JAZ genes were identified in the Vitis vinifera genome. Phylogenetic analysis of TIFY protein sequences from grape, Arabidopsis and rice indicated that the grape TIFY proteins are more closely related to those of Arabidopsis than those of rice. Both segmental and tandem duplication events have been major contributors to the expansion of the grape TIFY family. In addition, synteny analysis between grape and Arabidopsis demonstrated that homologues of several grape TIFY genes were found in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes arose before the divergence of lineages that led to grape and Arabidopsis. Analyses of microarray and quantitative real-time RT-PCR expression data revealed that grape TIFY genes are not a major player in the defense against biotrophic pathogens or viruses. However, many of these genes were responsive to JA and ABA, but not SA or ET. Conclusion The genome-wide identification, evolutionary and expression analyses of grape TIFY genes should facilitate further research of this gene family and provide new insights regarding their evolutionary history and regulatory control. PMID:22984514

  12. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors JASMONATE-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3 are negative regulators of jasmonate responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Obayashi, Takeshi; Saito, Hikaru; Masuda, Shinji; Kamiya, Yuji; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Shirasu, Ken

    2013-09-01

    Jasmonates regulate transcriptional reprogramming during growth, development, and defense responses. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine, an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA), is perceived by the protein complex composed of the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, leading to the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of JAZ proteins. This activates basic helix-loop-helix-type MYC transcription factors to regulate JA-responsive genes. Here, we show that the expression of genes encoding other basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3, is positively regulated in a COI1- and MYC2-dependent manner in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, contrary to myc2, the jam1jam2jam3 triple mutant exhibited shorter roots when treated with methyl jasmonate (MJ), indicating enhanced responsiveness to JA. Our genome-wide expression analyses revealed that key jasmonate metabolic genes as well as a set of genes encoding transcription factors that regulate the JA-responsive metabolic genes are negatively regulated by JAMs after MJ treatment. Consistently, loss of JAM genes resulted in higher accumulation of anthocyanin in MJ-treated plants as well as higher accumulation of JA and 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid in wounded plants. These results show that JAMs negatively regulate the JA responses in a manner that is mostly antagonistic to MYC2.

  13. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors JASMONATE-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3 Are Negative Regulators of Jasmonate Responses in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Obayashi, Takeshi; Saito, Hikaru; Masuda, Shinji; Kamiya, Yuji; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Shirasu, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates regulate transcriptional reprogramming during growth, development, and defense responses. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine, an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA), is perceived by the protein complex composed of the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, leading to the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of JAZ proteins. This activates basic helix-loop-helix-type MYC transcription factors to regulate JA-responsive genes. Here, we show that the expression of genes encoding other basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3, is positively regulated in a COI1- and MYC2-dependent manner in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, contrary to myc2, the jam1jam2jam3 triple mutant exhibited shorter roots when treated with methyl jasmonate (MJ), indicating enhanced responsiveness to JA. Our genome-wide expression analyses revealed that key jasmonate metabolic genes as well as a set of genes encoding transcription factors that regulate the JA-responsive metabolic genes are negatively regulated by JAMs after MJ treatment. Consistently, loss of JAM genes resulted in higher accumulation of anthocyanin in MJ-treated plants as well as higher accumulation of JA and 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid in wounded plants. These results show that JAMs negatively regulate the JA responses in a manner that is mostly antagonistic to MYC2. PMID:23852442

  14. Jasmonates: biosynthesis, perception, signal transduction and action in plant stress response, growth and development. An update to the 2007 review in Annals of Botany

    PubMed Central

    Wasternack, C.; Hause, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Jasmonates are important regulators in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as in development. Synthesized from lipid-constituents, the initially formed jasmonic acid is converted to different metabolites including the conjugate with isoleucine. Important new components of jasmonate signalling including its receptor were identified, providing deeper insight into the role of jasmonate signalling pathways in stress responses and development. Scope The present review is an update of the review on jasmonates published in this journal in 2007. New data of the last five years are described with emphasis on metabolites of jasmonates, on jasmonate perception and signalling, on cross-talk to other plant hormones and on jasmonate signalling in response to herbivores and pathogens, in symbiotic interactions, in flower development, in root growth and in light perception. Conclusions The last few years have seen breakthroughs in the identification of JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and their interactors such as transcription factors and co-repressors, and the crystallization of the jasmonate receptor as well as of the enzyme conjugating jasmonate to amino acids. Now, the complex nature of networks of jasmonate signalling in stress responses and development including hormone cross-talk can be addressed. PMID:23558912

  15. Calcium supplementation modulates arsenic-induced alterations and augments arsenic accumulation in callus cultures of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.).

    PubMed

    Rai, Archana Neeraj; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Paladi, Radhakrishna; Suprasanna, Penna

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of arsenate (AsV) exposure either alone or in combination with calcium (Ca) was investigated in callus cultures of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. cv. Pusa Bold grown for a period up to 24 h. The AsV (250 μM) + Ca (10 mM) treatment resulted in a significantly higher level of As (464 μg g(-1) dry weight (DW)) than AsV without Ca (167 μg g(-1) DW) treatment at 24 h. Furthermore, AsV + Ca-treated calli had a higher percent of AsIII (24-47%) than calli subjected to AsV treatment (12-14%). Despite this, AsV + Ca-treated calli did not show any signs of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) accumulation or cell death upon in vivo staining, while AsV-exposed calli had increased H(2)O(2), shrinkage of cytoplasmic contents, and cell death. Thus, AsV treatment induced oxidative stress, which in turn elicited a response of antioxidant enzymes and metabolites as compared with control and AsV + Ca treatment. The positive effects of Ca supplementation were also correlated to an increase in thiolic constituents', viz., cysteine, reduced glutathione, and glutathione reductase in AsV + Ca than in AsV treatment. An analysis of selected signaling related genes, e.g., mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK3 and MAPK6) and jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ3) suggested that AsV and AsV + Ca followed variable pathways to sense and signal the As stress. In AsV-alone treatment, jasmonate signaling was seemingly activated, while MAPK3 was not involved. In contrast, AsV + Ca treatment appeared to specifically inhibit jasmonate signaling and activate MAPK3. In conclusion, Ca supplementation may hold promise for achieving increased As accumulation in plants without compromising their tolerance.

  16. Rewiring of jasmonate and phytochrome B signalling uncouples plant growth-defense tradeoffs

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Marcelo L.; Yoshida, Yuki; Major, Ian T.; de Oliveira Ferreira, Dalton; Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Froehlich, John E.; Johnson, Brendan F.; Kramer, David M.; Jander, Georg; Sharkey, Thomas D.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2016-01-01

    Plants resist infection and herbivory with innate immune responses that are often associated with reduced growth. Despite the importance of growth-defense tradeoffs in shaping plant productivity in natural and agricultural ecosystems, the molecular mechanisms that link growth and immunity are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that growth-defense tradeoffs mediated by the hormone jasmonate are uncoupled in an Arabidopsis mutant (jazQ phyB) lacking a quintet of Jasmonate ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors and the photoreceptor phyB. Analysis of epistatic interactions between jazQ and phyB reveal that growth inhibition associated with enhanced anti-insect resistance is likely not caused by diversion of photoassimilates from growth to defense but rather by a conserved transcriptional network that is hardwired to attenuate growth upon activation of jasmonate signalling. The ability to unlock growth-defense tradeoffs through relief of transcription repression provides an approach to assemble functional plant traits in new and potentially useful ways. PMID:27573094

  17. Rewiring of jasmonate and phytochrome B signalling uncouples plant growth-defense tradeoffs

    DOE PAGES

    Campos, Marcelo L.; Yoshida, Yuki; Major, Ian T.; ...

    2016-08-30

    Plants resist infection and herbivory with innate immune responses that are often associated with reduced growth. Despite the importance of growth-defense tradeoffs in shaping plant productivity in natural and agricultural ecosystems, the molecular mechanisms that link growth and immunity are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that growth-defense tradeoffs mediated by the hormone jasmonate are uncoupled in an Arabidopsis mutant ( jazQ phyB) lacking a quintet of Jasmonate ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors and the photoreceptor phyB. Analysis of epistatic interactions between jazQ and phyB reveal that growth inhibition associated with enhanced anti-insect resistance is likely not caused by diversion of photoassimilates frommore » growth to defense but rather by a conserved transcriptional network that is hardwired to attenuate growth upon activation of jasmonate signalling. Furthermore, the ability to unlock growth-defense tradeoffs through relief of transcription repression provides an approach to assemble functional plant traits in new and potentially useful ways.« less

  18. Rewiring of jasmonate and phytochrome B signalling uncouples plant growth-defense tradeoffs

    SciT

    Campos, Marcelo L.; Yoshida, Yuki; Major, Ian T.

    Plants resist infection and herbivory with innate immune responses that are often associated with reduced growth. Despite the importance of growth-defense tradeoffs in shaping plant productivity in natural and agricultural ecosystems, the molecular mechanisms that link growth and immunity are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that growth-defense tradeoffs mediated by the hormone jasmonate are uncoupled in an Arabidopsis mutant ( jazQ phyB) lacking a quintet of Jasmonate ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors and the photoreceptor phyB. Analysis of epistatic interactions between jazQ and phyB reveal that growth inhibition associated with enhanced anti-insect resistance is likely not caused by diversion of photoassimilates frommore » growth to defense but rather by a conserved transcriptional network that is hardwired to attenuate growth upon activation of jasmonate signalling. Furthermore, the ability to unlock growth-defense tradeoffs through relief of transcription repression provides an approach to assemble functional plant traits in new and potentially useful ways.« less

  19. Elicitor-induced transcription factors for metabolic reprogramming of secondary metabolism in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Naoumkina, Marina A; He, XianZhi; Dixon, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    Background Exposure of Medicago truncatula cell suspension cultures to pathogen or wound signals leads to accumulation of various classes of flavonoid and/or triterpene defense molecules, orchestrated via a complex signalling network in which transcription factors (TFs) are essential components. Results In this study, we analyzed TFs responding to yeast elicitor (YE) or methyl jasmonate (MJ). From 502 differentially expressed TFs, WRKY and AP2/EREBP gene families were over-represented among YE-induced genes whereas Basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) family members were more over-represented among the MJ-induced genes. Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) transcriptional regulators were highly induced by MJ treatment. To investigate potential involvement of WRKY TFs in signalling, we expressed four Medicago WRKY genes in tobacco. Levels of soluble and wall bound phenolic compounds and lignin were increased in all cases. WRKY W109669 also induced tobacco endo-1,3-β-glucanase (NtPR2) and enhanced the systemic defense response to tobacco mosaic virus in transgenic tobacco plants. Conclusion These results confirm that Medicago WRKY TFs have broad roles in orchestrating metabolic responses to biotic stress, and that they also represent potentially valuable reagents for engineering metabolic changes that impact pathogen resistance. PMID:19102779

  20. Protein Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunton, James D.; Shiryayev, Andrey; Pagan, Daniel L.

    2007-09-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Globular protein structure; 3. Experimental methods; 4. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics; 5. Protein-protein interactions; 6. Theoretical studies of equilibrium; 7. Nucleation theory; 8. Experimental studies of nucleation; 9. Lysozyme; 10. Some other globular proteins; 11. Membrane proteins; 12. Crystallins and cataracts; 13. Sickle hemoglobin and sickle cell anemia; 14, Alzheimer's disease; Index.

  1. Protein Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunton, James D.; Shiryayev, Andrey; Pagan, Daniel L.

    2014-07-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Globular protein structure; 3. Experimental methods; 4. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics; 5. Protein-protein interactions; 6. Theoretical studies of equilibrium; 7. Nucleation theory; 8. Experimental studies of nucleation; 9. Lysozyme; 10. Some other globular proteins; 11. Membrane proteins; 12. Crystallins and cataracts; 13. Sickle hemoglobin and sickle cell anemia; 14, Alzheimer's disease; Index.

  2. NDR proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Alan M

    2010-01-01

    N-myc downregulated (NDR) genes were discovered more than fifteen years ago. Indirect evidence support a role in tumor progression and cellular differentiation, but their biochemical function is still unknown. Our detailed analyses on Arabidopsis NDR proteins (deisgnated NDR-like, NDL) show their involvement in altering auxin transport, local auxin gradients and expression level of auxin transport proteins. Animal NDL proteins may be involved in membrane recycling of E-cadherin and effector for the small GTPase. In light of these findings, we hypothesize that NDL proteins regulate vesicular trafficking of auxin transport facilitator PIN proteins by biochemically alterating the local lipid environment of PIN proteins. PMID:20724844

  3. Total protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  4. Protein Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asmus, Elaine Garbarino

    2007-01-01

    Individual students model specific amino acids and then, through dehydration synthesis, a class of students models a protein. The students clearly learn amino acid structure, primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure in proteins and the nature of the bonds maintaining a protein's shape. This activity is fun, concrete, inexpensive and…

  5. Protein adhesives

    Charles R. Frihart; Linda F. Lorenz

    2018-01-01

    Nature uses a wide variety of chemicals for providing adhesion internally (e.g., cell to cell) and externally (e.g., mussels to ships and piers). This adhesive bonding is chemically and mechanically complex, involving a variety of proteins, carbohydrates, and other compounds.Consequently,the effect of protein structures on adhesive properties is only partially...

  6. Protein Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  7. Proteins (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... fat and calories. The best protein choices are fish or shellfish, skinless chicken or turkey, low-fat or fat-free dairy (skim milk, low-fat cheese). The best red meats are the leanest cuts (loin and tenderloin). Other healthy options are plant- ...

  8. ESCRT proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Chun; Ahmad, Gulzar; Mohapatra, Bhopal; Bhattacharyya, Sohinee; Ortega-Cava, Cesar F; Chung, Byung Min; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Raja, Srikumar M; Naramura, Mayumi; Band, Vimla

    2011-01-01

    ESCRT pathway proteins play a key role in sorting ubiquitinated membrane receptors towards lysosomes providing an important mechanism for attenuating cell surface receptor signaling. However, recent studies point to a positive role of ESCRT proteins in signal transduction in multiple species studied under physiological and pathological conditions. ESCRT components such as Tsg101 and Hrs are overexpressed in human cancers and Tsg101 depletion is detrimental for cell proliferation, survival and transformed phenotype of tumor cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the positive contributions of ESCRT pathway to surface receptor signaling have remained unclear. In a recent study, we showed that Tsg101 and Vps4 are essential for translocation of active Src from endosomes to focal adhesion and invadopodia, thereby revealing a role of ESCRT pathway in promoting Src-mediated migration and invasion. We discuss the implications of these and other recent studies which together suggest a role for the ESCRT pathway in recycling of endocytic cargo proteins, aside from its role in lysosomal targeting, potentially explaining the positive roles of ESCRT proteins in signal transduction. PMID:21866262

  9. Detecting protein-protein interactions using Renilla luciferase fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Burbelo, Peter D; Kisailus, Adam E; Peck, Jeremy W

    2002-11-01

    We have developed a novel system designated the luciferase assay for protein detection (LAPD) to study protein-protein interactions. This method involves two protein fusions, a soluble reporter fusion and a fusion for immobilizing the target protein. The soluble reporter is an N-terminal Renilla luciferase fusion protein that exhibits high Renilla luciferase activity. Crude cleared lysates from transfected Cos1 cells that express the Renilla luciferase fusion protein can be used in binding assays with immobilized target proteins. Following incubation and washing, target-bound Renilla luciferase fusion proteins produce light from the coelenterazine substrate, indicating an interaction between the two proteins of interest. As proof of the principle, we reproduced known, transient protein-protein interactions between the Cdc42 GTPase and its effector proteins. GTPase Renilla fusion proteins produced in Cos1 cells were tested with immobilized recombinant GST-N-WASP and CEP5 effector proteins. Using this assay, we could detect specific interactions of Cdc42 with these effector proteins in approximately 50 min. The specificity of these interactions was demonstrated by showing that they were GTPase-specific and GTP-dependent and not seen with other unrelated target proteins. These results suggest that the LAPD method, which is both rapid and sensitive, may have research and practical applications.

  10. Interaction entropy for protein-protein binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhaoxi; Yan, Yu N.; Yang, Maoyou; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2017-03-01

    Protein-protein interactions are at the heart of signal transduction and are central to the function of protein machine in biology. The highly specific protein-protein binding is quantitatively characterized by the binding free energy whose accurate calculation from the first principle is a grand challenge in computational biology. In this paper, we show how the interaction entropy approach, which was recently proposed for protein-ligand binding free energy calculation, can be applied to computing the entropic contribution to the protein-protein binding free energy. Explicit theoretical derivation of the interaction entropy approach for protein-protein interaction system is given in detail from the basic definition. Extensive computational studies for a dozen realistic protein-protein interaction systems are carried out using the present approach and comparisons of the results for these protein-protein systems with those from the standard normal mode method are presented. Analysis of the present method for application in protein-protein binding as well as the limitation of the method in numerical computation is discussed. Our study and analysis of the results provided useful information for extracting correct entropic contribution in protein-protein binding from molecular dynamics simulations.

  11. Interaction entropy for protein-protein binding.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhaoxi; Yan, Yu N; Yang, Maoyou; Zhang, John Z H

    2017-03-28

    Protein-protein interactions are at the heart of signal transduction and are central to the function of protein machine in biology. The highly specific protein-protein binding is quantitatively characterized by the binding free energy whose accurate calculation from the first principle is a grand challenge in computational biology. In this paper, we show how the interactionentropy approach, which was recently proposed for protein-ligand binding free energy calculation, can be applied to computing the entropic contribution to the protein-protein binding free energy. Explicit theoretical derivation of the interactionentropy approach for protein-protein interaction system is given in detail from the basic definition. Extensive computational studies for a dozen realistic protein-protein interaction systems are carried out using the present approach and comparisons of the results for these protein-protein systems with those from the standard normal mode method are presented. Analysis of the present method for application in protein-protein binding as well as the limitation of the method in numerical computation is discussed. Our study and analysis of the results provided useful information for extracting correct entropic contribution in protein-protein binding from molecular dynamics simulations.

  12. Protein Crystallization.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Protein crystallization was discovered by chance nearly 200 years ago and was developed in the late nineteenth century as a powerful purification tool, and a demonstration of chemical purity. The crystallization of proteins, nucleic acids, and large biological complexes, such as viruses, depends on the creation of a solution that is supersaturated in the macromolecule, but exhibits conditions that do not significantly perturb its natural state. Supersaturation is produced through the addition of mild precipitating agents such as neutral salts or polymers, and by manipulation of various parameters that include temperature, ionic strength, and pH. Also important in the crystallization process are factors that can affect the structural state of the macromolecule, such as metal ions, inhibitors, cofactors, or other conventional small molecules. A variety of approaches have been developed that combine the spectrum of factors that effect and promote crystallization, and among the most widely used are vapor diffusion, dialysis, batch, and liquid-liquid diffusion. Successes in macromolecular crystallization have multiplied rapidly in recent years due to the advent of practical, easy-to-use screening kits, and the application of laboratory robotics.

  13. EDITORIAL: Precision proteins Precision proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Since the birth of modern day medicine, during the times of Hippocrates in ancient Greece, the profession has developed from the rudimentary classification of disease into a rigorous science with an inspiring capability to treat and cure. Scientific methodology has distilled clinical diagnostic tools from the early arts of prognosis, which used to rely as much on revelation and prophecy, as intuition and judgement [1]. Over the past decade, research into the interactions between proteins and nanosystems has provided some ingenious and apt techniques for delving into the intricacies of anatomical systems. In vivo biosensing has emerged as a vibrant field of research, as much of medical diagnosis relies on the detection of substances or an imbalance in the chemicals in the body. The inherent properties of nanoscale structures, such as cantilevers, make them well suited to biosensing applications that demand the detection of molecules at very low concentrations. Measurable deflections in cantilevers functionalised with antibodies provide quantitative indicators of the presence of specific antigens when the two react. Such developments have roused mounting interest in the interactions of proteins with nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes [3], which have demonstrated great potential as generic biomarkers. Plasmonic properties are also being exploited in sensing applications, such as the molecular sentinel recently devised by researchers in the US. The device uses the plasmonic properties of a silver nanoparticle linked to a Raman labelled hairpin DNA probe to signal changes in the probe geometry resulting from interactions with substances in the environment. Success stories so far include the detection of two specific genes associated with breast cancer [4]. A greater understanding of how RNA interference regulates gene expression has highlighted the potential of using this natural process as another agent for combating disease in personalized medicine. However, the

  14. Protein docking prediction using predicted protein-protein interface.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-01-10

    Many important cellular processes are carried out by protein complexes. To provide physical pictures of interacting proteins, many computational protein-protein prediction methods have been developed in the past. However, it is still difficult to identify the correct docking complex structure within top ranks among alternative conformations. We present a novel protein docking algorithm that utilizes imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction for guiding protein docking. Since the accuracy of protein binding site prediction varies depending on cases, the challenge is to develop a method which does not deteriorate but improves docking results by using a binding site prediction which may not be 100% accurate. The algorithm, named PI-LZerD (using Predicted Interface with Local 3D Zernike descriptor-based Docking algorithm), is based on a pair wise protein docking prediction algorithm, LZerD, which we have developed earlier. PI-LZerD starts from performing docking prediction using the provided protein-protein binding interface prediction as constraints, which is followed by the second round of docking with updated docking interface information to further improve docking conformation. Benchmark results on bound and unbound cases show that PI-LZerD consistently improves the docking prediction accuracy as compared with docking without using binding site prediction or using the binding site prediction as post-filtering. We have developed PI-LZerD, a pairwise docking algorithm, which uses imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction to improve docking accuracy. PI-LZerD consistently showed better prediction accuracy over alternative methods in the series of benchmark experiments including docking using actual docking interface site predictions as well as unbound docking cases.

  15. Introduction to protein blotting.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2009-01-01

    Protein blotting is a powerful and important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins following electrophoresis, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. Since the inception of the protocol for protein transfer from an electrophoresed gel to a membrane in 1979, protein blotting has evolved greatly. The scientific community is now confronted with a variety of ways and means to carry out this transfer.

  16. Protein Crystal Based Nanomaterials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jeffrey A.; VanRoey, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on a NASA Grant. It concerns a description of work done, which includes: (1) Protein crystals cross-linked to form fibers; (2) Engineering of protein to favor crystallization; (3) Better knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein contacts; (4) Simulation of protein crystallization.

  17. Electrostatic complementarity at protein/protein interfaces.

    PubMed

    McCoy, A J; Chandana Epa, V; Colman, P M

    1997-05-02

    Calculation of the electrostatic potential of protein-protein complexes has led to the general assertion that protein-protein interfaces display "charge complementarity" and "electrostatic complementarity". In this study, quantitative measures for these two terms are developed and used to investigate protein-protein interfaces in a rigorous manner. Charge complementarity (CC) was defined using the correlation of charges on nearest neighbour atoms at the interface. All 12 protein-protein interfaces studied had insignificantly small CC values. Therefore, the term charge complementarity is not appropriate for the description of protein-protein interfaces when used in the sense measured by CC. Electrostatic complementarity (EC) was defined using the correlation of surface electrostatic potential at protein-protein interfaces. All twelve protein-protein interfaces studied had significant EC values, and thus the assertion that protein-protein association involves surfaces with complementary electrostatic potential was substantially confirmed. The term electrostatic complementarity can therefore be used to describe protein-protein interfaces when used in the sense measured by EC. Taken together, the results for CC and EC demonstrate the relevance of the long-range effects of charges, as described by the electrostatic potential at the binding interface. The EC value did not partition the complexes by type such as antigen-antibody and proteinase-inhibitor, as measures of the geometrical complementarity at protein-protein interfaces have done. The EC value was also not directly related to the number of salt bridges in the interface, and neutralisation of these salt bridges showed that other charges also contributed significantly to electrostatic complementarity and electrostatic interactions between the proteins. Electrostatic complementarity as defined by EC was extended to investigate the electrostatic similarity at the surface of influenza virus neuraminidase where the

  18. Protein-losing enteropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007338.htm Protein-losing enteropathy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protein-losing enteropathy is an abnormal loss of protein ...

  19. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    MedlinePlus

    ... digestive tract to absorb proteins ( protein-losing enteropathy ) Malnutrition Kidney disorder called nephrotic syndrome Scarring of the ... may indicate: Abnormally low level of LDL cholesterol Malnutrition Increased gamma globulin proteins may indicate: Bone marrow ...

  20. PREFACE: Protein protein interactions: principles and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussinov, Ruth; Tsai, Chung-Jung

    2005-06-01

    Proteins are the `workhorses' of the cell. Their roles span functions as diverse as being molecular machines and signalling. They carry out catalytic reactions, transport, form viral capsids, traverse membranes and form regulated channels, transmit information from DNA to RNA, making possible the synthesis of new proteins, and they are responsible for the degradation of unnecessary proteins and nucleic acids. They are the vehicles of the immune response and are responsible for viral entry into the cell. Given their importance, considerable effort has been centered on the prediction of protein function. A prime way to do this is through identification of binding partners. If the function of at least one of the components with which the protein interacts is known, that should let us assign its function(s) and the pathway(s) in which it plays a role. This holds since the vast majority of their chores in the living cell involve protein-protein interactions. Hence, through the intricate network of these interactions we can map cellular pathways, their interconnectivities and their dynamic regulation. Their identification is at the heart of functional genomics; their prediction is crucial for drug discovery. Knowledge of the pathway, its topology, length, and dynamics may provide useful information for forecasting side effects. The goal of predicting protein-protein interactions is daunting. Some associations are obligatory, others are continuously forming and dissociating. In principle, from the physical standpoint, any two proteins can interact, but under what conditions and at which strength? The principles of protein-protein interactions are general: the non-covalent interactions of two proteins are largely the outcome of the hydrophobic effect, which drives the interactions. In addition, hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions play important roles. Thus, many of the interactions observed in vitro are the outcome of experimental overexpression. Protein disorder

  1. Protein Structure Prediction by Protein Threading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Liu, Zhijie; Cai, Liming; Xu, Dong

    The seminal work of Bowie, Lüthy, and Eisenberg (Bowie et al., 1991) on "the inverse protein folding problem" laid the foundation of protein structure prediction by protein threading. By using simple measures for fitness of different amino acid types to local structural environments defined in terms of solvent accessibility and protein secondary structure, the authors derived a simple and yet profoundly novel approach to assessing if a protein sequence fits well with a given protein structural fold. Their follow-up work (Elofsson et al., 1996; Fischer and Eisenberg, 1996; Fischer et al., 1996a,b) and the work by Jones, Taylor, and Thornton (Jones et al., 1992) on protein fold recognition led to the development of a new brand of powerful tools for protein structure prediction, which we now term "protein threading." These computational tools have played a key role in extending the utility of all the experimentally solved structures by X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), providing structural models and functional predictions for many of the proteins encoded in the hundreds of genomes that have been sequenced up to now.

  2. Quantification of protein carbonylation.

    PubMed

    Wehr, Nancy B; Levine, Rodney L

    2013-01-01

    Protein carbonylation is the most commonly used measure of oxidative modification of proteins. It is most often measured spectrophotometrically or immunochemically by derivatizing proteins with the classical carbonyl reagent 2,4 dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). We present protocols for the derivatization and quantification of protein carbonylation with these two methods, including a newly described dot blot with greatly increased sensitivity.

  3. Amino acids and proteins

    A balanced, safe diet with proteins is important to meet nutritional requirements. Proteins occur in animal as well as vegetable products in important quantities. In some countries, many people obtain much of their protein from animal products. In other regions, the major portion of dietary protein ...

  4. Mirror Image Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Le; Lu, Wuyuan

    2017-01-01

    Proteins composed entirely of unnatural D-amino acids and the achiral amino acid glycine are mirror image forms of their native L-protein counterparts. Recent advances in chemical protein synthesis afford unique and facile synthetic access to domain-sized mirror image D-proteins, enabling protein research to be conducted through “the looking glass” and in a way previously unattainable. D-proteins can facilitate structure determination of their native L-forms that are difficult to crystallize (racemic X-ray crystallography); D-proteins can serve as the bait for library screening to ultimately yield pharmacologically superior D-peptide/D-protein therapeutics (mirror image phage display); D-proteins can also be used as a powerful mechanistic tool for probing molecular events in biology. This review examines recent progress in the application of mirror image proteins to structural biology, drug discovery, and immunology. PMID:25282524

  5. Computational Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenberger, Tobias; Cantley, Lewis C.; Yaffe, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of protein-protein interactions and kinase-specific phosphorylation sites on individual proteins is critical for correctly placing proteins within signaling pathways and networks. The importance of this type of annotation continues to increase with the continued explosion of genomic and proteomic data, particularly with emerging data categorizing posttranslational modifications on a large scale. A variety of computational tools are available for this purpose. In this chapter, we review the general methodologies for these types of computational predictions and present a detailed user-focused tutorial of one such method and computational tool, Scansite, which is freely available to the entire scientific community over the Internet. PMID:25859943

  6. Protein- protein interaction detection system using fluorescent protein microdomains

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2010-02-23

    The invention provides a protein labeling and interaction detection system based on engineered fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins that require fused interacting polypeptides to drive the association of the fragments, and further are soluble and stable, and do not change the solubility of polypeptides to which they are fused. In one embodiment, a test protein X is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 10, amino acids 198-214), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. A second test protein Y is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 11, amino acids 215-230), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. When X and Y interact, they bring the GFP strands into proximity, and are detected by complementation with a third GFP fragment consisting of GFP amino acids 1-198 (strands 1-9). When GFP strands 10 and 11 are held together by interaction of protein X and Y, they spontaneous association with GFP strands 1-9, resulting in structural complementation, folding, and concomitant GFP fluorescence.

  7. Molecular modelling of protein-protein/protein-solvent interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchko, Tyler

    The inner workings of individual cells are based on intricate networks of protein-protein interactions. However, each of these individual protein interactions requires a complex physical interaction between proteins and their aqueous environment at the atomic scale. In this thesis, molecular dynamics simulations are used in three theoretical studies to gain insight at the atomic scale about protein hydration, protein structure and tubulin-tubulin (protein-protein) interactions, as found in microtubules. Also presented, in a fourth project, is a molecular model of solvation coupled with the Amber molecular modelling package, to facilitate further studies without the need of explicitly modelled water. Basic properties of a minimally solvated protein were calculated through an extended study of myoglobin hydration with explicit solvent, directly investigating water and protein polarization. Results indicate a close correlation between polarization of both water and protein and the onset of protein function. The methodology of explicit solvent molecular dynamics was further used to study tubulin and microtubules. Extensive conformational sampling of the carboxy-terminal tails of 8-tubulin was performed via replica exchange molecular dynamics, allowing the characterisation of the flexibility, secondary structure and binding domains of the C-terminal tails through statistical analysis methods. Mechanical properties of tubulin and microtubules were calculated with adaptive biasing force molecular dynamics. The function of the M-loop in microtubule stability was demonstrated in these simulations. The flexibility of this loop allowed constant contacts between the protofilaments to be maintained during simulations while the smooth deformation provided a spring-like restoring force. Additionally, calculating the free energy profile between the straight and bent tubulin configurations was used to test the proposed conformational change in tubulin, thought to cause microtubule

  8. Comparing side chain packing in soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Gaines, J C; Acebes, S; Virrueta, A; Butler, M; Regan, L; O'Hern, C S

    2018-05-01

    We compare side chain prediction and packing of core and non-core regions of soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins. We first identified or created comparable databases of high-resolution crystal structures of these 3 protein classes. We show that the solvent-inaccessible cores of the 3 classes of proteins are equally densely packed. As a result, the side chains of core residues at protein-protein interfaces and in the membrane-exposed regions of transmembrane proteins can be predicted by the hard-sphere plus stereochemical constraint model with the same high prediction accuracies (>90%) as core residues in soluble proteins. We also find that for all 3 classes of proteins, as one moves away from the solvent-inaccessible core, the packing fraction decreases as the solvent accessibility increases. However, the side chain predictability remains high (80% within 30°) up to a relative solvent accessibility, rSASA≲0.3, for all 3 protein classes. Our results show that ≈40% of the interface regions in protein complexes are "core", that is, densely packed with side chain conformations that can be accurately predicted using the hard-sphere model. We propose packing fraction as a metric that can be used to distinguish real protein-protein interactions from designed, non-binding, decoys. Our results also show that cores of membrane proteins are the same as cores of soluble proteins. Thus, the computational methods we are developing for the analysis of the effect of hydrophobic core mutations in soluble proteins will be equally applicable to analyses of mutations in membrane proteins. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Surface Mediated Protein Disaggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishna, Mithun; Kumar, Sanat K.

    2014-03-01

    Preventing protein aggregation is of both biological and industrial importance. Biologically these aggregates are known to cause amyloid type diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Protein aggregation leads to reduced activity of the enzymes in industrial applications. Inter-protein interactions between the hydrophobic residues of the protein are known to be the major driving force for protein aggregation. In the current paper we show how surface chemistry and curvature can be tuned to mitigate these inter-protein interactions. Our results calculated in the framework of the Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) lattice model show that, inter-protein interactions can be drastically reduced by increasing the surface hydrophobicity to a critical value corresponding to the adsorption transition of the protein. At this value of surface hydrophobicity, proteins lose inter-protein contacts to gain surface contacts and thus the surface helps in reducing the inter-protein interactions. Further, we show that the adsorption of the proteins inside hydrophobic pores of optimal sizes are most efficient both in reducing inter-protein contacts and simultaneously retaining most of the native-contacts due to strong protein-surface interactions coupled with stabilization due to the confinement. Department of Energy (Grant No DE-FG02-11ER46811).

  10. Personalizing Protein Nourishment

    PubMed Central

    DALLAS, DAVID C.; SANCTUARY, MEGAN R.; QU, YUNYAO; KHAJAVI, SHABNAM HAGHIGHAT; VAN ZANDT, ALEXANDRIA E.; DYANDRA, MELISSA; FRESE, STEVEN A.; BARILE, DANIELA; GERMAN, J. BRUCE

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are not equally digestible—their proteolytic susceptibility varies by their source and processing method. Incomplete digestion increases colonic microbial protein fermentation (putrefaction), which produces toxic metabolites that can induce inflammation in vitro and have been associated with inflammation in vivo. Individual humans differ in protein digestive capacity based on phenotypes, particularly disease states. To avoid putrefaction-induced intestinal inflammation, protein sources and processing methods must be tailored to the consumer’s digestive capacity. This review explores how food processing techniques alter protein digestibility and examines how physiological conditions alter digestive capacity. Possible solutions to improving digestive function or matching low digestive capacity with more digestible protein sources are explored. Beyond the ileal digestibility measurements of protein digestibility, less invasive, quicker and cheaper techniques for monitoring the extent of protein digestion and fermentation are needed to personalize protein nourishment. Biomarkers of protein digestive capacity and efficiency can be identified with the toolsets of peptidomics, metabolomics, microbial sequencing and multiplexed protein analysis of fecal and urine samples. By monitoring individual protein digestive function, the protein component of diets can be tailored via protein source and processing selection to match individual needs to minimize colonic putrefaction and, thus, optimize gut health. PMID:26713355

  11. Prediction of physical protein protein interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilágyi, András; Grimm, Vera; Arakaki, Adrián K.; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2005-06-01

    Many essential cellular processes such as signal transduction, transport, cellular motion and most regulatory mechanisms are mediated by protein-protein interactions. In recent years, new experimental techniques have been developed to discover the protein-protein interaction networks of several organisms. However, the accuracy and coverage of these techniques have proven to be limited, and computational approaches remain essential both to assist in the design and validation of experimental studies and for the prediction of interaction partners and detailed structures of protein complexes. Here, we provide a critical overview of existing structure-independent and structure-based computational methods. Although these techniques have significantly advanced in the past few years, we find that most of them are still in their infancy. We also provide an overview of experimental techniques for the detection of protein-protein interactions. Although the developments are promising, false positive and false negative results are common, and reliable detection is possible only by taking a consensus of different experimental approaches. The shortcomings of experimental techniques affect both the further development and the fair evaluation of computational prediction methods. For an adequate comparative evaluation of prediction and high-throughput experimental methods, an appropriately large benchmark set of biophysically characterized protein complexes would be needed, but is sorely lacking.

  12. O-GlcNAcylation of master growth repressor DELLA by SECRET AGENT modulates multiple signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zentella, Rodolfo; Hu, Jianhong; Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Matsumoto, Peter A; Dawdy, Andrew; Barnhill, Benjamin; Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Hartweck, Lynn M; Maitra, Sushmit; Thomas, Stephen G; Cockrell, Shelley; Boyce, Michael; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F; Olszewski, Neil E; Sun, Tai-Ping

    2016-01-15

    The DELLA family of transcription regulators functions as master growth repressors in plants by inhibiting phytohormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in response to developmental and environmental cues. DELLAs also play a central role in mediating cross-talk between GA and other signaling pathways via antagonistic direct interactions with key transcription factors. However, how these crucial protein-protein interactions can be dynamically regulated during plant development remains unclear. Here, we show that DELLAs are modified by the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) SECRET AGENT (SEC) in Arabidopsis. O-GlcNAcylation of the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) inhibits RGA binding to four of its interactors-PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3), PIF4, JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN1, and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1)-that are key regulators in light, jasmonate, and brassinosteroid signaling pathways, respectively. Consistent with this, the sec-null mutant displayed reduced responses to GA and brassinosteroid and showed decreased expression of several common target genes of DELLAs, BZR1, and PIFs. Our results reveal a direct role of OGT in repressing DELLA activity and indicate that O-GlcNAcylation of DELLAs provides a fine-tuning mechanism in coordinating multiple signaling activities during plant development. © 2016 Zentella et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Mapping methyl jasmonate-mediated transcriptional reprogramming of metabolism and cell cycle progression in cultured Arabidopsis cells

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Laurens; Morreel, Kris; De Witte, Emilie; Lammertyn, Freya; Van Montagu, Marc; Boerjan, Wout; Inzé, Dirk; Goossens, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are plant-specific signaling molecules that steer a diverse set of physiological and developmental processes. Pathogen attack and wounding inflicted by herbivores induce the biosynthesis of these hormones, triggering defense responses both locally and systemically. We report on alterations in the transcriptome of a fast-dividing cell culture of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana after exogenous application of methyl JA (MeJA). Early MeJA response genes encoded the JA biosynthesis pathway proteins and key regulators of MeJA responses, including most JA ZIM domain proteins and MYC2, together with transcriptional regulators with potential, but yet unknown, functions in MeJA signaling. In a second transcriptional wave, MeJA reprogrammed cellular metabolism and cell cycle progression. Up-regulation of the monolignol biosynthesis gene set resulted in an increased production of monolignols and oligolignols, the building blocks of lignin. Simultaneously, MeJA repressed activation of M-phase genes, arresting the cell cycle in G2. MeJA-responsive transcription factors were screened for their involvement in early signaling events, in particular the regulation of JA biosynthesis. Parallel screens based on yeast one-hybrid and transient transactivation assays identified both positive (MYC2 and the AP2/ERF factor ORA47) and negative (the C2H2 Zn finger proteins STZ/ZAT10 and AZF2) regulators, revealing a complex control of the JA autoregulatory loop and possibly other MeJA-mediated downstream processes. PMID:18216250

  14. PROTEINS IN NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC INTERACTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, David; Goldstein, Lester

    1968-01-01

    The behavior of nuclear proteins in Amoeba proteus was studied by tritiated amino acid labeling, nuclear transplantation, and cytoplasmic amputation. During prophase at least 77% (but probably over 95%) of the nuclear proteins is released to the cytoplasm. These same proteins return to the nucleus within the first 3 hr of interphase. When cytoplasm is amputated from an ameba in mitosis (shen the nuclear proteins are in the cytoplasm), the resultant daughter nuclei are depleted in the labeled nuclear proteins. The degree of depletion is less than proportional to the amount of cytoplasm removed because a portion of rapidly migrating protein (a nuclear protein that is normally shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm and is thus also present in the cytoplasm) which would normally remain in the cytoplasm is taken up by the reconstituting daughter nuclei. Cytoplasmic fragments cut from mitotic cells are enriched in both major classes of nuclear proteins, i.e. rapidly migrating protein and slow turn-over protein. An interphase nucleus implanted into such an enucleated cell acquires from the cytoplasm essentially all of the excess nuclear proteins of both classes. The data indicate that there is a lack of binding sites in the cytoplasm for the rapidly migrating nuclear protein. The quantitative aspects of the distribution of rapidly migrating protein between the nucleus and the cytoplasm indicate that the distribution is governed primarily by factors within the nucleus. PMID:5677972

  15. Protein and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Luc J C; Kies, Arie K; Saris, Wim H M

    2007-08-01

    With the increasing knowledge about the role of nutrition in increasing exercise performance, it has become clear over the last 2 decades that amino acids, protein, and protein hydrolysates can play an important role. Most of the attention has been focused on their effects at a muscular level. As these nutrients are ingested, however, it also means that gastrointestinal digestibility and absorption can modulate their efficacy significantly. Therefore, discussing the role of amino acids, protein, and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition entails holding a discussion on all levels of the metabolic route. On May 28-29, 2007, a small group of researchers active in the field of exercise science and protein metabolism presented an overview of the different aspects of the application of protein and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition. In addition, they were asked to share their opinions on the future progress in their fields of research. In this overview, an introduction to the workshop and a short summary of its outcome is provided.

  16. Urine protein electrophoresis test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine protein electrophoresis; UPEP; Multiple myeloma - UPEP; Waldenström macroglobulinemia - UPEP; Amyloidosis - UPEP ... special paper and apply an electric current. The proteins move and form visible bands. These reveal the ...

  17. Destabilized bioluminescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Michael S [Knoxville, TN; Rakesh, Gupta [New Delhi, IN; Gary, Sayler S [Blaine, TN

    2007-07-31

    Purified nucleic acids, vectors and cells containing a gene cassette encoding at least one modified bioluminescent protein, wherein the modification includes the addition of a peptide sequence. The duration of bioluminescence emitted by the modified bioluminescent protein is shorter than the duration of bioluminescence emitted by an unmodified form of the bioluminescent protein.

  18. Modeling Protein Domain Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton "Buck"; Hull, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This simple but effective laboratory exercise helps students understand the concept of protein domain function. They use foam beads, Styrofoam craft balls, and pipe cleaners to explore how domains within protein active sites interact to form a functional protein. The activity allows students to gain content mastery and an understanding of the…

  19. CSF total protein

    MedlinePlus

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  20. Modeling Protein Self Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck; Hull, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the structure and function of proteins is an important part of the standards-based science curriculum. Proteins serve vital roles within the cell and malfunctions in protein self assembly are implicated in degenerative diseases. Experience indicates that this topic is a difficult one for many students. We have found that the concept…

  1. Protein - Which is Best?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Falvo, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    Protein intake that exceeds the recommended daily allowance is widely accepted for both endurance and power athletes. However, considering the variety of proteins that are available much less is known concerning the benefits of consuming one protein versus another. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze key factors in order to make responsible recommendations to both the general and athletic populations. Evaluation of a protein is fundamental in determining its appropriateness in the human diet. Proteins that are of inferior content and digestibility are important to recognize and restrict or limit in the diet. Similarly, such knowledge will provide an ability to identify proteins that provide the greatest benefit and should be consumed. The various techniques utilized to rate protein will be discussed. Traditionally, sources of dietary protein are seen as either being of animal or vegetable origin. Animal sources provide a complete source of protein (i.e. containing all essential amino acids), whereas vegetable sources generally lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal sources of dietary protein, despite providing a complete protein and numerous vitamins and minerals, have some health professionals concerned about the amount of saturated fat common in these foods compared to vegetable sources. The advent of processing techniques has shifted some of this attention and ignited the sports supplement marketplace with derivative products such as whey, casein and soy. Individually, these products vary in quality and applicability to certain populations. The benefits that these particular proteins possess are discussed. In addition, the impact that elevated protein consumption has on health and safety issues (i.e. bone health, renal function) are also reviewed. Key PointsHigher protein needs are seen in athletic populations.Animal proteins is an important source of protein, however potential health concerns do exist from a diet of protein

  2. [Chromosomal proteins: histones and acid proteins].

    PubMed

    Salvini, M; Gabrielli, F

    1976-01-01

    Experimental data about the chemistry and the biology of chromosomal proteins are reviewed. Paragraphs include: aminoacid sequential data and post-translational covalent modications of histones, histone chemical differences in different tissues of the same species and in homologous organs of different species, histone synthesis subcellular localization and its association with DNA synthesis, histone synthesis transcriptional and translational control, histone synthesis during meiosis, oogenesis and early embryogenesis. The possible role of histones as controllers of gene expression is discussed and a model of primary structure of chromatine is proposed. The "acidic proteins" data concern the high tissue eterogenity of these proteins and their role in the steroid-hormon-controlled gene expression. The possible role of acidic proteins as general controllers of gene expression in eucariotic cells is discussed.

  3. Protein labelling: Playing tag with proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanini, Dante W.; Cornish, Virginia W.

    2012-04-01

    Fluorescent labels can now be attached to a specific protein on the surface of live cells using a two-step method that reacts a norbornene -- introduced using genetic encoding -- with a variety of dyes.

  4. Texturized dairy proteins.

    PubMed

    Onwulata, Charles I; Phillips, John G; Tunick, Michael H; Qi, Phoebi X; Cooke, Peter H

    2010-03-01

    Dairy proteins are amenable to structural modifications induced by high temperature, shear, and moisture; in particular, whey proteins can change conformation to new unfolded states. The change in protein state is a basis for creating new foods. The dairy products, nonfat dried milk (NDM), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and whey protein isolate (WPI) were modified using a twin-screw extruder at melt temperatures of 50, 75, and 100 degrees C, and moistures ranging from 20 to 70 wt%. Viscoelasticity and solubility measurements showed that extrusion temperature was a more significant (P < 0.05) change factor than moisture content. The degree of texturization, or change in protein state, was characterized by solubility (R(2)= 0.98). The consistency of the extruded dairy protein ranged from rigid (2500 N) to soft (2.7 N). Extruding at or above 75 degrees C resulted in increased peak force for WPC (138 to 2500 N) and WPI (2.7 to 147.1 N). NDM was marginally texturized; the presence of lactose interfered with its texturization. WPI products extruded at 50 degrees C were not texturized; their solubility values ranged from 71.8% to 92.6%. A wide possibility exists for creating new foods with texturized dairy proteins due to the extensive range of states achievable. Dairy proteins can be used to boost the protein content in puffed snacks made from corn meal, but unmodified, they bind water and form doughy pastes with starch. To minimize the water binding property of dairy proteins, WPI, or WPC, or NDM were modified by extrusion processing. Extrusion temperature conditions were adjusted to 50, 75, or 100 degrees C, sufficient to change the structure of the dairy proteins, but not destroy them. Extrusion modified the structures of these dairy proteins for ease of use in starchy foods to boost nutrient levels. Dairy proteins can be used to boost the protein content in puffed snacks made from corn meal, but unmodified, they bind water and form doughy pastes with starch. To

  5. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-11-29

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  6. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  7. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-05-01

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  8. Predicting protein crystallization propensity from protein sequence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The high-throughput structure determination pipelines developed by structural genomics programs offer a unique opportunity for data mining. One important question is how protein properties derived from a primary sequence correlate with the protein’s propensity to yield X-ray quality crystals (crystallizability) and 3D X-ray structures. A set of protein properties were computed for over 1,300 proteins that expressed well but were insoluble, and for ~720 unique proteins that resulted in X-ray structures. The correlation of the protein’s iso-electric point and grand average hydropathy (GRAVY) with crystallizability was analyzed for full length and domain constructs of protein targets. In a second step, several additional properties that can be calculated from the protein sequence were added and evaluated. Using statistical analyses we have identified a set of the attributes correlating with a protein’s propensity to crystallize and implemented a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier based on these. We have created applications to analyze and provide optimal boundary information for query sequences and to visualize the data. These tools are available via the web site http://bioinformatics.anl.gov/cgi-bin/tools/pdpredictor. PMID:20177794

  9. O-GlcNAcylation of master growth repressor DELLA by SECRET AGENT modulates multiple signaling pathways in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zentella, Rodolfo; Hu, Jianhong; Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Matsumoto, Peter A.; Dawdy, Andrew; Barnhill, Benjamin; Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Hartweck, Lynn M.; Maitra, Sushmit; Thomas, Stephen G.; Cockrell, Shelley; Boyce, Michael; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Olszewski, Neil E.; Sun, Tai-ping

    2016-01-01

    The DELLA family of transcription regulators functions as master growth repressors in plants by inhibiting phytohormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in response to developmental and environmental cues. DELLAs also play a central role in mediating cross-talk between GA and other signaling pathways via antagonistic direct interactions with key transcription factors. However, how these crucial protein–protein interactions can be dynamically regulated during plant development remains unclear. Here, we show that DELLAs are modified by the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) SECRET AGENT (SEC) in Arabidopsis. O-GlcNAcylation of the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) inhibits RGA binding to four of its interactors—PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3), PIF4, JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN1, and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1)—that are key regulators in light, jasmonate, and brassinosteroid signaling pathways, respectively. Consistent with this, the sec-null mutant displayed reduced responses to GA and brassinosteroid and showed decreased expression of several common target genes of DELLAs, BZR1, and PIFs. Our results reveal a direct role of OGT in repressing DELLA activity and indicate that O-GlcNAcylation of DELLAs provides a fine-tuning mechanism in coordinating multiple signaling activities during plant development. PMID:26773002

  10. Clinical protein mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Scherl, Alexander

    2015-06-15

    Quantitative protein analysis is routinely performed in clinical chemistry laboratories for diagnosis, therapeutic monitoring, and prognosis. Today, protein assays are mostly performed either with non-specific detection methods or immunoassays. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a very specific analytical method potentially very well suited for clinical laboratories. Its unique advantage relies in the high specificity of the detection. Any protein sequence variant, the presence of a post-translational modification or degradation will differ in mass and structure, and these differences will appear in the mass spectrum of the protein. On the other hand, protein MS is a relatively young technique, demanding specialized personnel and expensive instrumentation. Many scientists and opinion leaders predict MS to replace immunoassays for routine protein analysis, but there are only few protein MS applications routinely used in clinical chemistry laboratories today. The present review consists of a didactical introduction summarizing the pros and cons of MS assays compared to immunoassays, the different instrumentations, and various MS protein assays that have been proposed and/or are used in clinical laboratories. An important distinction is made between full length protein analysis (top-down method) and peptide analysis after enzymatic digestion of the proteins (bottom-up method) and its implication for the protein assay. The document ends with an outlook on what type of analyses could be used in the future, and for what type of applications MS has a clear advantage compared to immunoassays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Protein solubility modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Protein and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kate A; Munn, Elizabeth A; Baines, Surinder K

    2013-08-19

    A vegetarian diet can easily meet human dietary protein requirements as long as energy needs are met and a variety of foods are eaten. Vegetarians should obtain protein from a variety of plant sources, including legumes, soy products, grains, nuts and seeds. Eggs and dairy products also provide protein for those following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet. There is no need to consciously combine different plant proteins at each meal as long as a variety of foods are eaten from day to day, because the human body maintains a pool of amino acids which can be used to complement dietary protein. The consumption of plant proteins rather than animal proteins by vegetarians may contribute to their reduced risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.

  13. Racemic protein crystallography.

    PubMed

    Yeates, Todd O; Kent, Stephen B H

    2012-01-01

    Although natural proteins are chiral and are all of one "handedness," their mirror image forms can be prepared by chemical synthesis. This opens up new opportunities for protein crystallography. A racemic mixture of the enantiomeric forms of a protein molecule can crystallize in ways that natural proteins cannot. Recent experimental data support a theoretical prediction that this should make racemic protein mixtures highly amenable to crystallization. Crystals obtained from racemic mixtures also offer advantages in structure determination strategies. The relevance of these potential advantages is heightened by advances in synthetic methods, which are extending the size limit for proteins that can be prepared by chemical synthesis. Recent ideas and results in the area of racemic protein crystallography are reviewed.

  14. Packing in protein cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, J. C.; Clark, A. H.; Regan, L.; O'Hern, C. S.

    2017-07-01

    Proteins are biological polymers that underlie all cellular functions. The first high-resolution protein structures were determined by x-ray crystallography in the 1960s. Since then, there has been continued interest in understanding and predicting protein structure and stability. It is well-established that a large contribution to protein stability originates from the sequestration from solvent of hydrophobic residues in the protein core. How are such hydrophobic residues arranged in the core; how can one best model the packing of these residues, and are residues loosely packed with multiple allowed side chain conformations or densely packed with a single allowed side chain conformation? Here we show that to properly model the packing of residues in protein cores it is essential that amino acids are represented by appropriately calibrated atom sizes, and that hydrogen atoms are explicitly included. We show that protein cores possess a packing fraction of φ ≈ 0.56 , which is significantly less than the typically quoted value of 0.74 obtained using the extended atom representation. We also compare the results for the packing of amino acids in protein cores to results obtained for jammed packings from discrete element simulations of spheres, elongated particles, and composite particles with bumpy surfaces. We show that amino acids in protein cores pack as densely as disordered jammed packings of particles with similar values for the aspect ratio and bumpiness as found for amino acids. Knowing the structural properties of protein cores is of both fundamental and practical importance. Practically, it enables the assessment of changes in the structure and stability of proteins arising from amino acid mutations (such as those identified as a result of the massive human genome sequencing efforts) and the design of new folded, stable proteins and protein-protein interactions with tunable specificity and affinity.

  15. Protein kinesis: The dynamics of protein trafficking and stability

    SciT

    NONE

    The purpose of this conference is to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on protein kinesis. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: protein folding and modification in the endoplasmic reticulum; protein trafficking; protein translocation and folding; protein degradation; polarity; nuclear trafficking; membrane dynamics; and protein import into organelles.

  16. A modified Lowry protein test for dilute protein solutions

    Garold F. Gregory; Keith F. Jensen

    1971-01-01

    A modified Lowry protein test for dilute protein solutions modified Lowry protein test was compared with the standard Lowry protein test. The modified test was found to give estimates of protein concentration that were as good as the standard test and has the advange that proteins can be measured in very dilute solutions.

  17. Energy design for protein-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ravikant, D. V. S.; Elber, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Proteins bind to other proteins efficiently and specifically to carry on many cell functions such as signaling, activation, transport, enzymatic reactions, and more. To determine the geometry and strength of binding of a protein pair, an energy function is required. An algorithm to design an optimal energy function, based on empirical data of protein complexes, is proposed and applied. Emphasis is made on negative design in which incorrect geometries are presented to the algorithm that learns to avoid them. For the docking problem the search for plausible geometries can be performed exhaustively. The possible geometries of the complex are generated on a grid with the help of a fast Fourier transform algorithm. A novel formulation of negative design makes it possible to investigate iteratively hundreds of millions of negative examples while monotonically improving the quality of the potential. Experimental structures for 640 protein complexes are used to generate positive and negative examples for learning parameters. The algorithm designed in this work finds the correct binding structure as the lowest energy minimum in 318 cases of the 640 examples. Further benchmarks on independent sets confirm the significant capacity of the scoring function to recognize correct modes of interactions. PMID:21842951

  18. Modeling Protein Expression and Protein Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Telesca, Donatello; Müller, Peter; Kornblau, Steven M.; Suchard, Marc A.; Ji, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput functional proteomic technologies provide a way to quantify the expression of proteins of interest. Statistical inference centers on identifying the activation state of proteins and their patterns of molecular interaction formalized as dependence structure. Inference on dependence structure is particularly important when proteins are selected because they are part of a common molecular pathway. In that case, inference on dependence structure reveals properties of the underlying pathway. We propose a probability model that represents molecular interactions at the level of hidden binary latent variables that can be interpreted as indicators for active versus inactive states of the proteins. The proposed approach exploits available expert knowledge about the target pathway to define an informative prior on the hidden conditional dependence structure. An important feature of this prior is that it provides an instrument to explicitly anchor the model space to a set of interactions of interest, favoring a local search approach to model determination. We apply our model to reverse-phase protein array data from a study on acute myeloid leukemia. Our inference identifies relevant subpathways in relation to the unfolding of the biological process under study. PMID:26246646

  19. Scoring functions for protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Moal, Iain H; Moretti, Rocco; Baker, David; Fernández-Recio, Juan

    2013-12-01

    The computational evaluation of protein-protein interactions will play an important role in organising the wealth of data being generated by high-throughput initiatives. Here we discuss future applications, report recent developments and identify areas requiring further investigation. Many functions have been developed to quantify the structural and energetic properties of interacting proteins, finding use in interrelated challenges revolving around the relationship between sequence, structure and binding free energy. These include loop modelling, side-chain refinement, docking, multimer assembly, affinity prediction, affinity change upon mutation, hotspots location and interface design. Information derived from models optimised for one of these challenges can be used to benefit the others, and can be unified within the theoretical frameworks of multi-task learning and Pareto-optimal multi-objective learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. General protein-protein cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Alegria-Schaffer, Alice

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes a general protein-to-protein cross-linking procedure using the water-soluble amine-reactive homobifunctional BS(3) (bis[sulfosuccinimidyl] suberate); however, the protocol can be easily adapted using other cross-linkers of similar properties. BS(3) is composed of two sulfo-NHS ester groups and an 11.4 Å linker. Sulfo-NHS ester groups react with primary amines in slightly alkaline conditions (pH 7.2-8.5) and yield stable amide bonds. The reaction releases N-hydroxysuccinimide (see an application of NHS esters on Labeling a protein with fluorophores using NHS ester derivitization). © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biofilm Matrix Proteins.

    PubMed

    Fong, Jiunn N C; Yildiz, Fitnat H

    2015-04-01

    Proteinaceous components of the biofilm matrix include secreted extracellular proteins, cell surface adhesins, and protein subunits of cell appendages such as flagella and pili. Biofilm matrix proteins play diverse roles in biofilm formation and dissolution. They are involved in attaching cells to surfaces, stabilizing the biofilm matrix via interactions with exopolysaccharide and nucleic acid components, developing three-dimensional biofilm architectures, and dissolving biofilm matrix via enzymatic degradation of polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids. In this article, we will review functions of matrix proteins in a selected set of microorganisms, studies of the matrix proteomes of Vibrio cholerae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and roles of outer membrane vesicles and of nucleoid-binding proteins in biofilm formation.

  2. Protein Misfolding Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hartl, F Ulrich

    2017-06-20

    The majority of protein molecules must fold into defined three-dimensional structures to acquire functional activity. However, protein chains can adopt a multitude of conformational states, and their biologically active conformation is often only marginally stable. Metastable proteins tend to populate misfolded species that are prone to forming toxic aggregates, including soluble oligomers and fibrillar amyloid deposits, which are linked with neurodegeneration in Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, and many other pathologies. To prevent or regulate protein aggregation, all cells contain an extensive protein homeostasis (or proteostasis) network comprising molecular chaperones and other factors. These defense systems tend to decline during aging, facilitating the manifestation of aggregate deposition diseases. This volume of the Annual Review of Biochemistry contains a set of three articles addressing our current understanding of the structures of pathological protein aggregates and their associated disease mechanisms. These articles also discuss recent insights into the strategies cells have evolved to neutralize toxic aggregates by sequestering them in specific cellular locations.

  3. How Proteins Bind Macrocycles

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Elizabeth A.; Beglov, Dmitri; Chennamadhavuni, Spandan; Porco, John A.; Kozakov, Dima; Vajda, Sandor; Whitty, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The potential utility of synthetic macrocycles as drugs, particularly against low druggability targets such as protein-protein interactions, has been widely discussed. There is little information, however, to guide the design of macrocycles for good target protein-binding activity or bioavailability. To address this knowledge gap we analyze the binding modes of a representative set of macrocycle-protein complexes. The results, combined with consideration of the physicochemical properties of approved macrocyclic drugs, allow us to propose specific guidelines for the design of synthetic macrocycles libraries possessing structural and physicochemical features likely to favor strong binding to protein targets and also good bioavailability. We additionally provide evidence that large, natural product derived macrocycles can bind to targets that are not druggable by conventional, drug-like compounds, supporting the notion that natural product inspired synthetic macrocycles can expand the number of proteins that are druggable by synthetic small molecules. PMID:25038790

  4. Protein and Older Persons.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Juergen M; Diekmann, Rebecca

    2015-08-01

    An optimal protein intake is important for the preservation of muscle mass, functionality, and quality of life in older persons. In recent years, new recommendations regarding the optimal intake of protein in this population have been published. Based on the available scientific literature, 1.0 to 1.2 g protein/kg body weight (BW)/d are recommended in healthy older adults. In certain disease states, a daily protein intake of more than 1.2 g/kg BW may be required. The distribution of protein intake over the day, the amount per meal, and the amino acid profile of proteins are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Protein Crystal Quality Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Eddie Snell, Post-Doctoral Fellow the National Research Council (NRC) uses a reciprocal space mapping diffractometer for macromolecular crystal quality studies. The diffractometer is used in mapping the structure of macromolecules such as proteins to determine their structure and thus understand how they function with other proteins in the body. This is one of several analytical tools used on proteins crystallized on Earth and in space experiments. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  6. Computer Models of Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Dr. Marc Pusey (seated) and Dr. Craig Kundrot use computers to analyze x-ray maps and generate three-dimensional models of protein structures. With this information, scientists at Marshall Space Flight Center can learn how proteins are made and how they work. The computer screen depicts a proten structure as a ball-and-stick model. Other models depict the actual volume occupied by the atoms, or the ribbon-like structures that are crucial to a protein's function.

  7. Protein folding by NMR.

    PubMed

    Zhuravleva, Anastasia; Korzhnev, Dmitry M

    2017-05-01

    Protein folding is a highly complex process proceeding through a number of disordered and partially folded nonnative states with various degrees of structural organization. These transiently and sparsely populated species on the protein folding energy landscape play crucial roles in driving folding toward the native conformation, yet some of these nonnative states may also serve as precursors for protein misfolding and aggregation associated with a range of devastating diseases, including neuro-degeneration, diabetes and cancer. Therefore, in vivo protein folding is often reshaped co- and post-translationally through interactions with the ribosome, molecular chaperones and/or other cellular components. Owing to developments in instrumentation and methodology, solution NMR spectroscopy has emerged as the central experimental approach for the detailed characterization of the complex protein folding processes in vitro and in vivo. NMR relaxation dispersion and saturation transfer methods provide the means for a detailed characterization of protein folding kinetics and thermodynamics under native-like conditions, as well as modeling high-resolution structures of weakly populated short-lived conformational states on the protein folding energy landscape. Continuing development of isotope labeling strategies and NMR methods to probe high molecular weight protein assemblies, along with advances of in-cell NMR, have recently allowed protein folding to be studied in the context of ribosome-nascent chain complexes and molecular chaperones, and even inside living cells. Here we review solution NMR approaches to investigate the protein folding energy landscape, and discuss selected applications of NMR methodology to studying protein folding in vitro and in vivo. Together, these examples highlight a vast potential of solution NMR in providing atomistic insights into molecular mechanisms of protein folding and homeostasis in health and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  8. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Chae Un [Ithaca, NY; Gruner, Sol M [Ithaca, NY

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  9. Fluorescent Labeling of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Modesti, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    Many single-molecule experimental techniques exploit fluorescence as a tool to investigate conformational dynamics, molecular interactions, or track the movement of proteins in order to gain insight into their biological functions. A prerequisite to these experimental approaches is to graft one or more fluorophores on the protein of interest with the desired photophysical properties. Here, we describe procedures for efficient methods used to covalently attach fluorophores to proteins. Alternative direct and indirect labeling strategies are also described.

  10. Protein oxidation and peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are major targets for radicals and two-electron oxidants in biological systems due to their abundance and high rate constants for reaction. With highly reactive radicals damage occurs at multiple side-chain and backbone sites. Less reactive species show greater selectivity with regard to the residues targeted and their spatial location. Modification can result in increased side-chain hydrophilicity, side-chain and backbone fragmentation, aggregation via covalent cross-linking or hydrophobic interactions, protein unfolding and altered conformation, altered interactions with biological partners and modified turnover. In the presence of O2, high yields of peroxyl radicals and peroxides (protein peroxidation) are formed; the latter account for up to 70% of the initial oxidant flux. Protein peroxides can oxidize both proteins and other targets. One-electron reduction results in additional radicals and chain reactions with alcohols and carbonyls as major products; the latter are commonly used markers of protein damage. Direct oxidation of cysteine (and less commonly) methionine residues is a major reaction; this is typically faster than with H2O2, and results in altered protein activity and function. Unlike H2O2, which is rapidly removed by protective enzymes, protein peroxides are only slowly removed, and catabolism is a major fate. Although turnover of modified proteins by proteasomal and lysosomal enzymes, and other proteases (e.g. mitochondrial Lon), can be efficient, protein hydroperoxides inhibit these pathways and this may contribute to the accumulation of modified proteins in cells. Available evidence supports an association between protein oxidation and multiple human pathologies, but whether this link is causal remains to be established. PMID:27026395

  11. Chemical Synthesis of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Bradley L.; Soellner, Matthew B.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2010-01-01

    Proteins have become accessible targets for chemical synthesis. The basic strategy is to use native chemical ligation, Staudinger ligation, or other orthogonal chemical reactions to couple synthetic peptides. The ligation reactions are compatible with a variety of solvents and proceed in solution or on a solid support. Chemical synthesis enables a level of control on protein composition that greatly exceeds that attainable with ribosome-mediated biosynthesis. Accordingly, the chemical synthesis of proteins is providing previously unattainable insight into the structure and function of proteins. PMID:15869385

  12. Physics of protein folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, A. V.; Galzitskaya, O. V.

    2004-04-01

    Protein physics is grounded on three fundamental experimental facts: protein, this long heteropolymer, has a well defined compact three-dimensional structure; this structure can spontaneously arise from the unfolded protein chain in appropriate environment; and this structure is separated from the unfolded state of the chain by the “all-or-none” phase transition, which ensures robustness of protein structure and therefore of its action. The aim of this review is to consider modern understanding of physical principles of self-organization of protein structures and to overview such important features of this process, as finding out the unique protein structure among zillions alternatives, nucleation of the folding process and metastable folding intermediates. Towards this end we will consider the main experimental facts and simple, mostly phenomenological theoretical models. We will concentrate on relatively small (single-domain) water-soluble globular proteins (whose structure and especially folding are much better studied and understood than those of large or membrane and fibrous proteins) and consider kinetic and structural aspects of transition of initially unfolded protein chains into their final solid (“native”) 3D structures.

  13. Acanthamoeba castellanii STAT protein.

    PubMed

    Kicinska, Anna; Leluk, Jacek; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2014-01-01

    STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) proteins are one of the important mediators of phosphotyrosine-regulated signaling in metazoan cells. We described the presence of STAT protein in a unicellular, free-living amoebae with a simple life cycle, Acanthamoeba castellanii. A. castellanii is the only, studied to date, Amoebozoan that does not belong to Mycetozoa but possesses STATs. A sequence of the A. castellanii STAT protein includes domains similar to those of the Dictyostelium STAT proteins: a coiled coil (characteristic for Dictyostelium STAT coiled coil), a STAT DNA-binding domain and a Src-homology domain. The search for protein sequences homologous to A. castellanii STAT revealed 17 additional sequences from lower eukaryotes. Interestingly, all of these sequences come from Amoebozoa organisms that belong to either Mycetozoa (slime molds) or Centramoebida. We showed that there are four separated clades within the slime mold STAT proteins. The A. castellanii STAT protein branches next to a group of STATc proteins from Mycetozoa. We also demonstrate that Amoebozoa form a distinct monophyletic lineage within the STAT protein world that is well separated from the other groups.

  14. Self assembling proteins

    DOEpatents

    Yeates, Todd O.; Padilla, Jennifer; Colovos, Chris

    2004-06-29

    Novel fusion proteins capable of self-assembling into regular structures, as well as nucleic acids encoding the same, are provided. The subject fusion proteins comprise at least two oligomerization domains rigidly linked together, e.g. through an alpha helical linking group. Also provided are regular structures comprising a plurality of self-assembled fusion proteins of the subject invention, and methods for producing the same. The subject fusion proteins find use in the preparation of a variety of nanostructures, where such structures include: cages, shells, double-layer rings, two-dimensional layers, three-dimensional crystals, filaments, and tubes.

  15. Moonlighting proteins in cancer.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung-Won; Lee, Seong-Ho; Baek, Seung Joon

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980s, growing evidence suggested that the cellular localization of proteins determined their activity and biological functions. In a classical view, a protein is characterized by the single cellular compartment where it primarily resides and functions. It is now believed that when proteins appear in different subcellular locations, the cells surpass the expected activity of proteins given the same genomic information to fulfill complex biological behavior. Many proteins are recognized for having the potential to exist in multiple locations in cells. Dysregulation of translocation may cause cancer or contribute to poorer cancer prognosis. Thus, quantitative and comprehensive assessment of dynamic proteins and associated protein movements could be a promising indicator in determining cancer prognosis and efficiency of cancer treatment and therapy. This review will summarize these so-called moonlighting proteins, in terms of a coupled intracellular cancer signaling pathway. Determination of the detailed biological intracellular and extracellular transit and regulatory activity of moonlighting proteins permits a better understanding of cancer and identification of potential means of molecular intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Human Mitochondrial Protein Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access)   The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.

  17. The Halophile protein database.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naveen; Farooqi, Mohammad Samir; Chaturvedi, Krishna Kumar; Lal, Shashi Bhushan; Grover, Monendra; Rai, Anil; Pandey, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Halophilic archaea/bacteria adapt to different salt concentration, namely extreme, moderate and low. These type of adaptations may occur as a result of modification of protein structure and other changes in different cell organelles. Thus proteins may play an important role in the adaptation of halophilic archaea/bacteria to saline conditions. The Halophile protein database (HProtDB) is a systematic attempt to document the biochemical and biophysical properties of proteins from halophilic archaea/bacteria which may be involved in adaptation of these organisms to saline conditions. In this database, various physicochemical properties such as molecular weight, theoretical pI, amino acid composition, atomic composition, estimated half-life, instability index, aliphatic index and grand average of hydropathicity (Gravy) have been listed. These physicochemical properties play an important role in identifying the protein structure, bonding pattern and function of the specific proteins. This database is comprehensive, manually curated, non-redundant catalogue of proteins. The database currently contains 59 897 proteins properties extracted from 21 different strains of halophilic archaea/bacteria. The database can be accessed through link. Database URL: http://webapp.cabgrid.res.in/protein/ © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. [Effector proteins of Clamidia].

    PubMed

    Kariagina, A S; Alekseevskiĭ, A V; Spirin, S A; Zigangirova, N A; Gintsburg, A L

    2009-01-01

    The review summarizes the recent published data on molecular mechanisms of Chlamidiae - host cell interaction, first of all on chlamydial effector proteins. Such proteins as well as III transport system proteins that transfer many effector proteins into host cytoplasm are attractive targets for drug therapy of chlamydial infections. The majority of the data concerns two species, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydophila pneumoniae. C. trachomatis protein TARP, which is presynthesized in elementary bodies, plays an essential role in the initial stages of the infection. Patogen proteins participating in the next stage, that is the intracellular inclusion traffic to the centrosome, are CT229 of C. trachomatis and Cpn0585 of C. pneumoniae, which interact with cellular Rab GTPases. In C. trachomatis, IncA protein plays a key role in chlamydial inclusions fusion, CT847 modulates life cycle of the host cell, LDA3 is essential in acquisition of nutrients. CPAF protease and inclusion membrane proteins IncG and CADD participate in suppression of apoptosis of infected cells. The proteases CPAF and CT441, as well as deubiquitinating ChlaDub1 protein, contribute to avoiding the immune response.

  19. Ultrafiltration of pegylated proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molek, Jessica R.

    There is considerable clinical interest in the use of "second-generation" therapeutics produced by conjugation of a native protein with various polymers including polyethylene glycol (PEG). PEG--protein conjugates, so-called PEGylated proteins, can exhibit enhanced stability, half-life, and bioavailability. One of the challenges in the commercial production of PEGylated proteins is the purification required to remove unreacted polymer, native protein, and in many cases PEGylated proteins with nonoptimal degrees of conjugation. The overall objective of this thesis was to examine the use of ultrafiltration for the purification of PEGylated proteins. This included: (1) analysis of size-based separation of PEGylated proteins using conventional ultrafiltration membranes, (2) use of electrically-charged membranes to exploit differences in electrostatic interactions, and (3) examination of the effects of PEGylation on protein fouling. The experimental results were analyzed using appropriate theoretical models, with the underlying physical properties of the PEGylated proteins evaluated using size exclusion chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, and reverse phase chromatography. PEGylated proteins were produced by covalent attachment of activated PEG to a protein via primary amines on the lysine residues. A simple model was developed for the reaction kinetics, which was used to explore the effect of reaction conditions and mode of operation on the distribution of PEGylated products. The effective size of the PEGylated proteins was evaluated using size exclusion chromatography, with appropriate correlations developed for the size in terms of the molecular weight of the native protein and attached PEG. The electrophoretic mobility of the PEGylated proteins were evaluated by capillary electrophoresis with the data in good agreement with a simple model accounting for the increase in protein size and the reduction in the number of protonated amine

  20. Arabidopsis MYC Transcription Factors Are the Target of Hormonal Salicylic Acid/Jasmonic Acid Cross Talk in Response to Pieris brassicae Egg Extract1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schmiesing, André; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants recognize insect eggs and activate the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. As a consequence, expression of defense genes regulated by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway is suppressed and larval performance is enhanced. Cross talk between defense signaling pathways is common in plant-pathogen interactions, but the molecular mechanism mediating this phenomenon is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that egg-induced SA/JA antagonism works independently of the APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factor ORA59, which controls the ERF branch of the JA pathway. In addition, treatment with egg extract did not enhance expression or stability of JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors, and SA/JA cross talk did not involve JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKEs, which are negative regulators of the JA pathway. Investigating the stability of MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that additively control jasmonate-related defense responses, we found that egg extract treatment strongly diminished MYC protein levels in an SA-dependent manner. Furthermore, we identified WRKY75 as a novel and essential factor controlling SA/JA cross talk. These data indicate that insect eggs target the MYC branch of the JA pathway and uncover an unexpected modulation of SA/JA antagonism depending on the biological context in which the SA pathway is activated. PMID:26884488

  1. Arabidopsis MYC Transcription Factors Are the Target of Hormonal Salicylic Acid/Jasmonic Acid Cross Talk in Response to Pieris brassicae Egg Extract.

    PubMed

    Schmiesing, André; Emonet, Aurélia; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline; Reymond, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants recognize insect eggs and activate the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. As a consequence, expression of defense genes regulated by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway is suppressed and larval performance is enhanced. Cross talk between defense signaling pathways is common in plant-pathogen interactions, but the molecular mechanism mediating this phenomenon is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that egg-induced SA/JA antagonism works independently of the APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factor ORA59, which controls the ERF branch of the JA pathway. In addition, treatment with egg extract did not enhance expression or stability of JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors, and SA/JA cross talk did not involve JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKEs, which are negative regulators of the JA pathway. Investigating the stability of MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that additively control jasmonate-related defense responses, we found that egg extract treatment strongly diminished MYC protein levels in an SA-dependent manner. Furthermore, we identified WRKY75 as a novel and essential factor controlling SA/JA cross talk. These data indicate that insect eggs target the MYC branch of the JA pathway and uncover an unexpected modulation of SA/JA antagonism depending on the biological context in which the SA pathway is activated. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Protein aggregation and prionopathies.

    PubMed

    Renner, M; Melki, R

    2014-06-01

    Prion protein and prion-like proteins share a number of characteristics. From the molecular point of view, they are constitutive proteins that aggregate following conformational changes into insoluble particles. These particles escape the cellular clearance machinery and amplify by recruiting the soluble for of their constituting proteins. The resulting protein aggregates are responsible for a number of neurodegenerative diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jacob, Alzheimer, Parkinson and Huntington diseases. In addition, there are increasing evidences supporting the inter-cellular trafficking of these aggregates, meaning that they are "transmissible" between cells. There are also evidences that brain homogenates from individuals developing Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases propagate the disease in recipient model animals in a manner similar to brain extracts of patients developing Creutzfeldt-Jacob's disease. Thus, the propagation of protein aggregates from cell to cell may be a generic phenomenon that contributes to the evolution of neurodegenerative diseases, which has important consequences on human health issues. Moreover, although the distribution of protein aggregates is characteristic for each disease, new evidences indicate the possibility of overlaps and crosstalk between the different disorders. Despite the increasing evidences that support prion or prion-like propagation of protein aggregates, there are many unanswered questions regarding the mechanisms of toxicity and this is a field of intensive research nowadays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Learning about Proteins

    MedlinePlus

    ... day, kids need to eat about 0.5 grams of protein for every pound (0.5 kilograms) they weigh. That's a gram for every 2 pounds (1 kilogram) you weigh. ... adult size. Adults, for instance, need about 60 grams per day. To figure out your protein needs, ...

  4. PROTEINS IN NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC INTERACTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Lester; Prescott, David M.

    1967-01-01

    By the transplantation of amino acid-3H-labeled nuclei between cells and the subsequent isolation of nuclei for quantitative assay, we have confirmed that all the nuclear proteins of Amoeba proteus are divisible into two classes that are sharply defined by their physiological behavior. About 40% of the proteins in the nucleus rapidly migrates back and forth between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. These rapidly migrating proteins (RMP) are 25–50 times more concentrated in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm, and migration into the nucleus therefore occurs against a high concentration differential. The remaining 60% of nuclear proteins has been classified as slow turnover proteins (STP) since (as reported in a following paper) virtually all of them ultimately undergo turnover. Turnover in this context means loss of label from the nucleus, by either protein breakdown or protein migration to the cytoplasm. Isolation of nuclei in the detergent Triton X-100 results in a 20% loss of nuclear proteins but conclusions about RMP and STP were not found to be significantly affected by this loss. PMID:6036526

  5. Protein Attachment on Nanodiamonds.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Lun; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Su, Meng-Chih

    2015-07-16

    A recent advance in nanotechnology is the scale-up production of small and nonaggregated diamond nanoparticles suitable for biological applications. Using detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with an average diameter of ∼4 nm as the adsorbents, we have studied the static attachment of three proteins (myoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and insulin) onto the nanoparticles by optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic zeta potential measurements. Results show that the protein surface coverage is predominantly determined by the competition between protein-protein and protein-ND interactions, giving each protein a unique and characteristic structural configuration in its own complex. Specifically, both myoglobin and bovine serum albumin show a Langmuir-type adsorption behavior, forming 1:1 complexes at saturation, whereas insulin folds into a tightly bound multimer before adsorption. The markedly different adsorption patterns appear to be independent of the protein concentration and are closely related to the affinity of the individual proteins for the NDs. The present study provides a fundamental understanding for the use of NDs as a platform for nanomedical drug delivery.

  6. Synthesis of Lipidated Proteins.

    PubMed

    Mejuch, Tom; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-08-17

    Protein lipidation is one of the major post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins. The attachment of the lipid moiety frequently determines the localization and the function of the lipoproteins. Lipidated proteins participate in many essential biological processes in eukaryotic cells, including vesicular trafficking, signal transduction, and regulation of the immune response. Malfunction of these cellular processes usually leads to various diseases such as cancer. Understanding the mechanism of cellular signaling and identifying the protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in which the lipoproteins are involved is a crucial task. To achieve these goals, fully functional lipidated proteins are required. However, access to lipoproteins by means of standard expression is often rather limited. Therefore, semisynthetic methods, involving the synthesis of lipidated peptides and their subsequent chemoselective ligation to yield full-length lipoproteins, were developed. In this Review we summarize the commonly used methods for lipoprotein synthesis and the development of the corresponding chemoselective ligation techniques. Several key studies involving full-length semisynthetic lipidated Ras, Rheb, and LC3 proteins are presented.

  7. Structures of membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vinothkumar, Kutti R.; Henderson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In reviewing the structures of membrane proteins determined up to the end of 2009, we present in words and pictures the most informative examples from each family. We group the structures together according to their function and architecture to provide an overview of the major principles and variations on the most common themes. The first structures, determined 20 years ago, were those of naturally abundant proteins with limited conformational variability, and each membrane protein structure determined was a major landmark. With the advent of complete genome sequences and efficient expression systems, there has been an explosion in the rate of membrane protein structure determination, with many classes represented. New structures are published every month and more than 150 unique membrane protein structures have been determined. This review analyses the reasons for this success, discusses the challenges that still lie ahead, and presents a concise summary of the key achievements with illustrated examples selected from each class. PMID:20667175

  8. Artificially Engineered Protein Polymers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun Jung; Holmberg, Angela L; Olsen, Bradley D

    2017-06-07

    Modern polymer science increasingly requires precise control over macromolecular structure and properties for engineering advanced materials and biomedical systems. The application of biological processes to design and synthesize artificial protein polymers offers a means for furthering macromolecular tunability, enabling polymers with dispersities of ∼1.0 and monomer-level sequence control. Taking inspiration from materials evolved in nature, scientists have created modular building blocks with simplified monomer sequences that replicate the function of natural systems. The corresponding protein engineering toolbox has enabled the systematic development of complex functional polymeric materials across areas as diverse as adhesives, responsive polymers, and medical materials. This review discusses the natural proteins that have inspired the development of key building blocks for protein polymer engineering and the function of these elements in material design. The prospects and progress for scalable commercialization of protein polymers are reviewed, discussing both technology needs and opportunities.

  9. Plant thermal hysteresis proteins.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, M E; Duman, J G; Knight, C A

    1992-05-22

    Proteins which produce a thermal hysteresis (i.e. lower the freezing point of water below the melting point) are common antifreezes in cold adapted poikilothermic animals, especially fishes from ice-laden seas and terrestrial arthropods. However, these proteins have not been previously identified in plants. 16 species of plants collected from northern Indiana in autumn and winter had low levels of thermal hysteresis activity, but activity was absent in summer. This suggests that thermal hysteresis proteins may be a fairly common winter adaptation in angiosperms. Winter stem fluid from the bittersweet nightshade, Solanum dulcamara L., also showed the recrystallization inhibition activity characteristic of the animal thermal hysteresis proteins (THPs), suggesting a possible function for the THPs in this freeze tolerant species. Other potential functions are discussed. Antibodies to an insect THP cross reacted on immunoelectroblots with proteins in S. dulcamara stem fluid, indicating common epitopes in the insect and plant THPs.

  10. A protein interaction network analysis for yeast integral membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ming-Guang; Huang, De-Shuang; Li, Xue-Ling

    2008-01-01

    Although the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the best exemplified single-celled eukaryote, the vast number of protein-protein interactions of integral membrane proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have not been characterized by experiments. Here, based on the kernel method of Greedy Kernel Principal Component analysis plus Linear Discriminant Analysis, we identify 300 protein-protein interactions involving 189 membrane proteins and get the outcome of a highly connected protein-protein interactions network. Furthermore, we study the global topological features of integral membrane proteins network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These results give the comprehensive description of protein-protein interactions of integral membrane proteins and reveal global topological and robustness of the interactome network at a system level. This work represents an important step towards a comprehensive understanding of yeast protein interactions.

  11. Protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugg, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    Proteins account for 50% or more of the dry weight of most living systems and play a crucial role in virtually all biological processes. Since the specific functions of essentially all biological molecules are determined by their three-dimensional structures, it is obvious that a detailed understanding of the structural makeup of a protein is essential to any systematic research pertaining to it. At the present time, protein crystallography has no substitute, it is the only technique available for elucidating the atomic arrangements within complicated biological molecules. Most macromolecules are extremely difficult to crystallize, and many otherwise exciting and promising projects have terminated at the crystal growth stage. There is a pressing need to better understand protein crystal growth, and to develop new techniques that can be used to enhance the size and quality of protein crystals. There are several aspects of microgravity that might be exploited to enhance protein crystal growth. The major factor that might be expected to alter crystal growth processes in space is the elimination of density-driven convective flow. Another factor that can be readily controlled in the absence of gravity is the sedimentation of growing crystal in a gravitational field. Another potential advantage of microgravity for protein crystal growth is the option of doing containerless crystal growth. One can readily understand why the microgravity environment established by Earth-orbiting vehicles is perceived to offer unique opportunities for the protein crystallographer. The near term objectives of the Protein Crystal Growth in a Microgravity Environment (PCG/ME) project is to continue to improve the techniques, procedures, and hardware systems used to grow protein crystals in Earth orbit.

  12. Protein-Protein Docking in Drug Design and Discovery.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Bartuzi, Damian; Stępniewski, Tomasz Maciej; Matosiuk, Dariusz; Selent, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are responsible for a number of key physiological processes in the living cells and underlie the pathomechanism of many diseases. Nowadays, along with the concept of so-called "hot spots" in protein-protein interactions, which are well-defined interface regions responsible for most of the binding energy, these interfaces can be targeted with modulators. In order to apply structure-based design techniques to design PPIs modulators, a three-dimensional structure of protein complex has to be available. In this context in silico approaches, in particular protein-protein docking, are a valuable complement to experimental methods for elucidating 3D structure of protein complexes. Protein-protein docking is easy to use and does not require significant computer resources and time (in contrast to molecular dynamics) and it results in 3D structure of a protein complex (in contrast to sequence-based methods of predicting binding interfaces). However, protein-protein docking cannot address all the aspects of protein dynamics, in particular the global conformational changes during protein complex formation. In spite of this fact, protein-protein docking is widely used to model complexes of water-soluble proteins and less commonly to predict structures of transmembrane protein assemblies, including dimers and oligomers of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In this chapter we review the principles of protein-protein docking, available algorithms and software and discuss the recent examples, benefits, and drawbacks of protein-protein docking application to water-soluble proteins, membrane anchoring and transmembrane proteins, including GPCRs.

  13. Bacterial ice crystal controlling proteins.

    PubMed

    Lorv, Janet S H; Rose, David R; Glick, Bernard R

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions.

  14. Bacterial Ice Crystal Controlling Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lorv, Janet S. H.; Rose, David R.; Glick, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions. PMID:24579057

  15. Endometrial proteins: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, M; Julkunen, M; Riittinen, L; Koistinen, R

    1992-06-01

    Uterine factors influence reproduction at the macro-anatomy level, and the effects of hormonal steroids on endometrial morphology are well recognized in the histopathological diagnosis of dysfunctional bleeding and infertility. During the past decade, attention has been paid to endometrial protein synthesis and secretion with respect to endocrine stimuli and implantation, and to the paracrine/autocrine effects of endometrial peptide growth factors, their binding proteins and other factors. The emphasis of this presentation is on protein secretion of the secretory endometrium, in which progesterone plays a pivotal role. Insulin-like growth factors have receptors on the endometrium, and IGF-binding proteins, stimulated by progesterone, modulate the effects of IGFs locally. Also other protein products of the secretory endometrium have been reviewed in this communication, with special emphasis on studies of a progesterone-associated endometrial protein which has many names in the literature, such as PEP, PP14, alpha 2-PEG and AUP. Extensive studies are ongoing in many laboratories to elucidate the regulation, function, interplay at tissue and cellular levels, and clinical significance of these proteins.

  16. BAYESIAN PROTEIN STRUCTURE ALIGNMENT.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Abel; Schmidler, Scott C

    The analysis of the three-dimensional structure of proteins is an important topic in molecular biochemistry. Structure plays a critical role in defining the function of proteins and is more strongly conserved than amino acid sequence over evolutionary timescales. A key challenge is the identification and evaluation of structural similarity between proteins; such analysis can aid in understanding the role of newly discovered proteins and help elucidate evolutionary relationships between organisms. Computational biologists have developed many clever algorithmic techniques for comparing protein structures, however, all are based on heuristic optimization criteria, making statistical interpretation somewhat difficult. Here we present a fully probabilistic framework for pairwise structural alignment of proteins. Our approach has several advantages, including the ability to capture alignment uncertainty and to estimate key "gap" parameters which critically affect the quality of the alignment. We show that several existing alignment methods arise as maximum a posteriori estimates under specific choices of prior distributions and error models. Our probabilistic framework is also easily extended to incorporate additional information, which we demonstrate by including primary sequence information to generate simultaneous sequence-structure alignments that can resolve ambiguities obtained using structure alone. This combined model also provides a natural approach for the difficult task of estimating evolutionary distance based on structural alignments. The model is illustrated by comparison with well-established methods on several challenging protein alignment examples.

  17. Mechanism of protein decarbonylation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi-Ming; Marcocci, Lucia; Das, Dividutta; Wang, Xinhong; Luo, Haibei; Zungu-Edmondson, Makhosazane; Suzuki, Yuichiro J

    2013-12-01

    Ligand/receptor stimulation of cells promotes protein carbonylation that is followed by the decarbonylation process, which might involve thiol-dependent reduction (C.M. Wong et al., Circ. Res. 102:301-318; 2008). This study further investigated the properties of this protein decarbonylation mechanism. We found that the thiol-mediated reduction of protein carbonyls is dependent on heat-labile biologic components. Cysteine and glutathione were efficient substrates for decarbonylation. Thiols decreased the protein carbonyl content, as detected by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, but not the levels of malondialdehyde or 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts. Mass spectrometry identified proteins that undergo thiol-dependent decarbonylation, which include peroxiredoxins. Peroxiredoxin-2 and -6 were carbonylated and subsequently decarbonylated in response to the ligand/receptor stimulation of cells. siRNA knockdown of glutaredoxin inhibited the decarbonylation of peroxiredoxin. These results strengthen the concept that thiol-dependent decarbonylation defines the kinetics of protein carbonylation signaling. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanism of protein decarbonylation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chi-Ming; Marcocci, Lucia; Das, Dividutta; Wang, Xinhong; Luo, Haibei; Zungu-Edmondson, Makhosazane; Suzuki, Yuichiro J.

    2013-01-01

    Ligand/receptor-stimulation of cells promotes protein carbonylation that is followed by the decarbonylation process, which might involve thiol-dependent reduction (Wong et al., Circ. Res. 102 301-318, 2008). The present study further investigated the properties of this protein decarbonylation mechanism. We found that the thiol-mediated reduction of protein carbonyls is dependent on heat-labile biologic components. Cysteine and glutathione were found to be efficient substrates for decarbonylation. Thiols decreased the protein carbonyl content, as detected by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, but not the levels of malondialdehyde or 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts. Mass spectrometry identified proteins that undergo thiol-dependent decarbonylation, which include peroxiredoxins. Peroxiredoxins-2 and -6 were found to be carbonylated and subsequent decarbonylated in response to the ligand/receptor-stimulation of cells. siRNA knockdown of glutaredoxin inhibited the decarbonylation of peroxiredoxin. These results strengthen the concept that thiol-dependent decarbonylation defines the kinetics of protein carbonylation signaling. PMID:24044890

  19. Multidomain proteins under force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle-Orero, Jessica; Andrés Rivas-Pardo, Jaime; Popa, Ionel

    2017-04-01

    Advancements in single-molecule force spectroscopy techniques such as atomic force microscopy and magnetic tweezers allow investigation of how domain folding under force can play a physiological role. Combining these techniques with protein engineering and HaloTag covalent attachment, we investigate similarities and differences between four model proteins: I10 and I91—two immunoglobulin-like domains from the muscle protein titin, and two α + β fold proteins—ubiquitin and protein L. These proteins show a different mechanical response and have unique extensions under force. Remarkably, when normalized to their contour length, the size of the unfolding and refolding steps as a function of force reduces to a single master curve. This curve can be described using standard models of polymer elasticity, explaining the entropic nature of the measured steps. We further validate our measurements with a simple energy landscape model, which combines protein folding with polymer physics and accounts for the complex nature of tandem domains under force. This model can become a useful tool to help in deciphering the complexity of multidomain proteins operating under force.

  20. Antimicrobial proteins: From old proteins, new tricks.

    PubMed

    Smith, Valerie J; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A

    2015-12-01

    This review describes the main types of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) synthesised by crustaceans, primarily those identified in shrimp, crayfish, crab and lobster. It includes an overview of their range of microbicidal activities and the current landscape of our understanding of their gene expression patterns in different body tissues. It further summarises how their expression might change following various types of immune challenges. The review further considers proteins or protein fragments from crustaceans that have antimicrobial properties but are more usually associated with other biological functions, or are derived from such proteins. It discusses how these unconventional AMPs might be generated at, or delivered to, sites of infection and how they might contribute to crustacean host defence in vivo. It also highlights recent work that is starting to reveal the extent of multi-functionality displayed by some decapod AMPs, particularly their participation in other aspects of host protection. Examples of such activities include proteinase inhibition, phagocytosis, antiviral activity and haematopoiesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Structure Prediction of Protein Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Brian; Weng, Zhiping

    Protein-protein interactions are critical for biological function. They directly and indirectly influence the biological systems of which they are a part. Antibodies bind with antigens to detect and stop viruses and other infectious agents. Cell signaling is performed in many cases through the interactions between proteins. Many diseases involve protein-protein interactions on some level, including cancer and prion diseases.

  2. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Canavalin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Canavalin. The major storage protein of leguminous plants and a major source of dietary protein for humans and domestic animals. It is studied in efforts to enhance nutritional value of proteins through protein engineerings. It is isolated from Jack Bean because of it's potential as a nutritional substance. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Alex McPherson.

  3. Protein Crystal Quality Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Eddie Snell (standing), Post-Doctoral Fellow the National Research Council (NRC),and Marc Pusey of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) use a reciprocal space mapping diffractometer for marcromolecular crystal quality studies. The diffractometer is used in mapping the structure of marcromolecules such as proteins to determine their structure and thus understand how they function with other proteins in the body. This is one of several analytical tools used on proteins crystalized on Earth and in space experiments. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  4. Evolution of proteins.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayhoff, M. O.

    1971-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of proteins from living organisms are dealt with. The structure of proteins is first discussed; the variation in this structure from one biological group to another is illustrated by the first halves of the sequences of cytochrome c, and a phylogenetic tree is derived from the cytochrome c data. The relative geological times associated with the events of this tree are discussed. Errors which occur in the duplication of cells during the evolutionary process are examined. Particular attention is given to evolution of mutant proteins, globins, ferredoxin, and transfer ribonucleic acids (tRNA's). Finally, a general outline of biological evolution is presented.

  5. Protein Crystal Malic Enzyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Malic Enzyme is a target protein for drug design because it is a key protein in the life cycle of intestinal parasites. After 2 years of effort on Earth, investigators were unable to produce any crystals that were of high enough quality and for this reason the structure of this important protein could not be determined. Crystals obtained from one STS-50 were of superior quality allowing the structure to be determined. This is just one example why access to space is so vital for these studies. Principal Investigator is Larry DeLucas.

  6. Teaching resources. Protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Salton, Stephen R

    2005-03-01

    This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes and slides for a class covering the structure and function of protein phosphatases and is part of the course "Cell Signaling Systems: A Course for Graduate Students." The lecture begins with a discussion of the importance of phosphatases in physiology, recognized by the award of a Nobel Prize in 1992, and then proceeds to describe the two types of protein phosphatases: serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphatases. The information covered includes the structure, regulation, and substrate specificity of protein phosphatases, with an emphasis on their importance in disease and clinical settings.

  7. Protein crystallography prescreen kit

    DOEpatents

    Segelke, Brent W.; Krupka, Heike I.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2007-10-02

    A kit for prescreening protein concentration for crystallization includes a multiplicity of vials, a multiplicity of pre-selected reagents, and a multiplicity of sample plates. The reagents and a corresponding multiplicity of samples of the protein in solutions of varying concentrations are placed on sample plates. The sample plates containing the reagents and samples are incubated. After incubation the sample plates are examined to determine which of the sample concentrations are too low and which the sample concentrations are too high. The sample concentrations that are optimal for protein crystallization are selected and used.

  8. Protein crystallography prescreen kit

    DOEpatents

    Segelke, Brent W.; Krupka, Heike I.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2005-07-12

    A kit for prescreening protein concentration for crystallization includes a multiplicity of vials, a multiplicity of pre-selected reagents, and a multiplicity of sample plates. The reagents and a corresponding multiplicity of samples of the protein in solutions of varying concentrations are placed on sample plates. The sample plates containing the reagents and samples are incubated. After incubation the sample plates are examined to determine which of the sample concentrations are too low and which the sample concentrations are too high. The sample concentrations that are optimal for protein crystallization are selected and used.

  9. Protein based Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

  10. Pierced Lasso Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Patricia

    Entanglement and knots are naturally occurring, where, in the microscopic world, knots in DNA and homopolymers are well characterized. The most complex knots are observed in proteins which are harder to investigate, as proteins are heteropolymers composed of a combination of 20 different amino acids with different individual biophysical properties. As new-knotted topologies and new proteins containing knots continue to be discovered and characterized, the investigation of knots in proteins has gained intense interest. Thus far, the principle focus has been on the evolutionary origin of tying a knot, with questions of how a protein chain `self-ties' into a knot, what the mechanism(s) are that contribute to threading, and the biological relevance and functional implication of a knotted topology in vivo gaining the most insight. Efforts to study the fully untied and unfolded chain indicate that the knot is highly stable, remaining intact in the unfolded state orders of magnitude longer than first anticipated. The persistence of ``stable'' knots in the unfolded state, together with the challenge of defining an unfolded and untied chain from an unfolded and knotted chain, complicates the study of fully untied protein in vitro. Our discovery of a new class of knotted proteins, the Pierced Lassos (PL) loop topology, simplifies the knotting approach. While PLs are not easily recognizable by the naked eye, they have now been identified in many proteins in the PDB through the use of computation tools. PL topologies are diverse proteins found in all kingdoms of life, performing a large variety of biological responses such as cell signaling, immune responses, transporters and inhibitors (http://lassoprot.cent.uw.edu.pl/). Many of these PL topologies are secreted proteins, extracellular proteins, as well as, redox sensors, enzymes and metal and co-factor binding proteins; all of which provide a favorable environment for the formation of the disulphide bridge. In the PL

  11. Protein urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine protein; Albumin - urine; Urine albumin; Proteinuria; Albuminuria ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The color change ...

  12. Microgravity protein crystallization

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, Alexander; DeLucas, Lawrence James

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years a variety of technological advances in X-ray crystallography have shortened the time required to determine the structures of large macromolecules (i.e., proteins and nucleic acids) from several years to several weeks or days. However, one of the remaining challenges is the ability to produce diffraction-quality crystals suitable for a detailed structural analysis. Although the development of automated crystallization systems combined with protein engineering (site-directed mutagenesis to enhance protein solubility and crystallization) have improved crystallization success rates, there remain hundreds of proteins that either cannot be crystallized or yield crystals of insufficient quality to support X-ray structure determination. In an attempt to address this bottleneck, an international group of scientists has explored use of a microgravity environment to crystallize macromolecules. This paper summarizes the history of this international initiative along with a description of some of the flight hardware systems and crystallization results. PMID:28725714

  13. Plant uncoupling mitochondrial proteins.

    PubMed

    Vercesi, Aníbal Eugênio; Borecký, Jiri; Maia, Ivan de Godoy; Arruda, Paulo; Cuccovia, Iolanda Midea; Chaimovich, Hernan

    2006-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are membrane proteins that mediate purine nucleotide-sensitive free fatty acid-activated H(+) flux through the inner mitochondrial membrane. After the discovery of UCP in higher plants in 1995, it was acknowledged that these proteins are widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. The widespread presence of UCPs in eukaryotes implies that these proteins may have functions other than thermogenesis. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of plant UCPs, including their discovery, biochemical properties, distribution, gene family, gene expression profiles, regulation of gene expression, and evolutionary aspects. Expression analyses and functional studies on the plant UCPs under normal and stressful conditions suggest that UCPs regulate energy metabolism in the cellular responses to stress through regulation of the electrochemical proton potential (Deltamu(H)+) and production of reactive oxygen species.

  14. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... one urine sample (protein-to-creatinine ratio). Normal Results The normal value is less than 100 milligrams ... meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results Mean Abnormal results may be due to: A ...

  15. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  16. Protein conducting nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsman, Anke; Krüger, Vivien; Bartsch, Philipp; Honigmann, Alf; Schmidt, Oliver; Rao, Sanjana; Meisinger, Christof; Wagner, Richard

    2010-11-01

    About 50% of the cellular proteins have to be transported into or across cellular membranes. This transport is an essential step in the protein biosynthesis. In eukaryotic cells secretory proteins are transported into the endoplasmic reticulum before they are transported in vesicles to the plasma membrane. Almost all proteins of the endosymbiotic organelles chloroplasts and mitochondria are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and posttranslationally imported. Genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches led to rather detailed knowledge on the composition of the translocon-complexes which catalyze the membrane transport of the preproteins. Comprehensive concepts on the targeting and membrane transport of polypeptides emerged, however little detail on the molecular nature and mechanisms of the protein translocation channels comprising nanopores has been achieved. In this paper we will highlight recent developments of the diverse protein translocation systems and focus particularly on the common biophysical properties and functions of the protein conducting nanopores. We also provide a first analysis of the interaction between the genuine protein conducting nanopore Tom40SC as well as a mutant Tom40SC (\\mathrm {S}_{54} \\to E ) containing an additional negative charge at the channel vestibule and one of its native substrates, CoxIV, a mitochondrial targeting peptide. The polypeptide induced a voltage-dependent increase in the frequency of channel closure of Tom40SC corresponding to a voltage-dependent association rate, which was even more pronounced for the Tom40SC S54E mutant. The corresponding dwelltime reflecting association/transport of the peptide could be determined with \\bar {t}_{\\mathrm {off}} \\cong 1.1 ms for the wildtype, whereas the mutant Tom40SC S54E displayed a biphasic dwelltime distribution (\\bar {t}_{\\mathrm {off}}^1 \\cong 0.4 ms \\bar {t}_{\\mathrm {off}}^2 \\cong 4.6 ms).

  17. Occupational protein contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Barbaud, Annick; Poreaux, Claire; Penven, Emmanuelle; Waton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is generally caused by haptens but can also be induced by proteins causing mainly immunological contact urticaria (ICU); chronic hand eczema in the context of protein contact dermatitis (PCD). In a monocentric retrospective study, from our database, only 31 (0.41%) of patients with contact dermatitis had positive skin tests with proteins: 22 had occupational PCD, 3 had non-occupational PCD, 5 occupational ICU and 1 cook had a neutrophilic fixed food eruption (NFFE) due to fish. From these results and analysis of literature, the characteristics of PCD can be summarized as follows. It is a chronic eczematous dermatitis, possibly exacerbated by work, suggestive if associated with inflammatory perionyxix and immediate erythema with pruritis, to be investigated when the patient resumes work after a period of interruption. Prick tests with the suspected protein-containing material are essential, as patch tests have negative results. In case of multisensitisation revealed by prick tests, it is advisable to analyse IgE against recombinant allergens. A history of atopy, found in 56 to 68% of the patients, has to be checked for. Most of the cases are observed among food-handlers but PCD can also be due to non-edible plants, latex, hydrolysed proteins or animal proteins. Occupational exposure to proteins can thus lead to the development of ICU. Reflecting hypersensitivity to very low concentrations of allergens, investigating ICU therefore requires caution and prick tests should be performed with a diluted form of the causative protein-containing product. Causes are food, especially fruit peel, non-edible plants, cosmetic products, latex, animals.

  18. Chirality and protein biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Banik, Sindrila Dutta; Nandi, Nilashis

    2013-01-01

    Chirality is present at all levels of structural hierarchy of protein and plays a significant role in protein biosynthesis. The macromolecules involved in protein biosynthesis such as aminoacyl tRNA synthetase and ribosome have chiral subunits. Despite the omnipresence of chirality in the biosynthetic pathway, its origin, role in current pathway, and importance is far from understood. In this review we first present an introduction to biochirality and its relevance to protein biosynthesis. Major propositions about the prebiotic origin of biomolecules are presented with particular reference to proteins and nucleic acids. The problem of the origin of homochirality is unresolved at present. The chiral discrimination by enzymes involved in protein synthesis is essential for keeping the life process going. However, questions remained pertaining to the mechanism of chiral discrimination and concomitant retention of biochirality. We discuss the experimental evidence which shows that it is virtually impossible to incorporate D-amino acids in protein structures in present biosynthetic pathways via any of the two major steps of protein synthesis, namely aminoacylation and peptide bond formation reactions. Molecular level explanations of the stringent chiral specificity in each step are extended based on computational analysis. A detailed account of the current state of understanding of the mechanism of chiral discrimination during aminoacylation in the active site of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase and peptide bond formation in ribosomal peptidyl transferase center is presented. Finally, it is pointed out that the understanding of the mechanism of retention of enantiopurity has implications in developing novel enzyme mimetic systems and biocatalysts and might be useful in chiral drug design.

  19. Recombinant Collagenlike Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fertala, Andzej

    2007-01-01

    A group of collagenlike recombinant proteins containing high densities of biologically active sites has been invented. The method used to express these proteins is similar to a method of expressing recombinant procollagens and collagens described in U. S. Patent 5,593,859, "Synthesis of human procollagens and collagens in recombinant DNA systems." Customized collagenous proteins are needed for biomedical applications. In particular, fibrillar collagens are attractive for production of matrices needed for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Prior to this invention, there was no way of producing customized collagenous proteins for these and other applications. Heretofore, collagenous proteins have been produced by use of such biological systems as yeasts, bacteria, and transgenic animals and plants. These products are normal collagens that can also be extracted from such sources as tendons, bones, and hides. These products cannot be made to consist only of biologically active, specific amino acid sequences that may be needed for specific applications. Prior to this invention, it had been established that fibrillar collagens consist of domains that are responsible for such processes as interaction with cells, binding of growth factors, and interaction with a number of structural proteins present in the extracellular matrix. A normal collagen consists of a sequence of domains that can be represented by a corresponding sequence of labels, e.g., D1D2D3D4. A collagenlike protein of the present invention contains regions of collagen II that contain multiples of a single domain (e.g., D1D1D1D1 or D4D4D4D4) chosen for its specific biological activity. By virtue of the multiplicity of the chosen domain, the density of sites having that specific biological activity is greater than it is in a normal collagen. A collagenlike protein according to this invention can thus be made to have properties that are necessary for tissue engineering.

  20. Urinary Protein Biomarker Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    monitoring, in the case of low-risk cancers, to radiation or surgical procedures for higher risk cancers (Bill-Axelson et al., N. Engl. J. Med., 370:932...the methods can include administering at least one of watchful waiting, active surveillance, surgery, radiation , hormone therapy, chemotherapy...macrophage inflammatory protein 1-α (MIP1α), and tonsillar lymphocyte LD78 α Protein (LD78-α), CCL3 is a monokine involved in the acute inflammatory state

  1. Parallel Computational Protein Design.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yichao; Donald, Bruce R; Zeng, Jianyang

    2017-01-01

    Computational structure-based protein design (CSPD) is an important problem in computational biology, which aims to design or improve a prescribed protein function based on a protein structure template. It provides a practical tool for real-world protein engineering applications. A popular CSPD method that guarantees to find the global minimum energy solution (GMEC) is to combine both dead-end elimination (DEE) and A* tree search algorithms. However, in this framework, the A* search algorithm can run in exponential time in the worst case, which may become the computation bottleneck of large-scale computational protein design process. To address this issue, we extend and add a new module to the OSPREY program that was previously developed in the Donald lab (Gainza et al., Methods Enzymol 523:87, 2013) to implement a GPU-based massively parallel A* algorithm for improving protein design pipeline. By exploiting the modern GPU computational framework and optimizing the computation of the heuristic function for A* search, our new program, called gOSPREY, can provide up to four orders of magnitude speedups in large protein design cases with a small memory overhead comparing to the traditional A* search algorithm implementation, while still guaranteeing the optimality. In addition, gOSPREY can be configured to run in a bounded-memory mode to tackle the problems in which the conformation space is too large and the global optimal solution cannot be computed previously. Furthermore, the GPU-based A* algorithm implemented in the gOSPREY program can be combined with the state-of-the-art rotamer pruning algorithms such as iMinDEE (Gainza et al., PLoS Comput Biol 8:e1002335, 2012) and DEEPer (Hallen et al., Proteins 81:18-39, 2013) to also consider continuous backbone and side-chain flexibility.

  2. Cotton and Protein Interactions

    SciT

    Goheen, Steven C.; Edwards, J. V.; Rayburn, Alfred R.

    The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption of elastase in the presence of albumin was examined as a model to understand the interactive properties of these wound fluid components with cotton fibers. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase appears to be over-expressed, and it digests tissue and growth factors, interfering with the normal healing process. Albumin is the most prevalent protein in wound fluid, and in highly to moderately exudative wounds, itmore » may bind significantly to the fibers of wound dressings. Thus, the relative binding properties of both elastase and albumin to wound dressing fibers are of interest in the design of more effective wound dressings. The present work examines the binding of albumin to two different derivatives of cotton, and quantifies the elastase binding to the same derivatives following exposure of albumin to the fiber surface. An HPLC adsorption technique was employed coupled with a colorimetric enzyme assay to quantify the relative binding properties of albumin and elastase to cotton. The results of wound protein binding are discussed in relation to the porosity and surface chemistry interactions of cotton and wound proteins. Studies are directed to understanding the implications of protein adsorption phenomena in terms of fiber-protein models that have implications for rationally designing dressings for chronic wounds.« less

  3. Fast protein folding kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Hannah; Gruebele, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fast folding proteins have been a major focus of computational and experimental study because they are accessible to both techniques: they are small and fast enough to be reasonably simulated with current computational power, but have dynamics slow enough to be observed with specially developed experimental techniques. This coupled study of fast folding proteins has provided insight into the mechanisms which allow some proteins to find their native conformation well less than 1 ms and has uncovered examples of theoretically predicted phenomena such as downhill folding. The study of fast folders also informs our understanding of even “slow” folding processes: fast folders are small, relatively simple protein domains and the principles that govern their folding also govern the folding of more complex systems. This review summarizes the major theoretical and experimental techniques used to study fast folding proteins and provides an overview of the major findings of fast folding research. Finally, we examine the themes that have emerged from studying fast folders and briefly summarize their application to protein folding in general as well as some work that is left to do. PMID:24641816

  4. Protein-Protein Interface and Disease: Perspective from Biomolecular Networks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guang; Xiao, Fei; Li, Yuqian; Li, Yuan; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa

    Protein-protein interactions are involved in many important biological processes and molecular mechanisms of disease association. Structural studies of interfacial residues in protein complexes provide information on protein-protein interactions. Characterizing protein-protein interfaces, including binding sites and allosteric changes, thus pose an imminent challenge. With special focus on protein complexes, approaches based on network theory are proposed to meet this challenge. In this review we pay attention to protein-protein interfaces from the perspective of biomolecular networks and their roles in disease. We first describe the different roles of protein complexes in disease through several structural aspects of interfaces. We then discuss some recent advances in predicting hot spots and communication pathway analysis in terms of amino acid networks. Finally, we highlight possible future aspects of this area with respect to both methodology development and applications for disease treatment.

  5. Protein crystal growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugg, C. E.; Clifford, D. W.

    1987-01-01

    The advantages of protein crystallization in space, and the applications of protein crystallography to drug design, protein engineering, and the design of synthetic vaccines are examined. The steps involved in using protein crystallography to determine the three-dimensional structure of a protein are discussed. The growth chamber design and the hand-held apparatus developed for protein crystal growth by vapor diffusion techniques (hanging-drop method) are described; the experimental data from the four Shuttle missions are utilized to develop hardware for protein crystal growth in space and to evaluate the effects of gravity on protein crystal growth.

  6. Unique Features of Halophilic Proteins.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Rui; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Tokunaga, Masao

    2017-01-01

    Proteins from moderate and extreme halophiles have unique characteristics. They are highly acidic and hydrophilic, similar to intrinsically disordered proteins. These characteristics make the halophilic proteins soluble in water and fold reversibly. In addition to reversible folding, the rate of refolding of halophilic proteins from denatured structure is generally slow, often taking several days, for example, for extremely halophilic proteins. This slow folding rate makes the halophilic proteins a novel model system for folding mechanism analysis. High solubility and reversible folding also make the halophilic proteins excellent fusion partners for soluble expression of recombinant proteins.

  7. Direct protein-protein conjugation by genetically introducing bioorthogonal functional groups into proteins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanggil; Ko, Wooseok; Sung, Bong Hyun; Kim, Sun Chang; Lee, Hyun Soo

    2016-11-15

    Proteins often function as complex structures in conjunction with other proteins. Because these complex structures are essential for sophisticated functions, developing protein-protein conjugates has gained research interest. In this study, site-specific protein-protein conjugation was performed by genetically incorporating an azide-containing amino acid into one protein and a bicyclononyne (BCN)-containing amino acid into the other. Three to four sites in each of the proteins were tested for conjugation efficiency, and three combinations showed excellent conjugation efficiency. The genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids (UAAs) is technically simple and produces the mutant protein in high yield. In addition, the conjugation reaction can be conducted by simple mixing, and does not require additional reagents or linker molecules. Therefore, this method may prove very useful for generating protein-protein conjugates and protein complexes of biochemical significance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Modeling Mercury in Proteins

    SciT

    Smith, Jeremy C; Parks, Jerry M

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively non-toxic, other forms such as Hg2+ and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg2+ can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg2+ to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with variousmore » proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intra-protein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confers mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multi-scale model of environmental mercury cycling.« less

  9. Purine inhibitors of protein kinases, G proteins and polymerases

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Nathanael S.; Schultz, Peter; Kim, Sung-Hou; Meijer, Laurent

    2001-07-03

    The present invention relates to purine analogs that inhibit, inter alia, protein kinases, G-proteins and polymerases. In addition, the present invention relates to methods of using such purine analogs to inhibit protein kinases, G-proteins, polymerases and other cellular processes and to treat cellular proliferative diseases.

  10. The De Novo Design of Protein-Protein Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    it was our intention to add to this body by engineering de novo (from scratch) protein/protein complexes. Using this inverse approach we have furthered...key physical features needed to drive specific protein/protein interactions. It is considered inverse because, instead of studying natural complexes

  11. Benchtop Detection of Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Varaljay, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    A process, and a benchtop-scale apparatus for implementing the process, have been developed to detect proteins associated with specific microbes in water. The process and apparatus may also be useful for detection of proteins in other, more complex liquids. There may be numerous potential applications, including monitoring lakes and streams for contamination, testing of blood and other bodily fluids in medical laboratories, and testing for microbial contamination of liquids in restaurants and industrial food-processing facilities. A sample can be prepared and analyzed by use of this process and apparatus within minutes, whereas an equivalent analysis performed by use of other processes and equipment can often take hours to days. The process begins with the conjugation of near-infrared-fluorescent dyes to antibodies that are specific to a particular protein. Initially, the research has focused on using near-infrared dyes to detect antigens or associated proteins in solution, which has proven successful vs. microbial cells, and streamlining the technique in use for surface protein detection on microbes would theoretically render similar results. However, it is noted that additional work is needed to transition protein-based techniques to microbial cell detection. Consequently, multiple such dye/antibody pairs could be prepared to enable detection of multiple selected microbial species, using a different dye for each species. When excited by near-infrared light of a suitable wavelength, each dye fluoresces at a unique longer wavelength that differs from those of the other dyes, enabling discrimination among the various species. In initial tests, the dye/antibody pairs are mixed into a solution suspected of containing the selected proteins, causing the binding of the dye/antibody pairs to such suspect proteins that may be present. The solution is then run through a microcentrifuge that includes a membrane that acts as a filter in that it retains the dye/antibody/protein

  12. [Protein metabolism in vegans].

    PubMed

    Okuda, T; Miyoshi-Nishimura, H; Makita, T; Sugawa-Katayama, Y; Hazama, T; Simizu, T; Yamaguchi, Y

    1994-11-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms of adaptation to a low-energy and low-protein vegan diet, we carried out dietary surveys and nitrogen balance studies five times during one year on two women and a man who ate raw brown rice, raw green vegetables, three kinds of raw roots, fruit and salt daily. Individual subjects modified this vegan diet slightly. The mean daily energy intake of the subjects was 18, 14, and 32 kcal/kg, of body weight. The loss of body weight was about 10% of the initial level. The daily nitrogen balance was -32, -33, and -11 mg N/kg of body weight. In spite of the negative nitrogen balance, the results of routine clinical tests, initially normal, did not change with the vegan diet. Ten months after the start of the vegan diet, the subjects were given 15N urea orally. The incorporation of 15N into serum proteins suggested that these subjects could utilize urea nitrogen for body protein synthesis. The level of 15N in serum proteins was close to the level in other normal adult men on a low-protein diet with adequate energy for 2 weeks.

  13. Advanced protein formulations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognized that protein product development is far more challenging than that for small-molecule drugs. The major challenges include inherent sensitivity to different types of stresses during the drug product manufacturing process, high rate of physical and chemical degradation during long-term storage, and enhanced aggregation and/or viscosity at high protein concentrations. In the past decade, many novel formulation concepts and technologies have been or are being developed to address these product development challenges for proteins. These concepts and technologies include use of uncommon/combination of formulation stabilizers, conjugation or fusion with potential stabilizers, site-specific mutagenesis, and preparation of nontraditional types of dosage forms—semiaqueous solutions, nonfreeze-dried solid formulations, suspensions, and other emerging concepts. No one technology appears to be mature, ideal, and/or adequate to address all the challenges. These gaps will likely remain in the foreseeable future and need significant efforts for ultimate resolution. PMID:25858529

  14. Thermodynamics of Protein Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Kenneth L.; Barz, Bogdan; Bachmann, Michael; Strodel, Birgit

    Amyloid protein aggregation characterizes many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Creutz- feldt-Jakob disease. Evidence suggests that amyloid aggregates may share similar aggregation pathways, implying simulation of full-length amyloid proteins is not necessary for understanding amyloid formation. In this study we simulate GNNQQNY, the N-terminal prion-determining domain of the yeast protein Sup35 to investigate the thermodynamics of structural transitions during aggregation. We use a coarse-grained model with replica-exchange molecular dynamics to investigate the association of 3-, 6-, and 12-chain GNNQQNY systems and we determine the aggregation pathway by studying aggregation states of GN- NQQNY. We find that the aggregation of the hydrophilic GNNQQNY sequence is mainly driven by H-bond formation, leading to the formation of /3-sheets from the very beginning of the assembly process. Condensation (aggregation) and ordering take place simultaneously, which is underpinned by the occurrence of a single heat capacity peak only.

  15. Membrane protein serendipity

    PubMed Central

    von Heijne, Gunnar

    2018-01-01

    My scientific career has taken me from chemistry, via theoretical physics and bioinformatics, to molecular biology and even structural biology. Along the way, serendipity led me to work on problems such as the identification of signal peptides that direct protein trafficking, membrane protein biogenesis, and cotranslational protein folding. I've had some great collaborations that came about because of a stray conversation or from following up on an interesting paper. And I've had the good fortune to be asked to sit on the Nobel Committee for Chemistry, where I am constantly reminded of the amazing pace and often intricate history of scientific discovery. Could I have planned this? No way! I just went with the flow … PMID:29523692

  16. Protein crystallization studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyne, James Evans

    1996-01-01

    The Structural Biology laboratory at NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center uses x-ray crystallographic techniques to conduct research into the three-dimensional structure of a wide variety of proteins. A major effort in the laboratory involves an ongoing study of human serum albumin (the principal protein in human plasma) and its interaction with various endogenous substances and pharmaceutical agents. Another focus is on antigenic and functional proteins from several pathogenic organisms including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the widespread parasitic genus, Schistosoma. My efforts this summer have been twofold: first, to identify clinically significant drug interactions involving albumin binding displacement and to initiate studies of the three-dimensional structure of albumin complexed with these agents, and secondly, to establish collaborative efforts to extend the lab's work on human pathogens.

  17. Discovery of binding proteins for a protein target using protein-protein docking-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changsheng; Tang, Bo; Wang, Qian; Lai, Luhua

    2014-10-01

    Target structure-based virtual screening, which employs protein-small molecule docking to identify potential ligands, has been widely used in small-molecule drug discovery. In the present study, we used a protein-protein docking program to identify proteins that bind to a specific target protein. In the testing phase, an all-to-all protein-protein docking run on a large dataset was performed. The three-dimensional rigid docking program SDOCK was used to examine protein-protein docking on all protein pairs in the dataset. Both the binding affinity and features of the binding energy landscape were considered in the scoring function in order to distinguish positive binding pairs from negative binding pairs. Thus, the lowest docking score, the average Z-score, and convergency of the low-score solutions were incorporated in the analysis. The hybrid scoring function was optimized in the all-to-all docking test. The docking method and the hybrid scoring function were then used to screen for proteins that bind to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), which is a well-known therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. A protein library containing 677 proteins was used for the screen. Proteins with scores among the top 20% were further examined. Sixteen proteins from the top-ranking 67 proteins were selected for experimental study. Two of these proteins showed significant binding to TNFα in an in vitro binding study. The results of the present study demonstrate the power and potential application of protein-protein docking for the discovery of novel binding proteins for specific protein targets. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Chemistry of gluten proteins.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Herbert

    2007-04-01

    Gluten proteins play a key role in determining the unique baking quality of wheat by conferring water absorption capacity, cohesivity, viscosity and elasticity on dough. Gluten proteins can be divided into two main fractions according to their solubility in aqueous alcohols: the soluble gliadins and the insoluble glutenins. Both fractions consist of numerous, partially closely related protein components characterized by high glutamine and proline contents. Gliadins are mainly monomeric proteins with molecular weights (MWs) around 28,000-55,000 and can be classified according to their different primary structures into the alpha/beta-, gamma- and omega-type. Disulphide bonds are either absent or present as intrachain crosslinks. The glutenin fraction comprises aggregated proteins linked by interchain disulphide bonds; they have a varying size ranging from about 500,000 to more than 10 million. After reduction of disulphide bonds, the resulting glutenin subunits show a solubility in aqueous alcohols similar to gliadins. Based on primary structure, glutenin subunits have been divided into the high-molecular-weight (HMW) subunits (MW=67,000-88,000) and low-molecular-weight (LMW) subunits (MW=32,000-35,000). Each gluten protein type consists or two or three different structural domains; one of them contains unique repetitive sequences rich in glutamine and proline. Native glutenins are composed of a backbone formed by HMW subunit polymers and of LMW subunit polymers branched off from HMW subunits. Non-covalent bonds such as hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds and hydrophobic bonds are important for the aggregation of gliadins and glutenins and implicate structure and physical properties of dough.

  19. Epistasis in protein evolution

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Tyler N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The structure, function, and evolution of proteins depend on physical and genetic interactions among amino acids. Recent studies have used new strategies to explore the prevalence, biochemical mechanisms, and evolutionary implications of these interactions—called epistasis—within proteins. Here we describe an emerging picture of pervasive epistasis in which the physical and biological effects of mutations change over the course of evolution in a lineage‐specific fashion. Epistasis can restrict the trajectories available to an evolving protein or open new paths to sequences and functions that would otherwise have been inaccessible. We describe two broad classes of epistatic interactions, which arise from different physical mechanisms and have different effects on evolutionary processes. Specific epistasis—in which one mutation influences the phenotypic effect of few other mutations—is caused by direct and indirect physical interactions between mutations, which nonadditively change the protein's physical properties, such as conformation, stability, or affinity for ligands. In contrast, nonspecific epistasis describes mutations that modify the effect of many others; these typically behave additively with respect to the physical properties of a protein but exhibit epistasis because of a nonlinear relationship between the physical properties and their biological effects, such as function or fitness. Both types of interaction are rampant, but specific epistasis has stronger effects on the rate and outcomes of evolution, because it imposes stricter constraints and modulates evolutionary potential more dramatically; it therefore makes evolution more contingent on low‐probability historical events and leaves stronger marks on the sequences, structures, and functions of protein families. PMID:26833806

  20. Bacterial copper storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Christopher; David, Sholto; Lee, Jaeick

    2018-03-30

    Copper is essential for most organisms as a cofactor for key enzymes involved in fundamental processes such as respiration and photosynthesis. However, copper also has toxic effects in cells, which is why eukaryotes and prokaryotes have evolved mechanisms for safe copper handling. A new family of bacterial proteins uses a Cys-rich four-helix bundle to safely store large quantities of Cu(I). The work leading to the discovery of these proteins, their properties and physiological functions, and how their presence potentially impacts the current views of bacterial copper handling and use are discussed in this review. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. DELIVERY OF THERAPEUTIC PROTEINS

    PubMed Central

    Pisal, Dipak S.; Kosloski, Matthew P.; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V.

    2009-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of protein therapeutics are limited by three interrelated pharmaceutical issues, in vitro and in vivo instability, immunogenicity and shorter half-lives. Novel drug modifications for overcoming these issues are under investigation and include covalent attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), polysialic acid, or glycolic acid, as well as developing new formulations containing nanoparticulate or colloidal systems (e.g. liposomes, polymeric microspheres, polymeric nanoparticles). Such strategies have the potential to develop as next generation protein therapeutics. This review includes a general discussion on these delivery approaches. PMID:20049941

  2. Protein biosynthesis in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Kuzmenko, A V; Levitskii, S A; Vinogradova, E N; Atkinson, G C; Hauryliuk, V; Zenkin, N; Kamenski, P A

    2013-08-01

    Translation, that is biosynthesis of polypeptides in accordance with information encoded in the genome, is one of the most important processes in the living cell, and it has been in the spotlight of international research for many years. The mechanisms of protein biosynthesis in bacteria and in the eukaryotic cytoplasm are now understood in great detail. However, significantly less is known about translation in eukaryotic mitochondria, which is characterized by a number of unusual features. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about mitochondrial translation in different organisms while paying special attention to the aspects of this process that differ from cytoplasmic protein biosynthesis.

  3. Protein-protein interactions: an application of Tus-Ter mediated protein microarray system.

    PubMed

    Sitaraman, Kalavathy; Chatterjee, Deb K

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a novel, cost-effective microarray strategy that utilizes expression-ready plasmid DNAs to generate protein arrays on-demand and its use to validate protein-protein interactions. These expression plasmids were constructed in such a way so as to serve a dual purpose of synthesizing the protein of interest as well as capturing the synthesized protein. The microarray system is based on the high affinity binding of Escherichia coli "Tus" protein to "Ter," a 20 bp DNA sequence involved in the regulation of DNA replication. The protein expression is carried out in a cell-free protein synthesis system, with rabbit reticulocyte lysates, and the target proteins are detected either by labeled incorporated tag specific or by gene-specific antibodies. This microarray system has been successfully used for the detection of protein-protein interaction because both the target protein and the query protein can be transcribed and translated simultaneously in the microarray slides. The utility of this system for detecting protein-protein interaction is demonstrated by a few well-known examples: Jun/Fos, FRB/FKBP12, p53/MDM2, and CDK4/p16. In all these cases, the presence of protein complexes resulted in the localization of fluorophores at the specific sites of the immobilized target plasmids. Interestingly, during our interactions studies we also detected a previously unknown interaction between CDK2 and p16. Thus, this Tus-Ter based system of protein microarray can be used for the validation of known protein interactions as well as for identifying new protein-protein interactions. In addition, it can be used to examine and identify targets of nucleic acid-protein, ligand-receptor, enzyme-substrate, and drug-protein interactions.

  4. Transport of Proteins through Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Binquan

    In biological cells, a malfunctioned protein (such as misfolded or damaged) is degraded by a protease in which an unfoldase actively drags the protein into a nanopore-like structure and then a peptidase cuts the linearized protein into small fragments (i.e. a recycling process). Mimicking this biological process, many experimental studies have focused on the transport of proteins through a biological protein pore or a synthetic solid-state nanopore. Potentially, the nanopore-based sensors can provide a platform for interrogating proteins that might be disease-related or be targeted by a new drug molecule. The single-profile of a protein chain inside an extremely small nanopore might even permit the sequencing of the protein. Here, through all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, I will show various types of protein transport through a nanopore and reveal the nanoscale mechanics/energetics that plays an important role governing the protein transport.

  5. Protein Molecular Structures, Protein SubFractions, and Protein Availability Affected by Heat Processing: A Review

    SciT

    Yu,P.

    2007-01-01

    The utilization and availability of protein depended on the types of protein and their specific susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis (inhibitory activities) in the gastrointestine and was highly associated with protein molecular structures. Studying internal protein structure and protein subfraction profiles leaded to an understanding of the components that make up a whole protein. An understanding of the molecular structure of the whole protein was often vital to understanding its digestive behavior and nutritive value in animals. In this review, recently obtained information on protein molecular structural effects of heat processing was reviewed, in relation to protein characteristics affecting digestive behaviormore » and nutrient utilization and availability. The emphasis of this review was on (1) using the newly advanced synchrotron technology (S-FTIR) as a novel approach to reveal protein molecular chemistry affected by heat processing within intact plant tissues; (2) revealing the effects of heat processing on the profile changes of protein subfractions associated with digestive behaviors and kinetics manipulated by heat processing; (3) prediction of the changes of protein availability and supply after heat processing, using the advanced DVE/OEB and NRC-2001 models, and (4) obtaining information on optimal processing conditions of protein as intestinal protein source to achieve target values for potential high net absorbable protein in the small intestine. The information described in this article may give better insight in the mechanisms involved and the intrinsic protein molecular structural changes occurring upon processing.« less

  6. Protein thin film machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federici, Stefania; Oliviero, Giulio; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly; Bergese, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    We report the first example of microcantilever beams that are reversibly driven by protein thin film machines fuelled by cycling the salt concentration of the surrounding solution. We also show that upon the same salinity stimulus the drive can be completely reversed in its direction by introducing a surface coating ligand. Experimental results are throughout discussed within a general yet simple thermodynamic model.

  7. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.; Doi, R.

    1998-11-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  8. Conserved herpesvirus protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gershburg, Edward; Pagano, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    Conserved herpesviral protein kinases (CHPKs) are a group of enzymes conserved throughout all subfamilies of Herpesviridae. Members of this group are serine/threonine protein kinases that are likely to play a conserved role in viral infection by interacting with common host cellular and viral factors; however along with a conserved role, individual kinases may have unique functions in the context of viral infection in such a way that they are only partially replaceable even by close homologues. Recent studies demonstrated that CHPKs are crucial for viral infection and suggested their involvement in regulation of numerous processes at various infection steps (primary infection, nuclear egress, tegumentation), although the mechanisms of this regulation remain unknown. Notwithstanding, recent advances in discovery of new CHPK targets, and studies of CHPK knockout phenotypes have raised their attractiveness as targets for antiviral therapy. A number of compounds have been shown to inhibit the activity of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded UL97 protein kinase and exhibit a pronounced antiviral effect, although the same compounds are inactive against Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-encoded protein kinase BGLF4, illustrating the fact that low homology between the members of this group complicates development of compounds targeting the whole group, and suggesting that individualized, structure-based inhibitor design will be more effective. Determination of CHPK structures will greatly facilitate this task. PMID:17881303

  9. Tuber Storage Proteins

    PubMed Central

    SHEWRY, PETER R.

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose‐binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers. PMID:12730067

  10. The Protein Data Bank

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Helen M.; Westbrook, John; Feng, Zukang; Gilliland, Gary; Bhat, T. N.; Weissig, Helge; Shindyalov, Ilya N.; Bourne, Philip E.

    2000-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB; http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/ ) is the single worldwide archive of structural data of biological macromolecules. This paper describes the goals of the PDB, the systems in place for data deposition and access, how to obtain further information, and near-term plans for the future development of the resource. PMID:10592235

  11. Protein Crystal Bovine Insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The comparison of protein crystal, Bovine Insulin space-grown (left) and earth-grown (right). Facilitates the incorporation of glucose into cells. In diabetics, there is either a decrease in or complete lack of insulin, thereby leading to several harmful complications. Principal Investigator is Larry DeLucas.

  12. Protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy uses laser technology to reveal a defect, a double-screw dislocation, on the surface of this crystal of canavalin, a major source of dietary protein for humans and domestic animals. When a crystal grows, attachment kinetics and transport kinetics are competing for control of the molecules. As a molecule gets close to the crystal surface, it has to attach properly for the crystal to be usable. NASA has funded investigators to look at those attachment kinetics from a theoretical standpoint and an experimental standpoint. Dr. Alex McPherson of the University of California, Irvine, is one of those investigators. He uses X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy in his laboratory to answer some of the many questions about how protein crystals grow. Atomic force microscopy provides a means of looking at how individual molecules are added to the surface of growing protein crystals. This helps McPherson understand the kinetics of protein crystal growth. McPherson asks, How fast do crystals grow? What are the forces involved? Investigators funded by NASA have clearly shown that such factors as the level of supersaturation and the rate of growth all affect the habit [characteristic arrangement of facets] of the crystal and the defects that occur in the crystal.

  13. Disorder in Protein Crystals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarage, James Braun, II

    1990-01-01

    Methods have been developed for analyzing the diffuse x-ray scattering in the halos about a crystal's Bragg reflections as a means of determining correlations in atomic displacements in protein crystals. The diffuse intensity distribution for rhombohedral insulin, tetragonal lysozyme, and triclinic lysozyme crystals was best simulated in terms of exponential displacement correlation functions. About 90% of the disorder can be accounted for by internal movements correlated with a decay distance of about 6A; the remaining 10% corresponds to intermolecular movements that decay in a distance the order of size of the protein molecule. The results demonstrate that protein crystals fit into neither the Einstein nor the Debye paradigms for thermally fluctuating crystalline solids. Unlike the Einstein model, there are correlations in the atomic displacements, but these correlations decay more steeply with distance than predicted by the Debye-Waller model for an elastic solid. The observed displacement correlations are liquid -like in the sense that they decay exponentially with the distance between atoms, just as positional correlations in a liquid. This liquid-like disorder is similar to the disorder observed in 2-D crystals of polystyrene latex spheres, and similar systems where repulsive interactions dominate; hence, these colloidal crystals appear to provide a better analogy for the dynamics of protein crystals than perfectly elastic lattices.

  14. Ribosome-inactivating proteins

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Matthew J; Dodd, Jennifer E; Hautbergue, Guillaume M

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were first isolated over a century ago and have been shown to be catalytic toxins that irreversibly inactivate protein synthesis. Elucidation of atomic structures and molecular mechanism has revealed these proteins to be a diverse group subdivided into two classes. RIPs have been shown to exhibit RNA N-glycosidase activity and depurinate the 28S rRNA of the eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunit. In this review, we compare archetypal RIP family members with other potent toxins that abolish protein synthesis: the fungal ribotoxins which directly cleave the 28S rRNA and the newly discovered Burkholderia lethal factor 1 (BLF1). BLF1 presents additional challenges to the current classification system since, like the ribotoxins, it does not possess RNA N-glycosidase activity but does irreversibly inactivate ribosomes. We further discuss whether the RIP classification should be broadened to include toxins achieving irreversible ribosome inactivation with similar turnovers to RIPs, but through different enzymatic mechanisms. PMID:24071927

  15. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  16. Protein specific polymeric immunomicrospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor); Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Small, round, bio-compatible microspheres capable of covalently bonding proteins and having a uniform diameter below about 3500 A are prepared by substantially instantaneously initiating polymerization of an aqueous emulsion containing no more than 35% total monomer including an acrylic monomer substituted with a covalently bondable group such as hydroxyl, amino or carboxyl and a minor amount of a cross-linking agent.

  17. In Situ Protein Binding Assay Using Fc-Fusion Proteins.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Nirmala; Siddiqui, Tabrez J

    2017-01-01

    This protocol describes an in situ protein-protein interaction assay between tagged recombinant proteins and cell-surface expressed synaptic proteins. The assay is arguably more sensitive than other traditional protein binding assays such as co-immunoprecipitation and pull-downs and provides a visual readout for binding. This assay has been widely used to determine the dissociation constant of binding of trans-synaptic adhesion proteins. The step-wise description in the protocol should facilitate the adoption of this method in other laboratories.

  18. C-Myc Protein-Protein and Protein-DNA Interactions: Targets for Therapeutic Intervention.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    including those of the Myc family. In fact, members of different bHLH protein subgroups, including the Myc proteins, are characterized by conserved BR...important functional consequences, and they provide insights into how different bHLH proteins can act on different targets. The zinc finger protein...roles for a number of BR residues which do not contact bases, yet are conserved within different bHLH protein sub- families (Benezra et al. 1990), and

  19. Coevolution study of mitochondria respiratory chain proteins: toward the understanding of protein--protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Ge, Yan; Wu, Jiayan; Xiao, Jingfa; Yu, Jun

    2011-05-20

    Coevolution can be seen as the interdependency between evolutionary histories. In the context of protein evolution, functional correlation proteins are ever-present coordinated evolutionary characters without disruption of organismal integrity. As to complex system, there are two forms of protein--protein interactions in vivo, which refer to inter-complex interaction and intra-complex interaction. In this paper, we studied the difference of coevolution characters between inter-complex interaction and intra-complex interaction using "Mirror tree" method on the respiratory chain (RC) proteins. We divided the correlation coefficients of every pairwise RC proteins into two groups corresponding to the binary protein--protein interaction in intra-complex and the binary protein--protein interaction in inter-complex, respectively. A dramatical discrepancy is detected between the coevolution characters of the two sets of protein interactions (Wilcoxon test, p-value = 4.4 × 10(-6)). Our finding reveals some critical information on coevolutionary study and assists the mechanical investigation of protein--protein interaction. Furthermore, the results also provide some unique clue for supramolecular organization of protein complexes in the mitochondrial inner membrane. More detailed binding sites map and genome information of nuclear encoded RC proteins will be extraordinary valuable for the further mitochondria dynamics study. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Regulation of protein turnover by heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Bozaykut, Perinur; Ozer, Nesrin Kartal; Karademir, Betul

    2014-12-01

    Protein turnover reflects the balance between synthesis and degradation of proteins, and it is a crucial process for the maintenance of the cellular protein pool. The folding of proteins, refolding of misfolded proteins, and also degradation of misfolded and damaged proteins are involved in the protein quality control (PQC) system. Correct protein folding and degradation are controlled by many different factors, one of the most important of which is the heat shock protein family. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are in the class of molecular chaperones, which may prevent the inappropriate interaction of proteins and induce correct folding. On the other hand, these proteins play significant roles in the degradation pathways, including endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and autophagy. This review focuses on the emerging role of HSPs in the regulation of protein turnover; the effects of HSPs on the degradation machineries ERAD, autophagy, and proteasome; as well as the role of posttranslational modifications in the PQC system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular simulations of lipid-mediated protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    de Meyer, Frédérick Jean-Marie; Venturoli, Maddalena; Smit, Berend

    2008-08-01

    Recent experimental results revealed that lipid-mediated interactions due to hydrophobic forces may be important in determining the protein topology after insertion in the membrane, in regulating the protein activity, in protein aggregation and in signal transduction. To gain insight into the lipid-mediated interactions between two intrinsic membrane proteins, we developed a mesoscopic model of a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins, which we studied with dissipative particle dynamics. Our calculations of the potential of mean force between transmembrane proteins show that hydrophobic forces drive long-range protein-protein interactions and that the nature of these interactions depends on the length of the protein hydrophobic segment, on the three-dimensional structure of the protein and on the properties of the lipid bilayer. To understand the nature of the computed potentials of mean force, the concept of hydrophilic shielding is introduced. The observed protein interactions are interpreted as resulting from the dynamic reorganization of the system to maintain an optimal hydrophilic shielding of the protein and lipid hydrophobic parts, within the constraint of the flexibility of the components. Our results could lead to a better understanding of several membrane processes in which protein interactions are involved.

  2. Quantification of the Influence of Protein-Protein Interactions on Adsorbed Protein Structure and Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yang; Thyparambil, Aby A.; Latour, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    While protein-surface interactions have been widely studied, relatively little is understood at this time regarding how protein-surface interaction effects are influenced by protein-protein interactions and how these effects combine with the internal stability of a protein to influence its adsorbed-state structure and bioactivity. The objectives of this study were to develop a method to study these combined effects under widely varying protein-protein interaction conditions using hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) adsorbed on silica glass, poly(methyl methacrylate), and polyethylene as our model systems. In order to vary protein-protein interaction effects over a wide range, HEWL was first adsorbed to each surface type under widely varying protein solution concentrations for 2 h to saturate the surface, followed by immersion in pure buffer solution for 15 h to equilibrate the adsorbed protein layers in the absence of additionally adsorbing protein. Periodic measurements were made at selected time points of the areal density of the adsorbed protein layer as an indicator of the level of protein-protein interaction effects within the layer, and these values were then correlated with measurements of the adsorbed protein’s secondary structure and bioactivity. The results from these studies indicate that protein-protein interaction effects help stabilize the structure of HEWL adsorbed on silica glass, have little influence on the structural behavior of HEWL on HDPE, and actually serve to destabilize HEWL’s structure on PMMA. The bioactivity of HEWL on silica glass and HDPE was found to decrease in direct proportion to the degree of adsorption-induce protein unfolding. A direct correlation between bioactivity and the conformational state of adsorbed HEWL was less apparent on PMMA, thus suggesting that other factors influenced HEWL’s bioactivity on this surface, such as the accessibility of HEWL’s bioactive site being blocked by neighboring proteins or the surface

  3. Purification of Proteins Fused to Maltose-Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Lebendiker, Mario; Danieli, Tsafi

    2017-01-01

    Maltose-Binding Protein (MBP) is one of the most popular fusion partners being used for producing recombinant proteins in bacterial cells. MBP allows the use of a simple capture affinity step on Amylose-Agarose or Dextrin-Sepharose columns, resulting in a protein that is often 70-90 % pure in a single step. In addition to protein isolation applications, MBP provides a high degree of translation, and facilitates the proper folding and solubility of the target protein. This paper describes efficient procedures for isolating highly purified MBP target proteins. Special attention is given to considerations for downstream applications such as structural determination studies, protein activity assays, and assessing the chemical characteristics of the target protein.

  4. Interplay Between Protein Homeostasis Networks in Protein Aggregation and Proteotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Peter M.; Cyr, Douglas M.

    2010-01-01

    The misfolding and aggregation of disease proteins is characteristic of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Particular neuronal populations are more vulnerable to proteotoxicity while others are more apt to tolerate the misfolding and aggregation of disease proteins. Thus, the cellular environment must play a significant role in determining whether disease proteins are converted into toxic or benign forms. The endomembrane network of eukaryotes divides the cell into different subcellular compartments that possess distinct sets of molecular chaperones and protein interaction networks. Chaperones act as agonists and antagonists of disease protein aggregation to prevent the accumulation of toxic intermediates in the aggregation pathway. Interacting partners can also modulate the conformation and localization of disease proteins and thereby influence proteotoxicity. Thus, interplay between these protein homeostasis network components can modulate the self-association of disease proteins and determine whether they elicit a toxic or benign outcome. PMID:19768782

  5. FRODOCK 2.0: fast protein-protein docking server.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Aportela, Erney; López-Blanco, José Ramón; Chacón, Pablo

    2016-08-01

    The prediction of protein-protein complexes from the structures of unbound components is a challenging and powerful strategy to decipher the mechanism of many essential biological processes. We present a user-friendly protein-protein docking server based on an improved version of FRODOCK that includes a complementary knowledge-based potential. The web interface provides a very effective tool to explore and select protein-protein models and interactively screen them against experimental distance constraints. The competitive success rates and efficiency achieved allow the retrieval of reliable potential protein-protein binding conformations that can be further refined with more computationally demanding strategies. The server is free and open to all users with no login requirement at http://frodock.chaconlab.org pablo@chaconlab.org Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePlus

    ... Less Common Questions Related Content On This Site Tests: Urinalysis ; Albumin ; Urine Albumin ; Protein Electrophoresis ; Total Protein , BUN , Creatinine , Creatinine Clearance , eGFR Conditions: Kidney Disease , Proteinuria , Pre-eclampsia , Diabetes , Hypertension , Multiple Myeloma , Urinary Tract Infection ...

  7. Functionalizing Microporous Membranes for Protein Purification and Protein Digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jinlan; Bruening, Merlin L.

    2015-07-01

    This review examines advances in the functionalization of microporous membranes for protein purification and the development of protease-containing membranes for controlled protein digestion prior to mass spectrometry analysis. Recent studies confirm that membranes are superior to bead-based columns for rapid protein capture, presumably because convective mass transport in membrane pores rapidly brings proteins to binding sites. Modification of porous membranes with functional polymeric films or TiO2 nanoparticles yields materials that selectively capture species ranging from phosphopeptides to His-tagged proteins, and protein-binding capacities often exceed those of commercial beads. Thin membranes also provide a convenient framework for creating enzyme-containing reactors that afford control over residence times. With millisecond residence times, reactors with immobilized proteases limit protein digestion to increase sequence coverage in mass spectrometry analysis and facilitate elucidation of protein structures. This review emphasizes the advantages of membrane-based techniques and concludes with some challenges for their practical application.

  8. Functionalizing Microporous Membranes for Protein Purification and Protein Digestion.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jinlan; Bruening, Merlin L

    2015-01-01

    This review examines advances in the functionalization of microporous membranes for protein purification and the development of protease-containing membranes for controlled protein digestion prior to mass spectrometry analysis. Recent studies confirm that membranes are superior to bead-based columns for rapid protein capture, presumably because convective mass transport in membrane pores rapidly brings proteins to binding sites. Modification of porous membranes with functional polymeric films or TiO₂ nanoparticles yields materials that selectively capture species ranging from phosphopeptides to His-tagged proteins, and protein-binding capacities often exceed those of commercial beads. Thin membranes also provide a convenient framework for creating enzyme-containing reactors that afford control over residence times. With millisecond residence times, reactors with immobilized proteases limit protein digestion to increase sequence coverage in mass spectrometry analysis and facilitate elucidation of protein structures. This review emphasizes the advantages of membrane-based techniques and concludes with some challenges for their practical application.

  9. Purine inhibitors of protein kinases, G proteins and polymerases

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Nathanael S.; Schultz, Peter; Kim, Sung-Hou; Meijer, Laurent

    2004-10-12

    The present invention relates to 2-N-substituted 6-(4-methoxybenzylamino)-9-isopropylpurines that inhibit, inter alia, protein kinases, G-proteins and polymerases. In addition, the present invention relates to methods of using such 2-N-substituted 6-(4-methoxybenzylamino)-9-isopropylpurines to inhibit protein kinases, G-proteins, polymerases and other cellular processes and to treat cellular proliferative diseases.

  10. Electron Flow through Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.

    2009-01-01

    Electron transfers in photosynthesis and respiration commonly occur between metal-containing cofactors that are separated by large molecular distances. Employing laser flash-quench triggering methods, we have shown that 20-Å, coupling-limited FeII to RuIII and CuI to RuIII electron tunneling in Ru-modified cytochromes and blue copper proteins can occur on the microsecond timescale both in solutions and crystals. Redox equivalents can be transferred even longer distances by multistep tunneling, often called hopping, through intervening amino acid side chains. Our work has established that 20-Å hole hopping through an intervening tryptophan is two orders of magnitude faster than single-step electron tunneling in a Re-modified blue copper protein. PMID:20161522

  11. Structures composing protein domains.

    PubMed

    Kubrycht, Jaroslav; Sigler, Karel; Souček, Pavel; Hudeček, Jiří

    2013-08-01

    This review summarizes available data concerning intradomain structures (IS) such as functionally important amino acid residues, short linear motifs, conserved or disordered regions, peptide repeats, broadly occurring secondary structures or folds, etc. IS form structural features (units or elements) necessary for interactions with proteins or non-peptidic ligands, enzyme reactions and some structural properties of proteins. These features have often been related to a single structural level (e.g. primary structure) mostly requiring certain structural context of other levels (e.g. secondary structures or supersecondary folds) as follows also from some examples reported or demonstrated here. In addition, we deal with some functionally important dynamic properties of IS (e.g. flexibility and different forms of accessibility), and more special dynamic changes of IS during enzyme reactions and allosteric regulation. Selected notes concern also some experimental methods, still more necessary tools of bioinformatic processing and clinically interesting relationships. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Predicting disease-related proteins based on clique backbone in protein-protein interaction network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhao, Xudong; Tang, Xianglong

    2014-01-01

    Network biology integrates different kinds of data, including physical or functional networks and disease gene sets, to interpret human disease. A clique (maximal complete subgraph) in a protein-protein interaction network is a topological module and possesses inherently biological significance. A disease-related clique possibly associates with complex diseases. Fully identifying disease components in a clique is conductive to uncovering disease mechanisms. This paper proposes an approach of predicting disease proteins based on cliques in a protein-protein interaction network. To tolerate false positive and negative interactions in protein networks, extending cliques and scoring predicted disease proteins with gene ontology terms are introduced to the clique-based method. Precisions of predicted disease proteins are verified by disease phenotypes and steadily keep to more than 95%. The predicted disease proteins associated with cliques can partly complement mapping between genotype and phenotype, and provide clues for understanding the pathogenesis of serious diseases.

  13. Detection of protein-protein interactions by ribosome display and protein in situ immobilisation.

    PubMed

    He, Mingyue; Liu, Hong; Turner, Martin; Taussig, Michael J

    2009-12-31

    We describe a method for identification of protein-protein interactions by combining two cell-free protein technologies, namely ribosome display and protein in situ immobilisation. The method requires only PCR fragments as the starting material, the target proteins being made through cell-free protein synthesis, either associated with their encoding mRNA as ribosome complexes or immobilised on a solid surface. The use of ribosome complexes allows identification of interacting protein partners from their attached coding mRNA. To demonstrate the procedures, we have employed the lymphocyte signalling proteins Vav1 and Grb2 and confirmed the interaction between Grb2 and the N-terminal SH3 domain of Vav1. The method has promise for library screening of pairwise protein interactions, down to the analytical level of individual domain or motif mapping.

  14. Identification of Protein-Protein Interactions with Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) Fusion Proteins.

    PubMed

    Einarson, Margret B; Pugacheva, Elena N; Orlinick, Jason R

    2007-08-01

    INTRODUCTIONGlutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins have had a wide range of applications since their introduction as tools for synthesis of recombinant proteins in bacteria. GST was originally selected as a fusion moiety because of several desirable properties. First and foremost, when expressed in bacteria alone, or as a fusion, GST is not sequestered in inclusion bodies (in contrast to previous fusion protein systems). Second, GST can be affinity-purified without denaturation because it binds to immobilized glutathione, which provides the basis for simple purification. Consequently, GST fusion proteins are routinely used for antibody generation and purification, protein-protein interaction studies, and biochemical analysis. This article describes the use of GST fusion proteins as probes for the identification of protein-protein interactions.

  15. Why fibrous proteins are romantic.

    PubMed

    Cohen, C

    1998-01-01

    Here I give a personal account of the great history of fibrous protein structure. I describe how Astbury first recognized the essential simplicity of fibrous proteins and their paradigmatic role in protein structure. The poor diffraction patterns yielded by these proteins were then deciphered by Pauling, Crick, Ramachandran and others (in part by model building) to reveal alpha-helical coiled coils, beta-sheets, and the collagen triple helical coiled coil-all characterized by different local sequence periodicities. Longer-range sequence periodicities (or "magic numbers") present in diverse fibrous proteins, such as collagen, tropomyosin, paramyosin, myosin, and were then shown to account for the characteristic axial repeats observed in filaments of these proteins. More recently, analysis of fibrous protein structure has been extended in many cases to atomic resolution, and some systems, such as "leucine zippers," are providing a deeper understanding of protein design than similar studies of globular proteins. In the last sections, I provide some dramatic examples of fibrous protein dynamics. One example is the so-called "spring-loaded" mechanism for viral fusion by the hemagglutinin protein of influenza. Another is the possible conformational changes in prion proteins, implicated in "mad cow disease," which may be related to similar transitions in a variety of globular and fibrous proteins. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  16. UDoNC: An Algorithm for Identifying Essential Proteins Based on Protein Domains and Protein-Protein Interaction Networks.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Wang, Jianxin; Cheng, Yingjiao; Lu, Yu; Wu, Fangxiang; Pan, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Prediction of essential proteins which are crucial to an organism's survival is important for disease analysis and drug design, as well as the understanding of cellular life. The majority of prediction methods infer the possibility of proteins to be essential by using the network topology. However, these methods are limited to the completeness of available protein-protein interaction (PPI) data and depend on the network accuracy. To overcome these limitations, some computational methods have been proposed. However, seldom of them solve this problem by taking consideration of protein domains. In this work, we first analyze the correlation between the essentiality of proteins and their domain features based on data of 13 species. We find that the proteins containing more protein domain types which rarely occur in other proteins tend to be essential. Accordingly, we propose a new prediction method, named UDoNC, by combining the domain features of proteins with their topological properties in PPI network. In UDoNC, the essentiality of proteins is decided by the number and the frequency of their protein domain types, as well as the essentiality of their adjacent edges measured by edge clustering coefficient. The experimental results on S. cerevisiae data show that UDoNC outperforms other existing methods in terms of area under the curve (AUC). Additionally, UDoNC can also perform well in predicting essential proteins on data of E. coli.

  17. Predicting permanent and transient protein-protein interfaces.

    PubMed

    La, David; Kong, Misun; Hoffman, William; Choi, Youn Im; Kihara, Daisuke

    2013-05-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are involved in diverse functions in a cell. To optimize functional roles of interactions, proteins interact with a spectrum of binding affinities. Interactions are conventionally classified into permanent and transient, where the former denotes tight binding between proteins that result in strong complexes, whereas the latter compose of relatively weak interactions that can dissociate after binding to regulate functional activity at specific time point. Knowing the type of interactions has significant implications for understanding the nature and function of PPIs. In this study, we constructed amino acid substitution models that capture mutation patterns at permanent and transient type of protein interfaces, which were found to be different with statistical significance. Using the substitution models, we developed a novel computational method that predicts permanent and transient protein binding interfaces (PBIs) in protein surfaces. Without knowledge of the interacting partner, the method uses a single query protein structure and a multiple sequence alignment of the sequence family. Using a large dataset of permanent and transient proteins, we show that our method, BindML+, performs very well in protein interface classification. A very high area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.957 was observed when predicted protein binding sites were classified. Remarkably, near prefect accuracy was achieved with an AUC of 0.991 when actual binding sites were classified. The developed method will be also useful for protein design of permanent and transient PBIs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The interface of protein structure, protein biophysics, and molecular evolution

    PubMed Central

    Liberles, David A; Teichmann, Sarah A; Bahar, Ivet; Bastolla, Ugo; Bloom, Jesse; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Colwell, Lucy J; de Koning, A P Jason; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Echave, Julian; Elofsson, Arne; Gerloff, Dietlind L; Goldstein, Richard A; Grahnen, Johan A; Holder, Mark T; Lakner, Clemens; Lartillot, Nicholas; Lovell, Simon C; Naylor, Gavin; Perica, Tina; Pollock, David D; Pupko, Tal; Regan, Lynne; Roger, Andrew; Rubinstein, Nimrod; Shakhnovich, Eugene; Sjölander, Kimmen; Sunyaev, Shamil; Teufel, Ashley I; Thorne, Jeffrey L; Thornton, Joseph W; Weinreich, Daniel M; Whelan, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The interface of protein structural biology, protein biophysics, molecular evolution, and molecular population genetics forms the foundations for a mechanistic understanding of many aspects of protein biochemistry. Current efforts in interdisciplinary protein modeling are in their infancy and the state-of-the art of such models is described. Beyond the relationship between amino acid substitution and static protein structure, protein function, and corresponding organismal fitness, other considerations are also discussed. More complex mutational processes such as insertion and deletion and domain rearrangements and even circular permutations should be evaluated. The role of intrinsically disordered proteins is still controversial, but may be increasingly important to consider. Protein geometry and protein dynamics as a deviation from static considerations of protein structure are also important. Protein expression level is known to be a major determinant of evolutionary rate and several considerations including selection at the mRNA level and the role of interaction specificity are discussed. Lastly, the relationship between modeling and needed high-throughput experimental data as well as experimental examination of protein evolution using ancestral sequence resurrection and in vitro biochemistry are presented, towards an aim of ultimately generating better models for biological inference and prediction. PMID:22528593

  19. Controlling allosteric networks in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokholyan, Nikolay

    2013-03-01

    We present a novel methodology based on graph theory and discrete molecular dynamics simulations for delineating allosteric pathways in proteins. We use this methodology to uncover the structural mechanisms responsible for coupling of distal sites on proteins and utilize it for allosteric modulation of proteins. We will present examples where inference of allosteric networks and its rewiring allows us to ``rescue'' cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a protein associated with fatal genetic disease cystic fibrosis. We also use our methodology to control protein function allosterically. We design a novel protein domain that can be inserted into identified allosteric site of target protein. Using a drug that binds to our domain, we alter the function of the target protein. We successfully tested this methodology in vitro, in living cells and in zebrafish. We further demonstrate transferability of our allosteric modulation methodology to other systems and extend it to become ligh-activatable.

  20. Stabilized polyacrylic saccharide protein conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Callstrom, Matthew R.; Bednarski, Mark D.; Gruber, Patrick R.

    1996-01-01

    This invention is directed to water soluble protein polymer conjugates which are stabile in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises a protein which is linked to an acrylic polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups.

  1. Protein mass analysis of histones.

    PubMed

    Galasinski, Scott C; Resing, Katheryn A; Ahn, Natalie G

    2003-09-01

    Posttranslational modification of chromatin-associated proteins, including histones and high-mobility-group (HMG) proteins, provides an important mechanism to control gene expression, genome integrity, and epigenetic inheritance. Protein mass analysis provides a rapid and unbiased approach to monitor multiple chemical modifications on individual molecules. This review describes methods for acid extraction of histones and HMG proteins, followed by separation by reverse-phase chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS). Posttranslational modifications are detected by analysis of full-length protein masses. Confirmation of protein identity and modification state is obtained through enzymatic digestion and peptide sequencing by MS/MS. For differentially modified forms of each protein, the measured intensities are semiquantitative and allow determination of relative abundance and stoichiometry. The method simultaneously detects covalent modifications on multiple proteins and provides a facile assay for comparing chromatin modification states between different cell types and/or cellular responses.

  2. Designing proteins for therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Greg A; Marshall, Shannon A; Plecs, Joseph J; Mayo, Stephen L; Desjarlais, John R

    2003-08-01

    Protein design is becoming an increasingly useful tool for optimizing protein drugs and creating novel biotherapeutics. Recent progress includes the engineering of monoclonal antibodies, cytokines, enzymes and viral fusion inhibitors.

  3. Stabilized polyacrylic saccharide protein conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Callstrom, M.R.; Bednarski, M.D.; Gruber, P.R.

    1996-02-20

    This invention is directed to water soluble protein polymer conjugates which are stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises a protein which is linked to an acrylic polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups. 16 figs.

  4. Microtubules, Tubulins and Associated Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raxworthy, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews much of what is known about microtubules, which are biopolymers consisting predominantly of subunits of the globular protein, tubulin. Describes the functions of microtubules, their structure and assembly, microtube associated proteins, and microtubule-disrupting agents. (TW)

  5. Current Protocols in Protein Science

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The purification of recombinant proteins for biochemical assays and structural studies is time-consuming and presents inherent difficulties that depend on the optimization of protein stability. The use of dyes to monitor thermal denaturation of proteins with sensitive fluorescence detection enables the rapid and inexpensive determination of protein stability using real-time PCR instruments. By screening a wide range of solution conditions and additives in 96-well format, the thermal shift assay easily identifies conditions that significantly enhance the stability of recombinant proteins. The same approach can be used as a low cost, initial screen to discover new protein:ligand interactions by capitalizing on increases in protein stability that typically occur upon ligand binding. This unit presents a methodological workflow for the small-scale, high-throughout thermal denaturation of recombinant proteins in the presence of SYPRO Orange dye. PMID:25640896

  6. Protein-induced satiety: effects and mechanisms of different proteins.

    PubMed

    Veldhorst, M; Smeets, A; Soenen, S; Hochstenbach-Waelen, A; Hursel, R; Diepvens, K; Lejeune, M; Luscombe-Marsh, N; Westerterp-Plantenga, M

    2008-05-23

    Relatively high protein diets, i.e. diets that maintain the absolute number of grams of protein ingested as compared to before dieting, are a popular strategy for weight loss and weight maintenance. Research into multiple mechanisms regulating body weight has focused on the effects of different quantities and types of dietary protein. Satiety and energy expenditure are important in protein-enhanced weight loss and weight maintenance. Protein-induced satiety has been shown acutely, with single meals, with contents of 25% to 81% of energy from protein in general or from specific proteins, while subsequent energy intake reduction was significant. Protein-induced satiety has been shown with high protein ad libitum diets, lasting from 1 to 6 days, up to 6 months. Also significantly greater weight loss has been observed in comparison with control. Mechanisms explaining protein-induced satiety are nutrient-specific, and consist mainly of synchronization with elevated amino acid concentrations. Different proteins cause different nutrient related responses of (an)orexigenic hormones. Protein-induced satiety coincides with a relatively high GLP-1 release, stimulated by the carbohydrate content of the diet, PYY release, while ghrelin does not seem to be especially affected, and little information is available on CCK. Protein-induced satiety is related to protein-induced energy expenditure. Finally, protein-induced satiety appears to be of vital importance for weight loss and weight maintenance. With respect to possible adverse events, chronic ingestion of large amounts of sulphur-containing amino acids may have an indirect effect on blood pressure by induction of renal subtle structural damage, ultimately leading to loss of nephron mass, and a secondary increase in blood pressure. The established synergy between obesity and low nephron number on induction of high blood pressure and further decline of renal function identifies subjects with obesity, metabolic syndrome and

  7. Tyrosine phosphorylation of WW proteins

    PubMed Central

    Reuven, Nina; Shanzer, Matan

    2015-01-01

    A number of key regulatory proteins contain one or two copies of the WW domain known to mediate protein–protein interaction via proline-rich motifs, such as PPxY. The Hippo pathway components take advantage of this module to transduce tumor suppressor signaling. It is becoming evident that tyrosine phosphorylation is a critical regulator of the WW proteins. Here, we review the current knowledge on the involved tyrosine kinases and their roles in regulating the WW proteins. PMID:25627656

  8. Replication Proteins and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Andrew P.; Laskey, Ronald A.; Coleman, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the significance of DNA replication proteins in human disease. There is a broad range of mutations in genes encoding replication proteins, which result in several distinct clinical disorders that share common themes. One group of replication proteins, the MCMs, has emerged as effective biomarkers for early detection of a range of common cancers. They offer practical and theoretical advantages over other replication proteins and have been developed for widespread clinical use. PMID:23881941

  9. Protein corona: Opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zanganeh, Saeid; Spitler, Ryan; Erfanzadeh, Mohsen; Alkilany, Alaaldin M.; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2017-01-01

    In contact with biological fluids diverse type of biomolecules (e.g., proteins) adsorb onto nanoparticles forming protein corona. Surface properties of the coated nanoparticles, in terms of type and amount of associated proteins, dictate their interactions with biological systems and thus biological fate, therapeutic efficiency and toxicity. In this perspective, we will focus on the recent advances and pitfalls in the protein corona field. PMID:26783938

  10. Putting proteins back into water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Los Rios, Paolo; Caldarelli, Guido

    2000-12-01

    We introduce a simplified protein model where the solvent (water) degrees of freedom appear explicitly (although in an extremely simplified fashion). Using this model we are able to recover the thermodynamic phenomenology of proteins over a wide range of temperatures. In particular we describe both the warm and the cold protein denaturation within a single framework, while addressing important issues about the structure of model proteins.

  11. Probing Protein-Protein Interactions by Dynamic Force Correlation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsegov, V.; Thirumalai, D.

    2005-10-01

    We develop a formalism for single molecule dynamic force spectroscopy to map the energy landscape of protein-protein complex (P1P2). The joint distribution P(τ1,τ2) of unbinding lifetimes τ1 and τ2, measurable in a compression-tension cycle, which accounts for the internal relaxation dynamics of the proteins under tension, shows that the histogram of τ1 is not Poissonian. The theory is applied to the forced unbinding of protein P1, modeled as a wormlike chain, from P1P2. We propose a new class of experiments which can resolve the effect of internal protein dynamics on the unbinding lifetimes.

  12. Protein annotation from protein interaction networks and Gene Ontology.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cao D; Gardiner, Katheleen J; Cios, Krzysztof J

    2011-10-01

    We introduce a novel method for annotating protein function that combines Naïve Bayes and association rules, and takes advantage of the underlying topology in protein interaction networks and the structure of graphs in the Gene Ontology. We apply our method to proteins from the Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD) and show that, in comparison with other approaches, it predicts protein functions with significantly higher recall with no loss of precision. Specifically, it achieves 51% precision and 60% recall versus 45% and 26% for Majority and 24% and 61% for χ²-statistics, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Protein Adsorption in Three Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Erwin A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical work clarifying the physical chemistry of blood-protein adsorption from aqueous-buffer solution to various kinds of surfaces is reviewed and interpreted within the context of biomaterial applications, especially toward development of cardiovascular biomaterials. The importance of this subject in biomaterials surface science is emphasized by reducing the “protein-adsorption problem” to three core questions that require quantitative answer. An overview of the protein-adsorption literature identifies some of the sources of inconsistency among many investigators participating in more than five decades of focused research. A tutorial on the fundamental biophysical chemistry of protein adsorption sets the stage for a detailed discussion of the kinetics and thermodynamics of protein adsorption, including adsorption competition between two proteins for the same adsorbent immersed in a binary-protein mixture. Both kinetics and steady-state adsorption can be rationalized using a single interpretive paradigm asserting that protein molecules partition from solution into a three-dimensional (3D) interphase separating bulk solution from the physical-adsorbent surface. Adsorbed protein collects in one-or-more adsorbed layers, depending on protein size, solution concentration, and adsorbent surface energy (water wettability). The adsorption process begins with the hydration of an adsorbent surface brought into contact with an aqueous-protein solution. Surface hydration reactions instantaneously form a thin, pseudo-2D interface between the adsorbent and protein solution. Protein molecules rapidly diffuse into this newly-formed interface, creating a truly 3D interphase that inflates with arriving proteins and fills to capacity within milliseconds at mg/mL bulk-solution concentrations CB. This inflated interphase subsequently undergoes time-dependent (minutes-to-hours) decrease in volume VI by expulsion of either-or-both interphase water and

  14. Conformational Heterogeneity of Unbound Proteins Enhances Recognition in Protein-Protein Encounters.

    PubMed

    Pallara, Chiara; Rueda, Manuel; Abagyan, Ruben; Fernández-Recio, Juan

    2016-07-12

    To understand cellular processes at the molecular level we need to improve our knowledge of protein-protein interactions, from a structural, mechanistic, and energetic point of view. Current theoretical studies and computational docking simulations show that protein dynamics plays a key role in protein association and support the need for including protein flexibility in modeling protein interactions. Assuming the conformational selection binding mechanism, in which the unbound state can sample bound conformers, one possible strategy to include flexibility in docking predictions would be the use of conformational ensembles originated from unbound protein structures. Here we present an exhaustive computational study about the use of precomputed unbound ensembles in the context of protein docking, performed on a set of 124 cases of the Protein-Protein Docking Benchmark 3.0. Conformational ensembles were generated by conformational optimization and refinement with MODELLER and by short molecular dynamics trajectories with AMBER. We identified those conformers providing optimal binding and investigated the role of protein conformational heterogeneity in protein-protein recognition. Our results show that a restricted conformational refinement can generate conformers with better binding properties and improve docking encounters in medium-flexible cases. For more flexible cases, a more extended conformational sampling based on Normal Mode Analysis was proven helpful. We found that successful conformers provide better energetic complementarity to the docking partners, which is compatible with recent views of binding association. In addition to the mechanistic considerations, these findings could be exploited for practical docking predictions of improved efficiency.

  15. Do cancer proteins really interact strongly in the human protein-protein interaction network?

    PubMed

    Xia, Junfeng; Sun, Jingchun; Jia, Peilin; Zhao, Zhongming

    2011-06-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis has been widely applied in the investigation of the mechanisms of diseases, especially cancer. Recent studies revealed that cancer proteins tend to interact more strongly than other categories of proteins, even essential proteins, in the human interactome. However, it remains unclear whether this observation was introduced by the bias towards more cancer studies in humans. Here, we examined this important issue by uniquely comparing network characteristics of cancer proteins with three other sets of proteins in four organisms, three of which (fly, worm, and yeast) whose interactomes are essentially not biased towards cancer or other diseases. We confirmed that cancer proteins had stronger connectivity, shorter distance, and larger betweenness centrality than non-cancer disease proteins, essential proteins, and control proteins. Our statistical evaluation indicated that such observations were overall unlikely attributed to random events. Considering the large size and high quality of the PPI data in the four organisms, the conclusion that cancer proteins interact strongly in the PPI networks is reliable and robust. This conclusion suggests that perturbation of cancer proteins might cause major changes of cellular systems and result in abnormal cell function leading to cancer. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Do cancer proteins really interact strongly in the human protein-protein interaction network?

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Junfeng; Sun, Jingchun; Jia, Peilin; Zhao, Zhongming

    2011-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis has been widely applied in the investigation of the mechanisms of diseases, especially cancer. Recent studies revealed that cancer proteins tend to interact more strongly than other categories of proteins, even essential proteins, in the human interactome. However, it remains unclear whether this observation was introduced by the bias towards more cancer studies in humans. Here, we examined this important issue by uniquely comparing network characteristics of cancer proteins with three other sets of proteins in four organisms, three of which (fly, worm, and yeast) whose interactomes are essentially not biased towards cancer or other diseases. We confirmed that cancer proteins had stronger connectivity, shorter distance, and larger betweenness centrality than non-cancer disease proteins, essential proteins, and control proteins. Our statistical evaluation indicated that such observations were overall unlikely attributed to random events. Considering the large size and high quality of the PPI data in the four organisms, the conclusion that cancer proteins interact strongly in the PPI networks is reliable and robust. This conclusion suggests that perturbation of cancer proteins might cause major changes of cellular systems and result in abnormal cell function leading to cancer. PMID:21666777

  17. Modeling complexes of modeled proteins.

    PubMed

    Anishchenko, Ivan; Kundrotas, Petras J; Vakser, Ilya A

    2017-03-01

    Structural characterization of proteins is essential for understanding life processes at the molecular level. However, only a fraction of known proteins have experimentally determined structures. This fraction is even smaller for protein-protein complexes. Thus, structural modeling of protein-protein interactions (docking) primarily has to rely on modeled structures of the individual proteins, which typically are less accurate than the experimentally determined ones. Such "double" modeling is the Grand Challenge of structural reconstruction of the interactome. Yet it remains so far largely untested in a systematic way. We present a comprehensive validation of template-based and free docking on a set of 165 complexes, where each protein model has six levels of structural accuracy, from 1 to 6 Å C α RMSD. Many template-based docking predictions fall into acceptable quality category, according to the CAPRI criteria, even for highly inaccurate proteins (5-6 Å RMSD), although the number of such models (and, consequently, the docking success rate) drops significantly for models with RMSD > 4 Å. The results show that the existing docking methodologies can be successfully applied to protein models with a broad range of structural accuracy, and the template-based docking is much less sensitive to inaccuracies of protein models than the free docking. Proteins 2017; 85:470-478. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Functional Foods Containing Whey Proteins

    Whey proteins, modified whey proteins, and whey components are useful as nutrients or supplements for health maintenance. Extrusion modified whey proteins can easily fit into new products such as beverages, confectionery items (e.g., candies), convenience foods, desserts, baked goods, sauces, and in...

  19. Protein Supplements: Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Samal, Jay Rabindra Kumar; Samal, Indira R

    2018-05-04

    To provide a comprehensive analysis of the literature examining the pros and cons of protein supplementation, various articles on protein supplementation were obtained from Google Scholar, PubMed, and National Center for Biotechnology Information. Over the past few years, protein supplementation has become commonplace for gym-goers as well as for the public. A large segment of the general population relies on protein supplementation for meal replacement, weight reduction, and purported health benefits. These protein supplements have varying pros and cons associated with them, which are often overlooked by the public. This review aims to assimilate existing studies and form a consensus regarding the benefits and disadvantages of protein supplementation. The purported health benefits of protein supplementation have led to overuse by both adults and adolescents. Although the pros and cons of protein supplementation is a widely debated topic, not many studies have been conducted regarding the same. The few studies that exist either provide insufficient evidence or have not employed proper conditions for the conduct of the tests. It should be considered that protein supplements are processed materials and often do not contain other essential nutrients required for the sustenance of a healthy lifestyle. It is suggested that the required protein intake should be obtained from natural food sources and protein supplementation should be resorted to only if sufficient protein is not available in the normal diet.

  20. Proteins of Vasicular Stomatitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kang, C. Y.; Prevec, L.

    1969-01-01

    Infection of L cells with vesicular stomatitis virus results in the release, into the cell-free fluid, of four antigenic components separable by rate zonal centrifugation on sucrose gradients. The largest antigens are the infectious (B) particle and a shorter noninfectious, autointerfering (T) particle. The two small antigens are characterized by sedimentation coefficients of approximately 20S and 6S. Treatment of purified B or T particles with sodium deoxycholate results in the release from the particle of a nucleoprotein core which can be purified on sucrose gradient and which has a sedimentation coefficient characteristic of the virus from which it arose. Utilizing purified antigens labeled with 14C-amino acids during growth, we examined the protein constituents of each antigen by acrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The proteins of B and T particles are identical, each containing one minor (virus protein 1) and three major (virus proteins 2, 3, and 4) proteins, numbered in order of increasing mobility. Virus protein 3 originates from the nucleoprotein core, whereas proteins 2 and 4 come from the coat. The origin of virus protein 1 is not known. The 20S antigen contains a single protein equivalent to virus protein 3, whereas the 6S antigen shows a single protein which is similar to, but probably distinct from, virus protein 2. PMID:4306195

  1. The Proteins API: accessing key integrated protein and genome information

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Ricardo; Alpi, Emanuele; Gonzales, Leonardo; Liu, Wudong; Luo, Jie; Qi, Guoying; Turner, Edd

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Proteins API provides searching and programmatic access to protein and associated genomics data such as curated protein sequence positional annotations from UniProtKB, as well as mapped variation and proteomics data from large scale data sources (LSS). Using the coordinates service, researchers are able to retrieve the genomic sequence coordinates for proteins in UniProtKB. This, the LSS genomics and proteomics data for UniProt proteins is programmatically only available through this service. A Swagger UI has been implemented to provide documentation, an interface for users, with little or no programming experience, to ‘talk’ to the services to quickly and easily formulate queries with the services and obtain dynamically generated source code for popular programming languages, such as Java, Perl, Python and Ruby. Search results are returned as standard JSON, XML or GFF data objects. The Proteins API is a scalable, reliable, fast, easy to use RESTful services that provides a broad protein information resource for users to ask questions based upon their field of expertise and allowing them to gain an integrated overview of protein annotations available to aid their knowledge gain on proteins in biological processes. The Proteins API is available at (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/proteins/api/doc). PMID:28383659

  2. Protein profiling of water and alkali soluble cottonseed protein isolates.

    PubMed

    He, Zhongqi; Zhang, Dunhua; Cao, Heping

    2018-06-18

    Currently, there is only limited knowledge on the protein types and structures of the cottonseed proteins. In this work, water-soluble cottonseed proteins (CSPw) and alkali-soluble cottonseed proteins (CSPa) were sequentially extracted from defatted cottonseed meal. Proteins of the two fractions were separated by 4-20% gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE); There were 7 and 12 polypeptide bands on SDS-PAGE of CSPa and CSPw, respectively. These individual bands were then excised from the gel and subjected to mass spectrometric analysis. There were total 70 polypeptides identified from the proteins of the two cottonseed preparations, with molecular weights ranging from 10 to 381 kDa. While many proteins or their fragments were found in multiple bands, 18 proteins appeared only in one SDS-PAGE band (6 in CSPa, 12 in CSPw). Putative functions of these proteins include storage, transcription/translation, synthesis, energy metabolism, antimicrobial activity, and embryogenesis. Among the most abundant are legumin A (58 kDa), legumin B (59 kDa), vicilin C72 (70 kDa), vicilin GC72-A (71 kDa), and vicilin-like antimicrobial peptides (62 kDa). This work enriched the fundamental knowledge on cottonseed protein composition, and would help in better understanding of the functional and physicochemical properties of cottonseed protein and for enhancing its biotechnological utilization.

  3. The Proteins API: accessing key integrated protein and genome information.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Andrew; Antunes, Ricardo; Alpi, Emanuele; Bursteinas, Borisas; Gonzales, Leonardo; Liu, Wudong; Luo, Jie; Qi, Guoying; Turner, Edd; Martin, Maria

    2017-07-03

    The Proteins API provides searching and programmatic access to protein and associated genomics data such as curated protein sequence positional annotations from UniProtKB, as well as mapped variation and proteomics data from large scale data sources (LSS). Using the coordinates service, researchers are able to retrieve the genomic sequence coordinates for proteins in UniProtKB. This, the LSS genomics and proteomics data for UniProt proteins is programmatically only available through this service. A Swagger UI has been implemented to provide documentation, an interface for users, with little or no programming experience, to 'talk' to the services to quickly and easily formulate queries with the services and obtain dynamically generated source code for popular programming languages, such as Java, Perl, Python and Ruby. Search results are returned as standard JSON, XML or GFF data objects. The Proteins API is a scalable, reliable, fast, easy to use RESTful services that provides a broad protein information resource for users to ask questions based upon their field of expertise and allowing them to gain an integrated overview of protein annotations available to aid their knowledge gain on proteins in biological processes. The Proteins API is available at (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/proteins/api/doc). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Protein-protein interactions and cancer: targeting the central dogma.

    PubMed

    Garner, Amanda L; Janda, Kim D

    2011-01-01

    Between 40,000 and 200,000 protein-protein interactions have been predicted to exist within the human interactome. As these interactions are of a critical nature in many important cellular functions and their dysregulation is causal of disease, the modulation of these binding events has emerged as a leading, yet difficult therapeutic arena. In particular, the targeting of protein-protein interactions relevant to cancer is of fundamental importance as the tumor-promoting function of several aberrantly expressed proteins in the cancerous state is directly resultant of its ability to interact with a protein-binding partner. Of significance, these protein complexes play a crucial role in each of the steps of the central dogma of molecular biology, the fundamental processes of genetic transmission. With the many important discoveries being made regarding the mechanisms of these genetic process, the identification of new chemical probes are needed to better understand and validate the druggability of protein-protein interactions related to the central dogma. In this review, we provide an overview of current small molecule-based protein-protein interaction inhibitors for each stage of the central dogma: transcription, mRNA splicing and translation. Importantly, through our analysis we have uncovered a lack of necessary probes targeting mRNA splicing and translation, thus, opening up the possibility for expansion of these fields.

  5. Biophysics of protein evolution and evolutionary protein biophysics

    PubMed Central

    Sikosek, Tobias; Chan, Hue Sun

    2014-01-01

    The study of molecular evolution at the level of protein-coding genes often entails comparing large datasets of sequences to infer their evolutionary relationships. Despite the importance of a protein's structure and conformational dynamics to its function and thus its fitness, common phylogenetic methods embody minimal biophysical knowledge of proteins. To underscore the biophysical constraints on natural selection, we survey effects of protein mutations, highlighting the physical basis for marginal stability of natural globular proteins and how requirement for kinetic stability and avoidance of misfolding and misinteractions might have affected protein evolution. The biophysical underpinnings of these effects have been addressed by models with an explicit coarse-grained spatial representation of the polypeptide chain. Sequence–structure mappings based on such models are powerful conceptual tools that rationalize mutational robustness, evolvability, epistasis, promiscuous function performed by ‘hidden’ conformational states, resolution of adaptive conflicts and conformational switches in the evolution from one protein fold to another. Recently, protein biophysics has been applied to derive more accurate evolutionary accounts of sequence data. Methods have also been developed to exploit sequence-based evolutionary information to predict biophysical behaviours of proteins. The success of these approaches demonstrates a deep synergy between the fields of protein biophysics and protein evolution. PMID:25165599

  6. Protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Cabantous, Stephanie [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-09-08

    The invention provides protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent protein systems. The assays are conducted in living cells, do not require fixation and washing steps inherent in existing immunostaining and related techniques, and permit rapid, non-invasive, direct visualization of protein localization in living cells. The split fluorescent protein systems used in the practice of the invention generally comprise two or more self-complementing fragments of a fluorescent protein, such as GFP, wherein one or more of the fragments correspond to one or more beta-strand microdomains and are used to "tag" proteins of interest, and a complementary "assay" fragment of the fluorescent protein. Either or both of the fragments may be functionalized with a subcellular targeting sequence enabling it to be expressed in or directed to a particular subcellular compartment (i.e., the nucleus).

  7. Protein – Which is Best?

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Jay R.; Falvo, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Protein intake that exceeds the recommended daily allowance is widely accepted for both endurance and power athletes. However, considering the variety of proteins that are available much less is known concerning the benefits of consuming one protein versus another. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze key factors in order to make responsible recommendations to both the general and athletic populations. Evaluation of a protein is fundamental in determining its appropriateness in the human diet. Proteins that are of inferior content and digestibility are important to recognize and restrict or limit in the diet. Similarly, such knowledge will provide an ability to identify proteins that provide the greatest benefit and should be consumed. The various techniques utilized to rate protein will be discussed. Traditionally, sources of dietary protein are seen as either being of animal or vegetable origin. Animal sources provide a complete source of protein (i.e. containing all essential amino acids), whereas vegetable sources generally lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal sources of dietary protein, despite providing a complete protein and numerous vitamins and minerals, have some health professionals concerned about the amount of saturated fat common in these foods compared to vegetable sources. The advent of processing techniques has shifted some of this attention and ignited the sports supplement marketplace with derivative products such as whey, casein and soy. Individually, these products vary in quality and applicability to certain populations. The benefits that these particular proteins possess are discussed. In addition, the impact that elevated protein consumption has on health and safety issues (i.e. bone health, renal function) are also reviewed. Key Points Higher protein needs are seen in athletic populations. Animal proteins is an important source of protein, however potential health concerns do exist from a diet of protein

  8. Protein enriched pasta: structure and digestibility of its protein network.

    PubMed

    Laleg, Karima; Barron, Cécile; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Walrand, Stéphane; Micard, Valérie

    2016-02-01

    Wheat (W) pasta was enriched in 6% gluten (G), 35% faba (F) or 5% egg (E) to increase its protein content (13% to 17%). The impact of the enrichment on the multiscale structure of the pasta and on in vitro protein digestibility was studied. Increasing the protein content (W- vs. G-pasta) strengthened pasta structure at molecular and macroscopic scales but reduced its protein digestibility by 3% by forming a higher covalently linked protein network. Greater changes in the macroscopic and molecular structure of the pasta were obtained by varying the nature of protein used for enrichment. Proteins in G- and E-pasta were highly covalently linked (28-32%) resulting in a strong pasta structure. Conversely, F-protein (98% SDS-soluble) altered the pasta structure by diluting gluten and formed a weak protein network (18% covalent link). As a result, protein digestibility in F-pasta was significantly higher (46%) than in E- (44%) and G-pasta (39%). The effect of low (55 °C, LT) vs. very high temperature (90 °C, VHT) drying on the protein network structure and digestibility was shown to cause greater molecular changes than pasta formulation. Whatever the pasta, a general strengthening of its structure, a 33% to 47% increase in covalently linked proteins and a higher β-sheet structure were observed. However, these structural differences were evened out after the pasta was cooked, resulting in identical protein digestibility in LT and VHT pasta. Even after VHT drying, F-pasta had the best amino acid profile with the highest protein digestibility, proof of its nutritional interest.

  9. Transmembrane proteins in the Protein Data Bank: identification and classification.

    PubMed

    Tusnády, Gábor E; Dosztányi, Zsuzsanna; Simon, István

    2004-11-22

    Integral membrane proteins play important roles in living cells. Although these proteins are estimated to constitute 25% of proteins at a genomic scale, the Protein Data Bank (PDB) contains only a few hundred membrane proteins due to the difficulties with experimental techniques. The presence of transmembrane proteins in the structure data bank, however, is quite invisible, as the annotation of these entries is rather poor. Even if a protein is identified as a transmembrane one, the possible location of the lipid bilayer is not indicated in the PDB because these proteins are crystallized without their natural lipid bilayer, and currently no method is publicly available to detect the possible membrane plane using the atomic coordinates of membrane proteins. Here, we present a new geometrical approach to distinguish between transmembrane and globular proteins using structural information only and to locate the most likely position of the lipid bilayer. An automated algorithm (TMDET) is given to determine the membrane planes relative to the position of atomic coordinates, together with a discrimination function which is able to separate transmembrane and globular proteins even in cases of low resolution or incomplete structures such as fragments or parts of large multi chain complexes. This method can be used for the proper annotation of protein structures containing transmembrane segments and paves the way to an up-to-date database containing the structure of all known transmembrane proteins and fragments (PDB_TM) which can be automatically updated. The algorithm is equally important for the purpose of constructing databases purely of globular proteins.

  10. Exploiting Amino Acid Composition for Predicting Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sushmita; Martinez, Diego; Platero, Harriett; Lane, Terran; Werner-Washburne, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Background Computational prediction of protein interactions typically use protein domains as classifier features because they capture conserved information of interaction surfaces. However, approaches relying on domains as features cannot be applied to proteins without any domain information. In this paper, we explore the contribution of pure amino acid composition (AAC) for protein interaction prediction. This simple feature, which is based on normalized counts of single or pairs of amino acids, is applicable to proteins from any sequenced organism and can be used to compensate for the lack of domain information. Results AAC performed at par with protein interaction prediction based on domains on three yeast protein interaction datasets. Similar behavior was obtained using different classifiers, indicating that our results are a function of features and not of classifiers. In addition to yeast datasets, AAC performed comparably on worm and fly datasets. Prediction of interactions for the entire yeast proteome identified a large number of novel interactions, the majority of which co-localized or participated in the same processes. Our high confidence interaction network included both well-studied and uncharacterized proteins. Proteins with known function were involved in actin assembly and cell budding. Uncharacterized proteins interacted with proteins involved in reproduction and cell budding, thus providing putative biological roles for the uncharacterized proteins. Conclusion AAC is a simple, yet powerful feature for predicting protein interactions, and can be used alone or in conjunction with protein domains to predict new and validate existing interactions. More importantly, AAC alone performs at par with existing, but more complex, features indicating the presence of sequence-level information that is predictive of interaction, but which is not necessarily restricted to domains. PMID:19936254

  11. Monitoring protein-protein interactions using split synthetic renilla luciferase protein-fragment-assisted complementation.

    PubMed

    Paulmurugan, R; Gambhir, S S

    2003-04-01

    In this study we developed an inducible synthetic renilla luciferase protein-fragment-assisted complementation-based bioluminescence assay to quantitatively measure real time protein-protein interactions in mammalian cells. We identified suitable sites to generate fragments of N and C portions of the protein that yield significant recovered activity through complementation. We validate complementation-based activation of split synthetic renilla luciferase protein driven by the interaction of two strongly interacting proteins, MyoD and Id, in five different cell lines utilizing transient transfection studies. The expression level of the system was also modulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha through NFkappaB-promoter/enhancer elements used to drive expression of the N portion of synthetic renilla luciferase reporter gene. This new system should help in studying protein-protein interactions and when used with other split reporters (e.g., split firefly luciferase) should help to monitor different components of an intracellular network.

  12. NMR Studies of Protein Hydration and Protein-Ligand Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Yuan

    Water on the surface of a protein is called hydration water. Hydration water is known to play a crucial role in a variety of biological processes including protein folding, enzymatic activation, and drug binding. Although the significance of hydration water has been recognized, the underlying mechanism remains far from being understood. This dissertation employs a unique in-situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique to study the mechanism of protein hydration and the role of hydration in alcohol-protein interactions. Water isotherms in proteins are measured at different temperatures via the in-situ NMR technique. Water is found to interact differently with hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups on the protein. Water adsorption on hydrophilic groups is hardly affected by the temperature, while water adsorption on hydrophobic groups strongly depends on the temperature around 10 C, below which the adsorption is substantially reduced. This effect is induced by the dramatic decrease in the protein flexibility below 10 C. Furthermore, nanosecond to microsecond protein dynamics and the free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of protein hydration are studied as a function of hydration level and temperature. A crossover at 10 C in protein dynamics and thermodynamics is revealed. The effect of water at hydrophilic groups on protein dynamics and thermodynamics shows little temperature dependence, whereas water at hydrophobic groups has stronger effect above 10 C. In addition, I investigate the role of water in alcohol binding to the protein using the in-situ NMR detection. The isotherms of alcohols are first measured on dry proteins, then on proteins with a series of controlled hydration levels. The free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of alcohol binding are also determined. Two distinct types of alcohol binding are identified. On the one hand, alcohols can directly bind to a few specific sites on the protein. This type of binding is independent of temperature and can be

  13. Membrane Bending by Protein Crowding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachowiak, Jeanne

    2014-03-01

    From endosomes and synaptic vesicles to the cristae of the mitochondria and the annulus of the nuclear pore, highly curved membranes are fundamental to the structure and physiology of living cells. The established view is that specific families of proteins are able to bend membranes by binding to them. For example, inherently curved proteins are thought to impose their structure on the membrane surface, while membrane-binding proteins with hydrophobic motifs are thought to insert into the membrane like wedges, driving curvature. However, computational models have recently revealed that these mechanisms would require specialized membrane-bending proteins to occupy nearly 100% of a curved membrane surface, an improbable physiological situation given the immense density and diversity of membrane-bound proteins, and the low expression levels of these specialized proteins within curved regions of the membrane. How then does curvature arise within the complex and crowded environment of cellular membranes? Our recent work using proteins involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, as well as engineered protein-lipid interactions, has suggested a new hypothesis - that lateral pressure generated by collisions between membrane-bound proteins can drive membrane bending. Specifically, by correlating membrane bending with quantitative optical measurements of protein density on synthetic membrane surfaces and simple physical models of collisions among membrane-bound proteins, we have demonstrated that protein-protein steric interactions can drive membrane curvature. These findings suggest that a simple imbalance in the concentration of membrane-bound proteins across a membrane surface can drive a membrane to bend, providing an efficient mechanism by which essentially any protein can contribute to shaping membranes.

  14. Protein Sorting Prediction.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Many computational methods are available for predicting protein sorting in bacteria. When comparing them, it is important to know that they can be grouped into three fundamentally different approaches: signal-based, global-property-based and homology-based prediction. In this chapter, the strengths and drawbacks of each of these approaches is described through many examples of methods that predict secretion, integration into membranes, or subcellular locations in general. The aim of this chapter is to provide a user-level introduction to the field with a minimum of computational theory.

  15. Nanotechnological Strategies for Protein Delivery.

    PubMed

    Villegas, María Rocío; Baeza, Alejandro; Vallet-Regí, María

    2018-04-25

    The use of therapeutic proteins plays a fundamental role in the treatment of numerous diseases. The low physico-chemical stability of proteins in physiological conditions put their function at risk in the human body until they reach their target. Moreover, several proteins are unable to cross the cell membrane. All these facts strongly hinder their therapeutic effect. Nanomedicine has emerged as a powerful tool which can provide solutions to solve these limitations and improve the efficacy of treatments based on protein administration. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of different types of strategies employed for protein delivery, such as PEGylation, transport within liposomes or inorganic nanoparticles or their in situ encapsulation.

  16. Protein nanotechnology: what is it?

    PubMed

    Gerrard, Juliet A

    2013-01-01

    Protein nanotechnology is an emerging field that is still defining itself. It embraces the intersection of protein science, which exists naturally at the nanoscale, and the burgeoning field of nanotechnology. In this opening chapter, a select review is given of some of the exciting nanostructures that have already been created using proteins, and the sorts of applications that protein engineers are reaching towards in the nanotechnology space. This provides an introduction to the rest of the volume, which provides inspirational case studies, along with tips and tools to manipulate proteins into new forms and architectures, beyond Nature's original intentions.

  17. Asymmetric scoring functions for proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lezon, Timothy; Holter, Neal; Maritan, Amos; Banavar, Jayanth

    2003-03-01

    The protein folding problem entails the prediction of the native state structure of a protein given the sequence of amino acids. In a coarse-grained description of a protein, an important ingredient for attempting this task is the determination of the effective energies of interaction between amino acids. We will discuss a simple approach for determining such interaction potentials from a training set of protein sequences and their experimentally determined native state structures. The key new ingredient in our study is the incorporation of the lack of symmetry in the effective interactions between amino acids. Our results, obtained using a set of 513 proteins, and their implications will be discussed.

  18. Correction to: The NMR contribution to protein-protein networking in Fe-S protein maturation.

    PubMed

    Banci, Lucia; Camponeschi, Francesca; Ciofi-Baffoni, Simone; Piccioli, Mario

    2018-05-31

    The article "The NMR contribution to protein-protein networking in Fe-S protein maturation", written by Lucia Banci, Francesca Camponeschi, Simone Ciofi‑Baffoni, Mario Piccioli was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 22 March, 2018 without open access.

  19. Protein-protein interaction network-based detection of functionally similar proteins within species.

    PubMed

    Song, Baoxing; Wang, Fen; Guo, Yang; Sang, Qing; Liu, Min; Li, Dengyun; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Deli

    2012-07-01

    Although functionally similar proteins across species have been widely studied, functionally similar proteins within species showing low sequence similarity have not been examined in detail. Identification of these proteins is of significant importance for understanding biological functions, evolution of protein families, progression of co-evolution, and convergent evolution and others which cannot be obtained by detection of functionally similar proteins across species. Here, we explored a method of detecting functionally similar proteins within species based on graph theory. After denoting protein-protein interaction networks using graphs, we split the graphs into subgraphs using the 1-hop method. Proteins with functional similarities in a species were detected using a method of modified shortest path to compare these subgraphs and to find the eligible optimal results. Using seven protein-protein interaction networks and this method, some functionally similar proteins with low sequence similarity that cannot detected by sequence alignment were identified. By analyzing the results, we found that, sometimes, it is difficult to separate homologous from convergent evolution. Evaluation of the performance of our method by gene ontology term overlap showed that the precision of our method was excellent. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Detection of protein complex from protein-protein interaction network using Markov clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochieng, P. J.; Kusuma, W. A.; Haryanto, T.

    2017-05-01

    Detection of complexes, or groups of functionally related proteins, is an important challenge while analysing biological networks. However, existing algorithms to identify protein complexes are insufficient when applied to dense networks of experimentally derived interaction data. Therefore, we introduced a graph clustering method based on Markov clustering algorithm to identify protein complex within highly interconnected protein-protein interaction networks. Protein-protein interaction network was first constructed to develop geometrical network, the network was then partitioned using Markov clustering to detect protein complexes. The interest of the proposed method was illustrated by its application to Human Proteins associated to type II diabetes mellitus. Flow simulation of MCL algorithm was initially performed and topological properties of the resultant network were analysed for detection of the protein complex. The results indicated the proposed method successfully detect an overall of 34 complexes with 11 complexes consisting of overlapping modules and 20 non-overlapping modules. The major complex consisted of 102 proteins and 521 interactions with cluster modularity and density of 0.745 and 0.101 respectively. The comparison analysis revealed MCL out perform AP, MCODE and SCPS algorithms with high clustering coefficient (0.751) network density and modularity index (0.630). This demonstrated MCL was the most reliable and efficient graph clustering algorithm for detection of protein complexes from PPI networks.

  1. The Papillomavirus E2 proteins

    SciT

    McBride, Alison A., E-mail: amcbride@nih.gov

    2013-10-15

    The papillomavirus E2 proteins are pivotal to the viral life cycle and have well characterized functions in transcriptional regulation, initiation of DNA replication and partitioning the viral genome. The E2 proteins also function in vegetative DNA replication, post-transcriptional processes and possibly packaging. This review describes structural and functional aspects of the E2 proteins and their binding sites on the viral genome. It is intended to be a reference guide to this viral protein. - Highlights: • Overview of E2 protein functions. • Structural domains of the papillomavirus E2 proteins. • Analysis of E2 binding sites in different genera of papillomaviruses.more » • Compilation of E2 associated proteins. • Comparison of key mutations in distinct E2 functions.« less

  2. Thermodynamic prediction of protein neutrality.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Jesse D; Silberg, Jonathan J; Wilke, Claus O; Drummond, D Allan; Adami, Christoph; Arnold, Frances H

    2005-01-18

    We present a simple theory that uses thermodynamic parameters to predict the probability that a protein retains the wild-type structure after one or more random amino acid substitutions. Our theory predicts that for large numbers of substitutions the probability that a protein retains its structure will decline exponentially with the number of substitutions, with the severity of this decline determined by properties of the structure. Our theory also predicts that a protein can gain extra robustness to the first few substitutions by increasing its thermodynamic stability. We validate our theory with simulations on lattice protein models and by showing that it quantitatively predicts previously published experimental measurements on subtilisin and our own measurements on variants of TEM1 beta-lactamase. Our work unifies observations about the clustering of functional proteins in sequence space, and provides a basis for interpreting the response of proteins to substitutions in protein engineering applications.

  3. Thermodynamic prediction of protein neutrality

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Jesse D.; Silberg, Jonathan J.; Wilke, Claus O.; Drummond, D. Allan; Adami, Christoph; Arnold, Frances H.

    2005-01-01

    We present a simple theory that uses thermodynamic parameters to predict the probability that a protein retains the wild-type structure after one or more random amino acid substitutions. Our theory predicts that for large numbers of substitutions the probability that a protein retains its structure will decline exponentially with the number of substitutions, with the severity of this decline determined by properties of the structure. Our theory also predicts that a protein can gain extra robustness to the first few substitutions by increasing its thermodynamic stability. We validate our theory with simulations on lattice protein models and by showing that it quantitatively predicts previously published experimental measurements on subtilisin and our own measurements on variants of TEM1 β-lactamase. Our work unifies observations about the clustering of functional proteins in sequence space, and provides a basis for interpreting the response of proteins to substitutions in protein engineering applications. PMID:15644440

  4. The Classification of Protein Domains.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Natalie; Sillitoe, Ian; Marsden, Russell L; Orengo, Christine A

    2017-01-01

    The significant expansion in protein sequence and structure data that we are now witnessing brings with it a pressing need to bring order to the protein world. Such order enables us to gain insights into the evolution of proteins, their function and the extent to which the functional repertoire can vary across the three kingdoms of life. This has lead to the creation of a wide range of protein family classifications that aim to group proteins based upon their evolutionary relationships.In this chapter we discuss the approaches and methods that are frequently used in the classification of proteins, with a specific emphasis on the classification of protein domains. The construction of both domain sequence and domain structure databases is considered and we show how the use of domain family annotations to assign structural and functional information is enhancing our understanding of genomes.

  5. Metagenomics and the protein universe

    PubMed Central

    Godzik, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Metagenomics sequencing projects have dramatically increased our knowledge of the protein universe and provided over one-half of currently known protein sequences; they have also introduced a much broader phylogenetic diversity into the protein databases. The full analysis of metagenomic datasets is only beginning, but it has already led to the discovery of thousands of new protein families, likely representing novel functions specific to given environments. At the same time, a deeper analysis of such novel families, including experimental structure determination of some representatives, suggests that most of them represent distant homologs of already characterized protein families, and thus most of the protein diversity present in the new environments are due to functional divergence of the known protein families rather than the emergence of new ones. PMID:21497084

  6. Mathematical methods for protein science

    SciT

    Hart, W.; Istrail, S.; Atkins, J.

    1997-12-31

    Understanding the structure and function of proteins is a fundamental endeavor in molecular biology. Currently, over 100,000 protein sequences have been determined by experimental methods. The three dimensional structure of the protein determines its function, but there are currently less than 4,000 structures known to atomic resolution. Accordingly, techniques to predict protein structure from sequence have an important role in aiding the understanding of the Genome and the effects of mutations in genetic disease. The authors describe current efforts at Sandia to better understand the structure of proteins through rigorous mathematical analyses of simple lattice models. The efforts have focusedmore » on two aspects of protein science: mathematical structure prediction, and inverse protein folding.« less

  7. Protein crystal growth in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, William M.; Delucas, Lawrence J.; Wilson, William W.

    1989-01-01

    Major advances have been made in several of the experimental aspects of protein crystallography, leaving protein crystallization as one of the few remaining bottlenecks. As a result, it has become important that the science of protein crystal growth is better understood and that improved methods for protein crystallization are developed. Preliminary experiments with both small molecules and proteins indicate that microgravity may beneficially affect crystal growth. For this reason, a series of protein crystal growth experiments using the Space Shuttle was initiated. The preliminary space experiments were used to evolve prototype hardware that will form the basis for a more advanced system that can be used to evaluate effects of gravity on protein crystal growth. Various optical techniques are being utilized to monitor the crystal growth process from the incipient or nucleation stage and throughout the growth phase. The eventual goal of these studies is to develop a system which utilizes optical monitoring for dynamic control of the crystallization process.

  8. Energy Landscape and Transition State of Protein-Protein Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsallaq, Ramzi; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2006-11-01

    Formation of a stereospecific protein complex is favored by specific interactions between two proteins but disfavored by the loss of translational and rotational freedom. Echoing the protein folding process, we have previously proposed a transition state for protein-protein association. Here we clarify the specification of the transition state by working with two toy models for protein association. The models demonstrate that a sharp transition between the bound state with numerous short-range interactions but restricted translation and rotational freedom and the unbound state with at most a small number of interactions but expanded configurational freedom. This transition sets the outer boundary of the bound state as well as the transition state for association. The energy landscape is funnel-like, with the deep well of the bound state surrounded by a broad shallow basin. This formalism of protein-protein association is applied to four protein-protein complexes, and is found to give accurate predictions for the effects of charge mutations and ionic strength on the association rates.

  9. General introduction: recombinant protein production and purification of insoluble proteins.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Saccardo, Paolo; Corchero, José Luis; Xu, Zhikun; García-Fruitós, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are synthesized in heterologous systems because of the impossibility to obtain satisfactory yields from natural sources. The production of soluble and functional recombinant proteins is among the main goals in the biotechnological field. In this context, it is important to point out that under stress conditions, protein folding machinery is saturated and this promotes protein misfolding and, consequently, protein aggregation. Thus, the selection of the optimal expression organism and the most appropriate growth conditions to minimize the formation of insoluble proteins should be done according to the protein characteristics and downstream requirements. Escherichia coli is the most popular recombinant protein expression system despite the great development achieved so far by eukaryotic expression systems. Besides, other prokaryotic expression systems, such as lactic acid bacteria and psychrophilic bacteria, are gaining interest in this field. However, it is worth mentioning that prokaryotic expression system poses, in many cases, severe restrictions for a successful heterologous protein production. Thus, eukaryotic systems such as mammalian cells, insect cells, yeast, filamentous fungus, and microalgae are an interesting alternative for the production of these difficult-to-express proteins.

  10. HEMOGLOBIN AND PLASMA PROTEIN PRODUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1946-01-01

    Given healthy dogs, fed abundant iron and protein-free or low protein diets, with sustained anemia and hypoproteinemia due to bleeding, we can study the capacity of these animals to produce simultaneousiy new hemoglobin and plasma protein. The reserve stores of blood protein-producing materials in this way are largely depleted, and levels of 6 to 8 gm. per cent for hemoglobin and 4 to 5 gm. per cent for plasma protein can be maintained for considerable periods of time. These dogs are very susceptible to infection and to injury by many poisons. Dogs tire of these diets and loss of appetite terminates many experiments. These incomplete experiments are not recorded in the present paper but give supporting evidence in harmony with those tabulated. Under these conditions (double depletion) the dogs use effectively the proteins listed above—egg, lactalbumin, meat, beef plasma, and digests of various food proteins and hemoglobin. Egg protein at times seems to favor slightly the production of plasma protein when compared with the average response (Tables 1 and 2). Various digests and concentrates compare favorably with good food proteins in the production of new hemoglobin and plasma protein in these doubly depleted dogs. Whole beef plasma by mouth is well utilized and the production of new hemoglobin is, if anything, above the average—certainly plasma protein production is not especially favored. "Modified" beef plasma by vein causes fatal anaphylaxis (Table 4). Hemoglobin digests are well used by mouth to form both hemoglobin and plasma protein. Supplementation by amino acids is recorded. Methionine in one experiment may have been responsible for a better protein output and digest utilization (Table 7). PMID:19871543

  11. Introduction to protein crystallization

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, Alexander; Gavira, Jose A.

    2014-01-01

    Protein crystallization was discovered by chance about 150 years ago and was developed in the late 19th century as a powerful purification tool and as a demonstration of chemical purity. The crystallization of proteins, nucleic acids and large biological complexes, such as viruses, depends on the creation of a solution that is supersaturated in the macromolecule but exhibits conditions that do not significantly perturb its natural state. Supersaturation is produced through the addition of mild precipitating agents such as neutral salts or polymers, and by the manipulation of various parameters that include temperature, ionic strength and pH. Also important in the crystallization process are factors that can affect the structural state of the macromolecule, such as metal ions, inhibitors, cofactors or other conventional small molecules. A variety of approaches have been developed that combine the spectrum of factors that effect and promote crystallization, and among the most widely used are vapor diffusion, dialysis, batch and liquid–liquid diffusion. Successes in macromolecular crystallization have multiplied rapidly in recent years owing to the advent of practical, easy-to-use screening kits and the application of laboratory robotics. A brief review will be given here of the most popular methods, some guiding principles and an overview of current technologies. PMID:24419610

  12. Introduction to protein crystallization.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Alexander; Gavira, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    Protein crystallization was discovered by chance about 150 years ago and was developed in the late 19th century as a powerful purification tool and as a demonstration of chemical purity. The crystallization of proteins, nucleic acids and large biological complexes, such as viruses, depends on the creation of a solution that is supersaturated in the macromolecule but exhibits conditions that do not significantly perturb its natural state. Supersaturation is produced through the addition of mild precipitating agents such as neutral salts or polymers, and by the manipulation of various parameters that include temperature, ionic strength and pH. Also important in the crystallization process are factors that can affect the structural state of the macromolecule, such as metal ions, inhibitors, cofactors or other conventional small molecules. A variety of approaches have been developed that combine the spectrum of factors that effect and promote crystallization, and among the most widely used are vapor diffusion, dialysis, batch and liquid-liquid diffusion. Successes in macromolecular crystallization have multiplied rapidly in recent years owing to the advent of practical, easy-to-use screening kits and the application of laboratory robotics. A brief review will be given here of the most popular methods, some guiding principles and an overview of current technologies.

  13. Protein detection using biobarcodes.

    PubMed

    Müller, Uwe R

    2006-10-01

    Over the past 50 years the development of assays for the detection of protein analytes has been driven by continuing demands for higher levels of sensitivity and multiplexing. The result has been a progression of sandwich-type immunoassays, starting with simple radioisotopic, colorimetric, or fluorescent labeling systems to include various enzymatic or nanostructure-based signal amplification schemes, with a concomitant sensitivity increase of over 1 million fold. Multiplexing of samples and tests has been enabled by microplate and microarray platforms, respectively, or lately by various molecular barcoding systems. Two different platforms have emerged as the current front-runners by combining a nucleic acid amplification step with the standard two-sided immunoassay. In both, the captured protein analyte is replaced by a multiplicity of oligonucleotides that serve as surrogate targets. One of these platforms employs DNA or RNA polymerases for the amplification step, while detection is by fluorescence. The other is based on gold nanoparticles for both amplification as well as detection. The latter technology, now termed Biobarcode, is completely enzyme-free and offers potentially much higher multiplexing power.

  14. Transcriptome profiling using Illumina- and SMRT-based RNA-seq of hot pepper for in-depth understanding of genes involved in CMV infection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chunhui; Li, Xuefeng; Zheng, Jingyuan

    2018-05-03

    Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), which is a member of the Solanaceae family, is becoming an increasingly important vegetable crop worldwide. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a destructive virus that can cause leaf distortion and fruit lesions, affecting pepper production. However, studies on the responses to CMV infection in pepper at the transcriptional level are limited. In this study, the transcript profiles of pepper leaves after CMV infection were investigated using Illumina and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). A total of 2143 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at five different stages. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG analysis revealed that these DEGs were involved in the response to stress, defense response and plant-pathogen interaction pathways. Among these DEGs, several key genes that consistently appeared in studies of plant-pathogen interactions had increased transcript abundance after inoculation, including chitinase, pathogenesis-related (PR) protein, TMV resistance protein, WRKY transcription factor and jasmonate ZIM-domain protein. Nine of these DEGs were further validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, a total of 73, 597 alternate splicing (AS) events were identified in the pepper leaves after CMV infection, distributed in 12, 615 genes. The intron retention of WRKY33 (Capana09g001251) might be involved in the regulation of CMV infection. Taken together, our study provides a transcriptome-wide insight into the molecular basis of resistance to CMV infection in pepper leaves and potential candidate genes for improving resistance cultivars. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. On the role of electrostatics in protein-protein interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhe; Witham, Shawn; Alexov, Emil

    2011-06-01

    The role of electrostatics in protein-protein interactions and binding is reviewed in this paper. A brief outline of the computational modeling, in the framework of continuum electrostatics, is presented and the basic electrostatic effects occurring upon the formation of the complex are discussed. The effect of the salt concentration and pH of the water phase on protein-protein binding free energy is demonstrated which indicates that the increase of the salt concentration tends to weaken the binding, an observation that is attributed to the optimization of the charge-charge interactions across the interface. It is pointed out that the pH-optimum (pH of optimal binding affinity) varies among the protein-protein complexes, and perhaps is a result of their adaptation to particular subcellular compartments. The similarities and differences between hetero- and homo-complexes are outlined and discussed with respect to the binding mode and charge complementarity.

  16. A Discontinuous Potential Model for Protein-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qing; Hall, Carol K

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions play an important role in many biologic and industrial processes. In this work, we develop a two-bead-per-residue model that enables us to account for protein-protein interactions in a multi-protein system using discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations. This model deploys discontinuous potentials to describe the non-bonded interactions and virtual bonds to keep proteins in their native state. The geometric and energetic parameters are derived from the potentials of mean force between sidechain-sidechain, sidechain-backbone, and backbone-backbone pairs. The energetic parameters are scaled with the aim of matching the second virial coefficient of lysozyme reported in experiment. We also investigate the performance of several bond-building strategies.

  17. On the role of electrostatics on protein-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Witham, Shawn; Alexov, Emil

    2011-01-01

    The role of electrostatics on protein-protein interactions and binding is reviewed in this article. A brief outline of the computational modeling, in the framework of continuum electrostatics, is presented and basic electrostatic effects occurring upon the formation of the complex are discussed. The role of the salt concentration and pH of the water phase on protein-protein binding free energy is demonstrated and indicates that the increase of the salt concentration tends to weaken the binding, an observation that is attributed to the optimization of the charge-charge interactions across the interface. It is pointed out that the pH-optimum (pH of optimal binding affinity) varies among the protein-protein complexes, and perhaps is a result of their adaptation to particular subcellular compartment. At the end, the similarities and differences between hetero- and homo-complexes are outlined and discussed with respect to the binding mode and charge complementarity. PMID:21572182

  18. Mitochondrial nucleoid interacting proteins support mitochondrial protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    He, J; Cooper, H M; Reyes, A; Di Re, M; Sembongi, H; Litwin, T R; Gao, J; Neuman, K C; Fearnley, I M; Spinazzola, A; Walker, J E; Holt, I J

    2012-07-01

    Mitochondrial ribosomes and translation factors co-purify with mitochondrial nucleoids of human cells, based on affinity protein purification of tagged mitochondrial DNA binding proteins. Among the most frequently identified proteins were ATAD3 and prohibitin, which have been identified previously as nucleoid components, using a variety of methods. Both proteins are demonstrated to be required for mitochondrial protein synthesis in human cultured cells, and the major binding partner of ATAD3 is the mitochondrial ribosome. Altered ATAD3 expression also perturbs mtDNA maintenance and replication. These findings suggest an intimate association between nucleoids and the machinery of protein synthesis in mitochondria. ATAD3 and prohibitin are tightly associated with the mitochondrial membranes and so we propose that they support nucleic acid complexes at the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.

  19. Proteins interacting with cloning scars: a source of false positive protein-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Charles A. S.; Boanca, Gina; Lee, Zachary T.; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    A common approach for exploring the interactome, the network of protein-protein interactions in cells, uses a commercially available ORF library to express affinity tagged bait proteins; these can be expressed in cells and endogenous cellular proteins that copurify with the bait can be identified as putative interacting proteins using mass spectrometry. Control experiments can be used to limit false-positive results, but in many cases, there are still a surprising number of prey proteins that appear to copurify specifically with the bait. Here, we have identified one source of false-positive interactions in such studies. We have found that a combination of: 1) the variable sequence of the C-terminus of the bait with 2) a C-terminal valine “cloning scar” present in a commercially available ORF library, can in some cases create a peptide motif that results in the aberrant co-purification of endogenous cellular proteins. Control experiments may not identify false positives resulting from such artificial motifs, as aberrant binding depends on sequences that vary from one bait to another. It is possible that such cryptic protein binding might occur in other systems using affinity tagged proteins; this study highlights the importance of conducting careful follow-up studies where novel protein-protein interactions are suspected. PMID:25704442

  20. Predicting protein-protein interactions from protein domains using a set cover approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chengbang; Morcos, Faruck; Kanaan, Simon P; Wuchty, Stefan; Chen, Danny Z; Izaguirre, Jesús A

    2007-01-01

    One goal of contemporary proteome research is the elucidation of cellular protein interactions. Based on currently available protein-protein interaction and domain data, we introduce a novel method, Maximum Specificity Set Cover (MSSC), for the prediction of protein-protein interactions. In our approach, we map the relationship between interactions of proteins and their corresponding domain architectures to a generalized weighted set cover problem. The application of a greedy algorithm provides sets of domain interactions which explain the presence of protein interactions to the largest degree of specificity. Utilizing domain and protein interaction data of S. cerevisiae, MSSC enables prediction of previously unknown protein interactions, links that are well supported by a high tendency of coexpression and functional homogeneity of the corresponding proteins. Focusing on concrete examples, we show that MSSC reliably predicts protein interactions in well-studied molecular systems, such as the 26S proteasome and RNA polymerase II of S. cerevisiae. We also show that the quality of the predictions is comparable to the Maximum Likelihood Estimation while MSSC is faster. This new algorithm and all data sets used are accessible through a Web portal at http://ppi.cse.nd.edu.

  1. Proteins interacting with cloning scars: a source of false positive protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Banks, Charles A S; Boanca, Gina; Lee, Zachary T; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P

    2015-02-23

    A common approach for exploring the interactome, the network of protein-protein interactions in cells, uses a commercially available ORF library to express affinity tagged bait proteins; these can be expressed in cells and endogenous cellular proteins that copurify with the bait can be identified as putative interacting proteins using mass spectrometry. Control experiments can be used to limit false-positive results, but in many cases, there are still a surprising number of prey proteins that appear to copurify specifically with the bait. Here, we have identified one source of false-positive interactions in such studies. We have found that a combination of: 1) the variable sequence of the C-terminus of the bait with 2) a C-terminal valine "cloning scar" present in a commercially available ORF library, can in some cases create a peptide motif that results in the aberrant co-purification of endogenous cellular proteins. Control experiments may not identify false positives resulting from such artificial motifs, as aberrant binding depends on sequences that vary from one bait to another. It is possible that such cryptic protein binding might occur in other systems using affinity tagged proteins; this study highlights the importance of conducting careful follow-up studies where novel protein-protein interactions are suspected.

  2. Protein Solubility and Protein Homeostasis: A Generic View of Protein Misfolding Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Vendruscolo, Michele; Knowles, Tuomas P.J.; Dobson, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the “generic view” of protein aggregation, the ability to self-assemble into stable and highly organized structures such as amyloid fibrils is not an unusual feature exhibited by a small group of peptides and proteins with special sequence or structural properties, but rather a property shared by most proteins. At the same time, through a wide variety of techniques, many of which were originally devised for applications in other disciplines, it has also been established that the maintenance of proteins in a soluble state is a fundamental aspect of protein homeostasis. Taken together, these advances offer a unified framework for understanding the molecular basis of protein aggregation and for the rational development of therapeutic strategies based on the biological and chemical regulation of protein solubility. PMID:21825020

  3. Protein complex prediction in large ontology attributed protein-protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yijia; Lin, Hongfei; Yang, Zhihao; Wang, Jian; Li, Yanpeng; Xu, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Protein complexes are important for unraveling the secrets of cellular organization and function. Many computational approaches have been developed to predict protein complexes in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. However, most existing approaches focus mainly on the topological structure of PPI networks, and largely ignore the gene ontology (GO) annotation information. In this paper, we constructed ontology attributed PPI networks with PPI data and GO resource. After constructing ontology attributed networks, we proposed a novel approach called CSO (clustering based on network structure and ontology attribute similarity). Structural information and GO attribute information are complementary in ontology attributed networks. CSO can effectively take advantage of the correlation between frequent GO annotation sets and the dense subgraph for protein complex prediction. Our proposed CSO approach was applied to four different yeast PPI data sets and predicted many well-known protein complexes. The experimental results showed that CSO was valuable in predicting protein complexes and achieved state-of-the-art performance.

  4. Noninvasive imaging of protein-protein interactions in living organisms.

    PubMed

    Haberkorn, Uwe; Altmann, Annette

    2003-06-01

    Genomic research is expected to generate new types of complex observational data, changing the types of experiments as well as our understanding of biological processes. The investigation and definition of relationships among proteins is essential for understanding the function of each gene and the mechanisms of biological processes that specific genes are involved in. Recently, a study by Paulmurugan et al. demonstrated a tool for in vivo noninvasive imaging of protein-protein interactions and intracellular networks.

  5. Lipid-protein interaction in the phosphatidylcholine exchange protein.

    PubMed Central

    Devaux, P F; Moonen, P; Bienvenue, A; Wirtz, K W

    1977-01-01

    Incorporation of 2-acyl spin-labeled lecithin into the phosphatidylcholine protein from bovine liver results in an immobilization of the spin-label at the methyl and the carboxyl terminal end of the acyl chain. The nitroxide group on the protein-bound lecithin molecule is not accessible to ascorbate. This suggests that lecithin is buried in a pocket on the protein, which effectively shields the acyl chains from the medium. PMID:194240

  6. Computational prediction of host-pathogen protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Matthew D; Murali, T M; Sobral, Bruno W

    2007-07-01

    Infectious diseases such as malaria result in millions of deaths each year. An important aspect of any host-pathogen system is the mechanism by which a pathogen can infect its host. One method of infection is via protein-protein interactions (PPIs) where pathogen proteins target host proteins. Developing computational methods that identify which PPIs enable a pathogen to infect a host has great implications in identifying potential targets for therapeutics. We present a method that integrates known intra-species PPIs with protein-domain profiles to predict PPIs between host and pathogen proteins. Given a set of intra-species PPIs, we identify the functional domains in each of the interacting proteins. For every pair of functional domains, we use Bayesian statistics to assess the probability that two proteins with that pair of domains will interact. We apply our method to the Homo sapiens-Plasmodium falciparum host-pathogen system. Our system predicts 516 PPIs between proteins from these two organisms. We show that pairs of human proteins we predict to interact with the same Plasmodium protein are close to each other in the human PPI network and that Plasmodium pairs predicted to interact with same human protein are co-expressed in DNA microarray datasets measured during various stages of the Plasmodium life cycle. Finally, we identify functionally enriched sub-networks spanned by the predicted interactions and discuss the plausibility of our predictions. Supplementary data are available at http://staff.vbi.vt.edu/dyermd/publications/dyer2007a.html. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Targeted protein degradation by PROTACs.

    PubMed

    Neklesa, Taavi K; Winkler, James D; Crews, Craig M

    2017-06-01

    Targeted protein degradation using the PROTAC technology is emerging as a novel therapeutic method to address diseases driven by the aberrant expression of a disease-causing protein. PROTAC molecules are bifunctional small molecules that simultaneously bind a target protein and an E3-ubiquitin ligase, thus causing ubiquitination and degradation of the target protein by the proteasome. Like small molecules, PROTAC molecules possess good tissue distribution and the ability to target intracellular proteins. Herein, we highlight the advantages of protein degradation using PROTACs, and provide specific examples where degradation offers therapeutic benefit over classical enzyme inhibition. Foremost, PROTACs can degrade proteins regardless of their function. This includes the currently "undruggable" proteome, which comprises approximately 85% of all human proteins. Other beneficial aspects of protein degradation include the ability to target overexpressed and mutated proteins, as well as the potential to demonstrate prolonged pharmacodynamics effect beyond drug exposure. Lastly, due to their catalytic nature and the pre-requisite ubiquitination step, an exquisitely potent molecules with a high degree of degradation selectivity can be designed. Impressive preclinical in vitro and in vivo PROTAC data have been published, and these data have propelled the development of clinically viable PROTACs. With the molecular weight falling in the 700-1000Da range, the delivery and bioavailability of PROTACs remain the largest hurdles on the way to the clinic. Solving these issues and demonstrating proof of concept clinical data will be the focus of many labs over the next few years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Protein Adaptations in Archaeal Extremophiles

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Christopher J.; Lewis, Hunter; Trejo, Eric; Winston, Vern; Evilia, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    Extremophiles, especially those in Archaea, have a myriad of adaptations that keep their cellular proteins stable and active under the extreme conditions in which they live. Rather than having one basic set of adaptations that works for all environments, Archaea have evolved separate protein features that are customized for each environment. We categorized the Archaea into three general groups to describe what is known about their protein adaptations: thermophilic, psychrophilic, and halophilic. Thermophilic proteins tend to have a prominent hydrophobic core and increased electrostatic interactions to maintain activity at high temperatures. Psychrophilic proteins have a reduced hydrophobic core and a less charged protein surface to maintain flexibility and activity under cold temperatures. Halophilic proteins are characterized by increased negative surface charge due to increased acidic amino acid content and peptide insertions, which compensates for the extreme ionic conditions. While acidophiles, alkaliphiles, and piezophiles are their own class of Archaea, their protein adaptations toward pH and pressure are less discernible. By understanding the protein adaptations used by archaeal extremophiles, we hope to be able to engineer and utilize proteins for industrial, environmental, and biotechnological applications where function in extreme conditions is required for activity. PMID:24151449

  10. Viral Organization of Human Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wuchty, Stefan; Siwo, Geoffrey; Ferdig, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Although maps of intracellular interactions are increasingly well characterized, little is known about large-scale maps of host-pathogen protein interactions. The investigation of host-pathogen interactions can reveal features of pathogenesis and provide a foundation for the development of drugs and disease prevention strategies. A compilation of experimentally verified interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins and a set of HIV-dependency factors (HDF) allowed insights into the topology and intricate interplay between viral and host proteins on a large scale. We found that targeted and HDF proteins appear predominantly in rich-clubs, groups of human proteins that are strongly intertwined among each other. These assemblies of proteins may serve as an infection gateway, allowing the virus to take control of the human host by reaching protein pathways and diversified cellular functions in a pronounced and focused way. Particular transcription factors and protein kinases facilitate indirect interactions between HDFs and viral proteins. Discerning the entanglement of directly targeted and indirectly interacting proteins may uncover molecular and functional sites that can provide novel perspectives on the progression of HIV infection and highlight new avenues to fight this virus. PMID:20827298

  11. The Biological Value of Protein.

    PubMed

    Moore, Daniel R; Soeters, Peter B

    2015-01-01

    The biological value of a protein extends beyond its amino-acid composition and digestibility, and can be influenced by additional factors in a tissue-specific manner. In healthy individuals, the slow appearance of dietary amino acids in the portal vein and subsequently in the systemic circulation in response to bolus protein ingestion improves nitrogen retention and decreases urea production. This is promoted by slow absorption when only protein is ingested (e.g. casein). When a full meal is ingested, whey achieves slightly better nitrogen retention than soy or casein, which is very likely achieved by its high content of essential amino acids (especially leucine). Elderly people exhibit 'anabolic resistance' implying that more protein is required to reach maximal rates of muscle protein synthesis compared to young individuals. Protein utilization in inflammatory or traumatic conditions increases substantially in the splanchnic tissues containing most of the immune system, and in wounds and growing tissues. This happens especially in the elderly, which often suffer from chronic inflammatory activity due to disease, physical inactivity and/or the aging process itself. Consequently, the proportion of protein absorbed in the gut and utilized for muscle protein synthesis decreases in these situations. This compromises dietary-protein-induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis and ultimately results in increased requirements of protein (∼1.2 g/kg body weight/day) to limit gradual muscle loss with age. To optimally preserve muscle mass, physical exercise is required. Exercise has both direct effects on muscle mass and health, and indirect effects by increasing the utilization of dietary protein (especially whey) to enhance rates of muscle protein synthesis. © 2015 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Exploring the repeat protein universe through computational protein design

    DOE PAGES

    Brunette, TJ; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Huang, Po-Ssu; ...

    2015-12-16

    A central question in protein evolution is the extent to which naturally occurring proteins sample the space of folded structures accessible to the polypeptide chain. Repeat proteins composed of multiple tandem copies of a modular structure unit are widespread in nature and have critical roles in molecular recognition, signalling, and other essential biological processes. Naturally occurring repeat proteins have been re-engineered for molecular recognition and modular scaffolding applications. In this paper, we use computational protein design to investigate the space of folded structures that can be generated by tandem repeating a simple helix–loop–helix–loop structural motif. Eighty-three designs with sequences unrelatedmore » to known repeat proteins were experimentally characterized. Of these, 53 are monomeric and stable at 95 °C, and 43 have solution X-ray scattering spectra consistent with the design models. Crystal structures of 15 designs spanning a broad range of curvatures are in close agreement with the design models with root mean square deviations ranging from 0.7 to 2.5 Å. Finally, our results show that existing repeat proteins occupy only a small fraction of the possible repeat protein sequence and structure space and that it is possible to design novel repeat proteins with precisely specified geometries, opening up a wide array of new possibilities for biomolecular engineering.« less

  13. Protein supplementation with sports protein bars in renal patients.

    PubMed

    Meade, Anthony

    2007-05-01

    Malnutrition prevalence in patients on dialysis is well established. The protein requirements for both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis have been documented elsewhere, including the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure. The clinical challenge is to assist patients in meeting these targets, especially in those with anorexia. Traditional supplements have included fluid, which is an issue for patients who are fluid restricted. The study objectives were to (1) investigate the range of sports protein supplements that may be suitable for patients on hemodialysis to use and (2) trial nonfluid protein supplements in patients on hemodialysis. Known manufacturers of sports protein bars and other sports supplements available in Australia were contacted for the nutrient breakdown of high-protein products, specifically potassium, protein, and phosphorus contents. As a result, selected high-protein sports bars (Protein FX, Aussie Bodies, Port Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) were used as an alternative to the more commonly used renal-specific fluid supplements (Nepro, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL; Novasource Renal, Novartis Nutrition Corporation, Fremont, MI; and Renilon, Nutricia, Wiltshire, UK) in patients with poor nutritional status requiring supplementation. Patient satisfaction and clinical nutrition markers were investigated. The study took place at inpatient, in-center, and satellite hemodialysis settings in Adelaide, South Australia. A total of 32 patients (16 females and 16 males) with an average age of 62.9 years (range 32-86 years) undergoing hemodialysis (acute and maintenance) were included. Subjects were selected by the author as part of routine clinical nutrition care. Patients trialed sports protein bars as a protein supplement alone or in conjunction with other supplementary products. All patients were in favor of the trial, with 22 of 32 patients continuing with the protein

  14. Protein-protein recognition control by modulating electrostatic interactions.

    PubMed

    Han, Song; Yin, Shijin; Yi, Hong; Mouhat, Stéphanie; Qiu, Su; Cao, Zhijian; Sabatier, Jean-Marc; Wu, Yingliang; Li, Wenxin

    2010-06-04

    Protein-protein control recognition remains a huge challenge, and its development depends on understanding the chemical and biological mechanisms by which these interactions occur. Here we describe a protein-protein control recognition technique based on the dominant electrostatic interactions occurring between the proteins. We designed a potassium channel inhibitor, BmP05-T, that was 90.32% identical to wild-type BmP05. Negatively charged residues were translocated from the nonbinding interface to the binding interface of BmP05 inhibitor, such that BmP05-T now used BmP05 nonbinding interface as the binding interface. This switch demonstrated that nonbinding interfaces were able to control the orientation of protein binding interfaces in the process of protein-protein recognition. The novel function findings of BmP05-T peptide suggested that the control recognition technique described here had the potential for use in designing and utilizing functional proteins in many biological scenarios.

  15. Protein degradation and protection against misfolded or damaged proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Alfred L.

    2003-12-01

    The ultimate mechanism that cells use to ensure the quality of intracellular proteins is the selective destruction of misfolded or damaged polypeptides. In eukaryotic cells, the large ATP-dependent proteolytic machine, the 26S proteasome, prevents the accumulation of non-functional, potentially toxic proteins. This process is of particular importance in protecting cells against harsh conditions (for example, heat shock or oxidative stress) and in a variety of diseases (for example, cystic fibrosis and the major neurodegenerative diseases). A full understanding of the pathogenesis of the protein-folding diseases will require greater knowledge of how misfolded proteins are recognized and selectively degraded.

  16. Validation of Biomarker Proteins Using Reverse Capture Protein Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Jozwik, Catherine; Eidelman, Ofer; Starr, Joshua; Pollard, Harvey B; Srivastava, Meera

    2017-01-01

    Genomics has revolutionized large-scale and high-throughput sequencing and has led to the discovery of thousands of new proteins. Protein chip technology is emerging as a miniaturized and highly parallel platform that is suited to rapid, simultaneous screening of large numbers of proteins and the analysis of various protein-binding activities, enzyme substrate relationships, and posttranslational modifications. Specifically, reverse capture protein microarrays provide the most appropriate platform for identifying low-abundance, disease-specific biomarker proteins in a sea of high-abundance proteins from biological fluids such as blood, serum, plasma, saliva, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid as well as tissues and cells obtained by biopsy. Samples from hundreds of patients can be spotted in serial dilutions on many replicate glass slides. Each slide can then be probed with one specific antibody to the biomarker of interest. That antibody's titer can then be determined quantitatively for each patient, allowing for the statistical assessment and validation of the diagnostic or prognostic utility of that particular antigen. As the technology matures and the availability of validated, platform-compatible antibodies increases, the platform will move further into the desirable realm of discovery science for detecting and quantitating low-abundance signaling proteins. In this chapter, we describe methods for the successful application of the reverse capture protein microarray platform for which we have made substantial contributions to the development and application of this method, particularly in the use of body fluids other than serum/plasma.

  17. Modular protein switches derived from antibody mimetic proteins.

    PubMed

    Nicholes, N; Date, A; Beaujean, P; Hauk, P; Kanwar, M; Ostermeier, M

    2016-02-01

    Protein switches have potential applications as biosensors and selective protein therapeutics. Protein switches built by fusion of proteins with the prerequisite input and output functions are currently developed using an ad hoc process. A modular switch platform in which existing switches could be readily adapted to respond to any ligand would be advantageous. We investigated the feasibility of a modular protein switch platform based on fusions of the enzyme TEM-1 β-lactamase (BLA) with two different antibody mimetic proteins: designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) and monobodies. We created libraries of random insertions of the gene encoding BLA into genes encoding a DARPin or a monobody designed to bind maltose-binding protein (MBP). From these libraries, we used a genetic selection system for β-lactamase activity to identify genes that conferred MBP-dependent ampicillin resistance to Escherichia coli. Some of these selected genes encoded switch proteins whose enzymatic activity increased up to 14-fold in the presence of MBP. We next introduced mutations into the antibody mimetic domain of these switches that were known to cause binding to different ligands. To different degrees, introduction of the mutations resulted in switches with the desired specificity, illustrating the potential modularity of these platforms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Mapping monomeric threading to protein-protein structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Guerler, Aysam; Govindarajoo, Brandon; Zhang, Yang

    2013-03-25

    The key step of template-based protein-protein structure prediction is the recognition of complexes from experimental structure libraries that have similar quaternary fold. Maintaining two monomer and dimer structure libraries is however laborious, and inappropriate library construction can degrade template recognition coverage. We propose a novel strategy SPRING to identify complexes by mapping monomeric threading alignments to protein-protein interactions based on the original oligomer entries in the PDB, which does not rely on library construction and increases the efficiency and quality of complex template recognitions. SPRING is tested on 1838 nonhomologous protein complexes which can recognize correct quaternary template structures with a TM score >0.5 in 1115 cases after excluding homologous proteins. The average TM score of the first model is 60% and 17% higher than that by HHsearch and COTH, respectively, while the number of targets with an interface RMSD <2.5 Å by SPRING is 134% and 167% higher than these competing methods. SPRING is controlled with ZDOCK on 77 docking benchmark proteins. Although the relative performance of SPRING and ZDOCK depends on the level of homology filters, a combination of the two methods can result in a significantly higher model quality than ZDOCK at all homology thresholds. These data demonstrate a new efficient approach to quaternary structure recognition that is ready to use for genome-scale modeling of protein-protein interactions due to the high speed and accuracy.

  19. Noninvasive imaging of protein-protein interactions in living animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luker, Gary D.; Sharma, Vijay; Pica, Christina M.; Dahlheimer, Julie L.; Li, Wei; Ochesky, Joseph; Ryan, Christine E.; Piwnica-Worms, Helen; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2002-05-01

    Protein-protein interactions control transcription, cell division, and cell proliferation as well as mediate signal transduction, oncogenic transformation, and regulation of cell death. Although a variety of methods have been used to investigate protein interactions in vitro and in cultured cells, none can analyze these interactions in intact, living animals. To enable noninvasive molecular imaging of protein-protein interactions in vivo by positron-emission tomography and fluorescence imaging, we engineered a fusion reporter gene comprising a mutant herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase and green fluorescent protein for readout of a tetracycline-inducible, two-hybrid system in vivo. By using micro-positron-emission tomography, interactions between p53 tumor suppressor and the large T antigen of simian virus 40 were visualized in tumor xenografts of HeLa cells stably transfected with the imaging constructs. Imaging protein-binding partners in vivo will enable functional proteomics in whole animals and provide a tool for screening compounds targeted to specific protein-protein interactions in living animals.

  20. Protein Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In order to rapidly and efficiently grow crystals, tools were needed to automatically identify and analyze the growing process of protein crystals. To meet this need, Diversified Scientific, Inc. (DSI), with the support of a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, developed CrystalScore(trademark), the first automated image acquisition, analysis, and archiving system designed specifically for the macromolecular crystal growing community. It offers automated hardware control, image and data archiving, image processing, a searchable database, and surface plotting of experimental data. CrystalScore is currently being used by numerous pharmaceutical companies and academic and nonprofit research centers. DSI, located in Birmingham, Alabama, was awarded the patent Method for acquiring, storing, and analyzing crystal images on March 4, 2003. Another DSI product made possible by Marshall SBIR funding is VaporPro(trademark), a unique, comprehensive system that allows for the automated control of vapor diffusion for crystallization experiments.

  1. Protein- mediated enamel mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Enamel is a hard nanocomposite bioceramic with significant resilience that protects the mammalian tooth from external physical and chemical damages. The remarkable mechanical properties of enamel are associated with its hierarchical structural organization and its thorough connection with underlying dentin. This dynamic mineralizing system offers scientists a wealth of information that allows the study of basic principals of organic matrix-mediated biomineralization and can potentially be utilized in the fields of material science and engineering for development and design of biomimetic materials. This chapter will provide a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and properties as well as the process and stages of amelogenesis. Particular emphasis is given to current knowledge of extracellular matrix protein and proteinases, and the structural chemistry of the matrix components and their putative functions. The chapter will conclude by discussing the potential of enamel for regrowth. PMID:22652761

  2. Protein detection system

    DOEpatents

    Fruetel, Julie A [Livermore, CA; Fiechtner, Gregory J [Bethesda, MD; Kliner, Dahv A. V. [San Ramon, CA; McIlroy, Andrew [Livermore, CA

    2009-05-05

    The present embodiment describes a miniature, microfluidic, absorption-based sensor to detect proteins at sensitivities comparable to LIF but without the need for tagging. This instrument utilizes fiber-based evanescent-field cavity-ringdown spectroscopy, in combination with faceted prism microchannels. The combination of these techniques will increase the effective absorption path length by a factor of 10.sup.3 to 10.sup.4 (to .about.1-m), thereby providing unprecedented sensitivity using direct absorption. The coupling of high-sensitivity absorption with high-performance microfluidic separation will enable real-time sensing of biological agents in aqueous samples (including aerosol collector fluids) and will provide a general method with spectral fingerprint capability for detecting specific bio-agents.

  3. Dipolar response of hydrated proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2012-02-01

    The paper presents an analytical theory and numerical simulations of the dipolar response of hydrated proteins in solution. We calculate the effective dielectric constant representing the average dipole moment induced at the protein by a uniform external field. The dielectric constant shows a remarkable variation among the proteins, changing from 0.5 for ubiquitin to 640 for cytochrome c. The former value implies a negative dipolar susceptibility, that is a dia-electric dipolar response and negative dielectrophoresis. It means that ubiquitin, carrying an average dipole of ≃240 D, is expected to repel from the region of a stronger electric field. This outcome is the result of a negative cross-correlation between the protein and water dipoles, compensating for the positive variance of the intrinsic protein dipole in the overall dipolar susceptibility. In contrast to the neutral ubiquitin, charged proteins studied here show para-electric dipolar response and positive dielectrophoresis. The study suggests that the dipolar response of proteins in solution is strongly affected by the coupling of the protein surface charge to the hydration water. The protein-water dipolar cross-correlations are long-ranged, extending ˜2 nm from the protein surface into the bulk. A similar correlation length of about 1 nm is seen for the electrostatic potential produced by the hydration water inside the protein. The analysis of numerical simulations suggests that the polarization of the protein-water interface is highly heterogeneous and does not follow the standard dielectric results for cavities carved in dielectrics. The polarization of the water shell gains in importance, relative to the intrinsic protein dipole, at high frequencies, above the protein Debye peak. The induced interfacial dipole can be either parallel or antiparallel to the protein dipole, depending on the distribution of the protein surface charge. As a result, the high-frequency absorption of the protein solution

  4. Dipolar response of hydrated proteins.

    PubMed

    Matyushov, Dmitry V

    2012-02-28

    The paper presents an analytical theory and numerical simulations of the dipolar response of hydrated proteins in solution. We calculate the effective dielectric constant representing the average dipole moment induced at the protein by a uniform external field. The dielectric constant shows a remarkable variation among the proteins, changing from 0.5 for ubiquitin to 640 for cytochrome c. The former value implies a negative dipolar susceptibility, that is a dia-electric dipolar response and negative dielectrophoresis. It means that ubiquitin, carrying an average dipole of ≃240 D, is expected to repel from the region of a stronger electric field. This outcome is the result of a negative cross-correlation between the protein and water dipoles, compensating for the positive variance of the intrinsic protein dipole in the overall dipolar susceptibility. In contrast to the neutral ubiquitin, charged proteins studied here show para-electric dipolar response and positive dielectrophoresis. The study suggests that the dipolar response of proteins in solution is strongly affected by the coupling of the protein surface charge to the hydration water. The protein-water dipolar cross-correlations are long-ranged, extending ~2 nm from the protein surface into the bulk. A similar correlation length of about 1 nm is seen for the electrostatic potential produced by the hydration water inside the protein. The analysis of numerical simulations suggests that the polarization of the protein-water interface is highly heterogeneous and does not follow the standard dielectric results for cavities carved in dielectrics. The polarization of the water shell gains in importance, relative to the intrinsic protein dipole, at high frequencies, above the protein Debye peak. The induced interfacial dipole can be either parallel or antiparallel to the protein dipole, depending on the distribution of the protein surface charge. As a result, the high-frequency absorption of the protein solution can

  5. Bifunctional fusion proteins of calmodulin and protein A as affinity ligands in protein purification and in the study of protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Hentz, N G; Daunert, S

    1996-11-15

    An affinity chromatography system is described that incorporates a genetically designed bifunctional affinity ligand. The utility of the system in protein purification and in the study of protein-protein interactions is demonstrated by using the interaction between protein A and the heat shock protein DnaK as a model system. The bifunctional affinity ligand was developed by genetically fusing calmodulin (CaM) to protein A (ProtA). The dual functionality of protein A-calmodulin (ProtA-CaM) stems from the molecular recognition properties of the two components of the fusion protein. In particular, CaM serves as the anchoring component by virtue of its binding properties toward phenothiazine. Thus, the ProtA-CaM can be immobilized on a solid support containing phenothiazine from the C-terminal domain of the fusion protein. Protein A is at the N-terminal domain of the fusion protein and serves as the affinity site for DnaK. While DnaK binds specifically to the protein A domain of the bifunctional ligand, it is released upon addition of ATP and under very mild conditions (pH 7.0). In addition to obtaining highly purified DnaK, this system is very rugged in terms of its performance. The proteinaceous bifunctional affinity ligand can be easily removed by addition of EGTA, and fresh ProtA-CaM can be easily reloaded onto the column. This allows for a facile regeneration of the affinity column because the phenothiazine-silica support matrix is stable for long periods of time under a variety of conditions. This study also demonstrates that calmodulin fusions can provide a new approach to study protein-protein interactions. Indeed, the ProtA-CaM fusion protein identified DnaK as a cellular component that interacts with protein A from among the thousands of proteins present in Escherichia coli.

  6. Nanofibers made of globular proteins.

    PubMed

    Dror, Yael; Ziv, Tamar; Makarov, Vadim; Wolf, Hila; Admon, Arie; Zussman, Eyal

    2008-10-01

    Strong nanofibers composed entirely of a model globular protein, namely, bovine serum albumin (BSA), were produced by electrospinning directly from a BSA solution without the use of chemical cross-linkers. Control of the spinnability and the mechanical properties of the produced nanofibers was achieved by manipulating the protein conformation, protein aggregation, and intra/intermolecular disulfide bonds exchange. In this manner, a low-viscosity globular protein solution could be modified into a polymer-like spinnable solution and easily spun into fibers whose mechanical properties were as good as those of natural fibers made of fibrous protein. We demonstrate here that newly formed disulfide bonds (intra/intermolecular) have a dominant role in both the formation of the nanofibers and in providing them with superior mechanical properties. Our approach to engineer proteins into biocompatible fibrous structures may be used in a wide range of biomedical applications such as suturing, wound dressing, and wound closure.

  7. Maintaining protein composition in cilia.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Louise A; Elmaghloob, Yasmin; Ismail, Shehab

    2017-12-20

    The primary cilium is a sensory organelle that is vital in regulating several signalling pathways. Unlike most organelles cilia are open to the rest of the cell, not enclosed by membranes. The distinct protein composition is crucial to the function of cilia and many signalling proteins and receptors are specifically concentrated within distinct compartments. To maintain this composition, a mechanism is required to deliver proteins to the cilium whilst another must counter the entropic tendency of proteins to distribute throughout the cell. The combination of the two mechanisms should result in the concentration of ciliary proteins to the cilium. In this review we will look at different cellular mechanisms that play a role in maintaining the distinct composition of cilia, including regulation of ciliary access and trafficking of ciliary proteins to, from and within the cilium.

  8. Non-Arrhenius protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Roberts, Christopher J

    2013-07-01

    Protein aggregation presents one of the key challenges in the development of protein biotherapeutics. It affects not only product quality but also potentially impacts safety, as protein aggregates have been shown to be linked with cytotoxicity and patient immunogenicity. Therefore, investigations of protein aggregation remain a major focus in pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions. Due to the complexity of the aggregation process and temperature-dependent conformational stability, temperature-induced protein aggregation is often non-Arrhenius over even relatively small temperature windows relevant for product development, and this makes low-temperature extrapolation difficult based simply on accelerated stability studies at high temperatures. This review discusses the non-Arrhenius nature of the temperature dependence of protein aggregation, explores possible causes, and considers inherent hurdles for accurately extrapolating aggregation rates from conventional industrial approaches for selecting accelerated conditions and from conventional or more advanced methods of analyzing the resulting rate data.

  9. Spectrophotometric determination of protein concentration.

    PubMed

    Grimsley, Gerald R; Pace, C Nick

    2004-11-01

    The concentration of a purified protein in solution is most conveniently and accurately measured using absorbance spectroscopy. The absorbance, A, is a linear function of the molar concentration, C, according to the Beer-Lambert law: A = epsilon x l x c, where e is the molar absorption coefficient and l is the cell path length. This unit provides protocols for calculation of epsilon for a folded or unfolded protein, making use of the average epsilon values for the three contributing chromophores in proteins (the side chains of Trp, Tyr, and Cys). A basic protocol describes how to measure the concentration of a protein using the calculated epsilon and the Beer-Lambert law. A sensitive method is provided for measuring the concentration of proteins that contain few if any tryptophan or tyrosine residues, and a simple method is provided for estimating total protein concentration in crude extracts.

  10. Preparation of GST Fusion Proteins.

    PubMed

    Einarson, Margret B; Pugacheva, Elena N; Orlinick, Jason R

    2007-04-01

    INTRODUCTIONThis protocol describes the preparation of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins, which have had a wide range of applications since their introduction as tools for synthesis of recombinant proteins in bacteria. GST was originally selected as a fusion moiety because of several desirable properties. First and foremost, when expressed in bacteria alone, or as a fusion, GST is not sequestered in inclusion bodies (in contrast to previous fusion protein systems). Second, GST can be affinity-purified without denaturation because it binds to immobilized glutathione, which provides the basis for simple purification. Consequently, GST fusion proteins are routinely used for antibody generation and purification, protein-protein interaction studies, and biochemical analysis.

  11. Theoretical studies of protein-protein and protein-DNA binding rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsallaq, Ramzi A.

    Proteins are folded chains of amino acids. Some of the amino acids (e.g. Lys, Arg, His, Asp, and Glu) carry charges under physiological conditions. Proteins almost always function through binding to other proteins or ligands, for example barnase is a ribonuclease protein, found in the bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaceus. Barnase degrades RNA by hydrolysis. For the bacterium to inhibit the potentially lethal action of Barnase within its own cell it co-produces another protein called barstar which binds quickly, and tightly, to barnase. The biological function of this binding is to block the active site of barnase. The speeds (rates) at which proteins associate are vital to many biological processes. They span a wide range (from less than 103 to 108 M-1s-1 ). Rates greater than ˜ 106 M -1s-1 are typically found to be manifestations of enhancements by long-range electrostatic interactions between the associating proteins. A different paradigm appears in the case of protein binding to DNA. The rate in this case is enhanced through attractive surface potential that effectively reduces the dimensionality of the available search space for the diffusing protein. This thesis presents computational and theoretical models on the rate of association of ligands/proteins to other proteins or DNA. For protein-protein association we present a general strategy for computing protein-protein rates of association. The main achievements of this strategy is the ability to obtain a stringent reaction criteria based on the landscape of short-range interactions between the associating proteins, and the ability to compute the effect of the electrostatic interactions on the rates of association accurately using the best known solvers for Poisson-Boltzmann equation presently available. For protein-DNA association we present a mathematical model for proteins targeting specific sites on a circular DNA topology. The main achievements are the realization that a linear DNA with reflecting ends

  12. TGF-beta signaling proteins and the Protein Ontology.

    PubMed

    Arighi, Cecilia N; Liu, Hongfang; Natale, Darren A; Barker, Winona C; Drabkin, Harold; Blake, Judith A; Smith, Barry; Wu, Cathy H

    2009-05-06

    The Protein Ontology (PRO) is designed as a formal and principled Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry ontology for proteins. The components of PRO extend from a classification of proteins on the basis of evolutionary relationships at the homeomorphic level to the representation of the multiple protein forms of a gene, including those resulting from alternative splicing, cleavage and/or post-translational modifications. Focusing specifically on the TGF-beta signaling proteins, we describe the building, curation, usage and dissemination of PRO. PRO is manually curated on the basis of PrePRO, an automatically generated file with content derived from standard protein data sources. Manual curation ensures that the treatment of the protein classes and the internal and external relationships conform to the PRO framework. The current release of PRO is based upon experimental data from mouse and human proteins wherein equivalent protein forms are represented by single terms. In addition to the PRO ontology, the annotation of PRO terms is released as a separate PRO association file, which contains, for each given PRO term, an annotation from the experimentally characterized sub-types as well as the corresponding database identifiers and sequence coordinates. The annotations are added in the form of relationship to other ontologies. Whenever possible, equivalent forms in other species are listed to facilitate cross-species comparison. Splice and allelic variants, gene fusion products and modified protein forms are all represented as entities in the ontology. Therefore, PRO provides for the representation of protein entities and a resource for describing the associated data. This makes PRO useful both for proteomics studies where isoforms and modified forms must be differentiated, and for studies of biological pathways, where representations need to take account of the different ways in which the cascade of events may depend on specific protein modifications. PRO provides

  13. Containerless protein crystal growth method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Chung, Sang K.

    1991-01-01

    A method of growing protein crystals from levitated drops is introduced and unique features of containerless approach in 1-g and micro-G laboratories are discussed. Electrostatic multidrop levitation system which is capable of simultaneous four drop levitation is described. A method of controlling protein saturation level in a programmed way is introduced and discussed. Finally, some of the unique features of containerless approach of protein crystal growth in space are discussed and summarized.

  14. Protein Multifunctionality: Principles and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zaretsky, Joseph Z.; Wreschner, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    In the review, the nature of protein multifunctionality is analyzed. In the first part of the review the principles of structural/functional organization of protein are discussed. In the second part, the main mechanisms involved in development of multiple functions on a single gene product(s) are analyzed. The last part represents a number of examples showing that multifunctionality is a basic feature of biologically active proteins. PMID:21566747

  15. Pressure Studies of Protein Dynamics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-20

    applicable ) Office of Naval Research ONR N00014-86-K-0270 kc. ADDRESS (City, State,and ZIP Code) 10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS - PROGRAM PROJECT I TASK IWORK...Pressure Studies of Protein Dynamics 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Hans Frauenfelder and Robert D. Young 13a. TYPE OF REPORT |13b. TIME COVERED 114 DATE OF...relatioihbetween dynamic structure and function of protein protein dyna -bsey observing the phenomena induced by flash photolysis using near ultravfilet

  16. Scientist prepare Lysozyme Protein Crystal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Dan Carter and Charles Sisk center a Lysozyme Protein crystal grown aboard the USML-2 shuttle mission. Protein isolated from hen egg-white and functions as a bacteriostatic enzyme by degrading bacterial cell walls. First enzyme ever characterized by protein crystallography. It is used as an excellent model system for better understanding parameters involved in microgravity crystal growth experiments. The goal is to compare kinetic data from microgravity experiments with data from laboratory experiments to study the equilibrium.

  17. ERM proteins of the lens.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, M; Katar, M; Lo, W-K; Yost, R; Hill, C; Maisel, H

    2004-06-01

    Ezrin and radixin and protein 4.1 were detected in the lens of the eye. These proteins were mainly present in the young elongating cortical fiber cells and localized to the plasma membranes. Moesin was not detected. Ezrin, radixin, and protein 4.1 provide another means whereby actin is linked to the plasma membrane in addition to the known adherens junctions in the lens. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Quantifying protein-protein interactions in high throughput using protein domain microarrays.

    PubMed

    Kaushansky, Alexis; Allen, John E; Gordus, Andrew; Stiffler, Michael A; Karp, Ethan S; Chang, Bryan H; MacBeath, Gavin

    2010-04-01

    Protein microarrays provide an efficient way to identify and quantify protein-protein interactions in high throughput. One drawback of this technique is that proteins show a broad range of physicochemical properties and are often difficult to produce recombinantly. To circumvent these problems, we have focused on families of protein interaction domains. Here we provide protocols for constructing microarrays of protein interaction domains in individual wells of 96-well microtiter plates, and for quantifying domain-peptide interactions in high throughput using fluorescently labeled synthetic peptides. As specific examples, we will describe the construction of microarrays of virtually every human Src homology 2 (SH2) and phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain, as well as microarrays of mouse PDZ domains, all produced recombinantly in Escherichia coli. For domains that mediate high-affinity interactions, such as SH2 and PTB domains, equilibrium dissociation constants (K(D)s) for their peptide ligands can be measured directly on arrays by obtaining saturation binding curves. For weaker binding domains, such as PDZ domains, arrays are best used to identify candidate interactions, which are then retested and quantified by fluorescence polarization. Overall, protein domain microarrays provide the ability to rapidly identify and quantify protein-ligand interactions with minimal sample consumption. Because entire domain families can be interrogated simultaneously, they provide a powerful way to assess binding selectivity on a proteome-wide scale and provide an unbiased perspective on the connectivity of protein-protein interaction networks.

  19. Protein function prediction using neighbor relativity in protein-protein interaction network.

    PubMed

    Moosavi, Sobhan; Rahgozar, Masoud; Rahimi, Amir

    2013-04-01

    There is a large gap between the number of discovered proteins and the number of functionally annotated ones. Due to the high cost of determining protein function by wet-lab research, function prediction has become a major task for computational biology and bioinformatics. Some researches utilize the proteins interaction information to predict function for un-annotated proteins. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called "Neighbor Relativity Coefficient" (NRC) based on interaction network topology which estimates the functional similarity between two proteins. NRC is calculated for each pair of proteins based on their graph-based features including distance, common neighbors and the number of paths between them. In order to ascribe function to an un-annotated protein, NRC estimates a weight for each neighbor to transfer its annotation to the unknown protein. Finally, the unknown protein will be annotated by the top score transferred functions. We also investigate the effect of using different coefficients for various types of functions. The proposed method has been evaluated on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens interaction networks. The performance analysis demonstrates that NRC yields better results in comparison with previous protein function prediction approaches that utilize interaction network. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimization of protein-protein docking for predicting Fc-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Agostino, Mark; Mancera, Ricardo L; Ramsland, Paul A; Fernández-Recio, Juan

    2016-11-01

    The antibody crystallizable fragment (Fc) is recognized by effector proteins as part of the immune system. Pathogens produce proteins that bind Fc in order to subvert or evade the immune response. The structural characterization of the determinants of Fc-protein association is essential to improve our understanding of the immune system at the molecular level and to develop new therapeutic agents. Furthermore, Fc-binding peptides and proteins are frequently used to purify therapeutic antibodies. Although several structures of Fc-protein complexes are available, numerous others have not yet been determined. Protein-protein docking could be used to investigate Fc-protein complexes; however, improved approaches are necessary to efficiently model such cases. In this study, a docking-based structural bioinformatics approach is developed for predicting the structures of Fc-protein complexes. Based on the available set of X-ray structures of Fc-protein complexes, three regions of the Fc, loosely corresponding to three turns within the structure, were defined as containing the essential features for protein recognition and used as restraints to filter the initial docking search. Rescoring the filtered poses with an optimal scoring strategy provided a success rate of approximately 80% of the test cases examined within the top ranked 20 poses, compared to approximately 20% by the initial unrestrained docking. The developed docking protocol provides a significant improvement over the initial unrestrained docking and will be valuable for predicting the structures of currently undetermined Fc-protein complexes, as well as in the design of peptides and proteins that target Fc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Building protein-protein interaction networks for Leishmania species through protein structural information.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Vasconcelos, Crhisllane Rafaele; de Lima Campos, Túlio; Rezende, Antonio Mauro

    2018-03-06

    Systematic analysis of a parasite interactome is a key approach to understand different biological processes. It makes possible to elucidate disease mechanisms, to predict protein functions and to select promising targets for drug development. Currently, several approaches for protein interaction prediction for non-model species incorporate only small fractions of the entire proteomes and their interactions. Based on this perspective, this study presents an integration of computational methodologies, protein network predictions and comparative analysis of the protozoan species Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum. These parasites cause Leishmaniasis, a worldwide distributed and neglected disease, with limited treatment options using currently available drugs. The predicted interactions were obtained from a meta-approach, applying rigid body docking tests and template-based docking on protein structures predicted by different comparative modeling techniques. In addition, we trained a machine-learning algorithm (Gradient Boosting) using docking information performed on a curated set of positive and negative protein interaction data. Our final model obtained an AUC = 0.88, with recall = 0.69, specificity = 0.88 and precision = 0.83. Using this approach, it was possible to confidently predict 681 protein structures and 6198 protein interactions for L. braziliensis, and 708 protein structures and 7391 protein interactions for L. infantum. The predicted networks were integrated to protein interaction data already available, analyzed using several topological features and used to classify proteins as essential for network stability. The present study allowed to demonstrate the importance of integrating different methodologies of interaction prediction to increase the coverage of the protein interaction of the studied protocols, besides it made available protein structures and interactions not previously reported.

  2. Amyloidogenesis of Natively Unfolded Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2009-01-01

    Aggregation and subsequent development of protein deposition diseases originate from conformational changes in corresponding amyloidogenic proteins. The accumulated data support the model where protein fibrillogenesis proceeds via the formation of a relatively unfolded amyloidogenic conformation, which shares many structural properties with the pre-molten globule state, a partially folded intermediate first found during the equilibrium and kinetic (un)folding studies of several globular proteins and later described as one of the structural forms of natively unfolded proteins. The flexibility of this structural form is essential for the conformational rearrangements driving the formation of the core cross-beta structure of the amyloid fibril. Obviously, molecular mechanisms describing amyloidogenesis of ordered and natively unfolded proteins are different. For ordered protein to fibrillate, its unique and rigid structure has to be destabilized and partially unfolded. On the other hand, fibrillogenesis of a natively unfolded protein involves the formation of partially folded conformation; i.e., partial folding rather than unfolding. In this review recent findings are surveyed to illustrate some unique features of the natively unfolded proteins amyloidogenesis. PMID:18537543

  3. Protein intrinsic disorder in plants.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Florencio; Pietrosemoli, Natalia; García-Martín, Juan A; Solano, Roberto

    2013-09-12

    To some extent contradicting the classical paradigm of the relationship between protein 3D structure and function, now it is clear that large portions of the proteomes, especially in higher organisms, lack a fixed structure and still perform very important functions. Proteins completely or partially unstructured in their native (functional) form are involved in key cellular processes underlain by complex networks of protein interactions. The intrinsic conformational flexibility of these disordered proteins allows them to bind multiple partners in transient interactions of high specificity and low affinity. In concordance, in plants this type of proteins has been found in processes requiring these complex and versatile interaction networks. These include transcription factor networks, where disordered proteins act as integrators of different signals or link different transcription factor subnetworks due to their ability to interact (in many cases simultaneously) with different partners. Similarly, they also serve as signal integrators in signaling cascades, such as those related to response to external stimuli. Disordered proteins have also been found in plants in many stress-response processes, acting as protein chaperones or protecting other cellular components and structures. In plants, it is especially important to have complex and versatile networks able to quickly and efficiently respond to changing environmental conditions since these organisms cannot escape and have no other choice than adapting to them. Consequently, protein disorder can play an especially important role in plants, providing them with a fast mechanism to obtain complex, interconnected and versatile molecular networks.

  4. Protein intrinsic disorder in plants

    PubMed Central

    Pazos, Florencio; Pietrosemoli, Natalia; García-Martín, Juan A.; Solano, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    To some extent contradicting the classical paradigm of the relationship between protein 3D structure and function, now it is clear that large portions of the proteomes, especially in higher organisms, lack a fixed structure and still perform very important functions. Proteins completely or partially unstructured in their native (functional) form are involved in key cellular processes underlain by complex networks of protein interactions. The intrinsic conformational flexibility of these disordered proteins allows them to bind multiple partners in transient interactions of high specificity and low affinity. In concordance, in plants this type of proteins has been found in processes requiring these complex and versatile interaction networks. These include transcription factor networks, where disordered proteins act as integrators of different signals or link different transcription factor subnetworks due to their ability to interact (in many cases simultaneously) with different partners. Similarly, they also serve as signal integrators in signaling cascades, such as those related to response to external stimuli. Disordered proteins have also been found in plants in many stress-response processes, acting as protein chaperones or protecting other cellular components and structures. In plants, it is especially important to have complex and versatile networks able to quickly and efficiently respond to changing environmental conditions since these organisms cannot escape and have no other choice than adapting to them. Consequently, protein disorder can play an especially important role in plants, providing them with a fast mechanism to obtain complex, interconnected and versatile molecular networks. PMID:24062761

  5. High throughput protein production screening

    DOEpatents

    Beernink, Peter T [Walnut Creek, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Segelke, Brent W [San Ramon, CA

    2009-09-08

    Methods, compositions, and kits for the cell-free production and analysis of proteins are provided. The invention allows for the production of proteins from prokaryotic sequences or eukaryotic sequences, including human cDNAs using PCR and IVT methods and detecting the proteins through fluorescence or immunoblot techniques. This invention can be used to identify optimized PCR and WT conditions, codon usages and mutations. The methods are readily automated and can be used for high throughput analysis of protein expression levels, interactions, and functional states.

  6. Computational protein design: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coluzza, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Proteins are one of the most versatile modular assembling systems in nature. Experimentally, more than 110 000 protein structures have been identified and more are deposited every day in the Protein Data Bank. Such an enormous structural variety is to a first approximation controlled by the sequence of amino acids along the peptide chain of each protein. Understanding how the structural and functional properties of the target can be encoded in this sequence is the main objective of protein design. Unfortunately, rational protein design remains one of the major challenges across the disciplines of biology, physics and chemistry. The implications of solving this problem are enormous and branch into materials science, drug design, evolution and even cryptography. For instance, in the field of drug design an effective computational method to design protein-based ligands for biological targets such as viruses, bacteria or tumour cells, could give a significant boost to the development of new therapies with reduced side effects. In materials science, self-assembly is a highly desired property and soon artificial proteins could represent a new class of designable self-assembling materials. The scope of this review is to describe the state of the art in computational protein design methods and give the reader an outline of what developments could be expected in the near future.

  7. Protein Bioinformatics Databases and Resources

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H.

    2017-01-01

    Many publicly available data repositories and resources have been developed to support protein related information management, data-driven hypothesis generation and biological knowledge discovery. To help researchers quickly find the appropriate protein related informatics resources, we present a comprehensive review (with categorization and description) of major protein bioinformatics databases in this chapter. We also discuss the challenges and opportunities for developing next-generation protein bioinformatics databases and resources to support data integration and data analytics in the Big Data era. PMID:28150231

  8. Human Protein Kinases and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Engin, Atilla

    2017-01-01

    The action of protein kinases and protein phosphatases is essential for multiple physiological responses. Each protein kinase displays its own unique substrate specificity, and a regulatory mechanism that may be modulated by association with other proteins. Protein kinases are classified by the target amino acid in their substrates. Some protein kinases can phosphorylate both serine/threonine, as well as tyrosine residues. This group of kinases has been known as dual specificity kinases. Unlike the dual specificity kinases, a heterogeneous group of protein phosphatases are known as dual-specificity phosphatases. These phosphatases remove phosphate groups from tyrosine and serine/threonine residues on their substrate. Dual-specificity phosphatases are important signal transduction enzymes that regulate various cellular processes in coordination with protein kinases. The protein kinase-phosphoproteins interactions play an important role in obesity . In obesity, the pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of adipokines and cytokines through intracellular signaling pathways mainly involve the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) systems as well as the inhibitor of kappaB-kinase beta (IKK beta). Impairment of insulin signaling in obesity is largely mediated by the activation of the IKKbeta and the JNK. Furthermore, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activate the JNK pathway which suppresses insulin biosynthesis. Additionally, obesity-activated calcium/calmodulin dependent-protein kinase II/p38 suppresses insulin-induced protein kinase B phosphorylation by activating the ER stress effector, activating transcription factor-4. Obese adults with vascular endothelial dysfunction have greater endothelial cells activation of unfolded protein response stress sensors, RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha kinase (PERK) and activating transcription factor-6. The transcriptional regulation of

  9. Toxic Proteins in Neurodegenerative Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. Paul; Hardy, John; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.

    2002-06-01

    A broad range of neurodegenerative disorders is characterized by neuronal damage that may be caused by toxic, aggregation-prone proteins. As genes are identified for these disorders and cell culture and animal models are developed, it has become clear that a major effect of mutations in these genes is the abnormal processing and accumulation of misfolded protein in neuronal inclusions and plaques. Increased understanding of the cellular mechanisms for disposal of abnormal proteins and of the effects of toxic protein accumulation on neuronal survival may allow the development of rational, effective treatment for these disorders.

  10. Single-Cell Protein Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meiye; Singh, Anup K

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneity of cellular systems has been widely recognized but only recently have tools become available that allow probing of genes and proteins in single cells to understand it. While the advancement in single cell genomic analysis has been greatly aided by the power of amplification techniques (e.g., PCR), analysis of proteins in single cells has proven to be more challenging. However, recent advances in multi-parameter flow cytometry, microfluidics and other techniques have made it possible to measure wide variety of proteins in single cells. In this review, we highlight key recent developments in analysis of proteins in a single cell, and discuss their significance in biological research. PMID:22189001

  11. Nanotube-assisted protein deactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Amit; Punyani, Supriya; Bale, Shyam Sundhar; Yang, Hoichang; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian; Kane, Ravi S.

    2008-01-01

    Conjugating proteins onto carbon nanotubes has numerous applications in biosensing, imaging and cellular delivery. However, remotely controlling the activity of proteins in these conjugates has never been demonstrated. Here we show that upon near-infrared irradiation, carbon nanotubes mediate the selective deactivation of proteins in situ by photochemical effects. We designed nanotube-peptide conjugates to selectively destroy the anthrax toxin, and also optically transparent coatings that can self-clean following either visible or near-infrared irradiation. Nanotube-assisted protein deactivation may be broadly applicable to the selective destruction of pathogens and cells, and will have applications ranging from antifouling coatings to functional proteomics.

  12. Tutorial on Protein Ontology Resources

    PubMed Central

    Arighi, Cecilia; Drabkin, Harold; Christie, Karen R.; Ross, Karen; Natale, Darren

    2017-01-01

    The Protein Ontology (PRO) is the reference ontology for proteins in the Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) foundry and consists of three sub-ontologies representing protein classes of homologous genes, proteoforms (e.g., splice isoforms, sequence variants, and post-translationally modified forms), and protein complexes. PRO defines classes of proteins and protein complexes, both species-specific and species non-specific, and indicates their relationships in a hierarchical framework, supporting accurate protein annotation at the appropriate level of granularity, analyses of protein conservation across species, and semantic reasoning. In this first section of this chapter, we describe the PRO framework including categories of PRO terms and the relationship of PRO to other ontologies and protein resources. Next, we provide a tutorial about the PRO website (proconsortium.org) where users can browse and search the PRO hierarchy, view reports on individual PRO terms, and visualize relationships among PRO terms in a hierarchical table view, a multiple sequence alignment view, and a Cytoscape network view. Finally, we describe several examples illustrating the unique and rich information available in PRO. PMID:28150233

  13. Protein stability: a crystallographer’s perspective

    SciT

    Deller, Marc C., E-mail: mdeller@stanford.edu; Kong, Leopold; Rupp, Bernhard

    An understanding of protein stability is essential for optimizing the expression, purification and crystallization of proteins. In this review, discussion will focus on factors affecting protein stability on a somewhat practical level, particularly from the view of a protein crystallographer. Protein stability is a topic of major interest for the biotechnology, pharmaceutical and food industries, in addition to being a daily consideration for academic researchers studying proteins. An understanding of protein stability is essential for optimizing the expression, purification, formulation, storage and structural studies of proteins. In this review, discussion will focus on factors affecting protein stability, on a somewhatmore » practical level, particularly from the view of a protein crystallographer. The differences between protein conformational stability and protein compositional stability will be discussed, along with a brief introduction to key methods useful for analyzing protein stability. Finally, tactics for addressing protein-stability issues during protein expression, purification and crystallization will be discussed.« less

  14. DOCKSCORE: a webserver for ranking protein-protein docked poses.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Sony; Mathew, Oommen K; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2015-04-24

    Proteins interact with a variety of other molecules such as nucleic acids, small molecules and other proteins inside the cell. Structure-determination of protein-protein complexes is challenging due to several reasons such as the large molecular weights of these macromolecular complexes, their dynamic nature, difficulty in purification and sample preparation. Computational docking permits an early understanding of the feasibility and mode of protein-protein interactions. However, docking algorithms propose a number of solutions and it is a challenging task to select the native or near native pose(s) from this pool. DockScore is an objective scoring scheme that can be used to rank protein-protein docked poses. It considers several interface parameters, namely, surface area, evolutionary conservation, hydrophobicity, short contacts and spatial clustering at the interface for scoring. We have implemented DockScore in form of a webserver for its use by the scientific community. DockScore webserver can be employed, subsequent to docking, to perform scoring of the docked solutions, starting from multiple poses as inputs. The results, on scores and ranks for all the poses, can be downloaded as a csv file and graphical view of the interface of best ranking poses is possible. The webserver for DockScore is made freely available for the scientific community at: http://caps.ncbs.res.in/dockscore/ .

  15. Website on Protein Interaction and Protein Structure Related Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanta, Manoj; Liang, Shoudan; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In today's world, three seemingly diverse fields - computer information technology, nanotechnology and biotechnology are joining forces to enlarge our scientific knowledge and solve complex technological problems. Our group is dedicated to conduct theoretical research exploring the challenges in this area. The major areas of research include: 1) Yeast Protein Interactions; 2) Protein Structures; and 3) Current Transport through Small Molecules.

  16. NOXclass: prediction of protein-protein interaction types.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongbo; Domingues, Francisco S; Sommer, Ingolf; Lengauer, Thomas

    2006-01-19

    Structural models determined by X-ray crystallography play a central role in understanding protein-protein interactions at the molecular level. Interpretation of these models requires the distinction between non-specific crystal packing contacts and biologically relevant interactions. This has been investigated previously and classification approaches have been proposed. However, less attention has been devoted to distinguishing different types of biological interactions. These interactions are classified as obligate and non-obligate according to the effect of the complex formation on the stability of the protomers. So far no automatic classification methods for distinguishing obligate, non-obligate and crystal packing interactions have been made available. Six interface properties have been investigated on a dataset of 243 protein interactions. The six properties have been combined using a support vector machine algorithm, resulting in NOXclass, a classifier for distinguishing obligate, non-obligate and crystal packing interactions. We achieve an accuracy of 91.8% for the classification of these three types of interactions using a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. NOXclass allows the interpretation and analysis of protein quaternary structures. In particular, it generates testable hypotheses regarding the nature of protein-protein interactions, when experimental results are not available. We expect this server will benefit the users of protein structural models, as well as protein crystallographers and NMR spectroscopists. A web server based on the method and the datasets used in this study are available at http://noxclass.bioinf.mpi-inf.mpg.de/.

  17. Modularity in protein structures: study on all-alpha proteins.

    PubMed

    Khan, Taushif; Ghosh, Indira

    2015-01-01

    Modularity is known as one of the most important features of protein's robust and efficient design. The architecture and topology of proteins play a vital role by providing necessary robust scaffolds to support organism's growth and survival in constant evolutionary pressure. These complex biomolecules can be represented by several layers of modular architecture, but it is pivotal to understand and explore the smallest biologically relevant structural component. In the present study, we have developed a component-based method, using protein's secondary structures and their arrangements (i.e. patterns) in order to investigate its structural space. Our result on all-alpha protein shows that the known structural space is highly populated with limited set of structural patterns. We have also noticed that these frequently observed structural patterns are present as modules or "building blocks" in large proteins (i.e. higher secondary structure content). From structural descriptor analysis, observed patterns are found to be within similar deviation; however, frequent patterns are found to be distinctly occurring in diverse functions e.g. in enzymatic classes and reactions. In this study, we are introducing a simple approach to explore protein structural space using combinatorial- and graph-based geometry methods, which can be used to describe modularity in protein structures. Moreover, analysis indicates that protein function seems to be the driving force that shapes the known structure space.

  18. Adaptor proteins in protein kinase C-mediated signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Schechtman, D; Mochly-Rosen, D

    2001-10-01

    Spatial and temporal organization of signal transduction is essential in determining the speed and precision by which signaling events occur. Adaptor proteins are key to organizing signaling enzymes near their select substrates and away from others in order to optimize precision and speed of response. Here, we describe the role of adaptor proteins in determining the specific function of individual protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes. These isozyme-selective proteins were called collectively RACKs (receptors for activated C-kinase). The role of RACKs in PKC-mediated signaling was determined using isozyme-specific inhibitors and activators of the binding of each isozyme to its respective RACK. In addition to anchoring activated PKC isozymes, RACKs anchor other signaling enzymes. RACK1, the anchoring protein for activated betaIIPKC, binds for example, Src tyrosine kinase, integrin, and phosphodiesterase. RACK2, the epsilonPKC-specific RACK, is a coated-vesicle protein and thus is involved in vesicular release and cell-cell communication. Therefore, RACKs are not only adaptors for PKC, but also serve as adaptor proteins for several other signaling enzymes. Because at least some of the proteins that bind to RACKs, including PKC itself, regulate cell growth, modulating their interactions with RACKs may help elucidate signaling pathways leading to carcinogenesis and could result in the identification of novel therapeutic targets.

  19. Protein-Protein Interaction Reagents | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The CTD2 Center at Emory University has a library of genes used to study protein-protein interactions in mammalian cells. These genes are cloned in different mammalian expression vectors. A list of available cancer-associated genes can be accessed below. Emory_CTD^2_PPI_Reagents.xlsx Contact: Haian Fu

  20. Protein-Protein Interactions (PPI) reagents: | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The CTD2 Center at Emory University has a library of genes used to study protein-protein interactions in mammalian cells. These genes are cloned in different mammalian expression vectors. A list of available cancer-associated genes can be accessed below.

  1. Protein linguistics - a grammar for modular protein assembly?

    PubMed

    Gimona, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The correspondence between biology and linguistics at the level of sequence and lexical inventories, and of structure and syntax, has fuelled attempts to describe genome structure by the rules of formal linguistics. But how can we define protein linguistic rules? And how could compositional semantics improve our understanding of protein organization and functional plasticity?

  2. Understanding protein evolution: from protein physics to Darwinian selection.

    PubMed

    Zeldovich, Konstantin B; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2008-01-01

    Efforts in whole-genome sequencing and structural proteomics start to provide a global view of the protein universe, the set of existing protein structures and sequences. However, approaches based on the selection of individual sequences have not been entirely successful at the quantitative description of the distribution of structures and sequences in the protein universe because evolutionary pressure acts on the entire organism, rather than on a particular molecule. In parallel to this line of study, studies in population genetics and phenomenological molecular evolution established a mathematical framework to describe the changes in genome sequences in populations of organisms over time. Here, we review both microscopic (physics-based) and macroscopic (organism-level) models of protein-sequence evolution and demonstrate that bridging the two scales provides the most complete description of the protein universe starting from clearly defined, testable, and physiologically relevant assumptions.

  3. Potential Interference of Protein-Protein Interactions by Graphyne.

    PubMed

    Luan, Binquan; Huynh, Tien; Zhou, Ruhong

    2016-03-10

    Graphyne has attracted tremendous attention recently due to its many potentially superior properties relative to those of graphene. Although extensive efforts have been devoted to explore the applicability of graphyne as an alternative nanomaterial for state-of-the-art nanotechnology (including biomedical applications), knowledge regarding its possible adverse effects to biological cells is still lacking. Here, using large-scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the potential toxicity of graphyne by interfering a protein-protein interaction (ppI). We found that graphyne could indeed disrupt the ppIs by cutting through the protein-protein interface and separating the protein complex into noncontacting ones, due to graphyne's dispersive and hydrophobic interaction with the hydrophobic residues residing at the dimer interface. Our results help to elucidate the mechanism of interaction between graphyne and ppI networks within a biological cell and provide insights for its hazard reduction.

  4. Protein-protein interaction networks (PPI) and complex diseases

    PubMed Central

    Safari-Alighiarloo, Nahid; Taghizadeh, Mohammad; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Goliaei, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    The physical interaction of proteins which lead to compiling them into large densely connected networks is a noticeable subject to investigation. Protein interaction networks are useful because of making basic scientific abstraction and improving biological and biomedical applications. Based on principle roles of proteins in biological function, their interactions determine molecular and cellular mechanisms, which control healthy and diseased states in organisms. Therefore, such networks facilitate the understanding of pathogenic (and physiologic) mechanisms that trigger the onset and progression of diseases. Consequently, this knowledge can be translated into effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, the results of several studies have proved that the structure and dynamics of protein networks are disturbed in complex diseases such as cancer and autoimmune disorders. Based on such relationship, a novel paradigm is suggested in order to confirm that the protein interaction networks can be the target of therapy for treatment of complex multi-genic diseases rather than individual molecules with disrespect the network. PMID:25436094

  5. Protein-protein interaction predictions using text mining methods.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, Nikolas; Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; Theodosiou, Theodosios; Iliopoulos, Ioannis

    2015-03-01

    It is beyond any doubt that proteins and their interactions play an essential role in most complex biological processes. The understanding of their function individually, but also in the form of protein complexes is of a great importance. Nowadays, despite the plethora of various high-throughput experimental approaches for detecting protein-protein interactions, many computational methods aiming to predict new interactions have appeared and gained interest. In this review, we focus on text-mining based computational methodologies, aiming to extract information for proteins and their interactions from public repositories such as literature and various biological databases. We discuss their strengths, their weaknesses and how they complement existing experimental techniques by simultaneously commenting on the biological databases which hold such information and the benchmark datasets that can be used for evaluating new tools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Transcriptome, carbohydrate, and phytohormone analysis of Petunia hybrida reveals a complex disturbance of plant functional integrity under mild chilling stress

    PubMed Central

    Bauerfeind, Martin Andreas; Winkelmann, Traud; Franken, Philipp; Druege, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Cultivation of chilling-tolerant ornamental crops at lower temperature could reduce the energy demands of heated greenhouses. To provide a better understanding of how sub-optimal temperatures (12°C vs. 16°C) affect growth of the sensitive Petunia hybrida cultivar ‘SweetSunshine Williams’, the transcriptome, carbohydrate metabolism, and phytohormone homeostasis were monitored in aerial plant parts over 4 weeks by use of a microarray, enzymatic assays and GC-MS/MS. The data revealed three consecutive phases of chilling response. The first days were marked by a strong accumulation of sugars, particularly in source leaves, preferential up-regulation of genes in the same tissue and down-regulation of several genes in the shoot apex, especially those involved in the abiotic stress response. The midterm phase featured a partial normalization of carbohydrate levels and gene expression. After 3 weeks of chilling exposure, a new stabilized balance was established. Reduced hexose levels in the shoot apex, reduced ratios of sugar levels between the apex and source leaves and a higher apical sucrose/hexose ratio, associated with decreased activity and expression of cell wall invertase, indicate that prolonged chilling induced sugar accumulation in source leaves at the expense of reduced sugar transport to and reduced sucrose utilization in the shoot. This was associated with reduced levels of indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in the apex and high numbers of differentially, particularly up-regulated genes, especially in the source leaves, including those regulating histones, ethylene action, transcription factors, and a jasmonate-ZIM-domain protein. Transcripts of one Jumonji C domain containing protein and one expansin accumulated in source leaves throughout the chilling period. The results reveal a dynamic and complex disturbance of plant function in response to mild chilling, opening new perspectives for the comparative analysis of differently tolerant cultivars

  7. Transcriptome, carbohydrate, and phytohormone analysis of Petunia hybrida reveals a complex disturbance of plant functional integrity under mild chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Bauerfeind, Martin Andreas; Winkelmann, Traud; Franken, Philipp; Druege, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Cultivation of chilling-tolerant ornamental crops at lower temperature could reduce the energy demands of heated greenhouses. To provide a better understanding of how sub-optimal temperatures (12°C vs. 16°C) affect growth of the sensitive Petunia hybrida cultivar 'SweetSunshine Williams', the transcriptome, carbohydrate metabolism, and phytohormone homeostasis were monitored in aerial plant parts over 4 weeks by use of a microarray, enzymatic assays and GC-MS/MS. The data revealed three consecutive phases of chilling response. The first days were marked by a strong accumulation of sugars, particularly in source leaves, preferential up-regulation of genes in the same tissue and down-regulation of several genes in the shoot apex, especially those involved in the abiotic stress response. The midterm phase featured a partial normalization of carbohydrate levels and gene expression. After 3 weeks of chilling exposure, a new stabilized balance was established. Reduced hexose levels in the shoot apex, reduced ratios of sugar levels between the apex and source leaves and a higher apical sucrose/hexose ratio, associated with decreased activity and expression of cell wall invertase, indicate that prolonged chilling induced sugar accumulation in source leaves at the expense of reduced sugar transport to and reduced sucrose utilization in the shoot. This was associated with reduced levels of indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in the apex and high numbers of differentially, particularly up-regulated genes, especially in the source leaves, including those regulating histones, ethylene action, transcription factors, and a jasmonate-ZIM-domain protein. Transcripts of one Jumonji C domain containing protein and one expansin accumulated in source leaves throughout the chilling period. The results reveal a dynamic and complex disturbance of plant function in response to mild chilling, opening new perspectives for the comparative analysis of differently tolerant cultivars.

  8. Variola virus immune evasion proteins.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Lance R; Oehlberg, Katherine A; Reid, Jeremy J; Avci, Dilek; Rosengard, Ariella M

    2003-09-01

    Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, encodes approximately 200 proteins. Over 80 of these proteins are located in the terminal regions of the genome, where proteins associated with host immune evasion are encoded. To date, only two variola proteins have been characterized. Both are located in the terminal regions and demonstrate immunoregulatory functions. One protein, the smallpox inhibitor of complement enzymes (SPICE), is homologous to a vaccinia virus virulence factor, the vaccinia virus complement-control protein (VCP), which has been found experimentally to be expressed early in the course of vaccinia infection. Both SPICE and VCP are similar in structure and function to the family of mammalian complement regulatory proteins, which function to prevent inadvertent injury to adjacent cells and tissues during complement activation. The second variola protein is the variola virus high-affinity secreted chemokine-binding protein type II (CKBP-II, CBP-II, vCCI), which binds CC-chemokine receptors. The vaccinia homologue of CKBP-II is secreted both early and late in infection. CKBP-II proteins are highly conserved among orthopoxviruses, sharing approximately 85% homology, but are absent in eukaryotes. This characteristic sets it apart from other known virulence factors in orthopoxviruses, which share sequence homology with known mammalian immune regulatory gene products. Future studies of additional variola proteins may help illuminate factors associated with its virulence, pathogenesis and strict human tropism. In addition, these studies may also assist in the development of targeted therapies for the treatment of both smallpox and human immune-related diseases.

  9. Text Mining for Protein Docking

    PubMed Central

    Badal, Varsha D.; Kundrotas, Petras J.; Vakser, Ilya A.

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly growing amount of publicly available information from biomedical research is readily accessible on the Internet, providing a powerful resource for predictive biomolecular modeling. The accumulated data on experimentally determined structures transformed structure prediction of proteins and protein complexes. Instead of exploring the enormous search space, predictive tools can simply proceed to the solution based on similarity to the existing, previously determined structures. A similar major paradigm shift is emerging due to the rapidly expanding amount of information, other than experimentally determined structures, which still can be used as constraints in biomolecular structure prediction. Automated text mining has been widely used in recreating protein interaction networks, as well as in detecting small ligand binding sites on protein structures. Combining and expanding these two well-developed areas of research, we applied the text mining to structural modeling of protein-protein complexes (protein docking). Protein docking can be significantly improved when constraints on the docking mode are available. We developed a procedure that retrieves published abstracts on a specific protein-protein interaction and extracts information relevant to docking. The procedure was assessed on protein complexes from Dockground (http://dockground.compbio.ku.edu). The results show that correct information on binding residues can be extracted for about half of the complexes. The amount of irrelevant information was reduced by conceptual analysis of a subset of the retrieved abstracts, based on the bag-of-words (features) approach. Support Vector Machine models were trained and validated on the subset. The remaining abstracts were filtered by the best-performing models, which decreased the irrelevant information for ~ 25% complexes in the dataset. The extracted constraints were incorporated in the docking protocol and tested on the Dockground unbound benchmark set

  10. Electrostatic design of protein-protein association rates.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Gideon; Shaul, Yossi; Gottschalk, Kay E

    2006-01-01

    De novo design and redesign of proteins and protein complexes have made promising progress in recent years. Here, we give an overview of how to use available computer-based tools to design proteins to bind faster and tighter to their protein-complex partner by electrostatic optimization between the two proteins. Electrostatic optimization is possible because of the simple relation between the Debye-Huckel energy of interaction between a pair of proteins and their rate of association. This can be used for rapid, structure-based calculations of the electrostatic attraction between the two proteins in the complex. Using these principles, we developed two computer programs that predict the change in k(on), and as such the affinity, on introducing charged mutations. The two programs have a web interface that is available at www.weizmann.ac.il/home/bcges/PARE.html and http://bip.weizmann.ac.il/hypare. When mutations leading to charge optimization are introduced outside the physical binding site, the rate of dissociation is unchanged and therefore the change in k(on) parallels that of the affinity. This design method was evaluated on a number of different protein complexes resulting in binding rates and affinities of hundreds of fold faster and tighter compared to wild type. In this chapter, we demonstrate the procedure and go step by step over the methodology of using these programs for protein-association design. Finally, the way to easily implement the principle of electrostatic design for any protein complex of choice is shown.

  11. Protein-Protein Interactions within Late Pre-40S Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Melody G.; Karbstein, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Ribosome assembly in eukaryotic organisms requires more than 200 assembly factors to facilitate and coordinate rRNA transcription, processing, and folding with the binding of the ribosomal proteins. Many of these assembly factors bind and dissociate at defined times giving rise to discrete assembly intermediates, some of which have been partially characterized with regards to their protein and RNA composition. Here, we have analyzed the protein-protein interactions between the seven assembly factors bound to late cytoplasmic pre-40S ribosomes using recombinant proteins in binding assays. Our data show that these factors form two modules: one comprising Enp1 and the export adaptor Ltv1 near the beak structure, and the second comprising the kinase Rio2, the nuclease Nob1, and a regulatory RNA binding protein Dim2/Pno1 on the front of the head. The GTPase-like Tsr1 and the universally conserved methylase Dim1 are also peripherally connected to this second module. Additionally, in an effort to further define the locations for these essential proteins, we have analyzed the interactions between these assembly factors and six ribosomal proteins: Rps0, Rps3, Rps5, Rps14, Rps15 and Rps29. Together, these results and previous RNA-protein crosslinking data allow us to propose a model for the binding sites of these seven assembly factors. Furthermore, our data show that the essential kinase Rio2 is located at the center of the pre-ribosomal particle and interacts, directly or indirectly, with every other assembly factor, as well as three ribosomal proteins required for cytoplasmic 40S maturation. These data suggest that Rio2 could play a central role in regulating cytoplasmic maturation steps. PMID:21283762

  12. Protein-protein interactions within late pre-40S ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Melody G; Karbstein, Katrin

    2011-01-20

    Ribosome assembly in eukaryotic organisms requires more than 200 assembly factors to facilitate and coordinate rRNA transcription, processing, and folding with the binding of the ribosomal proteins. Many of these assembly factors bind and dissociate at defined times giving rise to discrete assembly intermediates, some of which have been partially characterized with regards to their protein and RNA composition. Here, we have analyzed the protein-protein interactions between the seven assembly factors bound to late cytoplasmic pre-40S ribosomes using recombinant proteins in binding assays. Our data show that these factors form two modules: one comprising Enp1 and the export adaptor Ltv1 near the beak structure, and the second comprising the kinase Rio2, the nuclease Nob1, and a regulatory RNA binding protein Dim2/Pno1 on the front of the head. The GTPase-like Tsr1 and the universally conserved methylase Dim1 are also peripherally connected to this second module. Additionally, in an effort to further define the locations for these essential proteins, we have analyzed the interactions between these assembly factors and six ribosomal proteins: Rps0, Rps3, Rps5, Rps14, Rps15 and Rps29. Together, these results and previous RNA-protein crosslinking data allow us to propose a model for the binding sites of these seven assembly factors. Furthermore, our data show that the essential kinase Rio2 is located at the center of the pre-ribosomal particle and interacts, directly or indirectly, with every other assembly factor, as well as three ribosomal proteins required for cytoplasmic 40S maturation. These data suggest that Rio2 could play a central role in regulating cytoplasmic maturation steps.

  13. Optimizing energy functions for protein-protein interface design.

    PubMed

    Sharabi, Oz; Yanover, Chen; Dekel, Ayelet; Shifman, Julia M

    2011-01-15

    Protein design methods have been originally developed for the design of monomeric proteins. When applied to the more challenging task of protein–protein complex design, these methods yield suboptimal results. In particular, they often fail to recapitulate favorable hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions across the interface. In this work, we aim to improve the energy function of the protein design program ORBIT to better account for binding interactions between proteins. By using the advanced machine learning framework of conditional random fields, we optimize the relative importance of all the terms in the energy function, attempting to reproduce the native side-chain conformations in protein–protein interfaces. We evaluate the performance of several optimized energy functions, each describes the van der Waals interactions using a different potential. In comparison with the original energy function, our best energy function (a) incorporates a much “softer” repulsive van der Waals potential, suitable for the discrete rotameric representation of amino acid side chains; (b) does not penalize burial of polar atoms, reflecting the frequent occurrence of polar buried residues in protein–protein interfaces; and (c) significantly up-weights the electrostatic term, attesting to the high importance of these interactions for protein–protein complex formation. Using this energy function considerably improves side chain placement accuracy for interface residues in a large test set of protein–protein complexes. Moreover, the optimized energy function recovers the native sequences of protein–protein interface at a higher rate than the default function and performs substantially better in predicting changes in free energy of binding due to mutations.

  14. Influence of Protein Abundance on High-Throughput Protein-Protein Interaction Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-05

    the interaction data sets we determined, via comparisons with strict randomized simulations , the propensity for essential proteins to selectively...and analysis of high- quality PPI data sets. Materials and Methods We analyzed protein interaction networks for yeast and E. coli determined from Y2H...we reinvestigated the centrality-lethality rule, which implies that proteins having more interactions are more likely to be essential. From analysis

  15. Computer Simulation of Protein-Protein and Protein-Peptide Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-08

    a full molecular dynamic z simulation is performed, with resulting dipolar re - laxation. However, this is prohibitive when a large . number of...1993 Dr. Mike Marron Program Manager Molecular Biology Office of Naval Research 800 N. Quincy Street Arlington, VA 22217 Dear Mike, Here is the...rztnbutior is unLi--ited. , 93-30630 98 12 � 12/08/93 01/0/92-;03/31/93: Final Report, Computer Simulation of Protein-Protein and Protein-Peptide

  16. Kinetics of protein unfolding at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Yohko F.

    2012-12-01

    The conformation of protein molecules is determined by a balance of various forces, including van der Waals attraction, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding, and conformational entropy. When protein molecules encounter an interface, they are often adsorbed on the interface. The conformation of an adsorbed protein molecule strongly depends on the interaction between the protein and the interface. Recent time-resolved investigations have revealed that protein conformation changes during the adsorption process due to the protein-protein interaction increasing with increasing interface coverage. External conditions also affect the protein conformation. This review considers recent dynamic observations of protein adsorption at various interfaces and their implications for the kinetics of protein unfolding at interfaces.

  17. Nature and consequences of protein-protein interactions in high protein concentration solutions.

    PubMed

    Saluja, Atul; Kalonia, Devendra S

    2008-06-24

    High protein concentration solutions are becoming increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. The solution behavior of proteins at high concentrations can markedly differ from that predicted based on dilute solution analysis due to thermodynamic non-ideality in these solutions. The non-ideality observed in these systems is related to the protein-protein interactions (PPI). Different types of forces play a key role in determining the overall nature and extent of these PPI and their relative contributions are affected by solute and solvent properties. However, individual contributions of these forces to the solution properties of concentrated protein solutions are not fully understood. The role of PPI, driven by these intermolecular forces, in governing solution rheology and physical stability of high protein concentration solutions is discussed from the point of view of pharmaceutical product development. Investigation of protein self-association and aggregation in concentrated protein solutions is crucial for ensuring the safety and efficacy of the final product for the duration of the desired product shelf life. Understanding rheology of high concentration protein solutions is critical for addressing issues during product manufacture and administration of final formulation to the patient. To this end, analysis of solution viscoelastic character can also provide an insight into the nature of PPI affecting solution rheology.

  18. Genome-wide protein-protein interactions and protein function exploration in cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Qi; Ma, Weimin; Liu, Hui; Li, Jiang; Wang, Huan; Lu, Fang; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Tieliu

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide network analysis is well implemented to study proteins of unknown function. Here, we effectively explored protein functions and the biological mechanism based on inferred high confident protein-protein interaction (PPI) network in cyanobacteria. We integrated data from seven different sources and predicted 1,997 PPIs, which were evaluated by experiments in molecular mechanism, text mining of literatures in proved direct/indirect evidences, and “interologs” in conservation. Combined the predicted PPIs with known PPIs, we obtained 4,715 no-redundant PPIs (involving 3,231 proteins covering over 90% of genome) to generate the PPI network. Based on the PPI network, terms in Gene ontology (GO) were assigned to function-unknown proteins. Functional modules were identified by dissecting the PPI network into sub-networks and analyzing pathway enrichment, with which we investigated novel function of underlying proteins in protein complexes and pathways. Examples of photosynthesis and DNA repair indicate that the network approach is a powerful tool in protein function analysis. Overall, this systems biology approach provides a new insight into posterior functional analysis of PPIs in cyanobacteria. PMID:26490033

  19. Principles of Protein Recognition and Properties of Protein-protein Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskin, Ozlem; Gursoy, Attila; Nussinov, Ruth

    In this chapter we address two aspects - the static physical interactions which allow the information transfer for the function to be performed; and the dynamic, i.e. how the information is transmitted between the binding sites in the single protein molecule and in the network. We describe the single protein molecules and their complexes; and the analogy between protein folding and protein binding. Eventually, to fully understand the interactome and how it performs the essential cellular functions, we have to put all together - and hierarchically progress through the system.

  20. Light-scattering studies of protein solutions: role of hydration in weak protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Paliwal, A; Asthagiri, D; Abras, D; Lenhoff, A M; Paulaitis, M E

    2005-09-01

    We model the hydration contribution to short-range electrostatic/dispersion protein interactions embodied in the osmotic second virial coefficient, B(2), by adopting a quasi-chemical description in which water molecules associated with the protein are identified through explicit molecular dynamics simulations. These water molecules reduce the surface complementarity of highly favorable short-range interactions, and therefore can play an important role in mediating protein-protein interactions. Here we examine this quasi-chemical view of hydration by predicting the interaction part of B(2) and comparing our results with those derived from light-scattering measurements of B(2) for staphylococcal nuclease, lysozyme, and chymotrypsinogen at 25 degrees C as a function of solution pH and ionic strength. We find that short-range protein interactions are influenced by water molecules strongly associated with a relatively small fraction of the protein surface. However, the effect of these strongly associated water molecules on the surface complementarity of short-range protein interactions is significant, and must be taken into account for an accurate description of B(2). We also observe remarkably similar hydration behavior for these proteins despite substantial differences in their three-dimensional structures and spatial charge distributions, suggesting a general characterization of protein hydration.

  1. Xylem sap proteins.

    PubMed

    Biles, C L; Abeles, F B

    1991-06-01

    Xylem sap from apple (Malus domestica Borkh), peach (Prunus persica Batsch), and pear (Pyrus communis L.) twigs was collected by means of pressure extrusion. This sap contained a number of acidic peroxidases and other proteins. Two other sources of xylem sap used in this study were stem exudates and guttation fluid. Similar peroxidases were also found in stem exudates and guttation fluids of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.), and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Isoelectric focusing activity gels showed that two peroxidases (isoelectric point [pl] 9 and pl 4.6) were present in initial stem exudates collected in the first 30 minutes after excision. Subsequent samples of stem exudate collected contained only the pl 4.6 isozyme. The pl 4.6 peroxidase isozyme was also found in root tissue and guttation fluid. These observations suggest that roots produce and secrete the pl 4.6 peroxidase into xylem sap. Cucumber seedlings were treated with 100 microliters per liter ethylene for 16 hours and the exudate from decapitated hypocotyl stumps was collected over a 3 hour period. Ethylene increased the peroxidase activity of stem exudates and inhibited the amount of exudate released. These observations suggest that xylem sap peroxidase may play a role in plugging damaged vascular tissue.

  2. Porcine prion protein amyloid.

    PubMed

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions.

  3. Protein profile and protein interaction network of Moniliophthora perniciosa basidiospores.

    PubMed

    Mares, Joise Hander; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Dos Santos, Everton Cruz; Santiago, André da Silva; Silva, Edson Mário de Andrade; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2016-06-24

    Witches' broom, a disease caused by the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa, is considered to be the most important disease of the cocoa crop in Bahia, an area in the Brazilian Amazon, and also in the other countries where it is found. M. perniciosa germ tubes may penetrate into the host through intact or natural openings in the cuticle surface, in epidermis cell junctions, at the base of trichomes, or through the stomata. Despite its relevance to the fungal life cycle, basidiospore biology has not been extensively investigated. In this study, our goal was to optimize techniques for producing basidiospores for protein extraction, and to produce the first proteomics analysis map of ungerminated basidiospores. We then presented a protein interaction network by using Ustilago maydis as a model. The average pileus area ranged from 17.35 to 211.24 mm(2). The minimum and maximum productivity were 23,200 and 6,666,667 basidiospores per basidiome, respectively. The protein yield in micrograms per million basidiospores were approximately 0.161; 2.307, and 3.582 for germination times of 0, 2, and 4 h after germination, respectively. A total of 178 proteins were identified through mass spectrometry. These proteins were classified according to their molecular function and their involvement in biological processes such as cellular energy production, oxidative metabolism, stress, protein synthesis, and protein folding. Furthermore, to better understand the expression pattern, signaling, and interaction events of spore proteins, we presented an interaction network using orthologous proteins from Ustilago maydis as a model. Most of the orthologous proteins that were identified in this study were not clustered in the network, but several of them play a very important role in hypha development and branching. The quantities of basidiospores 7 × 10(9); 5.2 × 10(8), and 6.7 × 10(8) were sufficient to obtain enough protein mass for the three 2D-PAGE replicates, for

  4. Shape Complementarity of Protein-Protein Complexes at Multiple Resolutions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing; Sanner, Michel; Olson, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    Biological complexes typically exhibit intermolecular interfaces of high shape complementarity. Many computational docking approaches use this surface complementarity as a guide in the search for predicting the structures of protein-protein complexes. Proteins often undergo conformational changes in order to create a highly complementary interface when associating. These conformational changes are a major cause of failure for automated docking procedures when predicting binding modes between proteins using their unbound conformations. Low resolution surfaces in which high frequency geometric details are omitted have been used to address this problem. These smoothed, or blurred, surfaces are expected to minimize the differences between free and bound structures, especially those that are due to side chain conformations or small backbone deviations. In spite of the fact that this approach has been used in many docking protocols, there has yet to be a systematic study of the effects of such surface smoothing on the shape complementarity of the resulting interfaces. Here we investigate this question by computing shape complementarity of a set of 66 protein-protein complexes represented by multi-resolution blurred surfaces. Complexed and unbound structures are available for these protein-protein complexes. They are a subset of complexes from a non-redundant docking benchmark selected for rigidity (i.e. the proteins undergo limited conformational changes between their bound and unbound states). In this work we construct the surfaces by isocontouring a density map obtained by accumulating the densities of Gaussian functions placed at all atom centers of the molecule. The smoothness or resolution is specified by a Gaussian fall-off coefficient, termed “blobbyness”. Shape complementarity is quantified using a histogram of the shortest distances between two proteins' surface mesh vertices for both the crystallographic complexes and the complexes built using the protein

  5. Protein Precipitation Using Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The basic theory of protein precipitation by addition of ammonium sulfate is presented, and the most common applications are listed. Tables are provided for calculating the appropriate amount of ammonium sulfate to add to a particular protein solution. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Contact printing of protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Austin, John; Holway, Antonia H

    2011-01-01

    A review is provided of contact-printing technologies for the fabrication of planar protein microarrays. The key printing performance parameters for creating protein arrays are reviewed. Solid pin and quill pin technologies are described and their strengths and weaknesses compared.

  7. Illustrating Chromatography with Colorful Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefebvre, Brian G.; Farrell, Stephanie; Dominiak, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    Advances in biology are prompting new discoveries in the biotechnology, pharmaceutical, medical technology, and chemical industries. This paper presents a detailed description of an anion exchange chromatography experiment using a pair of colorful proteins and summarizes the effect of operating parameters on protein separation. This experiment…

  8. Johann Deisenhofer, Crystallography, and Proteins

    research using X-ray crystallography to elucidate for the first time the three-dimensional structure of a large membrane-bound protein molecule. This structure helped explain the process of photosynthesis, by a protein structure determination that relied on complementary features of two different beam lines

  9. Cohesion and Adhesion with Proteins

    Charles R. Frihart

    2016-01-01

    With increasing interest in bio-based adhesives, research on proteins has expanded because historically they have been used by both nature and humans as adhesives. A wide variety of proteins have been used as wood adhesives. Ancient Egyptians most likely used collagens tobond veneer to wood furniture, then came casein (milk), blood, fish scales, and soy adhesives, with...

  10. Protein Electrochemistry: Questions and Answers.

    PubMed

    Fourmond, V; Léger, C

    This chapter presents the fundamentals of electrochemistry in the context of protein electrochemistry. We discuss redox proteins and enzymes that are not photoactive. Of course, the principles described herein also apply to photobioelectrochemistry, as discussed in later chapters of this book. Depending on which experiment is considered, electron transfer between proteins and electrodes can be either direct or mediated, and achieved in a variety of configurations: with the protein and/or the mediator free to diffuse in solution, immobilized in a thick, hydrated film, or adsorbed as a sub-monolayer on the electrode. The experiments can be performed with the goal to study the protein or to use it. Here emphasis is on mechanistic studies, which are easier in the configuration where the protein is adsorbed and electron transfer is direct, but we also explain the interpretation of signals obtained when diffusion processes affect the response.This chapter is organized as a series of responses to questions. Questions 1-5 are related to the basics of electrochemistry: what does "potential" or "current" mean, what does an electrochemical set-up look like? Questions 6-9 are related to the distinction between adsorbed and diffusive redox species. The answers to questions 10-13 explain the interpretation of slow and fast scan voltammetry with redox proteins. Questions 14-19 deal with catalytic electrochemistry, when the protein studied is actually an enzyme. Questions 20, 21 and 22 are general.

  11. Protein and amino acid nutrition

    Dairy cow protein and amino acid nutrition have a significant role in sustainable dairying. Protein, amino acids, and nitrogen are inextricably linked through effects in the rumen, metabolism of the cow, and environmental nutrient management. Feeding systems have been making progress toward emphasiz...

  12. The PMDB Protein Model Database

    PubMed Central

    Castrignanò, Tiziana; De Meo, Paolo D'Onorio; Cozzetto, Domenico; Talamo, Ivano Giuseppe; Tramontano, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The Protein Model Database (PMDB) is a public resource aimed at storing manually built 3D models of proteins. The database is designed to provide access to models published in the scientific literature, together with validating experimental data. It is a relational database and it currently contains >74 000 models for ∼240 proteins. The system is accessible at and allows predictors to submit models along with related supporting evidence and users to download them through a simple and intuitive interface. Users can navigate in the database and retrieve models referring to the same target protein or to different regions of the same protein. Each model is assigned a unique identifier that allows interested users to directly access the data. PMID:16381873

  13. Random copolymers that protect proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; Van Lehn, Reid C.

    2018-03-01

    Scientists have tried and in some limited cases succeeded to harness proteins to do chemistry (1) or use them in functional materials. However, most proteins only function correctly if they fold into specific conformations, which typically occurs with the assistance of other proteins (such as chaperones, translocons, or transporters) that mediate structure formation, membrane insertion, and intracellular trafficking (2, 3). Several methods have been used to improve protein stability in nonbiological environments—including micelle encapsulation, polymer conjugation, and sol-gel trapping (4)—but for most intended applications, they suffer from low levels of functionality, difficult chemical postfunctionalization, or the requirement of very specific solvent environments. On page 1239 of this issue, Panganiban et al. (5) introduce an approach for stabilizing proteins in disparate solvent environments that does not suffer from these drawbacks.

  14. Nanostructures for protein drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Pachioni-Vasconcelos, Juliana de Almeida; Lopes, André Moreni; Apolinário, Alexsandra Conceição; Valenzuela-Oses, Johanna Karina; Costa, Juliana Souza Ribeiro; Nascimento, Laura de Oliveira; Pessoa, Adalberto; Barbosa, Leandro Ramos Souza; Rangel-Yagui, Carlota de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Use of nanoscale devices as carriers for drugs and imaging agents has been extensively investigated and successful examples can already be found in therapy. In parallel, recombinant DNA technology together with molecular biology has opened up numerous possibilities for the large-scale production of many proteins of pharmaceutical interest, reflecting in the exponentially growing number of drugs of biotechnological origin. When we consider protein drugs, however, there are specific criteria to take into account to select adequate nanostructured systems as drug carriers. In this review, we highlight the main features, advantages, drawbacks and recent developments of nanostructures for protein encapsulation, such as nanoemulsions, liposomes, polymersomes, single-protein nanocapsules and hydrogel nanoparticles. We also discuss the importance of nanoparticle stabilization, as well as future opportunities and challenges in nanostructures for protein drug delivery.

  15. FERM proteins in animal morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tepass, Ulrich

    2009-08-01

    Proteins containing a FERM domain are ubiquitous components of the cytocortex of animal cells where they are engaged in structural, transport, and signaling functions. Recent years have seen a wealth of genetic studies in model organisms that explore FERM protein function in development and tissue organization. In addition, mutations in several FERM protein-encoding genes have been associated with human diseases. This review will provide a brief overview of the FERM domain structure and the FERM protein superfamily and then discuss recent advances in our understanding of the mechanism of function and developmental requirement of several FERM proteins including Moesin, Myosin-VIIA, Myosin-XV, Coracle/Band4.1 as well as Yurt and its vertebrate homologs Mosaic Eyes and EPB41L5/YMO1/Limulus.

  16. Modeling the Crystallization of Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongjun; Kumar, Sanat; Garde, Shekhar

    2007-03-01

    We have used molecular dynamics and monte carlo simulations to understand the pathway to protein crystallization. We find that models which ignore the patchy nature of protein-protein interactions only crystallize inside the metastable gas-lqiuid coexistence region. In this regime they crystallize through the formation of a critical nucleus. In contrast, when patchiness is introduced we find that there is no need to be inside this metastable gas-liquid boundary. Rather, crystallization occurs through an intermediate which is composed of disordered aggregates. These are formed by patchy interactions. Further, there appears to be no need for the formation of a critical nucleus. Thus the pathways for crystallization are strongly controlled by the nature of protein-protein interactions, in good agreement with current experiments.

  17. A Framework for Globular Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lezon, Timothy

    2006-03-01

    Due to their remarkable chemical specificity and diversity, globular proteins play a crucial role in the network of molecular interactions of life. Over the past several decades, much experimental data has been accumulated on proteins, but the overarching principles that govern the general features of proteins remain largely unknown. Here, a novel framework for understanding many key attributes of globular proteins is presented. This framework suggests that the characteristics of globular proteins that make them well-suited for biological function are the emergent properties of a unique phase of matter. Implications of this picture include the provision of a fixed backdrop for molecular evolution and natural selection and design restrictions on molecular machinery. The work described here was carried out in collaboration with Jayanth Banavar and Amos Maritan.

  18. Structural Genomics of Protein Phosphatases

    SciT

    Almo,S.; Bonanno, J.; Sauder, J.

    The New York SGX Research Center for Structural Genomics (NYSGXRC) of the NIGMS Protein Structure Initiative (PSI) has applied its high-throughput X-ray crystallographic structure determination platform to systematic studies of all human protein phosphatases and protein phosphatases from biomedically-relevant pathogens. To date, the NYSGXRC has determined structures of 21 distinct protein phosphatases: 14 from human, 2 from mouse, 2 from the pathogen Toxoplasma gondii, 1 from Trypanosoma brucei, the parasite responsible for African sleeping sickness, and 2 from the principal mosquito vector of malaria in Africa, Anopheles gambiae. These structures provide insights into both normal and pathophysiologic processes, including transcriptionalmore » regulation, regulation of major signaling pathways, neural development, and type 1 diabetes. In conjunction with the contributions of other international structural genomics consortia, these efforts promise to provide an unprecedented database and materials repository for structure-guided experimental and computational discovery of inhibitors for all classes of protein phosphatases.« less

  19. Quantitative study of protein-protein interactions by quartz nanopipettes.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Purushottam Babu; Astudillo, Luisana; Miksovska, Jaroslava; Wang, Xuewen; Li, Wenzhi; Darici, Yesim; He, Jin

    2014-09-07

    In this report, protein-modified quartz nanopipettes were used to quantitatively study protein-protein interactions in attoliter sensing volumes. As shown by numerical simulations, the ionic current through the conical-shaped nanopipette is very sensitive to the surface charge variation near the pore mouth. With the appropriate modification of negatively charged human neuroglobin (hNgb) onto the inner surface of a nanopipette, we were able to detect concentration-dependent current change when the hNgb-modified nanopipette tip was exposed to positively charged cytochrome c (Cyt c) with a series of concentrations in the bath solution. Such current change is due to the adsorption of Cyt c to the inner surface of the nanopipette through specific interactions with hNgb. In contrast, a smaller current change with weak concentration dependence was observed when Cyt c was replaced with lysozyme, which does not specifically bind to hNgb. The equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) for the Cyt c-hNgb complex formation was derived and the value matched very well with the result from surface plasmon resonance measurement. This is the first quantitative study of protein-protein interactions by a conical-shaped nanopore based on charge sensing. Our results demonstrate that nanopipettes can potentially be used as a label-free analytical tool to quantitatively characterize protein-protein interactions.

  20. Protein Kinase A Regulates Molecular Chaperone Transcription and Protein Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Thomas; Calderwood, Stuart K.

    2011-01-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) regulates one of the major pathways of protein quality control and is essential for deterrence of protein-folding disorders, particularly in neuronal cells. However, HSF1 activity declines with age, a change that may open the door to progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease. We have investigated mechanisms of HSF1 regulation that may become compromised with age. HSF1 binds stably to the catalytic domain of protein kinase A (PKAcα) and becomes phosphorylated on at least one regulatory serine residue (S320). We show here that PKA is essential for effective transcription of HSP genes by HSF1. PKA triggers a cascade involving HSF1 binding to the histone acetylase p300 and positive translation elongation factor 1 (p-TEFb) and phosphorylation of the c-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, a key mechanism in the downstream steps of HSF1-mediated transcription. This cascade appears to play a key role in protein quality control in neuronal cells expressing aggregation-prone proteins with long poly-glutamine (poly-Q) tracts. Such proteins formed inclusion bodies that could be resolved by HSF1 activation during heat shock. Resolution of the inclusions was inhibited by knockdown of HSF1, PKAcα, or the pTEFb component CDK9, indicating a key role for the HSF1-PKA cascade in protein quality control. PMID:22216146

  1. Anomalous Protein-Protein Interactions in Multivalent Salt Solution.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, Coralie; Vazdar, Mario; Forsman, Jan; Jungwirth, Pavel; Lund, Mikael

    2017-04-13

    The stability of aqueous protein solutions is strongly affected by multivalent ions, which induce ion-ion correlations beyond the scope of classical mean-field theory. Using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) and coarse grained Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, we investigate the interaction between a pair of protein molecules in 3:1 electrolyte solution. In agreement with available experimental findings of "reentrant protein condensation", we observe an anomalous trend in the protein-protein potential of mean force with increasing electrolyte concentration in the order: (i) double-layer repulsion, (ii) ion-ion correlation attraction, (iii) overcharge repulsion, and in excess of 1:1 salt, (iv) non Coulombic attraction. To efficiently sample configurational space we explore hybrid continuum solvent models, applicable to many-protein systems, where weakly coupled ions are treated implicitly, while strongly coupled ones are treated explicitly. Good agreement is found with the primitive model of electrolytes, as well as with atomic models of protein and solvent.

  2. Protein particulates: another generic form of protein aggregation?

    PubMed

    Krebs, Mark R H; Devlin, Glyn L; Donald, A M

    2007-02-15

    Protein aggregation is a problem with a multitude of consequences, ranging from affecting protein expression to its implication in many diseases. Of recent interest is the specific form of aggregation leading to the formation of amyloid fibrils, structures associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The ability to form amyloid fibrils is now regarded as a property generic to all polypeptide chains. Here we show that around the isoelectric point a different generic form of aggregation can also occur by studying seven widely different, nonrelated proteins that are also all known to form amyloid fibrils. Under these conditions gels consisting of relatively monodisperse spherical particulates are formed. Although these gels have been described before for beta-lactoglobulin, our results suggest that the formation of particulates in the regime where charge on the molecules is minimal is a common property of all proteins. Because the proteins used here also form amyloid fibrils, we further propose that protein misfolding into clearly defined aggregates is a generic process whose outcome depends solely on the general properties of the state the protein is in when aggregation occurs, rather than the specific amino acid sequence. Thus under conditions of high net charge, amyloid fibrils form, whereas under conditions of low net charge, particulates form. This observation furthermore suggests that the rules of soft matter physics apply to these systems.

  3. Dynamic Fluctuations of Protein-Carbohydrate Interactions Promote Protein Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Voynov, Vladimir; Chennamsetty, Naresh; Kayser, Veysel; Helk, Bernhard; Forrer, Kurt; Zhang, Heidi; Fritsch, Cornelius; Heine, Holger; Trout, Bernhardt L.

    2009-01-01

    Protein-carbohydrate interactions are important for glycoprotein structure and function. Antibodies of the IgG class, with increasing significance as therapeutics, are glycosylated at a conserved site in the constant Fc region. We hypothesized that disruption of protein-carbohydrate interactions in the glycosylated domain of antibodies leads to the exposure of aggregation-prone motifs. Aggregation is one of the main problems in protein-based therapeutics because of immunogenicity concerns and decreased efficacy. To explore the significance of intramolecular interactions between aromatic amino acids and carbohydrates in the IgG glycosylated domain, we utilized computer simulations, fluorescence analysis, and site-directed mutagenesis. We find that the surface exposure of one aromatic amino acid increases due to dynamic fluctuations. Moreover, protein-carbohydrate interactions decrease upon stress, while protein-protein and carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions increase. Substitution of the carbohydrate-interacting aromatic amino acids with non-aromatic residues leads to a significantly lower stability than wild type, and to compromised binding to Fc receptors. Our results support a mechanism for antibody aggregation via decreased protein-carbohydrate interactions, leading to the exposure of aggregation-prone regions, and to aggregation. PMID:20037630

  4. Drug Target Protein-Protein Interaction Networks: A Systematic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The identification and validation of drug targets are crucial in biomedical research and many studies have been conducted on analyzing drug target features for getting a better understanding on principles of their mechanisms. But most of them are based on either strong biological hypotheses or the chemical and physical properties of those targets separately. In this paper, we investigated three main ways to understand the functional biomolecules based on the topological features of drug targets. There are no significant differences between targets and common proteins in the protein-protein interactions network, indicating the drug targets are neither hub proteins which are dominant nor the bridge proteins. According to some special topological structures of the drug targets, there are significant differences between known targets and other proteins. Furthermore, the drug targets mainly belong to three typical communities based on their modularity. These topological features are helpful to understand how the drug targets work in the PPI network. Particularly, it is an alternative way to predict potential targets or extract nontargets to test a new drug target efficiently and economically. By this way, a drug target's homologue set containing 102 potential target proteins is predicted in the paper. PMID:28691014

  5. Assessment of the reliability of protein-protein interactions and protein function prediction.

    PubMed

    Deng, Minghua; Sun, Fengzhu; Chen, Ting

    2003-01-01

    As more and more high-throughput protein-protein interaction data are collected, the task of estimating the reliability of different data sets becomes increasingly important. In this paper, we present our study of two groups of protein-protein interaction data, the physical interaction data and the protein complex data, and estimate the reliability of these data sets using three different measurements: (1) the distribution of gene expression correlation coefficients, (2) the reliability based on gene expression correlation coefficients, and (3) the accuracy of protein function predictions. We develop a maximum likelihood method to estimate the reliability of protein interaction data sets according to the distribution of correlation coefficients of gene expression profiles of putative interacting protein pairs. The results of the three measurements are consistent with each other. The MIPS protein complex data have the highest mean gene expression correlation coefficients (0.256) and the highest accuracy in predicting protein functions (70% sensitivity and specificity), while Ito's Yeast two-hybrid data have the lowest mean (0.041) and the lowest accuracy (15% sensitivity and specificity). Uetz's data are more reliable than Ito's data in all three measurements, and the TAP protein complex data are more reliable than the HMS-PCI data in all three measurements as well. The complex data sets generally perform better in function predictions than do the physical interaction data sets. Proteins in complexes are shown to be more highly correlated in gene expression. The results confirm that the components of a protein complex can be assigned to functions that the complex carries out within a cell. There are three interaction data sets different from the above two groups: the genetic interaction data, the in-silico data and the syn-express data. Their capability of predicting protein functions generally falls between that of the Y2H data and that of the MIPS protein complex

  6. Hematological alterations in protein malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ed W; Oliveira, Dalila C; Silva, Graziela B; Tsujita, Maristela; Beltran, Jackeline O; Hastreiter, Araceli; Fock, Ricardo A; Borelli, Primavera

    2017-11-01

    Protein malnutrition is one of the most serious nutritional problems worldwide, affecting 794 million people and costing up to $3.5 trillion annually in the global economy. Protein malnutrition primarily affects children, the elderly, and hospitalized patients. Different degrees of protein deficiency lead to a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms of protein malnutrition, especially in organs in which the hematopoietic system is characterized by a high rate of protein turnover and, consequently, a high rate of protein renewal and cellular proliferation. Here, the current scientific information about protein malnutrition and its effects on the hematopoietic process is reviewed. The production of hematopoietic cells is described, with special attention given to the hematopoietic microenvironment and the development of stem cells. Advances in the study of hematopoiesis in protein malnutrition are also summarized. Studies of protein malnutrition in vitro, in animal models, and in humans demonstrate several alterations that impair hematopoiesis, such as structural changes in the extracellular matrix, the hematopoietic stem cell niche, the spleen, the thymus, and bone marrow stromal cells; changes in mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells; increased autophagy; G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest of progenitor hematopoietic cells; and functional alterations in leukocytes. Structural and cellular changes of the hematopoietic microenvironment in protein malnutrition contribute to bone marrow atrophy and nonestablishment of hematopoietic stem cells, resulting in impaired homeostasis and an impaired immune response. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Integrated web visualizations for protein-protein interaction databases.

    PubMed

    Jeanquartier, Fleur; Jean-Quartier, Claire; Holzinger, Andreas

    2015-06-16

    Understanding living systems is crucial for curing diseases. To achieve this task we have to understand biological networks based on protein-protein interactions. Bioinformatics has come up with a great amount of databases and tools that support analysts in exploring protein-protein interactions on an integrated level for knowledge discovery. They provide predictions and correlations, indicate possibilities for future experimental research and fill the gaps to complete the picture of biochemical processes. There are numerous and huge databases of protein-protein interactions used to gain insights into answering some of the many questions of systems biology. Many computational resources integrate interaction data with additional information on molecular background. However, the vast number of diverse Bioinformatics resources poses an obstacle to the goal of understanding. We present a survey of databases that enable the visual analysis of protein networks. We selected M=10 out of N=53 resources supporting visualization, and we tested against the following set of criteria: interoperability, data integration, quantity of possible interactions, data visualization quality and data coverage. The study reveals differences in usability, visualization features and quality as well as the quantity of interactions. StringDB is the recommended first choice. CPDB presents a comprehensive dataset and IntAct lets the user change the network layout. A comprehensive comparison table is available via web. The supplementary table can be accessed on http://tinyurl.com/PPI-DB-Comparison-2015. Only some web resources featuring graph visualization can be successfully applied to interactive visual analysis of protein-protein interaction. Study results underline the necessity for further enhancements of visualization integration in biochemical analysis tools. Identified challenges are data comprehensiveness, confidence, interactive feature and visualization maturing.

  8. Protein disulfide isomerase a multifunctional protein with multiple physiological roles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Khan, Hyder; Mutus, Bulent

    2014-08-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), is a member of the thioredoxin superfamily of redox proteins. PDI has three catalytic activities including, thiol-disulfide oxireductase, disulfide isomerase and redox-dependent chaperone. Originally, PDI was identified in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and subsequently detected at additional locations, such as cell surfaces and the cytosol. This review will provide an overview of the recent advances in relating the structural features of PDI to its multiple catalytic roles as well as its physiological and pathophysiological functions related to redox regulation and protein folding.

  9. Protein domain organisation: adding order.

    PubMed

    Kummerfeld, Sarah K; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2009-01-29

    Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected degree of clustering and more domain pairs in forward and

  10. CONVERSION OF PLASMA PROTEIN TO TISSUE PROTEIN WITHOUT EVIDENCE OF PROTEIN BREAKDOWN

    PubMed Central

    Yuile, C. L.; Lamson, B. G.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1951-01-01

    Labeled plasma proteins obtained from donor dogs, previously fed ε-C14-dl-lysine, have been given intravenously to recipient dogs. The disappearance of labeled globulin from the plasma at a rate considerably faster than albumin has been confirmed. Evidence suggesting that the mass of protein in solution in the extravascular, extracellular fluid is approximately equal to the plasma proteins in circulation has been derived from a study of the dilution of labeled plasma protein by repeated injections of non-labeled plasma protein. In a period of 7 days the transfer of C14 from plasma to tissue proteins amounted to between 30 and 40 per cent of the activity in the labeled plasma protein injected intravenously. The conversion was accompanied by a very small loss of activity in the urine and expired air and the activity remained in the lysine residue of the liver and probably of other tissues. The data presented favor the view that plasma proteins are utilized in the body economy after partial catabolism within the cell area and provide no evidence of complete breakdown to the amino acid level. PMID:14832401

  11. What induces pocket openings on protein surface patches involved in protein-protein interactions?

    PubMed

    Eyrisch, Susanne; Helms, Volkhard

    2009-02-01

    We previously showed for the proteins BCL-X(L), IL-2, and MDM2 that transient pockets at their protein-protein binding interfaces can be identified by applying the PASS algorithm to molecular dynamics (MD) snapshots. We now investigated which aspects of the natural conformational dynamics of proteins induce the formation of such pockets. The pocket detection protocol was applied to three different conformational ensembles for the same proteins that were extracted from MD simulations of the inhibitor bound crystal conformation in water and the free crystal/NMR structure in water and in methanol. Additional MD simulations studied the impact of backbone mobility. The more efficient CONCOORD or normal mode analysis (NMA) techniques gave significantly smaller pockets than MD simulations, whereas tCONCOORD generated pockets comparable to those observed in MD simulations for two of the three systems. Our findings emphasize the influence of solvent polarity and backbone rearrangements on the formation of pockets on protein surfaces and should be helpful in future generation of transient pockets as putative ligand binding sites at protein-protein interfaces.

  12. Manipulating Protein-Protein Interactions in Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Type II Peptidyl Carrier Proteins.

    PubMed

    Jaremko, Matt J; Lee, D John; Patel, Ashay; Winslow, Victoria; Opella, Stanley J; McCammon, J Andrew; Burkart, Michael D

    2017-10-10

    In an effort to elucidate and engineer interactions in type II nonribosomal peptide synthetases, we analyzed biomolecular recognition between the essential peptidyl carrier proteins and adenylation domains using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, molecular dynamics, and mutational studies. Three peptidyl carrier proteins, PigG, PltL, and RedO, in addition to their cognate adenylation domains, PigI, PltF, and RedM, were investigated for their cross-species activity. Of the three peptidyl carrier proteins, only PigG showed substantial cross-pathway activity. Characterization of the novel NMR solution structure of holo-PigG and molecular dynamics simulations of holo-PltL and holo-PigG revealed differences in structures and dynamics of these carrier proteins. NMR titration experiments revealed perturbations of the chemical shifts of the loop 1 residues of these peptidyl carrier proteins upon their interaction with the adenylation domain. These experiments revealed a key region for the protein-protein interaction. Mutational studies supported the role of loop 1 in molecular recognition, as mutations to this region of the peptidyl carrier proteins significantly modulated their activities.

  13. What induces pocket openings on protein surface patches involved in protein-protein interactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyrisch, Susanne; Helms, Volkhard

    2009-02-01

    We previously showed for the proteins BCL-XL, IL-2, and MDM2 that transient pockets at their protein-protein binding interfaces can be identified by applying the PASS algorithm to molecular dynamics (MD) snapshots. We now investigated which aspects of the natural conformational dynamics of proteins induce the formation of such pockets. The pocket detection protocol was applied to three different conformational ensembles for the same proteins that were extracted from MD simulations of the inhibitor bound crystal conformation in water and the free crystal/NMR structure in water and in methanol. Additional MD simulations studied the impact of backbone mobility. The more efficient CONCOORD or normal mode analysis (NMA) techniques gave significantly smaller pockets than MD simulations, whereas tCONCOORD generated pockets comparable to those observed in MD simulations for two of the three systems. Our findings emphasize the influence of solvent polarity and backbone rearrangements on the formation of pockets on protein surfaces and should be helpful in future generation of transient pockets as putative ligand binding sites at protein-protein interfaces.

  14. The NMR contribution to protein-protein networking in Fe-S protein maturation.

    PubMed

    Banci, Lucia; Camponeschi, Francesca; Ciofi-Baffoni, Simone; Piccioli, Mario

    2018-03-22

    Iron-sulfur proteins were among the first class of metalloproteins that were actively studied using NMR spectroscopy tailored to paramagnetic systems. The hyperfine shifts, their temperature dependencies and the relaxation rates of nuclei of cluster-bound residues are an efficient fingerprint of the nature and the oxidation state of the Fe-S cluster. NMR significantly contributed to the analysis of the magnetic coupling patterns and to the understanding of the electronic structure occurring in [2Fe-2S], [3Fe-4S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters bound to proteins. After the first NMR structure of a paramagnetic protein was obtained for the reduced E. halophila HiPIP I, many NMR structures were determined for several Fe-S proteins in different oxidation states. It was found that differences in chemical shifts, in patterns of unobserved residues, in internal mobility and in thermodynamic stability are suitable data to map subtle changes between the two different oxidation states of the protein. Recently, the interaction networks responsible for maturing human mitochondrial and cytosolic Fe-S proteins have been largely characterized by combining solution NMR standard experiments with those tailored to paramagnetic systems. We show here the contribution of solution NMR in providing a detailed molecular view of "Fe-S interactomics". This contribution was particularly effective when protein-protein interactions are weak and transient, and thus difficult to be characterized at high resolution with other methodologies.

  15. Predicting Functions of Proteins in Mouse Based on Weighted Protein-Protein Interaction Network and Protein Hybrid Properties

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaohe; Lu, Wen-Cong; Cai, Yu-Dong; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2011-01-01

    Background With the huge amount of uncharacterized protein sequences generated in the post-genomic age, it is highly desirable to develop effective computational methods for quickly and accurately predicting their functions. The information thus obtained would be very useful for both basic research and drug development in a timely manner. Methodology/Principal Findings Although many efforts have been made in this regard, most of them were based on either sequence similarity or protein-protein interaction (PPI) information. However, the former often fails to work if a query protein has no or very little sequence similarity to any function-known proteins, while the latter had similar problem if the relevant PPI information is not available. In view of this, a new approach is proposed by hybridizing the PPI information and the biochemical/physicochemical features of protein sequences. The overall first-order success rates by the new predictor for the functions of mouse proteins on training set and test set were 69.1% and 70.2%, respectively, and the success rate covered by the results of the top-4 order from a total of 24 orders was 65.2%. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that the new approach is quite promising that may open a new avenue or direction for addressing the difficult and complicated problem. PMID:21283518

  16. Evolutionary Strategies for Protein Folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy Gopal, Srinivasa; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2006-03-01

    The free energy approach for predicting the protein tertiary structure describes the native state of a protein as the global minimum of an appropriate free-energy forcefield. The low-energy region of the free-energy landscape of a protein is extremely rugged. Efficient optimization methods must therefore speed up the search for the global optimum by avoiding high energy transition states, adapt large scale moves or accept unphysical intermediates. Here we investigate an evolutionary strategies(ES) for optimizing a protein conformation in our all-atom free-energy force field([1],[2]). A set of random conformations is evolved using an ES to get a diverse population containing low energy structure. The ES is shown to balance energy improvement and yet maintain diversity in structures. The ES is implemented as a master-client model for distributed computing. Starting from random structures and by using this optimization technique, we were able to fold a 20 amino-acid helical protein and 16 amino-acid beta hairpin[3]. We compare ES to basin hopping method. [1]T. Herges and W. Wenzel,Biophys.J. 87,3100(2004) [2] A. Verma and W. Wenzel Stabilization and folding of beta-sheet and alpha-helical proteins in an all-atom free energy model(submitted)(2005) [3] S. M. Gopal and W. Wenzel Evolutionary Strategies for Protein Folding (in preparation)

  17. Protein intake and ovulatory infertility.

    PubMed

    Chavarro, Jorge E; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rosner, Bernard A; Willett, Walter C

    2008-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether intake of protein from animal and vegetable origin is associated with ovulatory infertility. A total of 18,555 married women without a history of infertility were followed up as they attempted a pregnancy or became pregnant during an 8 year period. Dietary assessments were related to the incidence of ovulatory infertility. During follow-up, 438 women reported ovulatory infertility. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval [CI]; P for trend) of ovulatory infertility comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of animal protein intake was 1.39 (1.01 to 1.90; 0.03). The corresponding RR (95% CI; P for trend) for vegetable protein intake was 0.78 (0.54 to 1.12; 0.07). Furthermore, consuming 5% of total energy intake as vegetable protein rather than as animal protein was associated with a more than 50% lower risk of ovulatory infertility (P =.007). Replacing animal sources of protein with vegetable sources of protein may reduce ovulatory infertility risk.

  18. Prions: Beyond a Single Protein

    PubMed Central

    Das, Alvin S.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Since the term protein was first coined in 1838 and protein was discovered to be the essential component of fibrin and albumin, all cellular proteins were presumed to play beneficial roles in plants and mammals. However, in 1967, Griffith proposed that proteins could be infectious pathogens and postulated their involvement in scrapie, a universally fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in goats and sheep. Nevertheless, this novel hypothesis had not been evidenced until 1982, when Prusiner and coworkers purified infectious particles from scrapie-infected hamster brains and demonstrated that they consisted of a specific protein that he called a “prion.” Unprecedentedly, the infectious prion pathogen is actually derived from its endogenous cellular form in the central nervous system. Unlike other infectious agents, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi, prions do not contain genetic materials such as DNA or RNA. The unique traits and genetic information of prions are believed to be encoded within the conformational structure and posttranslational modifications of the proteins. Remarkably, prion-like behavior has been recently observed in other cellular proteins—not only in pathogenic roles but also serving physiological functions. The significance of these fascinating developments in prion biology is far beyond the scope of a single cellular protein and its related disease. PMID:27226089

  19. MPFit: Computational Tool for Predicting Moonlighting Proteins.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ishita; McGraw, Joshua; Kihara, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of proteins have been found which are capable of performing two or more distinct functions. These proteins, known as moonlighting proteins, have drawn much attention recently as they may play critical roles in disease pathways and development. However, because moonlighting proteins are often found serendipitously, our understanding of moonlighting proteins is still quite limited. In order to lay the foundation for systematic moonlighting proteins studies, we developed MPFit, a software package for predicting moonlighting proteins from their omics features including protein-protein and gene interaction networks. Here, we describe and demonstrate the algorithm of MPFit, the idea behind it, and provide instruction for using the software.

  20. Expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants

    DOEpatents

    Vierstra, Richard D.; Walker, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of multiple proteins in transgenic plants. A DNA construct for introduction into plants includes a provision to express a fusion protein of two proteins of interest joined by a linking domain including plant ubiquitin. When the fusion protein is produced in the cells of a transgenic plant transformed with the DNA construction, native enzymes present in plant cells cleave the fusion protein to release both proteins of interest into the cells of the transgenic plant. Since the proteins are produced from the same fusion protein, the initial quantities of the proteins in the cells of the plant are approximately equal.

  1. Conserved Cysteine Residues Provide a Protein-Protein Interaction Surface in Dual Oxidase (DUOX) Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Meitzler, Jennifer L.; Hinde, Sara; Bánfi, Botond; Nauseef, William M.; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Intramolecular disulfide bond formation is promoted in oxidizing extracellular and endoplasmic reticulum compartments and often contributes to protein stability and function. DUOX1 and DUOX2 are distinguished from other members of the NOX protein family by the presence of a unique extracellular N-terminal region. These peroxidase-like domains lack the conserved cysteines that confer structural stability to mammalian peroxidases. Sequence-based structure predictions suggest that the thiol groups present are solvent-exposed on a single protein surface and are too distant to support intramolecular disulfide bond formation. To investigate the role of these thiol residues, we introduced four individual cysteine to glycine mutations in the peroxidase-like domains of both human DUOXs and purified the recombinant proteins. The mutations caused little change in the stabilities of the monomeric proteins, supporting the hypothesis that the thiol residues are solvent-exposed and not involved in disulfide bonds that are critical for structural integrity. However, the ability of the isolated hDUOX1 peroxidase-like domain to dimerize was altered, suggesting a role for these cysteines in protein-protein interactions that could facilitate homodimerization of the peroxidase-like domain or, in the full-length protein, heterodimeric interactions with a maturation protein. When full-length hDUOX1 was expressed in HEK293 cells, the mutations resulted in decreased H2O2 production that correlated with a decreased amount of the enzyme localized to the membrane surface rather than with a loss of activity or with a failure to synthesize the mutant proteins. These results support a role for the cysteine residues in intermolecular disulfide bond formation with the DUOX maturation factor DUOXA1. PMID:23362256

  2. Benchmarking protein-protein interface predictions: why you should care about protein size.

    PubMed

    Martin, Juliette

    2014-07-01

    A number of predictive methods have been developed to predict protein-protein binding sites. Each new method is traditionally benchmarked using sets of protein structures of various sizes, and global statistics are used to assess the quality of the prediction. Little attention has been paid to the potential bias due to protein size on these statistics. Indeed, small proteins involve proportionally more residues at interfaces than large ones. If a predictive method is biased toward small proteins, this can lead to an over-estimation of its performance. Here, we investigate the bias due to the size effect when benchmarking protein-protein interface prediction on the widely used docking benchmark 4.0. First, we simulate random scores that favor small proteins over large ones. Instead of the 0.5 AUC (Area Under the Curve) value expected by chance, these biased scores result in an AUC equal to 0.6 using hypergeometric distributions, and up to 0.65 using constant scores. We then use real prediction results to illustrate how to detect the size bias by shuffling, and subsequently correct it using a simple conversion of the scores into normalized ranks. In addition, we investigate the scores produced by eight published methods and show that they are all affected by the size effect, which can change their relative ranking. The size effect also has an impact on linear combination scores by modifying the relative contributions of each method. In the future, systematic corrections should be applied when benchmarking predictive methods using data sets with mixed protein sizes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Assigning protein functions by comparative genome analysis protein phylogenetic profiles

    DOEpatents

    Pellegrini, Matteo; Marcotte, Edward M.; Thompson, Michael J.; Eisenberg, David; Grothe, Robert; Yeates, Todd O.

    2003-05-13

    A computational method system, and computer program are provided for inferring functional links from genome sequences. One method is based on the observation that some pairs of proteins A' and B' have homologs in another organism fused into a single protein chain AB. A trans-genome comparison of sequences can reveal these AB sequences, which are Rosetta Stone sequences because they decipher an interaction between A' and B. Another method compares the genomic sequence of two or more organisms to create a phylogenetic profile for each protein indicating its presence or absence across all the genomes. The profile provides information regarding functional links between different families of proteins. In yet another method a combination of the above two methods is used to predict functional links.

  4. [Chemical libraries dedicated to protein-protein interactions].

    PubMed

    Sperandio, Olivier; Villoutreix, Bruno O; Morelli, Xavier; Roche, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    The identification of complete networks of protein-protein interactions (PPI) within a cell has contributed to major breakthroughs in understanding biological pathways, host-pathogen interactions and cancer development. As a consequence, PPI have emerged as a new class of promising therapeutic targets. However, they are still considered as a challenging class of targets for drug discovery programs. Recent successes have allowed the characterization of structural and physicochemical properties of protein-protein interfaces leading to a better understanding of how they can be disrupted with small molecule compounds. In addition, characterization of the profiles of PPI inhibitors has allowed the development of PPI-focused libraries. In this review, we present the current efforts at developing chemical libraries dedicated to these innovative targets. © 2015 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  5. 21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredient (hydrolysates can be prepared from other milk proteins). The names “hydrolyzed vegetable protein... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Protein hydrolysates. 102.22 Section 102.22 Food... Nonstandardized Foods § 102.22 Protein hydrolysates. The common or usual name of a protein hydrolysate shall be...

  6. 21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient (hydrolysates can be prepared from other milk proteins). The names “hydrolyzed vegetable protein... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protein hydrolysates. 102.22 Section 102.22 Food... Nonstandardized Foods § 102.22 Protein hydrolysates. The common or usual name of a protein hydrolysate shall be...

  7. EF-2DE Analysis and Protein Identification

    Isoelectric focusing followed by SDS-PAGE (IEF-2DE) separates proteins in a two-dimensional matrix of protein pI (Protein Isoelectric Point) and molecular weight (MW). The technique is particularly useful to distinguish protein isoforms (Radwan et al., 2012) and proteins that contain post-translatio...

  8. Topology-function conservation in protein-protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Davis, Darren; Yaveroğlu, Ömer Nebil; Malod-Dognin, Noël; Stojmirovic, Aleksandar; Pržulj, Nataša

    2015-05-15

    Proteins underlay the functioning of a cell and the wiring of proteins in protein-protein interaction network (PIN) relates to their biological functions. Proteins with similar wiring in the PIN (topology around them) have been shown to have similar functions. This property has been successfully exploited for predicting protein functions. Topological similarity is also used to guide network alignment algorithms that find similarly wired proteins between PINs of different species; these similarities are used to transfer annotation across PINs, e.g. from model organisms to human. To refine these functional predictions and annotation transfers, we need to gain insight into the variability of the topology-function relationships. For example, a function may be significantly associated with specific topologies, while another function may be weakly associated with several different topologies. Also, the topology-function relationships may differ between different species. To improve our understanding of topology-function relationships and of their conservation among species, we develop a statistical framework that is built upon canonical correlation analysis. Using the graphlet degrees to represent the wiring around proteins in PINs and gene ontology (GO) annotations to describe their functions, our framework: (i) characterizes statistically significant topology-function relationships in a given species, and (ii) uncovers the functions that have conserved topology in PINs of different species, which we term topologically orthologous functions. We apply our framework to PINs of yeast and human, identifying seven biological process and two cellular component GO terms to be topologically orthologous for the two organisms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Adhesives from modified soy protein

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Susan [Manhattan, KS; Wang, Donghai [Manhattan, KS; Zhong, Zhikai [Manhattan, KS; Yang, Guang [Shanghai, CN

    2008-08-26

    The present invention provides useful adhesive compositions having similar adhesive properties to conventional UF and PPF resins. The compositions generally include a protein portion and modifying ingredient portion selected from the group consisting of carboxyl-containing compounds, aldehyde-containing compounds, epoxy group-containing compounds, and mixtures thereof. The composition is preferably prepared at a pH level at or near the isoelectric point of the protein. In other preferred forms, the adhesive composition includes a protein portion and a carboxyl-containing group portion.

  10. Protein Crystals Grown in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A collage of protein and virus crystals, many of which were grown on the U.S. Space Shuttle or Russian Space Station, Mir. The crystals include the proteins canavalin; mouse monoclonal antibody; a sweet protein, thaumatin; and a fungal protease. Viruses are represented here by crystals of turnip yellow mosaic virus and satellite tobacco mosaic virus. The crystals are photographed under polarized light (thus causing the colors) and range in size from a few hundred microns in edge length up to more than a millimeter. All the crystals are grown from aqueous solutions and are useful for X-ray diffraction analysis. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

  11. Single transverse mode protein laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogru, Itir Bakis; Min, Kyungtaek; Umar, Muhammad; Bahmani Jalali, Houman; Begar, Efe; Conkar, Deniz; Firat Karalar, Elif Nur; Kim, Sunghwan; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2017-12-01

    Here, we report a single transverse mode distributed feedback (DFB) protein laser. The gain medium that is composed of enhanced green fluorescent protein in a silk fibroin matrix yields a waveguiding gain layer on a DFB resonator. The thin TiO2 layer on the quartz grating improves optical feedback due to the increased effective refractive index. The protein laser shows a single transverse mode lasing at the wavelength of 520 nm with the threshold level of 92.1 μJ/ mm2.

  12. Effective Potentials for Folding Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nan-Yow; Su, Zheng-Yao; Mou, Chung-Yu

    2006-02-01

    A coarse-grained off-lattice model that is not biased in any way to the native state is proposed to fold proteins. To predict the native structure in a reasonable time, the model has included the essential effects of water in an effective potential. Two new ingredients, the dipole-dipole interaction and the local hydrophobic interaction, are introduced and are shown to be as crucial as the hydrogen bonding. The model allows successful folding of the wild-type sequence of protein G and may have provided important hints to the study of protein folding.

  13. Direct Calculation of Protein Fitness Landscapes through Computational Protein Design

    PubMed Central

    Au, Loretta; Green, David F.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally selected amino-acid sequences or experimentally derived ones are often the basis for understanding how protein three-dimensional conformation and function are determined by primary structure. Such sequences for a protein family comprise only a small fraction of all possible variants, however, representing the fitness landscape with limited scope. Explicitly sampling and characterizing alternative, unexplored protein sequences would directly identify fundamental reasons for sequence robustness (or variability), and we demonstrate that computational methods offer an efficient mechanism toward this end, on a large scale. The dead-end elimination and A∗ search algorithms were used here to find all low-energy single mutant variants, and corresponding structures of a G-protein heterotrimer, to measure changes in structural stability and binding interactions to define a protein fitness landscape. We established consistency between these algorithms with known biophysical and evolutionary trends for amino-acid substitutions, and could thus recapitulate known protein side-chain interactions and predict novel ones. PMID:26745411

  14. Convergence of Artificial Protein Polymers and Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.

    PubMed

    Dzuricky, Michael; Roberts, Stefan; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2018-05-01

    A flurry of research in recent years has revealed the molecular origins of many membraneless organelles to be the liquid phase separation of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Consequently, protein disorder has emerged as an important driver of intracellular compartmentalization by providing specialized microenvironments chemically distinct from the surrounding medium. Though the importance of protein disorder and its relationship to intracellular phase behavior are clear, a detailed understanding of how such phase behavior can be predicted and controlled remains elusive. While research in IDPs has largely focused on the implications of structural disorder on cellular function and disease, another field, that of artificial protein polymers, has focused on the de novo design of protein polymers with controllable material properties. A subset of these polymers, specifically those derived from structural proteins such as elastin and resilin, are also disordered sequences that undergo liquid-liquid phase separation. This phase separation has been used in a variety of biomedical applications, and researchers studying these polymers have developed methods to precisely characterize and tune their phase behavior. Despite their disparate origins, both fields are complementary as they study the phase behavior of intrinsically disordered polypeptides. This Perspective hopes to stimulate collaborative efforts by highlighting the similarities between these two fields and by providing examples of how such collaboration could be mutually beneficial.

  15. Encounter complexes and dimensionality reduction in protein-protein association.

    PubMed

    Kozakov, Dima; Li, Keyong; Hall, David R; Beglov, Dmitri; Zheng, Jiefu; Vakili, Pirooz; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch; Clore, G Marius; Vajda, Sandor

    2014-04-08

    An outstanding challenge has been to understand the mechanism whereby proteins associate. We report here the results of exhaustively sampling the conformational space in protein-protein association using a physics-based energy function. The agreement between experimental intermolecular paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) data and the PRE profiles calculated from the docked structures shows that the method captures both specific and non-specific encounter complexes. To explore the energy landscape in the vicinity of the native structure, the nonlinear manifold describing the relative orientation of two solid bodies is projected onto a Euclidean space in which the shape of low energy regions is studied by principal component analysis. Results show that the energy surface is canyon-like, with a smooth funnel within a two dimensional subspace capturing over 75% of the total motion. Thus, proteins tend to associate along preferred pathways, similar to sliding of a protein along DNA in the process of protein-DNA recognition. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01370.001.

  16. The Unique Protein-to-Protein Carotenoid Transfer Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Maksimov, Eugene G; Sluchanko, Nikolai N; Slonimskiy, Yury B; Mironov, Kirill S; Klementiev, Konstantin E; Moldenhauer, Marcus; Friedrich, Thomas; Los, Dmitry A; Paschenko, Vladimir Z; Rubin, Andrew B

    2017-07-25

    Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) is known as an effector and regulator of cyanobacterial photoprotection. This 35 kDa water-soluble protein provides specific environment for blue-green light absorbing keto-carotenoids, which excitation causes dramatic but fully reversible rearrangements of the OCP structure, including carotenoid translocation and separation of C- and N-terminal domains upon transition from the basic orange to photoactivated red OCP form. Although recent studies greatly improved our understanding of the OCP photocycle and interaction with phycobilisomes and the fluorescence recovery protein, the mechanism of OCP assembly remains unclear. Apparently, this process requires targeted delivery and incorporation of a highly hydrophobic carotenoid molecule into the water-soluble apoprotein of OCP. Recently, we introduced, to our knowledge, a novel carotenoid carrier protein, COCP, which consists of dimerized C-domain(s) of OCP and can combine with the isolated N-domain to form transient OCP-like species. Here, we demonstrate that in vitro COCP efficiently transfers otherwise tightly bound carotenoid to the full-length OCP apoprotein, resulting in formation of photoactive OCP from completely photoinactive species. We accurately analyze the peculiarities of this process that, to the best of our knowledge, appears unique, a previously uncharacterized protein-to-protein carotenoid transfer mechanism. We hypothesize that a similar OCP assembly can occur in vivo, substantiating specific roles of the COCP carotenoid carrier in cyanobacterial photoprotection. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Selection of peptides interfering with protein-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Gaida, Annette; Hagemann, Urs B; Mattay, Dinah; Räuber, Christina; Müller, Kristian M; Arndt, Katja M

    2009-01-01

    Cell physiology depends on a fine-tuned network of protein-protein interactions, and misguided interactions are often associated with various diseases. Consequently, peptides, which are able to specifically interfere with such adventitious interactions, are of high interest for analytical as well as medical purposes. One of the most abundant protein interaction domains is the coiled-coil motif, and thus provides a premier target. Coiled coils, which consist of two or more alpha-helices wrapped around each other, have one of the simplest interaction interfaces, yet they are able to confer highly specific homo- and heterotypic interactions involved in virtually any cellular process. While there are several ways to generate interfering peptides, the combination of library design with a powerful selection system seems to be one of the most effective and promising approaches. This chapter guides through all steps of such a process, starting with library options and cloning, detailing suitable selection techniques and ending with purification for further down-stream characterization. Such generated peptides will function as versatile tools to interfere with the natural function of their targets thereby illuminating their down-stream signaling and, in general, promoting understanding of factors leading to specificity and stability in protein-protein interactions. Furthermore, peptides interfering with medically relevant proteins might become important diagnostics and therapeutics.

  18. Targeting protein-protein interaction between MLL1 and reciprocal proteins for leukemia therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Hui; Li, Dong-Dong; Chen, Wei-Lin; You, Qi-Dong; Guo, Xiao-Ke

    2018-01-15

    The mixed lineage leukemia protein-1 (MLL1), as a lysine methyltransferase, predominantly regulates the methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) and functions in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal. MLL1 gene fuses with partner genes that results in the generation of MLL1 fusion proteins (MLL1-FPs), which are frequently detected in acute leukemia. In the progress of leukemogenesis, a great deal of proteins cooperate with MLL1 to form multiprotein complexes serving for the dysregulation of H3K4 methylation, the overexpression of homeobox (HOX) cluster genes, and the consequent generation of leukemia. Hence, disrupting the interactions between MLL1 and the reciprocal proteins has been considered to be a new treatment strategy for leukemia. Here, we reviewed potential protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between MLL1 and its reciprocal proteins, and summarized the inhibitors to target MLL1 PPIs. The druggability of MLL1 PPIs for leukemia were also discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A Method for Predicting Protein Complexes from Dynamic Weighted Protein-Protein Interaction Networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lizhen; Sun, Xiaowu; Song, Wei; Du, Chao

    2018-06-01

    Predicting protein complexes from protein-protein interaction (PPI) network is of great significance to recognize the structure and function of cells. A protein may interact with different proteins under different time or conditions. Existing approaches only utilize static PPI network data that may lose much temporal biological information. First, this article proposed a novel method that combines gene expression data at different time points with traditional static PPI network to construct different dynamic subnetworks. Second, to further filter out the data noise, the semantic similarity based on gene ontology is regarded as the network weight together with the principal component analysis, which is introduced to deal with the weight computing by three traditional methods. Third, after building a dynamic PPI network, a predicting protein complexes algorithm based on "core-attachment" structural feature is applied to detect complexes from each dynamic subnetworks. Finally, it is revealed from the experimental results that our method proposed in this article performs well on detecting protein complexes from dynamic weighted PPI networks.

  20. Protein Charge and Mass Contribute to the Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Protein-Protein Interactions in a Minimal Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yu; Wang, Hong; Nussinov, Ruth; Ma, Buyong

    2013-01-01

    We constructed and simulated a ‘minimal proteome’ model using Langevin dynamics. It contains 206 essential protein types which were compiled from the literature. For comparison, we generated six proteomes with randomized concentrations. We found that the net charges and molecular weights of the proteins in the minimal genome are not random. The net charge of a protein decreases linearly with molecular weight, with small proteins being mostly positively charged and large proteins negatively charged. The protein copy numbers in the minimal genome have the tendency to maximize the number of protein-protein interactions in the network. Negatively charged proteins which tend to have larger sizes can provide large collision cross-section allowing them to interact with other proteins; on the other hand, the smaller positively charged proteins could have higher diffusion speed and are more likely to collide with other proteins. Proteomes with random charge/mass populations form less stable clusters than those with experimental protein copy numbers. Our study suggests that ‘proper’ populations of negatively and positively charged proteins are important for maintaining a protein-protein interaction network in a proteome. It is interesting to note that the minimal genome model based on the charge and mass of E. Coli may have a larger protein-protein interaction network than that based on the lower organism M. pneumoniae. PMID:23420643

  1. Factor H-related proteins.

    PubMed

    Józsi, Mihály; Meri, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    Factor H-related proteins (CFHRs) are plasma glycoproteins related in structure and antigenicity to each other and to the complement inhibitory protein factor H. Such proteins are found in most mammals but their number and domain composition vary. This chapter summarizes our current knowledge on the human factor H-related proteins. In contrast to factor H, they have no strong complement inhibitory activity, although for some of them regulatory or complement modulatory activity has been reported. A common feature of CFHRs is that they bind to the C3b component of complement. Novel links between CFHRs and various diseases (C3 glomerulopathies, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and age-related macular degeneration) have been revealed in recent years, but we are still far from understanding their biological function.

  2. Bence-Jones protein - quantitative

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003597.htm Quantitative Bence-Jones protein test To use the sharing ... Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare ...

  3. Protein Analysis with Human Hair

    Hart, Brad; Anex, Deon; Parker, Glendon

    2018-01-16

    In an important breakthrough for the forensic science community, researchers have developed the first-ever biological identification method that exploits the information encoded in proteins of human hair.

  4. Protein Analysis with Human Hair

    SciT

    Hart, Brad; Anex, Deon; Parker, Glendon

    In an important breakthrough for the forensic science community, researchers have developed the first-ever biological identification method that exploits the information encoded in proteins of human hair.

  5. Statistical Analysis of Protein Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Máté, Gabriell; Heermann, Dieter

    2014-04-01

    As 3D protein-configuration data is piling up, there is an ever-increasing need for well-defined, mathematically rigorous analysis approaches, especially that the vast majority of the currently available methods rely heavily on heuristics. We propose an analysis framework which stems from topology, the field of mathematics which studies properties preserved under continuous deformations. First, we calculate a barcode representation of the molecules employing computational topology algorithms. Bars in this barcode represent different topological features. Molecules are compared through their barcodes by statistically determining the difference in the set of their topological features. As a proof-of-principle application, we analyze a dataset compiled of ensembles of different proteins, obtained from the Ensemble Protein Database. We demonstrate that our approach correctly detects the different protein groupings.

  6. Observable Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This diagram shows a cross sectrion of the fluid volume of an individual cell in the Observable Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus (OPCGA) to be operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The principal investigator is Dr. Alex McPherson of the University of California, Irvine. Each individual cell comprises two sample chambers with a rotating center section that isolates the two from each other until the start of the experiment and after it is completed. The cells are made from optical-quality quartz glass to allow photography and interferometric observations. Each cell has a small light-emitting diode and lens to back-light the solution. In protein crystal growth experiments, a precipitating agent such as a salt solution is used to absorb and hold water but repel the protein molecules. This increases the concentration of protein until the molecules nucleate to form crystals. This cell is one of 96 that make up the experiment module portion of the OPCGA.

  7. Recent advances in racemic protein crystallography.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bingjia; Ye, Linzhi; Xu, Weiliang; Liu, Lei

    2017-09-15

    Solution of the three-dimensional structures of proteins is a critical step in deciphering the molecular mechanisms of their bioactivities. Among the many approaches for obtaining protein crystals, racemic protein crystallography has been developed as a unique method to solve the structures of an increasing number of proteins. Exploiting unnatural protein enantiomers in crystallization and resolution, racemic protein crystallography manifests two major advantages that are 1) to increase the success rate of protein crystallization, and 2) to obviate the phase problem in X-ray diffraction. The requirement of unnatural protein enantiomers in racemic protein crystallography necessitates chemical protein synthesis, which is hitherto accomplished through solid phase peptide synthesis and chemical ligation reactions. This review highlights the fundamental ideas of racemic protein crystallography and surveys the harvests in the field of racemic protein crystallography over the last five years from early 2012 to late 2016. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: protein C deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Protein C deficiency Protein C deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Protein C deficiency is a disorder that increases the risk ...

  9. The RNA–Protein World

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Sidney

    2013-01-01

    Following the naming of the RNA World for the hypothetical biochemical world during very early life forms, the current world was named the Protein World. However, the astonishing high level of transcripts from virtually all chromosomes in an organism now found in eucaryotes, as well as their extensive roles in regulating gene expression, suggests that today’s world should be labeled as the RNA–Protein World. PMID:23592800

  10. The geometry of protein hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Filip; Söderhjelm, Pär; Halle, Bertil

    2018-06-01

    Based on molecular dynamics simulations of four globular proteins in dilute aqueous solution, with three different water models, we examine several, essentially geometrical, aspects of the protein-water interface that remain controversial or incompletely understood. First, we compare different hydration shell definitions, based on spatial or topological proximity criteria. We find that the best method for constructing monolayer shells with nearly complete coverage is to use a 5 Å water-carbon cutoff and a 4 Å water-water cutoff. Using this method, we determine a mean interfacial water area of 11.1 Å2 which appears to be a universal property of the protein-water interface. We then analyze the local coordination and packing density of water molecules in the hydration shells and in subsets of the first shell. The mean polar water coordination number in the first shell remains within 1% of the bulk-water value, and it is 5% lower in the nonpolar part of the first shell. The local packing density is obtained from additively weighted Voronoi tessellation, arguably the most physically realistic method for allocating space between protein and water. We find that water in all parts of the first hydration shell, including the nonpolar part, is more densely packed than in the bulk, with a shell-averaged density excess of 6% for all four proteins. We suggest reasons why this value differs from previous experimental and computational results, emphasizing the importance of a realistic placement of the protein-water dividing surface and the distinction between spatial correlation and packing density. The protein-induced perturbation of water coordination and packing density is found to be short-ranged, with an exponential decay "length" of 0.6 shells. We also compute the protein partial volume, analyze its decomposition, and argue against the relevance of electrostriction.

  11. Protein crystal growth tray assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Miller, Teresa Y. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A protein crystal growth tray assembly includes a tray that has a plurality of individual crystal growth chambers. Each chamber has a movable pedestal which carries a protein crystal growth compartment at an upper end. The several pedestals for each tray assembly are ganged together for concurrent movement so that the solutions in the various pedestal growth compartments can be separated from the solutions in the tray's growth chambers until the experiment is to be activated.

  12. Transmembrane proteins of tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Hideki; Osanai, Makoto; Murata, Masaki; Kojima, Takashi; Sawada, Norimasa

    2008-03-01

    Tight junctions contribute to the paracellular barrier, the fence dividing plasma membranes, and signal transduction, acting as a multifunctional complex in vertebrate epithelial and endothelial cells. The identification and characterization of the transmembrane proteins of tight junctions, claudins, junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs), occludin and tricellulin, have led to insights into the molecular nature of tight junctions. We provide an overview of recent progress in studies on these proteins and highlight their roles and regulation, as well as their functional significance in human diseases.

  13. Cell polarity proteins and spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Xiao, Xiang; Lui, Wing-Yee; Lee, Will M; Mruk, Dolores; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-11-01

    When the cross-section of a seminiferous tubule from an adult rat testes is examined microscopically, Sertoli cells and germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium are notably polarized cells. For instance, Sertoli cell nuclei are found near the basement membrane. On the other hand, tight junction (TJ), basal ectoplasmic specialization (basal ES, a testis-specific actin-rich anchoring junction), gap junction (GJ) and desmosome that constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB) are also located near the basement membrane. The BTB, in turn, divides the epithelium into the basal and the adluminal (apical) compartments. Within the epithelium, undifferentiated spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes restrictively reside in the basal compartment whereas spermatocytes and post-meiotic spermatids reside in the adluminal compartment. Furthermore, the heads of elongating/elongated spermatids point toward the basement membrane with their elongating tails toward the tubule lumen. However, the involvement of polarity proteins in this unique cellular organization, in particular the underlying molecular mechanism(s) by which polarity proteins confer cellular polarity in the seminiferous epithelium is virtually unknown until recent years. Herein, we discuss latest findings regarding the role of different polarity protein complexes or modules and how these protein complexes are working in concert to modulate Sertoli cell and spermatid polarity. These findings also illustrate polarity proteins exert their effects through the actin-based cytoskeleton mediated by actin binding and regulatory proteins, which in turn modulate adhesion protein complexes at the cell-cell interface since TJ, basal ES and GJ utilize F-actin for attachment. We also propose a hypothetical model which illustrates the antagonistic effects of these polarity proteins. This in turn provides a unique mechanism to modulate junction remodeling in the testis to support germ cell transport across the epithelium in

  14. Protein Models Docking Benchmark 2

    PubMed Central

    Anishchenko, Ivan; Kundrotas, Petras J.; Tuzikov, Alexander V.; Vakser, Ilya A.

    2015-01-01

    Structural characterization of protein-protein interactions is essential for our ability to understand life processes. However, only a fraction of known proteins have experimentally determined structures. Such structures provide templates for modeling of a large part of the proteome, where individual proteins can be docked by template-free or template-based techniques. Still, the sensitivity of the docking methods to the inherent inaccuracies of protein models, as opposed to the experimentally determined high-resolution structures, remains largely untested, primarily due to the absence of appropriate benchmark set(s). Structures in such a set should have pre-defined inaccuracy levels and, at the same time, resemble actual protein models in terms of structural motifs/packing. The set should also be large enough to ensure statistical reliability of the benchmarking results. We present a major update of the previously developed benchmark set of protein models. For each interactor, six models were generated with the model-to-native Cα RMSD in the 1 to 6 Å range. The models in the set were generated by a new approach, which corresponds to the actual modeling of new protein structures in the “real case scenario,” as opposed to the previous set, where a significant number of structures were model-like only. In addition, the larger number of complexes (165 vs. 63 in the previous set) increases the statistical reliability of the benchmarking. We estimated the highest accuracy of the predicted complexes (according to CAPRI criteria), which can be attained using the benchmark structures. The set is available at http://dockground.bioinformatics.ku.edu. PMID:25712716

  15. Quantitative study of protein-protein interactions by quartz nanopipettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Purushottam Babu; Astudillo, Luisana; Miksovska, Jaroslava; Wang, Xuewen; Li, Wenzhi; Darici, Yesim; He, Jin

    2014-08-01

    In this report, protein-modified quartz nanopipettes were used to quantitatively study protein-protein interactions in attoliter sensing volumes. As shown by numerical simulations, the ionic current through the conical-shaped nanopipette is very sensitive to the surface charge variation near the pore mouth. With the appropriate modification of negatively charged human neuroglobin (hNgb) onto the inner surface of a nanopipette, we were able to detect concentration-dependent current change when the hNgb-modified nanopipette tip was exposed to positively charged cytochrome c (Cyt c) with a series of concentrations in the bath solution. Such current change is due to the adsorption of Cyt c to the inner surface of the nanopipette through specific interactions with hNgb. In contrast, a smaller current change with weak concentration dependence was observed when Cyt c was replaced with lysozyme, which does not specifically bind to hNgb. The equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) for the Cyt c-hNgb complex formation was derived and the value matched very well with the result from surface plasmon resonance measurement. This is the first quantitative study of protein-protein interactions by a conical-shaped nanopore based on charge sensing. Our results demonstrate that nanopipettes can potentially be used as a label-free analytical tool to quantitatively characterize protein-protein interactions.In this report, protein-modified quartz nanopipettes were used to quantitatively study protein-protein interactions in attoliter sensing volumes. As shown by numerical simulations, the ionic current through the conical-shaped nanopipette is very sensitive to the surface charge variation near the pore mouth. With the appropriate modification of negatively charged human neuroglobin (hNgb) onto the inner surface of a nanopipette, we were able to detect concentration-dependent current change when the hNgb-modified nanopipette tip was exposed to positively charged cytochrome c (Cyt c) with

  16. RNA polymerase II conserved protein domains as platforms for protein-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    García-López, M Carmen

    2011-01-01

    RNA polymerase II establishes many protein-protein interactions with transcriptional regulators to coordinate gene expression, but little is known about protein domains involved in the contact with them. We use a new approach to look for conserved regions of the RNA pol II of S. cerevisiae located at the surface of the structure of the complex, hypothesizing that they might be involved in the interaction with transcriptional regulators. We defined five different conserved domains and demonstrate that all of them make contact with transcriptional regulators. PMID:21922063

  17. Soliton concepts and protein structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krokhotin, Andrei; Niemi, Antti J.; Peng, Xubiao

    2012-03-01

    Structural classification shows that the number of different protein folds is surprisingly small. It also appears that proteins are built in a modular fashion from a relatively small number of components. Here we propose that the modular building blocks are made of the dark soliton solution of a generalized discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We find that practically all protein loops can be obtained simply by scaling the size and by joining together a number of copies of the soliton, one after another. The soliton has only two loop-specific parameters, and we compute their statistical distribution in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). We explicitly construct a collection of 200 sets of parameters, each determining a soliton profile that describes a different short loop. The ensuing profiles cover practically all those proteins in PDB that have a resolution which is better than 2.0 Å, with a precision such that the average root-mean-square distance between the loop and its soliton is less than the experimental B-factor fluctuation distance. We also present two examples that describe how the loop library can be employed both to model and to analyze folded proteins.

  18. Soliton concepts and protein structure.

    PubMed

    Krokhotin, Andrei; Niemi, Antti J; Peng, Xubiao

    2012-03-01

    Structural classification shows that the number of different protein folds is surprisingly small. It also appears that proteins are built in a modular fashion from a relatively small number of components. Here we propose that the modular building blocks are made of the dark soliton solution of a generalized discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We find that practically all protein loops can be obtained simply by scaling the size and by joining together a number of copies of the soliton, one after another. The soliton has only two loop-specific parameters, and we compute their statistical distribution in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). We explicitly construct a collection of 200 sets of parameters, each determining a soliton profile that describes a different short loop. The ensuing profiles cover practically all those proteins in PDB that have a resolution which is better than 2.0 Å, with a precision such that the average root-mean-square distance between the loop and its soliton is less than the experimental B-factor fluctuation distance. We also present two examples that describe how the loop library can be employed both to model and to analyze folded proteins.

  19. Protein adsorption in microengraving immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Song, Qing

    2015-10-16

    Microengraving is a novel immunoassay for characterizing multiple protein secretions from single cells. During the immunoassay, characteristic diffusion and kinetic time scales  and  determine the time for molecular diffusion of proteins secreted from the activated single lymphocytes and subsequent binding onto the glass slide surface respectively. Our results demonstrate that molecular diffusion plays important roles in the early stage of protein adsorption dynamics which shifts to a kinetic controlled mechanism in the later stage. Similar dynamic pathways are observed for protein adsorption with significantly fast rates and rapid shifts in transport mechanisms when  is increased a hundred times from 0.313 to 31.3. Theoretical adsorption isotherms follow the trend of experimentally obtained data. Adsorption isotherms indicate that amount of proteins secreted from individual cells and subsequently captured on a clean glass slide surface increases monotonically with time. Our study directly validates that protein secretion rates can be quantified by the microengraving immunoassay. This will enable us to apply microengraving immunoassays to quantify secretion rates from 10⁴-10⁵ single cells in parallel, screen antigen-specific cells with the highest secretion rate for clonal expansion and quantitatively reveal cellular heterogeneity within a small cell sample.

  20. Protein Adsorption in Microengraving Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Microengraving is a novel immunoassay forcharacterizing multiple protein secretions from single cells. During the immunoassay, characteristic diffusion and kinetic time scales τD and τK determine the time for molecular diffusion of proteins secreted from the activated single lymphocytes and subsequent binding onto the glass slide surface respectively. Our results demonstrate that molecular diffusion plays important roles in the early stage of protein adsorption dynamics which shifts to a kinetic controlled mechanism in the later stage. Similar dynamic pathways are observed for protein adsorption with significantly fast rates and rapid shifts in transport mechanisms when C0* is increased a hundred times from 0.313 to 31.3. Theoretical adsorption isotherms follow the trend of experimentally obtained data. Adsorption isotherms indicate that amount of proteins secreted from individual cells and subsequently captured on a clean glass slide surface increases monotonically with time. Our study directly validates that protein secretion rates can be quantified by the microengraving immunoassay. This will enable us to apply microengraving immunoassays to quantify secretion rates from 104–105 single cells in parallel, screen antigen-specific cells with the highest secretion rate for clonal expansion and quantitatively reveal cellular heterogeneity within a small cell sample. PMID:26501282

  1. Strep-Tagged Protein Purification.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Barbara; Spriestersbach, Anne; Kubicek, Jan; Schäfer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The Strep-tag system can be used to purify recombinant proteins from any expression system. Here, protocols for lysis and affinity purification of Strep-tagged proteins from E. coli, baculovirus-infected insect cells, and transfected mammalian cells are given. Depending on the amount of Strep-tagged protein in the lysate, a protocol for batch binding and subsequent washing and eluting by gravity flow can be used. Agarose-based matrices with the coupled Strep-Tactin ligand are the resins of choice, with a binding capacity of up to 9 mg ml(-1). For purification of lower amounts of Strep-tagged proteins, the use of Strep-Tactin magnetic beads is suitable. In addition, Strep-tagged protein purification can also be automated using prepacked columns for FPLC or other liquid-handling chromatography instrumentation, but automated purification is not discussed in this protocol. The protocols described here can be regarded as an update of the Strep-Tag Protein Handbook (Qiagen, 2009). © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A topological approach for protein classification

    DOE PAGES

    Cang, Zixuan; Mu, Lin; Wu, Kedi; ...

    2015-11-04

    Here, protein function and dynamics are closely related to its sequence and structure. However, prediction of protein function and dynamics from its sequence and structure is still a fundamental challenge in molecular biology. Protein classification, which is typically done through measuring the similarity between proteins based on protein sequence or physical information, serves as a crucial step toward the understanding of protein function and dynamics.

  3. Intracellular delivery of proteins by nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Ray, Moumita; Lee, Yi-Wei; Scaletti, Federica; Yu, Ruijin; Rotello, Vincent M

    2017-04-01

    Intracellular delivery of proteins is potentially a game-changing approach for therapeutics. However, for most applications, the protein needs to access the cytosol to be effective. A wide variety of strategies have been developed for protein delivery, however access of delivered protein to the cytosol without acute cytotoxicity remains a critical issue. In this review we discuss recent trends in protein delivery using nanocarriers, focusing on the ability of these strategies to deliver protein into the cytosol.

  4. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E; Calla-Choque, Jaeson S; Mancilla-Olea, Maria Inocente; Arroyo, Rossana

    2015-11-26

    Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE) located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis.

  5. Potential disruption of protein-protein interactions by graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Mei; Kang, Hongsuk; Yang, Zaixing; Luan, Binquan; Zhou, Ruhong

    2016-06-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising novel nanomaterial with a wide range of potential biomedical applications due to its many intriguing properties. However, very little research has been conducted to study its possible adverse effects on protein-protein interactions (and thus subsequent toxicity to human). Here, the potential cytotoxicity of GO is investigated at molecular level using large-scale, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to explore the interaction mechanism between a protein dimer and a GO nanosheet oxidized at different levels. Our theoretical results reveal that GO nanosheet could intercalate between the two monomers of HIV-1 integrase dimer, disrupting the protein-protein interactions and eventually lead to dimer disassociation as graphene does [B. Luan et al., ACS Nano 9(1), 663 (2015)], albeit its insertion process is slower when compared with graphene due to the additional steric and attractive interactions. This study helps to better understand the toxicity of GO to cell functions which could shed light on how to improve its biocompatibility and biosafety for its wide potential biomedical applications.

  6. Potential disruption of protein-protein interactions by graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mei; Kang, Hongsuk; Yang, Zaixing; Luan, Binquan; Zhou, Ruhong

    2016-06-14

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising novel nanomaterial with a wide range of potential biomedical applications due to its many intriguing properties. However, very little research has been conducted to study its possible adverse effects on protein-protein interactions (and thus subsequent toxicity to human). Here, the potential cytotoxicity of GO is investigated at molecular level using large-scale, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to explore the interaction mechanism between a protein dimer and a GO nanosheet oxidized at different levels. Our theoretical results reveal that GO nanosheet could intercalate between the two monomers of HIV-1 integrase dimer, disrupting the protein-protein interactions and eventually lead to dimer disassociation as graphene does [B. Luan et al., ACS Nano 9(1), 663 (2015)], albeit its insertion process is slower when compared with graphene due to the additional steric and attractive interactions. This study helps to better understand the toxicity of GO to cell functions which could shed light on how to improve its biocompatibility and biosafety for its wide potential biomedical applications.

  7. A role for surface hydrophobicity in protein-protein recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Young, L.; Jernigan, R. L.; Covell, D. G.

    1994-01-01

    The role of hydrophobicity as a determinant of protein-protein interactions is examined. Surfaces of apo-protein targets comprising 9 classes of enzymes, 7 antibody fragments, hirudin, growth hormone, and retinol-binding protein, and their associated ligands with available X-ray structures for their complexed forms, are scanned to determine clusters of surface-accessible amino acids. Clusters of surface residues are ranked on the basis of the hydrophobicity of their constituent amino acids. The results indicate that the location of the co-crystallized ligand is commonly found to correspond with one of the strongest hydrophobic clusters on the surface of the target molecule. In 25 of 38 cases, the correspondence is exact, with the position of the most hydrophobic cluster coinciding with more than one-third of the surface buried by the bound ligand. The remaining 13 cases demonstrate this correspondence within the top 6 hydrophobic clusters. These results suggest that surface hydrophobicity can be used to identify regions of a protein's surface most likely to interact with a binding ligand. This fast and simple procedure may be useful for identifying small sets of well-defined loci for possible ligand attachment. PMID:8061602

  8. The modular architecture of protein-protein binding interfaces.

    PubMed

    Reichmann, D; Rahat, O; Albeck, S; Meged, R; Dym, O; Schreiber, G

    2005-01-04

    Protein-protein interactions are essential for life. Yet, our understanding of the general principles governing binding is not complete. In the present study, we show that the interface between proteins is built in a modular fashion; each module is comprised of a number of closely interacting residues, with few interactions between the modules. The boundaries between modules are defined by clustering the contact map of the interface. We show that mutations in one module do not affect residues located in a neighboring module. As a result, the structural and energetic consequences of the deletion of entire modules are surprisingly small. To the contrary, within their module, mutations cause complex energetic and structural consequences. Experimentally, this phenomenon is shown on the interaction between TEM1-beta-lactamase and beta-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP) by using multiple-mutant analysis and x-ray crystallography. Replacing an entire module of five interface residues with Ala created a large cavity in the interface, with no effect on the detailed structure of the remaining interface. The modular architecture of binding sites, which resembles human engineering design, greatly simplifies the design of new protein interactions and provides a feasible view of how these interactions evolved.

  9. Feature generation and representations for protein-protein interaction classification.

    PubMed

    Lan, Man; Tan, Chew Lim; Su, Jian

    2009-10-01

    Automatic detecting protein-protein interaction (PPI) relevant articles is a crucial step for large-scale biological database curation. The previous work adopted POS tagging, shallow parsing and sentence splitting techniques, but they achieved worse performance than the simple bag-of-words representation. In this paper, we generated and investigated multiple types of feature representations in order to further improve the performance of PPI text classification task. Besides the traditional domain-independent bag-of-words approach and the term weighting methods, we also explored other domain-dependent features, i.e. protein-protein interaction trigger keywords, protein named entities and the advanced ways of incorporating Natural Language Processing (NLP) output. The integration of these multiple features has been evaluated on the BioCreAtIvE II corpus. The experimental results showed that both the advanced way of using NLP output and the integration of bag-of-words and NLP output improved the performance of text classification. Specifically, in comparison with the best performance achieved in the BioCreAtIvE II IAS, the feature-level and classifier-level integration of multiple features improved the performance of classification 2.71% and 3.95%, respectively.

  10. Potential disruption of protein-protein interactions by graphene oxide

    SciT

    Feng, Mei; Kang, Hongsuk; Luan, Binquan

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising novel nanomaterial with a wide range of potential biomedical applications due to its many intriguing properties. However, very little research has been conducted to study its possible adverse effects on protein-protein interactions (and thus subsequent toxicity to human). Here, the potential cytotoxicity of GO is investigated at molecular level using large-scale, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to explore the interaction mechanism between a protein dimer and a GO nanosheet oxidized at different levels. Our theoretical results reveal that GO nanosheet could intercalate between the two monomers of HIV-1 integrase dimer, disrupting the protein-protein interactions andmore » eventually lead to dimer disassociation as graphene does [B. Luan et al., ACS Nano 9(1), 663 (2015)], albeit its insertion process is slower when compared with graphene due to the additional steric and attractive interactions. This study helps to better understand the toxicity of GO to cell functions which could shed light on how to improve its biocompatibility and biosafety for its wide potential biomedical applications.« less

  11. Measuring protein-protein and protein-nucleic Acid interactions by biolayer interferometry.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Azmiri; Lee, Jeffrey E

    2015-02-02

    Biolayer interferometry (BLI) is a simple, optical dip-and-read system useful for measuring interactions between proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, small molecules, and/or lipids in real time. In BLI, a biomolecular bait is immobilized on a matrix at the tip of a fiber-optic sensor. The binding between the immobilized ligand and another molecule in an analyte solution produces a change in optical thickness at the tip and results in a wavelength shift proportional to binding. BLI provides direct binding affinities and rates of association and dissociation. This unit describes an efficient approach using streptavidin-based BLI to analyze DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions. A quantitative set of equilibrium binding affinities (K(d)) and rates of association and dissociation (k(a)/k(d)) can be measured in minutes using nanomole quantities of sample. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Rosetta stone method for detecting protein function and protein-protein interactions from genome sequences

    DOEpatents

    Eisenberg, David; Marcotte, Edward M.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Thompson, Michael J.; Yeates, Todd O.

    2002-10-15

    A computational method system, and computer program are provided for inferring functional links from genome sequences. One method is based on the observation that some pairs of proteins A' and B' have homologs in another organism fused into a single protein chain AB. A trans-genome comparison of sequences can reveal these AB sequences, which are Rosetta Stone sequences because they decipher an interaction between A' and B. Another method compares the genomic sequence of two or more organisms to create a phylogenetic profile for each protein indicating its presence or absence across all the genomes. The profile provides information regarding functional links between different families of proteins. In yet another method a combination of the above two methods is used to predict functional links.

  13. Anomalous Dynamics of Water Confined in Protein-Protein and Protein-DNA Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Chong, Song-Ho; Ham, Sihyun

    2016-10-06

    Confined water often exhibits anomalous properties not observable in the bulk phase. Although water in hydrophobic confinement has been the focus of intense investigation, the behavior of water confined between hydrophilic surfaces, which are more frequently found in biological systems, has not been fully explored. Here, we investigate using molecular dynamics simulations dynamical properties of the water confined in hydrophilic protein-protein and protein-DNA interfaces. We find that the interfacial water exhibits glassy slow relaxations even at 300 K. In particular, the rotational dynamics show a logarithmic decay that was observed in glass-forming liquids at deeply supercooled states. We argue that such slow water dynamics are indeed induced by the hydrophilic binding surfaces, which is in opposition to the picture that the hydration water slaves protein motions. Our results will significantly impact the view on the role of water in biomolecular interactions.

  14. Carbene footprinting accurately maps binding sites in protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzi, Lucio; Barrow, Andrew S.; Scott, Daniel; Layfield, Robert; Wright, Timothy G.; Moses, John E.; Oldham, Neil J.

    2016-11-01

    Specific interactions between proteins and their binding partners are fundamental to life processes. The ability to detect protein complexes, and map their sites of binding, is crucial to understanding basic biology at the molecular level. Methods that employ sensitive analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry have the potential to provide valuable insights with very little material and on short time scales. Here we present a differential protein footprinting technique employing an efficient photo-activated probe for use with mass spectrometry. Using this methodology the location of a carbohydrate substrate was accurately mapped to the binding cleft of lysozyme, and in a more complex example, the interactions between a 100 kDa, multi-domain deubiquitinating enzyme, USP5 and a diubiquitin substrate were located to different functional domains. The much improved properties of this probe make carbene footprinting a viable method for rapid and accurate identification of protein binding sites utilizing benign, near-UV photoactivation.

  15. The Role of Shape Complementarity in the Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ye; Zhang, Xianren; Cao, Dapeng

    2013-01-01

    We use a dissipative particle dynamic simulation to investigate the effects of shape complementarity on the protein-protein interactions. By monitoring different kinds of protein shape-complementarity modes, we gave a clear mechanism to reveal the role of the shape complementarity in the protein-protein interactions, i.e., when the two proteins with shape complementarity approach each other, the conformation of lipid chains between two proteins would be restricted significantly. The lipid molecules tend to leave the gap formed by two proteins to maximize the configuration entropy, and therefore yield an effective entropy-induced protein-protein attraction, which enhances the protein aggregation. In short, this work provides an insight into understanding the importance of the shape complementarity in the protein-protein interactions especially for protein aggregation and antibody–antigen complexes. Definitely, the shape complementarity is the third key factor affecting protein aggregation and complex, besides the electrostatic-complementarity and hydrophobic complementarity. PMID:24253561

  16. Construction of reliable protein-protein interaction networks with a new interaction generality measure.

    PubMed

    Saito, Rintaro; Suzuki, Harukazu; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2003-04-12

    Recent screening techniques have made large amounts of protein-protein interaction data available, from which biologically important information such as the function of uncharacterized proteins, the existence of novel protein complexes, and novel signal-transduction pathways can be discovered. However, experimental data on protein interactions contain many false positives, making these discoveries difficult. Therefore computational methods of assessing the reliability of each candidate protein-protein interaction are urgently needed. We developed a new 'interaction generality' measure (IG2) to assess the reliability of protein-protein interactions using only the topological properties of their interaction-network structure. Using yeast protein-protein interaction data, we showed that reliable protein-protein interactions had significantly lower IG2 values than less-reliable interactions, suggesting that IG2 values can be used to evaluate and filter interaction data to enable the construction of reliable protein-protein interaction networks.

  17. The Role of Shape Complementarity in the Protein-Protein Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ye; Zhang, Xianren; Cao, Dapeng

    2013-11-01

    We use a dissipative particle dynamic simulation to investigate the effects of shape complementarity on the protein-protein interactions. By monitoring different kinds of protein shape-complementarity modes, we gave a clear mechanism to reveal the role of the shape complementarity in the protein-protein interactions, i.e., when the two proteins with shape complementarity approach each other, the conformation of lipid chains between two proteins would be restricted significantly. The lipid molecules tend to leave the gap formed by two proteins to maximize the configuration entropy, and therefore yield an effective entropy-induced protein-protein attraction, which enhances the protein aggregation. In short, this work provides an insight into understanding the importance of the shape complementarity in the protein-protein interactions especially for protein aggregation and antibody-antigen complexes. Definitely, the shape complementarity is the third key factor affecting protein aggregation and complex, besides the electrostatic-complementarity and hydrophobic complementarity.

  18. SONAR Discovers RNA-Binding Proteins from Analysis of Large-Scale Protein-Protein Interactomes.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Kristopher W; Jin, Wenhao; Huelga, Stephanie C; Banks, Charles A S; Gilmore, Joshua M; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Van Nostrand, Eric L; Pratt, Gabriel A; Schwinn, Marie K; Daniels, Danette L; Yeo, Gene W

    2016-10-20

    RNA metabolism is controlled by an expanding, yet incomplete, catalog of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), many of which lack characterized RNA binding domains. Approaches to expand the RBP repertoire to discover non-canonical RBPs are currently needed. Here, HaloTag fusion pull down of 12 nuclear and cytoplasmic RBPs followed by quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) demonstrates that proteins interacting with multiple RBPs in an RNA-dependent manner are enriched for RBPs. This motivated SONAR, a computational approach that predicts RNA binding activity by analyzing large-scale affinity precipitation-MS protein-protein interactomes. Without relying on sequence or structure information, SONAR identifies 1,923 human, 489 fly, and 745 yeast RBPs, including over 100 human candidate RBPs that contain zinc finger domains. Enhanced CLIP confirms RNA binding activity and identifies transcriptome-wide RNA binding sites for SONAR-predicted RBPs, revealing unexpected RNA binding activity for disease-relevant proteins and DNA binding proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Ser/Thr Protein Kinase Protein-Protein Interaction Map of M. tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fan-Lin; Liu, Yin; Jiang, He-Wei; Luan, Yi-Zhao; Zhang, Hai-Nan; He, Xiang; Xu, Zhao-Wei; Hou, Jing-Li; Ji, Li-Yun; Xie, Zhi; Czajkowsky, Daniel M; Yan, Wei; Deng, Jiao-Yu; Bi, Li-Jun; Zhang, Xian-En; Tao, Sheng-Ce

    2017-08-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causative agent of tuberculosis, the leading cause of death among all infectious diseases. There are 11 eukaryotic-like serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs) in Mtb, which are thought to play pivotal roles in cell growth, signal transduction and pathogenesis. However, their underlying mechanisms of action remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, using a Mtb proteome microarray, we have globally identified the binding proteins in Mtb for all of the STPKs, and constructed the first STPK protein interaction (KPI) map that includes 492 binding proteins and 1,027 interactions. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the interacting proteins reflect diverse functions, including roles in two-component system, transcription, protein degradation, and cell wall integrity. Functional investigations confirmed that PknG regulates cell wall integrity through key components of peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis, e.g. MurC. The global STPK-KPIs network constructed here is expected to serve as a rich resource for understanding the key signaling pathways in Mtb, thus facilitating drug development and effective control of Mtb. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Mitochondrial protein acetylation mediates nutrient sensing of mitochondrial protein synthesis and mitonuclear protein balance.

    PubMed

    Di Domenico, Antonella; Hofer, Annette; Tundo, Federica; Wenz, Tina

    2014-11-01

    Changes in nutrient supply require global metabolic reprogramming to optimize the utilization of the nutrients. Mitochondria as a central component of the cellular metabolism play a key role in this adaptive process. Since mitochondria harbor their own genome, which encodes essential enzymes, mitochondrial protein synthesis is a determinant of metabolic adaptation. While regulation of cytoplasmic protein synthesis in response to metabolic challenges has been studied in great detail, mechanisms which adapt mitochondrial translation in response to metabolic challenges remain elusive. Our results suggest that the mitochondrial acetylation status controlled by Sirt3 and its proposed opponent GCN5L1 is an important regulator of the metabolic adaptation of mitochondrial translation. Moreover, both proteins modulate regulators of cytoplasmic protein synthesis as well as the mitonuclear protein balance making Sirt3 and GCN5L1 key players in synchronizing mitochondrial and cytoplasmic translation. Our results thereby highlight regulation of mitochondrial translation as a novel component in the cellular nutrient sensing scheme and identify mitochondrial acetylation as a new regulatory principle for the metabolic competence of mitochondrial protein synthesis. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. Protein glycation, diabetes, and aging.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, P; Cerami, A

    2001-01-01

    Biological amines react with reducing sugars to form a complex family of rearranged and dehydrated covalent adducts that are often yellow-brown and/or fluorescent and include many cross-linked structures. Food chemists have long studied this process as a source of flavor, color, and texture changes in cooked, processed, and stored foods. During the 1970s and 1980s, it was realized that this process, called the Maillard reaction or advanced glycation, also occurs slowly in vivo. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) that form are implicated, causing the complications of diabetes and aging, primarily via adventitious and crosslinking of proteins. Long-lived proteins such as structural collagen and lens crystallins particularly are implicated as pathogenic targets of AGE processes. AGE formation in vascular wall collagen appears to be an especially deleterious event, causing crosslinking of collagen molecules to each other and to circulating proteins. This leads to plaque formation, basement membrane thickening, and loss of vascular elasticity. The chemistry of these later-stage, glycation-derived crosslinks is still incompletely understood but, based on the hypothesis that AGE formation involves reactive carbonyl groups, the authors introduced the carbonyl reagent aminoguanidine hydrochloride as an inhibitor of AGE formation in vivo in the mid 1980s. Subsequent studies by many researchers have shown the effectiveness of aminoguanidine in slowing or preventing a wide range of complications of diabetes and aging in animals and, recently, in humans. Since, the authors have developed a new class of agents, exemplified by 4,5-dimethyl-3-phenacylthiazolium chloride (DPTC), which can chemically break already-formed AGE protein-protein crosslinks. These agents are based on a new theory of AGE crosslinking that postulates that alpha-dicarbonyl structures are present in AGE protein-protein crosslinks. In studies in aged animals, DPTC has been shown to be capable of reverting

  2. Quantifying the Molecular Origins of Opposite Solvent Effects on Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Vagenende, Vincent; Han, Alvin X.; Pek, Han B.; Loo, Bernard L. W.

    2013-01-01

    Although the nature of solvent-protein interactions is generally weak and non-specific, addition of cosolvents such as denaturants and osmolytes strengthens protein-protein interactions for some proteins, whereas it weakens protein-protein interactions for others. This is exemplified by the puzzling observation that addition of glycerol oppositely affects the association constants of two antibodies, D1.3 and D44.1, with lysozyme. To resolve this conundrum, we develop a methodology based on the thermodynamic principles of preferential interaction theory and the quantitative characterization of local protein solvation from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that changes of preferential solvent interactions at the protein-protein interface quantitatively account for the opposite effects of glycerol on the antibody-antigen association constants. Detailed characterization of local protein solvation in the free and associated protein states reveals how opposite solvent effects on protein-protein interactions depend on the extent of dewetting of the protein-protein contact region and on structural changes that alter cooperative solvent-protein interactions at the periphery of the protein-protein interface. These results demonstrate the direct relationship between macroscopic solvent effects on protein-protein interactions and atom-scale solvent-protein interactions, and establish a general methodology for predicting and understanding solvent effects on protein-protein interactions in diverse biological environments. PMID:23696727

  3. Quantifying the molecular origins of opposite solvent effects on protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Vagenende, Vincent; Han, Alvin X; Pek, Han B; Loo, Bernard L W

    2013-01-01

    Although the nature of solvent-protein interactions is generally weak and non-specific, addition of cosolvents such as denaturants and osmolytes strengthens protein-protein interactions for some proteins, whereas it weakens protein-protein interactions for others. This is exemplified by the puzzling observation that addition of glycerol oppositely affects the association constants of two antibodies, D1.3 and D44.1, with lysozyme. To resolve this conundrum, we develop a methodology based on the thermodynamic principles of preferential interaction theory and the quantitative characterization of local protein solvation from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that changes of preferential solvent interactions at the protein-protein interface quantitatively account for the opposite effects of glycerol on the antibody-antigen association constants. Detailed characterization of local protein solvation in the free and associated protein states reveals how opposite solvent effects on protein-protein interactions depend on the extent of dewetting of the protein-protein contact region and on structural changes that alter cooperative solvent-protein interactions at the periphery of the protein-protein interface. These results demonstrate the direct relationship between macroscopic solvent effects on protein-protein interactions and atom-scale solvent-protein interactions, and establish a general methodology for predicting and understanding solvent effects on protein-protein interactions in diverse biological environments.

  4. Template-based structure modeling of protein-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Szilagyi, Andras; Zhang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The structure of protein-protein complexes can be constructed by using the known structure of other protein complexes as a template. The complex structure templates are generally detected either by homology-based sequence alignments or, given the structure of monomer components, by structure-based comparisons. Critical improvements have been made in recent years by utilizing interface recognition and by recombining monomer and complex template libraries. Encouraging progress has also been witnessed in genome-wide applications of template-based modeling, with modeling accuracy comparable to high-throughput experimental data. Nevertheless, bottlenecks exist due to the incompleteness of the proteinprotein complex structure library and the lack of methods for distant homologous template identification and full-length complex structure refinement. PMID:24721449

  5. Identification of Modules in Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erten, Sinan; Koyutürk, Mehmet

    In biological systems, most processes are carried out through orchestration of multiple interacting molecules. These interactions are often abstracted using network models. A key feature of cellular networks is their modularity, which contributes significantly to the robustness, as well as adaptability of biological systems. Therefore, modularization of cellular networks is likely to be useful in obtaining insights into the working principles of cellular systems, as well as building tractable models of cellular organization and dynamics. A common, high-throughput source of data on molecular interactions is in the form of physical interactions between proteins, which are organized into protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. This chapter provides an overview on identification and analysis of functional modules in PPI networks, which has been an active area of research in the last decade.

  6. Membrane-Mediated Cooperativity of Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weikl, Thomas R.

    2018-04-01

    Besides direct protein-protein interactions, indirect interactions mediated by membranes play an important role for the assembly and cooperative function of proteins in membrane shaping and adhesion. The intricate shapes of biological membranes are generated by proteins that locally induce membrane curvature. Indirect curvature-mediated interactions between these proteins arise because the proteins jointly affect the bending energy of the membranes. These curvature-mediated interactions are attractive for crescent-shaped proteins and are a driving force in the assembly of the proteins during membrane tubulation. Membrane adhesion results from the binding of receptor and ligand proteins that are anchored in the apposing membranes. The binding of these proteins strongly depends on nanoscale shape fluctuations of the membranes, leading to a fluctuation-mediated binding cooperativity. A length mismatch between receptor-ligand complexes in membrane adhesion zones causes repulsive curvature-mediated interactions that are a driving force for the length-based segregation of proteins during membrane adhesion.

  7. Protein stability: a crystallographer’s perspective

    PubMed Central

    Deller, Marc C.; Kong, Leopold; Rupp, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Protein stability is a topic of major interest for the biotechnology, pharmaceutical and food industries, in addition to being a daily consideration for academic researchers studying proteins. An understanding of protein stability is essential for optimizing the expression, purification, formulation, storage and structural studies of proteins. In this review, discussion will focus on factors affecting protein stability, on a somewhat practical level, particularly from the view of a protein crystallographer. The differences between protein conformational stability and protein compositional stability will be discussed, along with a brief introduction to key methods useful for analyzing protein stability. Finally, tactics for addressing protein-stability issues during protein expression, purification and crystallization will be discussed. PMID:26841758

  8. Predicting protein interactions by Brownian dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xuan-Yu; Xu, Yu; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Mezei, Mihaly; Cui, Meng

    2012-01-01

    We present a newly adapted Brownian-Dynamics (BD)-based protein docking method for predicting native protein complexes. The approach includes global BD conformational sampling, compact complex selection, and local energy minimization. In order to reduce the computational costs for energy evaluations, a shell-based grid force field was developed to represent the receptor protein and solvation effects. The performance of this BD protein docking approach has been evaluated on a test set of 24 crystal protein complexes. Reproduction of experimental structures in the test set indicates the adequate conformational sampling and accurate scoring of this BD protein docking approach. Furthermore, we have developed an approach to account for the flexibility of proteins, which has been successfully applied to reproduce the experimental complex structure from the structure of two unbounded proteins. These results indicate that this adapted BD protein docking approach can be useful for the prediction of protein-protein interactions.

  9. Arraying proteins by cell-free synthesis.

    PubMed

    He, Mingyue; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2007-10-01

    Recent advances in life science have led to great motivation for the development of protein arrays to study functions of genome-encoded proteins. While traditional cell-based methods have been commonly used for generating protein arrays, they are usually a time-consuming process with a number of technical challenges. Cell-free protein synthesis offers an attractive system for making protein arrays, not only does it rapidly converts the genetic information into functional proteins without the need for DNA cloning, but also presents a flexible environment amenable to production of folded proteins or proteins with defined modifications. Recent advancements have made it possible to rapidly generate protein arrays from PCR DNA templates through parallel on-chip protein synthesis. This article reviews current cell-free protein array technologies and their proteomic applications.

  10. In situ synthesis of protein arrays.

    PubMed

    He, Mingyue; Stoevesandt, Oda; Taussig, Michael J

    2008-02-01

    In situ or on-chip protein array methods use cell free expression systems to produce proteins directly onto an immobilising surface from co-distributed or pre-arrayed DNA or RNA, enabling protein arrays to be created on demand. These methods address three issues in protein array technology: (i) efficient protein expression and availability, (ii) functional protein immobilisation and purification in a single step and (iii) protein on-chip stability over time. By simultaneously expressing and immobilising many proteins in parallel on the chip surface, the laborious and often costly processes of DNA cloning, expression and separate protein purification are avoided. Recently employed methods reviewed are PISA (protein in situ array) and NAPPA (nucleic acid programmable protein array) from DNA and puromycin-mediated immobilisation from mRNA.

  11. Recent progress and future directions in protein-protein docking.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, David W

    2008-02-01

    This article gives an overview of recent progress in protein-protein docking and it identifies several directions for future research. Recent results from the CAPRI blind docking experiments show that docking algorithms are steadily improving in both reliability and accuracy. Current docking algorithms employ a range of efficient search and scoring strategies, including e.g. fast Fourier transform correlations, geometric hashing, and Monte Carlo techniques. These approaches can often produce a relatively small list of up to a few thousand orientations, amongst which a near-native binding mode is often observed. However, despite the use of improved scoring functions which typically include models of desolvation, hydrophobicity, and electrostatics, current algorithms still have difficulty in identifying the correct solution from the list of false positives, or decoys. Nonetheless, significant progress is being made through better use of bioinformatics, biochemical, and biophysical information such as e.g. sequence conservation analysis, protein interaction databases, alanine scanning, and NMR residual dipolar coupling restraints to help identify key binding residues. Promising new approaches to incorporate models of protein flexibility during docking are being developed, including the use of molecular dynamics snapshots, rotameric and off-rotamer searches, internal coordinate mechanics, and principal component analysis based techniques. Some investigators now use explicit solvent models in their docking protocols. Many of these approaches can be computationally intensive, although new silicon chip technologies such as programmable graphics processor units are beginning to offer competitive alternatives to conventional high performance computer systems. As cryo-EM techniques improve apace, docking NMR and X-ray protein structures into low resolution EM density maps is helping to bridge the resolution gap between these complementary techniques. The use of symmetry and

  12. Inferring High-Confidence Human Protein-Protein Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    comprised proteins that had the same specific func- tion or were subunits of the same protein complex, such as branched chain keto acid E1 alpha (BCKDHA...and branched chain keto acid E1 beta (BCKDHB) [3,29], and dynein cytoplasmic 2 intermediate chain 1 (D2LIC) and dynein cytoplasmic 2 heavy chain 1...474.3 28.0 1337.0 BCKDHA 5 Branched chain keto acid dehydro. E1, alpha BCKDHB 4 Branched chain keto acid dehydro. E1, beta 4 471.4 29.0 1337.5 ARTN 2

  13. Relaxation Dynamics in Heme Proteins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, Reinhard Wilhelm

    A protein molecule possesses many conformational substates that are likely arranged in a hierarchy consisting of a number of tiers. A hierarchical organization of conformational substates is expected to give rise to a multitude of nonequilibrium relaxation phenomena. If the temperature is lowered, transitions between substates of higher tiers are frozen out, and relaxation processes characteristic of lower tiers will dominate the observational time scale. This thesis addresses the following questions: (i) What is the energy landscape of a protein? How does the landscape depend on the environment such as pH and viscosity, and how can it be connected to specific structural parts? (ii) What relaxation phenomena can be observed in a protein? Which are protein specific, and which occur in other proteins? How does the environment influence relaxations? (iii) What functional form best describes relaxation functions? (iv) Can we connect the motions to specific structural parts of the protein molecule, and are these motions important for the function of the protein?. To this purpose, relaxation processes after a pressure change are studied in carbonmonoxy (CO) heme proteins (myoglobin-CO, substrate-bound and substrate-free cytochrome P450cam-CO, chloroperoxidase-CO, horseradish peroxidase -CO) between 150 K and 250 K using FTIR spectroscopy to monitor the CO bound to the heme iron. Two types of p -relaxation experiments are performed: p-release (200 to ~eq40 MPa) and p-jump (~eq40 to 200 MPa) experiments. Most of the relaxations fall into one of three groups and are characterized by (i) nonexponential time dependence and non-Arrhenius temperature dependence (FIM1( nu), FIM1(Gamma)); (ii) exponential time dependence and non-Arrhenius temperature dependence (FIM0(A_{i}to A_{j})); exponential time dependence and Arrhenius temperature dependence (FIMX( nu)). The influence of pH is studied in myoglobin-CO and shown to have a strong influence on the substate population of the

  14. PLASMA PROTEIN AND HEMOGLOBIN PRODUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1947-01-01

    Given healthy dogs fed abundant iron and protein-free or low protein diets with sustained anemia and hypoproteinemia, we can study the capacity of these animals to produce simultaneously new hemoglobin and plasma protein. Reserve stores of blood protein-building materials are measurably depleted and levels of 6 to 8 gm. per cent for hemoglobin and 4 to 5 gm. per cent for plasma protein can be maintained for weeks or months depending upon the intake of food proteins or amino acid mixtures. These dogs are very susceptible to infection and various poisons. Dogs tire of these diets and loss of appetite terminates many experiments. Under these conditions (double depletion) standard growth mixtures of essential amino acids are tested to show the response in blood protein output and urinary nitrogen balance. As a part of each tabulated experiment one of the essential amino acids is deleted from the complete growth mixture to compare such response with that of the whole mixture. Methionine, threonine, phenylalanine, and tryptophane when singly eliminated from the complete amino acid mixture do effect a sharp rise in urinary nitrogen. This loss of urinary nitrogen is corrected when the individual amino acid is replaced in the mixture. Histidine, lysine, and valine have a moderate influence upon urinary nitrogen balance toward nitrogen conservation. Leucine, isoleucine, and arginine have minimal or no effect upon urinary nitrogen balance when these individual amino acids are deleted from the complete growth mixture of amino acids during 3 to 4 week periods. Tryptophane and to a less extent phenylalanine and threonine when returned to the amino acid mixture are associated with a conspicuous preponderance of plasma protein output over the hemoglobin output (Table 4). Arginine, lysine, and histidine when returned to the amino acid mixture are associated with a large preponderance of hemoglobin output. Various amino acid mixtures under these conditions may give a positive

  15. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  16. Whole Protein Native Fitness Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraggi, Eshel; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Protein structure prediction can be separated into two tasks: sample the configuration space of the protein chain, and assign a fitness between these hypothetical models and the native structure of the protein. One of the more promising developments in this area is that of knowledge based energy functions. However, standard approaches using pair-wise interactions have shown shortcomings demonstrated by the superiority of multi-body-potentials. These shortcomings are due to residue pair-wise interaction being dependent on other residues along the chain. We developed a method that uses whole protein information filtered through machine learners to score protein models based on their likeness to native structures. For all models we calculated parameters associated with the distance to the solvent and with distances between residues. These parameters, in addition to energy estimates obtained by using a four-body-potential, DFIRE, and RWPlus were used as training for machine learners to predict the fitness of the models. Testing on CASP 9 targets showed that our method is superior to DFIRE, RWPlus, and the four-body potential, which are considered standards in the field.

  17. Protein Design for Pathway Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Dawn T.; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2013-01-01

    Design and construction of biochemical pathways has increased the complexity of biosynthetically-produced compounds when compared to single enzyme biocatalysis. However, the coordination of multiple enzymes can introduce a complicated set of obstacles to overcome in order to achieve a high titer and yield of the desired compound. Metabolic engineering has made great strides in developing tools to optimize the flux through a target pathway, but the inherent characteristics of a particular enzyme within the pathway can still limit the productivity. Thus, judicious protein design is critical for metabolic and pathway engineering. This review will describe various strategies and examples of applying protein design to pathway engineering to optimize the flux through the pathway. The proteins can be engineered for altered substrate specificity/selectivity, increased catalytic activity, reduced mass transfer limitations through specific protein localization, and reduced substrate/product inhibition. Protein engineering can also be expanded to design biosensors to enable high through-put screening and to customize cell signaling networks. These strategies have successfully engineered pathways for significantly increased productivity of the desired product or in the production of novel compounds. PMID:23558037

  18. Assembling the Tat protein translocase

    PubMed Central

    Alcock, Felicity; Stansfeld, Phillip J; Basit, Hajra; Habersetzer, Johann; Baker, Matthew AB; Palmer, Tracy; Wallace, Mark I; Berks, Ben C

    2016-01-01

    The twin-arginine protein translocation system (Tat) transports folded proteins across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and the thylakoid membranes of plant chloroplasts. The Tat transporter is assembled from multiple copies of the membrane proteins TatA, TatB, and TatC. We combine sequence co-evolution analysis, molecular simulations, and experimentation to define the interactions between the Tat proteins of Escherichia coli at molecular-level resolution. In the TatBC receptor complex the transmembrane helix of each TatB molecule is sandwiched between two TatC molecules, with one of the inter-subunit interfaces incorporating a functionally important cluster of interacting polar residues. Unexpectedly, we find that TatA also associates with TatC at the polar cluster site. Our data provide a structural model for assembly of the active Tat translocase in which substrate binding triggers replacement of TatB by TatA at the polar cluster site. Our work demonstrates the power of co-evolution analysis to predict protein interfaces in multi-subunit complexes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20718.001 PMID:27914200

  19. Graphene Nanopores for Protein Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James; Sloman, Leila; He, Zhiren; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2016-07-19

    An inexpensive, reliable method for protein sequencing is essential to unraveling the biological mechanisms governing cellular behavior and disease. Current protein sequencing methods suffer from limitations associated with the size of proteins that can be sequenced, the time, and the cost of the sequencing procedures. Here, we report the results of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations that investigated the feasibility of using graphene nanopores for protein sequencing. We focus our study on the biologically significant phenylalanine-glycine repeat peptides (FG-nups)-parts of the nuclear pore transport machinery. Surprisingly, we found FG-nups to behave similarly to single stranded DNA: the peptides adhere to graphene and exhibit step-wise translocation when subject to a transmembrane bias or a hydrostatic pressure gradient. Reducing the peptide's charge density or increasing the peptide's hydrophobicity was found to decrease the translocation speed. Yet, unidirectional and stepwise translocation driven by a transmembrane bias was observed even when the ratio of charged to hydrophobic amino acids was as low as 1:8. The nanopore transport of the peptides was found to produce stepwise modulations of the nanopore ionic current correlated with the type of amino acids present in the nanopore, suggesting that protein sequencing by measuring ionic current blockades may be possible.

  20. Palmitoylation of proteins in cancer.

    PubMed

    Resh, Marilyn D

    2017-04-15

    Post-translational modification of proteins by attachment of palmitate serves as a mechanism to regulate protein localization and function in both normal and malignant cells. Given the essential role that palmitoylation plays in cancer cell signaling, approaches that target palmitoylated proteins and palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs) have the potential for therapeutic intervention in cancer. Highlighted here are recent advances in understanding the importance of protein palmitoylation in tumorigenic pathways. A new study has uncovered palmitoylation sites within the epidermal growth factor receptor that regulate receptor trafficking, signaling and sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Global data analysis from nearly 150 cancer studies reveals genomic alterations in several PATs that may account for their ability to function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Selective inhibitors have recently been developed that target hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat) and Porcupine (Porcn), the acyltransferases that modify hedgehog and Wnt proteins, respectively. These inhibitors, coupled with targeted knockdown of Hhat and Porcn, reveal the essential functions of fatty acylation of secreted morphogens in a wide variety of human tumors. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  1. Protein design for pathway engineering.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Dawn T; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-02-01

    Design and construction of biochemical pathways has increased the complexity of biosynthetically-produced compounds when compared to single enzyme biocatalysis. However, the coordination of multiple enzymes can introduce a complicated set of obstacles to overcome in order to achieve a high titer and yield of the desired compound. Metabolic engineering has made great strides in developing tools to optimize the flux through a target pathway, but the inherent characteristics of a particular enzyme within the pathway can still limit the productivity. Thus, judicious protein design is critical for metabolic and pathway engineering. This review will describe various strategies and examples of applying protein design to pathway engineering to optimize the flux through the pathway. The proteins can be engineered for altered substrate specificity/selectivity, increased catalytic activity, reduced mass transfer limitations through specific protein localization, and reduced substrate/product inhibition. Protein engineering can also be expanded to design biosensors to enable high through-put screening and to customize cell signaling networks. These strategies have successfully engineered pathways for significantly increased productivity of the desired product or in the production of novel compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effector proteins of rust fungi.

    PubMed

    Petre, Benjamin; Joly, David L; Duplessis, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi include many species that are devastating crop pathogens. To develop resistant plants, a better understanding of rust virulence factors, or effector proteins, is needed. Thus far, only six rust effector proteins have been described: AvrP123, AvrP4, AvrL567, AvrM, RTP1, and PGTAUSPE-10-1. Although some are well established model proteins used to investigate mechanisms of immune receptor activation (avirulence activities) or entry into plant cells, how they work inside host tissues to promote fungal growth remains unknown. The genome sequences of four rust fungi (two Melampsoraceae and two Pucciniaceae) have been analyzed so far. Genome-wide analyses of these species, as well as transcriptomics performed on a broader range of rust fungi, revealed hundreds of small secreted proteins considered as rust candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs). The rust community now needs high-throughput approaches (effectoromics) to accelerate effector discovery/characterization and to better understand how they function in planta. However, this task is challenging due to the non-amenability of rust pathosystems (obligate biotrophs infecting crop plants) to traditional molecular genetic approaches mainly due to difficulties in culturing these species in vitro. The use of heterologous approaches should be promoted in the future.

  3. Protein crystal nucleation in pores.

    PubMed

    Nanev, Christo N; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Chayen, Naomi E

    2017-01-16

    The most powerful method for protein structure determination is X-ray crystallography which relies on the availability of high quality crystals. Obtaining protein crystals is a major bottleneck, and inducing their nucleation is of crucial importance in this field. An effective method to form crystals is to introduce nucleation-inducing heterologous materials into the crystallization solution. Porous materials are exceptionally effective at inducing nucleation. It is shown here that a combined diffusion-adsorption effect can increase protein concentration inside pores, which enables crystal nucleation even under conditions where heterogeneous nucleation on flat surfaces is absent. Provided the pore is sufficiently narrow, protein molecules approach its walls and adsorb more frequently than they can escape. The decrease in the nucleation energy barrier is calculated, exhibiting its quantitative dependence on the confinement space and the energy of interaction with the pore walls. These results provide a detailed explanation of the effectiveness of porous materials for nucleation of protein crystals, and will be useful for optimal design of such materials.

  4. Protein synthesis controls phosphate homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Mauricio H; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element assimilated largely as orthophosphate (Pi). Cells respond to Pi starvation by importing Pi from their surroundings. We now report that impaired protein synthesis alone triggers a Pi starvation response even when Pi is plentiful in the extracellular milieu. In the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium , this response entails phosphorylation of the regulatory protein PhoB and transcription of PhoB-dependent Pi transporter genes and is eliminated upon stimulation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. When protein synthesis is impaired due to low cytoplasmic magnesium (Mg 2+ ), Salmonella triggers the Pi starvation response because ribosomes are destabilized, which reduces ATP consumption and thus free cytoplasmic Pi. This response is transient because low cytoplasmic Mg 2+ promotes an uptake in Mg 2+ and a decrease in ATP levels, which stabilizes ribosomes, resulting in ATP consumption and Pi increase, thus ending the response. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of protein synthesis also elicited a Pi starvation response in the bacterium Escherichia coli and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Our findings identify a regulatory connection between protein synthesis and Pi homeostasis that is widespread in nature. © 2018 Pontes and Groisman; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. The octamer-binding proteins form multi-protein--DNA complexes with the HSV alpha TIF regulatory protein.

    PubMed

    Kristie, T M; LeBowitz, J H; Sharp, P A

    1989-12-20

    The herpes simplex virus transactivator, alpha TIF, stimulates transcription of the alpha/immediate early genes via a cis-acting site containing an octamer element and a conserved flanking sequence. The alpha TIF protein, produced in a baculovirus expression system, nucleates the formation of at least two DNA--protein complexes on this regulatory element. Both of these complexes contain the ubiquitous Oct-1 protein, whose POU domain alone is sufficient to allow assembly of the alpha TIF-dependent complexes. A second member of the POU domain family, the lymphoid specific Oct-2 protein, can also be assembled into similar complexes at high concentrations of alpha TIF protein. These complexes contain at least two cellular proteins in addition to Oct-1. One of these proteins is present in both insect and HeLa cells and probably recognizes sequences in the cis element. The second cellular protein, only present in HeLa cells, probably binds by protein-protein interactions.

  6. Computational design of protein interactions: designing proteins that neutralize influenza by inhibiting its hemagglutinin surface protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleishman, Sarel

    2012-02-01

    Molecular recognition underlies all life processes. Design of interactions not seen in nature is a test of our understanding of molecular recognition and could unlock the vast potential of subtle control over molecular interaction networks, allowing the design of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for basic and applied research. We developed the first general method for designing protein interactions. The method starts by computing a region of high affinity interactions between dismembered amino acid residues and the target surface and then identifying proteins that can harbor these residues. Designs are tested experimentally for binding the target surface and successful ones are affinity matured using yeast cell surface display. Applied to the conserved stem region of influenza hemagglutinin we designed two unrelated proteins that, following affinity maturation, bound hemagglutinin at subnanomolar dissociation constants. Co-crystal structures of hemagglutinin bound to the two designed binders were within 1Angstrom RMSd of their models, validating the accuracy of the design strategy. One of the designed proteins inhibits the conformational changes that underlie hemagglutinin's cell-invasion functions and blocks virus infectivity in cell culture, suggesting that such proteins may in future serve as diagnostics and antivirals against a wide range of pathogenic influenza strains. We have used this method to obtain experimentally validated binders of several other target proteins, demonstrating the generality of the approach. We discuss the combination of modeling and high-throughput characterization of design variants which has been key to the success of this approach, as well as how we have used the data obtained in this project to enhance our understanding of molecular recognition. References: Science 332:816 JMB, in press Protein Sci 20:753

  7. Protein moonlighting in parasitic protists.

    PubMed

    Ginger, Michael L

    2014-12-01

    Reductive evolution during the adaptation to obligate parasitism and expansions of gene families encoding virulence factors are characteristics evident to greater or lesser degrees in all parasitic protists studied to date. Large evolutionary distances separate many parasitic protists from the yeast and animal models upon which classic views of eukaryotic biochemistry are often based. Thus a combination of evolutionary divergence, niche adaptation and reductive evolution means the biochemistry of parasitic protists is often very different from their hosts and to other eukaryotes generally, making parasites intriguing subjects for those interested in the phenomenon of moonlighting proteins. In common with other organisms, the contribution of protein moonlighting to parasite biology is only just emerging, and it is not without controversy. Here, an overview of recently identified moonlighting proteins in parasitic protists is provided, together with discussion of some of the controversies.

  8. Sequence repeats and protein structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Trinh X.; Trovato, Antonio; Seno, Flavio; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Maritan, Amos

    2012-11-01

    Repeats are frequently found in known protein sequences. The level of sequence conservation in tandem repeats correlates with their propensities to be intrinsically disordered. We employ a coarse-grained model of a protein with a two-letter amino acid alphabet, hydrophobic (H) and polar (P), to examine the sequence-structure relationship in the realm of repeated sequences. A fraction of repeated sequences comprises a distinct class of bad folders, whose folding temperatures are much lower than those of random sequences. Imperfection in sequence repetition improves the folding properties of the bad folders while deteriorating those of the good folders. Our results may explain why nature has utilized repeated sequences for their versatility and especially to design functional proteins that are intrinsically unstructured at physiological temperatures.

  9. Advanced Methods of Protein Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Abel

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides a review of different advanced methods that help to increase the success rate of a crystallization project, by producing larger and higher quality single crystals for determination of macromolecular structures by crystallographic methods. For this purpose, the chapter is divided into three parts. The first part deals with the fundamentals for understanding the crystallization process through different strategies based on physical and chemical approaches. The second part presents new approaches involved in more sophisticated methods not only for growing protein crystals but also for controlling the size and orientation of crystals through utilization of electromagnetic fields and other advanced techniques. The last section deals with three different aspects: the importance of microgravity, the use of ligands to stabilize proteins, and the use of microfluidics to obtain protein crystals. All these advanced methods will allow the readers to obtain suitable crystalline samples for high-resolution X-ray and neutron crystallography.

  10. Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility (APCF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This section of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) publication contains articles entitled: (1) Crystallization of EGFR-EGF; (2) Crystallization of Apocrustacyanin C1; (3) Crystallization and X-ray Analysis of 5S rRNA and the 5S rRNA Domain A; (4) Growth of Lysozyme Crystals at Low Nucleation Density; (5) Comparative Analysis of Aspartyl tRNA-synthetase and Thaumatin Crystals Grown on Earth and In Microgravity; (6) Lysosome Crystal Growth in the Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility Monitored via Mach-Zehnder Interferometry and CCD Video; (7) Analysis of Thaumatin Crystals Grown on Earth and in Microgravity; (8) Crystallization of the Nucleosome Core Particle; (9) Crystallization of Photosystem I; (10) Mechanism of Membrane Protein Crystal Growth: Bacteriorhodopsin-mixed Micelle Packing at the Consolution Boundary, Stabilized in Microgravity; (11) Crystallization in a Microgravity Environment of CcdB, a Protein Involved in the Control of Cell Death; and (12) Crystallization of Sulfolobus Solfataricus

  11. Isotopic Changes During Digestion: Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuross, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrient and hydrological inputs traverse a complicated route of pH, enzymatic and cellular processes in digestion in higher animals. The end products of digestion are the starting products for biosynthesis that are often used to interpret past life-ways. Using an artificial gut system, the isotopic changes (dD, d18O, d13C and d15N) of protein are documented. Three separate protein sources are subjected to the conditions, chemical and enzymatic, found in the stomach and upper small intestine with only a small shift in the oxygen isotopic composition of the proteins observed. Middle to lower small intestine parameters produced both greater isotopic effects and significantly lower molecular weight products. The role of the gastric enterocyte and the likely involvement of the internal milieu of this cell in the isotopic composition of amino acids that are transported to the liver are reported.

  12. Sucralose Destabilization of Protein Structure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lee; Shukla, Nimesh; Cho, Inha; Cohn, Erin; Taylor, Erika A; Othon, Christina M

    2015-04-16

    Sucralose is a commonly employed artificial sweetener that behaves very differently than its natural disaccharide counterpart, sucrose, in terms of its interaction with biomolecules. The presence of sucralose in solution is found to destabilize the native structure of two model protein systems: the globular protein bovine serum albumin and an enzyme staphylococcal nuclease. The melting temperature of these proteins decreases as a linear function of sucralose concentration. We correlate this destabilization to the increased polarity of the molecule. The strongly polar nature is manifested as a large dielectric friction exerted on the excited-state rotational diffusion of tryptophan using time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy. Tryptophan exhibits rotational diffusion proportional to the measured bulk viscosity for sucrose solutions over a wide range of concentrations, consistent with a Stokes-Einstein model. For sucralose solutions, however, the diffusion is dependent on the concentration, strongly diverging from the viscosity predictions, and results in heterogeneous rotational diffusion.

  13. Viscoelastic behavior and microstructure of protein solutions

    Twenty percent solutions of calcium caseinate (CC), egg albumin (EA), fish protein isolate (FPI), soy protein isolate (SPI), wheat gluten (WG), and whey protein isolate (WPI) were examined during heating by small amplitude oscillatory shear measurements, which provided an indication of protein behav...

  14. Introduction to Protein Structure through Genetic Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Tanya L.; Linton, Brian R.

    2008-01-01

    An illuminating way to learn about protein function is to explore high-resolution protein structures. Analysis of the proteins involved in genetic diseases has been used to introduce students to protein structure and the role that individual mutations can play in the onset of disease. Known mutations can be correlated to changes in protein…

  15. Evolution of Protein Lipograms: A Bioinformatics Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Harold B., III; Dhurjati, Prasad

    2006-01-01

    A protein lacking one of the 20 common amino acids is a protein lipogram. This open-ended problem-based learning assignment deals with the evolution of proteins with biased amino acid composition. It has students query protein and metabolic databases to test the hypothesis that natural selection has reduced the frequency of each amino acid…

  16. Networking at the Protein Society symposium.

    PubMed

    McKnight, C James; Cordes, Matthew H J

    2005-10-01

    From the complex behavior of multicomponent signaling networks to the structures of large protein complexes and aggregates, questions once viewed as daunting are now being tackled fearlessly by protein scientists. The 19th Annual Symposium of the Protein Society in Boston highlighted the maturation of systems biology as applied to proteins.

  17. Bacteriophage Protein–Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Häuser, Roman; Blasche, Sonja; Dokland, Terje; Haggård-Ljungquist, Elisabeth; von Brunn, Albrecht; Salas, Margarita; Casjens, Sherwood; Molineux, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriophages T7, λ, P22, and P2/P4 (from Escherichia coli), as well as ϕ29 (from Bacillus subtilis), are among the best-studied bacterial viruses. This chapter summarizes published protein interaction data of intraviral protein interactions, as well as known phage–host protein interactions of these phages retrieved from the literature. We also review the published results of comprehensive protein interaction analyses of Pneumococcus phages Dp-1 and Cp-1, as well as coliphages λ and T7. For example, the ≈55 proteins encoded by the T7 genome are connected by ≈43 interactions with another ≈15 between the phage and its host. The chapter compiles published interactions for the well-studied phages λ (33 intra-phage/22 phage-host), P22 (38/9), P2/P4 (14/3), and ϕ29 (20/2). We discuss whether different interaction patterns reflect different phage lifestyles or whether they may be artifacts of sampling. Phages that infect the same host can interact with different host target proteins, as exemplified by E. coli phage λ and T7. Despite decades of intensive investigation, only a fraction of these phage interactomes are known. Technical limitations and a lack of depth in many studies explain the gaps in our knowledge. Strategies to complete current interactome maps are described. Although limited space precludes detailed overviews of phage molecular biology, this compilation will allow future studies to put interaction data into the context of phage biology. PMID:22748812

  18. Current trends in protein crystallization.

    PubMed

    Gavira, José A

    2016-07-15

    Proteins belong to the most complex colloidal system in terms of their physicochemical properties, size and conformational-flexibility. This complexity contributes to their great sensitivity to any external change and dictate the uncertainty of crystallization. The need of 3D models to understand their functionality and interaction mechanisms with other neighbouring (macro)molecules has driven the tremendous effort put into the field of crystallography that has also permeated other fields trying to shed some light into reluctant-to-crystallize proteins. This review is aimed at revising protein crystallization from a regular-laboratory point of view. It is also devoted to highlight the latest developments and achievements to produce, identify and deliver high-quality protein crystals for XFEL, Micro-ED or neutron diffraction. The low likelihood of protein crystallization is rationalized by considering the intrinsic polypeptide nature (folded state, surface charge, etc) followed by a description of the standard crystallization methods (batch, vapour diffusion and counter-diffusion), including high throughput advances. Other methodologies aimed at determining protein features in solution (NMR, SAS, DLS) or to gather structural information from single particles such as Cryo-EM are also discussed. Finally, current approaches showing the convergence of different structural biology techniques and the cross-methodologies adaptation to tackle the most difficult problems, are presented. Current advances in biomacromolecules crystallization, from nano crystals for XFEL and Micro-ED to large crystals for neutron diffraction, are covered with special emphasis in methodologies applicable at laboratory scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecularly resolved protein electromechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Axford, Daniel; Davis, Jason J; Wang, Nan; Wang, Dongxu; Zhang, Tiantian; Zhao, Jianwei; Peters, Ben

    2007-08-02

    Previous work has shown that protein molecules can be trapped between the conductive surfaces presented by a metal-coated AFM probe and an underlying planar substrate where their molecule-specific conductance characteristics can be assayed. Herein, we demonstrate that transport across such a derived metal-protein-electrode junction falls within three, pressure-dependent, regimes and, further, that pressure-dependent conductance can be utilized in analyzing temporal variations of protein fold. Specifically, the electronic and mechanical properties of the metalloprotein azurin have been characterized under conditions of anisotropic vertical compression through the use of a conducting atomic force microscope (CP-AFM). By utilizing the ability of azurin to chemically self-assemble on the gold surface presented either by the apex of a suitably coated AFM probe or a planar metallic surface, molecular-level transport characteristics are assayable. Under conditions of low force, typically less than 2 nN, the weak physical and electronic coupling between the protein and the conducting contacts impedes tunneling and leads to charge buildup followed by dielectric breakdown. At slightly increased force, 3-5 nN, the copper protein exhibits temporal electron occupation with observable negative differential resistance, while the redox-inactive zinc mutant does not. At imposed loads greater than 5 nN, appreciable electron tunneling can be detected even at low bias for both the redox-active and -inactive species. Dynamic current-voltage characteristics have been recorded and are well-described by a modified Simmons tunneling model. Subsequent analyses enable the electron tunneling barrier height and barrier length to be determined under conditions of quantified vertical stress. The variance observed describes, in essence, the protein's mechanical properties within the confines of the tunnel junction.

  20. F2Dock: Fast Fourier Protein-Protein Docking

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Chandrajit; Chowdhury, Rezaul; Siddavanahalli, Vinay

    2009-01-01

    The functions of proteins is often realized through their mutual interactions. Determining a relative transformation for a pair of proteins and their conformations which form a stable complex, reproducible in nature, is known as docking. It is an important step in drug design, structure determination and understanding function and structure relationships. In this paper we extend our non-uniform fast Fourier transform docking algorithm to include an adaptive search phase (both translational and rotational) and thereby speed up its execution. We have also implemented a multithreaded version of the adaptive docking algorithm for even faster execution on multicore machines. We call this protein-protein docking code F2Dock (F2 = Fast Fourier). We have calibrated F2Dock based on an extensive experimental study on a list of benchmark complexes and conclude that F2Dock works very well in practice. Though all docking results reported in this paper use shape complementarity and Coulombic potential based scores only, F2Dock is structured to incorporate Lennard-Jones potential and re-ranking docking solutions based on desolvation energy. PMID:21071796