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Sample records for zinc 66 target

  1. Thin-target excitation functions and optimisation of NCA 64Cu and 66,67Ga production by deuteron induced nuclear reactions on natural zinc target, for radiometabolic therapy and for PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppi, F.; Bonardi, M. L.; Birattari, C.; Gini, L.; Mainardi, C.; Menapace, E.; Abbas, K.; Holzwarth, U.; Stroosnijder, R. M. F.

    2004-01-01

    A novel method for production of No-Carrier-Added 64Cu and 66,67Ga has been developed, based on reactions induced by deuterons up to 19 MeV on Zn target. HPGe and beta (by LSC) spectrometries proved very effective to determine radionuclidic purity of 64Cu and 66,67Ga fractions. Experimental specific activity for 64Cu was measured by ET-AAS and was of the order of 700 MBq · μg -1. Radiochemical yields for 64Cu and 66,67Ga were >80% and >99%.

  2. [Improvement in zinc nutrition due to zinc transporter-targeting strategy].

    PubMed

    Kambe, Taiho

    2016-07-01

    Adequate intake of zinc from the daily diet is indispensable to maintain health. However, the dietary zinc content often fails to fulfill the recommended daily intake, leading to zinc deficiency and also increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, particularly in elderly individuals. Therefore, increased attention is required to overcome zinc deficiency and it is important to improve zinc nutrition in daily life. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter, ZIP4, functions as a component that is essential for zinc absorption. In this manuscript, we present a brief overview regarding zinc deficiency. Moreover, we review a novel strategy, called "ZIP4-targeting", which has the potential to enable efficient zinc absorption from the diet. ZIP4-targeting strategy is possibly a major step in preventing zinc deficiency and improving human health.

  3. Analysis of cellular responses of macrophages to zinc ions and zinc oxide nanoparticles: a combined targeted and proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Triboulet, Sarah; Aude-Garcia, Catherine; Armand, Lucie; Gerdil, Adèle; Diemer, Hélène; Proamer, Fabienne; Collin-Faure, Véronique; Habert, Aurélie; Strub, Jean-Marc; Hanau, Daniel; Herlin, Nathalie; Carrière, Marie; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Rabilloud, Thierry

    2014-06-07

    Two different zinc oxide nanoparticles, as well as zinc ions, are used to study the cellular responses of the RAW 264 macrophage cell line. A proteomic screen is used to provide a wide view of the molecular effects of zinc, and the most prominent results are cross-validated by targeted studies. Furthermore, the alteration of important macrophage functions (e.g. phagocytosis) by zinc is also investigated. The intracellular dissolution/uptake of zinc is also studied to further characterize zinc toxicity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles dissolve readily in the cells, leading to high intracellular zinc concentrations, mostly as protein-bound zinc. The proteomic screen reveals a rather weak response in the oxidative stress response pathway, but a strong response both in the central metabolism and in the proteasomal protein degradation pathway. Targeted experiments confirm that carbohydrate catabolism and proteasome are critical determinants of sensitivity to zinc, which also induces DNA damage. Conversely, glutathione levels and phagocytosis appear unaffected at moderately toxic zinc concentrations.

  4. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, appears to prevent plaque and gingivitis. Some ... is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus. Low zinc levels can ...

  5. Targeted Zinc Delivery: A Novel Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    aconitase, which normally functions to oxidize citrate during the Krebs cycle . Because citrate is a principle component of seminal fluid, prostate...tissue, likely due to the metabolic effects of zinc in the Krebs cycle . That is, because zinc inhibits m- aconitase, loss of zinc allows for greater...secretory cells do not complete the oxidation of citrate in the mitochondria and the zinc-mediated inhibition of m-aconitase is crucial for the

  6. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  7. Zinc

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  8. Soybean extracts increase cell surface ZIP4 abundance and cellular zinc levels: a potential novel strategy to enhance zinc absorption by ZIP4 targeting.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ayako; Ohkura, Katsuma; Takahashi, Masakazu; Kizu, Kumiko; Narita, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Shuichi; Miyamae, Yusaku; Masuda, Seiji; Nagao, Masaya; Irie, Kazuhiro; Ohigashi, Hajime; Andrews, Glen K; Kambe, Taiho

    2015-12-01

    Dietary zinc deficiency puts human health at risk, so we explored strategies for enhancing zinc absorption. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter ZIP4 functions as an essential component of zinc absorption. Overexpression of ZIP4 protein increases zinc uptake and thereby cellular zinc levels, suggesting that food components with the ability to increase ZIP4 could potentially enhance zinc absorption via the intestine. In the present study, we used mouse Hepa cells, which regulate mouse Zip4 (mZip4) in a manner indistinguishable from that in intestinal enterocytes, to screen for suitable food components that can increase the abundance of ZIP4. Using this ZIP4-targeting strategy, two such soybean extracts were identified that were specifically able to decrease mZip4 endocytosis in response to zinc. These soybean extracts also effectively increased the abundance of apically localized mZip4 in transfected polarized Caco2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and, moreover, two apically localized mZip4 acrodermatitis enteropathica mutants. Soybean components were purified from one extract and soyasaponin Bb was identified as an active component that increased both mZip4 protein abundance and zinc levels in Hepa cells. Finally, we confirmed that soyasaponin Bb is capable of enhancing cell surface endogenous human ZIP4 in human cells. Our results suggest that ZIP4 targeting may represent a new strategy to improve zinc absorption in humans. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  9. Genome-wide Target Enrichment-aided Chip Design: a 66 K SNP Chip for Cashmere Goat.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xian; Su, Rui; Wang, Yang; Wang, Ruijun; Yang, Ting; Li, Xiaokai; Chen, Wei; He, Shiyang; Jiang, Yu; Xu, Qiwu; Wan, Wenting; Zhang, Yaolei; Zhang, Wenguang; Chen, Jiang; Liu, Bin; Liu, Xin; Fan, Yixing; Chen, Duoyuan; Jiang, Huaizhi; Fang, Dongming; Liu, Zhihong; Wang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Yanjun; Mao, Danqing; Wang, Zhiying; Di, Ran; Zhao, Qianjun; Zhong, Tao; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Wang, Wen; Dong, Yang; Chen, Xiaoli; Xu, Xun; Li, Jinquan

    2017-08-17

    Compared with the commercially available single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip based on the Bead Chip technology, the solution hybrid selection (SHS)-based target enrichment SNP chip is not only design-flexible, but also cost-effective for genotype sequencing. In this study, we propose to design an animal SNP chip using the SHS-based target enrichment strategy for the first time. As an update to the international collaboration on goat research, a 66 K SNP chip for cashmere goat was created from the whole-genome sequencing data of 73 individuals. Verification of this 66 K SNP chip with the whole-genome sequencing data of 436 cashmere goats showed that the SNP call rates was between 95.3% and 99.8%. The average sequencing depth for target SNPs were 40X. The capture regions were shown to be 200 bp that flank target SNPs. This chip was further tested in a genome-wide association analysis of cashmere fineness (fiber diameter). Several top hit loci were found marginally associated with signaling pathways involved in hair growth. These results demonstrate that the 66 K SNP chip is a useful tool in the genomic analyses of cashmere goats. The successful chip design shows that the SHS-based target enrichment strategy could be applied to SNP chip design in other species.

  10. Targeting Ligandable Pockets on Plant Homeodomain (PHD) Zinc Finger Domains by a Fragment-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Plant homeodomain (PHD) zinc fingers are histone reader domains that are often associated with human diseases. Despite this, they constitute a poorly targeted class of readers, suggesting low ligandability. Here, we describe a successful fragment-based campaign targeting PHD fingers from the proteins BAZ2A and BAZ2B as model systems. We validated a pool of in silico fragments both biophysically and structurally and solved the first crystal structures of PHD zinc fingers in complex with fragments bound to an anchoring pocket at the histone binding site. The best-validated hits were found to displace a histone H3 tail peptide in competition assays. This work identifies new chemical scaffolds that provide suitable starting points for future ligand optimization using structure-guided approaches. The demonstrated ligandability of the PHD reader domains could pave the way for the development of chemical probes to drug this family of epigenetic readers. PMID:29529862

  11. Targeting Ligandable Pockets on Plant Homeodomain (PHD) Zinc Finger Domains by a Fragment-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Amato, Anastasia; Lucas, Xavier; Bortoluzzi, Alessio; Wright, David; Ciulli, Alessio

    2018-04-20

    Plant homeodomain (PHD) zinc fingers are histone reader domains that are often associated with human diseases. Despite this, they constitute a poorly targeted class of readers, suggesting low ligandability. Here, we describe a successful fragment-based campaign targeting PHD fingers from the proteins BAZ2A and BAZ2B as model systems. We validated a pool of in silico fragments both biophysically and structurally and solved the first crystal structures of PHD zinc fingers in complex with fragments bound to an anchoring pocket at the histone binding site. The best-validated hits were found to displace a histone H3 tail peptide in competition assays. This work identifies new chemical scaffolds that provide suitable starting points for future ligand optimization using structure-guided approaches. The demonstrated ligandability of the PHD reader domains could pave the way for the development of chemical probes to drug this family of epigenetic readers.

  12. Targeted Mutagenesis of Duplicated Genes in Soybean with Zinc-Finger Nucleases1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, Shaun J.; Zhang, Feng; Sander, Jeffry D.; Haun, William J.; Starker, Colby; Baltes, Nicholas J.; Reyon, Deepak; Dahlborg, Elizabeth J.; Goodwin, Mathew J.; Coffman, Andrew P.; Dobbs, Drena; Joung, J. Keith; Voytas, Daniel F.; Stupar, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    We performed targeted mutagenesis of a transgene and nine endogenous soybean (Glycine max) genes using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). A suite of ZFNs were engineered by the recently described context-dependent assembly platform—a rapid, open-source method for generating zinc-finger arrays. Specific ZFNs targeting DICER-LIKE (DCL) genes and other genes involved in RNA silencing were cloned into a vector under an estrogen-inducible promoter. A hairy-root transformation system was employed to investigate the efficiency of ZFN mutagenesis at each target locus. Transgenic roots exhibited somatic mutations localized at the ZFN target sites for seven out of nine targeted genes. We next introduced a ZFN into soybean via whole-plant transformation and generated independent mutations in the paralogous genes DCL4a and DCL4b. The dcl4b mutation showed efficient heritable transmission of the ZFN-induced mutation in the subsequent generation. These findings indicate that ZFN-based mutagenesis provides an efficient method for making mutations in duplicate genes that are otherwise difficult to study due to redundancy. We also developed a publicly accessible Web-based tool to identify sites suitable for engineering context-dependent assembly ZFNs in the soybean genome. PMID:21464476

  13. Synthetic Zinc Finger Proteins: The Advent of Targeted Gene Regulation and Genome Modification Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus The understanding of gene regulation and the structure and function of the human genome increased dramatically at the end of the 20th century. Yet the technologies for manipulating the genome have been slower to develop. For instance, the field of gene therapy has been focused on correcting genetic diseases and augmenting tissue repair for more than 40 years. However, with the exception of a few very low efficiency approaches, conventional genetic engineering methods have only been able to add auxiliary genes to cells. This has been a substantial obstacle to the clinical success of gene therapies and has also led to severe unintended consequences in several cases. Therefore, technologies that facilitate the precise modification of cellular genomes have diverse and significant implications in many facets of research and are essential for translating the products of the Genomic Revolution into tangible benefits for medicine and biotechnology. To address this need, in the 1990s, we embarked on a mission to develop technologies for engineering protein–DNA interactions with the aim of creating custom tools capable of targeting any DNA sequence. Our goal has been to allow researchers to reach into genomes to specifically regulate, knock out, or replace any gene. To realize these goals, we initially focused on understanding and manipulating zinc finger proteins. In particular, we sought to create a simple and straightforward method that enables unspecialized laboratories to engineer custom DNA-modifying proteins using only defined modular components, a web-based utility, and standard recombinant DNA technology. Two significant challenges we faced were (i) the development of zinc finger domains that target sequences not recognized by naturally occurring zinc finger proteins and (ii) determining how individual zinc finger domains could be tethered together as polydactyl proteins to recognize unique locations within complex genomes. We and others have since used

  14. Pentalysine β-Carbonylphthalocyanine Zinc: An Effective Tumor-Targeting Photosensitizer for Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan; Deng, Yicai; Luo, Zhipu; Chen, Hongwei; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Unsymmetrical phthalocyanine derivatives have been widely studied as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT), targeting various tumor types. However, the preparation of unsymmetrical phthalocyanines is always a challenge due to the presence of many possible structural isomers. Herein we report a new unsymmetrical zinc phthalocyanine, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys)5), that was prepared in large quantity and high purity. This is a water-soluble cationic photosensitizer and maintains a high quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation similar to that of unsubstituted zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc). Compared with anionic ZnPc counterparts, ZnPc-(Lys)5 shows a higher level cellular uptake and 20-fold higher phototoxicity toward tumor cells. Pharmacokinetics and PDT studies of ZnPc-(Lys)5 in S180 tumor-bearing mice showed a high ratio of tumor versus skin retention and significant tumor inhibition. This new molecular framework will allow synthetic diversity in the number of lysine residues incorporated and will facilitate future QSAR studies. PMID:20458713

  15. Production of 64Cu and 67Cu radiopharmaceuticals using zinc target irradiated with accelerator neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Masako; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Saeki, Hideya; Sato, Nozomi; Motoishi, Shoji; Nagai, Yasuki

    2014-09-01

    Copper radioisotopes have gained a lot of attention in radiopharmaceuticals owing to their unique decay characteristics. The longest half-life β emitter, 67Cu, is thought to be suitable for targeted radio-immunotherapy. Adequate production of 67Cu to meet the demands of clinical studies has not been fully established. Another attractive copper isotope, 64Cu has possible applications as a diagnostic imaging tracer combined with a therapeutic effect. This work proposes a production method using accelerator neutrons in which two copper radioisotopes can be produced: 1) 68Zn(n,x)67Cu and 2) 64Zn(n,p)64Cu using ~14 MeV neutrons generated by natC(d, n) reaction, both from natural or enriched zinc oxides. The generated 64,67Cu were separated from the target zinc oxide using a chelating and an anion exchange columns and were labelled with two widely studied chelators where the labelling efficiency was found to be acceptably good. The major advantage of this method is that a significant amount of 64,67Cu with a very few impurity radionuclides are produced which also makes the separation procedure simple. Provided an accelerator supplying an Ed = ~ 40 MeV, a wide application of 64,67Cu based drugs in nuclear medicine is feasible in the near future. We will present the characteristics of this production method using accelerator neutrons including the chemical separation processes.

  16. Preparation and In Vitro Photodynamic Activity of Glucosylated Zinc(II) Phthalocyanines as Underlying Targeting Photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Yong; Wang, Chen; Zhu, Chun-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Xue, Jin-Ping

    2017-05-19

    Two novel glucosylated zinc(ІІ) phthalocyanines 7a-7b, as well as the acetyl-protected counterparts 6a-6b, have been synthesized by the Cu(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between the propargylated phthalocyanine and azide-substituted glucoses. All of these phthalocyanines were characterized with various spectroscopic methods and studied for their photo-physical, photo-chemical, and photo-biological properties. With glucose as the targeting unit, phthalocyanines 7a-7b exhibit a specific affinity to MCF-7 breast cancer cells over human embryonic lung fibroblast (HELF) cells, showing higher cellular uptake. Upon illumination, both photosensitizers show high cytotoxicity with IC 50 as low as 0.032 µM toward MCF-7 cells, which are attributed to their high cellular uptake and low aggregation tendency in the biological media, promoting the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Confocal laser fluorescence microscopic studies have also revealed that they have high and selective affinities to the lysosomes, but not the mitochondria, of MCF-7 cells. The results show that these two glucosylated zinc(II) phthalocyanines are potential anticancer agents for targeting photodynamic therapy.

  17. Selective inhibitors of zinc-dependent histone deacetylases. Therapeutic targets relevant to cancer.

    PubMed

    Kollar, Jakub; Frecer, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs), which act on acetylated histones and/or other non-histone protein substrates, represent validated epigenetic targets for the treatment of cancer and other human diseases. The inhibition of HDAC activity was shown to induce cell cycle arrest, differentiation, apoptosis as well as a decrease in proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, and cell resistance to chemotherapy. Targeting single HDAC isoforms with selective inhibitors will help to reveal the role of individual HDACs in cancer development or uncover further biological consequences of protein acetylation. This review focuses on conventional zinc-containing HDACs. In its first part, the biological role of individual HDACs in various types of cancer is summarized. In the second part, promising HDAC inhibitors showing activity both in enzymatic and cell-based assays are surveyed with an emphasis on the inhibitors selective to the individual HDACs.

  18. Efficient targeted mutagenesis in the monarch butterfly using zinc-finger nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Merlin, Christine; Beaver, Lauren E.; Taylor, Orley R.; Wolfe, Scot A.; Reppert, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of reverse-genetic tools in “nonmodel” insect species with distinct biology is critical to establish them as viable model systems. The eastern North American monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus), whose genome is sequenced, has emerged as a model to study animal clocks, navigational mechanisms, and the genetic basis of long-distance migration. Here, we developed a highly efficient gene-targeting approach in the monarch using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), engineered nucleases that generate mutations at targeted genomic sequences. We focused our ZFN approach on targeting the type 2 vertebrate-like cryptochrome gene of the monarch (designated cry2), which encodes a putative transcriptional repressor of the monarch circadian clockwork. Co-injections of mRNAs encoding ZFNs targeting the second exon of monarch cry2 into “one nucleus” stage embryos led to high-frequency nonhomologous end-joining-mediated, mutagenic lesions in the germline (up to 50%). Heritable ZFN-induced lesions in two independent lines produced truncated, nonfunctional CRY2 proteins, resulting in the in vivo disruption of circadian behavior and the molecular clock mechanism. Our work genetically defines CRY2 as an essential transcriptional repressor of the monarch circadian clock and provides a proof of concept for the use of ZFNs for manipulating genes in the monarch butterfly genome. Importantly, this approach could be used in other lepidopterans and “nonmodel” insects, thus opening new avenues to decipher the molecular underpinnings of a variety of biological processes. PMID:23009861

  19. Targeting Tumor Associated Phosphatidylserine with New Zinc Dipicolylamine-Based Drug Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Wei; Shia, Kak-Shan; Wu, Chien-Huang; Liu, Kuan-Liang; Yeh, Yu-Cheng; Lo, Chen-Fu; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Chen, Yun-Yu; Yeh, Teng-Kuang; Chen, Wei-Han; Jan, Jiing-Jyh; Huang, Yu-Chen; Huang, Chen-Lung; Fang, Ming-Yu; Gray, Brian D; Pak, Koon Y; Hsu, Tsu-An; Huang, Kuan-Hsun; Tsou, Lun K

    2017-07-19

    A series of zinc(II) dipicolylamine (ZnDPA)-based drug conjugates have been synthesized to probe the potential of phosphatidylserine (PS) as a new antigen for small molecule drug conjugate (SMDC) development. Using in vitro cytotoxicity and plasma stability studies, PS-binding assay, in vivo pharmacokinetic studies, and maximum tolerated dose profiles, we provided a roadmap and the key parameters required for the development of the ZnDPA based drug conjugate. In particular, conjugate 24 induced tumor regression in the COLO 205 xenograft model and exhibited a more potent antitumor effect with a 70% reduction of cytotoxic payload compared to that of the marketed irinotecan when dosed at the same regimen. In addition to the validation of PS as an effective pharmacodelivery target for SMDC, our work also provided the foundation that, if applicable, a variety of therapeutic agents could be conjugated in the same manner to treat other PS-associated diseases.

  20. Zinc-finger protein-targeted gene regulation: Genomewide single-gene specificity

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Siyuan; Guschin, Dmitry; Davalos, Albert; Lee, Ya-Li; Snowden, Andrew W.; Jouvenot, Yann; Zhang, H. Steven; Howes, Katherine; McNamara, Andrew R.; Lai, Albert; Ullman, Chris; Reynolds, Lindsey; Moore, Michael; Isalan, Mark; Berg, Lutz-Peter; Campos, Bradley; Qi, Hong; Spratt, S. Kaye; Case, Casey C.; Pabo, Carl O.; Campisi, Judith; Gregory, Philip D.

    2003-01-01

    Zinc-finger protein transcription factors (ZFP TFs) can be designed to control the expression of any desired target gene, and thus provide potential therapeutic tools for the study and treatment of disease. Here we report that a ZFP TF can repress target gene expression with single-gene specificity within the human genome. A ZFP TF repressor that binds an 18-bp recognition sequence within the promoter of the endogenous CHK2 gene gives a >10-fold reduction in CHK2 mRNA and protein. This level of repression was sufficient to generate a functional phenotype, as demonstrated by the loss of DNA damage-induced CHK2-dependent p53 phosphorylation. We determined the specificity of repression by using DNA microarrays and found that the ZFP TF repressed a single gene (CHK2) within the monitored genome in two different cell types. These data demonstrate the utility of ZFP TFs as precise tools for target validation, and highlight their potential as clinical therapeutics. PMID:14514889

  1. Zinc Finger-Containing Cellular Transcription Corepressor ZBTB25 Promotes Influenza Virus RNA Transcription and Is a Target for Zinc Ejector Drugs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Chuan; Jeng, King-Song; Lai, Michael M C

    2017-10-15

    Influenza A virus (IAV) replication relies on an intricate interaction between virus and host cells. How the cellular proteins are usurped for IAV replication remains largely obscure. The aim of this study was to search for novel and potential cellular factors that participate in IAV replication. ZBTB25, a transcription repressor of a variety of cellular genes, was identified by an RNA interference (RNAi) genomic library screen. Depletion of ZBTB25 significantly reduced IAV production. Conversely, overexpression of ZBTB25 enhanced it. ZBTB25 interacted with the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) protein and modulated its transcription activity. In addition, ZBTB25 also functioned as a viral RNA (vRNA)-binding protein, binding preferentially to the U-rich sequence within the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of vRNA. Both protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions involving ZBTB25 facilitated viral RNA transcription and replication. In addition, ZBTB25 suppressed interferon production, further enhancing viral replication. ZBTB25-associated functions required an intact zinc finger domain and posttranslational SUMO-1 modification of ZBTB25. Furthermore, treatment with disulfiram (a zinc ejector) of ZBTB25-overexpressing cells showed significantly reduced IAV production as a result of reduced RNA synthesis. Our findings indicate that IAV usurps ZBTB25 for IAV RNA synthesis and serves as a novel and potential therapeutic antiviral target. IMPORTANCE IAV-induced seasonal influenza causes severe illness and death in high-risk populations. However, IAV has developed resistance to current antiviral drugs due to its high mutation rate. Therefore, development of drugs targeting cellular factors required for IAV replication is an attractive alternative for IAV therapy. Here, we discovered a cellular protein, ZBTB25, that enhances viral RdRp activity by binding to both viral RdRp and viral RNA to stimulate viral RNA synthesis. A unique feature of ZBTB25 in the regulation of

  2. Zinc Finger-Containing Cellular Transcription Corepressor ZBTB25 Promotes Influenza Virus RNA Transcription and Is a Target for Zinc Ejector Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shu-Chuan; Jeng, King-Song

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A virus (IAV) replication relies on an intricate interaction between virus and host cells. How the cellular proteins are usurped for IAV replication remains largely obscure. The aim of this study was to search for novel and potential cellular factors that participate in IAV replication. ZBTB25, a transcription repressor of a variety of cellular genes, was identified by an RNA interference (RNAi) genomic library screen. Depletion of ZBTB25 significantly reduced IAV production. Conversely, overexpression of ZBTB25 enhanced it. ZBTB25 interacted with the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) protein and modulated its transcription activity. In addition, ZBTB25 also functioned as a viral RNA (vRNA)-binding protein, binding preferentially to the U-rich sequence within the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of vRNA. Both protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions involving ZBTB25 facilitated viral RNA transcription and replication. In addition, ZBTB25 suppressed interferon production, further enhancing viral replication. ZBTB25-associated functions required an intact zinc finger domain and posttranslational SUMO-1 modification of ZBTB25. Furthermore, treatment with disulfiram (a zinc ejector) of ZBTB25-overexpressing cells showed significantly reduced IAV production as a result of reduced RNA synthesis. Our findings indicate that IAV usurps ZBTB25 for IAV RNA synthesis and serves as a novel and potential therapeutic antiviral target. IMPORTANCE IAV-induced seasonal influenza causes severe illness and death in high-risk populations. However, IAV has developed resistance to current antiviral drugs due to its high mutation rate. Therefore, development of drugs targeting cellular factors required for IAV replication is an attractive alternative for IAV therapy. Here, we discovered a cellular protein, ZBTB25, that enhances viral RdRp activity by binding to both viral RdRp and viral RNA to stimulate viral RNA synthesis. A unique feature of ZBTB25 in the

  3. Inhibition of bacterial carbonic anhydrases and zinc proteases: from orphan targets to innovative new antibiotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Supuran, C T

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-containing enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrases (CAs) and metalloproteases (MPs) play critical functions in bacteria, being involved in various steps of their life cycle, which are important for survival, colonization, acquisition of nutrients for growth and proliferation, facilitation of dissemination, invasion and pathogenicity. The development of resistance to many classes of clinically used antibiotics emphasizes the need of new antibacterial drug targets to be explored. There is a wealth of data regarding bacterial CAs and zinc MPs present in many pathogenic species, such as Neisseria spp., Helycobacter pylori Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Brucella spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria spp, Vibrio spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila, Streptomyces spp., Clostridium spp., Enterococcus spp., etc. Some of these enzymes have been cloned, purified and characterized by crystallographic techniques. However, for the moment, few potent and specific inhibitors for bacterial MPs have been reported except for Clostridium histolyticum collagenase, botulinum and tetanus neurotoxin and anthrax lethal factor, which will be reviewed in this article. Bacteria encode α-,β-, and/or γ-CA families, but up to now only the first two classes have been investigated in some detail in different species. The α-CAs from Neisseria spp. and H. pylori as well as the β-class enzymes from E. coli, H. pylori, M. tuberculosis, Brucella spp., S. pneumoniae, S. enterica and H. influenzae have been cloned and characterized. The catalytic/inhibition mechanisms of these CAs are well understood as X-ray crystal structures are available for some of them, but no adducts of these enzymes with inhibitors have been characterized so far. In vitro and in vivo studies with various classes of inhibitors, such as anions, sulfonamides and sulfamates have been reported. Only for Neisseria spp., H. pylori, B. suis and S

  4. Zinc-finger Nuclease-induced Gene Repair With Oligodeoxynucleotides: Wanted and Unwanted Target Locus Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Radecke, Sarah; Radecke, Frank; Cathomen, Toni; Schwarz, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Correcting a mutated gene directly at its endogenous locus represents an alternative to gene therapy protocols based on viral vectors with their risk of insertional mutagenesis. When solely a single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN) is used as a repair matrix, the efficiency of the targeted gene correction is low. However, as shown with the homing endonuclease I-SceI, ssODN-mediated gene correction can be enhanced by concomitantly inducing a DNA double-strand break (DSB) close to the mutation. Because I-SceI is hardly adjustable to cut at any desired position in the human genome, here, customizable zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) were used to stimulate ssODN-mediated repair of a mutated single-copy reporter locus stably integrated into human embryonic kidney-293 cells. The ZFNs induced faithful gene repair at a frequency of 0.16%. Six times more often, ZFN-induced DSBs were found to be modified by unfaithful addition of ssODN between the termini and about 60 times more often by nonhomologous end joining-related deletions and insertions. Additionally, ZFN off-target activity based on binding mismatch sites at the locus of interest was detected in in vitro cleavage assays and also in chromosomal DNA isolated from treated cells. Therefore, the specificity of ZFN-induced ssODN-mediated gene repair needs to be improved, especially regarding clinical applications. PMID:20068556

  5. Targeting Serous Epithelial Ovarian Cancer with Designer Zinc Finger Transcription Factors*

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Haydee; Wang, Yuhua; Beltran, Adriana S.; Juárez-Moreno, Karla; Yuan, Xinni; Kato, Sumie; Leisewitz, Andrea V.; Cuello Fredes, Mauricio; Licea, Alexei F.; Connolly, Denise C.; Huang, Leaf; Blancafort, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynecological malignancies. It is detected at late stages when the disease is spread through the abdominal cavity in a condition known as peritoneal carcinomatosis. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic interventions to target advanced stages of ovarian cancer. Mammary serine protease inhibitor (Maspin) represents an important metastasis suppressor initially identified in breast cancer. Herein we have generated a sequence-specific zinc finger artificial transcription factor (ATF) to up-regulate the Maspin promoter in aggressive ovarian cancer cell lines and to interrogate the therapeutic potential of Maspin in ovarian cancer. We found that although Maspin was expressed in some primary ovarian tumors, the promoter was epigenetically silenced in cell lines derived from ascites. Transduction of the ATF in MOVCAR 5009 cells derived from ascitic cultures of a TgMISIIR-TAg mouse model of ovarian cancer resulted in tumor cell growth inhibition, impaired cell invasion, and severe disruption of actin cytoskeleton. Systemic delivery of lipid-protamine-RNA nanoparticles encapsulating a chemically modified ATF mRNA resulted in inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth in nude mice accompanied with Maspin re-expression in the treated tumors. Gene expression microarrays of ATF-transduced cells revealed an exceptional specificity for the Maspin promoter. These analyses identified novel targets co-regulated with Maspin in human short-term cultures derived from ascites, such as TSPAN12, that could mediate the anti-metastatic phenotype of the ATF. Our work outlined the first targeted, non-viral delivery of ATFs into tumors with potential clinical applications for metastatic ovarian cancers. PMID:22782891

  6. Targeted mutagenesis using zinc-finger nucleases in perennial fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Peer, Reut; Rivlin, Gil; Golobovitch, Sara; Lapidot, Moshe; Gal-On, Amit; Vainstein, Alexander; Tzfira, Tzvi; Flaishman, Moshe A

    2015-04-01

    Targeting a gene in apple or fig with ZFN, introduced by transient or stable transformation, should allow genome editing with high precision to advance basic science and breeding programs. Genome editing is a powerful tool for precise gene manipulation in any organism; it has recently been shown to be of great value for annual plants. Classical breeding strategies using conventional cross-breeding and induced mutations have played an important role in the development of new cultivars in fruit trees. However, fruit-tree breeding is a lengthy process with many limitations. Efficient and widely applied methods for targeted modification of fruit-tree genomes are not yet available. In this study, transgenic apple and fig lines carrying a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFNs) under the control of a heat-shock promoter were developed. Editing of a mutated uidA gene, following expression of the ZFN genes by heat shock, was confirmed by GUS staining and PCR product sequencing. Finally, whole plants with a repaired uidA gene due to deletion of a stop codon were regenerated. The ZFN-mediated gene modifications were stable and passed onto regenerants from ZFN-treated tissue cultures. This is the first demonstration of efficient and precise genome editing, using ZFN at a specific genomic locus, in two different perennial fruit trees-apple and fig. We conclude that targeting a gene in apple or fig with a ZFN introduced by transient or stable transformation should allow knockout of a gene of interest. Using this technology for genome editing allows for marker gene-independent and antibiotic selection-free genome engineering with high precision in fruit trees to advance basic science as well as nontransgenic breeding programs.

  7. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films grown on various substrates using facing target sputtering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwa-Min; Lee, Chang Hyun; Shon, Sun Young; Kim, Bong Hwan

    2017-11-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were fabricated on various substrates, such as glass, polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), at room temperature using a facing target sputtering (FTS) system with hetero ZnO and Al2O3 targets, and their electrical and optical properties were investigated. The AZO film on glass exhibited compressive stress while the films on the plastic substrates showed tensile stress. These stresses negatively affected the crystalline quality of the AZO films, and it is suggested that the poor crystalline quality of the films may be related to the neutral Al-based defect complexes formed in the films; these complexes act as neutral impurity scattering centers. AZO films with good optoelectronic properties could be formed on the glass and plastic substrates by the FTS technique using the hetero targets. The AZO films deposited on the glass, PEN, and PET substrates showed very low resistivities, of 5.0 × 10-4 Ω cm, 7.0 × 10-4 Ω cm, and 7.4 × 10-4 Ω cm, respectively. Further, the figure merit of the AZO film formed on the PEN substrate in the visible range (400-700 nm) was significantly higher than that of the AZO film on PET and similar to that of the AZO film on glass. Finally, the average transmittances of the films in the visible range (400-700 nm) were 83.16% (on glass), 76.3% (on PEN), and 78.16% (on PET).

  8. Red fluorescent zinc oxide nanoparticle: A novel platform for cancer targeting

    DOE PAGES

    Hong, Hao; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Yin; ...

    2015-01-21

    Multifunctional zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) with well-integrated multimodality imaging capacities have generated increasing research interest in the past decade. However, limited progress has been made in developing ZnO NP-based multimodality tumor-imaging agents. In this paper, we developed novel red fluorescent ZnO NPs and described the successful conjugation of 64Cu ( t 1/2 = 12.7 h) and TRC105, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against CD105, to these ZnO NPs via well-developed surface engineering procedures. The produced dual-modality ZnO NPs were readily applicable for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and fluorescence imaging of the tumor vasculature. Their pharmacokinetics and tumor-targeting efficacy/specificity inmore » mice bearing murine breast 4T1 tumor were thoroughly investigated. In conclusion, ZnO NPs with dual-modality imaging properties can serve as an attractive candidate for future cancer theranostics.« less

  9. Biofortified indica rice attains iron and zinc nutrition dietary targets in the field

    PubMed Central

    Trijatmiko, Kurniawan R.; Dueñas, Conrado; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Torrizo, Lina; Arines, Felichi Mae; Adeva, Cheryl; Balindong, Jeanette; Oliva, Norman; Sapasap, Maria V.; Borrero, Jaime; Rey, Jessica; Francisco, Perigio; Nelson, Andy; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Lombi, Enzo; Tako, Elad; Glahn, Raymond P.; Stangoulis, James; Chadha-Mohanty, Prabhjit; Johnson, Alexander A. T.; Tohme, Joe; Barry, Gerard; Slamet-Loedin, Inez H.

    2016-01-01

    More than two billion people are micronutrient deficient. Polished grains of popular rice varieties have concentration of approximately 2 μg g−1 iron (Fe) and 16 μg g−1 zinc (Zn). The HarvestPlus breeding programs for biofortified rice target 13 μg g−1 Fe and 28 μg g−1 Zn to reach approximately 30% of the estimated average requirement (EAR). Reports on engineering Fe content in rice have shown an increase up to 18 μg g−1 in glasshouse settings; in contrast, under field conditions, 4 μg g−1 was the highest reported concentration. Here, we report on selected transgenic events, field evaluated in two countries, showing 15 μg g−1 Fe and 45.7 μg g−1 Zn in polished grain. Rigorous selection was applied to 1,689 IR64 transgenic events for insert cleanliness and, trait and agronomic performances. Event NASFer-274 containing rice nicotianamine synthase (OsNAS2) and soybean ferritin (SferH-1) genes showed a single locus insertion without a yield penalty or altered grain quality. Endosperm Fe and Zn enrichment was visualized by X-ray fluorescence imaging. The Caco-2 cell assay indicated that Fe is bioavailable. No harmful heavy metals were detected in the grain. The trait remained stable in different genotype backgrounds. PMID:26806528

  10. TNFα Post-Translationally Targets ZnT2 to Accumulate Zinc in Lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Hennigar, Stephen R; Kelleher, Shannon L

    2015-10-01

    Mammary epithelial cells undergo widespread lysosomal-mediated cell death (LCD) during early mammary gland involution. Recently, we demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), a cytokine released during early involution, redistributes the zinc (Zn) transporter ZnT2 to accumulate Zn in lysosomes and activate LCD and involution. The objective of this study is to determine how TNFα retargets ZnT2 to lysosomes. We tested the hypothesis that TNFα signaling dephosphorylates ZnT2 to uncover a highly conserved dileucine motif (L294L) in the C-terminus of ZnT2, allowing adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) to bind and traffic ZnT2 to lysosomes. Confocal micrographs showed that TNFα redistributed wild-type (WT) ZnT2 from late endosomes (Pearson's coefficient = 0.202 ± 0.05 and 0.097 ± 0.03; P<0.05) to lysosomes (0.292 ± 0.03 and 0.649 ± 0.03; P<0.0001), which increased lysosomal Zn (P<0.0001) and activated LCD (P<0.0001) compared to untreated cells. Mutation of the dileucine motif (L294V) eliminated the ability of TNFα to redistribute ZnT2 from late endosomes to lysosomes, increase lysosomal Zn, or activate LCD. Moreover, TNFα increased (P<0.05) AP-3 binding to wt ZnT2 but not to L294V immunoprecipitates. Finally, using phospho- and dephospho-mimetics of predicted phosphorylation sites (T281, T288, and S296), we found that dephosphorylated S296 was required to target ZnT2 to accumulate Zn in lysosomes and activate LCD. Our findings suggest that women with variation in the C-terminus of ZnT2 may be at risk for inadequate involution and breast disease due the inability to traffic ZnT2 to lysosomes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    PubMed

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  12. Biofortified indica rice attains iron and zinc nutrition dietary targets in the field

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) deficiencies are the most prevalent micronutrient malnutrition globally1. Fe in rice has proven efficacious in improving serum ferritin concentration and body Fe levels2. Rapid progress in biofortification demonstrates the feasibility to enhance Fe in polished rice by expre...

  13. A rapid, generally applicable method to engineer zinc fingers illustrated by targeting the HIV-1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Isalan, M; Klug, A; Choo, Y

    2001-07-01

    DNA-binding domains with predetermined sequence specificity are engineered by selection of zinc finger modules using phage display, allowing the construction of customized transcription factors. Despite remarkable progress in this field, the available protein-engineering methods are deficient in many respects, thus hampering the applicability of the technique. Here we present a rapid and convenient method that can be used to design zinc finger proteins against a variety of DNA-binding sites. This is based on a pair of pre-made zinc finger phage-display libraries, which are used in parallel to select two DNA-binding domains each of which recognizes given 5 base pair sequences, and whose products are recombined to produce a single protein that recognizes a composite (9 base pair) site of predefined sequence. Engineering using this system can be completed in less than two weeks and yields proteins that bind sequence-specifically to DNA with Kd values in the nanomolar range. To illustrate the technique, we have selected seven different proteins to bind various regions of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) promoter.

  14. Directing an artificial zinc finger protein to new targets by fusion to a non-DNA-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wooi F; Burdach, Jon; Funnell, Alister P W; Pearson, Richard C M; Quinlan, Kate G R; Crossley, Merlin

    2016-04-20

    Transcription factors are often regarded as having two separable components: a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a functional domain (FD), with the DBD thought to determine target gene recognition. While this holds true for DNA bindingin vitro, it appears thatin vivoFDs can also influence genomic targeting. We fused the FD from the well-characterized transcription factor Krüppel-like Factor 3 (KLF3) to an artificial zinc finger (AZF) protein originally designed to target the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A) gene promoter. We compared genome-wide occupancy of the KLF3FD-AZF fusion to that observed with AZF. AZF bound to theVEGF-Apromoter as predicted, but was also found to occupy approximately 25,000 other sites, a large number of which contained the expected AZF recognition sequence, GCTGGGGGC. Interestingly, addition of the KLF3 FD re-distributes the fusion protein to new sites, with total DNA occupancy detected at around 50,000 sites. A portion of these sites correspond to known KLF3-bound regions, while others contained sequences similar but not identical to the expected AZF recognition sequence. These results show that FDs can influence and may be useful in directing AZF DNA-binding proteins to specific targets and provide insights into how natural transcription factors operate. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  16. Evaluation of iron and zinc bioavailability of beans targeted for biofortification using in vitro and in vivo models and their effect on the nutritional status of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Tostes, Maria das Graças; Verediano, Thaisa Agrizzi; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez; Brunoro Costa, Neuza Maria

    2016-03-15

    Biofortified beans have been produced with higher nutrient concentrations. The objective was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo iron and zinc bioavailability of common beans Pontal (PO), targeted for biofortification, compared with conventional Perola (PE) and their effects on the iron and zinc nutritional status of preschool children. In Caco-2 cells, PO and PE beans did not show differences in ferritin (PO, 13.1 ± 1.4; PE, 13.6 ± 1.4 ng mg(-1) protein) or zinc uptake (PO, 15.9 ± 1.5; PE, 15.5 ± 3.5 µmol mg(-1) protein). In the rat, PO and PE beans presented high iron bioavailability (PO, 109.6 ± 29.5; PE, 110.7 ± 13.9%). In preschool children, no changes were observed in iron and zinc nutritional status comparing before and after PO consumption (ferritin, 41.2 ± 23.2 and 28.9 ± 40.4 µg L(-1) ; hemoglobin, 13.7 ± 2.2 and 13.1 ± 3.2 g dL(-1) ; plasma zinc, 119.2 ± 24.5 and 133.9 ± 57.7 µg dL(-1) ; erythrocyte zinc, 53.5 ± 13.8 and 59.4 ± 17.1 µg g(-1) hemoglobin). Iron and zinc bioavailability in PO and PE beans was not statistically different using either cell culture, animal or human models. Efforts should focus on increasing mineral bioavailability of beans targeted for biofortification. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Analysis of illegitimate genomic integration mediated by zinc-finger nucleases: implications for specificity of targeted gene correction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Formation of site specific genomic double strand breaks (DSBs), induced by the expression of a pair of engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), dramatically increases the rates of homologous recombination (HR) between a specific genomic target and a donor plasmid. However, for the safe use of ZFN induced HR in practical applications, possible adverse effects of the technology such as cytotoxicity and genotoxicity need to be well understood. In this work, off-target activity of a pair of ZFNs has been examined by measuring the ratio between HR and illegitimate genomic integration in cells that are growing exponentially, and in cells that have been arrested in the G2/M phase. Results A reporter cell line that contained consensus ZFN binding sites in an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene was used to measure ratios between HR and non-homologous integration of a plasmid template. Both in human cells (HEK 293) containing the consensus ZFN binding sites and in cells lacking the ZFN binding sites, a 3.5 fold increase in the level of illegitimate integration was observed upon ZFN expression. Since the reporter gene containing the consensus ZFN target sites was found to be intact in cells where illegitimate integration had occurred, increased rates of illegitimate integration most likely resulted from the formation of off-target genomic DSBs. Additionally, in a fraction of the ZFN treated cells the co-occurrence of both specific HR and illegitimate integration was observed. As a mean to minimize unspecific effects, cell cycle manipulation of the target cells by induction of a transient G2/M cell cycle arrest was shown to stimulate the activity of HR while having little effect on the levels of illegitimate integration, thus resulting in a nearly eight fold increase in the ratio between the two processes. Conclusions The demonstration that ZFN expression, in addition to stimulating specific gene targeting by HR, leads to increased rates of

  18. Styrene-maleic acid-copolymer conjugated zinc protoporphyrin as a candidate drug for tumor-targeted therapy and imaging.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jun; Tsukigawa, Kenji; Liao, Long; Yin, Hongzhuan; Eguchi, Kanami; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated the potential of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) as an antitumor agent targeting to the tumor survival factor heme oxygenase-1, and/or for photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this study, to achieve tumor-targeted delivery, styrene-maleic acid-copolymer conjugated ZnPP (SMA-ZnPP) was synthesized via amide bond, which showed good water solubility, having ZnPP loading of 15%. More importantly, it forms micelles in aqueous solution with a mean particle size of 111.6 nm, whereas it has an apparent Mw of 65 kDa. This micelle formation was not detracted by serum albumin, suggesting it is stable in circulation. Further SMA-ZnPP conjugate will behave as an albumin complex in blood with much larger size (235 kDa) by virtue of the albumin binding property of SMA. Consequently, SMA-ZnPP conjugate exhibited prolonged circulating retention and preferential tumor accumulation by taking advantage of enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Clear tumor imaging was thus achieved by detecting the fluorescence of ZnPP. In addition, the cytotoxicity and PDT effect of SMA-ZnPP conjugate was confirmed in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Light irradiation remarkably increased the cytotoxicity (IC50, from 33 to 5 μM). These findings may provide new options and knowledge for developing ZnPP based anticancer theranostic drugs.

  19. Extracellular zinc and ATP-gated P2X receptor calcium entry channels: New zinc receptors as physiological sensors and therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Schwiebert, Erik M; Liang, Lihua; Cheng, Nai-Lin; Williams, Clintoria Richards; Olteanu, Dragos; Welty, Elisabeth A; Zsembery, Akos

    2005-12-01

    In this review, we focus on two attributes of P2X receptor channel function, one essential and one novel. First, we propose that P2X receptors are extracellular sensors as well as receptors and ion channels. In particular, the large extracellular domain (that comprises 70% of the molecular mass of the receptor channel protein) lends itself to be a cellular sensor. Moreover, its exquisite sensitivity to extracellular pH, ionic strength, and multiple ligands evokes the function of a sensor. Second, we propose that P2X receptors are extracellular zinc receptors as well as receptors for nucleotides. We provide novel data in multiple publications and illustrative data in this invited review to suggest that zinc triggers ATP-independent activation of P2X receptor channel function. In this light, P2X receptors are the cellular site of integration between autocrine and paracrine zinc signaling and autocrine and paracrine purinergic signaling. P2X receptors may sense changes in these ligands as well as in extracellular pH and ionic strength and transduce these sensations via calcium and/or sodium entry and changes in membrane potential.

  20. Zinc Signals and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc. PMID:29064429

  1. Zinc finger protein designed to target 2-long terminal repeat junctions interferes with human immunodeficiency virus integration.

    PubMed

    Sakkhachornphop, Supachai; Barbas, Carlos F; Keawvichit, Rassamee; Wongworapat, Kanlaya; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai

    2012-09-01

    Integration of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome into the host chromosome is a vital step in the HIV life cycle. The highly conserved cytosine-adenine (CA) dinucleotide sequence immediately upstream of the cleavage site is crucial for integrase (IN) activity. As this viral enzyme has an important role early in the HIV-1 replication cycle, interference with the IN substrate has become an attractive strategy for therapeutic intervention. We demonstrated that a designed zinc finger protein (ZFP) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) targets the 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circle junctions of HIV-1 DNA with nanomolar affinity. We report now that 2LTRZFP-GFP stably transduced into 293T cells interfered with the expression of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G)-pseudotyped lentiviral red fluorescent protein (RFP), as shown by the suppression of RFP expression. We also used a third-generation lentiviral vector and pCEP4 expression vector to deliver the 2LTRZFP-GFP transgene into human T-lymphocytic cells, and a stable cell line for long-term expression studies was selected for HIV-1 challenge. HIV-1 integration and replication were inhibited as measured by Alu-gag real-time PCR and p24 antigen assay. In addition, the molecular activity of 2LTRZFP-GFP was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results were confirmed by Alu-gag real-time PCR for integration interference. We suggest that the expression of 2LTRZFP-GFP limited viral integration on intracellular immunization, and that it has potential for use in HIV gene therapy in the future.

  2. Zinc Finger Protein Designed to Target 2-Long Terminal Repeat Junctions Interferes with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Integration

    PubMed Central

    Sakkhachornphop, Supachai; Barbas, Carlos F.; Keawvichit, Rassamee; Wongworapat, Kanlaya

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Integration of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome into the host chromosome is a vital step in the HIV life cycle. The highly conserved cytosine–adenine (CA) dinucleotide sequence immediately upstream of the cleavage site is crucial for integrase (IN) activity. As this viral enzyme has an important role early in the HIV-1 replication cycle, interference with the IN substrate has become an attractive strategy for therapeutic intervention. We demonstrated that a designed zinc finger protein (ZFP) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) targets the 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circle junctions of HIV-1 DNA with nanomolar affinity. We report now that 2LTRZFP-GFP stably transduced into 293T cells interfered with the expression of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G)-pseudotyped lentiviral red fluorescent protein (RFP), as shown by the suppression of RFP expression. We also used a third-generation lentiviral vector and pCEP4 expression vector to deliver the 2LTRZFP-GFP transgene into human T-lymphocytic cells, and a stable cell line for long-term expression studies was selected for HIV-1 challenge. HIV-1 integration and replication were inhibited as measured by Alu-gag real-time PCR and p24 antigen assay. In addition, the molecular activity of 2LTRZFP-GFP was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results were confirmed by Alu-gag real-time PCR for integration interference. We suggest that the expression of 2LTRZFP-GFP limited viral integration on intracellular immunization, and that it has potential for use in HIV gene therapy in the future. PMID:22429108

  3. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  4. Endogenous Zinc in Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous zinc is summarized. PMID:20396459

  5. Zinc and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Liuzzi, Juan P.; Guo, Liang; Yoo, Changwon; Stewart, Tiffanie S

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradative process through which cells overcome stressful conditions. Inasmuch as faulty autophagy has been associated with aging, neuronal degeneration disorders, diabetes, and fatty liver, autophagy is regarded as a potential therapeutic target. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning the role of zinc in the regulation of autophagy, the role of autophagy in zinc metabolism, and the potential role of autophagy as a mediator of the protective effects of zinc. Data from in vitro studies consistently support the notion that zinc is critical for early and late autophagy. Studies have shown inhibition of early and late autophagy in cells cultured in medium treated with zinc chelators. Conversely, excess zinc added to the medium has shown to potentiate the stimulation of autophagy by tamoxifen, H2O2, ethanol and dopamine. The potential role of autophagy in zinc homeostasis has just begun to be investigated.Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy dysregulation causes significant changes in cellular zinc homeostasis. Autophagy may mediate the protective effect of zinc against lipid accumulation, apoptosis and inflammation by promoting degradation of lipid droplets, inflammasomes, p62/SQSTM1 and damaged mitochondria.Studies with humans and animal models are necessary to determine whether autophagy is influenced by zinc intake. PMID:25012760

  6. Purifying Properly Folded Cysteine-rich, Zinc Finger Containing Recombinant Proteins for Structural Drug Targeting Studies: the CH1 Domain of p300 as a Case Example

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Joon; Kaluz, Stefan; Mehta, Anil; Weinert, Emily; Rivera, Shannon; Van Meir, Erwin G.

    2017-01-01

    The transcription factor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) complexes with the coactivator p300, activating the hypoxia response pathway and allowing tumors to grow. The CH1 and CAD domains of each respective protein form the interface between p300 and HIF. Small molecule compounds are in development that target and inhibit HIF/p300 complex formation, with the goal of reducing tumor growth. High resolution NMR spectroscopy is necessary to study ligand interaction with p300-CH1, and purifying high quantities of properly folded p300-CH1 is needed for pursuing structural and biophysical studies. p300-CH1 has 3 zinc fingers and 9 cysteine residues, posing challenges associated with reagent compatibility and protein oxidation. A protocol has been developed to overcome such issues by incorporating zinc during expression and streamlining the purification time, resulting in a high yield of optimally folded protein (120 mg per 4 L expression media) that is suitable for structural NMR studies. The structural integrity of the final recombinant p300-CH1 has been verified to be optimal using onedimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy and circular dichroism. This protocol is applicable for the purification of other zinc finger containing proteins. PMID:28966947

  7. Zinc and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 66 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  8. Gene targeting technologies in rats: zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.

    PubMed

    Mashimo, Tomoji

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory rat has been widely used as an animal model in biomedical science for more than 150 years. Applying zinc-finger nucleases or transcription activator-like effector nucleases to rat embryos via microinjection is an efficient genome editing tool for generating targeted knockout rats. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated endonucleases have been used as an effective tool for precise and multiplex genome editing in mice and rats. In this review, the advantages and disadvantages of these site-specific nuclease technologies for genetic analysis and manipulation in rats are discussed. © 2013 The Author Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  9. Zinc-finger nuclease-mediated targeted insertion of reporter genes for quantitative imaging of gene expression in sea urchin embryos

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Naoaki; Fujita, Kazumasa; Nishikawa, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Ken-ichi; Matsuura, Shinya; Miyamoto, Tatsuo; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Shibata, Tatsuo; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    To understand complex biological systems, such as the development of multicellular organisms, it is important to characterize the gene expression dynamics. However, there is currently no universal technique for targeted insertion of reporter genes and quantitative imaging in multicellular model systems. Recently, genome editing using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) has been reported in several models. ZFNs consist of a zinc-finger DNA-binding array with the nuclease domain of the restriction enzyme FokI and facilitate targeted transgene insertion. In this study, we successfully inserted a GFP reporter cassette into the HpEts1 gene locus of the sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. We achieved this insertion by injecting eggs with a pair of ZFNs for HpEts1 with a targeting donor construct that contained ∼1-kb homology arms and a 2A-histone H2B–GFP cassette. We increased the efficiency of the ZFN-mediated targeted transgene insertion by in situ linearization of the targeting donor construct and cointroduction of an mRNA for a dominant-negative form of HpLig4, which encodes the H. pulcherrimus homolog of DNA ligase IV required for error-prone nonhomologous end joining. We measured the fluorescence intensity of GFP at the single-cell level in living embryos during development and found that there was variation in HpEts1 expression among the primary mesenchyme cells. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of ZFN-mediated targeted transgene insertion to enable quantification of the expression levels of endogenous genes during development in living sea urchin embryos. PMID:22711830

  10. Zinc starvation induces autophagy in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Horie, Tetsuro; Matsunami, Miou; Sasaki, Michiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2017-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient for all forms of life. Within cells, most zinc is bound to protein. Because zinc serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for many proteins, cells must maintain zinc homeostasis under severely zinc-deficient conditions. In yeast, the transcription factor Zap1 controls the expression of genes required for uptake and mobilization of zinc, but to date the fate of existing zinc-binding proteins under zinc starvation remains poorly understood. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation/recycling process in which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are sequestered for degradation in the vacuole/lysosome. In this study, we investigated how autophagy functions under zinc starvation. Zinc depletion induced non-selective autophagy, which is important for zinc-limited growth. Induction of autophagy by zinc starvation was not directly related to transcriptional activation of Zap1. Instead, TORC1 inactivation directed zinc starvation-induced autophagy. Abundant zinc proteins, such as Adh1, Fba1, and ribosomal protein Rpl37, were degraded in an autophagy-dependent manner. But the targets of autophagy were not restricted to zinc-binding proteins. When cellular zinc is severely depleted, this non-selective autophagy plays a role in releasing zinc from the degraded proteins and recycling zinc for other essential purposes. PMID:28264932

  11. Zinc starvation induces autophagy in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Horie, Tetsuro; Matsunami, Miou; Sasaki, Michiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2017-05-19

    Zinc is an essential nutrient for all forms of life. Within cells, most zinc is bound to protein. Because zinc serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for many proteins, cells must maintain zinc homeostasis under severely zinc-deficient conditions. In yeast, the transcription factor Zap1 controls the expression of genes required for uptake and mobilization of zinc, but to date the fate of existing zinc-binding proteins under zinc starvation remains poorly understood. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation/recycling process in which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are sequestered for degradation in the vacuole/lysosome. In this study, we investigated how autophagy functions under zinc starvation. Zinc depletion induced non-selective autophagy, which is important for zinc-limited growth. Induction of autophagy by zinc starvation was not directly related to transcriptional activation of Zap1. Instead, TORC1 inactivation directed zinc starvation-induced autophagy. Abundant zinc proteins, such as Adh1, Fba1, and ribosomal protein Rpl37, were degraded in an autophagy-dependent manner. But the targets of autophagy were not restricted to zinc-binding proteins. When cellular zinc is severely depleted, this non-selective autophagy plays a role in releasing zinc from the degraded proteins and recycling zinc for other essential purposes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Allosteric ligands for the pharmacologically important Flavivirus target (NS5) from ZINC database based on pharmacophoric points, free energy calculations and dynamics correlation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abbas; Saleem, Shoaib; Idrees, Muhammad; Ali, Syed Shujait; Junaid, Muhammad; Chandra Kaushik, Aman; Wei, Dong-Qing

    2018-04-11

    Dengue virus belongs to a group of human pathogens, which causes different diseases, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome in humans. It possesses RNA as a genetic material and is replicated with the aid of NS5 protein. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is an important domain of NS5 in the replication of that virus. The catalytic process activity of RdRp is making it an important target for antiviral chemical therapy. To date, No FDA drug has been approved and marketed for the treatment of diseases caused by Dengue virus. So, there is a dire need to advance an area of active antiviral inhibitors that is safe, less expensive and widely available. An experimentally validated complex of Dengue NS5 and compound 27 (6LS) were used as pharmacophoric input and hits were identified. We also used Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations alongside free energy and dynamics of the internal residues of the apo and holo systems to understand the binding mechanism. Our analysis resulted that the three inhibitors (ZINC72070002, ZINC6551486, and ZINC39588257) greatly affected the interior dynamics and residual signaling to dysfunction the replicative role of NS5. The interaction of these inhibitors caused the loss of the correlated motion of NS5 near to the N terminus and helped the stability of the binding complex. This investigation provided a methodological route to discover allosteric inhibitors against the epidemics of this Flaviviruses. Allosteric inhibitors are important and major assets in considering the development of the competitive and robust antiviral agents such as against Dengue viral infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The haloarchaeal MCM proteins: bioinformatic analysis and targeted mutagenesis of the β7-β8 and β9-β10 hairpin loops and conserved zinc binding domain cysteines.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Tatjana P; Maria Cherian, Reeja; Gray, Fiona C; MacNeill, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    The hexameric MCM complex is the catalytic core of the replicative helicase in eukaryotic and archaeal cells. Here we describe the first in vivo analysis of archaeal MCM protein structure and function relationships using the genetically tractable haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii as a model system. Hfx. volcanii encodes a single MCM protein that is part of the previously identified core group of haloarchaeal MCM proteins. Three structural features of the N-terminal domain of the Hfx. volcanii MCM protein were targeted for mutagenesis: the β7-β8 and β9-β10 β-hairpin loops and putative zinc binding domain. Five strains carrying single point mutations in the β7-β8 β-hairpin loop were constructed, none of which displayed impaired cell growth under normal conditions or when treated with the DNA damaging agent mitomycin C. However, short sequence deletions within the β7-β8 β-hairpin were not tolerated and neither was replacement of the highly conserved residue glutamate 187 with alanine. Six strains carrying paired alanine substitutions within the β9-β10 β-hairpin loop were constructed, leading to the conclusion that no individual amino acid within that hairpin loop is absolutely required for MCM function, although one of the mutant strains displays greatly enhanced sensitivity to mitomycin C. Deletions of two or four amino acids from the β9-β10 β-hairpin were tolerated but mutants carrying larger deletions were inviable. Similarly, it was not possible to construct mutants in which any of the conserved zinc binding cysteines was replaced with alanine, underlining the likely importance of zinc binding for MCM function. The results of these studies demonstrate the feasibility of using Hfx. volcanii as a model system for reverse genetic analysis of archaeal MCM protein function and provide important confirmation of the in vivo importance of conserved structural features identified by previous bioinformatic, biochemical and structural studies.

  14. The haloarchaeal MCM proteins: bioinformatic analysis and targeted mutagenesis of the β7-β8 and β9-β10 hairpin loops and conserved zinc binding domain cysteines

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Tatjana P.; Maria Cherian, Reeja; Gray, Fiona C.; MacNeill, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    The hexameric MCM complex is the catalytic core of the replicative helicase in eukaryotic and archaeal cells. Here we describe the first in vivo analysis of archaeal MCM protein structure and function relationships using the genetically tractable haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii as a model system. Hfx. volcanii encodes a single MCM protein that is part of the previously identified core group of haloarchaeal MCM proteins. Three structural features of the N-terminal domain of the Hfx. volcanii MCM protein were targeted for mutagenesis: the β7-β8 and β9-β10 β-hairpin loops and putative zinc binding domain. Five strains carrying single point mutations in the β7-β8 β-hairpin loop were constructed, none of which displayed impaired cell growth under normal conditions or when treated with the DNA damaging agent mitomycin C. However, short sequence deletions within the β7-β8 β-hairpin were not tolerated and neither was replacement of the highly conserved residue glutamate 187 with alanine. Six strains carrying paired alanine substitutions within the β9-β10 β-hairpin loop were constructed, leading to the conclusion that no individual amino acid within that hairpin loop is absolutely required for MCM function, although one of the mutant strains displays greatly enhanced sensitivity to mitomycin C. Deletions of two or four amino acids from the β9-β10 β-hairpin were tolerated but mutants carrying larger deletions were inviable. Similarly, it was not possible to construct mutants in which any of the conserved zinc binding cysteines was replaced with alanine, underlining the likely importance of zinc binding for MCM function. The results of these studies demonstrate the feasibility of using Hfx. volcanii as a model system for reverse genetic analysis of archaeal MCM protein function and provide important confirmation of the in vivo importance of conserved structural features identified by previous bioinformatic, biochemical and structural studies. PMID:24723920

  15. Inhibitors incorporating zinc-binding groups target the GlcNAc-PI de-N-acetylase in Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahab, Nuha Z; Crossman, Arthur T; Sullivan, Lauren; Ferguson, Michael A J; Urbaniak, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    Disruption of glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is genetically and chemically validated as a drug target against the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness. The N-acetylglucosamine-phosphatidylinositol de-N-acetylase (deNAc) is a zinc metalloenzyme responsible for the second step of glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis. We recently reported the synthesis of eight deoxy-2-C-branched monosaccharides containing carboxylic acid, hydroxamic acid, or N-hydroxyurea substituents at the C2 position that may act as zinc-binding groups. Here, we describe the synthesis of a glucocyclitol-phospholipid incorporating a hydroxamic acid moiety and report the biochemical evaluation of the monosaccharides and the glucocyclitol-phospholipid as inhibitors of the trypanosome deNAc in the cell-free system and against recombinant enzyme. Monosaccharides with carboxylic acid or hydroxamic acid substituents were found to be the inhibitors of the trypanosome deNAc with IC(50) values 0.1-1.5mM and the glucocyclitol-phospholipid was found to be a dual inhibitor of the deNAc and the α1-4-mannose transferase with an apparent IC(50)= 19±0.5μm. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Zinc Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Eye Conditions Clinical Digest: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Related Resources From Other Agencies Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc ( ODS ) Follow NCCIH: Read our disclaimer ...

  17. Arabidopsis VARIEGATED 3 encodes a chloroplast-targeted, zinc-finger protein required for chloroplast and palisade cell development.

    PubMed

    Naested, Henrik; Holm, Agnethe; Jenkins, Tom; Nielsen, H Bjørn; Harris, Cassandra A; Beale, Michael H; Andersen, Mathias; Mant, Alexandra; Scheller, Henrik; Camara, Bilal; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2004-09-15

    The stable, recessive Arabidopsis variegated 3 (var3) mutant exhibits a variegated phenotype due to somatic areas lacking or containing developmentally retarded chloroplasts and greatly reduced numbers of palisade cells. The VAR3 gene, isolated by transposon tagging, encodes the 85.9 kDa VAR3 protein containing novel repeats and zinc fingers described as protein interaction domains. VAR3 interacts specifically in yeast and in vitro with NCED4, a putative polyene chain or carotenoid dioxygenase, and both VAR3 and NCED4 accumulate in the chloroplast stroma. Metabolic profiling demonstrates that pigment profiles are qualitatively similar in wild type and var3, although var3 accumulates lower levels of chlorophylls and carotenoids. These results indicate that VAR3 is a part of a protein complex required for normal chloroplast and palisade cell development.

  18. MiRNA-101 inhibits oral squamous-cell carcinoma growth and metastasis by targeting zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Baolei; Lei, Delin; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xinjie; Jia, Sen; Yang, Zihui; Shan, Chun; Yang, Xi; Zhang, Chenping; Lu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC). miR-101 is involved in the development and progression of OSCC, but the biological functions and underlying molecular mechanisms of this miRNA remain largely unknown. In this study, we showed that miR-101 was underexpressed in OSCC tissues and cell lines. miR-101 downregulation was inversely correlated with zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) expression, lymph-node metastasis, and poor prognosis in OSCC patients. Enhanced expression of miR-101 significantly inhibited OSCC cell proliferation, apoptosis resistance, migration and invasion in vitro, and suppressed tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Bioinformatics analyses showed that miR-101 directly targeted ZEB1, as confirmed by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. The inhibitory effects of miR-101 on OSCC growth and metastasis were attenuated and phenocopied by ZEB1 overexpression and knockdown, respectively. Overall, our findings indicated that miRNA-101 reduced OSCC growth and metastasis by targeting ZEB1 and provided new evidence of miR-101 as a potential therapeutic target for OSCC patients. PMID:27429852

  19. In Vivo Zinc Finger Nuclease-mediated Targeted Integration of a Glucose-6-phosphatase Transgene Promotes Survival in Mice With Glycogen Storage Disease Type IA

    PubMed Central

    Landau, Dustin J; Brooks, Elizabeth Drake; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Amarasekara, Hiruni; Mefferd, Adam; Li, Songtao; Bird, Andrew; Gersbach, Charles A; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) is caused by glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) deficiency in association with severe, life-threatening hypoglycemia that necessitates lifelong dietary therapy. Here we show that use of a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) targeted to the ROSA26 safe harbor locus and a ROSA26-targeting vector containing a G6PC donor transgene, both delivered with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, markedly improved survival of G6Pase knockout (G6Pase-KO) mice compared with mice receiving the donor vector alone (P < 0.04). Furthermore, transgene integration has been confirmed by sequencing in the majority of the mice treated with both vectors. Targeted alleles were 4.6-fold more common in livers of mice with GSD Ia, as compared with normal littermates, at 8 months following vector administration (P < 0.02). This suggests a selective advantage for vector-transduced hepatocytes following ZFN-mediated integration of the G6Pase vector. A short-term experiment also showed that 3-month-old mice receiving the ZFN had significantly-improved biochemical correction, in comparison with mice that received the donor vector alone. These data suggest that the use of ZFNs to drive integration of G6Pase at a safe harbor locus might improve vector persistence and efficacy, and lower mortality in GSD Ia. PMID:26865405

  20. Pancreatic imaging using an antibody fragment targeting the zinc transporter type 8: a direct comparison with radio-iodinated Exendin-4.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Olof; Korsgren, Olle; Selvaraju, Ram Kumar; Mollaret, Marjorie; de Boysson, Yann; Chimienti, Fabrice; Altai, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    The zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) has been suggested as a suitable target for non-invasive visualization of the functional pancreatic beta cell mass, due to both its pancreatic beta cell restricted expression and tight involvement in insulin secretion. In order to examine the potential of ZnT8 as a surrogate target for beta cell mass, we performed mRNA transcription analysis in pancreatic compartments. A novel ZnT8 targeting antibody fragment Ab31 was radiolabeled with iodine-125, and evaluated by in vitro autoradiography in insulinoma and pancreas as well as by in vivo biodistribution. The evaluation was performed in a direct comparison with radio-iodinated Exendin-4. Transcription of the ZnT8 mRNA was higher in islets of Langerhans compared to exocrine tissue. Ab31 targeted ZnT8 in the cytosol and on the plasma membrane with 108 nM affinity. Ab31 was successfully radiolabeled with iodine-125 with high yield and > 95% purity. [ 125 I]Ab31 binding to insulinoma and pancreas was higher than for [ 125 I]Exendin-4, but could only by partially competed away by 200 nM Ab31 in excess. The in vivo uptake of [ 125 I]Ab31 was higher than [ 125 I]Exendin-4 in most tissues, mainly due to slower clearance from blood. We report a first-in-class ZnT8 imaging ligand for pancreatic imaging. Development with respect to ligand miniaturization and radionuclide selection is required for further progress. Transcription analysis indicates ZnT8 as a suitable target for visualization of the human endocrine pancreas.

  1. S66-32629

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-05-09

    S66-32629 (1966) --- Left to right are Dr. Charles A. Berry, MSC Medical Director; Dr. Donald K. (Deke) Slayton, Director of Flight Crew Operations; Eugene F. Kranz, Flight Director; Charles W. Mathews, Gemini Program Manager, Manned Spacecraft Center; William C. Schneider, Gemini Mission Manager, NASA Headquarters; General Leighton Davis; Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director; and Dr. George E. Mueller, Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters.

  2. 33 CFR 66.10-5-66.10-10 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false [Reserved] 66.10-5-66.10-10 Section 66.10-5-66.10-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System §§ 66.10-5—66.10-10...

  3. 33 CFR 66.10-5-66.10-10 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 66.10-5-66.10-10 Section 66.10-5-66.10-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System §§ 66.10-5—66.10-10...

  4. Indium oxide co-doped with tin and zinc: A simple route to highly conducting high density targets for TCO thin-film fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadeddin, I.; Hilal, H. S.; Decourt, R.; Campet, G.; Pecquenard, B.

    2012-07-01

    Indium oxide co-doped with tin and zinc (ITZO) ceramics have been successfully prepared by direct sintering of the powders mixture at 1300 °C. This allowed us to easily fabricate large highly dense target suitable for sputtering transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films, without using any cold or hot pressing techniques. Hence, the optimized ITZO ceramic reaches a high relative bulk density (˜ 92% of In2O3 theoretical density) and higher than the well-known indium oxide doped with tin (ITO) prepared under similar conditions. All X-ray diagrams obtained for ITZO ceramics confirms a bixbyte structure typical for In2O3 only. This indicates a higher solubility limit of Sn and Zn when they are co-doped into In2O3 forming a solid-solution. A very low value of electrical resistivity is obtained for [In2O3:Sn0.10]:Zn0.10 (1.7 × 10-3 Ω cm, lower than ITO counterpart) which could be fabricated to high dense ceramic target suing pressure-less sintering.

  5. Regulation of MicroRNAs, and the Correlations of MicroRNAs and Their Targeted Genes by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Ovarian Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Min, Ling-Jiang; Zhu, Lian-Qin; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ge, Wei; Wang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Jing-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been applied in numerous industrial products and personal care products like sunscreens and cosmetics. The released ZnO NPs from consumer and household products into the environment might pose potential health issues for animals and humans. In this study the expression of microRNAs and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes in ZnO NPs treated chicken ovarian granulosa cells were investigated. ZnSO4 was used as the sole Zn2+ provider to differentiate the effects of NPs from Zn2+. It was found that ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs involved in embryonic development although ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml and ZnSO4-10 μg/ml treatments produced the same intracellular Zn concentrations and resulted in similar cell growth inhibition. And ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml also specifically regulated the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes. This is the first investigation that intact NPs in ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml treatment specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs, and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes compared to that by Zn2+. This expands our knowledge for biological effects of ZnO NPs and at the same time it raises the health concerns that ZnO NPs might adversely affect our biological systems, even the reproductive systems through regulation of specific signaling pathways. PMID:27196542

  6. Regulation of MicroRNAs, and the Correlations of MicroRNAs and Their Targeted Genes by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Ovarian Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Min, Ling-Jiang; Zhu, Lian-Qin; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ge, Wei; Wang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Jing-Cai; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been applied in numerous industrial products and personal care products like sunscreens and cosmetics. The released ZnO NPs from consumer and household products into the environment might pose potential health issues for animals and humans. In this study the expression of microRNAs and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes in ZnO NPs treated chicken ovarian granulosa cells were investigated. ZnSO4 was used as the sole Zn2+ provider to differentiate the effects of NPs from Zn2+. It was found that ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs involved in embryonic development although ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml and ZnSO4-10 μg/ml treatments produced the same intracellular Zn concentrations and resulted in similar cell growth inhibition. And ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml also specifically regulated the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes. This is the first investigation that intact NPs in ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml treatment specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs, and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes compared to that by Zn2+. This expands our knowledge for biological effects of ZnO NPs and at the same time it raises the health concerns that ZnO NPs might adversely affect our biological systems, even the reproductive systems through regulation of specific signaling pathways.

  7. Pectin-zinc-chitosan-polyethylene glycol colloidal nano-suspension as a food grade carrier for colon targeted delivery of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Andishmand, Hashem; Tabibiazar, Mahnaz; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop chitosan-zinc-pectinate-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanoparticles (NPs) for colon-targeted delivery of resveratrol. The effects of pectin:ZnCl 2 :chitosan (PZnC) % w/v, pH and ionic strength of media, and addition of PEG on the colloidal stability and release behavior of resveratrol from NPs were examined by Zeta potential, particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) methods. The particle size and Zeta potential of PZnC NPs in the ratio of 10:1:3% w/v were 399±18nm and +25±1mV, respectively. The addition of PEG to PZnC as a solvent for resveratrol (10% w/v) noticeably decreased the size of NPs to approximately 83±4nm. More than 63% of the resveratrol was encapsulated into the developed NPs; furthermore, a low amount of resveratrol was released during one month, using simulated juice model (pH=4) as investigated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of resveratrol.The remaining resveratrol in NPs (∼49%) was released in simulated colon fluid in the presence of pectinase. These NPs can be introduced as a novel platform for successful colon delivery of resveratrol in fruit juice matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; York, D.

    1981-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar zinc toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that zinc is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.

  9. Effects of HAb18G/CD147 knockout on hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro using a novel zinc-finger nuclease-targeted gene knockout approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yang, Xiang-Min; Tang, Juan; Wang, Shi-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Li

    2015-03-01

    HAb18G/CD147 belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and predominantly functions as an inducer of matrix metalloproteinase secretion for tumor invasion and metastasis. This study was designed to investigate the effects of HAb18G/CD147 knockout on hepatocellular carcinoma cells using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFNs)-targeted gene knockout approach. The HCC cell line SMMC-7721 was used for ZFNs-targeted cleavage of the HAb18G/CD147 gene. RT-PCR and Western blot assays were used to detect HAb18G/CD147 expression. HAb18G phenotypic changes following HAb18G/CD147 knockout in SMMC-K7721 cells were assessed using tumor cell adhesion, invasion, migration and colony formation and flow cytometric assays. These data demonstrated that tumor cell adhesion, invasion, migration, and colony formation capabilities of SMMC-K7721 were significantly reduced compared to parental cells or SMMC-7721 with re-expression of HAb18G/CD147 protein transfected with HAb18G/CD147 cDNA. Moreover, knockout of HAb18G/CD147 expression also induced SMMC-K7721 cells to undergo apoptosis compared to SMMC-7721 and SMMC-R7721 (P < 0.01). Molecularly, protein expression of p53 was induced in these cells, but re-expression of HAb18G/CD147 reduced p53 levels in SMMC-R7721 cells, possibly through inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-MDM2 signaling pathway. The findings provide a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying HAb18G/CD147-induced progression of HCC cells.

  10. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli. PMID:28629136

  11. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-06-17

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  12. Prostate Cancer Stem Cell-Targeted Efficacy of a New-Generation Taxoid, SBT-1214 and Novel Polyenolic Zinc-Binding Curcuminoid, CMC2.24

    PubMed Central

    Botchkina, Galina I.; Zuniga, Edison S.; Rowehl, Rebecca H.; Park, Rosa; Bhalla, Rahuldev; Bialkowska, Agnieszka B.; Johnson, Francis; Golub, Lorne M.; Zhang, Yu; Ojima, Iwao; Shroyer, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among men. Multiple evidence suggests that a population of tumor-initiating, or cancer stem cells (CSCs) is responsible for cancer development and exceptional drug resistance, representing a highly important therapeutic target. The present study evaluated CSC-specific alterations induced by new-generation taxoid SBT-1214 and a novel polyenolic zinc-binding curcuminoid, CMC2.24, in prostate CSCs. Principal Findings The CD133high/CD44high phenotype was isolated from spontaneously immortalized patient-derived PPT2 cells and highly metastatic PC3MM2 cells. Weekly treatment of the NOD/SCID mice bearing PPT2- and PC3MM3-induced tumors with the SBT-1214 led to dramatic suppression of tumor growth. Four of six PPT2 and 3 of 6 PC3MM2 tumors have shown the absence of viable cells in residual tumors. In vitro, SBT-1214 (100nM-1µM; for 72 hr) induced about 60% cell death in CD133high/CD44+/high cells cultured on collagen I in stem cell medium (in contrast, the same doses of paclitaxel increased proliferation of these cells). The cytotoxic effects were increased when SBT-1214 was combined with the CMC2.24. A stem cell-specific PCR array assay revealed that this drug combination mediated massive inhibition of multiple constitutively up-regulated stem cell-related genes, including key pluripotency transcription factors. Importantly, this drug combination induced expression of p21 and p53, which were absent in CD133high/CD44high cells. Viable cells that survived this treatment regimen were no longer able to induce secondary spheroids, exhibited significant morphological abnormalities and died in 2-5 days. Conclusions We report here that the SBT-1214 alone, or in combination with CMC2.24, possesses significant activity against prostate CD133high/CD44+/high tumor-initiating cells. This drug combination efficiently inhibits expression of the majority of stem cell-related genes and pluripotency transcription

  13. Zinc cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc cyanide ; CASRN 557 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  14. Zinc phosphide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc phoshide ; CASRN 1314 - 84 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  15. The zinc paradigm for metalloneurochemistry.

    PubMed

    Barr, Chelsea A; Burdette, Shawn C

    2017-05-09

    Neurotransmission and sensory perception are shaped through metal ion-protein interactions in various brain regions. The term "metalloneurochemistry" defines the unique field of bioinorganic chemistry focusing on these processes, and zinc has been the leading target of metalloneurochemists in the almost 15 years since the definition was introduced. Zinc in the hippocampus interacts with receptors that dictate ion flow and neurotransmitter release. Understanding the intricacies of these interactions is crucial to uncovering the role that zinc plays in learning and memory. Based on receptor similarities and zinc-enriched neurons (ZENs) in areas of the brain responsible for sensory perception, such as the olfactory bulb (OB), and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), zinc participates in odor and sound perception. Development and improvement of methods which allow for precise detection and immediate manipulation of zinc ions in neuronal cells and in brain slices will be critical in uncovering the synaptic action of zinc and, more broadly, the bioinorganic chemistry of cognition. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. I-66--a case study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-01-01

    The Arlington-Fairfax County section of 1-66 is similar to many : urban highway projects, yet in many ways this project represents a : milestone in urban transportation planning. 1-66, not unlike many : others, required non-technical political groups...

  17. Zinc and its importance for human health: An integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Roohani, Nazanin; Hurrell, Richard; Kelishadi, Roya; Schulin, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Since its first discovery in an Iranian male in 1961, zinc deficiency in humans is now known to be an important malnutrition problem world-wide. It is more prevalent in areas of high cereal and low animal food consumption. The diet may not necessarily be low in zinc, but its bio-availability plays a major role in its absorption. Phytic acid is the main known inhibitor of zinc. Compared to adults, infants, children, adolescents, pregnant, and lactating women have increased requirements for zinc and thus, are at increased risk of zinc depletion. Zinc deficiency during growth periods results in growth failure. Epidermal, gastrointestinal, central nervous, immune, skeletal, and reproductive systems are the organs most affected clinically by zinc deficiency. Clinical diagnosis of marginal Zn deficiency in humans remains problematic. So far, blood plasma/serum zinc concentration, dietary intake, and stunting prevalence are the best known indicators of zinc deficiency. Four main intervention strategies for combating zinc deficiency include dietary modification/diversification, supplementation, fortification, and bio-fortification. The choice of each method depends on the availability of resources, technical feasibility, target group, and social acceptance. In this paper, we provide a review on zinc biochemical and physiological functions, metabolism including, absorption, excretion, and homeostasis, zinc bio-availability (inhibitors and enhancers), human requirement, groups at high-risk, consequences and causes of zinc deficiency, evaluation of zinc status, and prevention strategies of zinc deficiency. PMID:23914218

  18. Zinc activates damage-sensing TRPA1 ion channels.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongzhen; Bandell, Michael; Petrus, Matt J; Zhu, Michael X; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2009-03-01

    Zinc is an essential biological trace element. It is required for the structure or function of over 300 proteins, and it is increasingly recognized for its role in cell signaling. However, high concentrations of zinc have cytotoxic effects, and overexposure to zinc can cause pain and inflammation through unknown mechanisms. Here we show that zinc excites nociceptive somatosensory neurons and causes nociception in mice through TRPA1, a cation channel previously shown to mediate the pungency of wasabi and cinnamon through cysteine modification. Zinc activates TRPA1 through a unique mechanism that requires zinc influx through TRPA1 channels and subsequent activation via specific intracellular cysteine and histidine residues. TRPA1 is highly sensitive to intracellular zinc, as low nanomolar concentrations activate TRPA1 and modulate its sensitivity. These findings identify TRPA1 as an important target for the sensory effects of zinc and support an emerging role for zinc as a signaling molecule that can modulate sensory transmission.

  19. Zinc and the modulation of redox homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc, a redox inactive metal, has been long viewed as a component of the antioxidant network, and growing evidence points to its involvement in redox-regulated signaling. These actions are exerted through several mechanisms based on the unique chemical and functional properties of zinc. Overall, zinc contributes to maintain the cell redox balance through different mechanisms including: i) the regulation of oxidant production and metal-induced oxidative damage; ii) the dynamic association of zinc with sulfur in protein cysteine clusters, from which the metal can be released by nitric oxide, peroxides, oxidized glutathione and other thiol oxidant species; iii) zinc-mediated induction of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein, which releases the metal under oxidative conditions and act per se scavenging oxidants; iv) the involvement of zinc in the regulation of glutathione metabolism and of the overall protein thiol redox status; and v) a direct or indirect regulation of redox signaling. Findings of oxidative stress, altered redox signaling, and associated cell/tissue disfunction in cell and animal models of zinc deficiency, stress the relevant role of zinc in the preservation of cell redox homeostasis. However, while the participation of zinc in antioxidant protection, redox sensing, and redox-regulated signaling is accepted, the involved molecules, targets and mechanisms are still partially known and the subject of active research. PMID:22960578

  20. 6,6″-Dimethyl-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine revisited: new fluorescent silver(I) helicates with in vitro antiproliferative activity via selective nucleoli targeting.

    PubMed

    Fik, Marta A; Gorczyński, Adam; Kubicki, Maciej; Hnatejko, Zbigniew; Fedoruk-Wyszomirska, Agnieszka; Wyszko, Eliza; Giel-Pietraszuk, Małgorzata; Patroniak, Violetta

    2014-10-30

    6,6″-Dimethyl-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine ligand (L) reacts in equimolar ratio with Ag(I) ions what results in formation of dinuclear double helicates, which differ in terms of framework and complexity in accordance to counterions and solvent applied. Obtained complexes were thoroughly studied in terms of their biological activity, with the positive antiproliferative outcome on three human cancer cell lines: human breast cancer (T47D), human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and human lung cancer (A-549). Performed DNA binding experiments showed that given Ag(I) species specifically interact with DNA double helix via intercalation and were visualized by confocal microscopy to specifically bind to the nuclei. All newly synthesized helical systems exhibit promising antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacterial strains. Spectrophotometric properties were described as fulfilment of structural studies of newly presented complexes confirming their helical structure in solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Update on zinc biology.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2013-01-01

    Zinc has become a prominent nutrient of clinical and public health interest in the new millennium. Functions and actions for zinc emerge as increasingly ubiquitous in mammalian anatomy, physiology and metabolism. There is undoubtedly an underpinning in fundamental biology for all of the aspects of zinc in human health (clinical and epidemiological) in pediatric and public health practice. Unfortunately, basic science research may not have achieved a full understanding as yet. As a complement to the applied themes in the companion articles, a selection of recent advances in the domains homeostatic regulation and transport of zinc is presented; they are integrated, in turn, with findings on genetic expression, intracellular signaling, immunity and host defense, and bone growth. The elements include ionic zinc, zinc transporters, metallothioneins, zinc metalloenzymes and zinc finger proteins. In emerging basic research, we find some plausible mechanistic explanations for delayed linear growth with zinc deficiency and increased infectious disease resistance with zinc supplementation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  3. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    1996-01-01

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

  4. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  6. 42 CFR 66.205 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 66.205 Section 66.205 Public Health... NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Institutional Grants § 66.205 Requirements. (a) No Award shall be made to... the form and manner the Secretary may prescribe, that he or she will satisfy the requirements of § 66...

  7. 42 CFR 66.205 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements. 66.205 Section 66.205 Public Health... NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Institutional Grants § 66.205 Requirements. (a) No Award shall be made to... the form and manner the Secretary may prescribe, that he or she will satisfy the requirements of § 66...

  8. 42 CFR 66.202 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 66.202 Section 66.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Institutional Grants § 66.202 Definitions. The definitions in § 66.102 of...

  9. 42 CFR 66.202 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 66.202 Section 66.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Institutional Grants § 66.202 Definitions. The definitions in § 66.102 of...

  10. 42 CFR 66.202 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 66.202 Section 66.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Institutional Grants § 66.202 Definitions. The definitions in § 66.102 of...

  11. STS-66 Official Crew insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Designed by the crew members, the STS-66 emblem depicts the Space Shuttle Atlantis launching into Earth orbit to study global environmental change. The payload for the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) and complimentary experiments are part of a continuing study of the atmosphere and the Sun's influence on it. The Space Shuttle is trailed by gold plumes representing the astronaut symbol and is superimposed over the Earth, much of which is visible from the flight's high inclination orbit. Sensitive instruments aboard the ATLAS pallet in the Shuttle payload bay and on the free-flying Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmospheric-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (CHRISTA-SPAS) will gaze down on Earth and toward the Sun, illustrated by the stylized sunrise and visible spectrum.

  12. Zinc oxide overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  13. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  14. COPPER-64 Production Studies with Natural Zinc Targets at Deuteron Energy up to 19 Mev and Proton Energy from 141 Down to 31 Mev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonardi, Mauro L.; Birattari, Claudio; Groppi, Flavia; Song Mainard, Hae; Zhuikov, Boris L.; Kokhanyuk, Vladimir M.; Lapshina, Elena V.; Mebel, Michail V.; Menapace, Enzo

    2004-07-01

    High specific activity no-carrier-added 64Cu is a β-/β+ emitting radionuclide of increasing interest for PET imaging, as well as systemic and targeted radioimmunotherapy of tumors. Its peculiarity of intense Auger emitter is still under investigation. The cross-sections for production of 64Cu from Zn target of natural isotopic composition were measured in the deuteron energy range from threshold up to 19 MeV and proton energy range from 141 down to 31 MeV. The stacked-foil technique was used at both K=38 cyclotron of JRC-Ispra of CEC, Italy and 160 MeV intersection point of INR proton-LINAC in Troitsk, Russia. Several Ga, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, V, Fe and Mn radionuclides were detected in Zn targets at the EOB. Optimized irradiation conditions are reported as a function of deuteron energy and energy loss into the Zn target, as well as target irradiation time and cooling time after radiochemistry. The activity of n.c.a. 64Cu was measured through its only γ emission of 1346 keV (i.e. 0.473 % intensity) both by instrumental and radiochemical methods, due to the non-specificity of annihilation radiation at 511 keV. To this last purpose, it was necessary to carry out a selective radiochemical separation of GaIII radionuclides by liquid/liquid extraction from the bulk of irradiated Zn targets and other spallation products, which remained in the 7 M HCl aqueous phase. Anion exchange chromatography tests had been carried out to separate the 64Cu from all others radionuclides in n.c.a. form. Theoretical calculations of cross-sections were performed with codes EMPIRE II and PENELOPE for deuteron reactions and CEF model and HMS-ALICE hybrid model for proton reactions. The theoretical results are presented and compared with the experimental values.

  15. STS-66 Official Crew insignia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-01

    STS066-S-001 (October 1994) --- Designed by the crew members, the STS-66 insignia depicts the space shuttle Atlantis launching into Earth orbit to study global environmental change. The payload for the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) and complementary experiments are part of a continuing study of the atmosphere and the sun's influence on it. The space shuttle is trailed by gold plumes representing the astronaut symbol and is superimposed over Earth, much of which is visible from the flight's high inclination orbit. Sensitive instruments aboard the ATLAS pallet in the shuttle payload bay and on the free-flying Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmospheric-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (CHRISTA-SPAS) will gaze down on Earth and toward the sun, illustrated by the stylized sunrise and visible spectrum. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  16. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects ofmore » arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of

  17. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Trent and zinc homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Corey B; Harrison, Mark D; Huygens, Flavia

    2017-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative pathogen and the major cause of mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis. The mechanisms that P. aeruginosa strains use to regulate intracellular zinc have an effect on infection, antibiotic resistance and the propensity to form biofilms. However, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa strains of variable infectivity has not been compared. In this study, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa Trent, a highly infectious clinical strain, was compared to that of a laboratory P. aeruginosa strain, ATCC27853. Trent was able to tolerate higher concentrations of additional zinc in rich media than ATCC27853. Further, pre-adaptation to additional zinc enhanced the growth of Trent at non-inhibitory concentrations but the impact of pre-adaption on the growth of ATCC27853 under the same conditions was minimal. The results establish clear differences in zinc-induced responses in Trent and ATCC27853, and how zinc homeostasis can be a promising target for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies for P. aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis patients. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Novel theranostic zinc phthalocyanine-phospholipid complex self-assembled nanoparticles for imaging-guided targeted photodynamic treatment with controllable ROS production and shape-assisted enhanced cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinyuan; Li, Yang; Liu, Guihua; Li, Ai; Chen, Yilin; Zhou, Xinyi; Chen, Dengyue; Hou, Zhenqing; Zhu, Xuan

    2018-02-01

    The novel drug delivery system based on self-assembly of zinc phthalocyanine-soybean phosphatidylcholine (ZnPc-SPC) complex was developed by a co-solvent method followed by a nanoprecipitaion technique. DSPE-PEG-methotrexate (DSPE-PEG-MTX) was introduced on the surface of ZnPc-SPC self-assembled nanoparticles (ZS) to endow them with folate receptor-targeting property. NMR, XRD, FTIR, and UV-vis-NIR analysis demonstrated the weak molecular interaction between ZnPc and SPC. The ZS functionalized with DSPE-PEG-MTX (ZSPM) was successfully constructed with an average particle size of ∼170nm, a narrow size distribution, and could remain physiologically stable for at least 7days. In vitro cellular uptake and cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that ZSPM exhibited stronger cellular uptake efficacy and photodynamic cytotoxicity against HeLa and MCF-7 cells than ZS functionalized with DSPE-mPEG (ZSP) and free ZnPc. More importantly, ZSPM showed the enhanced accumulation effect at the tumor region compared with ZSP by the active-plus-passive targeting via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and folate receptor-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, in vivo antitumor effect and histological analysis demonstrated the superior tumor growth inhibition effect of ZSPM. In addition, the needle-shape ZSP (ZSPN) exhibited better in vitro cellular uptake and in vivo tumor accumulation compared with ZSP due to the shape-assisted effect. Moreover, the interesting off-on switch effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of ZnPc-SPC complex-based nanoparticles was discovered to achieve photodynamic treatment in a controllable way. These findings suggested that the ZnPc-SPC complex-based self-assembled nanoparticles could serve as a promising and effective formulation to achieve tumor-targeting fluorescence imaging and enhanced photodynamic treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Reduction of zinc emissions from buildings; the policy of Amsterdam.

    PubMed

    Gouman, E

    2004-01-01

    In Amsterdam zinc coming from the roofs and gutters of the buildings accounts for about 50% of the zinc emissions into the surface water (i.e. canals and rivers). This causes water and sediment pollution. Dumping strongly polluted sediment costs ten times more then dumping less polluted mud. Therefore the City of Amsterdam has developed a policy for reducing the zinc emissions from buildings based on the current environmental legislation and the current national targets for surface water quality. Zinc roofs on new and renovated buildings are not permitted. Run off water from zinc roofs of existing buildings is allowed to contain a maximum of 200 microg/l zinc. For the zinc gutters of houses, Amsterdam will promote measures to reduce zinc emissions. To investigate the feasibility of measures, research has been carried out on the zinc emissions of gutters and the effect of covering gutters with an impermeable foil. This research shows clearly that covering zinc gutters with EPDM foil reduces the zinc emissions by 90% from 8.5 to 0.88 gram per square metre per year including the atmospheric deposition.

  1. Selective Sensitization of Zinc Finger Protein Oxidation by Reactive Oxygen Species through Arsenic Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xixi; Cooper, Karen L.; Sun, Xi; Liu, Ke J.; Hudson, Laurie G.

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine oxidation induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) on redox-sensitive targets such as zinc finger proteins plays a critical role in redox signaling and subsequent biological outcomes. We found that arsenic exposure led to oxidation of certain zinc finger proteins based on arsenic interaction with zinc finger motifs. Analysis of zinc finger proteins isolated from arsenic-exposed cells and zinc finger peptides by mass spectrometry demonstrated preferential oxidation of C3H1 and C4 zinc finger configurations. C2H2 zinc finger proteins that do not bind arsenic were not oxidized by arsenic-generated ROS in the cellular environment. The findings suggest that selectivity in arsenic binding to zinc fingers with three or more cysteines defines the target proteins for oxidation by ROS. This represents a novel mechanism of selective protein oxidation and demonstrates how an environmental factor may sensitize certain target proteins for oxidation, thus altering the oxidation profile and redox regulation. PMID:26063799

  2. Enhanced zinc consumption causes memory deficits and increased brain levels of zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flinn, J.M.; Hunter, D.; Linkous, D.H.; Lanzirotti, A.; Smith, L.N.; Brightwell, J.; Jones, B.F.

    2005-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has been shown to impair cognitive functioning, but little work has been done on the effects of elevated zinc. This research examined the effect on memory of raising Sprague-Dawley rats on enhanced levels of zinc (10 ppm ZnCO3; 0.153 mM) in the drinking water for periods of 3 or 9 months, both pre- and postnatally. Controls were raised on lab water. Memory was tested in a series of Morris Water Maze (MWM) experiments, and zinc-treated rats were found to have impairments in both reference and working memory. They were significantly slower to find a stationary platform and showed greater thigmotaxicity, a measure of anxiety. On a working memory task, where the platform was moved each day, zinc-treated animals had longer latencies over both trials and days, swam further from the platform, and showed greater thigmotaxicity. On trials using an Atlantis platform, which remained in one place but was lowered on probe trials, the zinc-treated animals had significantly fewer platform crossings, spent less time in the target quadrant, and did not swim as close to the platform position. They had significantly greater latency on nonprobe trials. Microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (??SXRF) confirmed that brain zinc levels were increased by adding ZnCO 3 to the drinking water. These data show that long-term dietary administration of zinc can lead to impairments in cognitive function. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 22 CFR 66.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 66.1 Section 66.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES AVAILABILITY OF THE RECORDS OF THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY § 66.1 Introduction. These regulations amend the Code of Federal Regulations to...

  4. 36 CFR 228.66 - Refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Refunds. 228.66 Section 228.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.66 Refunds. Upon termination of any contract...

  5. 36 CFR 228.66 - Refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Refunds. 228.66 Section 228.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.66 Refunds. Upon termination of any contract...

  6. 36 CFR 228.66 - Refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refunds. 228.66 Section 228.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.66 Refunds. Upon termination of any contract...

  7. 36 CFR 228.66 - Refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refunds. 228.66 Section 228.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.66 Refunds. Upon termination of any contract...

  8. 36 CFR 228.66 - Refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Refunds. 228.66 Section 228.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.66 Refunds. Upon termination of any contract...

  9. 40 CFR 66.93 - Time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time limits. 66.93 Section 66.93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ASSESSMENT AND COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA Supplemental Rules for Formal Adjudicatory Hearings § 66.93 Time...

  10. 40 CFR 66.93 - Time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Time limits. 66.93 Section 66.93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ASSESSMENT AND COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA Supplemental Rules for Formal Adjudicatory Hearings § 66.93 Time...

  11. 40 CFR 66.93 - Time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Time limits. 66.93 Section 66.93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ASSESSMENT AND COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA Supplemental Rules for Formal Adjudicatory Hearings § 66.93 Time...

  12. 40 CFR 66.93 - Time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Time limits. 66.93 Section 66.93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ASSESSMENT AND COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA Supplemental Rules for Formal Adjudicatory Hearings § 66.93 Time...

  13. 22 CFR 201.66 - Side payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Side payments. 201.66 Section 201.66 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Price Provisions § 201.66 Side payments. Any payment which an importer makes to a...

  14. 22 CFR 201.66 - Side payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Side payments. 201.66 Section 201.66 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Price Provisions § 201.66 Side payments. Any payment which an importer makes to a...

  15. 22 CFR 201.66 - Side payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Side payments. 201.66 Section 201.66 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Price Provisions § 201.66 Side payments. Any payment which an importer makes to a...

  16. 22 CFR 201.66 - Side payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Side payments. 201.66 Section 201.66 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Price Provisions § 201.66 Side payments. Any payment which an importer makes to a...

  17. 22 CFR 201.66 - Side payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Side payments. 201.66 Section 201.66 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Price Provisions § 201.66 Side payments. Any payment which an importer makes to a...

  18. 21 CFR 1316.66 - Exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exceptions. 1316.66 Section 1316.66 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Hearings § 1316.66 Exceptions. (a) Within twenty days after the date upon which a...

  19. 45 CFR 98.66 - Disallowance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disallowance procedures. 98.66 Section 98.66 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Financial Management § 98.66 Disallowance procedures. (a) Any expenditures not made in accordance...

  20. 45 CFR 98.66 - Disallowance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disallowance procedures. 98.66 Section 98.66 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Financial Management § 98.66 Disallowance procedures. (a) Any expenditures not made in accordance...

  1. 45 CFR 98.66 - Disallowance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disallowance procedures. 98.66 Section 98.66 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Financial Management § 98.66 Disallowance procedures. (a) Any expenditures not made in accordance...

  2. 7 CFR 953.66 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination. 953.66 Section 953.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Order Regulating Handling Effective Time and Termination § 953.66 Termination. (a) The Secretary...

  3. 28 CFR 66.11 - State plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State plans. 66.11 Section 66.11 Judicial... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Pre-Award Requirements § 66.11 State plans. (a) Scope. The statutes for some programs require States to submit plans before receiving grants. Under regulations...

  4. 28 CFR 66.41 - Financial reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial reporting. 66.41 Section 66.41..., Retention, and Enforcement § 66.41 Financial reporting. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (a..., for: (i) Submitting financial reports to Federal agencies, or (ii) Requesting advances or...

  5. 27 CFR 5.66 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 5.66 Section 5.66 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Spirits § 5.66 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of a...

  6. 27 CFR 5.66 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 5.66 Section 5.66 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Spirits § 5.66 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of a...

  7. 27 CFR 5.66 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 5.66 Section 5.66 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Spirits § 5.66 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of a...

  8. 27 CFR 5.66 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 5.66 Section 5.66 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Spirits § 5.66 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of a...

  9. 27 CFR 5.66 - Comparative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 5.66 Section 5.66 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Spirits § 5.66 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of a...

  10. 7 CFR 3550.66 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 3550.66 Section 3550.66 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.66 Interest rate. Loans will be written using the applicable RHS interest rate in effect at loan approval or loan closing...

  11. 28 CFR 66.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 66.25 Section 66.25... Administration § 66.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real...

  12. 10 CFR 1040.66 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.66 Section 1040.66 Energy... Practices § 1040.66 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination employment under any program or activity to...

  13. 10 CFR 1040.66 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.66 Section 1040.66 Energy... Practices § 1040.66 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination employment under any program or activity to...

  14. 10 CFR 1040.66 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.66 Section 1040.66 Energy... Practices § 1040.66 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination employment under any program or activity to...

  15. 10 CFR 1040.66 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.66 Section 1040.66 Energy... Practices § 1040.66 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination employment under any program or activity to...

  16. 7 CFR 3550.66 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interest rate. 3550.66 Section 3550.66 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.66 Interest rate. Loans will be written using the applicable RHS interest rate in effect at loan approval or loan closing...

  17. 7 CFR 3550.66 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interest rate. 3550.66 Section 3550.66 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.66 Interest rate. Loans will be written using the applicable RHS interest rate in effect at loan approval or loan closing...

  18. 7 CFR 3550.66 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interest rate. 3550.66 Section 3550.66 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.66 Interest rate. Loans will be written using the applicable RHS interest rate in effect at loan approval or loan closing...

  19. 33 CFR 66.01-40 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemptions. 66.01-40 Section 66.01-40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-40 Exemptions. (a...

  20. 33 CFR 66.01-40 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions. 66.01-40 Section 66.01-40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-40 Exemptions. (a...

  1. 33 CFR 66.01-45 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Penalties. 66.01-45 Section 66.01-45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-45 Penalties. Any person...

  2. 33 CFR 66.01-45 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalties. 66.01-45 Section 66.01-45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-45 Penalties. Any person...

  3. 33 CFR 66.01-40 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions. 66.01-40 Section 66.01-40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-40 Exemptions. (a...

  4. 33 CFR 66.01-45 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Penalties. 66.01-45 Section 66.01-45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-45 Penalties. Any person...

  5. 33 CFR 66.01-40 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions. 66.01-40 Section 66.01-40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-40 Exemptions. (a...

  6. 33 CFR 66.01-45 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Penalties. 66.01-45 Section 66.01-45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-45 Penalties. Any person...

  7. 33 CFR 66.01-45 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalties. 66.01-45 Section 66.01-45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-45 Penalties. Any person...

  8. 33 CFR 66.01-40 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions. 66.01-40 Section 66.01-40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-40 Exemptions. (a...

  9. 7 CFR 983.66 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records. 983.66 Section 983.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... NEW MEXICO Reports, Books and Records § 983.66 Records. Records of pistachios received, held and...

  10. 7 CFR 983.66 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records. 983.66 Section 983.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND... NEW MEXICO Reports, Books and Records § 983.66 Records. Records of pistachios received, held and...

  11. 46 CFR 310.66 - Foreign students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign students. 310.66 Section 310.66 Shipping... Training of Midshipmen at the United States Merchant Marine Academy § 310.66 Foreign students. (a..., country clearances, travel papers, transportation to the Academy, obtaining the necessary designation by...

  12. 28 CFR 66.30 - Changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changes. 66.30 Section 66.30 Judicial... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 66.30 Changes. (a) General. Grantees and subgrantees are permitted to rebudget within the approved direct cost...

  13. 28 CFR 66.31 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Real property. 66.31 Section 66.31..., and Subawards § 66.31 Real property. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to real property acquired under a grant or subgrant will vest upon acquisition in...

  14. 28 CFR 66.31 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real property. 66.31 Section 66.31..., and Subawards § 66.31 Real property. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to real property acquired under a grant or subgrant will vest upon acquisition in...

  15. 28 CFR 66.31 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Real property. 66.31 Section 66.31..., and Subawards § 66.31 Real property. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to real property acquired under a grant or subgrant will vest upon acquisition in...

  16. 28 CFR 66.31 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Real property. 66.31 Section 66.31..., and Subawards § 66.31 Real property. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to real property acquired under a grant or subgrant will vest upon acquisition in...

  17. 27 CFR 6.6 - Administrative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administrative provisions. 6.6 Section 6.6 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.6 Administrative provisions. (a) General. The Act makes applicable the...

  18. 7 CFR 1775.66 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Purpose. 1775.66 Section 1775.66 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.66 Purpose. Grants may be made...) Provide technical assistance and/or training to reduce the solid waste stream through reduction, recycling...

  19. 7 CFR 1775.66 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purpose. 1775.66 Section 1775.66 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.66 Purpose. Grants may be made...) Provide technical assistance and/or training to reduce the solid waste stream through reduction, recycling...

  20. 7 CFR 1775.66 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purpose. 1775.66 Section 1775.66 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.66 Purpose. Grants may be made...) Provide technical assistance and/or training to reduce the solid waste stream through reduction, recycling...

  1. 7 CFR 1775.66 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Purpose. 1775.66 Section 1775.66 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.66 Purpose. Grants may be made...) Provide technical assistance and/or training to reduce the solid waste stream through reduction, recycling...

  2. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National... CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance to determine the applicable law for assessment of liability. (a) A claim is settled under the law and standards...

  3. 33 CFR 401.66 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable laws. 401.66 Section 401.66 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.66 Applicable laws. (a) Vessels...

  4. 33 CFR 401.66 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable laws. 401.66 Section 401.66 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.66 Applicable laws. (a) Vessels...

  5. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National... CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance to determine the applicable law for assessment of liability. (a) A claim is settled under the law and standards...

  6. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National... CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance to determine the applicable law for assessment of liability. (a) A claim is settled under the law and standards...

  7. 33 CFR 401.66 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable laws. 401.66 Section 401.66 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.66 Applicable laws. (a) Vessels...

  8. 33 CFR 401.66 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable laws. 401.66 Section 401.66 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.66 Applicable laws. (a) Vessels...

  9. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National... CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance to determine the applicable law for assessment of liability. (a) A claim is settled under the law and standards...

  10. 19 CFR 207.66 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing. 207.66 Section 207.66 Customs Duties... EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Five-Year Reviews § 207.66 Hearing. (a) In general. The Commission shall hold a hearing in each full review. The date of the hearing shall be specified in the scheduling notice...

  11. 34 CFR 691.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence study. 691.66 Section 691.66 Education... RETAIN TALENT GRANT (NATIONAL SMART GRANT) PROGRAMS Determination of Awards § 691.66 Correspondence study... program of study offered by correspondence courses without terms, but not including any residential...

  12. 34 CFR 690.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correspondence study. 690.66 Section 690.66 Education... § 690.66 Correspondence study. (a) An institution calculates the Federal Pell Grant for a payment period for a student in a program of study offered by correspondence courses without terms, but not including...

  13. 45 CFR 98.66 - Disallowance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disallowance procedures. 98.66 Section 98.66 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Financial Management § 98.66 Disallowance procedures. (a) Any expenditures not made in accordance...

  14. 45 CFR 98.66 - Disallowance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disallowance procedures. 98.66 Section 98.66 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Financial Management § 98.66 Disallowance procedures. (a) Any expenditures not made in accordance...

  15. 7 CFR 1730.66 - Administrative waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative waiver. 1730.66 Section 1730.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE Interconnection of Distributed Resources § 1730.66...

  16. 33 CFR 401.66 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable laws. 401.66 Section 401.66 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.66 Applicable laws. (a) Vessels...

  17. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National... CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance to determine the applicable law for assessment of liability. (a) A claim is settled under the law and standards...

  18. 44 CFR 66.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Definitions. 66.2 Section 66.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CONSULTATION WITH LOCAL OFFICIALS § 66.2...

  19. 22 CFR 66.6 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemptions. 66.6 Section 66.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES AVAILABILITY OF THE RECORDS OF THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY § 66.6 Exemptions. NED reserves the right to withhold records and information that are exempt from...

  20. 22 CFR 66.8 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reports. 66.8 Section 66.8 Foreign Relations... DEMOCRACY § 66.8 Reports. On or before March 1 of each calendar year, NED shall submit a reporting covering... Senate for referral to the appropriate committees of the Congress. The report shall include those items...

  1. 22 CFR 66.8 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reports. 66.8 Section 66.8 Foreign Relations... DEMOCRACY § 66.8 Reports. On or before March 1 of each calendar year, NED shall submit a reporting covering... Senate for referral to the appropriate committees of the Congress. The report shall include those items...

  2. 42 CFR 66.104 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application. 66.104 Section 66.104 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.104 Application. (a) Eligible individuals may apply for...

  3. 42 CFR 66.105 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements. 66.105 Section 66.105 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.105 Requirements. The Secretary shall make an Award to...

  4. 42 CFR 66.201 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 66.201 Section 66.201 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Institutional Grants § 66.201 Applicability. The regulations in this...

  5. 42 CFR 66.113 - Publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Publications. 66.113 Section 66.113 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.113 Publications. Publication, distribution, and...

  6. 42 CFR 66.105 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements. 66.105 Section 66.105 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.105 Requirements. The Secretary shall make an Award to...

  7. 42 CFR 66.201 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 66.201 Section 66.201 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Institutional Grants § 66.201 Applicability. The regulations in this...

  8. 42 CFR 66.106 - Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Awards. 66.106 Section 66.106 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.106 Awards. (a) Within the limits of funds available, the...

  9. 42 CFR 66.101 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability. 66.101 Section 66.101 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.101 Applicability. The regulations in this subpart...

  10. 42 CFR 66.109 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Termination. 66.109 Section 66.109 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.109 Termination. (a) The Secretary may terminate an...

  11. 42 CFR 66.104 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application. 66.104 Section 66.104 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.104 Application. (a) Eligible individuals may apply for...

  12. 42 CFR 66.204 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application. 66.204 Section 66.204 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Institutional Grants § 66.204 Application. (a) Application for a grant...

  13. 42 CFR 66.114 - Copyright.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Copyright. 66.114 Section 66.114 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.114 Copyright. Where the work accomplished under an...

  14. 42 CFR 66.103 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility. 66.103 Section 66.103 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.103 Eligibility. To be eligible for a National Research...

  15. 42 CFR 66.115 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 66.115 Section 66.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.115 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with...

  16. 42 CFR 66.106 - Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Awards. 66.106 Section 66.106 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.106 Awards. (a) Within the limits of funds available, the...

  17. 42 CFR 66.103 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Eligibility. 66.103 Section 66.103 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.103 Eligibility. To be eligible for a National Research...

  18. 42 CFR 66.113 - Publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Publications. 66.113 Section 66.113 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.113 Publications. Publication, distribution, and...

  19. 42 CFR 66.104 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application. 66.104 Section 66.104 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.104 Application. (a) Eligible individuals may apply for...

  20. 42 CFR 66.114 - Copyright.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Copyright. 66.114 Section 66.114 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.114 Copyright. Where the work accomplished under an...

  1. 42 CFR 66.204 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 66.204 Section 66.204 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Institutional Grants § 66.204 Application. (a) Application for a grant...

  2. 42 CFR 66.105 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements. 66.105 Section 66.105 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.105 Requirements. The Secretary shall make an Award to...

  3. 42 CFR 66.203 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Eligibility. 66.203 Section 66.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Institutional Grants § 66.203 Eligibility. To be eligible for a grant...

  4. 42 CFR 66.109 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Termination. 66.109 Section 66.109 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.109 Termination. (a) The Secretary may terminate an...

  5. 42 CFR 66.114 - Copyright.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Copyright. 66.114 Section 66.114 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.114 Copyright. Where the work accomplished under an...

  6. 42 CFR 66.109 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination. 66.109 Section 66.109 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.109 Termination. (a) The Secretary may terminate an...

  7. 42 CFR 66.203 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility. 66.203 Section 66.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Institutional Grants § 66.203 Eligibility. To be eligible for a grant...

  8. 42 CFR 66.103 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Eligibility. 66.103 Section 66.103 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.103 Eligibility. To be eligible for a National Research...

  9. 42 CFR 66.115 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 66.115 Section 66.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.115 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with...

  10. 42 CFR 66.106 - Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Awards. 66.106 Section 66.106 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.106 Awards. (a) Within the limits of funds available, the...

  11. 42 CFR 66.103 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Eligibility. 66.103 Section 66.103 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.103 Eligibility. To be eligible for a National Research...

  12. 42 CFR 66.204 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application. 66.204 Section 66.204 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Institutional Grants § 66.204 Application. (a) Application for a grant...

  13. 42 CFR 66.101 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 66.101 Section 66.101 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.101 Applicability. The regulations in this subpart...

  14. 42 CFR 66.106 - Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Awards. 66.106 Section 66.106 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.106 Awards. (a) Within the limits of funds available, the...

  15. 42 CFR 66.103 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility. 66.103 Section 66.103 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.103 Eligibility. To be eligible for a National Research...

  16. 42 CFR 66.105 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements. 66.105 Section 66.105 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.105 Requirements. The Secretary shall make an Award to...

  17. 42 CFR 66.104 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application. 66.104 Section 66.104 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.104 Application. (a) Eligible individuals may apply for...

  18. 42 CFR 66.113 - Publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publications. 66.113 Section 66.113 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.113 Publications. Publication, distribution, and...

  19. 42 CFR 66.101 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 66.101 Section 66.101 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.101 Applicability. The regulations in this subpart...

  20. 42 CFR 66.101 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability. 66.101 Section 66.101 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.101 Applicability. The regulations in this subpart...

  1. 42 CFR 66.201 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability. 66.201 Section 66.201 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Institutional Grants § 66.201 Applicability. The regulations in this...

  2. 42 CFR 66.113 - Publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Publications. 66.113 Section 66.113 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.113 Publications. Publication, distribution, and...

  3. 42 CFR 66.109 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Termination. 66.109 Section 66.109 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.109 Termination. (a) The Secretary may terminate an...

  4. 42 CFR 66.101 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability. 66.101 Section 66.101 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.101 Applicability. The regulations in this subpart...

  5. 42 CFR 66.114 - Copyright.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Copyright. 66.114 Section 66.114 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.114 Copyright. Where the work accomplished under an...

  6. 42 CFR 66.109 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Termination. 66.109 Section 66.109 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.109 Termination. (a) The Secretary may terminate an...

  7. 42 CFR 66.114 - Copyright.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copyright. 66.114 Section 66.114 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.114 Copyright. Where the work accomplished under an...

  8. 42 CFR 66.203 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility. 66.203 Section 66.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Institutional Grants § 66.203 Eligibility. To be eligible for a grant...

  9. 42 CFR 66.113 - Publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Publications. 66.113 Section 66.113 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.113 Publications. Publication, distribution, and...

  10. 42 CFR 66.115 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 66.115 Section 66.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.115 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with...

  11. 40 CFR 66.81 - Final action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final action. 66.81 Section 66.81... COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA Final Action § 66.81 Final action. (a) A final Agency action... State action pursuant to part 67. (b) The actions listed in paragraph (a) of this section constitute...

  12. 22 CFR 66.8 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Senate for referral to the appropriate committees of the Congress. The report shall include those items... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports. 66.8 Section 66.8 Foreign Relations... DEMOCRACY § 66.8 Reports. On or before March 1 of each calendar year, NED shall submit a reporting covering...

  13. 22 CFR 66.8 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Senate for referral to the appropriate committees of the Congress. The report shall include those items... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reports. 66.8 Section 66.8 Foreign Relations... DEMOCRACY § 66.8 Reports. On or before March 1 of each calendar year, NED shall submit a reporting covering...

  14. 22 CFR 66.8 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Senate for referral to the appropriate committees of the Congress. The report shall include those items... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reports. 66.8 Section 66.8 Foreign Relations... DEMOCRACY § 66.8 Reports. On or before March 1 of each calendar year, NED shall submit a reporting covering...

  15. 28 CFR 66.41 - Financial reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Financial reporting. 66.41 Section 66.41..., Retention, and Enforcement § 66.41 Financial reporting. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (a..., for: (i) Submitting financial reports to Federal agencies, or (ii) Requesting advances or...

  16. 7 CFR 3550.66 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interest rate. 3550.66 Section 3550.66 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.66 Interest rate. Loans will be written using the applicable RHS interest rate in effect at loan approval or loan closing...

  17. 33 CFR 66.01-11 - Lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights. 66.01-11 Section 66.01-11... TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-11 Lights. (a) Except for range and sector lights, each light approved as a private aid to navigation must: (1) Have at least the...

  18. 33 CFR 66.01-11 - Lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights. 66.01-11 Section 66.01-11... TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-11 Lights. (a) Except for range and sector lights, each light approved as a private aid to navigation must: (1) Have at least the...

  19. 33 CFR 66.01-11 - Lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights. 66.01-11 Section 66.01-11... TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-11 Lights. (a) Except for range and sector lights, each light approved as a private aid to navigation must: (1) Have at least the...

  20. 33 CFR 66.01-11 - Lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights. 66.01-11 Section 66.01-11... TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-11 Lights. (a) Except for range and sector lights, each light approved as a private aid to navigation must: (1) Have at least the...

  1. 33 CFR 66.01-11 - Lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights. 66.01-11 Section 66.01-11... TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-11 Lights. (a) Except for range and sector lights, each light approved as a private aid to navigation must: (1) Have at least the...

  2. Human eosinophils are direct targets to nanoparticles: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) delay apoptosis and increase the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-8.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luis Rafael; Girard, Denis

    2016-09-30

    Zinc oxide NPs (ZnO) have been recently proposed as novel candidates for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases. Paradoxically, recent data suggested that ZnO could cause eosinophilic airway inflammation in rodents. Despite the above observations, there are currently no studies reporting direct interaction between a given NP and human eosinophils themselves. In this study, freshly isolated human eosinophils were incubated with ZnO and several cellular functions were studied. We found that ZnO delay human eosinophil apoptosis, partially by inhibiting caspases and by preventing caspase-4 and Bcl-xL degradation. ZnO do not induce production of reactive oxygen species but increase de novo protein synthesis. In addition, ZnO were found to increase the production of the proinflammatory IL-1β and IL-8 cytokines. Using a pharmacological approach, we demonstrated that inhibition of caspase-1 reversed the ability of ZnO to induce IL-1β and IL-8 production, whereas inhibition of caspase-4 only reversed that of IL-8. Our results indicate the necessity of conducting studies to determine the potential of using NP as nanotherapies, particularly in diseases in which eosinophils may be involved. We conclude that, indeed, human eosinophils represent potential new direct targets to NPs, ZnO in the present case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Zinc and volatile element loss during planetary magma ocean phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaliwal, Jasmeet K.; Day, James M. D.; Moynier, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    Zinc is a moderately volatile element and a key tracer of volatile depletion on planetary bodies due to lack of significant isotopic fractionation under high-temperature processes. Terrestrial basalts have δ66Zn values similar to some chondrites (+ 0.15 to 0.3‰ where [{66Zn/64Znsample/66Zn/64ZnJMC-Lyon-1} × 1000]) and elevated Zn concentrations (100 ppm). Lunar mare basalts yield a mean δ66Zn value of +1.4 ± 0.5‰ and have low Zn concentrations (~2 ppm). Late-stage lunar magmatic products, such as ferroan anorthosite, Mg-suite and Alkali suite rocks exhibit heavier δ66Zn values (+3 to +6‰). The heavy δ66Zn lunar signature is thought to reflect evaporative loss and fractionation of zinc, either during a giant impact or in a magma ocean phase.We explore conditions of volatile element loss within a lunar magma ocean (LMO) using models of Zn isotopic fractionation that are widely applicable to planetary magma oceans. For the Moon, our objective was to identify conditions that would yield a δ66Zn signature of ~ +1.4‰ within the mantle, assuming a terrestrial mantle zinc starting composition.We examine two cases of zinc evaporative fractionation: (1) lunar surface zinc fractionation that was completed prior to LMO crystallization and (2) lunar surface zinc fractionation that was concurrent with LMO crystallization. The first case resulted in a homogeneous lunar mantle and the second case yielded a stratified lunar mantle, with the greatest zinc isotopic enrichment in late-stage crystallization products. This latter case reproduces the distribution of zinc isotope compositions in lunar materials quite well.We find that hydrodynamic escape was not a dominant process in losing Zn, but that erosion of a nascent lunar atmosphere, or separation of condensates into a proto-lunar crust are possible. While lunar volatile depletion is still possible as a consequence of the giant impact, this process cannot reproduce the variable δ66Zn found in the Moon. Outgassing

  4. Zinc Deficiency Impacts CO2 Assimilation and Disrupts Copper Homeostasis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii*

    PubMed Central

    Malasarn, Davin; Kropat, Janette; Hsieh, Scott I.; Finazzi, Giovanni; Casero, David; Loo, Joseph A.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Wollman, Francis-André; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient because of its role in catalysis and in protein stabilization, but excess zinc is deleterious. We distinguished four nutritional zinc states in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: toxic, replete, deficient, and limited. Growth is inhibited in zinc-limited and zinc-toxic cells relative to zinc-replete cells, whereas zinc deficiency is visually asymptomatic but distinguished by the accumulation of transcripts encoding ZIP family transporters. To identify targets of zinc deficiency and mechanisms of zinc acclimation, we used RNA-seq to probe zinc nutrition-responsive changes in gene expression. We identified genes encoding zinc-handling components, including ZIP family transporters and candidate chaperones. Additionally, we noted an impact on two other regulatory pathways, the carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) and the nutritional copper regulon. Targets of transcription factor Ccm1 and various CAH genes are up-regulated in zinc deficiency, probably due to reduced carbonic anhydrase activity, validated by quantitative proteomics and immunoblot analysis of Cah1, Cah3, and Cah4. Chlamydomonas is therefore not able to grow photoautotrophically in zinc-limiting conditions, but supplementation with 1% CO2 restores growth to wild-type rates, suggesting that the inability to maintain CCM is a major consequence of zinc limitation. The Crr1 regulon responds to copper limitation and is turned on in zinc deficiency, and Crr1 is required for growth in zinc-limiting conditions. Zinc-deficient cells are functionally copper-deficient, although they hyperaccumulate copper up to 50-fold over normal levels. We suggest that zinc-deficient cells sequester copper in a biounavailable form, perhaps to prevent mismetallation of critical zinc sites. PMID:23439652

  5. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  6. The zinc dyshomeostasis hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Craddock, Travis J A; Tuszynski, Jack A; Chopra, Deepak; Casey, Noel; Goldstein, Lee E; Hameroff, Stuart R; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2012-01-01

    microtubules, their binding to MAP-tau, and molecular dynamics involved in cognition. Further, our theory supports novel AD therapeutic strategies targeting intra-neuronal zinc homeostasis and microtubule dynamics to prevent neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.

  7. Zinc in Entamoeba invadens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. S.; Sattilaro, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and dithizone staining of trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba invadens demonstrate that these cells have a high concentration of zinc (approximately one picogram per cell or 1% of their dry weight). In the cysts of this organism, the zinc is confined to the chromatoid bodies, which previous work has shown to contain crystals of ribosomes. The chemical state and function of this zinc are unknown.

  8. Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciTech Connect

    Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remainedmore » constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.« less

  9. Three diverse target preparations: 14C (12 mg/cm 2), 71Ga 24Mg (12 mg/cm 271Ga, 3 mg/cm 224Mg), and 66,67Zn (1.8-14.9 mg/cm 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozowski, W. R.

    1989-10-01

    A natural-carbon analog of fluffy, intractable 14C powder was produced. With it, a method was developed to produce a pressed disk of 14C of 12.7-mg/cm 2 thickness and 1.27-cm diameter, bound with 2.1 wt.% of adhesive. Aluminized Mylar cover foils and a fritted-disc filter were used to contain the target for ( overlinep, p') experiments. Reduction of 71Ga 2O 3 to the metal was accomplished with an efficiency of 94.3% in a small electroplating cell. Magnesium was chosen as the companion element because 50 at.% could be tolerated in the (p, n) experiment, and GaMg has a melting point of 646 K. A 1.27-cm diameter target, supported at the edge by a Mg foil, was produced in several simple steps. Directly rollable 66,67Zn foils were obtained from an electroplating cell with a Pt screen anode and a highly polished tungsten-carbide cathode. Plating times of 3 h provided metal-recovery efficiencies ranging from 94.2 to 96.5%. The as-deposited foils had many holes but were hole-free and shiny after reduction of 25% by pack rolling.

  10. Investigation of the 66Zn(p,2pn) 64Cu and 68Zn(p,x) 64Cu nuclear processes up to 100 MeV: Production of 64Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szelecsényi, F.; Steyn, G. F.; Kovács, Z.; Vermeulen, C.; van der Meulen, N. P.; Dolley, S. G.; van der Walt, T. N.; Suzuki, K.; Mukai, K.

    2005-11-01

    Cross-sections of the 66Zn(p,2pn)64Cu and 68Zn(p,x)64Cu nuclear processes were measured on highly enriched zinc targets using the stacked-foil activation technique up to 100 MeV. The new cross-sections were compared to literature data. The optimum energy range for production of 64Cu was found to be 70 → 35 MeV on 66Zn and 37 → 20 MeV on 68Zn. The thick-target yields were determined as 777 MBq/μAh (21.0 mCi/μAh) and 185 MBq/μAh (5.0 mCi/μAh), respectively. The yields of the longer-lived contaminant copper radioisotopes (i.e. 61Cu when using 66Zn as target material and both 61Cu and 67Cu in the case of 68Zn target material) were also calculated. The results obtained from the present study indicate that both reactions are suited for the production of 64Cu at a medium energy cyclotron. The optimum energy ranges are also complementary therefore the potential to utilize tandem targetry exists.

  11. Zinc triggers microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, Tiina M.; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A.

    2009-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, “amoeboid” morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other pro-inflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with an NF-kB reporter gene showed a several-fold increase in NF-kB activity in response to 30 μM zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15 – 30 μM zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-κB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-κB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders. PMID:18509044

  12. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  13. [Zinc and chronic enteropathies].

    PubMed

    Giorgi, P L; Catassi, C; Guerrieri, A

    1984-01-01

    In recent years the nutritional importance of zinc has been well established; its deficiency and its symptoms have also been recognized in humans. Furthermore, Acrodermatitis Enteropathica has been isolated, a rare but severe disease, of which skin lesions, chronic diarrhoea and recurring infections are the main symptoms. The disease is related to the malfunctioning of intestinal absorption of zinc and can be treated by administering pharmacological doses of zinc orally. Good dietary sources of zinc are meat, fish and, to a less extent, human milk. The amount of zinc absorbed in the small intestine is influenced by other nutrients: some compounds inhibit this process (dietary fiber, phytate) while others (picolinic acid, citric acid), referred to as Zn-binding ligands (ZnBL) facilitate it. Citric acid is thought to be the ligand which accounts for the high level of bioavailability of zinc in human milk. zinc absorption occurs throughout the small intestine, not only in the prossimal tract (duodenum and jejunum) but also in the distal tract (ileum). Diarrhoea is one of the clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency, thus many illnesses distinguished by chronic diarrhoea entail a bad absorption of zinc. In fact, in some cases of chronic enteropathies in infants, like coeliac disease and seldom cystic fibrosis, a deficiency of zinc has been isolated. Some of the symptoms of Crohn's disease, like retarded growth and hypogonadism, have been related to hypozinchemia which is present in this illness. Finally, it is possible that some of the dietary treatments frequently used for persistent post-enteritis diarrhoea (i.e. cow's milk exclusion, abuse and misuse of dietary fiber like carrot and carub powder, use of soy formula) can constitute a scarce supply of zinc and therefore could promote the persistency of diarrhoea itself.

  14. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc.

    PubMed

    Blok, J

    2005-09-15

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the "technosphere" and the "target zone" beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The "technosphere" of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle "free zone" that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m(2) year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m(2) year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The emission from safety fence corrosion does not enter

  15. 36 CFR 223.66 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false [Reserved] 223.66 Section 223.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts...

  16. 36 CFR 223.66 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false [Reserved] 223.66 Section 223.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts...

  17. 36 CFR 223.66 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false [Reserved] 223.66 Section 223.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts...

  18. 36 CFR 223.66 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false [Reserved] 223.66 Section 223.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts...

  19. 27 CFR 25.66 - Organizational documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Organizational documents. The supporting information required by paragraph (a)(4) of § 25.62 includes, as... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Organizational documents. 25.66 Section 25.66 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU...

  20. 42 CFR 460.66 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Training. 460.66 Section 460.66 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE...

  1. 42 CFR 460.66 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training. 460.66 Section 460.66 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE...

  2. 33 CFR 66.01-10 - Characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 66.01-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-10... States Aids to Navigation System set forth in subpart B of part 62 of this subchapter. [USCG-2000-7466...

  3. 33 CFR 66.01-10 - Characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 66.01-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-10... States Aids to Navigation System set forth in subpart B of part 62 of this subchapter. [USCG-2000-7466...

  4. 33 CFR 66.01-10 - Characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 66.01-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-10... States Aids to Navigation System set forth in subpart B of part 62 of this subchapter. [USCG-2000-7466...

  5. 33 CFR 66.01-10 - Characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 66.01-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-10... States Aids to Navigation System set forth in subpart B of part 62 of this subchapter. [USCG-2000-7466...

  6. 27 CFR 28.66 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 28.66... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Bonds and Consents of Surety § 28.66 Strengthening... give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond to...

  7. 27 CFR 28.66 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 28.66... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Bonds and Consents of Surety § 28.66 Strengthening... give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond to...

  8. 27 CFR 28.66 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 28.66... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Bonds and Consents of Surety § 28.66 Strengthening... give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond to...

  9. 27 CFR 28.66 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 28.66... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Bonds and Consents of Surety § 28.66 Strengthening... give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond to...

  10. 27 CFR 28.66 - Strengthening bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Strengthening bonds. 28.66... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Bonds and Consents of Surety § 28.66 Strengthening... give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond to...

  11. 33 CFR 66.01-10 - Characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 66.01-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-10... States Aids to Navigation System set forth in subpart B of part 62 of this subchapter. [USCG-2000-7466...

  12. 34 CFR 691.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correspondence study. 691.66 Section 691.66 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS...

  13. 34 CFR 691.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence study. 691.66 Section 691.66 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS...

  14. 34 CFR 691.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence study. 691.66 Section 691.66 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS...

  15. 7 CFR 956.66 - Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguards. 956.66 Section 956.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Onions shipped, pursuant to §§ 956.63 and 956.64, from entering channels of trade for other than the...

  16. 34 CFR 691.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correspondence study. 691.66 Section 691.66 Education... Correspondence study. (a) An institution calculates the ACG or National SMART Grant for a payment period for a student in a program of study offered by correspondence courses without terms, but not including any...

  17. 34 CFR 690.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence study. 690.66 Section 690.66 Education... Correspondence study. (a) An institution calculates the Federal Pell Grant for a payment period for a student in a program of study offered by correspondence courses without terms, but not including any...

  18. 36 CFR 910.66 - Sidewalk setback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sidewalk setback. 910.66 Section 910.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE...

  19. 36 CFR 910.66 - Sidewalk setback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sidewalk setback. 910.66 Section 910.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE...

  20. 32 CFR 154.66 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 154.66 Section 154.66 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL... personnel authorized access to personnel security reports and records shall ensure that the use of such...

  1. 32 CFR 154.66 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 154.66 Section 154.66 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL... personnel authorized access to personnel security reports and records shall ensure that the use of such...

  2. 32 CFR 154.66 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 154.66 Section 154.66 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL... personnel authorized access to personnel security reports and records shall ensure that the use of such...

  3. 32 CFR 154.66 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 154.66 Section 154.66 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL... personnel authorized access to personnel security reports and records shall ensure that the use of such...

  4. 32 CFR 154.66 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Responsibilities. 154.66 Section 154.66 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL... personnel authorized access to personnel security reports and records shall ensure that the use of such...

  5. 44 CFR 66.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 66.2 Section 66.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CONSULTATION WITH LOCAL OFFICIALS...

  6. 44 CFR 66.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 66.2 Section 66.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CONSULTATION WITH LOCAL OFFICIALS...

  7. 44 CFR 66.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 66.2 Section 66.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CONSULTATION WITH LOCAL OFFICIALS...

  8. 44 CFR 66.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 66.2 Section 66.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CONSULTATION WITH LOCAL OFFICIALS...

  9. 40 CFR 279.66 - Notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notices. 279.66 Section 279.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for...

  10. 40 CFR 279.66 - Notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notices. 279.66 Section 279.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for...

  11. 40 CFR 279.66 - Notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notices. 279.66 Section 279.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for...

  12. 40 CFR 279.66 - Notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notices. 279.66 Section 279.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for...

  13. 40 CFR 279.66 - Notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notices. 279.66 Section 279.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for...

  14. 28 CFR 66.33 - Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... is a residual inventory of unused supplies exceeding $5,000 in total aggregate fair market value upon... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplies. 66.33 Section 66.33 Judicial... Supplies. (a) The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, as amended, Public Law 90-351...

  15. 7 CFR 201.66 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 201.66 Section 201.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT...

  16. 7 CFR 929.66 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance. 929.66 Section 929.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Compliance. Except as provided in this part, no person shall handle cranberries, the handling of which has...

  17. 7 CFR 929.66 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compliance. 929.66 Section 929.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Compliance. Except as provided in this part, no person shall handle cranberries, the handling of which has...

  18. Zinc status in South Asian populations--an update.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2013-06-01

    This article attempts to highlight the prevalence of zinc deficiency and its health and economic consequences in South Asian developing countries and to shed light on possible approaches to combating zinc deficiency. A computer-based search was performed on PubMed, Google, and ScienceDirect.com to retrieve relevant scientific literature published between 2000 and 2012. The search yielded 194 articles, of which 71 were culled. Studies were further screened on the basis of population groups, age and sex, pregnancy, and lactation. The most relevant articles were included in the review. Cutoffs for serum zinc concentration defined for zinc deficiency were 65 microg/dL for males and females aged < 10 years, 66 microg/dL for non-pregnant females, and 70 microg/dL for males aged > or = 10 years. Population segments from rural and urban areas of South Asian developing countries were included in the analysis. They comprised pregnant and lactating women, preschool and school children. The analysis reveals that zinc deficiency is high among children, pregnant and lactating women in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. Diarrhoea has been established as a leading cause to intensify zinc deficiency in Bangladesh. Little has been done in Sri Lanka and Nepal to estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency precisely. A substantial population segment of the South Asian developing countries is predisposed to zinc deficiency which is further provoked by increased requirements for zinc under certain physiological conditions. Supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification are the most viable strategies to enhancing zinc status among various population groups.

  19. Zinc stress induces copper depletion in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Karl A; Pederick, Victoria G; Elbourne, Liam D H; Paulsen, Ian T; Paton, James C; McDevitt, Christopher A; Eijkelkamp, Bart A

    2017-03-11

    The first row transition metal ions zinc and copper are essential to the survival of many organisms, although in excess these ions are associated with significant toxicity. Here, we examined the impact of zinc and copper stress on Acinetobacter baumannii, a common opportunistic pathogen. We show that extracellular zinc stress induces a copper-specific depletion phenotype in A. baumannii ATCC 17978. Supplementation with copper not only fails to rescue this phenotype, but further exacerbates the copper depletion. Extensive analysis of the A. baumannii ATCC 17978 genome identified 13 putative zinc/copper resistance efflux pumps. Transcriptional analyses show that four of these transporters are responsive to zinc stress, five to copper stress and seven to the combination of zinc and copper stress, thereby revealing a likely foundation for the zinc-induced copper starvation in A. baumannii. In addition, we show that zinc and copper play crucial roles in management of oxidative stress and the membrane composition of A. baumannii. Further, we reveal that zinc and copper play distinct roles in macrophage-mediated killing of this pathogen. Collectively, this study supports the targeting of metal ion homeostatic mechanisms as an effective antimicrobial strategy against multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens.

  20. Zinc binding groups for histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Qixiao; Zhang, Li; Song, Weiguo

    2018-12-01

    Zinc binding groups (ZBGs) play a crucial role in targeting histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) to the active site of histone deacetylases (HDACs), thus determining the potency of HDACIs. Due to the high affinity to the zinc ion, hydroxamic acid is the most commonly used ZBG in the structure of HDACs. An alternative ZBG is benzamide group, which features excellent inhibitory selectivity for class I HDACs. Various ZBGs have been designed and tested to improve the activity and selectivity of HDACIs, and to overcome the pharmacokinetic limitations of current HDACIs. Herein, different kinds of ZBGs are reviewed and their features have been discussed for further design of HDACIs.

  1. Isolation and characterization of a new zinc-binding protein from albacore tuna plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dyke, B.; Hegenauer, J.; Saltman, P.

    1987-06-02

    The protein responsible for sequestering high levels of zinc in the plasma of the albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) has been isolated by sequential chromatography. The glycoprotein has a molecular weight of 66,000. Approximately 8.2% of its amino acid residues are histidines. Equilibrium dialysis experiments show it to bind 3 mol of zinc/mol of protein. The stoichiometric constant for the association of zinc with a binding site containing three histidines was determined to be 10/sup 9.4/. This protein is different from albumin and represents a previously uncharacterized zinc transport protein.

  2. Zinc in Pancreatic Islet Biology, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    About 20 chemical elements are nutritionally essential for humans with defined molecular functions. Several essential and nonessential biometals are either functional nutrients with antidiabetic actions or can be diabetogenic. A key question remains whether changes in the metabolism of biometals and biominerals are a consequence of diabetes or are involved in its etiology. Exploration of the roles of zinc (Zn) in this regard is most revealing because 80 years of scientific discoveries link zinc and diabetes. In pancreatic β- and α-cells, zinc has specific functions in the biochemistry of insulin and glucagon. When zinc ions are secreted during vesicular exocytosis, they have autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine roles. The membrane protein ZnT8 transports zinc ions into the insulin and glucagon granules. ZnT8 has a risk allele that predisposes the majority of humans to developing diabetes. In target tissues, increased availability of zinc enhances the insulin response by inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, which controls the phosphorylation state of the insulin receptor and hence downstream signalling. Inherited diseases of zinc metabolism, environmental exposures that interfere with the control of cellular zinc homeostasis, and nutritional or conditioned zinc deficiency influence the patho-biochemistry of diabetes. Accepting the view that zinc is one of the many factors in multiple gene-environment interactions that cause the functional demise of β-cells generates an immense potential for treating and perhaps preventing diabetes. Personalized nutrition, bioactive food, and pharmaceuticals targeting the control of cellular zinc in precision medicine are among the possible interventions. PMID:28401081

  3. Designing Hydrolytic Zinc Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential element required for the function of more than 300 enzymes spanning all classes. Despite years of dedicated study, questions regarding the connections between primary and secondary metal ligands and protein structure and function remain unanswered, despite numerous mechanistic, structural, biochemical, and synthetic model studies. Protein design is a powerful strategy for reproducing native metal sites that may be applied to answering some of these questions and subsequently generating novel zinc enzymes. From examination of the earliest design studies introducing simple Zn(II)-binding sites into de novo and natural protein scaffolds to current studies involving the preparation of efficient hydrolytic zinc sites, it is increasingly likely that protein design will achieve reaction rates previously thought possible only for native enzymes. This Current Topic will review the design and redesign of Zn(II)-binding sites in de novo-designed proteins and native protein scaffolds toward the preparation of catalytic hydrolytic sites. After discussing the preparation of Zn(II)-binding sites in various scaffolds, we will describe relevant examples for reengineering existing zinc sites to generate new or altered catalytic activities. Then, we will describe our work on the preparation of a de novo-designed hydrolytic zinc site in detail and present comparisons to related designed zinc sites. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the significant progress being made toward building zinc metalloenzymes from the bottom up. PMID:24506795

  4. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  5. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  6. Launch of STS-66 Space Shuttle Atlantis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis returns to work after a refurbishing and a two-year layoff, as liftoff for NASA's STS-66 occurs at noon (EDT), November 3, 1994. A 'fish-eye' lens was used to record the image.

  7. 24 CFR 92.66 - Reallocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula Insular Areas Program § 92.66 Reallocation. Any HOME funds... allocation amount for one or more of the remaining insular areas as provided in § 92.60 of this part, will be...

  8. 24 CFR 92.66 - Reallocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula Insular Areas Program § 92.66 Reallocation. Any HOME funds... allocation amount for one or more of the remaining insular areas as provided in § 92.60 of this part, will be...

  9. 24 CFR 92.66 - Reallocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula Insular Areas Program § 92.66 Reallocation. Any HOME funds... allocation amount for one or more of the remaining insular areas as provided in § 92.60 of this part, will be...

  10. 24 CFR 92.66 - Reallocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula Insular Areas Program § 92.66 Reallocation. Any HOME funds... allocation amount for one or more of the remaining insular areas as provided in § 92.60 of this part, will be...

  11. 24 CFR 92.66 - Reallocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula Insular Areas Program § 92.66 Reallocation. Any HOME funds... allocation amount for one or more of the remaining insular areas as provided in § 92.60 of this part, will be...

  12. 7 CFR 983.66 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Reports, Books and Records § 983.66 Records. Records of pistachios received, held and...

  13. The zinc-binding region (ZBR) fragment of Emi2 can inhibit APC/C by targeting its association with the coactivator Cdc20 and UBE2C-mediated ubiquitylation

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Shisako; Muto, Yutaka; Ikeda, Mariko; He, Fahu; Tsuda, Kengo; Ohsawa, Noboru; Akasaka, Ryogo; Terada, Takaho; Wakiyama, Motoaki; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) is a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase E3 that targets cell-cycle regulators. Cdc20 is required for full activation of APC/C in M phase, and mediates substrate recognition. In vertebrates, Emi2/Erp1/FBXO43 inhibits APC/C-Cdc20, and functions as a cytostatic factor that causes long-term M phase arrest of mature oocytes. In this study, we found that a fragment corresponding to the zinc-binding region (ZBR) domain of Emi2 inhibits cell-cycle progression, and impairs the association of Cdc20 with the APC/C core complex in HEK293T cells. Furthermore, we revealed that the ZBR fragment of Emi2 inhibits in vitro ubiquitin chain elongation catalyzed by the APC/C cullin-RING ligase module, the ANAPC2–ANAPC11 subcomplex, in combination with the ubiquitin chain-initiating E2, E2C/UBE2C/UbcH10. Structural analyses revealed that the Emi2 ZBR domain uses different faces for the two mechanisms. Thus, the double-faced ZBR domain of Emi2 antagonizes the APC/C function by inhibiting both the binding with the coactivator Cdc20 and ubiquitylation mediated by the cullin-RING ligase module and E2C. In addition, the tail region between the ZBR domain and the C-terminal RL residues [the post-ZBR (PZ) region] interacts with the cullin subunit, ANAPC2. In the case of the ZBR fragment of the somatic paralogue of Emi2, Emi1/FBXO5, these inhibitory activities against cell division and ubiquitylation were not observed. Finally, we identified two sets of key residues in the Emi2 ZBR domain that selectively exert each of the dual Emi2-specific modes of APC/C inhibition, by their mutation in the Emi2 ZBR domain and their transplantation into the Emi1 ZBR domain. PMID:25161877

  14. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1989-01-01

    An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

  15. Students Target

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-12-19

    Using the JMars targeting software, eighth grade students from Charleston Middle School in Charleston, IL, selected the location of -8.37N and 276.66E for capture by the THEMIS visible camera during Mars Odyssey sixth orbit of Mars on Nov. 22, 2005

  16. Estimating the Global Prevalence of Inadequate Zinc Intake from National Food Balance Sheets: Effects of Methodological Assumptions

    PubMed Central

    Wessells, K. Ryan; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Brown, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of inadequate zinc intake in a population can be estimated by comparing the zinc content of the food supply with the population’s theoretical requirement for zinc. However, assumptions regarding the nutrient composition of foods, zinc requirements, and zinc absorption may affect prevalence estimates. These analyses were conducted to: (1) evaluate the effect of varying methodological assumptions on country-specific estimates of the prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and (2) generate a model considered to provide the best estimates. Methodology and Principal Findings National food balance data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Zinc and phytate contents of these foods were estimated from three nutrient composition databases. Zinc absorption was predicted using a mathematical model (Miller equation). Theoretical mean daily per capita physiological and dietary requirements for zinc were calculated using recommendations from the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine and the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group. The estimated global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake varied between 12–66%, depending on which methodological assumptions were applied. However, country-specific rank order of the estimated prevalence of inadequate intake was conserved across all models (r = 0.57–0.99, P<0.01). A “best-estimate” model, comprised of zinc and phytate data from a composite nutrient database and IZiNCG physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, estimated the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake to be 17.3%. Conclusions and Significance Given the multiple sources of uncertainty in this method, caution must be taken in the interpretation of the estimated prevalence figures. However, the results of all models indicate that inadequate zinc intake may be fairly common globally. Inferences regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health

  17. Evolution of magnetization in epitaxial Zn1‑x Fe x O z thin films (0  ⩽  x  ⩽  0.66) grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachwitz, Kerstin; Böntgen, Tammo; Lenzner, Jörg; Ghosh, Kartik; Lorenz, Michael; Grundmann, Marius

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate the development of phases in Zn1‑xFexOz thin films with 0  ⩽  x  ⩽  0.66, i.e. the end point phases are semiconducting ZnO for x  =  0, and ferrimagnetic zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) for x  =  0.66. With increasing x, the x-ray scattering intensity of the structural ZnO wurtzite phase decreases while that of the (1 1 1)-oriented ZnFe2O4 spinel phase increases. For x  >  0.4, single phase spinel layers are obtained. The enhanced formation of the spinel phase is supported by deviations from the usually expected stoichiometric transfer of chemical composition from target to thin film in pulsed laser deposition. We find that all mixed film samples show an excess of iron in relation to the target composition, independent of the growth pressure. The saturation magnetization of the samples increases with x for 0  ⩽  x  ⩽  0.66 and shows a ferrimagnetic behavior. The temperature dependence of magnetization points to Curie temperatures well above 400 K for x  ⩾  0.4. With that, the precise tuning of magnetic performance of the thin layers is possible, yielding a design degree of freedom for application-related requirements.

  18. Disruption of zinc neuromodulation by Aß oligomers: therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Emily C; Busciglio, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    So far, therapeutics focusing on reducing levels of amyloid beta for treatment of Alzheimer's disease have not been successful in completing clinical trials to come to market, suggesting the need of a wider perspective and the consideration of novel targets of intervention to slow or halt the progression of this disease. One such target is soluble amyloid beta in oligomeric forms, which have been demonstrated to bind with high affinity to zinc released during synaptic activity. This review considers the interaction of AβO and zinc and the role of zinc in neurotransmission along with possible neurotoxic effects of this interaction. Finally, it also discusses recent experimental data in animal models that have translated into potential treatments for AD based on the modulation of hyperexcitability and zinc homeostasis.

  19. Computational exploration of zinc binding groups for HDAC inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Xu, Liping; Wiest, Olaf

    2013-05-17

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have emerged as important drug targets in epigenetics. The most common HDAC inhibitors use hydroxamic acids as zinc binding groups despite unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties. A two-stage protocol of M05-2X calculations of a library of 48 fragments in a small model active site, followed by QM/MM hybrid calculations of the full enzyme with selected binders, is used to prospectively select potential bidentate zinc binders. The energetics and interaction patterns of several zinc binders not previously used for the inhibition of HDACs are discussed.

  20. 99. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  1. Suppression of zinc dendrites in zinc electrode power cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damjanovic, A.; Diggle, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    Addition of various tetraalkyl quarternary ammonium salts, to alkaline zincate electrolyte of cell, prevents formation of zinc dendrites during charging of zinc electrode. Electrode capacity is not impaired and elimination of dendrites prolongs cell life.

  2. Prevention of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in zinc-deficient rodents: Inefficacy of genetic or pharmacological disruption of COX-2

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Louise Y.Y.; Jiang, Yubao; Riley, Maurisa; Liu, Xianglan; Smalley, Karl J.; Guttridge, Denis C.; Farber, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc deficiency in humans is associated with an increased risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer. In rodents, zinc deficiency predisposes to carcinogenesis by causing proliferation and alterations in gene expression. We examined whether in zinc-deficient rodents, targeted disruption of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 pathway by the COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib or by genetic deletion prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Tongue cancer prevention studies were conducted in zinc-deficient rats previously exposed to a tongue carcinogen by celecoxib treatment with or without zinc replenishment, or by zinc replenishment alone. The ability of genetic COX-2 deletion to protect against chemically-induced for-estomach tumorigenesis was examined in mice on zinc-deficient versus zinc-sufficient diet. The expression of 3 predictive bio-markers COX-2, nuclear factor (NF)-κ B p65 and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) was examined by immunohistochemistry. In zinc-deficient rats, celecoxib without zinc replenishment reduced lingual tumor multiplicity but not progression to malignancy. Celecoxib with zinc replenishment or zinc replenishment alone significantly lowered lingual squamous cell carcinoma incidence, as well as tumor multiplicity. Celecoxib alone reduced overexpression of the 3 biomarkers in tumors slightly, compared with intervention with zinc replenishment. Instead of being protected, zinc-deficient COX-2 null mice developed significantly greater tumor multiplicity and forestomach carcinoma incidence than wild-type controls. Additionally, zinc-deficient COX-2−/− forestomachs displayed strong LTA4H immunostaining, indicating activation of an alter-native pathway under zinc deficiency when the COX-2 pathway is blocked. Thus, targeting only the COX-2 pathway in zinc-deficient animals did not prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Our data suggest zinc supplementation should be more thoroughly explored in human prevention clinical trials for UADT cancer. PMID:17985342

  3. 28 CFR 66.32 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 66.32... (block or formula funds) shall vest in the criminal justice agency or nonprofit organization that..., subject to the approval of the awarding agency. (d) Management requirements. Procedures for managing...

  4. 38 CFR 61.66 - Financial management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Financial management. 61... § 61.66 Financial management. (a) All recipients must comply with applicable requirements of the Single...) All entities receiving assistance under this part must use a financial management system that follows...

  5. 38 CFR 61.66 - Financial management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Financial management. 61...) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.66 Financial management. (a) All recipients... management system that follows generally accepted accounting principals and provides accounting records...

  6. 38 CFR 61.66 - Financial management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Financial management. 61... § 61.66 Financial management. (a) All recipients must comply with applicable requirements of the Single...) All entities receiving assistance under this part must use a financial management system that follows...

  7. 38 CFR 61.66 - Financial management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Financial management. 61...) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.66 Financial management. (a) All recipients... management system that follows generally accepted accounting principals and provides accounting records...

  8. 41 CFR 50-204.66 - Acetylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) The piped systems for the in-plant transfer and distribution of acetylene shall be designed..., Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists § 50-204.66 Acetylene. (a) The in-plant transfer, handling, storage, and...) Plants for the generation of acetylene and the charging (filling) of acetylene cylinders shall be...

  9. Launch of STS-66 Space Shuttle Atlantis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis returns to work after a refurbishing and a two-year layoff, as liftoff for NASA's STS-66 occurs at noon (EDT), November 3, 1994. A 35mm camera was used to record the image, which includes much of the base of the launch site as well as the launch itself.

  10. Launch of STS-66 Space Shuttle Atlantis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis returns to work after a refurbishing and a two-year layoff, as liftoff for NASA's STS-66 occurs at noon (EDT), November 3, 1994. A 70mm camera was used to record the image. Note the vegetation and the reflection of the launch in the water across from the launch pad.

  11. 33 CFR 66.05-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this subpart is to prescribe the conditions under which state governments may regulate aids to navigation owned...

  12. 33 CFR 66.05-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....05-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-5 Definitions. (a) The term State waters for private aids to navigation means those navigable waters of the United States which the Commandant, upon...

  13. 33 CFR 66.10-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS... Marking System's (USWMS) aids to navigation provisions for marking channels and obstructions (see § 66.10... private aids to navigation and in those internal waters that are non-navigable waters of the U.S. All...

  14. 33 CFR 66.05-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....05-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-5 Definitions. (a) The term State waters for private aids to navigation means those navigable waters of the United States which the Commandant, upon...

  15. 33 CFR 66.10-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS... Marking System's (USWMS) aids to navigation provisions for marking channels and obstructions (see § 66.10... private aids to navigation and in those internal waters that are non-navigable waters of the U.S. All...

  16. 33 CFR 66.05-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this subpart is to prescribe the conditions under which state governments may regulate aids to navigation owned...

  17. 33 CFR 66.01-20 - Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....01-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-20 Inspection. All classes of private aids to navigation shall be maintained in proper operating condition. They are subject...

  18. 33 CFR 66.05-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this subpart is to prescribe the conditions under which state governments may regulate aids to navigation owned...

  19. 33 CFR 66.01-20 - Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....01-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-20 Inspection. All classes of private aids to navigation shall be maintained in proper operating condition. They are subject...

  20. 33 CFR 66.05-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....05-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-5 Definitions. (a) The term State waters for private aids to navigation means those navigable waters of the United States which the Commandant, upon...

  1. 33 CFR 66.05-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this subpart is to prescribe the conditions under which state governments may regulate aids to navigation owned...

  2. 33 CFR 66.10-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS... Marking System's (USWMS) aids to navigation provisions for marking channels and obstructions (see § 66.10... private aids to navigation and in those internal waters that are non-navigable waters of the U.S. All...

  3. 33 CFR 66.05-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....05-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-5 Definitions. (a) The term State waters for private aids to navigation means those navigable waters of the United States which the Commandant, upon...

  4. 33 CFR 66.01-20 - Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....01-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-20 Inspection. All classes of private aids to navigation shall be maintained in proper operating condition. They are subject...

  5. 33 CFR 66.01-20 - Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....01-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-20 Inspection. All classes of private aids to navigation shall be maintained in proper operating condition. They are subject...

  6. 33 CFR 66.01-20 - Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....01-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-20 Inspection. All classes of private aids to navigation shall be maintained in proper operating condition. They are subject...

  7. 33 CFR 66.05-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this subpart is to prescribe the conditions under which state governments may regulate aids to navigation owned...

  8. 33 CFR 66.05-5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....05-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-5 Definitions. (a) The term State waters for private aids to navigation means those navigable waters of the United States which the Commandant, upon...

  9. 38 CFR 61.66 - Financial management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial management. 61...) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.66 Financial management. (a) All recipients... OMB Circular A-133. (b) All entities receiving assistance under this part must use a financial...

  10. 40 CFR 72.66 - Public comments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.66 Public comments. (a) General. During the..., if any, to owners and operators of any unit covered by the Acid Rain permit application. (c) Contents...) The environmental effects of acid rain, acid deposition, sulfur dioxide, or nitrogen oxides generally...

  11. 40 CFR 72.66 - Public comments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.66 Public comments. (a) General. During the..., if any, to owners and operators of any unit covered by the Acid Rain permit application. (c) Contents...) The environmental effects of acid rain, acid deposition, sulfur dioxide, or nitrogen oxides generally...

  12. 40 CFR 72.66 - Public comments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.66 Public comments. (a) General. During the..., if any, to owners and operators of any unit covered by the Acid Rain permit application. (c) Contents...) The environmental effects of acid rain, acid deposition, sulfur dioxide, or nitrogen oxides generally...

  13. 40 CFR 72.66 - Public comments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.66 Public comments. (a) General. During the..., if any, to owners and operators of any unit covered by the Acid Rain permit application. (c) Contents...) The environmental effects of acid rain, acid deposition, sulfur dioxide, or nitrogen oxides generally...

  14. 40 CFR 72.66 - Public comments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.66 Public comments. (a) General. During the..., if any, to owners and operators of any unit covered by the Acid Rain permit application. (c) Contents...) The environmental effects of acid rain, acid deposition, sulfur dioxide, or nitrogen oxides generally...

  15. 22 CFR 42.66 - Medical examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Application for Immigrant Visas § 42.66 Medical examination. (a) Medical examination required of all applicants. Before the issuance of an immigrant visa, the consular officer shall...

  16. 22 CFR 42.66 - Medical examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Application for Immigrant Visas § 42.66 Medical examination. (a) Medical examination required of all applicants. Before the issuance of an immigrant visa, the consular officer shall...

  17. 22 CFR 42.66 - Medical examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Application for Immigrant Visas § 42.66 Medical examination. (a) Medical examination required of all applicants. Before the issuance of an immigrant visa, the consular officer shall...

  18. 22 CFR 42.66 - Medical examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Application for Immigrant Visas § 42.66 Medical examination. (a) Medical examination required of all applicants. Before the issuance of an immigrant visa, the consular officer shall...

  19. 22 CFR 42.66 - Medical examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Application for Immigrant Visas § 42.66 Medical examination. (a) Medical examination required of all applicants. Before the issuance of an immigrant visa, the consular officer shall...

  20. 28 CFR 66.36 - Procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... should be given to consolidating or breaking out procurements to obtain a more economical purchase. Where... analysis to determine the most economical approach. (5) To foster greater economy and efficiency, grantees... consistent with Federal cost principles (see § 66.22). Grantees may reference their own cost principles that...

  1. 42 CFR 66.106 - Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.106 Awards. (a) Within the limits of funds available, the...) Whose proposed research or training would, in the judgment of the Secretary, best promote the purposes... need for personnel in the subject area of the proposed research or training. (b) In making Awards, the...

  2. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Implementation Phase § 990.66 Additional considerations... implementation of restoration: (1) Establish a trustee committee and/or memorandum of understanding or other... restoration success and the need for corrective action. (b) The reasonable costs of such actions are included...

  3. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1998-02-03

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  4. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Gangwal, Santosh K.; Jain, Suresh C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  5. Zinc deficiency in the pediatric age group is common but underevaluated.

    PubMed

    Vuralli, Dogus; Tumer, Leyla; Hasanoglu, Alev

    2017-08-01

    Subclinical micronutrient deficiencies have been gradually becoming more important as a public health problem and drawing attention of the health authorities. Today it has been known that detecting and treating people having deficiency symptoms alone is no longer sufficient. It is important to detect and prevent any deficiency before it displays clinical manifestations. Zinc deficiency is one of the most widespread micronutrient deficiencies. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the zinc status and the associated factors in healthy school-age children. The study was carried out in schools in Altindag, the district of Ankara. A total of 1063 healthy children, 585 girls and 478 boys, aged 5-16 years were included in the study. Serum zinc, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell count were measured. A serum zinc level <65 μg/dL was considered as subclinical zinc deficiency for children <10 years of age. For children ≥10 years of age the cutoffs for serum zinc concentration were set at 66 μg/dL for females and 70 μg/dL for males. A questionnaire was developed to collect socioeconomic and demographic information of the participants. The prevalence of subclinical zinc deficiency in children attending the study was detected to be 27.8%. This high ratio showed zinc deficiency was an important health problem in the Altindag district of Ankara, Turkey. Evaluating the indicators of zinc deficiency such as serum zinc concentration, dietary zinc intake and stunting prevalence, this study is the most comprehensive epidemiological study performed in children in Turkey. This study reveals the high prevalence of subclinical zinc deficiency and indicates that zinc deficiency is a public health concern for the study population.

  6. History of zinc in agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, over 20 years would past before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure a parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it wa...

  7. Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

  8. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Allen M.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Dalal, Vikram L.; Masi, James V.; Meakin, John D.; Hall, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  9. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  10. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  11. Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar

    1984-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

  12. P66Shc signals to age

    PubMed Central

    Trinei, Mirella; Berniakovich, Ina; Beltrami, Elena; Migliaccio, Enrica; Fassina, Ambrogio; Pelicci, PierGiuseppe; Giorgio, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen metabolism is thought to impact on aging through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are supposed to damage biological molecules. The study of p66Shc, a crucial regulator of ROS level involved in aging dysfunction, suggests that the incidence of degenerative disease and longevity are determined by a specific signaling function of ROS other than their unspecific damaging property. PMID:20157533

  13. ISO-66, a novel inhibitor of macrophage migration, shows efficacy in melanoma and colon cancer models.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Kyriaki; Cheng, Kai Fan; Crichlow, Gregg V; Birmpilis, Anastasios I; Lolis, Elias J; Tsitsilonis, Ourania E; Al-Abed, Yousef

    2014-10-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine, which possesses a contributing role in cancer progression and metastasis and, thus, is now considered a promising anticancer drug target. Many MIF-inactivating strategies have proven successful in delaying cancer growth. Here, we report on the synthesis of ISO-66, a novel, highly stable, small-molecule MIF inhibitor, an analog of ISO-1 with improved characteristics. The MIF:ISO-66 co-crystal structure demonstrated that ISO-66 ligates the tautomerase active site of MIF, which has previously been shown to play an important role in its biological functions. In vitro, ISO-66 enhanced specific and non-specific anticancer immune responses, whereas prolonged administration of ISO-66 in mice with established syngeneic melanoma or colon cancer was non-toxic and resulted in a significant decrease in tumor burden. Subsequent ex vivo analysis of mouse splenocytes revealed that the observed decrease in tumor growth rates was likely mediated by the selective in vivo expansion of antitumor-reactive effector cells induced by ISO-66. Compared to other MIF-inactivating strategies employed in vivo, the anticancer activity of ISO-66 is demonstrated to be of equal or better efficacy. Our findings suggest that targeting MIF, via highly specific and stable compounds, such as ISO-66, may be effective for cancer treatment and stimulation of anticancer immune responses.

  14. [Association between serum zinc level and hypercholesterolemia and insulin resistance in Brazilian children].

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Fernanda Martins de; Filgueiras, Mariana De Santis; Rocha, Naruna Pereira; Castro, Ana Paula Pereira; Milagres, Luana Cupertino; Pessoa, Milene Cristine; Fransceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Novaes, Juliana Farias de

    2018-02-05

    The objective of the study was to assess the association between serum zinc level and cardiometabolic factors in prepubertal Brazilian children. This was a cross-sectional study in a representative sample of schoolchildren 8 to 9 years of age in public and private urban schools in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Body composition was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The study measured serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoproteins A (Apo A) and B, uric acid, leptin, homocysteine, ultrasenstive C-reactive protein, and serum zinc. Arterial pressure was measured with automatic inflation equipment. Zinc deficiency was observed in 1.3% of the children. Girls showed the worst cardiometabolic profile, with higher prevalence of increased android fat, triglycerides, insulin resistance, leptin, zinc, and Apo A. In the first tertile of serum zinc concentration, prevalence of insulin resistance was 96% higher (PR = 1.96; 95%CI: 1.04-3.66) and hypercholesterolemia was 23% lower (PR = 0.77; 95%CI: 0.61-0.96) than in the reference category (grouped 2nd and 3rd tertiles of serum zinc concentration). Despite the low prevalence of zinc deficiency, insulin resistance was more prevalent in children in the lowest third of serum zinc concentration. It is important to prevent cardiometabolic alterations in childhood, especially insulin resistance, with an emphasis on serum zinc level.

  15. Zinc is an Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Agent: Its Role in Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Ananda S.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc supplementation trials in the elderly showed that the incidence of infections was decreased by approximately 66% in the zinc group. Zinc supplementation also decreased oxidative stress biomarkers and decreased inflammatory cytokines in the elderly. In our studies in the experimental model of zinc deficiency in humans, we showed that zinc deficiency per se increased the generation of IL-1β and its mRNA in human mononuclear cells following LPS stimulation. Zinc supplementation upregulated A20, a zinc transcription factor, which inhibited the activation of NF-κB, resulting in decreased generation of inflammatory cytokines. Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are important contributing factors for several chronic diseases attributed to aging, such as atherosclerosis and related cardiac disorders, cancer, neurodegeneration, immunologic disorders and the aging process itself. Zinc is very effective in decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this review, the mechanism of zinc actions on oxidative stress and generation of inflammatory cytokines and its impact on health in humans will be presented. PMID:25988117

  16. Zinc supplementation in public health.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary Edith

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is necessary for physiological processes including defense against infections. Zinc deficiency is responsible for 4% of global child morbidity and mortality. Zinc supplements given for 10-14 days together with low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (Lo-ORS) are recommended for the treatment of childhood diarrhea. In children aged ≥ 6 months, daily zinc supplements reduce the duration of acute diarrhea episodes by 12 h and persistent diarrhea by 17 h. Zinc supplements could reduce diarrhea mortality in children aged 12-59 months by an estimated 23%; they are very safe but are associated with an increase in vomiting especially with the first dose. Heterogeneity between the results of trials is not understood but may be related to dose and the etiology of the diarrhea infection. Integration of zinc and Lo-ORS into national programs is underway but slowly, procurement problems are being overcome and the greatest challenge is changing health provider and caregiver attitudes to diarrhea management. Fewer trials have been conducted of zinc adjunct therapy in severe respiratory tract infections and there is as yet insufficient evidence to recommend addition of zinc to antibiotic therapy. Daily zinc supplements for all children >12 months of age in zinc deficient populations are estimated to reduce diarrhea incidence by 11-23%. The greatest impact is in reducing multiple episodes of diarrhea. The effect on duration of diarrheal episodes is less clear, but there may be up to 9% reduction. Zinc is also efficacious in reducing dysentery and persistent diarrhea. Zinc supplements may also prevent pneumonia by about 19%, but heterogeneity across studies has not yet been explained. When analyses are restricted to better quality studies using CHERG (Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group) methodology, zinc supplements are estimated to reduce diarrheal deaths by 13% and pneumonia deaths by 20%. National-level programs to combat childhood zinc deficiency should be

  17. Preparation of Diatomite Supported Nano Zinc Oxide Composite Photocatalytic Material and Study on its Formaldehyde Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liguang; Pang, Bo

    2017-09-01

    This experiment used zinc nitrate as precursor, ethanol as solvent and polyethylene glycol as dispersant, diatomite as carrier, diatomite loaded nano Zinc Oxide was prepared by sol-gel method, in addition, the formaldehyde degradation was studied by two kinds of experimental methods: preparation and loading, preparation and post loading, The samples were characterized by SEM, XRD, BET and IR. Experimental results showed that: Diatomite based nano Zinc Oxide had a continuous adsorption and degradation of formaldehyde, formaldehyde gas with initial concentration was 0.7mg/m3, after 36h degradation, the concentration reached 0.238mg/m3, the degradation rate reached to 66%.

  18. Acute changes in cellular zinc alters zinc uptake rates prior to zinc transporter gene expression in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Holland, Tai C; Killilea, David W; Shenvi, Swapna V; King, Janet C

    2015-12-01

    A coordinated network of zinc transporters and binding proteins tightly regulate cellular zinc levels. Canonical responses to zinc availability are thought to be mediated by changes in gene expression of key zinc transporters. We investigated the temporal relationships of actual zinc uptake with patterns of gene expression in membrane-bound zinc transporters in the human immortalized T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line. Cellular zinc levels were elevated or reduced with exogenous zinc sulfate or N,N,N',N-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), respectively. Excess zinc resulted in a rapid 44 % decrease in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of metallothionein (positive control) increased, as well as the zinc exporter, ZnT1; however, the expression of zinc importers did not change during this time period. Zinc chelation with TPEN resulted in a rapid twofold increase in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of ZnT1 decreased, while again the expression of zinc importers did not change. Overall, zinc transporter gene expression kinetics did not match actual changes in cellular zinc uptake with exogenous zinc or TPEN treatments. This suggests zinc transporter regulation may be the initial response to changes in zinc within Jurkat cells.

  19. Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ananda S

    2008-01-01

    Although the essentiality of zinc for plants and animals has been known for many decades, the essentiality of zinc for humans was recognized only 40 years ago in the Middle East. The zinc-deficient patients had severe immune dysfunctions, inasmuch as they died of intercurrent infections by the time they were 25 years of age. In our studies in an experimental human model of zinc deficiency, we documented decreased serum testosterone level, oligospermia, severe immune dysfunctions mainly affecting T helper cells, hyperammonemia, neurosensory disorders, and decreased lean body mass. It appears that zinc deficiency is prevalent in the developing world and as many as two billion subjects may be growth retarded due to zinc deficiency. Besides growth retardation and immune dysfunctions, cognitive impairment due to zinc deficiency also has been reported recently. Our studies in the cell culture models showed that the activation of many zinc-dependent enzymes and transcription factors were adversely affected due to zinc deficiency. In HUT-78 (T helper 0 [Th(0)] cell line), we showed that a decrease in gene expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-2 receptor alpha(IL-2Ralpha) were due to decreased activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in zinc deficient cells. Decreased NF-kappaB activation in HUT-78 due to zinc deficiency was due to decreased binding of NF-kappaB to DNA, decreased level of NF-kappaB p105 (the precursor of NF-kappaB p50) mRNA, decreased kappaB inhibitory protein (IkappaB) phosphorylation, and decreased Ikappa kappa. These effects of zinc were cell specific. Zinc also is an antioxidant and has anti-inflammatory actions. The therapeutic roles of zinc in acute infantile diarrhea, acrodermatitis enteropathica, prevention of blindness in patients with age-related macular degeneration, and treatment of common cold with zinc have been reported. In HL-60 cells (promyelocytic leukemia cell line), zinc enhances the up-regulation of A20 mRNA, which, via TRAF

  20. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  1. Zinc and Zinc Transporters: Novel Regulators of Ventricular Myocardial Development.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen; Li, Deqiang

    2018-06-01

    Ventricular myocardial development is a well-orchestrated process involving different cardiac structures, multiple signal pathways, and myriad proteins. Dysregulation of this important developmental event can result in cardiomyopathies, such as left ventricle non-compaction, which affect the pediatric population and the adults. Human and mouse studies have shed light upon the etiology of some cardiomyopathy cases and highlighted the contribution of both genetic and environmental factors. However, the regulation of ventricular myocardial development remains incompletely understood. Zinc is an essential trace metal with structural, enzymatic, and signaling function. Perturbation of zinc homeostasis has resulted in developmental and physiological defects including cardiomyopathy. In this review, we summarize several mechanisms by which zinc and zinc transporters can impact the regulation of ventricular myocardial development. Based on our review, we propose that zinc deficiency and mutations of zinc transporters may underlie some cardiomyopathy cases especially those involving ventricular myocardial development defects.

  2. A critical examination of the possible application of zinc stable isotope ratios in bivalve mollusks and suspended particulate matter to trace zinc pollution in a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Daniel; Machado, Wilson; Weiss, Dominik; Mulholland, Daniel S; Boaventura, Geraldo R; Viers, Jerome; Garnier, Jeremie; Dantas, Elton L; Babinski, Marly

    2017-07-01

    The application of zinc (Zn) isotopes in bivalve tissues to identify zinc sources in estuaries was critically assessed. We determined the zinc isotope composition of mollusks (Crassostrea brasiliana and Perna perna) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in a tropical estuary (Sepetiba Bay, Brazil) historically impacted by metallurgical activities. The zinc isotope systematics of the SPM was in line with mixing of zinc derived from fluvial material and from metallurgical activities. In contrast, source mixing alone cannot account for the isotope ratios observed in the bivalves, which are significantly lighter in the contaminated metallurgical zone (δ 66 Zn JMC  = +0.49 ± 0.06‰, 2σ, n = 3) compared to sampling locations outside (δ 66 Zn JMC  = +0.83 ± 0.10‰, 2σ, n = 22). This observation suggests that additional factors such as speciation, bioavailability and bioaccumulation pathways (via solution or particulate matter) influence the zinc isotope composition of bivalves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, D. G.; Jura, M.

    1982-01-01

    IUE observations toward 10 stars have shown that zinc is not depleted in the interstellar medium by more than a factor of two, suggesting that its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. A result pertinent to the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood is that the local interstellar medium has abundances that appear to be homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc.

  4. Zinc Signal in Brain Diseases.

    PubMed

    Portbury, Stuart D; Adlard, Paul A

    2017-11-23

    The divalent cation zinc is an integral requirement for optimal cellular processes, whereby it contributes to the function of over 300 enzymes, regulates intracellular signal transduction, and contributes to efficient synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Given the critical role of zinc in a breadth of cellular processes, its cellular distribution and local tissue level concentrations remain tightly regulated via a series of proteins, primarily including zinc transporter and zinc import proteins. A loss of function of these regulatory pathways, or dietary alterations that result in a change in zinc homeostasis in the brain, can all lead to a myriad of pathological conditions with both acute and chronic effects on function. This review aims to highlight the role of zinc signaling in the central nervous system, where it may precipitate or potentiate diverse issues such as age-related cognitive decline, depression, Alzheimer's disease or negative outcomes following brain injury.

  5. ZNT7 binds to CD40 and influences CD154-triggered p38 MAPK activity in B lymphocytes-a possible regulatory mechanism for zinc in immune function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc deficiency impairs immune system leading to frequent infections. Although it is known that zinc plays critical roles in maintaining healthy immune function, the underlying molecular targets are largely unknown. In this study, we showed that zinc is important for the CD154-CD40-mediated activati...

  6. Zinc stable isotope fractionation upon accelerated oxidative weathering of sulfidic mine waste.

    PubMed

    Matthies, R; Krahé, L; Blowes, D W

    2014-07-15

    Accelerated oxidative weathering in a reaction cell (ASTM D 5744 standard protocol) was performed over a 33 week period on well characterized, sulfidic mine waste from the Kidd Creek Cu-Zn volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, Canada. The cell leachate was monitored for physicochemical parameters, ion concentrations and stable isotope ratios of zinc. Filtered zinc concentrations (<0.45 μm) in the leachate ranged between 4.5 mg L(-1) and 1.9 g L(-1)-potentially controlled by pH, mineral solubility kinetics and (de)sorption processes. The zinc stable isotope ratios varied mass-dependently within +0.1 and +0.52‰ relative to IRMM 3702, and were strongly dependent on the pH (rpH-d66Zn=0.65, p<0.005, n=31). At a pH below 5, zinc mobilization was governed by sphalerite oxidation and hydroxide dissolution-pointing to the isotope signature of sphalerite (+0.1 to +0.16‰). Desorption processes resulted in enrichment of (66)Zn in the leachate reaching a maximum offset of +0.32‰ compared to the proposed sphalerite isotope signature. Over a period characterized by pH=6.1 ± 0.6, isotope ratios were significantly more enriched in (66)Zn with an offset of ≈ 0.23‰ compared to sphalerite, suggesting that zinc release may have been derived from a second zinc source, such as carbonate minerals, which compose 8 wt.% of the tailings. This preliminary study confirms the benefit of applying zinc isotopes alongside standard monitoring parameters to track principal zinc sources and weathering processes in complex multi-phase matrices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 40 CFR 66.61 - Duty to pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty to pay. 66.61 Section 66.61... COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA Payment § 66.61 Duty to pay. (a) Except where the owner or... who submits a petition pursuant to § 66.52 shall pay the penalty amount calculated by the owner or...

  8. STS-66 Mission Highlights Resource Tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This video contains the mission highlights of the STS-66 Space Shuttle Atlantis Mission in November 1994. Astronauts included: Don McMonagle (Mission Commander), Kurt Brown, Ellen Ochoa (Payload Commander), Joe Tanner, Scott Parazynski, and Jean-Francois Clervoy (collaborating French astronaut). Footage includes: pre-launch suitup, entering Space Shuttle, countdown and launching of Shuttle, EVA activities (ATLAS-3, CRISTA/SPAS, SSBUV/A, ESCAPE-2), on-board experiments dealing with microgravity and its effects, protein crystal growth experiments, daily living and sleeping compartment footage, earthviews of various meteorological processes (dust storms, cloud cover, ocean storms), pre-landing and land footage (both from inside the Shuttle and from outside with long range cameras), and tracking and landing shots from inside Mission Control Center. Included is air-to-ground communication between Mission Control and the Shuttle. This Shuttle was the last launch of 1994.

  9. STS-66 mission highlights resource tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    This video contains the mission highlights of the STS-66 Space Shuttle Atlantis Mission in November 1994. Astronauts included: Don McMonagle (Mission Commander), Kurt Brown, Ellen Ochoa (Payload Commander), Joe Tanner, Scott Parazynski, and Jean-Francois Clervoy (collaborating French astronaut). Footage includes: pre-launch suitup, entering Space Shuttle, countdown and launching of Shuttle, EVA activities (ATLAS-3, CRISTA/SPAS, SSBUV/A, ESCAPE-2), on-board experiments dealing with microgravity and its effects, protein crystal growth experiments, daily living and sleeping compartment footage, earthviews of various meteorological processes (dust storms, cloud cover, ocean storms), pre-landing and land footage (both from inside the Shuttle and from outside with long range cameras), and tracking and landing shots from inside Mission Control Center. Included is air-to-ground communication between Mission Control and the Shuttle. This Shuttle was the last launch of 1994.

  10. Short-Term Subclinical Zinc Deficiency in Weaned Piglets Affects Cardiac Redox Metabolism and Zinc Concentration.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Daniel; Windisch, Wilhelm M

    2017-04-01

    Background: Subclinical zinc deficiency (SZD) represents the common zinc malnutrition phenotype. However, its association with oxidative stress is not well understood. The heart muscle may be a promising target for studying early changes in redox metabolism. Objective: We investigated the effects of short-term SZD on cardiac redox metabolism in weaned piglets. Methods: Forty-eight weaned German Large White × Landrace × Piétrain piglets (50% castrated males and 50% females; body weight of 8.5 kg) were fed diets with different zinc concentrations for 8 d. Measurements included cardiac parameters of antioxidative capacity, stress-associated gene expression, and tissue zinc status. Analyses comprised (linear, broken-line) regression models and Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: Glutathione and α-tocopherol concentrations as well as catalase, glutathione reductase, B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein, and caspase 9 gene expression plateaued in response to reduction in dietary zinc from 88.0 to 57.6, 36.0, 36.5, 41.3, 55.3, and 33.8 mg/kg, respectively ( P < 0.0001). Further reduction in dietary zinc promoted a linear decrease of glutathione and α-tocopherol (30 and 0.6 nmol/mg dietary Zn, respectively; P < 0.05) and a linear increase of gene expression [0.02, 0.01, 0.003, and 0.02 Log 10 (2 -ΔΔCt )/mg dietary Zn, respectively; P < 0.05)]. Tissue zinc declined linearly with reduction in dietary zinc (0.21 mg tissue Zn/mg dietary Zn; P = 0.004) from 88.0 to 42.7 mg/kg ( P < 0.0001), below which it linearly increased inversely to further reduction in dietary zinc (0.57 mg tissue Zn/mg dietary Zn; P = 0.006). H 2 O 2 -detoxification activity and metallothionein 1A gene expression decreased linearly with reduction in dietary zinc from 88.0 to 28.1 mg/kg [0.02 mU and 0.008 Log 10 (2 -ΔΔCt )/mg dietary Zn, respectively; P < 0.05]. Fas cell-surface death receptor, etoposide-induced 2.4 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A gene expression correlated

  11. Remediation of arsenic and lead with nanocrystalline zinc sulfide.

    PubMed

    Piquette, Alan; Cannon, Cody; Apblett, Allen W

    2012-07-27

    Nanocrystalline (1.7 ± 0.3 nm) zinc sulfide with a specific surface area up to 360 m(2) g(-1) was prepared from the thermal decomposition of a single-source precursor, zinc ethylxanthate. Zinc ethylxanthate decomposes to cubic zinc sulfide upon exposure to temperatures greater than or equal to 125 °C. The resulting zinc sulfide was tested as a water impurity extractant. The target impurities used in this study were As(5+), As(3+), and Pb(2+). The reaction of the nanocrystalline ZnS with Pb(2+) proceeds as a replacement reaction where solid PbS is formed and Zn(2+) is released into the aqueous system. Removal of lead to a level of less than two parts per billion is achievable. The results of a detailed kinetics experiment between the ZnS and Pb(2+) are included in this study. Unlike the instance of lead, both As(5+) and As(3+) adsorb on the surface of the ZnS extractant as opposed to an ion-exchange process. An uptake capacity of > 25 mg g(-1) for the removal of As(5+) is possible. The uptake of As(3+) appears to proceed by a slower process than that of the As(5+) with a capacity of nearly 20 mg g(-1). The nanocrystalline zinc sulfide was extremely successful for the removal of arsenic and lead from simulated oil sand tailing pond water.

  12. Zinc supplementation for tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Person, Osmar C; Puga, Maria Es; da Silva, Edina Mk; Torloni, Maria R

    2016-11-23

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound without external acoustic stimuli. Patients with severe tinnitus may have physical and psychological complaints and their tinnitus can cause deterioration in their quality of life. At present no specific therapy for tinnitus has been found to be satisfactory in all patients. In recent decades, a number of reports have suggested that oral zinc supplementation may be effective in the management of tinnitus. Since zinc has a role in cochlear physiology and in the synapses of the auditory system, there is a plausible mechanism of action for this treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral zinc supplementation in the management of patients with tinnitus. The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the ENT Trials Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 6); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 14 July 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing zinc supplementation versus placebo in adults (18 years and over) with tinnitus. We used the standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. Our primary outcome measures were improvement in tinnitus severity and disability, measured by a validated tinnitus-specific questionnaire, and adverse effects. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, change in socioeconomic impact associated with work, change in anxiety and depression disorders, change in psychoacoustic parameters, change in tinnitus loudness, change in overall severity of tinnitus and change in thresholds on pure tone audiometry. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. We included three trials involving a total of 209 participants. The studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. All included studies had differences in participant selection criteria, length of follow-up and outcome measurement

  13. Relationship between zinc malnutrition and alterations in murine peripheral blood leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    King, L.E.; Morford, L.A.; Fraker, P.J.

    1991-03-15

    Studies using a murine model have shown that the immune system responds rapidly and adversely to zinc deficiency. The extent of alteration of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and immunoglobulin levels were investigated in four zinc dietary groups: zinc adequate (ZA); restricted fed zinc adequate (RZA); marginal zinc deficient (MZD, 72-76% of ZA mouse weight); and severely zinc deficient. The peripheral white blood cell count was 3.66 {plus minus} 1.08 {times} 10{sup 6} cells/ml for ZA mice decreasing by 21%, 28% and 54% for RZA, MZD and SZD mice respectively. An equally dramatic change in the flow cytometric light scatter profilemore » was found. ZA mice had 66% lymphocytes and 21% polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) in their peripheral blood while MZD and SZD mice contained 43% and 30% lymphocytes and 40% and 60% PMNs respectively. Analysis of the phenotypic distribution of specific classes of lymphocytes revealed ZA blood contained 25% B-cells and 40% T-cells (CD5{sup +}). B-cells decreased 40-50% for RZA and MZD mice and 60-70% for SZD mice. The decline in CD5{sup +} T-cells was more modest at 30% and 45% for MZD and SZD mice. A nearly 40% decline in both T{sub h} and T{sub c/s} cells was noted for both MZD and SZD mice. Radioimmunoassay of serum for changes in IgM and IgG content revealed no change among dietary groups while serum zinc decreased 10% for RZA mice and 50% for both MZD and SZD mice. The authors conclude that peripheral blood differential counts in concert with total B and T-cell phenotype may serve as indicators of zinc status while serum zinc and Ig will not.« less

  14. Reinforcement of nylon 6,6/nylon 6,6 grafted nanodiamond composites by in situ reactive extrusion

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-Yeob; Kim, Kiho; Kim, Chang-Keun; Kang, Eunah

    2016-01-01

    Nanodiamond (ND), an emerging new carbon material, was exploited to reinforce nylon 6,6 (PA66) polymer composites. Surface modified nanodiamonds with acyl chloride end groups were employed to chemically graft into PA66, enhancing the interfacial adhesion and thus the mechanical properties. The ND grafted PA66 (PA66-g-ND) reinforced PA66 composite prepared by in situ reactive extrusion exhibited increased tensile strength and modulus. The tensile strength and modulus of PA66/3 wt.% PA66-g-ND composites were enhanced by 11.6 and 20.8%, respectively when compared to those of the bare PA66 matrix. Even the PA66/pristine ND composites exhibited enhanced mechanical properties. The PA66-g-ND and the homogeneously dispersed PA66-g-ND in PA66 matrix were examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The mechanical properties and thermal conductivities of the nanodiamond incorporated PA66 composites were also explored. The enhanced mechanical properties and thermal conductivities of the PA66-g-ND/PA66 composites make them potential materials for new applications as functional engineered thermoplastics. PMID:27841314

  15. Reinforcement of nylon 6,6/nylon 6,6 grafted nanodiamond composites by in situ reactive extrusion.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Yeob; Kim, Kiho; Kim, Chang-Keun; Kang, Eunah

    2016-11-14

    Nanodiamond (ND), an emerging new carbon material, was exploited to reinforce nylon 6,6 (PA66) polymer composites. Surface modified nanodiamonds with acyl chloride end groups were employed to chemically graft into PA66, enhancing the interfacial adhesion and thus the mechanical properties. The ND grafted PA66 (PA66-g-ND) reinforced PA66 composite prepared by in situ reactive extrusion exhibited increased tensile strength and modulus. The tensile strength and modulus of PA66/3 wt.% PA66-g-ND composites were enhanced by 11.6 and 20.8%, respectively when compared to those of the bare PA66 matrix. Even the PA66/pristine ND composites exhibited enhanced mechanical properties. The PA66-g-ND and the homogeneously dispersed PA66-g-ND in PA66 matrix were examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The mechanical properties and thermal conductivities of the nanodiamond incorporated PA66 composites were also explored. The enhanced mechanical properties and thermal conductivities of the PA66-g-ND/PA66 composites make them potential materials for new applications as functional engineered thermoplastics.

  16. Reinforcement of nylon 6,6/nylon 6,6 grafted nanodiamond composites by in situ reactive extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eun-Yeob; Kim, Kiho; Kim, Chang-Keun; Kang, Eunah

    2016-11-01

    Nanodiamond (ND), an emerging new carbon material, was exploited to reinforce nylon 6,6 (PA66) polymer composites. Surface modified nanodiamonds with acyl chloride end groups were employed to chemically graft into PA66, enhancing the interfacial adhesion and thus the mechanical properties. The ND grafted PA66 (PA66-g-ND) reinforced PA66 composite prepared by in situ reactive extrusion exhibited increased tensile strength and modulus. The tensile strength and modulus of PA66/3 wt.% PA66-g-ND composites were enhanced by 11.6 and 20.8%, respectively when compared to those of the bare PA66 matrix. Even the PA66/pristine ND composites exhibited enhanced mechanical properties. The PA66-g-ND and the homogeneously dispersed PA66-g-ND in PA66 matrix were examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The mechanical properties and thermal conductivities of the nanodiamond incorporated PA66 composites were also explored. The enhanced mechanical properties and thermal conductivities of the PA66-g-ND/PA66 composites make them potential materials for new applications as functional engineered thermoplastics.

  17. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  18. Uptake and partitioning of zinc in Lemnaceae.

    PubMed

    Lahive, Elma; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Jansen, Marcel A K; O'Halloran, John

    2011-11-01

    Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and trace elements. Zinc accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between zinc accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for zinc tolerance. This study shows differences in the uptake and accumulation of zinc by three duckweed species. Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor generally accumulated more zinc than Lemna gibba. L. minor, but not L. gibba or L. punctata, accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in roots compared to fronds when exposed to high levels of zinc. The proportion of zinc stored in the bound form relative to the soluble-form was higher in L. minor. L. punctata accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in fronds compared to roots and increased the proportion of zinc it stored in the soluble form, when exposed to high zinc levels. L. gibba is the only species that significantly accumulated zinc at low concentrations, and was zinc-sensitive. Overall, internal zinc concentrations showed no consistent correlation with toxic effect. We conclude that relationships between zinc toxicity and uptake and accumulation are species specific reflecting, among others, zinc distribution and storage. Differences in zinc distribution and storage are also likely to have implications for zinc bioavailability and trophic mobility.

  19. Grouper iridovirus GIV66 is a Bcl-2 protein that inhibits apoptosis by exclusively sequestering Bim.

    PubMed

    Banjara, Suresh; Mao, Jiahao; Ryan, Timothy M; Caria, Sofia; Kvansakul, Marc

    2018-04-13

    Programmed cell death or apoptosis is a critical mechanism for the controlled removal of damaged or infected cells, and proteins of the Bcl-2 family are important arbiters of this process. Viruses have been shown to encode functional and structural homologs of Bcl-2 to counter premature host-cell apoptosis and ensure viral proliferation or survival. Grouper iridovirus (GIV) is a large DNA virus belonging to the Iridoviridae family and harbors GIV66, a putative Bcl-2-like protein and mitochondrially localized apoptosis inhibitor. However, the molecular and structural basis of GIV66-mediated apoptosis inhibition is currently not understood. To gain insight into GIV66's mechanism of action, we systematically evaluated its ability to bind peptides spanning the BH3 domain of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. Our results revealed that GIV66 harbors an unusually high level of specificity for pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 and displays affinity only for Bcl-2-like 11 (Bcl2L11 or Bim). Using crystal structures of both apo-GIV66 and GIV66 bound to the BH3 domain from Bim, we unexpectedly found that GIV66 forms dimers via an interface that results in occluded access to the canonical Bcl-2 ligand-binding groove, which breaks apart upon Bim binding. This observation suggests that GIV66 dimerization may affect GIV66's ability to bind host pro-death Bcl-2 proteins and enables highly targeted virus-directed suppression of host apoptosis signaling. Our findings provide a mechanistic understanding for the potent anti-apoptotic activity of GIV66 by identifying it as the first single-specificity, pro-survival Bcl-2 protein and identifying a pivotal role of Bim in GIV-mediated inhibition of apoptosis. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. STS-66 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objective of this flight was to accomplish complementary science objectives by operating the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3) and the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (CRISTA-SPAS). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A) payload, the Experiment of the Sun Complementing the Atlas Payload and Education-II (ESCAPE-II) payload, the Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health Rodents (PARE/NIH-R) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES), the Space Tissue/National Institutes of Health Cells STL/N -A payload, the Space Acceleration Measurement Systems (SAMS) Experiment, and Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPPE) payload. The 11-day plus 2 contingency day STS-66 mission was flown as planned, with no contingency days used for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. Appendix A lists the sources of data from which this report was prepared, and Appendix B defines all acronyms and abbreviations used in the report.

  1. STS-66 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-02-01

    The primary objective of this flight was to accomplish complementary science objectives by operating the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3) and the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (CRISTA-SPAS). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A) payload, the Experiment of the Sun Complementing the Atlas Payload and Education-II (ESCAPE-II) payload, the Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health Rodents (PARE/NIH-R) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES), the Space Tissue/National Institutes of Health Cells STL/N -A payload, the Space Acceleration Measurement Systems (SAMS) Experiment, and Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPPE) payload. The 11-day plus 2 contingency day STS-66 mission was flown as planned, with no contingency days used for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. Appendix A lists the sources of data from which this report was prepared, and Appendix B defines all acronyms and abbreviations used in the report.

  2. Nutrition intervention strategies to combat zinc deficiency in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R S; Ferguson, E L

    1998-06-01

    Widespread zinc deficiency is likely to exist in developing countries where staple diets are predominantly plant based and intakes of animal tissues are low. The severe negative consequences of zinc deficiency on human health in developing countries, however, have only recently been recognized. An integrated approach employing targeted supplementation, fortification and dietary strategies must be used to maximize the likelihood of eliminating zinc deficiency at a national level in developing countries. Supplementation is appropriate only for populations whose zinc status must be improved over a relatively short time period, and when requirements cannot be met from habitual dietary sources. As well, the health system must be capable of providing consistent supply, distribution, delivery and consumption of the zinc supplement to the targeted groups. Uncertainties still exist about the type, frequency, and level of supplemental zinc required for prevention and treatment of zinc deficiency. Salts that are readily absorbed and at levels that will not induce antagonistic nutrient interactions must be used. At a national level, fortification with multiple micronutrients could be a cost effective method for improving micronutrient status, including zinc, provided that a suitable food vehicle which is centrally processed is available. Alternatively, fortification could be targeted for certain high risk groups (e.g. complementary foods for infants). Efforts should be made to develop protected fortificants for zinc, so that potent inhibitors of zinc absorption (e.g. phytate) present either in the food vehicle and/or indigenous meals do not compromise zinc absorption. Fortification does not require any changes in the existing food beliefs and practices for the consumer and, unlike supplementation, does not impose a burden on the health sector. A quality assurance programme is required, however, to ensure the quality of the fortified food product from production to consumption

  3. Effect of dietary phytate on zinc homeostasis in young and elderly Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; Paik, Hee Young; Joung, Hyojee; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Li, Shanji; King, Janet C

    2007-02-01

    Previous studies suggest that consumption of predominantly plant-based diets with high phytate content contribute to zinc deficiency by inhibiting zinc absorption. Age of the individual may also affect the ability to maintain zinc homeostasis. This study was designed to determine the effect of dietary phytate on zinc homeostasis and to evaluate the effect of age on the capacity to maintain the zinc homeostasis with changes in dietary phytate in young and elderly Korean women. Seven healthy young women (22-24 yr) and 10 healthy elderly women (66-75 yr) were studied consecutively for 3 months in 2 metabolic periods (MP) in two different metabolic units. During MP1 the women consumed a high phytate (HP) diet (P:Zn molar ratio = 23) for 9 days. After a 10 d wash-out period at home eating their usual diets, a lower phytate diet (LP) (P:Zn molar ratio = 10) was fed in MP2 for 9 d. Phytase was added to selected foods in the high phytate diet to reduce the phytate content of the meals in the LP period. The zinc content of both diets was about 6.5 mg/d. Stable isotopes of Zn ((70)Zn) were administered intravenously on d 5 of MP 1 and 2 for measuring endogenous fecal zinc excretion. Plasma samples were also collected on d 5 for measuring plasma zinc concentrations by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). 24 hr urine samples were collected for 5 d and complete fecal samples were collected for 9 d after isotope administration. Fractional zinc absorption (FZA) was calculated from mass balance corrected for endogenous fecal zinc (EFZ) excretion and EFZ was determined by using an isotopic dilution technique. Isotopic ratios for FZA and EFZ were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analyses were done using ANOVA. Both the young and elderly women were in negative zinc balance during the HP period. This was due to a significant decrease in FZA and total absorbed zinc (TAZ) with a HP diet (43 vs 22% in young women

  4. Zinc as a Gatekeeper of Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Inga; Maywald, Martina; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery of zinc deficiency in the 1960s, it soon became clear that zinc is essential for the function of the immune system. Zinc ions are involved in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate and adaptive immune cells. Zinc homeostasis is largely controlled via the expression and action of zinc “importers” (ZIP 1–14), zinc “exporters” (ZnT 1–10), and zinc-binding proteins. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of zinc have long been documented, however, underlying mechanisms are still not entirely clear. Here, we report molecular mechanisms underlying the development of a pro-inflammatory phenotype during zinc deficiency. Furthermore, we describe links between altered zinc homeostasis and disease development. Consequently, the benefits of zinc supplementation for a malfunctioning immune system become clear. This article will focus on underlying mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular signaling by alterations in zinc homeostasis. Effects of fast zinc flux, intermediate “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals will be discriminated. Description of zinc homeostasis-related effects on the activation of key signaling molecules, as well as on epigenetic modifications, are included to emphasize the role of zinc as a gatekeeper of immune function. PMID:29186856

  5. Zinc supplementation reduces the incidence of persistent diarrhea and dysentery among low socioeconomic children in India.

    PubMed

    Sazawal, S; Black, R E; Bhan, M K; Jalla, S; Bhandari, N; Sinha, A; Majumdar, S

    1996-02-01

    Persistent diarrhea (PD) and dysentery (DD) account for most diarrhea-associated deaths among children in developing countries. Zinc deficiency can cause stunting and impaired immune function, both of which are risk factors for these diarrheal illnesses. We investigated the effect of zinc supplementation on the incidence of PD and DD in a community-based, double-blind randomized trial in children 6-35 mo of age. Increase over baseline in plasma zinc concentrations in the supplemented group compared with a control group (3.61 vs. 0.009 mumol.L-1), indicated successful supplementation. The overall reductions in the zinc supplemented group of 21% in the incidence of PD (95% CI -6 to 42%) and 14% in the incidence of dysentery (95% CI -15 to 36%) were not significant. There was a significant interaction of treatment effect with baseline plasma zinc concentration and age for PD and with gender for DD. In the zinc-supplemented group compared with the control group, the incidence of PD was reduced by 73% (P < 0.05; 95% CI 34 to 91%) in children with a baseline zinc < 7.65 mumol.L-1 and by 49% (P < 0.05; 95%CI 24 to 66%) in children > 11 mo of age. Zinc supplementation resulted in a 38% (P < 0.05 95%CI 8 to 59%) reduction in the incidence of DD in boys. There was no effect on PD among children 6-11 mo old or on DD in girls. In conclusion, zinc supplementation had a significant impact on the incidence of persistent diarrhea in children > 1 y old and in children with low plasma zinc, as well as on dysentery in boys. These findings may have important implications for reducing diarrhea-related morbidity and mortality.

  6. Development of 66 kV class REBCO superconducting cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohya, M.; Masuda, T.; Amemiya, N.; Ishiyama, A.; Ohkuma, T.

    Sumitomo Electric Industries (SEI) has been involved in the development of 66 kV/5 kA-class HTS cables using REBCO wires. One of the technical targets was to reduce the AC loss to less than 2 W/m/phase at 5 kA. SEI developed a clad-type textured metal substrate with lower magnetization loss than NiW substrates. REBCO wires of 30 mm wide were slit into 4 mm-wide strips, and these strips were wound spirally on a former with small gaps. The measured AC loss of the manufactured cable was 1.8 W/m/phase at 5 kA, achieving the AC loss goal. Another important target was to manage fault current. The copper protection layers were designed based on simulation findings. Fault current tests (max. 31.5 kA, 2 sec) showed that the designed HTS cable has the required withstanding performance. The development of the elemental technologies was finished on schedule, and a 15 m-long HTS cable system will be constructed to demonstrate that it meets all the required specifications.

  7. Regeneration of zinc chloride hydrocracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.

    1979-01-01

    Improved rate of recovery of zinc values from the solids which are carried over by the effluent vapors from the oxidative vapor phase regeneration of spent zinc chloride catalyst is achieved by treatment of the solids with both hydrogen chloride and calcium chloride to selectively and rapidly recover the zinc values as zinc chloride.

  8. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate...

  9. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate...

  10. 40 CFR 427.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.66 Section 427.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.66...

  11. 40 CFR 427.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.66 Section 427.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.66...

  12. 42 CFR 35.66 - Expenditure of cash contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Expenditure of cash contributions. 35.66 Section 35.66 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.66 Expenditure of...

  13. 42 CFR 35.66 - Expenditure of cash contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Expenditure of cash contributions. 35.66 Section 35.66 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.66 Expenditure of...

  14. 42 CFR 35.66 - Expenditure of cash contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Expenditure of cash contributions. 35.66 Section 35.66 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.66 Expenditure of...

  15. 42 CFR 35.66 - Expenditure of cash contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Expenditure of cash contributions. 35.66 Section 35.66 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.66 Expenditure of...

  16. 42 CFR 35.66 - Expenditure of cash contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expenditure of cash contributions. 35.66 Section 35.66 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.66 Expenditure of...

  17. 42 CFR 6.6 - Covered acts and omissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered acts and omissions. 6.6 Section 6.6 Public... CLAIMS ACT COVERAGE OF CERTAIN GRANTEES AND INDIVIDUALS § 6.6 Covered acts and omissions. (a) Only acts and omissions occurring on and after the effective date of the Secretary's determination under § 6.5...

  18. 31 CFR 6.6 - Allowable fees and other expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable fees and other expenses. 6.6 Section 6.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury APPLICATIONS FOR AWARDS UNDER THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT General Provisions § 6.6 Allowable fees and other expenses...

  19. 29 CFR 6.6 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Administrative Law Judge. 6.6 Section 6.6 Labor Office of... FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY ASSISTED CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS AND FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS General § 6.6... provisions of this part 6, Administrative Law Judges shall have no power or authority to award attorney fees...

  20. 38 CFR 6.6 - Change of beneficiary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Change of beneficiary. 6.6 Section 6.6 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Beneficiary of United States Government Life Insurance § 6.6 Change of beneficiary...

  1. 24 CFR 6.6 - Records to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records to be maintained. 6.6 Section 6.6 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 6.6 Records to be maintained. (a) General. Recipients...

  2. 16 CFR 5.66 - Commission decision and reconsideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission decision and reconsideration. 5.66 Section 5.66 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.66...

  3. 28 CFR 66.40 - Monitoring and reporting program performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performance. 66.40 Section 66.40 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM... Requirements Reports, Records, Retention, and Enforcement § 66.40 Monitoring and reporting program performance... assure compliance with applicable Federal requirements and that performance goals are being achieved...

  4. 7 CFR 932.66 - Right of the Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Right of the Secretary. 932.66 Section 932.66... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.66 Right of the Secretary. The members of the committee..., determination, decision, or other act of the committee shall be subject to the continuing right of the Secretary...

  5. 28 CFR 51.66 - Form of petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form of petition. 51.66 Section 51.66 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Petition To Change Procedures § 51.66 Form of petition. A...

  6. 28 CFR 51.66 - Form of petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Form of petition. 51.66 Section 51.66 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Petition To Change Procedures § 51.66 Form of petition. A...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 66 - Computer Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Computer Program C Appendix C to Part 66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ASSESSMENT AND COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA Pt. 66, App. C Appendix C to Part 66—Computer...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 66 - Computer Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Computer Program C Appendix C to Part 66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ASSESSMENT AND COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA Pt. 66, App. C Appendix C to Part 66—Computer...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 66 - Computer Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Computer Program C Appendix C to Part 66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ASSESSMENT AND COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA Pt. 66, App. C Appendix C to Part 66—Computer...

  10. 28 CFR 66.26 - Non-Federal audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-Federal audit. 66.26 Section 66.26 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 66.26 Non-Federal audit. (a) Basic...

  11. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Russian River Valley. 9.66 Section 9.66 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.66 Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...

  12. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Russian River Valley. 9.66 Section 9.66 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.66 Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...

  13. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Russian River Valley. 9.66 Section 9.66 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.66 Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...

  14. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Russian River Valley. 9.66 Section 9.66 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.66 Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...

  15. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Russian River Valley. 9.66 Section 9.66 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.66 Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...

  16. 5 CFR 6.6 - Revocation of exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revocation of exceptions. 6.6 Section 6.6 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES EXCEPTIONS FROM THE COMPETITIVE SERVICE (RULE VI) § 6.6 Revocation of exceptions. OPM may remove any position from or may revoke in whole or in part any provision of...

  17. 7 CFR 1779.66-1779.68 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.66-1779.68 Section 1779.66-1779.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §§ 1779.66-1779.68 [Reserved] ...

  18. 45 CFR 5.66 - Exemption five: Internal memoranda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption five: Internal memoranda. 5.66 Section 5.66 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REGULATIONS Reasons for Withholding Some Records § 5.66 Exemption five: Internal memoranda. This...

  19. 28 CFR 66.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination for convenience. 66.44 Section 66.44 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... Reports, Records, Retention, and Enforcement § 66.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided in...

  20. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system. The engine must supply bleed air without adverse effect on the engine, excluding reduced thrust or power...

  1. 40 CFR 406.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.66 Section 406.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Parboiled Rice Processing Subcategory § 406.66...

  2. 7 CFR 920.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 920.66 Section 920.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, priviliges, and immunities conferred...

  3. 7 CFR 925.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 925.66 Section 925.66... OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 925.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its termination...

  4. 7 CFR 920.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 920.66 Section 920.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, priviliges, and immunities conferred...

  5. 7 CFR 925.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 925.66 Section 925.66... OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 925.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its termination...

  6. 7 CFR 920.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 920.66 Section 920.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, priviliges, and immunities conferred...

  7. 7 CFR 925.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 925.66 Section 925.66... OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 925.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its termination...

  8. 7 CFR 920.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 920.66 Section 920.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, priviliges, and immunities conferred...

  9. 7 CFR 925.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 925.66 Section 925.66... OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 925.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its termination...

  10. 7 CFR 925.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 925.66 Section 925.66... OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 925.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its termination...

  11. 7 CFR 920.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 920.66 Section 920.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, priviliges, and immunities conferred...

  12. 45 CFR 2400.66 - Completion of fellowship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Completion of fellowship. 2400.66 Section 2400.66 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.66 Completion of fellowship. A Fellow...

  13. 45 CFR 2400.66 - Completion of fellowship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Completion of fellowship. 2400.66 Section 2400.66 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.66 Completion of fellowship. A Fellow...

  14. 33 CFR 66.01-14 - Label affixed by manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Label affixed by manufacturer. 66.01-14 Section 66.01-14 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-14...

  15. 33 CFR 66.01-14 - Label affixed by manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Label affixed by manufacturer. 66.01-14 Section 66.01-14 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-14...

  16. 33 CFR 66.01-5 - Application procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application procedure. 66.01-5 Section 66.01-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-5 Application...

  17. 33 CFR 66.01-55 - Transfer of ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transfer of ownership. 66.01-55 Section 66.01-55 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-55 Transfer of...

  18. 33 CFR 66.01-55 - Transfer of ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transfer of ownership. 66.01-55 Section 66.01-55 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-55 Transfer of...

  19. 33 CFR 66.01-55 - Transfer of ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transfer of ownership. 66.01-55 Section 66.01-55 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-55 Transfer of...

  20. 33 CFR 66.01-5 - Application procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application procedure. 66.01-5 Section 66.01-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-5 Application...

  1. 33 CFR 66.01-14 - Label affixed by manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Label affixed by manufacturer. 66.01-14 Section 66.01-14 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-14...

  2. 33 CFR 66.01-14 - Label affixed by manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Label affixed by manufacturer. 66.01-14 Section 66.01-14 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-14...

  3. 33 CFR 66.01-5 - Application procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application procedure. 66.01-5 Section 66.01-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-5 Application...

  4. 33 CFR 66.01-55 - Transfer of ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transfer of ownership. 66.01-55 Section 66.01-55 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-55 Transfer of...

  5. 40 CFR 467.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 467.66 Section 467.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... § 467.66 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7, any new source... (alternate monitoring parameter) 13.91 13.91 Subpart F Cleaning or Etching Scrubber Liquor Pollutant or...

  6. 33 CFR 66.01-55 - Transfer of ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transfer of ownership. 66.01-55 Section 66.01-55 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-55 Transfer of...

  7. 33 CFR 66.01-14 - Label affixed by manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label affixed by manufacturer. 66.01-14 Section 66.01-14 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-14...

  8. 32 CFR 516.66 - Administrative and contractual actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Administrative and contractual actions. 516.66 Section 516.66 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Remedies in Procurement Fraud and Corruption § 516.66...

  9. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If...

  10. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If...

  11. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If...

  12. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If...

  13. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If...

  14. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system. The...

  15. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system. The...

  16. 49 CFR 230.66 - Design, construction, and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design, construction, and maintenance. 230.66 Section 230.66 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders § 230.66 Design,...

  17. 45 CFR 2400.66 - Completion of fellowship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Completion of fellowship. 2400.66 Section 2400.66 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.66 Completion of fellowship. A Fellow...

  18. 45 CFR 2400.66 - Completion of fellowship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Completion of fellowship. 2400.66 Section 2400.66 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.66 Completion of fellowship. A Fellow...

  19. 22 CFR 51.66 - Surrender of passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surrender of passport. 51.66 Section 51.66 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Denial, Revocation, and Restriction of Passports § 51.66 Surrender of passport. The bearer of a passport that is revoked must...

  20. 22 CFR 51.66 - Surrender of passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surrender of passport. 51.66 Section 51.66 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Denial, Revocation, and Restriction of Passports § 51.66 Surrender of passport. The bearer of a passport that is revoked must...

  1. 22 CFR 51.66 - Surrender of passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surrender of passport. 51.66 Section 51.66 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Denial, Revocation, and Restriction of Passports § 51.66 Surrender of passport. The bearer of a passport that is revoked must...

  2. 22 CFR 51.66 - Surrender of passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surrender of passport. 51.66 Section 51.66 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Denial, Revocation, and Restriction of Passports § 51.66 Surrender of passport. The bearer of a passport that is revoked must...

  3. 22 CFR 51.66 - Surrender of passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surrender of passport. 51.66 Section 51.66 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Denial, Revocation, and Restriction of Passports § 51.66 Surrender of passport. The bearer of a passport that is revoked must...

  4. 19 CFR 151.66 - Duty on samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duty on samples. 151.66 Section 151.66 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.66 Duty on samples. Duty...

  5. 19 CFR 151.66 - Duty on samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duty on samples. 151.66 Section 151.66 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.66 Duty on samples. Duty...

  6. 19 CFR 151.66 - Duty on samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duty on samples. 151.66 Section 151.66 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.66 Duty on samples. Duty...

  7. 19 CFR 151.66 - Duty on samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duty on samples. 151.66 Section 151.66 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.66 Duty on samples. Duty...

  8. 19 CFR 151.66 - Duty on samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duty on samples. 151.66 Section 151.66 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.66 Duty on samples. Duty...

  9. 12 CFR 303.66-303.79 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 303.66-303.79 Section 303.66-303.79 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Merger Transactions §§ 303.66-303.79 [Reserved] ...

  10. 41 CFR 60-250.66 - Sanctions and penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sanctions and penalties. 60-250.66 Section 60-250.66 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... PROTECTED VETERANS General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-250.66 Sanctions and penalties. (a...

  11. 41 CFR 60-250.66 - Sanctions and penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Sanctions and penalties. 60-250.66 Section 60-250.66 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... PROTECTED VETERANS General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-250.66 Sanctions and penalties. (a...

  12. 41 CFR 60-250.66 - Sanctions and penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Sanctions and penalties. 60-250.66 Section 60-250.66 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... PROTECTED VETERANS General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-250.66 Sanctions and penalties. (a...

  13. 41 CFR 60-250.66 - Sanctions and penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Sanctions and penalties. 60-250.66 Section 60-250.66 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... PROTECTED VETERANS General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-250.66 Sanctions and penalties. (a...

  14. 40 CFR 406.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.66 Section 406.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Parboiled Rice Processing Subcategory § 406.66...

  15. 19 CFR 111.66 - Failure to appear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Failure to appear. 111.66 Section 111.66 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... of Suspension or Revocation § 111.66 Failure to appear. If the broker or his attorney fails to appear...

  16. 19 CFR 111.66 - Failure to appear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Failure to appear. 111.66 Section 111.66 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... of Suspension or Revocation § 111.66 Failure to appear. If the broker or his attorney fails to appear...

  17. 19 CFR 111.66 - Failure to appear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Failure to appear. 111.66 Section 111.66 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... of Suspension or Revocation § 111.66 Failure to appear. If the broker or his attorney fails to appear...

  18. 19 CFR 111.66 - Failure to appear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to appear. 111.66 Section 111.66 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... of Suspension or Revocation § 111.66 Failure to appear. If the broker or his attorney fails to appear...

  19. 32 CFR 516.66 - Administrative and contractual actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Administrative and contractual actions. 516.66 Section 516.66 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Remedies in Procurement Fraud and Corruption § 516.66...

  20. 28 CFR 66.5 - Effect on other issuances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect on other issuances. 66.5 Section 66.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS General § 66.5 Effect on other...